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Sample records for higher carbohydrate content

  1. Calprotectin in serum and zonulin in serum and feces are elevated after introduction of a diet with lower carbohydrate content and higher fiber, fat and protein contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlsson, Bodil; Roth, Bodil; Larsson, Ewa; Höglund, Peter

    2017-04-01

    Calprotectin is a marker of inflammation and zonulin is a marker of intestinal permeability. Diets with lower carbohydrate content and higher contents of fat, fiber and protein, e.g., Okinawan-based diet, are considered to reduce inflammation and intestinal permeability. The aim of the present study was to evaluate calprotectin and zonulin levels in serum and feces after intervention with an Okinawan-based Nordic diet. Thirty patients (17 women) with type 2 diabetes, mean age 57.5±8.2 years, BMI 29.9±4.1 kg/m 2 , were served the diet during 12 weeks, and were followed for another 16 weeks. Anthropometric and metabolic parameters were registered. Fasting levels of calprotectin and zonulin in serum and feces, and hormones in plasma, were measured by Luminex or ELISA before study start and after 12 and 28 weeks. Calprotectin in serum tended to be increased (P=0.074) after 12 weeks. Zonulin in serum and feces were elevated after 12 weeks (P=0.019 vs. Pvs. P=0.079). Energy percentage of protein in breakfast correlated with serum calprotectin (P=0.008) and tended to correlate with serum zonulin (P=0.059). Calprotectin in serum tended to be elevated, and zonulin in serum and feces are elevated after introduction of an Okinawan-based Nordic diet. These biomarkers correlate with energy percentage of protein.

  2. Dietary fiber content influences soluble carbohydrate levels in ruminal fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinder, R S; Patterson, J A; O'Bryan, C A; Crandall, P G; Ricke, S C

    2012-01-01

    The soluble carbohydrate concentration of ruminal fluid, as affected by dietary forage content (DFC) and/or ruminally undegradable intake protein content (UIPC), was determined. Four ruminally cannulated steers, in a 4 × 4 Latin square design, were offered diets containing high (75 % of DM) or low (25 % of DM) DFC and high (6 % of DM) or low (5 % of DM) UIPC, in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Zinc-treated SBM was the primary UIP source. Soluble hexose concentration (145.1 μM) in ruminal fluid (RF) of steers fed low DFC diets exhibited a higher trend (P = 0.08) than that (124.5 μM) of steers fed high DFC diets. UIPC did not modulate (P = 0.54) ruminal soluble hexose concentrations. Regardless of diet, soluble hexose concentration declined immediately after feeding and did not rise until 3 h after feeding (P ruminal fluid could not be determined. However, unsubstituted xylose and arabinose were excluded. These data indicate that: (i) soluble carbohydrate concentrations remain in ruminal fluid during digestion and fermentation; (ii) slight diurnal changes began after feeding; (iii) DFC influences the soluble carbohydrate concentration in RF; and (iv) UIPC of these diets does not affect the soluble carbohydrate concentration of RF.

  3. Effect of irradiation on carbohydrates content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chantharasakul, S.

    1971-01-01

    Effect of gamma radiation on vitamin C and total acidity contents of Hom Tong banana was described. There was a slight decrease in vitamin C contents in both irradiated and non-irradiated banana during storage. No difference was detected in term of vitamin C contents between irradiated and non-irradiated banana at any storage time. The total acidity of the banana increased with increasing time of storage owing to the ripening effect of the fruit. Higher total acidity content of non-irradiated banana during storage indicated the faster rate of ripening of the fruit

  4. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ALTITUDES AND THE CONTENTS OF PROTEIN, CARBOHYDRATES, LIPIDS OF PUMPKIN (Cucurbita moschata

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    Suranto Tjiptowibisono

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Cucurbita moschata or pumpkin can be used as an alternative food mainly due to its carbohydrate content, and it is very easy to grow in many different habitats. The objective of this research was to evaluate the biochemical contents of C. moschata based on the altitudes and also to examine whether any relationship between the environmental conditions and protein, carbohydrate and lipid contents. Proximate analysis was used for statistical consideration of the results obtained. Chemical analysis was conducted by using mesocarp of pumpkin after cleaning, peeling and removing seeds from the center of fruits. Kjedahl and soxhlet methods were used to look at the content of protein and lipid respectively. Meanwhile, the method of difference was employed to measure the percentage of carbohydrates. Although there was no significant relationship between the biochemical contents and the environmental conditions, it was recorded that plants grown at higher altitudes with high soil pH and air temperature tended to have higher protein, carbohydrate and lipid contents, compared to that of higher soil moisture. This results showed that the highest biochemical contents of protein, carbohydrate and lipid of two varieties C. moschata were evident at the lowest altitude.

  5. The relationship between carbohydrate content and gamma irradiation during rooting of chrysanthemum cuttings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noh, Seol Ah; Kim, Jin Kyu

    2003-01-01

    The effect of gamma radiation on carbohydrate metabolism was studied in chrysanthemum cuttings. Total water-soluble carbohydrate, glucose, fructose, sucrose, and starch contents were measured in leaves and stems. Differences in the accumulation of carbohydrate associated with inhibition or stimulation in response to gamma irradiation. Sucrose levels increased significantly in leaves and stems until the 15th day, reaching maximum values on that day. Glucose contents declined rapidly until the 10th day and increased later, reaching maximum values on the 15th day. Fructose levels gradually increased, reaching maximum values at the 10th day, and then decreased again. Differences in the components of soluble carbohydrates were evident between rooting durations and doses. Soluble sugars were in the highest contents in the 20 Gy irradiated group. However, irradiation dose higher than 20 Gy resulted in an inhibitory effect

  6. Cell wall carbohydrates content of pathogenic Candida albicans strain morphological forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staniszewska, Monika; Bondaryk, Małgorzata; Rabczenko, Daniel; Smoleńska-Sym, Gabriela; Kurzatkowski, Wiesław

    2013-01-01

    The study evaluated the cell wall carbohydrates fraction in blastoconidia grown in YEPD medium at 30 degrees C and in the conglomerate of true hyphae grown in human serum at 37 degrees C. The clinical isolate obtained from a child with widespread C. albicans infection was used in the study. The cells were broken with glass beads, centrifuged to harvest the cell wall followed by subjection to TFA hydrolysis and in the result of that released monosaccharides were detected by HPAEC-PAD. Both, serum and temperature conditions (37 degrees C) affected germination process influencing the cell wall carbohydrates content when incubation in serum was prolonged from 1 to 18 h. The mannan content of blastoconidia was almost twofold higher compared to filamentous forms (149.25 +/- 299.24 vs 77.26 +/- 122.07). The glucan content was threefold lower in blastoconidia compared to hyphae (251.86 +/- 243.44 vs 755.81 +/- 1299.30). The chitin level was fourfold lower in blastoconidia compared to filaments (23.86 +/- 54.09 vs 106.29 +/- 170.12). The reason for the differences in the carbohydrates content may be related to type of morphology induced in different environmental conditions. Among tested carbohydrates, glucan appeared to be present in appreciably larger amounts in both tested morphological fractions. The ultrastructure of the blastoconidial cell wall revealed striking differences compared to the hyphae indicating the carbohydrates content alterations for wall assembly during hyphal growth at alkaline pH and temp. 37 degrees C. The study provided evidence for the relationship between morphogenesis, cell-cell adhesion induced by serum and changes in the level of carbohydrates content.

  7. CARBOHYDRATES CONTENT IN JERUSALEM ARTICHOKE TUBERS DURING VEGETATION

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    N. S. Levina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L. is rich in vitamins, carbohydrates, fiber. Tubers of Jerusalem artichoke consist valuable  substance inulin, which has a complex of health properties. Breeders create new hybrids and varieties of Jerusalem artichoke to increase the content of nutrients, productivity and climate resilience. The authors analysed moisture content, dry residue and fractional  composition of carbohydrates in the tubers of Jerusalem artichoke  varieties Skorospelka and Sireniki and the hybrids PBB and PBK in  various phases of vegetation. In the flowering stage the moisture of  the tubers of the investigated varieties was in the range of 77.2-81.3 percent, the value of dry residue of nutrients was 18.7-22.8 percent. The greatest number of non-reducing and total sugars in  the flowering stage contained in the tuber varieties of Sireniki and was equaled 78.3 and 61.8 percent, respectively. A similar analysis was conducted in the maturation phase. In this phase the solids  content slightly increased and amounted to 22.9-26.2 percent. Non- reducing sugars content, including inulin, increased in all the studied samples of Jerusalem artichoke. However, the greatest values of 72  percent were noted for variety Sireniki and hybrid PBK. The content  of inulin depends on the phase of the growing season and the  varietal characteristics of Jerusalem artichoke and the absence of decisive superiority of the hybrids.

  8. Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbohydrates are one of the main types of nutrients. They are the most important source of energy for your body. Your digestive system changes carbohydrates into glucose (blood sugar). Your body uses this ...

  9. Brain serotonin content - Increase following ingestion of carbohydrate diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernstrom, J. D.; Wurtman, R. J.

    1971-01-01

    In the rat, the injection of insulin or the consumption of carbohydrate causes sequential increases in the concentrations of tryptophan in the plasma and the brain and of serotonin in the brain. Serotonin-containing neurons may thus participate in systems whereby the rat brain integrates information about the metabolic state in its relation to control of homeostasis and behavior.

  10. Estimating the carbohydrate content of various forms of tobacco by phenol-sulfuric acid method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Vardhaman Mulchand; Karibasappa, Gundabaktha Nagappa; Dodamani, Arun Suresh; Mali, Gaurao Vasant

    2017-01-01

    Due to consumption of various forms of tobacco in large amounts by Indian population, it has become a cause of concern for major oral diseases. In 2008, the WHO named tobacco as the world's single greatest cause of preventable death. It is also known that certain amount of carbohydrates are incorporated in processed tobacco to make it acceptable for consumption. Thus, its role in oral diseases becomes an important question at this point of time. Through this study, it is attempted to find out the carbohydrate content of various forms of tobacco by phenol-sulfuric acid method. Tobacco products selected for the study were Nandi hookah tambakhu (A), photo brand budhaa Punjabi snuff (B), Miraj (C), Gai-chhap tambakhu (D), Hanuman-chhap Pandharpuri tambakhu (E), and Hathi-chhap Bidi (F). The samples were decoded and transported to laboratory and tested at various concentrations by phenol-sulfuric acid method followed by ultraviolet spectrophotometry to determine their absorbance. The present study showed Hathi-chhap bidi/sample F had a maximum absorbance (1.995) at 10 μg/ml which is a smoking form of tobacco followed by rest all smokeless forms of tobacco, i.e. sample C (0.452), sample B (0.253), sample D (0.077), sample E (-0.018), and sample A (-0.127), respectively. As the concentration of tobacco sample increases, their absorbance increases which in turn is suggestive of increase in its carbohydrate concentration. Carbohydrates in the form of sugars, either inherently present or added in it during manufacturing can serve as a risk factor for higher incidence of dental caries.

  11. Changes in carbohydrate content in zucchini fruit (Cucurbita pepo L.) under low temperature stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Francisco; Carvajal, Fátima; Lluch, Carmen; Jamilena, Manuel; Garrido, Dolores

    2014-03-01

    The postharvest handling of zucchini fruit includes low-temperature storage, making cold stress unavoidable. We have investigated the changes of soluble carbohydrates under this stress and its relation with weight loss and chilling injury in zucchini fruit during postharvest storage at 4 °C and 20 °C for up to 14 days. Two varieties with different degrees of chilling tolerance were compared: Natura, the more tolerant variety, and Sinatra, the variety that suffered more severe chilling-injury symptoms and weight loss. In both varieties, total soluble carbohydrates, reducing soluble carbohydrates and polyols content was generally higher during storage at 4 °C than at 20 °C, thus these parameters are related to the physiological response of zucchini fruit to cold stress. However, the raffinose content increased in Natura and Sinatra fruits during storage at 4 °C and 20 °C, although at 20 °C the increase in raffinose was more remarkable than at 4 °C in both varieties, so that the role of raffinose could be more likely related to dehydration than to chilling susceptibility of zucchini fruit. Glucose, fructose, pinitol, and acid invertase activity registered opposite trends in both varieties against chilling, increasing in Natura and decreasing in Sinatra. The increase in acid invertase activity in Natura fruit during cold storage could contribute in part to the increase of these reducing sugars, whose metabolism could be involved in the adaptation to postharvest cold storage. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Engineering Potato Starch with a Higher Phosphate Content.

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    Xuan Xu

    Full Text Available Phosphate esters are responsible for valuable and unique functionalities of starch for industrial applications. Also in the cell phosphate esters play a role in starch metabolism, which so far has not been well characterized in storage starch. Laforin, a human enzyme composed of a carbohydrate-binding module and a dual-specificity phosphatase domain, is involved in the dephosphorylation of glycogen. To modify phosphate content and better understand starch (dephosphorylation in storage starch, laforin was engineered and introduced into potato (cultivar Kardal. Interestingly, expression of an (engineered laforin in potato resulted in significantly higher phosphate content of starch, and this result was confirmed in amylose-free potato genetic background (amf. Modified starches exhibited altered granule morphology and size compared to the control. About 20-30% of the transgenic lines of each series showed red-staining granules upon incubation with iodine, and contained higher phosphate content than the blue-stained starch granules. Moreover, low amylose content and altered gelatinization properties were observed in these red-stained starches. Principle component and correlation analysis disclosed a complex correlation between starch composition and starch physico-chemical properties. Ultimately, the expression level of endogenous genes involved in starch metabolism was analysed, revealing a compensatory response to the decrease of phosphate content in potato starch. This study provides a new perspective for engineering starch phosphate content in planta by making use of the compensatory mechanism in the plant itself.

  13. Regulation of metabolism by dietary carbohydrates in two lines of rainbow trout divergently selected for muscle fat content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamalam, Biju Sam; Medale, Françoise; Kaushik, Sadasivam; Polakof, Sergio; Skiba-Cassy, Sandrine; Panserat, Stephane

    2012-08-01

    Previous studies in two rainbow trout lines divergently selected for lean (L) or fat (F) muscle suggested that they differ in their ability to metabolise glucose. In this context, we investigated whether genetic selection for high muscle fat content led to a better capacity to metabolise dietary carbohydrates. Juvenile trout from the two lines were fed diets with or without gelatinised starch (17.1%) for 10 weeks, after which blood, liver, muscle and adipose tissues were sampled. Growth rate, feed efficiency and protein utilisation were lower in the F line than in the L line. In both lines, intake of carbohydrates was associated with a moderate post-prandial hyperglycaemia, a protein sparing effect, an enhancement of nutrient (TOR-S6) signalling cascade and a decrease of energy-sensing enzyme (AMPK). Gene expression of hepatic glycolytic enzymes was higher in the F line fed carbohydrates compared with the L line, but concurrently transcripts for the gluconeogenic enzymes was also higher in the F line, possibly impairing glucose homeostasis. However, the F line showed a higher gene expression of hepatic enzymes involved in lipogenesis and fatty acid bioconversion, in particular with an increased dietary carbohydrate intake. Enhanced lipogenic potential coupled with higher liver glycogen content in the F line suggests better glucose storage ability than the L line. Overall, the present study demonstrates the changes in hepatic intermediary metabolism resulting from genetic selection for high muscle fat content and dietary carbohydrate intake without, however, any interaction for an improved growth or glucose utilisation in the peripheral tissues.

  14. Muscle ceramide content is similar after 3 weeks’ consumption of fat or carbohydrate diet in a crossover design in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, J. W.; Tobin, L.; Drachmann, Tue

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effect of prolonged adaptation to fat- or carbohydrate-rich diet on muscle ceramide in type 2 diabetes patients, using a longitudinal crossover study. Eleven type 2 diabetes patients consumed isocaloric fat- or carbohydrate-rich diet for 3 weeks in random order...... sensitivity, muscle glycogen, triacylglycerol and ceramide content were similar. Plasma adiponectin concentration was significantly higher after fat compared with carbohydrate-rich diet. Results indicated that following fat-rich diet intake muscle ceramide and triacylglycerol concentrations were not different...... compared with that after carbohydrate-rich diet. Furthermore, plasma adiponectin concentration was higher after fat-rich compared with carbohydrate-rich diet, but insulin sensitivity remained similar despite the major difference in dietary macronutrient composition....

  15. Fractionation of carbohydrate and protein content of some forage feeds of ruminants for nutritive evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Lalatendu Keshary; Kundu, S S; Kumar, Dinesh; Datt, Chander

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate some forage feeds of ruminants in terms of their carbohydrate (CHO) and protein fractions using Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (CNCPS). Eleven ruminant feeds (six green fodders - maize, oat, sorghum, bajra, cowpea, berseem and five range herbages - para grass, guinea grass, hedge lucerne, setaria grass and hybrid napier) were selected for this study. Each feed was chemically analyzed for proximate principles (dry matter, crude protein [CP], ether extract, organic matter and ash), fiber fractions (neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, acid detergent lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose), primary CHO fractions (CHO, non-structural CHO, structural CHO and starch) and primary protein fractions (neutral detergent insoluble CP, acid detergent insoluble CP, non-protein nitrogen and soluble protein). The results were fitted to the equations of CNCPS to arrive at various CHO (CA - fast degrading, CB1 - intermediate degrading, CB2 - slow degrading and CC - non-degrading or unavailable) and protein (PA - instantaneously degrading, PB1 - fast degrading, PB2 - intermediate degrading, PB3 - slow degrading and PC - non-degrading or unavailable) fractions of test feeds. Among green fodders, cowpea and berseem had higher CA content while except hedge lucerne all range herbages had lower CA values. CB1 content of all feeds was low but similar. All feeds except cowpea, berseem, and hedge lucerne contained higher CB2 values. Oat among green fodders and hybrid napier among range herbages had lower CC fraction. Feeds such as bajra, cowpea, berseem and the setaria grass contained lower PA fraction. All green fodders had higher PB1 content except maize and cowpea while all range herbages had lower PB1 values except hedge lucerne. Para grass and hybrid napier contained exceptionally low PB2 fraction among all feeds. Low PC contents were reported in oat and berseem fodders. Based on our findings, it was concluded that feeds with similar CP and CHO content

  16. Fractionation of carbohydrate and protein content of some forage feeds of ruminants for nutritive evaluation

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    Lalatendu Keshary Das

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate some forage feeds of ruminants in terms of their carbohydrate (CHO and protein fractions using Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (CNCPS. Materials and Methods: Eleven ruminant feeds (six green fodders - maize, oat, sorghum, bajra, cowpea, berseem and five range herbages - para grass, guinea grass, hedge lucerne, setaria grass and hybrid napier were selected for this study. Each feed was chemically analyzed for proximate principles (dry matter, crude protein [CP], ether extract, organic matter and ash, fiber fractions (neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, acid detergent lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose, primary CHO fractions (CHO, non-structural CHO, structural CHO and starch and primary protein fractions (neutral detergent insoluble CP, acid detergent insoluble CP, non-protein nitrogen and soluble protein. The results were fitted to the equations of CNCPS to arrive at various CHO (CA - fast degrading, CB1 - intermediate degrading, CB2 - slow degrading and CC - nondegrading or unavailable and protein (PA - instantaneously degrading, PB1 - fast degrading, PB2 - intermediate degrading, PB3 - slow degrading and PC - non-degrading or unavailable fractions of test feeds. Results: Among green fodders, cowpea and berseem had higher CA content while except hedge lucerne all range herbages had lower CA values. CB1 content of all feeds was low but similar. All feeds except cowpea, berseem, and hedge lucerne contained higher CB2 values. Oat among green fodders and hybrid napier among range herbages had lower CC fraction. Feeds such as bajra, cowpea, berseem and the setaria grass contained lower PA fraction. All green fodders had higher PB1 content except maize and cowpea while all range herbages had lower PB1 values except hedge lucerne. Para grass and hybrid napier contained exceptionally low PB2 fraction among all feeds. Low PC contents were reported in oat and berseem fodders. Conclusion: Based on our findings, it

  17. Effects of different protein and carbohydrate contents on growth and survival of juveniles of southern Chilean freshwater crayfish, Samastacus spinifrons

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    Italo Salgado-Leu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In cultivated aquatic organisms nutritional requirements are critical, not only for their impact on production techniques, but also, for their high incidence on production costs. There is limited knowledge on some species such as the southern Chilean freshwater crayfish, Samastacus spinifrons. In order to generate practical knowledge, a study was carried out to determine protein and carbohydrate content requirements. These factors were evaluated upon their effects on growth and survival of juveniles. For this purpose, individual weight, biomass gain, survival, and feed conversion parameters were measured. The assay was carried out in 42 days, it was conducted in a flow through system, using 21 plastic tanks of 10.6 L capacity. Each tank was seeded with 20 juveniles weighing 50 mg average each. A 3×2 factorial design was proposed with three protein contents (20, 30, 40% and two carbohydrate contents (low: from 16.3 to 23.5% and high: from 34.6 to 35.8%. Six treatments and three replicates were performed. Individuals were fed on apparent satiation once a day. The diets formulated with 30% of protein and the two carbohydrate contents resulted in higher biomass increases, food conversion efficiencies over 26%, and specific growth rate of 0.78%, all displaying significant differences. Survival showed highly significant differences; in all diets were superior to 60%, however the diets with 30% of protein surpassed 90%.

  18. Systemic Glucose Level Changes with a Carbohydrate-Restricted and Higher Protein Diet Combined with Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Rodney G.; Lanning, Beth A.; Doyle, Eva I.; Slonaker, Becky; Johnston, Holly M.; Scanes, Georgene

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The authors' purpose in this study was to compare the effects of macronutrient intake on systemic glucose levels in previously sedentary participants who followed 1 of 4 diets that were either higher protein or high carbohydrate, while initiating an exercise program. Participants and Methods: The authors randomly assigned 94 sedentary…

  19. The Effect of CO2 Injection on Macroalgae Gelidium latifolium Biomass Growth Rate and Carbohydrate Content

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    Mujizat Kawaroe

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There are many species of macroalga grow in marine ecosystem and potentially as raw material for bioethanol resource. Bioethanol is a conversion result of carbohydrate, one of macroalgae biomass content. The exploration of macroalgae require information about  growth rate ability to determine availability in the nature. This research analyze growth rate and carbohydrate content of marine macroalga Gelidium latifolium on cultivation using varied injection of carbon dioxide and aeration. The treatments were control (K, 2000 cc CO2 injection and aeration (P1, 3000 cc CO2 injection and aeration (P2, 2000 cc CO2 injection without aeration (P3, and 3000 cc CO2 injection without aeration (P4. Samples weight were 3 gram in early cultivation on laboratorium scale for 42 days observation. The results showed that the daily growth rate Gelidium latifolium during the study ranged from 0.02-1.06%. The highest daily growth rate was 1.06±0.14% (P2. Carbohydrate yield was 18.23% in early cultivation then 19.40% (K and P2, 20.40% (P1, 16.87% (K3, and 16.40% (P4 after cultivation. The high of carbohydrates value may not guarantee the sustainable Gelidium latifolium biomass utilization as raw material for bioethanol production because of the low growth rate, thus it is necessary to modified and encourage cultivation method effectively. Keywords: CO2 injection, growth rate, carbohydrate, macroalgae, Gelidium latifolium

  20. Carbohydrate Content in the GDM Diet: Two Views: View 2: Low-Carbohydrate Diets Should Remain the Initial Therapy for Gestational Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Mulla, Wadia R.

    2016-01-01

    IN BRIEF The appropriate dietary intervention for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is not clear. Traditionally, a low-carbohydrate diet has been prescribed. Recently, there has been a movement to prescribe a diet higher in nutrient-dense carbohydrate as the initial treatment for GDM. At this time, there is insufficient outcome data to support this type of diet.

  1. Biochemical, Physiological and Transcriptomic Comparison between Burley and Flue-Cured Tobacco Seedlings in Relation to Carbohydrates and Nitrate Content

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    Yafei Li

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Burley tobacco is a genotype of chloroplast-deficient mutant with accumulates high levels of tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs which would induce malignant tumors in animals. Nitrate is a principle precursor of tobacco-specific nitrosamines. Nitrate content in burley tobacco was significantly higher than that in flue-cured tobacco. The present study investigated differences between the two tobacco types to explore the mechanisms of nitrate accumulation in burley tobacco. transcripts (3079 related to the nitrogen and carbon metabolism were observed. Expression of genes involved in carbon fixation, glucose and starch biosynthesis, nitrate translocation and assimilation were significantly low in burley tobacco than flue-cured tobacco. Being relative to flue-cured tobacco, burley tobacco was significantly lower at total nitrogen and carbohydrate content, nitrate reductase and glutamine synthetase activities, chlorophyll content and photosynthetic rate (Pn, but higher nitrate content. Burley tobacco required six-fold more nitrogen fertilizers than flue-cured tobacco, but both tobaccos had a similar leaf biomass. Reduced chlorophyll content and photosynthetic rate (Pn might result in low carbohydrate formation, and low capacity of nitrogen assimilation and translocation might lead to nitrate accumulation in burley tobacco.

  2. Relationship of low phytate trait with seed germination and carbohydrates content in soybean mutant Gm-lpa-TW-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Fengjie; Dong Dekun; Li Baiquan; Fu Xujun; Zhu Danhua; Zhu Shenlong

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between the low phytate mutation with seed germination and carbohydrate content homozygous F 5 lines with/without lpa gene derived from mutant and different wild type parents were analyzed. The results showed that LPA (low phytic acid)/HPA (high phytic acid) lines developed in autumn had higher seed germination rate than that developed in spring. LPA lines had lower seed germination rate than HPA lines when they all developed in spring. However, in all crosses LPA lines with higher seed germination rate than mutant parent Gm-lpa-TW-1 was observed. No significant difference was detected between LPA and HPA lines when they developed in autumn. Homozygous LPA lines derived from vegetable soybean had lower seed germination than those from non-vegetable varieties. There was no significant difference in total carbohydrate content between LPA and HPA homozygous lines, but the sugar content of LPA homozygous lines was significant higher than HPA lines. On the contrary, oligosaccharides content with LPA lines were significant lower than those with HPA homozygous lines in all planting environment. It is concluded that seeds field germination rate were affected by low phytate mutation gene and planting environment, and lower seed germination rate phenotype of LPA lines could be improved by genetic method. Mutant Gm-lpa-TW-1 of LPA phenotype was genetic linkage with high sugar and low oligosaccharides phenotype, so it should be benefit to breed new soybean varieties with better quality. (authors)

  3. Soluble carbohydrate content variation in Sanionia uncinata and Polytrichastrum alpinum, two Antarctic mosses with contrasting desiccation capacities

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    Paz Zúñiga-González

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cryptogamic vegetation dominates the ice-free areas along the Antarctic Peninsula. The two mosses Sanionia uncinata and Polytrichastrum alpinum inhabit soils with contrasting water availability. Sanionia uncinata grows in soil with continuous water supply, while P. alpinum grows in sandy, non-flooded soils. Desiccation and rehydration experiments were carried out to test for differences in the rate of water loss and uptake, with non-structural carbohydrates analysed to test their role in these processes. RESULTS: Individual plants of S. uncinata lost water 60 % faster than P. alpinum; however, clumps of S. uncinata took longer to dry than those of P. alpinum (11 vs. 5 h, respectively. In contrast, rehydration took less than 10 min for both mosses. Total non-structural carbohydrate content was higher in P. alpinum than in S. uncinata, but sugar levels changed more in P. alpinum during desiccation and rehydration (60-50 % when compared to S. uncinata. We report the presence of galactinol (a precursor of the raffinose family for the first time in P. alpinum. Galactinol was present at higher amounts than all other non-structural sugars. CONCLUSIONS: Individual plants of S. uncinata were not able to retain water for long periods but by growing and forming carpets, this species can retain water the longest. In contrast individual P. alpinum plants required more time to lose water than S. uncinata, but as moss cushions they suffered desiccation faster than the later. On the other hand, both species rehydrated very quickly. We found that when both mosses lost 50 % of their water, carbohydrates content remained stable and the plants did not accumulate non-structural carbohydrates during the desiccation prosses as usually occurs in vascular plants. The raffinose family oligosaccarides decreased during desiccation, and increased during rehydration, suggesting they function as osmoprotectors.

  4. Effect of quarantine treatments on the carbohydrate and organic acid content of mangoes (cv. Tommy Atkins)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, J.N.; Soares, C.A.; Fabbri, A.D.T.; Cordenunsi, B.R.; Sabato, S.F.

    2012-01-01

    Brazil is one of the largest mango producers and the third largest mango exporter worldwide. Irradiation treatment and its commercial feasibility have been studied in our country to make it possible to develop new markets and, consequently, to compete with the major exporters of mangoes, Mexico and India. This work was designed to compare irradiation treatment with the hot water dip treatment in mangoes cv. Tommy Atkins for export and to verify that the main attributes for acceptance, color and texture, as well as carbohydrate and organic acid contents, were maintained. In this study, the fruit was divided into groups: control, hot water dip-treated (46 °C for 90 min), and irradiation-treated at doses of 0.4 kGy and 1.0 kGy. The fruit was stored at low temperature (11 °C±2) for 14 days and then at room temperature (23 °C±2) until the end of the study. The results indicated that the fruit given a dose of 1.0 kGy remained in a less advanced stage of ripening (stage 3) throughout the storage period, but experienced a greater loss of texture in the beginning of the experiment. It was noted that only the control group had higher levels of citric acid and succinic acid on the last day of the experiment. There were no significant differences in the total sugar content between any treatment groups. Gamma radiation can be used as a quarantine treatment and does not interfere negatively with the quality attributes of mangoes. - Highlights: ► In Brazil, one of the largest producers and exporters of mangoes, tropical fruits are routinely treated with a hot water dip. ► Results from this study demonstrate that irradiation is a good alternative to this conventional quarantine treatment. ► Carbohydrate and organic acid results are presented for irradiation and hot water dip treatments. ► Texture measurements are shown as a function of storage time for each of these treatments.

  5. Effect of quarantine treatments on the carbohydrate and organic acid content of mangoes (cv. Tommy Atkins)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, J. N.; Soares, C. A.; Fabbri, A. D. T.; Cordenunsi, B. R.; Sabato, S. F.

    2012-08-01

    Brazil is one of the largest mango producers and the third largest mango exporter worldwide. Irradiation treatment and its commercial feasibility have been studied in our country to make it possible to develop new markets and, consequently, to compete with the major exporters of mangoes, Mexico and India. This work was designed to compare irradiation treatment with the hot water dip treatment in mangoes cv. Tommy Atkins for export and to verify that the main attributes for acceptance, color and texture, as well as carbohydrate and organic acid contents, were maintained. In this study, the fruit was divided into groups: control, hot water dip-treated (46 °C for 90 min), and irradiation-treated at doses of 0.4 kGy and 1.0 kGy. The fruit was stored at low temperature (11 °C±2) for 14 days and then at room temperature (23 °C±2) until the end of the study. The results indicated that the fruit given a dose of 1.0 kGy remained in a less advanced stage of ripening (stage 3) throughout the storage period, but experienced a greater loss of texture in the beginning of the experiment. It was noted that only the control group had higher levels of citric acid and succinic acid on the last day of the experiment. There were no significant differences in the total sugar content between any treatment groups. Gamma radiation can be used as a quarantine treatment and does not interfere negatively with the quality attributes of mangoes.

  6. Phosphatase Activity of Microbial Populations in Different Milk Samples in Relation to Protein and Carbohydrate Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sosanka Protim SANDILYA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cattle milk is a rich source of protein, carbohydrate, vitamins, minerals and all other major and micro nutrients. At a moderate pH, milk is an excellent media for the growth of microbes and thus, intake of raw milk is precarious. In this study, attempt was made for a qualitative study of eight raw milk samples of different varieties of cow and goat milk, collected from Jorhat district of Assam, India, on the basis of nutritional value and microbial population. The highest microbial population was found in the milk collected from cross hybrid variety of cow, whereas microbial contamination was the least in Jersey cow milk. Samples of C1 (Jersey cow variety showed presence of the highest amount of protein and carbohydrate content as compared to the others. Almost all the milk samples showed positive acid and alkaline phosphatase activity. Maximum acid phosphatase activity was observed in cross hybrid cow milk, whereas local cow milk exhibited the highest alkaline phosphatase activity. Phosphatase activity did not show any co-relationship with microbial population of the milk samples. Similarly, the protein and carbohydrate content of the samples did not have any significant impact on both acid and alkaline phosphatase activity.

  7. Quantifying the source-sink balance and carbohydrate content in three tomato cultivars

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    Tao eLi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of supplementary lighting on plant growth depends on the balance between assimilate production in source leaves and the overall capacity of the plants to use assimilates. This study aims at quantifying the source-sink balance and carbohydrate content of three tomato cultivars differing in fruit size, and to investigate to what extent the source/sink ratio correlates with the potential fruit size. Cultivars Komeett (large size, Capricia (medium size and Sunstream (small size, cherry tomato were grown at similar crop management as in commercial practice. Supplementary lighting was applied. Source strength was estimated from total plant growth rate using periodic destructive plant harvests in combination with the crop growth model TOMSIM. Sink strength was estimated from potential fruit growth rate which was determined from non-destructively measuring the fruit growth rate at non-limiting assimilate supply, growing only one fruit on each truss. Carbohydrate content in leaves and stems were periodically determined. During the early growth stage, ‘Komeett’ and ‘Capricia’ showed sink limitation and ‘Sunstream’ was close to sink limitation. Subsequently, during the fully fruiting stage all three cultivars were strongly source-limited as indicated by the low source/sink ratio (average source/sink ratio from 50 days after planting onwards was 0.17, 0.22 and 0.33 for ‘Komeett’, ‘Capricia’ and ‘Sunstream’, respectively. Carbohydrate content in leaves and stems increased linearly with the source/sink ratio. We conclude that under high irradiance tomato plants are sink-limited during their early growth stage, the level of sink limitation differs between cultivars but is not correlated with their potential fruit size. During the fully fruiting stage tomato plants are source-limited and the extent of source limitation of a cultivar is positively correlated with its potential fruit size.

  8. Influence of Pre- and Postharvest Summer Pruning on the Growth, Yield, Fruit Quality, and Carbohydrate Content of Early Season Peach Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikinci, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Winter and summer pruning are widely applied processes in all fruit trees, including in peach orchard management. This study was conducted to determine the effects of summer prunings (SP), as compared to winter pruning (WP), on shoot length, shoot diameter, trunk cross sectional area (TCSA) increment, fruit yield, fruit quality, and carbohydrate content of two early ripening peach cultivars (“Early Red” and “Maycrest”) of six years of age, grown in semiarid climate conditions, in 2008 to 2010. The trees were grafted on GF 677 rootstocks, trained with a central leader system, and spaced 5 × 5 m apart. The SP carried out after harvesting in July and August decreased the shoot length significantly; however, it increased its diameter. Compared to 2009, this effect was more marked in year 2010. In general, control and winter pruned trees of both cultivars had the highest TCSA increment and yield efficiency. The SP increased the average fruit weight and soluble solids contents (SSC) more than both control and WP. The titratable acidity showed no consistent response to pruning time. The carbohydrate accumulation in shoot was higher in WP and in control than in SP trees. SP significantly affected carbohydrate accumulation; postharvest pruning showed higher carbohydrate content than preharvest pruning. PMID:24737954

  9. Major losses of fat, carbohydrates and energy content of preterm human milk frozen at -80°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev, H M; Ovental, A; Mandel, D; Mimouni, F B; Marom, R; Lubetzky, R

    2014-05-01

    Long-term storage of human milk (HM) requires freezing at low temperatures, the consequences of which upon macronutrients are unclear. To test the null hypothesis that HM freezing and storage for a range of 1 to 10 weeks at -80 °C does not affect HM fat, protein, lactose and energy contents. Samples of HM were obtained from 20 mothers (60 samples) of preterm infants (25 to 35 weeks gestation), who routinely expressed their milk, every 3 h, using an electric pump, from the second to the seventh week after delivery. All samples were frozen at -80 °C for 8 to 83 days (43.8 days average). After thawing and homogenization, energy and macronutrient contents were measured using an HM analyzer. Fat, carbohydrates and energy contents were significantly lower in thawed HM than in fresh HM (fat, fresh vs thawed: 3.72±1.17 vs 3.36±1.19 g/100 ml, Pcarbohydrates, fresh vs thawed: 5.86±0.71 vs 4.09±0.96 g/100 ml, Pvs thawed: 64.93±12.97 vs 56.63±16.82 kcal/100 ml, Pvs thawed: 1.14±0.36 vs 1.15±0.37 g/100 ml, P=0.7). The decline in carbohydrates content but not in fat and energy correlated significantly with freezing duration. Freezing at -80 °C significantly decreases the energy content of HM, both from fat and carbohydrates. Since quantitatively the decrease in macronutrients was much higher than that published for HM storage at -20 °C, our results do not support freezing HM at -80 °C as the gold standard for long-term storage. We suggest that caloric intake calculations in preterm infants cannot be established based upon fresh HM data.

  10. Glycogen and proximate content of white shrimp fed on different carbohydrate level and feeding frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    , Zainuddin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT White shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei is one of penaeid shrimp which can be cultured either in traditional and advanced technology scale. One problem that commonly faced by pond farmer is the high price of feed with high protein content. This research was to identify the optimal level of carbohydrate and feeding frequency on glycogen deposit and chemical composition of white shrimp juvenile. Research used factorial completely randomized design with two factors in triplicates. Treatments were factor A, carbohydrate level in feed respectively A1 (30%, A2 (37%, A3 (44%, A4 (50%, and factor B daily feeding frequency respectively B1 (twice, B2 (four times, and B3 (six times respectively. White shrimp used had an initial average body weight of 0.3 g/shrimp. Feeding level was 10% of shrimp body weight. Results showed that both factors, carbohydrate level in feed, feeding frequency and their interactions were not significantly different on glycogen deposit of white shrimp juvenile. Analysis result on chemical compositions of white shrimp juvenile consisted of protein, lipid, nitrogen-free extract, crude fiber, ash, and energy were generally increased after treatments. Keywords: glycogen deposit, feeding frequency, chemical composition, carbohydrate level ABSTRAK Udang vaname Litopenaeus vannamei merupakan salah satu jenis udang penaeid yang dapat dibudidayakan baik dalam skala teknologi tradisional maupun skala teknologi maju. Salah satu masalah yang dihadapi para petani tambak adalah tingginya harga pakan yang disebabkan karena tingginya kandungan protein pakan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji efek pemberian pakan dengan kadar karbohidrat dan frekuensi pemberian berbeda terhadap deposit glikogen dan komposisi kimia tubuh juvenil udang vanamei. Penelitian menggunakan desain rancangan acak lengkap pola faktorial dengan dua faktor dan setiap faktor diberi masing-masing tiga ulangan. Perlakuan yang diuji adalah faktor A, kadar karbohidrat

  11. Flower opening and vase life of gladiolus cultivars: the sensitivity to ethylene and the carbohydrate content

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    Lucas Cavalcante da Costa

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Vase life is one of the most important characteristics in the quality of cut flowers. The carbohydrate content of petals from each cultivar can be a decisive factor to vase life of gladiolus flowers. Despite exposure to ethylene does not affect the life of open florets of gladiolus flowers, it may reduce the flower’s commercial life due the occurrence of flower buds abortion. This study thus aimed to evaluate the flower opening and the vase life of gladiolus flowers according to ethylene sensitivity and carbohydrate content of each cultivar. The gladiolus cultivars used in Experiment I were  ‘Amsterdam’, ‘Blue Frost’, ‘Gold Field’, ‘Green Star’, ‘Jester’, ‘Lavender’, ‘Red Beauty’, ‘Rose Supreme’, ‘Traderhorn’, and ‘Verônica’. Stems were stored in airtight chambers and exposed to the ethylene concentrations of 0, 0.1, 1.0, 10, 100, and 1000 μL L−1 for 24 h. Subsequently, flower stem were placed in a test tube with distilled water when were evaluated for percentage of flower opening and vase life. In Experiment II, three cultivars (‘Amsterdam’, ‘Red Beauty’, and ‘Verônica’ were chosen based on the lowest, medium, and highest vase life in Experiment I, respectively. Total soluble sugars, reducing sugars, and starch contents were evaluated in five flower developmental stages. No effect of ethylene on the flower opening or alterations in flower opening between cultivars. The vase life of gladiolus flowers differed between cultivars regardless of ethylene action. ‘Verônica’ and ‘Amsterdam’, which had the highest and lowest vase life, respectively, differed as to the total soluble sugar content. Ethylene does not influence the flower opening or vase life of the gladiolus cultivars studied. In these cultivars, the maintenance of flower opening is attributed to total soluble sugars content, which, in turn, is a major determinant of the vase life.

  12. Caloric compensation for lunches varying in fat and carbohydrate content by humans in a residential laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltin, R W; Fischman, M W; Moran, T H; Rolls, B J; Kelly, T H

    1990-12-01

    Two groups of three subjects participated in a residential study that assessed the effects of varying the macronutrient and caloric content of a required lunch meal on subsequent food choice and intake. Lunches contained 431 or 844 kcal, with the caloric differential created by manipulating the calories derived from either fat or carbohydrate (CHO). Each lunch condition (high-fat, high-CHO, low-fat, and low-CHO) was examined for 3 consecutive days. Subjects controlled their own patterns of food intake and could consume any item or number of items at any time during the day or night. There were no significant differences in total daily caloric intake across conditions, indicating that subjects compensated for the caloric content of the lunch regardless of the macronutrient content. Total daily caloric intake under the high-fat and high-CHO conditions was 2824 +/- 151 (mean +/- SEM) and 2988 +/- 187 kcal, respectively, whereas intake under the low-fat and low-CHO conditions was 2700 +/- 131 and 2890 +/- 247 kcal, respectively.

  13. Effects of CO₂ on Acer negundo pollen fertility, protein content, allergenic properties, and carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, M; Ribeiro, H; Abreu, I; Cruz, A; Esteves da Silva, J C G

    2015-05-01

    Atmospheric gaseous pollutants can induce qualitative and quantitative changes in airborne pollen characteristics. In this work, it was investigated the effects of carbon dioxide (CO2) on Acer negundo pollen fertility, protein content, allergenic properties, and carbohydrates. Pollen was collected directly from the anthers and in vitro exposed to three CO2 levels (500, 1000, and 3000 ppm) for 6 and 24 h in an environmental chamber. Pollen fertility was determined using viability and germination assays, total soluble protein was determined with Coomassie Protein Assay Reagent, and the antigenic and allergenic properties were investigated by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunological techniques using patients' sera. Also, pollen fructose, sucrose, and glucose values were determined. Carbon dioxide exposure affected negatively pollen fertility, total soluble protein content, and fructose content. The patient sera revealed increased IgE reactivity to proteins of A. negundo pollen exposed to increasing levels of the pollutant. No changes were detected in the SDS-PAGE protein profiles and in sucrose and glucose levels. Our results indicate that increase in atmospheric CO2 concentrations can have a negative influence of some features of A. negundo airborne pollen that can influence the reproductive processes as well as respiratory pollen allergies in the future.

  14. Carbohydrate and protein contents of grain dusts in relation to dust morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashek, W V; Olenchock, S A; Mayfield, J E; Wirtz, G H; Wolz, D E; Young, C A

    1986-01-01

    Grain dusts contain a variety of materials which are potentially hazardous to the health of workers in the grain industry. Because the characterization of grain dusts is incomplete, we are defining the botanical, chemical, and microbial contents of several grain dusts collected from grain elevators in the Duluth-Superior regions of the U.S. Here, we report certain of the carbohydrate and protein contents of dusts in relation to dust morphology. Examination of the gross morphologies of the dusts revealed that, except for corn, each dust contained either husk or pericarp (seed coat in the case of flax) fragments in addition to respirable particles. When viewed with the light microscope, the fragments appeared as elongated, pointed structures. The possibility that certain of the fragments within corn, settled, and spring wheat were derived from cell walls was suggested by the detection of pentoses following colorimetric assay of neutralized 2 N trifluoroacetic acid hydrolyzates of these dusts. The presence of pentoses together with the occurrence of proteins within water washings of grain dusts suggests that glycoproteins may be present within the dusts. With scanning electron microscopy, each dust was found to consist of a distinct assortment of particles in addition to respirable particles. Small husk fragments and "trichome-like" objects were common to all but corn dust. Images FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. PMID:3709476

  15. The effect of growth medium on B. anthracis Sterne spore carbohydrate content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colburn, Heather A; Wunschel, David S; Antolick, Kathryn C; Melville, Angela M; Valentine, Nancy B

    2011-06-01

    The expressed characteristics of biothreat agents may be impacted by variations in the culture environment, including growth medium formulation. The carbohydrate composition of B. anthracis spores has been well studied, particularly for the exosporium, which is the outermost spore structure. The carbohydrate composition of the exosporium has been demonstrated to be distinct from the vegetative form containing unique monosaccharides. We have investigated the carbohydrate composition of B. anthracis Sterne spores produced using four different medium types formulated with different sources of medium components. The amount of rhamnose, 3-O-methyl rhamnose and galactosamine was found to vary significantly between spores cultured using different medium formulations. The relative abundance of these monosaccharides compared to other monosaccharides such as mannosamine was also found to vary with medium type. Specific medium components were also found to impact the carbohydrate profile. Xylose has not been previously described in B. anthracis spores but was detected at low levels in two media. This may represent residual material from the brewery yeast extract used to formulate these two media. These results illustrate the utility of this method to capture the impact of growth medium on carbohydrate variation in spores. Detecting carbohydrate profiles in B. anthracis evidentiary material may provide useful forensic information on the growth medium used for sporulation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of high contents of dietary animal-derived protein or carbohydrates on canine faecal microbiota

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    Hang Ingrid

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Considerable evidence suggests that food impacts both the gastro-intestinal (GI function and the microbial ecology of the canine GI tract. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of high-carbohydrate (HC, high-protein (HP and dry commercial (DC diets on the canine colonic microbiota in Beagle dogs. Diets were allocated according to the Graeco-Latin square design. For this purpose, microbial DNA was isolated from faecal samples and separated by density gradient centrifugation, resulting in specific profiling based on the guanine-cytosine content (%G + C. In addition, 16 S rRNA gene amplicons were obtained from the most abundant %G + C peaks and analysed by sequence analysis, producing a total of 720 non-redundant sequences (240 sequences per diet. Results The DC diet sample showed high abundance of representatives of the orders Clostridiales, Lactobacillales, Coriobacteriales and Bacteroidales. Sequence diversity was highest for DC diet samples and included representatives of the orders Lactobacillales and Bacteroidales, which were not detected in samples from the HP and HC diets. These latter two diets also had reduced levels of representatives of the family Lachnospiraceae, specifically Clostridial cluster XIVa. The HC diet favoured representatives of the order Erysipelotrichales, more specifically the Clostridial cluster XVIII, while the HP diet favoured representatives of the order Fusobacteriales. Conclusions This study detected Coriobacteriales in dog faeces, possibly due to the non-selective nature of the %G + C profiling method used in combination with sequencing. Moreover, our work demonstrates that the effect of diet on faecal microbiota can be explained based on the metabolic properties of the detected microbial taxa.

  17. Induction of mutants with higher protein content in soy bean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraiwa, S.; Tanaka, S.; Nakamura, S.

    1976-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out to examine the effects of ionizing radiation on protein content of soy beans and to estimate the potential value of ionizing radiation in soy bean breeding. In the first experiment seeds of three cultivars were acutely irradiated by gamma ray doses of 8 krad and 16 krad. Seeds of M 3 plants were analysed for protein content by the Biuret method. Selection within each variety was made to isolate plants having about 2% higher protein content than the control populations. In the second experiment growing plants of a soy bean cultivar were irradiated with 2.9 krad and 6.1 krad, from germination to maturation, in a 60 Co gamma field. Seeds on individual lines in M 5 , M 6 and M 7 plants were determined for their protein contents by the Kjeldahl method and the upper 10% of the treated lines were selected for progeny testing. From the results of the analysis of variance for each trait, significant differences were observed between the control variety and selected lines for all the traits. Six out of 19 lines showed significant increases in both 100 seed weight and protein content, and four lines promising. The mean protein content of selected lines increased 0.68% compared with the control variety. Genetic gain expected from selection for high protein content was therefore considered at about 1%; however, the likelihood of a large increase in protein content would greatly increase if large populations derived from irradiated seeds were observed

  18. Effect of gamma irradiation on the protein, amino acids and carbohydrate contents of soya-gari diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogbadu, G.H.

    1979-01-01

    Soya-gari diet, prepared by enrichment of gari (Manihot esculanta Cranz) with soya flour, methionine, lysine and salt mixture was irradiated with doses of 62.5, 125, 250 and 500 Krad from a Co 60 γ irradiator. Gamma irradiation of the soya-gari diet with doses as high as 500 Krad had no significant effect on the amino acids, total proteins, soluble carbohydrates, hemicelluloses, cellulose and lignin contents. (author)

  19. Effects of roasting temperatures and gamma irradiation on the content of chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid and soluble carbohydrates of coffee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshpande, S.N.; Aguilar, A.A.

    1975-01-01

    Two varieties of Puerto Rican coffee, Coffea canephora L. var. Robusta, and Coffea arabica L. var. Borbon, were subjected to four different doses of radiation and roasted at two different temperatures. Aqueous extracts of the ground coffee beans were analyzed for chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid at 324 nm and 360 nm wavelength settings, respectively. Samples subjected to the roasting treatments in conjuction with irradiation treatments were treated with basic lead acetate prior to the colorimetric analyses in order to eliminate interfering substances. The total carbohydrate content was also determined by colorimetric techniques with anthrone reagent. The total nitrogen content of the pulverized samples were determined by the micro-Kjeldahl method. While roasting treatments caused a reduction in the concentrations of the chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and the carbohydrates, the radiation treatments increased the concentrations of soluble carbohydrates without affecting the concentrations of chlorogenic acid or caffeic acid. It therefore appears that radiation treatments seem to cause degradation of the acid-polysaccharide complexes liberating soluble sugars. There were no noticable changes in the total content of nitrogen caused by roasting or the radiation treatments as indicated by the statistical analysis employing the split plot design. (author)

  20. Evaluation of glucose and insulin response to haylage diets with different content of nonstructural carbohydrates in 2 breeds of horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindåse, S; Müller, C; Nostell, K; Bröjer, J

    2018-04-09

    Information about the effect of nonstructural carbohydrates (NSCs) in forage on the postprandial glucose and insulin response in horses is scarce. This is of interest as postprandial hyperinsulinemia in horses is a risk factor for laminitis. In addition, insulin sensitivity (IS) differs between breeds. The aim was to evaluate the postprandial glucose and insulin response to haylage diets with different NSC content in horses of 2 different breeds and to evaluate the relationship between the postprandial insulin response and measures of IS derived from a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIGTT). Standardbreds (n = 9) and Icelandic horses (n = 9) with a mean body condition score of 5.5 ± 0.6 (scale 1-9) were studied. Horses were clinically healthy at the start of the study and had no history of endocrinopathic laminitis. The experiment was conducted as a replicate 3 × 3 Latin square, in which horses were fed haylage diets with low (4.2%), medium (13.6%), and high (18.2%) NSC content of dry matter. Blood sampling was performed before feeding and every 30 min until 300 min after feeding. An FSIGTT was also performed in all horses. The early (first 60 min) and the total (300 min) postprandial glucose and insulin response (area under the curve [AUC]) was higher after a meal of both medium and high NSC haylage in comparison with low NSC haylage when both breeds were combined (P ≤ 0.02). There was a main effect of breed for the early (P ≤ 0.004) but not for the total (P > 0.12) postprandial glucose and insulin response. The IS index was comparable between breeds (P = 0.75). The natural logarithm of the peak concentration, the AUC for the first 60 min and the total AUC for insulin, after a meal of medium and high NSC haylage, were moderately negatively correlated (P haylage with low NSC content (P > 0.054). This study demonstrates that the postprandial insulin response is affected by both the NSC content of haylage and the horse's IS. However

  1. Effects of temperature and irradiance level on carbohydrate content and keeping quality of Christmas begonia (Begonia x cheimantha Everett)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fjeld, T.

    1992-01-01

    The carbohydrate content and keeping quality of Christmas begonia were determined in a factorial experiment in which the plants were subjected to irradiance levels of 15, 30 and 60 μmol m −2 s −1 and to temperature levels of 15, 18 and 21°C for the last part of the growing period. This period lasted from 11 to 24 days depending on irradiance level and temperature. The contents of sucrose, glucose and starch were determined at the marketing stage. The keeping quality of the plants was determined after 3 weeks in a simulated interior climate. Increase in temperature and irradiance level both enhanced the development of flowers during the later part of the growing period. The temperature did not have any effect on plant quality at the marketing stage nor on the carbohydrate content, but high temperature caused an increase in flower stem height after 3 weeks in interior climate. Increase in irradiance level caused a significant increase in the content of starch at the marketing stage. Percent increase in new flowers during the interior holding period was highly correlated with the contents of sucrose and starch in the inflorescences and with the content of starch in the leaves. A large starch pool in the inflorescences and in the leaves at the marketing stage reduced the abscission rate during the interior holding period. (author)

  2. The potential of a high protein-low carbohydrate diet to preserve intrahepatic triglyceride content in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Eveline A; Gatta-Cherifi, Blandine; Gonnissen, Hanne K; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2014-01-01

    Protein supplementation has been shown to reduce the increases in intrahepatic triglyceride (IHTG) content induced by acute hypercaloric high-fat and high-fructose diets in humans. To assess the effect of a 12-wk iso-energetic high protein-low carbohydrate (HPLC) diet compared with an iso-energetic high carbohydrate-low protein (HCLP) diet on IHTG content in healthy non-obese subjects, at a constant body weight. Seven men and nine women [mean ± SD age: 24 ± 5 y; BMI: 22.9 ± 2.1 kg/m2] were randomly allocated to a HPLC [30/35/35% of energy (En%) from protein/carbohydrate/fat] or a HCLP (5/60/35 En%) diet by stratification on sex, age and BMI. Dietary guidelines were prescribed based on individual daily energy requirements. IHTG content was measured by 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy before and after the dietary intervention. IHTG content changed in different directions with the HPLC (CH2H2O: 0.23 ± 0.17 to 0.20 ± 0.10; IHTG%: 0.25 ± 0.20% to 0.22 ± 0.11%) compared with the HCLP diet (CH2H2O: 0.34 ± 0.20 vs. 0.38 ± 0.21; IHTG%: 0.38 ± 0.22% vs. 0.43 ± 0.24%), which resulted in a lower IHTG content in the HPLC compared with the HCLP diet group after 12 weeks, which almost reached statistical significance (P = 0.055). A HPLC vs. a HCLP diet has the potential to preserve vs. enlarge IHTG content in healthy non-obese subjects at a constant body weight. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01551238.

  3. The potential of a high protein-low carbohydrate diet to preserve intrahepatic triglyceride content in healthy humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eveline A Martens

    Full Text Available Protein supplementation has been shown to reduce the increases in intrahepatic triglyceride (IHTG content induced by acute hypercaloric high-fat and high-fructose diets in humans.To assess the effect of a 12-wk iso-energetic high protein-low carbohydrate (HPLC diet compared with an iso-energetic high carbohydrate-low protein (HCLP diet on IHTG content in healthy non-obese subjects, at a constant body weight.Seven men and nine women [mean ± SD age: 24 ± 5 y; BMI: 22.9 ± 2.1 kg/m2] were randomly allocated to a HPLC [30/35/35% of energy (En% from protein/carbohydrate/fat] or a HCLP (5/60/35 En% diet by stratification on sex, age and BMI. Dietary guidelines were prescribed based on individual daily energy requirements. IHTG content was measured by 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy before and after the dietary intervention.IHTG content changed in different directions with the HPLC (CH2H2O: 0.23 ± 0.17 to 0.20 ± 0.10; IHTG%: 0.25 ± 0.20% to 0.22 ± 0.11% compared with the HCLP diet (CH2H2O: 0.34 ± 0.20 vs. 0.38 ± 0.21; IHTG%: 0.38 ± 0.22% vs. 0.43 ± 0.24%, which resulted in a lower IHTG content in the HPLC compared with the HCLP diet group after 12 weeks, which almost reached statistical significance (P = 0.055.A HPLC vs. a HCLP diet has the potential to preserve vs. enlarge IHTG content in healthy non-obese subjects at a constant body weight.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01551238.

  4. Effect of water-soluble carbohydrate content in orchardgrass pasture on grazing time and rumen fermentation in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Koichiro; Mitani, Tomohiro; Kondo, Seiji

    2016-09-01

    Two experiments were conducted to clarify the effect of water-soluble carbohydrate (WSC) content in orchardgrass pasture on the diurnal distribution of grazing time. Six ruminally cannulated, non-lactating dairy cows were grazed on either of two pastures with different orchardgrass cultivars containing low WSC (LWSC; cultivar: 'Hokkai 28') or high WSC (HWSC; cultivar: 'Harunemidori'). The cows were grazed in morning and evening sessions in experiment 1, whereas the cows were grazed throughout the day in experiment 2. In experiment 1, grazing time of the cows on HWSC was longer than that of the cows on LWSC (P content. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  5. THE EFFECT OF HIGH DIETARY FERMENTABLE CARBOHYDRATE CONTENT ON THE FATTENING PERFORMANCE AND CHEMICAL BODY COMPOSITION OF FATTENING PIGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cs. Szabó

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of dietary fermentable carbohydrates (FC = faecal digestible organic matter - faecal digestible crude protein- faecal digestible crude fat - starch - sugars on the body composition and meat quality of pigs. A total of seventy two Stamboek hybrid pigs were housed in groups of six per pen (two pens with gilts and two with barrows per treatment. Three diets were formulated with a low, medium and high FC content (63, 148, 233 g/kg in the grower diets (45-75 kg and 67, 152, 237 g/kg in the finisher diets (75-110 kg. Feed and water were offered ad libitum. At slaughter (110 kg LW lean meat percentage, meat quality and chemical body composition were determined. Our data indicated, that carcass grading was improved by dietary FC. Diet with the high level of fermentable carbohydrates decreased fatness of the carcass and the organ fraction. It can be concluded that the fattening performance (FI, ADG, FCR was not affected adversely by the high FC intake, but carcass quality in pigs could be improved. Feedstuffs high in fermentable carbohydrates can be valuable ingredients for pig diets, once their energy content has been properly estimated.

  6. Effect of high contents of dietary animal-derived protein or carbohydrates on canine fecal microbiota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hang, I.; Rinttila, T.; Zentek, J.; Kettunen, A.; Alaja, S.; Apajalahti, J.A.; Harmoinen, J.; Vos, de W.M.; Spillmann, T.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Considerable evidence suggests that food impacts both the gastro-intestinal (GI) function and the microbial ecology of the canine GI tract. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of high-carbohydrate (HC), high-protein (HP) and dry commercial (DC) diets on the canine colonic

  7. Changes in the carbohydrate and organic acid contents of tomatoes as a function of radiation dose and storage time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, E.

    1974-01-01

    Sugars and organic acids of tomatoes, variety Original Fruehrot, in different stages of development were examined by gas chromatography after silylation. Changes in the carbohydrate and organic acid content of half-ripe and ripe tomatoes were determined after treatment with different radiation doses (5, 15, 30, 60, 250 and 500 krad). Fructose, glucose, saccharose and malic acid could be detected in the tomato samples. The saccharose and malic acid contents of half-ripe tomatoes decreased as a result of irradiation with doses above 250 krad. In ripe tomatoes, the malic acid content fell most markedly under the influence of irradiation. The sugar content tended to decrease as a function of storage time, except for samples treated with 15 krad which usually delayed decomposition of the components tested. The effect of irradiation was more extensive in half-ripe tomatoes than in ripe ones. (F.J.)

  8. Changes in the carbohydrate and organic acid contents of tomatoes as a function of radiation dose and storage time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovacs, E [Kozponti Elelmiszeripari Kutato Intezet, Budapest (Hungary)

    1974-01-01

    Sugars and organic acids of tomatoes, variety Original Fruehrot, in different stages of development were examined by gas chromatography after silylation. Changes in the carbohydrate and organic acid content of half-ripe and ripe tomatoes were determined after treatment with different radiation doses (5, 15, 30, 60, 250 and 500 krad). Fructose, glucose, saccharose and malic acid could be detected in the tomato samples. The saccharose and malic acid contents of half-ripe tomatoes decreased as a result of irradiation with doses above 250 krad. In ripe tomatoes, the malic acid content fell most markedly under the influence of irradiation. The sugar content tended to decrease as a function of storage time, except for samples treated with 15 krad which usually delayed decomposition of the components tested. The effect of irradiation was more extensive in half-ripe tomatoes than in ripe ones.

  9. Long term weight maintenance after advice to consume low carbohydrate, higher protein diets--a systematic review and meta analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, P M; Condo, D; Keogh, J B

    2014-03-01

    Meta analysis of short term trials indicates that a higher protein, lower carbohydrate weight loss diet enhances fat mass loss and limits lean mass loss compared with a normal protein weight loss diet. Whether this benefit persists long term is not clear. We selected weight loss studies in adults with at least a 12 month follow up in which a higher percentage protein/lower carbohydrate diet was either planned or would be expected for either weight loss or weight maintenance. Studies were selected regardless of the success of the advice but difference in absolute and percentage protein intake at 12 months was used as a moderator in the analysis. Data was analysed using Comprehensive Meta analysis V2 using a random effects analysis. As many as 32 studies with 3492 individuals were analysed with data on fat and lean mass, glucose and insulin from 18 to 22 studies and lipids from 28 studies. A recommendation to consume a lower carbohydrate, higher protein diet in mostly short term intensive interventions with long term follow up was associated with better weight and fat loss but the effect size was small-standardised means of 0.14 and 0.22, p = 0.008 and p fat mass (0.9 vs. 0.3 kg). Fasting triglyceride and insulin were also lower with high protein diets with effect sizes of 0.17 and 0.22, p = 0.003 and p = 0.042 respectively. Other lipids and glucose were not different. The short term benefit of higher protein diets appears to persist to a small degree long term. Benefits are greater with better compliance to the diet. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. EFFECT OF DIETARY LEVELS OF LIPID AND CARBOHYDRATE ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE, CHEMICAL CONTENTS AND DIGESTIBILITY IN RAINBOW TROUT, ONCORHYNCHUS MYKISS WALBAUM, 1792

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. GÜMÜŞ AND R. İKİZ

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to determine the effects of four rations on growth, chemical composition and digestibility of the Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum, 1792. Four test diets were formulated to have the same levels of protein (40% and energy (gross energy: around 4800 cal/g, however, these test diets were composed of basic diet with different carbohydrate (0, 3, 12 and 18% to lipid (0, 6, 15 and 18% ratios (Diet 1: 0/18; Diet 2: 3/15; Diet 3: 12/6 and Diet 4: 18/0. Fifty fish weighing 99.0 ± 0.65g were placed in each of the four experimental tanks and were fed with one of the experimental diets for 13 weeks consisting of two trial periods (Periods I and II. Growth parameters and chemical composition of fish flesh were monitored. Effects of the diets on apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC were also determined. At the end of the study, the fish growth was affected significantly (P0.05 changes in specific growth rate, although higher values were observed in fish fed with Diets 1 and 3. The experimental group fed with Diet 4 showed a lower (P0.05 changes in experimental groups fed with the diets. The percentage of water, protein and ash of fish flesh did not show any (P>0.05 change. However, the muscle lipid content of fish significantly (P<0.05 decreased as carbohydrate level increased. The ADC values were also affected (P<0.05 with carbohydrate and lipid levels in the diets. The ADC of lipid was lowest in the experimental group fed with Diet 1. The ADC values for dry matter, proteins and energy were lowest for fish fed on Diet 4, while for ash it was lowest for Diet 2. These results indicate that the best balance between the dietary lipid and carbohydrate levels was obtained on Diet 3, without lower growth.

  11. Estimating the carbohydrate content of various forms of tobacco by phenol-sulfuric acid method

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Vardhaman Mulchand; Karibasappa, Gundabaktha Nagappa; Dodamani, Arun Suresh; Mali, Gaurao Vasant

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Due to consumption of various forms of tobacco in large amounts by Indian population, it has become a cause of concern for major oral diseases. In 2008, the WHO named tobacco as the world's single greatest cause of preventable death. It is also known that certain amount of carbohydrates are incorporated in processed tobacco to make it acceptable for consumption. Thus, its role in oral diseases becomes an important question at this point of time. Through this study, it is attempted...

  12. Impact of elevated carbon dioxide concentration on carbohydrate content in Norway spruce needles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cabálková, Jana; Chmelík, Josef

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 99, S (2005), s552-s553 ISSN 0009-2770. [Meeting on Chemistry and Life /3./. Brno, 20.09.2005-22.09.2005] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/03/1182 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : Norway spruce * needles * carbohydrates Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 0.445, year: 2005

  13. Intraspecies differences in cold hardiness, carbohydrate content and β-amylase gene expression of Vaccinium corymbosum during cold acclimation and deacclimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun Hyung; Yu, Duk Jun; Kim, Su Jin; Choi, Doil; Lee, Hee Jae

    2012-12-01

    Changes in cold hardiness, carbohydrate content and β-amylase gene expression were monitored in the shoots of the highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) cultivars 'Sharpblue' and 'Jersey' during cold acclimation (CA) and deacclimation (DA). The seasonal patterns were similar in both cultivars, but the levels of cold hardiness determined by electrolyte leakage analysis were significantly different; 'Jersey' was hardier than 'Sharpblue'. Cold hardiness was closely related to total soluble sugar content (r = -0.98** and -0.99** for 'Sharpblue' and 'Jersey', respectively). In 'Jersey', more soluble sugars accumulated during CA. Of the detected soluble sugars, glucose, fructose and raffinose contents were significantly associated with cold hardiness in both cultivars. Sucrose was abundant in both cultivars, and stachyose content changed significantly during CA and DA. However, they were not associated with cold hardiness. A sharp decrease in starch contents in the middle of CA coincided with β-amylase gene (VcBMY) expression, indicating the conversion of starch into soluble sugars. During CA, VcBMY was expressed up to twofold higher in 'Jersey' than in 'Sharpblue'. These results suggest that intraspecies differences in the cold hardiness of highbush blueberries are associated with total soluble sugar content, which is driven partly by differential expression of VcBMY.

  14. Interaction between dietary protein content and the source of carbohydrates along the gastrointestinal tract of weaned piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, Robert; Boudry, Christelle; Bindelle, Jérôme; Vahjen, Wilfried; Zentek, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Although fermentable carbohydrates (CHO) can reduce metabolites derived from dietary protein fermentation in the intestine of pigs, the interaction between site of fermentation and substrate availability along the gut is still unclear. The current study aimed at determining the impact of two different sources of carbohydrates in diets with low or very high protein content on microbial metabolite profiles along the gastrointestinal tract of piglets. Thirty-six piglets (n = 6 per group) were fed diets high (26%, HP) or low (18%, LP) in dietary protein and with or without two different sources of carbohydrates (12% sugar beet pulp, SBP, or 8% lignocellulose, LNC) in a 2 × 3 factorial design. After 3 weeks, contents from stomach, jejunum, ileum, caecum, proximal and distal colon were taken and analysed for major bacterial metabolites (D-lactate, L-lactate, short chain fatty acids, ammonia, amines, phenols and indols). Results indicate considerable fermentation of CHO and protein already in the stomach. HP diets increased the formation of ammonia, amines, phenolic and indolic compounds throughout the different parts of the intestine with most pronounced effects in the distal colon. Dietary SBP inclusion in LP diets favoured the formation of cadaverine in the proximal parts of the intestine. SBP mainly increased CHO-derived metabolites such as SCFA and lactate and decreased protein-derived metabolites in the large intestine. Based on metabolite profiles, LNC was partly fermented in the distal large intestine and reduced mainly phenols, indols and cadaverine, but not ammonia. Multivariate analysis confirmed more diet-specific metabolite patterns in the stomach, whereas the CHO addition was the main determinant in the caecum and proximal colon. The protein level mainly influenced the metabolite patterns in the distal colon. The results confirm the importance of CHO source to influence the formation of metabolites derived from protein fermentation along the intestinal

  15. Effect on light intensity and mineral nutrition on carbohydrate and organic acid content in leaves of young coffee plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgiev, G.; Vento, Kh.

    1975-01-01

    Young coffee plants (Coffea arabica, L., var. Caturra) were grown under different conditions of mineral nutrition (1/8 N-P-K, N-P-K, 3 N-P-K, N 1/2-P-K and N-2P-K) and illumination (directly in the sunlight or shaded) with the aim of studying the effect of light and mineral nutrition on carbohydrate and organic acid content of the leaves. For determining these compounds 14 CO 2 was used. Sugars were separated after the method of paper chromatography. The results obtained showed that the incorporation of 14 C in sugars and organic acids was more intensive in plants grown directly in the sunlight, while in starch 14 C was incorporated more intensively in the shaded plants. Carbohydrate content rose parallel to the increase of nitrogen in the nutrient solution. Changingthe rate of phosphorus from 1/2P to two doses exerted highest effect on 14 C incorporation in starch and in hemicellulose. (author)

  16. Single-provenance mature conifers show higher non-structural carbohydrate storage and reduced growth in a drier location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Frida I; Fajardo, Alex; Hoch, Günter

    2017-08-01

    Since growth is more sensitive to drought than photosynthesis, trees inhabiting dry regions are expected to exhibit higher carbohydrate storage and less growth than their conspecifics from more humid regions. However, the same pattern can be the result of different genotypes inhabiting contrasting humidity conditions. To test if reduced growth and high carbohydrate storage are environmentally driven by drought, we examined the growth and non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) concentrations in single-provenance stands of mature trees of Pinus contorta Douglas and Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex C. Lawson planted at contrasting humidity conditions (900 versus 300 mm of annual precipitation) in Patagonia, Chile. Individual tree growth was measured for each species and at each location as mean basal area increment of the last 10 years (BAI10), annual shoot elongation for the period 2011-14, and needle length for 2013 and 2014 cohorts. Additionally, needle, branch, stem sapwood and roots were collected from each sampled tree to determine soluble sugars, starch and total NSC concentrations. The two species showed lower mean BAI10 and 2013 needle length in the dry site; P. ponderosa also had lower annual shoot extension for 2011 and 2014, and lower 2014 needle length, in the dry than in the mesic site. By contrast, NSC concentrations of all woody tissues for both species were either similar or higher in the dry site when compared with the mesic site. Patterns of starch and sugars were substantially different: starch concentrations were similar between sites except for roots of P. ponderosa, which were higher in the dry site, while sugar concentrations of all woody tissues in both species were higher in the dry site. Overall, our study provides evidence that reduced growth along with carbon (C) accumulation is an environmentally driven response to drought. Furthermore, the significant accumulation of low-molecular weight sugars in the dry site is compatible with a prioritized C

  17. [Development of lipids and carbohydrates metabolism disorders caused by drinkable water with high content of chlorine organic compounds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzhetsky, K P; Ustinova, O Yu; Shur, P Z; Kiryanov, D A; Dolgikh, O V; Chigvintsev, v M; Perevalov, A Ya

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of effects caused by environmental peroral exposure to chlorine organic compounds revealed that individuals with AG variation of HTR2A gene are a community with increased sensitivity to chloroform and a risk group for lipid and carbohydrates metabolism disorders. Individual risk of endocrine disorders (ICD: E67.8 excessive nutrition and E66.0 obesity) in these individuals is higher than in general population exposed to chloroform at residence (HQ1.72). Serum serotonin level, that is functionally connected with HTR2A gene, is 1.3 times lower vs. the reference group value.

  18. Higher milk fat content is associated with higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderhout, Shelley M; Birken, Catherine S; Parkin, Patricia C; Lebovic, Gerald; Chen, Yang; O'Connor, Deborah L; Maguire, Jonathon L

    2016-05-01

    Current guidelines for cow's milk consumption in children older than age 2 years suggest 1% or 2% milk to reduce the risk of obesity. Given that milk is the main dietary source of vitamin D for North American children and that vitamin D is fat soluble, we hypothesized 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration to be positively associated with the fat content of milk. The objective was to determine the relationship between the fat content of milk consumed and the serum 25(OH)D concentration; our secondary objective was to explore the role that the volume of milk consumed played in this relationship. We completed a cross-sectional study of children aged 12-72 months in the TARGetKids! research network. Multivariable linear regression was used to test the association between milk fat content and child 25(OH)D, adjusted for clinically relevant covariates. The interaction between volume of milk and fat content was examined. Two thousand eight hundred fifty-seven children were included in the analysis. The fat content of milk was positively associated with 25(OH)D (p = 0.03), and the interaction between the volume of milk consumed and the milk fat content was statistically significant (p = 0.005). Children who drank 1% milk needed 2.46 cups (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.38-2.54) of milk to have a 25(OH)D concentration similar to that of children who drank 1 cup of homogenized milk (3.25% fat). Children who consumed 1% milk had 2.05 (95% CI 1.73-2.42) times higher odds of having a 25(OH)D concentration <50 nmol/L compared with children who consumed homogenized milk. In conclusion, recommendations for children to drink lower-fat milk (1% or 2%) may compromise serum 25(OH)D levels and may require study to ensure optimal childhood health.

  19. Determination of the unfrozen water content of maximally freeze-concentrated carbohydrate solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatley, R H; Mant, A

    1993-08-01

    The heat capacity change at T'g has been studied in freeze-concentrated carbohydrate solutions. The values obtained have been compared with those found for high concentration solutions that do not undergo freezing above Tg. The analysis has indicated that the freezing process influences the degree of stress in the glassy phase. This results in a complex power-time curve when frozen solutions are heated in a differential scanning calorimeter. The endotherm produced by the stress relaxation can cause considerable error in W'g measurement obtained by any method that relies on the integration of the power-time curve. A more reliable method for W'g determination is via the intersection of T'g with a previously prepared Tg/Wg calibration curve.

  20. Evaluation of the Inhibition of Carbohydrate Hydrolyzing Enzymes, the Antioxidant Activity, and the Polyphenolic Content of Citrus limetta Peel Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Padilla-Camberos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus is one of the most frequent causes of death in Mexico, characterized by chronic hyperglycemia. One alternative strategy for this metabolic abnormality is inhibiting the enzymes responsible for the metabolism of carbohydrates. We evaluated whether the aqueous Citrus limetta peel extract could inhibit the metabolism of carbohydrates. We found that this extract inhibited primarily the enzyme α-amylase by 49.6% at a concentration of 20 mg/mL and to a lesser extent the enzyme α-glucosidase with an inhibition of 28.2% at the same concentration. This inhibition is likely due to the high polyphenol content in the Citrus limetta peel (19.1 mg GAE/g. Antioxidant activity of the Citrus limetta peel demonstrated dose-dependent antioxidant activity, varying from 6.5% at 1.125 mg/mL to 42.5% at 20 mg/mL. The study of these polyphenolic compounds having both antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activities may provide a new approach to the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  1. Rapid determination of carbohydrates, ash, and extractives contents of straw using attenuated total reflectance fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaki, Yukihiro; Mazza, Giuseppe

    2011-06-22

    Analysis of the chemical components of lignocellulosic biomass is essential to understanding its potential for utilization. Mid-infrared spectroscopy and partial least-squares regression were used for rapid measurement of the carbohydrate (total glycans; glucan; xylan; galactan; arabinan; mannan), ash, and extractives content of triticale and wheat straws. Calibration models for total glycans, glucan, and extractives showed good and excellent predictive performance on the basis of slope, r², RPD, and R/SEP criteria. The xylan model showed good and acceptable predictive performance. However, the ash model was evaluated as providing only approximate quantification and screening. The models for galactan, arabinan, and mannan indicated poor and insufficient prediction for application. Most models could predict both triticale and wheat straw samples with the same degree of accuracy. Mid-infrared spectroscopic techniques coupled with partial least-squares regression can be used for rapid prediction of total glycans, glucan, xylan, and extractives in triticale and wheat straw samples.

  2. [Influence of diets with a high content of qualitatively different carbohydrates on the metabolism of blood lipoproteins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liapkov, B G; Listratenkova, E F

    1977-01-01

    The feeding of rats for a space of 30 days on diets with elevated content of starch or saccharose (71 per cent of the total calorific value) was followed by an accelerated synthesis and secretion into the blood of pre-beta-lipoproteins. The ration with succharose, however, produced a much greater effect on the rate of synthesis of pre-beta-lipoproteins than did the one containing starch. The action of both carbohydrate-rich rations was noted to be attended by a growing rate of the apoproteids and glycerides exchange in the low-density lipoproteins. The feature distinguishing the effect produced by the ration with saccharose, as compared with that containing starch, was an accelerated etherification of cholesterol in the blood.

  3. An Improved Variant of Soybean Type 1 Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase Increases the Oil Content and Decreases the Soluble Carbohydrate Content of Soybeans[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bo; Damude, Howard G.; Everard, John D.; Booth, John R.

    2016-01-01

    Kinetically improved diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) variants were created to favorably alter carbon partitioning in soybean (Glycine max) seeds. Initially, variants of a type 1 DGAT from a high-oil, high-oleic acid plant seed, Corylus americana, were screened for high oil content in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Nearly all DGAT variants examined from high-oil strains had increased affinity for oleoyl-CoA, with S0.5 values decreased as much as 4.7-fold compared with the wild-type value of 0.94 µm. Improved soybean DGAT variants were then designed to include amino acid substitutions observed in promising C. americana DGAT variants. The expression of soybean and C. americana DGAT variants in soybean somatic embryos resulted in oil contents as high as 10% and 12%, respectively, compared with only 5% and 7.6% oil achieved by overexpressing the corresponding wild-type DGATs. The affinity for oleoyl-CoA correlated strongly with oil content. The soybean DGAT variant that gave the greatest oil increase contained 14 amino acid substitutions out of a total of 504 (97% sequence identity with native). Seed-preferred expression of this soybean DGAT1 variant increased oil content of soybean seeds by an average of 3% (16% relative increase) in highly replicated, single-location field trials. The DGAT transgenes significantly reduced the soluble carbohydrate content of mature seeds and increased the seed protein content of some events. This study demonstrated that engineering of the native DGAT enzyme is an effective strategy to improve the oil content and value of soybeans. PMID:27208257

  4. An Improved Variant of Soybean Type 1 Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase Increases the Oil Content and Decreases the Soluble Carbohydrate Content of Soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesler, Keith; Shen, Bo; Bermudez, Ericka; Li, Changjiang; Hunt, Joanne; Damude, Howard G; Ripp, Kevin G; Everard, John D; Booth, John R; Castaneda, Leandro; Feng, Lizhi; Meyer, Knut

    2016-06-01

    Kinetically improved diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) variants were created to favorably alter carbon partitioning in soybean (Glycine max) seeds. Initially, variants of a type 1 DGAT from a high-oil, high-oleic acid plant seed, Corylus americana, were screened for high oil content in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Nearly all DGAT variants examined from high-oil strains had increased affinity for oleoyl-CoA, with S0.5 values decreased as much as 4.7-fold compared with the wild-type value of 0.94 µm Improved soybean DGAT variants were then designed to include amino acid substitutions observed in promising C. americana DGAT variants. The expression of soybean and C. americana DGAT variants in soybean somatic embryos resulted in oil contents as high as 10% and 12%, respectively, compared with only 5% and 7.6% oil achieved by overexpressing the corresponding wild-type DGATs. The affinity for oleoyl-CoA correlated strongly with oil content. The soybean DGAT variant that gave the greatest oil increase contained 14 amino acid substitutions out of a total of 504 (97% sequence identity with native). Seed-preferred expression of this soybean DGAT1 variant increased oil content of soybean seeds by an average of 3% (16% relative increase) in highly replicated, single-location field trials. The DGAT transgenes significantly reduced the soluble carbohydrate content of mature seeds and increased the seed protein content of some events. This study demonstrated that engineering of the native DGAT enzyme is an effective strategy to improve the oil content and value of soybeans. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  5. Paraquat Induced Changes in Reserve Carbohydrates, Fatty Acids and Oleoresin Content of Young Slash Pines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claud L. Brown; Terry R. Clason; Jerry L. Michael

    1976-01-01

    Paraquat was fed into the terminal leaders of five-year-old slash pine trees and collected at weekly intervals for 4 weeks.Cytological observations showed a decrease in starch levels and a corresponding increase in content of oleoresin. Quantitative analysis indicated a decrease in starch accompanying increases in fatty acids, monoterpenes, and resin acids.

  6. A higher-complex carbohydrate diet in gestational diabetes mellitus achieves glucose targets and lowers postprandial lipids: a randomized crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Teri L; Van Pelt, Rachael E; Anderson, Molly A; Daniels, Linda J; West, Nancy A; Donahoo, William T; Friedman, Jacob E; Barbour, Linda A

    2014-01-01

    The conventional diet approach to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) advocates carbohydrate restriction, resulting in higher fat (HF), also a substrate for fetal fat accretion and associated with maternal insulin resistance. Consequently, there is no consensus about the ideal GDM diet. We hypothesized that, compared with a conventional, lower-carbohydrate/HF diet (40% carbohydrate/45% fat/15% protein), consumption of a higher-complex carbohydrate (HCC)/lower-fat (LF) Choosing Healthy Options in Carbohydrate Energy (CHOICE) diet (60/25/15%) would result in 24-h glucose area under the curve (AUC) profiles within therapeutic targets and lower postprandial lipids. Using a randomized, crossover design, we provided 16 GDM women (BMI 34 ± 1 kg/m2) with two 3-day isocaloric diets at 31 ± 0.5 weeks (washout between diets) and performed continuous glucose monitoring. On day 4 of each diet, we determined postprandial (5 h) glucose, insulin, triglycerides (TGs), and free fatty acids (FFAs) following a controlled breakfast meal. There were no between-diet differences for fasting or mean nocturnal glucose, but 24-h AUC was slightly higher (∼6%) on the HCC/LF CHOICE diet (P = 0.02). The continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) revealed modestly higher 1- and 2-h postprandial glucose on CHOICE (1 h, 115 ± 2 vs. 107 ± 3 mg/dL, P ≤ 0.01; 2 h, 106 ± 3 vs. 97 ± 3 mg/dL, P = 0.001) but well below current targets. After breakfast, 5-h glucose and insulin AUCs were slightly higher (P diet. This highly controlled study randomizing isocaloric diets and using a CGMS is the first to show that liberalizing complex carbohydrates and reducing fat still achieved glycemia below current treatment targets and lower postprandial FFAs. This diet strategy may have important implications for preventing macrosomia.

  7. Effects of the dietary nonfiber carbohydrate content on lactation performance, rumen fermentation, and nitrogen utilization in mid-lactation dairy cows receiving corn stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zihai; Zhang, Baoxin; Liu, Jianxin

    2018-01-01

    Corn stover (CS) is an abundant source of feed for livestock in China. However, it is low in nutritional value that we have been seeking technologies to improve. Previous studies show that non-fiber carbohydrate (NFC) might limit the utilization of a CS diet by lactating dairy cows. Thus, this study was conducted to investigate the lactation performance and rumen fermentation characteristics in lactating cows consuming CS with two contents of NFC compared to an alfalfa hay-containing diet. Twelve Holstein cows were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with three dietary treatments: (1) low-NFC diet (NFC = 35.6%, L-NFC), (2) high-NFC diet (NFC = 40.1%, H-NFC), and (3) alfalfa hay diet (NFC = 38.9%, AH). Intake of DM was lower for cows fed H-NFC compared to L-NFC and AH, while the milk yield was higher in AH than in H-NFC and L-NFC ( P  contents of milk protein and lactose were not different among the groups ( P  > 0.11), but milk fat content was higher for cows fed H-NFC and L-NFC compared to AH ( P  rumen ammonia nitrogen concentration and the concentrations of urea nitrogen in blood and milk were lower for cows fed H-NFC and AH compared to L-NFC ( P  rumen propionate and total volatile fatty acids were different among groups ( P  content in a diet containing corn stover can improve the feed efficiency and benefit the nitrogen conversion.

  8. Effect of omnivorous and vegan diets with different protein and carbohydrate content on growth and metabolism of growing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuberti, Gianluca; Morlacchini, Mauro; Crippa, Luca; Capraro, Jessica; Paganini, Beatrice; Gallo, Antonio; Rossi, Filippo

    2018-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to observe, in a rat animal model, the short and medium term effects of vegan (VEG) or omnivorous (OMNI) diets with different energy partition between nutrients (zone or classic). Six different diets were administered, for 72 days to 120 growing male Sprague-Dawley rats: (i) VEG zone diet; (ii) VEG classic diet; (iii) OMNI zone diet; (iv) OMNI classic diet; (v) OMNI zone diet with added fibre and (vi) OMNI classic diet with added fibre. Zone diets (high protein and low carbohydrates), resulted in better growth , feed efficiency, lower blood glucose and insulin responses. VEG diets have lowered cholesterol blood level. Histopathological analysis evidenced no damage to liver and kidney tissue by the intake of any of the diet types. Further longer animal and human duration studies should be performed to exclude detrimental effect of higher protein diet.

  9. Effect of drought stress and subsequent recovery on protein, carbohydrate contents, catalase and peroxidase activities in three chickpea (Cicer arietinum) cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mafakheri, A.; Siosemardeh, A.; Bahramnejad, B.; Struik, P.C.; Sohrabi, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Drought stress is one of the major abiotic stresses in agriculture worldwide. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of drought stress and subsequent recovery on protein, carbohydrate content, catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POX) activities in three varieties of chickpea (drought

  10. The effects of carbohydrate variation in isocaloric diets on glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis in healthy men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisschop, P. H.; Pereira Arias, A. M.; Ackermans, M. T.; Endert, E.; Pijl, H.; Kuipers, F.; Meijer, A. J.; Sauerwein, H. P.; Romijn, J. A.

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of dietary carbohydrate content on postabsorptive glucose metabolism, we quantified gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis after 11 days of high carbohydrate (85% carbohydrate), control (44% carbohydrate), and very low carbohydrate (2% carbohydrate) diets in six healthy men. Diets

  11. The effects of carbohydrate variation in isocaloric diets on glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis in healthy men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisschop, PH; Arias, AMP; Ackermans, MT; Endert, E; Pijl, H; Kuipers, F; Meijer, AJ; Sauerwein, HP; Romijn, JA

    To evaluate the effect of dietary carbohydrate content on postabsorptive glucose metabolism, we quantified gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis after 11 days of high carbohydrate (85% carbohydrate), control (44% carbohydrate), and very low carbohydrate (2% carbohydrate) diets in six healthy men. Diets

  12. Should Contentment Be a Key Aim in Higher Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Higher education institutions are major concentrations of political, social, economic, intellectual and communicative resources. They reach freely across populations and cultures and connect to government, professions, industry and the arts. The neoliberal logic of markets has entered the realm of (higher) education. This leads to discourse on the…

  13. Diurnal fluctuations in cotton leaf carbon export, carbohydrate content, and sucrose synthesizing enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrix, D L; Huber, S C

    1986-06-01

    In fully expanded leaves of greenhouse-grown cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L., cv Coker 100) plants, carbon export, starch accumulation rate, and carbon exchange rate exhibited different behavior during the light period. Starch accumulation rates were relatively constant during the light period, whereas carbon export rate was greater in the afternoon than in the morning even though the carbon exchange rate peaked about noon. Sucrose levels increased throughout the light period and dropped sharply with the onset of darkness; hexose levels were relatively constant except for a slight peak in the early morning. Sucrose synthase, usually thought to be a degradative enzyme, was found in unusually high activities in cotton leaf. Both sucrose synthase and sucrose phosphate synthetase activities were found to fluctuate diurnally in cotton leaves but with different rhythms. Diurnal fluctuations in the rate of sucrose export were generally aligned with sucrose phosphate synthase activity during the light period but not with sucrose synthase activity; neither enzyme activity correlated with carbon export during the dark. Cotton leaf sucrose phosphate synthase activity was sufficient to account for the observed carbon export rates; there is no need to invoke sucrose synthase as a synthetic enzyme in mature cotton leaves. During the dark a significant correlation was found between starch degradation rate and leaf carbon export. These results indicate that carbon partitioning in cotton leaf is somewhat independent of the carbon exchange rate and that leaf carbon export rate may be linked to sucrose formation and content during the light period and to starch breakdown in the dark.

  14. Absorption of carbohydrate-derived nutrients in sows as influenced by types and contents of dietary fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serena, A; Jørgensen, H; Bach Knudsen, K E

    2009-01-01

    crossover design. Variations in dietary concentration and solubility of dietary fiber were obtained by substituting starch-rich wheat and barley in the LF diet with dietary fiber-rich co-products (sugar beet pulp, potato pulp, pectin residue, brewers spent grain, pea hulls, and seed residue, which have......The current investigation was undertaken to study the absorption and plasma concentration of carbohydrate-derived nutrients [glucose, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), and lactate] and the apparent insulin production in sows fed diets containing contrasting types and contents of dietary fiber. Six...... sows were fed 3 experimental diets, low fiber (LF; 177 g of dietary fiber and 44 g of soluble fiber/kg of DM), high soluble fiber (HF-S; 429 g of dietary fiber and 111 g of soluble fiber/kg of DM), and high insoluble fiber (HF-I; 455 g of dietary fiber and 74 g of soluble fiber/kg of DM), in a repeated...

  15. Sweet Taste Receptor TAS1R2 Polymorphism (Val191Val Is Associated with a Higher Carbohydrate Intake and Hypertriglyceridemia among the Population of West Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Ramos-Lopez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Some high-carbohydrate diets may lead to obesity and multiple metabolic disorders, including hypertriglyceridemia (HTG. This lipid abnormality is considered an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. The sweet taste receptor TAS1R2 polymorphism (Ile191Val has been reported to be associated with carbohydrate intake. The aim of this study was to analyze the association of the TAS1R2 gene polymorphism with carbohydrate intake and HTG among the population of West Mexico. In a cross-sectional study, 441 unrelated subjects were analyzed for TAS1R2 genotypes (Ile/Ile, Ile/Val and Val/Val by an allelic discrimination assay. Biochemical tests and a three-day food record were assessed. The Val/Val genotype carriers had a higher intake of total carbohydrates, fiber and servings of cereals and vegetables than the other genotype carriers. The Val/Val genotype conferred a higher risk for HTG than the Ile/Val and Ile/Ile genotypes (OR = 3.26, 95%CI 1.35–7.86, p = 0.006 and OR = 2.61, 95%CI 1.12–6.07, p = 0.02, respectively. Furthermore, the Val/Val genotype was associated with approximately 30% higher triglycerides compared with Ile/Val and Ile/Ile genotypes (β = 44.09, 95%CI 9.94–78.25, p = 0.01 and β = 45.7, 95%CI 10.85–80.54, p = 0.01, respectively. In conclusion, the Val/Val genotype of TAS1R2 was associated with a higher carbohydrate intake and HTG.

  16. Should contentment be a key aim in higher education?

    OpenAIRE

    Gibbs, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Higher education institutions are major concentrations of political, social, economic, intellectual and communicative resources. They reach freely across populations and cultures, and connect to government, professions, industry and the arts. The neo-liberal logic of markets has entered the realm of (higher) education. Marketing functions centre on the creation, codification and transmission of knowledge, and the certification of graduates and the nature of education are commercialised, both ...

  17. Dietary advices on carbohydrate intake for pregnant women with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roskjær, Ann B; Andersen, Jens Rikardt; Ronneby, Helle

    2015-01-01

    of Medicine (IOM) is generally recommended. A low-glycaemic index diet is considered safe, and has shown, positive effects on the glycaemic control and pregnancy outcomes for both healthy women, those with type 2 diabetic and gestational diabetes (GDM). In general, carbohydrate counting does improve glycaemic...... control in type 1 diabetes. A moderately low carbohydrate diet with a carbohydrate content of 40% of the calories results in better glycaemic control and comparable obstetric outcomes in type 2 diabetes and GDM when compared to a diet with a higher carbohydrate content, and is regarded safe in diabetic...... carbohydrate counting can be recommended for pregnant women with type 1 diabetes....

  18. Counting carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carb counting; Carbohydrate-controlled diet; Diabetic diet; Diabetes-counting carbohydrates ... Many foods contain carbohydrates (carbs), including: Fruit and fruit juice Cereal, bread, pasta, and rice Milk and milk products, soy milk Beans, legumes, ...

  19. [Effects of drought and waterlogging on carbohydrate contents of cotton boll and its relationship with boll biomass accumulation at the flowering and bolling stage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chang-Qin; Liu, Jing-Ran; Zhang, Guo-Wei; Liu, Rui-Xian; Zhou, Zhi-Guo

    2014-08-01

    Cotton cultivar NuCOTN 33B was planted in isolated pools treated with drought or waterlogging for 7 or 14 d to explore their effects on cotton boll carbohydrate content and its relationship with the biomass accumulation. The results showed that the drought treatment reduced the carbohydrate content of cotton boll shell on middle fruit branches, but had a weak effect on cotton boll shells on lower fruit branches. Soluble sugar, starch and sucrose contents of cotton boll shell on upper fruit branches under the drought condition and on whole plant branches under waterlogging treatment changed similarly, namely, the soluble sugar and starch content increased, while the sucrose content went down firstly and then increased later, which indicated that the exportation of sucrose from boll shell was inhibited and became worse with the increase of waterlogging duration. Compared with the boll shell, the carbohydrate contents of cotton seed were less affected by the drought and waterlogging treatments at the flowering and bolling stage. Under the treatments of drought and 7 d-waterlogging, the biomass accumulation of cotton bolls on the middle fruit branches initiated earlier but lasted less days, and the maximum speed at lower and upper fruit branches reduced, while the treatment of waterlogging for 14 d caused the decline of maximum speed of biomass accumulation of bolls on whole branches. On the other side, the correlation analysis showed the significant positive relationships among the boll biomass, the maximum speed and the contents of soluble sugar and sucrose in the boll shell respectively. In conclusion, the treatment of drought and waterlogging at the flowering and bolling stage retarded the outward transportation of sucrose from cotton bolls, changed the boll biomass accumulation characteristics, and therefore were detected as the important cause of cotton boll total biomass reduction.

  20. Sugar uptake, carbohydrate metabolism and ANA and RNA contents of paecilomyces violacea mats arising from gamma irradiated inocula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Zawahry, A.Y.; Salama, A.M.; Nadia, M.M.; Abo-El-Khair, I.A.

    1988-01-01

    Irradiated inocula of paecilomyces violacea with the lowest doses 0.1 and 0.25 KGy increased the amounts of sugar uptake over control value by 11.43% and 19.17% respectively. promoted sugar uptake at such doses was coupled by a consequent drop in the monosaccharide content of the medium amounting to 30.62% and 58.53% and 58.53% below control value respectively. Higher doses of gamma radiation were associated with decreased rates of sugar uptake by the respective mats. Polysaccharide synthesis was inhibited gradually with increasing the irradiation dose. Irradiated incocula of P. Violacea produced mats which showed a general inconsistent decrease in RNA content and a general limited increase in the DNA content with the increase of irradiation dose

  1. The national cholesterol education program diet vs a diet lower in carbohydrates and higher in protein and monounsaturated fat: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aude, Y Wady; Agatston, Arthur S; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco; Lieberman, Eric H; Marie Almon; Hansen, Melinda; Rojas, Gerardo; Lamas, Gervasio A; Hennekens, Charles H

    2004-10-25

    In the United States, obesity is a major clinical and public health problem causing diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension, as well as increasing cardiovascular and total mortality. Dietary restrictions of calories and saturated fat are beneficial. However, it remains unclear whether replacement of saturated fat with carbohydrates (as in the US National Cholesterol Education Program [NCEP] diet) or protein and monounsaturated fat (as in our isocaloric modified low-carbohydrate [MLC] diet, which is lower in total carbohydrates but higher in protein, monounsaturated fat, and complex carbohydrates) is optimal. We randomized 60 participants (29 women and 31 men) to the NCEP or the MLC diet and evaluated them every 2 weeks for 12 weeks. They were aged 28 to 71 years (mean age, 44 years in the NCEP and 46 years in the MLC group). A total of 36% of participants from the NCEP group and 35% from the MLC group had a body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters) greater than 27. The primary end point was weight loss, and secondary end points were blood lipid levels and waist-to-hip ratio. Weight loss was significantly greater in the MLC (13.6 lb) than in the NCEP group (7.5 lb), a difference of 6.1 lb (P = .02). There were no significant differences between the groups for total, low density, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, or the proportion of small, dense low-density lipoprotein particles. There were significantly favorable changes in all lipid levels within the MLC but not within the NCEP group. Waist-to-hip ratio was not significantly reduced between the groups (P = .27), but it significantly decreased within the MLC group (P = .009). Compared with the NCEP diet, the MLC diet, which is lower in total carbohydrates but higher in complex carbohydrates, protein, and monounsaturated fat, caused significantly greater weight loss over 12 weeks. There were no significant differences between the groups in

  2. Carbohydrates from Sources with a Higher Glycemic Index during Adolescence: Is Evening Rather than Morning Intake Relevant for Risk Markers of Type 2 Diabetes in Young Adulthood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diederichs, Tanja; Herder, Christian; Roßbach, Sarah; Roden, Michael; Wudy, Stefan A; Nöthlings, Ute; Alexy, Ute; Buyken, Anette E

    2017-06-10

    This study investigated whether glycemic index (GI) or glycemic load (GL) of morning or evening intake and morning or evening carbohydrate intake from low- or higher-GI food sources (low-GI-CHO, higher-GI-CHO) during adolescence are relevant for risk markers of type 2 diabetes in young adulthood. Methods: Analyses included DOrtmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed (DONALD) study participants who had provided at least two 3-day weighed dietary records (median: 7 records) during adolescence and one blood sample in young adulthood. Using multivariable linear regression analyses, estimated morning and evening GI, GL, low-GI-CHO (GI adolescence were not associated with any of the adult risk markers. A higher evening GI during adolescence was related to an increased HSI in young adulthood ( p = 0.003). A higher consumption of higher-GI-CHO in the evening was associated with lower insulin sensitivity ( p = 0.046) and an increased HSI ( p = 0.006), while a higher evening intake of low-GI-CHO was related to a lower HSI ( p = 0.009). Evening intakes were not related to FLI or the pro-inflammatory-score (all p > 0.1). Conclusion: Avoidance of large amounts of carbohydrates from higher-GI sources in the evening should be considered in preventive strategies to reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes in adulthood.

  3. Available and unavailable carbohydrate content of black gram(Vigna Mungo) and chick-pea (Cicer Arietinum) as affected by soaking and cooking processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zia-ur-Rehman; Rashid, M.; Salariya, A.M.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of soaking (Tap water, sodium bicarbonate solution) and cooking in tap water were investigated on available and unavailable carbohydrate contents and starch digestibility of black grams and chick-peas. Available carbohydrates including total soluble sugars, reducing sugars, non-reducing sugars and starch contents of these two legumes decreased to various extents as a result of soaking and cooking. From 3.43 - 25.63% total soluble sugars and 4.26 - 22.70% starch contents were lost on soaking black grams and chick-peas in tap water and sodium bicarbonate solution. Maximum amounts of total soluble sugars (28.43 - 59.64%) and starch contents (29.93 - 67.40%) were lost on cooking the water and alkali soaked legumes. However, these losses were comparatively less in case of water soaking process. Soaking and cooking processes also brought about some changes in the profile of unavailable carbohydrates of black grams and chick-peas. Soaking in sodium bicarbonate solution led to an appreciable increase of hemicellulose (42.50 - 54.31%) and NDF (28.69 - 30.68%) but not in legumes soaked in tap water. However, cooking process caused reduction in NDF (19.25 - 41.04%), ADF (5.48 - 25.31%), cellulose (12.88 - 28.42%) and hemicellulose (31.86 - 59.37%). Lignin contents of these legumes increased to some extents on cooking whereas it remained unchanged as a result of soaking. Starch digestibility of black grams and chick peas was markedly improved after cooking. However, no appreciable improvement in starch digestibility was observed after soaking these legumes in tap water or alkaline solution.(author)

  4. Direct profiling of phytochemicals in tulip tissues and in vivo monitoring of the change of carbohydrate content in tulip bulbs by probe electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhan; Chen, Lee Chuin; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Ariyada, Osamu; Erra-Balsells, Rosa; Nonami, Hiroshi; Hiraoka, Kenzo

    2009-12-01

    Probe electrospray ionization (PESI) is a recently developed ESI-based ionization technique which generates electrospray from the tip of a solid needle. In this study, we have applied PESI interfaced with a time of flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS) for direct profiling of phytochemicals in a section of a tulip bulb in different regions, including basal plate, outer and inner rims of scale, flower bud and foliage leaves. Different parts of tulip petals and leaves have also been investigated. Carbohydrates, amino acids and other phytochemicals were detected. A series of in vivo PESI-MS experiments were carried out on the second outermost scales of four living tulip bulbs to monitoring the change of carbohydrate content during the first week of initial growth. The breakdown of carbohydrates was observed which was in accordance with previous reports achieved by other techniques. This study has indicated that PESI-MS can be used for rapid and direct analysis of phytochemicals in living biological systems with advantages of low sample consumption and little sample preparation. Therefore, PESI-MS can be a new choice for direct analysis/profiling of bioactive compounds or monitoring metabolic changes in living biological systems.

  5. Carbohydrates from Sources with a Higher Glycemic Index during Adolescence: Is Evening Rather than Morning Intake Relevant for Risk Markers of Type 2 Diabetes in Young Adulthood?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Diederichs

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study investigated whether glycemic index (GI or glycemic load (GL of morning or evening intake and morning or evening carbohydrate intake from low- or higher-GI food sources (low-GI-CHO, higher-GI-CHO during adolescence are relevant for risk markers of type 2 diabetes in young adulthood. Methods: Analyses included DOrtmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed (DONALD study participants who had provided at least two 3-day weighed dietary records (median: 7 records during adolescence and one blood sample in young adulthood. Using multivariable linear regression analyses, estimated morning and evening GI, GL, low-GI-CHO (GI < 55 and higher-GI-CHO (GI ≥ 55 were related to insulin sensitivity (N = 252, hepatic steatosis index (HSI, fatty liver index (FLI (both N = 253, and a pro-inflammatory-score (N = 249. Results: Morning intakes during adolescence were not associated with any of the adult risk markers. A higher evening GI during adolescence was related to an increased HSI in young adulthood (p = 0.003. A higher consumption of higher-GI-CHO in the evening was associated with lower insulin sensitivity (p = 0.046 and an increased HSI (p = 0.006, while a higher evening intake of low-GI-CHO was related to a lower HSI (p = 0.009. Evening intakes were not related to FLI or the pro-inflammatory-score (all p > 0.1. Conclusion: Avoidance of large amounts of carbohydrates from higher-GI sources in the evening should be considered in preventive strategies to reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes in adulthood.

  6. Carbohydrate microarrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Sungjin; Gildersleeve, Jeffrey C; Blixt, Klas Ola

    2012-01-01

    In the last decade, carbohydrate microarrays have been core technologies for analyzing carbohydrate-mediated recognition events in a high-throughput fashion. A number of methods have been exploited for immobilizing glycans on the solid surface in a microarray format. This microarray...... of substrate specificities of glycosyltransferases. This review covers the construction of carbohydrate microarrays, detection methods of carbohydrate microarrays and their applications in biological and biomedical research....

  7. Carbohydrates digestion and metabolism in the spiny lobster (Panulirus argus): biochemical indication for limited carbohydrate utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Viera, Leandro; Perera, Erick; Montero-Alejo, Vivian; Perdomo-Morales, Rolando; García-Galano, Tsai; Martínez-Rodríguez, Gonzalo; Mancera, Juan M

    2017-01-01

    As other spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus is supposed to use preferentially proteins and lipids in energy metabolism, while carbohydrates are well digested but poorly utilized. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary carbohydrate level on digestion and metabolism in the spiny lobster P. argus . We used complementary methodologies such as post-feeding flux of nutrients and metabolites, as well as measurements of α-amylase expression and activity in the digestive tract. Lobsters readily digested and absorbed carbohydrates with a time-course that is dependent on their content in diet. Lobster showed higher levels of free glucose and stored glycogen in different tissues as the inclusion of wheat flour increased. Modifications in intermediary metabolism revealed a decrease in amino acids catabolism coupled with a higher use of free glucose as carbohydrates rise up to 20%. However, this effect seems to be limited by the metabolic capacity of lobsters to use more than 20% of carbohydrates in diets. Lobsters were not able to tightly regulate α-amylase expression according to dietary carbohydrate level but exhibited a marked difference in secretion of this enzyme into the gut. Results are discussed to highlight the limitations to increasing carbohydrate utilization by lobsters. Further growout trials are needed to link the presented metabolic profiles with phenotypic outcomes.

  8. Carbohydrates digestion and metabolism in the spiny lobster (Panulirus argus: biochemical indication for limited carbohydrate utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Rodríguez-Viera

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available As other spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus is supposed to use preferentially proteins and lipids in energy metabolism, while carbohydrates are well digested but poorly utilized. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary carbohydrate level on digestion and metabolism in the spiny lobster P. argus. We used complementary methodologies such as post-feeding flux of nutrients and metabolites, as well as measurements of α-amylase expression and activity in the digestive tract. Lobsters readily digested and absorbed carbohydrates with a time-course that is dependent on their content in diet. Lobster showed higher levels of free glucose and stored glycogen in different tissues as the inclusion of wheat flour increased. Modifications in intermediary metabolism revealed a decrease in amino acids catabolism coupled with a higher use of free glucose as carbohydrates rise up to 20%. However, this effect seems to be limited by the metabolic capacity of lobsters to use more than 20% of carbohydrates in diets. Lobsters were not able to tightly regulate α-amylase expression according to dietary carbohydrate level but exhibited a marked difference in secretion of this enzyme into the gut. Results are discussed to highlight the limitations to increasing carbohydrate utilization by lobsters. Further growout trials are needed to link the presented metabolic profiles with phenotypic outcomes.

  9. Elder Abuse and Neglect Content in Higher Education Programs on Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Karen F.

    This study sought to: (1) investigate the degree to which course content on elder abuse and neglect is a part of higher education curriculums in aging; (2) determine which specific elder abuse and neglect course content is included in required and elective coursework; and (3) describe the attitudes of instructors toward including elder abuse and…

  10. Association mapping of starch chain length distribution and amylose content in pea (Pisum sativum L.) using carbohydrate metabolism candidate genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Margaret A; Shaw, Martin; Cooper, Rebecca D; Frew, Tonya J; Butler, Ruth C; Murray, Sarah R; Moya, Leire; Coyne, Clarice J; Timmerman-Vaughan, Gail M

    2017-08-01

    Although starch consists of large macromolecules composed of glucose units linked by α-1,4-glycosidic linkages with α-1,6-glycosidic branchpoints, variation in starch structural and functional properties is found both within and between species. Interest in starch genetics is based on the importance of starch in food and industrial processes, with the potential of genetics to provide novel starches. The starch metabolic pathway is complex but has been characterized in diverse plant species, including pea. To understand how allelic variation in the pea starch metabolic pathway affects starch structure and percent amylose, partial sequences of 25 candidate genes were characterized for polymorphisms using a panel of 92 diverse pea lines. Variation in the percent amylose composition of extracted seed starch and (amylopectin) chain length distribution, one measure of starch structure, were characterized for these lines. Association mapping was undertaken to identify polymorphisms associated with the variation in starch chain length distribution and percent amylose, using a mixed linear model that incorporated population structure and kinship. Associations were found for polymorphisms in seven candidate genes plus Mendel's r locus (which conditions the round versus wrinkled seed phenotype). The genes with associated polymorphisms are involved in the substrate supply, chain elongation and branching stages of the pea carbohydrate and starch metabolic pathways. The association of polymorphisms in carbohydrate and starch metabolic genes with variation in amylopectin chain length distribution and percent amylose may help to guide manipulation of pea seed starch structural and functional properties through plant breeding.

  11. Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    secondary levels. In subject matter didactics, the question of content is more developed, but it is still mostly confined to teaching on lower levels. As for higher education didactics, discussions on selection of content are almost non-existent on the programmatic level. Nevertheless, teachers are forced...... curriculum, in higher education, and to generate analytical categories and criteria for selection of content, which can be used for systematic didactical reflection. The larger project also concerns reflection on and clarification of the concept of content, including the relation between content at the level......Aim, content and methods are fundamental categories of both theoretical and practical general didactics. A quick glance in recent pedagogical literature on higher education, however, reveals a strong preoccupation with methods, i.e. how teaching should be organized socially (Biggs & Tang, 2007...

  12. Carbohydrate Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemiller, James N.

    Carbohydrates are important in foods as a major source of energy, to impart crucial textural properties, and as dietary fiber which influences physiological processes. Digestible carbohydrates, which are converted into monosaccharides, which are absorbed, provide metabolic energy. Worldwide, carbohydrates account for more than 70% of the caloric value of the human diet. It is recommended that all persons should limit calories from fat (the other significant source) to not more than 30% and that most of the carbohydrate calories should come from starch. Nondigestible polysaccharides (all those other than starch) comprise the major portion of dietary fiber (Sect. 10.5). Carbohydrates also contribute other attributes, including bulk, body, viscosity, stability to emulsions and foams, water-holding capacity, freeze-thaw stability, browning, flavors, aromas, and a range of desirable textures (from crispness to smooth, soft gels). They also provide satiety. Basic carbohydrate structures, chemistry, and terminology can be found in references (1, 2).

  13. Engaging adolescents with LD in higher order thinking about history concepts using integrated content enhancement routines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulgren, Janis; Deshler, Donald D; Lenz, B Keith

    2007-01-01

    The understanding and use of historical concepts specified in national history standards pose many challenges to students. These challenges include both the acquisition of content knowledge and the use of that knowledge in ways that require higher order thinking. All students, including adolescents with learning disabilities (LD), are expected to understand and use concepts of history to pass high-stakes assessments and to participate meaningfully in a democratic society. This article describes Content Enhancement Routines (CERs) to illustrate instructional planning, teaching, and assessing for higher order thinking with examples from an American history unit. Research on the individual components of Content Enhancement Routines will be illustrated with data from 1 of the routines. The potential use of integrated sets of materials and procedures across grade levels and content areas will be discussed.

  14. Time to ignition is influenced by both moisture content and soluble carbohydrates in live Douglas fir and Lodgepole pine needles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matt Jolly; Sara McAllister; Mark Finney; Ann Hadlow

    2010-01-01

    Living plants are often the primary fuels burning in wildland fire but little is known about the factors that govern their ignition behavior. Moisture content has long been hypothesized to determine the characteristics of fires spreading in live fuels but moisture content alone fails to explain observed differences in the ignition of various species at different times...

  15. Two meals with different carbohydrate, fat and protein contents render equivalent postprandial plasma levels of calprotectin, cortisol, triglycerides and zonulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlsson, Bodil; Darwiche, Gassan; Roth, Bodil; Höglund, Peter

    2016-11-01

    The aim was to compare postprandial plasma levels of calprotectin, cortisol, triglycerides and zonulin between a control breakfast and a moderately low-carbohydrate test breakfast, given randomly after 10-h fast. Blood samples were collected before and repeatedly after the meal. Plasma calprotectin, cortisol, triglycerides and zonulin were analyzed. The total area under the curve (tAUC) and change in AUC from baseline (dAUC) were calculated. Ratios between the test and control values were calculated to investigate equivalence. Healthy volunteers (8 men and 12 women; 46.0 ± 14.5 years) were included. tAUCs of cortisol and triglycerides did not differ between the breakfasts (p = 0.158 versus p = 0.579). Cortisol dAUCs were decreased and triglyceride dAUCs were increased after both breakfasts, with no differences between the breakfasts (p = 0.933 versus p = 0.277). Calprotectin and zonulin levels were unaffected. The meals were bioequivalent for cortisol, triglycerides and zonulin, but not for calprotectin.

  16. Muscle ceramide content in man is higher in type I than type II fibers and not influenced by glycogen content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordby, P; Prats, C; Kristensen, D

    2010-01-01

    +/- 2 mL O2 min(-1) kg(-1)) participated in the study. On the first day, one leg was glycogen-depleted (DL) by exhaustive intermittent exercise followed by low carbohydrate diet. Next day, in the overnight fasted condition, muscle biopsies were excised from vastus lateralis before and after exhaustive...

  17. Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitor and a Low Carbohydrate Diet Affect Gluconeogenesis and Glycogen Content Differently in the Kidney and the Liver of Non-Diabetic Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atageldiyeva, Kuralay; Fujita, Yukihiro; Yanagimachi, Tsuyoshi; Mizumoto, Katsutoshi; Takeda, Yasutaka; Honjo, Jun; Takiyama, Yumi; Abiko, Atsuko; Makino, Yuichi; Haneda, Masakazu

    2016-01-01

    A low carbohydrate diet (LCHD) as well as sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) may reduce glucose utilization and improve metabolic disorders. However, it is not clear how different or similar the effects of LCHD and SGLT2i are on metabolic parameters such as insulin sensitivity, fat accumulation, and especially gluconeogenesis in the kidney and the liver. We conducted an 8-week study using non-diabetic mice, which were fed ad-libitum with LCHD or a normal carbohydrate diet (NCHD) and treated with/without the SGLT-2 inhibitor, ipragliflozin. We compared metabolic parameters, gene expression for transcripts related to glucose and fat metabolism, and glycogen content in the kidney and the liver among the groups. SGLT2i but not LCHD improved glucose excursion after an oral glucose load compared to NCHD, although all groups presented comparable non-fasted glycemia. Both the LCHD and SGLT2i treatments increased calorie-intake, whereas only the LCHD increased body weight compared to the NCHD, epididimal fat mass and developed insulin resistance. Gene expression of certain gluconeogenic enzymes was simultaneously upregulated in the kidney of SGLT2i treated group, as well as in the liver of the LCHD treated group. The SGLT2i treated groups showed markedly lower glycogen content in the liver, but induced glycogen accumulation in the kidney. We conclude that LCHD induces deleterious metabolic changes in the non-diabetic mice. Our results suggest that SGLT2i induced gluconeogenesis mainly in the kidney, whereas for LCHD it was predominantly in the liver.

  18. Carbohydrate Loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csernus, Marilyn

    Carbohydrate loading is a frequently used technique to improve performance by altering an athlete's diet. The objective is to increase glycogen stored in muscles for use in prolonged strenuous exercise. For two to three days, the athlete consumes a diet that is low in carbohydrates and high in fat and protein while continuing to exercise and…

  19. LEAN-GREEN MANUFACTURING: COLLABORATIVE CONTENT AND LANGUAGE INTEGRATED LEARNING IN HIGHER EDUCATION AND ENGINEERING COURSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCELO RUDOLFO CALVETE GASPAR

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Lean and Green manufacturing processes aim at achieving lower material and labour costs, while reducing impacts on the environment, and promoting sustainability as a whole. This paper reports on a pilot experiment with higher education and engineering students, exploring the full potential of a collaborative approach on courses integrating the Portuguese Polytechnic of Castelo Branco engineering studies curricula, while simultaneously improving their proficiency in English. Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL has become a key area of curricular innovation since it is known for improving both language and content teacher and student motivation. In this context, instructional design for CLIL entailed tandem work of content (engineering and language (English teacher to design learning sequences and strategies. This allowed students to improve not only their language skills in English but also their knowledge in the specific engineering domain content on green and lean manufacturing processes.

  20. Effects of prolonged drought on stem non-structural carbohydrates content and post-drought hydraulic recovery in Laurus nobilis L.: The possible link between carbon starvation and hydraulic failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifilò, Patrizia; Casolo, Valentino; Raimondo, Fabio; Petrussa, Elisa; Boscutti, Francesco; Lo Gullo, Maria Assunta; Nardini, Andrea

    2017-11-01

    Drought-induced tree decline is a complex event, and recent hypotheses suggest that hydraulic failure and carbon starvation are co-responsible for this process. We tested the possible role of non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) content on post-drought hydraulic recovery, to verify the hypothesis that embolism reversal represents a mechanistic link between carbon starvation and stem hydraulics. Measurements were performed in laurel plants subjected to similar water stress levels either over short or long term, to induce comparable embolism levels. Plants subjected to mild and prolonged water shortage (S) showed reduced growth, adjustment of turgor loss point driven by changes in both osmotic potential at full turgor and bulk modulus of elasticity, a lower content of soluble NSC and a higher content of starch with respect to control (C) plants. Moreover, S plants showed a lower ability to recover from xylem embolism than C plants, even after irrigation. Our data suggest that plant carbon status might indirectly influence plant performance during and after drought via effects on xylem hydraulic functioning, supporting the view of a possible mechanistic link between the two processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Sub-tropical urban environment affecting content and composition of non-structural carbohydrates of Lolium multiflorum ssp. italicum cv. Lema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandrin, Carla Zuliani; Figueiredo-Ribeiro, Rita de Cassia Leone; Carvalho, Maria Angela Machado de; Carvalho Delitti, Welington Braz; Domingos, Marisa

    2008-01-01

    This study analyzed the relationship between environmental factors, especially air pollution and climatic conditions, and non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) in plants of Lolium multiflorum exposed during 10 consecutive periods of 28 days at a polluted site (Congonhas) and at a reference site in Sao Paulo city (Brazil). After exposure, NSC composition and leaf concentrations of Al, Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd were measured. The seasonal pattern of NSC accumulation was quite similar in both sites, but plants at Congonhas showed higher concentrations of these compounds, especially fructans of low and medium degree of polymerization. Regression analysis showed that NSC in plants growing at the polluted site were explained by variations on temperature and leaf concentration of Fe (positive effect), as well as relative humidity and particulate material (negative effect). NSC in the standardized grass culture, in addition to heavy metal accumulation, may indicate stressing conditions in a sub-tropical polluted environment. - Particulate matter and air temperature increased non-structural carbohydrates in the standardized biomonitor grass in Sao Paulo

  2. Sub-tropical urban environment affecting content and composition of non-structural carbohydrates of Lolium multiflorum ssp. italicum cv. Lema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandrin, Carla Zuliani; Figueiredo-Ribeiro, Rita de Cassia Leone; Carvalho, Maria Angela Machado de [Instituto de Botanica, Caixa Postal 3005, 01061-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Carvalho Delitti, Welington Braz [Instituto de Biociencias, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Departamento de Ecologia, Caixa Postal 11461, 05422-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Domingos, Marisa [Instituto de Botanica, Caixa Postal 3005, 01061-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: mmingos@superig.com.br

    2008-12-15

    This study analyzed the relationship between environmental factors, especially air pollution and climatic conditions, and non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) in plants of Lolium multiflorum exposed during 10 consecutive periods of 28 days at a polluted site (Congonhas) and at a reference site in Sao Paulo city (Brazil). After exposure, NSC composition and leaf concentrations of Al, Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd were measured. The seasonal pattern of NSC accumulation was quite similar in both sites, but plants at Congonhas showed higher concentrations of these compounds, especially fructans of low and medium degree of polymerization. Regression analysis showed that NSC in plants growing at the polluted site were explained by variations on temperature and leaf concentration of Fe (positive effect), as well as relative humidity and particulate material (negative effect). NSC in the standardized grass culture, in addition to heavy metal accumulation, may indicate stressing conditions in a sub-tropical polluted environment. - Particulate matter and air temperature increased non-structural carbohydrates in the standardized biomonitor grass in Sao Paulo.

  3. Exploring the Content of Instrumental Lessons and Gender Relations in Australian Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukov, Katie

    2008-01-01

    This observational study analysed the lesson content of 24 instrumental lessons (piano, strings and winds) using a gender-balanced sample (equal numbers of male/female teachers and students) from five Australian higher education institutions to ascertain the priorities of topics in advanced applied music lessons in the Western Classical tradition.…

  4. Effects of Carbohydrate Consumption Case Study: carbohydrates in Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neacsu N.A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Carbohydrates perform numerous roles in living organisms; they are an important source of energy. The body uses carbohydrates to make glucose which is the fuel that gives it energy and helps keep everything going. However, excess carbohydrate consumption has negative health effects. Bread is a basic product in our nutrition and it also is a product with a high content of carbohydrates. So, it is important to find out more information on bread and on the recommended bread type best for consumption.

  5. Who is the carbohydrate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Enrique Cuevas Mestanza

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Biochemistry is a complex science that studies biomolecules and their interactions in metabolic pathways in living beings. Due to the large amount of contents against the short period to apply them, only expositive classes are not enough to arouse the interest of students and solve questions. In this perspective, is very important to develop new educational tools to improve the understanding of these contents. “Who is the carbohydrate?” It is a didactic game created to review the structural and functional relationship of carbohydrates. Based on the classic “Guess who?” The objective of the player or group is to first find out the opponent's carbohydrate name.

  6. Fat and carbohydrate content in the diet induces drastic changes in gene expression in young Göttingen minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mentzel, Caroline M.Junker; Figueiredo Cardoso, Tainã; Haagensen, Annika Maria Juul

    2017-01-01

    In human health, there is interest in developing specific diets to reduce body weight. These studies are mainly focused on phenotypic changes induced in blood measurements, i.e., triglycerides, HDL, LDL, and insulin, and on physical changes, i.e., body weight and BMI. To evaluate the biological i....... The new knowledge gained in this study could potentially be of value for considering direct modulation of gene expression by nutrient content in the diet....

  7. Carbohydrate malabsorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J; Nordgaard-Andersen, I; Gudmand-Høyer, E

    1994-01-01

    Previous studies in small series of healthy adults have suggested that parallel measurement of hydrogen and methane resulting from gut fermentation may improve the precision of quantitative estimates of carbohydrate malabsorption. Systematic, controlled studies of the role of simultaneous hydrogen...

  8. Teores de carboidratos em órgãos lenhosos do caquizeiro em clima tropical Carbohydrate content in persimmon tree woody organs in tropical climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Corsato

    2008-06-01

    an important step in the right direction to understand the relation source-drain more effectively along with building up the fundamentals of some handling practices, for instance, the pruning and fruit thinning. The objective of the present study was to characterize how the total soluble sugars content and the starch vary in woody organs of the persimmon tree (Diospyros kaki L in elapsing of its phenological development. This study was carried out in the experimental area of the Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz" (ESALQ in Piracicaba - SP, during the cycle 2002/2003. The phenology of persimmon tree was described by the occurrence period and prolongation of shoot growth, flowering, fruit growth, leaf expansion and natural abortion of fruits. The carbohydrates content in stems and roots were analyzed based on different phenological stages. The results showed a significant variation in the starch and total soluble sugars content in the sampled organs. The starch's mobilization in stems was of foremost importance to sustain the beginning of a new growing cycle. It is worth mentioning that the consumption of starch was increased during the leaf fall and therefore a replacement in its stock took place, not only in the stems but also in the roots, during the flowering and the leaf abscission.

  9. A Content Analysis of General Chemistry Laboratory Manuals for Evidence of Higher-Order Cognitive Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domin, Daniel S.

    1999-01-01

    The science laboratory instructional environment is ideal for fostering the development of problem-solving, manipulative, and higher-order thinking skills: the skills needed by today's learner to compete in an ever increasing technology-based society. This paper reports the results of a content analysis of ten general chemistry laboratory manuals. Three experiments from each manual were examined for evidence of higher-order cognitive activities. Analysis was based upon the six major cognitive categories of Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. The results of this study show that the overwhelming majority of general chemistry laboratory manuals provide tasks that require the use of only the lower-order cognitive skills: knowledge, comprehension, and application. Two of the laboratory manuals were disparate in having activities that utilized higher-order cognition. I describe the instructional strategies used within these manuals to foster higher-order cognitive development.

  10. Higher insulin sensitivity in EDL muscle of rats fed a low-protein, high-carbohydrate diet inhibits the caspase-3 and ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic systems but does not increase protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Maísa Pavani; Batistela, Emanuele; Pereira, Mayara Peron; Paula-Gomes, Silvia; Zanon, Neusa Maria; Kettelhut, Isis do Carmo; Karatzaferi, Christina; Andrade, Claudia Marlise Balbinotti; de França, Suélem Aparecida; Baviera, Amanda Martins; Kawashita, Nair Honda

    2016-08-01

    Compared with the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle of control rats (C), the EDL muscle of rats fed a low-protein, high-carbohydrate diet (LPHC) showed a 36% reduction in mass. Muscle mass is determined by the balance between protein synthesis and proteolysis; thus, the aim of this work was to evaluate the components involved in these processes. Compared with the muscle from C rats, the EDL muscle from LPHC diet-fed rats showed a reduction (34%) in the in vitro basal protein synthesis and a 22% reduction in the in vitro basal proteolysis suggesting that the reduction in the mass can be associated with a change in the rate of the two processes. Soon after euthanasia, in the EDL muscles of the rats fed the LPHC diet for 15days, the activity of caspase-3 and that of components of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (atrogin-1 content and chymotrypsin-like activity) were decreased. The phosphorylation of p70(S6K) and 4E-BP1, proteins involved in protein synthesis, was also decreased. We observed an increase in the insulin-stimulated protein content of p-Akt. Thus, the higher insulin sensitivity in the EDL muscle of LPHC rats seemed to contribute to the lower proteolysis in LPHC rats. However, even with the higher insulin sensitivity, the reduction in p-E4-BP1 and p70(S6K) indicates a reduction in protein synthesis, showing that factors other than insulin can have a greater effect on the control of protein synthesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A Lower-Carbohydrate, Higher-Fat Diet Reduces Abdominal and Intermuscular Fat and Increases Insulin Sensitivity in Adults at Risk of Type 2 Diabetes123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gower, Barbara A; Goss, Amy M

    2015-01-01

    Background: Obesity, particularly visceral and ectopic adiposity, increases the risk of type 2 diabetes. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine if restriction of dietary carbohydrate is beneficial for body composition and metabolic health. Methods: Two studies were conducted. In the first, 69 overweight/obese men and women, 53% of whom were European American (EA) and 47% of whom were African American (AA), were provided with 1 of 2 diets (lower-fat diet: 55%, 18%, and 27% of energy from carbohydrate, protein, and fat, respectively; lower-carbohydrate diet: 43%, 18%, and 39%, respectively) for 8 wk at a eucaloric level and 8 wk at a hypocaloric level. In the second study, 30 women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) were provided with 2 diets (lower-fat diet: 55%, 18%, and 27% of energy from carbohydrate, protein, and fat, respectively; lower-carbohydrate diet: 41%, 19%, and 40%, respectively) at a eucaloric level for 8 wk in a random-order crossover design. Results: As previously reported, among overweight/obese adults, after the eucaloric phase, participants who consumed the lower-carbohydrate vs. the lower-fat diet lost more intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT) (11 ± 3% vs. 1 ± 3%; P diet had 4.4% less total fat mass. Original to this report, across the entire 16-wk study, AAs lost more fat mass with a lower-carbohydrate diet (6.2 vs. 2.9 kg; P diets. As previously reported, among women with PCOS, the lower-carbohydrate arm showed decreased fasting insulin (−2.8 μIU/mL; P < 0.001) and fasting glucose (−4.7 mg/dL; P < 0.01) and increased insulin sensitivity (1.06 arbitrary units; P < 0.05) and “dynamic” β-cell response (96.1 · 109; P < 0.001). In the lower-carbohydrate arm, women lost both IAAT (−4.8 cm2; P < 0.01) and intermuscular fat (−1.2 cm2; P < 0.01). In the lower-fat arm, women lost lean mass (−0.6 kg; P < 0.05). Original to this report, after the lower-carbohydrate arm, the change in IAAT was positively associated with the

  12. Comparative studies on the carbohydrate, protein and acid phosphatase contents in seeds of some rye (Secale cereale varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Morawiecka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The contents of sugars. proteins and acid phosphatase extracted with 0.1 M acetate buffer, pH 5.1, from some rye varieties were determined. The total sugar level amounted to 3.25-9.70 g per 100 g of seeds; the estimates for pentoses were 1.7-2.9 g and those for proteins 0.91-1.60 g per 100 g of seeds. Acid phosphatase showed and activity level between 0.18 and 1.26 units/mg protein. After disc electrophoresis proteins were separated into 10 to 11 bands: at pH 9.4 or into 4-7 bands at pH 3.8. Essential variety differences were expressed in protein patterns after electrophoresis at pH 3.8. Acid phosphatase was separated into 5 and 4 activity bands at pH 9.4 and 3.3,. respectively. No variations in zymogram patterns were observed in respect to variety differences or cultivation in various climate and soil conditions.

  13. Higher dietary intake of vitamin D may influence total cholesterol and carbohydrate profile independent of body composition in men with Chronic Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal, Christopher; Gorgey, Ashraf; Moore, Pamela; Wong, Nathan; Adler, Robert A; Gater, David

    2018-07-01

    A case-control design. To determine the effects of dietary vitamin D intake on insulin sensitivity (Si), glucose effectiveness (Sg), and lipid profile in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). 20 male, paraplegic (T3-L1) with chronic (> one year) motor complete SCI (AIS A or B) were recruited. Three-day dietary records were analyzed for dietary vitamin D (calciferol), and participants were assigned to one of two groups, a high vitamin D intake group and a low vitamin D intake group based on the mid-point of vitamin D frequency distribution. Individuals in both groups were matched based on age, weight, time since injury and level of injury. Sg, Si and lipid profiles were measured of the two groups. The high vitamin D group had an average intake of 5.33 ± 4.14 mcg compared to low vitamin D group, 0.74 ± 0.24 mcg. None of the 20 participants met the recommended guidelines for daily vitamin D intake. The higher vitamin D group had a significantly lower (P = 0.035) total cholesterol (148.00 ± 14.12 mg/dl) than the lower vitamin D group (171.80 ± 36.22 mg/dl). Vitamin D adjusted to total dietary intake was positively correlated to improvement in Si and Sg (PD intake. However, a higher dietary intake of vitamin D may influence total cholesterol and carbohydrate profile as demonstrated by a significant decrease in total cholesterol and improvement in glucose homeostasis independent of body composition changes after SCI.

  14. Soybean seeds expressing feedback-insensitive cystathionine γ-synthase exhibit a higher content of methionine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shikui; Hou, Wensheng; Godo, Itamar; Wu, Cunxiang; Yu, Yang; Matityahu, Ifat; Hacham, Yael; Sun, Shi; Han, Tianfu; Amir, Rachel

    2013-04-01

    Soybean seeds provide an excellent source of protein for human and livestock nutrition. However, their nutritional quality is hampered by a low concentration of the essential sulfur amino acid, methionine (Met). In order to study factors that regulate Met synthesis in soybean seeds, this study used the Met-insensitive form of Arabidopsis cystathionine γ-synthase (AtD-CGS), which is the first committed enzyme of Met biosynthesis. This gene was expressed under the control of a seed-specific promoter, legumin B4, and used to transform the soybean cultivar Zigongdongdou (ZD). In three transgenic lines that exhibited the highest expression level of AtD-CGS, the level of soluble Met increased significantly in developing green seeds (3.8-7-fold). These seeds also showed high levels of other amino acids. This phenomenon was more prominent in two transgenic lines, ZD24 and ZD91. The total Met content, which including Met incorporated into proteins, significantly increased in the mature dry seeds of these two transgenic lines by 1.8- and 2.3-fold, respectively. This elevation was accompanied by a higher content of other protein-incorporated amino acids, which led to significantly higher total protein content in the seeds of these two lines. However, in a third transgenic line, ZD01, the level of total Met and the level of other amino acids did not increase significantly in the mature dry seeds. This line also showed no significant change in protein levels. This suggests a positive connection between high Met content and the synthesis of other amino acids that enable the synthesis of more seed proteins.

  15. Evaluation of consequence due to higher hydrazine content in partitioning stream of PUREX process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, K. Suresh [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India). Special Nuclear Recycle Facility

    2016-07-01

    Hydrazine nitrate is being used as a stabilizer for U(IV) as well as Pu(III) during partitioning of Pu in PUREX process by scavenging the nitrous acid present along with nitric acid. As hydrazine hydrate as well as its salts have been successfully used for scrubbing of degradation products of TBP to aqueous phase, experiments were conducted to evaluate the consequence of hydrazine content during Pu partitioning. It was observed that higher amount of hydrazine nitrate along with uranous nitrate in the partitioning stream of PUREX process leads to build up of DBP in aqueous phase and resulted in precipitation of Pu.

  16. Making User-Generated Content Communities Work in Higher Education - The Importance of Setting Incentives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vom Brocke, Jan; White, Cynthia; Walker, Ute; Vom Brocke, Christina

    The concept of User-Generated Content (UGC) offers impressive potential for innovative learning and teaching scenarios in higher education. Examples like Wikipedia and Facebook illustrate the enormous effects of multiple users world-wide contributing to a pool of shared resources, such as videos and pictures and also lexicographical descriptions. Apart from single examples, however, the systematic use of these virtual technologies in higher education still needs further exploration. Only few examples display the successful application of UGC Communities at university scenarios. We argue that a major reason for this can be seen in the fact that the organizational dimension of setting up UGC Communities has widely been neglected so far. In particular, we indicate the need for incentive setting to actively involve students and achieve specific pedagogical objectives. We base our study on organizational theories and derive strategies for incentive setting that have been applied in a practical e-Learning scenario involving students from Germany and New Zealand.

  17. Women With Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Randomized to a Higher-Complex Carbohydrate/Low-Fat Diet Manifest Lower Adipose Tissue Insulin Resistance, Inflammation, Glucose, and Free Fatty Acids: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Teri L; Van Pelt, Rachael E; Anderson, Molly A; Reece, Melanie S; Reynolds, Regina M; de la Houssaye, Becky A; Heerwagen, Margaret; Donahoo, William T; Daniels, Linda J; Chartier-Logan, Catherine; Janssen, Rachel C; Friedman, Jacob E; Barbour, Linda A

    2016-01-01

    Diet therapy in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has focused on carbohydrate restriction but is poorly substantiated. In this pilot randomized clinical trial, we challenged the conventional low-carbohydrate/higher-fat (LC/CONV) diet, hypothesizing that a higher-complex carbohydrate/lower-fat (CHOICE) diet would improve maternal insulin resistance (IR), adipose tissue (AT) lipolysis, and infant adiposity. At 31 weeks, 12 diet-controlled overweight/obese women with GDM were randomized to an isocaloric LC/CONV (40% carbohydrate/45% fat/15% protein; n = 6) or CHOICE (60%/25%/15%; n = 6) diet. All meals were provided. AT was biopsied at 37 weeks. After ∼7 weeks, fasting glucose (P = 0.03) and free fatty acids (P = 0.06) decreased on CHOICE, whereas fasting glucose increased on LC/CONV (P = 0.03). Insulin suppression of AT lipolysis was improved on CHOICE versus LC/CONV (56 vs. 31%, P = 0.005), consistent with improved IR. AT expression of multiple proinflammatory genes was lower on CHOICE (P vs. 12.6 ± 2%, respectively). A CHOICE diet may improve maternal IR and infant adiposity, challenging recommendations for a LC/CONV diet. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  18. Developing Accounting Information System Course Content for Iraqi Higher Education Institution: An Instrument Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naseem Yousif Hanna Lallo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In ensuring that competent graduates are produced in the universities, the course used embedding knowledge in the students, mindsets needs to be effective. However, the unusual circumstances that happened in Iraq were affected on a universities course. The revolution in information technology (IT affects most of our activations. As a result, it is important to consider the impact of IT on accounting careers. Developing accenting information system course content can generate an accountant who is armed with the knowledge and skills before entering accounting job. Also the development process required instructors have characteristics that make the integrating process of IT knowledge components in AIS course content more smoothly. Iraq is the country facing many difficulties that makes its higher education institutions (HEIs suffered from un updated learning environment and technological backwardness. This causes a low level of accounting graduates’ knowledge and in turn leads to led to consider the Iraqi accountant incapable of working with international organizations and companies or conducting was it professionally. The aim of this paper is to explain the role of IT knowledge elements in developing AIS course content in Iraqi HEIs with considering the moderate effect of the instructors’ characteristics. Furthermore, this paper discusses the development and validation of the quantitative instrument (questionnaire for IT knowledge elements in Iraqi HEIs. Moreover, the reliability of the constructs is also discussed.

  19. Learning about Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Learning About Carbohydrates KidsHealth / For Kids / Learning About Carbohydrates Print en ... source of energy for the body. What Are Carbohydrates? There are two major types of carbohydrates (or ...

  20. APPROACHING CARBOHYDRATES AND ITS METABOLISM: AN EXPERIENCE FOR EDUCATIONAL GAMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Henrique Dias Ribeiro

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The study of carbohydrates, its metabolism and many other fields of biochemistry are often understood by students as a junction of chemical structures and reactions of difficult compression. However, Biochemistry should no longer be seen as an abstruse field, but a way to know the human body and its components, including molecular, structural and functional aspects. Therefore, some alternatives are being evaluated in order to assist and improve the dissemination of knowledge among them highlights are the educational games. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this work is the production of two educational games able to include the contents of carbohydrates and its metabolism in higher education. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The educational games produced were made from available materials and low cost. The games were tested in courses of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology of the Federal University of Uberlândia and the response of the students towards the activities was analyzed. The application, had the presence of trained students to instruct on the activity and correcting. DISCUSSION AND RESULTS: "What is the Carbohydrate?" and "Mastering the metabolism" are two educational games covering the content of structure and function carbohydrates and basal metabolism, respectively. "What is the Carbohydrate?" consists in unravel amid several options the carbohydrate in the hands of the others players. For this, several questions with two possible answers, “yes” or “not”, are accepted each round, and if the player find difficulty in formulating questions, there are cards tips. “Mastering the metabolism” consists in a combination of cards that simulate pieces of a domino that must be mounted following the metabolic pathway of carbohydrates, and as the game progresses, the main points of regulation of the pathway will be accompanied by surprise questions. The games showed great acceptance by students. CONCLUSION: “What is the Carbohydrate

  1. Indian girls have higher bone mineral content per unit of lean body than boys through puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadilkar, Anuradha V; Sanwalka, Neha; Mughal, M Zulf; Chiplonkar, Shashi; Khadilkar, Vaman

    2018-05-01

    Our aim is to describe changes in the muscle-bone unit assessed as a ratio of bone mineral content (BMC) to lean body mass (LBM) through puberty at total body and various skeletal sites in Indian boys and girls. A cross-sectional study was conducted (888 children, 480 boys, aged 5-17 years) in Pune, India. Pubertal staging was assessed. BMC, LBM and fat percentage at the arms, legs, android, gynoid and total body (less the head) were assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The amount of BMC per unit LBM (BMC/LBM) was computed. Changes in mean BMC/LBM at 5 Tanner (pubertal) stages after adjustment for age and fat percentage were calculated. In boys, adjusted BMC/LBM was significantly higher with successive Tanner stages [legs (TS-II vs TS-I), android (TS-III vs TS-II, TS-IV vs TS-III) and gynoid region (TS-III vs TS-II and TS-II vs TS-I) (p LBM was significantly higher with successive Tanner stages at total body, legs and gynoid (TS-III vs TS-II; TS-II vs TS-I; TS-V vs TS-IV), arms (TS-I to TS-V) and android regions (TS-V vs TS-IV) (p LBM than girls at earlier Tanner stages (TS-I to TS-III), whereas girls had significantly higher adjusted BMC/LBM than boys at later Tanner stages (TS-IV, TS-V) (p LBM with successive pubertal stages. Girls had higher BMC/LBM than boys which may possibly act as a reservoir for later demands of pregnancy and lactation.

  2. Brazilian savanna fruits contain higher bioactive compounds content and higher antioxidant activity relative to the conventional red delicious apple.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egle Machado de Almeida Siqueira

    Full Text Available The bioactive compounds content and the antioxidant activity (AA of twelve fruits native to the Cerrado were compared with the Red Delicious apple by means of the antiradical efficiency (using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil assay/DPPH, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and the β-carotene/linoleic system. The antiradical efficiency (AE and the kinetic parameters (Efficient concentration/EC50 and time needed to reach the steady state to EC50 concentration/TEC50 of the DPPH curve were also evaluated for comparison with the Trolox equivalent (TE values. A strong, significant and positive correlation was observed between the TE and AE values, whereas a weak and negative correlation was observed between TE and EC50, suggesting that the values of AE and TE are more useful for the determination of antiradical activity in fruits than the widely used EC50. The total phenolic content found in the fruits corresponded positively to their antioxidant activity. The high content of bioactive compounds (flavanols, anthocyanins or vitamin C relative to the apple values found in araticum, cagaita, cajuzinho, jurubeba, lobeira, magaba and tucum corresponded to the high antioxidant activity of these fruits. Flavanols and anthocyanins may be the main bioactive components in these Cerrado fruits. The daily consumption of at least seven of the twelve Cerrado fruits studied, particularly, araticum, cagaita, lobeira and tucum, may confer protection against oxidative stress, and thus, they may prevent chronic diseases and premature aging. The findings of this study should stimulate demand, consumption and cultivation of Cerrado fruits and result in sustainable development of the region where this biome dominates.

  3. Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK): Exploring its Usefulness for Science Lecturers in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Sharon P.

    2016-02-01

    In the past 30 years, pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) frameworks have become important constructs in educational research undertaken in the school education system and a focus for research for curriculum and teacher education researchers. As regards science, PCK research has been plentiful, but thus far, the concept of PCK (significantly enhanced since its proposal) has only been validated in the school context (Kindergarten to Grade 12). Within this environment, however, it has proven to be a very useful construct for understanding teacher practice and contributing to the improvement of teacher education courses. Knowledge about whether PCK is useful as a conceptual framework for science lecturers (teachers) working in higher education is as yet unknown and represents a gap in the research literature; the research outlined here is a first step in exploring its usefulness in this context. This paper provides an analysis of data obtained from semi-structured interviews conducted with nine Australian science university lecturers from various disciplines and levels of seniority and experience of tertiary teaching, as well as an academic developer skilled in facilitating science academics' understanding of pedagogy in higher education. The research aimed to investigate the extent to which one version of a school-based science PCK framework resonated with the pedagogical thinking of university science lecturers and the ways in which it could influence their teaching practice.

  4. Foliar carbohydrates content and invertase activity in vines at São Francisco River Valley - Brazil Teores foliares de carboidratos e atividade de invertases em videiras no Vale do Rio São Francisco- Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara França Dantas

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The irrigated agriculture at the São Francisco River Valley, Northeast Brazil, shows an increasing production of grapes for winery. Among the wines produced there the one obtained from Vitis vinifera L., cultivar Syrah, stands out due to its adaptation to the climatic conditions of the region. However, little is known about carbohydrates metabolism of vines cultivated in this region. The objective of this work was to evaluate sugar and starch contents and the invertase activity in vines leaves during two consecutive growing seasons. The experiment was carried out at Embrapa Semi-Árido and at Santa Maria Winery, respectively located in Petrolina and Lagoa Grande, Pernambuco-Brazil. Leaves were collected weekly from January to December of 2003 and assessed for reducing sugars, total soluble sugars and starch contents, as well as for acid (AI and neutral invertases (NI. The results showed that reducing sugars, total soluble sugars and starch contents increased during fruit maturation and are influenced by temperature, radiation and insolation variations. The second growing season showed higher reducing sugars and total soluble sugars content and lower starch content in the leaves than the first one. AI activity was higher than NI activity and these also varied according to weather conditions. During berries ripening, leaves showed higher sugar content and invertase activity, suggesting a higher sugar metabolism and transport during this phase.O pólo de agricultura irrigada do Vale do Rio São Francisco apresenta um crescente aumento na produção de uvas para vinificação. Entre os vinhos finos produzidos na região, destaca-se aquele obtido da cultivar Syrah, que se adaptou bem às condições climáticas da região. Pouco se conhece, no entanto, sobre o metabolismo de carboidratos das videiras nessa região. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os teores de açúcares e de amido, bem como a atividade de invertases durante dois ciclos de

  5. The association of personal semantic memory to identity representations: insight into higher-order networks of autobiographical contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilli, Matthew D

    2017-11-01

    Identity representations are higher-order knowledge structures that organise autobiographical memories on the basis of personality and role-based themes of one's self-concept. In two experiments, the extent to which different types of personal semantic content are reflected in these higher-order networks of memories was investigated. Healthy, young adult participants generated identity representations that varied in remoteness of formation and verbally reflected on these themes in an open-ended narrative task. The narrative responses were scored for retrieval of episodic, experience-near personal semantic and experience-far (i.e., abstract) personal semantic contents. Results revealed that to reflect on remotely formed identity representations, experience-far personal semantic contents were retrieved more than experience-near personal semantic contents. In contrast, to reflect on recently formed identity representations, experience-near personal semantic contents were retrieved more than experience-far personal semantic contents. Although episodic memory contents were retrieved less than both personal semantic content types to reflect on remotely formed identity representations, this content type was retrieved at a similar frequency as experience-far personal semantic content to reflect on recently formed identity representations. These findings indicate that the association of personal semantic content to identity representations is robust and related to time since acquisition of these knowledge structures.

  6. Synthesis of Higher Alcohols via Syngas on Cu/Zn/Si Catalysts. Effect of Polyethylene Glycol Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Rong-Ji; Yan, Xing; Fan, Jin-Chuan; Huang, Wei

    2018-05-01

    Cu/Zn/Si catalysts with different polyethylene glycol (PEG) content were prepared by a complete liquid-phase method, and characterized by XRD, H2-TPR, N2-adsorption, and XPS. The influence of PEG content on the higher alcohols synthesis from syngas was investigated. The results showed that addition of PEG can influence the texture and surface properties of the catalysts, and therefore affect their activity and product distribution. With an increase in PEG content, BET surface area, Cu crystallite size and surface active ingredient content of the catalysts first increased and then decreased, the CO conversion had similar variation tendency. However, the pore volume and pore diameter of the catalyst increased, and the binding energy of the active component and the content of Cu2O decreased, which resulted in higher catalyst selectivity towards higher alcohols. The highest C2+OH selectivity in total alcohols was 60.6 wt %.

  7. Characteristics and properties of cladding tubes for VVER-1000 higher Uranium content fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peregud, M.; Markelov, A.; Novikov, V.; Gusev, A.; Konkov, V.; Pimenov, Y.; Agapitov, V.; Shtutsa, M.

    2009-01-01

    To improve the fuel cycle economics and to further increase the VVER fuel usability the work programme is under way to design novel improved fuel, fuel rods and fuel assemblies. Longer FA operation time that is needed to increase the fuel burnup and the related design developments of novel fuel assemblies resulted not only in changing types and sizes of Zirconium items and fuel assembly components but also altered the requirements placed on their technical characteristics. To use fuel rods having a larger charge of fuel, to improve their behaviour in LOCA, to reduce fuel rod damage ability during assembling the work was carried out to perfect the characteristics of both the cladding (reduced wall thickness and more rigid tolerances for geometry) and its material. To meet the more rigid requirements for the geometry dimensions of cladding tubes an improved process flow sheet has been designed and employed for their fabrication and also the finishing treatment of tube surfaces has been improved. The higher and stable properties of the cladding materials were managed through using the special purity in terms of Hafnium Zirconium (not higher than 100 ppm Hf) as a base of the E110 alloy and maintaining within the valid specifications for the alloy the optimized contents of Oxygen and Iron at the levels of (600 - 990) ppm and (250 - 700) ppm, respectively. The work was under way in 2004 - 2008 years; during this period the technology and materials science solutions were mastered that were phased-in introduced into the production of the cladding tubes for the fuels loaded into the of the Kalinin NPP Unit 1

  8. Development of assessment methods for transport and storage containers with higher content of metallic recycling material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zencker, U.; Qiao Linan; Droste, B.

    2004-01-01

    The mechanical behaviour of transport and storage containers made of ductile cast iron melted with higher content of metallic recycling material from decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear installations is investigated. With drop tests of cubic container-like models, the influence of different real targets on the stresses in the cask body and the fracture behaviour is examined. A test stand foundation is suggested, which can be manufactured simply and improves the reproducibility of the test results strongly. The test objects are partially equipped with artificial cracklike defects. Dynamic fracture mechanics analyses of these defects were performed by means of finite element calculations to uncover safety margins. Numerous test results show depending on the requirements that containers for final disposal can be built by means of a ductile cast iron with fracture toughness more than half under the lower bound value for the licensed material qualities yet. The application limits of the material are determined also by the opportunities of the safety assessment methods. This project supports the application of brittle fracture safe transport and storage packages for radioactive materials as recommended in App. VI of the Advisory Material for the IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (IAEA No. TS-G-1.1)

  9. Shape Memory Polymers Containing Higher Acrylate Content Display Increased Endothelial Cell Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Tina; Shandas, Robin

    2018-01-01

    Shape Memory Polymers (SMPs) are smart materials that can recall their shape upon the application of a stimulus, which makes them appealing materials for a variety of applications, especially in biomedical devices. Most prior SMP research has focused on tuning bulk properties; studying surface effects of SMPs may extend the use of these materials to blood-contacting applications, such as cardiovascular stents, where surfaces that support rapid endothelialization have been correlated to stent success. Here, we evaluate endothelial attachment onto the surfaces of a family of SMPs previously developed in our group that have shown promise for biomedical devices. Nine SMP formulations containing varying amounts of tert-Butyl acrylate (tBA) and Poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate (PEGDMA) were analyzed for endothelial cell attachment. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), contact angle studies, and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to verify bulk and surface properties of the SMPs. Human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) attachment and viability was verified using fluorescent methods. Endothelial cells preferentially attached to SMPs with higher tBA content, which have rougher, more hydrophobic surfaces. HUVECs also displayed an increased metabolic activity on these high tBA SMPs over the course of the study. This class of SMPs may be promising candidates for next generation blood-contacting devices. PMID:29707382

  10. Development of assessment methods for transport and storage containers with higher content of metallic recycling material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zencker, U.; Qiao Linan; Droste, B. [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The mechanical behaviour of transport and storage containers made of ductile cast iron melted with higher content of metallic recycling material from decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear installations is investigated. With drop tests of cubic container-like models, the influence of different real targets on the stresses in the cask body and the fracture behaviour is examined. A test stand foundation is suggested, which can be manufactured simply and improves the reproducibility of the test results strongly. The test objects are partially equipped with artificial cracklike defects. Dynamic fracture mechanics analyses of these defects were performed by means of finite element calculations to uncover safety margins. Numerous test results show depending on the requirements that containers for final disposal can be built by means of a ductile cast iron with fracture toughness more than half under the lower bound value for the licensed material qualities yet. The application limits of the material are determined also by the opportunities of the safety assessment methods. This project supports the application of brittle fracture safe transport and storage packages for radioactive materials as recommended in App. VI of the Advisory Material for the IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (IAEA No. TS-G-1.1).

  11. Shape Memory Polymers Containing Higher Acrylate Content Display Increased Endothelial Cell Attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Govindarajan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Shape Memory Polymers (SMPs are smart materials that can recall their shape upon the application of a stimulus, which makes them appealing materials for a variety of applications, especially in biomedical devices. Most prior SMP research has focused on tuning bulk properties; studying surface effects of SMPs may extend the use of these materials to blood-contacting applications, such as cardiovascular stents, where surfaces that support rapid endothelialization have been correlated to stent success. Here, we evaluate endothelial attachment onto the surfaces of a family of SMPs previously developed in our group that have shown promise for biomedical devices. Nine SMP formulations containing varying amounts of tert-Butyl acrylate (tBA and Poly(ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (PEGDMA were analyzed for endothelial cell attachment. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA, contact angle studies, and atomic force microscopy (AFM were used to verify bulk and surface properties of the SMPs. Human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC attachment and viability was verified using fluorescent methods. Endothelial cells preferentially attached to SMPs with higher tBA content, which have rougher, more hydrophobic surfaces. HUVECs also displayed an increased metabolic activity on these high tBA SMPs over the course of the study. This class of SMPs may be promising candidates for next generation blood-contacting devices.

  12. Physiochemical Characteristics and Molecular Structures for Digestible Carbohydrates of Silages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refat, Basim; Prates, Luciana L; Khan, Nazir A; Lei, Yaogeng; Christensen, David A; McKinnon, John J; Yu, Peiqiang

    2017-10-18

    The main objectives of this study were (1) to assess the magnitude of differences among new barley silage varieties (BS) selected for varying rates of in vitro neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility (ivNDFD; Cowboy BS with higher ivNDFD, Copeland BS with intermediate ivNDFD, and Xena BS with lower ivNDFD) with regard to their carbohydrate (CHO) molecular makeup, CHO chemical fractions, and rumen degradability in dairy cows in comparison with a new corn silage hybrid (Pioneer 7213R) and (2) to quantify the strength and pattern of association between the molecular structures and digestibility of carbohydrates. The carbohydrate-related molecular structure spectral data was measured using advanced vibrational molecular spectroscopy (FT/IR). In comparison to BS, corn silage showed a significantly (P carbohydrates were significantly (P carbohydrate content of the silages. In conclusion, the univariate approach with only one-factor consideration (ivNDFD) might not be a satisfactory method for evaluating and ranking BS quality. FT/IR molecular spectroscopy can be used to evaluate silage quality rapidly, particularly the digestible fiber content.

  13. Carbohydrate secretion by phototrophic communities in tidal sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Winder, B.; Staats, N.; Stal, L.J.; Paterson, D.M.

    1999-01-01

    Two different benthic phototrophic communities on tidal flats were investigated for their carbohydrate content and distribution. Carbohydrates were analysed as two operationally defined fractions, related to the difficulty of extraction from the sediment matrix. Water-soluble (colloidal) and EDTA-

  14. Ceramide content is higher in type I compared to type II fibers in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Ditte Bech; Prats Gavalda, Clara; Larsen, Steen

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated fiber-type-specific muscle ceramide content in obese subjects and type 2 diabetes patients. Two substudies, one which compared type 2 diabetes patients to both lean- and obese BMI-matched subjects and the other study which compared lean body-matched post-obese, obese......, and control subjects, were performed. A fasting blood sample was obtained and plasma insulin and glucose determined. A muscle biopsy was obtained from deltoideus and vastus lateralis, and fiber-type ceramide content was determined by fluorescence immunohistochemistry. Insulin sensitivity estimated by Quicki...... index was higher in lean compared to type 2 diabetes patients and obese controls. Also in control and post-obese subjects, a higher insulin sensitivity was observed compared to obese subjects. Ceramide content was consistently higher in type I than in type II muscle fibers and higher in deltoideus than...

  15. Lower Protein-to-Carbohydrate Ratio in Maternal Diet is Associated with Higher Childhood Systolic Blood Pressure up to Age Four Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle L. Blumfield

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The prenatal environment can influence development of offspring blood pressure (BP, which tracks into adulthood. This prospective longitudinal study investigated whether maternal pregnancy dietary intake is associated with the development of child BP up to age four years. Data are from 129 mother-child dyads enrolled in the Women and Their Children’s Health study. Maternal diet was assessed using a validated 74-item food frequency questionnaire at 18 to 24 weeks and 36 to 40 weeks, with a reference period of the previous three months. Child systolic and diastolic BP were measured at 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 36 and 48 months, using an automated BP monitor. Using mixed-model regression analyses adjusted for childhood growth indices, pregnancy intakes of percentage of energy (E% polyunsaturated fat (β coefficient 0.73; 95% CI 0.003, 1.45; p = 0.045, E% omega-6 fatty acids (β coefficient 0.89; 95% CI 0.09, 1.69; p = 0.03 and protein-to-carbohydrate (P:C ratio (β coefficient −14.14; 95% CI −27.68, −0.60; p = 0.04 were associated with child systolic BP trajectory up to 4 years. Child systolic BP was greatest at low proportions of dietary protein (<16% of energy and high carbohydrate (>40% of energy intakes. There may be an ideal maternal macronutrient ratio associated with optimal infant BP. Maternal diet, which is potentially modifiable, may play an important role in influencing offspring risk of future hypertension.

  16. An approach to breeding for higher protein content in bread wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, H.K.; Singhal, N.C.; Singh, M.P.; Austin, A.

    1975-01-01

    This study deals with the development of a suitable experimental approach for improving the protein content of seeds in bread wheat. It has been found that scoring of protein content on a per seed basis rather than as a percentage of seed weight gives better results. In the first place, the heritability of protein content increases nearly three times when scoring is done on the basis of seed number. Also, protein content scored in this way showed a significant positive correlation with seed size. Correlation between seed size and percentage of protein in the seed is negative. An important implication of these findings is that scoring of protein content on the basis of seed number should help to avoid selection of genotypes showing reduced starch synthesis and, therefore, a lower yield of grains as well as protein on a per acre basis. Also, the observations suggest that selection for larger seed size may be an important means of improving the protein content of wheat. These and other implications are discussed. (author)

  17. DETERMINATION OF CRYSTALLINITY INDEX OF CARBOHYDRATE COMPONENTS IN HEMP (CANNABIS SATIVA L. WOODY CORE BY MEANS OF FT-IR SPECTROSCOPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esat Gümüşkaya

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study; it was investigated chemical compositions of hemp woody core and changes in crystallinity index of its carbohydrate components by using FT-IR spectroscopy was investigated. It was determined that carbohyrate components ratio in hemp woody core were similar to that in hard wood, but lignin content in hemp woody core was higher than in hard wood. Crystallinity index of carbohydrate components in hemp woody core increased by removing amorphous components. It was designated that monoclinic structure in hemp woody core and its carbohydrate components was dominant, but triclinic ratio increased by treated chemical isolation of carbohydrate from hemp woody core.

  18. Pretreatment of lignocellulosic material with fungi capable of higher lignin degradation and lower carbohydrate degradation improves substrate acid hydrolysis and the eventual conversion to ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhar, Sarika; Nair, Lavanya M; Kuhad, Ramesh Chander

    2008-04-01

    Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Pycnoporus cinnabarinus,and fungal isolates RCK-1 and RCK-3 were tested for their lignin degradation abilities when grown on wheat straw (WS) and Prosopis juliflora (PJ) under solid-state cultivation conditions. Fungal isolate RCK-1 degraded more lignin in WS (12.26% and 22.64%) and PJ (19.30% and 21.97%) and less holocellulose in WS (6.27% and 9.39%) and PJ (3.01% and 4.58%) after 10 and 20 days, respectively, than other fungi tested. Phanerochaete chrysosporium caused higher substrate mass loss and degraded more of holocellulosic content (WS: 55.67%; PJ: 48.89%) than lignin (WS: 18.89%; PJ: 20.20%) after 20 days. The fungal pretreatment of WS and PJ with a high-lignin-degrading and low-holocellulose-degrading fungus (fungal isolate RCK-1) for 10 days resulted in (i) reduction in acid load for hydrolysis of structural polysaccharides (from 3.5% to 2.5% in WS and from 4.5% to 2.5% in PJ), (ii) an increase in the release of fermentable sugars (from 30.27 to 40.82 g L(-1) in WS and from 18.18 to 26.00 g L(-1) in PJ), and (iii) a reduction in fermentation inhibitors (total phenolics) in acid hydrolysate of WS (from 1.31 to 0.63 g L(-1)) and PJ (from 2.05 to 0.80 g L(-1)). Ethanol yield and volumetric productivity from RCK-1-treated WS (0.48 g g(-1) and 0.54 g L(-1) h(-1), respectively) and PJ (0.46 g g(-1) and 0.33 g L(-1) h(-1), respectively) were higher than untreated WS (0.36 g g(-1) and 0.30 g L(-1) h(-1), respectively) and untreated PJ (0.42 g g(-1) and 0.21 g L(-1) h(-1), respectively).

  19. Pre-Service Teachers' Mathematics Content Knowledge: Implications for How Mathematics Is Taught in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowrie, Tom; Jorgensen, Robyn

    2016-01-01

    This investigation explored pre-service teachers' mathematics content knowledge (MCK) and beliefs associated with mathematics education practices. An Exploratory Factor Analysis, conducted on a beliefs and attitudes questionnaire, produced three common attitude factors associated with (1) inquiry-based teaching; (2) how mathematics knowledge is…

  20. Facilitating LGBT Medical, Health and Social Care Content in Higher Education Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davy, Zowie; Amsler, Sarah; Duncombe, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Increasingly, Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) health care is becoming an important quality assurance feature of primary, secondary and tertiary healthcare in Britain. While acknowledging these very positive developments, teaching LGBT curricula content is contingent upon having educators understand the complexity of LGBT lives. The…

  1. Facilitating LGBT Medical, Health and Social Care Content in Higher Education Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zowie Davy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly, Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT health care is becoming an important quality assurance feature of primary, secondary and tertiary healthcare in Britain. While acknowledging these very positive developments, teaching LGBT curricula content is contingent upon having educators understand the complexity of LGBT lives. The study adopted a qualitative mixed method approach. The study investigated how and in what ways barriers and facilitators of providing LGBT medical, health and social care curricula content figure in the accreditation policies and within undergraduate and postgraduate medical and healthcare teaching. This paper illustrates opposing views about curricula inclusion. The evidence presented suggests that LGBT content teaching is often challenged at various points in its delivery. In this respect, we will focus on a number of resistances that sometimes prevents teachers from engaging with and providing the complexities of LGBT curricula content. These include the lack of collegiate, colleague and student cooperation. By investing some time on these often neglected areas of resistance, the difficulties and good practice met by educators will be explored. This focus will make visible how to support medical, health and social care students become aware and confident in tackling contemporaneous health issues for LGBT patients.

  2. Curriculum Mapping in Higher Education: A Case Study and Proposed Content Scope and Sequence Mapping Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arafeh, Sousan

    2016-01-01

    Best practice in curriculum development and implementation requires that discipline-based standards or requirements embody both curricular and programme scopes and sequences. Ensuring these are present and aligned in course/programme content, activities and assessments to support student success requires formalised and systematised review and…

  3. Are Mergers a Win-Win Strategic Model? A Content Analysis of Inter-Institutional Collaboration between Higher Education Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripoll-Soler, Carlos; de-Miguel-Molina, María

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of this paper, based on a content analysis of the literature about models of inter-institutional collaboration between higher education institutions, is to establish the characteristics that set them apart, contextualize each of these models in terms of the features of the setting in which they are implemented, and ascertain their…

  4. Conteúdo de carboidratos em gemas e ramos de macieira durante o outono e inverno em região de baixa ocorrência de frio Carbohydrate content in buds and stems of apple trees during autumn and winter in a region of low chill occurence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruy Inacio Neiva de Carvalho

    2004-08-01

    /23 and were treated or not with 1,440 hours of chill (4 to 7° C. The carbohydrates were analysed in buds and stem tissues close to the buds. The soluble carbohydrates (SC were evaluated by the phenol-sulfuric acid method and the final determination was made by spectrophotometry (490 nm absorbance. The non-soluble carbohydrates (NC were estimated by the mass of vegetal tissues non-soluble in alcohol and soluble in alcaline medium, after freeze drying. The total carbohydrate (SC + NC content represented 13.8 to 20.2 g.100g-1 of dry matter of buds and 9.9 to 15.3 g.100g-1 of dry matter of stems. The buds presented a higher level of SC in the initial dormancy period and a higher level of NC in the more intense dormancy period. The NC accumulation in buds were anticipated by the early chill treatment and the chill treatment during endodormancy promoted the SC accumulation. The SC content in stems increased along the dormancy development while the NC content remained constant.

  5. Submerged Cultivation of Mycelium with High Ergothioneine Content from the Culinary-Medicinal Golden Oyster Mushroom, Pleurotus citrinopileatus (Higher Basidiomycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shin-Yi; Chien, Shih-Chang; Wang, Sheng-Yang; Mau, Jeng-Leun

    2015-01-01

    The optimization of submerged culture of the culinary-medicinal golden oyster mushroom, Pleurotus citrinopileatus, was studied using a one-factor-at-a-time, two-stage stimulation and central composite rotatable design to produce mycelia with high ergothioneine content. The optimal culture conditions for mycelia harvested at day 22 were a temperature of 25°C, an inoculation ratio of 5%, 2% glucose, 0.5% yeast extract, and adjustment of the initial pH value to 10. The biomass and ergothioneine content were 8.28 g/L and 10.65 mg/g dry weight (dw), respectively. The addition of an amino acid precursor increased the ergothioneine content of mycelia; cysteine was the most effective. In addition, the results obtained from central composite rotatable design showed that the recommended combination for cysteine, histidine, and methionine was 8, 4, and 0.5 mmol/L, respectively. The predicted ergothioneine content was 13.90 mg/g dw, whereas the experimental maximal ergothioneine content was 14.57 mg/g dw. With the addition of complex precursors and under optimal culture conditions, mycelia harvested at days 16-20 had higher ergothioneine content. Accordingly, the information obtained could be used to produce mycelia with high ergothioneine content.

  6. Effect of dietary patterns differing in carbohydrate and fat content on blood lipid and glucose profiles based on weight-loss success of breast-cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Henry J; Sedlacek, Scot M; Paul, Devchand; Wolfe, Pamela; McGinley, John N; Playdon, Mary C; Daeninck, Elizabeth A; Bartels, Sara N; Wisthoff, Mark R

    2012-01-06

    Healthy body weight is an important factor for prevention of breast cancer recurrence. Yet, weight loss and weight gain are not currently included in clinical-practice guidelines for posttreatment of breast cancer. The work reported addresses one of the questions that must be considered in recommending weight loss to patients: does it matter what diet plan is used, a question of particular importance because breast cancer treatment can increase risk for cardiovascular disease. Women who completed treatment for breast cancer were enrolled in a nonrandomized, controlled study investigating effects of weight loss achieved by using two dietary patterns at the extremes of macronutrient composition, although both diet arms were equivalent in protein: high fat, low carbohydrate versus low fat, high carbohydrate. A nonintervention group served as the control arm; women were assigned to intervention arms based on dietary preferences. During the 6-month weight-loss program, which was menu and recipe defined, participants had monthly clinical visits at which anthropometric data were collected and fasting blood was obtained for safety monitoring for plasma lipid profiles and fasting glucose. Results from 142 participants are reported. Adverse effects on fasting blood lipids or glucose were not observed in either dietary arm. A decrease in fasting glucose was observed with progressive weight loss and was greater in participants who lost more weight, but the effect was not statistically significant, even though it was observed across both diet groups (P = 0.21). Beneficial effects of weight loss on cholesterol (4.7%; P = 0.001), triglycerides (21.8%; P = 0.01), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (5.8%; P = 0.06) were observed in both groups. For cholesterol (P = 0.07) and LDL cholesterol (P = 0.13), greater reduction trends were seen on the low-fat diet pattern; whereas, for triglycerides (P = 0.01) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (P = 0.08), a decrease

  7. Cytogenetic studies of marine organisms in the areas with higher contents of natural radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsytsugina, V.G.; Floru, Kh.; Polikarpov, G.G.; Chalulu, K.; Gorbenko, V.P.

    2004-01-01

    Chromosome aberrations in cells of marine crustaceans and worms have been studied at sites with a high natural radioactivity level (the Black Sea coast at the mountain Karadag in the Crimea and the Ikaria Island in the Aegean Sea, an area around the hydrothermal spa) as well as at sites with the normal natural radiation level. Higher level of chromosome mutagenesis was found in cells of Melita palmata embryos and in germ and somatic cells of Lycastopsis sp. juveniles in the area around the spa. Probably, chromosome aberrations were induced by higher concentrations of natural radionuclides and their radiation in the environment

  8. Technologies for a content and language integrated approach to dropout problems in Higher Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marjolein Simons; Dr. Hajer Maaike; Ton Koenraad; Rintse van der Werf

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on CATS (2006-2007), a project initiated by the Research Centre ‘Teaching in Multicultural Schools’, that addresses language related dropout problems of both native and non-native speakers of Dutch in higher education. The project’s main objective is to develop a model for the

  9. Marker-trait association study for protein content in chickpea (Cicer ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-06-08

    Jun 8, 2015 ... tains important nutrients such as carbohydrates, minerals, vitamins, fats, fibers, lipids, oils, etc. ... evant for those breeding programmes where either or both of ... of the samples with lower and higher crude protein content.

  10. Effect of a low-carbohydrate diet on respiratory quotient of infants with chronic lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suteerojntrakool, Orapa; Sanguanrungsirikul, Sompol; Sritippayawan, Suchada; Jantarabenjakul, Watsamon; Sirimongkol, Pathama; Chomtho, Sirinuch

    2015-01-01

    To compare the respiratory quotient in infants with chronic lung disease before and after receiving a modular diet with slightly lower carbohydrate content. Infants with chronic lung disease from the King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital were enrolled and assessed for nutritional status, severity of chronic lung disease and dietary intake. Indirect calorimetry was performed using a custom-made airtight canopy with O2 and CO2 sensors. Respiratory quotient (RQ) was calculated from VCO2/VO2 during the period they were fed low carbohydrates (37% of total calories) for at least 24 hours vs. a standard diet (47% carbohydrate). These two formulas were similar in terms of caloric density and protein content. Each patient received at least 100-150 kcal/ kg/day during the study period. Respiratory quotients of the same patient receiving the two diets were compared by using Wilcoxon signed-rank test. A total of 14 patients (median age 7 months, range 1-26 months) were recruited. Twelve children had weight for age Z-score below-2SD. Their median weight for age Z-score, length for age Z-score and weight for length Z-score were -2.89, -3.08 and -1.24, respectively. The median RQ measured during the low carbohydrate diet was 0.96 (interquartile range 0.95-0.97), significantly lower than the median RQ during the standard diet, which was 1.04 (0.97-1.10). However, the respiratory rate revealed no significant difference. Two participants with underlying gastroesophageal reflux disease showed higher RQ after low carbohydrate formula feeding, which might be a result of hypersecretion due to its high fat content. Diet with slightly lower carbohydrate content can reduce the RQ in infants with chronic lung disease compared to the standard enteral formula. A 10-percent reduction of carbohydrate content may provide a sizeable effect in this group of patients. Nevertheless, the clinical significance of this finding requires further investigation.

  11. Cats and Carbohydrates: The Carnivore Fantasy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adronie Verbrugghe

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The domestic cat’s wild ancestors are obligate carnivores that consume prey containing only minimal amounts of carbohydrates. Evolutionary events adapted the cat’s metabolism and physiology to this diet strictly composed of animal tissues and led to unique digestive and metabolic peculiarities of carbohydrate metabolism. The domestic cat still closely resembles its wild ancestor. Although the carnivore connection of domestic cats is well recognised, little is known about the precise nutrient profile to which the digestive physiology and metabolism of the cat have adapted throughout evolution. Moreover, studies show that domestic cats balance macronutrient intake by selecting low-carbohydrate foods. The fact that cats evolved consuming low-carbohydrate prey has led to speculations that high-carbohydrate diets could be detrimental for a cat’s health. More specifically, it has been suggested that excess carbohydrates could lead to feline obesity and diabetes mellitus. Additionally, the chances for remission of diabetes mellitus are higher in cats that consume a low-carbohydrate diet. This literature review will summarise current carbohydrate knowledge pertaining to digestion, absorption and metabolism of carbohydrates, food selection and macronutrient balancing in healthy, obese and diabetic cats, as well as the role of carbohydrates in prevention and treatment of obesity and diabetes mellitus.

  12. The concept of structure and content of health related trainings for higher educational establishments’ students

    OpenAIRE

    Yu.A. Kopylov; L.N. Jackowska; M.D. Kudryavtsev; V.A. Kuzmin; I.A. Tolstopyatov; S. S. Iermakov

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: analysis of modern directions of physical culture education scientific and practical problems’ solution in higher educational establishment of health related orientation. Material: analysis of publications in scientific journals. Results: we have shown significance of student’s physical functioning as the basis of his motor, coordination and mental qualities’ development. Main difficulties of existing physical education practice have been cleared up. It has been found that prevailing...

  13. Structure, Content, Delivery, Service, and Outcomes: Quality e-Learning in higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colla J. MacDonald

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the need for quality e-Learning experiences. We used the Demand-Driven Learning Model (MacDonald, Stodel, Farres, Breithaupt, and Gabriel, 2001 to evaluate an online Masters in Education course. Multiple data collection methods were used to understand the experiences of stakeholders in this case study: the learners, design team, and facilitators. We found that all five dimensions of the model (structure, content, delivery, service, and outcomes must work in concert to implement a quality e-Learning course. Key themes include evolving learner needs, the search for connection, becoming an able e-participant, valued interactions, social construction of content, integration of delivery partners, and mindful weighing of benefits and trade-offs. By sharing insights into what is needed to design and deliver an e-Learning experience, our findings add to the growing knowledge of online learning. Using this model to evaluate perceptions of quality by key stakeholders has led to insights and recommendations on the Demand Driven Learning Model itself which may be useful for researchers in this area and strengthen the model. Quality has been defined in terms of the design of the e-Learning experience, the contextualized experience of learners, and evidence of learning outcomes (Carr and Carr, 2000; Jung 2000; Salmon, 2000. Quality and design of e-Learning courses, however, are sometimes compromised in an “ . . . effort to simply get something up and running��� in response to pressing consumer demands (Dick, 1996, p. 59. Educators and researchers have voiced concern over the lack of rigorous evaluation studies of e-Learning programs (e.g., Arbaugh, 2000; Howell, Saba, Lindsay, and Williams, 2004; Lockyer, Patterson, and Harper, 1999; Robinson, 2001. McGorry (2003 adds, “although the number of courses being delivered via the Internet is increasing rapidly, our knowledge of what makes these courses effective learning experiences

  14. Effects of Low-Fat Diets Differing in Protein and Carbohydrate Content on Cardiometabolic Risk Factors during Weight Loss and Weight Maintenance in Obese Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerylee Watson

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite evidence for the benefits of higher-protein (HP diets in weight loss, their role in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM management and weight maintenance is not clear. This randomised study compared the effects of a HP diet (38% carbohydrate, 30% protein, 29% fat to a isocaloric higher-carbohydrate diet (HC: 53%:21%:23% on cardiometabolic risk factors for 12 weeks in energy restriction (~30% reduction followed by 12 weeks of energy balance whilst performing regular exercise. Outcomes were measured at baseline and the end of each phase. Sixty-one overweight/obese adults (BMI (body mass index 34.3 ± 5.1 kg/m2, aged 55 ± 8 years with T2DM who commenced the study were included in the intention-to-treat analysis including the 17 participants (HP n = 9, HC n = 8 who withdrew. Following weight loss (M ± SEM: −7.8 ± 0.6 kg, there were significant reductions in HbA1c (−1.4% ± 0.1%, p < 0.001 and several cardiometabolic health risk factors. Improvements were sustained for 12 weeks when weight was stabilised and weight loss maintained. Both the HP and HC dietary patterns with concurrent exercise may be effective strategies for weight loss and weight maintenance in T2DM although further studies are needed to determine the longer term effects of weight maintenance.

  15. Effects of Low-Fat Diets Differing in Protein and Carbohydrate Content on Cardiometabolic Risk Factors during Weight Loss and Weight Maintenance in Obese Adults with Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Nerylee; Dyer, Kathryn; Buckley, Jonathan; Brinkworth, Grant; Coates, Alison; Parfitt, Gaynor; Howe, Peter; Noakes, Manny; Murphy, Karen

    2016-05-12

    Despite evidence for the benefits of higher-protein (HP) diets in weight loss, their role in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) management and weight maintenance is not clear. This randomised study compared the effects of a HP diet (38% carbohydrate, 30% protein, 29% fat) to a isocaloric higher-carbohydrate diet (HC: 53%:21%:23%) on cardiometabolic risk factors for 12 weeks in energy restriction (~30% reduction) followed by 12 weeks of energy balance whilst performing regular exercise. Outcomes were measured at baseline and the end of each phase. Sixty-one overweight/obese adults (BMI (body mass index) 34.3 ± 5.1 kg/m², aged 55 ± 8 years) with T2DM who commenced the study were included in the intention-to-treat analysis including the 17 participants (HP n = 9, HC n = 8) who withdrew. Following weight loss (M ± SEM: -7.8 ± 0.6 kg), there were significant reductions in HbA1c (-1.4% ± 0.1%, p loss maintained. Both the HP and HC dietary patterns with concurrent exercise may be effective strategies for weight loss and weight maintenance in T2DM although further studies are needed to determine the longer term effects of weight maintenance.

  16. Carbohydrate-Loading Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Grape juice (12 ounces) 55 225 Lunch Milk, chocolate, reduced fat (12 ounces) 45 285 4 slices ... usual during carbohydrate loading to get the same benefits as a man does. Despite carbohydrate loading, you ...

  17. Carbohydrate Metabolism Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... metabolic disorder, something goes wrong with this process. Carbohydrate metabolism disorders are a group of metabolic disorders. Normally your enzymes break carbohydrates down into glucose (a type of sugar). If ...

  18. CARBOHYDRATE MALABSORPTION SYNDROME IN CHILDREN WITH VIRAL GASTROENTERITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. R. Meskina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Enteric viruses (mainly rotaviruses are the most common cause of infectious diarrhea in infants. One  of the  pathophysiologic mechanisms in rotaviral gastroenteritis is the  reduction of the  surface  activity of enterocyte disaccharidases  and  osmotic  diarrhea. Aim: To determine the clinical significance of metabolic activity of intestinal microbiota in the formation of the osmotic component of viral diarrhea in children of various ages. Materials and methods: The study involved 139 children aged  from 1 month  to 14 years admitted to the hospital in the first 24 to 72 hours of moderate-degree  viral gastroenteritis.  Rotaviral infection was the most prevalent  (90%. Viral etiology was confirmed  by the  reaction  of indirect hemagglutination and multiplex real-time PCR (in feces. Total carbohydrate content in the feces was measured and fecal microflora was investigated by two methods: bacteriological and gas liquid chromatography with the determination of short-chain fatty acids. Results: The mean carbohydrate content in the feces of children below 1.5 years of age was higher than  that  in older children (p = 0.014. There was an inverse correlation between the concentration of rotaviral antigens  and carbohydrate   contents (r = -0,43, p < 0.05 and the production of acetic and propionic acids (R = -0,35, p < 0.01. The carbohydrate content in acute stage of the disease was linearly associated with time to normalization of the stool (r = +0,47, p < 0.01. Previous acute  respiratory or intestinal  infections within 2 months (odds ratio [OR], 14.10; 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.86–51.53, previous  hospitalizations  (OR = 14.17; 95% CI 2.74–74.32 and  past  history of intestinal dysfunction (OR 5.68; 95% CI 1.67–19.76 were predictive of severe  carbohydrate malabsorption in children below 1.5 years of age. Conclusion: The lack of microbiota functional activity (assessed by production of short

  19. Relationship between the light environment and carbohydrates in needles of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) on a dune

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klõšeiko, J.

    2003-01-01

    The fraction of photosynthetically active radiation transmitted through the canopy (FPAR) on a forested dune was measured at different locations with a ceptometer, and the correlations of carbohydrates in Scots pine needles with FPAR were studied. The hypothesis was that the sucrose content is relatively stable in different light environments and the main effect of the location on the dune is expressed on the glucose content in needles assuming that glucose regulates the balance between the light environment and nutritional conditions influencing the carbohydrate production and demand processes in trees. The contents of the investigated carbohydrates did not correlate with the FPAR, which was significantly elevated at the higher locations on the dune (500 per cent on top) relative to the locations on the foot. The concentrations of hexoses varied substantially between the individual branches or trees from the same plots and between plots, while sucrose levels on single plots were relatively constant. Analysis of variance indicated the effect of the location on the concentrations of sucrose and excess bound fructose, and on the total content of carbohydrates in current-year needles in which the investigated parameters were positively correlated with the respective parameters in one-year-old needles. The results indicate that the content of carbohydrates does not directly depend on the light environment on the dune, though the large variance in the content of hexoses possibly requires increasing the number of samples on each plot to reveal the differences in needles between the locations on the dune

  20. Varying response of the concentration and content of soybean seed mineral elements, carbohydrates, organic acids, amino acids, protein, and oil to phosphorus starvation and CO2 enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    A detailed investigation of the concentration (g-1 seed weight) and content (g plant-1) of seed mineral elements and metabolic profile under phosphorus (P) starvation at ambient (aCO2) and elevated carbon dioxide (eCO2) in soybean is limited. Soybean plants were grown in a controlled environment at ...

  1. Biochemical studies on the effect of fluoride on higher plants. I. Metabolism of carbohydrates, organic acids and amino acids. [Glycine max var. Hawkeye

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, S F; Miller, G W

    1963-01-01

    Metabolic processes associated with free sugars, organic acids and amino acids in higher plants subjected to fluoride fumigation were studied quantitatively. Fluoride-fumigated leaves contained more reducing sugars and less sucrose than the normal leaves. This result suggested inhibition of sucrose synthesis by fluoride. Necrotic leaves contained increased total concentrations of organic acids, which were mostly attributable to malic acid, malonic acid and citric acid. The greater increase in malic acid relative to that of citric acid was the reverse of results observed in chlorotic tissue. Necrotic leaves contained enhanced amounts of free amino acids. The greatest increase occurred in the concentration of asparagine and might be related to the increased respiratory rate of necrotic leaves. Pipecolic acid accumulated in large quantities in nicrotic tissue and was not detected in normal leaves. The accumulation of organic acids and amino acids in leaves during fluoride fumigation was evidenced by a lowered respiratory quotient.

  2. Fermentable short chain carbohydrate (FODMAP) content of common plant-based foods and processed foods suitable for vegetarian- and vegan-based eating patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuck, C; Ly, E; Bogatyrev, A; Costetsou, I; Gibson, P; Barrett, J; Muir, J

    2018-06-01

    The low FODMAP (fermentable, oligo-, di-, mono-saccharides and polyols) diet is an effective strategy to improve symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome. However, combining the low FODMAP diet with another dietary restriction such as vegetarianism/veganism is challenging. Greater knowledge about the FODMAP composition of plant-based foods and food processing practices common to vegetarian/vegan eating patterns would assist in the implementation of the diet in this patient population. The present study aimed to quantify the FODMAP content of plant-based foods common in vegetarian/vegan diets and to investigate whether food processing can impact FODMAP levels. Total FODMAP content was quantified in 35 foods, including fructose-in-excess-of-glucose, lactose, sorbitol, mannitol, galacto-oligosaccharide and total fructan, using high-performance-liquid-chromatography and enzymatic assays. The effects of cooking, sprouting, pickling, fermentation, activation and canning on FODMAP content were assessed. The Monash University criteria to classify foods as low FODMAP was used. Of the 35 foods, 20 were classified as low FODMAP, including canned coconut milk (0.24 g serve -1 ), dulse (0.02 serve -1 ), nutritional yeast (0.01 serve -1 ), soy cheese (0.03 serve -1 ), tempeh (0.26 serve -1 ), wheat gluten (0.13 serve -1 ) and wheat grass (0.05 serve -1 ). No FODMAPs were detected in agar-agar, egg replacer, vegan egg yolk, kelp noodles and spirulina. Food processing techniques that produced the greatest reduction in FODMAP content included pickling and canning. The present study provides a greater FODMAP composition knowledge of plant-based foods that can now be applied to the dietetic management of vegetarians/vegans requiring a low FODMAP diet. Food processing lowered the FODMAP content of foods, thereby increasing options for patients following a low FODMAP diet. © 2018 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  3. Pretreatment of lignocellulosic material with fungi capable of higher lignin degradation and lower carbohydrate degradation improves substrate acid hydrolysis and the eventual conversion to ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhar, S.; Nair, L.M.; Kuhad, R.C. [Delhi Univ., New Delhi (India). Dept. of Microbiology, Lignocellulose Biotechnology Laboratory

    2008-04-15

    Lignocellulosic biomass is the most abundant energy resource in the world and is a potential source of carbon substrate for the production of ethanol via fermentation. However, the presence of lignin restricts access to holocellulose. It is necessary to break or remove the lignin in plant residues prior to their hydrolysis. Pretreatment is needed to liberate cellulose and hemicellulose from the lignins. This paper discussed a biological delignification method that avoided the use of toxic and corrosive chemicals. The in situ microbial delignification process used white rot fungi as a basidiomycetes for biological pretreatment. The study examined the capability of 4 basidiomycetes fungi, notably: (1) Phanerochaete chrysosporium; (2) Pycnoporus cinnabarinus; (3) fungal isolate RCK-1; and (4) fungal isolate RCK-3. The fungi were used to delignify wheat straw and improve hydrolysis procedures. Attempts were also made to ferment the acid hydrolysates from fungal-pretreated lignocellulosic materials. Results of the experiment showed that higher yields of ethanol were obtained using selective lignin-degrading fungi as a pretreatment method. 39 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs.

  4. Enhanced accumulation of starch and total carbohydrates in alginate-immobilized Chlorella spp. induced by Azospirillum brasilense: II. Heterotrophic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choix, Francisco J; de-Bashan, Luz E; Bashan, Yoav

    2012-10-10

    The effect of the bacterium Azospirillum brasilense jointly immobilized with Chlorella vulgaris or C. sorokiniana in alginate beads on total carbohydrates and starch was studied under dark and heterotrophic conditions for 144 h in synthetic growth medium supplemented with either d-glucose or Na-acetate as carbon sources. In all treatments, enhanced total carbohydrates and starch content per culture and per cell was obtained after 24h; only jointly immobilized C. vulgaris growing on d-glucose significantly increased total carbohydrates and starch content after 96 h. Enhanced accumulation of carbohydrate and starch under jointly immobilized conditions was variable with time of sampling and substrate used. Similar results occurred when the microalgae was immobilized alone. In both microalgae growing on either carbon sources, the bacterium promoted accumulation of carbohydrates and starch; when the microalgae were immobilized alone, they used the carbon sources for cell multiplication. In jointly immobilized conditions with Chlorella spp., affinity to carbon source and volumetric productivity and yield were higher than when Chlorella spp. were immobilized alone; however, the growth rate was higher in microalgae immobilized alone. This study demonstrates that under heterotrophic conditions, A. brasilense promotes the accumulation of carbohydrates in two strains Chlorella spp. under certain time-substrate combinations, producing mainly starch. As such, this bacterium is a biological factor that can change the composition of compounds in microalgae in dark, heterotrophic conditions. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Vacuum ultraviolet photoionization of carbohydrates and nucleotides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Joong-Won, E-mail: jshin@govst.edu [Division of Science, Governors State University, University Park, Illinois 60484-0975 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523-1872 (United States); Bernstein, Elliot R., E-mail: erb@lamar.colostate.edu [Department of Chemistry, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523-1872 (United States)

    2014-01-28

    Carbohydrates (2-deoxyribose, ribose, and xylose) and nucleotides (adenosine-, cytidine-, guanosine-, and uridine-5{sup ′}-monophosphate) are generated in the gas phase, and ionized with vacuum ultraviolet photons (VUV, 118.2 nm). The observed time of flight mass spectra of the carbohydrate fragmentation are similar to those observed [J.-W. Shin, F. Dong, M. Grisham, J. J. Rocca, and E. R. Bernstein, Chem. Phys. Lett. 506, 161 (2011)] for 46.9 nm photon ionization, but with more intensity in higher mass fragment ions. The tendency of carbohydrate ions to fragment extensively following ionization seemingly suggests that nucleic acids might undergo radiation damage as a result of carbohydrate, rather than nucleobase fragmentation. VUV photoionization of nucleotides (monophosphate-carbohydrate-nucleobase), however, shows that the carbohydrate-nucleobase bond is the primary fragmentation site for these species. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations indicate that the removed carbohydrate electrons by the 118.2 nm photons are associated with endocyclic C–C and C–O ring centered orbitals: loss of electron density in the ring bonds of the nascent ion can thus account for the observed fragmentation patterns following carbohydrate ionization. DFT calculations also indicate that electrons removed from nucleotides under these same conditions are associated with orbitals involved with the nucleobase-saccharide linkage electron density. The calculations give a general mechanism and explanation of the experimental results.

  6. Vacuum ultraviolet photoionization of carbohydrates and nucleotides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Joong-Won; Bernstein, Elliot R.

    2014-01-01

    Carbohydrates (2-deoxyribose, ribose, and xylose) and nucleotides (adenosine-, cytidine-, guanosine-, and uridine-5 ′ -monophosphate) are generated in the gas phase, and ionized with vacuum ultraviolet photons (VUV, 118.2 nm). The observed time of flight mass spectra of the carbohydrate fragmentation are similar to those observed [J.-W. Shin, F. Dong, M. Grisham, J. J. Rocca, and E. R. Bernstein, Chem. Phys. Lett. 506, 161 (2011)] for 46.9 nm photon ionization, but with more intensity in higher mass fragment ions. The tendency of carbohydrate ions to fragment extensively following ionization seemingly suggests that nucleic acids might undergo radiation damage as a result of carbohydrate, rather than nucleobase fragmentation. VUV photoionization of nucleotides (monophosphate-carbohydrate-nucleobase), however, shows that the carbohydrate-nucleobase bond is the primary fragmentation site for these species. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations indicate that the removed carbohydrate electrons by the 118.2 nm photons are associated with endocyclic C–C and C–O ring centered orbitals: loss of electron density in the ring bonds of the nascent ion can thus account for the observed fragmentation patterns following carbohydrate ionization. DFT calculations also indicate that electrons removed from nucleotides under these same conditions are associated with orbitals involved with the nucleobase-saccharide linkage electron density. The calculations give a general mechanism and explanation of the experimental results

  7. Carbohydrates in Supramolecular Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbianco, Martina; Bharate, Priya; Varela-Aramburu, Silvia; Seeberger, Peter H

    2016-02-24

    Carbohydrates are involved in a variety of biological processes. The ability of sugars to form a large number of hydrogen bonds has made them important components for supramolecular chemistry. We discuss recent advances in the use of carbohydrates in supramolecular chemistry and reveal that carbohydrates are useful building blocks for the stabilization of complex architectures. Systems are presented according to the scaffold that supports the glyco-conjugate: organic macrocycles, dendrimers, nanomaterials, and polymers are considered. Glyco-conjugates can form host-guest complexes, and can self-assemble by using carbohydrate-carbohydrate interactions and other weak interactions such as π-π interactions. Finally, complex supramolecular architectures based on carbohydrate-protein interactions are discussed.

  8. Comparison of the Content of Web Sites of Higher Education Institutions Providing for Sports Management Education: The Case of Turkish and English Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katirci, Hakan

    2016-01-01

    Considering various themes, this study aims to examine the content of web sites of universities that provide sports management education in higher education level in Turkey and in England. Within this framework, the websites of the higher education institutions that provide sports management education are analyzed by using the content analysis…

  9. Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editor IJRED

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available International Journal of Renewable Energy Development www.ijred.com Volume 1             Number 3            October 2012                ISSN 2252- 4940   CONTENTS OF ARTICLES page Design and Economic Analysis of a Photovoltaic System: A Case Study 65-73 C.O.C. Oko , E.O. Diemuodeke, N.F. Omunakwe, and E. Nnamdi     Development of Formaldehyde Adsorption using Modified Activated Carbon – A Review 75-80 W.D.P Rengga , M. Sudibandriyo and M. Nasikin     Process Optimization for Ethyl Ester Production in Fixed Bed Reactor Using Calcium Oxide Impregnated Palm Shell Activated Carbon (CaO/PSAC 81-86 A. Buasri , B. Ksapabutr, M. Panapoy and N. Chaiyut     Wind Resource Assessment in Abadan Airport in Iran 87-97 Mojtaba Nedaei       The Energy Processing by Power Electronics and its Impact on Power Quality 99-105 J. E. Rocha and B. W. D. C. Sanchez       First Aspect of Conventional Power System Assessment for High Wind Power Plants Penetration 107-113 A. Merzic , M. Music, and M. Rascic   Experimental Study on the Production of Karanja Oil Methyl Ester and Its Effect on Diesel Engine 115-122 N. Shrivastava,  , S.N. Varma and M. Pandey  

  10. Post-harvest treatments in smooth-stalked meadow grass (Poa pratensis L.) - effect on carbohydrates and tiller development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, Birte

    2007-01-01

    Temperate grass species require a period of short days/low temperature to respond to flower induction stimuli. The same environmental conditions stimulate the increase in carbohydrate concentration in aboveground biomass and the accumulation of reserve carbohydrates in the basal plant parts....... The present investigation was initiated to investigate the effect of post-harvest treatments on dry matter production in autumn, carbohydrate content, the number of reproductive tillers and seed yield in a turf-type cultivar ‘Conni' of smooth-stalked meadow grass. The results show that post-harvest treatments...... harvest and all residues removed. The results from plant samples in autumn indicate that decreasing aboveground biomass production leads to a higher carbohydrate concentration which may stimulate the reproductive development in smooth-stalked meadow grass....

  11. Carbohydrate production, balance and translocation in leaves, shoots and fruits of Montmorency sour cherry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kappes, E.M.

    1986-01-01

    Carbohydrate production, export and use were studied for different organs of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L. Montmorency). Gross carbohydrate ( 14 CO 2 ) export started between 27.2 and 77.6% of full leaf expansion. The 10th leaf developing started export later than the 7th leaf, suggesting that higher carbohydrate availability during leaf expansion delays export initiation. In support of this, gross export started earlier (44.4-52.4% full expansion) after source leaf removal, than in the control (77.6%). Translocation was primarily vertical (following orthostichies). Most leaves of fruiting shoots exported bidirectionally to the apex and fruits, only leaves closest to fruits exported exclusively to fruits during rapid cell division (Stage I) and rapid cell expansion (Stage III). Net export, determined from carbohydrate balance models started at 17 and 51% expansion for the 7th and terminal leaf, and at 26.5% of shoot elongation. Cumulative carbohydrate production of the 7th and terminal leaves during the first 9 and 11 days after emergence, exceeded carbohydrate accumulated at final size, 464.2 and 148.9 mg. A fruit carbohydrate balance was developed to determine contributions by fruit photosynthesis and fruit respiration, and to identify periods of greatest carbohydrate import. Fruit photosynthesis during development was characterized under different environmental conditions. Gross photosynthesis and chlorophyll content per fruit increased to a maximum during stage II and decreased thereafter. Gross photosynthesis approached a maximum at 40 0 C. Since dark respiration increased exponentially over the same temperature range, net photosynthesis reached a maximum at 18 0 C. Photorespiration was not detected

  12. Myostatin and carbohydrate disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assyov, Yavor S; Velikova, Tsvetelina V; Kamenov, Zdravko A

    2017-05-01

    Purpose/aim of the study: Myostatin is a myokine that has been shown to inhibit muscle growth and to have potentially deleterious effects on metabolism. The aim of the current study was to compare its circulating serum levels in subjects from the whole spectrum of carbohydrate disturbances leading to diabetes. A total of 159 age-, sex-, and BMI-matched subjects participated in the study - 50 had normal glucose tolerance (NGT), 60 had prediabetes (PreDM), and 49 had type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). Oral glucose tolerance testing was used to determine glucose tolerance. Serum myostatin was quantified by means of ELISA. Circulating serum myostatin levels were highest in patients with T2D, lower in subjects with prediabetes, and lowest in subjects with normoglycemia (all p Myostatin was shown to be positively associated with fasting plasma glucose, HOMA-IR, hepatic enzymes, uric acid, and FINDRISC questionnaire scores in both sexes. ROC analyses determined circulating myostatin levels to be of value for differentiating subjects with T2D (AUC = 0.72, p = 0.002 in men; AUC = 0.70, p = 0.004 in women) in the study population. After adjustment for potential confounders, in a multiple binary logistic regression model, serum myostatin added further information to traditional risk estimates in distinguishing subjects with T2D. Serum myostatin levels are higher with deterioration of carbohydrate tolerance. Furthermore, circulating myostatin is positively associated with traditional biochemical estimates of poor metabolic health. These data add to evidence of the involvement of this myokine in the pathogenesis of T2D.

  13. Modified carbohydrate-chitosan compounds, methods of making the same and methods of using the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venditti, Richard A; Pawlak, Joel J; Salam, Abdus; El-Tahlawy, Khaled Fathy

    2015-03-10

    Compositions of matter are provided that include chitosan and a modified carbohydrate. The modified carbohydrate includes a carbohydrate component and a cross linking agent. The modified carbohydrate has increased carboxyl content as compared to an unmodified counterpart carbohydrate. A carboxyl group of the modified carbohydrate is covalently bonded with an amino group of chitosan. The compositions of matter provided herein may include cross linked starch citrate-chitosan and cross linked hemicellulose citrate-chitosan, including foams thereof. These compositions yield excellent absorbency and metal chelation properties. Methods of making cross linked modified carbohydrate-chitosan compounds are also provided.

  14. Gastric emptying, glucose metabolism and gut hormones: evaluation of a common preoperative carbohydrate beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Mechteld A R; Richir, Milan C; Garretsen, Martijn K; van Schie, Annelies; Ghatei, Mohammed A; Holst, Jens J; Heijboer, Annemieke C; Uitdehaag, Bernard M J; Diamant, Michaela; Eekhoff, E Marelise W; van Leeuwen, Paul A M; Ligthart-Melis, Gerdien C

    2011-09-01

    To study the gastric-emptying rate and gut hormonal response of two carbohydrate-rich beverages. A specifically designed carbohydrate-rich beverage is currently used to support the surgical patient metabolically. Fruit-based beverages may also promote recovery, due to natural antioxidant and carbohydrate content. However, gastric emptying of fluids is influenced by its nutrient composition; hence, safety of preoperative carbohydrate loading should be confirmed. Because gut hormones link carbohydrate metabolism and gastric emptying, hormonal responses were studied. In eight volunteers, gastric emptying rates of both 400 mL of a ready-to-use beverage (A: Nutricia preOp; 50.4 g carbohydrates-mainly polysaccharides; 260 mOsm/kg) and 400 mL over-the-counter fruit-based lemonade (B: Roosvicee Original; 48 g carbohydrates--mainly fruit-associated saccharides; 805 mOsm/kg) were determined scintigraphically (using hepatate Tc-99(m)) according to a crossover design. Plasma glucose, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1), peptide YY, total glucagon, and ghrelin were studied. Gastric emptying showed no differences in residual volumes. Earlier onset in emptying for beverage A versus B was observed (trend), with significantly higher glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and glucagon responses at 15-90 min. GLP-1 was inversely related to residual volume. Fruit-based lemonade is a safe alternative for preoperative purposes. It induces a more limited glucose, insulin, and C-peptide response. Later onset in gastric emptying (B versus A: trend), lower glucagon release, and differences in beverage content and osmolarity may have contributed to those differences. Efficient emptying was reflected by early GLP-1 levels. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Isocaloric carbohydrate deprivation induces protein catabolism despite a low T3-syndrome in healthy men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisschop, P. H.; Sauerwein, H. P.; Endert, E.; Romijn, J. A.

    2001-01-01

    Dietary carbohydrate content is a major factor determining endocrine and metabolic regulation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relation between thyroid hormone levels and metabolic parameters during eucaloric carbohydrate deprivation. We measured thyroid hormone levels, resting energy

  16. Carbohydrates and Diabetes (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Carbohydrates and Diabetes KidsHealth / For Parents / Carbohydrates and Diabetes ... many kids with diabetes take to stay healthy. Carbohydrates and Blood Sugar The two main forms of ...

  17. Human Milk Macronutrients Content: Effect of Advanced Maternal Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubetzky, Ronit; Sever, Orna; Mimouni, Francis B; Mandel, Dror

    2015-11-01

    Little is known about the effect of advanced maternal age upon macronutrients of human milk. This study was designed to study contents of macronutrients (fat, lactose, and protein) in human milk collected in the first 2 weeks of life in older (≥35 years) compared with younger (Macronutrient contents were measured at 72 hours, 7 days, and 14 days after delivery using infrared transmission spectroscopy. The groups did not differ in terms of maternal prepregnancy weight, height, and diet or infant birth weight or gestational age. They differed significantly in terms of maternal age and maternal weight after pregnancy. Fat content in colostrum and carbohydrate content in mature milk were significantly higher in the older mothers group. Moreover, carbohydrates in mature milk correlated positively with maternal age. Fat content at an infant age of 7 days and 2 weeks was not affected by maternal age. There was no significant relationship between maternal body weight for height (or body mass index) and energy, protein, fat or lactose content at any stage. Fat content of colostrum and carbohydrate content of mature milk obtained from mothers with advanced age are elevated compared with those of younger mothers. Moreover, there is a positive correlation between maternal age and carbohydrate content in mature milk. The biological significance of our findings is yet to be determined.

  18. An Exploration of the Technological, Pedagogical and Content Knowledge (TPACK Framework: Utilising a Social Networking Site in Irish Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Glowatz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Research into the use of social media for academic purposes is growing. Much of it suggests that social networking sites (SNSs could be used as innovative tools for teaching (Duncan & Baryzck, 2013; Harris, 2012; O’Brien & Glowatz, 2013. This paper argues that research in this field has often neglected to take account of the pedagogy involved in successfully utilising a SNS for educational purposes. Koehler & Mishra (2009 have proposed the technological, pedagogical and content knowledge framework (TPACK to explore the relationship of technology to teaching in order to build the basis for further research. We explore the suitability of the TPACK framework in the context of SNSs for academic engagement, and we review its relevance to the adoption of a SNS as a teaching tool. Our investigation so far suggests that the current TPACK framework overlooks some important elements that are relevant to the adoption of SNSs. This paper outlines some of these overlooked elements and evaluates the use of the TPACK framework in the exploration of SNS usage in higher education to engage students with curriculum. Specifically, we address the key question, ‘Does the TPACK framework provide an insight into the knowledge base required to effectively deliver a module utilizing SNSs?’

  19. CARBOHYDRATE-CONTAINING COMPOUNDS WHICH BIND TO CARBOHYDRATE BINDING RECEPTORS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1995-01-01

    Carbohydrate-containing compounds which contain saccharides or derivatives thereof and which bind to carbohydrate binding receptors are useful in pharmaceutical products for treatment of inflammatory diseases and other diseases.......Carbohydrate-containing compounds which contain saccharides or derivatives thereof and which bind to carbohydrate binding receptors are useful in pharmaceutical products for treatment of inflammatory diseases and other diseases....

  20. Melatonin redirects carbohydrates metabolism during sugar starvation in plant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobylińska, Agnieszka; Borek, Sławomir; Posmyk, Małgorzata M

    2018-05-01

    Recent studies have shown that melatonin is an important molecule in plant physiology. It seems that the most important is that melatonin efficacy eliminates oxidative stress (direct and indirect antioxidant) and moreover induce plant stress reaction and switch on different defence strategies (preventively and interventively actions). In this report, the impact of exogenous melatonin on carbohydrate metabolism in Nicotiana tabacum L. line Bright Yellow 2 (BY-2) suspension cells during sugar starvation was examined. We analysed starch concentration, α-amylase and PEPCK activity as well as proteolytic activity in culture media. It has been shown that BY-2 cell treatment with 200 nM of melatonin improved viability of sugar-starved cells. It was correlated with higher starch content and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) activity. The obtained results revealed that exogenous melatonin under specific conditions (stress) can play regulatory role in sugar metabolism, and it may modulate carbohydrate concentration in etiolated BY-2 cells. Moreover, our results confirmed the hypothesis that if the starch is synthesised even in sugar-starved cells, it is highly probable that melatonin shifts the BY-2 cell metabolism on gluconeogenesis pathway and allows for synthesis of carbohydrates from nonsugar precursors, that is amino acids. These points to another defence strategy that was induced by exogenous melatonin applied in plants to overcome adverse environmental conditions. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Carbohydrates and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtman, Richard J.; Wurtman, Judith J.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the symptoms, such as appetite change and mood fluctuation, basic mechanisms, and some treatments of Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD), Carbohydrate-Craving Obesity (CCO) and Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS). Provides several tables and diagrams, and three reading references. (YP)

  2. Low-carbohydrate-diet score and metabolic syndrome: An epidemiologic study among Iranian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirani, Fatemeh; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Keshteli, Ammar Hassanzadeh; Adibi, Peyman; Azadbakht, Leila

    2015-09-01

    Epidemiologic studies linking carbohydrate consumption and risk for metabolic syndrome (MetS) are limited. The association between low-carbohydrate-diet score and MetS has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate low-carbohydrate-diet score in relation to MetS among a group of Iranian women. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 442 Iranian female teachers >20 y of age. Usual dietary intakes were assessed using a validated, dish-based semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute/International Diabetes Federation definition guidelines. The prevalence of MetS in the lowest and highest quintile of low-carbohydrate-diet score was 17.5% and 18.8%, respectively (P = 0.97). There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence between extreme quartiles low-carbohydrate-diet score and MetS (odds ratio, 0.93; 95% confidence interval, 0.38-2.28). After controlling for age, energy intake, and other potential confounders, low-carbohydrate-diet score was not significantly associated with MetS. A significant association was observed between this score and abnormal fasting plasma glucose. We failed to find a significant relationship between this score and other components of MetS. Diets with lower amounts of carbohydrate and higher contents of fat and protein were not significantly associated with the risk for MetS in a cross-sectional study with a group of Iranian women. More longitudinal studies are needed to confirm these results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Glycemic and lipid control in hospitalized type 2 diabetic patients: evaluation of 2 enteral nutrition formulas (low carbohydrate-high monounsaturated fat vs high carbohydrate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Sanz, Miguel; García-Luna, Pedro P; Sanz-París, Alejandro; Gómez-Candela, Carmen; Casimiro, César; Chamorro, José; Pereira-Cunill, José L; Martin-Palmero, Angeles; Trallero, Roser; Martínez, José; Ordóñez, Francisco Javier; García-Peris, Pilar; Camarero, Emma; Gómez-Enterría, Pilar; Cabrerizo, Lucio; Perez-de-la-Cruz, Antonio; Sánchez, Carmen; García-de-Lorenzo, Abelardo; Rodríguez, Nelly; Usán, Luis

    2005-01-01

    Type 2 diabetic patients may need enteral nutrition support as part of their treatment. The objective was to compare glycemic and lipid control in hospitalized patients with type 2 diabetes requiring feeding via nasogastric tube using enteral feedings with either a highcarbohydrate or a high-monounsaturated-fat content. This trial included type 2 diabetes patients admitted to the hospital for neurologic disorders or head and neck cancer surgery who received either a low-carbohydrate-high-mono-unsaturated-fat (Glucerna) or a high-carbohydrate diet (Precitene Diabet). Glycemic and lipid control was determined weekly. Safety and gastrointestinal tolerance were also assessed. A total of 104 patients were randomized and 63 were evaluable according to preestablished protocol criteria. Median duration of therapy was 13 days in both groups. Mean glucose was significantly increased at 7 days of treatment (p = .006) in the Precitene arm, with no significant variations in the Glucerna arm. Mean weekly blood triglycerides levels in the Precitene arm were increased without reaching statistical significance, whereas patients in the Glucerna arm showed a stable trend. Patients in the Precitene arm showed a significantly higher incidence of diarrhea than patients in Glucerna arm (p = .008), whereas the incidence of nausea was smaller in the Precitene arm than in the Glucerna arm (p = .03). An enteral formula with lower carbohydrate and higher monounsaturated fat (Glucerna) has a neutral effect on glycemic control and lipid metabolism in type 2 diabetic patients compared with a high-carbohydrate and a lower-fat formula (Precitene Diabet).

  4. Higher fatty acids in Chlorella vulgaris (pyrenoidosa): Content of indivudual acids and use of the algae for the preparation of higher fatty acids - 14C(G)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matucha, M.

    1975-01-01

    A survey of data on the occurrence of higher fatty acids in the lipids of C h l o r e l l a v u l g a r i s (pyrenoidosa) is presented with a view to the biosynthetical preparation of fatty acids- 14 C(G). (author)

  5. Carbohydrate deficient transferrin (CDT) in alcoholic cirrhosis: a kinetic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik; Grønbaek, M; Møller, Søren

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: Carbohydrate deficient transferrin has been introduced as a marker of excessive alcohol intake. The present study was undertaken in order to measure the circulating level of carbohydrate deficient transferrin in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis and to assess arteriovenous kinetics...... of carbohydrate deficient transferrin in liver and kidney. METHODS/RESULTS: The median value of serum carbohydrate deficient transferrin was 16.0 U/l in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis (n = 41), and this value was not significantly different from that of a normal control group (median 17.4 U/l, n = 55, ns......). Carbohydrate deficient transferrin was significantly higher in patients with cirrhosis and high current alcohol intake than in abstaining patients (20 vs. 14 U/l, p 50 g/day) had a significantly higher carbohydrate deficient transferrin...

  6. Protein and carbohydrate in P-POM collected from the fishing ground in Minnan-Taiwan Bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yongquan; Zhang, Huan

    1992-06-01

    The analysis of the protein and carbohydrate in P-POM (Plankton and Particulate Organic Matter) samples collected from the fishing ground in Minnan-Taiwan Bank in five voyages (April, June, July, August and November, 1988) shows that the protein and carbohydrate contents and amounts in samples from four stations (501, 401, 301, 201) along the coast and another four stations (404, 304, 403, 204) south and southeast of the shoal were higher than those in April and November, indicating that this phenomenon is related to the upwelling in the two regions in summer.

  7. Fat and carbohydrate metabolism during submaximal exercise in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aucouturier, Julien; Baker, Julien S; Duché, Pascale

    2008-01-01

    During exercise, the contribution of fat and carbohydrate to energy expenditure is largely modulated by the intensity of exercise. Age, a short- or long-term diet enriched in carbohydrate or fat substrate stores, training and gender are other factors that have also been found to affect this balance. These factors have been extensively studied in adults from the perspective of improving performance in athletes, or from a health perspective in people with diseases. During the last decade, lifestyle changes associated with high-energy diets rich in lipid and reduced physical activity have contributed to the increase in childhood obesity. This lifestyle change has emerged as a serious health problem favouring the early development of cardiovascular diseases, insulin resistance or type 2 diabetes mellitus. Increasing physical activity levels in young people is important to increase energy expenditure and promote muscle oxidative capacity. Therefore, it is surprising that the regulation of balance between carbohydrate and lipid use during exercise has received much less attention in children than in adults. In this review, we have focused on the factors that affect carbohydrate and lipid metabolism during exercise and have identified areas that may be relevant in explaining the higher contribution of lipid to energy expenditure in children when compared with adults. Low muscle glycogen content is possibly associated with a low activity of glycolytic enzymes and high oxidative capacity, while lower levels of sympathoadrenal hormones are likely to favour lipid metabolism in children. Changes in energetic metabolism occurring during adolescence are also dependent on pubertal events with an increase in testosterone in boys and estrogen and progesterone in girls. The profound effects of ovarian hormones on carbohydrate and fat metabolism along with their effects on oxidative enzymes could explain that differences in substrate metabolism have not always been observed between

  8. 康奈尔净碳水化合物-蛋白质体系预测小肠可消化粗蛋白质含量%Predicting Utilizable Crude Protein Content in Small Intestine by Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王燕; 杨方; 陈常栋; 王海威; 张微微; 张永根

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to establish mathematical models of predicting utilizable crude protein (uCP) content in feed for dairy cows using Cornell net carbohydrate and protein system (CNCPS). Contents of protein fractions of 13 kinds of common feeds were analyzed using CNCPS, and uCP of feeds was determined using mobile nylon bag method, and three Holstein dairy cows with permanent ruminal and duodenal cannulas were used in a single factor experimental design. The results showed as follows: 1) contents of uCP in soybean meal, cottonseed meal, rapeseed meal, sunflower seed meal, sesame meal, corn germ meal, rice bran, rice bran cake, rice bran meal, barley, wheat bran, corn and corn gluten feed were 390. 32, 321. 90, 297.21, 230.50, 388.62, 177.49, 85.53, 116.78, 134.74, 80.47, 128.26, 70.28 and 66. 65 g/kg, respectively. 2) The regression equation of contents of measured uCP and CNCPS fractions in all experimental feeds was uCP = -4.11 + 6.48PA+7.73PB, + 5.72PB2 +8.26PB3 +5. UPC (R2 =0.997 2, P<0.01) ; the regression equation of contents of measured uCP and CNCPS fractions in protein feed was uCP =12. 79 + 5. 47PA +7. 04PBl +9. 74PB2 +8. 14PB3 (R2 = 0. 998 7, P < 0. 01) ; the regression equation of contents of measured uCP and CNCPS fractions in energy feed was uCP = 14. 80 +8. 55PA +6. 27PB2 +17. 64PB3(R2 = 0.987 4, P<0.01). 3) Regression coefficients (R2) between CNCPS fractions contents and measured uCP contents in protein feed, energy feed and all experimental feed were all higher than 0. 95, and regression coefficient between measured uCP content and CNCPS fractions contents in protein feed was higher than that in energy feed. In conclusion, it is feasible that using contents of protein components subdivided by CNCPS to predict uCP content, and the prediction result in protein feed is more accurate than that in energy feed.%本试验旨在建立奶牛饲料的康奈尔净碳水化合物-蛋白质体系(Cornell net carbohydrate and protein system,CNCPS)预测

  9. “UKRAINIAN SACRED MUSIC” ELECTRONIC STUDU GUIDE: CONTENT, STRUCTURE, USE RECOMMENDATIONS AT A PEDAGOGICAL HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Gavrilova

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the electronic textbook “Ukrainian Sacred Music”, created for the students of pedagogical universities – future teachers of music. We consider the content of the electronic manual, its structure, requirements for the computer, as well as the prospects for its use in the classroom on the history of Ukrainian music and self-study.

  10. Strategic Planning for Institutions of Higher Education: A Content Analysis for the Universidad Tecnica del Estado Planning System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadima, Oscar

    Ten-year development plans of each of the eight campuses of the Universidad de Santiago de Chile, formerly called Universidad Tecnica del Estado, are evaluated, using content analysis. In addition to narrative descriptions, diagrams illustrate the features of each plan, which covers the period 1983-1993. Topics covered by the plans were grouped…

  11. Submerged cultivation of mycelium with high ergothioneine content from the culinary-medicinal king oyster mushroom Pleurotus eryngii (higher Basidiomycetes) and its composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chih-Hung; Huang, Ling-Yi; Ho, Kung-Jui; Lin, Shin-Yi; Mau, Jeng-Leun

    2013-01-01

    The culinary-medicinal king oyster mushroom, Pleurotus eryngii, was used to produce mycelia with high ergothioneine content using a one-factor-at-a-time method. The optimal culture conditions for mycelia harvested at day 14 were 25°C, 10% inoculation rate, 2% glucose, 0.5% yeast extract, and no adjustment to the initial pH value. With histidine or amino acid mix added, biomasses and the ergothioneine content of mycelia were higher than those of the control. The ergothioneine content of mycelia harvested at days 16-20 were higher than that of mycelia harvested at day 14. In addition, the ergothioneine content of mycelia from the fermentor (5.84-5.76 mg/g) was much higher than that of mycelia from the shaken flask (4.93-5.04 mg/g). Mycelia with high ergothioneine content showed a profile of proximate composition similar to that of regular mycelia but lost its characteristic umami taste. Overall, mycelia high in ergothioneine could be prepared by optimal culture conditions, the addition of precursors, prolonged harvest, and aeration in the fermentor.

  12. Carbohydrate intake and obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, R M; Seidell, J C

    2007-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity has increased rapidly worldwide and the importance of considering the role of diet in the prevention and treatment of obesity is widely acknowledged. This paper reviews data on the effects of dietary carbohydrates on body fatness. Does the composition of the diet as related

  13. A Comparison of Higher-Order Thinking between the Common Core State Standards and the 2009 New Jersey Content Standards in High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sforza, Dario; Tienken, Christopher H.; Kim, Eunyoung

    2016-01-01

    The creators and supporters of the Common Core State Standards claim that the Standards require greater emphasis on higher-order thinking than previous state standards in mathematics and English language arts. We used a qualitative case study design with content analysis methods to test the claim. We compared the levels of thinking required by the…

  14. Differential effects of simple vs. complex carbohydrates on VLDL secretion rates and HDL metabolism in the guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, M L; Abdel-Fattah, G; McNamara, D J

    1995-04-28

    Guinea pigs were fed isocaloric diets containing 52% (w/w) carbohydrate, either sucrose or starch, to investigate effects of simple vs. complex carbohydrates on plasma VLDL and HDL metabolism. Plasma cholesterol concentrations were not different between dietary groups while plasma triacylglycerol (TAG) and VLDL cholesterol levels were significantly increased in animals fed the sucrose diet (P < 0.05). Hepatic VLDL TAG secretion rates measured following intravenous injection of Triton WR-1339 were not affected by carbohydrate type whereas the rate of apo B secretion was 1.9-fold higher in sucrose fed animals (P < 0.02). Nascent VLDL from the sucrose group contained less TAG per apo B suggesting that the higher plasma TAG in animals fed simple carbohydrates results from increased secretion of VLDL particles with lower TAG content. Sucrose fed animals exhibited higher concentrations of hepatic free cholesterol (P < 0.01) while hepatic TAG levels and acyl CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) activity were not different between groups. Plasma HDL cholesterol concentrations and composition, and plasma lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity were not affected by diet yet there was a positive correlation between HDL cholesteryl ester content and LCAT activities (r = 0.70, P < 0.05). Hepatic membranes from the sucrose group had a higher hepatic HDL binding protein number (Bmax) with no changes in the dissociation constant (Kd). These results suggest that at the same carbohydrate energy intake, simple sugars induce modest changes in HDL metabolism while VLDL metabolism is affected at multiple sites, as indicated by the higher concentrations of hepatic cholesterol, dissociation in the synthesis rates of VLDL components, and compositional changes in nascent and mature VLDL.

  15. Digital immigrants teaching digital natives: A phenomenological study of higher education faculty perspectives on technology integration with English core content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, Robert C.

    In the last two decades, technology use has escalated and educators grapple with its advances and integration into the classroom. Issues surrounding what constitutes a literate society, the clarion calls for educational reform emanating from US presidents to parent teacher organizations, and educators' ability to cope with advances in technology in the classroom demand attention. Therefore, the purpose of this qualitative study was to explore and understand the professional and educational experiences of six English faculty members teaching undergraduate courses at Midwest universities. Using the framework of Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge -- TPACK (Koehler and Mishra 2008), the major focus of the study was to determine how faculty members understood what characterized the nature of teaching with technology in undergraduate classrooms. Results of this study revealed five themes showing how the participants were introduced to technology, how they assimilated it into their pedagogy, and how they integrated it into teaching practice. This study has the potential to impact the nature of illustrating the methods and techniques used by the six participants as they merge technology, pedagogy, and content knowledge and set in motion classroom practices that assist faculty at all levels to develop and teach technology skills necessary for the 21st century and to better prepare students for thinking critically about how to use digital advances.

  16. Research on the integration of teaching content of core courses in Agro-ecological environmental specialties of higher vocational colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juan; Ma, Guosheng

    2018-02-01

    Curriculum is the means to cultivate higher vocational talents. On the basis of analyzing the core curriculum problems of curriculum reform and Agro-ecological environmental specialties in higher vocational colleges, this paper puts forward the optimization and integration measures of 6 core courses, including “Eco-environment Repair Technology”, “Agro-environmental Management Plan”, “Environmental Engineering Design”, “Environmental Pest Management Technology”, “Agro-chemical Pollution Control Technology”, “Agro-environmental Testing and Analysis”. It integrates the vocational qualification certificate education and professional induction certificate training items, and enhances the adaptability, skills and professionalism of professional core curriculum.

  17. Higher Education Curriculum for Sustainability: Course Contents Analyses of Purchasing and Supply Management Programme of Polytechnics in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etse, Daniel; Ingley, Coral

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to determine the degree of attention to and the nature of sustainability issues in the curriculum of the Higher National Diploma (HND) Purchasing and Supply Management programme of Ghana. Design/Methodology/Approach: Documentary research is the approach used to analyse the curriculum document for the programme…

  18. Quality of Higher Education: Organisational or Educational? A Content Analysis of Chinese University Self-Evaluation Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yihuan; Du, Xiangyun; Rasmussen, Palle

    2012-01-01

    Based on a study of Chinese university self-evaluation reports, this paper argues that higher education institutions are trying to manage the tensions between educational and organisational quality and the increasing and worldwide concerns about quality assurance. After 30 years of dramatic educational reform, China has established a nationwide…

  19. Carbohydrate-enriched cyanobacterial biomass as feedstock for bio-methane production through anaerobic digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markou, Giorgos; Angelidaki, Irini; Georgakakis, Dimitris

    2013-01-01

    The anaerobic digestion performance using carbohydrate-enriched biomass of Arthrospira platensis was studied. The carbohydrate enrichment was achieved after the cultivation of A. platensis under phosphorus limitation conditions. Three biomass compositions (60%, 40% and 20% carbohydrates content......) were used. The overall observation as the biomass carbohydrates increased was that bio-methane yield increased. The highest bio-methane yield in bioreactors with 60% carbohydrates was 203±10ml CH4 gCODinfl-1, while the lowest bio-methane yield in bioreactors with 20% carbohydrates was 123±10ml CH4 g......CODinfl-1. The trend of increasing bio-methane yield as carbohydrates content of the biomass increased was observed almost in all three HRT (15, 20 and 30days) studied and after thermal pre-treatment. However, thermal pre-treatment did not improve the bio-methane yield. Ammonia concentration had an overall...

  20. Viscosity of Industrially Important Zn-Al Alloys Part II: Alloys with Higher Contents of Al and Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, V. M. B.; Queirós, C. S. G. P.; Lourenço, M. J. V.; Santos, F. J. V.; Nieto de Castro, C. A.

    2018-05-01

    The viscosity of Zn-Al alloys melts, with industrial interest, was measured for temperatures between 693 K and 915 K, with an oscillating cup viscometer, and estimated expanded uncertainties between 3 and 5 %, depending on the alloy. The influence of minor components, such as Si, Mg and Ce + La, on the viscosity of the alloys is discussed. An increase in the amount of Mg triggers complex melt/solidification processes while the addition of Ce and La renders alloys viscosity almost temperature independent. Furthermore, increases in Al and Si contents decrease melts viscosity and lead to an Arrhenius type behavior. This paper complements a previous study describing the viscosity of Zn-Al alloys with quasi-eutectic compositions.

  1. Association of carbohydrate and fat intake with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yu-Jin; Lee, Hye-Sun; Lee, Ji-Won

    2018-04-01

    In Asia, dietary pattern has been changed with increased intake of refined carbohydrates, sugar, and saturated fat, while the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) is on the rise. However, it remains unclear whether a high-carbohydrate or a high-fat diet is more metabolically harmful, and the optimal amount of carbohydrates and fat has not been determined. The aim of our study was to examine the role of carbohydrate and fat intake in MetS in a Korean population. Data were obtained from a large, population-based, cross-sectional study (6737 males and 8845 females). The subjects were divided into nine groups based on carbohydrate and fat proportion, and multiple logistic regression analysis was performed after adjusting for confounding variables. Regardless of fat intake, the risk of MetS significantly increased in males with higher carbohydrate proportions (of total energy intake). In females, the risk of MetS was significantly elevated only in those with both the highest carbohydrate proportion and lowest fat proportion. A high carbohydrate proportion was associated with a higher prevalence of MetS in males, and a high carbohydrate proportion combined with a low fat proportion was associated with MetS in females. Our results indicate that reduction of excessive carbohydrate intake paired with an adequate fat intake, taking into consideration optimal types of fat, is useful for MetS prevention. Longitudinal studies are needed to clarify the optimal types and amounts of carbohydrate and fat proportions as well as the mechanism underlying these relationships. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  2. Breast milk nutrient content and infancy growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, Philippa; Ong, Ken K; Schoemaker, Marieke H; van Tol, Eric A F; Vervoort, Jacques; Hughes, Ieuan A; Acerini, Carlo L; Dunger, David B

    2016-06-01

    Benefits of human breast milk (HM) in avoiding rapid infancy weight gain and later obesity could relate to its nutrient content. We tested the hypothesis that differential HM total calorie content (TCC) or macronutrient contents may be associated with infancy growth. HM hindmilk samples were collected at ages 4-8 weeks from 614 mothers participating in a representative birth cohort, with repeated infancy anthropometry. HM triglyceride (fat), lipid analytes and lactose (carbohydrate) were measured by (1) H-NMR, and protein content by the Dumas method. TCC and %macronutrients were determined. In 614 HM samples, fat content was as follows: [median(IQR)]: 2.6 (1.7-3.6) g/100 mL, carbohydrate: 8.6 (8.2-8.8) g/100 mL, protein: 1.2 (1.1-1.2) g/100 mL; TCC: 61.8 (53.7-71.3) kcal/100 mL. HM of mothers exclusively breast feeding vs. mixed feeding was more calorific with higher %fat, lower %carbohydrate and lower %protein. Higher HM TCC was associated with lower 12-months body mass index (BMI)/adiposity, and lower 3-12 months gains in weight/BMI. HM %fat was inversely related to 3-12 months gains in weight, BMI and adiposity, whereas %carbohydrate was positively related to these measures. HM %protein was positively related to 12-months BMI. HM analysis showed wide variation in %macronutrients. Although data on milk intakes were unavailable, our findings suggest functional relevance of HM milk composition to infant growth. ©2016 The Authors. Acta Paediatrica published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  3. Nutritional Profile and Carbohydrate Characterization of Spray-Dried Lentil, Pea and Chickpea Ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M. Tosh

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Although many consumers know that pulses are nutritious, long preparation times are frequently a barrier to consumption of lentils, dried peas and chickpeas. Therefore, a product has been developed which can be used as an ingredient in a wide variety of dishes without presoaking or precooking. Dried green peas, chickpeas or lentils were soaked, cooked, homogenized and spray-dried. Proximate analyses were conducted on the pulse powders and compared to an instant mashed potato product. Because the health benefits of pulses may be due in part to their carbohydrate content, a detailed carbohydrate analysis was carried out on the pulse powders. Pulse powders were higher in protein and total dietary fibre and lower in starch than potato flakes. After processing, the pulse powders maintained appreciable amounts of resistant starch (4.4%–5.2%. Total dietary fibre was higher in chickpeas and peas (26.2% and 27.1% respectively than lentils (21.9%, whereas lentils had the highest protein content (22.7%. Pulse carbohydrates were rich in glucose, arabinose, galactose and uronic acids. Stachyose, a fermentable fibre, was the most abundant oligosaccharide, making up 1.5%–2.4% of the dried pulse powders. Spray-drying of cooked, homogenized pulses produces an easy to use ingredient with strong nutritional profile.

  4. Carbohydrates as Fat Replacers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xingyun; Yao, Yuan

    2017-02-28

    The overconsumption of dietary fat contributes to various chronic diseases, which encourages attempts to develop and consume low-fat foods. Simple fat reduction causes quality losses that impede the acceptance of foods. Fat replacers are utilized to minimize the quality deterioration after fat reduction or removal to achieve low-calorie, low-fat claims. In this review, the forms of fats and their functions in contributing to food textural and sensory qualities are discussed in various food systems. The connections between fat reduction and quality loss are described in order to clarify the rationales of fat replacement. Carbohydrate fat replacers usually have low calorie density and provide gelling, thickening, stabilizing, and other texture-modifying properties. In this review, carbohydrates, including starches, maltodextrins, polydextrose, gums, and fibers, are discussed with regard to their interactions with other components in foods as well as their performances as fat replacers in various systems.

  5. Broad-scale predictability of carbohydrates and exopolymers in Antarctic and Arctic sea ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Graham J C; Aslam, Shazia N; Michel, Christine; Niemi, Andrea; Norman, Louiza; Meiners, Klaus M; Laybourn-Parry, Johanna; Paterson, Harriet; Thomas, David N

    2013-09-24

    Sea ice can contain high concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), much of which is carbohydrate-rich extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) produced by microalgae and bacteria inhabiting the ice. Here we report the concentrations of dissolved carbohydrates (dCHO) and dissolved EPS (dEPS) in relation to algal standing stock [estimated by chlorophyll (Chl) a concentrations] in sea ice from six locations in the Southern and Arctic Oceans. Concentrations varied substantially within and between sampling sites, reflecting local ice conditions and biological content. However, combining all data revealed robust statistical relationships between dCHO concentrations and the concentrations of different dEPS fractions, Chl a, and DOC. These relationships were true for whole ice cores, bottom ice (biomass rich) sections, and colder surface ice. The distribution of dEPS was strongly correlated to algal biomass, with the highest concentrations of both dEPS and non-EPS carbohydrates in the bottom horizons of the ice. Complex EPS was more prevalent in colder surface sea ice horizons. Predictive models (validated against independent data) were derived to enable the estimation of dCHO concentrations from data on ice thickness, salinity, and vertical position in core. When Chl a data were included a higher level of prediction was obtained. The consistent patterns reflected in these relationships provide a strong basis for including estimates of regional and seasonal carbohydrate and dEPS carbon budgets in coupled physical-biogeochemical models, across different types of sea ice from both polar regions.

  6. Carbohydrates of influenza virus. I. Glycopeptides derived from viral glycoproteins after labeling with radioactive sugars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, R.T.; Schmidt, M.F.G.; Anwer, U.; Klenk, H.D.

    1977-01-01

    The carbohydrate moiety of the influenza glycoproteins NA, HA 1 , and HA 2 were analyzed by labeling with radioactive sugars. Analysis of glycopeptides obtained after digestion with Pronase indicated that there are at least two different types of carbohydrate side chains. The side chain of type I is composed of glucosamine, mannose, galactose, and fucose. It is found on NA, HA 1 , and HA 2 . The side chain of type II contains a high amount of mannose and is found only on NA and HA 2 . The molecular weights of the corresponding glycopeptides obtained from virus grown in chicken ambryo cells are 2,600 for type I and 2,000 for type II. The glycoproteins of virus grown in MDBK cells have a higher molecular weight than those of virus grown in chicken embryo cells, and there is a corresponding difference in the molecular weights of the glycopeptides. Under conditions of partial inhibition of glycosylation, virus particles were isolated that contained hemagglutinin with reduced carbohydrate content. Glycopeptide analysis indicated that this reduction is due to the lack of whole carbohydrate side chains and not to the incorporation of incomplete ones. This observation suggests that glycosylation of the viral glycoproteins involves en bloc transfer of the core sugars to the polypeptide chains

  7. Cerebral carbohydrate cost of physical exertion in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Mads K; Ogoh, Shigehiko; Dawson, Ellen A

    2004-01-01

    Above a certain level of cerebral activation the brain increases its uptake of glucose more than that of O(2), i.e., the cerebral metabolic ratio of O(2)/(glucose + 12 lactate) decreases. This study quantified such surplus brain uptake of carbohydrate relative to O(2) in eight healthy males who...... to exhaustion (15.8 +/- 1.7 min; P carbohydrate was not substantiated...... and, consequently, exhaustive exercise involves a brain surplus carbohydrate uptake of a magnitude comparable with its glycogen content....

  8. Content and Target Aspects of the Relativism Concept of National Stereotypes in the Higher School Foreign Language Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Sorokina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the innovative educational concept of teaching the foreign languages to the senior university students. The research methodology is based on M. Bennett’s model of intercultural sensitivitydevelopment necessary for the gradual transformation of ethnocentrism into ethno-relativism. The development of students’ relativistic perception of national stereotypes is perceived by the author as an important factor of both the natural cognitive mechanism and intercultural communication. The author argues that relativistic perception of national stereotypes can be achieved by fostering the intercultural world outlook, and therefore recommends incorporating a relativistic world view component in educational content structure along with the traditional components of knowledge, skills, attitudes, motives, creative activity expertise, etc.The paper emphasizes three consequent educational modules of ethnodifferentiation, ethno-integration and ethno-relativity in the proposed methodological system. The gradual fulfillment of educational goals, relatedto the above modules, can ensure the transformation of students’ perception of national stereotypes at the cognitive, affective, and behavioral levels. The proposed educational concept, approbated in the GermanLanguage Department of Zabaykalsky State University in 2010 – 2013, along with the research data prove the effectiveness of the given method, and demonstrate a substantial development of students’ intercultural competence and a decline in the ethnocentrism level.

  9. EDUCast@fccn: An example of European cooperation to implement the production of AV content in Higher Education Institutions in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel Martins; Hugo Ribeiro; Rui Ribeiro; Nelson Dias

    2012-01-01

    The specific logistics of each Higher Education Institution (HEI) in Portugal and the specific teaching of each academic community are some of the major challenges faced by technical staff, administrative staff and educational support staff of these institutions when trying to find an appropriate solution for the provision of audiovisual content. In this sense, it was developed since 2010 an innovative partnership initiated by the Portuguese Foundation for National Scientific Computing (FCCN)...

  10. Pre-anthesis high temperature acclimation alleviates the negative effects of postanthesis heat stress on stem stored carbohydrates remobilization and grain starch accumulation in wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiao; Cai, Jian; Liu, Fulai

    2012-01-01

    The potential role of pre-anthesis high temperature acclimation in alleviating the negative effects of post-anthesis heat stress on stem stored carbohydrate remobilization and grain starch accumulation in wheat was investigated. The treatments included no heat-stress (CC), heat stress at pre...... had much higher starch content, and caused less modified B-type starch granule size indicators than the CH plants. Our results indicated that, compared with the non-acclimated plants, the pre-anthesis high temperature acclimation effectively enhanced carbohydrate remobilization from stems to grains...

  11. Variações do conteúdo de carboidratos em gemas e ramos de dois anos de macieira em região de baixa ocorrência de frio Variations of carbohydrate content in two year old buds and stems of apple trees in a region of low chill occurence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruy Inacio Neiva de Carvalho

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se analisar as variações do conteúdo de carboidratos em gemas e ramos de dois anos de idade de macieira 'Imperial Gala' com ou sem frio suplementar durante o outono e inverno, cultivadas em região de baixa ocorrência de frio. Os ramos foram coletados em Porto Amazonas-PR, em intervalos de 21 dias, de abril a agosto (19-04, 10-05, 31-05, 21-06, 12-07, 02-08 e 23-08 e receberam ou não tratamento com frio suplementar de 1.440 horas à temperatura de 4 a 7° C. As análises de carboidratos foram realizadas em gemas e porções de ramos adjacentes às mesmas. Os carboidratos solúveis (CS totais foram determinados pelo método do fenol-ácido sulfúrico, realizando-se a leitura por espectrofotometria (absorbância a 490 nm. Os carboidratos insolúveis (CI totais foram estimados pelo rendimento da fração de tecido vegetal insolúvel em álcool e solúvel em álcali, após liofilização. Existem significativas variações do conteúdo de carboidratos em gemas e ramos de dois anos durante a dormência. O aumento da intensidade de dormência no outono está associado à redução do conteúdo de CS em gemas. O tratamento com 1.440 horas de frio suplementar modifica significativamente as variações do conteúdo de CS em ramos e de CI em gemas.This work aimed to quantify the variation of carbohydrate content in two year old buds and stems of apple trees cv. 'Imperial Gala' with or without supplementary chill during autumn and winter, cultivated in a region of low chill occurence. The stems were collected in Porto Amazonas, Parana State, Brazil, at intervals of 21 days from April to August (April 19th, May 10th, May 31st, June 21st, July 12th, August 2nd and August 23rd and were either treated or not with 1,440 hours of chill (4 to 7° C. The carbohydrates were analysed in buds and stem tissues adjacent to the buds. The soluble carbohydrates (SC were evaluated by the phenol-sulfuric acid method and the final determination was achieved by

  12. Linking Bacillus cereus Genotypes and Carbohydrate Utilization Capacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja K Warda

    Full Text Available We characterised carbohydrate utilisation of 20 newly sequenced Bacillus cereus strains isolated from food products and food processing environments and two laboratory strains, B. cereus ATCC 10987 and B. cereus ATCC 14579. Subsequently, genome sequences of these strains were analysed together with 11 additional B. cereus reference genomes to provide an overview of the different types of carbohydrate transporters and utilization systems found in B. cereus strains. The combined application of API tests, defined growth media experiments and comparative genomics enabled us to link the carbohydrate utilisation capacity of 22 B. cereus strains with their genome content and in some cases to the panC phylogenetic grouping. A core set of carbohydrates including glucose, fructose, maltose, trehalose, N-acetyl-glucosamine, and ribose could be used by all strains, whereas utilisation of other carbohydrates like xylose, galactose, and lactose, and typical host-derived carbohydrates such as fucose, mannose, N-acetyl-galactosamine and inositol is limited to a subset of strains. Finally, the roles of selected carbohydrate transporters and utilisation systems in specific niches such as soil, foods and the human host are discussed.

  13. Issues in Nutrition: Carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Margaret E; Noel, Mary Barth

    2017-01-01

    Carbohydrates include sugars, starches, and dietary fibers. Resistant starches resemble fiber in their behavior in the intestinal tract, and may have positive effects on blood glucose levels and the gut microbiome. Fibers are classified as soluble and insoluble, but most fiber-containing foods contain a mixture of soluble and insoluble fiber. Soluble fiber has been shown to lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Many artificial sweeteners and other sugar substitutes are available. Most natural sources of sweeteners also are energy sources. Many artificial sweeteners contain no kilocalories in the amounts typically used. Sugar alcohols may have a laxative effect when consumed in large amounts. Glycemic index and glycemic load are measurements that help quantify serum glucose response after ingestion of particular foods. These measurements may be affected by the combination of foods consumed in a given meal, and the glycemic index may vary among individuals eating the same meal. Eating foods with a low glycemic index may help prevent development of type 2 diabetes. There is no definitive evidence to recommend low-carbohydrate diets over low-fat diets for long-term weight loss; they are equally effective. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  14. Nutrient and carbohydrate partitioning in sorghum stover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, J.M.; Hons, F.M.; McBee, G.G.

    1991-01-01

    Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] stover has been demonstrated to be a potential biomass energy source. Complete aboveground crop removal, however, can result in soil degradation. Differential dry matter, nutrient, and carbohydrate partitioning by sorghum cultivars may allow management strategies that return certain parts to the field while removing other portions for alternative uses, such as energy production. A field study was conducted to determine N,P,K, nonstructural carbohydrate, cellulose hemicellulose, and lignin distributions in stover of three diverse sorghum cultivars of differing harvest indices. Determinations were based on total vegetative biomass; total blades; total stalks; and upper middle, and lower blades and stalks. Concentrations of N and P were higher in blades than stalks and generally declines from upper to lower stover parts. Large carbohydrate and lignin concentration differences were observed on the basis of cultivar and stover part. Greater nutrient partitioning to the upper third of the intermediate and forage-type sorghum stovers was observed as compared to the conventional grain cultivar. Stover carbohydrates for all cultivars were mainly contained in the lower two-thirds of the stalk fraction. A system was proposed for returning upper stover portion to soil, while removing remaining portions for alternative uses

  15. Impact of Dietary Carbohydrate and Protein Levels on Carbohydrate Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasker, Denise Ann

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this dissertation was to investigate the impact of changing dietary carbohydrate (CARB) intakes within recommended dietary guidelines on metabolic outcomes specifically associated with glycemic regulations and carbohydrate metabolism. This research utilized both human and animal studies to examine changes in metabolism across a wide…

  16. Response of C57Bl/6 mice to a carbohydrate-free diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borghjid Saihan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract High fat feeding in rodents generally leads to obesity and insulin resistance whereas in humans this is only seen if dietary carbohydrate is also high, the result of the anabolic effect of poor regulation of glucose and insulin. A previous study of C57Bl/6 mice (Kennedy AR, et al.: Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab (2007 262 E1724-1739 appeared to show the kind of beneficial effects of calorie restriction that is seen in humans but that diet was unusually low in protein (5%. In the current study, we tested a zero-carbohydrate diet that had a higher protein content (20%. Mice on the zero-carbohydrate diet, despite similar caloric intake, consistently gained more weight than animals consuming standard chow, attaining a dramatic difference by week 16 (46.1 ± 1.38 g vs. 30.4 ± 1.00 g for the chow group. Consistent with the obese phenotype, experimental mice had fatty livers and hearts as well as large fat deposits in the abdomino-pelvic cavity, and showed impaired glucose clearance after intraperitoneal injection. In sum, the response of mice to a carbohydrate-free diet was greater weight gain and metabolic disruptions in distinction to the response in humans where low carbohydrate diets cause greater weight loss than isocaloric controls. The results suggest that rodent models of obesity may be most valuable in the understanding of how metabolic mechanisms can work in ways different from the effect in humans.

  17. Carbohydrates Components of Some Italian Local Landraces: Garlic (Allium sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Lisciani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Garlic is one of the most widespread and ancient medicinal plants. Its health benefits are due to its chemical components, and among these is carbohydrate, whose characteristics have been so far little investigated. The aim of this study is to typify the various components of carbohydrate (starch, individual sugars, fructans, and total dietary fibre in four commonly consumed “Italian local landraces”: Bianco Piacentino, Rosso di Castelliri, Rosso di Sulmona, Rosso di Proceno, which are grown in two different geographical areas—Viterbo and Alvito—under the same agronomic conditions. This study will also evaluate how genotype and the cultivation area can affect the profile of the carbohydrate components of these landrace strains. Regarding unavailable carbohydrates, all of the varieties showed appreciable contents of fructans, the most representative component, which ranged from 45.8 to 54.4 g/100 g d.w. In contrast, total dietary fibre values varied from 9.1 to 13.1 g/100 g d.w. in Rosso di Castelliri and Bianco Piacentino, respectively, which are both grown in Viterbo. As for starch, only some traces were found, while the amount of total sugars ranged between 2.12 and 3.27 g/100 g d.w., with higher levels of sucrose. Our findings could provide important information that may be adopted to enhance and promote the quality of some local Italian garlic landraces through highlighting the influence that the cultivar and the environmental conditions can have on carbohydrates components.

  18. Carbohydrate metabolism in erythrocytes of copper deficient rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, S P J; Cockell, K A; Dawson, B A; Ratnayake, W M N; Lampi, B J; Belonje, B; Black, D B; Plouffe, L J

    2003-11-01

    Dietary copper deficiency is known to adversely affect the circulatory system of fructose-fed rats. Part of the problem may lie in the effect of copper deficiency on intermediary metabolism. To test this, weanling male Long-Evans rats were fed for 4 or 8 weeks on sucrose-based diets containing low or adequate copper content. Copper deficient rats had significantly lower plasma and tissue copper as well as lower plasma copper, zinc-superoxide dismutase activity. Copper deficient rats also had a significantly higher heart:body weight ratio when compared to pair-fed controls. Direct measurement of glycolysis and pentose phosphate pathway flux in erythrocytes using (13)C NMR showed no differences in carbon flux from glucose or fructose to pyruvate but a significantly higher flux through the lactate dehydrogenase locus in copper deficient rats (approximately 1.3 times, average of glucose and glucose + fructose measurements). Copper-deficient animals had significantly higher erythrocyte concentrations of glucose, fructose, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate and NAD(+). Liver metabolite levels were also affected by copper deficiency being elevated in glycogen and fructose 1-phosphate content. The results show small changes in carbohydrate metabolism of copper deficient rats.

  19. Characterization of carbohydrates in rainwater from the southeastern North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullaugh, Katherine M; Byrd, Jade N; Avery, G Brooks; Mead, Ralph N; Willey, Joan D; Kieber, Robert J

    2014-07-01

    Carbohydrates have been widely reported in atmospheric aerosols, but have not previously been quantified in rainwater. We have identified and quantified a series of 11 specific compounds including monosaccharides (glucose, fructose, arabinose, galactose and pinitol), disaccharides (sucrose and trehalose), sugar alcohols (arabitol, dulcitol and mannitol) and the anhydrosaccharide levoglucosan. Rainwater analyzed in this study includes 52 distinct precipitation events in Wilmington, NC between June 2011 and October 2012. Our analysis indicates carbohydrates typically contribute carbohydrates reached as high as 5.8 μM, with glucose and sucrose typically being the predominant species. The distribution of carbohydrates exhibited a distinct seasonal pattern, with higher concentrations of most carbohydrates, especially sucrose, in spring and summer, driven primarily by increased biogenic inputs during the growing season. Concentrations of carbohydrates were an order of magnitude higher in storms of terrestrial origin compared to marine events, further supporting a terrestrial biogenic origin of most species. Sequential sampling of Hurricane Irene showed significant quantities of carbohydrates present at the end of the storm when air mass back trajectories traversed over land. The highest level of levoglucosan, a compound associated with biomass burning, was detected in rain with an air mass back trajectory that traveled over a region affected by wildfires. When compared to aerosol concentrations reported by others, the sugar concentrations in rain demonstrate wet deposition is an important removal mechanism of this water-soluble and bioavailable fraction of atmospheric particulate organic matter. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Carbohydrate absorption from one serving of fruit juice in young children: age and carbohydrate composition effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobigrot, T; Chasalow, F I; Lifshitz, F

    1997-04-01

    To test the hypotheses that: the efficiency of carbohydrate absorption in childhood increases with age, and decreased carbohydrate absorption occurs more frequently with juices containing more fructose than glucose and/or sorbitol than with juices which contain equal amounts of fructose and glucose and are sorbitol-free. One hundred and four healthy children were recruited from the Ambulatory Center at Maimonides Children's Center. They were assigned to one of three age groups: approximately 1, 3 and 5 years of age. Each child received one age-specific dose (by randomization) of one of four juices: a) pear juice which contains fructose in excess to glucose and a large amount of sorbitol; b) apple juice which is similar to pear juice in its fructose to glucose ratio but contains four times less sorbitol than pear juice; c) white grape juice or d) purple grape juice both of which contain equal amounts of fructose and glucose and are sorbitol-free. Breath hydrogen excretion (BH2) was utilized as the index of carbohydrate absorption. It was measured in fasting children and at 30-minute intervals for 3 hours after drinking the single serving of juice. Multiple breath hydrogen related parameters were quantified and results were expressed as: BH2 peak, area under the curve, and degree of carbohydrate malabsorption. After the test, parents completed a questionnaire and recorded signs and symptoms of intestinal malabsorption for 24 hours. Pear juice related BH2 levels were significantly higher among children 1 and 3 years of age as compared to the levels achieved after the other juices. Apple juice related BH2 levels were significantly higher only among the youngest age group of children. There was no significant difference in carbohydrate absorption among the 5 year old children regardless of the juice consumed. Incomplete carbohydrate absorption (BH2 peak above 20 ppm) occurred more frequently after pear juice consumption (84%) than after apple juice (41%) or grape juice

  1. Seasonal dynamics of mobile carbohydrate pools in phloem and xylem of two alpine timberline conifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, A; Pirkebner, D; Oberhuber, W

    2013-10-01

    Recent studies on non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) reserves in trees focused on xylem NSC reserves, while still little is known about changes in phloem carbohydrate pools, where NSC charging might be significantly different. To gain insight on NSC dynamics in xylem and phloem, we monitored NSC concentrations in stems and roots of Pinus cembra (L.) and Larix decidua (Mill.) growing at the alpine timberline throughout 2011. Species-specific differences affected tree phenology and carbon allocation during the course of the year. After a delayed start in spring, NSC concentrations in L. decidua were significantly higher in all sampled tissues from August until the end of growing season. In both species, NSC concentrations were five to seven times higher in phloem than that in xylem. However, significant correlations between xylem and phloem starch content found for both species indicate a close linkage between long-term carbon reserves in both tissues. In L. decidua also, free sugar concentrations in xylem and phloem were significantly correlated throughout the year, while a lack of correlation between xylem and phloem free sugar pools in P. cembra indicate a decline of phloem soluble carbohydrate pools during periods of high sink demand.

  2. Optical absorption of irradiated carbohydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supe, A.A.; Tiliks, Yu.E.

    1994-01-01

    The optical absorption spectra of γ-irradiated carbohydrates (glucose, lactose, sucrose, maltose, and starch) and their aqueous solutions were studied. The comparison of the data obtained with the determination of the concentrations of molecular and radical products of radiolysis allows the absorption bands with maxima at 250 and 310 nm to be assigned to the radicals trapped in the irradiated carbohydrates

  3. Catalytic Conversion of Carbohydrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osmundsen, Christian Mårup

    a renewable route to aromatics. The conversion of biomass by high temperature processes is a desirable prospect due to the high volumetric production rates which can be achieved, and the ability of these types of processes to convert a wide range of substrates. Current processes however typically have rather...... with the production of commodity chemicals from the most abundantly available renewable source of carbon, carbohydrates. The production of alkyl lactates by the Lewis acid catalyzed conversion of hexoses is an interesting alternative to current fermentation based processes. A range of stannosilicates were...... to be an efficient initial conversion step in the utilization of biomass for chemicals production. The shift from an oil based chemical industry to one based on renewable resources is bound to happen sooner or later, however the environmental problems associated with the burning of fossil resources means...

  4. A cereal-based evening meal rich in indigestible carbohydrates increases plasma butyrate the next morning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Anne C; Östman, Elin M; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2010-01-01

    , mean ± SD: 25.9 ± 3.2 y, BMI meals (50 g available starch) varying in content of indigestible carbohydrates. Each participant consumed all test meals in a random order on separate evenings. At a standardized breakfast following evening test meals......, the postprandial glucose response (incremental area under the curve, 0-120 min) was inversely related to plasma butyrate (r = -0.26; P meals composed of high-amylose barley kernels or high-ß-glucan barley kernels resulted in higher plasma butyrate...... concentrations the following morning compared with an evening meal with white wheat bread (P

  5. Differential carbohydrate media and anaerobic replica plating techniques in delineating carbohydrate-utilizing subgroups in rumen bacterial populations.

    OpenAIRE

    Leedle, J A; Hespell, R B

    1980-01-01

    A basal (BC) medium devoid of added carbohydrates, a complete (CC) medium containing nine carbohydrates were developed for enumerating rumen bacteria. The colony counts on the BC medium were 85 to 100% of those obtained on the CC medium. These colonies were pinpoint size (less than or equal to mm in diameter) but increased in size (2 to 5 mm in diameter) when carbohydrates were subsequently added. With the CC medium or other media tested, the colony counts were 20 to 50% higher on plates than...

  6. Synthesis of carbohydrate-based surfactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pemberton, Jeanne E.; Polt, Robin L.; Maier, Raina M.

    2016-11-22

    The present invention provides carbohydrate-based surfactants and methods for producing the same. Methods for producing carbohydrate-based surfactants include using a glycosylation promoter to link a carbohydrate or its derivative to a hydrophobic compound.

  7. The effect of enteric galactose on neonatal canine carbohydrate metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kliegman, R.M.; Miettinen, E.L.; Kalhan, S.C.; Adam, P.A.

    1981-01-01

    Newborn pups were assigned to a fasting group or to a group receiving intravenous glucose alimentation. Glucose turnover was determined during steady state equilibration of simultaneously infused [6- 3 H] glucose. Thereafter, pups from each group received 0.625 g/Kg of either oral [U- 14 C] galactose or [U- 14 C] glucose. In fasted or intravenously alimented pups enteric glucose resulted in a rapid and sustained elevation of blood glucose concentrations. Systemic appearance of 14 C label from enteric glucose increased rapidly as did the enrichment of blood [ 14 C] glucose specific activity. In those pups given enteric galactose, blood glucose values were equivalent to that in the glucose fed groups, however 14 C appearing in blood glucose and blood glucose specific activity was significantly lower. The peak values for rates of appearance and disappearance of systemic glucose were significantly lower in pups fed galactose than among pups fed glucose. Glucose clearance was also significantly lower in these pups despite equivalent plasma insulin responses. Among fasting pups hepatic glycogen content was significantly higher in those given either oral glucose or galactose when compared to a completely starved control group. In contrast, among alimented pups galactose administration significantly enhanced hepatic glycogen content compared to those fed glucose. In addition, hepatic glycogen synthase (glucose-6-phosphate independent) activity was increased only among alimented pups fed galactose when compared to completely fasted pups. In conclusion these data suggest that following gastrointestinal galactose administration, hepatic carbohydrate uptake is augmented while glycogen synthesis may be enhanced. Augmented glycogen synthesis following galactose administration may reflect alterations in hepatic glycogen synthase activity or enhanced hepatic carbohydrate uptake

  8. Discontinuous and heterogeneous glass transition behavior of carbohydrate polymer-plasticizer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Kiyoshi; Hagura, Yoshio

    2012-07-01

    In order to understand the glass transition properties of carbohydrate polymer-plasticizer systems, glass transition temperatures of dextrin-glucose and dextrin-maltose systems were investigated systematically using differential scanning calorimetry. The onset (Tg(on)) and offset (Tg(off)) of the glass transition decreased with increasing plasticizer (glucose or maltose) content, and showed an abrupt depression at certain plasticizer content. The abrupt depression of Tg(off) occurred at higher plasticizer content than that of Tg(on). The glass transition was much broader for intermediate plasticizer content. From the enthalpy relaxation behavior of samples aged at various temperatures, it was found that two different glass transitions occurred contentiously in the broad glass transition. These results suggested that carbohydrate polymer-plasticizer systems can be classified into three regions: the entrapment of the plasticizer by the polymer, the formations of the polymer-plasticizer and plasticizer-rich domains, and the embedment of polymer into the plasticizer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Microalgal carbohydrates. An overview of the factors influencing carbohydrates production, and of main bioconversion technologies for production of biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markou, Giorgos; Georgakakis, Dimitris [Agricultural Univ. of Athens (Greece). Dept. of Natural Resources Management and Agricultural Engineering; Angelidaki, Irini [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Dept. of Environmental Engineering

    2012-11-15

    Microalgal biomass seems to be a promising feedstock for biofuel generation. Microalgae have relative high photosynthetic efficiencies, high growth rates, and some species can thrive in brackish water or seawater and wastewater from the food- and agro-industrial sector. Today, the main interest in research is the cultivation of microalgae for lipids production to generate biodiesel. However, there are several other biological or thermochemical conversion technologies, in which microalgal biomass could be used as substrate. However, the high protein content or the low carbohydrate content of the majority of the microalgal species might be a constraint for their possible use in these technologies. Moreover, in the majority of biomass conversion technologies, carbohydrates are the main substrate for production of biofuels. Nevertheless, microalgae biomass composition could be manipulated by several cultivation techniques, such as nutrient starvation or other stressed environmental conditions, which cause the microalgae to accumulate carbohydrates. This paper attempts to give a general overview of techniques that can be used for increasing the microalgal biomass carbohydrate content. In addition, biomass conversion technologies, related to the conversion of carbohydrates into biofuels are discussed. (orig.)

  10. Methodological challenges in carbohydrate analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Beth Hall

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Carbohydrates can provide up to 80% of the dry matter in animal diets, yet their specific evaluation for research and diet formulation is only now becoming a focus in the animal sciences. Partitioning of dietary carbohydrates for nutritional purposes should reflect differences in digestion and fermentation characteristics and effects on animal performance. Key challenges to designating nutritionally important carbohydrate fractions include classifying the carbohydrates in terms of nutritional characteristics, and selecting analytical methods that describe the desired fraction. The relative lack of information on digestion characteristics of various carbohydrates and their interactions with other fractions in diets means that fractions will not soon be perfectly established. Developing a system of carbohydrate analysis that could be used across animal species could enhance the utility of analyses and amount of data we can obtain on dietary effects of carbohydrates. Based on quantities present in diets and apparent effects on animal performance, some nutritionally important classes of carbohydrates that may be valuable to measure include sugars, starch, fructans, insoluble fiber, and soluble fiber. Essential to selection of methods for these fractions is agreement on precisely what carbohydrates should be included in each. Each of these fractions has analyses that could potentially be used to measure them, but most of the available methods have weaknesses that must be evaluated to see if they are fatal and the assay is unusable, or if the assay still may be made workable. Factors we must consider as we seek to analyze carbohydrates to describe diets: Does the assay accurately measure the desired fraction? Is the assay for research, regulatory, or field use (affects considerations of acceptable costs and throughput? What are acceptable accuracy and variability of measures? Is the assay robust (enhances accuracy of values? For some carbohydrates, we

  11. Comparing carbohydrate status during norway spruce seed development and somatic embryo formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gösslová, M.; Svobodová, H.; Lipavská, H.; Albrechtová, J.; Vreugdenhil, D.

    2001-01-01

    The carbohydrate status of developing seeds of Picea abies was examined in order to provide a frame of reference for the evaluation of changes in carbohydrate content in maturing somatic embryos of the same species. Samples were taken at weekly intervals from 12 May 1998 (estimated time of

  12. Dietary ratio of protein to carbohydrate induces plastic responses in the gastrointestinal tract of mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Allan; Mayntz, David; Simpson, Stephen James

    2010-01-01

    of the protein-rich food. In contrast, intestines, caeca and colons were heavier when diets contained more carbohydrates and less protein. This response may function to increase the digestive rate of carbohydrates when the dietary content of this macronutrient increases, but it may also indicate a compensatory...

  13. Knowledge of carbohydrate counting and insulin dose calculations in paediatric patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finner, Natalie; Quinn, Anne; Donovan, Anna; O'Leary, Orla; O'Gorman, Clodagh S

    2015-12-01

    Patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) who are able to adjust their insulin doses according to the carbohydrate content of a meal, as well as their blood glucose, are likely to have improved glycaemic control (Silverstein et al., 2005). With improved glycaemic control, patients have a lower risk of developing long-term microvascular complications associated with T1DM (Diabetes Control and Complications Trial Research Group, 1993). To assess the carbohydrate and insulin knowledge of patients attending our paediatric diabetes clinic at the University Hospital Limerick (UHL), the validated PedCarbQuiz (PCQ) was applied to our clinic population. This study was completed by applying a questionnaire called the PedCarbQuiz (PCQ) to children exclusively attending our paediatric diabetes clinic at UHL. Of the clinic's 220 patients, 81 participated in the study. The average total PCQ score (%) was higher in the continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) group compared with the multiple daily insulin (MDI) injection user group (79.1 ± 12.1 versus 65.9 ± 6.6 p = 0.005). The CSII group also had a higher average carbohydrate score (%) compared with the MDI group (79.4 ± 12.4 versus 66.3 ± 16.2, p = 0.004). This study demonstrates that in a representative Irish regional paediatric T1DM clinic, knowledge of carbohydrates and insulin is better among patients treated with CSII compared with MDI. However, knowledge in both groups is poorer than in the original US sample. This study demonstrates that in a representative Irish regional paediatric T1DM clinic, knowledge of carbohydrates and insulin is poorer than in a US based sample, although this knowledge is better among patients treated with CSII compared with MDI. This highlights the need for improved resources for diabetes and carbohydrate counting education for patients with T1DM.

  14. Development and Testing the Technology of Complex Transformation of Carbohydrates from Vegetable Raw Materials into Bioethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.P. Tsygankov

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Results of development and testing the tentative technology of sweet sorghum and finger millet processing into bioethanol are described. The carbohydrates content and range of the studied vegetable biomass as the raw material is defined. Bioethanol potential output from sugar sorghum and finger millet carbohydrates and key technological parameters of preparation of both types of vegetable raw material for alcohol fermentation are defined. The concept of the tentative technology of bioethanol production from carbohydrate raw material of the first and second generations is offered. Testing of complex transformation of carbohydrates from vegetable raw materials into bioethanol is performed.

  15. Carbohydrates of human immunodeficiency virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J E

    1992-01-01

    Elucidation of the mechanism by which viral infection induces the appearance of carbohydrate neoantigens is highly important. Results from such studies could be expected to be significant for a general understanding of the regulation of glycosylation, and perhaps especially important for the unde......Elucidation of the mechanism by which viral infection induces the appearance of carbohydrate neoantigens is highly important. Results from such studies could be expected to be significant for a general understanding of the regulation of glycosylation, and perhaps especially important...... therapy with glycosylation enzyme inhibitors will, however, require the development of more specific and less toxic compounds. If carbohydrate antigens can elicit a neutralizing immune response in vivo, the possibility exists that carbohydrate neoantigens can be utilized in the construction of a vaccine...

  16. Facultative thermogenesis induced by carbohydrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, A; Bülow, J; Christensen, N J

    1986-01-01

    In addition to the obligatory thermogenesis due to processing and storage, carbohydrate ingestion is accompanied by a facultative thermogenesis mediated by catecholamines via beta-adrenoceptors. The anatomical origin of facultative thermogenesis has hitherto not been determined. The possible...

  17. Transition metals in carbohydrate chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Robert

    1997-01-01

    This review describes the application of transition metal mediated reactions in carbohydrate synthesis. The different metal mediated transformations are divided into reaction types and illustrated by various examples on monosaccharide derivatives. Carbon-carbon bond forming reactions are further ...

  18. Preadipocyte Factor-1 Levels Are Higher in Women with Hypothalamic Amenorrhea and Are Associated with Bone Mineral Content and Bone Mineral Density through a Mechanism Independent of Leptin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronis, Konstantinos N.; Kilim, Holly; Chamberland, John P.; Breggia, Anne; Rosen, Clifford

    2011-01-01

    Context: Preadipocyte factor 1 (pref-1) is increased in anorexia nervosa and is associated negatively with bone mineral density (BMD). No previous studies exist on pref-1 in women with exercise-induced hypothalamic amenorrhea (HA), which similar to anorexia nervosa, is an energy-deficiency state associated with hypoleptinemia. Objective: Our objective was to evaluate whether pref-1 levels are also elevated and associated with low BMD and to assess whether leptin regulates pref-1 levels in women with HA. Design: Study 1 was a double-blinded, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial of metreleptin administration in women with HA. Study 2 was an open-label study of metreleptin administration in low physiological, supraphysiological, and pharmacological doses in healthy women volunteers. Setting and Patients: At Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 20 women with HA and leptin levels higher than 5 ng/ml and nine healthy control women participated in study 1, and five healthy women participated in study 2. Intervention: For study 1, 20 HA subjects were randomized to receive either 0.08 mg/kg metreleptin (n = 11) or placebo (n = 9). For study 2, five healthy subjects received 0.01, 0.1, and 0.3 mg/kg metreleptin in both fed and fasting conditions for 1 and 3 d, respectively. Main Outcome Measures: Circulating pref-1 and leptin levels were measured. Results: Pref-1 was significantly higher in HA subjects vs. controls (P = 0.035) and negatively associated with BMD (ρ = −0.38; P < 0.01) and bone mineral content (ρ = −0.32; P < 0.05). Metreleptin administration did not alter pref-1 levels in any study reported herein. Conclusions: Pref-1 is higher in HA subjects than controls. Metreleptin administration at low physiological, supraphysiological, and pharmacological doses does not affect pref-1 levels, suggesting that hypoleptinemia is not responsible for higher pref-1 levels and that leptin does not regulate pref-1. PMID:21795455

  19. Preadipocyte factor-1 levels are higher in women with hypothalamic amenorrhea and are associated with bone mineral content and bone mineral density through a mechanism independent of leptin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronis, Konstantinos N; Kilim, Holly; Chamberland, John P; Breggia, Anne; Rosen, Clifford; Mantzoros, Christos S

    2011-10-01

    Preadipocyte factor 1 (pref-1) is increased in anorexia nervosa and is associated negatively with bone mineral density (BMD). No previous studies exist on pref-1 in women with exercise-induced hypothalamic amenorrhea (HA), which similar to anorexia nervosa, is an energy-deficiency state associated with hypoleptinemia. Our objective was to evaluate whether pref-1 levels are also elevated and associated with low BMD and to assess whether leptin regulates pref-1 levels in women with HA. Study 1 was a double-blinded, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial of metreleptin administration in women with HA. Study 2 was an open-label study of metreleptin administration in low physiological, supraphysiological, and pharmacological doses in healthy women volunteers. At Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 20 women with HA and leptin levels higher than 5 ng/ml and nine healthy control women participated in study 1, and five healthy women participated in study 2. For study 1, 20 HA subjects were randomized to receive either 0.08 mg/kg metreleptin (n = 11) or placebo (n = 9). For study 2, five healthy subjects received 0.01, 0.1, and 0.3 mg/kg metreleptin in both fed and fasting conditions for 1 and 3 d, respectively. Circulating pref-1 and leptin levels were measured. Pref-1 was significantly higher in HA subjects vs. controls (P = 0.035) and negatively associated with BMD (ρ = -0.38; P < 0.01) and bone mineral content (ρ = -0.32; P < 0.05). Metreleptin administration did not alter pref-1 levels in any study reported herein. Pref-1 is higher in HA subjects than controls. Metreleptin administration at low physiological, supraphysiological, and pharmacological doses does not affect pref-1 levels, suggesting that hypoleptinemia is not responsible for higher pref-1 levels and that leptin does not regulate pref-1.

  20. Effect of salinity and inoculation with Azosprillium on carbohydrate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The measured parameters were chlorophyll fluorescence, photosynthesis (Ps) rates, carbohydrates, nitrate, ammonium and protein content, nitrogenase activity, yield and yield components. The results showed that salinity decreased plant height and grain yield (GY) in all levels. GY reduction in the inoculated treatment was ...

  1. CONSIDERATIONS IN UTILIZING BY-PRODUCT CARBOHYDRATES IN RUMINANT NUTRITION

    Science.gov (United States)

    By-product feeds provide a variety of carbohydrates that can vary greatly in their content, digestibility, and physical effects. Variation in the composition and quality of by-product feeds needs to be evaluated to assess whether the variation poses an acceptable risk for inclusion of small or larg...

  2. Effects of polymeric carbohydrates on growth and development in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2011-01-01

    carbohydrates influence growth and development through different mechanisms. First, the proportion of starch to NSP plays an important role for the content of available energy (i.e., DE, ME, and NE); available energy relative to protein is crucial for performance and carcass quality. Second, the proportion...

  3. Racemic carbohydrates - fact or fiction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senning, Alexander Erich Eugen

    2007-01-01

    Chemical Abstracts Service has developed unsound practices in the naming and handling of simple carbohydrates such as aldopentoses 1, aldohexoses 2, and ketohexoses 3. Typically, the common name glucose is sometimes, inappropriately, interpreted as meaning DL-glucose DL-2d. Thus, a considerable...... number of CA names and registry numbers have been created for non-existing racemic carbohydrates and linked to irrelevant references which, moreover, in many cases cannot be retrieved by the SciFinder Scholar program....

  4. Low-carbohydrate diets for the treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Kevin D; Chung, Stephanie T

    2018-04-18

    Summarize the physiological effects of low-carbohydrate diets as they relate to weight loss, glycemic control, and metabolic health. Low-carbohydrate diets are at least as effective for weight loss as other diets, but claims about increased energy expenditure and preferential loss of body fat are unsubstantiated. Glycemic control and hyperinsulinemia are improved by low-carbohydrate diets, but insulin sensitivity and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion may be impaired, especially in the absence of weight loss. Fasting lipid parameters are generally improved, but such improvements may depend on the quality of dietary fat and the carbohydrates they replaced. Postprandial hyperlipemia is a potential concern given the high fat content typical of low-carbohydrate diets. Low-carbohydrate diets have several potential benefits for treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes, but more research is required to better understand their long-term consequences as well as the variable effects on the endocrine control of glucose, lipids, and metabolism.

  5. Dietary fat acutely increases glucose concentrations and insulin requirements in patients with type 1 diabetes: implications for carbohydrate-based bolus dose calculation and intensive diabetes management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolpert, Howard A; Atakov-Castillo, Astrid; Smith, Stephanie A; Steil, Garry M

    2013-04-01

    Current guidelines for intensive treatment of type 1 diabetes base the mealtime insulin bolus calculation exclusively on carbohydrate counting. There is strong evidence that free fatty acids impair insulin sensitivity. We hypothesized that patients with type 1 diabetes would require more insulin coverage for higher-fat meals than lower-fat meals with identical carbohydrate content. We used a crossover design comparing two 18-h periods of closed-loop glucose control after high-fat (HF) dinner compared with low-fat (LF) dinner. Each dinner had identical carbohydrate and protein content, but different fat content (60 vs. 10 g). Seven patients with type 1 diabetes (age, 55 ± 12 years; A1C 7.2 ± 0.8%) successfully completed the protocol. HF dinner required more insulin than LF dinner (12.6 ± 1.9 units vs. 9.0 ± 1.3 units; P = 0.01) and, despite the additional insulin, caused more hyperglycemia (area under the curve >120 mg/dL = 16,967 ± 2,778 vs. 8,350 ± 1,907 mg/dL⋅min; P Carbohydrate-to-insulin ratio for HF dinner was significantly lower (9 ± 2 vs. 13 ± 3 g/unit; P = 0.01). There were marked interindividual differences in the effect of dietary fat on insulin requirements (percent increase significantly correlated with daily insulin requirement; R(2) = 0.64; P = 0.03). This evidence that dietary fat increases glucose levels and insulin requirements highlights the limitations of the current carbohydrate-based approach to bolus dose calculation. These findings point to the need for alternative insulin dosing algorithms for higher-fat meals and suggest that dietary fat intake is an important nutritional consideration for glycemic control in individuals with type 1 diabetes.

  6. Complexes of natural carbohydrates with metal cations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, Yurii E; Garnovskii, Alexander D; Zhdanov, Yu A

    1998-01-01

    Data on the interaction of natural carbohydrates (mono-, oligo-, and poly-saccharides, amino sugars, and natural organic acids of carbohydrate origin) with metal cations are surveyed and described systematically. The structural diversity of carbohydrate metal complexes, caused by some specific features of carbohydrates as ligands, is demonstrated. The influence of complex formation on the chemical properties of carbohydrates is discussed. It is shown that the formation of metal complexes plays an important role in the configurational and conformational analysis of carbohydrates. The practical significance of the coordination interaction in the series of carbohydrate ligands is demonstrated. The bibliography includes 571 references.

  7. Prepregnancy low-carbohydrate dietary pattern and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus: a prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bao, Wei; Bowers, Katherine; Tobias, Deirdre K

    2014-01-01

    ; an animal LCD score on the basis of intakes of carbohydrate, animal protein, and animal fat; and a vegetable LCD score on the basis of intakes of carbohydrate, vegetable protein, and vegetable fat. A higher score reflected a higher intake of fat and protein and a lower intake of carbohydrate...... protein and fat from vegetable food sources is not associated with the risk. Women of reproductive age who follow a low-carbohydrate dietary pattern may consider consuming vegetable rather than animal sources of protein and fat to minimize their risk of GDM.......-carbohydrate dietary patterns with risk of GDM. DESIGN: We included 21,411 singleton pregnancies in the Nurses' Health Study II. Prepregnancy LCD scores were calculated from validated food-frequency questionnaires, including an overall LCD score on the basis of intakes of carbohydrate, total protein, and total fat...

  8. Broad-scale predictability of carbohydrates and exopolymers in Antarctic and Arctic sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Graham J. C.; Aslam, Shazia N.; Michel, Christine; Niemi, Andrea; Norman, Louiza; Meiners, Klaus M.; Laybourn-Parry, Johanna; Paterson, Harriet; Thomas, David N.

    2013-01-01

    Sea ice can contain high concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), much of which is carbohydrate-rich extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) produced by microalgae and bacteria inhabiting the ice. Here we report the concentrations of dissolved carbohydrates (dCHO) and dissolved EPS (dEPS) in relation to algal standing stock [estimated by chlorophyll (Chl) a concentrations] in sea ice from six locations in the Southern and Arctic Oceans. Concentrations varied substantially within and between sampling sites, reflecting local ice conditions and biological content. However, combining all data revealed robust statistical relationships between dCHO concentrations and the concentrations of different dEPS fractions, Chl a, and DOC. These relationships were true for whole ice cores, bottom ice (biomass rich) sections, and colder surface ice. The distribution of dEPS was strongly correlated to algal biomass, with the highest concentrations of both dEPS and non-EPS carbohydrates in the bottom horizons of the ice. Complex EPS was more prevalent in colder surface sea ice horizons. Predictive models (validated against independent data) were derived to enable the estimation of dCHO concentrations from data on ice thickness, salinity, and vertical position in core. When Chl a data were included a higher level of prediction was obtained. The consistent patterns reflected in these relationships provide a strong basis for including estimates of regional and seasonal carbohydrate and dEPS carbon budgets in coupled physical-biogeochemical models, across different types of sea ice from both polar regions. PMID:24019487

  9. Radiolysis of carbohydrates and of carbohydrate-containing foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diehl, J.F.; Adam, S.; Delincee, H.; Jakubick, V.

    1978-01-01

    Toxicological evaluation of irradiated foodstuffs requires knowledge of radiation-induced chemical changes. A review of the literature reveals much information on the radiation chemistry of pure substances, e.g., dilute solutions of individual carbohydrates. Much less is known about the interactions of food constituents during irradiation. In an effort to remedy this situation, radiation effects on various compounds have been studied in systems of increasing complexity. In one approach, gas chromatography was used to investigate the radiolysis of tehalose in pure solution and in the presence of amino acids or proteins. In another approach, radiation-induced aggregation of proteins and of [ 14 C]tryptophan with proteins was studied in the absence and presence of carbohydrates (trehalose, starch), emulsified sunfower oil, and a mixture of carbohydrates and emulsified sunflower oil

  10. Carbohydrates Through Animation: Preliminary Step

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Sugai

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Methods of education are changing, so the educational tools must change too. The developmentof the systems of information and communication gave the opportunity to bring new technology tothe learning process. Modern education needs interactive programs that may be available to theacademic community, in order to ease the learning process and sharing of the knowledge. Then,an educational software on Carbohydrates is being developed using concept maps and FLASH-MXanimations program, and approached through six modules. The introduction of Carbohydrates wasmade by the module Carbohydrates on Nature, which shows the animations gures of a teacher andstudents, visiting a farm, identifying the carbohydrates found in vegetables, animals, and microor-ganisms, integrated by links containing short texts to help understanding the structure and functionof carbohydrates. This module was presented, as pilot experiment, to teachers and students, whichdemonstrated satisfaction, and high receptivity, by using animation and interactivitys program asstrategy to biochemistrys education. The present work is part of the project Biochemistry throughanimation, which is having continuity.

  11. Aminooxylated Carbohydrates: Synthesis and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pifferi, Carlo; Daskhan, Gour Chand; Fiore, Michele; Shiao, Tze Chieh; Roy, René; Renaudet, Olivier

    2017-08-09

    Among other classes of biomolecules, carbohydrates and glycoconjugates are widely involved in numerous biological functions. In addition to addressing the related synthetic challenges, glycochemists have invested intense efforts in providing access to structures that can be used to study, activate, or inhibit these biological processes. Over the past few decades, aminooxylated carbohydrates have been found to be key building blocks for achieving these goals. This review provides the first in-depth overview covering several aspects related to the syntheses and applications of aminooxylated carbohydrates. After a brief introduction to oxime bonds and their relative stabilities compared to related C═N functions, synthetic aspects of oxime ligation and methodologies for introducing the aminooxy functionality onto both glycofuranosyls and glycopyranosyls are described. The subsequent section focuses on biological applications involving aminooxylated carbohydrates as components for the construcion of diverse architectures. Mimetics of natural structures represent useful tools for better understanding the features that drive carbohydrate-receptor interaction, their biological output and they also represent interesting structures with improved stability and tunable properties. In the next section, multivalent structures such as glycoclusters and glycodendrimers obtained through oxime ligation are described in terms of synthetic design and their biological applications such as immunomodulators. The second-to-last section discusses miscellaneous applications of oxime-based glycoconjugates, such as enantioselective catalysis and glycosylated oligonucleotides, and conclusions and perspectives are provided in the last section.

  12. Percoll gradient-centrifuged capacitated mouse sperm have increased fertilizing ability and higher contents of sulfogalactosylglycerolipid and docosahexaenoic acid-containing phosphatidylcholine compared to washed capacitated mouse sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furimsky, Anna; Vuong, Ngoc; Xu, Hongbin; Kumarathasan, Premkumari; Xu, Min; Weerachatyanukul, Wattana; Bou Khalil, Maroun; Kates, Morris; Tanphaichitr, Nongnuj

    2005-03-01

    Although Percoll gradient centrifugation has been used routinely to prepare motile human sperm, its use in preparing motile mouse sperm has been limited. Here, we showed that Percoll gradient-centrifuged (PGC) capacitated mouse sperm had markedly higher fertilizing ability (sperm-zona pellucida [ZP] binding and in vitro fertilization) than washed capacitated mouse sperm. We also showed that the lipid profiles of PGC capacitated sperm and washed capacitated sperm differed significantly. The PGC sperm had much lower contents of cholesterol and phospholipids. This resulted in relative enrichment of male germ cell-specific sulfogalactosylglycerolipid (SGG), a ZP-binding ligand, in PGC capacitated sperm, and this would explain, in part, their increased ZP-binding ability compared with that of washed capacitated sperm. Analyses of phospholipid fatty acyl chains revealed that PGC capacitated sperm were enriched in phosphatidylcholine (PC) molecular species containing highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs), with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22: 6n-3) being the predominant HUFA (42% of total hydrocarbon chains of PC). In contrast, the level of PC-HUFAs comprising arachidonic acid (20:4n-6), docosapentaenoic acid (C22:5n-6), and DHA in washed capacitated sperm was only 27%. Having the highest unsaturation degree among all HUFAs in PC, DHA would enhance membrane fluidity to the uppermost. Therefore, membranes of PGC capacitated sperm would undergo fertilization-related fusion events at higher rates than washed capacitated sperm. These results suggested that PGC mouse sperm should be used in fertilization experiments and that SGG and DHA should be considered to be important biomarkers for sperm fertilizing ability.

  13. Effects of polymeric carbohydrates on growth and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    , metabolized and net energy); available energy relative to protein is crucial for performance and carcass quality; second, the proportion of starch to NSP will influence rate and type of metabolites (glucose vs. SCFA) deriving from carbohydrate assimilation, and finally, type of starch (types A, B, and C......The main objective of the presentation is to provide insight into the role of polymeric carbohydrates in growth and development of pigs. Polymeric carbohydrates—starch and non-starch polysaccharides (NSP)—quantitatively represent the largest portion of the diets for pigs and are therefore...... at a slower and more constant rate and with SCFA being absorbed by passive diffusion. Type and levels of polymeric carbohydrates influence growth and development through different mechanisms; first, the proportion of starch to NSP plays an important role for the content of available energy (digestible...

  14. Evidence supporting oral sensitivity to complex carbohydrates independent of sweet taste sensitivity in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Y Q Low

    Full Text Available Compared to simple sugars, complex carbohydrates have been assumed invisible to taste. However, two recent studies proposed that there may be a perceivable taste quality elicited by complex carbohydrates independent of sweet taste. There is precedent with behavioural studies demonstrating that rats are very attracted to complex carbohydrates, and that complex carbohydrates are preferred to simple sugars at low concentrations. This suggests that rats may have independent taste sensors for simple sugars and complex carbohydrates. The aim of this paper is to investigate oral sensitivities of two different classes of complex carbohydrates (a soluble digestible and a soluble non-digestible complex carbohydrate, and to compare these to other caloric and non-nutritive sweeteners in addition to the prototypical tastes using two commonly used psychophysical measures. There were strong correlations between the detection thresholds and mean intensity ratings for complex carbohydrates (maltodextrin, oligofructose (r = 0.94, P 0.05. However, moderate correlations were observed between perceived intensities of complex carbohydrates and sweeteners (r = 0.48-0.61, P < 0.05. These data provide evidence that complex carbohydrates can be sensed in the oral cavity over a range of concentrations independent of sweet taste sensitivity at low concentrations, but with partial overlap with sweet taste intensity at higher concentrations.

  15. Fructose and Sucrose Intake Increase Exogenous Carbohydrate Oxidation during Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trommelen, Jorn; Fuchs, Cas J.; Beelen, Milou; Lenaerts, Kaatje; Jeukendrup, Asker E.; Cermak, Naomi M.; van Loon, Luc J. C.

    2017-01-01

    Peak exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates typically reach ~1 g·min−1 during exercise when ample glucose or glucose polymers are ingested. Fructose co-ingestion has been shown to further increase exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of fructose co-ingestion provided either as a monosaccharide or as part of the disaccharide sucrose on exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates during prolonged exercise in trained cyclists. Ten trained male cyclists (VO2peak: 65 ± 2 mL·kg−1·min−1) cycled on four different occasions for 180 min at 50% Wmax during which they consumed a carbohydrate solution providing 1.8 g·min−1 of glucose (GLU), 1.2 g·min−1 glucose + 0.6 g·min−1 fructose (GLU + FRU), 0.6 g·min−1 glucose + 1.2 g·min−1 sucrose (GLU + SUC), or water (WAT). Peak exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates did not differ between GLU + FRU and GLU + SUC (1.40 ± 0.06 vs. 1.29 ± 0.07 g·min−1, respectively, p = 0.999), but were 46% ± 8% higher when compared to GLU (0.96 ± 0.06 g·min−1: p exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates during the latter 120 min of exercise were 46% ± 8% higher in GLU + FRU or GLU + SUC compared with GLU (1.19 ± 0.12, 1.13 ± 0.21, and 0.82 ± 0.16 g·min−1, respectively, p exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates during prolonged exercise in trained cyclists. PMID:28230742

  16. Low-protein, high-carbohydrate diet increases glucose uptake and fatty acid synthesis in brown adipose tissue of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparecida de França, Suélem; Pavani Dos Santos, Maísa; Nunes Queiroz da Costa, Roger Vinícius; Froelich, Mendalli; Buzelle, Samyra Lopes; Chaves, Valéria Ernestânia; Giordani, Morenna Alana; Pereira, Mayara Peron; Colodel, Edson Moleta; Marlise Balbinotti Andrade, Cláudia; Kawashita, Nair Honda

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate glucose uptake and the contribution of glucose to fatty acid (FA) synthesis and the glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P) of triacylglycerol synthesis by interscapular brown adipose tissue (IBAT) of low-protein, high-carbohydrate (LPHC) diet-fed rats. LPHC (6% protein; 74% carbohydrate) or control (17% protein; 63% carbohydrate) diets were administered to rats (∼ 100 g) for 15 d. Total FA and G3P synthesis and the synthesis of FA and G3P from glucose were evaluated in vivo by (3)H2O and (14)C-glucose. Sympathetic neural contribution for FA synthesis was evaluated by comparing the synthesis in denervated (7 d before) IBAT with that of the contralateral innervated side. The insulin signaling and β3 adrenergic receptor (β3-AR) contents, as well as others, were determined by Western blot (Student's t test or analysis of variance; P ≤ 0.05). Total FA synthesis in IBAT was 133% higher in the LPHC group and was reduced 85% and 70% by denervation for the LPHC and control groups, respectively. Glucose uptake was 3.5-fold higher in the IBAT of LPHC rats than in that of the control rats, and the contribution of glucose to the total FA synthesis increased by 12% in control rats compared with 18% in LPHC rats. The LPHC diet increased the G3P generation from glucose by 270% and the insulin receptor content and the p-AKT insulin stimulation in IBAT by 120% and reduced the β3-AR content by 50%. The LPHC diet stimulated glucose uptake, both the total rates and the rates derived from glucose-dependent FA and G3P synthesis, by increasing the insulin sensitivity and the sympathetic flux, despite a reduction in the β3-AR content. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Short Sleep Duration Is Associated With Eating More Carbohydrates and Less Dietary Fat in Mexican American Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Suzanna M; Tschann, Jeanne M; Butte, Nancy F; Gregorich, Steve E; Penilla, Carlos; Flores, Elena; Greenspan, Louise C; Pasch, Lauri A; Deardorff, Julianna

    2017-02-01

    Short sleep duration is a risk factor for childhood obesity. Mechanisms are unclear, but may involve selection of high carbohydrate foods. This study examined the association between estimated sleep duration and macronutrient intake as percentages of total energy among Mexican American (MA) 9-11 year olds. This cross-sectional study measured diet using two 24-hour recalls and estimated sleep duration using hip-worn accelerometry in MA children (n = 247) who were part of a cohort study. Child and maternal anthropometry were obtained; mothers reported on demographic information. Using linear regression, we examined the relationship of sleep duration with energy intake, sugar intake, and the percentage of energy intake from carbohydrates, fat, and protein. Children were 47% male; mean age was 10 (SD = 0.9) years. Mean sleep duration was 9.6 (SD = 0.8) hours; 53% were overweight/obese, with a mean energy intake of 1759 (SD = 514) calories. Longer sleep duration was independently associated with a lower percentage of energy intake from carbohydrates (β = -0.22, p fat (β = 0.19, p children who slept longer consumed diets with a lower percentage of calories from carbohydrates and a higher percentage from fat, especially from PUFA. Short sleep duration may be a risk factor for food cravings that are high in carbohydrate content and may displace heart-healthy dietary fat, and thereby increase obesity risk among children. © Sleep Research Society 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Impact of reduced atmospheric CO2 and varied potassium supply on carbohydrate and potassium distribution in grapevine and grape berries (Vitis vinifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coetzee, Zelmari A; Walker, Rob R; Deloire, Alain J; Barril, Célia; Clarke, Simon J; Rogiers, Suzy Y

    2017-11-01

    To assess the robustness of the apparent sugar-potassium relationship during ripening of grape berries, a controlled-environment study was conducted on Shiraz vines involving ambient and reduced (by 34%) atmospheric CO 2 concentrations, and standard and increased (by 67%) soil potassium applications from prior to the onset of ripening. The leaf net photoassimilation rate was decreased by 35% in the reduced CO 2 treatment. The reduction in CO 2 delayed the onset of ripening, but at harvest the sugar content of the berry pericarp was similar to that of plants grown in ambient conditions. The potassium content of the berry pericarp in the reduced CO 2 treatment was however higher than for the ambient CO 2 . Berry potassium, sugar and water content were strongly correlated, regardless of treatments, alluding to a ternary link during ripening. Root starch content was lower under reduced CO 2 conditions, and therefore likely acted as a source of carbohydrates during berry ripening. Root carbohydrate reserve replenishment could also have been moderated under reduced CO 2 at the expense of berry ripening. Given that root potassium concentration was less in the vines grown in the low CO 2 atmosphere, these results point toward whole-plant fine-tuning of carbohydrate and potassium partitioning aimed at optimising fruit ripening. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Nitrogen and phosphorus removal coupled with carbohydrate production by five microalgae cultures cultivated in biogas slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Fen; Wang, Zhi; Zhouyang, Siyu; Li, Heng; Xie, Youping; Wang, Yuanpeng; Zheng, Yanmei; Li, Qingbiao

    2016-12-01

    In this study, five microalgae strains were cultured for their ability to survive in biogas slurry, remove nitrogen resources and accumulate carbohydrates. It was proved that five microalgae strains adapted in biogas slurry well without ammonia inhibition. Among them, Chlorella vulgaris ESP-6 showed the best performance on carbohydrate accumulation, giving the highest carbohydrate content of 61.5% in biogas slurry and the highest ammonia removal efficiency and rate of 96.3% and 91.7mg/L/d respectively in biogas slurry with phosphorus and magnesium added. Additionally, the absence of phosphorus and magnesium that can be adverse for biomass accumulation resulted in earlier timing of carbohydrate accumulation and magnesium was firstly recognized and proved as the influence factor for carbohydrate accumulation. Microalgae that cultured in biogas slurry accumulated more carbohydrate in cell, making biogas slurry more suitable medium for the improvement of carbohydrate content, thus can be regarded as a new strategy to accumulate carbohydrate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Phosphorous Nutritional Level, Carbohydrate Reserves and Flower Quality in Olives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Erel

    Full Text Available The olive tree is generally characterized by relatively low final fruit set consequential to a significant rate of undeveloped pistils, pistil abortion, and flower and fruitlet abscission. These processes are acknowledged to be governed by competition for resources between the developing vegetative and reproductive organs. To study the role of phosphorus (P nutritional level on reproductive development, trees were grown under four levels of P for three years in large containers. Phosphorus nutritional level was positively related to rate of reproductive bud break, inflorescence weight, rate of hermaphrodite flowers, pistil weight, fruitlet persistence, fruit set and the consequential total number of fruits. The positive impact of P nutrition on the productivity parameters was not related to carbohydrate reserves or to carbohydrate transport to the developing inflorescence. Phosphorous deficient trees showed significant impairment of assimilation rate, and yet, carbohydrates were accumulated in inflorescences at levels comparable to or higher than trees receiving high P. In contrast to female reproductive organs, pollen viability was consistently higher in P deficient trees, possibly due to the enhanced carbohydrate availability. Overall, the positive effect of P on female reproductive development was found to be independent of the total carbohydrate availability. Hence, P is speculated to have a direct influence on reproductive processes.

  1. Phosphorous Nutritional Level, Carbohydrate Reserves and Flower Quality in Olives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erel, Ran; Yermiyahu, Uri; Yasuor, Hagai; Cohen Chamus, Dan; Schwartz, Amnon; Ben-Gal, Alon; Dag, Arnon

    2016-01-01

    The olive tree is generally characterized by relatively low final fruit set consequential to a significant rate of undeveloped pistils, pistil abortion, and flower and fruitlet abscission. These processes are acknowledged to be governed by competition for resources between the developing vegetative and reproductive organs. To study the role of phosphorus (P) nutritional level on reproductive development, trees were grown under four levels of P for three years in large containers. Phosphorus nutritional level was positively related to rate of reproductive bud break, inflorescence weight, rate of hermaphrodite flowers, pistil weight, fruitlet persistence, fruit set and the consequential total number of fruits. The positive impact of P nutrition on the productivity parameters was not related to carbohydrate reserves or to carbohydrate transport to the developing inflorescence. Phosphorous deficient trees showed significant impairment of assimilation rate, and yet, carbohydrates were accumulated in inflorescences at levels comparable to or higher than trees receiving high P. In contrast to female reproductive organs, pollen viability was consistently higher in P deficient trees, possibly due to the enhanced carbohydrate availability. Overall, the positive effect of P on female reproductive development was found to be independent of the total carbohydrate availability. Hence, P is speculated to have a direct influence on reproductive processes.

  2. The statolith compartment in Chara rhizoids contains carbohydrate and protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang-Cahill, F.; Kiss, J. Z.

    1995-01-01

    In contrast to higher plants, the alga Chara has rhizoids with single membrane-bound compartments that function as statoliths in gravity perception. Previous work has demonstrated that these statoliths contain barium sulfate crystals. In this study, we show that statoliths in Chara rhizoids react with a Coomassie Brilliant Blue cytochemical stain for proteins. While statoliths did not react with silver methenamine carbohydrate cytochemistry, the monoclonal antibody CCRC-M2, which is against a carbohydrate (sycamore-maple rhamnogalacturonan I), labeled the statolith compartment. These results demonstrate that in addition to barium sulfate, statoliths in Chara rhizoids have an organic matrix that consists of protein and carbohydrate moieties. Since the statoliths were silver methenamine negative, the carbohydrate in this compartment could be a 3-linked polysaccharide. CCRC-M2 also labeled Golgi cisternae, Golgi-associated vesicles, apical vesicles, and cell walls in the rhizoids. The specificity of CCRC-M2 immunolabeling was verified by several control experiments, including the demonstration that labeling was abolished when the antibody was preabsorbed with its antigen. Since in this and a previous study (John Z. Kiss and L. Andrew Staehelin, American Journal of Botany 80: 273-282, 1993) antibodies against higher plant carbohydrates crossreacted with cell walls of Chara in a specific manner, Characean algae may be a useful model system in biochemical and molecular studies of cell walls.

  3. Evaluation of certain crop residues for carbohydrate and protein fractions by cornell net carbohydrate and protein system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkateswarulu Swarna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Four locally available crop residues viz., jowar stover (JS, maize stover (MS, red gram straw (RGS and black gram straw (BGS were evaluated for carbohydrate and protein fractions using Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein (CNCP system. Lignin (% NDF was higher in legume straws as compared to cereal stovers while Non-structural carbohydrates (NSC (% DM followed the reverse trend. The carbohydrate fractions A and B1 were higher in BGS while B2 was higher in MS as compared to other crop residues. The unavailable cell wall fraction (C was higher in legume straws when compared to cereal stovers. Among protein fractions, B1 was higher in legume straws when compared to cereal stovers while B2 was higher in cereal stovers as compared to legume straws. Fraction B3 largely, bypass protein was highest in MS as compared to other crop residues. Acid detergent insoluble crude protein (ADICP (% CP or unavailable protein fraction C was lowest in MS and highest in BGS. It is concluded that MS is superior in nutritional value for feeding ruminants as compared to other crop residues.

  4. All about Carbohydrate Counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to be higher than usual several hours afterward. American Diabetes Association    1–800–DIABETES (342–2383)    www. diabetes. org ©2009 by the American Diabetes Association, Inc. 2/14 Toolkit No. 14: All About ...

  5. Metabolism and fatty acid profile in fat and lean rainbow trout lines fed with vegetable oil: effect of carbohydrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biju Sam Kamalam

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effect of dietary carbohydrates on metabolism, with special focus on fatty acid bioconversion and flesh lipid composition in two rainbow trout lines divergently selected for muscle lipid content and fed with vegetable oils. These lines were chosen based on previously demonstrated potential differences in LC-PUFA synthesis and carbohydrate utilization. Applying a factorial study design, juvenile trout from the lean (L and the fat (F line were fed vegetable oil based diets with or without gelatinised starch (17.1% for 12 weeks. Blood, liver, muscle, intestine and adipose tissue were sampled after the last meal. Feed intake and growth was higher in the L line than the F line, irrespective of the diet. Moderate postprandial hyperglycemia, strong induction of hepatic glucokinase and repressed glucose-6-phosphatase transcripts confirmed the metabolic response of both lines to carbohydrate intake. Further at the transcriptional level, dietary carbohydrate in the presence of n-3 LC-PUFA deficient vegetable oils enhanced intestinal chylomicron assembly, disturbed hepatic lipid metabolism and importantly elicited a higher response of key desaturase and elongase enzymes in the liver and intestine that endorsed our hypothesis. PPARγ was identified as the factor mediating this dietary regulation of fatty acid bioconversion enzymes in the liver. However, these molecular changes were not sufficient to modify the fatty acid composition of muscle or liver. Concerning the genotype effect, there was no evidence of substantial genotypic difference in lipid metabolism, LC-PUFA synthesis and flesh fatty acid profile when fed with vegetable oils. The minor reduction in plasma glucose and triglyceride levels in the F line was linked to potentially higher glucose and lipid uptake in the muscle. Overall, these data emphasize the importance of dietary macro-nutrient interface in evolving fish nutrition strategies.

  6. Metabolism and fatty acid profile in fat and lean rainbow trout lines fed with vegetable oil: effect of carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamalam, Biju Sam; Médale, Françoise; Larroquet, Laurence; Corraze, Geneviève; Panserat, Stephane

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of dietary carbohydrates on metabolism, with special focus on fatty acid bioconversion and flesh lipid composition in two rainbow trout lines divergently selected for muscle lipid content and fed with vegetable oils. These lines were chosen based on previously demonstrated potential differences in LC-PUFA synthesis and carbohydrate utilization. Applying a factorial study design, juvenile trout from the lean (L) and the fat (F) line were fed vegetable oil based diets with or without gelatinised starch (17.1%) for 12 weeks. Blood, liver, muscle, intestine and adipose tissue were sampled after the last meal. Feed intake and growth was higher in the L line than the F line, irrespective of the diet. Moderate postprandial hyperglycemia, strong induction of hepatic glucokinase and repressed glucose-6-phosphatase transcripts confirmed the metabolic response of both lines to carbohydrate intake. Further at the transcriptional level, dietary carbohydrate in the presence of n-3 LC-PUFA deficient vegetable oils enhanced intestinal chylomicron assembly, disturbed hepatic lipid metabolism and importantly elicited a higher response of key desaturase and elongase enzymes in the liver and intestine that endorsed our hypothesis. PPARγ was identified as the factor mediating this dietary regulation of fatty acid bioconversion enzymes in the liver. However, these molecular changes were not sufficient to modify the fatty acid composition of muscle or liver. Concerning the genotype effect, there was no evidence of substantial genotypic difference in lipid metabolism, LC-PUFA synthesis and flesh fatty acid profile when fed with vegetable oils. The minor reduction in plasma glucose and triglyceride levels in the F line was linked to potentially higher glucose and lipid uptake in the muscle. Overall, these data emphasize the importance of dietary macro-nutrient interface in evolving fish nutrition strategies.

  7. Family differences related to carbohydrate utilization in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainbow trout utilize protein as an energy source much more efficiently than carbohydrates. Alternative diets utilizing plant material typically contain higher levels of carbohydrate than standard fish meal diets. The goal of this study was to determine if there are molecular and physiological diffe...

  8. Carbohydrate regulation of photosynthesis and respiration from branch girdling in four species of wet tropical rain forest trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asao, Shinichi; Ryan, Michael G

    2015-06-01

    How trees sense source-sink carbon balance remains unclear. One potential mechanism is a feedback from non-structural carbohydrates regulating photosynthesis and removing excess as waste respiration when the balance of photosynthesis against growth and metabolic activity changes. We tested this carbohydrate regulation of photosynthesis and respiration using branch girdling in four tree species in a wet tropical rainforest in Costa Rica. Because girdling severs phloem to stop carbohydrate export while leaving xylem intact to allow photosynthesis, we expected carbohydrates to accumulate in leaves to simulate a carbon imbalance. We varied girdling intensity by removing phloem in increments of one-quarter of the circumference (zero, one--quarter, half, three-quarters, full) and surrounded a target branch with fully girdled ones to create a gradient in leaf carbohydrate content. Light saturated photosynthesis rate was measured in situ, and foliar respiration rate and leaf carbohydrate content were measured after destructive harvest at the end of the treatment. Girdling intensity created no consistent or strong responses in leaf carbohydrates. Glucose and fructose slightly increased in all species by 3.4% per one-quarter girdle, total carbon content and leaf mass per area increased only in one species by 5.4 and 5.5% per one-quarter girdle, and starch did not change. Only full girdling lowered photosynthesis in three of four species by 59-69%, but the decrease in photosynthesis was unrelated to the increase in glucose and fructose content. Girdling did not affect respiration. The results suggest that leaf carbohydrate content remains relatively constant under carbon imbalance, and any changes are unlikely to regulate photosynthesis or respiration. Because girdling also stops the export of hormones and reactive oxygen species, girdling may induce physiological changes unrelated to carbohydrate accumulation and may not be an effective method to study carbohydrate feedback

  9. Terrestrial carbohydrates support freshwater zooplankton during phytoplankton deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taipale, Sami J; Galloway, Aaron W E; Aalto, Sanni L; Kahilainen, Kimmo K; Strandberg, Ursula; Kankaala, Paula

    2016-08-11

    Freshwater food webs can be partly supported by terrestrial primary production, often deriving from plant litter of surrounding catchment vegetation. Although consisting mainly of poorly bioavailable lignin, with low protein and lipid content, the carbohydrates from fallen tree leaves and shoreline vegetation may be utilized by aquatic consumers. Here we show that during phytoplankton deficiency, zooplankton (Daphnia magna) can benefit from terrestrial particulate organic matter by using terrestrial-origin carbohydrates for energy and sparing essential fatty acids and amino acids for somatic growth and reproduction. Assimilated terrestrial-origin fatty acids from shoreline reed particles exceeded available diet, indicating that Daphnia may convert a part of their dietary carbohydrates to saturated fatty acids. This conversion was not observed with birch leaf diets, which had lower carbohydrate content. Subsequent analysis of 21 boreal and subarctic lakes showed that diet of herbivorous zooplankton is mainly based on high-quality phytoplankton rich in essential polyunsaturated fatty acids. The proportion of low-quality diets (bacteria and terrestrial particulate organic matter) was <28% of the assimilated carbon. Taken collectively, the incorporation of terrestrial carbon into zooplankton was not directly related to the concentration of terrestrial organic matter in experiments or lakes, but rather to the low availability of phytoplankton.

  10. Carbohydrate availability of arroz caldo with lambda-carrageenan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumelod, B D; Ramirez, R P; Tiangson, C L; Barrios, E B; Panlasigui, L N

    1999-07-01

    Total available carbohydrate (sugars and starches) and total dietary fiber (soluble and insoluble) make up the total carbohydrate content of a food. Soluble fiber decreases the availability of glucose by delaying its absorption in the proximal small intestine, thus reducing the postprandial glucose levels (Jenkins et al., 1978; Schneeman, 1987a). Carrageenan, a seaweed extract, is a good source of soluble fiber (Montaño et al., 1985). This study aimed to determine the effect of carrageenan incorporation into arroz caldo on carbohydrate availability by monitoring the postprandial blood glucose levels of normal subjects. Control and experimental arroz caldo samples were prepared and subjected to proximate analysis and feeding studies. The total dietary fiber (TDF) content of the experimental (2.03%) was about thrice that of the control (0.68%). Using randomized crossover design, preweighed 55 g available carbohydrate serving portions of control and experimental arroz caldo samples, with 3.45 and 14.84 g TDF, respectively, were fed to ten fasting normal subjects then their postprandial blood glucose levels were determined at 15, 30, 45, 60 and 90 min intervals. Results of the short-term in vivo study showed that the mean postprandial glycaemic responses of subjects after consuming the experimental sample were significantly lower than the levels after consuming the control at 15, 45, and 90 min (P arroz caldo than control (147.29 +/- 53.34). The hypoglycaemic effect of carrageenan may prove useful in the prevention and management of metabolic conditions such as diabetes.

  11. Implementing CLIL in Higher Education in Thailand: The Extent to Which CLIL Improves Agricultural Students' Writing Ability, Agricultural Content, and Cultural Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chansri, Charinee; Wasanasomsithi, Punchalee

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the extent to which a CLIL (Content and Language Integrated Learning) course at university level in Thailand improves undergraduate Agricultural students' writing ability, agricultural content, and cultural knowledge. The study sample consisted of 27 students majoring in Agriculture at a public university in…

  12. Content Interactivity: The Effect of Higher Levels of Interactivity on Learner Performance Outcomes and Satisfaction in Web-Based Military Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Peggy L.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of content interactivity on performance outcomes and satisfaction has been studied by researchers who compared the results of Web-based and computer-based learning to classroom learning. Few scholars have compared the effects of the same content produced at different levels (low and high) of interactivity and the resulting effects. The…

  13. CARBOHYDRATE INTAKE CONSIDERATIONS FOR YOUNG ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Montfort-Steiger

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Good nutritional practices are important for exercise performance and health during all ages. Athletes and especially growing children engaged in heavy training have higher energy and nutrient requirements compared to their non-active counterparts. Scientific understanding of sports nutrition for the young athlete is lacking behind the growing number of young athletes engaged in sports. Most of the sports nutrition recommendations given to athletic children and adolescents are based on adult findings due to the deficiency in age specific information in young athletes. Therefore, this review reflects on child specific sports nutrition, particularly on carbohydrate intake and metabolism that distinguishes the child athlete from the adult athlete. Children are characterised to be in an insulin resistance stage during certain periods of maturation, have different glycolytic/metabolic responses during exercise, have a tendency for higher fat oxidation during exercise and show different heat dissipation mechanisms compared to adults. These features point out that young athletes may need different nutritional advice on carbohydrate for exercise to those from adult athletes. Sport drinks for example may need to be adapted to children specific needs. However, more research in this area is warranted to clarify sports nutrition needs of the young athlete to provide better and healthy nutritional guidance to young athletes

  14. Carbohydrates of human immunodeficiency virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J E

    1992-01-01

    Elucidation of the mechanism by which viral infection induces the appearance of carbohydrate neoantigens is highly important. Results from such studies could be expected to be significant for a general understanding of the regulation of glycosylation, and perhaps especially important for the unde...

  15. Carbohydrates, Sugar, and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... carbs are: simple carbohydrates (or simple sugars): including fructose, glucose, and lactose, which also are found in nutritious ... sugar, check the ingredients list for sugar, corn syrup, or other sweeteners, such as dextrose, fructose, honey, or molasses, to name just a few. ...

  16. Qualitative Carbohydrate Analysis using Alkaline Potassium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    CLASSROOM. 285. RESONANCE | March 2016. Qualitative Carbohydrate Analysis using Alkaline. Potassium Ferricyanide. Keywords. Alkaline potassium ferricyanide, qualitative ... Carbohydrates form a distinct class of organic compounds often .... Laboratory Techniques: A contemporary Approach, W B Saunders Com-.

  17. Muscle insulin binding and plasma levels in relation to liver glucokinase activity, glucose metabolism and dietary carbohydrates in rainbow trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capilla, Encarnación; Médale, Françoise; Navarro, Isabel; Panserat, Stéphane; Vachot, Christiane; Kaushik, Sadasivam; Gutiérrez, Joaquim

    2003-01-31

    Rainbow trout were fed for 10 weeks with either a carbohydrate-free diet (C-free) or with four experimental diets containing various levels (20 or 40%) and sources of starch (extruded wheat or peas) in order to examine metabolic utilisation of dietary vegetable carbohydrates and its endocrine control. The study was focused on the parameters described as limiting in glucose metabolism in fish. Feeding trials were conducted at 8 and 18 degrees C to establish whether carbohydrate-rich diets can be used in trout farming irrespective of water temperature. At both temperatures, pea diets (especially the highest level) resulted in a feed efficiency as high as the C-free diet. Fish had similar growth rates except when fed the low wheat content diet. Glycaemia values 6 h after feeding were significantly higher in trout fed carbohydrate diets than those given the C-free diet, whereas plasma insulin levels were similar independently of the levels of dietary starch. This study provides the first evidence that glucokinase (GK) activity and mRNA level in trout liver increase in proportion to the content of dietary starch. Nevertheless, these changes were not correlated with plasma insulin levels. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) binding and number of receptors in skeletal muscle were consistently higher than those for insulin but no diet-induced differences were found for any of these parameters. Temperature clearly affected the postprandial profile of glucose and insulin, which both showed lower levels 6 h after feeding at 8 degrees C than at 18 degrees C, which was consistent with a lower feed intake. Glucose and insulin levels decreased markedly 24 h after feeding at 18 degrees C, while they were still high at 8 degrees C, an observation concordant with delayed transit rate. These findings indicate satisfactory adaptation of rainbow trout to diets with a relatively high vegetable starch content, especially when provided as extruded peas, and indicate that diets with

  18. Long-term salt stress responsive growth, carbohydrate metabolism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We investigated the long-term responses of tobacco tissues to salt stress, with a particular interest for growth parameters, proline (Pro) accumulation, and carbohydrate metabolism. Exposure of 17-day-old tobacco plants to 0.2 M NaCl was followed by a higher decrease in dry matter in roots than shoots with a decrease of ...

  19. Effect of training in the fasted state on metabolic responses during exercise with carbohydrate intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Bock, K; Derave, W; Eijnde, B O

    2008-01-01

    program (6 wk, 3 day/wk, 1-2 h, 75% of peak Vo(2)) in moderately active males. They trained in the fasted (F; n = 10) or carbohydrate-fed state (CHO; n = 10) while receiving a standardized diet [65 percent of total energy intake (En) from carbohydrates, 20%En fat, 15%En protein]. Before and after...... the training period, substrate use during a 2-h exercise bout was determined. During these experimental sessions, all subjects were in a fed condition and received extra carbohydrates (1 g.kg body wt(-1) .h(-1)). Peak Vo(2) (+7%), succinate dehydrogenase activity, GLUT4, and hexokinase II content were...... adaptations in peak Vo(2) whether carried out in the fasted or carbohydrate-fed state. Although there was a decrease in exercise-induced glycogen breakdown and an increase in proteins involved in fat handling after fasting training, fat oxidation during exercise with carbohydrate intake was not changed....

  20. Renal function following long-term weight loss in individuals with abdominal obesity on a very-low-carbohydrate diet vs high-carbohydrate diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkworth, Grant D; Buckley, Jonathan D; Noakes, Manny; Clifton, Peter M

    2010-04-01

    A frequently cited concern of very-low-carbohydrate diets is the potential for increased risk of renal disease associated with a higher protein intake. However, to date, no well-controlled randomized studies have evaluated the long-term effects of very-low-carbohydrate diets on renal function. To study this issue, renal function was assessed in 68 men and women with abdominal obesity (age 51.5+/-7.7 years, body mass index [calculated as kg/m(2)] 33.6+/-4.0) without preexisting renal dysfunction who were randomized to consume either an energy-restricted ( approximately 1,433 to 1,672 kcal/day), planned isocaloric very-low-carbohydrate (4% total energy as carbohydrate [14 g], 35% protein [124 g], 61% fat [99 g]), or high-carbohydrate diet (46% total energy as carbohydrate [162 g], 24% protein [85 g], 30% fat [49 g]) for 1 year. Body weight, serum creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate and urinary albumin excretion were assessed before and after 1 year (April 2006-July 2007). Repeated measures analysis of variance was conducted. Weight loss was similar in both groups (very-low-carbohydrate: -14.5+/-9.7 kg, high-carbohydrate: -11.6+/-7.3 kg; P=0.16). By 1 year, there were no changes in either group in serum creatinine levels (very-low-carbohydrate: 72.4+/-15.1 to 71.3+/-13.8 mumol/L, high-carbohydrate: 78.0+/-16.0 to 77.2+/-13.2 mumol/L; P=0.93 time x diet effect) or estimated glomerular filtration rate (very-low-carbohydrate: 90.0+/-17.0 to 91.2+/-17.8 mL/min/1.73 m(2), high-carbohydrate: 83.8+/-13.8 to 83.6+/-11.8 mL/min/1.73 m(2); P=0.53 time x diet effect). All but one participant was classified as having normoalbuminuria at baseline, and for these participants, urinary albumin excretion values remained in the normoalbuminuria range at 1 year. One participant in high-carbohydrate had microalbuminuria (41.8 microg/min) at baseline, which decreased to a value of 3.1 microg/min (classified as normoalbuminuria) at 1 year. This study provides preliminary

  1. Carbohydrate Microarray on Glass: a Tool for Carbohydrate-Lectin Interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tetala, K.K.R.; Giesbers, M.; Visser, G.M.; Sudhölter, E.J.R.; Beek, van T.A.

    2007-01-01

    A simple method to immobilize carbohydrates on a glass surface to obtain a carbohydrate microarray is described. The array was used to study carbohydrate-lectin interactions. The glass surface was modified with aldehyde terminated linker groups of various chain lengths. Coupling of carbohydrates

  2. Comparative analysis of carbohydrate active enzymes in Clostridium termitidis CT1112 reveals complex carbohydrate degradation ability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riffat I Munir

    Full Text Available Clostridium termitidis strain CT1112 is an anaerobic, gram positive, mesophilic, cellulolytic bacillus isolated from the gut of the wood-feeding termite, Nasutitermes lujae. It produces biofuels such as hydrogen and ethanol from cellulose, cellobiose, xylan, xylose, glucose, and other sugars, and therefore could be used for biofuel production from biomass through consolidated bioprocessing. The first step in the production of biofuel from biomass by microorganisms is the hydrolysis of complex carbohydrates present in biomass. This is achieved through the presence of a repertoire of secreted or complexed carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZymes, sometimes organized in an extracellular organelle called cellulosome. To assess the ability and understand the mechanism of polysaccharide hydrolysis in C. termitidis, the recently sequenced strain CT1112 of C. termitidis was analyzed for both CAZymes and cellulosomal components, and compared to other cellulolytic bacteria. A total of 355 CAZyme sequences were identified in C. termitidis, significantly higher than other Clostridial species. Of these, high numbers of glycoside hydrolases (199 and carbohydrate binding modules (95 were identified. The presence of a variety of CAZymes involved with polysaccharide utilization/degradation ability suggests hydrolysis potential for a wide range of polysaccharides. In addition, dockerin-bearing enzymes, cohesion domains and a cellulosomal gene cluster were identified, indicating the presence of potential cellulosome assembly.

  3. Despite higher body fat content, Ecuadorian subjects with Laron syndrome have less insulin resistance and lower incidence of diabetes than their relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara-Aguirre, Jaime; Procel, Patricio; Guevara, Carolina; Guevara-Aguirre, Marco; Rosado, Verónica; Teran, Enrique

    2016-06-01

    In the present pandemics of obesity and insulin resistant diabetes mellitus (DM), the specific contribution of etiological factors such as shifts in nutritional and exercise patterns, genetic and hormonal, is subject of ongoing research. Among the hormonal factors implicated, we selected obesity-driven insulin resistance for further evaluation. It is known that growth hormone (GH) has profound effects on carbohydrate metabolism. In consequence, we compared the effects of the lack of the counter-regulatory effects of GH, in a group of subjects with GH receptor deficiency (GHRD) due to a mutated GH receptor vs. that of their normal relatives. It was found that, despite their obesity, subjects with GHRD, have diminished incidence of diabetes, lower glucose and insulin concentrations, and lower values of indexes indicative of insulin resistance such as HOMA-IR. The GHRD subjects were also capable of appropriately handling glucose or mixed meal loads despite diminished insulin secretion. These observations allow us to suggest that the association of obesity with increased risk for diabetes appears to be dependent on intact growth hormone signaling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Serum content of oleic acid is associated with higher platelet-, endothelial- and leukocyte-derived circulating microparticles in Norwegian normolipidemic elderly patients after an acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiva-Blanch, G; Bratseth, V; Laake, K

    2016-01-01

    (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), from three different adipose tissue compartments [epicardial (EAT), pericardial (PAT) and subcutaneous (SAT)]. Furthermore, we studied the correlation between the content of EPA and DHA in these compartments and in atrial tissue (AT). METHODS We obtained AT from......OBJECTIVES The content in adipose tissue of marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is a marker of long-term fish consumption and data suggest an antiarrhythmic effect of n-3 PUFAs. We investigated the correlation between adipose tissue content of the major n-3 PUFAs, eicosapentaenoic acid...... auricles, EAT above the right ventricle, PAT, and SAT below the sternum from 50 patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Samples were frozen at -80°C and the content of n-3 PUFAs determined by gas chromatography with results given in relative weight%. RESULTS EPA and DHA were significantly correlated in EAT...

  5. A low-protein, high-carbohydrate diet increases browning in perirenal adipose tissue but not in inguinal adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Mayara P; Ferreira, Laís A A; da Silva, Flávia H S; Christoffolete, Marcelo A; Metsios, George S; Chaves, Valéria E; de França, Suélem A; Damazo, Amílcar S; Flouris, Andreas D; Kawashita, Nair H

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the browning and origin of fatty acids (FAs) in the maintenance of triacylglycerol (TG) storage and/or as fuel for thermogenesis in perirenal adipose tissue (periWAT) and inguinal adipose tissue (ingWAT) of rats fed a low-protein, high-carbohydrate (LPHC) diet. LPHC (6% protein, 74% carbohydrate) or control (C; 17% protein, 63% carbohydrate) diets were administered to rats for 15 d. The tissues were stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histologic analysis. The content of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) was determined by immunofluorescence. Levels of T-box transcription factor (TBX1), PR domain containing 16 (PRDM16), adipose triacylglycerol lipase (ATGL), hormone-sensitive lipase, lipoprotein lipase (LPL), glycerokinase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), glucose transporter 4, β 3 -adrenergic receptor (AR), β 1 -AR, protein kinase A (PKA), adenosine-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and phospho-AMPK were determined by immunoblotting. Serum fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) was measured using a commercial kit (Student's t tests, P diet increased FGF21 levels by 150-fold. The presence of multilocular adipocytes, combined with the increased contents of UCP1, TBX1, and PRDM16 in periWAT of LPHC-fed rats, suggested the occurrence of browning. The contents of β 1 -AR and LPL were increased in the periWAT. The ingWAT showed higher ATGL and PEPCK levels, phospho-AMPK/AMPK ratio, and reduced β 3 -AR and PKA levels. These findings suggest that browning occurred only in the periWAT and that higher utilization of FAs from blood lipoproteins acted as fuel for thermogenesis. Increased glycerol 3-phosphate generation by glyceroneogenesis increased FAs reesterification from lipolysis, explaining the increased TG storage in the ingWAT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Genetic diversity for fermentable carbohydrates production in alfalfa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castonguay, Y.; Bertrand, A.; Duceppe, M.O.; Dube, M.P.; Michaud, R. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Quebec City, PQ (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Alfalfa has many attributes that renders it suitable for bioethanol production, including its adaptability to diverse environmental conditions without any need for nitrogen fertilizer. However research is needed to develop biofuel-type alfalfa with improved biomass production and standability, increased persistence, and better cell wall degradability. The ethanol conversion rates from alfalfa biomass could be increased by genetically improving the accumulation of readily fermentable non-structural carbohydrates (NSC). This presentation reported on a screening project where genotypes with superior cell wall degradability were identified. NSC accumulation within 300 genotypes was randomly selected within six genetic backgrounds from Europe and North America. Biochemical analyses of dried stems revealed a large genetic variability for NSC content, with concentrations ranging from 20 to 100 mg per g DW. NSC variability was considerably higher in a genetic background of European origin compared to the other populations, therefore emphasizing the potential for genetic improvement for that trait. A modified commercial enzymatic cocktail known as AcceleraseTM 1000 Genencor is being developed to optimize the degradation of alfalfa biomass. DNA extracted from genotypes with the highest and lowest cell wall degradability or NSC accumulation will be pooled and used for bulk segregant analysis of DNA polymorphisms using the PCR-based sequence-related amplified polymorphism technique. It was concluded that the commercial release of biofuel-type alfalfa can be accelerated if the genetic markers associated with these traits can be identified.

  7. Terrestrial carbohydrates support freshwater zooplankton during phytoplankton deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Taipale, Sami J.; Galloway, Aaron W. E.; Aalto, Sanni L.; Kahilainen, Kimmo K.; Strandberg, Ursula; Kankaala, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater food webs can be partly supported by terrestrial primary production, often deriving from plant litter of surrounding catchment vegetation. Although consisting mainly of poorly bioavailable lignin, with low protein and lipid content, the carbohydrates from fallen tree leaves and shoreline vegetation may be utilized by aquatic consumers. Here we show that during phytoplankton deficiency, zooplankton (Daphnia magna) can benefit from terrestrial particulate organic matter by using terr...

  8. A Comparative Study on Carbohydrate Estimation: GoCARB vs. Dietitians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria F. Vasiloglou

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available GoCARB is a computer vision-based smartphone system designed for individuals with Type 1 Diabetes to estimate plated meals’ carbohydrate (CHO content. We aimed to compare the accuracy of GoCARB in estimating CHO with the estimations of six experienced dietitians. GoCARB was used to estimate the CHO content of 54 Central European plated meals, with each of them containing three different weighed food items. Ground truth was calculated using the USDA food composition database. Dietitians were asked to visually estimate the CHO content based on meal photographs. GoCARB and dietitians achieved comparable accuracies. The mean absolute error of the dietitians was 14.9 (SD 10.12 g of CHO versus 14.8 (SD 9.73 g of CHO for the GoCARB (p = 0.93. No differences were found between the estimations of dietitians and GoCARB, regardless the meal size. The larger the size of the meal, the greater were the estimation errors made by both. Moreover, the higher the CHO content of a food category was, the more challenging its accurate estimation. GoCARB had difficulty in estimating rice, pasta, potatoes, and mashed potatoes, while dietitians had problems with pasta, chips, rice, and polenta. GoCARB may offer diabetic patients the option of an easy, accurate, and almost real-time estimation of the CHO content of plated meals, and thus enhance diabetes self-management.

  9. Carbohydrate Microarrays in Plant Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fangel, Jonatan Ulrik; Pedersen, H.L.; Vidal-Melgosa, S.

    2012-01-01

    Almost all plant cells are surrounded by glycan-rich cell walls, which form much of the plant body and collectively are the largest source of biomass on earth. Plants use polysaccharides for support, defense, signaling, cell adhesion, and as energy storage, and many plant glycans are also important...... industrially and nutritionally. Understanding the biological roles of plant glycans and the effective exploitation of their useful properties requires a detailed understanding of their structures, occurrence, and molecular interactions. Microarray technology has revolutionized the massively high...... for plant research and can be used to map glycan populations across large numbers of samples to screen antibodies, carbohydrate binding proteins, and carbohydrate binding modules and to investigate enzyme activities....

  10. Microalgal carbohydrates: an overview of the factors influencing carbohydrates production, and of main bioconversion technologies for production of biofuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markou, Giorgos; Angelidaki, Irini; Georgakakis, Dimitris

    2012-01-01

    in research is the cultivation of microalgae for lipids production to generate biodiesel. However, there are several other biological or thermochemical conversion technologies, in which microalgal biomass could be used as substrate. However, the high protein content or the low carbohydrate content...... of the majority of the microalgal species might be a constraint for their possible use in these technologies. Moreover, in the majority of biomass conversion technologies, carbohydrates are the main substrate for production of biofuels. Nevertheless, microalgae biomass composition could be manipulated by several......Microalgal biomass seems to be a promising feedstock for biofuel generation. Microalgae have relative high photosynthetic efficiencies, high growth rates, and some species can thrive in brackish water or seawater and wastewater from the food- and agro-industrial sector. Today, the main interest...

  11. Genome-Wide Association of Stem Water Soluble Carbohydrates in Bread Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yan; Liu, Jindong; Zhang, Yan; Geng, Hongwei; Rasheed, Awais; Xiao, Yonggui; Cao, Shuanghe; Fu, Luping; Yan, Jun; Wen, Weie; Zhang, Yong; Jing, Ruilian; Xia, Xianchun; He, Zhonghu

    2016-01-01

    Water soluble carbohydrates (WSC) in stems play an important role in buffering grain yield in wheat against biotic and abiotic stresses; however, knowledge of genes controlling WSC is very limited. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using a high-density 90K SNP array to better understand the genetic basis underlying WSC, and to explore marker-based breeding approaches. WSC was evaluated in an association panel comprising 166 Chinese bread wheat cultivars planted in four environments. Fifty two marker-trait associations (MTAs) distributed across 23 loci were identified for phenotypic best linear unbiased estimates (BLUEs), and 11 MTAs were identified in two or more environments. Liner regression showed a clear dependence of WSC BLUE scores on numbers of favorable (increasing WSC content) and unfavorable alleles (decreasing WSC), indicating that genotypes with higher numbers of favorable or lower numbers of unfavorable alleles had higher WSC content. In silico analysis of flanking sequences of trait-associated SNPs revealed eight candidate genes related to WSC content grouped into two categories based on the type of encoding proteins, namely, defense response proteins and proteins triggered by environmental stresses. The identified SNPs and candidate genes related to WSC provide opportunities for breeding higher WSC wheat cultivars.

  12. Genome-Wide Association of Stem Water Soluble Carbohydrates in Bread Wheat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Dong

    Full Text Available Water soluble carbohydrates (WSC in stems play an important role in buffering grain yield in wheat against biotic and abiotic stresses; however, knowledge of genes controlling WSC is very limited. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS using a high-density 90K SNP array to better understand the genetic basis underlying WSC, and to explore marker-based breeding approaches. WSC was evaluated in an association panel comprising 166 Chinese bread wheat cultivars planted in four environments. Fifty two marker-trait associations (MTAs distributed across 23 loci were identified for phenotypic best linear unbiased estimates (BLUEs, and 11 MTAs were identified in two or more environments. Liner regression showed a clear dependence of WSC BLUE scores on numbers of favorable (increasing WSC content and unfavorable alleles (decreasing WSC, indicating that genotypes with higher numbers of favorable or lower numbers of unfavorable alleles had higher WSC content. In silico analysis of flanking sequences of trait-associated SNPs revealed eight candidate genes related to WSC content grouped into two categories based on the type of encoding proteins, namely, defense response proteins and proteins triggered by environmental stresses. The identified SNPs and candidate genes related to WSC provide opportunities for breeding higher WSC wheat cultivars.

  13. Dietary carbohydrates and triacylglycerol metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, H M

    1999-02-01

    There is a growing body of scientific evidence which demonstrates that plasma triacylglycerol (TAG) concentration, especially in the postprandial state, is an important risk factor in relation to the development of CHD. Postprandial hypertriacylglycerolaemia is associated with a number of adverse metabolic risk factors, including the preponderance of small dense LDL, low HDL-cholesterol concentrations and elevated factor VII activity. Traditionally, a low-fat high-carbohydrate diet was used to prevent CHD because it effectively reduces plasma cholesterol concentrations, but this dietary regimen increases plasma TAG concentrations and reduces HDL-cholesterol concentrations. There is substantial epidemiological evidence which demonstrates that high plasma TAG and low plasma HDL concentrations are associated with an increased risk of CHD. Thus, there is reason for concern that the adverse effects of low-fat high-carbohydrate diets on TAG and HDL may counteract or negate the beneficial effect of reducing LDL-cholesterol concentrations. Although there have been no prospective studies to investigate whether reduced fat intake has an adverse effect on CHD, there is strong epidemiological evidence that reducing total fat intake is not protective against CHD. On the other hand, high-fat diets predispose to obesity, and central obesity adversely affects TAG metabolism. There is substantial evidence that in free-living situations low-fat high-carbohydrate diets lead to weight loss, which in turn will correct insulin resistance and plasma TAG metabolism. Clearly there is a need for prospective studies to resolve the issue as to whether low-fat high-carbohydrate diets play an adverse or beneficial role in relation to the development of CHD.

  14. Soybean hull induced production of carbohydrases and protease among Aspergillus and their effectiveness in soy flour carbohydrate and protein separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Loman, Abdullah Al; Coffman, Anthony M; Ju, Lu-Kwang

    2017-04-20

    Soybean hull consists mainly of three major plant carbohydrates, i.e., cellulose, hemicellulose and pectin. It is inexpensive and a good potential substrate for carbohydrase production because it is capable of inducing a complete spectrum of activities to hydrolyze complex biomass. Aspergillus is known for carbohydrase production but no studies have evaluated and compared, among Aspergillus species and strains, the soybean hull induced production of various carbohydrases. In this study, A. aculeatus, A. cinnamomeus, A. foetidus, A. phoenicis and 11 A. niger strains were examined together with T. reesei Rut C30, another known carbohydrase producer. The carbohydrases evaluated included pectinase, polygalacturonase, xylanase, cellulase, α-galactosidase and sucrase. Growth morphology and pH profiles were also followed. Among Aspergillus strains, morphology was found to correlate with both carbohydrase production and pH decrease profile. Filamentous strains gave higher carbohydrase production while causing slower pH decrease. The enzyme broths produced were also tested for separation of soy flour carbohydrate and protein. Defatted soy flour contains about 53% protein and 32% carbohydrate. The enzymatic treatment can increase protein content and remove indigestible oligo-/poly-saccharides, and improve use of soy flour in feed and food. Protease production by different strains was therefore also compared for minimizing protein degradation. A. niger NRRL 322 and A. foetidus NRRL 341 were found to be the most potent strains that produced maximal carbohydrases and minimal protease under soybean hull induction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Carbohydrate composition, viscosity, solubility, and sensory acceptance of sweetpotato- and maize-based complementary foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amagloh, Francis Kweku; Mutukumira, Anthony N.; Brough, Louise; Weber, Janet L.; Hardacre, Allan; Coad, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Background Cereal-based complementary foods from non-malted ingredients form a relatively high viscous porridge. Therefore, excessive dilution, usually with water, is required to reduce the viscosity to be appropriate for infant feeding. The dilution invariably leads to energy and nutrient thinning, that is, the reduction of energy and nutrient densities. Carbohydrate is the major constituent of food that significantly influences viscosity when heated in water. Objectives To compare the sweetpotato-based complementary foods (extrusion-cooked ComFa, roller-dried ComFa, and oven-toasted ComFa) and enriched Weanimix (maize-based formulation) regarding their 1) carbohydrate composition, 2) viscosity and water solubility index (WSI), and 3) sensory acceptance evaluated by sub-Sahara African women as model caregivers. Methods The level of simple sugars/carbohydrates was analysed by spectrophotometry, total dietary fibre by enzymatic-gravimetric method, and total carbohydrate and starch levels estimated by calculation. A Rapid Visco™ Analyser was used to measure viscosity. WSI was determined gravimetrically. A consumer sensory evaluation was used to evaluate the product acceptance of the roller-dried ComFa, oven-toasted ComFa, and enriched Weanimix. Results The sweetpotato-based complementary foods were, on average, significantly higher in maltose, sucrose, free glucose and fructose, and total dietary fibre, but they were markedly lower in starch content compared with the levels in the enriched Weanimix. Consequently, the sweetpotato-based complementary foods had relatively low apparent viscosity, and high WSI, than that of enriched Weanimix. The scores of sensory liking given by the caregivers were highest for the roller-dried ComFa, followed by the oven-toasted ComFa, and, finally, the enriched Weanimix. Conclusion The sweetpotato-based formulations have significant advantages as complementary food due to the high level of endogenous sugars and low starch content that

  16. Data Science Programs in U.S. Higher Education: An Exploratory Content Analysis of Program Description, Curriculum Structure, and Course Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Rong; Sae-Lim, Watinee

    2016-01-01

    In this study, an exploratory content analysis of 30 randomly selected Data Science (DS) programs from eight disciplines revealed significant gaps in current DS education in the United States. The analysis centers on linguistic patterns of program descriptions, curriculum requirements, and DS course focus as pertaining to key skills and domain…

  17. Effects of some added carbohydrates on cellulases and ligninase and decomposition of whole bagasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigam, P; Prabhu, K A

    1986-01-01

    Two basidiomycetes mould isolates were studied for the production of extracellular cellulases and ligninase in submerged shake culture using whole bagasse as substrate. The effects of some added carbohydrates on enzyme production, substrate decomposition and biomass formation were examined. In both cultures the addition of lactose stimulated biomass production and increased the decomposition of total carbohydrate and lignin contents of bagasse. Lactose was the only sugar which stimulated cellulase and ligninase in both cultures. 19 references.

  18. Effects of ratios of non-fibre carbohydrates to rumen degradable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    digestibility in the MRDP treatment was higher and RDP level equal to 108 (g/kg of DM). ... Keywords: Dairy cows, milk production, non-fibre carbohydrates, rumen .... Van Soest, 1970) with sodium sulphite using heat stable alpha-amylase.

  19. A systematic study of chemogenomics of carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jiangyong; Luo, Fang; Chen, Lirong; Yuan, Gu; Xu, Xiaojie

    2014-03-04

    Chemogenomics focuses on the interactions between biologically active molecules and protein targets for drug discovery. Carbohydrates are the most abundant compounds in natural products. Compared with other drugs, the carbohydrate drugs show weaker side effects. Searching for multi-target carbohydrate drugs can be regarded as a solution to improve therapeutic efficacy and safety. In this work, we collected 60 344 carbohydrates from the Universal Natural Products Database (UNPD) and explored the chemical space of carbohydrates by principal component analysis. We found that there is a large quantity of potential lead compounds among carbohydrates. Then we explored the potential of carbohydrates in drug discovery by using a network-based multi-target computational approach. All carbohydrates were docked to 2389 target proteins. The most potential carbohydrates for drug discovery and their indications were predicted based on a docking score-weighted prediction model. We also explored the interactions between carbohydrates and target proteins to find the pathological networks, potential drug candidates and new indications.

  20. Effect of dietary protein, lipid and carbohydrate contents on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lenovo

    2012-04-24

    Apr 24, 2012 ... during 90 days. Feeds were formulated using ground nut oil cake, mustard oil cake, rice bran, wheat ... Lim, 2002). However, protein is essential for normal tissue ... the diet, pre-treatment and degree of gelatinization. The ability of ... A pelleting machine (Hobart, model, A 200) was used to pellet the feeds.

  1. Effect of dietary protein, lipid and carbohydrate contents on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lenovo

    This study aimed to determine a feed formulation with the best protein to energy ratio that would result in a better viscera composition and organ indices (OI) of Cyprinus carpio communis. Fingerlings having average weight of 1.64 ± 0.13 g and length of 5.26 ± 0.10 cm were fed on four different formulated feeds and a control ...

  2. Effect of dietary protein, lipid and carbohydrate contents on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lenovo

    Feeds were formulated using groundnut oil cake, mustard oil cake, rice bran, wheat bran, fish meal and .... not considered essential to fish because of their ability to synthesize ... the diet, pre-treatment and degree of gelatinization. The ability of fish to ... A pelleting machine (Hobart, model, A 200) was used to pellet the feeds.

  3. The effect of carbohydrate and fat variation in euenergetic diets on postabsorptive free fatty acid release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisschop, PH; Ackermans, MT; Endert, E; Ruiter, AFC; Meijer, AJ; Kuipers, F; Sauerwein, HP; Romijn, JA

    Diet composition and energy content modulate free fatty acid (FFA) release. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dose-response effects of euenergetic variations in dietary carbohydrate and fat content on postabsorptive FFA release. The rate of appearance (R-a) of palmitate was measured by

  4. Effect of Boiling and Frying on the Total Carbohydrate, Vitamin C ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These were determined by the atomic absorption spectrophotometric method. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in the total carbohydrate content of the boiled and fried sweet and Irish potatoes compared with their raw tubers. There was significant difference (p < 0.05) in the vitamin C content of the boiled and ...

  5. TOTAL NON-STRUCTURAL CARBOHYDRATE (TNC OF THREE CULTIVARS OF NAPIER GRASS (Pennisetum purpureum AT VEGETATIVE AND REPRODUCTIVE PHASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Budiman

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to determine Total Non-structural carbohydrates (TNC of threecultivars of napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum harvested at vegetative and reproductive phases. Thecultivars tested were Taiwan (Gt, King (Gk and Mott (Gm and arranged in a 3 x 2 of treatments withfour replicates following nested design. The results showed that the highest sugar content (P<0.01 wasfound in Gt cultivar and the lowest was in Gm cultivar. The highest starch content (P<0.01 was found inGk cultivar and the lowest was in Gt cultivar. TNC content of Gt and Gk cultivars were not significantlydifferent, but both were significantly higher (P<0.01 compared with the Gm cultivar. It can beconcluded, that there were differences in TNC between cultivars, however, the TNC content in Gkcultivar was not different with Gt cultivar, while Gm cultivar have the lowest (P<0.01 TNC content. Atreproductive phase all cultivars have higher (P<0.01 TNC and starch content than at vegetative phase

  6. No evidence for depletion of carbohydrate pools in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) under drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, A; Pirkebner, D; Florian, C; Oberhuber, W

    2012-01-01

    The physiological mechanisms leading to Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) decline in the dry inner alpine valleys are still unknown. Testing the carbon starvation hypothesis, we analysed the seasonal course of mobile carbohydrate pools (NSC) of Scots pine growing at a xeric and a dry-mesic site within an inner alpine dry valley (750 m a.s.l., Tyrol, Austria) during 2009, which was characterised by exceptional soil dryness. Although, soil moisture content dropped to ca. 10% at both sites during the growing season, NSC concentrations rose in all tissues (branch, stem, root) until the end of July, except in needles, where maxima were reached around bud break. NSC concentrations were not significantly different in the analysed tissues at the xeric and the dry-mesic site. At the dry-mesic site, NSC concentrations in the aboveground tree biomass were significantly higher during the period of radial growth. An accumulation of NSC in roots at the end of July indicates a change in carbon allocation after an early cessation in aboveground growth, possibly due to elevated belowground carbon demand. In conclusion, our results revealed that extensive soil dryness during the growing season did not lead to carbon depletion. However, even though carbon reserves were not exhausted, sequestration of carbohydrate pools during drought periods might lead to deficits in carbon supply that weaken tree vigour and drive tree mortality. © 2011 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  7. Dietary carbohydrate deprivation increases 24-hour nitrogen excretion without affecting postabsorptive hepatic or whole body protein metabolism in healthy men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisschop, PH; de Sain-van der Velden, MGM; Stellaard, F; Kuipers, F; Meijer, AJ; Sauerwein, HP; Romijn, JA

    Because insulin is an important regulator of protein metabolism, we hypothesized that physiological modulation of insulin secretion, by means of extreme variations in dietary carbohydrate content, affects postabsorptive protein metabolism. Therefore, we studied the effects of three isocaloric diets

  8. Dietary carbohydrate deprivation increases 24-hour nitrogen excretion without affecting postabsorptive hepatic or whole body protein metabolism in healthy men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisschop, P. H.; de Sain-van der Velden, M. G. M.; Stellaard, F.; Kuipers, F.; Meijer, A. J.; Sauerwein, H. P.; Romijn, J. A.

    2003-01-01

    Because insulin is an important regulator of protein metabolism, we hypothesized that physiological modulation of insulin secretion, by means of extreme variations in dietary carbohydrate content, affects postabsorptive protein metabolism. Therefore, we studied the effects of three isocaloric diets

  9. Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such as kidney beans, black beans, pinto beans, black-eyed peas, split peas, and garbanzo beans Starchy vegetables, such as potatoes, corn, green peas, and parsnips Whole grains, such as brown rice, oats, barley, and quinoa Refined grains, such as ...

  10. Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the great nutrients. That's why your best bet is whole grain. Enriched products means some of ... Molasses Syrup and malt syrup If you are thinking about using a sugar substitute, you may wonder ...

  11. Importance of low carbohydrate diets in diabetes management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hall RM

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Rosemary M Hall, Amber Parry Strong, Jeremy D KrebsCentre for Endocrine, Diabetes and Obesity Research, Capital and Coast District Health Board, Wellington, New Zealand Abstract: Dietary strategies are fundamental in the management of diabetes. Historically, strict dietary control with a low carbohydrate diet was the only treatment option. With increasingly effective medications, the importance of dietary change decreased. Recommendations focused on reducing dietary fat to prevent atherosclerotic disease, with decreasing emphasis on the amount and quality of carbohydrate. As the prevalence of obesity and diabetes escalates, attention has returned to the macronutrient composition of the diet. Very low carbohydrate diets (VLCD's have demonstrated effective initial weight loss and improvement in glycemic control, but difficult long-term acceptability and worsening lipid profile. Modifications to the very low carbohydrate (VLC have included limiting saturated fat and increasing carbohydrate (CHO and protein. Reducing saturated fat appears pivotal in reducing low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol and may mitigate adverse effects of traditional VLCD's. Increased dietary protein enhances satiety, reduces energy intake, and improves glycemic homeostasis, but without sustained improvements in glycemic control or cardiovascular risk over and above the effect of weight loss. Additionally, recent studies in type 1 diabetes mellitus suggest promising benefits to diabetes control with low carbohydrate diets, without concerning effects on ketosis or hypoglycemia. Dietary patterns may highlight pertinent associations. For example, Mediterranean-style and paleolithic-type diets, low in fat and carbohydrate, are associated with reduced body weight and improved glycemic and cardiovascular outcomes in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. A feature of these dietary patterns is low refined CHO and sugar and higher fiber, and it is possible that increasing sugar

  12. Carbohydrate Status of Tulip Bulbs during Cold-Induced Flower Stalk Elongation and Flowering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrechts, H.; Rook, F.; Kolloffel, C.

    1994-01-01

    The effect of a cold treatment on the carbohydrate status of the scales and flower stalk of Tulipa gesneriana L. cv Apeldoorn bulbs during growth after planting was studied and compared with bulbs not given cold treatment. Bulbs were stored dry for 12 weeks at 5[deg]C (precooled) or 17[deg]C (noncooled). Only the 5[deg]C treatment led to rapid flower stalk elongation and flowering following planting at higher temperatures. Precooling enhanced mobilization of starch, fructans, and sucrose in the scales. The cold-stimulated starch breakdown was initially accompanied by increased [alpha]-amylase activity per scale. In noncooled bulbs, [alpha]-amylase activity slightly decreased or remained more or less constant. Cold-induced flower stalk elongation was partially accompanied by a decrease in the sucrose content and an increase in the glucose content and invertase activity per g dry weight. The starch content in internodes initially decreased and subsequently increased; [alpha]-amylase activity per g dry weight of the lowermost internode showed a peak pattern during starch breakdown and increased thereafter. The internodes of noncooled bulbs, on the contrary, accumulated sucrose. Their glucose content and invertase activity per g dry weight remained low. Starch breakdown was not found and [alpha]-amylase activity per g dry weight of the lowermost internode remained at a low level. Precooling of tulip bulbs thus favors reserve mobilization in the scales and flower stalk and glucose accumulation in the elongating internodes. PMID:12232100

  13. Chlorophyll and carbohydrates in Arachis pintoi plants under influence of water regimes and nitrogen fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Manuele Porto Sales

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this experiment the chlorophyll and carbohydrate contents of Arachis pintoi were evaluated to verify if the presence of nitrogen in the soil could contribute to the effectiveness of the establishment of this legume. The design was completely randomized, in a 4 × 4 factorial arrangement, with four N rates (0, 40, 80 and 120 kg ha-1 and four irrigation levels (25, 50, 75 and 100% of field capacity, with four replications. The biochemical evaluations of chlorophylls a and b and total chlorophyll and total soluble sugars, sucrose and starch were performed. The highest contents of chlorophyll a and b and total chlorophyll in leaves were found at the dose of 120 kg ha-1. The water regime of 25% of field capacity was responsible for the lowest content of reducing sugars and total soluble sugars in leaves, stolons and roots. In the roots, the sucrose contents were higher in these conditions, which can be associated with a slight tolerance of the plant to water stress. The water deficiency was responsible for the decrease of reducing sugars and total N in the whole plant and positively influenced the levels of chlorophyll and sugars in the stolon, promoting growth, especially of shoots, at the beginning of establishment.

  14. Sugar Lego: gene composition of bacterial carbohydrate metabolism genomic loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaznadzey, Anna; Shelyakin, Pavel; Gelfand, Mikhail S

    2017-11-25

    Bacterial carbohydrate metabolism is extremely diverse, since carbohydrates serve as a major energy source and are involved in a variety of cellular processes. Bacterial genes belonging to same metabolic pathway are often co-localized in the chromosome, but it is not a strict rule. Gene co-localization in linked to co-evolution and co-regulation. This study focuses on a large-scale analysis of bacterial genomic loci related to the carbohydrate metabolism. We demonstrate that only 53% of 148,000 studied genes from over six hundred bacterial genomes are co-localized in bacterial genomes with other carbohydrate metabolism genes, which points to a significant role of singleton genes. Co-localized genes form cassettes, ranging in size from two to fifteen genes. Two major factors influencing the cassette-forming tendency are gene function and bacterial phylogeny. We have obtained a comprehensive picture of co-localization preferences of genes for nineteen major carbohydrate metabolism functional classes, over two hundred gene orthologous clusters, and thirty bacterial classes, and characterized the cassette variety in size and content among different species, highlighting a significant role of short cassettes. The preference towards co-localization of carbohydrate metabolism genes varies between 40 and 76% for bacterial taxa. Analysis of frequently co-localized genes yielded forty-five significant pairwise links between genes belonging to different functional classes. The number of such links per class range from zero to eight, demonstrating varying preferences of respective genes towards a specific chromosomal neighborhood. Genes from eleven functional classes tend to co-localize with genes from the same class, indicating an important role of clustering of genes with similar functions. At that, in most cases such co-localization does not originate from local duplication events. Overall, we describe a complex web formed by evolutionary relationships of bacterial

  15. Post-Gastric Bypass Hyperinsulinemic Hypoglycemia: Fructose is a Carbohydrate Which Can Be Safely Consumed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bantle, Anne E; Wang, Qi; Bantle, John P

    2015-08-01

    Postprandial hypoglycemia after gastric bypass surgery is a serious problem. Available treatments are often ineffective. The objective was to test the hypotheses that injection of rapid-acting insulin before a high-carbohydrate meal or replacement of other carbohydrates with fructose in the meal would prevent hypoglycemia. This was a randomized, crossover trial comparing a high-carbohydrate meal with premeal saline injection (control), a high-carbohydrate meal with premeal insulin injection, and a high-fructose meal with total carbohydrate content similar to the control meal. The setting was an academic medical center. Ten patients with post-gastric bypass hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia participated. Interventions included lispro insulin injected before test meals and replacement of other carbohydrates with fructose in test meals. The main outcome measure was plasma glucose meals. After the control meal, mean peak glucose and insulin were 173 ± 47 mg/dL and 134 ± 55 mU/L, respectively; mean glucose nadir was 44 ± 15 mg/dL; and eight of 10 subjects demonstrated glucose meal, mean peak postprandial glucose and insulin were 117 ± 20 mg/dL and 45 ± 31 mU/L, respectively (both P meal sweetened with fructose with little risk of hypoglycemia. Treatment with rapid-acting insulin before a carbohydrate-containing meal did not prevent hypoglycemia.

  16. [Clinical-diagnostic estimation of carbohydrates metabolism in obturation jaundice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nychytaĭlo, M Iu; Malyk, S V

    2004-07-01

    Complex examination of 175 patients with obturation jaundice was conducted, peculiar attention was spared to the carbohydrates metabolism changes, characterizing hepatic state. It was established, that in obturation jaundice in the liver there are occurring inflammatory changes and disturbances of all kinds of metabolism, including that of carbohydrates, severity of which depends on duration of jaundice, the concurrent diseases presence, they shows lowering of the glucose and glycogen level in the blood, as well as the hepatic glycogen content, that's why they may be applied as a complex of prognostic criterions for the disease course. An early conduction of operative treatment, elimination of the biliary ducts impassability promote the rehabilitation period shortening and the hepatic functional activity normalization.

  17. [Carbohydrates metabolism disturbances when simulating prenatal alcohol intoxication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurch, N M; Vysokogorskiĭ, V E

    2013-01-01

    The influence of prenatal alcohol intoxication on carbohydrate metabolism markers has been investigated at different terms of postnatal offspring development (15, 30 and 60 days). Plasma glucose decreased as compared with the same in control group was detected. In the liver homogenates an increase of phosphorylase activity and a decrease of glucose-6-phosphatase, aldolase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities were found. These changes were accompanied by the incease in the lactate/pyruvate index attributed to increased lactate content in the liver tissue. The obtained data indicate essential disturbances of carbohydrate metabolism markers in prenatal alcoholized offspring, which include stable hypoglycemia, suppression of glycolytic and pentosephosphate pathways of glucose metabolism and lactate accumulation in the liver.

  18. The role of carbohydrate in dietary prescription for weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Arne

    content of ad libitum diets produces weight loss in both the short-term and over periods as long as 7 years. A fat-reduced diet, combined with physical activity, reduces all risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and reduces the incidence of type 2 diabetes. The combination of reduction of dietary fat...... and energy, and increased physical activity, has been shown to reduce the incidence of diabetes by 58% in two major trials. In post hoc analyses the reduction in dietary fat (energy density) and increase in fibre were the strongest predictors of weight loss and diabetes protective effects. It remains...... to be shown whether a low-glycemic index diet provides benefits beyond this. Low-carbohydrate diets may be an option for inducing weight loss in obese patients, but a very low intake of carbohydrate-rich foods is not commensurate with a healthy and palatable diet in the long term. However, there is evidence...

  19. Radiation degradation of carbohydrates and their biological activities for plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, T.; Nagasawa, N.; Matsuhashi, S.

    2000-01-01

    Radiation effects on carbohydrates such as chitosan, sodium alginate, carrageenan, cellulose, pectin have been investigated to improve the biological activities. These carbohydrates were easily degraded by irradiation and induced various kinds of biological activities such as anti-bacterial activity, promotion of plant growth, suppression of heavy metal stress, phytoalexins induction. Pectic fragments obtained from degraded pectin induced the phytoalexins such as glyceollins in soybean and pisatin in pea. The irradiated chitosan shows the higher elicitor activity for pisatin than that of pectin. For the plant growth promotion, alginate derived from brown marine algae, chitosan and ligno-cellulosic extracts show a strong activity. Kappa and iota carrageenan derived from red marine algae can promote growth of rice and the highest effect was obtained with kappa irradiated at 100 kGy. Some radiation degraded carbohydrates suppressed the damage of heavy metals on plants. The effects of irradiated carbohydrates on transportation of heavy metals have been investigated by PETIS (Positron Emitting Tracer Imaging System) and autoradiography using 48 V and 62 Zn. (author)

  20. Targhee Russet: A high yielding dual purpose, long russet potato cultivar having higher protein and vitamin C content and resistance to tuber soft rot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Targhee Russet is a dark-skinned russet potato variety with tubers slightly longer than Russet Burbank. It produces higher total and marketable yields than does Russet Burbank at most of the sites it was tested in the western United States. Tuber dormancy is about 58 days shorter than Russet Burba...

  1. Yield-increasing additives in kraft pulping: Effect on carbohydrate retention, composition and handsheet properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaaler, David Andre Grimsoeen

    2008-07-01

    In this thesis, increased hemicellulose retention during kraft pulping has been studied. The work has been divided into three parts: i) Development of an accessible and reliable method for determination of carbohydrate composition of kraft pulps ii) Investigation of the composition and molecular mass distributions of the carbohydrates in kraft pulps with increased hemicellulose content iii) Investigation of the effect of increased hemicellulose content on the sheet properties of kraft pulps with increased hemicellulose content. A method for carbohydrate determination was developed. In this method, enzymes are used to hydrolyse the pulp into monosaccharides. A relatively mild acid hydrolysis is performed prior to detection on an HPLC with an RI-detector. The pulp is not derivatized and no pre-treatment (mechanical or chemical) is needed to determine the carbohydrate composition using the method developed here. Peak deconvolution software is used to improve the accuracy. Polysulphide and H2S primarily increase the glucomannan yield, which can be boosted by up to 7 % on o.d. wood. However, the cellulose yield is more affected by the cooking time and the maximum yield increase of cellulose is approximately 2 % on o.d. wood compared to an ordinary kraft pulp. The cooking time is influenced by sulphide ion concentration, AQ addition and the final Kappa number. The xylan yield is remarkably stable, however the alkali profile during the cook may influence the xylan yield. Surface xylan content of the fibres depends on residual alkali concentration in the black liquor. The molecular mass distributions of cellulose and hemicellulose were determined for pulps with increased hemicellulose content using size exclusion chromatography. Deconvolution by peak separation software is used to gain information about the degree of polymerization for cellulose and hemicellulose. The average DP of glucomannan in the kraft fibre was found to be 350 +- 30 and the average DP of xylan in the

  2. Universal Signatures of Quantum Critical Points from Finite-Size Torus Spectra: A Window into the Operator Content of Higher-Dimensional Conformal Field Theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, Michael; Whitsitt, Seth; Henry, Louis-Paul; Sachdev, Subir; Läuchli, Andreas M

    2016-11-18

    The low-energy spectra of many body systems on a torus, of finite size L, are well understood in magnetically ordered and gapped topological phases. However, the spectra at quantum critical points separating such phases are largely unexplored for (2+1)D systems. Using a combination of analytical and numerical techniques, we accurately calculate and analyze the low-energy torus spectrum at an Ising critical point which provides a universal fingerprint of the underlying quantum field theory, with the energy levels given by universal numbers times 1/L. We highlight the implications of a neighboring topological phase on the spectrum by studying the Ising* transition (i.e. the transition between a Z_{2} topological phase and a trivial paramagnet), in the example of the toric code in a longitudinal field, and advocate a phenomenological picture that provides qualitative insight into the operator content of the critical field theory.

  3. Nutrient Intake and Digestibility of Cynomolgus Monkey (Macaca fascicularis Fed with High Soluble Carbohydrate Diet: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEWI APRI ASTUTI

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available High carbohydrate as obese diet is not yet available commercially for monkeys. Therefore, this preliminary study was to carry out nutrient intake and digestibility of cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis fed with high soluble carbohydrate diet compared to monkey chow. Five adult female macaques (average body weight 2.67 kg were made to consume freshly diet. Commercial monkey chows (contains 3500 cal/g energy and 35% starch were fed to three adult females (average body weight 3.62 kg. Nutrient intakes and digestibility parameters were measured using modified metabolic cages. Result showed that average of protein, fat, starch, and energy intakes in treatment diet were higher than control diet (T-test. Fat intake in the treatment diet was three times higher, while starch and energy intakes were almost two times higher than monkey chow. Digestibility percentage of all nutrients were the same in both diets except for the protein. The study concludes that the freshly prepared high sugar diet was palatable and digestible for the cynomolgus monkeys. Further studies are in progress to develop obese diet high in energy content based on fat and source of starch treatments.

  4. Interleukins 6 and 15 Levels Are Higher in Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue, but Obesity Is Associated with Their Increased Content in Visceral Fat Depots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Izabela Jonas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Excess adiposity is associated with chronic inflammation, which takes part in the development of obesity-related complications. The aim of this study was to establish whether subcutaneous (SAT or visceral (VAT adipose tissue plays a major role in synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Concentrations of interleukins (IL: 1β, 6, 8 and 15 were measured at the protein level by an ELISA-based method and on the mRNA level by real-time PCR in VAT and SAT samples obtained from 49 obese (BMI > 40 kg/m2 and 16 normal-weight (BMI 20–24.9 kg/m2 controls. IL-6 and IL-15 protein concentrations were higher in SAT than in VAT for both obese (p = 0.003 and p < 0.0001, respectively and control individuals (p = 0.004 and p = 0.001, respectively, while for IL-1β this was observed only in obese subjects (p = 0.047. What characterized obese individuals was the higher expression of IL-6 and IL-15 at the protein level in VAT compared to normal-weight controls (p = 0.047 and p = 0.016, respectively. Additionally, obese individuals with metabolic syndrome had higher IL-1β levels in VAT than did obese individuals without this syndrome (p = 0.003. In conclusion, concentrations of some pro-inflammatory cytokines were higher in SAT than in VAT, but it was the increased pro-inflammatory activity of VAT that was associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome.

  5. Studies on soluble carbohydrates in yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus L. seeds of different age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimierz Zalewski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Yellow lupin seeds cv. Juno were stored under laboratory conditions for 2 month, 4, 6 and 8 years. Eighteen soluble carbohydrates were identified in embryonic axes and cotyledons of different age seeds. The concentration of soluble carbohydrates in analysed seeds ranged from 25 to 34% of dry mass. Axes contained more carbohydrates than cotyledons. Stachyose dominated in axes, and verbascose - in cotyledons. Other detected galactosides were: galactinol, galactosyl pinitols and galactosyl chiro-inositols (fagopyritols, but their content was several-fold lower than that of RFOs (in both axes and cotyledons tissues. The concentration of soluble carbohydrates indicated, that sucrose to RFOs mass ratio, or other changes in sugars composition are not indicators of seed storage.

  6. Intrauterine growth retarded progeny of pregnant sows fed high protein:low carbohydrate diet is related to metabolic energy deficit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia C Metges

    Full Text Available High and low protein diets fed to pregnant adolescent sows led to intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR. To explore underlying mechanisms, sow plasma metabolite and hormone concentrations were analyzed during different pregnancy stages and correlated with litter weight (LW at birth, sow body weight and back fat thickness. Sows were fed diets with low (6.5%, LP, adequate (12.1%, AP, and high (30%, HP protein levels, made isoenergetic by adjusted carbohydrate content. At -5, 24, 66, and 108 days post coitum (dpc fasted blood was collected. At 92 dpc, diurnal metabolic profiles were determined. Fasted serum urea and plasma glucagon were higher due to the HP diet. High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC, %HDLC and cortisol were reduced in HP compared with AP sows. Lowest concentrations were observed for serum urea and protein, plasma insulin-like growth factor-I, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and progesterone in LP compared with AP and HP sows. Fasted plasma glucose, insulin and leptin concentrations were unchanged. Diurnal metabolic profiles showed lower glucose in HP sows whereas non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA concentrations were higher in HP compared with AP and LP sows. In HP and LP sows, urea concentrations were 300% and 60% of AP sows, respectively. Plasma total cholesterol was higher in LP than in AP and HP sows. In AP sows, LW correlated positively with insulin and insulin/glucose and negatively with glucagon/insulin at 66 dpc, whereas in HP sows LW associated positively with NEFA. In conclusion, IUGR in sows fed high protein:low carbohydrate diet was probably due to glucose and energy deficit whereas in sows with low protein:high carbohydrate diet it was possibly a response to a deficit of indispensable amino acids which impaired lipoprotein metabolism and favored maternal lipid disposal.

  7. [Evaluation of an original tool for carbohydrate counting, aimed at facilitating the implementation of functional insulin therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reach, Gérard; Choleau, Carine

    2013-01-01

    Carbohydrate counting is the most difficult component of functional insulin therapy. We thus designed a tool to facilitate carbohydrate counting of meals. The tool consists of an illustrated directory (16 x 10 cm, 119 pages) presenting 389 pictures of food, classified in 12 categories (breads, fruits, vegetables, etc.). For each photo, the name and mode of preparation of the foods are given, with the weight of the illustrated portion and its carbohydrate content as a multiple of 5 g. During the first phase of the study (3 days a week for 12 weeks), twelve patients with type 1 diabetes completed a precise food diary using a list and weight of all consumed foods. We were thus able to determine, for each of three meals (breakfast, lunch and dinner), the variability of their carbohydrate content. During the second phase of the study (2 weeks), the patients were given the possibility of using the illustrated food directory. We asked them first to estimate, from the photos, the global carbohydrate content of their meals, and then to weigh each food. This allowed us to calculate the true carbohydrate content of the meals from nutritional tables. During the first phase, the carbohydrate contents of breakfast, lunch and dinner were 67 +/- 29, 72 +/- 30 and 74 +/- 30 g, respectively (mean +/- SD, n = 12). For a given patient, the variability in the carbohydrate content of each meal was expressed by its standard deviation (SD). For the 12 patients, this variability was 18+/-+ 8, 25+/-+ 8 and 27+/-+ 11 g, respectively, for breakfast, lunch and dinner, and represented on the average about one-quarter of the total carbohydrate content. During the second phase, carbohydrate content, estimated by the patients using the illustrated food directory, correlated well with the retrospective evaluation based on nutritional tables (y = 0.95 x + 5 g, r2 = 0.8 ; n = 12, 235 meals). This new illustrated food repertory allows accurate evaluation of the highly variable carbohydrate content of

  8. Changes in atherogenic dyslipidemia induced by carbohydrate restriction in men are dependent on dietary protein source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangravite, Lara M; Chiu, Sally; Wojnoonski, Kathleen; Rawlings, Robin S; Bergeron, Nathalie; Krauss, Ronald M

    2011-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that multiple features of atherogenic dyslipidemia are improved by replacement of dietary carbohydrate with mixed sources of protein and that these lipid and lipoprotein changes are independent of dietary saturated fat content. Because epidemiological evidence suggests that red meat intake may adversely affect cardiovascular disease risk, we tested the effects of replacing dietary carbohydrate with beef protein in the context of high- vs. low-saturated fat intake in 40 healthy men. After a 3-wk baseline diet [50% daily energy (E) as carbohydrate, 13% E as protein, 15% E as saturated fat], participants consumed for 3 wk each in a randomized crossover design two high-beef diets in which protein replaced carbohydrate (31% E as carbohydrate, 31% E as protein, with 10% E as beef protein). The high-beef diets differed in saturated fat content (8% E vs. 15% E with exchange of saturated for monounsaturated fat). Two-week washout periods were included following the baseline diet period and between the randomized diets periods. Plasma TG concentrations were reduced after the 2 lower carbohydrate dietary periods relative to after the baseline diet period and these reductions were independent of saturated fat intake. Plasma total, LDL, and non-HDL cholesterol as well as apoB concentrations were lower after the low-carbohydrate, low-saturated fat diet period than after the low-carbohydrate, high-saturated fat diet period. Given our previous observations with mixed protein diets, the present findings raise the possibility that dietary protein source may modify the effects of saturated fat on atherogenic lipoproteins.

  9. Wood adhesives containing proteins and carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years there has been resurgent interest in using biopolymers as sustainable and environmentally friendly ingredients in wood adhesive formulations. Among them, proteins and carbohydrates are the most commonly used. In this chapter, an overview is given of protein-based and carbohydrate-...

  10. Conversion of carbohydrates to levulinic acid esters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to the field of converting carbohydrates into levulinic acid, a platform chemical for many chemical end products. More specifically the invention relates to a method for converting carbohydrates such as mono-, di- or polysaccharides, obtained from for example biomass...

  11. Carbohydrate epitopes on Haemonchus contortus antigens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schallig, H. D.; van Leeuwen, M. A.

    1996-01-01

    Extracts of infective larvae and adults of the trichostrongylid Haemonchus contortus were studied for the presence of carbohydrate moieties. Several different lectin-binding sites were demonstrated in both stages using a panel of nine lectins. The carbohydrate specificity of the lectins used

  12. Determining a carbohydrate profile for Hansenula polymorpha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, G. R.

    1985-01-01

    The determination of the levels of carbohydrates in the yeast Hansenula polymorpha required the development of new analytical procedures. Existing fractionation and analytical methods were adapted to deal with the problems involved with the lysis of whole cells. Using these new procedures, the complete carbohydrate profiles of H. polymorpha and selected mutant strains were determined and shown to correlate favourably with previously published results.

  13. Total dissolved carbohydrate in Mahi river estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Rokade, M.A.; Zingde, M.D.

    Total dissolved carbohydrate varied from 4.37-15 mg l-1 and 3.71-15.95 mg l-1 in the surface and bottom samples respectively. Highest concentration of carbohydrate was observed at station 1 which decreased downward upto Station 6 which showed...

  14. Characterization of carbohydrate fractions and fermentation quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of adding fast-sile (FS), previous fermented juice (PFJ), sucrose (S) or fast-sile + sucrose (FS + S) on the fermentation characteristics and carbohydrates fractions of alfalfa silages by the Cornell net carbohydrates and proteins systems (CNCPS). Silages quality were well ...

  15. Carbohydrate clearance receptors in transfusion medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anne Louise Tølbøll; Clausen, Henrik; Wandall, Hans H

    2012-01-01

    Complex carbohydrates play important functions for circulation of proteins and cells. They provide protective shields and refraction from non-specific interactions with negative charges from sialic acids to enhance circulatory half-life. For recombinant protein therapeutics carbohydrates are espe...

  16. Consumption of blueberries with a high-carbohydrate, low-fat breakfast decreases postprandial serum markers of oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blacker, Bryan C; Snyder, Shannon M; Eggett, Dennis L; Parker, Tory L

    2013-05-01

    We sought to determine whether consumption of blueberries could reduce postprandial oxidation when consumed with a typical high-carbohydrate, low-fat breakfast. Participants (n 14) received each of the three treatments over 3 weeks in a cross-over design. Treatments consisted of a high blueberry dose (75 g), a low blueberry dose (35 g) and a control (ascorbic acid and sugar content matching that of the high blueberry dose). Serum oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), serum lipoprotein oxidation (LO) and serum ascorbate, urate and glucose were measured at fasting, and at 1, 2 and 3 h after sample consumption. The mean serum ORAC was significantly higher in the 75 g group than in the control group during the first 2 h postprandially, while serum LO lag time showed a significant trend over the 3 h for both blueberry doses. Changes in serum ascorbate, urate and glucose were not significantly different among the groups. To our knowledge, this is the first report that has demonstrated that increased serum antioxidant capacity is not attributable to the fructose or ascorbate content of blueberries. In summary, a practically consumable quantity of blueberries (75 g) can provide statistically significant oxidative protection in vivo after a high-carbohydrate, low-fat breakfast. Though not tested directly, it is likely that the effects are due to phenolic compounds, either directly or indirectly, as they are a major family of compounds in blueberries with potential bioactive activity.

  17. Effects of grafting with pumpkin rootstock on carbohydrate metabolism in cucumber seedlings under Ca(NO3)2 stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Wen-wen; Li, Lin; Gao, Pan; Li, He; Shao, Qiao-sai; Shu, Sheng; Sun, Jin; Guo, Shi-rong

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of grafting on the carbohydrate status and the enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism in self-grafted and grafted cucumber seedlings using the salt-tolerant pumpkin rootstock 'Qingzhen 1' (Cucurbita maxima × Cucurbita moschata) under 80 mM Ca(NO3)2 stress for 6 d. The growth of self-grafted seedlings was significantly inhibited after the treatment of Ca(NO3)2 stress, whereas the inhibition of growth was alleviated in pumpkin rootstock-grafted seedlings. Ca(NO3)2 stress increased the contents of the total soluble sugar, sucrose and fructose, but decreased the starch content in rootstock-grafted leaves. However, compared with self-grafted plants, rootstock-grafted seedlings were observed with a higher content of sucrose and total soluble sugar (TSS) under salt stress. Rootstock-grafted seedlings exhibited higher activities of acid invertase (AI), neutral invertase (NI) and phosphate sucrose synthase (SPS) of sucrose metabolism in leaves than that of self-grafted seedlings under salinity. Moreover, the activities of fructokinase (FK), hexokinase (HK), phosphofructokinase (PFK) and pyruvate kinase (PK) of glycolysis were maintained at a higher level in leaves of rootstock-grafted seedlings after Ca(NO3)2 stress. Additionally, rootstock-grafting decrease the high percentage enhancement of key enzymes gene expression in glycolysis in the scion leaves of cucumber seedlings induced by salt stress. These results suggest that the rootstock-grafting improved salt tolerance, which might play a role in elevated sucrose metabolism and a glycolytic pathway regulated by the pumpkin rootstock. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. A Kinetic Model to Explain the Maximum in alpha-Amylase Activity Measurements in the Presence of Small Carbohydrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baks, T.; Janssen, A.E.M.; Boom, R.M.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of the presence of several small carbohydrates on the measurement of the -amylase activity was determined over a broad concentration range. At low carbohydrate concentrations, a distinct maximum in the -amylase activity versus concentration curves was observed in several cases. At higher

  19. Are lower epiphytes really that better than higher plants for indicating airborne contaminants? An insight into the elemental contents of lichen thalli and tree bark by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco, A.M.G.; Freitas, M.C.

    2004-01-01

    Few dedicated attempts at comparing the monitoring performance of lower and higher plants have been carried out so far. As a contribution to such an issue, the relative magnitude of elemental signals from epiphytic lichens (Parmelia spp.) and olive tree (Olea europaea Linn.) bark, determined by INAA is studied. A representative set of 12 elements - As, Ba, Br, Ca, Cl, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Sr, V, Zn - was used for an ab initio comparison between raw data and Rb-normalized data, using distribution-free statistics. Correlation analysis shows an overall improvement in the degree of association between bark and lichen signals when proceeding from raw data to relative enrichment. Apart from Cl, no element is enriched in lichens to a higher extent than in bark. Sign tests are quite conclusive: bark factors are either statistically greater than or equal to lichens'. These findings prompt a word of caution when dealing with biological monitoring data, without accounting for soil, rock or litter inputs into the biomonitors' elemental pools. (author)

  20. Assimilation, partitioning, and nonstructural carbohydrates in sweet compared with grain sorghum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vietor, D.M.; Miller, F.R.

    1990-01-01

    Nonstructural carbohydrate concentrations in stems are greater for sweet than grain sorghums [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench]. Knowledge of plant characteristics associated with high nonstructural carbohydrates in sweet sorghum will air efforts to increase nonstructural carbohydrates in grain sorghum stems. This study tested the hypothesis that variation of CO 2 assimilation rate, leaf area, branching at upper nodes, and partitioning of 14 C-labeled assimilate to main stems are associated with variation of stem nonstructural carbohydrates. A sweet (Atlas X Rio) and a grain (ATx623 X RTx5388) hybrid, stages near and after physiological maturity, and defoliation and gibberellic acid (GA 3 ) treatments provided sources of variation for study. Concentrations of nonstructural carbohydrates in lower and upper stems of the sweet hybrid were 1.4 and 2.7 times higher, respectively, than for the grain hybrid, after physiological maturity. Variation in branching, including 14 C-assimilate partitioning to branches, was not consistently associated with hybrid differences in stem nonstructural carbohydrates. Increased recovery (twofold) of 14 C-assimilate in roots and labeled leaves corresponded with lower percentages of 14 C-assimilate and lower concentrations of nonstructural carbohydrates in stems of the grain hybrid. Leaf areas and leaf CO 2 exchange rate were twice as great for the sweet hybrid. Although defoliation of the sweet hybrid minimized leaf area differences between hybrids, the sweet hybrid accumulated twice as much nonstructural carbohydrates in branches after physiological maturity. Greater potentials for CO 2 assimilation and for 14 C-assimilate accumulation in mature stem tissue were associated with higher levels of stem nonstructural carbohydrates in the sweet compared with the grain hybrid

  1. A functional carbohydrate chip platform for analysis of carbohydrate-protein interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Jeong Hyun; Kim, Chang Sup; Hwang, Byeong Hee; Cha, Hyung Joon

    2010-01-01

    A carbohydrate chip based on glass or other transparent surfaces has been suggested as a potential tool for high-throughput analysis of carbohydrate-protein interactions. Here we proposed a facile, efficient, and cost-effective method whereby diverse carbohydrate types are modified in a single step and directly immobilized onto a glass surface, with retention of functional orientation. We modified various types of carbohydrates by reductive amination, in which reducing sugar groups were coupled with 4-(2-aminoethyl)aniline, which has di-amine groups at both ends. The modified carbohydrates were covalently attached to an amino-reactive NHS-activated glass surface by formation of stable amide bonds. This proposed method was applied for efficient construction of a carbohydrate microarray to analyze carbohydrate-protein interactions. The carbohydrate chip prepared using our method can be successfully used in diverse biomimetic studies of carbohydrates, including carbohydrate-biomolecule interactions, and carbohydrate sensor chip or microarray development for diagnosis and screening.

  2. Teacher training: the use of media content and technology in the process of teaching and learning in higher education - doi: 10.4025/actascieduc.v33i1.11307

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Cristina Batistela Francisco

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to discuss and analyze media content and use of Information and Communication Technology - ICT in teaching and learning in higher education institutions, reflecting on issues of teacher education. For that, we held a discussion in the literature that presents the difficulties faced by teachers in this new educational reality, raising questions about their training, and how they should act in a way that learning is carried with media students, with support of technologies and media

  3. Technological aspects of functional food-related carbohydrates.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voragen, A.G.J.

    1998-01-01

    Carbohydrates in food occur as natural constituents or are added as ingredients or additives. The most important endogenous carbohydrates in food are starch, depolymerized starch, sucrose, lactose, glucose, fructose and sorbitol (digestible) and carbohydrates such as raffinose, stachyose, resistant

  4. A HIGHER PROPORTION OF PUFA IN DIET INCREASES THE PUFA CONTENT IN RABBIT MEAT, BUT REDUCES THE OXIDATIVE STABILITY OF MEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Trebušak

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to determine the changes in the fatty acid composition of rabbit meat, if palm fat (99% of saturated fatty acids (SFA, as a source of fat in rabbit diet, was replaced with linseed oil (71% of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, containing 52% of α-linolenic acid (n-3 PUFA. The Ganoderma lucidum or olive leaves were added in the diet as potential antioxidant in order to protect the PUFA against oxidation. 48 SIKA rabbits were randomly divided by mass and gender in four groups: CONT- 6% palm fat, CONT+ 6% linseed oil, REISHI 6% linseed oil and 1% Ganoderma lucidum, OLIVE 6% linseed oil and 1% olive leaves. After 22 days of the experimental procedure, the samples of back muscle were taken and divided in 7 portions. One was for fatty acid determination, other six for malondialdehyde (MDA determination after different storage condition; fresh, 6 days at 4°C or 3 months at -20°C, raw or cooked (60 minutes, 85°C. Addition of linseed oil resulted in a significant higher proportion of PUFA (n-3 PUFA and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA and lower proportion of SFA in the back muscle, but the oxidative stability of meat was reduced, since the level of MDA was significantly higher. After cooking, the level of MDA increased in all the groups, but more in the groups with linseed oil in the diet, the addition of Ganoderma lucidum or olive leaves slightly decreased the level of MDA, but the difference was not significant.

  5. Phenol-Sulfuric Acid Method for Total Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, S. Suzanne

    The phenol-sulfuric acid method is a simple and rapid colorimetric method to determine total carbohydrates in a sample. The method detects virtually all classes of carbohydrates, including mono-, di-, oligo-, and polysaccharides. Although the method detects almost all carbohydrates, the absorptivity of the different carbohydrates varies. Thus, unless a sample is known to contain only one carbohydrate, the results must be expressed arbitrarily in terms of one carbohydrate.

  6. Presence or absence of carbohydrates and the proportion of fat in a high-protein diet affect appetite suppression but not energy expenditure in normal-weight human subjects fed in energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhorst, Margriet A B; Westerterp, Klaas R; van Vught, Anneke J A H; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2010-11-01

    Two types of relatively high-protein diets, with a normal or low proportion of carbohydrates, have been shown effective for weight loss. The objective was to assess the significance of the presence or absence of carbohydrates and the proportion of fat in high-protein diets for affecting appetite suppression, energy expenditure, and fat oxidation in normal-weight subjects in energy balance. Subjects (aged 23 (sd 3) years and BMI 22·0 (sd 1·9) kg/m2) were stratified in two groups. Each was offered two diets in a randomised cross-over design: group 1 (n 22) - normal protein (NP; 10, 60 and 30 % energy (En%) from protein, carbohydrate and fat), high protein (HP; 30, 40 and 30 En%); group 2 (n 23) - normal protein (NP-g; 10, 60 and 30 En%), high protein, carbohydrate-free (HP-0C; 30, 0 and 70 En%) for 2 d; NP-g and HP-0C were preceded by glycogen-lowering exercise (day 1). Appetite was measured throughout day 2 using visual analogue scales (VAS). Energy expenditure (EE) and substrate oxidation (respiratory quotient; RQ) were measured in a respiration chamber (08.00 hours on day 2 until 07.30 hours on day 3). Fasting plasma β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentration was measured (day 3). NP-g and NP did not differ in hunger, EE, RQ and BHB. HP-0C and HP v. NP-g and NP, respectively, were lower in hunger (P fat oxidation were higher on a high-protein diet without than with carbohydrates exchanged for fat. Energy expenditure was not affected by the carbohydrate content of a high-protein diet.

  7. Levorotatory carbohydrates and xylitol subdue Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans adhesion and biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambilla, Eugenio; Ionescu, Andrei C; Cazzaniga, Gloria; Ottobelli, Marco; Samaranayake, Lakshman P

    2016-05-01

    Dietary carbohydrates and polyols affect the microbial colonization of oral surfaces by modulating adhesion and biofilm formation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of a select group of l-carbohydrates and polyols on either Streptococcus mutans or Candida albicans adhesion and biofilm formation in vitro. S. mutans or C. albicans suspensions were inoculated on polystyrene substrata in the presence of Tryptic soy broth containing 5% of the following compounds: d-glucose, d-mannose, l-glucose, l-mannose, d- and l-glucose (raceme), d- and l-mannose (raceme), l-glucose and l-mannose, sorbitol, mannitol, and xylitol. Microbial adhesion (2 h) and biofilm formation (24 h) were evaluated using MTT-test and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Xylitol and l-carbohydrates induced the lowest adhesion and biofilm formation in both the tested species, while sorbitol and mannitol did not promote C. albicans biofilm formation. Higher adhesion and biofilm formation was noted in both organisms in the presence of d-carbohydrates relative to their l-carbohydrate counterparts. These results elucidate, hitherto undescribed, interactions of the individually tested strains with l- and d-carbohydrates, and how they impact fungal and bacterial colonization. In translational terms, our data raise the possibility of using l-form of carbohydrates and xylitol for dietary control of oral plaque biofilms. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. A high carbohydrate, but not fat or protein meal attenuates postprandial ghrelin, PYY and GLP-1 responses in Chinese men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Parvaresh Rizi

    Full Text Available It is known that the macronutrient content of a meal has different impacts on the postprandial satiety and appetite hormonal responses. Whether obesity interacts with such nutrient-dependent responses is not well characterized. We examined the postprandial appetite and satiety hormonal responses after a high-protein (HP, high-carbohydrate (HC, or high-fat (HF mixed meal. This was a randomized cross-over study of 9 lean insulin-sensitive (mean±SEM HOMA-IR 0.83±0.10 and 9 obese insulin-resistant (HOMA-IR 4.34±0.41 young (age 21-40 years, normoglycaemic Chinese men. We measured fasting and postprandial plasma concentration of glucose, insulin, active glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1, total peptide-YY (PYY, and acyl-ghrelin in response to HP, HF, or HC meals. Overall postprandial plasma insulin response was more robust in the lean compared to obese subjects. The postprandial GLP-1 response after HF or HP meal was higher than HC meal in both lean and obese subjects. In obese subjects, HF meal induced higher response in postprandial PYY compared to HC meal. HP and HF meals also suppressed ghrelin greater compared to HC meal in the obese than lean subjects. In conclusion, a high-protein or high-fat meal induces a more favorable postprandial satiety and appetite hormonal response than a high-carbohydrate meal in obese insulin-resistant subjects.

  9. A high carbohydrate, but not fat or protein meal attenuates postprandial ghrelin, PYY and GLP-1 responses in Chinese men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvaresh Rizi, Ehsan; Loh, Tze Ping; Baig, Sonia; Chhay, Vanna; Huang, Shiqi; Caleb Quek, Jonathan; Tai, E. Shyong; Toh, Sue-Anne

    2018-01-01

    It is known that the macronutrient content of a meal has different impacts on the postprandial satiety and appetite hormonal responses. Whether obesity interacts with such nutrient-dependent responses is not well characterized. We examined the postprandial appetite and satiety hormonal responses after a high-protein (HP), high-carbohydrate (HC), or high-fat (HF) mixed meal. This was a randomized cross-over study of 9 lean insulin-sensitive (mean±SEM HOMA-IR 0.83±0.10) and 9 obese insulin-resistant (HOMA-IR 4.34±0.41) young (age 21–40 years), normoglycaemic Chinese men. We measured fasting and postprandial plasma concentration of glucose, insulin, active glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), total peptide-YY (PYY), and acyl-ghrelin in response to HP, HF, or HC meals. Overall postprandial plasma insulin response was more robust in the lean compared to obese subjects. The postprandial GLP-1 response after HF or HP meal was higher than HC meal in both lean and obese subjects. In obese subjects, HF meal induced higher response in postprandial PYY compared to HC meal. HP and HF meals also suppressed ghrelin greater compared to HC meal in the obese than lean subjects. In conclusion, a high-protein or high-fat meal induces a more favorable postprandial satiety and appetite hormonal response than a high-carbohydrate meal in obese insulin-resistant subjects. PMID:29385178

  10. Utilization of carbohydrates by radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, T.; Nagasawa, N.; Yoshii, F.

    2002-01-01

    Upgrading and utilization of carbohydrates such as chitosan, sodium alginate, carrageenan, cellulose, pectin have been investigated for recycling these bio-resources and reducing the environmental pollution. These carbohydrates were easily degraded by irradiation and various kinds of biological activities such as anti-microbial activity, promotion of plant growth, suppression of heavy metal stress, phytoalexins induction, etc. were induced. On the other hand, some carbohydrate derivatives, carboxymethylcellulose and carboxymethylstarch, could be crosslinked under certain radiation condition and produce the biodegradable hydrogel for medical and agricultural use

  11. Training of carbohydrate estimation for people with diabetes using mobile augmented reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domhardt, Michael; Tiefengrabner, Martin; Dinic, Radomir; Fötschl, Ulrike; Oostingh, Gertie J; Stütz, Thomas; Stechemesser, Lars; Weitgasser, Raimund; Ginzinger, Simon W

    2015-05-01

    Imprecise carbohydrate counting as a measure to guide the treatment of diabetes may be a source of errors resulting in problems in glycemic control. Exact measurements can be tedious, leading most patients to estimate their carbohydrate intake. In the presented pilot study a smartphone application (BE(AR)), that guides the estimation of the amounts of carbohydrates, was used by a group of diabetic patients. Eight adult patients with diabetes mellitus type 1 were recruited for the study. At the beginning of the study patients were introduced to BE(AR) in sessions lasting 45 minutes per patient. Patients redraw the real food in 3D on the smartphone screen. Based on a selected food type and the 3D form created using BE(AR) an estimation of carbohydrate content is calculated. Patients were supplied with the application on their personal smartphone or a loaner device and were instructed to use the application in real-world context during the study period. For evaluation purpose a test measuring carbohydrate estimation quality was designed and performed at the beginning and the end of the study. In 44% of the estimations performed at the end of the study the error reduced by at least 6 grams of carbohydrate. This improvement occurred albeit several problems with the usage of BE(AR) were reported. Despite user interaction problems in this group of patients the provided intervention resulted in a reduction in the absolute error of carbohydrate estimation. Intervention with smartphone applications to assist carbohydrate counting apparently results in more accurate estimations. © 2015 Diabetes Technology Society.

  12. A comparison of low-carbohydrate vs. high-carbohydrate diets: energy restriction, nutrient quality and correlation to body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Shanthy A; Spence, Joseph T

    2002-06-01

    To evaluate free-living adults' diets that ranged from very low to high amounts of carbohydrate for their energy content, nutritional quality and correlation to Body Mass Index. Adults ages 19 years and older, who had complete dietary intake data on day-1 of the USDA's 1994 to 1996 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII 1994-1996), were divided into four groups--very low, low, moderate and high carbohydrate--based on the percent total energy from carbohydrate. Mean energy, nutrient, food intakes and Body Mass Index values were compared among the groups. SUDAAN software package was used for the data analysis and pair-wise mean comparisons (p low-fat foods, grain products and fruits. This group also had the lowest sodium intake. Adults eating a high-carbohydrate diet are more likely to have Body Mass Index values below 25. A study of diets of free-living adults in the U.S. showed that diets high in carbohydrate were both energy restrictive and nutritious and may be adopted for successful weight management.

  13. Role and metabolism of free leucine in skeletal muscle in protein sparing action of dietary carbohydrate and fat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Kiwao; Ishikawa, Tamotsu

    1977-01-01

    Feeding rats with either a carbohydrate meal or a fat meal to the previously fasted rats caused significant decrease in urinary output of urea and total nitrogen. The content of free leucine in skeletal muscle decreased in the rats fed either a carbohydrate meal or a fat meal. Feeding of either a carbohydrate meal or a fat meal stimulated incorporation of L-leucine-1- 14 C into protein fraction of skeletal muscle and reduced its oxidation to 14 CO 2 . These results suggest that the metabolism of leucine is under nutritional regulation and that the decrease in content of free leucine in skeletal muscle might be caused by enhanced reutilization of leucine into protein by the feeding of a carbohydrate meal or a fat meal. The role of free leucine in skeletal muscle as a regulator of protein turnover in the tissue are discussed in relation to the metabolism of this branched chain amino acid. (auth.)

  14. Carbohydrate Dependence During Prolonged, Intense Endurance Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, John A; Leckey, Jill J

    2015-11-01

    A major goal of training to improve the performance of prolonged, continuous, endurance events lasting up to 3 h is to promote a range of physiological and metabolic adaptations that permit an athlete to work at both higher absolute and relative power outputs/speeds and delay the onset of fatigue (i.e., a decline in exercise intensity). To meet these goals, competitive endurance athletes undertake a prodigious volume of training, with a large proportion performed at intensities that are close to or faster than race pace and highly dependent on carbohydrate (CHO)-based fuels to sustain rates of muscle energy production [i.e., match rates of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis with rates of resynthesis]. Consequently, to sustain muscle energy reserves and meet the daily demands of training sessions, competitive athletes freely select CHO-rich diets. Despite renewed interest in high-fat, low-CHO diets for endurance sport, fat-rich diets do not improve training capacity or performance, but directly impair rates of muscle glycogenolysis and energy flux, limiting high-intensity ATP production. When highly trained athletes compete in endurance events lasting up to 3 h, CHO-, not fat-based fuels are the predominant fuel for the working muscles and CHO, not fat, availability becomes rate limiting for performance.

  15. Application of radiation degraded carbohydrates for plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, T.; Nagasawa, N.; Yoshu, F.

    1999-01-01

    Radiation degraded carbohydrates such as chitosan, sodium alginate, carageenan, cellulose, pectin, etc. were applied for plant cultivation. Chitosan (poly-β -D-glucosamine) was easily degraded by irradiation and induced various kinds of biological activities such as anti-microbacterial activity, promotion of plant growth, suppression of heavy metal stress on plants, phytoalexins induction, etc. Pectic fragments obtained from degraded pectin also induced the phytoalexins such as glyceollins in soybean and pisafin in pea. The irradiated chitosan shows the higher elicitor activity for pisafin than that of pectin. For the plant growth promotion, alginate derived from brown marine algae, chitosan and ligno-cellulosic extracts show a strong activity. The hot water and ethanol extracts from EFB and sugar cane bagasse were increased by irradiation. These extracts promoted the growth of plants and suppressed the damage on barley with salt and Zn stress. The results show that the degraded polysaccharides by radiation have the potential to induce various biological activities and the products can be use for agricultural and medical fields

  16. Inhibition of mannosidase in hybridomas yields monoclonal antibodies with greater capacity for carbohydrate labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonson, R.B.; Ultee, M.E.; Long, C.G.; Gillette, R.W.; McKearn, T.J.; Rodwell, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    Labeling an antibody site specifically through its carbohydrate residues preserves more of its antigen-binding activity than does labeling through protein moieties. To boost the amount of immunoglobulin G carbohydrate capable of being labeled, we treated hybridoma cells with a mannosidase inhibitor, deoxymannojirimycin (dMM). Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed formation of a glycoprotein with high mannose content, in that endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase H 3.2.1.96) could digest the antibody from the dMM-treated cells, but not from control cultures. Carbohydrate analysis confirmed this conclusion, indicating that the antibody from the dMM-treated cells had twice as much mannose as did the control antibody. The glucosamine content of the treated-cells' antibodies was half that of the control, and no additional carbohydrate residues were detectable in the antibodies secreted by the dMM-treated cells. We conjugated both the dMM and control antibodies through their carbohydrate to a chelator. In labeling, the dMM antibody conjugate incorporated approximately threefold as much 111 In isotope as the control conjugate. The two labeled antibodies were injected into mice and showed similar organ distributions

  17. Carbohydrate metabolism before and after dehiscence in the recalcitrant pollen of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrizo García, C; Guarnieri, M; Pacini, E

    2015-05-01

    Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) pollen is starchy, sucrose-poor and recalcitrant, features opposite to those of several model species; therefore, some differences in carbohydrate metabolism could be expected in this species. By studying pumpkin recalcitrant pollen, the objective was to provide new biochemical evidence to improve understanding of how carbohydrate metabolism might be involved in pollen functioning in advanced stages. Four stages were analysed: immature pollen from 1 day before anthesis, mature pollen, mature pollen exposed to the environment for 7 h, and pollen rehydrated in a culture medium. Pollen viability, water and carbohydrate content and activity of enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism were quantified in each stage. Pollen viability and water content dropped quickly after dehiscence, as expected. The slight changes in carbohydrate concentration and enzyme activity during pollen maturation contrast with major changes recorded with ageing and rehydration. Pumpkin pollen seems highly active and closely related to its surrounding environment in all the stages analysed; the latter is particularly evident among insoluble sucrolytic enzymes, mainly wall-bound acid invertase, which would be the most relevant for sucrose cleavage. Each stage was characterised by a particular metabolic/enzymatic profile; some particular features, such as the minor changes during maturation, fast sucrolysis upon rehydration or sharp decrease in insoluble sucrolytic activity with ageing seem to be related to the lack of dormancy and recalcitrant nature of pumpkin pollen. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  18. Occurrence and abundance of carbohydrates and amino compounds in sequentially extracted labile soil organic matter fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study aimed to investigate the content of carbohydrates and amino compounds in three labile fraction of soil organic matter (SOM). Soil samples were collected from two agricultural fields in southern Italy and the light fraction (LF), the 500–53-µm particulate organic matter (POM) and the mobil...

  19. Effect of elevated atmospheric CO2 on carbohydrate partitioning and plant growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stulen, G; mw. Steg, K.; mw. Schalkwijk, I.; Posthumus, F.S

    2000-01-01

    The effect of elevated CO2 on changes in shoot and root soluble carbohydrate and starch content, and various growth parameters was investigated in an apoplastic (Bellis perennis) and a symplastic loader (Epilobium hirsutum). Comparison with data on other plant species, grown under the same climatic

  20. Determination of yields of gaseous products of carbohydrates radiolysis by mass spectrometry method. [. gamma. rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivko, A A; Gol' din, S I; Bondarenko, N T; Markevich, S V; Sharpatii, V A [AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Khimicheskoj Fiziki

    1977-01-01

    Possible complications are treated involved in the mass spectral study of the radiolytic products of deuterated carbohydrates. A method is proposed suitable for the evaluation of hydrogen isotopes relations and the content of deuterium in water. It has been possible to identify the major gaseous radiolytic products of glucose, polyglucan and dextran, and also to assess their radiation-chemical yields.

  1. Determination of yields of gaseous products of carbohydrates radiolysis by mass spectrometry method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivko, A.A.; Gol'din, S.I.; Bondarenko, N.T.; Markevich, S.V.; Sharpatyj, V.A.

    1977-01-01

    Possible complications are treated involved in the mass spectral study of the radiolytic products of deuterated carbohydrates. A method is proposed suitable for the evaluation of hydrogen isotopes relations and the content of deuterium in water. It has been possible to identify the major gaseous radiolytic products of glucose, polyglucan and dextran, and also to assess their radiation-chemical yields [ru

  2. 21 CFR 101.80 - Health claims: dietary noncariogenic carbohydrate sweeteners and dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... sweeteners and dental caries. 101.80 Section 101.80 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... caries. (a) Relationship between dietary carbohydrates and dental caries. (1) Dental caries, or tooth... development of dental caries. Risk factors include tooth enamel crystal structure and mineral content, plaque...

  3. Carbohydrate plasma expanders for passive tumor targeting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Stefan; Caysa, Henrike; Kuntsche, Judith

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the suitability of carbohydrate plasma volume expanders as a novel polymer platform for tumor targeting. Many synthetic polymers have already been synthesized for targeted tumor therapy, but potential advantages of these carbohydrates include inexpen...... was characterized in human colon carcinoma xenograft bearing nude mice. A tumor specific accumulation of HES 450 was observed, which proves it’s potential as carrier for passive tumor targeting....

  4. Digestion and metabolism of carbohydrates in fish

    OpenAIRE

    Abro, Rani

    2014-01-01

    This thesis deals with the digestion and metabolism of carbohydrates in Arctic charr, Eurasian perch and tilapia. Two sources of carbohydrates, native starch (wheat) and chitin (zygomycete biomass), were evaluated. Gut tissue of Arctic charr displayed significant chitinase activity, of both endo- and exo-chitinase forms. Moreover, the distribution pattern along the gastrointestinal tract of Arctic charr differed between endo-chitinase and exo-chitinase. The endo-chitinase activity in sto...

  5. The carbohydrate sequence markup language (CabosML): an XML description of carbohydrate structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Norihiro; Kameyama, Akihiko; Nakaya, Shuuichi; Ito, Hiromi; Sato, Takashi; Shikanai, Toshihide; Takahashi, Yoriko; Narimatsu, Hisashi

    2005-04-15

    Bioinformatics resources for glycomics are very poor as compared with those for genomics and proteomics. The complexity of carbohydrate sequences makes it difficult to define a common language to represent them, and the development of bioinformatics tools for glycomics has not progressed. In this study, we developed a carbohydrate sequence markup language (CabosML), an XML description of carbohydrate structures. The language definition (XML Schema) and an experimental database of carbohydrate structures using an XML database management system are available at http://www.phoenix.hydra.mki.co.jp/CabosDemo.html kikuchi@hydra.mki.co.jp.

  6. Changes in Atherogenic Dyslipidemia Induced by Carbohydrate Restriction in Men Are Dependent on Dietary Protein Source1234

    OpenAIRE

    Mangravite, Lara M.; Chiu, Sally; Wojnoonski, Kathleen; Rawlings, Robin S.; Bergeron, Nathalie; Krauss, Ronald M.

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that multiple features of atherogenic dyslipidemia are improved by replacement of dietary carbohydrate with mixed sources of protein and that these lipid and lipoprotein changes are independent of dietary saturated fat content. Because epidemiological evidence suggests that red meat intake may adversely affect cardiovascular disease risk, we tested the effects of replacing dietary carbohydrate with beef protein in the context of high- vs. low-saturated fat intake i...

  7. The Effect of Dietary Vitamin C on Carbohydrate Concentrations and Hydrolase Activity, During the Development of Honey Bee Worker Brood

    OpenAIRE

    Farjan Marek; Żółtowska Krystyna; Lipiński Zbigniew; Łopieńska-Biernat Elżbieta; Dmitryjuk Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    The colony collapse disorder is a growing problem world-wide. For this reason, we were prompted to search for natural and harmless agents that could improve the living conditions of honey bees. This group of agents includes exogenous antioxidants, such as ascorbic acid, which boost natural immunity. We analysed the effect of vitamin C supplementation on carbohydrate metabolism in the developing honey bee worker brood. The total carbohydrate content and the concentrations of glycogen, trehalos...

  8. Carbohydrate Nutrition and Team Sport Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Clyde; Rollo, Ian

    2015-11-01

    The common pattern of play in 'team sports' is 'stop and go', i.e. where players perform repeated bouts of brief high-intensity exercise punctuated by lower intensity activity. Sprints are generally 2-4 s long and recovery between sprints is of variable length. Energy production during brief sprints is derived from the degradation of intra-muscular phosphocreatine and glycogen (anaerobic metabolism). Prolonged periods of multiple sprints drain muscle glycogen stores, leading to a decrease in power output and a reduction in general work rate during training and competition. The impact of dietary carbohydrate interventions on team sport performance have been typically assessed using intermittent variable-speed shuttle running over a distance of 20 m. This method has evolved to include specific work to rest ratios and skills specific to team sports such as soccer, rugby and basketball. Increasing liver and muscle carbohydrate stores before sports helps delay the onset of fatigue during prolonged intermittent variable-speed running. Carbohydrate intake during exercise, typically ingested as carbohydrate-electrolyte solutions, is also associated with improved performance. The mechanisms responsible are likely to be the availability of carbohydrate as a substrate for central and peripheral functions. Variable-speed running in hot environments is limited by the degree of hyperthermia before muscle glycogen availability becomes a significant contributor to the onset of fatigue. Finally, ingesting carbohydrate immediately after training and competition will rapidly recover liver and muscle glycogen stores.

  9. Mutagenicity of quaternary ammonium salts containing carbohydrate moieties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dmochowska, Barbara [Department of Carbohydrate Chemistry, University of Gdansk, Sobieskiego 18, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland); Piosik, Jacek; Woziwodzka, Anna [Intercollegiate Faculty of Biotechnology, University of Gdansk and Medical University of Gdansk, Kladki 24, 80-822 Gdansk (Poland); Sikora, Karol; Wisniewski, Andrzej [Department of Carbohydrate Chemistry, University of Gdansk, Sobieskiego 18, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland); Wegrzyn, Grzegorz, E-mail: wegrzyn@biotech.univ.gda.pl [Department of Molecular Biology, University of Gdansk, Kladki 24, 80-822 Gdansk (Poland)

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: {yields} A series of quaternary ammonium salts containing carbohydrate moieties, with configuration D-galacto, D-gluco and D-manno, was synthesized and characterized. {yields} The quaternary ammonium salts containing carbohydrate moieties revealed potent mutagenic activities, as assessed by using the Vibrio harveyi bioluminescence mutagenicity test. {yields} The N-[2-(D-glycopyranosyloxy)ethyl]-N,N,N-trimethylaminium salts were of the highest activity in the mutagenicity assay. {yields} We suggest that quaternary ammonium salts may be more hazardous than previously supposed. - Abstract: Quaternary ammonium salts are widely used in industrial, agricultural, healthcare and domestic applications. They are believed to be safe compounds, with little or no health hazard to humans. However, in this report, we demonstrate that a series of newly synthesized quaternary ammonium salts containing carbohydrate moieties reveal potent mutagenic activities, as assessed by using the Vibrio harveyi bioluminescence mutagenicity test. D-Gluco- and D-galacto-derivatives were found to have a higher mutagenic potential than D-manno-derivatives. Among the former groups of compounds, the N-[2-(D-glycopyranosyloxy)ethyl]-N,N,N-trimethylaminium salts were of the highest activity in the mutagenicity assay. These results suggest that the safety of quaternary ammonium salts may be lower than previously supposed, indicating a need for testing such compounds for their mutagenicity.

  10. Mutagenicity of quaternary ammonium salts containing carbohydrate moieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmochowska, Barbara; Piosik, Jacek; Woziwodzka, Anna; Sikora, Karol; Wisniewski, Andrzej; Wegrzyn, Grzegorz

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A series of quaternary ammonium salts containing carbohydrate moieties, with configuration D-galacto, D-gluco and D-manno, was synthesized and characterized. → The quaternary ammonium salts containing carbohydrate moieties revealed potent mutagenic activities, as assessed by using the Vibrio harveyi bioluminescence mutagenicity test. → The N-[2-(D-glycopyranosyloxy)ethyl]-N,N,N-trimethylaminium salts were of the highest activity in the mutagenicity assay. → We suggest that quaternary ammonium salts may be more hazardous than previously supposed. - Abstract: Quaternary ammonium salts are widely used in industrial, agricultural, healthcare and domestic applications. They are believed to be safe compounds, with little or no health hazard to humans. However, in this report, we demonstrate that a series of newly synthesized quaternary ammonium salts containing carbohydrate moieties reveal potent mutagenic activities, as assessed by using the Vibrio harveyi bioluminescence mutagenicity test. D-Gluco- and D-galacto-derivatives were found to have a higher mutagenic potential than D-manno-derivatives. Among the former groups of compounds, the N-[2-(D-glycopyranosyloxy)ethyl]-N,N,N-trimethylaminium salts were of the highest activity in the mutagenicity assay. These results suggest that the safety of quaternary ammonium salts may be lower than previously supposed, indicating a need for testing such compounds for their mutagenicity.

  11. Carbohydrate Estimation by a Mobile Phone-Based System Versus Self-Estimations of Individuals With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhyner, Daniel; Loher, Hannah; Dehais, Joachim; Anthimopoulos, Marios; Shevchik, Sergey; Botwey, Ransford Henry; Duke, David; Stettler, Christoph; Diem, Peter; Mougiakakou, Stavroula

    2016-05-11

    .89 (SD 38.20) grams of carbohydrate for the estimation of participants, whereas the corresponding value for the GoCARB system was 12.28 (SD 9.56) grams of carbohydrate, which was a significantly better performance ( P=.001). In 75.4% (86/114) of the meals, the GoCARB automatic segmentation was successful and 85.1% (291/342) of individual food items were successfully recognized. Most participants found GoCARB easy to use. This study indicates that the system is able to estimate, on average, the carbohydrate content of meals with higher accuracy than individuals with type 1 diabetes can. The participants thought the app was useful and easy to use. GoCARB seems to be a well-accepted supportive mHealth tool for the assessment of served-on-a-plate meals.

  12. Impeded Carbohydrate Metabolism in Rice Plants under Submergence Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malay Kumar ADAK

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The detrimental effects of submergence on physiological performances of some rice varieties with special references to carbohydrate metabolisms and their allied enzymes during post-flowering stages have been documented and clarified in the present investigation. It was found that photosynthetic rate and concomitant translocation of sugars into the panicles were both related to the yield. The detrimental effects of the complete submergence were recorded in generation of sucrose, starch, sucrose phosphate synthase and phosphorylase activity in the developing panicles of the plants as compared to those under normal or control (i.e. non-submerged condition. The accumulation of starch was significantly lower in plants under submergence and that was correlated with ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase activity. Photosynthetic rate was most affected under submergence in varying days of post-flowering and was also related to the down regulation of Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase activity. However, under normal or control condition, there recorded a steady maintenance of photosynthetic rate at the post-flowering stages and significantly higher values of Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase activity. Still, photosynthetic rate of the plants under both control and submerged conditions had hardly any significant correlation with sugar accumulation and other enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism like invertase with grain yield. Finally, plants under submergence suffered significant loss of yield by poor grain filling which was related to impeded carbohydrate metabolism in the tissues. It is evident that loss of yield under submergence is attributed both by lower sink size or sink capacity (number of panicles, in this case as well as subdued carbohydrate metabolism in plants and its subsequent partitioning into the grains.

  13. Food sources of carbohydrates in a European cohort of adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wirfält, E.; McTaggart, A.; Pala, V.

    2002-01-01

    . RESULTS: The 10 food groups contributing most carbohydrate were bread; fruit; milk and milk products; sweet buns, cakes and pies; potato; sugar and jam; pasta and rice; vegetables and legumes; crispbread; and fruit and vegetable juices. Consumption of fruits as well as vegetables and legumes was higher...... in southern compared with northern centres, while soft drinks consumption was higher in the north. Italian centres had high pasta and rice consumption, but breakfast cereal, potato, and sweet buns, cakes and pies were higher in northern centres. In Sweden, lower bread consumption was balanced with a higher...... consumption of crispbread, and with sweet buns, cakes and pies. Overall, men consumed higher amounts of vegetables and legumes, bread, soft drinks, potatoes, pasta and rice, breakfast cereal and sugar and jam than women, but fruit consumption appeared more frequent in women. CONCLUSION: The study supports...

  14. Characterizing the glycocalyx of poultry spermatozoa: I. Identification and distribution of carbohydrate residues using flow cytometry and epifluorescence microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peláez, Jesús; Long, Julie A

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to use a battery of lectins to 1) delineate the carbohydrate content of sperm glycocalyx in the turkey and chicken using flow cytometry analysis, and 2) evaluate the distribution of existing sugars over the sperm plasma membrane surface with epifluorescent microscopy. Carbohydrate groups (corresponding lectins) that were investigated included galactose (GS-I, Jacalin, RCA-I, PNA), glucose and/or mannose (Con A, PSA, GNA), N-acetyl-glucosamine (GS-II, s-WGA, STA), N-acetyl-galactosamine (SBA, WFA), fucose (Lotus, UEA-I), sialic acid (LFA, LPA), and N-acetyl-lactosamine (ECA). Spermatozoa were assessed before and after treatment with neuraminidase to remove sialic acid. Mean fluorescence intensity (MnFI) was used as indicator of lectin binding for flow cytometry analysis. Nontreated spermatozoa from both species showed high MnFI when incubated with RCA-I, Con A, LFA, and LPA, as did chicken spermatozoa incubated with s-WGA. Neuraminidase treatment increased the MnFI for most lectins except LFA and LPA, as expected. Differences in MnFI between species included higher values for s-WGA and ECA in chicken spermatozoa and for WFA in turkey spermatozoa. Microscopy revealed segregation of some sugar residues into membrane-specific domains; however, the 2 staining techniques (cell suspension vs fixed preparation) differed in identifying lectin binding patterns, with fixed preparations yielding a high degree of nonspecific binding. We conclude that 1) the glycocalyx of turkey and chicken spermatozoa contains a diversity of carbohydrate groups, 2) these residues are extensively masked by sialic acid, 3) the glycocalyx composition is species-specific, and 4) some glycoconjugates appear to be segregated into membrane-specific domains. Characterization of the poultry sperm glycocalyx is the first step in identifying the physiological impact of semen storage on sperm function.

  15. A Low-Protein, High-Carbohydrate Diet Stimulates Thermogenesis in the Brown Adipose Tissue of Rats via ATF-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de França, Suélem A; dos Santos, Maísa P; Przygodda, Franciele; Garófalo, Maria Antonieta R; Kettelhut, Isis C; Magalhães, Diego A; Bezerra, Kalinne S; Colodel, Edson M; Flouris, Andreas D; Andrade, Cláudia M B; Kawashita, Nair H

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate thermogenesis in the interscapular brown adipose tissue (IBAT) of rats submitted to low-protein, high-carbohydrate (LPHC) diet and the involvement of adrenergic stimulation in this process. Male rats (~100 g) were submitted to LPHC (6%-protein; 74%-carbohydrate) or control (C; 17%-protein; 63%-carbohydrate) isocaloric diets for 15 days. The IBAT temperature was evaluated in the rats before and after the administration of noradrenaline (NA) (20 µg 100 g b w(-1) min(-1)). The expression levels of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and other proteins involved in the regulation of UCP1 expression were determined by Western blot (Student's t test, P ≤ 0.05). The LPHC diet promoted a 1.1 °C increase in the basal temperature of IBAT when compared with the basal temperature in the IBAT of the C group. NA administration promoted a 0.3 °C increase in basal temperature in the IBAT of the C rats and a 0.5 °C increase in the IBAT of the LPHC group. The level of UCP1 increased 60% in the IBAT of LPHC-fed rats, and among the proteins involved in its expression, such as β3-AR and α1-AR, there was a 40% increase in the levels of p38-MAPK and a 30% decrease in CREB when compared to the C rats. The higher sympathetic flux to IBAT, which is a consequence of the administration of the LPHC diet to rats, activates thermogenesis and increases the expression of UCP1 in the tissue. Our results suggest that the increase in UCP1 content may occur via p38 MAPK and ATF2.

  16. Production of methane from kallar grass grown on saline sodic lands: metabolism of carbohydrates, methylated amines and methane precursors during digestion of kallar grass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabassum, R.; Rajoka, M.I.; Malik, K.A.

    1991-01-01

    Mesophilic anaerobic digestion of kallar grass on saline sodic land was carried out in batch culture at laboratory scale with enriched culture from biogas plant. Analysis were made to determine biogas volume, gas composition and distribution of volatile fatty acids. The fermentation of kallar grass treated with 2% NaOH showed an increase in digestibility from 20-50% and the conversion efficiency approached 80-95% of theoretical yield which was fold higher than the one obtained from untreated substrates. The contents of methane in bio gas was markedly low during the first day of digestion but increased from 75 to 91% at the end of 20 days retention time. Low pH values (6.2) showed the accumulation of acetic butyric and propionic acids. Addition of carbohydrates, methylated amines and other methane precursors were found to stimulate methanogensis at low concentration (0.1%) carbohydrates, (1mM) methylated amines and methane precursors as compared to their higher concentrations. The phase contrast and fluorescence microscopic examinations showed the diverse microbial population of digestor contents. (author)

  17. The effect of dietary protein and fermentable carbohydrates levels on growth performance and intestinal characteristics in newly weaned piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bikker, P.; Dirkzwager, A.; Fledderus, J.; Trevisi, P.; Huërou-Luron, Le I.; Lallès, J.P.; Awati, A.

    2006-01-01

    Reducing the CP content and increasing the fermentable carbohydrates (FC) content of the diet may counteract the negative effects of protein fermentation in newly weaned piglets fed high-CP diets. To study the synergistic effects of CP and FC on gut health and its consequences for growth

  18. Metabolic aspects of low carbohydrate diets and exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peters Sandra

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Following a low carbohydrate diet, there is a shift towards more fat and less carbohydrate oxidation to provide energy to skeletal muscle, both at rest and during exercise. This review summarizes recent work on human skeletal muscle carbohydrate and fat metabolic adaptations to a low carbohydrate diet, focusing mainly on pyruvate dehydrogenase and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, and how these changes relate to the capacity for carbohydrate oxidation during exercise.

  19. Combined supplementation of carbohydrate, alanine, and proline is effective in maintaining blood glucose and increasing endurance performance during long-term exercise in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogusa, Yoshihito; Mizugaki, Ami; Hirabayashi-Osada, Yuri; Furuta, Chie; Ohyama, Kana; Suzuki, Katsuya; Kobayashi, Hisamine

    2014-01-01

    Carbohydrate supplementation is extremely important during prolonged exercise because it maintains blood glucose levels during later stages of exercise. In this study, we examined whether maintaining blood glucose levels by carbohydrate supplementation could be enhanced during long-term exercise by combining this supplementation with alanine and proline, which are gluconeogenic amino acids, and whether such a combination would affect exercise endurance performance. Male C57BL/6J mice were orally administered either maltodextrin (1.25 g/kg) or maltodextrin (1.0 g/kg) with alanine (0.225 g/kg) and proline (0.025 g/kg) 15 min before running for 170 min. Combined supplementation of maltodextrin, alanine, and proline induced higher blood glucose levels than isocaloric maltodextrin alone during the late exercise phase (100-170 min). The hepatic glycogen content of mice administered maltodextrin, alanine, and proline was higher than that of mice ingesting maltodextrin alone 60 min after beginning exercise, but the glycogen content of the gastrocnemius muscle showed no difference. We conducted a treadmill running test to determine the effect of alanine and proline on endurance performance. The test showed that running time to exhaustion of mice that were supplemented with maltodextrin (2.0 g/kg) was longer than that of mice that were supplemented with water alone. Maltodextrin supplementation (1.0 g/kg) with alanine (0.9 g/kg) and proline (0.1 g/kg) further increased running time to exhaustion compared to maltodextrin alone (2.0 g/kg). These results indicate that combined supplementation of carbohydrate, alanine, and proline is effective for maintaining blood glucose and hepatic glycogen levels and increasing endurance performance during long-term exercise in mice.

  20. Thermogenesis induced by a high-carbohydrate meal in fasted lean and overweight young men: insulin, body fat, and sympathetic nervous system involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques-Lopes, Iva; Forga, Luis; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2003-01-01

    This dietary trial was designed to evaluate the effect of an experimental short-term fasting period followed by a high-carbohydrate meal on energy expenditure, thermogenesis, and sympathetic nervous system activity in normal (body mass index 27 kg/m(2)) men who were healthy, non-diabetic or with no other endocrine disease, non-smokers, not taking oral prescription medications, and with a stable body weight for the previous 3 mo. Fasting and fed energy expenditures and diet-induced thermogenesis were measured after a high-carbohydrate meal in seven overweight and six lean young male subjects by indirect calorimetry. Heart rate, urinary excretion of catecholamines, serum glucose, and insulin were also measured over the experimental fasting (7.5 h) and postprandial (4 h) periods. After carbohydrate intake, overweight men showed a significantly higher energy production (kJ/kg of fat-free mass) than did lean individuals, and the diet-induced thermogenesis (percentage of energy intake) was positively correlated with body fat (kg), percentage of body fat, fat-free mass (kg), and fasting pre-meal serum insulin levels. Postprandial cumulative energy expenditure was directly associated with postprandial insulin response and with mean postprandial heart rate values. No significant differences in urinary catecholamines were found between lean and overweight men at basal conditions or during the study period. Overweight individuals showed similar short-term sympathetic nervous system responses induced by an experimental fasting period. Although diet-induced thermogenesis after carbohydrate intake was not statistically different between lean and overweight men, the postprandial insulin response and body fat content seemed to be involved in sympathetic nervous system activity.

  1. The effects of carbohydrate ingestion on the badminton serve after fatiguing exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottoms, Lindsay; Sinclair, Jonathan; Taylor, Katrina; Polman, Remco; Fewtrell, David

    2012-01-01

    The badminton serve requires great skill and may be affected by fatigue. The aim of the present study was to determine whether carbohydrate ingestion affects badminton performance. Nine male badminton players (age 25 ± 7 years, mass 80.6 ± 8.0 kg) attended the laboratory on three occasions. The first visit involved an incremental exercise test to exhaustion to determine peak heart rate. Participants were given 1 L of a carbohydrate-electrolyte drink or a matched placebo during the experimental trials. The accuracy of 10 long and 10 short serves was determined before and after exercise. The fatiguing exercise was 33 min in duration (83 ± 10% and 84 ± 8% peak heart rate for the placebo and carbohydrate trial respectively). Capillary blood samples (20 μL) were taken before and after exercise for determination of blood glucose and lactate. There was deterioration in long serve accuracy with fatigue (P = 0.002), which carbohydrate ingestion had a tendency to prevent (P = 0.077). There was no effect of fatigue (P = 0.402) or carbohydrate ingestion (P = 0.109) on short serve accuracy. There was no difference in blood glucose concentration between trials (P = 0.851). Blood lactate concentration was higher during the placebo trial (P = 0.016). These results suggest that only the long serve is influenced by fatigue and carbohydrate had a tendency to prevent the deterioration in performance.

  2. Does prior acute exercise affect postexercise substrate oxidation in response to a high carbohydrate meal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hickey Matthew S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consumption of a mixed meal increases postprandial carbohydrate utilization and decreases fat oxidation. On the other hand, acute endurance exercise increases fat oxidation and decreases carbohydrate utilization during the post-exercise recovery period. It is possible that the resulting post-exercise increase in circulating nonesterified fatty acids could attenuate the ability of ingested carbohydrate to inhibit lipid oxidation. The purpose of this study was to determine whether prior exercise attenuates the usual meal-induced decline in lipid oxidation. Methods Six healthy, physically active young subjects (x age = 26.3 years, 4 males, 2 females completed three treatments in random order after a ~10 h fast: (a Exercise/Carbohydrate (Ex/CHO – subjects completed a bout of exercise at 70% VO2peak (targeted net energy cost of 400 kcals, followed by consumption of a carbohydrate-rich meal; (b Exercise/Placebo (Ex/Placebo – subjects completed an identical bout of exercise followed by consumption of a placebo; and (c No Exercise/Carbohydrate (NoEx/CHO – subjects sat quietly rather than exercising and then consumed the carbohydrate-rich meal. Blood samples were obtained before and during the postprandial period to determine plasma glucose, insulin, and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA. Respiratory gas exchange measures were used to estimate rates of fat and carbohydrate oxidation. Results Plasma NEFA were approximately two-fold higher immediately following the two exercise conditions compared to the no-exercise condition, while meal consumption significantly increased insulin and glucose in both Ex/CHO and NoEx/CHO. NEFA concentrations fell rapidly during the 2-h postprandial period, but remained higher compared to the NoEx/CHO treatment. Carbohydrate oxidation increased rapidly and fat oxidation decreased in response to the meal, with no differences in the rates of carbohydrate and fat oxidation during recovery between the Ex

  3. Postprandial Glucose Surges after Extremely Low Carbohydrate Diet in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori, Koji; Ihana-Sugiyama, Noriko; Yamamoto-Honda, Ritsuko; Nakamura, Tomoka; Sobe, Chie; Kamiya, Shigemi; Kishimoto, Miyako; Kajio, Hiroshi; Kawano, Kimiko; Noda, Mitsuhiko

    2017-09-01

    Carbohydrate-restricted diets are prevalent not only in obese people but also in the general population to maintain appropriate body weight. Here, we report that extreme carbohydrate restriction for one day affects the subsequent blood glucose levels in healthy adults. Ten subjects (median age 30.5 years, BMI 21.1 kg/m 2 , and HbA1c 5.5%), wearing with a continuous glucose monitoring device, were given isoenergetic test meals for 4 consecutive days. On day 1, day 2 (D2), and day 4 (D4), they consumed normal-carbohydrate (63-66% carbohydrate) diet, while on day 3, they took low-carbohydrate/high-fat (5% carbohydrate) diet. The daily energy intake was 2,200 kcal for males and 1,700 kcal for females. On D2 and D4, we calculated the mean 24-hr blood glucose level (MEAN/24h) and its standard deviation (SD/24h), the area under the curve (AUC) for glucose over 140 mg/dL within 4 hours after each meal (AUC/4h/140), the mean amplitude of the glycemic excursions (MAGE), the incremental AUC of 24-hr blood glucose level above the mean plus one standard deviation (iAUC/MEAN+SD). Indexes for glucose fluctuation on D4 were significantly greater than those on D2 (SD/24h; p = 0.009, MAGE; p = 0.013, AUC/4h/140 after breakfast and dinner; p = 0.006 and 0.005, and iAUC/MEAN+SD; p = 0.007). The value of MEAN/24h and AUC/4h/140 after lunch on D4 were greater than those on D2, but those differences were not statistically significant. In conclusion, consumption of low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet appears to cause higher postprandial blood glucose on subsequent normal-carbohydrate diet particularly after breakfast and dinner in healthy adults.

  4. Using Carbohydrate Interaction Assays to Reveal Novel Binding Sites in Carbohydrate Active Enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cockburn, Darrell; Wilkens, Casper; Dilokpimol, Adiphol

    2016-01-01

    Carbohydrate active enzymes often contain auxiliary binding sites located either on independent domains termed carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs) or as so-called surface binding sites (SBSs) on the catalytic module at a certain distance from the active site. The SBSs are usually critical...

  5. High content of MYHC II in vastus lateralis is accompanied by higher VO2/power output ratio during moderate intensity cycling performed both at low and at high pedalling rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majerczak, J; Szkutnik, Z; Karasinski, J; Duda, K; Kolodziejski, L; Zoladz, J A

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between the content of various types of myosin heavy chain isoforms (MyHC) in the vastus lateralis muscle and pulmonary oxygen uptake during moderate power output incremental exercise, performed at low and at high pedalling rates. Twenty one male subjects (mean +/- SD) aged 24.1 +/- 2.8 years; body mass 72.9 +/- 7.2 kg; height 179.1 +/- 4.8 cm; BMI 22.69 +/- 1.89 kg.m(-2); VO2max 50.6 +/- 5.3 ml.kg.min(-1), participated in this study. On separate days, they performed two incremental exercise tests at 60 rev.min(-1) and at 120 rev.min(-1), until exhaustion. Gas exchange variables were measured continuously breath by breath. Blood samples were taken for measurements of plasma lactate concentration prior to the exercise test and at the end of each step of the incremental exercise. Muscle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis muscle, using Bergström needle, and they were analysed for the content of MyHC I and MyHC II using SDS--PAGE and two groups (n=7, each) were selected: group H with the highest content of MyHC II (60.7 % +/- 10.5 %) and group L with the lowest content of MyHC II (27.6 % +/- 6.1 %). We have found that during incremental exercise at the power output between 30-120 W, performed at 60 rev.min(-1), oxygen uptake in the group H was significantly greater than in the group L (ANCOVA, p=0.003, upward shift of the intercept in VO2/power output relationship). During cycling at the same power output but at 120 rev.min(-1), the oxygen uptake was also higher in the group H, when compared to the group L (i.e. upward shift of the intercept in VO2/power output relationship, ANCOVA, p=0.002). Moreover, the increase in pedalling rate from 60 to 120 rev.min(-1) was accompanied by a significantly higher increase of oxygen cost of cycling and by a significantly higher plasma lactate concentration in subjects from group H. We concluded that the muscle mechanical efficiency, expressed by the VO2/PO ratio

  6. Single tag for total carbohydrate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anumula, Kalyan Rao

    2014-07-15

    Anthranilic acid (2-aminobenzoic acid, 2-AA) has the remarkable property of reacting rapidly with every type of reducing carbohydrate. Reactivity of 2-AA with carbohydrates in aqueous solutions surpasses all other tags reported to date. This unique capability is attributed to the strategically located -COOH which accelerates Schiff base formation. Monosaccharides, oligosaccharides (N-, O-, and lipid linked and glycans in secretory fluids), glycosaminoglycans, and polysaccharides can be easily labeled with 2-AA. With 2-AA, labeling is simple in aqueous solutions containing proteins, peptides, buffer salts, and other ingredients (e.g., PNGase F, glycosidase, and transferase reaction mixtures). In contrast, other tags require relatively pure glycans for labeling in anhydrous dimethyl sulfoxide-acetic acid medium. Acidic conditions are known to cause desialylation, thus requiring a great deal of attention to sample preparation. Simpler labeling is achieved with 2-AA within 30-60 min in mild acetate-borate buffered solution. 2-AA provides the highest sensitivity and resolution in chromatographic methods for carbohydrate analysis in a simple manner. Additionally, 2-AA is uniquely qualified for quantitative analysis by mass spectrometry in the negative mode. Analyses of 2-AA-labeled carbohydrates by electrophoresis and other techniques have been reported. Examples cited here demonstrate that 2-AA is the universal tag for total carbohydrate analysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of whey protein- and carbohydrate-enriched diet on glycogen resynthesis during the first 48 h after a soccer game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsson, Thomas Gunnar Petursson; Bendiksen, Mads; Bischoff, R.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of a whey protein- and carbohydrate (CHO)-enriched diet on the rate of muscle glycogen resynthesis after a soccer match was examined. Sixteen elite soccer players were randomly assigned to a group ingesting a diet rich in carbohydrates and whey protein [CHO, protein, and fat content...... was 71, 21, and 8E%, respectively; high content of carbohydrates and whey protein (HCP), n¿=¿9] or a group ingesting a normal diet (55, 18, and 26E%; control [CON], n¿=¿7) during a 48-h recovery period after a soccer match. CON and three additional players carried out a 90- and 60-min simulated match...

  8. Quantitative characterization of nonstructural carbohydrates of mezcal Agave (Agave salmiana Otto ex Salm-Dick).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel-Cuello, Christian; Juárez-Flores, Bertha Irene; Aguirre-Rivera, Juan Rogelio; Pinos-Rodríguez, Juan Manuel

    2008-07-23

    Fructans are the reserve carbohydrates in Agave spp. plants. In mezcal factories, fructans undergoes thermal hydrolysis to release fructose and glucose, which are the basis to produce this spirit. Carbohydrate content determines the yield of the final product, which depends on plant organ, ripeness stage, and thermal hydrolysis. Thus, a qualitative and quantitative characterization of nonstructural carbohydrates was conducted in raw and hydrolyzed juices extracted from Agave salmiana stems and leaves under three ripeness stages. By high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), fructose, glucose, sucrose, xylose, and maltose were identified in agave juice. Only the plant fraction with hydrolysis interaction was found to be significant in the glucose concentration plant. Interactions of the fraction with hydrolysis and ripeness with hydrolysis were statistically significant in fructose concentration. Fructose concentration rose considerably with hydrolysis, but only in juice extracted from ripe agave stems (early mature and castrated). This increase was statistically significant only with acid hydrolysis.

  9. Influence of heat stress on leaf morphology and nitrogen–carbohydrate metabolisms in two wucai (Brassica campestris L. genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingyun Yuan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Heat stress is a major environmental stress that limits plant growth and yield worldwide. The present study was carried out to explore the physiological mechanism of heat tolerant to provide the theoretical basis for heat-tolerant breeding. The changes of leaf morphology, anatomy, nitrogen assimilation, and carbohydrate metabolism in two wucai genotypes (WS-1, heat tolerant; WS-6, heat sensitive grown under heat stress (40°C/30°C for 7 days were investigated. Our results showed that heat stress hampered the plant growth and biomass accumulation in certain extent in WS-1 and WS-6. However, the inhibition extent of WS-1 was significantly smaller than WS-6. Thickness of leaf lamina, upper epidermis, and palisade mesophyll were increased by heat in WS-1, which might be contributed to the higher assimilation of photosynthates. During nitrogen assimilation, WS-1 possessed the higher nitrogen-related metabolic enzyme activities, including nitrate reductase (NR, glutamine synthetase (GS, glutamate synthase (GOGAT, and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH, which were reflected by higher photosynthetic nitrogen-use efficiency (PNUE with respect to WS-6. The total amino acids level had no influence in WS-1, whereas it was reduced in WS-6 by heat. And the proline contents of both wucai genotypes were all increased to respond the heat stress. Additionally, among all treatments, the total soluble sugar content of WS-1 by heat got the highest level, including higher contents of sucrose, fructose, and starch than those of WS-6. Moreover, the metabolism efficiency of sucrose to starch in WS-1 was greater than WS-6 under heat stress, proved by higher activities of sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS, sucrose synthase (SuSy, acid invertase (AI, and amylase. These results demonstrated that leaf anatomical alterations resulted in higher nitrogen and carbon assimilation in heat-tolerant genotype WS-1, which exhibited a greater performance to resist heat stress.

  10. Antioxidant and carbohydrate changes of two pomegranate cultivars under deficit irrigation stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebtedaie, M.; Shekafandeh, A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biochemical responses to water stress tolerance of two pomegranate cultivars, ‘Rabbab’ and ‘Shishehgap’. After the establishment of rooted stem cuttings of both cultivars under greenhouse conditions, they were treated with four levels of deficit irrigations (100%, 75%, 50% and 25% of field capacity) in a completely randomized design with four replications. The results showed a significant difference between the two cultivars regarding antioxidant enzymes activities. In both cultivars, the water stress increased the activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase. However, at high water deficit (25% field capacity, FC), ‘Rabbab’ showed significantly higher enzyme activity than ‘Shishehgap’. In each level of irrigation, there were not considerable differences in peroxidase activity between the two cultivars. An increment of 162% and 65.5% in soluble sugar was gained at 50% FC in ‘Rabbab’ and ‘Shishehgap’, respectively. ‘Rabbab’ showed better growth performance in each level of irrigation than ‘Shishehgap’. Therefore, it can be concluded that 'Rabbab', with lesser decline in leaf relative water content (RWC), a strong antioxidant system and accumulation of more soluble carbohydrates, can resist higher water stress than 'Shishehgap'.

  11. Antioxidant and carbohydrate changes of two pomegranate cultivars under deficit irrigation stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Ebtedaie

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biochemical responses to water stress tolerance of two pomegranate cultivars, ‘Rabbab’ and ‘Shishehgap’. After the establishment of rooted stem cuttings of both cultivars under greenhouse conditions, they were treated with four levels of deficit irrigations (100%, 75%, 50% and 25% of field capacity in a completely randomized design with four replications. The results showed a significant difference between the two cultivars regarding antioxidant enzymes activities. In both cultivars, the water stress increased the activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase. However, at high water deficit (25% field capacity, FC, ‘Rabbab’ showed significantly higher enzyme activity than ‘Shishehgap’. In each level of irrigation, there were not considerable differences in peroxidase activity between the two cultivars. An increment of 162% and 65.5% in soluble sugar was gained at 50% FC in ‘Rabbab’ and ‘Shishehgap’, respectively. ‘Rabbab’ showed better growth performance in each level of irrigation than ‘Shishehgap’. Therefore, it can be concluded that 'Rabbab', with lesser decline in leaf relative water content (RWC, a strong antioxidant system and accumulation of more soluble carbohydrates, can resist higher water stress than 'Shishehgap'.

  12. Antioxidant and carbohydrate changes of two pomegranate cultivars under deficit irrigation stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebtedaie, M.; Shekafandeh, A.

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biochemical responses to water stress tolerance of two pomegranate cultivars, ‘Rabbab’ and ‘Shishehgap’. After the establishment of rooted stem cuttings of both cultivars under greenhouse conditions, they were treated with four levels of deficit irrigations (100%, 75%, 50% and 25% of field capacity) in a completely randomized design with four replications. The results showed a significant difference between the two cultivars regarding antioxidant enzymes activities. In both cultivars, the water stress increased the activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase. However, at high water deficit (25% field capacity, FC), ‘Rabbab’ showed significantly higher enzyme activity than ‘Shishehgap’. In each level of irrigation, there were not considerable differences in peroxidase activity between the two cultivars. An increment of 162% and 65.5% in soluble sugar was gained at 50% FC in ‘Rabbab’ and ‘Shishehgap’, respectively. ‘Rabbab’ showed better growth performance in each level of irrigation than ‘Shishehgap’. Therefore, it can be concluded that 'Rabbab', with lesser decline in leaf relative water content (RWC), a strong antioxidant system and accumulation of more soluble carbohydrates, can resist higher water stress than 'Shishehgap'.

  13. A holistic view of dietary carbohydrate utilization in lobster: digestion, postprandial nutrient flux, and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Viera, Leandro; Perera, Erick; Casuso, Antonio; Perdomo-Morales, Rolando; Gutierrez, Odilia; Scull, Idania; Carrillo, Olimpia; Martos-Sitcha, Juan A; García-Galano, Tsai; Mancera, Juan Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Crustaceans exhibit a remarkable variation in their feeding habits and food type, but most knowledge on carbohydrate digestion and utilization in this group has come from research on few species. The aim of this study was to make an integrative analysis of dietary carbohydrate utilization in the spiny lobster Panulirus argus. We used complementary methodologies such as different assessments of digestibility, activity measurements of digestive and metabolic enzymes, and post-feeding flux of nutrients and metabolites. Several carbohydrates were well digested by the lobster, but maize starch was less digestible than all other starches studied, and its inclusion in diet affected protein digestibility. Most intense hydrolysis of carbohydrates in the gastric chamber of lobster occurred between 2-6 h after ingestion and afterwards free glucose increased in hemolymph. The inclusion of wheat in diet produced a slow clearance of glucose from the gastric fluid and a gradual increase in hemolymph glucose. More intense hydrolysis of protein in the gastric chamber occurred 6-12 h after ingestion and then amino acids tended to increase in hemolymph. Triglyceride concentration in hemolymph rose earlier in wheat-fed lobsters than in lobsters fed other carbohydrates, but it decreased the most 24 h later. Analyses of metabolite levels and activities of different metabolic enzymes revealed that intermolt lobsters had a low capacity to store and use glycogen, although it was slightly higher in wheat-fed lobsters. Lobsters fed maize and rice diets increased amino acid catabolism, while wheat-fed lobsters exhibited higher utilization of fatty acids. Multivariate analysis confirmed that the type of carbohydrate ingested had a profound effect on overall metabolism. Although we found no evidence of a protein-sparing effect of dietary carbohydrate, differences in the kinetics of their digestion and absorption impacted lobster metabolism determining the fate of other nutrients.

  14. A holistic view of dietary carbohydrate utilization in lobster: digestion, postprandial nutrient flux, and metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Rodríguez-Viera

    Full Text Available Crustaceans exhibit a remarkable variation in their feeding habits and food type, but most knowledge on carbohydrate digestion and utilization in this group has come from research on few species. The aim of this study was to make an integrative analysis of dietary carbohydrate utilization in the spiny lobster Panulirus argus. We used complementary methodologies such as different assessments of digestibility, activity measurements of digestive and metabolic enzymes, and post-feeding flux of nutrients and metabolites. Several carbohydrates were well digested by the lobster, but maize starch was less digestible than all other starches studied, and its inclusion in diet affected protein digestibility. Most intense hydrolysis of carbohydrates in the gastric chamber of lobster occurred between 2-6 h after ingestion and afterwards free glucose increased in hemolymph. The inclusion of wheat in diet produced a slow clearance of glucose from the gastric fluid and a gradual increase in hemolymph glucose. More intense hydrolysis of protein in the gastric chamber occurred 6-12 h after ingestion and then amino acids tended to increase in hemolymph. Triglyceride concentration in hemolymph rose earlier in wheat-fed lobsters than in lobsters fed other carbohydrates, but it decreased the most 24 h later. Analyses of metabolite levels and activities of different metabolic enzymes revealed that intermolt lobsters had a low capacity to store and use glycogen, although it was slightly higher in wheat-fed lobsters. Lobsters fed maize and rice diets increased amino acid catabolism, while wheat-fed lobsters exhibited higher utilization of fatty acids. Multivariate analysis confirmed that the type of carbohydrate ingested had a profound effect on overall metabolism. Although we found no evidence of a protein-sparing effect of dietary carbohydrate, differences in the kinetics of their digestion and absorption impacted lobster metabolism determining the fate of other

  15. Soluble Sugars as the Carbohydrate Reserve for CAM in Pineapple Leaves 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnal, Nancy Wieland; Black, Clanton C.

    1989-01-01

    Neutral ethanol-soluble sugar pools serve as carbohydrate reserves for Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) in pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.) leaves. Levels of neutral soluble sugars and glucans fluctuated reciprocally with concentrations of malic acid. Hexose loss from neutral soluble-sugar pools was sufficient to account for malic acid accumulation with about 95% of the required hexose accounted for by turnover of fructose and glucose pools. Hexose loss from starch or starch plus lower molecular weight glucan pools was insufficient to account for nocturnal accumulation of malic acid. The apparent maximum catalytic capacity of pyrophosphate:6-phosphofructokinase (PPi-PFK) at 15°C was about 16 times higher than the mean maximum rate of glycolysis that occurred to support malic acid accumulation in pineapple leaves at night and 12 times higher than the mean maximum rate of hexose turnover from all carbohydrate pools. The apparent maximum catalytic capacity of ATP-PFK at 15°C was about 70% of the activity required to account for the mean maximal rate of hexose turnover from all carbohydrate pools if turnover were completely via glycolysis, and marginally sufficient to account for mean maximal rates of acidification. Therefore, at low night temperatures conducive to CAM and under subsaturating substrate concentrations, PPi-PFK activity, but not ATP-PFK activity, would be sufficient to support the rate of glycolytic carbohydrate processing required for acid accumulation. These data for pineapple establish that there are at least two types of CAM plants with respect to the nature of the carbohydrate reserve utilized to support nighttime CO2 accumulation. The data further indicate that the glycolytic carbohydrate processing that supports acidification proceeds in different subcellular compartments in plants utilizing different carbohydrate reserves. PMID:16666775

  16. Boronic acids for fluorescence imaging of carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaolong; Zhai, Wenlei; Fossey, John S; James, Tony D

    2016-02-28

    "Fluorescence imaging" is a particularly exciting and rapidly developing area of research; the annual number of publications in the area has increased ten-fold over the last decade. The rapid increase of interest in fluorescence imaging will necessitate the development of an increasing number of molecular receptors and binding agents in order to meet the demand in this rapidly expanding area. Carbohydrate biomarkers are particularly important targets for fluorescence imaging given their pivotal role in numerous important biological events, including the development and progression of many diseases. Therefore, the development of new fluorescent receptors and binding agents for carbohydrates is and will be increasing in demand. This review highlights the development of fluorescence imaging agents based on boronic acids a particularly promising class of receptors given their strong and selective binding with carbohydrates in aqueous media.

  17. Carbohydrates in pig nutrition - Recent advances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach; Lærke, Helle Nygaard; Ingerslev, Anne Krog

    2016-01-01

    The dietary carbohydrates are a diverse group of substances with a range of chemical, physical, and physiological properties. The primary chemical classification of carbohydrates is by molecular size (degree of polymerization [DP]), the type of linkage (α or β), and composition of individual...... to their potential for digestion by endogenous enzymes. Carbohydrates are the principal substrates for energy metabolism but also exert a number of other effects throughout the gastrointestinal tract. The starch structure as well as type and levels of DF influence, to a varying degree, the rate of starch digestion...... in the small intestine. Some types of soluble NSP are found to interact with intestinal mucus and produce a layer that significantly delays the transport of lipid digestion products. Potentially, the same may be the case for proteinous compounds. The delay in the transport of the nutrients to the gut...

  18. Differential impact of amino acids on OXPHOS system activity following carbohydrate starvation in Arabidopsis cell suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, João Henrique F; Quinhones, Carla G S; Schertl, Peter; Brito, Danielle S; Eubel, Holger; Hildebrandt, Tatjana; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano; Braun, Hans-Peter; Araújo, Wagner L

    2017-12-01

    Plant respiration mostly depends on the activity of glycolysis and the oxidation of organic acids in the tricarboxylic acid cycle to synthesize ATP. However, during stress situations plant cells also use amino acids as alternative substrates to donate electrons through the electron-transfer flavoprotein (ETF)/ETF:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (ETF/ETFQO) complex to the mitochondrial electron transport chain (mETC). Given this, we investigated changes of the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system in Arabidopsis thaliana cell culture under carbohydrate starvation supplied with a range of amino acids. Induction of isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase (IVDH) activity was observed under carbohydrate starvation which was associated with increased amounts of IVDH protein detected by immunoblotting. Furthermore, activities of the protein complexes of the mETC were reduced under carbohydrate starvation. We also observed that OXPHOS system activity behavior is differently affected by different amino acids and that proteins associated with amino acids catabolism are upregulated in cells following carbohydrate starvation. Collectively, our results support the contention that ETF/ETFQO is an essential pathway to donate electrons to the mETC and that amino acids are alternative substrates to maintain respiration under carbohydrate starvation. © 2017 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  19. Aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic organic acids, vitamins, and carbohydrates in soil: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranova, Valerie; Rejsek, Klement; Formanek, Pavel

    2013-11-10

    Organic acids, vitamins, and carbohydrates represent important organic compounds in soil. Aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic organic acids play important roles in rhizosphere ecology, pedogenesis, food-web interactions, and decontamination of sites polluted by heavy metals and organic pollutants. Carbohydrates in soils can be used to estimate changes of soil organic matter due to management practices, whereas vitamins may play an important role in soil biological and biochemical processes. The aim of this work is to review current knowledge on aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic organic acids, vitamins, and carbohydrates in soil and to identify directions for future research. Assessments of organic acids (aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic) and carbohydrates, including their behaviour, have been reported in many works. However, knowledge on the occurrence and behaviour of D-enantiomers of organic acids, which may be abundant in soil, is currently lacking. Also, identification of the impact and mechanisms of environmental factors, such as soil water content, on carbohydrate status within soil organic matter remains to be determined. Finally, the occurrence of vitamins in soil and their role in biological and biochemical soil processes represent an important direction for future research.

  20. Aliphatic, Cyclic, and Aromatic Organic Acids, Vitamins, and Carbohydrates in Soil: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Vranova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic acids, vitamins, and carbohydrates represent important organic compounds in soil. Aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic organic acids play important roles in rhizosphere ecology, pedogenesis, food-web interactions, and decontamination of sites polluted by heavy metals and organic pollutants. Carbohydrates in soils can be used to estimate changes of soil organic matter due to management practices, whereas vitamins may play an important role in soil biological and biochemical processes. The aim of this work is to review current knowledge on aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic organic acids, vitamins, and carbohydrates in soil and to identify directions for future research. Assessments of organic acids (aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic and carbohydrates, including their behaviour, have been reported in many works. However, knowledge on the occurrence and behaviour of D-enantiomers of organic acids, which may be abundant in soil, is currently lacking. Also, identification of the impact and mechanisms of environmental factors, such as soil water content, on carbohydrate status within soil organic matter remains to be determined. Finally, the occurrence of vitamins in soil and their role in biological and biochemical soil processes represent an important direction for future research.

  1. Changes in molecular characteristics of cereal carbohydrates after processing and digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasprzak, Mirosław Marek; Lærke, Helle Nygaard; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2012-12-10

    Different extraction, purification and digestion methods were used to investigate the molecular properties of carbohydrates in arabinoxylan and β-glucan concentrates, dietary fiber (DF) rich breads and ileum content of bread fed pigs. The breads studied were: a low DF wheat bread (WF), whole meal rye bread (GR), rye bread with kernels (RK), wheat bread supplemented with wheat arabinoxylan concentrate (AX) and wheat bread supplemented with oat β-glucan concentrate (BG). The weight average molecular weight (M(w)) of extractable carbohydrates in β-glucan concentrate decreased eight-fold after inclusion in the BG bread when exposed to in vitro digestion, while the M(w) of purified extractable carbohydrates in AX bread was reduced two-fold, and remained almost unaffected until reaching the terminal ileum of pigs. Similarly, the M(w) of purified extractable carbohydrates in GR and RK bread was not significantly changed in the ileum. The AX bread resulted in the highest concentration of dissolved arabinoxylan in the ileum among all the breads that caused a substantial increased in ileal AX viscosity. Nevertheless, for none of the breads, the M(w) of extractable carbohydrates was related neither to the bread extract nor ileal viscosity.

  2. Flight metabolism in Panstrongylus megistus (Hemiptera: Reduviidae): the role of carbohydrates and lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canavoso, Lilián E; Stariolo, Raúl; Rubiolo, Edilberto R

    2003-10-01

    The metabolism of lipids and carbohydrates related to flight activity in Panstrongylus megistus was investigated. Insects were subjected to different times of flight under laboratory conditions and changes in total lipids, lipophorin density and carbohydrates were followed in the hemolymph. Lipids and glycogen were also assayed in fat body and flight muscle. In resting insects, hemolymph lipids averaged 3.4 mg/ml and significantly increased after 45 min of flight (8.8 mg/ml, P < 0.001). High-density lipophorin was the sole lipoprotein observed in resting animals. A second fraction with lower density corresponding to low-density lipophorin appeared in insects subjected to flight. Particles from both fractions showed significant differences in diacylglycerol content and size. In resting insects, carbohydrate levels averaged 0.52 mg/ml. They sharply declined more than twofold after 15 min of flight, being undetectable in hemolymph of insects flown for 45 min. Lipid and glycogen from fat body and flight muscle decreased significantly after 45 min of flight. Taken together, the results indicate that P. megistus uses carbohydrates during the initiation of the flight after which, switching fuel for flight from carbohydrates to lipids.

  3. Flight metabolism in Panstrongylus megistus (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: the role of carbohydrates and lipids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilián E Canavoso

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The metabolism of lipids and carbohydrates related to flight activity in Panstrongylus megistus was investigated. Insects were subjected to different times of flight under laboratory conditions and changes in total lipids, lipophorin density and carbohydrates were followed in the hemolymph. Lipids and glycogen were also assayed in fat body and flight muscle. In resting insects, hemolymph lipids averaged 3.4 mg/ml and significantly increased after 45 min of flight (8.8 mg/ml, P < 0.001. High-density lipophorin was the sole lipoprotein observed in resting animals. A second fraction with lower density corresponding to low-density lipophorin appeared in insects subjected to flight. Particles from both fractions showed significant differences in diacylglycerol content and size. In resting insects, carbohydrate levels averaged 0.52 mg/ml. They sharply declined more than twofold after 15 min of flight, being undetectable in hemolymph of insects flown for 45 min. Lipid and glycogen from fat body and flight muscle decreased significantly after 45 min of flight. Taken together, the results indicate that P. megistus uses carbohydrates during the initiation of the flight after which, switching fuel for flight from carbohydrates to lipids.

  4. Changes in Molecular Characteristics of Cereal Carbohydrates after Processing and Digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasprzak, Mirosław Marek; Lærke, Helle Nygaard; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2012-01-01

    Different extraction, purification and digestion methods were used to investigate the molecular properties of carbohydrates in arabinoxylan and β-glucan concentrates, dietary fiber (DF) rich breads and ileum content of bread fed pigs. The breads studied were: a low DF wheat bread (WF), whole meal rye bread (GR), rye bread with kernels (RK), wheat bread supplemented with wheat arabinoxylan concentrate (AX) and wheat bread supplemented with oat β-glucan concentrate (BG). The weight average molecular weight (Mw) of extractable carbohydrates in β-glucan concentrate decreased eight-fold after inclusion in the BG bread when exposed to in vitro digestion, while the Mw of purified extractable carbohydrates in AX bread was reduced two-fold, and remained almost unaffected until reaching the terminal ileum of pigs. Similarly, the Mw of purified extractable carbohydrates in GR and RK bread was not significantly changed in the ileum. The AX bread resulted in the highest concentration of dissolved arabinoxylan in the ileum among all the breads that caused a substantial increased in ileal AX viscosity. Nevertheless, for none of the breads, the Mw of extractable carbohydrates was related neither to the bread extract nor ileal viscosity. PMID:23222731

  5. Aliphatic, Cyclic, and Aromatic Organic Acids, Vitamins, and Carbohydrates in Soil: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranova, Valerie; Rejsek, Klement; Formanek, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    Organic acids, vitamins, and carbohydrates represent important organic compounds in soil. Aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic organic acids play important roles in rhizosphere ecology, pedogenesis, food-web interactions, and decontamination of sites polluted by heavy metals and organic pollutants. Carbohydrates in soils can be used to estimate changes of soil organic matter due to management practices, whereas vitamins may play an important role in soil biological and biochemical processes. The aim of this work is to review current knowledge on aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic organic acids, vitamins, and carbohydrates in soil and to identify directions for future research. Assessments of organic acids (aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic) and carbohydrates, including their behaviour, have been reported in many works. However, knowledge on the occurrence and behaviour of D-enantiomers of organic acids, which may be abundant in soil, is currently lacking. Also, identification of the impact and mechanisms of environmental factors, such as soil water content, on carbohydrate status within soil organic matter remains to be determined. Finally, the occurrence of vitamins in soil and their role in biological and biochemical soil processes represent an important direction for future research. PMID:24319374

  6. A low-fat high-carbohydrate diet reduces plasma total adiponectin concentrations compared to a moderate-fat diet with no impact on biomarkers of systemic inflammation in a randomized controlled feeding study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaoling; Kestin, Mark; Schwarz, Yvonne; Yang, Pamela; Hu, Xiaojun; Lampe, Johanna W; Kratz, Mario

    2016-02-01

    We compared the effects of a eucaloric moderate-fat diet (18% protein, 36% fat, and 46% carbohydrate), a eucaloric low-fat high-carbohydrate diet (18% protein, 18% fat, and 64% carbohydrate), and a low-calorie (33% reduced) low-fat high-carbohydrate diet on biomarkers of systemic inflammation. We randomly assigned 102 participants (age 21-76 years and BMI 19.2-35.5 kg/m(2)) to the three different diets for 6 weeks in a parallel design intervention trial. All foods were provided. Ninety-three participants completed all study procedures; 92 were included in the analyses. Endpoints included plasma C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), soluble tumor necrosis factor receptors I and II (sTNFRI and II), and adiponectin. In the unadjusted primary analyses, none of the endpoints were differentially affected by the dietary interventions despite the significantly greater reductions in body weight and fat mass in participants consuming the low-calorie low-fat diet compared to the eucaloric diets (p loss (time × weight change interaction, p = 0.051). Adjusted for weight change, adiponectin was reduced in the groups consuming the low-fat diets relative to the moderate-fat diet (p = 0.008). No effect of the intervention diets or weight loss on CRP, IL-6, or sTNFRI and II was seen in these secondary analyses. In relatively healthy adults, moderate weight loss had minimal effects on systemic inflammation, and raised plasma adiponectin only modestly. A lower dietary fat and higher carbohydrate content had little impact on measures of systemic inflammation, but reduced adiponectin concentrations compared to a moderate-fat diet. The latter may be of concern given the consistent and strong inverse association of plasma adiponectin with many chronic diseases.

  7. Minimally refined biomass fuel. [carbohydrate-water-alcohol mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, R.K.; Hirschfeld, T.B.

    1981-03-26

    A minimally refined fluid composition, suitable as a fuel mixture and derived from biomass material, is comprised of one or more water-soluble carbohydrates such as sucrose, one or more alcohols having less than four carbons, and water. The carbohydrate provides the fuel source; water-solubilizes the carbohydrate; and the alcohol aids in the combustion of the carbohydrate and reduces the viscosity of the carbohydrate/water solution. Because less energy is required to obtain the carbohydrate from the raw biomass than alcohol, an overall energy savings is realized compared to fuels employing alcohol as the primary fuel.

  8. Hepatocyte heterogeneity in the metabolism of carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungermann, K; Thurman, R G

    1992-01-01

    Periportal and perivenous hepatocytes possess different amounts and activities of the rate-generating enzymes of carbohydrate and oxidative energy metabolism and thus different metabolic capacities. This is the basis of the model of metabolic zonation, according to which periportal cells catalyze predominantly the oxidative catabolism of fatty and amino acids as well as glucose release and glycogen formation via gluconeogenesis, and perivenous cells carry out preferentially glucose uptake for glycogen synthesis and glycolysis coupled to liponeogenesis. The input of humoral and nervous signals into the periportal and perivenous zones is different; gradients of oxygen, substrates and products, hormones and mediators and nerve densities exist which are important not only for the short-term regulation of carbohydrate metabolism but also for the long-term regulation of zonal gene expression. The specialization of periportal and perivenous hepatocytes in carbohydrate metabolism has been well characterized. In vivo evidence is provided by the complex metabolic situation termed the 'glucose paradox' and by zonal flux differences calculated on the basis of the distribution of enzymes and metabolites. In vitro evidence is given by the different flux rates determined with classical invasive techniques, e.g. in periportal-like and perivenous-like hepatocytes in cell culture, in periportal- and perivenous-enriched hepatocyte populations and in perfused livers during orthograde and retrograde flow, as well as with noninvasive techniques using miniature oxygen electrodes, e.g. in livers perfused in either direction. Differences of opinion in the interpretation of studies with invasive and noninvasive techniques by the authors are discussed. The declining gradient in oxygen concentrations, the decreasing glucagon/insulin ratio and the different innervation could be important factors in the zonal expression of the genes of carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes. While it is clear that

  9. Exponential increase in postprandial blood-glucose exposure with increasing carbohydrate loads using a linear carbohydrate-to-insulin ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marran, K J; Davey, B; Lang, A; Segal, D G

    2013-04-10

    Postprandial glucose excursions contribute significantly to average blood glucose, glycaemic variability and cardiovascular risk. Carbohydrate counting is a method of insulin dosing that balances carbohydrate load to insulin dose using a fixed ratio. Many patients and current insulin pumps calculate insulin delivery for meals based on a linear carbohydrate-to-insulin relationship. It is our hypothesis that a non-linear relationship exists between the amounts of carbohydrate consumed and the insulin required to cover it. To document blood glucose exposure in response to increasing carbohydrate loads on fixed carbohydrate-to-insulin ratios. Five type 1 diabetic subjects receiving insulin pump therapy with good control were recruited. Morning basal rates and carbohydrate- to-insulin ratios were optimised. A Medtronic glucose sensor was used for 5 days to collect data for area-under-the-curve (AUC) analysis, during which standardised meals of increasing carbohydrate loads were consumed. Increasing carbohydrate loads using a fixed carbohydrate-to-insulin ratio resulted in increasing glucose AUC. The relationship was found to be exponential rather than linear. Late postprandial hypoglycaemia followed carbohydrate loads of >60 g and this was often followed by rebound hyperglycaemia that lasted >6 hours. A non-linear relationship exists between carbohydrates consumed and the insulin required to cover them. This has implications for control of postprandial blood sugars, especially when consuming large carbohydrate loads. Further studies are required to look at the optimal ratios, duration and type of insulin boluses required to cover increasing carbohydrate loads.

  10. The Role of Carbohydrate Related Factors in Pathogenesis of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Sherafatmanesh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is among the most common causes of chronic liver disease worldwide and its prevalence is increasing nowadays. This review article discusses the role of carbohydrate in NAFLD. We reviewed 57 papers out of which 48 randomized controlled trials and review articles with good quality were collected. The key words used for the search were: “Carbohydrate”, “Fructose”, “Weight”, “Low carbohydrate, ketogenic diet”, in combination with “NAFLD” for searching in “Pubmed”, ”Science direct” and “Google Scholar” databases. We limited our search to studies published in English. The available data provided adequate scientific evidence which pointed toward the considerable potential effects between high intake of carbohydrates, fructose, high glycemic index foods and low dietary fiber and incidence of the NAFLD. This review provided sufficient evidence that higher consumption of carbohydrates and fructose sources may exacerbate NAFLD which leads to more accumulation of fat in the liver; while higher intake of fiber and low GI carbohydrate tends to ameliorate NAFLD.

  11. Determination of glycaemic index; some methodological aspects related to the analysis of carbohydrate load and characteristics of the previous evening meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granfeldt, Y; Wu, X; Björck, I

    2006-01-01

    To determine the possible differences in glycaemic index (GI) depending on (1) the analytical method used to calculate the 'available carbohydrate' load, that is, using carbohydrates by difference (total carbohydrate by difference, minus dietary fibre (DF)) as available carbohydrates vs available starch basis (total starch minus resistant starch (RS)) of a food rich in intrinsic RS and (2) the effect of GI characteristics and/or the content of indigestible carbohydrates (RS and DF) of the evening meal prior to GI testing the following morning. Blood glucose and serum insulin responses were studied after subjects consuming (1) two levels of barley kernels rich in intrinsic RS (15.2%, total starch basis) and (2) after a standard breakfast following three different evening meals varying in GI and/or indigestible carbohydrates: pasta, barley kernels and white wheat bread, respectively. Healthy adults with normal body mass index. (1) Increasing the portion size of barley kernels from 79.6 g (50 g 'available carbohydrates') to 93.9 g (50 g available starch) to adjust for its RS content did not significantly affect the GI or insulin index (11). (2) The low GI barley evening meal, as opposed to white wheat bread and pasta evening meals, reduced the postprandial glycaemic and insulinaemic (23 and 29%, respectively, P base carbohydrate load on specific analyses of the available carbohydrate content. (2) A low GI barley evening meal containing high levels of indigestible carbohydrates (RS and DF) substantially reduced the GI and II of white wheat bread determined at a subsequent breakfast meal.

  12. Proximate content of wild and cultured eel (Anguilla bicolor) in different part of body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayanti, I.; Susilo, E. S.

    2018-02-01

    Proximate content in fish varies depends on intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Intrinsic factors include species, sexual maturity, size and body parts. Extrinsic factors include habitat, season and type of food (diet). This study aimed to know the effect of fish body parts (intrinsic factor) on proximate levels in wild and cultured eel (extrinsic). The experimental design used factorial completely randomized design with two factors 2x3. The first factor is the habitat of eel (wild and cultured) and the second factor is the part of the body (head, body and tail) with five replications. The result of statistical analysis showed that there was interaction between fish habitat and body part on moisture, protein, ash and carbohydrate content (P interaction on fat content and energy (P> 0.05). The highest water content (67.02%) was found in head of wild and the lowest one (59.44%) in the tail of wild eel; The highest protein content (18.09%) was found in the body of cultured eel and the lowest one (15.72%) was in the body of wild eel; The highest ash content (3.73%) was the head of wild eel and the lowest (1.32%) was in the body of cultured eel; The highest carbohydrate (3.73%) was found in the head of cultured eel and the lowest one (0.16%) was in the body of cultured. The wild eel had higher fat content and energy than cultured one, while the fat content and energy in body and tail were higher than in head.

  13. Carbohydrate maldigestion induces necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thymann, Thomas; Møller, Hanne; Stoll, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    that a formula containing maltodextrin vs. a formula containing lactose as the principal source of carbohydrate would predispose preterm pigs to a higher NEC incidence. Cesarean-derived preterm pigs were given total parenteral nutrition for 48 h followed by total enteral nutrition with a lactose-based (n = 11......) or maltodextrin-based (n = 11) formula for 36 h. A higher incidence (91% vs. 27%) and severity (score of 3.3 vs. 1.8) of NEC were observed in the maltodextrin than in the lactose group. This higher incidence of NEC in the maltodextrin group was associated with significantly lower activities of lactase, maltase...... acids were observed in the maltodextrin group. In a second study, we quantified net portal absorption of aldohexoses (glucose and galactose) during acute jejunal infusion of a maltodextrin-or a lactose-based formula (n = 8) into preterm pigs. We found lower net portal aldohexose absorption (4% vs. 42...

  14. A Universal Protocol for Photochemical Covalent Immobilization of Intact Carbohydrates for the Preparation of Carbohydrate Microarrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huibin; Zhang, Yiming; Yuan, Xun; Chen, Yi; Yan, Mingdi

    2010-01-01

    A universal photochemical method has been established for the immobilization of intact carbohydrates and their analogues, and for the fabrication of carbohydrate microarrays. The method features the use of perfluorophenyl azide (PFPA)-modified substrates and the photochemical reaction of surface azido groups with printed carbohydrates. Various aldoses, ketoses, non-reducing sugars such as alditols and their derivatives can be directly arrayed on the PFPA-modified chips. The lectin-recognition ability of arrayed mannose, glucose and their oligo- and polysaccharides were confirmed using surface plasmon resonance imaging and laser-induced fluorescence imaging. PMID:21138274

  15. [Influence of bean yellow mosaic virus on metabolism of photosynthetic pigments, proteins and carbohydrates in Glycine soja L].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyrychenko, A M

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents data on BYMV effects on some physiological processes of Glycine soja L. cultivated in the right-bank forest-steppe regions. Pigment content (chlorophyll a, b and carotenoids), soluble proteins and water soluble carbohydrates were estimated and, as has been shown, are subjected to significant changes as compared with control plants, namely: a decrease in the content of chlorophyll a, b and carotenoids was 64%, 53% and 36% compared with the control plants. The significant increase in carbohydrates (56% compared to the control) was observed at the end of the test period.

  16. Food-derived carbohydrates--structural complexity and functional diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharanathan, Rudrapatnam N

    2002-01-01

    Carbohydrates are biomolecules abundantly available in nature. They are found in bewildering types ranging from simple sugars through oligo- and polysaccharides to glycoconjugates and saccharide complexes, each exhibiting characteristic bio-physiological and/or nutritional functions both in in vivo and in vitro systems. For example, their presence or inclusion in food dictates the texture (body) and gives desirable customer appeal (satisfaction), or their inclusion in the diet offers beneficial effects of great therapeutic value. Thus, carbohydrates are integrally involved in a multitude of biological functions such as regulation of the immune system, cellular signaling (communication), cell malignancy, antiinfection responses, host-pathogen interactions, etc. If starch is considered the major energy storage carbohydrate, the gums/mucilages and other non-starch carbohydrates are of structural significance. The most investigated properties of starch are its gelatinization and melting behavior, especially during food processing. This has led to the development of the food polymer science approach, which has enabled a new interpretive and experimental frame work for the study of the plasticizing influence of simple molecules such as water, sugars, etc. on food systems that are kinetically constrained. Starch, although considered fully digestible, has been challenged, and starch is found to be partly indigestible in the GI tract of humans. This fraction of starch-resisting digestion in vivo is known as resistant starch (RS). The latter, due to its excellent fermentative capacity in the gut, especially yielding butyric acid is considered a new tool for the creation of fiber-rich foods, which are of nutraceutical importance. By a careful control of the processing conditions the content of RS, a man-made fiber, can be increased to as high as 30%. Arabinoxylans are the major endospermic cell wall polysaccharides of cereals. In wheat they are found complexed with ferulic

  17. Differential Effects of Two Fermentable Carbohydrates on Central Appetite Regulation and Body Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Glenn R.; Tuohy, Kieran M.; Sharma, Raj Kumar; Swann, Jonathan R.; Deaville, Eddie R.; Sleeth, Michele L.; Thomas, E. Louise; Holmes, Elaine; Bell, Jimmy D.; Frost, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Background Obesity is rising at an alarming rate globally. Different fermentable carbohydrates have been shown to reduce obesity. The aim of the present study was to investigate if two different fermentable carbohydrates (inulin and β-glucan) exert similar effects on body composition and central appetite regulation in high fat fed mice. Methodology/Principal Findings Thirty six C57BL/6 male mice were randomized and maintained for 8 weeks on a high fat diet containing 0% (w/w) fermentable carbohydrate, 10% (w/w) inulin or 10% (w/w) β-glucan individually. Fecal and cecal microbial changes were measured using fluorescent in situ hybridization, fecal metabolic profiling was obtained by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR), colonic short chain fatty acids were measured by gas chromatography, body composition and hypothalamic neuronal activation were measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and manganese enhanced MRI (MEMRI), respectively, PYY (peptide YY) concentration was determined by radioimmunoassay, adipocyte cell size and number were also measured. Both inulin and β-glucan fed groups revealed significantly lower cumulative body weight gain compared with high fat controls. Energy intake was significantly lower in β-glucan than inulin fed mice, with the latter having the greatest effect on total adipose tissue content. Both groups also showed an increase in the numbers of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus-Enterococcus in cecal contents as well as feces. β- glucan appeared to have marked effects on suppressing MEMRI associated neuronal signals in the arcuate nucleus, ventromedial hypothalamus, paraventricular nucleus, periventricular nucleus and the nucleus of the tractus solitarius, suggesting a satiated state. Conclusions/Significance Although both fermentable carbohydrates are protective against increased body weight gain, the lower body fat content induced by inulin may be metabolically advantageous. β-glucan appears to suppress neuronal

  18. Differential effects of two fermentable carbohydrates on central appetite regulation and body composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulika Arora

    Full Text Available Obesity is rising at an alarming rate globally. Different fermentable carbohydrates have been shown to reduce obesity. The aim of the present study was to investigate if two different fermentable carbohydrates (inulin and β-glucan exert similar effects on body composition and central appetite regulation in high fat fed mice.Thirty six C57BL/6 male mice were randomized and maintained for 8 weeks on a high fat diet containing 0% (w/w fermentable carbohydrate, 10% (w/w inulin or 10% (w/w β-glucan individually. Fecal and cecal microbial changes were measured using fluorescent in situ hybridization, fecal metabolic profiling was obtained by proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1H NMR, colonic short chain fatty acids were measured by gas chromatography, body composition and hypothalamic neuronal activation were measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and manganese enhanced MRI (MEMRI, respectively, PYY (peptide YY concentration was determined by radioimmunoassay, adipocyte cell size and number were also measured. Both inulin and β-glucan fed groups revealed significantly lower cumulative body weight gain compared with high fat controls. Energy intake was significantly lower in β-glucan than inulin fed mice, with the latter having the greatest effect on total adipose tissue content. Both groups also showed an increase in the numbers of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus-Enterococcus in cecal contents as well as feces. β-Glucan appeared to have marked effects on suppressing MEMRI associated neuronal signals in the arcuate nucleus, ventromedial hypothalamus, paraventricular nucleus, periventricular nucleus and the nucleus of the tractus solitarius, suggesting a satiated state.Although both fermentable carbohydrates are protective against increased body weight gain, the lower body fat content induced by inulin may be metabolically advantageous. β-Glucan appears to suppress neuronal activity in the hypothalamic appetite centers. Differential

  19. Carbohydrates and gibberellins relationship in potato tuberization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ševčíková, H.; Mašková, P.; Tarkowská, Danuše; Mašek, T.; Lipavská, H.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 214, JUL (2017), s. 53-63 ISSN 0176-1617 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-34792S Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Carbohydrate distribution * Gibberellin * Photoautotrophic cultivation * Potato * Tuberization Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 3.121, year: 2016

  20. Accumulation pattern of total nonstructural carbohydrate in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Umukoro

    1977-09-09

    Sep 9, 1977 ... 1Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria (INTA), EEA Famaillá, Argentina. 2Department of Plant Sciences, University of California Davis, CA, USA. Accepted 17 October, 2012. The pattern of total nonstructural carbohydrate (TNC) accumulation in strawberry (Fragaria ananassa. Duch.) nursery ...

  1. Crystallization of carbohydrate oxidase from Microdochium nivale

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dušková, Jarmila; Dohnálek, Jan; Skálová, Tereza; Ostergaard, L. H.; Fuglsang, C. C.; Kolenko, Petr; Štěpánková, Andrea; Hašek, Jindřich

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 6 (2009), s. 638-640 ISSN 1744-3091 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA500500701; GA ČR GA305/07/1073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : carbohydrate oxidase * crystallization * data processing Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.551, year: 2009

  2. Saturated fat, carbohydrates and cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, R. S.; de Graaf, D. J.; Luxwolda, M. F.; Muskiet, M. H. A.; Dijck-Brouwer, D. A. J.; Muskiet, F. A. J.

    The dietary intake of saturated fatty acids (SAFA) is associated with a modest increase in serum total cholesterol, but not with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Replacing dietary SAFA with carbohydrates (CHO), notably those with a high glycaemic index, is associated with an increase in CVD risk in

  3. Profiling of carbohydrate polymers in biotechnology using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The analysis of carbohydrate polymers is very demanding and challenging because of the similar physical and chemical properties they possess. Enzymatic hydrolysis is employed to cleave the polymers. The use of enzymes in analytical chemistry requires an analytical system that has on-line capability, is fast, ...

  4. Radiation chemistry of carbohydrates, ch. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dauphin, J.F.; Saint-Lebe, L.R.

    1977-01-01

    The physical and chemical changes undergone by carbohydrates at irradiation are reviewed. The discussion includes the irradiation of pure sugars (low molecular weight sugars and derivatives in the solid state or in solution; polysaccharides) as well as the irradiation of simple mixtures containing a given sugar, emphasizing the irradiation of foodstuffs containing one or more sugars

  5. Carbohydrates in Colobanthus quitensis and Deschampsia antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka I. Piotrowicz-Cieślak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Eight to nineteen ethanol-soluble carbohydrate components were identified in vegetative tissues of Colobanthus quitensis and Deschampsia antarctica. The analysed carbohydrates included: monosaccharides, cyclitols, galactosyl cyclitols, raffinose family oligosaccharides, lichnose family oligosaccharides, kestose family oligosaccharides. The analysed vegetative tissues accumulated from 447 to 139 mg/g d.m. soluble carbohydrates in Colobanthus quitensis, Deschampsia antarctica respectively. The raffinose family oligosaccharides constituted 53.3% in Colobanthus quitensis of the identified soluble carbohydrate component pool. Vegetative tissues accumulated starch in Colobanthus quitensis 20.6 mg/g d.m. and 261.6 mg/g d.m. in Deschampsia antarctica. Anatomical and ultrastructural observations of vegetative part of Colobanthus quitensis and Deschmpsia antarctica revealed the presence of various ergastic materials in intercellular spaces, cell walls and protoplasts. Various parts of these plants contain insoluble, PAS positive polysaccharides in intercellular spaces and in cell walls. Chloroplasts of analysed tissues contained starch. Less starch was visible in young, growing parts of shoots of Colobanthus quitensis and Deschmpsia antarctica, more starch appears in mature, differentiated parts.

  6. Dissolved carbohydrate in the central Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dhople, V.M.; Bhosle, N.B.

    with chlorophyll a (P 0.001) and phaeopigments (P 0.001) suggesting its release from the former and zooplankton grazing in the latter. Inverse correlations with dissolved oxygen, phosphate and nitrate indicated the possibility of the release of carbohydrate from...

  7. Accumulation pattern of total nonstructural carbohydrate in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pattern of total nonstructural carbohydrate (TNC) accumulation in strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch.) nursery runner plants, cv. eCamarosaf, was determined for three growing seasons. Plant growth and fruit production patterns were also evaluated. The experiments were carried out on plants propagated in high ...

  8. STICS: surface-tethered iterative carbohydrate synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pornsuriyasak, Papapida; Ranade, Sneha C; Li, Aixiao; Parlato, M Cristina; Sims, Charles R; Shulga, Olga V; Stine, Keith J; Demchenko, Alexei V

    2009-04-14

    A new surface-tethered iterative carbohydrate synthesis (STICS) technology is presented in which a surface functionalized 'stick' made of chemically stable high surface area porous gold allows one to perform cost efficient and simple synthesis of oligosaccharide chains; at the end of the synthesis, the oligosaccharide can be cleaved off and the stick reused for subsequent syntheses.

  9. DETERMINATION OF CARBOHYDRATE AND β-CAROTENE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    A sample of each vegetable was washed and ground to a fine pulp using pestle and mortar. The operation was done under dim light to reduce the rate of carotene oxidation contained in them. One gramme (1g) and 10g of macerated sample were weighed using Metler PT balance for carbohydrate and β-carotene analysis ...

  10. Particulate carbohydrates in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Nandakumar, K.; Venkat, K.

    Particulate matter collected from 77 water samples over a 3000 m water column was analyzed for particulate carbohydrates (PCHO). PCHO in the surface waters ranged from 43 to 143 mu g.l-1, and below 250 m it was 16.PCHO showed large variations at all...

  11. Cell surface carbohydrates as prognostic markers in human carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabelsteen, Erik

    1996-01-01

    Tumour development is usually associated with changes in cell surface carbohydrates. These are often divided into changes related to terminal carbohydrate structures, which include incomplete synthesis and modification of normally existing carbohydrates, and changes in the carbohydrate core...... structure. The latter includes chain elongation of both glycolipids and proteins, increased branching of carbohydrates in N-linked glycoproteins, and blocked synthesis of carbohydrates in O-linked mucin-like glycoproteins. In mature organisms, expression of distinct carbohydrates is restricted to specific...... cell types; within a given tissue, variation in expression may be related to cell maturation. Tumour-associated carbohydrate structures often reflect a certain stage of cellular development; most of these moieties are structures normally found in other adult or embryonic tissues. There is no unique...

  12. High throughput screening of starch structures using carbohydrate microarrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanackovic, Vanja; Rydahl, Maja Gro; Pedersen, Henriette Lodberg

    2016-01-01

    In this study we introduce the starch-recognising carbohydrate binding module family 20 (CBM20) from Aspergillus niger for screening biological variations in starch molecular structure using high throughput carbohydrate microarray technology. Defined linear, branched and phosphorylated...

  13. Mixed drink increased carbohydrate oxidation but not performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kathryn van Boom

    ... carbohydrate intake is hypothesised to provide additional substrate for oxidation[3] ... performance is attained when a multiple carbohydrate drink is ingested. ..... and often intense exercise, such as can be seen in events such as the Tour de ...

  14. Genetic and environmental control of seasonal carbohydrate dynamics in trees of diverse Pinus sylvestris populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleksyn, J.; Zytkowiak, R.; Karolewski, P.; Reich, P. B.; Tjoelker, M. G.

    2000-06-01

    We explored environmental and genetic factors affecting seasonal dynamics of starch and soluble nonstructural carbohydrates in needle and twig cohorts and roots of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees of six populations originating between 49 degrees and 60 degrees N, and grown under common garden conditions in western Poland. Trees of each population were sampled once or twice per month over a 3-year period from age 15 to 17 years. Based on similarity in starch concentration patterns in needles, two distinct groups of populations were identified; one comprised northern populations from Sweden and Russia (59-60 degrees N), and another comprised central European populations from Latvia, Poland, Germany and France (49-56 degrees N). Needle starch concentrations of northern populations started to decline in late spring and reached minimum values earlier than those of central populations. For all populations, starch accumulation in spring started when minimum air temperature permanently exceeded 0 degrees C. Starch accumulation peaked before bud break and was highest in 1-year-old needles, averaging 9-13% of dry mass. Soluble carbohydrate concentrations were lowest in spring and summer and highest in autumn and winter. There were no differences among populations in seasonal pattern of soluble carbohydrate concentrations. Averaged across all populations, needle soluble carbohydrate concentrations increased from about 4% of needle dry mass in developing current-year needles, to about 9% in 1- and 2-year-old needles. Root carbohydrate concentration exhibited a bimodal pattern with peaks in spring and autumn. Northern populations had higher concentrations of fine-root starch in spring and autumn than central populations. Late-summer carbohydrate accumulation in roots started only after depletion of starch in needles and woody shoots. We conclude that Scots pine carbohydrate dynamics depend partially on inherited properties that are probably related to phenology of root

  15. Chemoselective Reactions for the Synthesis of Glycoconjugates from Unprotected Carbohydrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Klaus; Martos Maldonado, Manuel Cristo; Jensen, Knud Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    Glycobiology is the comprehensive biological investigation of carbohydrates. The study of the role and function of complex carbohydrates often requires the attachment of carbohydrates to surfaces, their tagging with fluorophores, or their conversion into natural or non-natural glycoconjugates......, such as glycopeptides or glycolipids. Glycobiology and its “omics”, glycomics, require easy and robust chemical methods for the construction of these glycoconjugates. This review gives an overview of the rapidly expanding field of chemical reactions that selectively convert unprotected carbohydrates...

  16. Renewable Hydrogen Carrier - Carbohydrate: Constructing the Carbon-Neutral Carbohydrate Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    combinations have been investigated for the production of hydrogen from biomass carbohydrate. Chemical catalysis approaches include pyrolysis [19...temperature. High fructose corn syrup, low-cost sucrose replacement, is made by stabilized glucose isomerase, which can work at ~60 °C for even about two...gasoline, vegetable oil vs. biodiesel, corn kernels vs. ethanol [31,109]. Given a price of $0.18/kg carbohydrate (i.e., $10.6/GJ) [2,44], the hydrogen

  17. Partial restoration of dietary fat induced metabolic adaptations to training by 7 days of carbohydrate diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Jørn Wulff; Watt, Peter W; Richter, Erik A

    2002-01-01

    +/- 59 vs. 688 +/- 43 mmol/kg dry wt) in Fat-CHO than in CHO. In conclusion, shift to carbohydrate diet after prolonged adaptation to fat diet and training causes increased resting muscle glycogen levels but impaired leg glucose uptake and similar muscle glycogen breakdown, despite higher resting levels...

  18. The effect of stereochemistry on carbohydrate hydration in aqueous solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galema, Saskia Alexandra

    1992-01-01

    Although-carbohydrates are widely used, not much is known about the stereochemical aspects of hydration of carbohydrates. For D-aldohexoses, for example, there are eight different stereoisomers. Just how the hydroxy topology of a carbohydrate molecule influences the hydration behaviour in water is

  19. Development of Defatted Soy Flour-Based Adhesives by Acid Hydrolysis of Carbohydrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peitao Zheng

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Soy-based adhesives are attracting increasing attention in recent years because they are a renewable and environmentally friendly raw material. Defatted soy flour (DSF, comprised of 50% protein and 40% carbohydrate, is the most widely used raw material for the preparation of soy-based adhesives that are unfortunately hampered by poor gluability and water resistance. In the present study, we developed a self-crosslinking approach to prepare a formaldehyde-free defatted soy flour-based adhesive (SBA. Carbohydrates in the DSF were hydrolyzed with 0% (controls, 0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0%, 3.0% and 5.0% hydrochloric acid, and cross-linked with proteins to prepare the SBA. The effect of hydrolyzed carbohydrates on the performance of the SBA was investigated, and hydrolyzed carbohydrates significantly increased the amount of reducing sugars, but decreased insoluble substances. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS analyses revealed an enhanced cross-linking structure with fewer hydrophilic groups in cured SBAs. Maillard reactions between hydrolyzed carbohydrates and proteins resulted in SBAs with better gluability, rheological properties and thermal stability than controls. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM images showed that plywood bonded with SBA had a higher wood failure rate than controls. This approach has potential for preparing bio-adhesives with enhanced properties from other natural resources with a similar polysaccharides and protein composition.

  20. Ripening influences banana and plantain peels composition and energy content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emaga, Thomas Happi; Bindelle, Jérôme; Agneesens, Richard; Buldgen, André; Wathelet, Bernard; Paquot, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Musa sp. peels are widely used by smallholders as complementary feeds for cattle in the tropics. A study of the influence of the variety and the maturation stage of the fruit on fermentability and metabolisable energy (ME) content of the peels was performed using banana (Yangambi Km5) and plantain (Big Ebanga) peels at three stages of maturation in an in vitro model of the rumen. Peel samples were analysed for starch, free sugars and fibre composition. Samples were incubated in the presence of rumen fluid. Kinetics of gas production were modelled, ME content was calculated using prediction equation and short-chain fatty acids production and molar ratio were measured after 72 h of fermentation. Final gas production was higher in plantain (269-339 ml g(-1)) compared to banana (237-328 ml g(-1)) and plantain exhibited higher ME contents (8.9-9.7 MJ/kg of dry matter, DM) compared to banana (7.7-8.8 MJ/kg of DM). Butyrate molar ratio decreased with maturity of the peels. The main influence of the variety and the stage of maturation on all fermentation parameters as well as ME contents of the peels was correlated to changes in the carbohydrate fraction of the peels, including starch and fibre.

  1. Effects of oral contraceptive agents and sex steroids on carbohydrate metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkhoff, R K

    1972-01-01

    The article offers a general interpretation of the influence of oral contraceptive agents on glucose tolerance, emphasizing comparisons of synthetic sex hormones. Although there are conflicting reports on steroid-induced diabetes in normal women, their glucose curves are often higher when under oral contraceptive treatment, suggesting that oral contraceptives may induce a form of subclinical diabetes melitus that is reversible. Evidence from diabetic women suggests definite deliterious effects from contraceptive administration. Estradiol, estriol, and estrone may improve glucose tolerance in nondiabetic women and reduce insulin requirements in diabetics. Progesterone has little effect on carbohydrate tolerance, as did synthetic progestin. Conjugated equine estrogens (equilenine or Premarin) may provoke mild to moderate deterioration of carbohydrate tolerance. Parenterally administered natural estrogens and orally administered synthetic derivatives appear to differ sharply in their effects. Sex hormones' effects on carbohydrate metabolism likely involve interactions with insulin and endogenous glucocorticoids.

  2. Effect of soil carbohydrates on nutrient availability in natural forests and cultivated lands in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnayake, R. R.; Seneviratne, G.; Kulasooriya, S. A.

    2013-05-01

    Carbohydrates supply carbon sources for microbial activities that contribute to mineral nutrient production in soil. Their role on soil nutrient availability has not yet been properly elucidated. This was studied in forests and cultivated lands in Sri Lanka. Soil organic matter (SOM) fractions affecting carbohydrate availability were also determined. Soil litter contributed to sugars of plant origin (SPO) in croplands. The negative relationship found between clay bound organic matter (CBO) and glucose indicates higher SOM fixation in clay that lower its availability in cultivated lands. In forests, negative relationships between litter and sugars of microbial origin (SMO) showed that litter fuelled microbes to produce sugars. Fucose and glucose increased the availability of Cu, Zn and Mn in forests. Xylose increased Ca availability in cultivated lands. Arabinose, the main carbon source of soil respiration reduced the P availability. This study showed soil carbohydrates and their relationships with mineral nutrients could provide vital information on the availability of limiting nutrients in tropical ecosystems.

  3. Time course of the response of carbohydrate metabolism to unloading of the soleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Erik J.; Tischler, Marc E.

    1988-01-01

    The time course of the response of carbohydrate metabolism to unloading was studied in the soleus muscle of rats subjected to tail-cast suspension. In the fresh soleus, 12 hours of unloading led to higher concentrations of glycogen and lower activity ratios of both glycogen synthase and glycogen phosphorylase. These changes were still evident on day three. Thereafter, the increased glycogen concentration apparently diminished the activity ratio of glycogen synthase, leading to a subsequent fall in the total glycogen content after day one. After 24 hours of unloading, when no significant atrophy was detectable, there was no differential response to insulin for in vitro glucose metabolism. On day three, the soleus atrophied significantly and displayed a greater sensitivity to insulin for most of these parameters compared to the weight-bearing control muscle. However, insulin sensitivity for glycogen synthesis was unchanged. These results showed that the increased sensitivity to insulin of the unloaded soleus is associated with the degree of muscle atrophy, likely due to an increased insulin binding capacity relative to muscle mass. This study also showed that insulin regulation of glucose uptake and of glycogen synthesis is affected differentially in the unloaded soleus muscle.

  4. Effects of dietary carbohydrates on metabolism of calcium and other minerals in normal subjects and patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, A; Bonanome, A; Grundy, S M; Unger, R H; Breslau, N A; Pak, C Y

    1990-04-01

    Transient hypercalciuria has been noted after high carbohydrate meals which is independent of dietary calcium and is probably due to impaired renal calcium reabsorption mediated by an increase in plasma insulin levels. Based on these observations, some investigators believe that long term intake of high carbohydrate diets may increase the risk of nephrolithiasis and possibly osteoporosis. Using a randomized cross-over design, we compared high carbohydrate diets (60% carbohydrate and 25% fat) with high fat diets (50% fat and 35% carbohydrate) for effects on metabolism of calcium and other minerals in eight normal subjects and eight euglycemic patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. All other dietary constituents, such as protein, fiber, fluid, minerals (including Ca, Mg, Na, K, and P), and caffeine intake, were kept constant. Despite higher daylong levels of plasma insulin on the high carbohydrate diets compared to the high fat diet in both normal and noninsulin-dependent diabetic subjects, no changes in daily urinary excretion of calcium or other constituents, associated with renal stone risk, were observed. Furthermore, there was no change in fractional intestinal 47Ca absorption. Although hypercalciuria may ensue transiently after high carbohydrate meals, we conclude that substitution of simple or complex carbohydrates for fats in an isocaloric manner for a longer duration does not result in significant urinary calcium loss, and therefore, high intakes of digestible carbohydrates may not increase the risk of nephrolithiasis or osteoporosis via this mechanism.

  5. Impact of advanced and basic carbohydrate counting methods on metabolic control in patients with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto, Débora Lopes; Zajdenverg, Lenita; Rodacki, Melanie; Rosado, Eliane Lopes

    2014-03-01

    Diets based on carbohydrate counting remain a key strategy for improving glycemic control in patients with type 1 diabetes. However, these diets may promote weight gain because of the flexibility in food choices. The aim of this study was to compare carbohydrate counting methods regarding anthropometric, biochemical, and dietary variables in individuals with type 1 diabetes, as well as to evaluate their knowledge about nutrition. Participants were allocated in basic or advanced groups. After 3 mo of the nutritional counseling, dietary intake, anthropometric variables, lipemia, and glycemic control were compared between groups. A questionnaire regarding carbohydrate counting, sucrose intake, nutritional knowledge, and diabetes and nutrition taboos also was administered. Ten (30%) participants had already used advanced carbohydrate counting before the nutritional counseling and these individuals had a higher body mass index (BMI) (P 1) and waist circumference (WC) (P = 0.01) than others (n = 23; 69.7%). After 3 mo of follow-up, although participants in the advanced group (n = 17; 51.52%) presented higher BMI (P 1) and WC (P = 0.03), those in the basic group (n = 16; 48.48%) showed a higher fat intake (P 1). The majority of participants reported no difficulty in following carbohydrate counting (62.5% and 88% for basic and advanced groups, respectively) and a greater flexibility in terms of food choices (>90% with both methods). Advanced carbohydrate counting did not affect lipemic and glycemic control in individuals with type 1 diabetes, however, it may increase food intake, and consequently the BMI and WC, when compared to basic carbohydrate counting. Furthermore, carbohydrate counting promoted greater food flexibility. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The study of carbohydrate composition of chicory products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. A. Khairullina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main products produced from chicory in the food industry are soluble roasted chicory, roasted crushed chicory, chicory flour, inulin, oligofructose and others. Fried products are used as a substitute for coffee, because it is caffeine-free and has coffee taste and aroma. Chicory flour is used in the production of bakery products. Inulin and oligofructose are widely used in the manufacture of bakery and dairy products. The aim of this study was to investigate the carbohydrate composition of the products from chicory. The objects of research in this research work were Fried chicory (Leroux, Instant chicory (Leroux, Instant chicory (LLC Flagistom, Instant chicory with hawthorn (Iceberg Ltd and K, Instant chicory (LLC SlavKofe, Instant chicory (Ltd. Around the World, Instant chicory (LLC Favorit, Instant chicory (LLC Beta +, Dried Chirory and Dried crushed chicory № 1,2,3 (LLC Sovremennik, Chicory flour (Leroux, Inulin and Oligofructose (Spinnrad GmbH. Determination of fructans and their average degree of polymerization, the content of glucose, fructose, sucrose, which are contained in foods from chicory was carried out using biochemical method with kit Sucrose / D-Glucose / D-Fructose (R-Biopharm. Studies are suggested that fried chicory products do not contain fructans. Dried products of chicory are contained inulin, the contents of which are about 60–70%, and contained other biologically active substances. Content of fructans in commercial products, such as inulin and oligofructose is about 93% and 79%.

  7. Characterization of protein and carbohydrate mid-IR spectral features in crop residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Hangshu; Zhang, Yonggen; Wang, Mingjun; Li, Zhongyu; Wang, Zhibo; Yu, Peiqiang

    2014-08-01

    To the best of our knowledge, a few studies have been conducted on inherent structure spectral traits related to biopolymers of crop residues. The objective of this study was to characterize protein and carbohydrate structure spectral features of three field crop residues (rice straw, wheat straw and millet straw) in comparison with two crop vines (peanut vine and pea vine) by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) technique with attenuated total reflectance (ATR). Also, multivariate analyses were performed on spectral data sets within the regions mainly related to protein and carbohydrate in this study. The results showed that spectral differences existed in mid-IR peak intensities that are mainly related to protein and carbohydrate among these crop residue samples. With regard to protein spectral profile, peanut vine showed the greatest mid-IR band intensities that are related to protein amide and protein secondary structures, followed by pea vine and the rest three field crop straws. The crop vines had 48-134% higher spectral band intensity than the grain straws in spectral features associated with protein. Similar trends were also found in the bands that are mainly related to structural carbohydrates (such as cellulosic compounds). However, the field crop residues had higher peak intensity in total carbohydrates region than the crop vines. Furthermore, spectral ratios varied among the residue samples, indicating that these five crop residues had different internal structural conformation. However, multivariate spectral analyses showed that structural similarities still exhibited among crop residues in the regions associated with protein biopolymers and carbohydrate. Further study is needed to find out whether there is any relationship between spectroscopic information and nutrition supply in various kinds of crop residue when fed to animals.

  8. Fracionamento dos carboidratos e proteínas de silagens de milho, sorgo e girassol Fractionation of carbohydrate and protein of corn, sorghum and sunflower silages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renius Mello

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho caracteriza e quantifica as frações dos carboidratos e proteínas de silagens de milho, sorgo e girassol, com a finalidade de disponibilizar dados bromatológicos que possibilitem maximizar o aproveitamento desses alimentos e otimizar o desempenho animal. Foram avaliados dois híbridos de milho (Zea mays, DKB-215 e DKB-344, dois híbridos de sorgo (Sorghum bicolor, Ambar e AG-2005 e dois híbridos de girassol (Helianthus annuus, Rumbosol e M-734. A silagem de girassol apresentou menor valor de carboidratos totais (CT e B2 (celulose e hemicelulose e maior de C (lignina e fibra associada à lignina. A silagem de milho apresentou maior valor de carboidratos não-fibrosos (CNF, A+B1 (açúcares solúveis + amido e pectina e de CT juntamente com a silagem de sorgo, enquanto a de sorgo apresentou maior valor de B2 em função da maior contribuição de colmo. Houve diferença entre híbridos dentro da cultura do girassol para CT, sendo que o Rumbosol obteve maior valor que o M-734, em razão da aptidão dos mesmos, forrageiro e granífero respectivamente. A silagem de girassol apresentou maior valor de proteína bruta (PB e de suas frações. Não foi observada diferença entre híbridos nos valores de PB e de suas frações.This work evaluates and characterizes the carbohydrates and proteins fractions of corn, sorghum and sunflower silages. The purpose was to supply composition data that make it possible to maximize use of foods and optimize animal performance. Two corn (Zea mays hybrids, DKB-215 and DKB-344; sorghum (Sorghum bicolor hybrids, Ambar and AG-2005; and sunflower (Helianthus annuus hybrids, Rumbosol and M-734; were evaluated. Sunflower silage showed the lowest total carbohydrates (TC and B2 (cellulose and hemicelluloses values and the highest content of C (lignin and fiber associated lignin. Corn silages showed higher non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC, A+B1 (soluble sugars + starch and pectin and TC together sorghum silage while

  9. The geometric framework for nutrition reveals interactions between protein and carbohydrate during larval growth in honey bees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan R. Helm

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In holometabolous insects, larval nutrition affects adult body size, a life history trait with a profound influence on performance and fitness. Individual nutritional components of larval diets are often complex and may interact with one another, necessitating the use of a geometric framework for elucidating nutritional effects. In the honey bee, Apis mellifera, nurse bees provision food to developing larvae, directly moderating growth rates and caste development. However, the eusocial nature of honey bees makes nutritional studies challenging, because diet components cannot be systematically manipulated in the hive. Using in vitro rearing, we investigated the roles and interactions between carbohydrate and protein content on larval survival, growth, and development in A. mellifera. We applied a geometric framework to determine how these two nutritional components interact across nine artificial diets. Honey bees successfully completed larval development under a wide range of protein and carbohydrate contents, with the medium protein (∼5% diet having the highest survival. Protein and carbohydrate both had significant and non-linear effects on growth rate, with the highest growth rates observed on a medium-protein, low-carbohydrate diet. Diet composition did not have a statistically significant effect on development time. These results confirm previous findings that protein and carbohydrate content affect the growth of A. mellifera larvae. However, this study identified an interaction between carbohydrate and protein content that indicates a low-protein, high-carb diet has a negative effect on larval growth and survival. These results imply that worker recruitment in the hive would decline under low protein conditions, even when nectar abundance or honey stores are sufficient.

  10. Comparison of efficacy of low-carbohydrate and low-fat diet education programs in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: A randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Eun Chul; Jun, Dae Won; Lee, Seung Min; Cho, Yong Kyun; Ahn, Sang Bong

    2018-02-01

    Composition of macronutrients is important in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Diet education programs that mainly emphasize reducing fat consumption have been used for NAFLD patients. We compared the efficacy of conventional low-fat diet education with low-carbohydrate diet education in Korean NAFLD patients. One hundred and six NAFLD patients were randomly allocated to low-fat diet education or low-carbohydrate education groups for 8 weeks. Liver chemistry, liver / spleen ratio, and visceral fat using abdominal tomography were measured. Intrahepatic fat accumulation decreased significantly in the low-carbohydrate group compared to low-fat group (liver/spleen 0.85 vs. 0.92, P low-carbohydrate and 16.7% for the low-fat group (P = 0.016). Not only liver enzyme, but also low density lipoprotein cholesterol and blood pressure levels significantly decreased in the low-carbohydrate group. Total energy intake was also further decreased in the low-carbohydrate group compared to the low-fat group. Although body weight changes were not different between the two groups, the carbohydrate group had a lower total abdominal fat amount. A low-carbohydrate diet program is more realistic and effective in reducing total energy intake and hepatic fat content in Korean NAFLD patients. This trial is registered with the National Research Institute of Health: KCT0000970 (https://cris.nih.go.kr/cris/index.jsp). © 2017 The Japan Society of Hepatology.

  11. Investigation of the Spectroscopic Information on Functional Groups Related to Carbohydrates in Different Morphological Fractions of Corn Stover and Their Relationship to Nutrient Supply and Biodegradation Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Hangshu; Ding, Xue; Zhang, Liyang; Sun, Fang; Wang, Xiaofan; Zhang, Yonggen

    2017-05-24

    The objectives of this study were to investigate (1) nutritive values and biodegradation characteristics and (2) mid-IR spectroscopic features within the regions associated with carbohydrate functional groups (including cellulosic component (CELC), structural carbohydrate (STCHO), and total carbohydrate (CHO)) in different morphological fractions of corn stover. Furthermore, correlation and regression analyses were also applied to determine the relationship between nutritional values and spectroscopic parameters. The results showed that different morphological sections of corn stover had different nutrient supplies, in situ biodegradation characteristics, and spectral structural features within carbohydrate regions. The stem rind and ear husk were both high in fibrous content, which led to the lowest effective degradabilities (ED) among these stalk fractions. The ED values of NDF were ranked ear husk > stem pith > leaf blade > leaf sheath > whole plant > stem rind. Intensities of peak height and area within carbohydrate regions were relatively more stable compared with spectral ratio profiles. Significant difference was found only in peak area intensity of CELC, which was at the highest level for stem rind, followed by stem pith, leaf sheath, whole plant, leaf blade, and ear husk. Correlation results showed that changes in some carbohydrate spectral ratios were highly associated with carbohydrate chemical profiles and in situ rumen degradation kinetics. Among the various carbohydrate molecular spectral parameters that were tested in multiple regression analysis, CHO height ratios, and area ratios of CELC:CHO and CELC:STCHO as well as CELC area were mostly sensitive to nutrient supply and biodegradation characteristics in different morphological fractions of corn stover.

  12. Methods for Shortening and Extending the Carbon Chain in Carbohydrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monrad, Rune Nygaard

    2008-01-01

    in this thesis focuses on the development and application of transition metal mediated methods for shortening and extending the carbon chain in carbohydrates thereby providing access to lower and higher sugars.A new catalytic procedure for shortening unprotected sugars by one carbon atom has been developed....... The procedure has been employed as the key step in a short five-step synthesis of the unnatural sugar L-threose in 74% overall yield from D-glucose. A zinc-mediated one-pot fragmentation-allylation reaction has been used to elongate D-glucose and D-ribose by three carbon atoms thereby producing carbohydrate......-derived α,ω-dienes, which have been converted into the natural products calystegine A3 and gabosine A. The glycosidase inhibitor calystegine A3 was produced by two similar routes from commercially available methyl α-D-glucopyranoside in 13 and 14 steps with 8.3 and 5.3% overall yield, respectively...

  13. Nitrogen remobilisation facilitates adventitious root formation on reversible dark-induced carbohydrate depletion in Petunia hybrida

    OpenAIRE

    Zerche, Siegfried; Haensch, Klaus-Thomas; Druege, Uwe; Hajirezaei, Mohammad-Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background Adventitious root (AR) formation in axillary shoot tip cuttings is a crucial physiological process for ornamental propagation that is utilised in global production chains for young plants. In this process, the nitrogen and carbohydrate metabolisms of a cutting are regulated by its total nitrogen content (Nt), dark exposure during transport and irradiance levels at distinct production sites and phases through a specific plasticity to readjust metabolite pools. Here, we examined how ...

  14. Carbohydrates, Dietary Fiber, and Resistant Starch in White Vegetables: Links to Health Outcomes12

    OpenAIRE

    Slavin, Joanne L.

    2013-01-01

    Vegetables are universally promoted as healthy. Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 recommend that you make half of your plate fruits and vegetables. Vegetables are diverse plants that vary greatly in energy content and nutrients. Vegetables supply carbohydrates, dietary fiber, and resistant starch in the diet, all of which have been linked to positive health outcomes. Fiber lowers the incidence of cardiovascular disease and obesity. In this paper, the important role of white vegetables in ...

  15. Disorders of carbohydrate metabolism in clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I. Pankiv

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Considering the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM, the possibility of early and rapid progress of complications, a large number of undiagnosed cases and disappointing forecasts of the World Health Organization on the prospects of DM spreading in the world, timely and accurate diagnosis of carbohydrate metabolism disorders is important. The criteria for the diagnosis of carbohydrate metabolism and DM are shown in the article. The article includes a new consensus on the staging of type 1 DM and a discussion of a proposed unifying diabetes classification scheme that focuses on β-cell dysfunction and disease stage as indicated by glucose status. Modern recommendations 2017 of the American Diabetes Association are shown in relation to the criteria of diagnostics of impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes mellitus. The value of insulin resistance and functional state of pancreatic β-cells is underlined in determination of type 2 DM duration. A plan of type 2 DM management is brought.

  16. Solubility of carbohydrates in heavy water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Marcus V C; Carvalho, Larissa V C; Sabadini, Edvaldo

    2012-05-15

    The solubility of several mono-(glucose and xylose), di-(sucrose and maltose), tri-(raffinose) and cyclic (α-cyclodextrin) saccharides in H(2)O and in D(2)O were measured over a range of temperatures. The solution enthalpies for the different carbohydrates in the two solvents were determined using the vant' Hoff equation and the values in D(2)O are presented here for the first time. Our findings indicate that the replacement of H(2)O by D(2)O remarkably decreases the solubilities of the less soluble carbohydrates, such as maltose, raffinose and α-cyclodextrin. On the other hand, the more soluble saccharides, glucose, xylose, and sucrose, are practically insensitive to the H/D replacement in water. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Role of carbohydrate metabolism in grass tetany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, J.K.; Madsen, F.C.; Lentz, D.E.; Hansard, S.L.

    1977-01-01

    Clinical hypomagnesemia is confined primarily to beef cattle in the United States but also occurs in dairy cattle in other countries, probably due to different management practices. During periods when grass tetany is likely, early vegetative temperate zone grasses are usually low in total readily available carbohydrates and magnesium but high in potassium and nitrogen. The tetany syndrome may include hypoglycemia and ketosis, suggesting an imbalance in intermediary energy metabolism. Many enzyme systems critical to cellular metabolism, including those which hydrolyze and transfer phosphate groups, are activated by Mg. Thus, by inference, Mg is required for normal glucose utilization, fat, protein, nucleic acid and coenzyme synthesis, muscle contraction, methyl group transfer, and sulfate, acetate, and formate activation. Numerous clinical and experimental studies suggest an intimate relationship between metabolism of Mg and that of carbohydrate, glucagon, and insulin. The objective is to review this literature and suggest ways in which these relationships might contribute to a chain of events leading to grass tetany.

  18. Carbohydrates and the human gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassard, Christophe; Lacroix, Christophe

    2013-07-01

    Due to its scale and its important role in maintaining health, the gut microbiota can be considered as a 'new organ' inside the human body. Many complex carbohydrates are degraded and fermented by the human gut microbiota in the large intestine to both yield basic energy salvage and impact gut health through produced metabolites. This review will focus on the gut microbes and microbial mechanisms responsible for polysaccharides degradation and fermentation in the large intestine. Gut microbes and bacterial metabolites impact the host at many levels, including modulation of inflammation, and glucose and lipid metabolisms. A complex relationship occurs in the intestine between the human gut microbiota, diet and the host. Research on carbohydrates and gut microbiota composition and functionality is fast developing and will open opportunities for prevention and treatment of obesity, diabetes and other related metabolic disorders through manipulation of the gut ecosystem.

  19. Carbocyclic Carbohydrate Mimics as Potential Glycosidase Inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanefjord, Mette; Lundt, Inge

    It has been proven that aminocyclopentanols having the aminogroup adjacent to a carbon sidechain could be potential anomer-selective glycosidase inhibitors [1]. A successful pathway for synthesising mimics to L-carbohydrates 2, by introducing nitrogen to the C6 position in compound 1, has been...... developed in our group. A similar strategy has been used for synthesising mimics of D-carbohydrates. The α,β-unsaturated lactone 3 was cyclised to compound 4 which was further transformed into 5. The nitrogen functionality in compound 7 is introduced by an Overman rearrangement of 6 and the hydroxyl...... functionalities was introduced by either epoxidation or dihydroxylation of 7. Finally, reduction of the lactone ring led to the sugar mimics 8. The synthesis of several isomers of 8 will be presented. [1] a) Kleban, M. ; Hilgers, P. ; Greul, J.N. ; Kugler, R.D. ; Li, J. ; Picasso, S. ; Vogel, P. ; Jäger, V. Chem...

  20. Comparison of a carbohydrate-free diet vs. fasting on plasma glucose, insulin and glucagon in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttall, Frank Q; Almokayyad, Rami M; Gannon, Mary C

    2015-02-01

    Hyperglycemia improves when patients with type 2 diabetes are placed on a weight-loss diet. Improvement typically occurs soon after diet implementation. This rapid response could result from low fuel supply (calories), lower carbohydrate content of the weight-loss diet, and/or weight loss per se. To differentiate these effects, glucose, insulin, C-peptide and glucagon were determined during the last 24 h of a 3-day period without food (severe calorie restriction) and a calorie-sufficient, carbohydrate-free diet. Seven subjects with untreated type 2 diabetes were studied. A randomized-crossover design with a 4-week washout period between arms was used. Results from both the calorie-sufficient, carbohydrate-free diet and the 3-day fast were compared with the initial standard diet consisting of 55% carbohydrate, 15% protein and 30% fat. The overnight fasting glucose concentration decreased from 196 (standard diet) to 160 (carbohydrate-free diet) to 127 mg/dl (fasting). The 24 h glucose and insulin area responses decreased by 35% and 48% on day 3 of the carbohydrate-free diet, and by 49% and 69% after fasting. Overnight basal insulin and glucagon remained unchanged. Short-term fasting dramatically lowered overnight fasting and 24 h integrated glucose concentrations. Carbohydrate restriction per se could account for 71% of the reduction. Insulin could not entirely explain the glucose responses. In the absence of carbohydrate, the net insulin response was 28% of the standard diet. Glucagon did not contribute to the metabolic adaptations observed. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Analysis and validation of carbohydrate three-dimensional structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lütteke, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The article summarizes the information that is gained from and the errors that are found in carbohydrate structures in the Protein Data Bank. Validation tools that can locate these errors are described. Knowledge of the three-dimensional structures of the carbohydrate molecules is indispensable for a full understanding of the molecular processes in which carbohydrates are involved, such as protein glycosylation or protein–carbohydrate interactions. The Protein Data Bank (PDB) is a valuable resource for three-dimensional structural information on glycoproteins and protein–carbohydrate complexes. Unfortunately, many carbohydrate moieties in the PDB contain inconsistencies or errors. This article gives an overview of the information that can be obtained from individual PDB entries and from statistical analyses of sets of three-dimensional structures, of typical problems that arise during the analysis of carbohydrate three-dimensional structures and of the validation tools that are currently available to scientists to evaluate the quality of these structures

  2. A rapid stereoselective synthesis of fluorinated carbohydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, M.J.; Neeser, J-R.; Hall, L.D.; Pate, B.D.

    1983-01-01

    Acetyl hypofluorite has been added to six unsaturated carbohydrates which contain the vinyl ether moiety. All reactions were rapid (less than 5 min.) at -78 degrees C and gave, with one exception, high yields of isomerically pure products. The hypofluorite was shown to add exclusively in a cis mode and with a strong preference for a particular 'face' of the double bond. As well as the syntheses, NMR data and preferred conformations for the fluorinated products are also discussed

  3. Hearing Loss, Dizziness, and Carbohydrate Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Albernaz, Pedro L. Mangabeira

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Metabolic activity of the inner ear is very intense, and makes it sensitive to changes in the body homeostasis. This study involves a group of patients with inner ear disorders related to carbohydrate metabolism disturbances, including hearing loss, tinnitus, dizziness, and episodes of vertigo. Objectives To describe the symptoms of metabolic inner ear disorders and the examinations required to establish diagnoses. These symptoms are often the first to allow for an e...

  4. Effect of CPPU on Carbohydrate and Endogenous Hormone Levels in Young Macadamia Fruit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zeng

    Full Text Available N-(2-Chloro-4-pyridyl-N'-phenylurea (CPPU is a highly active cytokinin-like plant growth regulator that promotes chlorophyll biosynthesis, cell division, and cell expansion. It also increases fruit set and accelerates fruit enlargement. However, there has been no report about the effect of CPPU on fruit development and its physiological mechanism in macadamia. In this study, we investigated the effect of CPPU treatment at early fruit development via foliar spray or raceme soaking at 20 mg·L-1 on fruit set and related physiology in macadamia. Changes in carbohydrate contents and endogenous hormones in leaves, bearing shoots and fruit were also examined. Results showed that CPPU significantly reduced young fruit drop and delayed the wave of fruit drop by 1-2 weeks. The treatment significantly decreased the contents of total soluble sugars and starch in the leaves, but increased them in the bearing shoots and total soluble sugars in the husk (pericarp and seeds. These findings suggested that CPPU promoted carbohydrate mobilization from the leaves to the fruit. In addition, CPPU increased the contents of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, gibberellin acid (GA3, and zeatin riboside (ZR and decreased the abscisic acid (ABA in the husk. Therefore, CPPU treatment reduced the early fruit drop by increasing carbohydrate availability and by modifying the balance among endogenous hormones.

  5. The Effect of Carbohydrates and Arginine on Arginine Metabolism by Excised Bean Leaves in the Dark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Cecil R.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of carbohydrate on arginine utilization by excised bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Tendergreen) leaves in the dark was studied by adding arginine to leaves differing in carbohydrate levels, and measuring the arginine content of the leaves at intervals. In nonstarved leaves, the arginine content decreased steadily after vacuum infiltration of 10 mm arginine and was essentially completely utilized by 36 hours after infiltration. In starved leaves, the arginine content did not decrease except for a brief period of about 4 hours after infiltration. The distribution of 14C after adding 14C-arginine to starved and nonstarved leaves indicated that the presence of carbohydrates in the leaves stimulates the utilization of arginine for protein synthesis and conversion to other amino acids, organic acids, and CO2 (catabolism). Adding sucrose along with arginine to starved leaves stimulated this utilization of arginine for both protein synthesis and catabolism. This effect of sugar on catabolism is different than results of similar studies done previously with proline. Increasing the concentration of added arginine greatly increased arginine catabolism but had a relatively small effect on utilization of arginine for protein synthesis. This result is the same as similar results from adding different concentrations of proline to excised leaves. PMID:16659159

  6. Impact of carbohydrates on weight regain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosy-Westphal, Anja; Müller, Manfred J

    2015-07-01

    Research on obesity treatment has shifted its focus from weight loss to weight-loss maintenance strategies. The conventional approach of a low-fat diet is challenged by insights from glycemic effects of carbohydrates on body weight regulation. Metabolic and endocrine adaptations to weight loss that contribute to weight regain involve reduced energy expenditure, increased insulin sensitivity, and enhanced orexigenic signals. This review summarizes the impact of carbohydrates on energetic efficiency, partitioning of weight regain as fat and lean mass, and appetite control. Both the amount and frequency of postprandial glycemia add to body weight regulation after weight loss and strengthen the concept of glycemic index and glycemic load. In addition, dietary fiber and slowly or poorly absorbable functional sugars modify gastrointestinal peptides involved in appetite and metabolic regulation and exert prebiotic effects. Current evidence suggests that a low-glycemic load diet with a preference for low-glycemic index foods and integration of slowly digestible, poorly absorbable carbohydrates may improve weight-loss maintenance. Future studies should investigate the health benefits of low glycemic functional sweeteners (e.g., isomaltulose and tagatose).

  7. Hearing Loss, Dizziness, and Carbohydrate Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albernaz, Pedro L Mangabeira

    2016-07-01

    Metabolic activity of the inner ear is very intense, and makes it sensitive to changes in the body homeostasis. This study involves a group of patients with inner ear disorders related to carbohydrate metabolism disturbances, including hearing loss, tinnitus, dizziness, and episodes of vertigo. To describe the symptoms of metabolic inner ear disorders and the examinations required to establish diagnoses. These symptoms are often the first to allow for an early diagnosis of metabolic disorders and diabetes. Retrospective study of 376 patients with inner ear symptoms suggestive of disturbances of carbohydrate metabolism. The authors present patientś clinical symptoms and clinical evaluations, with emphasis on the glucose and insulin essays. Authors based their conclusions on otolaryngological findings, diagnostic procedures and treatment principles. They found that auditory and vestibular symptoms usually occur prior to other manifestations of metabolic changes, leading to an early diagnosis of hyperinsulinemia, intestinal sugar malabsorption or diabetes. Previously undiagnosed diabetes mellitus type II was found in 39 patients. The identification of carbohydrate metabolism disturbances is important not only to minimize the patients' clinical symptoms, but also to help maintain their general health.

  8. Hearing Loss, Dizziness, and Carbohydrate Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albernaz, Pedro L. Mangabeira

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Metabolic activity of the inner ear is very intense, and makes it sensitive to changes in the body homeostasis. This study involves a group of patients with inner ear disorders related to carbohydrate metabolism disturbances, including hearing loss, tinnitus, dizziness, and episodes of vertigo. Objectives To describe the symptoms of metabolic inner ear disorders and the examinations required to establish diagnoses. These symptoms are often the first to allow for an early diagnosis of metabolic disorders and diabetes. Methods Retrospective study of 376 patients with inner ear symptoms suggestive of disturbances of carbohydrate metabolism. The authors present patientś clinical symptoms and clinical evaluations, with emphasis on the glucose and insulin essays. Results Authors based their conclusions on otolaryngological findings, diagnostic procedures and treatment principles. They found that auditory and vestibular symptoms usually occur prior to other manifestations of metabolic changes, leading to an early diagnosis of hyperinsulinemia, intestinal sugar malabsorption or diabetes. Previously undiagnosed diabetes mellitus type II was found in 39 patients. Conclusions The identification of carbohydrate metabolism disturbances is important not only to minimize the patients' clinical symptoms, but also to help maintain their general health.

  9. Supplementation of Carbohydrate to Enhance the α-amylase Production by Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 6346 in Presence of Seed Cakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vengadaramana, A.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The effect of carbohydrate and amino acids on the production of a-amylase by Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 6346 was investigated. Methodology and results: To find out the influence of carbohydrate the total carbohydrate content of the medium containing different concentration (2-18 g/L of defatted seed cake powder of sesamum and mustard containing medium was kept constant by the addition of soluble starch separately. The highest a-amylase activity obtained in the medium containing 18g/L mustard (59.11+b1.48 U/mL and sesamum seed cake powder (55.23+b1.55 U/mL. The results indicated that under these conditions the carbohydrate content had no effect on the production of a-amylase. Effect of amino acids (0.2g/L of glycine, methionine, proline, lysine, leucine, threonine, serine, arginine, alanine, glutamic acid, tryptophan, glutamine, asparagine, histidine, valine, phenylalanine, isoleucine and mixture of amino acids on the production of a-amylase in fermentation medium was investigated. Among the different amino acids supplemented, eight amino acids improved the a-amylase production but casaminoacids slightly inhibited the enzyme production. In presence of tryptophan highest enzyme activity was obtained than control. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: In these study amino acids especially tryptophan takes part in a particular role rather than carbohydrate in the production of a-amylase from B. licheniformis ATCC 6346.

  10. Cultivar by environment effects of perennial ryegrass cultivars selected for high water soluble carbohydrates managed under differing precipitation levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Historic results of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) breeding include improved disease resistance, biomass, and nutritional quality. Yet, lack of tolerance to water stress limits its wise use. Recent efforts to increase water soluble carbohydrate (WSC) content in perennial ryegrass may incre...

  11. Lyoluminescence of irradiated carbohydrates - the role of dissolution rate and oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baugh, P.J.; Laflin, P.

    1980-01-01

    The lyoluminescent emission from γ-irradiated carbohydrates is shown to be strictly controlled by the rate of dissolution of the solid and the availability of oxygen for reaction during dissolution. These effects are explained in terms of oxidation of trapped radicals diffusing from the dissolving carbohydrate which react in an 'active volume' set up at the onset of dissolution at the crystal-water interface. At irradiation doses greater than 82.5 krad for mannose there is a suppression of the emission which results from an incomplete oxidation of the diffusing radicals due to insufficient O 2 in the active volume leading to a reaction involving unoxidised radicals and peroxyl radicals which are believed to be the precursors of the emission. This reaction is suppressed when the oxygen supply to the 'active volume' is increased. This can be achieved by increasing the oxygen content of the injector gas and indirectly by decreasing the solubility of the carbohydrate. Under these conditions the linear dose range of the lyoluminescence response is extended to ca. 330 krad close to the dose at which trapped radicals saturate in the irradiated solid carbohydrate. Although lyoluminescence is a liquid surface-layer effect as expected the generation of the emission is greatly influenced by oxygen present in the injection atmosphere. Quenching of lyoluminescence by adding peroxyl radical quenchers Cu(II) ions and hydroquinone, suggests that the reaction involving these quenchers also occurs in the 'active volume'. The results generally can be interpreted in terms of a diffusion model. (author)

  12. Enhanced Glucose Uptake in Human Liver Cells and Inhibition of Carbohydrate Hydrolyzing Enzymes by Nordic Berry Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giang Thanh Thi Ho

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A Western lifestyle with low physical activity and a diet rich in sugar, fat and processed food contribute to higher incidences of diabetes and obesity. Enhanced glucose uptake in human liver cells was observed after treatment with phenolic extracts from different Nordic berries. All berry extracts showed higher inhibition against α-amylase and α-glucosidase than the anti-diabetic agent acarbose. Total phenolic content and phenolic profiles in addition to antioxidant activities, were also investigated. The berries were extracted with 80% methanol on an accelerated solvent extraction system (ASE and then purified by C-18 solid phase extraction (SPE. Among the ASE methanol extracts, black chokeberry, crowberry and elderberry extracts showed high stimulation of glucose uptake in HepG2 cells and also considerable inhibitory effect towards carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes. SPE extracts with higher concentrations of phenolics, resulted in increased glucose uptake and enhanced inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase compared to the ASE extracts. Crowberry and cloudberry were the most potent 15-lipoxygenase inhibitors, while bog whortleberry and lingonberry were the most active xanthine oxidase inhibitors. These results increase the value of these berries as a component of a healthy Nordic diet and have a potential benefit against diabetes.

  13. Phytochemical, Proximate and Metal Content Analysis of the Leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: The phytochemical analysis of Psidium guajava was carried out by using a standard procedure. Ash, fat, protein, carbohydrate and fibre contents were determined using proximate analysis while the metal contents were determined using Pearson's method. Results: The phytochemical analysis revealed the ...

  14. Chlorophyll meter reading and total nitrogen content applied as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ana Mascarello

    The present study was aimed to assess the relationship between the reading of the chlorophyll meter and the total nitrogen (N) content ... devices to measure chlorophyll index (SPAD) and N content in the leaf. The nitrogen levels were found ... absorption of other nutrients and the production of carbohydrates. The methods ...

  15. Distributions and seasonal variations of dissolved carbohydrates in the Jiaozhou Bay, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gui-Peng; Zhang, Yan-Ping; Lu, Xiao-Lan; Ding, Hai-Bing

    2010-06-01

    Surface seawater samples were collected in the Jiaozhou Bay, a typical semi-closed basin located at the western part of the Shandong Peninsula, China, during four cruises. Concentrations of monosaccharides (MCHO), polysaccharides (PCHO) and total dissolved carbohydrates (TCHO) were measured with the 2,4,6-tripyridyl- s-triazine spectroscopic method. Concentrations of TCHO varied from 10.8 to 276.1 μM C for all samples and the ratios of TCHO to dissolved organic carbon (DOC) ranged from 1.1 to 67.9% with an average of 10.1%. This result indicated that dissolved carbohydrates were an important constituent of DOC in the surface seawater of the Jiaozhou Bay. In all samples, the concentrations of MCHO ranged from 2.9 to 65.9 μM C, comprising 46.1 ± 16.6% of TCHO on average, while PCHO ranged from 0.3 to 210.2 μM C, comprising 53.9 ± 16.6% of TCHO on average. As a major part of dissolved carbohydrates, the concentrations of PCHO were higher than those of MCHO. MCHO and PCHO accumulated in January and July, with minimum average concentration in April. The seasonal variation in the ratios of TCHO to DOC was related to water temperature, with high values in January and low values in July and October. The concentrations of dissolved carbohydrates displayed a decreasing trend from the coastal to the central areas. Negative correlations between concentrations of TCHO and salinity in July suggested that riverine input around the Jiaozhou Bay had an important effect on the concentrations of dissolved carbohydrates in surface seawater. The pattern of distributions of MCHO and PCHO reported in this study added to the global picture of dissolved carbohydrates distribution.

  16. Quantum dots assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric detection of carbohydrates: qualitative and quantitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibi, Aisha; Ju, Huangxian

    2016-04-01

    A quantum dots (QDs) assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric (QDA-LDI-MS) strategy was proposed for qualitative and quantitative analysis of a series of carbohydrates. The adsorption of carbohydrates on the modified surface of different QDs as the matrices depended mainly on the formation of hydrogen bonding, which led to higher MS intensity than those with conventional organic matrix. The effects of QDs concentration and sample preparation method were explored for improving the selective ionization process and the detection sensitivity. The proposed approach offered a new dimension to the application of QDs as matrices for MALDI-MS research of carbohydrates. It could be used for quantitative measurement of glucose concentration in human serum with good performance. The QDs served as a matrix showed the advantages of low background, higher sensitivity, convenient sample preparation and excellent stability under vacuum. The QDs assisted LDI-MS approach has promising application to the analysis of carbohydrates in complex biological samples. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Higher Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kunle Amuwo: Higher Education Transformation: A Paradigm Shilt in South Africa? ... ty of such skills, especially at the middle management levels within the higher ... istics and virtues of differentiation and diversity. .... may be forced to close shop for lack of capacity to attract ..... necessarily lead to racial and gender equity,.

  18. Discovery and design of carbohydrate-based therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipolla, Laura; Araújo, Ana C; Bini, Davide; Gabrielli, Luca; Russo, Laura; Shaikh, Nasrin

    2010-08-01

    Till now, the importance of carbohydrates has been underscored, if compared with the two other major classes of biopolymers such as oligonucleotides and proteins. Recent advances in glycobiology and glycochemistry have imparted a strong interest in the study of this enormous family of biomolecules. Carbohydrates have been shown to be implicated in recognition processes, such as cell-cell adhesion, cell-extracellular matrix adhesion and cell-intruder recognition phenomena. In addition, carbohydrates are recognized as differentiation markers and as antigenic determinants. Due to their relevant biological role, carbohydrates are promising candidates for drug design and disease treatment. However, the growing number of human disorders known as congenital disorders of glycosylation that are being identified as resulting from abnormalities in glycan structures and protein glycosylation strongly indicates that a fast development of glycobiology, glycochemistry and glycomedicine is highly desirable. The topics give an overview of different approaches that have been used to date for the design of carbohydrate-based therapeutics; this includes the use of native synthetic carbohydrates, the use of carbohydrate mimics designed on the basis of their native counterpart, the use of carbohydrates as scaffolds and finally the design of glyco-fused therapeutics, one of the most recent approaches. The review covers mainly literature that has appeared since 2000, except for a few papers cited for historical reasons. The reader will gain an overview of the current strategies applied to the design of carbohydrate-based therapeutics; in particular, the advantages/disadvantages of different approaches are highlighted. The topic is presented in a general, basic manner and will hopefully be a useful resource for all readers who are not familiar with it. In addition, in order to stress the potentialities of carbohydrates, several examples of carbohydrate-based marketed therapeutics are given

  19. Influence of gamma radiation on carbohydrates metabolism of ripening papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Solo)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, M.L.P.A.; Lajolo, F.M.; Cordenunsi, B.R.

    1999-01-01

    Food irradiation is one of the most promising treatments that can be utilized for fruits disinfestation and extension of shelf life. The authors studied the influence of 0,5 kGy of Gamma irradiation on the soluble carbohydrates composition of papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Solo) fruit, and on sucrose metabolizing enzymes: sucrose synthase (SS), sucrose-phosphate synthase, acid and neutral invertases activities, during ripening. The results demonstrated that ethylene production, total soluble sugars, sucrose content, and sucrose-phosphate synthase and invertases activities were affected by irradiation, but not respiration, glucose and fructose content, and SS activity. (author)

  20. Effect of dietary carbohydrate on non-specific immune response, hepatic antioxidative abilities and disease resistance of juvenile golden pompano (Trachinotus ovatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chuanpeng; Ge, Xianping; Lin, Heizhao; Niu, Jin

    2014-12-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary carbohydrate (CHO) levels on non-specific immune responses, hepatic antioxidative status and disease resistance of juvenile golden pompano. Fish were fed six isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets containing various CHO levels for 8 weeks. After the feeding trial, fish were challenged by Vibrio harveyi and survival rate was recorded for the next 12 days. Plasma total protein and albumin content, respiratory burst activity, alkaline phosphatase, slightly increased with dietary starch level from 0% to 16.8%, but significantly decreased at dietary starch levels of 16.8%-28%. Plasma lysozyme, complement 3 and complement 4 levels increased with increasing dietary carbohydrate up to 11.2% and then declined (P 0.05) with those of the other treatments. After challenge, fish fed 11.2% and 16.8% dietary CHO showed higher survival rate than that of fish in 0% CHO group (P 0.05). The results of this study suggest that ingestion of 11.2-16.8% dietary CHO can enhance the non-specific immune responses, increase the hepatic antioxidant abilities, and improve resistance to V. harveyi infection of juvenile golden pompano. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of varying dietary carbohydrate levels on growth performance, body composition and liver histology of Malaysian mahseer fingerlings (Tor tambroides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishak, Sairatul Dahlianis; Kamarudin, Mohd Salleh; Ramezani-Fard, Ehsan; Saad, Che Roos; Yusof, Yus Aniza

    2016-07-01

    We investigated the effects of four iso-nitrogenous (40% crude protein) and iso-caloric (17.6 kJ g(-1)) diets with different dietary carbohydrate levels (15%, 20%, 25% and 30%) on the growth performance, feed utilization efficiency, body composition and liver histology of Malaysian mahseer (Tor tambroides) fingerlings in a 10-week feeding trial. Fish (initial weight of 0.8?0.1 g; initial total length 4.2?0.1 cm) were fed twice daily at 4% body mass. Dietary carbohydrate level had significant effects (P<0.05) on weight gain, SGR (specific growth rate), FCR (feed conversion rate), PER (protein efficiency rate), survival percentage and all nutrient retention values (PRV, LRV, CRV, ERV). Protein, carbohydrate and gross energy composition of the fish body were also significantly differed (P<0.05) among treatments. Liver histology showed mild hepatic steatosis and hypertrophy for fishes receiving a higher dietary carbohydrate inclusion. In general, treatments with 20% and 25% dietary carbohydrate levels produced better growth results compared to the rest of the treatments. Using a second-order polynomial regression analysis model, the optimal dietary carbohydrate level of 23.4% was estimated for mahseer fingerlings. ?

  2. Patterns of organic acids exuded by pioneering fungi from a glacier forefield are affected by carbohydrate sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Ivano; Goren, Asena; Schlumpf, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Bare soils in the area of retreating glaciers are ideal environments to study the role of microorganisms in the early soil formation and in processes of mineral weathering. The aim of our study was to investigate whether the source of carbohydrate would influence the patterns of organic acids exuded by fungal species. Three pioneering fungus species, isolated from fine granitic sediments in front of the Damma glacier from the central Swiss Alps, have previously been found to have the capability to exude organic acids and dissolve granite powder. In batch experiments, various carbohydrates, including glucose, cellulose, pectin, pollen, and cell remnants of cyanobacteria, fungi, and algae, were applied as carbohydrate sources and the patterns of exuded organic acids recorded. The results showed that two fungi, the zygomycete fungus Mucor hiemalis and the ascomycete fungus Penicillium chrysogenum, released a significantly higher amount of organic acids in dependence on specific carbohydrate sources. Pollen and algae as carbohydrate sources triggered significantly the exudation of malate in M. hiemalis, and pollen and cellulose that of oxalate in P. chrysogenum. We conclude that the occurrence of complex carbohydrate sources in nutrient-deficient deglaciated soils may positively influence the exudation of organic acids of fungi. In particular, pollen and remnants of other microorganisms can trigger the exudation of organic acids of fungi in order to promote the weathering of minerals and to make nutrients available that would otherwise be trapped in that cryospheric environment.

  3. Patterns of organic acids exuded by pioneering fungi from a glacier forefield are affected by carbohydrate sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, Ivano; Goren, Asena; Schlumpf, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Bare soils in the area of retreating glaciers are ideal environments to study the role of microorganisms in the early soil formation and in processes of mineral weathering. The aim of our study was to investigate whether the source of carbohydrate would influence the patterns of organic acids exuded by fungal species. Three pioneering fungus species, isolated from fine granitic sediments in front of the Damma glacier from the central Swiss Alps, have previously been found to have the capability to exude organic acids and dissolve granite powder. In batch experiments, various carbohydrates, including glucose, cellulose, pectin, pollen, and cell remnants of cyanobacteria, fungi, and algae, were applied as carbohydrate sources and the patterns of exuded organic acids recorded. The results showed that two fungi, the zygomycete fungus Mucor hiemalis and the ascomycete fungus Penicillium chrysogenum, released a significantly higher amount of organic acids in dependence on specific carbohydrate sources. Pollen and algae as carbohydrate sources triggered significantly the exudation of malate in M. hiemalis, and pollen and cellulose that of oxalate in P. chrysogenum. We conclude that the occurrence of complex carbohydrate sources in nutrient-deficient deglaciated soils may positively influence the exudation of organic acids of fungi. In particular, pollen and remnants of other microorganisms can trigger the exudation of organic acids of fungi in order to promote the weathering of minerals and to make nutrients available that would otherwise be trapped in that cryospheric environment. (paper)

  4. The Influence of Oral Carbohydrate Solution Intake on Stress Response before Total Hip Replacement Surgery during Epidural and General Anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çeliksular, M Cem; Saraçoğlu, Ayten; Yentür, Ercüment

    2016-06-01

    The effects of oral carbohydrate solutions, ingested 2 h prior to operation, on stress response were studied in patients undergoing general or epidural anaesthesia. The study was performed on 80 ASA I-II adult patients undergoing elective total hip replacement, which were randomized to four groups (n=20). Group G patients undergoing general anaesthesia fasted for 8 h preoperatively; Group GN patients undergoing general anaesthesia drank oral carbohydrate solutions preoperatively; Group E patients undergoing epidural anaesthesia fasted for 8 h and Group EN patients undergoing epidural anaesthesia drank oral carbohydrate solutions preoperatively. Groups GN and EN drank 800 mL of 12.5% oral carbohydrate solution at 24:00 preoperatively and 400 mL 2 h before the operation. Blood samples were taken for measurements of glucose, insulin, cortisol and IL-6 levels. The effect of preoperative oral carbohydrate ingestion on blood glucose levels was not significant. Insulin levels 24 h prior to surgery were similar; however, insulin levels measured just before surgery were 2-3 times higher in groups GN and EN than in groups G and E. Insulin levels at the 24(th) postoperative hour in epidural groups were increased compared to those at basal levels, although general anaesthesia groups showed a decrease. From these measurements, only the change in Group EN was statistically significant (poral carbohydrate nutrition did not reveal a significant effect on surgical stress response.

  5. Amylose content decreases during tuber development in potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansky, Shelley; Fajardo, Diego

    2016-10-01

    Potato starch is composed primarily of amylopectin and amylose in an approximately 3:1 ratio. Amylose is considered to be nutritionally desirable in North American and European markets, so there is interest in finding strategies to increase the amylose content of potato starch. There is also interest in marketing 'baby' potatoes, which are harvested when they are physiologically immature. This study was carried out to determine weekly changes in amylose content in potato tubers of 11 North American cultivars during the growing season. The trial was repeated across 3 years. We determined that amylose content is highest early and it decreases in a linear fashion as the growing season progresses. Mean amylose content across cultivars and years declined from 30.0% in late June to 26.8% in late August. The rate of decrease varied across years, with slopes of linear regression plots ranging from -0.17 in 2012 to -0.74 in 2011. Amylose content in tuber starch varied among cultivars, with the highest levels observed in Ranger Russet (30.7%) and White Pearl (31.6%); it was lowest in Kennebec (25.7%) and Langlade (25.6%). This study adds to a growing body of literature on the nutritional value of immature potato tubers. In addition to having higher levels of some phytonutrients, as reported in other studies, immature tubers have a higher proportion of amylose in the starch. This is nutritionally desirable in affluent regions where high fiber content is more important than calories from carbohydrates. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  6. Carbohydrate-active enzymes from the zygomycete fungus Rhizopus oryzae: a highly specialized approach to carbohydrate degradation depicted at genome level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrissat Bernard

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rhizopus oryzae is a zygomycete filamentous fungus, well-known as a saprobe ubiquitous in soil and as a pathogenic/spoilage fungus, causing Rhizopus rot and mucomycoses. Results Carbohydrate Active enzyme (CAZy annotation of the R. oryzae identified, in contrast to other filamentous fungi, a low number of glycoside hydrolases (GHs and a high number of glycosyl transferases (GTs and carbohydrate esterases (CEs. A detailed analysis of CAZy families, supported by growth data, demonstrates highly specialized plant and fungal cell wall degrading abilities distinct from ascomycetes and basidiomycetes. The specific genomic and growth features for degradation of easily digestible plant cell wall mono- and polysaccharides (starch, galactomannan, unbranched pectin, hexose sugars, chitin, chitosan, β-1,3-glucan and fungal cell wall fractions suggest specific adaptations of R. oryzae to its environment. Conclusions CAZy analyses of the genome of the zygomycete fungus R. oryzae and comparison to ascomycetes and basidiomycete species revealed how evolution has shaped its genetic content with respect to carbohydrate degradation, after divergence from the Ascomycota and Basidiomycota.

  7. Ingestion of High Molecular Weight Carbohydrate Enhances Subsequent Repeated Maximal Power: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan M Oliver

    Full Text Available Athletes in sports demanding repeat maximal work outputs frequently train concurrently utilizing sequential bouts of intense endurance and resistance training sessions. On a daily basis, maximal work within subsequent bouts may be limited by muscle glycogen availability. Recently, the ingestion of a unique high molecular weight (HMW carbohydrate was found to increase glycogen re-synthesis rate and enhance work output during subsequent endurance exercise, relative to low molecular weight (LMW carbohydrate ingestion. The effect of the HMW carbohydrate, however, on the performance of intense resistance exercise following prolonged-intense endurance training is unknown. Sixteen resistance trained men (23±3 years; 176.7±9.8 cm; 88.2±8.6 kg participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized 3-way crossover design comprising a muscle-glycogen depleting cycling exercise followed by ingestion of placebo (PLA, or 1.2 g•kg•bw-1 of LMW or HMW carbohydrate solution (10% with blood sampling for 2-h post-ingestion. Thereafter, participants performed 5 sets of 10 maximal explosive repetitions of back squat (75% of 1RM. Compared to PLA, ingestion of HMW (4.9%, 90%CI 3.8%, 5.9% and LMW (1.9%, 90%CI 0.8%, 3.0% carbohydrate solutions substantially increased power output during resistance exercise, with the 3.1% (90% CI 4.3, 2.0% almost certain additional gain in power after HMW-LMW ingestion attributed to higher movement velocity after force kinematic analysis (HMW-LMW 2.5%, 90%CI 1.4, 3.7%. Both carbohydrate solutions increased post-exercise plasma glucose, glucoregulatory and gut hormones compared to PLA, but differences between carbohydrates were unclear; thus, the underlying mechanism remains to be elucidated. Ingestion of a HMW carbohydrate following prolonged intense endurance exercise provides superior benefits to movement velocity and power output during subsequent repeated maximal explosive resistance exercise. This study was registered

  8. Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    & Development (LDRD) National Security Education Center (NSEC) Office of Science Programs Richard P Databases National Security Education Center (NSEC) Center for Nonlinear Studies Engineering Institute Scholarships STEM Education Programs Teachers (K-12) Students (K-12) Higher Education Regional Education

  9. Deteriorated glucose metabolism with a high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet in db mice, an animal model of type 2 diabetes, might be caused by insufficient insulin secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arimura, Emi; Pulong, Wijang Pralampita; Marchianti, Ancah Caesarina Novi; Nakakuma, Miwa; Abe, Masaharu; Ushikai, Miharu; Horiuchi, Masahisa

    2017-02-01

    We previously showed the deleterious effects of increased dietary protein on renal manifestations and glucose metabolism in leptin receptor-deficient (db) mice. Here, we further examined its effects on glucose metabolism, including urinary C-peptide. We also orally administered mixtures corresponding to low- or high-protein diets to diabetic mice. In diet experiments, under pair-feeding (equivalent energy and fat) conditions using a metabolic cage, mice were fed diets with different protein content (L diet: 12 % protein, 71 % carbohydrate, 17 % fat; H diet: 24 % protein, 59 % carbohydrate, 17 % fat) for 15 days. In oral administration experiments, the respective mixtures (L mixture: 12 % proline, 71 % maltose or starch, 17 % linoleic acid; H mixture: 24 % proline, 59 % maltose or starch, 17 % linoleic acid) were supplied to mice. Biochemical parameters related to glucose metabolism were measured. The db-H diet mice showed significantly higher water intake, urinary volume, and glucose levels than db-L diet mice but similar levels of excreted urinary C-peptide. In contrast, control-H diet mice showed significantly higher C-peptide excretion than control-L diet mice. Both types of mice fed H diet excreted high levels of urinary albumin. When maltose mixtures were administered, db-L mixture mice showed significantly higher blood glucose after 30 min than db-H mixture mice. However, db mice administered starch-H mixture showed significantly higher blood glucose 120-300 min post-administration than db-L mixture mice, although both groups exhibited similar insulin levels. High-protein, low-carbohydrate diets deteriorated diabetic conditions and were associated with insufficient insulin secretion in db mice. Our findings may have implications for dietary management of diabetic symptoms in human patients.

  10. Intestinal absorption of copper: influence of carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wapnir, R A; Balkman, C

    1992-02-01

    Macronutrients can modulate the intestinal absorption of trace elements by binding the metal or altering mucosal function. We investigated whether certain simple and complex carbohydrates modify copper (Cu) absorption, using an in vivo perfusion technique in the rat. Corn syrup solids, which contain a mixture of glucose polymers of diverse length, added at either 20 or 50 mosm/kg enhanced Cu absorption from a 31.5 microM (2 mg/liter) Cu solution (128 +/- 11 and 130 +/- 11 pmol/min x cm, respectively, vs 101 +/- 4 pmol/min x cm, P less than 0.05, in the absence of carbohydrate). This was concomitant with a stimulation of net water absorption (1.05 +/- 0.08 and 0.84 +/- 0.08 microliter/min x cm, respectively, vs 0.63 +/- 0.02 microliter/min x cm with no carbohydrate, P less than 0.05). Glucose, fructose, lactose, or sucrose had no influence on Cu absorption, although they altered water exchanges, an effect attributable to a reduction of the outflow component of fluid recirculation. Low concentrations of lactose resulted in a greater accumulation of Cu in the intestinal mucosa (8.75 +/- 0.71 micrograms/g vs 5.77 +/- 0.68 micrograms/g for controls, P less than 0.05). Hence, solutes that moderately stimulate mucosa-to-serosa fluid influx in a progressive manner, such as glucose polymers, may contribute to functionally increase Cu absorption. Conversely, conditions which tend to reduce water inflow or increase water outflow across the small intestinal mucosa, as may occur with high lactose diets or in cases of chronic diarrhea, may have negative effects.

  11. Dietary carbohydrates and glucose metabolism in diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parillo, M; Riccardi, G

    1995-12-01

    Dietary carbohydrates represent one of the major sources of energy for the human body. However, the main (if not the only) therapy for diabetes since ancient times has been based on reducing dietary carbohydrates drastically because of their effects on blood glucose levels. The introduction of insulin in the 1920s and then of oral hypoglycaemic drugs led to various studies evaluating the biochemical characteristics of carbohydrates and their effects on glucose metabolism in diabetic patients. This review considers the role of dietary carbohydrates in the diet of diabetic patients in the light of the most recent studies and provides a short summary of the biochemistry of carbohydrates and the physiology of carbohydrate digestion.

  12. Photosynthesis down-regulation precedes carbohydrate accumulation under sink limitation in Citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebauer, Sergio G; Renau-Morata, Begoña; Guardiola, José Luis; Molina, Rosa-Victoria

    2011-02-01

    Photosynthesis down-regulation due to an imbalance between sources and sinks in Citrus leaves could be mediated by excessive accumulation of carbohydrates. However, there is limited understanding of the physiological role of soluble and insoluble carbohydrates in photosynthesis regulation and the elements triggering the down-regulation process. In this work, the role of non-structural carbohydrates in the regulation of photosynthesis under a broad spectrum of source-sink relationships has been investigated in the Salustiana sweet orange. Soluble sugar and starch accumulation in leaves, induced by girdling experiments, did not induce down-regulation of the photosynthetic rate in the presence of sinks (fruits). The leaf-to-fruit ratio did not modulate photosynthesis but allocation of photoassimilates to the fruits. The lack of strong sink activity led to a decrease in the photosynthetic rate and starch accumulation in leaves. However, photosynthesis down-regulation due to an excess of total soluble sugars or starch was discarded because photosynthesis and stomatal conductance reduction occurred prior to any significant accumulation of these carbohydrates. Gas exchange and fluorescence parameters suggested biochemical limitations to photosynthesis. In addition, the expression of carbon metabolism-related genes was altered within 24 h when strong sinks were removed. Sucrose synthesis and export genes were inhibited, whereas the expression of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase was increased to cope with the excess of assimilates. In conclusion, changes in starch and soluble sugar turnover, but not sugar content per se, could provide the signal for photosynthesis regulation. In these conditions, non-stomatal limitations strongly inhibited the photosynthetic rate prior to any significant increase in carbohydrate levels.

  13. DNP NMR of carbohydrate converting enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Christian; Ardenkjær-Larsen, Jan Henrik; Duus, Jens Øllgaard

    intermediate, however, this evidence is based on mutant of X-ray crystallography and simulations. As the natural substrate lactose does not have any quaternary carbon with long T1, the unnatural substrate o-nitrophenyl β-D-galactopyranoside was used (figure 1) as the quaternarypositions have T1 relaxations...... of ca. 15 s instead of hydrolysis of this substrate can be seen in figure 2, and another use of this substrate is for optimizing the conditions for a labelled substrate (figure 1), which would further increase the signal and allow monitoring of the carbohydrate...

  14. Carbohydrates/nucleosides/RNA-DNA-ligand interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaptein, R.; McConnell, B.; Serianni, A.S.; Silks, L.A. III.

    1994-01-01

    Carbohydrate and nucleotide structural determination using modern spectroscopic techniques is dependent on our ability to label oligonucleotides and oligosaccharides with stable isotopes. Uniform Carbon 13 and Nitrogen 15 labeling of oligonucleotides is important to present-day efforts, which are focused on determining the structure of relatively small oligosaccharides and oligonucleotides, which form the elements of larger structures. Because of the relatively recent interest in three-dimensional structure, the development of techniques used to label them has lagged behind parallel techniques used to label peptides and proteins. Therefore, this group's discussion focused primarily on problems faced today in obtaining oligonucleotides labeled uniformly with carbon 13 and nitrogen 15

  15. Carbohydrates/nucleosides/RNA-DNA-ligand interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaptein, R.; McConnell, B.; Serianni, A.S.; Silks, L.A. III

    1994-12-01

    Carbohydrate and nucleotide structural determination using modern spectroscopic techniques is dependent on our ability to label oligonucleotides and oligosaccharides with stable isotopes. Uniform Carbon 13 and Nitrogen 15 labeling of oligonucleotides is important to present-day efforts, which are focused on determining the structure of relatively small oligosaccharides and oligonucleotides, which form the elements of larger structures. Because of the relatively recent interest in three-dimensional structure, the development of techniques used to label them has lagged behind parallel techniques used to label peptides and proteins. Therefore, this group`s discussion focused primarily on problems faced today in obtaining oligonucleotides labeled uniformly with carbon 13 and nitrogen 15.

  16. Identification and determination of 3-deoxyglucosone and glucosone in carbohydrate-rich foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Matute, Ana I; Castro Vazquez, Lucía; Hernández-Hernández, Oswaldo; Sanz, María L; Martínez-Castro, Isabel

    2015-09-01

    α-Dicarbonyl compounds (α-DCs) such as 3-deoxyglucosone (3-DG) and glucosone are markers of both Maillard and degradation reactions of sugars and also of certain enzymatic processes. However, quantitation of these compounds is not straightforward when more abundant carbohydrates are present in real samples. Therefore in this work a GC/MS method was developed to separate monosaccharides, 3-DG and glucosone and applied to analyze them in carbohydrate-rich food products. Difructose anhydrides (DFAs), known markers of sugar degradation, were also determined. The effect of time and temperature in the production and storage of these compounds was also evaluated. Under optimized conditions, good separation between monosaccharides and α-DCs was achieved. Must syrups showed the highest concentrations of 3-DG and glucosone (average values 9.2 and 5.8 mg g(-1) respectively). Coffee substitutes based on carob, chicory and blends showed the highest content of DFAs. Heating and storage assays proved that production of 3-DG was influenced by temperature, while glucosone was more affected by storage time. The proposed method allows the rapid quantitation of 3-DG and glucosone along with carbohydrates and DFAs in different food products, which is essential to determine their degradation level. Moreover, the α-DC content in several foods is reported for the first time. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. A new method for rapid determination of carbohydrate and total carbon concentrations using UV spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albalasmeh, Ammar A; Berhe, Asmeret Asefaw; Ghezzehei, Teamrat A

    2013-09-12

    A new UV spectrophotometry based method for determining the concentration and carbon content of carbohydrate solution was developed. This method depends on the inherent UV absorption potential of hydrolysis byproducts of carbohydrates formed by reaction with concentrated sulfuric acid (furfural derivatives). The proposed method is a major improvement over the widely used Phenol-Sulfuric Acid method developed by DuBois, Gilles, Hamilton, Rebers, and Smith (1956). In the old method, furfural is allowed to develop color by reaction with phenol and its concentration is detected by visible light absorption. Here we present a method that eliminates the coloration step and avoids the health and environmental hazards associated with phenol use. In addition, avoidance of this step was shown to improve measurement accuracy while significantly reducing waiting time prior to light absorption reading. The carbohydrates for which concentrations and carbon content can be reliably estimated with this new rapid Sulfuric Acid-UV technique include: monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides with very high molecular weight. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Accumulation of carbohydrates in the development of tomato plants treated with different chemical products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamaria Ribeiro Pereira Ramos

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This work had the purpose to study the physiological effects of pyraclostrobin, boscalid, plant growth regulators and plant extract on the accumulation of carbohydrates during the development of tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum L., hybrid Giuliana, in protected environment conditions. The treatments were: T1- control; T2- pyraclostrobin 0.2 g L-1; T3- boscalid 0.075 g L-1, T4- pyraclostrobin 0.2 g L-1 + boscalid 0.075 g L-1, T5- IBA + GA3 + kinetin 375 mg L-1, T6- GA4+7 + benzylaminopurine 100 mg L-1 and T7- plant extract 100 mg L-1. The carbohydrate accumulation curve was accomplished with 5 samples, at 20-day intervals between evaluations, the 1st evaluation being carried out at 30 days after transplantation, on the day of the first treatment application. At each sampling the plants were separated in stem, leaves and fruits, of which the contents of total soluble sugars, reducing sugars and saccharose were evaluated. The effects of the treatments on chlorophyll content and gas exchanges were also evaluated. The experimental design was completely randomized, with 4 repetitions and 6 destructive evaluations during the development, with 1 plant per experimental unit for each sampling. The pyraclostrobin and boscalid applied in isolation and/or combined favor the increase of carbohydrates in leaves, stems and fruits of tomato hybrid Giuliana

  19. The role of higher protein diets in weight control and obesity-related comorbidities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Arne; Raben, Anne; Geiker, Nina

    2015-01-01

    The importance of the relative dietary content of protein, carbohydrate and the type of carbohydrate (that is, glycemic index (GI)) for weight control under ad libitum conditions has been controversial owing to the lack of large scale studies with high diet adherence. The Diet, Obesity and Genes...... (DioGenes) European multicentre trial examined the importance of a slight increase in dietary protein content, reduction in carbohydrate and the importance of choosing low (LGI) vs high GI (HGI) carbohydrates for weight control in 932 obese families. Only the adults underwent a diet of 800 kcal per day...... for 8 weeks, and after losing ~11kg they were randomized to one of five energy ad libitum diets for 6 months. The diets differed in protein content and GI. The high-protein (HP) diet groups consumed 5.4% points more energy from protein than the normal protein (NP) groups, and the LGI diet groups...

  20. Carbohydrate modified polysiloxanes, 3 - Solution properties of carbohydrate-polysiloxane conjugates in toluene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loos, Katja; Jonas, Gerd; Stadler, Reimund

    2001-01-01

    High molecular weight poly(hydromethyl-co-dimethyl) siloxanes containing 0.6 and 3 mol-% of Si-H units are polar functionalized by the addition of various mono-, di- and oligosaccharides. Due to the hydrogen bond interaction between the carbohydrate moieties, the solution properties are strongly