WorldWideScience

Sample records for higher brain function

  1. Degree of musical expertise modulates higher order brain functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oechslin, Mathias S; Van De Ville, Dimitri; Lazeyras, François; Hauert, Claude-Alain; James, Clara E

    2013-09-01

    Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we show for the first time that levels of musical expertise stepwise modulate higher order brain functioning. This suggests that degree of training intensity drives such cerebral plasticity. Participants (non-musicians, amateurs, and expert musicians) listened to a comprehensive set of specifically composed string quartets with hierarchically manipulated endings. In particular, we implemented 2 irregularities at musical closure that differed in salience but were both within the tonality of the piece (in-key). Behavioral sensitivity scores (d') of both transgressions perfectly separated participants according to their level of musical expertise. By contrasting brain responses to harmonic transgressions against regular endings, functional brain imaging data showed compelling evidence for stepwise modulation of brain responses by both violation strength and expertise level in a fronto-temporal network hosting universal functions of working memory and attention. Additional independent testing evidenced an advantage in visual working memory for the professionals, which could be predicted by musical training intensity. The here introduced findings of brain plasticity demonstrate the progressive impact of musical training on cognitive brain functions that may manifest well beyond the field of music processing.

  2. [On the question of the organization of brain function: cortical associations, «disconnection» syndrome and higher brain functions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damulin, I V

    2015-01-01

    The review considers the structural/functional brain organization, the disturbance of which is accompanied by the development of cognitive and behavioral disorders. The significance of the disruption of parallel circuits connecting frontal lobes with subcortical structures (the basal ganglia, thalamus, cerebellum) is highlighted. This disruption is clinically described as "disconnection" syndrome. The associations between the basal ganglia and the cortex of the large cerebral hemispheres responsible for motor, cognitive and emotional/behavioral functions do not restricted to these spheres and is characteristic not only of frontal brain areas. There are circuits connecting other brain compartments and the basal ganglia that provide perception, and are involved in decision making on the basis of input information of different modalities.The improvement of understanding of the pathophysiology and neurochemistry of these structures opens new possibilities for selective action on some or other circuit to achieve the best therapeutic result.

  3. [Higher Brain Dysfunction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashima, Haruo

    2015-01-01

    The technical term "higher brain dysfunction" is used widely in Japan. However, it is not always clear what "higher" means. The author thinks that the term "higher" is understood as being associated with a meaning. In this article, the differences between higher brain dysfunctions and elementary brain dysfunctions are discussed from the point of view of lesion localization and the consistency of symptoms. The psychiatric approach is indispensable for the assessment of higher brain dysfunction. A simple test for mild Alzheimer-type dementia is also introduced.

  4. Associations between self-assessed masticatory ability and higher brain function among the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriya, Shingo; Tei, K; Murata, A; Yamazaki, Y; Hata, H; Muramatsu, M; Kitagawa, Y; Inoue, N; Miura, H

    2011-10-01

    Among the elderly, the quality of higher brain function is a contributing factor in performing activities of daily living. The aim of the study is to elucidate, epidemiologically, associations between mastication and higher brain function. A total of 208 community-dwelling elderly persons, aged 70-74 years, were enrolled. Self-assessed masticatory ability (masticatory ability) was classified into one of three categories: ability to chew all kinds of food, ability to chew only slightly hard food, or ability to chew only soft or pureed food. Brain function was assessed by four neuropsychological tests: Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices (RCPM) test, the Verbal Paired Associates 1 (VerPA) task and the Visual Paired Associates 1 task (from the Wechsler Memory Scale Revised Edition), and the Block Design subtest (from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales-Third Edition). Correlations between masticatory ability and each test were examined using Spearman rank correlation coefficients. Multinominal logistic regression models were conducted with the neuropsychological tests as the dependent variables and masticatory ability as the principal independent variable to adjust for age, gender, educational background, social activity, drinking/smoking habits, chronic medical conditions and dental status. Significant correlations were found between the RCPM test, the VerPA task, the Block Design test and masticatory ability. In multinominal logistic regression models, poor masticatory ability was significantly and independently related to the categories under the mean-s.d. points compared with those of the mean ± s.d. ranges for RCPM test and the VerPA task. Significant associations may exist between mastication and higher brain function among the elderly. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Higher-order brain function analysis by trans-cranial dynamic near-infrared spectroscopy imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Hideaki; Yamashita, Yuichi; Maki, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi; Ito, Yoshitoshi; Itagaki, H.; Kennan, R.

    1999-10-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy is discussed from the viewpoint of human higher-order brain function analysis. Pioneering work in this field is reviewed; then we describe our concept of noninvasive trans-cranial dynamic optical topography and its instrumentation. Also, the validity of its functional images is assessed from both physical and physiological viewpoints. After conforming the validity of this method, we have applied it to a wide variety of fields such as clinical medicine, cognitive science, and linguistics in collaboration with researchers at several other institutes. Further application possibilities and the future of trans- cranial dynamic optical topography are also discussed.

  6. Biological rhythms, higher brain function, and behavior: Gaps, opportunities, and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benca, Ruth; Duncan, Marilyn J; Frank, Ellen; McClung, Colleen; Nelson, Randy J; Vicentic, Aleksandra

    2009-12-11

    Increasing evidence suggests that disrupted temporal organization impairs behavior, cognition, and affect; further, disruption of circadian clock genes impairs sleep-wake cycle and social rhythms which may be implicated in mental disorders. Despite this strong evidence, a gap in understanding the neural mechanisms of this interaction obscures whether biological rhythms disturbances are the underlying causes or merely symptoms of mental disorder. Here, we review current understanding, emerging concepts, gaps, and opportunities pertinent to (1) the neurobiology of the interactions between circadian oscillators and the neural circuits subserving higher brain function and behaviors of relevance to mental health, (2) the most promising approaches to determine how biological rhythms regulate brain function and behavior under normal and pathological conditions, (3) the gaps and challenges to advancing knowledge on the link between disrupted circadian rhythms/sleep and psychiatric disorders, and (4) the novel strategies for translation of basic science discoveries in circadian biology to clinical settings to define risk, prevent or delay onset of mental illnesses, design diagnostic tools, and propose new therapeutic strategies. The review is organized around five themes pertinent to (1) the impact of molecular clocks on physiology and behavior, (2) the interactions between circadian signals and cognitive functions, (3) the interface of circadian rhythms with sleep, (4) a clinical perspective on the relationship between circadian rhythm abnormalities and affective disorders, and (5) the pre-clinical models of circadian rhythm abnormalities and mood disorders.

  7. Cognitive profile and disorders affecting higher brain functions in paediatric patients with neurofibromatosis type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaucheret Paz, E; López Ballent, A; Puga, C; García Basalo, M J; Baliarda, F; Ekonen, C; Ilari, R; Agosta, G

    2017-04-18

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a common neurocutaneous syndrome often associated with specific cognitive deficits that are rarely monitored during follow-up of these patients. The purpose of our study is two-fold. First, we aimed to describe the cognitive profile of patients with NF1 and detect disorders in higher brain functions associated with the disease. Second, we identified the reasons for consultation associated with school performance in these patients. We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study of 24 paediatric patients (ages 5 to 16) with NF1 who underwent neuropsychological assessment. The most frequent reasons for consultation were attention deficits (58.33%), learning disorders (25%), poor motor coordination (25%), and language impairment (0.8%). Although 96% of the patients displayed impairments in at least one of the assessed areas, only 83.34% of the parents had reported such impairments. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder was present in 58.33% of the patients, whereas 33.33% had nonverbal learning disabilities, 20.83% had expressive language disorder, 8.33% had borderline intellectual functioning, 4.16% had mental retardation, and only 4.16% showed no cognitive impairment. Higher brain functions are frequently impaired in paediatric patients with NF1. Although many parents report such disorders, they can go undetected in some cases. Neuropsychological assessment is recommended for all paediatric patients with NF1 to detect cognitive impairment and provide early, effective rehabilitation treatment. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of higher brain function by MRI. Flow measurement in the superior sagittal sinus using phase contrast method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Mototsugu [Yamada Red Cross Hospital, Misono, Mie (Japan)

    1997-01-01

    To assess the higher brain function, flow measurement in the superior sagittal sinus (SSS) was performed noninvasively using a phase contrast MRI in 76 patients with suspicious of impaired higher brain function including dementias (senile dementia of Alzheimer type; SDAT and multi-infarct dementia; MID), strokes, and others. Thirty-one normal controls were consisted of 18 healthy volunteers and 13 patients with tension headache whose higher brain function was proved be normal. Mean flow velocity was measured in the distal portion of the SSS adjoining to the occipital lobes and was multiplied by cross-sectional area of the SSS at the measuring point to obtain mean flow volume. For intellectual index, cross-cultural cognitive examination (CCCE) was applied to all cases excluding volunteers. Normal value of SSS flow volume measured by MRI was 6.92{+-}0.66 ml/s. Significant differences in both SSS flow and CCCE score from normal controls were found in SDAT group, MID group, and non-dementia group. No substantial differences between SDAT group and MID group were noted in both CCCE score and SSS flow. In normal controls, there was no correlation between SSS flow and age, whereas, significant inverse correlation of SSS flow with age was found in all cases. Between CCCE score and SSS flow, there were nearly linear relationships in all cases, SDAT group, MID group, and non-dementia group. Significant but relatively poor correlation was found in normals. (K.H.)

  9. The role of lateral habenula-dorsal raphe nucleus circuits in higher brain functions and psychiatric illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hua; Zhang, Bei-Lin; Yang, Shao-Jun; Rusak, Benjamin

    2015-01-15

    Serotonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) play an important role in regulation of many physiological functions. The lateral nucleus of the habenular complex (LHb) is closely connected to the DRN both morphologically and functionally. The LHb is a key regulator of the activity of DRN serotonergic neurons, and it also receives reciprocal input from the DRN. The LHb is also a major way-station that receives limbic system input via the stria medullaris and provides output to the DRN and thereby indirectly connects a number of other brain regions to the DRN. The complex interactions of the LHb and DRN contribute to the regulation of numerous important behavioral and physiological mechanisms, including those regulating cognition, reward, pain sensitivity and patterns of sleep and waking. Disruption of these functions is characteristic of major psychiatric illnesses, so there has been a great deal of interest in how disturbed LHb-DRN interactions may contribute to the symptoms of these illnesses. This review summarizes recent research related to the roles of the LHb-DRN system in regulation of higher brain functions and the possible role of disturbed LHb-DRN function in the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders, especially depression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Higher burnout scores in paediatric residents are associated with increased brain activity during attentional functional magnetic resonance imaging task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Anarella Penha Meirelles; Amaro, Edson; Farhat, Sylvia Costa Lima; Schvartsman, Claudio

    2016-06-01

    Burnout syndrome is common in healthcare workers. We evaluated its prevalence in paediatric residents and investigated its influence on cerebral function correlations, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), when they carried out an attentional paradigm. This cross-sectional descriptive study involved 28 residents from the Department of Paediatrics at the University of São Paulo. The functional MRI was carried out while the residents completed the Stroop colour word task paradigm to investigate their attentional task performance. The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) was applied, and stress was assessed using the Lipp Inventory of Stress Symptoms for Adults and by a visual analogue mood scale. The MBI subscales of depersonalisation and emotional exhaustion indicated that 53.1% of the residents had moderate or high burnout syndrome. The whole-brain multivariate analysis showed positive correlations between the blood oxygenation level dependent effect and the MBI depersonalisation and emotional exhaustion indices in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, which controls for anxiety. Increased brain activation during an attention task, measured using functional MRI, was associated with higher burnout scores in paediatric residents. This study provides a biological basis for the implementation of measures to reduce burnout syndrome at the start of residency training programmes. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Role of mitochondrial uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2 in higher brain functions, neuronal plasticity and network oscillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gretchen Hermes

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: We conclude that disruptions in mitochondrial function may play a critical role in pathophysiology of mental illness. Specifically, we have shown that NMDA driven behavioral, synaptic, and brain oscillatory functions are impaired in UCP2 knockout mice.

  12. Higher-order brain areas associated with real-time functional MRI neurofeedback training of the somato-motor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Tibor; Dewiputri, Wan Ilma; Frahm, Jens; Schweizer, Renate

    2016-04-29

    Neurofeedback (NFB) allows subjects to learn self-regulation of neuronal brain activation based on information about the ongoing activation. The implementation of real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rt-fMRI) for NFB training now facilitates the investigation into underlying processes. Our study involved 16 control and 16 training right-handed subjects, the latter performing an extensive rt-fMRI NFB training using motor imagery. A previous analysis focused on the targeted primary somato-motor cortex (SMC). The present study extends the analysis to the supplementary motor area (SMA), the next higher brain area within the hierarchy of the motor system. We also examined transfer-related functional connectivity using a whole-volume psycho-physiological interaction (PPI) analysis to reveal brain areas associated with learning. The ROI analysis of the pre- and post-training fMRI data for motor imagery without NFB (transfer) resulted in a significant training-specific increase in the SMA. It could also be shown that the contralateral SMA exhibited a larger increase than the ipsilateral SMA in the training and the transfer runs, and that the right-hand training elicited a larger increase in the transfer runs than the left-hand training. The PPI analysis revealed a training-specific increase in transfer-related functional connectivity between the left SMA and frontal areas as well as the anterior midcingulate cortex (aMCC) for right- and left-hand trainings. Moreover, the transfer success was related with training-specific increase in functional connectivity between the left SMA and the target area SMC. Our study demonstrates that NFB training increases functional connectivity with non-targeted brain areas. These are associated with the training strategy (i.e., SMA) as well as with learning the NFB skill (i.e., aMCC and frontal areas). This detailed description of both the system to be trained and the areas involved in learning can provide valuable information

  13. Investigation of Higher Brain Functions in Music Composition Using Models of the Cortex Based on Physical System Analogies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Xiaodan

    The trion model was developed using the Mountcastle organizational principle for the column as the basic neuronal network in the cortex and the physical system analogy of Fisher's ANNNI spin model. An essential feature is that it is highly structured in time and in spatial connections. Simulations of a network of trions have shown that large numbers of quasi-stable, periodic spatial-temporal firing patterns can be excited. Characteristics of these patterns include the quality of being readily enhanced by only a small change in connection strengths, and that the patterns evolve in certain natural sequences from one to another. With only somewhat different parameters than used for studying memory and pattern recognition, much more flowing and intriguing patterns emerged from the simulations. The results were striking when these probabilistic evolutions were mapped onto pitches and instruments to produce music: For example different simple mappings of the same evolution give music having the "flavor" of a minuet, a waltz, folk music, or styles of specific periods. A theme can be learned so that evolutions have this theme and its variations reoccurring more often. That the trion model is a viable model for the coding of musical structure in human composition and perception is suggested. It is further proposed that model is relevant for examining creativity in the higher cognitive functions of mathematics and chess, which are similar to music. An even higher level of cortical organization was modeled by coupling together several trion networks. Further, one of the crucial features of higher brain function, especially in music composition or appreciation, is the role of emotion and mood as controlled by the many neuromodulators or neuropeptides. The MILA model whose underlying basis is zero-level representation of Kac-Moody algebra is used to modulate periodically the firing threshold of each network. Our preliminary results show that the introduction of "neuromodulation

  14. [A 53-year-old man with herpes encephalitis showing acceleration of improvement in higher brain function after general anesthesia with sevoflurane: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togashi, Naohiko; Kaida, Kenichi; Hongo, Yu; Ogawa, Go; Ishikawa, Yukinobu; Takeda, Katsuhiko; Kamakura, Keiko

    2014-01-01

    We experienced a right-handed 53-year-old man who presented with disturbance of consciousness and fever. Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) was diagnosed based on the detection of herpes simplex virus DNA in the cerebrospinal fluid. The administration of acyclovir for 42 days improved his consciousness level. Drowsiness, fever and seizures reappeared 20 days after stopping acyclovir treatment (day 67) and he responded well to vidarabine and methylprednisolone pulse therapy. An assessment of aphasia on day 98 revealed transcortical sensory aphasia. Brain MRI showed lesion in the left temporal lobe, bilateral insular cortexes and bilateral frontal lobe. His higher brain dysfunction continued. On day 156, he underwent hip replacement arthroplasty under general anesthesia sevoflurane. His higher brain dysfunction rapidly improved thereafter. We concluded that the accelerated improvement in our patient's higher brain function was related to the protective effect of sevoflurane. Some reports also show the protective effects of sevoflurane in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis by inhibition of T cell activation. These protective and anti-inflammatory effects may explain the accelerated improvement in higher brain function after general anesthesia.

  15. BEND3 is involved in the human-specific repression of calreticulin: Implication for the evolution of higher brain functions in human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghajanirefah, A; Nguyen, L N; Ohadi, M

    2016-01-15

    Recent emerging evidence indicates that changes in gene expression levels are linked to human evolution. We have previously reported a human-specific nucleotide in the promoter sequence of the calreticulin (CALR) gene at position -220C, which is the site of action of valproic acid. Reversion of this nucleotide to the ancestral A-allele has been detected in patients with degrees of deficit in higher brain cognitive functions. This mutation has since been reported in the 1000 genomes database at an approximate frequency of brain functions. To our knowledge, CALR rs138452745 is the first instance of enormous nucleotide conservation across evolution, except in the human species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Using assessment of higher brain functions of children with GJB2-associated deafness and cochlear implants as a procedure to evaluate language development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Akihiro; Fukushima, Kunihiro; Kataoka, Yuko; Fukuda, Shoichiro; Nishizaki, Kazunori

    2006-08-01

    While investigators have reported that patients with GJB2-associated deafness and cochlear implants have preferable language development, the mechanisms of this phenomenon remains unknown. The goal of the present study was to assess higher brain functions of patients with GJB2-related and GJB2-unrelated deafness as a method of evaluating language development. Eight children with cochlear implants were subjected to genetic testing for GJB2 and underwent the Raven colored progressive matrices test, Rey's auditory verbal learning test, Rey's complex figure test, the standardized language test for aphasia, the picture vocabulary test, and the standardized comprehension test for abstract words. Three children were diagnosed with GJB2-related deafness, and five children were diagnosed with GJB2-unrelated deafness. All three GJB2-related cases demonstrated normal range higher brain functions and fair language development. By contrast, one GJB2-unrelated case showed a semantic disorder, another demonstrated a visual cognitive disorder with dyslexia, and another had attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder. Children with GJB2-unrelated deafness showed a high frequency of heterogeneous disorders that can affect proper language development. This difference between children with GJB2-related and GJB2-unrelated deafness may account for the improved language development in children with GJB2-related deafness and cochlear implants. Further, genetic diagnosis of the non-syndromic hearing loss represents a useful tool for the preoperative prediction of outcomes following a cochlear implant procedure.

  17. Lutein and Brain Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W. Erdman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Lutein is one of the most prevalent carotenoids in nature and in the human diet. Together with zeaxanthin, it is highly concentrated as macular pigment in the foveal retina of primates, attenuating blue light exposure, providing protection from photo-oxidation and enhancing visual performance. Recently, interest in lutein has expanded beyond the retina to its possible contributions to brain development and function. Only primates accumulate lutein within the brain, but little is known about its distribution or physiological role. Our team has begun to utilize the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta model to study the uptake and bio-localization of lutein in the brain. Our overall goal has been to assess the association of lutein localization with brain function. In this review, we will first cover the evolution of the non-human primate model for lutein and brain studies, discuss prior association studies of lutein with retina and brain function, and review approaches that can be used to localize brain lutein. We also describe our approach to the biosynthesis of 13C-lutein, which will allow investigation of lutein flux, localization, metabolism and pharmacokinetics. Lastly, we describe potential future research opportunities.

  18. [Polyfunctionality of neurons: blocking of the extreme pathological afferentation leads to an improvement of the higher functions of the brain (on the example of patients in a vegetative state)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaĭnshenker, Iu I; Ivchenko, I M; Korotkov, A D; Kataeva, G V; Medvedev, S V

    2013-01-01

    In this paper possible mechanism of improvement of the functional state of the brain areas, maintaining movement, visual, auditory, and higher functions of the brain during correction of generalized spastic syndrome (botulinotherapy with Xeomin) in patients in a vegetative state (VS) is discussed. If to consider the vegetative state as stable pathological condition (SPC) of the brain, then from the perspective of the theory of structural and functional organization of the brain with systems with rigid and flexible elements (N.P. Behtereva), the therapy led to an unbalance of SPC, "functional release" of neurons and redistribution of their functions to provide other activities, the formation of new interneuronal connections. Taking into account the functional variability of neurons (S.V. Medvedev), blocking neuromuscular transmission in spastic muscles leads to a reduction of abnormal afferent and efferent hyperactivity of motor and sensory neuronal circuits, which releases the brain for other activities. This allows to consider botulinotherapy of pharmacoresistant muscle spasticity in patients in VS and minimal consciousness, not only as a symptomatic treatment, but also as a "indirect neuroprotection".

  19. What are Higher Psychological Functions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomela, Aaro

    2016-03-01

    The concept of Higher Psychological Functions (HPFs) may seem to be well know in psychology today. Yet closer analysis reveals that HPFs are either not defined at all or if defined, then by a set of characteristics not justified theoretically. It is not possible to determine whether HPFs exist or not, unless they are defined. Most commonly the idea of HPFs is related to Vygotsky's theory. According to him, HPFs are: (1) psychological systems, (2) developing from natural processes, (3) mediated by symbols, (4) forms of psychological cooperation, which are (5) internalized in the course of development, (6) products of historical development, (7) conscious and (8) voluntary (9) active forms of adaptation to the environment, (10) dynamically changing in development, and (11) ontogeny of HPFs recapitulates cultural history. In this article these characteristics are discussed together with the relations among them. It is concluded that HPFs are real psychological phenomena.

  20. Gender Differences in Brain Functional Connectivity Density

    OpenAIRE

    Tomasi, Dardo; Volkow, Nora D.

    2011-01-01

    The neural bases of gender differences in emotional, cognitive, and socials behaviors are largely unknown. Here, magnetic resonance imaging data from 336 women and 225 men revealed a gender dimorphism in the functional organization of the brain. Consistently across five research sites, women had 14% higher local functional connectivity density (lFCD) and up to 5% higher gray matter density than men in cortical and subcortical regions. The negative power scaling of the lFCD was steeper for men...

  1. Disorder of higher visual function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Jason J S

    2011-02-01

    Both monkey and human neuroimaging studies show that visual processing beyond the striate cortex involves a highly complex network of regions with modular functions. Lesions within this network lead to specific clinical syndromes. In this review we discuss studies on blindsight, which is the ability of remaining regions to support vision in the absence of striate cortex or visual awareness, recent work on 'ventral stream' syndromes such as object agnosia, alexia, prosopagnosia, and topographagnosia, which follow damage to medial occipitotemporal structures, and simultanagnosia, the classic 'dorsal stream' deficit related to bilateral occipitoparietal lesions. We highlight work on the anatomic basis of blindsight, the recent description of the new disorder developmental topographic disorientation, and studies contrasting global and local perception in simultanagnosia. These studies advance our understanding of the mechanisms of complex visual processing and provide an important neuropsychological complement to our expanding knowledge about vision from functional neuroimaging.

  2. Integrating Retinoic Acid Signaling with Brain Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Tuanlian; Wagner, Elisabeth; Drager, Ursula C.

    2009-01-01

    The vitamin A derivative retinoic acid (RA) regulates the transcription of about a 6th of the human genome. Compelling evidence indicates a role of RA in cognitive activities, but its integration with the molecular mechanisms of higher brain functions is not known. Here we describe the properties of RA signaling in the mouse, which point to…

  3. Functional Brain Imaging: A Comprehensive Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Sarraf, Saman

    2016-01-01

    Functional brain imaging allows measuring dynamic functionality in all brain regions. It is broadly used in clinical cognitive neuroscience as, well as in research. It will allow the observation of neural activities in the brain simultaneously. From the beginning when functional brain imaging was initiated by the mapping of brain functions proposed by phrenologists, many scientists were asking why we need to image brain functionality since we have already structural information. Simply, their important question was including a great answer. Functional information of the human brain would definitely complement structural information, helping to have a better understanding of what is happening in the brain. This paper, which could be useful to those who have an interest in functional brain imaging, such as engineers, will present a quick review of modalities used in functional brain imaging. We will concentrate on the most used techniques in functional imaging which are functional magnetic resonance imaging (fM...

  4. Brain Functioning and Creative Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinatra, Richard

    1984-01-01

    The paper explores five major facets of brain functioning in relation to gifted and creative behavior. Emphasis is placed on ways that the educational establishment can cultivate the stages of the creative process for the verbally gifted, the nonverbally gifted, and for young children. (Author/CL)

  5. Disrupted functional brain networks in autistic toddlers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, M.; Kemner, C.; Reus, M.A. de; Collin, G; Snijders, T.M.; Hofman, D.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Stam, C.J.; Heuvel, M.P. van den

    2013-01-01

    Communication and integration of information between brain regions plays a key role in healthy brain function. Conversely, disruption in brain communication may lead to cognitive and behavioral problems. Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is characterized by impaired social interactions

  6. Vitamin K and brain function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferland, Guylaine

    2013-11-01

    One of the fat-soluble vitamins, vitamin K was initially discovered for its role in blood coagulation. Although several vitamin K-dependent hemostatic proteins are particularly important for the brain, other vitamin K-dependent proteins (VKDPs), not associated with blood coagulation, also contribute to the brain function. In addition to the VKDPs, vitamin K participates in the nervous system through its involvement in sphingolipid metabolism, a class of lipids widely present in brain cell membranes. Classically known for their structural role, sphingolipids are biologically potent molecules involved in a wide range of cellular actions. Also, there is growing evidence that the K vitamer, menaquinone-4, has anti-inflammatory activity and offers protection against oxidative stress. Finally, although limited in numbers, reports point to a modulatory role of vitamin K in cognition. This short review presents an overview of the known role of vitamin K in brain function to date. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  7. The restless brain: how intrinsic activity organizes brain function

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Raichle, Marcus E

    2015-01-01

    .... I suggest that the latter view best captures the essence of brain function, a position that accords well with the allocation of the brain's energy resources, its limited access to sensory information...

  8. Mapping distributed brain function and networks with diffuse optical tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggebrecht, Adam T.; Ferradal, Silvina L.; Robichaux-Viehoever, Amy; Hassanpour, Mahlega S.; Dehghani, Hamid; Snyder, Abraham Z.; Hershey, Tamara; Culver, Joseph P.

    2014-06-01

    Mapping of human brain function has revolutionized systems neuroscience. However, traditional functional neuroimaging by positron emission tomography or functional magnetic resonance imaging cannot be used when applications require portability, or are contraindicated because of ionizing radiation (positron emission tomography) or implanted metal (functional magnetic resonance imaging). Optical neuroimaging offers a non-invasive alternative that is radiation free and compatible with implanted metal and electronic devices (for example, pacemakers). However, optical imaging technology has heretofore lacked the combination of spatial resolution and wide field of view sufficient to map distributed brain functions. Here, we present a high-density diffuse optical tomography imaging array that can map higher-order, distributed brain function. The system was tested by imaging four hierarchical language tasks and multiple resting-state networks including the dorsal attention and default mode networks. Finally, we imaged brain function in patients with Parkinson's disease and implanted deep brain stimulators that preclude functional magnetic resonance imaging.

  9. Higher-Order Minimal Functional Graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Neil D; Rosendahl, Mads

    1994-01-01

    We present a minimal function graph semantics for a higher-order functional language with applicative evaluation order. The semantics captures the intermediate calls performed during the evaluation of a program. This information may be used in abstract interpretation as a basis for proving...

  10. Functional brain imaging; Funktionelle Hirnbildgebung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gizewski, E.R. [Medizinische Universitaet Innsbruck, Universitaetsklinik fuer Neuroradiologie, Innsbruck (Austria)

    2016-02-15

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a non-invasive method that has become one of the major tools for understanding human brain function and in recent years has also been developed for clinical applications. Changes in hemodynamic signals correspond to changes in neuronal activity with good spatial and temporal resolution in fMRI. Using high-field MR systems and increasingly dedicated statistics and postprocessing, activated brain areas can be detected and superimposed on anatomical images. Currently, fMRI data are often combined in multimodal imaging, e. g. with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) sequences. This method is helping to further understand the physiology of cognitive brain processes and is also being used in a number of clinical applications. In addition to the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signals, this article deals with the construction of fMRI investigations, selection of paradigms and evaluation in the clinical routine. Clinically, this method is mainly used in the planning of brain surgery, analyzing the location of brain tumors in relation to eloquent brain areas and the lateralization of language processing. As the BOLD signal is dependent on the strength of the magnetic field as well as other limitations, an overview of recent developments is given. Increases of magnetic field strength (7 T), available head coils and advances in MRI analytical methods have led to constant improvement in fMRI signals and experimental design. Especially the depiction of eloquent brain regions can be done easily and quickly and has become an essential part of presurgical planning. (orig.) [German] Mittlerweile ist die funktionelle MRT (fMRT) eine Methode, die nicht mehr nur in der neurowissenschaftlichen Routine verwendet wird. Die fMRT ermoeglicht die nichtinvasive Darstellung der Hirnaktivitaet in guter raeumlicher und zeitlicher Aufloesung unter Ausnutzung der Durchblutungsaenderung aufgrund der erhoehten Nervenzellaktivitaet. Unter

  11. Brain Modulyzer: Interactive Visual Analysis of Functional Brain Connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugesan, Sugeerth; Bouchard, Kristofer; Brown, Jesse A.; Hamann, Bernd; Seeley, William W.; Trujillo, Andrew; Weber, Gunther H.

    2017-01-01

    We present Brain Modulyzer, an interactive visual exploration tool for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) brain scans, aimed at analyzing the correlation between different brain regions when resting or when performing mental tasks. Brain Modulyzer combines multiple coordinated views—such as heat maps, node link diagrams and anatomical views—using brushing and linking to provide an anatomical context for brain connectivity data. Integrating methods from graph theory and analysis, e.g., community detection and derived graph measures, makes it possible to explore the modular and hierarchical organization of functional brain networks. Providing immediate feedback by displaying analysis results instantaneously while changing parameters gives neuroscientists a powerful means to comprehend complex brain structure more effectively and efficiently and supports forming hypotheses that can then be validated via statistical analysis. To demonstrate the utility of our tool, we present two case studies—exploring progressive supranuclear palsy, as well as memory encoding and retrieval. PMID:28113724

  12. Brain Modulyzer: Interactive Visual Analysis of Functional Brain Connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugesan, Sugeerth; Bouchard, Kristofer; Brown, Jesse A; Hamann, Bernd; Seeley, William W; Trujillo, Andrew; Weber, Gunther H

    2016-05-09

    We present Brain Modulyzer, an interactive visual exploration tool for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) brain scans, aimed at analyzing the correlation between different brain regions when resting or when performing mental tasks. Brain Modulyzer combines multiple coordinated views-such as heat maps, node link diagrams and anatomical views-using brushing and linking to provide an anatomical context for brain connectivity data. Integrating methods from graph theory and analysis, e.g., community detection and derived graph measures, makes it possible to explore the modular and hierarchical organization of functional brain networks. Providing immediate feedback by displaying analysis results instantaneously while changing parameters gives neuroscientists a powerful means to comprehend complex brain structure more effectively and efficiently and supports forming hypotheses that can then be validated via statistical analysis. To demonstrate the utility of our tool, we present two case studies-exploring progressive supranuclear palsy, as well as memory encoding and retrieval.

  13. Toward discovery science of human brain function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biswal, Bharat B; Mennes, Maarten; Zuo, Xi-Nian

    2010-01-01

    Although it is being successfully implemented for exploration of the genome, discovery science has eluded the functional neuroimaging community. The core challenge remains the development of common paradigms for interrogating the myriad functional systems in the brain without the constraints...... individual's functional connectome exhibits unique features, with stable, meaningful interindividual differences in connectivity patterns and strengths. Comprehensive mapping of the functional connectome, and its subsequent exploitation to discern genetic influences and brain-behavior relationships...... in the brain. To initiate discovery science of brain function, the 1000 Functional Connectomes Project dataset is freely accessible at www.nitrc.org/projects/fcon_1000/....

  14. Behavioral and Brain Functions. A new journal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagvolden Terje

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Behavioral and Brain Functions (BBF is an Open Access, peer-reviewed, online journal considering original research, review, and modeling articles in all aspects of neurobiology or behavior, favoring research that relates to both domains. Behavioral and Brain Functions is published by BioMed Central. The greatest challenge for empirical science is to understand human behavior; how human behavior arises from the myriad functions such as attention, language, memory and emotion; how these functions are reflected in brain structures and functions; and how the brain and behavior are altered in disease. Behavioral and Brain Functions covers the entire area of behavioral and cognitive neuroscience – an area where animal studies traditionally play a prominent role. Behavioral and Brain Functions is published online, allowing unlimited space for figures, extensive datasets to allow readers to study the data for themselves, and moving pictures, which are important qualities assisting communication in modern science.

  15. Extending CASL with Higher-order Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne; Krieg-Brückner, Bernd; Mossakowski, Till

    1998-01-01

    We present a proposal for the design of the higher-order extension of CASL. For each design step, we have tried to find the best of several possible alternatives, give a motivation for the preferred alternative and argue why the other alternatives are not taken. This note discusses function space...

  16. Korea Brain Initiative: Integration and Control of Brain Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Sung-Jin; Lee, Haejin; Hur, Eun-Mi; Choe, Youngshik; Koo, Ja Wook; Rah, Jong-Cheol; Lee, Kea Joo; Lim, Hyun-Ho; Sun, Woong; Moon, Cheil; Kim, Kyungjin

    2016-11-02

    This article introduces the history and the long-term goals of the Korea Brain Initiative, which is centered on deciphering the brain functions and mechanisms that mediate the integration and control of brain functions that underlie decision-making. The goal of this initiative is the mapping of a functional connectome with searchable, multi-dimensional, and information-integrated features. The project also includes the development of novel technologies and neuro-tools for integrated brain mapping. Beyond the scientific goals this grand endeavor will ultimately have socioeconomic ramifications that not only facilitate global collaboration in the neuroscience community, but also develop various brain science-related industrial and medical innovations. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Disrupted functional brain networks in autistic toddlers

    OpenAIRE

    Boersma, M.; Kemner, C.; M. de Reus; Collin, G; Snijders, T.; Hofman, D.; Buitelaar, J.; Stam, C.; van den Heuvel, M

    2013-01-01

    Communication and integration of information between brain regions plays a key role in healthy brain function. Conversely, disruption in brain communication may lead to cognitive and behavioral problems. Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is characterized by impaired social interactions and aberrant basic information processing. Aberrant brain connectivity patterns have indeed been hypothesized to be a key neural underpinning of autism. In this study, graph analytical tools are used...

  18. Imaging of brain function based on the analysis of functional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Acupuncture at LR3 mainly specifically activated the brain functional network that participates in visual function, associative function, and emotion cognition, which are similar to the features on LR3 in tradition Chinese medicine. These brain areas constituted a neural network structure with specific functions that ...

  19. BRAIN GYM IMPROVES COGNITIVE FUNCTION FOR ELDERLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ah. Yusuf

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The degradation of cognitive function present early dementia in elderly. Brain gym is one of the alternative implementation to improve the cognitive function of elderly. The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of brain gym to the improvement of cognitive function in elderly. Method: This study used Quasy Experimental design. The populations were elderly in Social Service Unit Tresna Werdha Lamongan. The samples were recruited using purposive sampling, consist of 30 respondents, taken according to the inclusion criteria. Samples then divided into 2 groups, experimental groups and control groups. The independent variable of research this study was brain gym and the dependent variable was cognitive function at elderly. Data were collected by using MMSE score and then analyzed using Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test and Mann Whitney Test with level of significance α ≤ 0.05. Result: Result showed that there is an effect of brain gym to the improvement of cognitive function in elderly (p = 0.001. The difference of cognitive function also seen between experimental groups and control groups (p = 0.001. Discussion: The conclusion of this research is brain gym improve cognitive function in elderly. The simple movement of brain gym able to coordinate the brain function so the brain activity become more optimal hence the improvement of memory function, recall and concentration.

  20. Toward discovery science of human brain function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswal, Bharat B; Mennes, Maarten; Zuo, Xi-Nian; Gohel, Suril; Kelly, Clare; Smith, Steve M; Beckmann, Christian F; Adelstein, Jonathan S; Buckner, Randy L; Colcombe, Stan; Dogonowski, Anne-Marie; Ernst, Monique; Fair, Damien; Hampson, Michelle; Hoptman, Matthew J; Hyde, James S; Kiviniemi, Vesa J; Kötter, Rolf; Li, Shi-Jiang; Lin, Ching-Po; Lowe, Mark J; Mackay, Clare; Madden, David J; Madsen, Kristoffer H; Margulies, Daniel S; Mayberg, Helen S; McMahon, Katie; Monk, Christopher S; Mostofsky, Stewart H; Nagel, Bonnie J; Pekar, James J; Peltier, Scott J; Petersen, Steven E; Riedl, Valentin; Rombouts, Serge A R B; Rypma, Bart; Schlaggar, Bradley L; Schmidt, Sein; Seidler, Rachael D; Siegle, Greg J; Sorg, Christian; Teng, Gao-Jun; Veijola, Juha; Villringer, Arno; Walter, Martin; Wang, Lihong; Weng, Xu-Chu; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Williamson, Peter; Windischberger, Christian; Zang, Yu-Feng; Zhang, Hong-Ying; Castellanos, F Xavier; Milham, Michael P

    2010-03-09

    Although it is being successfully implemented for exploration of the genome, discovery science has eluded the functional neuroimaging community. The core challenge remains the development of common paradigms for interrogating the myriad functional systems in the brain without the constraints of a priori hypotheses. Resting-state functional MRI (R-fMRI) constitutes a candidate approach capable of addressing this challenge. Imaging the brain during rest reveals large-amplitude spontaneous low-frequency (science of brain function, the 1000 Functional Connectomes Project dataset is freely accessible at www.nitrc.org/projects/fcon_1000/.

  1. The Disconnected Brain and Executive Function Decline in Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjell, Anders M; Sneve, Markus H; Grydeland, Håkon; Storsve, Andreas B; Walhovd, Kristine B

    2017-03-01

    Higher order speeded cognitive abilities depend on efficient coordination of activity across the brain, rendering them vulnerable to age reductions in structural and functional brain connectivity. The concept of "disconnected aging" has been invoked, suggesting that degeneration of connections between distant brain regions cause cognitive reductions. However, it has not been shown that changes in cognitive functions over time can be explained by simultaneous changes in brain connectivity. We followed 119 young and middle-aged (23-52 years) and older (63-86 years) adults for 3.3 years with repeated assessments of structural and functional brain connectivity and executive functions. We found unique age-related longitudinal reductions in executive function over and above changes in more basic cognitive processes. Intriguingly, 82.5% of the age-related decline in executive function could be explained by changes in connectivity over time. While both structural and functional connectivity changes were related to longitudinal reductions in executive function, only structural connectivity change could explain the age-specific decline. This suggests that the major part of the age-related reductions in executive function can be attributed to micro- and macrostructural alterations in brain connectivity. Although correlational in nature, we believe the present results constitute evidence for a "disconnected brain" view on cognitive aging. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. A distinct boundary between the higher brain's susceptibility to ischemia and the lower brain's resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Devin Brisson

    Full Text Available Higher brain regions are more susceptible to global ischemia than the brainstem, but is there a gradual increase in vulnerability in the caudal-rostral direction or is there a discrete boundary? We examined the interface between `higher` thalamus and the hypothalamus the using live brain slices where variation in blood flow is not a factor. Whole-cell current clamp recording of 18 thalamic neurons in response to 10 min O2/glucose deprivation (OGD revealed a rapid anoxic depolarization (AD from which thalamic neurons do not recover. Newly acquired neurons could not be patched following AD, confirming significant regional thalamic injury. Coinciding with AD, light transmittance (LT imaging during whole-cell recording showed an elevated LT front that initiated in midline thalamus and that propagated into adjacent hypothalamus. However, hypothalamic neurons patched in paraventricular nucleus (PVN, n= 8 magnocellular and 12 parvocellular neurons and suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN, n= 18 only slowly depolarized as AD passed through these regions. And with return to control aCSF, hypothalamic neurons repolarized and recovered their input resistance and action potential amplitude. Moreover, newly acquired hypothalamic neurons could be readily patched following exposure to OGD, with resting parameters similar to neurons not previously exposed to OGD. Thalamic susceptibility and hypothalamic resilience were also observed following ouabain exposure which blocks the Na(+/K(+ pump, evoking depolarization similar to OGD in all neuronal types tested. Finally, brief exposure to elevated [K(+]o caused spreading depression (SD, a milder, AD-like event only in thalamic neurons so SD generation is regionally correlated with strong AD. Therefore the thalamus-hypothalamus interface represents a discrete boundary where neuronal vulnerability to ischemia is high in thalamus (like more rostral neocortex, striatum, hippocampus. In contrast hypothalamic neurons are

  3. Higher cortical modulation of pain perception in the human brain: Psychological determinant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Andrew Cn

    2009-10-01

    Pain perception and its genesis in the human brain have been reviewed recently. In the current article, the reports on pain modulation in the human brain were reviewed from higher cortical regulation, i.e. top-down effect, particularly studied in psychological determinants. Pain modulation can be examined by gene therapy, physical modulation, pharmacological modulation, psychological modulation, and pathophysiological modulation. In psychological modulation, this article examined (a) willed determination, (b) distraction, (c) placebo, (d) hypnosis, (e) meditation, (f) qi-gong, (g) belief, and (h) emotions, respectively, in the brain function for pain modulation. In each, the operational definition, cortical processing, neuroimaging, and pain modulation were systematically deliberated. However, not all studies had featured the brain modulation processing but rather demonstrated potential effects on human pain. In our own studies on the emotional modulation on human pain, we observed that emotions could be induced from music melodies or pictures perception for reduction of tonic human pain, mainly in potentiation of the posterior alpha EEG fields, likely resulted from underneath activities of precuneous in regulation of consciousness, including pain perception. To sum, higher brain functions become the leading edge research in all sciences. How to solve the information bit of thinking and feeling in the brain can be the greatest challenge of human intelligence. Application of higher cortical modulation of human pain and suffering can lead to the progress of social humanity and civilization.

  4. Insulin Action in Brain Regulates Systemic Metabolism and Brain Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinridders, André; Ferris, Heather A.; Cai, Weikang

    2014-01-01

    Insulin receptors, as well as IGF-1 receptors and their postreceptor signaling partners, are distributed throughout the brain. Insulin acts on these receptors to modulate peripheral metabolism, including regulation of appetite, reproductive function, body temperature, white fat mass, hepatic glucose output, and response to hypoglycemia. Insulin signaling also modulates neurotransmitter channel activity, brain cholesterol synthesis, and mitochondrial function. Disruption of insulin action in the brain leads to impairment of neuronal function and synaptogenesis. In addition, insulin signaling modulates phosphorylation of tau protein, an early component in the development of Alzheimer disease. Thus, alterations in insulin action in the brain can contribute to metabolic syndrome, and the development of mood disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:24931034

  5. Higher brain extracellular potassium is associated with brain metabolic distress and poor outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Elevated brain potassium levels ([K+]) are associated with neuronal damage in experimental models. The role of brain extracellular [K+] in patients with poor-grade aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) and its association with hemorrhage load, metabolic dysfunction and outcome has not been studied so far. Methods Cerebral microdialysis (CMD) samples from 28 poor grade aSAH patients were analyzed for CMD [K+] for 12 consecutive days after ictus, and time-matched to brain metabolic and hemodynamic parameters as well as corresponding plasma [K+]. Statistical analysis was performed using a generalized estimating equation with an autoregressive function to handle repeated observations of an individual patient. Results CMD [K+] did not correlate with plasma [K+] (Spearman’s ρ = 0.114, P = 0.109). Higher CMD [K+] was associated with the presence of intracerebral hematoma on admission head computed tomography, CMD lactate/pyruvate ratio >40 and CMD lactate >4 mmol/L (P < 0.05). In vitro retrodialysis data suggest that high CMD [K+] was of brain cellular origin. Higher CMD [K+] was significantly associated with poor 3-month outcome, even after adjusting for age and disease severity (P < 0.01). Conclusions The results of this pilot study suggest that brain extracellular [K+] may serve as a biomarker for brain tissue injury in poor-grade aSAH patients. Further studies are needed to elucidate the relevance of brain interstitial K+ levels in the pathophysiology of secondary brain injury after aSAH. PMID:24920041

  6. BRAIN GYM IMPROVES COGNITIVE FUNCTION FOR ELDERLY

    OpenAIRE

    Yusuf, Ah.; Indarwati, Retno; Jayanto, Arifudin Dwi

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The degradation of cognitive function present early dementia in elderly. Brain gym is one of the alternative implementation to improve the cognitive function of elderly. The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of brain gym to the improvement of cognitive function in elderly. Method: This study used Quasy Experimental design. The populations were elderly in Social Service Unit Tresna Werdha Lamongan. The samples were recruited using purposive sampling, consist of 30...

  7. Behavioral and Brain Functions. A new journal

    OpenAIRE

    Sagvolden Terje

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Behavioral and Brain Functions (BBF) is an Open Access, peer-reviewed, online journal considering original research, review, and modeling articles in all aspects of neurobiology or behavior, favoring research that relates to both domains. Behavioral and Brain Functions is published by BioMed Central. The greatest challenge for empirical science is to understand human behavior; how human behavior arises from the myriad functions such as attention, language, memory and emotion; how the...

  8. Functions Of Higher Professional Foreign Language Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Bogatyreova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is about the functions of professional higher education dealing with the sphere of foreign languages (FL. There are all indications that these functions are mainly determined by the higher education objectives, the dominating role that foreign languages play in modern society and politics. The analysis of existing linguistic concepts (up to the ХХ-th century as well as the current state of FL educational system, testifies to the fact that a number of urgent and indispensable changes are needed. The desirable transformations are aimed to amplify the contents of the functional burden of professional FL education. According to the provisions of the latest state standards, the transmission to new paradigms of thinking is primarily provided by the innovation modus, that is intended to steadily develop sociocultural technologies, improve the contents of FL education, increase the effectiveness of students' achievements, work out a new system of monitoring, controlling and assessing academic results. However, multi-media techniques and strategies should be associated with the anthropological paradigm, capable of driving in motion the "front-running" mechanism of sociocultural reproduction. That means that graduates' FL proficiency, alongside with influence, property and benefit, is becoming the most important indicator of social status in modern society. Consequently, multifunctional FL education is supposed to reflect the formation of axiological values of students, their inner motives and personal attitudes that, being embodied in the creative products of speech, exercise an essential impact on valuable society orientations. Evidently, society is intellectual to an extent it applies knowledge which was accumulated in the cultural gene pool of humanity. It is just through the educational channel that the basic value of culture performs the function of adjusting objective reality to individuals' goals and their meaningful implications

  9. FUNCTIONS OF HIGHER PROFESSIONAL FOREIGN LANGUAGE EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Bogatyreova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is about the functions of professional higher education dealing with the sphere of foreign languages (FL. There are all indications that these functions are mainly determined by the higher education objectives, the dominating role that foreign languages play in modern society and politics. The analysis of existing linguistic concepts (up to the ХХ-th century as well as the current state of FL educational system, testifies to the fact that a number of urgent and indispensable changes are needed. The desirable transformations are aimed to amplify the contents of the functional burden of professional FL education. According to the provisions of the latest state standards, the transmission to new paradigms of thinking is primarily provided by the innovation modus, that is intended to steadily develop sociocultural technologies, improve the contents of FL education, increase the effectiveness of students' achievements, work out a new system of monitoring, controlling and assessing academic results. However, multi-media techniques and strategies should be associated with the anthropological paradigm, capable of driving in motion the "front-running" mechanism of sociocultural reproduction. That means that graduates' FL proficiency, alongside with influence, property and benefit, is becoming the most important indicator of social status in modern society. Consequently, multifunctional FL education is supposed to reflect the formation of axiological values of students, their inner motives and personal attitudes that, being embodied in the creative products of speech, exercise an essential impact on valuable society orientations. Evidently, society is intellectual to an extent it applies knowledge which was accumulated in the cultural gene pool of humanity. It is just through the educational channel that the basic value of culture performs the function of adjusting objective reality to individuals' goals and their meaningful implications

  10. Neuroenergetics: How energy constraints shape brain function

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    The nervous system consumes a disproportionate fraction of the resting body’s energy production. In humans, the brain represents 2% of the body’s mass, yet it accounts for ~20% of the total oxygen consumption. Expansion in the size of the brain relative to the body and an increase in the number of connections between neurons during evolution underpin our cognitive powers and are responsible for our brains’ high metabolic rate. The molecules at the center of cellular energy metabolism also act as intercellular signals and constitute an important communication pathway, coordinating for instance the immune surveillance of the brain. Despite the significance of energy consumption in the nervous system, how energy constrains and shapes brain function is often under appreciated. I will illustrate the importance of brain energetics and metabolism with two examples from my recent work. First, I will show how the brain trades information for energy savings in the visual pathway. Indeed, a significant fraction ...

  11. DHA effects in brain development and function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Lotte; Brambilla, Paola; Mazzocchi, Allesandra

    2016-01-01

    the endogenous formation of DHA seems to be relatively low, DHA intake may contribute to optimal conditions for brain development. We performed a narrative review on research on the associations between DHA levels and brain development and function throughout the lifespan. Data from cell and animal studies...... justify the indication of DHA in relation to brain function for neuronal cell growth and differentiation as well as in relation to neuronal signaling. Most data from human studies concern the contribution of DHA to optimal visual acuity development. Accumulating data indicate that DHA may have effects...... a role of DHA in cognitive decline and in relation to major psychiatric disorders....

  12. Impact of dietary fats on brain functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chianese, Rosanna; Coccurello, Roberto; Viggiano, Andrea; Scafuro, Marika; Fiore, Marco; Coppola, Giangennaro; Operto, Francesca Felicia; Fasano, Silvia; Layé, Sophie; Pierantoni, Riccardo; Meccariello, Rosaria

    2017-10-17

    Adequate dietary intake and nutritional status have important effects on brain functions and on brain health. Energy intake and specific nutrients excess or deficiency from diet differently affect cognitive processes, emotions, behaviour, neuroendocrine functions and synaptic plasticity with possible protective or detrimental effects on neuronal physiology. Lipids, in particular, play structural and functional roles in neurons. Here the importance of dietary fats and the need to understand the brain mechanisms activated by peripheral and central metabolic sensors. Thus, the manipulation of lifestyle factors such as dietary interventions may represent a successful therapeutic approach to maintain and preserve brain health along lifespan. This review aims at summarizing the impact of dietary fats on brain functions. Starting from fat consumption, nutrient sensing and food-related reward, the impact of gut-brain communications will be discussed in brain health and disease. A specific focus will be on the impact of fats on the molecular pathways within the hypothalamus involved in the control of reproduction via the expression and the release of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone. Lastly, the effects of specific lipid classes such as polyunsaturated fatty acids and of the "fattest" of all diets, commonly known as "ketogenic diets", on brain functions will also be discussed. Despite the knowledge of the molecular mechanisms is still a work in progress, the clinical relevance of the manipulation of dietary fats is well acknowledged and such manipulations are in fact currently in use for the treatment of brain diseases. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  13. Mobile Phone Application for Supporting Persons with Higher Brain Dysfunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Tsuyoshi; Miyaji, Yuka; Kato, Seishi; Sakurada, Nobuhisa; Ueda, Noriyuki; Nomura, Takayuki; Okaya, Kazunori; Uematsu, Hiroshi; Kimura, Eiji

    This paper shows a mobile phone application for supporting persons with higher brain dysfunction (HBD) such as a cognitive disorder, a memory disorder, and an attention-deficit disorder. This application serves them as a schedule manager, an alarm and an instructor of work sequences. The development concept of this application is easy handling and simple display, because persons with HBD are easily bewildered by complex procedures in the work. Five persons with HBD participated in the experiments for assessing the application at the vocational training place. The use of the application resulted in the drastic decrease of the number of errors and the increase of the System Usability Score, indicating that the developed application is useful for persons with HBD especially in performing vocational training tasks such as the use of database software on PC.

  14. Functional brain network modularity predicts response to cognitive training after brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnemann, Katelyn L; Chen, Anthony J-W; Novakovic-Agopian, Tatjana; Gratton, Caterina; Nomura, Emi M; D'Esposito, Mark

    2015-04-14

    We tested the value of measuring modularity, a graph theory metric indexing the relative extent of integration and segregation of distributed functional brain networks, for predicting individual differences in response to cognitive training in patients with brain injury. Patients with acquired brain injury (n = 11) participated in 5 weeks of cognitive training and a comparison condition (brief education) in a crossover intervention study design. We quantified the measure of functional brain network organization, modularity, from functional connectivity networks during a state of tonic attention regulation measured during fMRI scanning before the intervention conditions. We examined the relationship of baseline modularity with pre- to posttraining changes in neuropsychological measures of attention and executive control. The modularity of brain network organization at baseline predicted improvement in attention and executive function after cognitive training, but not after the comparison intervention. Individuals with higher baseline modularity exhibited greater improvements with cognitive training, suggesting that a more modular baseline network state may contribute to greater adaptation in response to cognitive training. Brain network properties such as modularity provide valuable information for understanding mechanisms that influence rehabilitation of cognitive function after brain injury, and may contribute to the discovery of clinically relevant biomarkers that could guide rehabilitation efforts. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  15. Brain plasticity and recovery of cognitive functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Čuš

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Through its capacity of plastic changes, the adult brain enables successful dealing with new demands of everyday life and recovery after an acquired brain damage either spontaneously or by the help of rehabilitation interventions. Studies which explored the effects of cognitive training in the normal population report on different types of changes in the performance of cognitive tasks as well as different types of changes in brain activation patterns.Following practice, brain activation can change in its extent, intensity or location, while cognitive processes can become more efficient or can be replaced by different processes.After acquired brain damage plastic changes are somewhat different. After the injury, the damaged brain area can either gradually regain its previous function, or different brain regions are recruited to perform that function.Studies of spontaneous and guided recovery of cognitive functions have revealed both types of plastic changes that follow each other, as well as significant correlations between these changes and improvement on the behavioural level.

  16. Lead poisoning and brain cell function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, G.W. (Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (USA) Kennedy Institute, Baltimore, MD (USA))

    1990-11-01

    Exposure to excessive amounts of inorganic lead during the toddler years may produce lasting adverse effects upon brain function. Maximal ingestion of lead occurs at an age when major changes are occurring in the density of brain synaptic connections. The developmental reorganization of synapses is, in part, mediated by protein kinases, and these enzymes are particularly sensitive to stimulation by lead. By inappropriately activating specific protein kinases, lead poisoning may disrupt the development of neural networks without producing overt pathological alterations. The blood-brain barrier is another potential vulnerable site for the neurotoxic action of lead. protein kinases appear to regulate the development of brain capillaries and the expression of the blood-brain barrier properties. Stimulation of protein kinase by lead may disrupt barrier development and alter the precise regulation of the neuronal environment that is required for normal brain function. Together, these findings suggest that the sensitivity of protein kinases to lead may in part underlie the brain dysfunction observed in children poisoned by this toxicant.

  17. Metabolism and functions of copper in brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiber, Ivo F; Mercer, Julian F B; Dringen, Ralf

    2014-05-01

    Copper is an important trace element that is required for essential enzymes. However, due to its redox activity, copper can also lead to the generation of toxic reactive oxygen species. Therefore, cellular uptake, storage as well as export of copper have to be tightly regulated in order to guarantee sufficient copper supply for the synthesis of copper-containing enzymes but also to prevent copper-induced oxidative stress. In brain, copper is of importance for normal development. In addition, both copper deficiency as well as excess of copper can seriously affect brain functions. Therefore, this organ possesses ample mechanisms to regulate its copper metabolism. In brain, astrocytes are considered as important regulators of copper homeostasis. Impairments of homeostatic mechanisms in brain copper metabolism have been associated with neurodegeneration in human disorders such as Menkes disease, Wilson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. This review article will summarize the biological functions of copper in the brain and will describe the current knowledge on the mechanisms involved in copper transport, storage and export of brain cells. The role of copper in diseases that have been connected with disturbances in brain copper homeostasis will also be discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Toward discovery science of human brain function.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biswal, B.B.; Mennes, M.J.J.; Zuo, X.N.; Gohel, S.; Kelly, C.; Smith, S.M.; Beckmann, C.F.; Adelstein, J.S.; Buckner, R.L.; Colcombe, S.; Dogonowski, A.M.; Ernst, M.; Fair, D.; Hampson, M.; Hoptman, M.J.; Hyde, J.S.; Kiviniemi, V.J.; Kotter, R.; Li, S.J.; Lin, C.P.; Lowe, M.J.; Mackay, C.; Madden, D.J.; Madsen, K.H.; Margulies, D.S.; Mayberg, H.S.; McMahon, K.; Monk, C.S.; Mostofsky, S.H.; Nagel, B.J.; Pekar, J.J.; Peltier, S.J.; Petersen, S.E.; Riedl, V.; Rombouts, S.A.R.B.; Rypma, B.; Schlaggar, B.L.; Schmidt, S.; Seidler, R.D.; Siegle, G.J.; Sorg, C.; Teng, G.J.; Veijola, J.; Villringer, A.; Walter, M.; Wang, L.; Weng, X.C.; Whitfield-Gabrieli, S.; Williamson, P.; Windischberger, C.; Zang, Y.F.; Zhang, H.Y.; Castellanos, F.X.; Milham, M.P.

    2010-01-01

    Although it is being successfully implemented for exploration of the genome, discovery science has eluded the functional neuroimaging community. The core challenge remains the development of common paradigms for interrogating the myriad functional systems in the brain without the constraints of a

  19. Brain, Mind and Language Functional Architectures

    OpenAIRE

    Fingelkurts, Andrew A.; Fingelkurts, Alexander A.; Marchetti, Giorgio

    2010-01-01

    The interaction between brain and language has been investigated by a vast amount of research and different approaches, which however do not offer a comprehensive and unified theoretical framework to analyze how brain functioning performs the mental processes we use in producing language and in understanding speech. This Special Issue addresses the need to develop such a general theoretical framework, by fostering an interaction among the various scientific disciplines and methodologies, whic...

  20. Copine1 regulates neural stem cell functions during brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Hwan; Sung, Soo-Eun; Cheal Yoo, Jae; Park, Jae-Yong; Yi, Gwan-Su; Heo, Jun Young; Lee, Jae-Ran; Kim, Nam-Soon; Lee, Da Yong

    2018-01-01

    Copine 1 (CPNE1) is a well-known phospholipid binding protein in plasma membrane of various cell types. In brain cells, CPNE1 is closely associated with AKT signaling pathway, which is important for neural stem cell (NSC) functions during brain development. Here, we investigated the role of CPNE1 in the regulation of brain NSC functions during brain development and determined its underlying mechanism. In this study, abundant expression of CPNE1 was observed in neural lineage cells including NSCs and immature neurons in human. With mouse brain tissues in various developmental stages, we found that CPNE1 expression was higher at early embryonic stages compared to postnatal and adult stages. To model developing brain in vitro, we used primary NSCs derived from mouse embryonic hippocampus. Our in vitro study shows decreased proliferation and multi-lineage differentiation potential in CPNE1 deficient NSCs. Finally, we found that the deficiency of CPNE1 downregulated mTOR signaling in embryonic NSCs. These data demonstrate that CPNE1 plays a key role in the regulation of NSC functions through the activation of AKT-mTOR signaling pathway during brain development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Prospects for optogenetic augmentation of brain function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah eJarvis

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The ability to optically control neural activity opens up possibilities for the restoration of normal function following neurological disorders. The temporal precision, spatial resolution and neuronal specificity that optogenetics offers is unequalled by other available methods, so will it be suitable for not only restoring but also extending brain function? As the first demonstrations of optically ``implanted'' novel memories emerge, we examine the suitability of optogenetics as a technique for extending neural function. While optogenetics is an effective tool for altering neural activity, the largest impediment for optogenetics in neural augmentation is our systems level understanding of brain function. Furthermore, a number of clinical limitations currently remain as substantial hurdles for the applications proposed. While neurotechnologies for treating brain disorders and interfacing with prosthetics have advanced rapidly in the past few years, partially addressing some of these critical problems, optogenetics is not yet suitable for use in humans. Instead we conclude that for the immediate future, optogenetics is the neurological equivalent of the 3D printer: its flexibility providing an ideal tool for testing and prototyping solutions for treating brain disorders and augmenting brain function.

  2. Aging and functional brain networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tomasi, D; Volkow, N D

    2012-01-01

    .... To test this hypothesis, we evaluated resting-state data sets corresponding to 913 healthy subjects from a public magnetic resonance imaging database using functional connectivity density mapping (FCDM...

  3. Advantages in functional imaging of the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter eMier

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available As neuronal pathologies cause only minor morphological alterations, molecular imaging techniques are a prerequisite for the study of diseases of the brain. The development of molecular probes that specifically bind biochemical markers and the advances of instrumentation have revolutionized the possibilities to gain insight into the human brain organization and beyond this visualize structure-function and brain-behavior relationships. The review describes the development and current applications of functional brain imaging techniques with a focus on applications in psychiatry. A historical overview of the development of functional imaging is followed by the portrayal of the principles and applications of positron emission tomography (PET and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, two key molecular imaging techniques that have revolutionized the ability to image molecular processes in the brain. In the juxtaposition of PET and fMRI in hybrid PET/MRI scanners enhances the significance of both modalities for research in neurology and psychiatry and might pave the way for a new area of personalized medicine.

  4. Functional neuroimaging of traumatic brain injury: advances and clinical utility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irimia A

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Andrei Irimia, John Darrell Van Horn USC Stevens Neuroimaging and Informatics Institute, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: Functional deficits due to traumatic brain injury (TBI can have significant and enduring consequences upon patients’ life quality and expectancy. Although functional neuroimaging is essential for understanding TBI pathophysiology, an insufficient amount of effort has been dedicated to the task of translating functional neuroimaging findings into information with clinical utility. The purpose of this review is to summarize the use of functional neuroimaging techniques – especially functional magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, positron emission tomography, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and electroencephalography – for advancing current knowledge of TBI-related brain dysfunction and for improving the rehabilitation of TBI patients. We focus on seven core areas of functional deficits, namely consciousness, motor function, attention, memory, higher cognition, personality, and affect, and, for each of these, we summarize recent findings from neuroimaging studies which have provided substantial insight into brain function changes due to TBI. Recommendations are also provided to aid in setting the direction of future neuroimaging research and for understanding brain function changes after TBI. Keywords: cognitive decline, personality change, magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion tensor imaging

  5. Whole-brain functional connectivity identification of functional dyspepsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Jiaofen; Liu, Jixin; Li, Guoying; Xiong, Shiwei; Yan, Xuemei; Yin, Qing; Zeng, Fang; von Deneen, Karen M; Liang, Fanrong; Gong, Qiyong; Qin, Wei; Tian, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Recent neuroimaging studies have shown local brain aberrations in functional dyspepsia (FD) patients, yet little attention has been paid to the whole-brain resting-state functional network abnormalities. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether FD disrupts the patterns of whole-brain networks and the abnormal functional connectivity could reflect the severity of the disease. The dysfunctional interactions between brain regions at rest were investigated in FD patients as compared with 40 age- and gender- matched healthy controls. Multivariate pattern analysis was used to evaluate the discriminative power of our results for classifying patients from controls. In our findings, the abnormal brain functional connections were mainly situated within or across the limbic/paralimbic system, the prefrontal cortex, the tempo-parietal areas and the visual cortex. About 96% of the subjects among the original dataset were correctly classified by a leave one-out cross-validation approach, and 88% accuracy was also validated in a replication dataset. The classification features were significantly associated with the patients' dyspepsia symptoms, the self-rating depression scale and self-rating anxiety scale, but it was not correlated with duration of FD patients (p>0.05). Our results may indicate the effectiveness of the altered brain functional connections reflecting the disease pathophysiology underling FD. These dysfunctional connections may be the epiphenomena or causative agents of FD, which may be affected by clinical severity and its related emotional dimension of the disease rather than the clinical course.

  6. [Preserve brain function...through physical exercice?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garraux, G

    2008-01-01

    Over the last few years, there has been an increasing interest in the relationship between brain function and physical exercise. Preliminary evidence from observational and interventional studies in humans suggests a positive and robust effect of chronic aerobic exercise on several brain functions across the entire lifespan. Physical activity and exercise might also serve to reduce the risk of age-associated neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. The mechanisms underlying these beneficial effects remain poorly understood. More scientific work is needed before disseminating more specific recommendations to the general population.

  7. Visceral Afferent Pathways and Functional Brain Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart W.G. Derbyshire

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of functional imaging to study painful sensations has generated considerable interest regarding insight into brain dysfunction that may be responsible for functional pain such as that suffered in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS. This review provides a brief introduction to the development of brain science as it relates to pain processing and a snapshot of recent functional imaging results with somatic and visceral pain. Particular emphasis is placed on current hypotheses regarding dysfunction of the brain-gut axis in IBS patients. There are clear and interpretable differences in brain activation following somatic as compared with visceral noxious sensation. Noxious visceral distension, particularly of the lower gastrointestinal tract, activates regions associated with unpleasant affect and autonomic responses. Noxious somatic sensation, in contrast, activates regions associated with cognition and skeletomotor responses. Differences between IBS patients and control subjects, however, were far less clear and interpretable. While this is in part due to the newness of this field, it also reflects weaknesses inherent within the current understanding of IBS. Future use of functional imaging to examine IBS and other functional disorders will be more likely to succeed by describing clear theoretical and clinical endpoints.

  8. DHA Effects in Brain Development and Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotte Lauritzen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA is a structural constituent of membranes specifically in the central nervous system. Its accumulation in the fetal brain takes place mainly during the last trimester of pregnancy and continues at very high rates up to the end of the second year of life. Since the endogenous formation of DHA seems to be relatively low, DHA intake may contribute to optimal conditions for brain development. We performed a narrative review on research on the associations between DHA levels and brain development and function throughout the lifespan. Data from cell and animal studies justify the indication of DHA in relation to brain function for neuronal cell growth and differentiation as well as in relation to neuronal signaling. Most data from human studies concern the contribution of DHA to optimal visual acuity development. Accumulating data indicate that DHA may have effects on the brain in infancy, and recent studies indicate that the effect of DHA may depend on gender and genotype of genes involved in the endogenous synthesis of DHA. While DHA levels may affect early development, potential effects are also increasingly recognized during childhood and adult life, suggesting a role of DHA in cognitive decline and in relation to major psychiatric disorders.

  9. Histone deacetylases (HDACs and brain function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude-Henry Volmar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Modulation of gene expression is a constant and necessary event for mammalian brain function. An important way of regulating gene expression is through the remodeling of chromatin, the complex of DNA, and histone proteins around which DNA wraps. The “histone code hypothesis” places histone post-translational modifications as a significant part of chromatin remodeling to regulate transcriptional activity. Acetylation of histones by histone acetyl transferases and deacetylation by histone deacetylases (HDACs at lysine residues are the most studied histone post-translational modifications in cognition and neuropsychiatric diseases. Here, we review the literature regarding the role of HDACs in brain function. Among the roles of HDACs in the brain, studies show that they participate in glial lineage development, learning and memory, neuropsychiatric diseases, and even rare neurologic diseases. Most HDACs can be targeted with small molecules. However, additional brain-penetrant specific inhibitors with high central nervous system exposure are needed to determine the cause-and-effect relationship between individual HDACs and brain-associated diseases.

  10. Structure and function of complex brain networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sporns, Olaf

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of theoretical and empirical studies approach the function of the human brain from a network perspective. The analysis of brain networks is made feasible by the development of new imaging acquisition methods as well as new tools from graph theory and dynamical systems. This review surveys some of these methodological advances and summarizes recent findings on the architecture of structural and functional brain networks. Studies of the structural connectome reveal several modules or network communities that are interlinked by hub regions mediating communication processes between modules. Recent network analyses have shown that network hubs form a densely linked collective called a “rich club,” centrally positioned for attracting and dispersing signal traffic. In parallel, recordings of resting and task-evoked neural activity have revealed distinct resting-state networks that contribute to functions in distinct cognitive domains. Network methods are increasingly applied in a clinical context, and their promise for elucidating neural substrates of brain and mental disorders is discussed. PMID:24174898

  11. Hierarchical modularity in human brain functional networks

    CERN Document Server

    Meunier, D; Fornito, A; Ersche, K D; Bullmore, E T; 10.3389/neuro.11.037.2009

    2010-01-01

    The idea that complex systems have a hierarchical modular organization originates in the early 1960s and has recently attracted fresh support from quantitative studies of large scale, real-life networks. Here we investigate the hierarchical modular (or "modules-within-modules") decomposition of human brain functional networks, measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 18 healthy volunteers under no-task or resting conditions. We used a customized template to extract networks with more than 1800 regional nodes, and we applied a fast algorithm to identify nested modular structure at several hierarchical levels. We used mutual information, 0 < I < 1, to estimate the similarity of community structure of networks in different subjects, and to identify the individual network that is most representative of the group. Results show that human brain functional networks have a hierarchical modular organization with a fair degree of similarity between subjects, I=0.63. The largest 5 modules at ...

  12. Bayesian Modelling of Functional Whole Brain Connectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røge, Rasmus

    the prevalent strategy of standardizing of fMRI time series and model data using directional statistics or we model the variability in the signal across the brain and across multiple subjects. In either case, we use Bayesian nonparametric modeling to automatically learn from the fMRI data the number......This thesis deals with parcellation of whole-brain functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) using Bayesian inference with mixture models tailored to the fMRI data. In the three included papers and manuscripts, we analyze two different approaches to modeling fMRI signal; either we accept...... of funcional units, i.e. parcels. We benchmark the proposed mixture models against state of the art methods of brain parcellation, both probabilistic and non-probabilistic. The time series of each voxel are most often standardized using z-scoring which projects the time series data onto a hypersphere...

  13. A Cellular Perspective on Brain Energy Metabolism and Functional Imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Magistretti, Pierre J.

    2015-05-01

    The energy demands of the brain are high: they account for at least 20% of the body\\'s energy consumption. Evolutionary studies indicate that the emergence of higher cognitive functions in humans is associated with an increased glucose utilization and expression of energy metabolism genes. Functional brain imaging techniques such as fMRI and PET, which are widely used in human neuroscience studies, detect signals that monitor energy delivery and use in register with neuronal activity. Recent technological advances in metabolic studies with cellular resolution have afforded decisive insights into the understanding of the cellular and molecular bases of the coupling between neuronal activity and energy metabolism and pointat a key role of neuron-astrocyte metabolic interactions. This article reviews some of the most salient features emerging from recent studies and aims at providing an integration of brain energy metabolism across resolution scales. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

  14. Nicotine increases brain functional network efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, Korey P; Rojas, Donald C; Tanabe, Jody; Martin, Laura F; Tregellas, Jason R

    2012-10-15

    Despite the use of cholinergic therapies in Alzheimer's disease and the development of cholinergic strategies for schizophrenia, relatively little is known about how the system modulates the connectivity and structure of large-scale brain networks. To better understand how nicotinic cholinergic systems alter these networks, this study examined the effects of nicotine on measures of whole-brain network communication efficiency. Resting state fMRI was acquired from fifteen healthy subjects before and after the application of nicotine or placebo transdermal patches in a single blind, crossover design. Data, which were previously examined for default network activity, were analyzed with network topology techniques to measure changes in the communication efficiency of whole-brain networks. Nicotine significantly increased local efficiency, a parameter that estimates the network's tolerance to local errors in communication. Nicotine also significantly enhanced the regional efficiency of limbic and paralimbic areas of the brain, areas which are especially altered in diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. These changes in network topology may be one mechanism by which cholinergic therapies improve brain function. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Robust transient dynamics and brain functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail I Rabinovich

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last few decades several concepts of Dynamical Systems Theory (DST have guided psychologists, cognitive scientists, and neuroscientists to rethink about sensory motor behavior and embodied cognition. A critical step in the progress of DST application to the brain (supported by modern methods of brain imaging and multi-electrode recording techniques has been the transfer of its initial success in motor behavior to mental function, i.e., perception, emotion, and cognition. Open questions from research in genetics, ecology, brain sciences, etc. have changed DST itself and lead to the discovery of a new dynamical phenomenon, i.e., reproducible and robust transients that are at the same time sensitive to informational signals. The goal of this review is to describe a new mathematical framework -heteroclinic sequential dynamics- to understand self-organized activity in the brain that can explain certain aspects of robust itinerant behavior. Specifically, we discuss a hierarchy of coarse-grain models of mental dynamics in the form of kinetic equations of modes. These modes compete for resources at three levels: (i within the same modality, (ii among different modalities from the same family (like perception, and (iii among modalities from different families (like emotion and cognition. The analysis of the conditions for robustness, i.e., the structural stability of transient (sequential dynamics, give us the possibility to explain phenomena like the finite capacity of our sequential working memory -a vital cognitive function-, and to find specific dynamical signatures -different kinds of instabilities- of several brain functions and mental diseases.

  16. The influence of brain death on liver function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olinga, Peter; Hoeven, Joost Alexander Boreas van der; Merema, M.T.; Freund, R.L.; Ploeg, R.J; Groothuis, Geny

    Background: In this study, we investigated the influence of brain death on inflammatory response and the effects of brain death on liver function both directly after explantation and after reoxygenation. Methods: The influence of brain death on liver function was studied in rats using a brain death

  17. Peroxisomes in brain development and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Johannes; Dorninger, Fabian; Forss-Petter, Sonja; Kunze, Markus

    2016-05-01

    Peroxisomes contain numerous enzymatic activities that are important for mammalian physiology. Patients lacking either all peroxisomal functions or a single enzyme or transporter function typically develop severe neurological deficits, which originate from aberrant development of the brain, demyelination and loss of axonal integrity, neuroinflammation or other neurodegenerative processes. Whilst correlating peroxisomal properties with a compilation of pathologies observed in human patients and mouse models lacking all or individual peroxisomal functions, we discuss the importance of peroxisomal metabolites and tissue- and cell type-specific contributions to the observed brain pathologies. This enables us to deconstruct the local and systemic contribution of individual metabolic pathways to specific brain functions. We also review the recently discovered variability of pathological symptoms in cases with unexpectedly mild presentation of peroxisome biogenesis disorders. Finally, we explore the emerging evidence linking peroxisomes to more common neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, autism and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Brain Drain in Higher Education: Lost Hope or Opportunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odhiambo, George

    2012-01-01

    The flight of human capital is a phenomenon that has been of concern to academics and development practitioners for decades but unfortunately, there is no systematic record of the number of skilled professionals that many African countries have continued to lose to the developed world. Termed the "brain drain", it represents the loss of…

  19. Functionality predictors in acquired brain damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas Hoyas, E; Pedrero Pérez, E J; Águila Maturana, A M; García López-Alberca, S; González Alted, C

    2015-01-01

    Most individuals who have survived an acquired brain injury present consequences affecting the sensorimotor, cognitive, affective or behavioural components. These deficits affect the proper performance of daily living activities. The aim of this study is to identify functional differences between individuals with unilateral acquired brain injury using functional independence, capacity, and performance of daily activities. Descriptive cross-sectional design with a sample of 58 people, with right-sided injury (n=14 TBI; n=15 stroke) or left-sided injury (n = 14 TBI, n = 15 stroke), right handed, and with a mean age of 47 years and time since onset of 4 ± 3.65 years. The functional assessment/functional independence measure (FIM/FAM) and the International Classification of Functioning (ICF) were used for the study. The data showed significant differences (P<.000), and a large size effect (dr=0.78) in the cross-sectional estimates, and point to fewer restrictions for patients with a lesion on their right side. The major differences were in the variables 'speaking' and 'receiving spoken messages' (ICF variables), and 'Expression', 'Writing' and 'intelligible speech' (FIM/FAM variables). In the linear regression analysis, the results showed that only 4 FIM/FAM variables, taken together, predict 44% of the ICF variance, which measures the ability of the individual, and up to 52% of the ICF, which measures the individual's performance. Gait alone predicts a 28% of the variance. It seems that individuals with acquired brain injury in the left hemisphere display important differences regarding functional and communication variables. The motor aspects are an important prognostic factor in functional rehabilitation. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Social functioning in children with brain insult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mardee Greenham

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Social dysfunction is commonly reported by survivors of brain insult, and is often rated as the most debilitating of all sequelae, impacting on many areas of daily life, as well as overall quality of life. Within the early brain insult (EBI literature, physical and cognitive domains have been of primary interest and social skills have received scant attention. As a result it remains unclear how common these problems are, and whether factors predictive of recovery (insult severity, lesion location, age at insult, environment in other functional domains (motor, speech, cognition also contribute to social outcome. This study compared social outcomes for children sustaining EBI at different times from gestation to late childhood to determine whether EBI was associated with an increased risk of problems. Children with focal brain insults were categorized according to timing of brain insult: (i Congenital (n = 38: EBI: first–second trimester; (ii Perinatal (n = 33; EBI: third trimester to 1 month post-natal; (iii Infancy (n=23: EBI: 2 months–2 years post-birth; (iv Preschool (n = 19: EBI: 3–6 years; (v Middle Childhood (n = 31: EBI: 7–9 years; and (vi Late Childhood (n = 19: EBI: after age 10. Children’s teachers completed questionnaires measuring social function (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, Walker McConnell Scale of Social Competence and School Adjustment. Results showed that children with EBI were at increased risk for social impairment compared to normative expectations. EBI before age 2 years was associated with most significant social impairment, while children with EBI in the preschool years and in late childhood recorded scores closer to normal. Lesion location and laterality were not predictive of social outcome, and nor was social risk. In contrast, presence of disability (seizures and family function were shown to contribute to aspects of social function.

  1. When "altering brain function" becomes "mind control".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivuniemi, Andrew; Otto, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Functional neurosurgery has seen a resurgence of interest in surgical treatments for psychiatric illness. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) technology is the preferred tool in the current wave of clinical experiments because it allows clinicians to directly alter the functions of targeted brain regions, in a reversible manner, with the intent of correcting diseases of the mind, such as depression, addiction, anorexia nervosa, dementia, and obsessive compulsive disorder. These promising treatments raise a critical philosophical and humanitarian question. "Under what conditions does 'altering brain function' qualify as 'mind control'?" In order to answer this question one needs a definition of mind control. To this end, we reviewed the relevant philosophical, ethical, and neurosurgical literature in order to create a set of criteria for what constitutes mind control in the context of DBS. We also outline clinical implications of these criteria. Finally, we demonstrate the relevance of the proposed criteria by focusing especially on serendipitous treatments involving DBS, i.e., cases in which an unintended therapeutic benefit occurred. These cases highlight the importance of gaining the consent of the subject for the new therapy in order to avoid committing an act of mind control.

  2. Violent Video Games Alter Brain Function in Young Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News from the RSNA Annual Meeting Violent Video Games Alter Brain Function in Young Men At A ... MRI, researchers have found that playing violent video games for one week causes changes in brain function. ...

  3. Bystander CPR Helps Save Brain Function After Near-Drowning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_165984.html Bystander CPR Helps Save Brain Function After Near-Drowning Heart compressions were even more ... victims are more likely to recover with good brain function if bystanders immediately begin chest compressions rather than ...

  4. Non-invasive brain-to-brain interface (BBI: establishing functional links between two brains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Schik Yoo

    Full Text Available Transcranial focused ultrasound (FUS is capable of modulating the neural activity of specific brain regions, with a potential role as a non-invasive computer-to-brain interface (CBI. In conjunction with the use of brain-to-computer interface (BCI techniques that translate brain function to generate computer commands, we investigated the feasibility of using the FUS-based CBI to non-invasively establish a functional link between the brains of different species (i.e. human and Sprague-Dawley rat, thus creating a brain-to-brain interface (BBI. The implementation was aimed to non-invasively translate the human volunteer's intention to stimulate a rat's brain motor area that is responsible for the tail movement. The volunteer initiated the intention by looking at a strobe light flicker on a computer display, and the degree of synchronization in the electroencephalographic steady-state-visual-evoked-potentials (SSVEP with respect to the strobe frequency was analyzed using a computer. Increased signal amplitude in the SSVEP, indicating the volunteer's intention, triggered the delivery of a burst-mode FUS (350 kHz ultrasound frequency, tone burst duration of 0.5 ms, pulse repetition frequency of 1 kHz, given for 300 msec duration to excite the motor area of an anesthetized rat transcranially. The successful excitation subsequently elicited the tail movement, which was detected by a motion sensor. The interface was achieved at 94.0±3.0% accuracy, with a time delay of 1.59±1.07 sec from the thought-initiation to the creation of the tail movement. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of a computer-mediated BBI that links central neural functions between two biological entities, which may confer unexplored opportunities in the study of neuroscience with potential implications for therapeutic applications.

  5. Scholastic performance and functional connectivity of brain networks in children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Chaddock-Heyman

    Full Text Available One of the keys to understanding scholastic success is to determine the neural processes involved in school performance. The present study is the first to use a whole-brain connectivity approach to explore whether functional connectivity of resting state brain networks is associated with scholastic performance in seventy-four 7- to 9-year-old children. We demonstrate that children with higher scholastic performance across reading, math and language have more integrated and interconnected resting state networks, specifically the default mode network, salience network, and frontoparietal network. To add specificity, core regions of the dorsal attention and visual networks did not relate to scholastic performance. The results extend the cognitive role of brain networks in children as well as suggest the importance of network connectivity in scholastic success.

  6. Influence of denture treatment on brain function activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshio Hosoi

    2011-02-01

    In this study, it was revealed that brain function activity was enhanced by the improvement of complete dentures, and by wearing partial dentures. Not only denture function improvement but also brain functional activation was achieved in elderly denture wearers at risk of brain activity deterioration.

  7. Sialylation regulates brain structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Seung-Wan; Motari, Mary G; Susuki, Keiichiro; Prendergast, Jillian; Mountney, Andrea; Hurtado, Andres; Schnaar, Ronald L

    2015-07-01

    Every cell expresses a molecularly diverse surface glycan coat (glycocalyx) comprising its interface with its cellular environment. In vertebrates, the terminal sugars of the glycocalyx are often sialic acids, 9-carbon backbone anionic sugars implicated in intermolecular and intercellular interactions. The vertebrate brain is particularly enriched in sialic acid-containing glycolipids termed gangliosides. Human congenital disorders of ganglioside biosynthesis result in paraplegia, epilepsy, and intellectual disability. To better understand sialoglycan functions in the nervous system, we studied brain anatomy, histology, biochemistry, and behavior in mice with engineered mutations in St3gal2 and St3gal3, sialyltransferase genes responsible for terminal sialylation of gangliosides and some glycoproteins. St3gal2/3 double-null mice displayed dysmyelination marked by a 40% reduction in major myelin proteins, 30% fewer myelinated axons, a 33% decrease in myelin thickness, and molecular disruptions at nodes of Ranvier. In part, these changes may be due to dysregulation of ganglioside-mediated oligodendroglial precursor cell proliferation. Neuronal markers were also reduced up to 40%, and hippocampal neurons had smaller dendritic arbors. Young adult St3gal2/3 double-null mice displayed impaired motor coordination, disturbed gait, and profound cognitive disability. Comparisons among sialyltransferase mutant mice provide insights into the functional roles of brain gangliosides and sialoglycoproteins consistent with related human congenital disorders. © FASEB.

  8. When Altering Brain Function Becomes Mind Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Sanford Koivuniemi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Functional neurosurgery has seen a resurgence of interest in surgical treatments for psychiatric illness. Deep brain stimulation (DBS technology is the preferred tool in the current wave of clinical experiments because it allows clinicians to directly alter the functions of targeted brain regions, in a reversible manner, with the intent of correcting diseases of the mind, such as depression, addiction, anorexia nervosa, dementia, and obsessive compulsive disorder. These promising treatments raise a critical philosophical and humanitarian question. Under what conditions does ‘altering brain function’ qualify as ‘mind control’? In order to answer this question one needs a definition of mind control. To this end, we reviewed the relevant philosophical, ethical, and neurosurgical literature in order to create a set of criteria for what constitutes mind control in the context of DBS. We also outline clinical implications of these criteria. Finally, we demonstrate the relevance of the proposed criteria by focusing especially on serendipitous treatments involving DBS, i.e., cases in which an unintended therapeutic benefit occurred. These cases highlight the importance of gaining the consent of the subject for the new therapy in order to avoid committing an act of mind control.

  9. Altered small-world efficiency of brain functional networks in acupuncture at ST36: a functional MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Chen, Jun; Wang, Jinhui; Liu, Xian; Duan, Xiaohui; Shang, Xiaojing; Long, Yu; Chen, Zhiguang; Li, Xiaofang; Huang, Yan; He, Yong

    2012-01-01

    Acupuncture in humans can produce clinical effects via the central nervous system. However, the neural substrates of acupuncture's effects remain largely unknown. We utilized functional MRI to investigate the topological efficiency of brain functional networks in eighteen healthy young adults who were scanned before and after acupuncture at the ST36 acupoints (ACUP) and its sham point (SHAM). Whole-brain functional networks were constructed by thresholding temporal correlations matrices of ninety brain regions, followed by a graph theory-based analysis. We showed that brain functional networks exhibited small-world attributes (high local and global efficiency) regardless of the order of acupuncture and stimulus points, a finding compatible with previous studies of brain functional networks. Furthermore, the brain networks had increased local efficiency after ACUP stimulation but there were no significant differences after SHAM, indicating a specificity of acupuncture point in coordinating local information flow over the whole brain. Moreover, significant (Pacupuncture point were detected on nodal degree of the left hippocampus (higher nodal degree at ACUP as compared to SHAM). Using an uncorrected Pacupuncture modulates topological organization of whole-brain functional brain networks and the modulation has point specificity. These findings provide new insights into neuronal mechanism of acupuncture from the perspective of functional integration. Further studies would be interesting to apply network analysis approaches to study the effects of acupuncture treatments on brain disorders.

  10. Genetic control of functional brain network efficiency in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, M.P.; van Soelen, I.L.C.; Stam, C.J.; Kahn, R.S.; Boomsma, D.I.; Hulshoff Pol, H.E.

    2013-01-01

    The human brain is a complex network of interconnected brain regions. In adulthood, the brain's network was recently found to be under genetic influence. However, the extent to which genes influence the functional brain network early in development is not yet known. We report on the heritability of

  11. Split My Brain: A Case Study of Seizure Disorder and Brain Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omarzu, Julia

    2004-01-01

    This case involves a couple deciding whether or not their son should undergo brain surgery to treat a severe seizure disorder. In examining this dilemma, students apply knowledge of brain anatomy and function. They also learn about brain scanning techniques and discuss the plasticity of the brain.

  12. Minimizing brain shift in stereotactic functional neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Erika A; Holl, Etienne M; Martinez-Torres, Irene; Foltynie, Thomas; Limousin, Patricia; Hariz, Marwan I; Zrinzo, Ludvic

    2010-09-01

    Stereotactic functional neurosurgical interventions depend on precise anatomic targeting before lesioning or deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrode placement. To examine the degree of subcortical brain shift observed when adopting an image-guided approach to stereotactic functional neurosurgery. Coordinates for the anterior and posterior commissural points (AC and PC) were recorded on thin-slice stereotactic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans performed before and immediately after DBS electrode implantation in 136 procedures. The changes in length of AC-PC and in stereotactic coordinates for AC and PC were calculated for each intervention. In patients with Parkinson disease undergoing bilateral subthalamic nucleus (STN) DBS with at least 6 months of follow-up, pre- and postoperative scores of the motor part of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS-III) were reviewed. Mean (SD) change in AC-PC length (DeltaAC-PC) was 0.6 (0.4) mm. There was no statistically significant difference in DeltaAC-PC between groups when examining anatomic target subgroups (P =.95), age subgroups (P = .63), sex (P = .59), and unilateral versus bilateral implantation (P =.15). The mean (SD) vector changes for the commissural points were: -0.1 (0.3) mm in X, -0.4 (0.6) mm in Y, and -0.1 (0.7) mm in Z for the AC; and -0.1 (0.3) mm in X, -0.2 (0.7) mm in Y, and 0.0 (0.7) mm in Z for the PC. There was a negligible correlation between the magnitude of brain shift and percentage improvement in UPDRS-III off-medication in patients undergoing STN DBS for PD (R <0.01). Brain shift has long been considered an issue in stereotactic targeting during DBS procedures. However, with the image-guided approach and surgical technique used in this study, subcortical brain shift was extremely limited and did not appear to adversely affect clinical outcome.

  13. Disease association and inter-connectivity analysis of human brain specific co-expressed functional modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Kimin; Hwang, Taeho; Cha, Kihoon; Yi, Gwan-Su

    2015-12-16

    In the recent studies, it is suggested that the analysis of transcriptomic change of functional modules instead of individual genes would be more effective for system-wide identification of cellular functions. This could also provide a new possibility for the better understanding of difference between human and chimpanzee. In this study, we analyzed to find molecular characteristics of human brain functions from the difference of transcriptome between human and chimpanzee's brain using the functional module-centric co-expression analysis. We performed analysis of brain disease association and systems-level connectivity of species-specific co-expressed functional modules. Throughout the analyses, we found human-specific functional modules and significant overlap between their genes in known brain disease genes, suggesting that human brain disorder could be mediated by the perturbation of modular activities emerged in human brain specialization. In addition, the human-specific modules having neurobiological functions exhibited higher networking than other functional modules. This finding suggests that the expression of neural functions are more connected than other functions, and the resulting high-order brain functions could be identified as a result of consolidated inter-modular gene activities. Our result also showed that the functional module based transcriptome analysis has a potential to expand molecular understanding of high-order complex functions like cognitive abilities and brain disorders.

  14. Compensation through Functional Hyperconnectivity: A Longitudinal Connectome Assessment of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Iraji

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI is a major public health concern. Functional MRI has reported alterations in several brain networks following mTBI. However, the connectome-scale brain network changes are still unknown. In this study, sixteen mTBI patients were prospectively recruited from an emergency department and followed up at 4–6 weeks after injury. Twenty-four healthy controls were also scanned twice with the same time interval. Three hundred fifty-eight brain landmarks that preserve structural and functional correspondence of brain networks across individuals were used to investigate longitudinal brain connectivity. Network-based statistic (NBS analysis did not find significant difference in the group-by-time interaction and time effects. However, 258 functional pairs show group differences in which mTBI patients have higher functional connectivity. Meta-analysis showed that “Action” and “Cognition” are the most affected functional domains. Categorization of connectomic signatures using multiview group-wise cluster analysis identified two patterns of functional hyperconnectivity among mTBI patients: (I between the posterior cingulate cortex and the association areas of the brain and (II between the occipital and the frontal lobes of the brain. Our results demonstrate that brain concussion renders connectome-scale brain network connectivity changes, and the brain tends to be hyperactivated to compensate the pathophysiological disturbances.

  15. Effect of brain structure, brain function, and brain connectivity on relapse in alcohol-dependent patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Anne; Wüstenberg, Torsten; Genauck, Alexander; Wrase, Jana; Schlagenhauf, Florian; Smolka, Michael N; Mann, Karl; Heinz, Andreas

    2012-08-01

    In alcohol-dependent patients, brain atrophy and functional brain activation elicited by alcohol-associated stimuli may predict relapse. However, to date, the interaction between both factors has not been studied. To determine whether results from structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging are associated with relapse in detoxified alcohol-dependent patients. A cue-reactivity functional magnetic resonance experiment with alcohol-associated and neutral stimuli. After a follow-up period of 3 months, the group of 46 detoxified alcohol-dependent patients was subdivided into 16 abstainers and 30 relapsers. Faculty for Clinical Medicine Mannheim at the University of Heidelberg, Germany. A total of 46 detoxified alcohol-dependent patients and 46 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects Local gray matter volume, local stimulus-related functional magnetic resonance imaging activation, joint analyses of structural and functional data with Biological Parametric Mapping, and connectivity analyses adopting the psychophysiological interaction approach. Subsequent relapsers showed pronounced atrophy in the bilateral orbitofrontal cortex and in the right medial prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortex, compared with healthy controls and patients who remained abstinent. The local gray matter volume-corrected brain response elicited by alcohol-associated vs neutral stimuli in the left medial prefrontal cortex was enhanced for subsequent relapsers, whereas abstainers displayed an increased neural response in the midbrain (the ventral tegmental area extending into the subthalamic nucleus) and ventral striatum. For alcohol-associated vs neutral stimuli in abstainers compared with relapsers, the analyses of the psychophysiological interaction showed a stronger functional connectivity between the midbrain and the left amygdala and between the midbrain and the left orbitofrontal cortex. Subsequent relapsers displayed increased brain atrophy in brain areas associated with

  16. The emergence of functional architecture during early brain development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keunen, Kristin|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413751953; Counsell, Serena J.; Benders, Manon J.N.L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/185214266

    2017-01-01

    Early human brain development constitutes a sequence of intricate processes resulting in the ontogeny of functionally operative neural circuits. Developmental trajectories of early brain network formation are genetically programmed and can be modified by epigenetic and environmental influences. Such

  17. Brains in Competition: Improved Cognitive Performance and Inter-Brain Coupling by Hyperscanning Paradigm with Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balconi, Michela; Vanutelli, Maria E

    2017-01-01

    Hyperscanning brain paradigm was applied to competitive task for couples of subjects. Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) and cognitive performance were considered to test inter-brain and cognitive strategy similarities between subjects (14 couples) during a joint-action. We supposed increased brain-to-brain coupling and improved cognitive outcomes due to joint-action and the competition. As supposed, the direct interaction between the subjects and the observed external feedback of their performance (an experimentally induced fictitious feedback) affected the cognitive performance with decreased Error Rates (ERs), and Response Times (RTs). In addition, fNIRS measure (oxyhemoglobin, O2Hb) revealed an increased brain activity in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in post-feedback more than pre-feedback condition. Moreover, a higher inter-brain similarity was found for the couples during the task, with higher matched brain response in post-feedback condition than pre-feedback. Finally, a significant increased prefrontal brain lateralization effect was observed for the right hemisphere. Indeed the right PFC was more responsive with similar modalities within the couple during the post-feedback condition. The joined-task and competitive context was adduced to explain these cognitive performance improving, synergic brain responsiveness within the couples and lateralization effects (negative emotions).

  18. Brains in Competition: Improved Cognitive Performance and Inter-Brain Coupling by Hyperscanning Paradigm with Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Balconi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Hyperscanning brain paradigm was applied to competitive task for couples of subjects. Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS and cognitive performance were considered to test inter-brain and cognitive strategy similarities between subjects (14 couples during a joint-action. We supposed increased brain-to-brain coupling and improved cognitive outcomes due to joint-action and the competition. As supposed, the direct interaction between the subjects and the observed external feedback of their performance (an experimentally induced fictitious feedback affected the cognitive performance with decreased Error Rates (ERs, and Response Times (RTs. In addition, fNIRS measure (oxyhemoglobin, O2Hb revealed an increased brain activity in the prefrontal cortex (PFC in post-feedback more than pre-feedback condition. Moreover, a higher inter-brain similarity was found for the couples during the task, with higher matched brain response in post-feedback condition than pre-feedback. Finally, a significant increased prefrontal brain lateralization effect was observed for the right hemisphere. Indeed the right PFC was more responsive with similar modalities within the couple during the post-feedback condition. The joined-task and competitive context was adduced to explain these cognitive performance improving, synergic brain responsiveness within the couples and lateralization effects (negative emotions.

  19. Algebraic Topology of Multi-Brain Connectivity Networks Reveals Dissimilarity in Functional Patterns during Spoken Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadić, Bosiljka; Andjelković, Miroslav; Boshkoska, Biljana Mileva; Levnajić, Zoran

    2016-01-01

    Human behaviour in various circumstances mirrors the corresponding brain connectivity patterns, which are suitably represented by functional brain networks. While the objective analysis of these networks by graph theory tools deepened our understanding of brain functions, the multi-brain structures and connections underlying human social behaviour remain largely unexplored. In this study, we analyse the aggregate graph that maps coordination of EEG signals previously recorded during spoken communications in two groups of six listeners and two speakers. Applying an innovative approach based on the algebraic topology of graphs, we analyse higher-order topological complexes consisting of mutually interwoven cliques of a high order to which the identified functional connections organise. Our results reveal that the topological quantifiers provide new suitable measures for differences in the brain activity patterns and inter-brain synchronisation between speakers and listeners. Moreover, the higher topological complexity correlates with the listener's concentration to the story, confirmed by self-rating, and closeness to the speaker's brain activity pattern, which is measured by network-to-network distance. The connectivity structures of the frontal and parietal lobe consistently constitute distinct clusters, which extend across the listener's group. Formally, the topology quantifiers of the multi-brain communities exceed the sum of those of the participating individuals and also reflect the listener's rated attributes of the speaker and the narrated subject. In the broader context, the presented study exposes the relevance of higher topological structures (besides standard graph measures) for characterising functional brain networks under different stimuli.

  20. Algebraic Topology of Multi-Brain Connectivity Networks Reveals Dissimilarity in Functional Patterns during Spoken Communications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosiljka Tadić

    Full Text Available Human behaviour in various circumstances mirrors the corresponding brain connectivity patterns, which are suitably represented by functional brain networks. While the objective analysis of these networks by graph theory tools deepened our understanding of brain functions, the multi-brain structures and connections underlying human social behaviour remain largely unexplored. In this study, we analyse the aggregate graph that maps coordination of EEG signals previously recorded during spoken communications in two groups of six listeners and two speakers. Applying an innovative approach based on the algebraic topology of graphs, we analyse higher-order topological complexes consisting of mutually interwoven cliques of a high order to which the identified functional connections organise. Our results reveal that the topological quantifiers provide new suitable measures for differences in the brain activity patterns and inter-brain synchronisation between speakers and listeners. Moreover, the higher topological complexity correlates with the listener's concentration to the story, confirmed by self-rating, and closeness to the speaker's brain activity pattern, which is measured by network-to-network distance. The connectivity structures of the frontal and parietal lobe consistently constitute distinct clusters, which extend across the listener's group. Formally, the topology quantifiers of the multi-brain communities exceed the sum of those of the participating individuals and also reflect the listener's rated attributes of the speaker and the narrated subject. In the broader context, the presented study exposes the relevance of higher topological structures (besides standard graph measures for characterising functional brain networks under different stimuli.

  1. Functional Recovery After Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hart, Tessa; Kozlowski, Allan; Whyte, John

    2014-01-01

    functional levels received more treatment and more treatment was associated with slower recovery, presumably because treatment was allocated according to need. Thus, effects of treatment on outcome could not be disentangled from effects of case mix factors. CONCLUSIONS: FIM gain during inpatient recovery......OBJECTIVE: To examine person, injury, and treatment characteristics associated with recovery trajectories of people with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) during inpatient rehabilitation. DESIGN: Observational prospective longitudinal study. SETTING: Two specialized inpatient TBI rehabilitation...... recovery was best modeled with linear, cubic, and quadratic components: relatively steep recovery was followed by deceleration of improvement, which attenuated prior to discharge. Slower recovery was associated with older age, longer coma, and interruptions to rehabilitation. Patients admitted at lower...

  2. Barrier Functionality of Porcine and Bovine Brain Capillary Endothelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailar Nakhlband

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To date, isolated cell based blood-brain barrier (BBB models have been widely used for brain drug delivery and targeting, due to their relatively proper bioelectrical and permeability properties. However, primary cultures of brain capillary endothelial cells (BCECs isolated from different species vary in terms of bioelectrical and permeability properties. Methods: To pursue this, in the current investigation, primary porcine and bovine BCECs (PBCECs and BBCECs, respectively were isolated and used as an in vitro BBB model. The bioelectrical and permeability properties were assessed in BCECs co-cultured with C6 cells with/without hydrocortisone (550 nM. The bioelectrical properties were further validated by means of the permeability coefficients of transcellular and paracellular markers. Results: The primary PBCECs displayed significantly higher trans-endothelial electrical resistance (~900 W.cm2 than BBCECs (~700 W.cm2 - both co-cultured with C6 cells in presence of hydrocortisone. Permeability coefficients of propranolol/diazepam and mannitol/sucrose in PBCECs were ~21 and ~2 (×10-6 cm.sec-1, where these values for BBCECs were ~25 and ~5 (×10-6 cm.sec-1. Conclusion: Upon our bioelectrical and permeability findings, both models display discriminative barrier functionality but porcine BCECs seem to provide a better platform than bovine BCECs for drug screening and brain targeting.

  3. Effects of the diet on brain function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernstrom, J. D.

    1981-01-01

    The rates of synthesis by brain neurons of the neurotransmitters serotonin, acetylcholine, and the catecholamines depend on the brain levels of the respective precursor molecules. Brain levels of each precursor are influenced by their blood concentration, and for the amino acid precursors, by the blood levels of other amino acids as well. Since diet readily alters blood concentrations of each of these precursors, it thereby also influences the brain formation of their neutrotransmitter products.

  4. Altered small-world efficiency of brain functional networks in acupuncture at ST36: a functional MRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acupuncture in humans can produce clinical effects via the central nervous system. However, the neural substrates of acupuncture's effects remain largely unknown. RESULTS: We utilized functional MRI to investigate the topological efficiency of brain functional networks in eighteen healthy young adults who were scanned before and after acupuncture at the ST36 acupoints (ACUP and its sham point (SHAM. Whole-brain functional networks were constructed by thresholding temporal correlations matrices of ninety brain regions, followed by a graph theory-based analysis. We showed that brain functional networks exhibited small-world attributes (high local and global efficiency regardless of the order of acupuncture and stimulus points, a finding compatible with previous studies of brain functional networks. Furthermore, the brain networks had increased local efficiency after ACUP stimulation but there were no significant differences after SHAM, indicating a specificity of acupuncture point in coordinating local information flow over the whole brain. Moreover, significant (P<0.05, corrected by false discovery rate approach effects of only acupuncture point were detected on nodal degree of the left hippocampus (higher nodal degree at ACUP as compared to SHAM. Using an uncorrected P<0.05, point-related effects were also observed in the anterior cingulate cortex, frontal and occipital regions while stimulation-related effects in various brain regions of frontal, parietal and occipital cortex regions. In addition, we found that several limbic and subcortical brain regions exhibited point- and stimulation-related alterations in their regional homogeneity (P<0.05, uncorrected. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that acupuncture modulates topological organization of whole-brain functional brain networks and the modulation has point specificity. These findings provide new insights into neuronal mechanism of acupuncture from the perspective of functional

  5. Hierarchical Functional Modularity in the Resting-State Human Brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferrarini, L.; Veer, I.M.; Baerends, E.; van Tol, M.J.; Renken, R.J.; van der Wee, N.J.A.; Veltman, D.J.; Aleman, A.; Zitman, F.G.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; van Buchem, M.A.; Reiber, J.H.C.; Rombouts, S.A.R.B.; Milles, J.

    2009-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have shown that anatomically distinct brain regions are functionally connected during the resting state. Basic topological properties in the brain functional connectivity (BFC) map have highlighted the BFC's small-world topology. Modularity, a

  6. Hierarchical Functional Modularity in the Resting-State Human Brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferrarini, Luca; Veer, Ilya M.; Baerends, Evelinda; van Tol, Marie-Jose; Renken, Remco J.; van der Wee, Nic J. A.; Veltman, Dirk. J.; Aleman, Andre; Zitman, Frans G.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; van Buchem, Mark A.; Reiber, Johan H. C.; Rombouts, Serge A. R. B.; Milles, Julien

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have shown that anatomically distinct brain regions are functionally connected during the resting state. Basic topological properties in the brain functional connectivity (BFC) map have highlighted the BFC's small-world topology. Modularity, a

  7. Changes in cognitive state alter human functional brain networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malaak Nasser Moussa

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The study of the brain as a whole system can be accomplished using network theory principles. Research has shown that human functional brain networks during a resting state exhibit small-world properties and high degree nodes, or hubs, localized to brain areas consistent with the default mode network (DMN. However, the study of brain networks across different tasks and or cognitive states has been inconclusive. Research in this field is important because the underpinnings of behavioral output are inherently dependent on whether or not brain networks are dynamic. This is the first comprehensive study to evaluate multiple network metrics at a voxel-wise resolution in the human brain at both the whole brain and regional level under various conditions: resting state, visual stimulation, and multisensory (auditory and visual stimulation. Our results show that despite global network stability, functional brain networks exhibit considerable task-induced changes in connectivity, efficiency, and community structure at the regional level.

  8. Higher-Order Hierarchical Legendre Basis Functions in Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.; Jørgensen, Erik; Meincke, Peter

    2007-01-01

    degree of orthogonality. The basis functions are well-suited for solution of complex electromagnetic problems involving multiple homogeneous or inhomogeneous dielectric regions, metallic surfaces, layered media, etc. This paper presents real-life complex antenna radiation problems modeled...... with electromagnetic simulation tools based on the higher-order hierarchical Legendre basis functions....

  9. An Annotated Bibliography of Literature Dealing with Brain Functions and Brain Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryder, James S.

    This document discusses the problem of teachers who teach primarily to the left hemisphere of the brain, not allowing the right-brain dominant student to expand his creative ability. It presents information about brain structure and function for educators. A glossary of 25 terms is provided with sources of the definitions. Annotations summarizing…

  10. From Brain-Environment Connections to Temporal Dynamics and Social Interaction: Principles of Human Brain Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hari, Riitta

    2017-06-07

    Experimental data about brain function accumulate faster than does our understanding of how the brain works. To tackle some general principles at the grain level of behavior, I start from the omnipresent brain-environment connection that forces regularities of the physical world to shape the brain. Based on top-down processing, added by sparse sensory information, people are able to form individual "caricature worlds," which are similar enough to be shared among other people and which allow quick and purposeful reactions to abrupt changes. Temporal dynamics and social interaction in natural environments serve as further essential organizing principles of human brain function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Critical periods of brain growth and cognitive function in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Catharine R; O'Callaghan, Finbar J; Godfrey, Keith M; Law, Catherine M; Martyn, Christopher N

    2004-02-01

    There is evidence that IQ tends to be higher in those who were heavier at birth or who grew taller in childhood and adolescence. Although these findings imply that growth in both foetal and postnatal life influences cognitive performance, little is known about the relative importance of brain growth during different periods of development. We investigated the relationship between brain growth in different periods of pre- and postnatal life and cognitive function in 221 9-year-old children whose mothers had taken part in a study of nutrition in pregnancy and whose head circumference had been measured at 18 weeks gestation, birth and 9 months of age. Cognitive function of the children and their mothers was assessed with the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence. Full-scale IQ at age 9 years rose by 1.98 points [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.34 to 3.62] for each SD increase in head circumference at 9 months and by 2.87 points (95% CI 1.05 to 4.69) for each SD increase in head circumference at 9 years of age, after adjustment for sex, number of older siblings, maternal IQ, age, education, social class, duration of breastfeeding and history of low mood in the post-partum period. Postnatal head growth was significantly greater in children whose mothers were educated to degree level or of higher socio-economic status. There was no relation between IQ and measurements of head size at 18 weeks gestation or at birth. These results suggest that brain growth during infancy and early childhood is more important than growth during foetal life in determining cognitive function.

  12. The modular and integrative functional architecture of the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolero, Maxwell A; Yeo, B T Thomas; D'Esposito, Mark

    2015-12-08

    Network-based analyses of brain imaging data consistently reveal distinct modules and connector nodes with diverse global connectivity across the modules. How discrete the functions of modules are, how dependent the computational load of each module is to the other modules' processing, and what the precise role of connector nodes is for between-module communication remains underspecified. Here, we use a network model of the brain derived from resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) data and investigate the modular functional architecture of the human brain by analyzing activity at different types of nodes in the network across 9,208 experiments of 77 cognitive tasks in the BrainMap database. Using an author-topic model of cognitive functions, we find a strong spatial correspondence between the cognitive functions and the network's modules, suggesting that each module performs a discrete cognitive function. Crucially, activity at local nodes within the modules does not increase in tasks that require more cognitive functions, demonstrating the autonomy of modules' functions. However, connector nodes do exhibit increased activity when more cognitive functions are engaged in a task. Moreover, connector nodes are located where brain activity is associated with many different cognitive functions. Connector nodes potentially play a role in between-module communication that maintains the modular function of the brain. Together, these findings provide a network account of the brain's modular yet integrated implementation of cognitive functions.

  13. Functional brain imaging: an evidence-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Assessment (INAHTA). The database search was supplemented with a search of relevant Web sites and a review of the bibliographies of selected papers. General inclusion criteria were applied to all conditions. Those criteria included the following: Full reports of systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials (RCTs), cohort-control studies, prospective cohort studies (PCS'), and retrospective studies.Sample sizes of at least 20 patients (≥ 10 with condition being reviewed).English-language studies.Human studies.Any age.STUDYING AT LEAST ONE OF THE FOLLOWING: fMRI, PET, MRS, or MEG.Functional brain imaging modality must be compared with a clearly defined reference standard.MUST REPORT AT LEAST ONE OF THE FOLLOWING OUTCOMES: sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value (PPV), receiver operating characteristic curve, outcome measuring impact on diagnostic testing, treatment, patient health, or cost. There is evidence to indicate that PET can accurately diagnose AD; however, at this time, there is no evidence to suggest that a diagnosis of AD with PET alters the clinical outcomes of patients. The addition of MRS or O-(2-(18)F-Fluoroethyl)-L-Tyrosine (FET)-PET to gadolinium (Gd)-enhanced MRI for distinguishing malignant from benign tumours during primary diagnosis may provide a higher specificity than Gd-enhanced MRI alone. The clinical utility of additional imaging in patients to distinguish malignant from benign tumours is unclear, because patients with a suspected brain tumour will likely undergo a biopsy despite additional imaging results. The addition of MRS, FET-PET, or MRI T2 to Gd-enhanced MRI for the differentiation of recurrence from radiation necrosis may provide a higher specificity than Gd-enhanced MRI alone. The clinical utility of additional imaging in patients with a suspected recurrence is in the monitoring of patients. Based on the evidence available, it is unclear if one of the imaging modalities (MRS, FET-PET, or MRI T2) offers

  14. Brain Structure-function Couplings (FY11)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    technologies provide potentially useful, yet different, indices of brain activity. fNIR provides a measure of changes in blood oxygen concentrations and blood ...characteristics of complex brain-generated network activity (which we leave for future efforts). Third, the windowing to compute the WPLI smears the signal...periods of significance and on a trial-by-trial basis, the WPLI values of the channel data do not precisely coincide with the brain-related alpha

  15. Brain Based Teaching Model as Transformation of Learning Paradigm in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfani Sesmiarni

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Brain -based teaching model is a new paradigm that can facilitate students in optimizing student learning by the functioning the brain as a whole. Lessons are held today assume that all students equally so that learning provide the same services to each student in the class. With this model, the students are given different stimulation according to their abilities and needs. Base on brain learning theory -based teaching, the learning should pay attention to the five needs of the brain in general. The fifth factor is the need for a sense of comfort, the need for interaction, the need for knowledge, the need for the activity and the need for self-reflection. All these needs will be connected if the lecturers able to present emotional learning, social learning, cognitive learning, physical learning and teaching reflection. Key Word : Instrucetional, Brain Based teaching, Learning.Copyright © 2015 by Al-Ta'lim All right reserved

  16. Mentor's brain functional connectivity network during robotic assisted surgery mentorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiei, Somayeh B; Doyle, Scott T; Guru, Khurshid A

    2016-08-01

    In many complicated cognitive-motor tasks mentoring is inevitable during the learning process. Although mentors are expert in doing the task, trainee's operation might be new for a mentor. This makes mentoring a very difficult task which demands not only the knowledge and experience of a mentor, but also his/her ability to follow trainee's movements and patiently advise him/her during the operation. We hypothesize that information binding throughout the mentor's brain areas, contributed to the task, changes as the expertise level of the trainee improves from novice to intermediate and expert. This can result in the change of mentor's level of satisfaction. The brain functional connectivity network is extracted by using brain activity of a mentor during mentoring novice and intermediate surgeons, watching expert surgeon operation, and doing Urethrovesical Anasthomosis (UVA) procedure by himself. By using the extracted network, we investigate the role of modularity and neural activity efficiency in mentoring. Brain activity is measured by using a 24-channel ABM Neuro-headset with the frequency of 256 Hz. One mentor operates 26 UVA procedures and three trainees with the expertise level of novice, intermediate, and expert perform 26 UVA procedures under the supervision of mentor. Our results indicate that the modularity of functional connectivity network is higher when mentor performs the task or watches the expert operation comparing mentoring the novice and intermediate surgeons. At the end of each operation, mentor subjectively assesses the quality of operation by giving scores to NASA-TLX indexes. Performance score is used to discuss our results. The extracted significant positive correlation between performance level and modularity (r = 0.38, p - value <; 0.005) shows the increase of automaticity and decrease in neural activity cost by improving the performance.

  17. Insulin in the brain: sources, localization and functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Rasoul; Haeri, Ali; Dargahi, Leila; Mohamed, Zahurin; Ahmadiani, Abolhassan

    2013-02-01

    Historically, insulin is best known for its role in peripheral glucose homeostasis, and insulin signaling in the brain has received less attention. Insulin-independent brain glucose uptake has been the main reason for considering the brain as an insulin-insensitive organ. However, recent findings showing a high concentration of insulin in brain extracts, and expression of insulin receptors (IRs) in central nervous system tissues have gathered considerable attention over the sources, localization, and functions of insulin in the brain. This review summarizes the current status of knowledge of the peripheral and central sources of insulin in the brain, site-specific expression of IRs, and also neurophysiological functions of insulin including the regulation of food intake, weight control, reproduction, and cognition and memory formation. This review also considers the neuromodulatory and neurotrophic effects of insulin, resulting in proliferation, differentiation, and neurite outgrowth, introducing insulin as an attractive tool for neuroprotection against apoptosis, oxidative stress, beta amyloid toxicity, and brain ischemia.

  18. Age-Related Difference in Functional Brain Connectivity of Mastication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-shu; Wu, Ching-yi; Wu, Shih-yun; Lin, Hsiao-Han; Cheng, Dong-hui; Lo, Wen-liang

    2017-01-01

    The age-related decline in motor function is associated with changes in intrinsic brain signatures. Here, we investigated the functional connectivity (FC) associated with masticatory performance, a clinical index evaluating general masticatory function. Twenty-six older adults (OA) and 26 younger (YA) healthy adults were recruited and assessed using the masticatory performance index (MPI) and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). We analyzed the rs-fMRI FC network related to mastication, which was constructed based on 12 bilateral mastication-related brain regions according to the literature. For the OA and the YA group, we identified the mastication-related hubs, i.e., the nodes for which the degree centrality (DC) was positively correlated with the MPI. For each pair of nodes, we identified the inter-nodal link for which the FC was positively correlated with the MPI. The network analysis revealed that, in the YA group, the FC between the sensorimotor cortex, the thalamus (THA) and the cerebellum was positively correlated with the MPI. Consistently, the cerebellum nodes were defined as the mastication-related hubs. In contrast, in the OA group, we found a sparser connection within the sensorimotor regions and cerebellum and a denser connection across distributed regions, including the FC between the superior parietal lobe (SPL), the anterior insula (aINS) and the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC). Compared to the YA group, the network of the OA group also comprised more mastication-related hubs, which were spatially distributed outside the sensorimotor regions, including the right SPL, the right aINS, and the bilateral dACC. In general, the findings supported the hypothesis that in OA, higher masticatory performance is associated with a widespread pattern of mastication-related hubs. Such a widespread engagement of multiple brain regions associated with the MPI may reflect an increased demand in sensorimotor integration, attentional

  19. Estimating functional brain networks by incorporating a modularity prior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Lishan; Zhang, Han; Kim, Minjeong; Teng, Shenghua; Zhang, Limei; Shen, Dinggang

    2016-11-01

    Functional brain network analysis has become one principled way of revealing informative organization architectures in healthy brains, and providing sensitive biomarkers for diagnosis of neurological disorders. Prior to any post hoc analysis, however, a natural issue is how to construct "ideal" brain networks given, for example, a set of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) time series associated with different brain regions. Although many methods have been developed, it is currently still an open field to estimate biologically meaningful and statistically robust brain networks due to our limited understanding of the human brain as well as complex noises in the observed data. Motivated by the fact that the brain is organized with modular structures, in this paper, we propose a novel functional brain network modeling scheme by encoding a modularity prior under a matrix-regularized network learning framework, and further formulate it as a sparse low-rank graph learning problem, which can be solved by an efficient optimization algorithm. Then, we apply the learned brain networks to identify patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from normal controls. We achieved 89.01% classification accuracy even with a simple feature selection and classification pipeline, which significantly outperforms the conventional brain network construction methods. Moreover, we further explore brain network features that contributed to MCI identification, and discovered potential biomarkers for personalized diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Graph Analysis of Functional Brain Networks in Patients with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Horn, Harm J.; Liemburg, Edith J.; Scheenen, Myrthe E.; de Koning, Myrthe E.; Spikman, Jacoba M.; van der Naalt, Joukje

    2017-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is one of the most common neurological disorders worldwide. Posttraumatic complaints are frequently reported, interfering with outcome. However, a consistent neural substrate has not yet been found. We used graph analysis to further unravel the complex interactions between functional brain networks, complaints, anxiety and depression in the sub-acute stage after mTBI. This study included 54 patients with uncomplicated mTBI and 20 matched healthy controls. Posttraumatic complaints, anxiety and depression were measured at two weeks post-injury. Patients were selected based on presence (n = 34) or absence (n = 20) of complaints. Resting-state fMRI scans were made approximately four weeks post-injury. High order independent component analysis resulted in 89 neural components that were included in subsequent graph analyses. No differences in graph measures were found between patients with mTBI and healthy controls. Regarding the two patient subgroups, degree, strength, local efficiency and eigenvector centrality of the bilateral posterior cingulate/precuneus and bilateral parahippocampal gyrus were higher, and eigenvector centrality of the frontal pole/ bilateral middle & superior frontal gyrus was lower in patients with complaints compared to patients without complaints. In patients with mTBI, higher degree, strength and eigenvector centrality of default mode network components were related to higher depression scores, and higher degree and eigenvector centrality of executive network components were related to lower depression scores. In patients without complaints, one extra module was found compared to patients with complaints and healthy controls, consisting of the cingulate areas. In conclusion, this research extends the knowledge of functional network connectivity after mTBI. Specifically, our results suggest that an imbalance in the function of the default mode- and executive network plays a central role in the interaction

  1. Graph Analysis of Functional Brain Networks in Patients with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harm J van der Horn

    Full Text Available Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI is one of the most common neurological disorders worldwide. Posttraumatic complaints are frequently reported, interfering with outcome. However, a consistent neural substrate has not yet been found. We used graph analysis to further unravel the complex interactions between functional brain networks, complaints, anxiety and depression in the sub-acute stage after mTBI. This study included 54 patients with uncomplicated mTBI and 20 matched healthy controls. Posttraumatic complaints, anxiety and depression were measured at two weeks post-injury. Patients were selected based on presence (n = 34 or absence (n = 20 of complaints. Resting-state fMRI scans were made approximately four weeks post-injury. High order independent component analysis resulted in 89 neural components that were included in subsequent graph analyses. No differences in graph measures were found between patients with mTBI and healthy controls. Regarding the two patient subgroups, degree, strength, local efficiency and eigenvector centrality of the bilateral posterior cingulate/precuneus and bilateral parahippocampal gyrus were higher, and eigenvector centrality of the frontal pole/ bilateral middle & superior frontal gyrus was lower in patients with complaints compared to patients without complaints. In patients with mTBI, higher degree, strength and eigenvector centrality of default mode network components were related to higher depression scores, and higher degree and eigenvector centrality of executive network components were related to lower depression scores. In patients without complaints, one extra module was found compared to patients with complaints and healthy controls, consisting of the cingulate areas. In conclusion, this research extends the knowledge of functional network connectivity after mTBI. Specifically, our results suggest that an imbalance in the function of the default mode- and executive network plays a central role in the

  2. Graph Analysis of Functional Brain Networks in Patients with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Horn, Harm J; Liemburg, Edith J; Scheenen, Myrthe E; de Koning, Myrthe E; Spikman, Jacoba M; van der Naalt, Joukje

    2017-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is one of the most common neurological disorders worldwide. Posttraumatic complaints are frequently reported, interfering with outcome. However, a consistent neural substrate has not yet been found. We used graph analysis to further unravel the complex interactions between functional brain networks, complaints, anxiety and depression in the sub-acute stage after mTBI. This study included 54 patients with uncomplicated mTBI and 20 matched healthy controls. Posttraumatic complaints, anxiety and depression were measured at two weeks post-injury. Patients were selected based on presence (n = 34) or absence (n = 20) of complaints. Resting-state fMRI scans were made approximately four weeks post-injury. High order independent component analysis resulted in 89 neural components that were included in subsequent graph analyses. No differences in graph measures were found between patients with mTBI and healthy controls. Regarding the two patient subgroups, degree, strength, local efficiency and eigenvector centrality of the bilateral posterior cingulate/precuneus and bilateral parahippocampal gyrus were higher, and eigenvector centrality of the frontal pole/ bilateral middle & superior frontal gyrus was lower in patients with complaints compared to patients without complaints. In patients with mTBI, higher degree, strength and eigenvector centrality of default mode network components were related to higher depression scores, and higher degree and eigenvector centrality of executive network components were related to lower depression scores. In patients without complaints, one extra module was found compared to patients with complaints and healthy controls, consisting of the cingulate areas. In conclusion, this research extends the knowledge of functional network connectivity after mTBI. Specifically, our results suggest that an imbalance in the function of the default mode- and executive network plays a central role in the interaction

  3. Breakdown of the brain's functional network modularity with awareness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Godwin, Douglass; Barry, Robert L; Marois, René

    2015-01-01

    ... performed a simple masked target detection task. We found that awareness of a visual target is associated with a degradation of the modularity of the brain's functional networks brought about by an increase in intermodular functional connectivity...

  4. The connection between rhythmicity and brain function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaut, M H; Kenyon, G P; Schauer, M L; McIntosh, G C

    1999-01-01

    endeavor with important ramifications for the study of brain function, sensory perception, and motor behavior. One of the most exciting findings in this research, however, may be the evidence that the interaction between auditory rhythm and physical response can be effectively harnessed for specific therapeutic purposes in the rehabilitation of persons with movement disorders.

  5. Empirical Network Model of Human Higher Cognitive Brain Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-31

    Electrodynamics of Continuous Media . New York: Pergam- mon, 1984. Le, J., Brickett, P. Surkis, A. and Gevins, A.S. Finite element modeling of Maxwell’s...of visual evoked potentials. Eetroeziceph. clin. Neu- On the infuence of task relevance and stimulus probability rophysioL., 1984, 59: 279-285. on

  6. APOE polymorphisms and cognitive functions in patients with brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Denise D; Satagopan, Jaya; Baser, Raymond E; Cheung, Kenneth; Richards, Elizabeth; Lin, Michael; Karimi, Sasan; Lyo, John; DeAngelis, Lisa M; Orlow, Irene

    2014-07-22

    The goal of this study was to assess whether the APOE ε4 allele and other APOE single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) influence neuropsychological and neuroimaging outcomes in patients with brain tumors. Two hundred eleven patients with brain tumors participated in the study. All patients completed standardized neuropsychological tests and provided a blood sample for APOE genotyping. Ratings of white matter abnormalities were performed on MRI scans. Patients were classified into 2 groups based on the presence (n = 50) or absence (n = 161) of at least one APOE ε4 allele. Additional APOE SNPs were genotyped in a subset of 150 patients. Patients with at least one APOE ε4 allele had significantly lower scores in verbal learning and delayed recall, and marginally significant lower scores in executive function, in comparison to noncarriers of an ε4 allele. Patients with at least one ε4 allele and history of cigarette smoking had significantly higher scores in working memory and verbal learning than ε4 carriers who never smoked. Nine additional APOE SNPs were significantly associated with attention and executive and memory abilities. There were no significant differences between ε4 carriers and noncarriers on the extent of white matter abnormalities on MRI. The findings suggest that patients with brain tumors who are carriers of the APOE ε4 allele may have increased vulnerability to developing memory and executive dysfunction, and that additional SNPs in the APOE gene may be associated with cognitive outcome. © 2014 American Academy of Neurology.

  7. Pallidal Deep Brain Stimulation Improves Higher Control of the Oculomotor System in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniades, Chrystalina A; Rebelo, Pedro; Kennard, Christopher; Aziz, Tipu Z; Green, Alexander L; FitzGerald, James J

    2015-09-23

    The frontal cortex and basal ganglia form a set of parallel but mostly segregated circuits called cortico-basal ganglia loops. The oculomotor loop controls eye movements and can direct relatively simple movements, such as reflexive prosaccades, without external help but needs input from "higher" loops for more complex behaviors. The antisaccade task requires the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, which is part of the prefrontal loop. Information flows from prefrontal to oculomotor circuits in the striatum, and directional errors in this task can be considered a measure of failure of prefrontal control over the oculomotor loop. The antisaccadic error rate (AER) is increased in Parkinson's disease (PD). Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) has no effect on the AER, but a previous case suggested that DBS of the globus pallidus interna (GPi) might. Our aim was to compare the effects of STN DBS and GPi DBS on the AER. We tested eye movements in 14 human DBS patients and 10 controls. GPi DBS substantially reduced the AER, restoring lost higher control over oculomotor function. Interloop information flow involves striatal neurons that receive cortical input and project to pallidum. They are normally silent when quiescent, but in PD they fire randomly, creating noise that may account for the degradation in interloop control. The reduced AER with GPi DBS could be explained by retrograde stimulation of striatopallidal axons with consequent activation of inhibitory collaterals and reduction in background striatal firing rates. This study may help explain aspects of PD pathophysiology and the mechanism of action of GPi DBS. Significance statement: Parkinson's disease causes symptoms including stiffness, slowness of movement, and tremor. Electrical stimulation of specific areas deep in the brain can effectively treat these symptoms, but exactly how is not fully understood. Part of the cause of such symptoms may be impairments in the way information flows

  8. Cognition and brain function in schizotypy: a selective review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettinger, Ulrich; Mohr, Christine; Gooding, Diane C; Cohen, Alex S; Rapp, Alexander; Haenschel, Corinna; Park, Sohee

    2015-03-01

    Schizotypy refers to a set of personality traits thought to reflect the subclinical expression of the signs and symptoms of schizophrenia. Here, we review the cognitive and brain functional profile associated with high questionnaire scores in schizotypy. We discuss empirical evidence from the domains of perception, attention, memory, imagery and representation, language, and motor control. Perceptual deficits occur early and across various modalities. While the neural mechanisms underlying visual impairments may be linked to magnocellular dysfunction, further effects may be seen downstream in higher cognitive functions. Cognitive deficits are observed in inhibitory control, selective and sustained attention, incidental learning, and memory. In concordance with the cognitive nature of many of the aberrations of schizotypy, higher levels of schizotypy are associated with enhanced vividness and better performance on tasks of mental rotation. Language deficits seem most pronounced in higher-level processes. Finally, higher levels of schizotypy are associated with reduced performance on oculomotor tasks, resembling the impairments seen in schizophrenia. Some of these deficits are accompanied by reduced brain activation, akin to the pattern of hypoactivations in schizophrenia spectrum individuals. We conclude that schizotypy is a construct with apparent phenomenological overlap with schizophrenia and stable interindividual differences that covary with performance on a wide range of perceptual, cognitive, and motor tasks known to be impaired in schizophrenia. The importance of these findings lies not only in providing a fine-grained neurocognitive characterization of a personality constellation known to be associated with real-life impairments, but also in generating hypotheses concerning the aetiology of schizophrenia. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions

  9. Centrality of Social Interaction in Human Brain Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hari, Riitta; Henriksson, Linda; Malinen, Sanna; Parkkonen, Lauri

    2015-10-07

    People are embedded in social interaction that shapes their brains throughout lifetime. Instead of emerging from lower-level cognitive functions, social interaction could be the default mode via which humans communicate with their environment. Should this hypothesis be true, it would have profound implications on how we think about brain functions and how we dissect and simulate them. We suggest that the research on the brain basis of social cognition and interaction should move from passive spectator science to studies including engaged participants and simultaneous recordings from the brains of the interacting persons. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Order-sorted Algebraic Specifications with Higher-order Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    1995-01-01

    This paper gives a proposal for how order-sorted algebraic specification languages can be extended with higher-order functions. The approach taken is a generalisation to the order-sorted case of an approach given by Mller, Tarlecki and Wirsing for the many-sorted case. The main idea in the proposal...

  11. What imagination can teach us about higher mental functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tateo, Luca

    2016-01-01

    in fictional world where we can find relief to the disquieting spectacle of the world, nor a sandbox in which we can play with alternative futures. It is one of the higher mental functions that makes the world how we experience it and how we are striving to experience it. The imaginative process plays a self...

  12. Functional architecture of higher plant photosystem II supercomplexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caffarri, Stefano; Kouril, Roman; Kereiche, Sami; Boekema, Egbert J.; Croce, Roberta; Kereïche, Sami

    2009-01-01

    Photosystem II ( PSII) is a large multiprotein complex, which catalyses water splitting and plastoquinone reduction necessary to transform sunlight into chemical energy. Detailed functional and structural studies of the complex from higher plants have been hampered by the impossibility to purify it

  13. Development of large-scale functional brain networks in children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaustubh Supekar

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The ontogeny of large-scale functional organization of the human brain is not well understood. Here we use network analysis of intrinsic functional connectivity to characterize the organization of brain networks in 23 children (ages 7-9 y and 22 young-adults (ages 19-22 y. Comparison of network properties, including path-length, clustering-coefficient, hierarchy, and regional connectivity, revealed that although children and young-adults' brains have similar "small-world" organization at the global level, they differ significantly in hierarchical organization and interregional connectivity. We found that subcortical areas were more strongly connected with primary sensory, association, and paralimbic areas in children, whereas young-adults showed stronger cortico-cortical connectivity between paralimbic, limbic, and association areas. Further, combined analysis of functional connectivity with wiring distance measures derived from white-matter fiber tracking revealed that the development of large-scale brain networks is characterized by weakening of short-range functional connectivity and strengthening of long-range functional connectivity. Importantly, our findings show that the dynamic process of over-connectivity followed by pruning, which rewires connectivity at the neuronal level, also operates at the systems level, helping to reconfigure and rebalance subcortical and paralimbic connectivity in the developing brain. Our study demonstrates the usefulness of network analysis of brain connectivity to elucidate key principles underlying functional brain maturation, paving the way for novel studies of disrupted brain connectivity in neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism.

  14. Using Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Detect Preserved Function in a Preterm Infant with Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzmann, Charlotte; Zubiaurre-Elorza, Leire; Wild, Conor J; Linke, Annika C; Han, Victor K; Lee, David S C; Cusack, Rhodri

    2017-10-01

    We studied developmental plasticity using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a preterm infant with brain injury on structural MRI. fMRI showed preserved brain function and subsequent neurodevelopment was within the normal range. Multimodal neuroimaging including fMRI can improve understanding of neural plasticity after preterm birth and brain injury. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison Criteria for Nonlinear Functional Dynamic Equations of Higher Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taher S. Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We will consider the higher order functional dynamic equations with mixed nonlinearities of the form xnt+∑j=0Npjtϕγjxφjt=0, on an above-unbounded time scale T, where n≥2, xi(t≔ri(tϕαixi-1Δ(t,  i=1,…,n-1,   with  x0=x,  ϕβ(u≔uβsgn⁡u, and α[i,j]≔αi⋯αj. The function φi:T→T is a rd-continuous function such that limt→∞φi(t=∞ for j=0,1,…,N. The results extend and improve some known results in the literature on higher order nonlinear dynamic equations.

  16. Profiles of Executive Function Across Children with Distinct Brain Disorders: Traumatic Brain Injury, Stroke, and Brain Tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Gabriel C; Antonini, Tanya N; Anderson, Vicki; Vannatta, Kathryn A; Salley, Christina G; Bigler, Erin D; Taylor, H Gerry; Gerhardt, Cynthia; Rubin, Kenneth; Dennis, Maureen; Lo, Warren; Mackay, Mark T; Gordon, Anne; Hajek Koterba, Christine; Gomes, Alison; Greenham, Mardee; Owen Yeates, Keith

    2017-08-01

    This study examined whether children with distinct brain disorders show different profiles of strengths and weaknesses in executive functions, and differ from children without brain disorder. Participants were children with traumatic brain injury (N=82; 8-13 years of age), arterial ischemic stroke (N=36; 6-16 years of age), and brain tumor (N=74; 9-18 years of age), each with a corresponding matched comparison group consisting of children with orthopedic injury (N=61), asthma (N=15), and classmates without medical illness (N=68), respectively. Shifting, inhibition, and working memory were assessed, respectively, using three Test of Everyday Attention: Children's Version (TEA-Ch) subtests: Creature Counting, Walk-Don't-Walk, and Code Transmission. Comparison groups did not differ in TEA-Ch performance and were merged into a single control group. Profile analysis was used to examine group differences in TEA-Ch subtest scaled scores after controlling for maternal education and age. As a whole, children with brain disorder performed more poorly than controls on measures of executive function. Relative to controls, the three brain injury groups showed significantly different profiles of executive functions. Importantly, post hoc tests revealed that performance on TEA-Ch subtests differed among the brain disorder groups. Results suggest that different childhood brain disorders result in distinct patterns of executive function deficits that differ from children without brain disorder. Implications for clinical practice and future research are discussed. (JINS, 2017, 23, 529-538).

  17. Brain masculinization requires androgen receptor function

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Takashi; Matsumoto, Takahiro; Kawano, Hirotaka; Watanabe, Tomoyuki; Uematsu, Yoshikatsu; Sekine, Keisuke; Fukuda, Toru; Aihara, Ken-ichi; Krust, Andrée; Yamada, Takashi; NAKAMICHI, YUKO; Yamamoto, Yoko; Nakamura, Takashi; Yoshimura, Kimihiro; Yoshizawa, Tatsuya

    2004-01-01

    Testicular testosterone produced during a critical perinatal period is thought to masculinize and defeminize the male brain from the inherent feminization program and induce male-typical behaviors in the adult. These actions of testosterone appear to be exerted not through its androgenic activity, but rather through its conversion by brain aromatase into estrogen, with the consequent activation of estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated signaling. Thus, the role of androgen receptor (AR) in perinatal...

  18. Whole-brain functional connectivity predicted by indirect structural connections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røge, Rasmus; Ambrosen, Karen Marie Sandø; Albers, Kristoffer Jon

    2017-01-01

    Modern functional and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and dMRI) provide data from which macro-scale networks of functional and structural whole brain connectivity can be estimated. Although networks derived from these two modalities describe different properties of the human brain......, they emerge from the same underlying brain organization, and functional communication is presumably mediated by structural connections. In this paper, we assess the structure-function relationship by evaluating how well functional connectivity can be predicted from structural graphs. Using high......-resolution whole brain networks generated with varying density, we contrast the performance of several non-parametric link predictors that measure structural communication flow. While functional connectivity is not well predicted directly by structural connections, we show that superior predictions can be achieved...

  19. Nanoparticle functionalization for brain targeting drug delivery and diagnostic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomes, Maria João; Mendes, Bárbara; Martins, Susana

    2016-01-01

    carriers to cross the BBB and achieve brain, and their functionalization strategies are described; and finally the delivery of nanoparticles to the target moiety, as diagnostics or therapeutics. Therefore, this chapter is focused on how the nanoparticle surface may be functionalized for drug delivery......Nanobiotechnology has been demonstrated to be an efficient tool for targeted therapy as well as diagnosis, with particular emphasis on brain tumor and neurodegenerative diseases. On this regard, the aim of this chapter is focused on engineered nanoparticles targeted to the brain, so that they have...... the ability to overcome the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and enter the brain tissue. Firstly, it highlighted the difficulty of physically active molecules and colloidal carriers to overcome BBB, which is an impediment for the treatment of several brain diseases; then, the use of nanoparticles as advantageous...

  20. Functional specializations for music processing in the human newborn brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perani, Daniela; Saccuman, Maria Cristina; Scifo, Paola; Spada, Danilo; Andreolli, Guido; Rovelli, Rosanna; Baldoli, Cristina; Koelsch, Stefan

    2010-03-09

    In adults, specific neural systems with right-hemispheric weighting are necessary to process pitch, melody, and harmony as well as structure and meaning emerging from musical sequences. It is not known to what extent the specialization of these systems results from long-term exposure to music or from neurobiological constraints. One way to address this question is to examine how these systems function at birth, when auditory experience is minimal. We used functional MRI to measure brain activity in 1- to 3-day-old newborns while they heard excerpts of Western tonal music and altered versions of the same excerpts. Altered versions either included changes of the tonal key or were permanently dissonant. Music evoked predominantly right-hemispheric activations in primary and higher order auditory cortex. During presentation of the altered excerpts, hemodynamic responses were significantly reduced in the right auditory cortex, and activations emerged in the left inferior frontal cortex and limbic structures. These results demonstrate that the infant brain shows a hemispheric specialization in processing music as early as the first postnatal hours. Results also indicate that the neural architecture underlying music processing in newborns is sensitive to changes in tonal key as well as to differences in consonance and dissonance.

  1. Functional MRI of the brain during orgasm in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komisaruk, Barry R; Whipple, Beverly

    2005-01-01

    Women diagnosed with complete spinal cord injury (SCI) at T10 or higher report sensations generated by vaginal-cervical mechanical self-stimulation (CSS). In this paper we review brain responses to sexual arousal and orgasm in such women, and further hypothesize that the afferent pathway for this unexpected perception is provided by the Vagus nerves, which bypass the spinal cord. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we ascertained that the region of the medulla oblongata to which the Vagus nerves project (the Nucleus of the Solitary Tract or NTS) is activated by CSS. We also used an objective measure, CSS-induced analgesia response to experimentally induced finger pain, to ascertain the functionality of this pathway. During CSS, several women experienced orgasms. Brain regions activated during orgasm included the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, amygdala, accumbens-bed nucleus of the stria terminalis-preoptic area, hippocampus, basal ganglia (especially putamen), cerebellum, and anterior cingulate, insular, parietal and frontal cortices, and lower brainstem (central gray, mesencephalic reticular formation, and NTS). We conclude that the Vagus nerves provide a spinal cord-bypass pathway for vaginal-cervical sensibility and that activation of this pathway can produce analgesia and orgasm.

  2. From "Brain Drain" to "Brain Bridging": Transnational Higher Education Development and Graduate Employment in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Ka Ho; Han, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    In the past few decades, the internationalisation of higher education has become an increasingly popular trend across different parts of the globe. The fierce global competition and the aggravating unemployment rate, coupled with low teaching and research quality revealed by universities in mainland China, have inevitably compelled a growing…

  3. Beyond localized and distributed accounts of brain functions. Comment on “Understanding brain networks and brain organization” by Pessoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauda, Franco; Costa, Tommaso; Tamietto, Marco

    2014-09-01

    Recent evidence in cognitive neuroscience lends support to the idea that network models of brain architecture provide a privileged access to the understanding of the relation between brain organization and cognitive processes [1]. The core perspective holds that cognitive processes depend on the interactions among distributed neuronal populations and brain structures, and that the impact of a given region on behavior largely depends on its pattern of anatomical and functional connectivity [2,3].

  4. Abnormal functional brain network in epilepsy patients with focal cortical dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Woorim; Jin, Seung-Hyun; Kim, Museong; Kim, June Sic; Chung, Chun Kee

    2014-11-01

    Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) is the second most common pathological entity in surgically treated neocortical focal epilepsy. Despite the recent increase of interest in network approaches derived from graph theory on epilepsy, resting state network analysis of the FCD brain has not been adequately investigated. In this study, we investigated the difference in the resting state functional network between epilepsy patients with FCD and healthy controls using whole-brain magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings. Global mutual information (MIglob) and global efficiency (Eglob) were calculated for theta (4-7 Hz), alpha (8-12 Hz), beta (13-30 Hz), and gamma (31-45 Hz) bands in 35 epilepsy patients with FCD and 23 healthy controls. Resting state FCD brains had stronger functional connectivity (MIglob) in the beta and gamma bands and higher functional efficiency (Eglob) in the beta and gamma bands than those of the controls (ptype I and II brains in the beta band were higher than those of healthy control brains (ptype II brains were higher than those of control and FCD type I brains (ptype of FCD. The resting state network analysis could be useful in a clinical setting because we observed network differences even when there was no prominent interictal spike activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Random matrix theory for analyzing the brain functional network in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rong; Wang, Li; Yang, Yong; Li, Jiajia; Wu, Ying; Lin, Pan

    2016-11-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common childhood neuropsychiatric disorder and affects approximately 6 -7 % of children worldwide. Here, we investigate the statistical properties of undirected and directed brain functional networks in ADHD patients based on random matrix theory (RMT), in which the undirected functional connectivity is constructed based on correlation coefficient and the directed functional connectivity is measured based on cross-correlation coefficient and mutual information. We first analyze the functional connectivity and the eigenvalues of the brain functional network. We find that ADHD patients have increased undirected functional connectivity, reflecting a higher degree of linear dependence between regions, and increased directed functional connectivity, indicating stronger causality and more transmission of information among brain regions. More importantly, we explore the randomness of the undirected and directed functional networks using RMT. We find that for ADHD patients, the undirected functional network is more orderly than that for normal subjects, which indicates an abnormal increase in undirected functional connectivity. In addition, we find that the directed functional networks are more random, which reveals greater disorder in causality and more chaotic information flow among brain regions in ADHD patients. Our results not only further confirm the efficacy of RMT in characterizing the intrinsic properties of brain functional networks but also provide insights into the possibilities RMT offers for improving clinical diagnoses and treatment evaluations for ADHD patients.

  6. Functional Segregation and Development of Mouse Higher Visual Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Tomonari; Matsui, Teppei; Ohki, Kenichi

    2017-09-27

    Recent studies suggest that higher visual areas (HVAs) in the mouse visual cortex are segregated anatomically into two visual streams, likely analogous to the ventral and dorsal streams in primates. However, HVAs in mice have yet to be characterized functionally. Moreover, it is unknown when the functional segregation of HVAs occurs during development. Here, we investigated spatiotemporal selectivity of HVAs and their development using wide-field calcium imaging. We found that lateral HVAs in the anatomical ventral stream shared similar spatiotemporal selectivity, whereas the spatiotemporal selectivity of anterior and medial HVAs in the anatomical dorsal stream was not uniform and these areas were segregated functionally into multiple groups. This functional segregation of HVAs developed and reached an adult-like pattern ∼10 d after eye opening (EO). These results suggest, not only the functional segregation of ventral and dorsal streams, but also the presence of multiple substreams in the dorsal stream, and indicate that the functional segregation of visual streams occurs gradually after EO.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Investigation of the spatiotemporal selectivity of nine higher visual areas (HVAs) in adult and developing mice revealed that lateral HVAs belonging to the putative ventral stream shared similar spatiotemporal selectivity, whereas the spatiotemporal selectivity of anterior and medial HVAs belonging to the putative dorsal stream was not uniform and these areas were segregated functionally into multiple groups. These results suggest the presence of multiple substreams within the putative dorsal stream for visuospatial processing. Furthermore, we found that initially immature functional segregation among HVAs developed to an adult-like pattern ∼10 d after eye opening. These results provide a foundation for using mouse HVAs as a model to understand parallel processing and its developmental mechanism. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/379424-14$15.00/0.

  7. A whole brain approach to teaching and learning in higher education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The knowledge pertaining to the educators' preferred thinking styles was used as a point of departure to foster an awareness for the whole brain concept and the existence of diversity in thinking style preferences. This diversity poses challenges for all classroom practices. South African Journal of Higher Education Vol.15(3) ...

  8. Let thy left brain know what thy right brain doeth: Inter-hemispheric compensation of functional deficits after brain damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolomeo, Paolo; Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel

    2016-12-01

    Recent evidence revealed the importance of inter-hemispheric communication for the compensation of functional deficits after brain damage. This review summarises the biological consequences observed using histology as well as the longitudinal findings measured with magnetic resonance imaging methods in brain damaged animals and patients. In particular, we discuss the impact of post-stroke brain hyperactivity on functional recovery in relation to time. The reviewed evidence also suggests that the proportion of the preserved functional network both in the lesioned and in the intact hemispheres, rather than the simple lesion location, determines the extent of functional recovery. Hence, future research exploring longitudinal changes in patients with brain damage may unveil potential biomarkers underlying functional recovery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Functional MRI of food-induced brain responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, P.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    The ultimate goal of this research was to find central biomarkers of satiety, i.e., physiological measures in the brain that relate to subjectively rated appetite, actual food intake, or both. This thesis describes the changes in brain activity in response to food stimuli as measured by functional

  10. Higher Order Hierarchical Legendre Basis Functions for Electromagnetic Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Erik; Volakis, John L.; Meincke, Peter

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a new hierarchical basis of arbitrary order for integral equations solved with the Method of Moments (MoM). The basis is derived from orthogonal Legendre polynomials which are modified to impose continuity of vector quantities between neighboring elements while maintaining most....... In addition, all higher-order terms in the expansion have two vanishing moments.In contrast to existing formulations, these properties allow the use of very high-order basis functions without introducing ill-conditioning of the resulting MoM matrix. Numerical results confirm that the condition number...... of the MoM matrix obtained with this new basis is much lower than existing higher-order interpolatory and hierarchical basis functions. As a consequence of the excellent condition numbers, we demonstrate that even very high-order MoM systems, e.g. 10th order, can be solved efficiently with an iterative...

  11. Application of holomorphic functions in two and higher dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Gürlebeck, Klaus; Sprößig, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    This book presents applications of hypercomplex analysis to boundary value and initial-boundary value problems from various areas of mathematical physics. Given that quaternion and Clifford analysis offer natural and intelligent ways to enter into higher dimensions, it starts with quaternion and Clifford versions of complex function theory including series expansions with Appell polynomials, as well as Taylor and Laurent series. Several necessary function spaces are introduced, and an operator calculus based on modifications of the Dirac, Cauchy-Fueter, and Teodorescu operators and different decompositions of quaternion Hilbert spaces are proved. Finally, hypercomplex Fourier transforms are studied in detail. All this is then applied to first-order partial differential equations such as the Maxwell equations, the Carleman-Bers-Vekua system, the Schrödinger equation, and the Beltrami equation. The higher-order equations start with Riccati-type equations. Further topics include spatial fluid flow problems, ima...

  12. Nonresonance impulsive higher order functional nonconvex-valued differential inclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouffak Benchohra

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors investigate the existence of solutions for nonresonance impulsive higher order functional differential inclusions in Banach spaces with nonconvex valued right hand side. They present two results. In the first one, they rely on a fixed point theorem for contraction multivalued maps due to Covitz and Nadler, and for the second one, they use Schaefer's fixed point theorem combined with lower semi-continuous multivalued operators with decomposable values.

  13. Handedness- and brain size-related efficiency differences in small-world brain networks: a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meiling; Wang, Junping; Liu, Feng; Chen, Heng; Lu, Fengmei; Wu, Guorong; Yu, Chunshui; Chen, Huafu

    2015-05-01

    The human brain has been described as a complex network, which integrates information with high efficiency. However, the relationships between the efficiency of human brain functional networks and handedness and brain size remain unclear. Twenty-one left-handed and 32 right-handed healthy subjects underwent a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scan. The whole brain functional networks were constructed by thresholding Pearson correlation matrices of 90 cortical and subcortical regions. Graph theory-based methods were employed to further analyze their topological properties. As expected, all participants demonstrated small-world topology, suggesting a highly efficient topological structure. Furthermore, we found that smaller brains showed higher local efficiency, whereas larger brains showed higher global efficiency, reflecting a suitable efficiency balance between local specialization and global integration of brain functional activity. Compared with right-handers, significant alterations in nodal efficiency were revealed in left-handers, involving the anterior and median cingulate gyrus, middle temporal gyrus, angular gyrus, and amygdala. Our findings indicated that the functional network organization in the human brain was associated with handedness and brain size.

  14. Network analysis of intrinsic functional brain connectivity in Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaustubh Supekar

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Functional brain networks detected in task-free ("resting-state" functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI have a small-world architecture that reflects a robust functional organization of the brain. Here, we examined whether this functional organization is disrupted in Alzheimer's disease (AD. Task-free fMRI data from 21 AD subjects and 18 age-matched controls were obtained. Wavelet analysis was applied to the fMRI data to compute frequency-dependent correlation matrices. Correlation matrices were thresholded to create 90-node undirected-graphs of functional brain networks. Small-world metrics (characteristic path length and clustering coefficient were computed using graph analytical methods. In the low frequency interval 0.01 to 0.05 Hz, functional brain networks in controls showed small-world organization of brain activity, characterized by a high clustering coefficient and a low characteristic path length. In contrast, functional brain networks in AD showed loss of small-world properties, characterized by a significantly lower clustering coefficient (p<0.01, indicative of disrupted local connectivity. Clustering coefficients for the left and right hippocampus were significantly lower (p<0.01 in the AD group compared to the control group. Furthermore, the clustering coefficient distinguished AD participants from the controls with a sensitivity of 72% and specificity of 78%. Our study provides new evidence that there is disrupted organization of functional brain networks in AD. Small-world metrics can characterize the functional organization of the brain in AD, and our findings further suggest that these network measures may be useful as an imaging-based biomarker to distinguish AD from healthy aging.

  15. Brain Hemispheric Functions and the Native American.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Allen Chuck

    1982-01-01

    Uses brain research conducted by Dr. Roger Sperry to show that traditional Native Americans are more dominant in right hemisphere thinking, setting them apart from a modern left hemisphere-oriented society (especially emphasized in schools). Describes some characteristics of Native American thinking that illustrate a right hemisphere orientation…

  16. Abnormal whole-brain functional networks in homogeneous acute mild traumatic brain injury.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shumskaya, E.; Andriessen, T.; Norris, David Gordon; Vos, P.E.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the whole-brain resting-state networks in a homogeneous group of patients with acute mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) and to identify alterations in functional connectivity induced by MTBI. Methods: Thirty-five patients with acute MTBI and 35 healthy control subjects,

  17. Mapping Functional Brain Development: Building a Social Brain through Interactive Specialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark H.; Grossmann, Tobias; Kadosh, Kathrin Cohen

    2009-01-01

    The authors review a viewpoint on human functional brain development, interactive specialization (IS), and its application to the emerging network of cortical regions referred to as the "social brain." They advance the IS view in 2 new ways. First, they extend IS into a domain to which it has not previously been applied--the emergence of social…

  18. Immune responses at brain barriers and implications for brain development and neurological function in later life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen B. Stolp

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available For a long time the brain has been considered an immune-privileged site due to a muted inflammatory response and the presence of protective brain barriers. It is now recognised that neuroinflammation may play an important role in almost all neurological disorders and that the brain barriers may be contributing through either normal immune signalling, or disruption of their basic physiological mechanisms. The distinction between normal function and dysfunction at the barriers is difficult to dissect, partly due to a lack of understanding of normal barrier function and partly because of physiological changes that occur as part of normal development and ageing. Brain barriers consist of a number of interacting structural and physiological elements including tight junctions between adjacent barrier cells and an array of influx and efflux transporters. Despite these protective mechanisms, the capacity for immune-surveillance of the brain is maintained, and there is evidence of inflammatory signalling at the brain barriers that may be an important part of the body’s response to damage or infection. This signalling system appears to change both with normal ageing, and during disease. Changes may affect diapedesis of immune cells and active molecular transfer, or cause rearrangement of the tight junctions and an increase in passive permeability across barrier interfaces. Here we review the many elements that contribute to brain barrier functions and how they respond to inflammation, particularly during development and aging. The implications of inflammation–induced barrier dysfunction for brain development and subsequent neurological function are also discussed.

  19. Neural substrate expansion for the restoration of brain function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Chiao Isaac Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Restoring neurological and cognitive function in individuals who have suffered brain damage is one of the principal objectives of modern translational neuroscience. Electrical stimulation approaches, such as deep-brain stimulation, have achieved the most clinical success, but they ultimately may be limited by the computational capacity of the residual cerebral circuitry. An alternative strategy is brain substrate expansion, in which the computational capacity of the brain is augmented through the addition of new processing units and the reconstitution of network connectivity. This latter approach has been explored to some degree using both biological and electronic means but thus far has not demonstrated the ability to reestablish the function of large-scale neuronal networks. In this review, we contend that fulfilling the potential of brain substrate expansion will require a significant shift from current methods that emphasize direct manipulations of the brain (e.g., injections of cellular suspensions and the implantation of multi-electrode arrays to the generation of more sophisticated neural tissues and neural-electric hybrids in vitro that are subsequently transplanted into the brain. Drawing from neural tissue engineering, stem cell biology, and neural interface technologies, this strategy makes greater use of the manifold techniques available in the laboratory to create biocompatible constructs that recapitulate brain architecture and thus are more easily recognized and utilized by brain networks.

  20. Brain activation studies with PET and functional MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yonekura, Yoshiharu [Fukui Medical Univ., Matsuoka (Japan). Biomedical Imaging Research Center; Sadato, Norihiro [Okazaki National Research Inst., Aichi (Japan). National Inst. for Physiological Sciences

    2002-01-01

    Application of PET and functional MRI in brain activation studies is reviewed. 3D-PET images obtained repeatedly after intravenous injection of about 370 MBq of H{sub 2}{sup 15}O can detect a faint blood flow change in the brain. Functional MRI can also detect the blood flow change in the brain due to blood oxygen level-dependent effect. Echo-planar imaging is popular in MRI with 1.5 or 3 T. Images are analyzed by statistical parametric mapping with correction of cerebral regions, anatomical normalization and statistics. PET data give the blood flow change by the H{sub 2}{sup 15}O incorporation into the brain and MRI data, by the scarce tissue oxygen consumption despite the change. Actual images during the cognition task-performance and of frequent artifacts are given. PET is suitable for studies of brain functions like sensibility and emotion and functional MRI, like cortex functions and clinical practices in identification of functional regions prior to surgery and evaluation of functional recovery of damaged brain. (K.H.)

  1. Functional Imaging of Dolphin Brain Metabolism and Blood Flow

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ridgway, Sam; Finneran, James; Carder, Don; Keogh, Mandy; Van Bonn, William; Smith, Cynthia; Scadeng, Miriam; Dubowitz, David; Mattrey, Robert; Hoh, Carl

    2006-01-01

    This report documents the first use of magnetic resonance images (MRls) of living dolphins to register functional brain scans, allowing for the exploration of potential mechanisms of unihemispheric sleep...

  2. Functional Imaging of Dolphin Brain Metabolism and Blood Flow

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ridgway, Sam; Finneran, James; Carder, Don; Keogh, Mandy; Van Bonn, William; Smith, Cynthia; Scadeng, Miriam; Dubowitz, David; Mattrey, Robert; Hoh, Carl

    2006-01-01

    .... Diazepam has been shown to induce unihemispheric slow waves (USW), therefore we used functional imaging of dolphins with and without diazepam to observe hemispheric differences in brain metabolism and blood flow...

  3. Dietary resistant starch improves selected brain and behavioral functions in adult and aged rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, June; Keenan, Michael J; Fernandez-Kim, Sun Ok; Pistell, Paul J; Ingram, Donald K; Li, Bing; Raggio, Anne M; Shen, Li; Zhang, Hanjie; McCutcheon, Kathleen L; Tulley, Richard T; Blackman, Marc R; Keller, Jeffrey N; Martin, Roy J

    2013-11-01

    Resistant starch (RS) is a dietary fiber that exerts multiple beneficial effects. The current study explored the effects of dietary RS on selected brain and behavioral functions in adult and aged rodents. Because glucokinase (GK) expression in hypothalamic arcuate nucleus and area postrema of the brainstem is important for brain glucose sensing, GK mRNA was measured by brain nuclei microdissection and PCR. Adult RS-fed rats had a higher GK mRNA than controls in both brain nuclei, an indicator of improved brain glucose sensing. Next, we tested whether dietary RS improve selected behaviors in aged mice. RS-fed aged mice exhibited (i) an increased eating responses to fasting, a behavioral indicator of improvement in aged brain glucose sensing; (ii) a longer latency to fall from an accelerating rotarod, a behavioral indicator of improved motor coordination; and (iii) a higher serum active glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Then, GLP-1 receptor null (GLP-1RKO) mice were used to test the role of GLP-1 in brain glucose sensing, and they exhibited impaired eating responses to fasting. We conclude that in rodents (i) dietary RS improves two important indicators of brain function: glucose sensing and motor coordination, and (ii) GLP-1 is important in the optimal feeding response to a fast. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. From brain topography to brain topology: relevance of graph theory to functional neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minati, Ludovico; Varotto, Giulia; D'Incerti, Ludovico; Panzica, Ferruccio; Chan, Dennis

    2013-07-10

    Although several brain regions show significant specialization, higher functions such as cross-modal information integration, abstract reasoning and conscious awareness are viewed as emerging from interactions across distributed functional networks. Analytical approaches capable of capturing the properties of such networks can therefore enhance our ability to make inferences from functional MRI, electroencephalography and magnetoencephalography data. Graph theory is a branch of mathematics that focuses on the formal modelling of networks and offers a wide range of theoretical tools to quantify specific features of network architecture (topology) that can provide information complementing the anatomical localization of areas responding to given stimuli or tasks (topography). Explicit modelling of the architecture of axonal connections and interactions among areas can furthermore reveal peculiar topological properties that are conserved across diverse biological networks, and highly sensitive to disease states. The field is evolving rapidly, partly fuelled by computational developments that enable the study of connectivity at fine anatomical detail and the simultaneous interactions among multiple regions. Recent publications in this area have shown that graph-based modelling can enhance our ability to draw causal inferences from functional MRI experiments, and support the early detection of disconnection and the modelling of pathology spread in neurodegenerative disease, particularly Alzheimer's disease. Furthermore, neurophysiological studies have shown that network topology has a profound link to epileptogenesis and that connectivity indices derived from graph models aid in modelling the onset and spread of seizures. Graph-based analyses may therefore significantly help understand the bases of a range of neurological conditions. This review is designed to provide an overview of graph-based analyses of brain connectivity and their relevance to disease aimed

  5. Functional brain networks and cognitive deficits in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggio, Hugo-Cesar; Sala-Llonch, Roser; Segura, Bàrbara; Marti, Maria-José; Valldeoriola, Francesc; Compta, Yaroslau; Tolosa, Eduardo; Junqué, Carme

    2014-09-01

    Graph-theoretical analyses of functional networks obtained with resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have recently proven to be a useful approach for the study of the substrates underlying cognitive deficits in different diseases. We used this technique to investigate whether cognitive deficits in Parkinson's disease (PD) are associated with changes in global and local network measures. Thirty-six healthy controls (HC) and 66 PD patients matched for age, sex, and education were classified as having mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or not based on performance in the three mainly affected cognitive domains in PD: attention/executive, visuospatial/visuoperceptual (VS/VP), and declarative memory. Resting-state fMRI and graph theory analyses were used to evaluate network measures. We have found that patients with MCI had connectivity reductions predominantly affecting long-range connections as well as increased local interconnectedness manifested as higher measures of clustering, small-worldness, and modularity. The latter measures also tended to correlate negatively with cognitive performance in VS/VP and memory functions. Hub structure was also reorganized: normal hubs displayed reduced centrality and degree in MCI PD patients. Our study indicates that the topological properties of brain networks are changed in PD patients with cognitive deficits. Our findings provide novel data regarding the functional substrate of cognitive impairment in PD, which may prove to have value as a prognostic marker. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Diagnosing Autism Spectrum Disorder through Brain Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Diagnosing Autism Spectrum Disorder through Brain Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging THESIS MARCH 2016 Kyle A. Palko, Second Lieutenant, USAF AFIT...declared a work of the U.S. Government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. AFIT-ENC-MS-16-M-123 DIAGNOSING AUTISM SPECTRUM...PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED. AFIT-ENC-MS-16-M-123 DIAGNOSING AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER THROUGH BRAIN FUNCTIONAL MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING Kyle

  7. ADVANCED OPTICAL TECHNIQUES TO EXPLORE BRAIN STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Silvestri, L.; A. L. ALLEGRA MASCARO; Lotti, J.; Sacconi, L.; Pavone, F.S.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding brain structure and function, and the complex relationships between them, is one of the grand challenges of contemporary sciences. Thanks to their flexibility, optical techniques could be the key to explore this complex network. In this manuscript, we briefly review recent advancements in optical methods applied to three main issues: anatomy, plasticity and functionality. We describe novel implementations of light-sheet microscopy to resolve neuronal anatomy in whole fixed brain...

  8. WLPVG approach to the analysis of EEG-based functional brain network under manual acupuncture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Xin; Wang, Jiang; Deng, Bin; Wei, Xile; Yu, Haitao

    2014-10-01

    Functional brain network, one of the main methods for brain functional studies, can provide the connectivity information among brain regions. In this research, EEG-based functional brain network is built and analyzed through a new wavelet limited penetrable visibility graph (WLPVG) approach. This approach first decompose EEG into δ, θ, α, β sub-bands, then extracting nonlinear features from single channel signal, in addition forming a functional brain network for each sub-band. Manual acupuncture (MA) as a stimulation to the human nerve system, may evoke varied modulating effects in brain activities. To investigating whether and how this happens, WLPVG approach is used to analyze the EEGs of 15 healthy subjects with MA at acupoint ST36 on the right leg. It is found that MA can influence the complexity of EEG sub-bands in different ways and lead the functional brain networks to obtain higher efficiency and stronger small-world property compared with pre-acupuncture control state.

  9. Structural and functional correlates of visual field asymmetry in the human brain by diffusion kurtosis MRI and functional MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Caitlin; Ho, Leon C; Murphy, Matthew C; Conner, Ian P; Wollstein, Gadi; Cham, Rakie; Chan, Kevin C

    2016-11-09

    Human visual performance has been observed to show superiority in localized regions of the visual field across many classes of stimuli. However, the underlying neural mechanisms remain unclear. This study aims to determine whether the visual information processing in the human brain is dependent on the location of stimuli in the visual field and the corresponding neuroarchitecture using blood-oxygenation-level-dependent functional MRI (fMRI) and diffusion kurtosis MRI, respectively, in 15 healthy individuals at 3 T. In fMRI, visual stimulation to the lower hemifield showed stronger brain responses and larger brain activation volumes than the upper hemifield, indicative of the differential sensitivity of the human brain across the visual field. In diffusion kurtosis MRI, the brain regions mapping to the lower visual field showed higher mean kurtosis, but not fractional anisotropy or mean diffusivity compared with the upper visual field. These results suggested the different distributions of microstructural organization across visual field brain representations. There was also a strong positive relationship between diffusion kurtosis and fMRI responses in the lower field brain representations. In summary, this study suggested the structural and functional brain involvements in the asymmetry of visual field responses in humans, and is important to the neurophysiological and psychological understanding of human visual information processing.

  10. Demonstration: A smartphone 3D functional brain scanner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahlhut, Carsten; Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Larsen, Jakob Eg

    We demonstrate a fully portable 3D real-time functional brain scanner consisting of a wireless 14-channel ‘Neuroheadset‘ (Emotiv EPOC) and a Nokia N900 smartphone. The novelty of our system is the ability to perform real-time functional brain imaging on a smartphone device, including stimulus...... tools are preferred. Source localization is implemented locally on the phone with a 3D brain model consisting of 1,028 vertices and 2,048 triangles stored in the mobile application. Our system design benefits from the possibility of being able to integrate with multiple hardware platforms (smartphones...

  11. Functional brain imaging alterations in acne patients treated with isotretinoin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremner, J Douglas; Fani, Negar; Ashraf, Ali; Votaw, John R; Brummer, Marijn E; Cummins, Thomas; Vaccarino, Viola; Goodman, Mark M; Reed, Lai; Siddiq, Sajid; Nemeroff, Charles B

    2005-05-01

    Although there have been case reports suggesting a relationship between treatment with the acne medication isotretinoin and the development of depression and suicide, this topic remains controversial. In order for isotretinoin to cause depression, it must have an effect on the brain; however, the effects of isotretinoin on brain functioning in acne patients have not been established. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of isotretinoin on brain functioning in acne patients. Brain functioning in adults was measured with [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography before and after 4 months of treatment with isotretinoin (N=13) or an antibiotic (N=15). Isotretinoin but not antibiotic treatment was associated with decreased brain metabolism in the orbitofrontal cortex (-21% change versus 2% change for antibiotic), a brain area known to mediate symptoms of depression. There were no differences in the severity of depressive symptoms between the isotretinoin and antibiotic treatment groups before or after treatment. This study suggests that isotretinoin treatment is associated with changes in brain functioning.

  12. Functional organization of monkey brain for abstract operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obayashi, Shigeru; Matsumoto, Ryohei; Suhara, Tetsuya; Nagai, Yuji; Iriki, Atsushi; Maeda, Jun

    2007-04-01

    When humans manipulate a control device under operational rules, with the goal of indirectly controlling a remote tool to achieve a desired outcome, they may rely on the power of internal representation to organize individual moves of the controller and tool into a set of sequences by mapping the motor space among hand, controller and tool. We recently used functional brain imaging (PET) to investigate activations in monkey brain associated with joystick-controlled remote operation of a shovel to obtain food. Activated areas included the prefrontal cortex, posterior parietal cortex and cerebellum, regardless of the rules relating movements of the joystick to those of the shovel (Obayashi et al., 2004). If those areas are engaged in the mental manipulation of internal representation, then we should expect brain activity in the same regions during any similar remote operation, even with different controllers and/or operational rules. To address the above hypothesis in the current study, we used PET to measure regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) of two monkeys during a task in which they were required to control a shovel remotely (to fetch a food pellet) by manipulating dual dials. Compared to unplanned movement of the dials, the active dual-dial operation was associated with robust activation of the prefrontal cortex, higher-order motor cortex, posterior parietal cortex and cerebellum, quite similar to that observed during remote operation with a joystick. The present study suggests that monkeys might be able to organize abstract sequential operations according to learned rules, and perhaps indeed to have insight into the nature of the causal relationships, implying the existence of a relatively sophisticated system of internal representation in the absence of language. The fact that the present results are consistent with our previous PET studies strengthens the view that the underlying mechanism for implicit manipulation of internal representations may involve a

  13. Exploring brain function from anatomical connectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorka eZamora-López

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The intrinsic relationship between the architecture of the brain and the range of sensory and behavioral phenomena it produces is a relevant question in neuroscience. Here, we review recent knowledge gained on the architecture of the anatomical connectivity by means of complex network analysis. It has been found that corticocortical networks display a few prominent characteristics: (i modular organization, (ii abundant alternative processing paths and (iii the presence of highly connected hubs. Additionally, we present a novel classification of cortical areas of the cat according to the role they play in multisensory connectivity. All these properties represent an ideal anatomical substrate supporting rich dynamical behaviors, as-well-as facilitating the capacity of the brain to process sensory information of different modalities segregated and to integrate them towards a comprehensive perception of the real world. The result here exposed are mainly based in anatomical data of cats’ brain, but we show how further observations suggest that, from worms to humans, the nervous system of all animals might share fundamental principles of organization.

  14. Maintaining older brain functionality: A targeted review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Kraft, Eduard; Santana, Silvina; Tziraki, Chariklia

    2015-08-01

    The unprecedented growth in the number of older adults in our society is accompanied by the exponential increase in the number of elderly people who will suffer cognitive decline and dementia in the next decades. This will create an enormous cost for governments, families and individuals. Brain plasticity and its role in brain adaptation to the process of aging is influenced by other changes as a result of co-morbidities, environmental factors, personality traits (psychosocial variables) and genetic and epigenetic factors. This review summarizes recent findings obtained mostly from interventional studies that aim to prevent and/or delay age-related cognitive decline in healthy adults. There are a multitude of such studies. In this paper, we focused our review on physical activity, computerized cognitive training and social enhancement interventions on improving cognition, physical health, independent living and wellbeing of older adults. The methodological limitations of some of these studies, and the need for new multi-domain synergistic interventions, based on current advances in neuroscience and social-brain theories, are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Enhanced functionality of cantilever based mass sensors using higher modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohn, Søren; Sandberg, Rasmus Kousholt; Svendsen, Winnie Edith

    2005-01-01

    By positioning a single gold particle at different locations along the length axis on a cantilever based mass sensor, we have investigated the effect of mass position on the mass responsivity and compared the results to simulations. A significant improvement in quality factor and responsivity...... was achieved by operating the cantilever in the fourth bending mode thereby increasing the intrinsic sensitivity. It is shown that the use of higher bending modes grants a spatial resolution and thereby enhances the functionality of the cantilever based mass sensor. (c) 2005 American Institute of Physics....

  16. The Physical Brain: New Approaches to Brain Structure, Activity, and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, P. A.

    By viewing the brain as a multiscale physical system it is possible to circumvent the shortcomings of abstract signal-based and statistical approaches to analysis of brain structure, activity, and function. Eigenmode approaches enable the key elements of brain structure to be isolated systematically, along with their effects on brain activity and functional measures. Physiologically-based neural field theory permits tractable analysis from sub-mm scales to the whole brain, demonstrating the near-critical state of normal brain operation, relationships between structure and function, nonlinear dynamics, and phase transitions. Results in normal and abnormal states include experimentally verified predictions of electrical and hemodynamic signals, and the successful inversion of functional correlation measures to infer underlying brain structure, including connectivities that cannot be measured directly. These results illustrate the power of physically based modeling to predict, explain, and unify multiple observations across scales. Furthermore, they open up ways to expand the field of biological physics and apply it to a host of new phenomena. Australian Research Council, Grants FL1401000225 and CE140100007.

  17. EEG-based research on brain functional networks in cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Niannian; Zhang, Li; Liu, Guozhong

    2015-01-01

    Recently, exploring the cognitive functions of the brain by establishing a network model to understand the working mechanism of the brain has become a popular research topic in the field of neuroscience. In this study, electroencephalography (EEG) was used to collect data from subjects given four different mathematical cognitive tasks: recite numbers clockwise and counter-clockwise, and letters clockwise and counter-clockwise to build a complex brain function network (BFN). By studying the connectivity features and parameters of those brain functional networks, it was found that the average clustering coefficient is much larger than its corresponding random network and the average shortest path length is similar to the corresponding random networks, which clearly shows the characteristics of the small-world network. The brain regions stimulated during the experiment are consistent with traditional cognitive science regarding learning, memory, comprehension, and other rational judgment results. The new method of complex networking involves studying the mathematical cognitive process of reciting, providing an effective research foundation for exploring the relationship between brain cognition and human learning skills and memory. This could help detect memory deficits early in young and mentally handicapped children, and help scientists understand the causes of cognitive brain disorders.

  18. [Determinism and Freedom of Choice in the Brain Functioning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanitsky, A M

    2015-01-01

    The problem is considered whether the brain response is completely determined by the stimulus and the personal experience or in some cases the brain is free to choose its behavioral response to achieve the desired goal. The attempt is made to approach to this important philosophical problem basing on modern knowledge about the brain. The paper consists of four parts. In the first part the theoretical views about the free choice problem solving are considered, including views about the freedom of choice as a useful illusion, the hypothesis on appliance of quantum mechanics laws to the brain functioning and the theory of mentalism. In other tree parts consequently the more complicated brain functions such as choice reaction, thinking and creation are analyzed. The general conclusion is that the possibility of quite unpredictable, but sometimes very effective decisions increases when the brain functions are more and more complicated. This fact can be explained with two factors: increasing stochasticity of the brain processes and the role of top-down determinations from mental to neural levels, according to the theory of mentalism.

  19. Identifying topological motif patterns of human brain functional networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yongbin; Liao, Xuhong; Yan, Chaogan; He, Yong; Xia, Mingrui

    2017-05-01

    Recent imaging connectome studies demonstrated that the human functional brain network follows an efficient small-world topology with cohesive functional modules and highly connected hubs. However, the functional motif patterns that represent the underlying information flow remain largely unknown. Here, we investigated motif patterns within directed human functional brain networks, which were derived from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data with controlled confounding hemodynamic latencies. We found several significantly recurring motifs within the network, including the two-node reciprocal motif and five classes of three-node motifs. These recurring motifs were distributed in distinct patterns to support intra- and inter-module functional connectivity, which also promoted integration and segregation in network organization. Moreover, the significant participation of several functional hubs in the recurring motifs exhibited their critical role in global integration. Collectively, our findings highlight the basic architecture governing brain network organization and provide insight into the information flow mechanism underlying intrinsic brain activities. Hum Brain Mapp 38:2734-2750, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Conceptual DFT: the chemical relevance of higher response functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geerlings, P; De Proft, F

    2008-06-07

    .g. on the local and global polarizability. Its derivatives may govern the influence of charge on the polarizability, the R-analogues being the nuclear Fukui function and the quadratic and cubic force constants. Although some of the higher order derivatives may be difficult to evaluate a comparison with the energy expansion used in spectroscopy in terms of nuclear displacements, nuclear magnetic moments, electric and magnetic fields leads to the conjecture that, certainly cross terms may contain new, intricate information for understanding chemical reactivity.

  1. Incidental and intentional learning of verbal episodic material differentially modifies functional brain networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Therese Kuhnert

    Full Text Available Learning- and memory-related processes are thought to result from dynamic interactions in large-scale brain networks that include lateral and mesial structures of the temporal lobes. We investigate the impact of incidental and intentional learning of verbal episodic material on functional brain networks that we derive from scalp-EEG recorded continuously from 33 subjects during a neuropsychological test schedule. Analyzing the networks' global statistical properties we observe that intentional but not incidental learning leads to a significantly increased clustering coefficient, and the average shortest path length remains unaffected. Moreover, network modifications correlate with subsequent recall performance: the more pronounced the modifications of the clustering coefficient, the higher the recall performance. Our findings provide novel insights into the relationship between topological aspects of functional brain networks and higher cognitive functions.

  2. EFFECTS OF BRAIN AGE TO INCREASE COGNITIVE FUNCTION IN ELDERLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achdiat Agoes

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Among the elderly cognitive impairment is the biggest cause of the inability to perform normal daily activities, and also the most common reasons that lead to dependence on others to take care of their self. The concept of cognitive (from Latin cognosere, to know or to recognize refers to the ability to process information, applying knowledge, and change the trend. cognitive function of the elderly can be optimized through a variety of ways, one of that way is the brain training game (Brain Age. The game was created specifically to train the cognitive function of elderly. Objective. We determine the effect of brain training game (Brain Age to the improvement of cognitive function in the elderly in Malang. Methods. The design study is Quasi-experimental pretest-posttest approach, the treatment and control groups, and the sampling is done with purposive sampling to obtain the 20 respondents. Data collection instrument in this study are in general cognitive tests by using a measuring instrument MMSE. Results. Mann-Whitney test showed p value 0.000 <α 0.05. Conclusion. The conclusion from this study is that there is the effect of therapy brain training game (Brain Age on increasing cognitive function of elderly in Malang.

  3. Human brain functional MRI and DTI visualization with virtual reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin; Moreland, John; Zhang, Jingyu

    2011-12-01

    Magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and functional MRI (fMRI) are two active research areas in neuroimaging. DTI is sensitive to the anisotropic diffusion of water exerted by its macromolecular environment and has been shown useful in characterizing structures of ordered tissues such as the brain white matter, myocardium, and cartilage. The diffusion tensor provides two new types of information of water diffusion: the magnitude and the spatial orientation of water diffusivity inside the tissue. This information has been used for white matter fiber tracking to review physical neuronal pathways inside the brain. Functional MRI measures brain activations using the hemodynamic response. The statistically derived activation map corresponds to human brain functional activities caused by neuronal activities. The combination of these two methods provides a new way to understand human brain from the anatomical neuronal fiber connectivity to functional activities between different brain regions. In this study, virtual reality (VR) based MR DTI and fMRI visualization with high resolution anatomical image segmentation and registration, ROI definition and neuronal white matter fiber tractography visualization and fMRI activation map integration is proposed. Rationale and methods for producing and distributing stereoscopic videos are also discussed.

  4. Joint brain connectivity estimation from diffusion and functional MRI data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Shu-Hsien; Lenglet, Christophe; Parhi, Keshab K.

    2015-03-01

    Estimating brain wiring patterns is critical to better understand the brain organization and function. Anatomical brain connectivity models axonal pathways, while the functional brain connectivity characterizes the statistical dependencies and correlation between the activities of various brain regions. The synchronization of brain activity can be inferred through the variation of blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) signal from functional MRI (fMRI) and the neural connections can be estimated using tractography from diffusion MRI (dMRI). Functional connections between brain regions are supported by anatomical connections, and the synchronization of brain activities arises through sharing of information in the form of electro-chemical signals on axon pathways. Jointly modeling fMRI and dMRI data may improve the accuracy in constructing anatomical connectivity as well as functional connectivity. Such an approach may lead to novel multimodal biomarkers potentially able to better capture functional and anatomical connectivity variations. We present a novel brain network model which jointly models the dMRI and fMRI data to improve the anatomical connectivity estimation and extract the anatomical subnetworks associated with specific functional modes by constraining the anatomical connections as structural supports to the functional connections. The key idea is similar to a multi-commodity flow optimization problem that minimizes the cost or maximizes the efficiency for flow configuration and simultaneously fulfills the supply-demand constraint for each commodity. In the proposed network, the nodes represent the grey matter (GM) regions providing brain functionality, and the links represent white matter (WM) fiber bundles connecting those regions and delivering information. The commodities can be thought of as the information corresponding to brain activity patterns as obtained for instance by independent component analysis (ICA) of fMRI data. The concept of information

  5. Joint Modelling of Structural and Functional Brain Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kasper Winther; Herlau, Tue; Mørup, Morten

    Functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging have become the most important noninvasive windows to the human brain. A major challenge in the analysis of brain networks is to establish the similarities and dissimilarities between functional and structural connectivity. We formulate a non......-parametric Bayesian network model which allows for joint modelling and integration of multiple networks. We demonstrate the model’s ability to detect vertices that share structure across networks jointly in functional MRI (fMRI) and diffusion MRI (dMRI) data. Using two fMRI and dMRI scans per subject, we establish...... significant structures that are consistently shared across subjects and data splits. This provides an unsupervised approach for modeling of structure-function relations in the brain and provides a general framework for multimodal integration....

  6. Transcranial brain stimulation to promote functional recovery after stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raffin, Estelle; Siebner, Hartwig R

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) is increasingly used to enhance the recovery of function after stroke. The purpose of this review is to highlight and discuss some unresolved questions that need to be addressed to better understand and exploit the potential of NIBS...... therapeutic efficacy. SUMMARY: This review addressed six questions: How does NIBS facilitate the recovery of function after stroke? Which brain regions should be targeted by NIBS? Is there a particularly effective NIBS modality that should be used? Does the location of the stroke influence the therapeutic...... response? How often should NIBS be repeated? Is the functional state of the brain during or before NIBS relevant to therapeutic efficacy of NIBS? We argue that these questions need to be tackled to obtain sufficient mechanistic understanding of how NIBS facilitates the recovery of function. This knowledge...

  7. Early Bifrontal Brain Injury: Disturbances in Cognitive Function Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Bonnier

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe six psychomotor, language, and neuropsychological sequential developmental evaluations in a boy who sustained a severe bifrontal traumatic brain injury (TBI at 19 months of age. Visuospatial, drawing, and writing skills failed to develop normally. Gradually increasing difficulties were noted in language leading to reading and spontaneous speech difficulties. The last two evaluations showed executive deficits in inhibition, flexibility, and working memory. Those executive abnormalities seemed to be involved in the other impairments. In conclusion, early frontal brain injury disorganizes the development of cognitive functions, and interactions exist between executive function and other cognitive functions during development.

  8. Positron Emission Tomography Reveals Abnormal Topological Organization in Functional Brain Network in Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu eXiangzhe

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have demonstrated alterations in the topological organization of structural brain networks in diabetes mellitus (DM. However, the DM-related changes in the topological properties in functional brain networks are almost unexplored so far. We therefore used fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET data to construct functional brain networks of 73 DM patients and 91 sex- and age-matched normal controls (NCs, followed by a graph theoretical analysis. We found that both DM patients and NCs had a small-world topology in functional brain network. In comparison to the NC group, the DM group was found to have significantly lower small-world index, lower normalized clustering coefficients and higher normalized shortest path length. Moreover, for diabetic patients, the nodal centrality was significantly reduced in the right rectus, the right cuneus, the left middle occipital gyrus, and the left postcentral gyrus, and it was significantly increased in the orbitofrontal region of the left middle frontal gyrus, the left olfactory region, and the right paracentral lobule. Our results demonstrated that the diabetic brain was associated with disrupted topological organization in the functional PET network, thus providing the functional evidence for the abnormalities of brain networks in DM.

  9. Enhancing brain functions in senior dogs: a new nutritional approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yuanlong

    2011-02-01

    Aging induces many morphological and metabolic changes in the brain, which may eventually lead to cognitive impairment and dementia called cognitive dysfunction syndrome in senior dogs. Cognitive impairment and dementia can adversely affect the quality of life in both dogs and their owners. Progress has been made over the past years to understand how aging affects brain and its functions in humans and animals including dogs. Existing data indicate that aging-induced changes in the brain are gradual and irreversible. Therefore, it is too late to effectively manage dogs with cognitive impairment and cognitive dysfunction syndrome. The best option to manage brain aging successfully is to reduce or prevent aging-induced changes in the brain by correcting early metabolic changes and eliminating risk factors associated with brain aging and dementia. This article reviews behavioral, morphological, and metabolic changes in the brain induced by aging and discusses a novel nutritional solution for the aging-induced metabolic changes in the brain. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Data mining a functional neuroimaging database for functional segregation in brain regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Årup; Balslev, Daniela; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2006-01-01

    We describe a specialized neuroinformatic data mining technique in connection with a meta-analytic functional neuroimaging database: We mine for functional segregation within brain regions by identifying journal articles that report brain activations within the regions and clustering the abstract...

  11. Activating whole brain® innovation: A means of nourishing multiple intelligence in higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Louise De Boer

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The interconnectedness of the constructs ‘whole brain® thinking’ and ‘multiple intelligence’ forms the epicentre of this article. We depart from the premise that when whole brain® thinking is activated multiple intelligence can be nourished. When this becomes evident in a higher education practice it can be claimed that such a practice is innovative. Whole brain® thinking that informs intelligence and vice versa is inevitable when it comes to facilitating learning with a view to promoting quality learning in the context of higher education. If higher education is concerned about the expectations of industry and the world of work there is no other option as to prepare students in such a way that they develo as holistic – whole brained and intelligent – employers, employees and entrepreneurs who take responsibility for maximising their full potential. Becoming a self-regulated professional and being reflexive are some of the attributes of the 21st century which should be cultivated in all students. Research on whole brain® thinking and multiple intelligence shows that these human attributes form an integral part of one’s interaction with life – one’s environment and especially people as integral part of the environment. This focus on people highlights the need for developing soft skills within every curriculum. The epistemological underpinning of our reporting of experience in practice and research of the application of the principals of the constructs is meta- reflective in nature. Instead of a typical traditional stance to research we do not report on the numerous sets of data obtained over a period of more than 15 years. Our approach is that of a meta-reflective narrative as most of the studies we were involved in and still are, are reflective as it is most often than not action research-driven. And action research is a reflective process. We report on evidence-based practice that includes fields of specialisation such as

  12. Functional changes in the brains of social drinkers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijl, S. (Suzanne)

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the consequences of chronic non-pathological drinking, i.e., social drinking, on brain functioning. While ERPs were recorded, social drinking participants were assessed on cognitive tasks, which were chosen because normal functioning in these tasks

  13. Is performance better when brain functions are typically lateralized?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geuze, Reint; Zickert, Nele; Beking, Tess; Groothuis, Antonius

    2014-01-01

    Lateralization refers to the dominant involvement of one homologous region of the brain over the other in functional task performance. Direction and strength of lateralization depend on the functional task. It is well known that language is lateralized to the left hemisphere, even in most

  14. The behaviour and brain function of the Cichlid fish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the teleost forebrain houses a primitive limbic system the main functions of which would be general arousal and the selection of appropriate responses to the incoming external and endogenous (motivational) stimuli. Keywords: Brain Function, Teleost, telencephalon, Cichlid fish behaviour, limbic system, hippocampus ...

  15. Brain-Computer Interface Controlled Cyborg: Establishing a Functional Information Transfer Pathway from Human Brain to Cockroach Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangye; Zhang, Dingguo

    2016-01-01

    An all-chain-wireless brain-to-brain system (BTBS), which enabled motion control of a cyborg cockroach via human brain, was developed in this work. Steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) based brain-computer interface (BCI) was used in this system for recognizing human motion intention and an optimization algorithm was proposed in SSVEP to improve online performance of the BCI. The cyborg cockroach was developed by surgically integrating a portable microstimulator that could generate invasive electrical nerve stimulation. Through Bluetooth communication, specific electrical pulse trains could be triggered from the microstimulator by BCI commands and were sent through the antenna nerve to stimulate the brain of cockroach. Serial experiments were designed and conducted to test overall performance of the BTBS with six human subjects and three cockroaches. The experimental results showed that the online classification accuracy of three-mode BCI increased from 72.86% to 78.56% by 5.70% using the optimization algorithm and the mean response accuracy of the cyborgs using this system reached 89.5%. Moreover, the results also showed that the cyborg could be navigated by the human brain to complete walking along an S-shape track with the success rate of about 20%, suggesting the proposed BTBS established a feasible functional information transfer pathway from the human brain to the cockroach brain.

  16. Developing brain vital signs: Initial framework for monitoring brain function changes over time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujoy eGhosh Hajra

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Clinical assessment of brain function relies heavily on indirect behavior-based tests. Unfortunately, behavior-based assessments are subjective and therefore susceptible to several confounding factors. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs, derived from electroencephalography (EEG, are often used to provide objective, physiological measures of brain function. Historically, ERPs have been characterized extensively within research settings, with limited but growing clinical applications. Over the past 20 years, we have developed clinical ERP applications for the evaluation of functional status following serious injury and/or disease. This work has identified an important gap: the need for a clinically accessible framework to evaluate ERP measures. Crucially, this enables baseline measures before brain dysfunction occurs, and might enable the routine collection of brain function metrics in the future much like blood pressure measures today. Here, we propose such a framework for extracting specific ERPs as potential brain vital signs. This framework enabled the translation/transformation of complex ERP data into accessible metrics of brain function for wider clinical utilization. To formalize the framework, three essential ERPs were selected as initial indicators: 1 the auditory N100 (Auditory sensation; 2 the auditory oddball P300 (Basic attention; and 3 the auditory speech processing N400 (Cognitive processing. First step validation was conducted on healthy younger and older adults (age range: 22-82 years. Results confirmed specific ERPs at the individual level (86.81%-98.96%, verified predictable age-related differences (P300 latency delays in older adults, p<0.05, and demonstrated successful linear transformation into the proposed brain vital sign (BVS framework (basic attention latency sub-component of BVS framework reflects delays in older adults, p<0.05. The findings represent an initial critical step in developing, extracting, and

  17. Functional MRI and intraoperative brain mapping to evaluate brain plasticity in patients with brain tumours and hemiparesis

    OpenAIRE

    Roux, F.; Boulanouar, K; Ibarrola, D; Tremoulet, M.; Chollet, F; BERRY, I.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To support the hypothesis about the potential compensatory role of ipsilateral corticofugal pathways when the contralateral pathways are impaired by brain tumours.
METHODS—Retrospective analysis was carried out on the results of functional MRI (fMRI) of a selected group of five paretic patients with Rolandic brain tumours who exhibited an abnormally high ipsilateral/contralateral ratio of activation—that is, movements of the paretic hand activated predominately ...

  18. Resting-state brain organization revealed by functional covariance networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Brain network studies using techniques of intrinsic connectivity network based on fMRI time series (TS-ICN and structural covariance network (SCN have mapped out functional and structural organization of human brain at respective time scales. However, there lacks a meso-time-scale network to bridge the ICN and SCN and get insights of brain functional organization. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We proposed a functional covariance network (FCN method by measuring the covariance of amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF in BOLD signals across subjects, and compared the patterns of ALFF-FCNs with the TS-ICNs and SCNs by mapping the brain networks of default network, task-positive network and sensory networks. We demonstrated large overlap among FCNs, ICNs and SCNs and modular nature in FCNs and ICNs by using conjunctional analysis. Most interestingly, FCN analysis showed a network dichotomy consisting of anti-correlated high-level cognitive system and low-level perceptive system, which is a novel finding different from the ICN dichotomy consisting of the default-mode network and the task-positive network. CONCLUSION: The current study proposed an ALFF-FCN approach to measure the interregional correlation of brain activity responding to short periods of state, and revealed novel organization patterns of resting-state brain activity from an intermediate time scale.

  19. How genetics affects the brain to produce higher-level dysfunctions in myotonic dystrophy type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Laura; Petrucci, Antonio; Spanò, Barbara; Torso, Mario; Olivito, Giusy; Lispi, Ludovico; Costanzi-Porrini, Sandro; Giulietti, Giovanni; Koch, Giacomo; Giacanelli, Manlio; Caltagirone, Carlo; Cercignani, Mara; Bozzali, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is a multisystemic disorder dominated by muscular impairment and brain dysfunctions. Although brain damage has previously been demonstrated in DM1, its associations with the genetics and clinical/neuropsychological features of the disease are controversial. This study assessed the differential role of gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) damage in determining higher-level dysfunctions in DM1. Ten patients with genetically confirmed DM1 and 16 healthy How genetics affects the brain to produce higher-level dysfunctions in myotonic dystrophy type 1 matched controls entered the study. The patients underwent a neuropsychological assessment and quantification of CTG triplet expansion. All the subjects underwent MR scanning at 3T, with studies including T1-weighted volumes and diffusion-weighted images. Voxel-based morphometry and tractbased spatial statistics were used for unbiased quantification of regional GM atrophy and WM integrity. The DM1 patients showed widespread involvement of both tissues. The extent of the damage correlated with CTG triplet expansion and cognition. This study supports the idea that genetic abnormalities in DM1mainly target the WM, but GM involvement is also crucial in determining the clinical characteristics of DM1.

  20. The integration of functional brain activity from adolescence to adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Prantik; Benson, Brenda E; Rosen, Dana; Frangou, Sophia; Leibenluft, Ellen; Luh, Wen-Ming; Bandettini, Peter A; Pine, Daniel S; Ernst, Monique

    2018-02-27

    Age-related changes in human functional neuroanatomy are poorly understood. This is partly due to the limits to interpretation of standard fMRI. These limits relate to age-related variation in noise levels across subjects, and the frequent need for standard adult parcellations in developmental studies. Here we used an emerging MRI approach called multi-echo (ME)-fMRI to characterize functional brain changes with age. ME-fMRI acquires blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signals while also quantifying T2* signal decay. This newly enables reliable analysis of BOLD components at the subject level. We hypothesized that BOLD components of the resting state are not stable with age, and would decrease in number from adolescence to adulthood. This runs counter to the current assumptions in neurodevelopmental analyses of brain connectivity that the number of components is a random effect. From resting state ME-fMRI of 51 healthy subjects of both sexes, between ages of 8.3 and 46.2 y, we found a highly significant (R=-0.55, p[dlt]0.001) exponential decrease in the number of BOLD components with age. The number of BOLD components were halved from adolescence to the fifth decade of life, stabilizing in middle adulthood. The regions driving this change were dorsolateral prefrontal cortices, parietal cortex, and cerebellum. The functional network of these regions centered on the cerebellum. We conclude that age-related decrease in BOLD component number concurs with the hypothesis of neurodevelopmental integration of functional brain activity. We show evidence that the cerebellum may play a key role in this process. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Human brain development is ongoing to at least age 30. Functional MRI (fMRI) is key for studying the change in brain function with development. However, developmental fMRI studies have relied on reference maps of brain organization derived from adult data. This may limit sensitivity to major differences in younger brains. We created an f

  1. Quantitative Erythrocyte Omega-3 EPA Plus DHA Levels are Related to Higher Regional Cerebral Blood Flow on Brain SPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amen, Daniel G; Harris, William S; Kidd, Parris M; Meysami, Somayeh; Raji, Cyrus A

    2017-01-01

    The interrelationships between omega-3 fatty acids status, brain perfusion, and cognition are not well understood. To evaluate if SPECT brain imaging of cerebral perfusion and cognition varies as a function of omega-3 fatty acid levels. A random sample of 166 study participants was drawn from a psychiatric referral clinical for which erythrocyte quantification of omega-3 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (the Omega-3 Index) was available. Quantitative brain SPECT was done on 128 regions based on a standard anatomical Atlas. Persons with erythrocyte EPA+DHA concentrations were dichotomized based on membership in top 50th percentile versus bottom 50th percentile categories. Two-sample t-tests were done to identify statistically significant differences in perfusion between the percentile groups. Partial correlations were modeled between EPA+DHA concentration and SPECT regions. Neurocognitive status was assessed using computerized testing (WebNeuro) and was separately correlated to cerebral perfusion on brain SPECT imaging and omega-3 EPA+DHA levels. Partial correlation analyses showed statistically significant relationships between higher omega-3 levels and cerebral perfusion were in the right parahippocampal gyrus (r = 0.20, p = 0.03), right precuneus (r = 0.20, p = 0.03), and vermis subregion 6 (p = 0.21, p = 0.03). Omega-3 Index levels separately correlated to the feeling subsection of the WebNeuro (r = 0.25, p = 0.01). Quantitative omega-3 EPA+DHA erythrocyte concentrations are independently correlated with brain perfusion on SPECT imaging and neurocognitive tests. These results have implications for the role of omega-3 fatty acids toward contributing to cognitive reserve.

  2. Differentiating functional brain regions using optical coherence tomography (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Daniel A.; Bow, Hansen C.; Shen, Jin-H.; Joos, Karen M.; Skala, Melissa C.

    2017-02-01

    The human brain is made up of functional regions governing movement, sensation, language, and cognition. Unintentional injury during neurosurgery can result in significant neurological deficits and morbidity. The current standard for localizing function to brain tissue during surgery, intraoperative electrical stimulation or recording, significantly increases the risk, time, and cost of the procedure. There is a need for a fast, cost-effective, and high-resolution intraoperative technique that can avoid damage to functional brain regions. We propose that optical coherence tomography (OCT) can fill this niche by imaging differences in the cellular composition and organization of functional brain areas. We hypothesized this would manifest as differences in the attenuation coefficient measured using OCT. Five functional regions (prefrontal, somatosensory, auditory, visual, and cerebellum) were imaged in ex vivo porcine brains (n=3), a model chosen due to a similar white/gray matter ratio as human brains. The attenuation coefficient was calculated using a depth-resolved model and quantitatively validated with Intralipid phantoms across a physiological range of attenuation coefficients (absolute difference analysis was performed on the attenuation coefficient images to derive quantitative endpoints. We observed a statistically significant difference among the median attenuation coefficients of these five regions (one-way ANOVA, p<0.05). Nissl-stained histology will be used to validate our results and correlate OCT-measured attenuation coefficients to neuronal density. Additional development and validation of OCT algorithms to discriminate brain regions are planned to improve the safety and efficacy of neurosurgical procedures such as biopsy, electrode placement, and tissue resection.

  3. Functional architecture of higher plant photosystem II supercomplexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffarri, Stefano; Kouril, Roman; Kereïche, Sami; Boekema, Egbert J; Croce, Roberta

    2009-10-07

    Photosystem II (PSII) is a large multiprotein complex, which catalyses water splitting and plastoquinone reduction necessary to transform sunlight into chemical energy. Detailed functional and structural studies of the complex from higher plants have been hampered by the impossibility to purify it to homogeneity. In this work, homogeneous preparations ranging from a newly identified particle composed by a monomeric core and antenna proteins to the largest C(2)S(2)M(2) supercomplex were isolated. Characterization by biochemical methods and single particle electron microscopy allowed to relate for the first time the supramolecular organization to the protein content. A projection map of C(2)S(2)M(2) at 12 A resolution was obtained, which allowed determining the location and the orientation of the antenna proteins. Comparison of the supercomplexes obtained from WT and Lhcb-deficient plants reveals the importance of the individual subunits for the supramolecular organization. The functional implications of these findings are discussed and allow redefining previous suggestions on PSII energy transfer, assembly, photoinhibition, state transition and non-photochemical quenching.

  4. Assortative mixing in functional brain networks during epileptic seizures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialonski, Stephan; Lehnertz, Klaus

    2013-09-01

    We investigate assortativity of functional brain networks before, during, and after one-hundred epileptic seizures with different anatomical onset locations. We construct binary functional networks from multi-channel electroencephalographic data recorded from 60 epilepsy patients; and from time-resolved estimates of the assortativity coefficient, we conclude that positive degree-degree correlations are inherent to seizure dynamics. While seizures evolve, an increasing assortativity indicates a segregation of the underlying functional network into groups of brain regions that are only sparsely interconnected, if at all. Interestingly, assortativity decreases already prior to seizure end. Together with previous observations of characteristic temporal evolutions of global statistical properties and synchronizability of epileptic brain networks, our findings may help to gain deeper insights into the complicated dynamics underlying generation, propagation, and termination of seizures.

  5. A probabilistic approach to delineating functional brain regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalbitzer, Jan; Svarer, Claus; Frokjaer, Vibe G

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a reliable observer-independent approach to delineating volumes of interest (VOIs) for functional brain regions that are not identifiable on structural MR images. The case is made for the raphe nuclei, a collection of nuclei situated in the brain stem known...... healthy subjects. The templates were subsequently included in the region sets used in a previously published automatic MRI-based approach to create an observer- and activity-independent probabilistic VOI map. The probabilistic map approach was tested in a different group of 10 subjects and compared......-independent, reliable approach to delineating regions that can be identified only by functional imaging, here exemplified by the raphe nuclei. This approach can be used in future studies to create functional VOI maps based on neuroreceptor fingerprints retrieved through in vivo brain imaging Udgivelsesdato: 2009/6...

  6. An adaptive complex network model for brain functional networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio J Gomez Portillo

    Full Text Available Brain functional networks are graph representations of activity in the brain, where the vertices represent anatomical regions and the edges their functional connectivity. These networks present a robust small world topological structure, characterized by highly integrated modules connected sparsely by long range links. Recent studies showed that other topological properties such as the degree distribution and the presence (or absence of a hierarchical structure are not robust, and show different intriguing behaviors. In order to understand the basic ingredients necessary for the emergence of these complex network structures we present an adaptive complex network model for human brain functional networks. The microscopic units of the model are dynamical nodes that represent active regions of the brain, whose interaction gives rise to complex network structures. The links between the nodes are chosen following an adaptive algorithm that establishes connections between dynamical elements with similar internal states. We show that the model is able to describe topological characteristics of human brain networks obtained from functional magnetic resonance imaging studies. In particular, when the dynamical rules of the model allow for integrated processing over the entire network scale-free non-hierarchical networks with well defined communities emerge. On the other hand, when the dynamical rules restrict the information to a local neighborhood, communities cluster together into larger ones, giving rise to a hierarchical structure, with a truncated power law degree distribution.

  7. Functional Brain Network Changes Associated with Maintenance of Cognitive Function in Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh A Helekar

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In multiple sclerosis (MS functional changes in connectivity due to cortical reorganization could lead to cognitive impairment (CI, or reflect a re-adjustment to reduce the clinical effects of widespread tissue damage. Such alterations in connectivity could result in changes in neural activation as assayed by executive function tasks. We examined cognitive function in MS patients with mild to moderate cognitive impairment and age-matched controls. We evaluated brain activity using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI during the successful performance of the Wisconsin-card sorting (WCS task by MS patients, showing compensatory maintenance of normal function, as measured by response latency and error rate. To assess changes in functional connectivity throughout the brain, we performed a global functional brain network analysis by computing voxel by voxel correlations on the fMRI time series data and carrying out a hierarchical cluster analysis. We found that during the WCS task there is a significant reduction in the number of smaller size brain functional networks, and a change in the brain areas representing the nodes of these networks in MS patients compared to age-matched controls. There is also a concomitant increase in the strength of functional connections between brain loci separated at intermediate scale distances in these patients. These functional alterations might reflect compensatory neuroplastic reorganization underlying maintenance of relatively normal cognitive function in the face of white matter lesions and cortical atrophy produced by MS.

  8. Local inhibitory plasticity tunes macroscopic brain dynamics and allows the emergence of functional brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellyer, Peter J; Jachs, Barbara; Clopath, Claudia; Leech, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Rich, spontaneous brain activity has been observed across a range of different temporal and spatial scales. These dynamics are thought to be important for efficient neural functioning. A range of experimental evidence suggests that these neural dynamics are maintained across a variety of different cognitive states, in response to alterations of the environment and to changes in brain configuration (e.g., across individuals, development and in many neurological disorders). This suggests that the brain has evolved mechanisms to maintain rich dynamics across a broad range of situations. Several mechanisms based around homeostatic plasticity have been proposed to explain how these dynamics emerge from networks of neurons at the microscopic scale. Here we explore how a homeostatic mechanism may operate at the macroscopic scale: in particular, focusing on how it interacts with the underlying structural network topology and how it gives rise to well-described functional connectivity networks. We use a simple mean-field model of the brain, constrained by empirical white matter structural connectivity where each region of the brain is simulated using a pool of excitatory and inhibitory neurons. We show, as with the microscopic work, that homeostatic plasticity regulates network activity and allows for the emergence of rich, spontaneous dynamics across a range of brain configurations, which otherwise show a very limited range of dynamic regimes. In addition, the simulated functional connectivity of the homeostatic model better resembles empirical functional connectivity network. To accomplish this, we show how the inhibitory weights adapt over time to capture important graph theoretic properties of the underlying structural network. Therefore, this work presents suggests how inhibitory homeostatic mechanisms facilitate stable macroscopic dynamics to emerge in the brain, aiding the formation of functional connectivity networks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  9. Brain function after near-term birth : the effects of hypoxemia and hypotension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Os, Sandra Henrica Gerarda van

    2005-01-01

    This thesis describes the effects of hypoxemia and hypotension on brain cell function and brain metabolism in the near-term born lamb. Electrocortical brain activity (ECBA), which was used as a measure of brain cell function, was correlated to measures of energy failure and brain cell damage. Lambs

  10. Sleep, Neuronal Plasticity and Brain Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerlo, Peter; Benca, Ruth M.; Abel, Ted

    2015-01-01

    Sleep is truly one of the biggest mysteries in behavioral neuroscience. Humans spend a substantial portion of their lives asleep, as do all other mammalian and bird species that have been studied to date, yet the functions of sleep remain elusive and continue to be a topic of debate among sleep

  11. Brain Function in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gordon Millichap

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available The role of dystrophin disorders in the CNS function of boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD and the dystrophin-deficient mdx mouse, an animal model of DMD, is reviewed at the University of New South Wales, University of Sydney, Australia.

  12. Magnetic Resonance, Functional (fMRI) -- Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... parts of the body and determine the presence of certain diseases. The images can then be examined on a computer monitor, transmitted electronically, printed or copied to a CD or uploaded to a digital cloud server. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is ...

  13. Dynamic functional brain networks involved in simple visual discrimination learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidalgo, Camino; Conejo, Nélida María; González-Pardo, Héctor; Arias, Jorge Luis

    2014-10-01

    Visual discrimination tasks have been widely used to evaluate many types of learning and memory processes. However, little is known about the brain regions involved at different stages of visual discrimination learning. We used cytochrome c oxidase histochemistry to evaluate changes in regional brain oxidative metabolism during visual discrimination learning in a water-T maze at different time points during training. As compared with control groups, the results of the present study reveal the gradual activation of cortical (prefrontal and temporal cortices) and subcortical brain regions (including the striatum and the hippocampus) associated to the mastery of a simple visual discrimination task. On the other hand, the brain regions involved and their functional interactions changed progressively over days of training. Regions associated with novelty, emotion, visuo-spatial orientation and motor aspects of the behavioral task seem to be relevant during the earlier phase of training, whereas a brain network comprising the prefrontal cortex was found along the whole learning process. This study highlights the relevance of functional interactions among brain regions to investigate learning and memory processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Functional brain regeneration in the acoel worm Symsagittifera roscoffensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon G. Sprecher

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The ability of some animals to regrow their head and brain after decapitation provides a striking example of the regenerative capacity within the animal kingdom. The acoel worm Symsagittifera roscoffensis can regrow its head, brain and sensory head organs within only a few weeks after decapitation. How rapidly and to what degree it also reacquires its functionality to control behavior however remains unknown. We provide here a neuroanatomical map of the brain neuropils of the adult S. roscoffensis and show that after decapitation a normal neuroanatomical organization of the brain is restored in the majority of animals. By testing different behaviors we further show that functionality of both sensory perception and the underlying brain architecture are restored within weeks after decapitation. Interestingly not all behaviors are restored at the same speed and to the same extent. While we find that phototaxis recovered rapidly, geotaxis is not restored within 7 weeks. Our findings show that regeneration of the head, sensory organs and brain result in the restoration of directed navigation behavior, suggesting a tight coordination in the regeneration of certain sensory organs with that of their underlying neural circuits. Thus, at least in S. roscoffensis, the regenerative capacity of different sensory modalities follows distinct paths.

  15. Functional brain regeneration in the acoel worm Symsagittifera roscoffensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprecher, Simon G; Bernardo-Garcia, F Javier; van Giesen, Lena; Hartenstein, Volker; Reichert, Heinrich; Neves, Ricardo; Bailly, Xavier; Martinez, Pedro; Brauchle, Michael

    2015-11-18

    The ability of some animals to regrow their head and brain after decapitation provides a striking example of the regenerative capacity within the animal kingdom. The acoel worm Symsagittifera roscoffensis can regrow its head, brain and sensory head organs within only a few weeks after decapitation. How rapidly and to what degree it also reacquires its functionality to control behavior however remains unknown. We provide here a neuroanatomical map of the brain neuropils of the adult S. roscoffensis and show that after decapitation a normal neuroanatomical organization of the brain is restored in the majority of animals. By testing different behaviors we further show that functionality of both sensory perception and the underlying brain architecture are restored within weeks after decapitation. Interestingly not all behaviors are restored at the same speed and to the same extent. While we find that phototaxis recovered rapidly, geotaxis is not restored within 7 weeks. Our findings show that regeneration of the head, sensory organs and brain result in the restoration of directed navigation behavior, suggesting a tight coordination in the regeneration of certain sensory organs with that of their underlying neural circuits. Thus, at least in S. roscoffensis, the regenerative capacity of different sensory modalities follows distinct paths. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  16. Functional electrical stimulation improves brain perfusion in cranial trauma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Juarez Amorim

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Demonstrate brain perfusion changes due to neuronal activation after functional electrical stimulation (FES. METHOD: It was studied 14 patients with hemiplegia who were submitted to a program with FES during fourteen weeks. Brain perfusion SPECT was performed before and after FES therapy. These patients were further separated into 2 groups according to the hemiplegia cause: cranial trauma and major vascular insults. All SPECT images were analyzed using SPM. RESULTS: There was a significant statistical difference between the two groups related to patient's ages and extent of hypoperfusion in the SPECT. Patients with cranial trauma had a reduction in the hypoperfused area and patients with major vascular insult had an increase in the hypoperfused area after FES therapy. CONCLUSION: FES therapy can result in brain perfusion improvement in patients with brain lesions due to cranial trauma but probably not in patients with major vascular insults with large infarct area.

  17. Human brain networks function in connectome-specific harmonic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atasoy, Selen; Donnelly, Isaac; Pearson, Joel

    2016-01-21

    A key characteristic of human brain activity is coherent, spatially distributed oscillations forming behaviour-dependent brain networks. However, a fundamental principle underlying these networks remains unknown. Here we report that functional networks of the human brain are predicted by harmonic patterns, ubiquitous throughout nature, steered by the anatomy of the human cerebral cortex, the human connectome. We introduce a new technique extending the Fourier basis to the human connectome. In this new frequency-specific representation of cortical activity, that we call 'connectome harmonics', oscillatory networks of the human brain at rest match harmonic wave patterns of certain frequencies. We demonstrate a neural mechanism behind the self-organization of connectome harmonics with a continuous neural field model of excitatory-inhibitory interactions on the connectome. Remarkably, the critical relation between the neural field patterns and the delicate excitation-inhibition balance fits the neurophysiological changes observed during the loss and recovery of consciousness.

  18. The microbiota-gut-brain axis in functional gastrointestinal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Palma, Giada; Collins, Stephen M; Bercik, Premysl

    2014-01-01

    Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are highly prevalent and pose a significant burden on health care and society, and impact patients' quality of life. FGIDs comprise a heterogeneous group of disorders, with unclear underlying pathophysiology. They are considered to result from the interaction of altered gut physiology and psychological factors via the gut-brain axis, where brain and gut symptoms are reciprocally influencing each other's expression. Intestinal microbiota, as a part of the gut-brain axis, plays a central role in FGIDs. Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome, a prototype of FGIDs, display altered composition of the gut microbiota compared with healthy controls and benefit, at the gastrointestinal and psychological levels, from the use of probiotics and antibiotics. This review aims to recapitulate the available literature on FGIDs and microbiota-gut-brain axis.

  19. Evaluation and diagnosis of brain death by functional near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Boan; Zhong, Fulin; Huang, Xiaobo; Pan, Lingai; Lu, Sen; Li, Ting

    2017-02-01

    Brain death, the irreversible and permanent loss of the brain and brainstem functions, is hard to be judged precisely for some clinical reasons. The traditional diagnostic methods are time consuming, expensive and some are even dangerous. Functional near infrared spectroscopy (FNIRS), using the good scattering properties of major component of blood to NIR, is capable of noninvasive monitoring cerebral hemodynamic responses. Here, we attempt to use portable FNIRS under patients' natural state for brain death diagnosis. Ten brain death patients and seven normal subjects participated in FNIRS measurements. All of them were provided different fractional concentration of inspired oxygen (FIO2) in different time periods. We found that the concentration variation of deoxyhemoglobin concentration (Δ[Hb]) presents the trend of decrease in the both brain death patients and normal subjects with the raise of the FIO2, however, the data in the normal subjects is more significant. And the concentration variation of oxyhemoglobins concentration (Δ[HbO2]) emerges the opposite trends. Thus Δ[HbO2]/Δ[Hb] in brain death patients is significantly higher than normal subjects, and emerges the rising trend as time went on. The findings indicated the potential of FNIRS-measured hemodynamic index in diagnosing brain death.

  20. Neurosteroid biosynthesis and function in the brain of domestic birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyoshi eTsutsui

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available It is now established that the brain and other nervous systems have the capability of forming steroids de novo, the so-called neurosteroids. The pioneering discovery of Baulieu and his colleagues, using rodents, has opened the door to a new research field of "neurosteroids". In contrast to mammalian vertebrates, little has been known regarding de novo neurosteroidogenesis in the brain of birds. We therefore investigated neurosteroid formation and metabolism in the brain of quail, a domestic bird. Our studies over the past two decades demonstrated that the quail brain possesses cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc, 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/delta5-delta4-isomerase (3beta-HSD, 5beta-reductase, cytochrome P450 17alpha-hydroxylase/c17,20-lyase (P45017alpha,lyase, 17beta-HSD, etc., and produces pregnenolone, progesterone, 5beta-dihydroprogesterone (5beta-DHP, 3beta, 5beta-tetrahydroprogesterone (3beta, 5beta-THP, androstenedione, testosterone, and estradiol from cholesterol. Independently, Schlinger's laboratory demonstrated that the brain of zebra finch, a songbird, also produces various neurosteroids. Thus, the formation and metabolism of neurosteroids from cholesterol is now known to occur in the brain of birds. In addition, we recently found that the quail brain expresses cytochrome P4507alpha and produces 7alpha-and 7beta-hydroxypregnenolone, previously undescribed avian neurosteroids, from pregnenolone. This paper summarizes the advances made in our understanding of neurosteroid formation and metabolism in the brain of domestic birds. This paper also describes what are currently known about physiological changes in neurosteroid formation and biological functions of neurosteroids in the brain of domestic and other birds.

  1. Mapping human brain lesions and their functional consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnath, Hans-Otto; Sperber, Christoph; Rorden, Christopher

    2018-01-15

    Neuroscience has a long history of inferring brain function by examining the relationship between brain injury and subsequent behavioral impairments. The primary advantage of this method over correlative methods is that it can tell us if a certain brain region is necessary for a given cognitive function. In addition, lesion-based analyses provide unique insights into clinical deficits. In the last decade, statistical voxel-based lesion behavior mapping (VLBM) emerged as a powerful method for understanding the architecture of the human brain. This review illustrates how VLBM improves our knowledge of functional brain architecture, as well as how it is inherently limited by its mass-univariate approach. A wide array of recently developed methods appear to supplement traditional VLBM. This paper provides an overview of these new methods, including the use of specialized imaging modalities, the combination of structural imaging with normative connectome data, as well as multivariate analyses of structural imaging data. We see these new methods as complementing rather than replacing traditional VLBM, providing synergistic tools to answer related questions. Finally, we discuss the potential for these methods to become established in cognitive neuroscience and in clinical applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Increased frontal functional networks in adult survivors of childhood brain tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbo Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood brain tumors and associated treatment have been shown to affect brain development and cognitive outcomes. Understanding the functional connectivity of brain many years after diagnosis and treatment may inform the development of interventions to improve the long-term outcomes of adult survivors of childhood brain tumors. This work investigated the frontal region functional connectivity of 16 adult survivors of childhood cerebellar tumors after an average of 14.9 years from diagnosis and 16 demographically-matched controls using resting state functional MRI (rs-fMRI. Independent component analysis (ICA was applied to identify the resting state activity from rs-fMRI data and to select the specific regions associated with executive functions, followed by the secondary analysis of the functional networks connecting these regions. It was found that survivors exhibited differences in the functional connectivity in executive control network (ECN, default mode network (DMN and salience network (SN compared to demographically-matched controls. More specifically, the number of functional connectivity observed in the survivors is higher than that in the controls, and with increased strength, or stronger correlation coefficient between paired seeds, in survivors compared to the controls. Observed hyperconnectivity in the selected frontal functional network thus is consistent with findings in patients with other neurological injuries and diseases.

  3. Efficiency and cost of economical brain functional networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Achard

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Brain anatomical networks are sparse, complex, and have economical small-world properties. We investigated the efficiency and cost of human brain functional networks measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI in a factorial design: two groups of healthy old (N = 11; mean age = 66.5 years and healthy young (N = 15; mean age = 24.7 years volunteers were each scanned twice in a no-task or "resting" state following placebo or a single dose of a dopamine receptor antagonist (sulpiride 400 mg. Functional connectivity between 90 cortical and subcortical regions was estimated by wavelet correlation analysis, in the frequency interval 0.06-0.11 Hz, and thresholded to construct undirected graphs. These brain functional networks were small-world and economical in the sense of providing high global and local efficiency of parallel information processing for low connection cost. Efficiency was reduced disproportionately to cost in older people, and the detrimental effects of age on efficiency were localised to frontal and temporal cortical and subcortical regions. Dopamine antagonism also impaired global and local efficiency of the network, but this effect was differentially localised and did not interact with the effect of age. Brain functional networks have economical small-world properties-supporting efficient parallel information transfer at relatively low cost-which are differently impaired by normal aging and pharmacological blockade of dopamine transmission.

  4. Effects of Soccer Heading on Brain Structure and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Ana Carolina; Lasmar, Rodrigo Pace; Caramelli, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    Soccer is the most popular sport in the world, with more than 265 million players worldwide, including professional and amateur ones. Soccer is unique in comparison to other sports, as it is the only sport in which participants purposely use their head to hit the ball. Heading is considered as an offensive or defensive move whereby the player’s unprotected head is used to deliberately impact the ball and direct it during play. A soccer player can be subjected to an average of 6–12 incidents of heading the ball per competitive game, where the ball reaches high velocities. Moreover, in practice sessions, heading training, which involves heading the ball repeatedly at low velocities, is common. Although the scientific community, as well as the media, has focused on the effects of concussions in contact sports, the role of subconcussive impacts, as it can occur during heading, has recently gained attention, considering that it may represent an additional mechanism of cumulative brain injury. The purpose of this study is to review the existing literature regarding the effects of soccer heading on brain structure and function. Only in the last years, some investigations have addressed the impact of heading on brain structure, by using neuroimaging techniques. Similarly, there have been some recent studies investigating biochemical markers of brain injury in soccer players. There is evidence of association between heading and abnormal brain structure, but the data are still preliminary. Also, some studies have suggested that subconcussive head impacts, as heading, could cause cognitive impairment, whereas others have not corroborated this finding. Questions persist as to whether or not heading is deleterious to cognitive functioning. Further studies, especially with longitudinal designs, are needed to clarify the clinical significance of heading as a cause of brain injury and to identify risk factors. Such investigations might contribute to the establishment of safety

  5. Effects of soccer heading on brain structure and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Oliveira Rodrigues

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Soccer is the most popular sport in the world, with more than 265 million players worldwide, including professional and amateur ones. Soccer is unique in comparison to other sports, as it is the only sport in which participants purposely use their head to hit the ball. Heading is considered an offensive or defensive move whereby the player’s unprotected head is used to deliberately impact the ball and direct it during play. A soccer player can be subjected to an average of six to twelve incidents of heading the ball per competitive game, where the ball reaches high velocities. Moreover, in practice sessions, heading training, which involves heading the ball repeatedly at low velocities, is common. Although the scientific community, as well as the media, has focused on the effects of concussions in contact sports, the role of subconcussive impacts, as it can occur during heading, has recently gained attention, considering that it may represent an additional mechanism of cumulative brain injury. The purpose of this study is to review the existing literature regarding the effects of soccer heading on brain structure and function. Only in the last years some investigations have addressed the impact of heading on brain structure, by using neuroimaging techniques. Similarly, there have been some recent studies investigating biochemical markers of brain injury in soccer players. There is evidence of association between heading and abnormal brain structure, but the data are still preliminary. Also, some studies have suggested that subconcussive head impacts, as heading, could cause cognitive impairment, whereas others have not corroborated this finding. Questions persist as to whether or not heading is deleterious to cognitive functioning. Further studies, especially with longitudinal designs, are needed to clarify the clinical significance of heading as a cause of brain injury and to identify risk factors. Such investigations might contribute to the

  6. Change of Brain Functional Connectivity in Patients With Spinal Cord Injury: Graph Theory Based Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Yu-Sun; Chang, Yongmin; Park, Jang Woo; Lee, Jong-Min; Cha, Jungho; Yang, Jin-Ju; Kim, Chul-Hyun; Hwang, Jong-Moon; Yoo, Ji-Na; Jung, Tae-Du

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the global functional reorganization of the brain following spinal cord injury with graph theory based approach by creating whole brain functional connectivity networks from resting state-functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI), characterizing the reorganization of these networks using graph theoretical metrics and to compare these metrics between patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) and age-matched controls. Twenty patients with incomplete cervical SCI (14 males, 6 females; age, 55±14.1 years) and 20 healthy subjects (10 males, 10 females; age, 52.9±13.6 years) participated in this study. To analyze the characteristics of the whole brain network constructed with functional connectivity using rs-fMRI, graph theoretical measures were calculated including clustering coefficient, characteristic path length, global efficiency and small-worldness. Clustering coefficient, global efficiency and small-worldness did not show any difference between controls and SCIs in all density ranges. The normalized characteristic path length to random network was higher in SCI patients than in controls and reached statistical significance at 12%-13% of density (pgraph theoretical approach in brain functional connectivity might be helpful to reveal the information processing after SCI. These findings imply that patients with SCI can build on preserved competent brain control. Further analyses, such as topological rearrangement and hub region identification, will be needed for better understanding of neuroplasticity in patients with SCI.

  7. Adaptation, perceptual learning, and plasticity of brain functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Jonathan C; Fahle, Manfred; Mulder, Theo; Trauzettel-Klosinski, Susanne

    2017-03-01

    The capacity for functional restitution after brain damage is quite different in the sensory and motor systems. This series of presentations highlights the potential for adaptation, plasticity, and perceptual learning from an interdisciplinary perspective. The chances for restitution in the primary visual cortex are limited. Some patterns of visual field loss and recovery after stroke are common, whereas others are impossible, which can be explained by the arrangement and plasticity of the cortical map. On the other hand, compensatory mechanisms are effective, can occur spontaneously, and can be enhanced by training. In contrast to the human visual system, the motor system is highly flexible. This is based on special relationships between perception and action and between cognition and action. In addition, the healthy adult brain can learn new functions, e.g. increasing resolution above the retinal one. The significance of these studies for rehabilitation after brain damage will be discussed.

  8. Is functional integration of resting state brain networks an unspecific biomarker for working memory performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavash, Mohsen; Doebler, Philipp; Holling, Heinz; Thiel, Christiane M; Gießing, Carsten

    2015-03-01

    Is there one optimal topology of functional brain networks at rest from which our cognitive performance would profit? Previous studies suggest that functional integration of resting state brain networks is an important biomarker for cognitive performance. However, it is still unknown whether higher network integration is an unspecific predictor for good cognitive performance or, alternatively, whether specific network organization during rest predicts only specific cognitive abilities. Here, we investigated the relationship between network integration at rest and cognitive performance using two tasks that measured different aspects of working memory; one task assessed visual-spatial and the other numerical working memory. Network clustering, modularity and efficiency were computed to capture network integration on different levels of network organization, and to statistically compare their correlations with the performance in each working memory test. The results revealed that each working memory aspect profits from a different resting state topology, and the tests showed significantly different correlations with each of the measures of network integration. While higher global network integration and modularity predicted significantly better performance in visual-spatial working memory, both measures showed no significant correlation with numerical working memory performance. In contrast, numerical working memory was superior in subjects with highly clustered brain networks, predominantly in the intraparietal sulcus, a core brain region of the working memory network. Our findings suggest that a specific balance between local and global functional integration of resting state brain networks facilitates special aspects of cognitive performance. In the context of working memory, while visual-spatial performance is facilitated by globally integrated functional resting state brain networks, numerical working memory profits from increased capacities for local processing

  9. Modulatory interactions of resting-state brain functional connectivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Di

    Full Text Available The functional brain connectivity studies are generally based on the synchronization of the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI signals. Functional connectivity measures usually assume a stable relationship over time; however, accumulating studies have reported time-varying properties of strength and spatial distribution of functional connectivity. The present study explored the modulation of functional connectivity between two regions by a third region using the physiophysiological interaction (PPI technique. We first identified eight brain networks and two regions of interest (ROIs representing each of the networks using a spatial independent component analysis. A voxel-wise analysis was conducted to identify regions that showed modulatory interactions (PPI with the two ROIs of each network. Mostly, positive modulatory interactions were observed within regions involved in the same system. For example, the two regions of the dorsal attention network revealed modulatory interactions with the regions related to attention, while the two regions of the extrastriate network revealed modulatory interactions with the regions in the visual cortex. In contrast, the two regions of the default mode network (DMN revealed negative modulatory interactions with the regions in the executive network, and vice versa, suggesting that the activities of one network may be associated with smaller within network connectivity of the competing network. These results validate the use of PPI analysis to study modulation of resting-state functional connectivity by a third region. The modulatory effects may provide a better understanding of complex brain functions.

  10. Altered resting brain function and structure in professional badminton players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Xin; Zhu, Senhua; Jin, Hua; Wang, Pin; Ye, Zhuoer; Zhou, Ke; Zhuo, Yan; Rao, Hengyi

    2012-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies of professional athletic or musical training have demonstrated considerable practice-dependent plasticity in various brain structures, which may reflect distinct training demands. In the present study, structural and functional brain alterations were examined in professional badminton players and compared with healthy controls using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and resting-state functional MRI. Gray matter concentration (GMC) was assessed using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), and resting-brain functions were measured by amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) and seed-based functional connectivity. Results showed that the athlete group had greater GMC and ALFF in the right and medial cerebellar regions, respectively. The athlete group also demonstrated smaller ALFF in the left superior parietal lobule and altered functional connectivity between the left superior parietal and frontal regions. These findings indicate that badminton expertise is associated with not only plastic structural changes in terms of enlarged gray matter density in the cerebellum, but also functional alterations in fronto-parietal connectivity. Such structural and functional alterations may reflect specific experiences of badminton training and practice, including high-capacity visuo-spatial processing and hand-eye coordination in addition to refined motor skills.

  11. Neuroinflammation and brain functional disconnection in Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca eBaglio

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Neuroinflammation and brain functional disconnection result from β-amyloid (Aβ accumulation and play fundamental roles in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD. We investigated possible correlations between these two AD-associated phenomena using DTI-based tractography and immunologic analyses in people with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI and AD. DTI-Analyses focused on corpus callosum (CC. We found that frontal CC regions were preserved with respect to the posterior ones in aMCI; in these individuals significant correlations were seen between DTI-derived metrics in frontal-parietal CC areas and Aβ42-stimulated BDNF-producing CD4+ T lymphocytes and PDL-1-expressing CD14+ cells. These associations were lost in AD where DTI data involving the same CC areas correlated instead with Aβ42-stimulated IL-21 producing CD4+ T lymphocytes. Higher susceptibility to PDL-1-mediated apoptosis of Aβ42-specific lymphocytes and BDNF-associated survival of existing neurons could contribute to the relative CC structure preservation seen in aMCI. These potentially protective mechanisms are lost in frank AD, when severe alterations in the CC are mirrored in peripheral blood by proinflammatory cytokines-producing T cells. Monitoring of immune cells in peripheral blood could have a prognostic value in AD.

  12. Neuropsychological factors related to returning to work in patients with higher brain dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, Akiko; Hashimoto, Manabu; Okazaki, Tetsuya; Hachisuka, Kenji

    2008-12-01

    We conducted neuropsychological tests of patients with higher brain dysfunction to examine the characteristics of barriers to employment. We tested 92 patients with higher brain dysfunction (average age of 36.3 +/- 13.8 years old, ranging between 16 and 63 years old, with an average post-injury period of 35.6 +/- 67.8 months) who were hospitalized at the university hospital between February 2002 and June 2007 for further neuropsychological evaluation, conducting the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R), Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R), the Rivermead Behavioral Memory Test (RBMT), Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) and Behavioral Assessment of Dysexecutive Syndrome (BADS). The outcomes after discharge were classified between competitive employment, sheltered employment and non-employment, and the three groups were compared using one-way analysis of variance and the Scheffe test. The WAIS-R subtests were mutually compared based on the standard values of significant differences described in the WAIS-R manual. Verbal performance and full scale Intelligence Quotient (IQ) of WAIS-R were 87.7 +/- 15.6 (mean +/- standard deviation), 78.5 +/- 18.1 and 81.0 +/- 17.2, respectively, and verbal memory, visual memory, general memory, attention/concentration and delayed recall were 74.6 +/- 20.0, 76.6 +/- 21.4, 72.0 +/- 20.4, 89.0 +/- 16.5 and 65.2 +/- 20.8, respectively. The competitive employment group showed significantly higher scores in performance IQ and full IQ on the WAIS-R and verbal memory, visual memory, general memory and delayed recall on the WMS-R and RBMT than the non-employment group. The sheltered employment group showed a significantly higher score in delayed recall than the non-employment group. No difference was observed in the FAB or BADS between the three groups. In the subtests of the WAIS-R, the score for Digit Symbol-Coding was significantly lower than almost all the other subtests. For patients with higher brain dysfunction, IQ (full

  13. Functional Neuroimaging of Appetite and Gut–Brain Interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, P.A.M.; Preissl, Hubert

    2016-01-01

    Ultimately, eating decisions are made in the brain, based on the integration
    of multiple neural and hormonal signals. Since the early 1990s the use of
    functional
    neuroimaging techniques has continued to increase. Their application
    in the study of the regulation of food intake and

  14. Impact of glucocorticoids on brain function: Relevance for mood disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joëls, M.

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to stressful situations activates two hormonal systems that help the organism to adapt. On the one hand stress hormones achieve adaptation by affecting peripheral organs, on the other hand by altering brain function such that appropriate behavioral strategies are selected for optimal

  15. Structural and Functional Plasticity in the Maternal Brain Circuitry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Mariana

    2016-01-01

    Parenting recruits a distributed network of brain structures (and neuromodulators) that coordinates caregiving responses attuned to the young's affect, needs, and developmental stage. Many of these structures and connections undergo significant structural and functional plasticity, mediated by the interplay between maternal hormones and social…

  16. The nicotinic cholinergic system function in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nees, Frauke

    2015-09-01

    Research on the nicotinic cholinergic system function in the brain was previously mainly derived from animal studies, yet, research in humans is growing. Up to date, findings allow significant advances on the understanding of nicotinic cholinergic effects on human cognition, emotion and behavior using a range of functional brain imaging approaches such as pharmacological functional magnetic resonance imaging or positron emission tomography. Studies provided insights across various mechanistic psychological domains using different tasks as well as at rest in both healthy individuals and patient populations, with so far partly mixed results reporting both enhancements and decrements of neural activity related to the nicotinic cholinergic system. Moreover, studies on the relation between brain structure and the nicotinic cholinergic system add important information in this context. The present review summarizes the current status of human brain imaging studies and presents the findings within a theoretical and clinical perspective as they may be useful not only for an advancement of the understanding of basic nicotinic cholinergic-related mechanisms, but also for the development and integration of psychological and pharmacological treatment approaches. Patterns of functional neuroanatomy and neural circuitry across various cognitive and emotional domains may be used as neuropsychological markers of mental disorders such as addiction, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson disease or schizophrenia, where nicotinic cholinergic system changes are characteristic. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'The Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor: From Molecular Biology to Cognition'. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. "Hotheaded": the role OF TRPV1 in brain functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, D; Tavares, I; Morgado, C

    2014-10-01

    The TRPV1 (vanilloid 1) channel is best known for its role in sensory transmission in the nociceptive neurons of the peripheral nervous system. Although first studied in the dorsal root ganglia as the receptor for capsaicin, TRPV1 has been recently recognized to have a broader distribution in the central nervous system, where it is likely to constitute an atypical neurotransmission system involved in several functions through modulation of both neuronal and glial activities. The endovanilloid-activated brain TRPV1 channels seem to be involved in somatosensory, motor and visceral functions. Recent studies suggested that TRPV1 channels also account for more complex functions, as addiction, anxiety, mood and cognition/learning. However, more studies are needed before the relevance of TRPV1 in brain activity can be clearly stated. This review highlights the increasing importance of TRPV1 as a regulator of brain function and discusses possible bases for the future development of new therapeutic approaches that by targeting brain TRPV1 receptors might be used for the treatment of several neurological disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. An Evolutionary Game Theory Model of Spontaneous Brain Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeo, Dario; Talarico, Agostino; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Mocenni, Chiara; Santarnecchi, Emiliano

    2017-11-22

    Our brain is a complex system of interconnected regions spontaneously organized into distinct networks. The integration of information between and within these networks is a continuous process that can be observed even when the brain is at rest, i.e. not engaged in any particular task. Moreover, such spontaneous dynamics show predictive value over individual cognitive profile and constitute a potential marker in neurological and psychiatric conditions, making its understanding of fundamental importance in modern neuroscience. Here we present a theoretical and mathematical model based on an extension of evolutionary game theory on networks (EGN), able to capture brain's interregional dynamics by balancing emulative and non-emulative attitudes among brain regions. This results in the net behavior of nodes composing resting-state networks identified using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), determining their moment-to-moment level of activation and inhibition as expressed by positive and negative shifts in BOLD fMRI signal. By spontaneously generating low-frequency oscillatory behaviors, the EGN model is able to mimic functional connectivity dynamics, approximate fMRI time series on the basis of initial subset of available data, as well as simulate the impact of network lesions and provide evidence of compensation mechanisms across networks. Results suggest evolutionary game theory on networks as a new potential framework for the understanding of human brain network dynamics.

  19. Functional craniology and brain evolution: from paleontology to biomedicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliano eBruner

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Anatomical systems are organized through a network of structural and functional relationships among their elements. This network of relationships is the result of evolution, it represents the actual target of selection, and it generates the set of rules orienting and constraining the morphogenetic processes. Understanding the relationship among cranial and cerebral components is necessary to investigate the factors that have influenced and characterized our neuroanatomy, and possible drawbacks associated with the evolution of large brains. The study of the spatial relationships between skull and brain in the human genus has direct relevance in cranial surgery. Geometrical modelling can provide functional perspectives in evolution and brain physiology, like in simulations to investigate metabolic heat production and dissipation in the endocranial form. Analysis of the evolutionary constraints between facial and neural blocks can provide new information on visual impairment. The study of brain form variation in fossil humans can supply a different perspective for interpreting the processes behind neurodegeneration and Alzheimer’s disease. Following these examples, it is apparent that paleontology and biomedicine can exchange relevant information and contribute at the same time to the development of robust evolutionary hypotheses on brain evolution, while offering more comprehensive biological perspectives with regard to the interpretation of pathological processes.

  20. Astrocyte functions in the copper homeostasis of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiber, Ivo F; Dringen, Ralf

    2013-04-01

    Copper is an essential element that is required for a variety of important cellular functions. Since not only copper deficiency but also excess of copper can seriously affect cellular functions, the cellular copper metabolism is tightly regulated. In brain, astrocytes appear to play a pivotal role in the copper metabolism. With their strategically important localization between capillary endothelial cells and neuronal structures they are ideally positioned to transport copper from the blood-brain barrier to parenchymal brain cells. Accordingly, astrocytes have the capacity to efficiently take up, store and to export copper. Cultured astrocytes appear to be remarkably resistant against copper-induced toxicity. However, copper exposure can lead to profound alterations in the metabolism of these cells. This article will summarize the current knowledge on the copper metabolism of astrocytes, will describe copper-induced alterations in the glucose and glutathione metabolism of astrocytes and will address the potential role of astrocytes in the copper metabolism of the brain in diseases that have been connected with disturbances in brain copper homeostasis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The effect of criticism on functional brain connectivity and associations with neuroticism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Nadine Servaas

    Full Text Available Neuroticism is a robust personality trait that constitutes a risk factor for psychopathology, especially anxiety disorders and depression. High neurotic individuals tend to be more self-critical and are overly sensitive to criticism by others. Hence, we used a novel resting-state paradigm to investigate the effect of criticism on functional brain connectivity and associations with neuroticism. Forty-eight participants completed the NEO Personality Inventory Revised (NEO-PI-R to assess neuroticism. Next, we recorded resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI during two sessions. We manipulated the second session before scanning by presenting three standardized critical remarks through headphones, in which the subject was urged to please lie still in the scanner. A seed-based functional connectivity method and subsequent clustering were used to analyse the resting state data. Based on the reviewed literature related to criticism, we selected brain regions associated with self-reflective processing and stress-regulation as regions of interest. The findings showed enhanced functional connectivity between the clustered seed regions and brain areas involved in emotion processing and social cognition during the processing of criticism. Concurrently, functional connectivity was reduced between these clusters and brain structures related to the default mode network and higher-order cognitive control. Furthermore, individuals scoring higher on neuroticism showed altered functional connectivity between the clustered seed regions and brain areas involved in the appraisal, expression and regulation of negative emotions. These results may suggest that the criticized person is attempting to understand the beliefs, perceptions and feelings of the critic in order to facilitate flexible and adaptive social behavior. Furthermore, multiple aspects of emotion processing were found to be affected in individuals scoring higher on neuroticism during

  2. Human brain somatic representation: a functional magnetic resonance mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Romo, Juan; Rojas, Rafael; Salgado, Perla; Sánchez-Cortázar, Julián; Vazquez-Vela, Arturo; Barrios, Fernando A.

    2001-10-01

    Central nervous system studies of injury and plasticity for the reorganization in the phantom limb sensation area presented. In particular functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) mapping of the somatic and motor cortex of amputee patients, in the case of referred sensations. Using fMRI we can show the correlation between structure and functional field and study the reorganization due to plasticity in the brain.

  3. Physical Exercise Can Induce Brain Plasticity and Regulate Mental Function

    OpenAIRE

    Ichiro, KITA; Graduate School of Human Health Science, Tokyo Metropolitan University

    2014-01-01

    Physical exercise can enhance learning and memory, and improve stress-related psychiatric disorders such as depression and anxiety. There is accumulating evidence that physical exercise can induce morphological and functional alterations in the brain via changes in molecular and cellular plasticity. Thus, it is suggested that the neuroplasticity produced by physical exercise underlies the exercise-induced changes in mental function, including learning and psychological health. Although the ne...

  4. Brain Cholinergic Function and Response to Rivastigmine in Patients With Chronic Sequels of Traumatic Brain Injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Östberg, Anna; Virta, Jere; Rinne, Juha O

    2017-01-01

    subjects for more than 1 year after at least moderate traumatic brain injury. Ten of the subjects were respondents and 7 nonrespondents to cholinergic medication. DESIGN:: Cholinergic function was assessed with [methyl-C] N-methylpiperidyl-4-acetate-PET (C-MP4A-PET), which reflects the activity...

  5. Left Brain vs. Right Brain: Findings on Visual Spatial Capacities and the Functional Neurology of Giftedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalbfleisch, M. Layne; Gillmarten, Charles

    2013-01-01

    As neuroimaging technologies increase their sensitivity to assess the function of the human brain and results from these studies draw the attention of educators, it becomes paramount to identify misconceptions about what these data illustrate and how these findings might be applied to educational contexts. Some of these "neuromyths" have…

  6. Aging reduces the stimulating effect of blue light on cognitive brain functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneault, Véronique; Hébert, Marc; Albouy, Geneviève; Doyon, Julien; Dumont, Marie; Carrier, Julie; Vandewalle, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    Light exposure, particularly blue light, is being recognized as a potent mean to stimulate alertness and cognition in young individuals. Aging is associated with changes in alertness regulation and cognition. Whether the effect of light on cognitive brain function changes with aging is unknown, however. Cross-sectional study. Functional Neuroimaging Unit, University of Montreal Geriatric Institute. Sixteen younger (23 ± 4.1 y) and 14 older (61 ± 4.5 y) healthy participants were recruited in the current study. Blue light administration. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to record brain responses to an auditory working memory task in young and older healthy individuals, alternatively maintained in darkness or exposed to blue light. Results show that the older brain remains capable of showing sustained responses to light in several brain areas. However, compared to young individuals, the effect of blue light is decreased in the pulvinar, amygdala, and tegmentum as well as in the insular, prefrontal, and occipital cortices in elderly individuals. The effect of blue light on brain responses diminishes with aging in areas typically involved in visual functions and in key regions for alertness regulation and higher executive processes. Our findings provide the first indications that the effect of light on cognition may be reduced in healthy aging.

  7. Lateralized Resting-State Functional Brain Network Organization Changes in Heart Failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bumhee Park

    Full Text Available Heart failure (HF patients show brain injury in autonomic, affective, and cognitive sites, which can change resting-state functional connectivity (FC, potentially altering overall functional brain network organization. However, the status of such connectivity or functional organization is unknown in HF. Determination of that status was the aim here, and we examined region-to-region FC and brain network topological properties across the whole-brain in 27 HF patients compared to 53 controls with resting-state functional MRI procedures. Decreased FC in HF appeared between the caudate and cerebellar regions, olfactory and cerebellar sites, vermis and medial frontal regions, and precentral gyri and cerebellar areas. However, increased FC emerged between the middle frontal gyrus and sensorimotor areas, superior parietal gyrus and orbito/medial frontal regions, inferior temporal gyrus and lingual gyrus/cerebellar lobe/pallidum, fusiform gyrus and superior orbitofrontal gyrus and cerebellar sites, and within vermis and cerebellar areas; these connections were largely in the right hemisphere (p<0.005; 10,000 permutations. The topology of functional integration and specialized characteristics in HF are significantly changed in regions showing altered FC, an outcome which would interfere with brain network organization (p<0.05; 10,000 permutations. Brain dysfunction in HF extends to resting conditions, and autonomic, cognitive, and affective deficits may stem from altered FC and brain network organization that may contribute to higher morbidity and mortality in the condition. Our findings likely result from the prominent axonal and nuclear structural changes reported earlier in HF; protecting neural tissue may improve FC integrity, and thus, increase quality of life and reduce morbidity and mortality.

  8. Functional MRI during Hippocampal Deep Brain Stimulation in the Healthy Rat Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Den Berge, Nathalie; Vanhove, Christian; Descamps, Benedicte; Dauwe, Ine; van Mierlo, Pieter; Vonck, Kristl; Keereman, Vincent; Raedt, Robrecht; Boon, Paul; Van Holen, Roel

    2015-01-01

    Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) is a promising treatment for neurological and psychiatric disorders. The mechanism of action and the effects of electrical fields administered to the brain by means of an electrode remain to be elucidated. The effects of DBS have been investigated primarily by electrophysiological and neurochemical studies, which lack the ability to investigate DBS-related responses on a whole-brain scale. Visualization of whole-brain effects of DBS requires functional imaging techniques such as functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI), which reflects changes in blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) responses throughout the entire brain volume. In order to visualize BOLD responses induced by DBS, we have developed an MRI-compatible electrode and an acquisition protocol to perform DBS during BOLD fMRI. In this study, we investigate whether DBS during fMRI is valuable to study local and whole-brain effects of hippocampal DBS and to investigate the changes induced by different stimulation intensities. Seven rats were stereotactically implanted with a custom-made MRI-compatible DBS-electrode in the right hippocampus. High frequency Poisson distributed stimulation was applied using a block-design paradigm. Data were processed by means of Independent Component Analysis. Clusters were considered significant when p-values were stimulation intensity. We conclude that simultaneous DBS and fMRI can be used to detect local and whole-brain responses to circuit activation with different stimulation intensities, making this technique potentially powerful for exploration of cerebral changes in response to DBS for both preclinical and clinical DBS. PMID:26193653

  9. Tesmilifene modifies brain endothelial functions and opens the blood-brain/blood-glioma barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Fruzsina R; Veszelka, Szilvia; Pásztói, Mária; Péterfi, Zoltán A; Tóth, András; Rákhely, Gábor; Cervenak, László; Ábrahám, Csongor S; Deli, Mária A

    2015-09-01

    Tesmilifene, a tamoxifen analog with antihistamine action, has chemopotentiating properties in experimental and clinical cancer studies. In our previous works, tesmilifene increased the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in animal and culture models. Our aim was to investigate the effects of tesmilifene on brain microvessel permeability in the rat RG2 glioma model and to reveal its mode of action in brain endothelial cells. Tesmilifene significantly increased fluorescein extravasation in the glioma. Short-term treatment with tesmilifene reduced the resistance and increased the permeability for marker molecules in a rat triple co-culture BBB model. Tesmilifene also affected the barrier integrity in brain endothelial cells co-cultured with RG2 glioblastoma cells. Tesmilifene inhibited the activity of P-glycoprotein and multidrug resistance-associated protein-1 efflux pumps and down-regulated the mRNA expression of tight junction proteins, efflux pumps, solute carriers, and metabolic enzymes important for BBB functions. Among the possible signaling pathways that regulate BBB permeability, tesmilifene activated the early nuclear translocation of NFκB. The MAPK/ERK and PI3K/Akt kinase pathways were also involved. We demonstrate for the first time that tesmilifene increases permeability marker molecule extravasation in glioma and inhibits efflux pump activity in brain endothelial cells, which may have therapeutic relevance. Tesmilifene, a chemopotentiator in experimental and clinical cancer studies increases vascular permeability in RG2 glioma in rats and permeability for marker molecules in a culture model of the blood-brain barrier. Tesmilifene inhibits the activity of efflux pumps and down-regulates the mRNA expression of tight junction proteins, transporters, and metabolic enzymes important for the blood-brain barrier functions, which may have therapeutic relevance. © 2015 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  10. Anomalous brain functional connectivity contributing to poor adaptive behavior in Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujol, Jesus; del Hoyo, Laura; Blanco-Hinojo, Laura; de Sola, Susana; Macià, Dídac; Martínez-Vilavella, Gerard; Amor, Marta; Deus, Joan; Rodríguez, Joan; Farré, Magí; Dierssen, Mara; de la Torre, Rafael

    2015-03-01

    Research in Down syndrome has substantially progressed in the understanding of the effect of gene overexpression at the molecular level, but there is a paucity of information on the ultimate consequences on overall brain functional organization. We have assessed the brain functional status in Down syndrome using functional connectivity MRI. Resting-state whole-brain connectivity degree maps were generated in 20 Down syndrome individuals and 20 control subjects to identify sites showing anomalous synchrony with other areas. A subsequent region-of-interest mapping served to detail the anomalies and to assess their potential contribution to poor adaptive behavior. Down syndrome individuals showed higher regional connectivity in a ventral brain system involving the amygdala/anterior temporal region and the ventral aspect of both the anterior cingulate and frontal cortices. By contrast, lower functional connectivity was identified in dorsal executive networks involving dorsal prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices and posterior insula. Both functional connectivity increases and decreases contributed to account for patient scoring on adaptive behavior related to communication skills. The data overall suggest a distinctive functional organization with system-specific anomalies associated with reduced adaptive efficiency. Opposite effects were identified on distinct frontal and anterior temporal structures and relative sparing of posterior brain areas, which is generally consistent with Down syndrome cognitive profile. Relevantly, measurable connectivity changes, as a marker of the brain functional anomaly, could have a role in the development of therapeutic strategies addressed to improve the quality of life in Down syndrome individuals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Complex function in the dynamic brain. Comment on “Understanding brain networks and brain organization” by Luiz Pessoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Michael L.

    2014-09-01

    There is much to commend in this excellent overview of the progress we've made toward-and the challenges that remain for-developing an empirical framework for neuroscience that is adequate to the dynamic complexity of the brain [17]. Here I will limit myself first to highlighting the concept of dynamic affiliation, which I take to be the central feature of the functional architecture of the brain, and second to clarifying Pessoa's brief discussion of the ontology of cognition, to be sure readers appreciate this crucial issue.

  12. Neurolinguistics: Structure, Function, and Connectivity in the Bilingual Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Becky; Yin, Bin; O'Brien, Beth

    2016-01-01

    Advances in neuroimaging techniques and analytic methods have led to a proliferation of studies investigating the impact of bilingualism on the cognitive and brain systems in humans. Lately, these findings have attracted much interest and debate in the field, leading to a number of recent commentaries and reviews. Here, we contribute to the ongoing discussion by compiling and interpreting the plethora of findings that relate to the structural, functional, and connective changes in the brain that ensue from bilingualism. In doing so, we integrate theoretical models and empirical findings from linguistics, cognitive/developmental psychology, and neuroscience to examine the following issues: (1) whether the language neural network is different for first (dominant) versus second (nondominant) language processing; (2) the effects of bilinguals' executive functioning on the structure and function of the "universal" language neural network; (3) the differential effects of bilingualism on phonological, lexical-semantic, and syntactic aspects of language processing on the brain; and (4) the effects of age of acquisition and proficiency of the user's second language in the bilingual brain, and how these have implications for future research in neurolinguistics.

  13. Neurolinguistics: Structure, Function, and Connectivity in the Bilingual Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becky Wong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in neuroimaging techniques and analytic methods have led to a proliferation of studies investigating the impact of bilingualism on the cognitive and brain systems in humans. Lately, these findings have attracted much interest and debate in the field, leading to a number of recent commentaries and reviews. Here, we contribute to the ongoing discussion by compiling and interpreting the plethora of findings that relate to the structural, functional, and connective changes in the brain that ensue from bilingualism. In doing so, we integrate theoretical models and empirical findings from linguistics, cognitive/developmental psychology, and neuroscience to examine the following issues: (1 whether the language neural network is different for first (dominant versus second (nondominant language processing; (2 the effects of bilinguals’ executive functioning on the structure and function of the “universal” language neural network; (3 the differential effects of bilingualism on phonological, lexical-semantic, and syntactic aspects of language processing on the brain; and (4 the effects of age of acquisition and proficiency of the user’s second language in the bilingual brain, and how these have implications for future research in neurolinguistics.

  14. Boosting brain functions: Improving executive functions with behavioral training, neurostimulation, and neurofeedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enriquez-Geppert, Stefanie; Huster, René J; Herrmann, Christoph S

    2013-04-01

    Cognitive enhancement is a popular topic, attracting attention both from the general public and the scientific research community. Higher cognitive functions are involved in various aspects of everyday life and have been associated with manifest behavioral and psychiatric mental impairments when deteriorated. The improvement of these so-called executive functions (EFs) is of high individual, social, and economic relevances. This review provides a synopsis of two lines of research, investigating the enhancement of capabilities in executive functioning: a) computerized behavioral trainings, and b) approaches for direct neuromodulation (neurofeedback and transcranial electrostimulation). Task switching, memory updating, response inhibition, and dual task performance are addressed in terms of cognitive functions. It has been shown that behavioral cognitive training leads to enhanced performance in task switching, memory updating, and dual tasks. Similarly, direct neurocognitive modulation of brain regions that are crucially involved in specific EFs also leads to behavioral benefits in response inhibition, task switching, and memory updating. Response inhibition performance has been shown to be improved by neurostimulation of the right inferior frontal cortex, whereas neurostimulation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex exerts effects on task switching and memory updating. Due to a lack of consistency in experimental methods and findings, a comparison of different training approaches concerning their effectiveness is not yet possible. So far, current data suggest that training gains may indeed generalize to untrained tasks aiming at the same cognitive process, as well as across cognitive domains within executive control. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Bike Desks in the Classroom: Energy Expenditure, Physical Health, Cognitive Performance, Brain Functioning, and Academic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torbeyns, Tine; de Geus, Bas; Bailey, Stephen; Decroix, Lieselot; Van Cutsem, Jeroen; De Pauw, Kevin; Meeusen, Romain

    2017-06-01

    Physical activity is positively associated with physical health, cognitive performance, brain functioning and academic performance. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of bike desks in the classroom on adolescents' energy expenditure, physical health, cognitive performance, brain functioning and academic performance. Forty-four adolescents were randomly assigned to control group (CG) or intervention group (IG). During 5 months, the IG used a bike desk for 4 class hours/week. Energy expenditure was measured during 6 consecutive days. Anthropometric parameters, aerobic fitness, academic performance, cognitive performance and brain functioning were assessed before (T0) and after (T1) the intervention. Energy expenditure of the IG was significantly higher during the class hours in which they used the bike desks relative to normal class hours. The CG had a significantly higher BMI at T1 relative to T0 while this was not significantly different for the IG. Aerobic fitness was significantly better in the IG at T1 relative to T0. No significant effects on academic performance cognitive performance and brain functioning were observed. As the implementation of bike desks in the classroom did not interfere with adolescents' academic performance, this can be seen as an effective means of reducing in-class sedentary time and improving adolescents' physical health.

  16. Changes in whole-brain functional networks and memory performance in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala-Llonch, Roser; Junqué, Carme; Arenaza-Urquijo, Eider M; Vidal-Piñeiro, Dídac; Valls-Pedret, Cinta; Palacios, Eva M; Domènech, Sara; Salvà, Antoni; Bargalló, Nuria; Bartrés-Faz, David

    2014-10-01

    We used resting-functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 98 healthy older adults to analyze how local and global measures of functional brain connectivity are affected by age, and whether they are related to differences in memory performance. Whole-brain networks were created individually by parcellating the brain into 90 cerebral regions and obtaining pairwise connectivity. First, we studied age-associations in interregional connectivity and their relationship with the length of the connections. Aging was associated with less connectivity in the long-range connections of fronto-parietal and fronto-occipital systems and with higher connectivity of the short-range connections within frontal, parietal, and occipital lobes. We also used the graph theory to measure functional integration and segregation. The pattern of the overall age-related correlations presented positive correlations of average minimum path length (r = 0.380, p = 0.008) and of global clustering coefficients (r = 0.454, p memory functions. In conclusion, we found that older participants showed lower connectivity of long-range connections together with higher functional segregation of these same connections, which appeared to indicate a more local clustering of information processing. Higher local clustering in older participants was negatively related to memory performance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Partial sleep in the context of augmentation of brain function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan N. Pigarev

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Inability to solve complex problems or errors in decision making is often attributed to poor brain processing, and raises the issue of brain augmentation. Investigation of neuronal activity in the cerebral cortex in the sleep-wake cycle offers insights into the mechanisms underlying the reduction in mental abilities for complex problem solving. Some cortical areas may transit into a sleep state while an organism is still awake. Such local sleep would reduce behavioral ability in the tasks for which the sleeping areas are crucial. The studies of this phenomenon have indicated that local sleep develops in high order cortical areas. This is why complex problem solving is mostly affected by local sleep, and prevention of local sleep might be a potential way of augmentation of brain function. For this approach to brain augmentation not to entail negative consequences for the organism, it is necessary to understand the functional role of sleep. Our studies have given an unexpected answer to this question. It was shown that cortical areas that process signals from extero- and proprioreceptors during wakefulness, switch to the processing of interoceptive information during sleep. It became clear that during sleep all computational power of the brain is directed to the restoration of the vital functions of internal organs. These results explain the logic behind the initiation of total and local sleep. Indeed, a mismatch between the current parameters of any visceral system and the genetically determined normal range would provide the feeling of tiredness, or sleep pressure. If an environmental situation allows falling asleep, the organism would transit to a normal total sleep in all cortical areas. However, if it is impossible to go to sleep immediately, partial sleep may develop in some cortical areas in the still behaviorally awake organism. This local sleep may reduce both the intellectual power and the restorative function of sleep for visceral

  18. Brain structural and functional correlates of resilience to Bipolar Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frangou, Sophia

    2011-12-06

    Resilient adaptation can be construed in different ways, but as used here it refers to adaptive brain responses associated with avoidance of psychopathology despite expressed genetic predisposition to Bipolar Disorder (BD). Although family history of BD is associated with elevated risk of affective morbidity a significant proportion of first-degree relatives remain free of psychopathology. Examination of brain structure and function in these individuals may inform on adaptive responses that pre-empt disease expression. Data presented here are derived from the Vulnerability to Bipolar Disorders Study (VIBES) which includes BD patients, asymptomatic relatives and controls. Participants underwent extensive investigations including brain structural (sMRI) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We present results from sMRI voxel-based-morphometry and from conventional and connectivity analyses of fMRI data obtained during the Stroop Colour Word Test (SCWT), a task of cognitive control during conflict resolution. All analyses were implemented using Statistical Parametric Mapping software version 5 (SPM5). Resilience in relatives was operationalized as the lifetime absence of clinical-range symptoms. Resilient relatives of BD patients expressed structural, functional, and connectivity changes reflecting the effect of genetic risk on the brain. These included increased insular volume, decreased activation within the posterior and inferior parietal regions involved in selective attention during the SCWT, and reduced fronto-insular and fronto-cingulate connectivity. Resilience was associated with increased cerebellar vermal volume and enhanced functional coupling between the dorsal and the ventral prefrontal cortex during the SCWT. Our findings suggests the presence of biological mechanisms associated with resilient adaptation of brain networks and pave the way for the identification of outcome-specific trajectories given a bipolar genotype.

  19. Brain structural and functional correlates of resilience to Bipolar Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia eFrangou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Resilient adaptation can be construed in different ways, but as used here it refers to the adaptive brain changes associated with avoidance of psychopathology despite familiar risk for Bipolar Disorder (BD. Although family history of BD is associated with elevated risk of affective morbidity a significant proportion of first-degree relatives of BD patients remains free of psychopathology. Examination of brain structure and function in these individuals may inform on adaptive changes that may pre-empt disease expression. Methods: Data presented here are derived from the Vulnerability to Bipolar Disorders (VIBES study which includes patients with BD, asymptomatic relatives and healthy controls. Participants underwent extensive investigations including brain structural (sMRI and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. The data presented here focus on sMRI voxel-based-morphometry and on conventional and connectivity analyses of fMRI data obtained during the Stroop Colour Word Test (SCWT, a task of cognitive control during conflict resolution. All analyses were implemented in SPM (www.fil.ion.ucl.ac.uk/spm. Resilience in relatives was operationalized as the absence of clinical-range symptoms.Results: Resilient relatives of BD patients expressed structural, functional and connectivity changes reflecting the effect of genetic risk on the brain. These included increased insular volume, decreased activation within the posterior and inferior parietal regions involved in selective attention during the SCWT, and reduced fronto-insular and fronto-cingulate connectivity.Resilience was associated with increased cerebellar vermal volume and enhanced functional coupling between the dorsal and the ventral prefrontal cortex. Conclusions: Our findings suggests the presence of biological mechanisms associated with resilient adaptation of brain networks and pave the way for the identification of outcome-specific trajectories given a particular

  20. The development of social brain functions in infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossmann, Tobias

    2015-11-01

    One fundamental question in psychology is what makes humans such intensely social beings. Probing the developmental and neural origins of our social capacities is a way of addressing this question. In the last 10 years the field of social-cognitive development has witnessed a surge in studies using neuroscience methods to elucidate the development of social information processing during infancy. While the use of electroencephalography (EEG)/event-related brain potentials (ERPs) and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) has revealed a great deal about the timing and localization of the cortical processes involved in early social cognition, the principles underpinning the early development of social brain functioning remain largely unexplored. Here I provide a framework that delineates the essential processes implicated in the early development of the social brain. In particular, I argue that the development of social brain functions in infancy is characterized by the following key principles: (a) self-relevance, (b) joint engagement, (c) predictability, (d) categorization, (e) discrimination, and (f) integration. For all of the proposed principles, I provide empirical examples to illustrate when in infancy they emerge. Moreover, I discuss to what extent they are in fact specifically social in nature or share properties with more domain-general developmental principles. Taken together, this article provides a conceptual integration of the existing EEG/ERPs and fNIRS work on infant social brain function and thereby offers the basis for a principle-based approach to studying the neural correlates of early social cognition. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. The effect of education on regional brain metabolism and its functional connectivity in an aged population utilizing positron emission tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaeik; Chey, Jeanyung; Kim, Sang-Eun; Kim, Hoyoung

    2015-05-01

    Education involves learning new information and acquiring cognitive skills. These require various cognitive processes including learning, memory, and language. Since cognitive processes activate associated brain areas, we proposed that the brains of elderly people with longer education periods would show traces of repeated activation as increased synaptic connectivity and capillary in brain areas involved in learning, memory, and language. Utilizing positron emission topography (PET), this study examined the effect of education in the human brain utilizing the regional cerebral glucose metabolism rates (rCMRglcs). 26 elderly women with high-level education (HEG) and 26 with low-level education (LEG) were compared with regard to their regional brain activation and association between the regions. Further, graphical theoretical analysis using rCMRglcs was applied to examine differences in the functional network properties of the brain. The results showed that the HEG had higher rCMRglc in the ventral cerebral regions that are mainly involved in memory, language, and neurogenesis, while the LEG had higher rCMRglc in apical areas of the cerebrum mainly involved in motor and somatosensory functions. Functional connectivity investigated with graph theoretical analysis illustrated that the brain of the HEG compared to those of the LEG were overall more efficient, more resilient, and characterized by small-worldness. This may be one of the brain's mechanisms mediating the reserve effects found in people with higher education. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  2. Personality is reflected in the brain's intrinsic functional architecture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan S Adelstein

    Full Text Available Personality describes persistent human behavioral responses to broad classes of environmental stimuli. Investigating how personality traits are reflected in the brain's functional architecture is challenging, in part due to the difficulty of designing appropriate task probes. Resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC can detect intrinsic activation patterns without relying on any specific task. Here we use RSFC to investigate the neural correlates of the five-factor personality domains. Based on seed regions placed within two cognitive and affective 'hubs' in the brain--the anterior cingulate and precuneus--each domain of personality predicted RSFC with a unique pattern of brain regions. These patterns corresponded with functional subdivisions responsible for cognitive and affective processing such as motivation, empathy and future-oriented thinking. Neuroticism and Extraversion, the two most widely studied of the five constructs, predicted connectivity between seed regions and the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and lateral paralimbic regions, respectively. These areas are associated with emotional regulation, self-evaluation and reward, consistent with the trait qualities. Personality traits were mostly associated with functional connections that were inconsistently present across participants. This suggests that although a fundamental, core functional architecture is preserved across individuals, variable connections outside of that core encompass the inter-individual differences in personality that motivate diverse responses.

  3. Dynamic reorganization of intrinsic functional networks in the mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandjean, Joanes; Preti, Maria Giulia; Bolton, Thomas A W; Buerge, Michaela; Seifritz, Erich; Pryce, Christopher R; Van De Ville, Dimitri; Rudin, Markus

    2017-05-15

    Functional connectivity (FC) derived from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) allows for the integrative study of neuronal processes at a macroscopic level. The majority of studies to date have assumed stationary interactions between brain regions, without considering the dynamic aspects of network organization. Only recently has the latter received increased attention, predominantly in human studies. Applying dynamic FC (dFC) analysis to mice is attractive given the relative simplicity of the mouse brain and the possibility to explore mechanisms underlying network dynamics using pharmacological, environmental or genetic interventions. Therefore, we have evaluated the feasibility and research potential of mouse dFC using the interventions of social stress or anesthesia duration as two case-study examples. By combining a sliding-window correlation approach with dictionary learning, several dynamic functional states (dFS) with a complex organization were identified, exhibiting highly dynamic inter- and intra-modular interactions. Each dFS displayed a high degree of reproducibility upon changes in analytical parameters and across datasets. They fluctuated at different degrees as a function of anesthetic depth, and were sensitive indicators of pathology as shown for the chronic psychosocial stress mouse model of depression. Dynamic functional states are proposed to make a major contribution to information integration and processing in the healthy and diseased brain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Higher-accuracy van der Waals density functional

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Kyuho; Murray, Éamonn D.; Kong, Lingzhu

    2010-01-01

    We propose a second version of the van der Waals density functional of Dion et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 246401 (2004)], employing a more accurate semilocal exchange functional and the use of a large-N asymptote gradient correction in determining the vdW kernel. The predicted binding energy...

  5. Functional Brain Network Classification With Compact Representation of SICE Matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianjia; Zhou, Luping; Wang, Lei; Li, Wanqing

    2015-06-01

    Recently, a sparse inverse covariance estimation (SICE) technique has been employed to model functional brain connectivity. The inverse covariance matrix (SICE matrix in short) estimated for each subject is used as a representation of brain connectivity to discriminate Alzheimers disease from normal controls. However, we observed that direct use of the SICE matrix does not necessarily give satisfying discrimination, due to its high dimensionality and the scarcity of training subjects. Looking into this problem, we argue that the intrinsic dimensionality of these SICE matrices shall be much lower, considering 1) an SICE matrix resides on a Riemannian manifold of symmetric positive definiteness matrices, and 2) human brains share common patterns of connectivity across subjects. Therefore, we propose to employ manifold-based similarity measures and kernel-based PCA to extract principal connectivity components as a compact representation of brain network. Moreover, to cater for the requirement of both discrimination and interpretation in neuroimage analysis, we develop a novel preimage estimation algorithm to make the obtained connectivity components anatomically interpretable. To verify the efficacy of our method and gain insights into SICE-based brain networks, we conduct extensive experimental study on synthetic data and real rs-fMRI data from the ADNI dataset. Our method outperforms the comparable methods and improves the classification accuracy significantly.

  6. Attentional Phenotypes for the Analysis of Higher Mental Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Fossella

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We outline a strategy to relate normal cognitive processes to candidate genes. First, brain imaging is used to specify a cognitive process “attention” in terms of the neural networks involved. Next, evidence is presented showing that the operation of each network involves a dominant neuromodulator. Then we discuss development of a task designed to measure the efficiency of each network in normal individuals and consider evidence on the independence, reliability, and heritability of the networks. DNA from cheek swabs of subjects who performed the task are then used to examine candidate polymorphisms in genes related to the transmitters. We then examine the ability of these candidate alleles to predict the efficiency of relevant networks. This process has demonstrated that candidate genes are related to specific networks of attention to a greater degree than to overall performance as measured by reaction time and accuracy. These findings require replication and possible extension to other cognitive processes.

  7. Topological organization of functional brain networks in healthy children: differences in relation to age, sex, and intelligence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Wu

    Full Text Available Recent studies have demonstrated developmental changes of functional brain networks derived from functional connectivity using graph theoretical analysis, which has been rapidly translated to studies of brain network organization. However, little is known about sex- and IQ-related differences in the topological organization of functional brain networks during development. In this study, resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI was used to map the functional brain networks in 51 healthy children. We then investigated the effects of age, sex, and IQ on economic small-world properties and regional nodal properties of the functional brain networks. At a global level of whole networks, we found significant age-related increases in the small-worldness and local efficiency, significant higher values of the global efficiency in boys compared with girls, and no significant IQ-related difference. Age-related increases in the regional nodal properties were found predominately in the frontal brain regions, whereas the parietal, temporal, and occipital brain regions showed age-related decreases. Significant sex-related differences in the regional nodal properties were found in various brain regions, primarily related to the default mode, language, and vision systems. Positive correlations between IQ and the regional nodal properties were found in several brain regions related to the attention system, whereas negative correlations were found in various brain regions primarily involved in the default mode, emotion, and language systems. Together, our findings of the network topology of the functional brain networks in healthy children and its relationship with age, sex, and IQ bring new insights into the understanding of brain maturation and cognitive development during childhood and adolescence.

  8. Prehospital intubation for isolated severe blunt traumatic brain injury: worse outcomes and higher mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haltmeier, Tobias; Benjamin, Elizabeth; Siboni, Stefano; Dilektasli, Evren; Inaba, Kenji; Demetriades, Demetrios

    2016-08-27

    Prehospital endotracheal intubation (ETI) for traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a controversial issue. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of prehospital ETI in patients with TBI. Cohort-matched study using the US National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB) 2008-2012. Patients with isolated severe blunt TBI (AIS head ≥3, AIS chest/abdomen prehospital ETI was performed. Matching criteria were sex, age, exact field GCS, exact AIS head, field hypotension, field cardiac arrest, and the brain injury type (according PREDOT-code). The matched cohorts were compared with univariable and multivariable regression analysis. A total of 27,714 patients were included. Matching resulted in 8139 cases with and 8139 cases without prehospital ETI. Prehospital ETI was associated with significantly longer scene (median 9 vs. 8 min, p prehospital ETI was independently associated with lower ED GCS scores (RC -4.213, CI -4.562/-3.864, p prehospital ETI in patients with isolated severe blunt TBI was independently associated with lower ED GCS scores and higher mortality.

  9. Improving Functional MRI Registration Using Whole-Brain Functional Correlation Tensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yujia; Yap, Pew-Thian; Zhang, Han; Zhang, Lichi; Feng, Qianjin; Shen, Dinggang

    2017-09-01

    Population studies of brain function with resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) largely rely on the accurate inter-subject registration of functional areas. This is typically achieved through registration of the corresponding T1-weighted MR images with more structural details. However, accumulating evidence has suggested that such strategy cannot well-align functional regions which are not necessarily confined by the anatomical boundaries defined by the T1-weighted MR images. To mitigate this problem, various registration algorithms based directly on rs-fMRI data have been developed, most of which have utilized functional connectivity (FC) as features for registration. However, most of the FC-based registration methods usually extract the functional features only from the thin and highly curved cortical grey matter (GM), posing a great challenge in accurately estimating the whole-brain deformation field. In this paper, we demonstrate that the additional useful functional features can be extracted from brain regions beyond the GM, particularly, white-matter (WM) based on rs-fMRI, for improving the overall functional registration. Specifically, we quantify the local anisotropic correlation patterns of the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signals, modeled by functional correlation tensors (FCTs), in both GM and WM. Functional registration is then performed based on multiple components of the whole-brain FCTs using a multichannel Large Deformation Diffeomorphic Metric Mapping (mLDDMM) algorithm. Experimental results show that our proposed method achieves superior functional registration performance, compared with other conventional registration methods.

  10. Network functional connectivity and whole-brain functional connectomics to investigate cognitive decline in neurodegenerative conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipasquale, O; Cercignani, Mara

    Non-invasive mapping of brain functional connectivity (FC) has played a fundamental role in neuroscience, and numerous scientists have been fascinated by its ability to reveal the brain's intricate morphology and functional properties. In recent years, two different techniques have been developed that are able to explore FC in pathophysiological conditions and to provide simple and non-invasive biomarkers for the detection of disease onset, severity and progression. These techniques are independent component analysis, which allows a network-based functional exploration of the brain, and graph theory, which provides a quantitative characterization of the whole-brain FC. In this paper we provide an overview of these two techniques and some examples of their clinical applications in the most common neurodegenerative disorders associated with cognitive decline, including mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy Bodies and behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia.

  11. Brain insulin: regulation, mechanisms of action and functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerozissis, Kyriaki; Kyriaki, Gerozissis

    2003-02-01

    1. While many questions remained unanswered, it is now well documented that, contrary to earlier views, insulin is an important neuromodulator, contributing to neurobiological processes, in particular energy homeostasis and cognition. A specific role on cognitive functions related to feeding is proposed, and it is suggested that brain insulin from different sources might be involved in the above vital functions in health and disease. 2. A molecule identical to pancreatic insulin, and specific insulin receptors, are found widely distributed in the central nervous system networks related to feeding, reproduction, or cognition. 3. The actions of insulin in the central nervous system may be under both multilevel and multifactorial controls. The amount of blood insulin reaching the brain, brain insulin stores and secretion, potential local biosynthesis and degradation of the peptide, and insulin receptors and signal transduction can be affected by metabolic factors induced by nutrients, hormones, neurotransmitters, and regulatory peptides, peripherally or in the central nervous system. 4. Glucose and serotonin regulate insulin directly in the hypothalamus and may be of importance for its biological effects. Central mechanisms regulating glucose-induced insulin secretion show some analogy with the mechanisms operating in the pancreas. 5. A cross-talk between insulin and leptin receptors has been observed in the brain, and a regulation of central insulin actions, potentially via serotonin modulation, by leptin, galanin, melancortins, and neuropeptide Y (NPY) is suggested. 6. A more complete knowledge of the biological role of insulin in brain function and dysfunction, and of the regulatory mechanisms involved in these processes, constitutes a real advancement in the understanding of the pathophysiology of metabolic and mental diseases and could lead to important medical benefits.

  12. Intestinal barrier function and the brain-gut axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Carmen; Vicario, María; Pigrau, Marc; Lobo, Beatriz; Santos, Javier

    2014-01-01

    The luminal-mucosal interface of the intestinal tract is the first relevant location where microorganism-derived antigens and all other potentially immunogenic particles face the scrutiny of the powerful mammalian immune system. Upon regular functioning conditions, the intestinal barrier is able to effectively prevent most environmental and external antigens to interact openly with the numerous and versatile elements that compose the mucosal-associated immune system. This evolutionary super system is capable of processing an astonishing amount of antigens and non-immunogenic particles, approximately 100 tons in one individual lifetime, only considering food-derived components. Most important, to develop oral tolerance and proper active immune responses needed to prevent disease and inflammation, this giant immunogenic load has to be managed in a way that physiological inflammatory balance is constantly preserved. Adequate functioning of the intestinal barrier involves local and distant regulatory networks integrating the so-called brain-gut axis. Along this complex axis both brain and gut structures participate in the processing and execution of response signals to external and internal changes coming from the digestive tract, using multidirectional pathways to communicate. Dysfunction of brain-gut axis facilitates malfunctioning of the intestinal barrier, and vice versa, increasing the risk of uncontrolled immunological reactions that may trigger mucosal and brain low-grade inflammation, a putative first step to the initiation of more permanent gut disorders. In this chapter, we describe the structure, function and interactions of intestinal barrier, microbiota and brain-gut axis in both healthy and pathological conditions.

  13. Sleep restriction impairs blood-brain barrier function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Junyun; Hsuchou, Hung; He, Yi; Kastin, Abba J; Wang, Yuping; Pan, Weihong

    2014-10-29

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a large regulatory and exchange interface between the brain and peripheral circulation. We propose that changes of the BBB contribute to many pathophysiological processes in the brain of subjects with chronic sleep restriction (CSR). To achieve CSR that mimics a common pattern of human sleep loss, we quantified a new procedure of sleep disruption in mice by a week of consecutive sleep recording. We then tested the hypothesis that CSR compromises microvascular function. CSR not only diminished endothelial and inducible nitric oxide synthase, endothelin1, and glucose transporter expression in cerebral microvessels of the BBB, but it also decreased 2-deoxy-glucose uptake by the brain. The expression of several tight junction proteins also was decreased, whereas the level of cyclooxygenase-2 increased. This coincided with an increase of paracellular permeability of the BBB to the small tracers sodium fluorescein and biotin. CSR for 6 d was sufficient to impair BBB structure and function, although the increase of paracellular permeability returned to baseline after 24 h of recovery sleep. This merits attention not only in neuroscience research but also in public health policy and clinical practice. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3414697-10$15.00/0.

  14. Dynamic reorganization of functional brain networks during picture naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Mahmoud; Benquet, Pascal; Biraben, Arnaud; Berrou, Claude; Dufor, Olivier; Wendling, Fabrice

    2015-12-01

    For efficient information processing during cognitive activity, functional brain networks have to rapidly and dynamically reorganize on a sub-second time scale. Tracking the spatiotemporal dynamics of large scale networks over this short time duration is a very challenging issue. Here, we tackle this problem by using dense electroencephalography (EEG) recorded during a picture naming task. We found that (i) the picture naming task can be divided into six brain network states (BNSs) characterized by significantly high synchronization of gamma (30-45 Hz) oscillations, (ii) fast transitions occur between these BNSs that last from 30 msec to 160 msec, (iii) based on the state of the art of the picture naming task, we consider that the spatial location of their nodes and edges, as well as the timing of transitions, indicate that each network can be associated with one or several specific function (from visual processing to articulation) and (iv) the comparison with previously-used approach aimed at localizing the sources showed that the network-based approach reveals networks that are more specific to the performed task. We speculate that the persistence of several brain regions in successive BNSs participates to fast and efficient information processing in the brain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Practice induces function-specific changes in brain activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Raalten, Tamar R; Ramsey, Nick F; Duyn, Jeff; Jansma, Johan M

    2008-10-01

    Practice can have a profound effect on performance and brain activity, especially if a task can be automated. Tasks that allow for automatization typically involve repeated encoding of information that is paired with a constant response. Much remains unknown about the effects of practice on encoding and response selection in an automated task. To investigate function-specific effects of automatization we employed a variant of a Sternberg task with optimized separation of activity associated with encoding and response selection by means of m-sequences. This optimized randomized event-related design allows for model free measurement of BOLD signals over the course of practice. Brain activity was measured at six consecutive runs of practice and compared to brain activity in a novel task. Prompt reductions were found in the entire cortical network involved in encoding after a single run of practice. Changes in the network associated with response selection were less robust and were present only after the third run of practice. This study shows that automatization causes heterogeneous decreases in brain activity across functional regions that do not strictly track performance improvement. This suggests that cognitive performance is supported by a dynamic allocation of multiple resources in a distributed network. Our findings may bear importance in understanding the role of automatization in complex cognitive performance, as increased encoding efficiency in early stages of practice possibly increases the capacity to otherwise interfering information.

  16. Practice induces function-specific changes in brain activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar R van Raalten

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Practice can have a profound effect on performance and brain activity, especially if a task can be automated. Tasks that allow for automatization typically involve repeated encoding of information that is paired with a constant response. Much remains unknown about the effects of practice on encoding and response selection in an automated task.To investigate function-specific effects of automatization we employed a variant of a Sternberg task with optimized separation of activity associated with encoding and response selection by means of m-sequences. This optimized randomized event-related design allows for model free measurement of BOLD signals over the course of practice. Brain activity was measured at six consecutive runs of practice and compared to brain activity in a novel task.Prompt reductions were found in the entire cortical network involved in encoding after a single run of practice. Changes in the network associated with response selection were less robust and were present only after the third run of practice.This study shows that automatization causes heterogeneous decreases in brain activity across functional regions that do not strictly track performance improvement. This suggests that cognitive performance is supported by a dynamic allocation of multiple resources in a distributed network. Our findings may bear importance in understanding the role of automatization in complex cognitive performance, as increased encoding efficiency in early stages of practice possibly increases the capacity to otherwise interfering information.

  17. IMAGING OF BRAIN FUNCTION BASED ON THE ANALYSIS OF FUNCTIONAL CONNECTIVITY - IMAGING ANALYSIS OF BRAIN FUNCTION BY FMRI AFTER ACUPUNCTURE AT LR3 IN HEALTHY INDIVIDUALS

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Yu; Wang, Yuying; Lan, Yujun; Qu, Xiaodong; Lin, Kelin; Zhang, Jiping; Qu, Shanshan; Wang, Yanjie; Tang, Chunzhi; Huang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This Study observed the relevant brain areas activated by acupuncture at the Taichong acupoint (LR3) and analyzed the functional connectivity among brain areas using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to explore the acupoint specificity of the Taichong acupoint. Methods: A total of 45 healthy subjects were randomly divided into the Taichong (LR3) group, sham acupuncture group and sham acupoint group. Subjects received resting state fMRI before acupuncture, a...

  18. Complex network analysis of brain functional connectivity under a multi-step cognitive task

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Shi-Min; Chen, Wei; Liu, Dong-Bai; Tang, Ming; Chen, Xun

    2017-01-01

    Functional brain network has been widely studied to understand the relationship between brain organization and behavior. In this paper, we aim to explore the functional connectivity of brain network under a \\emph{multi-step} cognitive task involving with consecutive behaviors, and further understand the effect of behaviors on the brain organization. The functional brain networks are constructed base on a high spatial and temporal resolution fMRI dataset and analyzed via complex network based ...

  19. Fun cube based brain gym cognitive function assessment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Lin, Chung-Chih; Yu, Tsang-Chu; Sun, Jing; Hsu, Wen-Chuin; Wong, Alice May-Kuen

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study is to design and develop a fun cube (FC) based brain gym (BG) cognitive function assessment system using the wireless sensor network and multimedia technologies. The system comprised (1) interaction devices, FCs and a workstation used as interactive tools for collecting and transferring data to the server, (2) a BG information management system responsible for managing the cognitive games and storing test results, and (3) a feedback system used for conducting the analysis of cognitive functions to assist caregivers in screening high risk groups with mild cognitive impairment. Three kinds of experiments were performed to evaluate the developed FC-based BG cognitive function assessment system. The experimental results showed that the Pearson correlation coefficient between the system's evaluation outcomes and the traditional Montreal Cognitive Assessment scores was 0.83. The average Technology Acceptance Model 2 score was close to six for 31 elderly subjects. Most subjects considered that the brain games are interesting and the FC human-machine interface is easy to learn and operate. The control group and the cognitive impairment group had statistically significant difference with respect to the accuracy of and the time taken for the brain cognitive function assessment games, including Animal Naming, Color Search, Trail Making Test, Change Blindness, and Forward / Backward Digit Span. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Chronic intermittent fasting improves cognitive functions and brain structures in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liaoliao Li

    Full Text Available Obesity is a major health issue. Obesity started from teenagers has become a major health concern in recent years. Intermittent fasting increases the life span. However, it is not known whether obesity and intermittent fasting affect brain functions and structures before brain aging. Here, we subjected 7-week old CD-1 wild type male mice to intermittent (alternate-day fasting or high fat diet (45% caloric supplied by fat for 11 months. Mice on intermittent fasting had better learning and memory assessed by the Barnes maze and fear conditioning, thicker CA1 pyramidal cell layer, higher expression of drebrin, a dendritic protein, and lower oxidative stress than mice that had free access to regular diet (control mice. Mice fed with high fat diet was obese and with hyperlipidemia. They also had poorer exercise tolerance. However, these obese mice did not present significant learning and memory impairment or changes in brain structures or oxidative stress compared with control mice. These results suggest that intermittent fasting improves brain functions and structures and that high fat diet feeding started early in life does not cause significant changes in brain functions and structures in obese middle-aged animals.

  1. Chronic intermittent fasting improves cognitive functions and brain structures in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liaoliao; Wang, Zhi; Zuo, Zhiyi

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a major health issue. Obesity started from teenagers has become a major health concern in recent years. Intermittent fasting increases the life span. However, it is not known whether obesity and intermittent fasting affect brain functions and structures before brain aging. Here, we subjected 7-week old CD-1 wild type male mice to intermittent (alternate-day) fasting or high fat diet (45% caloric supplied by fat) for 11 months. Mice on intermittent fasting had better learning and memory assessed by the Barnes maze and fear conditioning, thicker CA1 pyramidal cell layer, higher expression of drebrin, a dendritic protein, and lower oxidative stress than mice that had free access to regular diet (control mice). Mice fed with high fat diet was obese and with hyperlipidemia. They also had poorer exercise tolerance. However, these obese mice did not present significant learning and memory impairment or changes in brain structures or oxidative stress compared with control mice. These results suggest that intermittent fasting improves brain functions and structures and that high fat diet feeding started early in life does not cause significant changes in brain functions and structures in obese middle-aged animals.

  2. Higher Genus Abelian Functions Associated with Cyclic Trigonal Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew England

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We develop the theory of Abelian functions associated with cyclic trigonal curves by considering two new cases. We investigate curves of genus six and seven and consider whether it is the trigonal nature or the genus which dictates certain areas of the theory. We present solutions to the Jacobi inversion problem, sets of relations between the Abelian function, links to the Boussinesq equation and a new addition formula.

  3. Aggressive Antioxidant Reductive Stress Impairs Brain Endothelial Cell Angiogenesis and Blood Brain Barrier Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentor, Shireen; Fisher, David

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress in the brain microvasculature is a common characteristic in models of cerebrovascular disease. Considering the effects of reactive oxygen species activity in vascular-derived insults, it is naturally prudent to hypothesize those interventions inhibiting reactive oxygen species activity, such as antioxidant supplementation, may be beneficial for cerebrovascular disease. Hyper doses of antioxidant supplements, and foods with high antioxidant concentrations, are commonly used as an ongoing remedial and 'over-the-counter' treatments for most seasonal ailments. For the first time, this study reports the adverse effects of excess antioxidants on angiogenic properties of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) which have clinical implications. A medicinal tea, known as Rooibos, commonly used in South Africa and marketed globally, for its prominent antioxidant profile, demonstrated its effects on brain endothelial cellular proliferation, toxicology, mitochondrial activity and permeability. Mouse brain endothelial cells were seeded at cell densities ranging from 103-106 cells/ml and were incubated at pre-determined time intervals of 24 to120 hours. Daily exposure of a selected concentration range of fermented Rooibos tea caused dose-related decreases in cellular proliferation, and unequivocally decreased permeability across our in vitro BBB model. Despite the negative effects on cellular proliferation, no toxicity was observed for all selected fermented Rooibos concentrations. Our data conclusively shows that the use of excess antioxidants perturbs BBB functionality and angiogenic properties, adversely implicating the homeostatic regulation of the brain microenvironment, while suppression in cellular proliferation impacts both the maintenance and repair function of brain capillaries. Our study indicates that excess antioxidants will lead to an impaired response to mechanical-induced injury and pathogenic infection of the BBB, compromising patient recovery. Copyright

  4. Altered Functional Brain Connectomes between Sporadic and Familial Parkinson's Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Tang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Familial Parkinson's disease (PD is often caused by mutation of a certain gene, while sporadic PD is associated with variants of genes which can influence the susceptibility to PD. The goal of this study was to investigate the difference between the two forms of PD in terms of brain abnormalities using resting-state functional MRI and graph theory. Thirty-one familial PD patients and 36 sporadic PD patients underwent resting-state functional MRI scanning. Frequency-dependent functional connectivity was calculated for each subject using wavelet-based correlations of BOLD signal over 246 brain regions from Brainnetome Atlas. Graph theoretical analysis was then performed to analyze the topology of the functional network, and functional connectome differences were identified with a network-based statistical approach. Our results revealed a frequency-specific (0.016 and 0.031 Hz connectome difference between familial and sporadic forms of PD, as indicated by an increase in assortativity and decrease in the nodal strength in the left medial amygdala of the familial PD group. In addition, the familial PD patients also showed a distinctive functional network between the left medial amygdala and regions related to retrieval of motion information. The present study indicates that the medial amygdala might be most vulnerable to both sporadic and familial PD. Our findings provide some new insights into disrupted resting-state functional connectomes between sporadic PD and familial PD.

  5. Abnormal functional connectivity of brain network hubs associated with symptom severity in treatment-naive patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder: A resting-state functional MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lin; Meng, Chun; Jiang, Ying; Tang, Qunfeng; Wang, Shuai; Xie, Xiyao; Fu, Xiangshuai; Jin, Chunhui; Zhang, Fuquan; Wang, Jidong

    2016-04-03

    Abnormal brain networks have been observed in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, detailed network hub and connectivity changes remained unclear in treatment-naive patients with OCD. Here, we sought to determine whether patients show hub-related connectivity changes in their whole-brain functional networks. We used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data and voxel-based graph-theoretic analysis to investigate functional connectivity strength and hubs of whole-brain networks in 29 treatment-naive patients with OCD and 29 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Correlation analysis was applied for potential associations with OCD symptom severity. OCD selectively targeted brain regions of higher functional connectivity strength than the average including brain network hubs, mainly distributed in the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) circuits and additionally parietal, occipital, temporal and cerebellar regions. Moreover, affected functional connectivity strength in the cerebellum, the medial orbitofrontal cortex and superior occipital cortex was significantly associated with global OCD symptom severity. Our results provide the evidence about OCD-related brain network hub changes, not only in the CSTC circuits but more distributed in whole brain networks. Data suggest that whole brain network hub analysis is useful for understanding the pathophysiology of OCD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Critical Thinking in a Higher Education Functional English Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shaista Irshad

    2017-01-01

    Critical thinking is seen as a highly desirable way of thinking that needs to be encouraged in all areas of higher education. However, it is not easy to conceptualise critical thinking in ways that can help in its development and in its assessment. Recent policy documents in Pakistan have laid emphasis on the development of critical thinking…

  7. QR Codes in Higher Ed: Fad or Functional Tool?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradel, Kathleen; Edson, Alden J.

    2013-01-01

    As higher education grapples with addressing the 21st century needs of learners, technology is a pervasive concern. Waters (2012) painted a picture of three historical "screens," namely the television screen, the computer monitor, and today's mobile device screen. As mobile devices become increasingly commonplace in the workplace and on the…

  8. Control channels in the brain and their influence on brain executive functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qinglei; Choa, Fow-Sen; Hong, Elliot; Wang, Zhiguang; Islam, Mohammad

    2014-05-01

    In a computer network there are distinct data channels and control channels where massive amount of visual information are transported through data channels but the information streams are routed and controlled by intelligent algorithm through "control channels". Recent studies on cognition and consciousness have shown that the brain control channels are closely related to the brainwave beta (14-40 Hz) and alpha (7-13 Hz) oscillations. The high-beta wave is used by brain to synchronize local neural activities and the alpha oscillation is for desynchronization. When two sensory inputs are simultaneously presented to a person, the high-beta is used to select one of the inputs and the alpha is used to deselect the other so that only one input will get the attention. In this work we demonstrated that we can scan a person's brain using binaural beats technique and identify the individual's preferred control channels. The identified control channels can then be used to influence the subject's brain executive functions. In the experiment, an EEG measurement system was used to record and identify a subject's control channels. After these channels were identified, the subject was asked to do Stroop tests. Binaural beats was again used to produce these control-channel frequencies on the subject's brain when we recorded the completion time of each test. We found that the high-beta signal indeed speeded up the subject's executive function performance and reduced the time to complete incongruent tests, while the alpha signal didn't seem to be able to slow down the executive function performance.

  9. Functional brain alterations in anorexia nervosa: a scoping review

    OpenAIRE

    Fuglset, Tone S; Nils I Landrø; Reas, Deborah L.; Rø, Øyvind

    2016-01-01

    Background Neuroimaging allows for the identification of brain abnormalities and alterations that are associated with anorexia nervosa (AN). We performed a scoping review to map out the extent and nature of recent research activity on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in individuals diagnosed with, or recovered from, AN (AN-REC). Main text A literature search of PubMed, Psychinfo and Embase...

  10. Practice Induces Function-Specific Changes in Brain Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Tamar R van Raalten; Ramsey, Nick F; Jeff Duyn; Jansma, Johan M.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Practice can have a profound effect on performance and brain activity, especially if a task can be automated. Tasks that allow for automatization typically involve repeated encoding of information that is paired with a constant response. Much remains unknown about the effects of practice on encoding and response selection in an automated task. METHODOLOGY: To investigate function-specific effects of automatization we employed a variant of a Sternberg task with optimized separation...

  11. Decreased in vitro mitochondrial function is associated with enhanced brain metabolism, blood flow, and memory in Surf1-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ai-Ling; Pulliam, Daniel A; Deepa, Sathyaseelan S; Halloran, Jonathan J; Hussong, Stacy A; Burbank, Raquel R; Bresnen, Andrew; Liu, Yuhong; Podlutskaya, Natalia; Soundararajan, Anuradha; Muir, Eric; Duong, Timothy Q; Bokov, Alex F; Viscomi, Carlo; Zeviani, Massimo; Richardson, Arlan G; Van Remmen, Holly; Fox, Peter T; Galvan, Veronica

    2013-10-01

    Recent studies have challenged the prevailing view that reduced mitochondrial function and increased oxidative stress are correlated with reduced longevity. Mice carrying a homozygous knockout (KO) of the Surf1 gene showed a significant decrease in mitochondrial electron transport chain Complex IV activity, yet displayed increased lifespan and reduced brain damage after excitotoxic insults. In the present study, we examined brain metabolism, brain hemodynamics, and memory of Surf1 KO mice using in vitro measures of mitochondrial function, in vivo neuroimaging, and behavioral testing. We show that decreased respiration and increased generation of hydrogen peroxide in isolated Surf1 KO brain mitochondria are associated with increased brain glucose metabolism, cerebral blood flow, and lactate levels, and with enhanced memory in Surf1 KO mice. These metabolic and functional changes in Surf1 KO brains were accompanied by higher levels of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha, and by increases in the activated form of cyclic AMP response element-binding factor, which is integral to memory formation. These findings suggest that Surf1 deficiency-induced metabolic alterations may have positive effects on brain function. Exploring the relationship between mitochondrial activity, oxidative stress, and brain function will enhance our understanding of cognitive aging and of age-related neurologic disorders.

  12. What is feasible with imaging human brain function and connectivity using functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugurbil, Kamil

    2016-10-05

    When we consider all of the methods we employ to detect brain function, from electrophysiology to optical techniques to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we do not really have a 'golden technique' that meets all of the needs for studying the brain. We have methods, each of which has significant limitations but provide often complimentary information. Clearly, there are many questions that need to be answered about fMRI, which unlike other methods, allows us to study the human brain. However, there are also extraordinary accomplishments or demonstration of the feasibility of reaching new and previously unexpected scales of function in the human brain. This article reviews some of the work we have pursued, often with extensive collaborations with other co-workers, towards understanding the underlying mechanisms of the methodology, defining its limitations, and developing solutions to advance it. No doubt, our knowledge of human brain function has vastly expanded since the introduction of fMRI. However, methods and instrumentation in this dynamic field have evolved to a state that discoveries about the human brain based on fMRI principles, together with information garnered at a much finer spatial and temporal scale through other methods, are poised to significantly accelerate in the next decade.This article is part of the themed issue 'Interpreting BOLD: a dialogue between cognitive and cellular neuroscience'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  13. What is feasible with imaging human brain function and connectivity using functional magnetic resonance imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    When we consider all of the methods we employ to detect brain function, from electrophysiology to optical techniques to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we do not really have a ‘golden technique’ that meets all of the needs for studying the brain. We have methods, each of which has significant limitations but provide often complimentary information. Clearly, there are many questions that need to be answered about fMRI, which unlike other methods, allows us to study the human brain. However, there are also extraordinary accomplishments or demonstration of the feasibility of reaching new and previously unexpected scales of function in the human brain. This article reviews some of the work we have pursued, often with extensive collaborations with other co-workers, towards understanding the underlying mechanisms of the methodology, defining its limitations, and developing solutions to advance it. No doubt, our knowledge of human brain function has vastly expanded since the introduction of fMRI. However, methods and instrumentation in this dynamic field have evolved to a state that discoveries about the human brain based on fMRI principles, together with information garnered at a much finer spatial and temporal scale through other methods, are poised to significantly accelerate in the next decade. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Interpreting BOLD: a dialogue between cognitive and cellular neuroscience’. PMID:27574313

  14. Neuroanatomical prerequisites for language functions in the maturing brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauer, Jens; Anwander, Alfred; Friederici, Angela D

    2011-02-01

    The 2 major language-relevant cortical regions in the human brain, Broca's area and Wernicke's area, are connected via the fibers of the arcuate fasciculus/superior longitudinal fasciculus (AF/SLF). Here, we compared this pathway in adults and children and its relation to language processing during development. Comparison of fiber properties demonstrated lower anisotropy in children's AF/SLF, arguing for an immature status of this particular pathway with conceivably a lower degree of myelination. Combined diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data indicated that in adults the termination of the AF/SLF fiber projection is compatible with functional activation in Broca's area, that is pars opercularis. In children, activation in Broca's area extended from the pars opercularis into the pars triangularis revealing an alternative connection to the temporal lobe (Wernicke's area) via the ventrally projecting extreme capsule fiber system. fMRI and DTI data converge to indicate that adults make use of a more confined language network than children based on ongoing maturation of the structural network. Our data suggest relations between language development and brain maturation and, moreover, indicate the brain's plasticity to adjust its function to available structural prerequisites.

  15. Convergent Findings of Altered Functional and Structural Brain Connectivity in Individuals with High Functioning Autism: A Multimodal MRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Sophia; Keeser, Daniel; Samson, Andrea C; Kirsch, Valerie; Blautzik, Janusch; Grothe, Michel; Erat, Okan; Hegenloh, Michael; Coates, Ute; Reiser, Maximilian F; Hennig-Fast, Kristina; Meindl, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Brain tissue changes in autism spectrum disorders seem to be rather subtle and widespread than anatomically distinct. Therefore a multimodal, whole brain imaging technique appears to be an appropriate approach to investigate whether alterations in white and gray matter integrity relate to consistent changes in functional resting state connectivity in individuals with high functioning autism (HFA). We applied diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and resting state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI) to assess differences in brain structure and function between 12 individuals with HFA (mean age 35.5, SD 11.4, 9 male) and 12 healthy controls (mean age 33.3, SD 9.0, 8 male). Psychological measures of empathy and emotionality were obtained and correlated with the most significant DTI, VBM and fcMRI findings. We found three regions of convergent structural and functional differences between HFA participants and controls. The right temporo-parietal junction area and the left frontal lobe showed decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) values along with decreased functional connectivity and a trend towards decreased gray matter volume. The bilateral superior temporal gyrus displayed significantly decreased functional connectivity that was accompanied by the strongest trend of gray matter volume decrease in the temporal lobe of HFA individuals. FA decrease in the right temporo-parietal region was correlated with psychological measurements of decreased emotionality. In conclusion, our results indicate common sites of structural and functional alterations in higher order association cortex areas and may therefore provide multimodal imaging support to the long-standing hypothesis of autism as a disorder of impaired higher-order multisensory integration.

  16. Convergent Findings of Altered Functional and Structural Brain Connectivity in Individuals with High Functioning Autism: A Multimodal MRI Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia Mueller

    Full Text Available Brain tissue changes in autism spectrum disorders seem to be rather subtle and widespread than anatomically distinct. Therefore a multimodal, whole brain imaging technique appears to be an appropriate approach to investigate whether alterations in white and gray matter integrity relate to consistent changes in functional resting state connectivity in individuals with high functioning autism (HFA. We applied diffusion tensor imaging (DTI, voxel-based morphometry (VBM and resting state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI to assess differences in brain structure and function between 12 individuals with HFA (mean age 35.5, SD 11.4, 9 male and 12 healthy controls (mean age 33.3, SD 9.0, 8 male. Psychological measures of empathy and emotionality were obtained and correlated with the most significant DTI, VBM and fcMRI findings. We found three regions of convergent structural and functional differences between HFA participants and controls. The right temporo-parietal junction area and the left frontal lobe showed decreased fractional anisotropy (FA values along with decreased functional connectivity and a trend towards decreased gray matter volume. The bilateral superior temporal gyrus displayed significantly decreased functional connectivity that was accompanied by the strongest trend of gray matter volume decrease in the temporal lobe of HFA individuals. FA decrease in the right temporo-parietal region was correlated with psychological measurements of decreased emotionality. In conclusion, our results indicate common sites of structural and functional alterations in higher order association cortex areas and may therefore provide multimodal imaging support to the long-standing hypothesis of autism as a disorder of impaired higher-order multisensory integration.

  17. Altered Brain Functional Connectivity in Betel Quid-Dependent Chewers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojun Huang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundBetel quid (BQ is a common psychoactive substance worldwide with particularly high usage in many Asian countries. This study aimed to explore the effect of BQ use on functional connectivity by comparing global functional brain networks and their subset between BQ chewers and healthy controls (HCs.MethodsResting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI was obtained from 24 betel quid-dependent (BQD male chewers and 27 healthy male individuals on a 3.0T scanner. We used independent component analysis (ICA to determine components that represent the brain’s functional networks and their spatial aspects of functional connectivity. Two sample t-tests were used to identify the functional connectivity differences in each network between these two groups.ResultsSeventeen networks were identified by ICA. Nine of them showed connectivity differences between BQD and HCs (two sample t-tests, p < 0.001 uncorrected. We found increased functional connectivity in the orbitofrontal, bilateral frontoparietal, frontotemporal, occipital/parietal, frontotemporal/cerebellum, and temporal/limbic networks, and decreased connectivity in the parietal and medial frontal/anterior cingulate networks in the BQD compared to the HCs. The betel quid dependence scale scores were positively related to the increased functional connectivity in the orbitofrontal (r = 0.39, p = 0.03 while negatively related to the decreased functional connectivity in medial frontal/anterior cingulate networks (r = −0.35, p = 0.02.DiscussionOur findings provide further evidence that BQ chewing may lead to brain functional connectivity changes, which may play a key role in the psychological and physiological effects of BQ.

  18. Rescue of Brain Function Using Tunneling Nanotubes Between Neural Stem Cells and Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoqing; Yu, Xiaowen; Xie, Chong; Tan, Zijian; Tian, Qi; Zhu, Desheng; Liu, Mingyuan; Guan, Yangtai

    2016-05-01

    Evidence indicates that neural stem cells (NSCs) can ameliorate cerebral ischemia in animal models. In this study, we investigated the mechanism underlying one of the neuroprotective effects of NSCs: tunneling nanotube (TNT) formation. We addressed whether the control of cell-to-cell communication processes between NSCs and brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) and, particularly, the control of TNT formation could influence the rescue function of stem cells. In an attempt to mimic the cellular microenvironment in vitro, a co-culture system consisting of terminally differentiated BMECs from mice in a distressed state and NSCs was constructed. Additionally, engraftment experiments with infarcted mouse brains revealed that control of TNT formation influenced the effects of stem cell transplantation in vivo. In conclusion, our findings provide the first evidence that TNTs exist between NSCs and BMECs and that regulation of TNT formation alters cell function.

  19. Testing group differences in brain functional connectivity: using correlations or partial correlations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junghi; Wozniak, Jeffrey R; Mueller, Bryon A; Pan, Wei

    2015-05-01

    Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging allows one to study brain functional connectivity, partly motivated by evidence that patients with complex disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, may have altered functional brain connectivity patterns as compared with healthy subjects. A functional connectivity network describes statistical associations of the neural activities among distinct and distant brain regions. Recently, there is a major interest in group-level functional network analysis; however, there is a relative lack of studies on statistical inference, such as significance testing for group comparisons. In particular, it is still debatable which statistic should be used to measure pairwise associations as the connectivity weights. Many functional connectivity studies have used either (full or marginal) correlations or partial correlations for pairwise associations. This article investigates the performance of using either correlations or partial correlations for testing group differences in brain connectivity, and how sparsity levels and topological structures of the connectivity would influence statistical power to detect group differences. Our results suggest that, in general, testing group differences in networks deviates from estimating networks. For example, high regularization in both covariance matrices and precision matrices may lead to higher statistical power; in particular, optimally selected regularization (e.g., by cross-validation or even at the true sparsity level) on the precision matrices with small estimation errors may have low power. Most importantly, and perhaps surprisingly, using either correlations or partial correlations may give very different testing results, depending on which of the covariance matrices and the precision matrices are sparse. Specifically, if the precision matrices are sparse, presumably and arguably a reasonable assumption, then using correlations often yields much higher powered and more stable testing

  20. Integral approximants for functions of higher monodromic dimension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, G.A. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    In addition to the description of multiform, locally analytic functions as covering a many sheeted version of the complex plane, Riemann also introduced the notion of considering them as describing a space whose ''monodromic'' dimension is the number of linearly independent coverings by the monogenic analytic function at each point of the complex plane. I suggest that this latter concept is natural for integral approximants (sub-class of Hermite-Pade approximants) and discuss results for both ''horizontal'' and ''diagonal'' sequences of approximants. Some theorems are now available in both cases and make clear the natural domain of convergence of the horizontal sequences is a disk centered on the origin and that of the diagonal sequences is a suitably cut complex-plane together with its identically cut pendant Riemann sheets. Some numerical examples have also been computed.

  1. Exercise is brain food: the effects of physical activity on cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploughman, Michelle

    2008-07-01

    This commentary reviews selected biomedical and clinical research examining the relationship between physical exercise and cognitive function especially in youth with disability. Youth with physical disability may not benefit from the effects of exercise on cardiovascular fitness and brain health since they are less active than their non-disabled peers. In animal models, physical activity enhances memory and learning, promotes neurogenesis and protects the nervous system from injury and neurodegenerative disease. Neurotrophins, endogenous proteins that support brain plasticity likely mediate the beneficial effects of exercise on the brain. In clinical studies, exercise increases brain volume in areas implicated in executive processing, improves cognition in children with cerebral palsy and enhances phonemic skill in school children with reading difficulty. Studies examining the intensity of exercise required to optimize neurotrophins suggest that moderation is important. Sustained increases in neurotrophin levels occur with prolonged low intensity exercise, while higher intensity exercise, in a rat model of brain injury, elevates the stress hormone, corticosterone. Clearly, moderate physical activity is important for youth whose brains are highly plastic and perhaps even more critical for young people with physical disability.

  2. Functional photoacoustic tomography for neonatal brain imaging: developments and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariri, Ali; Tavakoli, Emytis; Adabi, Saba; Gelovani, Juri; Avanaki, Mohammad R. N.

    2017-03-01

    Transfontanelle ultrasound imaging (TFUSI) is a routine diagnostic brain imaging method in infants who are born prematurely, whose skull bones have not completely fused together and have openings between them, so-called fontanelles. Open fontanelles in neonates provide acoustic windows, allowing the ultrasound beam to freely pass through. TFUSI is used to rule out neurological complications of premature birth including subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), intraventricular (IVH), subependimal (SEPH), subdural (SDH) or intracerebral (ICH) hemorrhages, as well as hypoxic brain injuries. TFUSI is widely used in the clinic owing to its low cost, safety, accessibility, and noninvasive nature. Nevertheless, the accuracy of TFUSI is limited. To address several limitations of current clinical imaging modalities, we develop a novel transfontanelle photoacoustic imaging (TFPAI) probe, which, for the first time, should allow for non-invasive structural and functional imaging of the infant brain. In this study, we test the feasibility of TFPAI for detection of experimentally-induced intra ventricular and Intraparenchymal hemorrhage phantoms in a sheep model with a surgically-induced cranial window which will serve as a model of neonatal fontanelle. This study is towards using the probe we develop for bedside monitoring of neonates with various disease conditions and complications affecting brain perfusion and oxygenation, including apnea, asphyxia, as well as for detection of various types of intracranial hemorrhages (SAH, IVH, SEPH, SDH, ICH).

  3. Activated and deactivated functional brain areas in the Deqi state

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Yong; Zeng, Tongjun; Zhang, Guifeng; Li, Ganlong; Lu, Na; Lai, Xinsheng; Lu, Yangjia; Chen, Jiarong

    2012-01-01

    We compared the activities of functional regions of the brain in the Deqi versus non-Deqi state, as reported by physicians and subjects during acupuncture. Twelve healthy volunteers received sham and true needling at the Waiguan (TE5) acupoint. Real-time cerebral functional MRI showed that compared with non-sensation after sham needling, true needling activated Brodmann areas 3, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13, 20, 21, 37, 39, 40, 43, and 47, the head of the caudate nucleus, the parahippocampal gyrus, th...

  4. Brain Functional Connectivity in MS: An EEG-NIRS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0582 TITLE: Brain Functional Connectivity in MS: An EEG -NIRS Study PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Heather Wishart...Functional Connectivity in MS: An EEG -NIRS Study 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0582 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Heather...electrical ( EEG ) and blood volume and blood oxygen-based (NIRS and fMRI) signals, and to use the results to help optimize blood oxygen level

  5. Neuromorphological and wiring pattern alterations effects on brain function: a mixed experimental and computational approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linus Manubens-Gil

    2015-04-01

    In addition, the study of fixed intact brains (by means of the state of the art CLARITY technique brings us closer to biologically and medically relevant situations, allowing not only to confirm whether the functional links in neuronal cultures are also present in vivo, but also enabling the introduction of functional information (like behavioral studies and functional imaging and another layer of structural alterations such as brain region morphology, neuronal density, and long-range connectivity. Taking together the experimental information from these systems we want to feed self-developed computational models that allow us to understand what are the fundamental characteristics of the observed connectivity patterns and the impact of each of the alterations on neuronal network function. These models will also provide a framework able to account for the emergent properties that bridge the gap between spontaneous electrical activity arousal/transmission and higher order information processing and memory storage capacities in the brain. As an additional part of the project we are now working on the application of the clearing, labeling and imaging protocols to human biopsy samples. Our aim is to obtain neuronal architecture and connectivity information from focal cortical dysplasia microcircuits using samples from intractable temporal lobe epilepsy patients that undergo deep-brain electrode recording diagnosis and posterior surgical extraction of the tissue. Our computational models can allow us to discern the contributions of the observed abnormalities to neuronal hyperactivity and epileptic seizure generation.

  6. The automatic brain: studies on practice and brain function in healthy subjects and patients with schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    van Raalten, T.R.

    2009-01-01

    Practice makes perfect. The neural mechanisms behind the behavioral improvement of practice (automatization) however are largely unknown. Here we investigate how practice changes brain function and how this can improve our processing capacity. We also examine whether a deficit in automatization can explain the severely limited processing capacity in schizophrenia. Previous research implicates working memory (WM) in the development of automatization and the ability to improve processing capaci...

  7. Moderate Doses of Alcohol Disrupt the Functional Organization of the Human Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Volkow, Nora D.; Ma, Yeming; Zhu, Wei; Fowler, Joanna S.; Li, Juan; Rao, Manlong; Mueller, Klaus; Pradhan, Kith; Wong, Christopher; Wang, Gene-Jack

    2008-01-01

    Acute alcohol administration decreases overall brain glucose metabolism, which serves as a marker of brain activity. The behavioral effects of alcohol however, are likely to reflect not only changes in regional brain activity but also on the patterns of brain functional organization. Here we assessed the effects of a moderate dose of alcohol on the patterns of brain activity and cerebral differentiation. We measured brain glucose metabolism in 20 healthy controls with PET and FDG during basel...

  8. Personality Is Reflected in the Brain's Intrinsic Functional Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelstein, Jonathan S.; Shehzad, Zarrar; Mennes, Maarten; DeYoung, Colin G.; Zuo, Xi-Nian; Kelly, Clare; Margulies, Daniel S.; Bloomfield, Aaron; Gray, Jeremy R.; Castellanos, F. Xavier; Milham, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    Personality describes persistent human behavioral responses to broad classes of environmental stimuli. Investigating how personality traits are reflected in the brain's functional architecture is challenging, in part due to the difficulty of designing appropriate task probes. Resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) can detect intrinsic activation patterns without relying on any specific task. Here we use RSFC to investigate the neural correlates of the five-factor personality domains. Based on seed regions placed within two cognitive and affective ‘hubs’ in the brain—the anterior cingulate and precuneus—each domain of personality predicted RSFC with a unique pattern of brain regions. These patterns corresponded with functional subdivisions responsible for cognitive and affective processing such as motivation, empathy and future-oriented thinking. Neuroticism and Extraversion, the two most widely studied of the five constructs, predicted connectivity between seed regions and the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and lateral paralimbic regions, respectively. These areas are associated with emotional regulation, self-evaluation and reward, consistent with the trait qualities. Personality traits were mostly associated with functional connections that were inconsistently present across participants. This suggests that although a fundamental, core functional architecture is preserved across individuals, variable connections outside of that core encompass the inter-individual differences in personality that motivate diverse responses. PMID:22140453

  9. A Novel Brain Network Construction Method for Exploring Age-Related Functional Reorganization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Wang, Miao; Li, Yapeng; Huang, Yue; Chen, Xi

    2016-01-01

    The human brain undergoes complex reorganization and changes during aging. Using graph theory, scientists can find differences in topological properties of functional brain networks between young and elderly adults. However, these differences are sometimes significant and sometimes not. Several studies have even identified disparate differences in topological properties during normal aging or in age-related diseases. One possible reason for this issue is that existing brain network construction methods cannot fully extract the "intrinsic edges" to prevent useful signals from being buried into noises. This paper proposes a new subnetwork voting (SNV) method with sliding window to construct functional brain networks for young and elderly adults. Differences in the topological properties of brain networks constructed from the classic and SNV methods were consistent. Statistical analysis showed that the SNV method can identify much more statistically significant differences between groups than the classic method. Moreover, support vector machine was utilized to classify young and elderly adults; its accuracy, based on the SNV method, reached 89.3%, significantly higher than that with classic method. Therefore, the SNV method can improve consistency within a group and highlight differences between groups, which can be valuable for the exploration and auxiliary diagnosis of aging and age-related diseases.

  10. A Novel Brain Network Construction Method for Exploring Age-Related Functional Reorganization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The human brain undergoes complex reorganization and changes during aging. Using graph theory, scientists can find differences in topological properties of functional brain networks between young and elderly adults. However, these differences are sometimes significant and sometimes not. Several studies have even identified disparate differences in topological properties during normal aging or in age-related diseases. One possible reason for this issue is that existing brain network construction methods cannot fully extract the “intrinsic edges” to prevent useful signals from being buried into noises. This paper proposes a new subnetwork voting (SNV method with sliding window to construct functional brain networks for young and elderly adults. Differences in the topological properties of brain networks constructed from the classic and SNV methods were consistent. Statistical analysis showed that the SNV method can identify much more statistically significant differences between groups than the classic method. Moreover, support vector machine was utilized to classify young and elderly adults; its accuracy, based on the SNV method, reached 89.3%, significantly higher than that with classic method. Therefore, the SNV method can improve consistency within a group and highlight differences between groups, which can be valuable for the exploration and auxiliary diagnosis of aging and age-related diseases.

  11. Cognitive and functional outcomes of terror victims who suffered from traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Isabella; Tuchner, Maya; Tsenter, Jeanna; Shochina, Mara; Shoshan, Yigal; Katz-Leurer, Michal; Meiner, Zeev

    2008-03-01

    To describe the outcomes of terror victims suffered from traumatic brain injury (TBI). Retrospective chart review of 17 terror and 39 non-terror TBI patients treated in a rehabilitation department during the same period. Variables include demographic data, Injury Severity Scale (ISS), length of stay (LOS) and imaging results. ADL was measured using the Functional Independence Measurement (FIM), cognitive and memory functions were measured using the Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment (LOTCA) battery and the Rivermead Battery Memory Test (RBMT), respectively. Terror TBI patients were significantly younger, had higher ISS score and higher rates of intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH), brain surgery and penetrating brain injuries than the non-terror TBI group. There was no difference in mean LOS, mean FIM values, mean FIM gain and mean cognitive and memory improvement between groups. Terror victims suffered from a higher percentage of post-traumatic epilepsy (35% vs. 10%, p=0.05), whereas the rate of PTSD and the rate of return to previous occupation were similar between groups. Although TBI terror victims had more severe injury, they gained most of ADL functions and their rehabilitation outcomes were similar to non-terror TBI patients. These favourable results were achieved due to a comprehensive interdisciplinary approach to terror victims and also by national support which allowed an adequate period of treatment and sufficient resources as needed.

  12. Abdominal Pain, the Adolescent and Altered Brain Structure and Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine S Hubbard

    Full Text Available Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is a functional gastrointestinal (GI disorder of unknown etiology. Although relatively common in children, how this condition affects brain structure and function in a pediatric population remains unclear. Here, we investigate brain changes in adolescents with IBS and healthy controls. Imaging was performed with a Siemens 3 Tesla Trio Tim MRI scanner equipped with a 32-channel head coil. A high-resolution T1-weighted anatomical scan was acquired followed by a T2-weighted functional scan. We used a surface-based morphometric approach along with a seed-based resting-state functional connectivity (RS-FC analysis to determine if groups differed in cortical thickness and whether areas showing structural differences also showed abnormal RS-FC patterns. Patients completed the Abdominal Pain Index and the GI Module of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory to assess abdominal pain severity and impact of GI symptoms on health-related quality of life (HRQOL. Disease duration and pain intensity were also assessed. Pediatric IBS patients, relative to controls, showed cortical thickening in the posterior cingulate (PCC, whereas cortical thinning in posterior parietal and prefrontal areas were found, including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC. In patients, abdominal pain severity was related to cortical thickening in the intra-abdominal area of the primary somatosensory cortex (SI, whereas HRQOL was associated with insular cortical thinning. Disease severity measures correlated with cortical thickness in bilateral DLPFC and orbitofrontal cortex. Patients also showed reduced anti-correlations between PCC and DLPFC compared to controls, a finding that may reflect aberrant connectivity between default mode and cognitive control networks. We are the first to demonstrate concomitant structural and functional brain changes associated with abdominal pain severity, HRQOL related to GI-specific symptoms, and disease

  13. Hierarchical alteration of brain structural and functional networks in female migraine sufferers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jixin Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little is known about the changes of brain structural and functional connectivity networks underlying the pathophysiology in migraine. We aimed to investigate how the cortical network reorganization is altered by frequent cortical overstimulation associated with migraine. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Gray matter volumes and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging signal correlations were employed to construct structural and functional networks between brain regions in 43 female patients with migraine (PM and 43 gender-matched healthy controls (HC by using graph theory-based approaches. Compared with the HC group, the patients showed abnormal global topology in both structural and functional networks, characterized by higher mean clustering coefficients without significant change in the shortest absolute path length, which indicated that the PM lost optimal topological organization in their cortical networks. Brain hubs related to pain-processing revealed abnormal nodal centrality in both structural and functional networks, including the precentral gyrus, orbital part of the inferior frontal gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, anterior cingulate gyrus, thalamus, temporal pole of the middle temporal gyrus and the inferior parietal gyrus. Negative correlations were found between migraine duration and regions with abnormal centrality. Furthermore, the dysfunctional connections in patients' cortical networks formed into a connected component and three dysregulated modules were identified involving pain-related information processing and motion-processing visual networks. CONCLUSIONS: Our results may reflect brain alteration dynamics resulting from migraine and suggest that long-term and high-frequency headache attacks may cause both structural and functional connectivity network reorganization. The disrupted information exchange between brain areas in migraine may be reshaped into a hierarchical modular structure progressively.

  14. Brain plasticity, cognitive functions and neural stem cells: a pivotal role for the brain-specific neural master gene |-SRGAP2-FAM72-|.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Nguyen Thi Thanh; Kutzner, Arne; Heese, Klaus

    2017-12-20

    Due to an aging society with an increased dementia-induced threat to higher cognitive functions, it has become imperative to understand the molecular and cellular events controlling the memory and learning processes in the brain. Here, we suggest that the novel master gene pair |-SRGAP2-FAM72-| (SLIT-ROBO Rho GTPase activating the protein 2, family with sequence similarity to 72) reveals a new dogma for the regulation of neural stem cell (NSC) gene expression and is a distinctive player in the control of human brain plasticity. Insight into the specific regulation of the brain-specific neural master gene |-SRGAP2-FAM72-| may essentially contribute to novel therapeutic approaches to restore or improve higher cognitive functions.

  15. IMAGING OF BRAIN FUNCTION BASED ON THE ANALYSIS OF FUNCTIONAL CONNECTIVITY - IMAGING ANALYSIS OF BRAIN FUNCTION BY FMRI AFTER ACUPUNCTURE AT LR3 IN HEALTHY INDIVIDUALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yu; Wang, Yuying; Lan, Yujun; Qu, Xiaodong; Lin, Kelin; Zhang, Jiping; Qu, Shanshan; Wang, Yanjie; Tang, Chunzhi; Huang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    This Study observed the relevant brain areas activated by acupuncture at the Taichong acupoint (LR3) and analyzed the functional connectivity among brain areas using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to explore the acupoint specificity of the Taichong acupoint. A total of 45 healthy subjects were randomly divided into the Taichong (LR3) group, sham acupuncture group and sham acupoint group. Subjects received resting state fMRI before acupuncture, after true (sham) acupuncture in each group. Analysis of changes in connectivity among the brain areas was performed using the brain functional connectivity method. The right cerebrum temporal lobe was selected as the seed point to analyze the functional connectivity. It had a functional connectivity with right cerebrum superior frontal gyrus, limbic lobe cingulate gyrus and left cerebrum inferior temporal gyrus (BA 37), inferior parietal lobule compared by before vs. after acupuncture at LR3, and right cerebrum sub-lobar insula and left cerebrum middle frontal gyrus, medial frontal gyrus compared by true vs. sham acupuncture at LR3, and right cerebrum occipital lobe cuneus, occipital lobe sub-gyral, parietal lobe precuneus and left cerebellum anterior lobe culmen by acupuncture at LR3 vs. sham acupoint. Acupuncture at LR3 mainly specifically activated the brain functional network that participates in visual function, associative function, and emotion cognition, which are similar to the features on LR3 in tradition Chinese medicine. These brain areas constituted a neural network structure with specific functions that had specific reference values for the interpretation of the acupoint specificity of the Taichong acupoint.

  16. Socioeconomic status and functional brain development - associations in early infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomalski, Przemyslaw; Moore, Derek G; Ribeiro, Helena; Axelsson, Emma L; Murphy, Elizabeth; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Johnson, Mark H; Kushnerenko, Elena

    2013-09-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) impacts on both structural and functional brain development in childhood, but how early its effects can be demonstrated is unknown. In this study we measured resting baseline EEG activity in the gamma frequency range in awake 6-9-month-olds from areas of East London with high socioeconomic deprivation. Between-subject comparisons of infants from low- and high-income families revealed significantly lower frontal gamma power in infants from low-income homes. Similar power differences were found when comparing infants according to maternal occupation, with lower occupational status groups yielding lower power. Infant sleep, maternal education, length of gestation, and birth weight, as well as smoke exposure and bilingualism, did not explain these differences. Our results show that the effects of socioeconomic disparities on brain activity can already be detected in early infancy, potentially pointing to very early risk for language and attention difficulties. This is the first study to reveal region-selective differences in functional brain development associated with early infancy in low-income families. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Modularity and Self-Organized Functional Architectures in the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Laxmi; Minai, Ali A.; Doboli, Simona; Brown, Vincent R.

    It is generally believed that cognition involves the self-organization of coherent dy- namic functional networks across several brain regions in response to incoming stimulus and internal modulation. These context-dependent networks arise continually from the spatiotemporally multi-scale structural substrate of the brain configured by evolution, development and previous experience, persisting for 100-200 ms and generating re- sponses such as imagery, recall and motor action. In the current paper, we show that a system of interacting modular attractor networks can use a selective mechanism for assembling functional networks from the modular substrate. We use the approach to develop a model of idea-generation in the brain. Ideas are modeled as combinations of concepts organized in a recurrent network that reflects previous associations between them. The dynamics of this network, resulting in the transient co-activation of concept groups, is seen as a search through the space of ideas, and attractor dynamics is used to "shape" this search. The process is required to encompass both rapid retrieval of old ideas in familiar contexts and efficient search for novel ones in unfamiliar situations (or during brainstorming). The inclusion of an adaptive modulatory mechanism allows the network to balance the competing requirements of exploiting previous learning and exploring new possibilities as needed in different contexts.

  18. The effects of methylphenidate on whole brain intrinsic functional connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Sophia; Costa, Anna; Keeser, Daniel; Pogarell, Oliver; Berman, Albert; Coates, Ute; Reiser, Maximilian F; Riedel, Michael; Möller, Hans-Jürgen; Ettinger, Ulrich; Meindl, Thomas

    2014-11-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH) is an indirect dopaminergic and noradrenergic agonist that is used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and that has shown therapeutic potential in neuropsychiatric diseases such as depression, dementia, and Parkinson's disease. While effects of MPH on task-induced brain activation have been investigated, little is known about how MPH influences the resting brain. To investigate the effects of 40 mg of oral MPH on intrinsic functional connectivity, we used resting state fMRI in 54 healthy male subjects in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Functional connectivity analysis employing ICA revealed seven resting state networks (RSN) of interest. Connectivity strength between the dorsal attention network and the thalamus was increased after MPH intake. Other RSN located in association cortex areas, such as the left and right frontoparietal networks and the executive control network, showed MPH-induced connectivity increase to sensory-motor and visual cortex regions and connectivity decrease to cortical and subcortical components of cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuits (CST). RSN located in sensory-motor cortex areas showed the opposite pattern with MPH-induced connectivity increase to CST components and connectivity decrease to sensory-motor and visual cortex regions. Our results provide evidence that MPH does not only alter intrinsic connectivity between brain areas involved in sustained attention, but that it also induces significant changes in the cortico-cortical and cortico-subcortical connectivity of many other cognitive and sensory-motor RSN. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Evidence for Functional Networks within the Human Brain's White Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peer, Michael; Nitzan, Mor; Bick, Atira S; Levin, Netta; Arzy, Shahar

    2017-07-05

    brain. However, most fMRI studies ignored a major part of the brain, the white-matter, discarding signals from it as arising from noise. Here we use resting-state fMRI data from 176 subjects to show that signals from the human white-matter contain meaningful information. We identify 12 functional networks composed of interacting long-distance white-matter tracts. Moreover, we show that these networks are highly correlated to resting-state gray-matter networks, highlighting their functional role. Our findings enable reinterpretation of many existing fMRI datasets, and suggest a new way to explore the white-matter role in cognition and its disturbances in neuropsychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/376394-14$15.00/0.

  20. The alcohol paradox: light-to-moderate alcohol consumption, cognitive function, and brain volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Benjamin J K; Vidal, Jean-Sebastian; Garcia, Melissa; Aspelund, Thor; van Buchem, Mark A; Jonsdottir, Maria K; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Harris, Tamara B; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Launer, Lenore J

    2014-12-01

    Studies of older persons show consumption of light-to-moderate amounts of alcohol is positively associated with cognitive function and, separately, is negatively associated with total brain volume (TBV). This is paradoxical as generally, cognitive function is positively associated with TBV. We examined the relationships of TBV, global cognitive function (GCF), and alcohol consumption in a population-based cohort of 3,363 men and women (b. 1907-1935) participating in the Age Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study (2002-2006) and who were free of dementia or mild cognitive impairment Drinking status (never, former, and current) and current amount of alcohol consumed were assessed by questionnaire. GCF is a composite score derived from a battery of cognitive tests. TBV, standardized to head size, is estimated quantitatively from brain magnetic resonance imaging. Among women and not men, adjusting for demographic and cardiovascular risk factors, current drinkers had significantly higher GCF scores than abstainers and former drinkers (p function suggests there may be unmeasured factors that contribute to maintaining better GCF relative to TBV. However, at higher levels of reasonable alcohol consumption, there may be factors leading to reduced brain volume. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Gerontological Society of America 2014.

  1. A propositional representation model of anatomical and functional brain data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maturana, Pablo; Batrancourt, Bénédicte

    2011-01-01

    Networks can represent a large number of systems. Recent advances in the domain of networks have been transferred to the field of neuroscience. For example, the graph model has been used in neuroscience research as a methodological tool to examine brain networks organization, topology and complex dynamics, as well as a framework to test the structure-function hypothesis using neuroimaging data. In the current work we propose a graph-theoretical framework to represent anatomical, functional and neuropsychological assessment instruments information. On the one hand, interrelationships between anatomic elements constitute an anatomical graph. On the other hand, a functional graph contains several cognitive functions and their more elementary cognitive processes. Finally, the neuropsychological assessment instruments graph includes several neuropsychological tests and scales linked with their different sub-tests and variables. The two last graphs are connected by relations of type "explore" linking a particular instrument with the cognitive function it explores. We applied this framework to a sample of patients with focal brain damage. Each patient was related to: (i) the cerebral entities injured (assessed with structural neuroimaging data) and (ii) the neusopsychological assessment tests carried out (weight by performance). Our model offers a suitable platform to visualize patients' relevant information, facilitating the representation, standardization and sharing of clinical data. At the same time, the integration of a large number of patients in this framework will make possible to explore relations between anatomy (injured entities) and function (performance in different tests assessing different cognitive functions) and the use of neurocomputational tools for graph analysis may help diagnostic and contribute to the comprehension of neural bases of cognitive functions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Functional brain imaging in neuropsychology over the past 25 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roalf, David R; Gur, Ruben C

    2017-11-01

    Outline effects of functional neuroimaging on neuropsychology over the past 25 years. Functional neuroimaging methods and studies will be described that provide a historical context, offer examples of the utility of neuroimaging in specific domains, and discuss the limitations and future directions of neuroimaging in neuropsychology. Tracking the history of publications on functional neuroimaging related to neuropsychology indicates early involvement of neuropsychologists in the development of these methodologies. Initial progress in neuropsychological application of functional neuroimaging has been hampered by costs and the exposure to ionizing radiation. With rapid evolution of functional methods-in particular functional MRI (fMRI)-neuroimaging has profoundly transformed our knowledge of the brain. Its current applications span the spectrum of normative development to clinical applications. The field is moving toward applying sophisticated statistical approaches that will help elucidate distinct neural activation networks associated with specific behavioral domains. The impact of functional neuroimaging on clinical neuropsychology is more circumscribed, but the prospects remain enticing. The theoretical insights and empirical findings of functional neuroimaging have been led by many neuropsychologists and have transformed the field of behavioral neuroscience. Thus far they have had limited effects on the clinical practices of neuropsychologists. Perhaps it is time to add training in functional neuroimaging to the clinical neuropsychologist's toolkit and from there to the clinic or bedside. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Effects of Deep Brain Stimulation on Autonomic Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Basiago

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the course of the development of deep brain stimulation (DBS into a well-established therapy for Parkinson’s disease, essential tremor, and dystonia, its utility as a potential treatment for autonomic dysfunction has emerged. Dysfunction of autonomic processes is common in neurological diseases. Depending on the specific target in the brain, DBS has been shown to raise or lower blood pressure, normalize the baroreflex, to alter the caliber of bronchioles, and eliminate hyperhidrosis, all through modulation of the sympathetic nervous system. It has also been shown to improve cortical control of the bladder, directly induce or inhibit the micturition reflex, and to improve deglutition and gastric emptying. In this review, we will attempt to summarize the relevant available studies describing these effects of DBS on autonomic function, which vary greatly in character and magnitude with respect to stimulation target.

  4. Functional brain activation differences in stuttering identified with a rapid fMRI sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Shelly Jo; Choo, Ai Leen; Sharma, Harish; Ambrose, Nicoline G.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether brain activity related to the presence of stuttering can be identified with rapid functional MRI (fMRI) sequences that involved overt and covert speech processing tasks. The long-term goal is to develop sensitive fMRI approaches with developmentally appropriate tasks to identify deviant speech motor and auditory brain activity in children who stutter closer to the age at which recovery from stuttering is documented. Rapid sequences may be preferred for individuals or populations who do not tolerate long scanning sessions. In this report, we document the application of a picture naming and phoneme monitoring task in three minute fMRI sequences with adults who stutter (AWS). If relevant brain differences are found in AWS with these approaches that conform to previous reports, then these approaches can be extended to younger populations. Pairwise contrasts of brain BOLD activity between AWS and normally fluent adults indicated the AWS showed higher BOLD activity in the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), right temporal lobe and sensorimotor cortices during picture naming and and higher activity in the right IFG during phoneme monitoring. The right lateralized pattern of BOLD activity together with higher activity in sensorimotor cortices is consistent with previous reports, which indicates rapid fMRI sequences can be considered for investigating stuttering in younger participants. PMID:22133409

  5. The functional connectivity landscape of the human brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bratislav Mišić

    Full Text Available Functional brain networks emerge and dissipate over a primarily static anatomical foundation. The dynamic basis of these networks is inter-regional communication involving local and distal regions. It is assumed that inter-regional distances play a pivotal role in modulating network dynamics. Using three different neuroimaging modalities, 6 datasets were evaluated to determine whether experimental manipulations asymmetrically affect functional relationships based on the distance between brain regions in human participants. Contrary to previous assumptions, here we show that short- and long-range connections are equally likely to strengthen or weaken in response to task demands. Additionally, connections between homotopic areas are the most stable and less likely to change compared to any other type of connection. Our results point to a functional connectivity landscape characterized by fluid transitions between local specialization and global integration. This ability to mediate functional properties irrespective of spatial distance may engender a diverse repertoire of cognitive processes when faced with a dynamic environment.

  6. Sex differences in normal age trajectories of functional brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinost, Dustin; Finn, Emily S; Tokoglu, Fuyuze; Shen, Xilin; Papademetris, Xenophon; Hampson, Michelle; Constable, R Todd

    2015-04-01

    Resting-state functional magnetic resonance image (rs-fMRI) is increasingly used to study functional brain networks. Nevertheless, variability in these networks due to factors such as sex and aging is not fully understood. This study explored sex differences in normal age trajectories of resting-state networks (RSNs) using a novel voxel-wise measure of functional connectivity, the intrinsic connectivity distribution (ICD). Males and females showed differential patterns of changing connectivity in large-scale RSNs during normal aging from early adulthood to late middle-age. In some networks, such as the default-mode network, males and females both showed decreases in connectivity with age, albeit at different rates. In other networks, such as the fronto-parietal network, males and females showed divergent connectivity trajectories with age. Main effects of sex and age were found in many of the same regions showing sex-related differences in aging. Finally, these sex differences in aging trajectories were robust to choice of preprocessing strategy, such as global signal regression. Our findings resolve some discrepancies in the literature, especially with respect to the trajectory of connectivity in the default mode, which can be explained by our observed interactions between sex and aging. Overall, results indicate that RSNs show different aging trajectories for males and females. Characterizing effects of sex and age on RSNs are critical first steps in understanding the functional organization of the human brain. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Imaging structural and functional brain networks in temporal lobe epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Boris C.; Hong, SeokJun; Bernasconi, Andrea; Bernasconi, Neda

    2013-01-01

    Early imaging studies in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) focused on the search for mesial temporal sclerosis, as its surgical removal results in clinically meaningful improvement in about 70% of patients. Nevertheless, a considerable subgroup of patients continues to suffer from post-operative seizures. Although the reasons for surgical failure are not fully understood, electrophysiological and imaging data suggest that anomalies extending beyond the temporal lobe may have negative impact on outcome. This hypothesis has revived the concept of human epilepsy as a disorder of distributed brain networks. Recent methodological advances in non-invasive neuroimaging have led to quantify structural and functional networks in vivo. While structural networks can be inferred from diffusion MRI tractography and inter-regional covariance patterns of structural measures such as cortical thickness, functional connectivity is generally computed based on statistical dependencies of neurophysiological time-series, measured through functional MRI or electroencephalographic techniques. This review considers the application of advanced analytical methods in structural and functional connectivity analyses in TLE. We will specifically highlight findings from graph-theoretical analysis that allow assessing the topological organization of brain networks. These studies have provided compelling evidence that TLE is a system disorder with profound alterations in local and distributed networks. In addition, there is emerging evidence for the utility of network properties as clinical diagnostic markers. Nowadays, a network perspective is considered to be essential to the understanding of the development, progression, and management of epilepsy. PMID:24098281

  8. Disrupted Brain Functional Network Architecture in Chronic Tinnitus Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Chen; Feng, Yuan; Xu, Jin-Jing; Mao, Cun-Nan; Xia, Wenqing; Ren, Jun; Yin, Xindao

    2016-01-01

    Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have demonstrated the disruptions of multiple brain networks in tinnitus patients. Nonetheless, several studies found no differences in network processing between tinnitus patients and healthy controls (HCs). Its neural bases are poorly understood. To identify aberrant brain network architecture involved in chronic tinnitus, we compared the resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) patterns of tinnitus patients and HCs. Chronic tinnitus patients (n = 24) with normal hearing thresholds and age-, sex-, education- and hearing threshold-matched HCs (n = 22) participated in the current study and underwent the rs-fMRI scanning. We used degree centrality (DC) to investigate functional connectivity (FC) strength of the whole-brain network and Granger causality to analyze effective connectivity in order to explore directional aspects involved in tinnitus. Compared to HCs, we found significantly increased network centrality in bilateral superior frontal gyrus (SFG). Unidirectionally, the left SFG revealed increased effective connectivity to the left middle orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), left posterior lobe of cerebellum (PLC), left postcentral gyrus, and right middle occipital gyrus (MOG) while the right SFG exhibited enhanced effective connectivity to the right supplementary motor area (SMA). In addition, the effective connectivity from the bilateral SFG to the OFC and SMA showed positive correlations with tinnitus distress. Rs-fMRI provides a new and novel method for identifying aberrant brain network architecture. Chronic tinnitus patients have disrupted FC strength and causal connectivity mostly in non-auditory regions, especially the prefrontal cortex (PFC). The current findings will provide a new perspective for understanding the neuropathophysiological mechanisms in chronic tinnitus.

  9. Meta-analysis of functional brain imaging in specific phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipser, Jonathan C; Singh, Leesha; Stein, Dan J

    2013-07-01

    Although specific phobia is a prevalent anxiety disorder, evidence regarding its underlying functional neuroanatomy is inconsistent. A meta-analysis was undertaken to identify brain regions that were consistently responsive to phobic stimuli, and to characterize changes in brain activation following cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). We searched the PubMed, SCOPUS and PsycINFO databases to identify positron emission tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging studies comparing brain activation in specific phobia patients and healthy controls. Two raters independently extracted study data from all the eligible studies, and pooled coordinates from these studies using activation likelihood estimation, a quantitative meta-analytic technique. Resulting statistical parametric maps were compared between patients and healthy controls, in response to phobic versus fear-evoking stimuli, and before and after therapy. Thirteen studies were included, comprising 327 participants. Regions that were consistently activated in response to phobic stimuli included the left insula, amygdala, and globus pallidus. Compared to healthy controls, phobic subjects had increased activation in response to phobic stimuli in the left amygdala/globus pallidus, left insula, right thalamus (pulvinar), and cerebellum. Following exposure-based therapy widespread deactivation was observed in the right frontal cortex, limbic cortex, basal ganglia and cerebellum, with increased activation detected in the thalamus. Exposure to phobia-specific stimuli elicits brain activation that is consistent with current understandings of the neuroanatomy of fear conditioning and extinction. There is evidence that the effects of CBT in specific phobia may be mediated through the same underlying neurocircuitry. © 2013 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2013 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  10. Intra-Arterial Administration of Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Promotes Functional Recovery of the Brain After Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silachev, D N; Plotnikov, E Yu; Babenko, V A; Danilina, T I; Zorov, L D; Pevzner, I B; Zorov, D B; Sukhikh, G T

    2015-08-01

    We compared the efficiency of delivery of multipotent mesenchymal stem cells into the brain after their intravenous and intra-arterial injection. Analysis of the therapeutic effects of cells after experimental traumatic brain injury revealed improvement of the neurological status and motor functions of the damaged hemisphere, the effect being more pronounced after intraarterial injection of cells. Intra-arterial administration was followed by rapid infiltration of the cells into the brain tissue and their number considerably surpassed that after intravenous infusion. Targeted delivery of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells into the brain after their injection into the carotid arteries substantially potentiated their neuroprotective effects in traumatic brain injury.

  11. Reconciling functions and evolution of isoprene emission in higher plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loreto, Francesco; Fineschi, Silvia

    2015-04-01

    Compilation and analysis of existing inventories reveal that isoprene is emitted by c. 20% of the perennial vegetation of tropical and temperate regions of the world. Isoprene emitters are found across different plant families without any clear phylogenetic thread. However, by critically appraising information in inventories, several ecological patterns of isoprene emission can be highlighted, including absence of emission from C4 and annual plants, and widespread emission from perennial and deciduous plants of temperate environments. Based on this analysis, and on available information on biochemistry, ecology and functional roles of isoprene, it is suggested that isoprene may not have evolved to help plants face heavy or prolonged stresses, but rather assists C3 plants to run efficient photosynthesis and to overcome transient and mild stresses, especially during periods of active plant growth in warm seasons. When the stress status persists, or when evergreen leaves cope with multiple and repeated stresses, isoprene biosynthesis is replaced by the synthesis of less volatile secondary compounds, in part produced by the same biochemical pathway, thus indicating causal determinism in the evolution of isoprene-emitting plants in response to the environment. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  12. Dynamic reconfiguration of human brain functional networks through neurofeedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Sven; Kopel, Rotem; Jhooti, Permi; Haas, Tanja; Scharnowski, Frank; Lovblad, Karl-Olof; Scheffler, Klaus; Van De Ville, Dimitri

    2013-11-01

    Recent fMRI studies demonstrated that functional connectivity is altered following cognitive tasks (e.g., learning) or due to various neurological disorders. We tested whether real-time fMRI-based neurofeedback can be a tool to voluntarily reconfigure brain network interactions. To disentangle learning-related from regulation-related effects, we first trained participants to voluntarily regulate activity in the auditory cortex (training phase) and subsequently asked participants to exert learned voluntary self-regulation in the absence of feedback (transfer phase without learning). Using independent component analysis (ICA), we found network reconfigurations (increases in functional network connectivity) during the neurofeedback training phase between the auditory target region and (1) the auditory pathway; (2) visual regions related to visual feedback processing; (3) insula related to introspection and self-regulation and (4) working memory and high-level visual attention areas related to cognitive effort. Interestingly, the auditory target region was identified as the hub of the reconfigured functional networks without a-priori assumptions. During the transfer phase, we again found specific functional connectivity reconfiguration between auditory and attention network confirming the specific effect of self-regulation on functional connectivity. Functional connectivity to working memory related networks was no longer altered consistent with the absent demand on working memory. We demonstrate that neurofeedback learning is mediated by widespread changes in functional connectivity. In contrast, applying learned self-regulation involves more limited and specific network changes in an auditory setup intended as a model for tinnitus. Hence, neurofeedback training might be used to promote recovery from neurological disorders that are linked to abnormal patterns of brain connectivity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Functional brain networks develop from a "local to distributed" organization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien A Fair

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The mature human brain is organized into a collection of specialized functional networks that flexibly interact to support various cognitive functions. Studies of development often attempt to identify the organizing principles that guide the maturation of these functional networks. In this report, we combine resting state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI, graph analysis, community detection, and spring-embedding visualization techniques to analyze four separate networks defined in earlier studies. As we have previously reported, we find, across development, a trend toward 'segregation' (a general decrease in correlation strength between regions close in anatomical space and 'integration' (an increased correlation strength between selected regions distant in space. The generalization of these earlier trends across multiple networks suggests that this is a general developmental principle for changes in functional connectivity that would extend to large-scale graph theoretic analyses of large-scale brain networks. Communities in children are predominantly arranged by anatomical proximity, while communities in adults predominantly reflect functional relationships, as defined from adult fMRI studies. In sum, over development, the organization of multiple functional networks shifts from a local anatomical emphasis in children to a more "distributed" architecture in young adults. We argue that this "local to distributed" developmental characterization has important implications for understanding the development of neural systems underlying cognition. Further, graph metrics (e.g., clustering coefficients and average path lengths are similar in child and adult graphs, with both showing "small-world"-like properties, while community detection by modularity optimization reveals stable communities within the graphs that are clearly different between young children and young adults. These observations suggest that early school age children and adults

  14. Functional brain networks develop from a "local to distributed" organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fair, Damien A; Cohen, Alexander L; Power, Jonathan D; Dosenbach, Nico U F; Church, Jessica A; Miezin, Francis M; Schlaggar, Bradley L; Petersen, Steven E

    2009-05-01

    The mature human brain is organized into a collection of specialized functional networks that flexibly interact to support various cognitive functions. Studies of development often attempt to identify the organizing principles that guide the maturation of these functional networks. In this report, we combine resting state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI), graph analysis, community detection, and spring-embedding visualization techniques to analyze four separate networks defined in earlier studies. As we have previously reported, we find, across development, a trend toward 'segregation' (a general decrease in correlation strength) between regions close in anatomical space and 'integration' (an increased correlation strength) between selected regions distant in space. The generalization of these earlier trends across multiple networks suggests that this is a general developmental principle for changes in functional connectivity that would extend to large-scale graph theoretic analyses of large-scale brain networks. Communities in children are predominantly arranged by anatomical proximity, while communities in adults predominantly reflect functional relationships, as defined from adult fMRI studies. In sum, over development, the organization of multiple functional networks shifts from a local anatomical emphasis in children to a more "distributed" architecture in young adults. We argue that this "local to distributed" developmental characterization has important implications for understanding the development of neural systems underlying cognition. Further, graph metrics (e.g., clustering coefficients and average path lengths) are similar in child and adult graphs, with both showing "small-world"-like properties, while community detection by modularity optimization reveals stable communities within the graphs that are clearly different between young children and young adults. These observations suggest that early school age children and adults both have

  15. Electrophysiological evidences demonstrating differences in brain functions between nonmusicians and musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Peng, Weiwei; Chen, Jie; Hu, Li

    2015-09-04

    Long-term music training can improve sensorimotor skills, as playing a musical instrument requires the functional integration of information related to multimodal sensory perception and motor execution. This functional integration often leads to functional reorganization of cerebral cortices, including auditory, visual, and motor areas. Moreover, music appreciation can modulate emotions (e.g., stress relief), and long-term music training can enhance a musician's self-control and self-evaluation ability. Therefore, the neural processing of music can also be related to certain higher brain cognitive functions. However, evidence demonstrating that long-term music training modulates higher brain functions is surprisingly rare. Here, we aimed to comprehensively explore the neural changes induced by long-term music training by assessing the differences of transient and quasi-steady-state auditory-evoked potentials between nonmusicians and musicians. We observed that compared to nonmusicians, musicians have (1) larger high-frequency steady-state responses, which reflect the auditory information processing within the sensory system, and (2) smaller low-frequency vertex potentials, which reflect higher cognitive information processing within the novelty/saliency detection system. Therefore, we speculate that long-term music training facilitates "bottom-up" auditory information processing in the sensory system and enhances "top-down" cognitive inhibition of the novelty/saliency detection system.

  16. Stable functional networks exhibit consistent timing in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapeton, Julio I; Inati, Sara K; Zaghloul, Kareem A

    2017-03-01

    Despite many advances in the study of large-scale human functional networks, the question of timing, stability, and direction of communication between cortical regions has not been fully addressed. At the cellular level, neuronal communication occurs through axons and dendrites, and the time required for such communication is well defined and preserved. At larger spatial scales, however, the relationship between timing, direction, and communication between brain regions is less clear. Here, we use a measure of effective connectivity to identify connections between brain regions that exhibit communication with consistent timing. We hypothesized that if two brain regions are communicating, then knowledge of the activity in one region should allow an external observer to better predict activity in the other region, and that such communication involves a consistent time delay. We examine this question using intracranial electroencephalography captured from nine human participants with medically refractory epilepsy. We use a coupling measure based on time-lagged mutual information to identify effective connections between brain regions that exhibit a statistically significant increase in average mutual information at a consistent time delay. These identified connections result in sparse, directed functional networks that are stable over minutes, hours, and days. Notably, the time delays associated with these connections are also highly preserved over multiple time scales. We characterize the anatomic locations of these connections, and find that the propagation of activity exhibits a preferred posterior to anterior temporal lobe direction, consistent across participants. Moreover, networks constructed from connections that reliably exhibit consistent timing between anatomic regions demonstrate features of a small-world architecture, with many reliable connections between anatomically neighbouring regions and few long range connections. Together, our results demonstrate

  17. Enhanced functionality of cantilever based mass sensors using higher modes and functionalized particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohn, Søren; Sandberg, Rasmus Kousholt; Svendsen, Winnie Edith

    2005-01-01

    By positioning a single gold-particle at different locations along the length axis on a cantilever based mass sensor, we have investigated the effect of mass position on the mass responsivity and compared the results to simulations. A significant improvement in quality factor and responsivity...... was achieved by operating the cantilever in the 4th bending mode, thereby increasing the intrinsic sensitivity. It is shown that the use of higher bending modes grants a spatial resolution and thereby enhances the functionality of the cantilever based mass sensor....

  18. Long-term effects of attentional performance on functional brain network topology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas P K Breckel

    Full Text Available Individuals differ in their cognitive resilience. Less resilient people demonstrate a greater tendency to vigilance decrements within sustained attention tasks. We hypothesized that a period of sustained attention is followed by prolonged changes in the organization of "resting state" brain networks and that individual differences in cognitive resilience are related to differences in post-task network reorganization. We compared the topological and spatial properties of brain networks as derived from functional MRI data (N = 20 recorded for 6 mins before and 12 mins after the performance of an attentional task. Furthermore we analysed changes in brain topology during task performance and during the switches between rest and task conditions. The cognitive resilience of each individual was quantified as the rate of increase in response latencies over the 32-minute time course of the attentional paradigm. On average, functional networks measured immediately post-task demonstrated significant and prolonged changes in network organization compared to pre-task networks with higher connectivity strength, more clustering, less efficiency, and shorter distance connections. Individual differences in cognitive resilience were significantly correlated with differences in the degree of recovery of some network parameters. Changes in network measures were still present in less resilient individuals in the second half of the post-task period (i.e. 6-12 mins after task completion, while resilient individuals already demonstrated significant reductions of functional connectivity and clustering towards pre-task levels. During task performance brain topology became more integrated with less clustering and higher global efficiency, but linearly decreased with ongoing time-on-task. We conclude that sustained attentional task performance has prolonged, "hang-over" effects on the organization of post-task resting-state brain networks; and that more cognitively

  19. Interferon-α acutely impairs whole-brain functional connectivity network architecture - A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipasquale, Ottavia; Cooper, Ella A; Tibble, Jeremy; Voon, Valerie; Baglio, Francesca; Baselli, Giuseppe; Cercignani, Mara; Harrison, Neil A

    2016-11-01

    Interferon-alpha (IFN-α) is a key mediator of antiviral immune responses used to treat Hepatitis C infection. Though clinically effective, IFN-α rapidly impairs mood, motivation and cognition, effects that can appear indistinguishable from major depression and provide powerful empirical support for the inflammation theory of depression. Though inflammation has been shown to modulate activity within discrete brain regions, how it affects distributed information processing and the architecture of whole brain functional connectivity networks have not previously been investigated. Here we use a graph theoretic analysis of resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rfMRI) to investigate acute effects of systemic interferon-alpha (IFN-α) on whole brain functional connectivity architecture and its relationship to IFN-α-induced mood change. Twenty-two patients with Hepatitis-C infection, initiating IFN-α-based therapy were scanned at baseline and 4h after their first IFN-α dose. The whole brain network was parcellated into 110 cortical and sub-cortical nodes based on the Oxford-Harvard Atlas and effects assessed on higher-level graph metrics, including node degree, betweenness centrality, global and local efficiency. IFN-α was associated with a significant reduction in global network connectivity (node degree) (p=0.033) and efficiency (p=0.013), indicating a global reduction of information transfer among the nodes forming the whole brain network. Effects were similar for highly connected (hub) and non-hub nodes, with no effect on betweenness centrality (p>0.1). At a local level, we identified regions with reduced efficiency of information exchange and a sub-network with decreased functional connectivity after IFN-α. Changes in local and particularly global functional connectivity correlated with associated changes in mood measured on the Profile of Mood States (POMS) questionnaire. IFN-α rapidly induced a profound shift in whole brain network structure

  20. Large-Scale Functional Brain Network Reorganization During Taoist Meditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jao, Tun; Li, Chia-Wei; Vértes, Petra E; Wu, Changwei Wesley; Achard, Sophie; Hsieh, Chao-Hsien; Liou, Chien-Hui; Chen, Jyh-Horng; Bullmore, Edward T

    2016-02-01

    Meditation induces a distinct and reversible mental state that provides insights into brain correlates of consciousness. We explored brain network changes related to meditation by graph theoretical analysis of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data. Eighteen Taoist meditators with varying levels of expertise were scanned using a within-subjects counterbalanced design during resting and meditation states. State-related differences in network topology were measured globally and at the level of individual nodes and edges. Although measures of global network topology, such as small-worldness, were unchanged, meditation was characterized by an extensive and expertise-dependent reorganization of the hubs (highly connected nodes) and edges (functional connections). Areas of sensory cortex, especially the bilateral primary visual and auditory cortices, and the bilateral temporopolar areas, which had the highest degree (or connectivity) during the resting state, showed the biggest decrease during meditation. Conversely, bilateral thalamus and components of the default mode network, mainly the bilateral precuneus and posterior cingulate cortex, had low degree in the resting state but increased degree during meditation. Additionally, these changes in nodal degree were accompanied by reorganization of anatomical orientation of the edges. During meditation, long-distance longitudinal (antero-posterior) edges increased proportionally, whereas orthogonal long-distance transverse (right-left) edges connecting bilaterally homologous cortices decreased. Our findings suggest that transient changes in consciousness associated with meditation introduce convergent changes in the topological and spatial properties of brain functional networks, and the anatomical pattern of integration might be as important as the global level of integration when considering the network basis for human consciousness.

  1. fMRI during natural sleep as a method to study brain function during early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redcay, Elizabeth; Kennedy, Daniel P; Courchesne, Eric

    2007-12-01

    Many techniques to study early functional brain development lack the whole-brain spatial resolution that is available with fMRI. We utilized a relatively novel method in which fMRI data were collected from children during natural sleep. Stimulus-evoked responses to auditory and visual stimuli as well as stimulus-independent functional networks were examined in typically developing 2-4-year-old children. Reliable fMRI data were collected from 13 children during presentation of auditory stimuli (tones, vocal sounds, and nonvocal sounds) in a block design. Twelve children were presented with visual flashing lights at 2.5 Hz. When analyses combined all three types of auditory stimulus conditions as compared to rest, activation included bilateral superior temporal gyri/sulci (STG/S) and right cerebellum. Direct comparisons between conditions revealed significantly greater responses to nonvocal sounds and tones than to vocal sounds in a number of brain regions including superior temporal gyrus/sulcus, medial frontal cortex and right lateral cerebellum. The response to visual stimuli was localized to occipital cortex. Furthermore, stimulus-independent functional connectivity MRI analyses (fcMRI) revealed functional connectivity between STG and other temporal regions (including contralateral STG) and medial and lateral prefrontal regions. Functional connectivity with an occipital seed was localized to occipital and parietal cortex. In sum, 2-4 year olds showed a differential fMRI response both between stimulus modalities and between stimuli in the auditory modality. Furthermore, superior temporal regions showed functional connectivity with numerous higher-order regions during sleep. We conclude that the use of sleep fMRI may be a valuable tool for examining functional brain organization in young children.

  2. Delta opioid receptors in brain function and diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu Sin Chung, Paul; Kieffer, Brigitte L

    2013-10-01

    Evidence that the delta opioid receptor (DOR) is an attractive target for the treatment of brain disorders has strengthened in recent years. This receptor is broadly expressed in the brain, binds endogenous opioid peptides, and shows as functional profile highly distinct from those of mu and kappa opioid receptors. Our knowledge of DOR function has enormously progressed from in vivo studies using pharmacological tools and genetic approaches. The important role of this receptor in reducing chronic pain has been extensively overviewed; therefore this review focuses on facets of delta receptor activity relevant to psychiatric and other neurological disorders. Beneficial effects of DOR agonists are now well established in the context of emotional responses and mood disorders. DOR activation also regulates drug reward, inhibitory controls and learning processes, but whether delta compounds may represent useful drugs in the treatment of drug abuse remains open. Epileptogenic and locomotor-stimulating effects of delta agonists appear drug-dependent, and the possibility of biased agonism at DOR for these effects is worthwhile further investigations to increase benefit/risk ratio of delta therapies. Neuroprotective effects of DOR activity represent a forthcoming research area. Future developments in DOR research will benefit from in-depth investigations of DOR function at cellular and circuit levels. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Mitochondrial function in the brain links anxiety with social subordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis, Fiona; van der Kooij, Michael A.; Zanoletti, Olivia; Lozano, Laura; Cantó, Carles; Sandi, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Dominance hierarchies are integral aspects of social groups, yet whether personality traits may predispose individuals to a particular rank remains unclear. Here we show that trait anxiety directly influences social dominance in male outbred rats and identify an important mediating role for mitochondrial function in the nucleus accumbens. High-anxious animals that are prone to become subordinate during a social encounter with a low-anxious rat exhibit reduced mitochondrial complex I and II proteins and respiratory capacity as well as decreased ATP and increased ROS production in the nucleus accumbens. A causal link for these findings is indicated by pharmacological approaches. In a dyadic contest between anxiety-matched animals, microinfusion of specific mitochondrial complex I or II inhibitors into the nucleus accumbens reduced social rank, mimicking the low probability to become dominant observed in high-anxious animals. Conversely, intraaccumbal infusion of nicotinamide, an amide form of vitamin B3 known to enhance brain energy metabolism, prevented the development of a subordinate status in high-anxious individuals. We conclude that mitochondrial function in the nucleus accumbens is crucial for social hierarchy establishment and is critically involved in the low social competitiveness associated with high anxiety. Our findings highlight a key role for brain energy metabolism in social behavior and point to mitochondrial function in the nucleus accumbens as a potential marker and avenue of treatment for anxiety-related social disorders. PMID:26621716

  4. Visualizing the anatomical-functional correlation of the human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, YuKuang; Rockwood, Alyn P.; Reiman, Eric M.

    1995-04-01

    Three-dimensional tomographic images obtained from different modalities or from the same modality at different times provide complementary information. For example, while PET shows brain function, images from MRI identify anatomical structures. In this paper, we investigate the problem of displaying available information about structures and function together. Several steps are described to achieve our goal. These include segmentation of the data, registration, resampling, and display. Segmentation is used to identify brain tissue from surrounding tissues, especially in the MRI data. Registration aligns the different modalities as closely as possible. Resampling arises from the registration since two data sets do not usually correspond and the rendering method is most easily achieved if the data correspond to the same grid used in display. We combine several techniques to display the data. MRI data is reconstructed from 2D slices into 3D structures from which isosurfaces are extracted and represented by approximating polygonalizations. These are then displayed using standard graphics pipelines including shaded and transparent images. PET data measures the qualitative rates of cerebral glucose utilization or oxygen consumption. PET image is best displayed as a volume of luminous particles. The combination of both display methods allows the viewer to compare the functional information contained in the PET data with the anatomically more precise MRI data.

  5. Functional connectivity of the rodent brain using optical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara Codina, Edgar

    The aim of this thesis is to apply functional connectivity in a variety of animal models, using several optical imaging modalities. Even at rest, the brain shows high metabolic activity: the correlation in slow spontaneous fluctuations identifies remotely connected areas of the brain; hence the term "functional connectivity". Ongoing changes in spontaneous activity may provide insight into the neural processing that takes most of the brain metabolic activity, and so may provide a vast source of disease related changes. Brain hemodynamics may be modified during disease and affect resting-state activity. The thesis aims to better understand these changes in functional connectivity due to disease, using functional optical imaging. The optical imaging techniques explored in the first two contributions of this thesis are Optical Imaging of Intrinsic Signals and Laser Speckle Contrast Imaging, together they can estimate the metabolic rate of oxygen consumption, that closely parallels neural activity. They both have adequate spatial and temporal resolution and are well adapted to image the convexity of the mouse cortex. In the last article, a depth-sensitive modality called photoacoustic tomography was used in the newborn rat. Optical coherence tomography and laminar optical tomography were also part of the array of imaging techniques developed and applied in other collaborations. The first article of this work shows the changes in functional connectivity in an acute murine model of epileptiform activity. Homologous correlations are both increased and decreased with a small dependence on seizure duration. These changes suggest a potential decoupling between the hemodynamic parameters in resting-state networks, underlining the importance to investigate epileptic networks with several independent hemodynamic measures. The second study examines a novel murine model of arterial stiffness: the unilateral calcification of the right carotid. Seed-based connectivity analysis

  6. Mitochondrial activity and brain functions during cortical depolarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayevsky, Avraham; Sonn, Judith

    2008-12-01

    Cortical depolarization (CD) of the cerebral cortex could be developed under various pathophysiological conditions. In animal models, CD was recorded under partial or complete ischemia as well as when cortical spreading depression (SD) was induced externally or by internal stimulus. The development of CD in patients and the changes in various metabolic parameters, during CD, was rarely reported. Brain metabolic, hemodynamic, ionic and electrical responses to the CD event are dependent upon the O2 balance in the tissue. When the O2 balance is negative (i.e. ischemia), the CD process will be developed due to mitochondrial dysfunction, lack of energy and the inhibition of Na+-K+-ATPase. In contradiction, when oxygen is available (i.e. normoxia) the development of CD after induction of SD will accelerate mitochondrial respiration for retaining ionic homeostasis and normal brain functions. We used the multiparametric monitoring approach that enable real time monitoring of mitochondrial NADH redox state, microcirculatory blood flow and oxygenation, extracellular K+, Ca2+, H+ levels, DC steady potential and electrocorticogram (ECoG). This monitoring approach, provide a unique tool that has a significant value in analyzing the pathophysiology of the brain when SD developed under normoxia, ischemia, or hypoxia. We applied the same monitoring approach to patients suffered from severe head injury or exposed to neurosurgical procedures.

  7. Bisphenol A Interaction With Brain Development and Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negri-Cesi, P

    2015-01-01

    Brain development is an organized, but constantly adaptive, process in which genetic and epigenetic signals allow neurons to differentiate, to migrate, and to develop correct connections. Gender specific prenatal sex hormone milieu participates in the dimorphic development of many neuronal networks. Environmental cues may interfere with these developmental programs, producing adverse outcomes. Bisphenol A (BPA), an estrogenic/antiandrogenic endocrine disruptor widely diffused in the environment, produces adverse effects at levels below the acceptable daily intake. This review analyzes the recent literature on the consequences of perinatal exposure to BPA environmental doses on the development of a dimorphic brain. The BPA interference with the development and function of the neuroendocrine hypothalamus and of the nuclei controlling energy balance, and with the hippocampal memory processing is also discussed. The detrimental action of BPA appears complex, involving different hormonal and epigenetic pathways activated, often in a dimorphic way, within clearcut susceptibility windows. To date, discrepancies in experimental approaches and in related outcomes make unfeasible to translate the available information into clear dose-response models for human risk assessment. Evaluation of BPA brain levels in relation to the appearance of adverse effects in future basic studies will certainly give better definition of the warning threshold for human health.

  8. Bisphenol A Interaction With Brain Development and Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Negri-Cesi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Brain development is an organized, but constantly adaptive, process in which genetic and epigenetic signals allow neurons to differentiate, to migrate, and to develop correct connections. Gender specific prenatal sex hormone milieu participates in the dimorphic development of many neuronal networks. Environmental cues may interfere with these developmental programs, producing adverse outcomes. Bisphenol A (BPA, an estrogenic/antiandrogenic endocrine disruptor widely diffused in the environment, produces adverse effects at levels below the acceptable daily intake. This review analyzes the recent literature on the consequences of perinatal exposure to BPA environmental doses on the development of a dimorphic brain. The BPA interference with the development and function of the neuroendocrine hypothalamus and of the nuclei controlling energy balance, and with the hippocampal memory processing is also discussed. The detrimental action of BPA appears complex, involving different hormonal and epigenetic pathways activated, often in a dimorphic way, within clearcut susceptibility windows. To date, discrepancies in experimental approaches and in related outcomes make unfeasible to translate the available information into clear dose–response models for human risk assessment. Evaluation of BPA brain levels in relation to the appearance of adverse effects in future basic studies will certainly give better definition of the warning threshold for human health.

  9. Functional interactions as big data in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk-Browne, Nicholas B

    2013-11-01

    Noninvasive studies of human brain function hold great potential to unlock mysteries of the human mind. The complexity of data generated by such studies, however, has prompted various simplifying assumptions during analysis. Although this has enabled considerable progress, our current understanding is partly contingent upon these assumptions. An emerging approach embraces the complexity, accounting for the fact that neural representations are widely distributed, neural processes involve interactions between regions, interactions vary by cognitive state, and the space of interactions is massive. Because what you see depends on how you look, such unbiased approaches provide the greatest flexibility for discovery.

  10. Crossed-Brain Representation of Verbal and Nonverbal Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmeralda Matute

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 74-year-old, left-handed man presented with a rapidly evolving loss of strength in his right leg associated with difficulty in walking. MR images disclosed an extensive left hemisphere tumor. A neuropsychological examination revealed that language was broadly normal but that the patient presented with severe nonlinguistic abnormalities, including hemineglect (both somatic and spatial, constructional defects, and general spatial disturbances; symptoms were usually associated with right hemisphere pathologies. No ideomotor apraxia was found. The implications of crossed-brain representations of verbal and nonverbal functions are analyzed.

  11. Neuroticism and Functional Connectomics of the Resting Adolescent Brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baruël Johansen, Louise

    network organization on the global level, while network characteristics of fronto-limbic regions, involved in emotional processing, are implicated on a local level. Little is known about neuroticism and functional brain organization in childhood and adolescence. The main aim of this thesis was therefore...... in a cohort of typically-developing children and adolescents aged 10 to 18 years to study the association between neuroticism and network organization. In the first part of the project, cross-sectional data was used to study whether network characteristics associated with neuroticism observed in adults were...

  12. Brain and Behavioral Assessment of Executive Functions for Self-Regulating Levels of Language in Reading Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berninger, Virginia W; Richards, Todd L; Abbott, Robert D

    2017-11-01

    This brief research report examines brain-behavioral relationships specific to levels of language in the complex reading brain. The first specific aim was to examine prior findings for significant fMRI connectivity from four seeds (left precuneus, left occipital temporal, left supramarginal, left inferior frontal) for each of four levels of language-subword, word (word-specific spelling or affixed words), syntax (with and without homonym foils or affix foils), and multi-sentence text to identify significant fMRI connectivity (a) unique to the lower level of language when compared to the immediately higher adjacent level of language across subword-word, word-syntax, and syntax-text comparisons; and (b) involving a brain region associated with executive functions. The second specific aim was to correlate the magnitude of that connectivity with standard scores on tests of Focused Attention (D-K EFS Color Word Form Inhibition) and Switching Attention (Wolf & Denckla Rapid Automatic Switching). Seven correlations were significant. Focused Attention was significantly correlated with the word level (word-specific spellings of real words) fMRI task in left cingulum from left inferior frontal seed. Switching Attention was significantly correlated with the (a) subword level (grapheme-phoneme correspondence) fMRI task in left and right Cerebellum V from left supramarginal seed; (b) the word level (word-specific spelling) fMRI task in right Cerebellum V from left precuneus seed; (c) the syntax level (with and without homonym foils) fMRI task in right Cerebellum V from left precuneus seed and from left supramarginal seed; and (d) syntax level (with and without affix foils) fMRI task in right Cerebellum V from left precuneus seed. Results are discussed in reference to neuropsychological assessment of supervisory attention (focused and switching) for specific levels of language related to reading acquisition in students with and without language-related specific learning

  13. Obesity and Aging: Consequences for Cognition, Brain Structure, and Brain Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischof, Gérard N; Park, Denise C

    2015-01-01

    This review focuses on the relationship between obesity and aging and how these interact to affect cognitive function. The topics covered are guided by the Scaffolding Theory of Aging and Cognition (STAC [Park and Reuter-Lorenz. Annu Rev Psychol 2009;60:173-96]-a conceptual model designed to relate brain structure and function to one's level of cognitive ability. The initial literature search was focused on normal aging and was guided by the key words, "aging, cognition, and obesity" in PubMed. In a second search, we added key words related to neuropathology including words "Alzheimer's disease," "vascular dementia," and "mild cognitive impairment." The data suggest that being overweight or obese in midlife may be more detrimental to subsequent age-related cognitive decline than being overweight or obese at later stages of the life span. These effects are likely mediated by the accelerated effects obesity has on the integrity of neural structures, including both gray and white matter. Further epidemiological studies have provided evidence that obesity in midlife is linked to an increased risk for Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia, most likely via an increased accumulation of Alzheimer's disease pathology. Although it is clear that obesity negatively affects cognition, more work is needed to better understand how aging plays a role and how brain structure and brain function might mediate the relationship of obesity and age on cognition. Guided by the STAC and the STAC-R models, we provide a roadmap for future investigations of the role of obesity on cognition across the life span.

  14. Association between sensorimotor impairments and functional brain changes in patients with low back pain: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossens, Nina; Rummens, Sofie; Janssens, Lotte; Caeyenberghs, Karen; Brumagne, Simon

    2017-11-06

    Low back pain (LBP) coincides with sensorimotor impairments, e.g., reduced lumbosacral tactile and proprioceptive acuity and postural control deficits. Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies suggest that sensorimotor impairments in LBP may be associated with brain changes. However, no consensus exists regarding the relationship between functional brain changes and sensorimotor behavior in LBP. Therefore, this review critically discusses the available fMRI studies on brain activation related to non-nociceptive somatosensory stimulation and motor performance in individuals with LBP. Four electronic databases were searched, yielding nine relevant studies. Patients with LBP showed reduced sensorimotor-related brain activation and a reorganized lumbar spine representation in higher-order (multi)sensory processing and motor regions, including primary and secondary somatosensory cortices, supplementary motor area and superior temporal gyrus. These results may support behavioral findings of sensorimotor impairments in LBP. Additionally, patients with LBP displayed widespread increased sensorimotor-evoked brain activation in regions often associated with abnormal pain processing. Over-activation in these regions could indicate an over-responsiveness to sensory inputs that signal potential harm to the spine, thereby inducing over-generalized protective responses. Hence, functional brain changes could contribute to the development and recurrence of LBP. However, future studies investigating the causality between sensorimotor-related brain function and LBP are imperative.

  15. Brain Structure and Executive Functions in Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weierink, Lonneke; Vermeulen, R. Jeroen; Boyd, Roslyn N.

    2013-01-01

    This systematic review aimed to establish the current knowledge about brain structure and executive function (EF) in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Five databases were searched (up till July 2012). Six articles met the inclusion criteria, all included structural brain imaging though no functional brain imaging. Study quality was assessed using…

  16. Reconfiguration of the Brain Functional Network Associated with Visual Task Demands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Wen

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that the topological properties of resting-state brain functional networks are modulated through task performances. However, the reconfiguration of functional networks associated with distinct degrees of task demands is not well understood. In the present study, we acquired fMRI data from 18 healthy adult volunteers during resting-state (RS and two visual tasks (i.e., visual stimulus watching, VSW; and visual stimulus decision, VSD. Subsequently, we constructed the functional brain networks associated with these three conditions and analyzed the changes in the topological properties (e.g., network efficiency, wiring-cost, modularity, and robustness among them. Although the small-world attributes were preserved qualitatively across the functional networks of the three conditions, changes in the topological properties were also observed. Compared with the resting-state, the functional networks associated with the visual tasks exhibited significantly increased network efficiency and wiring-cost, but decreased modularity and network robustness. The changes in the task-related topological properties were modulated according to the task complexity (i.e., from RS to VSW and VSD. Moreover, at the regional level, we observed that the increased nodal efficiencies in the visual and working memory regions were positively associated with the increase in task complexity. Together, these results suggest that the increased efficiency of the functional brain network and higher wiring-cost were observed to afford the demands of visual tasks. These observations provide further insights into the mechanisms underlying the reconfiguration of the brain network during task performance.

  17. Child gender influences paternal behavior, language, and brain function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascaro, Jennifer S; Rentscher, Kelly E; Hackett, Patrick D; Mehl, Matthias R; Rilling, James K

    2017-06-01

    Multiple lines of research indicate that fathers often treat boys and girls differently in ways that impact child outcomes. The complex picture that has emerged, however, is obscured by methodological challenges inherent to the study of parental caregiving, and no studies to date have examined the possibility that gender differences in observed real-world paternal behavior are related to differential paternal brain responses to male and female children. Here we compare fathers of daughters and fathers of sons in terms of naturalistically observed everyday caregiving behavior and neural responses to child picture stimuli. Compared with fathers of sons, fathers of daughters were more attentively engaged with their daughters, sang more to their daughters, used more analytical language and language related to sadness and the body with their daughters, and had a stronger neural response to their daughter's happy facial expressions in areas of the brain important for reward and emotion regulation (medial and lateral orbitofrontal cortex [OFC]). In contrast, fathers of sons engaged in more rough and tumble play (RTP), used more achievement language with their sons, and had a stronger neural response to their son's neutral facial expressions in the medial OFC (mOFC). Whereas the mOFC response to happy faces was negatively related to RTP, the mOFC response to neutral faces was positively related to RTP, specifically for fathers of boys. These results indicate that real-world paternal behavior and brain function differ as a function of child gender. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. BRAIN STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL CHANGES IN ADOLESCENTS WITH PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel-Hidalgo, José Javier

    2013-01-01

    During adolescence hormonal and neurodevelopmental changes geared to ensure reproduction and achieve independence are very likely mediated by growth of neural processes, remodeling of synaptic connections, increased myelination in prefrontal areas, and maturation of connecting subcortical regions. These processes, greatly accelerated in adolescence, follow an asynchronous pattern in different brain areas. Neuroimaging research using functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging has produced most of the insights regarding brain structural and functional neuropathology in adolescent psychiatric disorders. In schizophrenia, first episodes during adolescence are linked to greater-than-normal losses in gray matter density and white matter integrity, and show a divergence of maturational trajectories from normative neural development, in a progression similar to that of adult-onset schizophrenia. Anxiety and mood disorders in adolescence have been linked to abnormally increased activity in the amygdala and ventral prefrontal cortical areas, although some data suggest that neural abnormalities in the amygdala and anxiety maybe particularly more frequent in adolescents than in adults. Alcohol misuse in adolescence results in reduced integrity in the white matter and reduced gray matter density that, given the high intensity of adolescent synaptic and myelin remodeling, may result in persistent and profound changes in circuits supporting memory, emotional and appetitive control. Interaction of persistent changes due to prenatal exposure with contemporaneous expression of genetic factors and disturbing environmental exposure may be an important factor in the appearance of psychiatric disorders in adolescence. Further progress in understanding adolescent psychopathology will require postmortem research of molecular and cellular determinants in the adolescent brain. PMID:23828425

  19. Functional brain imaging of episodic memory decline in ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, L

    2017-01-01

    The episodic long-term memory system supports remembering of events. It is considered to be the most age-sensitive system, with an average onset of decline around 60 years of age. However, there is marked interindividual variability, such that some individuals show faster than average change and others show no or very little change. This variability may be related to the risk of developing dementia, with elevated risk for individuals with accelerated episodic memory decline. Brain imaging with functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signalling or positron emission tomography (PET) has been used to reveal the brain bases of declining episodic memory in ageing. Several studies have demonstrated a link between age-related episodic memory decline and the hippocampus during active mnemonic processing, which is further supported by studies of hippocampal functional connectivity in the resting state. The hippocampus interacts with anterior and posterior neocortical regions to support episodic memory, and alterations in hippocampus-neocortex connectivity have been shown to contribute to impaired episodic memory. Multimodal MRI studies and more recently hybrid MRI/PET studies allow consideration of various factors that can influence the association between the hippocampal BOLD signal and memory performance. These include neurovascular factors, grey and white matter structural alterations, dopaminergic neurotransmission, amyloid-Β and glucose metabolism. Knowledge about the brain bases of episodic memory decline can guide interventions to strengthen memory in older adults, particularly in those with an elevated risk of developing dementia, with promising results for combinations of cognitive and physical stimulation. © 2016 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  20. PET imaging reveals brain functional changes in internet gaming disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Mei; Chen, Qiaozhen; Zhang, Ying; Du, Fenglei; Hou, Haifeng; Chao, Fangfang; Zhang, Hong

    2014-07-01

    Internet gaming disorder is an increasing problem worldwide, resulting in critical academic, social, and occupational impairment. However, the neurobiological mechanism of internet gaming disorder remains unknown. The aim of this study is to assess brain dopamine D2 (D2)/Serotonin 2A (5-HT2A) receptor function and glucose metabolism in the same subjects by positron emission tomography (PET) imaging approach, and investigate whether the correlation exists between D2 receptor and glucose metabolism. Twelve drug-naive adult males who met criteria for internet gaming disorder and 14 matched controls were studied with PET and (11)C-N-methylspiperone ((11)C-NMSP) to assess the availability of D2/5-HT2A receptors and with (18)F-fluoro-D-glucose ((18)F-FDG) to assess regional brain glucose metabolism, a marker of brain function. (11)C-NMSP and (18)F-FDG PET imaging data were acquired in the same individuals under both resting and internet gaming task states. In internet gaming disorder subjects, a significant decrease in glucose metabolism was observed in the prefrontal, temporal, and limbic systems. Dysregulation of D2 receptors was observed in the striatum, and was correlated to years of overuse. A low level of D2 receptors in the striatum was significantly associated with decreased glucose metabolism in the orbitofrontal cortex. For the first time, we report the evidence that D2 receptor level is significantly associated with glucose metabolism in the same individuals with internet gaming disorder, which indicates that D2/5-HT2A receptor-mediated dysregulation of the orbitofrontal cortex could underlie a mechanism for loss of control and compulsive behavior in internet gaming disorder subjects.

  1. PET imaging reveals brain functional changes in internet gaming disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Mei; Zhang, Ying; Du, Fenglei; Hou, Haifeng; Chao, Fangfang; Zhang, Hong [The Second Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China); Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Imaging of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou (China); Chen, Qiaozhen [The Second Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China); The Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, Hangzhou (China)

    2014-07-15

    Internet gaming disorder is an increasing problem worldwide, resulting in critical academic, social, and occupational impairment. However, the neurobiological mechanism of internet gaming disorder remains unknown. The aim of this study is to assess brain dopamine D{sub 2} (D{sub 2})/Serotonin 2A (5-HT{sub 2A}) receptor function and glucose metabolism in the same subjects by positron emission tomography (PET) imaging approach, and investigate whether the correlation exists between D{sub 2} receptor and glucose metabolism. Twelve drug-naive adult males who met criteria for internet gaming disorder and 14 matched controls were studied with PET and {sup 11}C-N-methylspiperone ({sup 11}C-NMSP) to assess the availability of D{sub 2}/5-HT{sub 2A} receptors and with {sup 18}F-fluoro-D-glucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) to assess regional brain glucose metabolism, a marker of brain function. {sup 11}C-NMSP and {sup 18}F-FDG PET imaging data were acquired in the same individuals under both resting and internet gaming task states. In internet gaming disorder subjects, a significant decrease in glucose metabolism was observed in the prefrontal, temporal, and limbic systems. Dysregulation of D{sub 2} receptors was observed in the striatum, and was correlated to years of overuse. A low level of D{sub 2} receptors in the striatum was significantly associated with decreased glucose metabolism in the orbitofrontal cortex. For the first time, we report the evidence that D{sub 2} receptor level is significantly associated with glucose metabolism in the same individuals with internet gaming disorder, which indicates that D{sub 2}/5-HT{sub 2A} receptor-mediated dysregulation of the orbitofrontal cortex could underlie a mechanism for loss of control and compulsive behavior in internet gaming disorder subjects. (orig.)

  2. [The stimulating impact of light on brain cognition function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandewalle, Gilles

    2014-10-01

    Light regulates multiple non-visual circadian, neuroendocrine, and neurobehavioral functions, and conveys a strong stimulating signal for alert-ness and cognition. This review summarizes a series of neuroimaging studies investigating the brain mechanisms underlying the latter stimulating impact of light. Results of these studies are compatible with a scenario where light would first hit subcortical areas involved in arousal regulation before affecting cortical areas involved in the ongoing non-visual cognitive process, and then cognitive performance. Recent data demonstrated that the non-visual impact of light is most likely triggered via outputs from intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGC) expressing the photopigment melanopsin, which are maximally sensitive to blue light. In addition, the stimulating impact of light is intimately related to wakefulness regulation as it changes with circadian phase and sleep pressure. Finally, markers of inter-individual difference have also been described: age, PERIOD3 genotype, and psychiatric status. This review emphasizes the importance of light for human brain cognitive function and for cognition in general. © 2014 médecine/sciences – Inserm.

  3. Resting-state functional brain networks in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggio, Hugo C; Segura, Bàrbara; Junque, Carme

    2015-10-01

    The network approach is increasingly being applied to the investigation of normal brain function and its impairment. In the present review, we introduce the main methodological approaches employed for the analysis of resting-state neuroimaging data in Parkinson's disease studies. We then summarize the results of recent studies that used a functional network perspective to evaluate the changes underlying different manifestations of Parkinson's disease, with an emphasis on its cognitive symptoms. Despite the variability reported by many studies, these methods show promise as tools for shedding light on the pathophysiological substrates of different aspects of Parkinson's disease, as well as for differential diagnosis, treatment monitoring and establishment of imaging biomarkers for more severe clinical outcomes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. The brain's functional network architecture reveals human motives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Grit; Morishima, Yosuke; Leiberg, Susanne; Sul, Sunhae; Fehr, Ernst

    2016-03-04

    Goal-directed human behaviors are driven by motives. Motives are, however, purely mental constructs that are not directly observable. Here, we show that the brain's functional network architecture captures information that predicts different motives behind the same altruistic act with high accuracy. In contrast, mere activity in these regions contains no information about motives. Empathy-based altruism is primarily characterized by a positive connectivity from the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) to the anterior insula (AI), whereas reciprocity-based altruism additionally invokes strong positive connectivity from the AI to the ACC and even stronger positive connectivity from the AI to the ventral striatum. Moreover, predominantly selfish individuals show distinct functional architectures compared to altruists, and they only increase altruistic behavior in response to empathy inductions, but not reciprocity inductions. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  5. Alteration and reorganization of functional networks: a new perspective in brain injury study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazareth P. Castellanos

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Plasticity is the mechanism underlying brain’s potential capability to compensate injury. Recently several studies have shown that functional connections among brain areas are severely altered by brain injury and plasticity leading to a reorganization of the networks. This new approach studies the impact of brain injury by means of alteration of functional interactions. The concept of functional connectivity refers to the statistical interdependencies between physiological time series simultaneously recorded in various brain areas and it could be an essential tool for brain function studies, being its deviation from healthy reference an indicator for damage. In this article, we review studies investigating functional connectivity changes after brain injury and subsequent recovery, providing an accessible introduction to common mathematical methods to infer functional connectivity, exploring their capabilities, future perspectives and clinical uses in brain injury studies.

  6. Enduring deficits in brain reward function after chronic social defeat in rats: susceptibility, resilience, and antidepressant response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Der-Avakian, Andre; Mazei-Robison, Michelle S; Kesby, James P; Nestler, Eric J; Markou, Athina

    2014-10-01

    Anhedonia, or diminished interest or pleasure in rewarding activities, characterizes depression and reflects deficits in brain reward circuitries. Social stress induces anhedonia and increases risk of depression, although the effect of social stress on brain reward function is incompletely understood. This study assessed the following: 1) brain reward function in rats (using the intracranial self-stimulation procedure) and protein levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and related signaling molecules in response to chronic social defeat, 2) brain reward function during social defeat and long-term treatment with the antidepressants fluoxetine (5 mg/kg/day) and desipramine (10 mg/kg/day), and 3) forced swim test behavior after social defeat and fluoxetine treatment. Social defeat profoundly and persistently decreased brain reward function, reflecting an enduring anhedonic response, in susceptible rats, whereas resilient rats showed no long-term brain reward deficits. In the ventral tegmental area, social defeat, regardless of susceptibility or resilience, decreased brain-derived neurotrophic factor and increased phosphorylated AKT, whereas only susceptibility was associated with increased phosphorylated mammalian target of rapamycin. Fluoxetine and desipramine reversed lower, but not higher, stress-induced brain reward deficits in susceptible rats. Fluoxetine decreased immobility in the forced swim test, as did social defeat. These results suggest that the differential persistent anhedonic response to psychosocial stress may be mediated by ventral tegmental area signaling molecules independent of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and indicate that greater stress-induced anhedonia is associated with resistance to antidepressant treatment. Consideration of these behavioral and neurobiological factors associated with resistance to stress and antidepressant action may promote the discovery of novel targets to treat stress-related mood disorders. Copyright © 2014

  7. ABERRANT SPLICING OF A BRAIN-ENRICHED ALTERNATIVE EXON ELIMINATES TUMOR SUPPRESSOR FUNCTION AND PROMOTES ONCOGENE FUNCTION DURING BRAIN TUMORIGENESIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredel, Markus; Ferrarese, Roberto; Harsh, Griffith R.; Yadav, Ajay K.; Bug, Eva; Maticzka, Daniel; Reichardt, Wilfried; Masilamani, Anie P.; Dai, Fangping; Kim, Hyunsoo; Hadler, Michael; Scholtens, Denise M.; Yu, Irene L.Y.; Beck, Jürgen; Srinivasasainagendra, Vinodh; Costa, Fabrizio; Baxan, Nicoleta; Pfeifer, Dietmar; Elverfeldt, Dominik v.; Backofen, Rolf; Weyerbrock, Astrid; Duarte, Christine W.; He, Xiaolin; Prinz, Marco; Chandler, James P.; Vogel, Hannes; Chakravarti, Arnab; Rich, Jeremy N.; Carro, Maria S.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tissue-specific alternative splicing is known to be critical to emergence of tissue identity during development, yet its role in malignant transformation is undefined. Tissue-specific splicing involves evolutionary-conserved, alternative exons, which represent only a minority of total alternative exons. Many, however, have functional features that influence activity in signaling pathways to profound biological effect. Given that tissue-specific splicing has a determinative role in brain development and the enrichment of genes containing tissue-specific exons for proteins with roles in signaling and development, it is thus plausible that changes in such exons could rewire normal neurogenesis towards malignant transformation. METHODS: We used integrated molecular genetic and cell biology analyses, computational biology, animal modeling, and clinical patient profiles to characterize the effect of aberrant splicing of a brain-enriched alternative exon in the membrane-binding tumor suppressor Annexin A7 (ANXA7) on oncogene regulation and brain tumorigenesis. RESULTS: We show that aberrant splicing of a tissue-specific cassette exon in ANXA7 diminishes endosomal targeting and consequent termination of the signal of the EGFR oncoprotein during brain tumorigenesis. Splicing of this exon is mediated by the ribonucleoprotein Polypyrimidine Tract-Binding Protein 1 (PTBP1), which is normally repressed during brain development but, we find, is excessively expressed in glioblastomas through either gene amplification or loss of a neuron-specific microRNA, miR-124. Silencing of PTBP1 attenuates both malignancy and angiogenesis in a stem cell-derived glioblastoma animal model characterized by a high native propensity to generate tumor endothelium or vascular pericytes to support tumor growth. We show that EGFR amplification and PTBP1 overexpression portend a similarly poor clinical outcome, further highlighting the importance of PTBP1-mediated activation of EGFR

  8. A Self-Study Tutorial using the Allen Brain Explorer and Brain Atlas to Teach Concepts of Mammalian Neuroanatomy and Brain Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenks, Bruce G

    2009-01-01

    The Allen Brain Atlas is a repository of neuroanatomical data concerning the mouse brain. The core of the database is a Nissl-stained reference atlas of the brain accompanied by in situ hybridization data for essentially the entire mouse genome. This database is freely available at the Allen Institute for Brain Science website, as is an innovative tool to explore the database, the Brain Explorer. This tool is downloaded and installed on your own computer. I have developed a self-study tutorial, "Explorations with the Allen Brain Explorer", which uses the Brain Explorer and the Brain Atlas to teach fundamentals of mammalian neuroanatomy and brain function. In this tutorial background information and step-by-step exercises on the use of the Brain Explorer are given using PowerPoint as a platform. To do the tutorial both the PowerPoint and the Brain Explorer are opened on the computer and the students switch from one program to the other as they go, in a step-wise fashion, through the various exercises. There are two main groups of exercises, titled "The Basics" and "Explorations", with both groups accessed from a PowerPoint "Start Menu" by clicking on dynamic links to the appropriate exercises. Most exercises have a number of dynamic links to PowerPoint slides where background information for the exercises is given or the neuroanatomical data collected from the Brain Atlas is discussed.

  9. Impact of Low-Level Thyroid Hormone Disruption Induced by Propylthiouracil on Brain Development and Function.*

    Science.gov (United States)

    The critical role of thyroid hormone (TH) in brain development is well established, severe deficiencies leading to significant neurological dysfunction. Much less information is available on more modest perturbations of TH on brain function. The present study induced varying degr...

  10. Functional neuroanatomy of executive function after neonatal brain injury in adults who were born very preterm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia K Kalpakidou

    Full Text Available Individuals who were born very preterm (VPT; <33 gestational weeks are at risk of experiencing deficits in tasks involving executive function in childhood and beyond. In addition, the type and severity of neonatal brain injury associated with very preterm birth may exert differential effects on executive functioning by altering its neuroanatomical substrates. Here we addressed this question by investigating with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI the haemodynamic response during executive-type processing using a phonological verbal fluency and a working memory task in VPT-born young adults who had experienced differing degrees of neonatal brain injury. 12 VPT individuals with a history of periventricular haemorrhage and ventricular dilatation (PVH+VD, 17 VPT individuals with a history of uncomplicated periventricular haemorrhage (UPVH, 13 VPT individuals with no history of neonatal brain injury and 17 controls received an MRI scan whilst completing a verbal fluency task with two cognitive loads ('easy' and 'hard' letters. Two groups of VPT individuals (PVH+VD; n = 10, UPVH; n = 8 performed an n-back task with three cognitive loads (1-, 2-, 3-back. Results demonstrated that VPT individuals displayed hyperactivation in frontal, temporal, and parietal cortices and in caudate nucleus, insula and thalamus compared to controls, as demands of the verbal fluency task increased, regardless of type of neonatal brain injury. On the other hand, during the n-back task and as working memory load increased, the PVH+VD group showed less engagement of the frontal cortex than the UPVH group. In conclusion, this study suggests that the functional neuroanatomy of different executive-type processes is altered following VPT birth and that neural activation associated with specific aspects of executive function (i.e., working memory may be particularly sensitive to the extent of neonatal brain injury.

  11. Planarian shows decision-making behavior in response to multiple stimuli by integrative brain function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Takeshi; Hoshino, Hajime; Yamashita, Taiga; Shimoyama, Seira; Agata, Kiyokazu

    2015-01-01

    Planarians belong to an evolutionarily early group of organisms that possess a central nervous system including a well-organized brain with a simple architecture but many types of neurons. Planarians display a number of behaviors, such as phototaxis and thermotaxis, in response to external stimuli, and it has been shown that various molecules and neural pathways in the brain are involved in controlling these behaviors. However, due to the lack of combinatorial assay methods, it remains obscure whether planarians possess higher brain functions, including integration in the brain, in which multiple signals coming from outside are coordinated and used in determining behavioral strategies. In the present study, we designed chemotaxis and thigmotaxis/kinesis tracking assays to measure several planarian behaviors in addition to those measured by phototaxis and thermotaxis assays previously established by our group, and used these tests to analyze planarian chemotactic and thigmotactic/kinetic behaviors. We found that headless planarian body fragments and planarians that had specifically lost neural activity following regeneration-dependent conditional gene knockdown (Readyknock) of synaptotagmin in the brain lost both chemotactic and thigmotactic behaviors, suggesting that neural activity in the brain is required for the planarian's chemotactic and thigmotactic behaviors. Furthermore, we compared the strength of phototaxis, chemotaxis, thigmotaxis/kinesis, and thermotaxis by presenting simultaneous binary stimuli to planarians. We found that planarians showed a clear order of predominance of these behaviors. For example, when planarians were simultaneously exposed to 400 lux of light and a chemoattractant, they showed chemoattractive behavior irrespective of the direction of the light source, although exposure to light of this intensity alone induces evasive behavior away from the light source. In contrast, when the light intensity was increased to 800 or 1600 lux and

  12. An Evolutionary Computation Approach to Examine Functional Brain Plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Arnab; Campbell, Colin; Bernier, Rachel A; Hillary, Frank G

    2016-01-01

    One common research goal in systems neurosciences is to understand how the functional relationship between a pair of regions of interest (ROIs) evolves over time. Examining neural connectivity in this way is well-suited for the study of developmental processes, learning, and even in recovery or treatment designs in response to injury. For most fMRI based studies, the strength of the functional relationship between two ROIs is defined as the correlation between the average signal representing each region. The drawback to this approach is that much information is lost due to averaging heterogeneous voxels, and therefore, the functional relationship between a ROI-pair that evolve at a spatial scale much finer than the ROIs remain undetected. To address this shortcoming, we introduce a novel evolutionary computation (EC) based voxel-level procedure to examine functional plasticity between an investigator defined ROI-pair by simultaneously using subject-specific BOLD-fMRI data collected from two sessions seperated by finite duration of time. This data-driven procedure detects a sub-region composed of spatially connected voxels from each ROI (a so-called sub-regional-pair) such that the pair shows a significant gain/loss of functional relationship strength across the two time points. The procedure is recursive and iteratively finds all statistically significant sub-regional-pairs within the ROIs. Using this approach, we examine functional plasticity between the default mode network (DMN) and the executive control network (ECN) during recovery from traumatic brain injury (TBI); the study includes 14 TBI and 12 healthy control subjects. We demonstrate that the EC based procedure is able to detect functional plasticity where a traditional averaging based approach fails. The subject-specific plasticity estimates obtained using the EC-procedure are highly consistent across multiple runs. Group-level analyses using these plasticity estimates showed an increase in the strength

  13. An evolutionary computation approach to examine functional brain plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnab eRoy

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available One common research goal in systems neurosciences is to understand how the functional relationship between a pair of regions of interest (ROIs evolves over time. Examining neural connectivity in this way is well-suited for the study of developmental processes, learning, and even in recovery or treatment designs in response to injury. For most fMRI based studies, the strength of the functional relationship between two ROIs is defined as the correlation between the average signal representing each region. The drawback to this approach is that much information is lost due to averaging heterogeneous voxels, and therefore, the functional relationship between a ROI-pair that evolve at a spatial scale much finer than the ROIs remain undetected. To address this shortcoming, we introduce a novel evolutionary computation (EC based voxel-level procedure to examine functional plasticity between an investigator defined ROI-pair by simultaneously using subject-specific BOLD-fMRI data collected from two sessions seperated by finite duration of time. This data-driven procedure detects a sub-region composed of spatially connected voxels from each ROI (a so-called sub-regional-pair such that the pair shows a significant gain/loss of functional relationship strength across the two time points. The procedure is recursive and iteratively finds all statistically significant sub-regional-pairs within the ROIs. Using this approach, we examine functional plasticity between the default mode network (DMN and the executive control network (ECN during recovery from traumatic brain injury (TBI; the study includes 14 TBI and 12 healthy control subjects. We demonstrate that the EC based procedure is able to detect functional plasticity where a traditional averaging based approach fails. The subject-specific plasticity estimates obtained using the EC-procedure are highly consistent across multiple runs. Group-level analyses using these plasticity estimates showed an increase in

  14. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of brain targeting l-ascorbic acid prodrugs of ibuprofen with "lock-in" function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yi; Qu, Boyi; Wu, Xueying; Li, Xiaocen; Liu, Qingqing; Jin, Xiuxiu; Guo, Li; Hai, Li; Wu, Yong

    2014-07-23

    A novel brain targeting l-ascorbic acid derivatives with "lock-in" function were designed and synthesized as prodrugs to achieve the effective delivery of ibuprofen to brain by glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) and the Na(+)-dependent vitamin C transporter SVCT2. Ibuprofen-loaded four prodrugs were tested in the animals. Results from the in vivo distribution study after i.v. administration of these four prodrugs and naked ibuprofen indicated that four prodrugs exhibited excellent transport ability across the BBB and significantly increased the level of ibuprofen in brain. Among them, prodrugs 4 showed higher brain concentration. Both biodistribution data and pharmacokinetic parameters suggested that l-ascorbic acid thiamine disulfide delivery system was a promising carrier to enhance CNS drug's delivery ability into brain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Cognitive functioning in psychiatric disorders following deep brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergfeld, Isidoor O; Mantione, Mariska; Hoogendoorn, Mechteld L C; Denys, Damiaan

    2013-07-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is routinely used as a treatment for treatment-refractory Parkinson's disease and has recently been proposed for psychiatric disorders such as Tourette syndrome (TS), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and major depressive disorder (MDD). Although cognitive deterioration has repeatedly been shown in patients with Parkinson's disease following DBS, the impact of DBS on cognitive functioning in psychiatric patients has not yet been reviewed. Reviewing the available literature on cognitive functioning following DBS in psychiatric patients. A systematic literature search in PubMed, EMBASE and Web of Science, last updated in September 2012, found 1470 papers. Abstracts were scrutinized and 26 studies examining cognitive functioning of psychiatric patients following DBS were included on basis of predetermined inclusion criteria. Twenty-six studies reported cognitive functioning of 130 psychiatric patients following DBS (37 TS patients, 56 OCD patients, 28 MDD patients, 6 patients with Alzheimer's disease, and 3 patients with other disorders). None of the studies reported substantial cognitive decline following DBS. On the contrary, 13 studies reported cognitive improvement following DBS. Preliminary results suggest that DBS in psychiatric disorders does not lead to cognitive decline. In selected cases cognitive functioning was improved following DBS. However, cognitive improvement cannot be conclusively attributed to DBS since studies are hampered by serious limitations. We discuss the outcomes in light of these limitations and offer suggestions for future work. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Speech system of the brain: Insight via functional imaging methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristjan Sancin

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The study of neural correlates of language has always lagged behind the study of other aspects of behavior and cognition due to the lack of an animal model. Clinical data led to the idea that language perception is localized in the posterior superior temporal lobe (Wernicke's area and functions related to speech production are localized in the lateral frontal lobe (Broca's area of the dominant hemisphere. Recent data from electrophysiological and functional neuroimaging investigations shows that the roles of Wernicke's and Broca's areas are not as clear as they appeared. A variety of cortical and subcortical regions have been found to be critically important for language processing. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI can be used to study language system of the brain. When planning certain neurosurgical interventions, it is important to determine hemispheric language dominance and localization of language functions in order to avoid damaging these areas. Some fMRI language paradigms promise a completely noninvasive way of localizing language functions in an individual patient – a possible substitute for the tests currently in use. In our lab, we have recently started to use fMRI for localization of cortical language areas in healthy individuals and in neurological patients.

  17. A Computational Model for the Automatic Diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Based on Functional Brain Volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lirong Tan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigated the problem of computer-aided diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD using machine learning techniques. With the ADHD-200 dataset, we developed a Support Vector Machine (SVM model to classify ADHD patients from typically developing controls (TDCs, using the regional brain volumes as predictors. Conventionally, the volume of a brain region was considered to be an anatomical feature and quantified using structural magnetic resonance images. One major contribution of the present study was that we had initially proposed to measure the regional brain volumes using fMRI images. Brain volumes measured from fMRI images were denoted as functional volumes, which quantified the volumes of brain regions that were actually functioning during fMRI imaging. We compared the predictive power of functional volumes with that of regional brain volumes measured from anatomical images, which were denoted as anatomical volumes. The former demonstrated higher discriminative power than the latter for the classification of ADHD patients vs. TDCs. Combined with our two-step feature selection approach which integrated prior knowledge with the recursive feature elimination (RFE algorithm, our SVM classification model combining functional volumes and demographic characteristics achieved a balanced accuracy of 67.7%, which was 16.1% higher than that of a relevant model published previously in the work of Sato et al. Furthermore, our classifier highlighted 10 brain regions that were most discriminative in distinguishing between ADHD patients and TDCs. These 10 regions were mainly located in occipital lobe, cerebellum posterior lobe, parietal lobe, frontal lobe, and temporal lobe. Our present study using functional images will likely provide new perspectives about the brain regions affected by ADHD.

  18. Human Development XII: A Theory for the Structure and Function of the Human Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Søren Ventegodt; Tyge Dahl Hermansen; Isack Kandel; Joav Merrick

    2008-01-01

    The human brain is probably the most complicated single structure in the biological universe. The cerebral cortex that is traditionally connected with consciousness is extremely complex. The brain contains approximately 1,000,000 km of nerve fibers, indicating its enormous complexity and which makes it difficult for scientists to reveal the function of the brain. In this paper, we propose a new model for brain functions, i.e., information-guided self-organization of neural patterns, where inf...

  19. Parallel neural pathways in higher visual centers of the Drosophila brain that mediate wavelength-specific behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideo eOtsuna

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Compared with connections between the retinae and primary visual centers, relatively less is known in both mammals and insects about the functional segregation of neural pathways connecting primary and higher centers of the visual processing cascade. Here, using the Drosophila visual system as a model, we demonstrate two levels of parallel computation in the pathways that connect primary visual centers of the optic lobe to computational circuits embedded within deeper centers in the central brain. We show that a seemingly simple achromatic behavior, namely phototaxis, is under the control of several independent pathways, each of which is responsible for navigation towards unique wavelengths. Silencing just one pathway is enough to disturb phototaxis towards one characteristic monochromatic source, whereas phototactic behavior towards white light is not affected. The response spectrum of each demonstrable pathway is different from that of individual photoreceptors, suggesting subtractive computations. A choice assay between two colors showed that these pathways are responsible for navigation towards, but not for the detection itself of, the monochromatic light. The present study provides novel insights about how visual information is separated and processed in parallel to achieve robust control of an innate behavior.

  20. Brain functions after sports-related concussion: insights from event-related potentials and functional MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, Nadia; Saluja, Rajeet Singh; Chen, Jen-Kai; Bottari, Carolina; Johnston, Karen; Ptito, Alain

    2010-10-01

    The high incidence of concussions in contact sports and their impact on brain functions are a major cause for concern. To improve our understanding of brain functioning after sports-related concussion, advanced functional assessment techniques, namely event-related potentials (ERPs) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), have been recently used in research studies. Contrary to neuropsychological tests that measure verbal and/or motor responses, ERPs and fMRI assess the neural activities associated with cognitive/behavioral demands, and thus provide access to better comprehension of brain functioning. In fact, ERPs have excellent temporal resolution, and fMRI identifies the involved structures during a task. This article describes ERP and fMRI techniques and reviews the results obtained with these tools in sports-related concussion. Although these techniques are not yet readily available, they offer a unique clinical approach, particularly for complex cases (ie, athletes with multiple concussions, chronic symptoms) and objective measures that provide valuable information to guide management and return-to-play decision making.

  1. Quetiapine modulates functional connectivity in brain aggression networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klasen, Martin; Zvyagintsev, Mikhail; Schwenzer, Michael; Mathiak, Krystyna A; Sarkheil, Pegah; Weber, René; Mathiak, Klaus

    2013-07-15

    Aggressive behavior is associated with dysfunctions in an affective regulation network encompassing amygdala and prefrontal areas such as orbitofrontal (OFC), anterior cingulate (ACC), and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). In particular, prefrontal regions have been postulated to control amygdala activity by inhibitory projections, and this process may be disrupted in aggressive individuals. The atypical antipsychotic quetiapine successfully attenuates aggressive behavior in various disorders; the underlying neural processes, however, are unknown. A strengthened functional coupling in the prefrontal-amygdala system may account for these anti-aggressive effects. An inhibition of this network has been reported for virtual aggression in violent video games as well. However, there have been so far no in-vivo observations of pharmacological influences on corticolimbic projections during human aggressive behavior. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study, quetiapine and placebo were administered for three successive days prior to an fMRI experiment. In this experiment, functional brain connectivity was assessed during virtual aggressive behavior in a violent video game and an aggression-free control task in a non-violent modification. Quetiapine increased the functional connectivity of ACC and DLPFC with the amygdala during virtual aggression, whereas OFC-amygdala coupling was attenuated. These effects were observed neither for placebo nor for the non-violent control. These results demonstrate for the first time a pharmacological modification of aggression-related human brain networks in a naturalistic setting. The violence-specific modulation of prefrontal-amygdala networks appears to control aggressive behavior and provides a neurobiological model for the anti-aggressive effects of quetiapine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Brain structural and functional dissociated patterns in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Chuanjun; Zhu, Jiajia; Wang, Chunli; Qu, Hongru; Ma, Xiaolei; Tian, Hongjun; Liu, Mei; Qin, Wen

    2017-01-31

    Although previous studies found that aberrations in gray matter volume (GMV) and global functional connectivity density (gFCD) are important characteristics of schizophrenia, to the best of our knowledge no study to date has investigated the associations between the spatial distribution patterns of GMV and gFCD alterations. We investigated pattern changes in gFCD and GMV among patients with schizophrenia and their associated spatial distributions. Ninety-five patients with schizophrenia and 93 matched healthy controls underwent structural and resting-state functional MRI scanning to assess gFCD and GMV. We found that gFCD increased in the subcortical regions (caudate, pallidum, putamen, and thalami) and limbic system (left hippocampus and parahippocampus), and decreased in the posterior parieto-occipito-temporal cortices (postcentral gyri, occipital cortex, temporo-occipital conjunction, and inferior parietal lobule), in patients with schizophrenia. By contrast, we found decreased GMV in brain regions including the frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital, cingulate cortices, and the insular, striatum, thalamus in these patients. Increased gFCD primarily occurred in subcortical regions including the basal ganglia and some regions of the limbic system. Decreased gFCD appeared primarily in the cortical regions. There were no statistically significant correlations between changes in gFCD and GMV, and their spatial distribution patterns, in different regions. Our findings indicate that gFCD and GMV are both perturbed in multiple brain regions in schizophrenia. gFCD and GMV consistently decreased in the cortical regions, with the exception of the Supplementary Motor Area (SMA). However, in the sub-cortical regions, the alterations of gFCD and GMV showed the opposite pattern, with increased gFCD and decreased GMV simultaneously observed in these regions. Overall, our findings suggest that structural and functional alterations appear to contribute independently to the

  3. Functions of Ghrelin in Brain, Gut and Liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasi, Cristina; Milani, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Ghrelin production occurs in the gastrointestinal tract with the greatest concentration in the fundus of the stomach, which accounts for approximately 75- 80% of circulating ghrelin levels. Desacyl ghrelin has been suggested to be involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis because of its ability to cross the blood-brain barrier and to induce increased neuronal activity in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus. The enzyme called ghrelin O-acyl transferase is able to acylate ghrelin and regulates the physiological functions of the final peptide acyl ghrelin. The acylated ghrelin has an anti-inflammatory function that depends on its direct effect on T lymphocytes and monocytes, in which it inhibits the expression of proinflammatory cytokines such as Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), Interleukin-6 (IL-6), and Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF-α). Some studies conducted in animal models show that ghrelin treatment reduces the amount of fibrogenic cells. In particular, ghrelin treatment decreases α -SMA protein expression, hepatic content of hydroxyproline and reduces the elevation of serum aspartate aminotransferase levels. Moreover, ghrelin attenuates liver injury and collagen deposition through inhibition of hepatic cell apoptosis and antioxidative activity, at least in part by nitric oxide induction. Several studies suggest that the orexigenic action of ghrelin is mediated via the neuropeptide Y neurons in the arcuate nucleus. Neuropeptide Y overexpression in the dorsomedial hypothalamus can cause hyperphagia and obesity in rat, which in turn causes liver steatosis, inflammation and fibrosis. The aims of this review were to examine and discuss the different functions of this hormone, particularly those that link the brain, gut and liver.

  4. Development of integrated semiconductor optical sensors for functional brain imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Thomas T.

    Optical imaging of neural activity is a widely accepted technique for imaging brain function in the field of neuroscience research, and has been used to study the cerebral cortex in vivo for over two decades. Maps of brain activity are obtained by monitoring intensity changes in back-scattered light, called Intrinsic Optical Signals (IOS), that correspond to fluctuations in blood oxygenation and volume associated with neural activity. Current imaging systems typically employ bench-top equipment including lamps and CCD cameras to study animals using visible light. Such systems require the use of anesthetized or immobilized subjects with craniotomies, which imposes limitations on the behavioral range and duration of studies. The ultimate goal of this work is to overcome these limitations by developing a single-chip semiconductor sensor using arrays of sources and detectors operating at near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths. A single-chip implementation, combined with wireless telemetry, will eliminate the need for immobilization or anesthesia of subjects and allow in vivo studies of free behavior. NIR light offers additional advantages because it experiences less absorption in animal tissue than visible light, which allows for imaging through superficial tissues. This, in turn, reduces or eliminates the need for traumatic surgery and enables long-term brain-mapping studies in freely-behaving animals. This dissertation concentrates on key engineering challenges of implementing the sensor. This work shows the feasibility of using a GaAs-based array of vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) and PIN photodiodes for IOS imaging. I begin with in-vivo studies of IOS imaging through the skull in mice, and use these results along with computer simulations to establish minimum performance requirements for light sources and detectors. I also evaluate the performance of a current commercial VCSEL for IOS imaging, and conclude with a proposed prototype sensor.

  5. Analysis of energy restriction and physical activity on brain function: the role of ketone body and brain-derived neurotrophic factor

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Chan Ho; Kwak, Yi-Sub

    2017-01-01

    Brain development is a complex process, and stimuli during this development period may modulate the functional maturation of the brain. It has been shown that environmental stimuli, such as physical activity habits, have a beneficial effect on brain development. Endurance exercise and prolonged fasting state are known to improve brain function including cognition. The exact mechanisms of exercise improving brain function are still unknown. However, it can be considered that energy restriction...

  6. The mix matters : Complex personal networks relate to higher cognitive functioning in old age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellwardt, Lea; Van Tilburg, Theo G.; Aartsen, MarjaJ.

    Stronger engagement of older adults in social activities and greater embeddedness in networks is often argued to buffer cognitive decline and lower risks of dementia. One of the explanations is that interaction with other people trains the brain, thereby enhancing cognitive functioning. However,

  7. Evidence of a Christmas spirit network in the brain: functional MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hougaard, Anders; Lindberg, Ulrich; Arngrim, Nanna; Larsson, Henrik B W; Olesen, Jes; Amin, Faisal Mohammad; Ashina, Messoud; Haddock, Bryan T

    2015-12-16

    To detect and localise the Christmas spirit in the human brain. Single blinded, cross cultural group study with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Functional imaging unit and department of clinical physiology, nuclear medicine and PET in Denmark. 10 healthy people from the Copenhagen area who routinely celebrate Christmas and 10 healthy people living in the same area who have no Christmas traditions. Brain activation unique to the group with Christmas traditions during visual stimulation with images with a Christmas theme. Functional brain scans optimised for detection of the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) response were performed while participants viewed a series of images with Christmas themes interleaved with neutral images having similar characteristics but containing nothing that symbolises Christmas. After scanning, participants answered a questionnaire about their Christmas traditions and the associations they have with Christmas. Brain activation maps from scanning were analysed for Christmas related activation in the "Christmas" and "non-Christmas" groups individually. Subsequently, differences between the two groups were calculated to determine Christmas specific brain activation. Significant clusters of increased BOLD activation in the sensory motor cortex, the premotor and primary motor cortex, and the parietal lobule (inferior and superior) were found in scans of people who celebrate Christmas with positive associations compared with scans in a group having no Christmas traditions and neutral associations. These cerebral areas have been associated with spirituality, somatic senses, and recognition of facial emotion among many other functions. There is a "Christmas spirit network" in the human brain comprising several cortical areas. This network had a significantly higher activation in a people who celebrate Christmas with positive associations as opposed to a people who have no Christmas traditions and neutral associations. Further

  8. Effect of 48 h Fasting on Autonomic Function, Brain Activity, Cognition, and Mood in Amateur Weight Lifters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skurvydas, Albertas

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The acute fasting-induced cardiovascular autonomic response and its effect on cognition and mood remain debatable. Thus, the main purpose of this study was to estimate the effect of a 48 h, zero-calorie diet on autonomic function, brain activity, cognition, and mood in amateur weight lifters. Methods. Nine participants completed a 48 h, zero-calorie diet program. Cardiovascular autonomic function, resting frontal brain activity, cognitive performance, and mood were evaluated before and after fasting. Results. Fasting decreased (p Fasting decreased (p Fasting also increased (p fasting resulted in higher parasympathetic activity and decreased resting frontal brain activity, increased anger, and improved prefrontal-cortex-related cognitive functions, such as mental flexibility and set shifting, in amateur weight lifters. In contrast, hippocampus-related cognitive functions were not affected by it. PMID:28025637

  9. Sex differences in intrinsic brain functional connectivity underlying human shyness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xun; Wang, Siqi; Kendrick, Keith Maurice; Wu, Xi; Yao, Li; Lei, Du; Kuang, Weihong; Bi, Feng; Huang, Xiaoqi; He, Yong; Gong, Qiyong

    2015-12-01

    Shyness is a fundamental trait associated with social-emotional maladaptive behaviors, including many forms of psychopathology. Neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that hyper-responsivity to social and emotional stimuli occurs in the frontal cortex and limbic system in shy individuals, but the relationship between shyness and brain-wide functional connectivity remains incompletely understood. Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, we addressed this issue by exploring the relationship between regional functional connectivity strength (rFCS) and scores of shyness in a cohort of 61 healthy young adults and controlling for the effects of social and trait anxiety scores. We observed that the rFCS of the insula positively correlated with shyness scores regardless of sex. Furthermore, we found that there were significant sex-by-shyness interactions in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and insula (two core nodes of the salience network) as well as the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex: the rFCS values of these regions positively correlated with shyness scores in females but negatively correlated in males. Taken together, we provide evidence for intrinsic functional connectivity differences in individuals with different degrees of shyness and that these differences are sex-dependent. These findings might have important implications on the understanding of biological mechanisms underlying emotional and cognitive processing associated with shyness. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Preoperative functional mapping for rolandic brain tumor surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Vincenzo; Terranova, Carmen; Conti, Alfredo; Germanò, Antonino; Alafaci, Concetta; Raffa, Giovanni; Girlanda, Paolo; Tomasello, Francesco; Quartarone, Angelo

    2014-11-07

    The resection of tumors within or close to eloquent motor areas is usually guided by the compromise between the maximal allowed resection and preservation of neurological functions. Navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) is an emerging technology that can be used for preoperative mapping of the motor cortex. We performed pre-surgical mapping by using nTMS in 17 patients with lesions in or close to the precentral gyrus. The study was conducted on consecutive patients scheduled for surgical treatment. nTMS allowed to exactly localize the motor cortex in 88.2% of cases. In 70.6% it provided the surgeon with new unexpected information about functional anatomy of the motor area, influencing the pre-operative planning. Moreover, in 29.4% these functional information had a clear impact on surgery, making necessary a change of surgical strategy to avoid damage to the motor cortex. Our results prove that nTMS has a large benefit in the treatment of rolandic brain tumors. It adds important information about spatial relationship between functional motor cortex and the tumor and reduces surgical-related post-operative motor deficits. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Periodontal disease associates with higher brain amyloid load in normal elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamer, Angela R.; Pirraglia, Elizabeth; Tsui, Wai; Rusinek, Henry; Vallabhajosula, Shankar; Mosconi, Lisa; Yi, Li; McHugh, Pauline; Craig, Ronald G.; Svetcov, Spencer; Linker, Ross; Shi, Chen; Glodzik, Lidia; Williams, Schantel; Corby, Patricia; Saxena, Deepak; de Leon, Mony J.

    2015-01-01

    Background The accumulation of amyloid β plaques (Aβ) is a central feature of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). First reported in animal models, it remains uncertain if peripheral inflammatory/infectious conditions in humans can promote Aβ brain accumulation. Periodontal disease, a common chronic infection, has been previously reported to be associated with AD. Methods Thirty-eight cognitively normal, healthy, community residing elderly (mean age 61; 68% female) were examined in an Alzheimer’s Disease research center and a University-based Dental School. Linear regression models (adjusted for age, ApoE and smoking) were used to test the hypothesis that periodontal disease assessed by clinical attachment loss was associated with brain Aβ load using 11C-PIB PET imaging. Results After adjusting for confounders, clinical attachment loss (≥ 3mm), representing a history of periodontal inflammatory/infectious burden, was associated with increased 11C-PIB uptake in Aβ vulnerable brain regions (p=0.002). Conclusion We show for the first time in humans an association between periodontal disease and brain Aβ load. These data are consistent with prior animal studies showing that peripheral inflammation/infections are sufficient to produce brain Aβ accumulations. PMID:25491073

  12. Periodontal disease associates with higher brain amyloid load in normal elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamer, Angela R; Pirraglia, Elizabeth; Tsui, Wai; Rusinek, Henry; Vallabhajosula, Shankar; Mosconi, Lisa; Yi, Li; McHugh, Pauline; Craig, Ronald G; Svetcov, Spencer; Linker, Ross; Shi, Chen; Glodzik, Lidia; Williams, Schantel; Corby, Patricia; Saxena, Deepak; de Leon, Mony J

    2015-02-01

    The accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques is a central feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). First reported in animal models, it remains uncertain if peripheral inflammatory and/or infectious conditions in humans can promote Aβ brain accumulation. Periodontal disease, a common chronic infection, has been previously reported to be associated with AD. Thirty-eight cognitively normal, healthy, and community-residing elderly (mean age, 61 and 68% female) were examined in an Alzheimer's Disease Research Center and a University-Based Dental School. Linear regression models (adjusted for age, apolipoprotein E, and smoking) were used to test the hypothesis that periodontal disease assessed by clinical attachment loss was associated with brain Aβ load using (11)C-Pittsburgh compound B (PIB) positron emission tomography imaging. After adjusting for confounders, clinical attachment loss (≥3 mm), representing a history of periodontal inflammatory/infectious burden, was associated with increased PIB uptake in Aβ vulnerable brain regions (p = 0.002). We show for the first time in humans an association between periodontal disease and brain Aβ load. These data are consistent with the previous animal studies showing that peripheral inflammation/infections are sufficient to produce brain Aβ accumulations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Evolution of human brain functions: the functional structure of human consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloninger, C Robert

    2009-11-01

    The functional structure of self-aware consciousness in human beings is described based on the evolution of human brain functions. Prior work on heritable temperament and character traits is extended to account for the quantum-like and holographic properties (i.e. parts elicit wholes) of self-aware consciousness. Cladistic analysis is used to identify the succession of ancestors leading to human beings. The functional capacities that emerge along this lineage of ancestors are described. The ecological context in which each cladogenesis occurred is described to illustrate the shifting balance of evolution as a complex adaptive system. Comparative neuroanatomy is reviewed to identify the brain structures and networks that emerged coincident with the emergent brain functions. Individual differences in human temperament traits were well developed in the common ancestor shared by reptiles and humans. Neocortical development in mammals proceeded in five major transitions: from early reptiles to early mammals, early primates, simians, early Homo, and modern Homo sapiens. These transitions provide the foundation for human self-awareness related to sexuality, materiality, emotionality, intellectuality, and spirituality, respectively. The functional structure of human self-aware consciousness is concerned with the regulation of five planes of being: sexuality, materiality, emotionality, intellectuality, and spirituality. Each plane elaborates neocortical functions organized around one of the five special senses. The interactions among these five planes gives rise to a 5 x 5 matrix of subplanes, which are functions that coarsely describe the focus of neocortical regulation. Each of these 25 neocortical functions regulates each of five basic motives or drives that can be measured as temperaments or basic emotions related to fear, anger, disgust, surprise, and happiness/sadness. The resulting 5 x 5 x 5 matrix of human characteristics provides a general and testable model of the

  14. Selectionist and evolutionary approaches to brain function: a critical appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Chrisantha; Szathmáry, Eörs; Husbands, Phil

    2012-01-01

    We consider approaches to brain dynamics and function that have been claimed to be Darwinian. These include Edelman's theory of neuronal group selection, Changeux's theory of synaptic selection and selective stabilization of pre-representations, Seung's Darwinian synapse, Loewenstein's synaptic melioration, Adam's selfish synapse, and Calvin's replicating activity patterns. Except for the last two, the proposed mechanisms are selectionist but not truly Darwinian, because no replicators with information transfer to copies and hereditary variation can be identified in them. All of them fit, however, a generalized selectionist framework conforming to the picture of Price's covariance formulation, which deliberately was not specific even to selection in biology, and therefore does not imply an algorithmic picture of biological evolution. Bayesian models and reinforcement learning are formally in agreement with selection dynamics. A classification of search algorithms is shown to include Darwinian replicators (evolutionary units with multiplication, heredity, and variability) as the most powerful mechanism for search in a sparsely occupied search space. Examples are given of cases where parallel competitive search with information transfer among the units is more efficient than search without information transfer between units. Finally, we review our recent attempts to construct and analyze simple models of true Darwinian evolutionary units in the brain in terms of connectivity and activity copying of neuronal groups. Although none of the proposed neuronal replicators include miraculous mechanisms, their identification remains a challenge but also a great promise.

  15. Memory networks in tinnitus: a functional brain image study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laureano, Maura Regina; Onishi, Ektor Tsuneo; Bressan, Rodrigo Affonseca; Castiglioni, Mario Luiz Vieira; Batista, Ilza Rosa; Reis, Marilia Alves; Garcia, Michele Vargas; de Andrade, Adriana Neves; de Almeida, Roberta Ribeiro; Garrido, Griselda J; Jackowski, Andrea Parolin

    2014-01-01

    Tinnitus is characterized by the perception of sound in the absence of an external auditory stimulus. The network connectivity of auditory and non-auditory brain structures associated with emotion, memory and attention are functionally altered in debilitating tinnitus. Current studies suggest that tinnitus results from neuroplastic changes in the frontal and limbic temporal regions. The objective of this study was to use Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) to evaluate changes in the cerebral blood flow in tinnitus patients with normal hearing compared with healthy controls. Twenty tinnitus patients with normal hearing and 17 healthy controls, matched for sex, age and years of education, were subjected to Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography using the radiotracer ethylenedicysteine diethyl ester, labeled with Technetium 99 m (99 mTc-ECD SPECT). The severity of tinnitus was assessed using the "Tinnitus Handicap Inventory" (THI). The images were processed and analyzed using "Statistical Parametric Mapping" (SPM8). A significant increase in cerebral perfusion in the left parahippocampal gyrus (pFWE <0.05) was observed in patients with tinnitus compared with healthy controls. The average total THI score was 50.8+18.24, classified as moderate tinnitus. It was possible to identify significant changes in the limbic system of the brain perfusion in tinnitus patients with normal hearing, suggesting that central mechanisms, not specific to the auditory pathway, are involved in the pathophysiology of symptoms, even in the absence of clinically diagnosed peripheral changes.

  16. Selectionist and evolutionary approaches to brain function: a critical appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrisantha Thomas Fernando

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We consider approaches to brain dynamics and function that have been claimed to be Darwinian. These include Edelman’s theory of neuronal group selection, Changeux’s theory of synaptic selection and selective stabilization of pre-representations, Seung’s Darwinian synapse, Loewenstein’s synaptic melioration, Adam’s selfish synapse and Calvin’s replicating activity patterns. Except for the last two, the proposed mechanisms are selectionist but not truly Darwinian, because no replicators with information transfer to copies and hereditary variation can be identified in them. All of them fit, however, a generalized selectionist framework conforming to the picture of Price’s covariance formulation, which deliberately was not specific even to selection in biology, and therefore does not imply an algorithmic picture of biological evolution. Bayesian models and reinforcement learning are formally in agreement with selection dynamics. A classification of search algorithms is shown to include Darwinian replicators (evolutionary units with multiplication, heredity and variability as the most powerful mechanism in a sparsely occupied search space. Examples of why parallel competitive search with information transfer among the units is efficient are given. Finally, we review our recent attempts to construct and analyze simple models of true Darwinian evolutionary units in the brain in terms of connectivity and activity copying of neuronal groups. Although none of the proposed neuronal replicators include miraculous mechanisms, their identification remains a challenge but also a great promise.

  17. Memory networks in tinnitus: a functional brain image study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura Regina Laureano

    Full Text Available Tinnitus is characterized by the perception of sound in the absence of an external auditory stimulus. The network connectivity of auditory and non-auditory brain structures associated with emotion, memory and attention are functionally altered in debilitating tinnitus. Current studies suggest that tinnitus results from neuroplastic changes in the frontal and limbic temporal regions. The objective of this study was to use Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT to evaluate changes in the cerebral blood flow in tinnitus patients with normal hearing compared with healthy controls.Twenty tinnitus patients with normal hearing and 17 healthy controls, matched for sex, age and years of education, were subjected to Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography using the radiotracer ethylenedicysteine diethyl ester, labeled with Technetium 99 m (99 mTc-ECD SPECT. The severity of tinnitus was assessed using the "Tinnitus Handicap Inventory" (THI. The images were processed and analyzed using "Statistical Parametric Mapping" (SPM8.A significant increase in cerebral perfusion in the left parahippocampal gyrus (pFWE <0.05 was observed in patients with tinnitus compared with healthy controls. The average total THI score was 50.8+18.24, classified as moderate tinnitus.It was possible to identify significant changes in the limbic system of the brain perfusion in tinnitus patients with normal hearing, suggesting that central mechanisms, not specific to the auditory pathway, are involved in the pathophysiology of symptoms, even in the absence of clinically diagnosed peripheral changes.

  18. Functional brain networks: random, "small world" or deterministic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinowska, Katarzyna J; Kaminski, Maciej

    2013-01-01

    Lately the problem of connectivity in brain networks is being approached frequently by graph theoretical analysis. In several publications based on bivariate estimators of relations between EEG channels authors reported random or "small world" structure of networks. The results of these works often have no relation to other evidence based on imaging, inverse solutions methods, physiological and anatomical data. Herein we try to find reasons for this discrepancy. We point out that EEG signals are very much interdependent, thus bivariate measures applied to them may produce many spurious connections. In fact, they may outnumber the true connections. Giving all connections equal weights, as it is usual in the framework of graph theoretical analysis, further enhances these spurious links. In effect, close to random and disorganized patterns of connections emerge. On the other hand, multivariate connectivity estimators, which are free of the artificial links, show specific, well determined patterns, which are in a very good agreement with other evidence. The modular structure of brain networks may be identified by multivariate estimators based on Granger causality and formalism of assortative mixing. In this way, the strength of coupling may be evaluated quantitatively. During working memory task, by means of multivariate Directed Transfer Function, it was demonstrated that the modules characterized by strong internal bonds exchange the information by weaker connections.

  19. Functional brain networks: random, "small world" or deterministic?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna J Blinowska

    Full Text Available Lately the problem of connectivity in brain networks is being approached frequently by graph theoretical analysis. In several publications based on bivariate estimators of relations between EEG channels authors reported random or "small world" structure of networks. The results of these works often have no relation to other evidence based on imaging, inverse solutions methods, physiological and anatomical data. Herein we try to find reasons for this discrepancy. We point out that EEG signals are very much interdependent, thus bivariate measures applied to them may produce many spurious connections. In fact, they may outnumber the true connections. Giving all connections equal weights, as it is usual in the framework of graph theoretical analysis, further enhances these spurious links. In effect, close to random and disorganized patterns of connections emerge. On the other hand, multivariate connectivity estimators, which are free of the artificial links, show specific, well determined patterns, which are in a very good agreement with other evidence. The modular structure of brain networks may be identified by multivariate estimators based on Granger causality and formalism of assortative mixing. In this way, the strength of coupling may be evaluated quantitatively. During working memory task, by means of multivariate Directed Transfer Function, it was demonstrated that the modules characterized by strong internal bonds exchange the information by weaker connections.

  20. Large-scale brain networks in affective and social neuroscience: towards an integrative functional architecture of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Satpute, Ajay Bhaskar

    2013-06-01

    Understanding how a human brain creates a human mind ultimately depends on mapping psychological categories and concepts to physical measurements of neural response. Although it has long been assumed that emotional, social, and cognitive phenomena are realized in the operations of separate brain regions or brain networks, we demonstrate that it is possible to understand the body of neuroimaging evidence using a framework that relies on domain general, distributed structure-function mappings. We review current research in affective and social neuroscience and argue that the emerging science of large-scale intrinsic brain networks provides a coherent framework for a domain-general functional architecture of the human brain. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Brain regions concerned with the identification of deceptive soccer moves by higher-skilled and lower-skilled players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Michael J; Bishop, Daniel T; Jackson, Robin C; Abernethy, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Expert soccer players are able to utilize their opponents' early body kinematics to predict the direction in which the opponent will move. We have previously demonstrated enhanced fMRI activation in experts in the motor components of an action observation network (AON) during sports anticipation tasks. Soccer players often need to prevent opponents from successfully predicting their line of attack, and consequently may try to deceive them; for example, by performing a step-over. We examined how AON activations and expertise effects are modified by the presence of deception. Three groups of participants; higher-skilled males, lower-skilled males, and lower-skilled females, viewed video clips in point-light format, from a defender's perspective, of a player approaching and turning with the ball. The observer's task in the scanner was to determine whether the move was normal or deceptive (involving a step-over), while whole-brain functional images were acquired. In a second counterbalanced block with identical stimuli the task was to predict the direction of the ball. Activations of AON for identification of deception overlapped with activations from the direction identification task. Higher-skilled players showed significantly greater activation than lower-skilled players in a subset of AON areas; and lower-skilled males in turn showed greater activation than lower-skilled females, but females showed more activation in visual cortex. Activation was greater for deception identification than for direction identification in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, medial frontal cortex, anterior insula, cingulate gyrus, and premotor cortex. Conversely, greater activation for direction than deception identification was found in anterior cingulate cortex and caudate nucleus. Results are consistent with the view that explicit identification of deceptive moves entails cognitive effort and also activates limbic structures associated with social cognition and affective responses.

  2. Brain regions concerned with the identification of deceptive soccer moves by higher-skilled and lower-skilled players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eWright

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Expert soccer players are able to utilize their opponents’ early body kinematics to predict the direction in which the opponent will move. We have previously demonstrated enhanced fMRI activation in experts in the motor components of an action observation network (AON during sports anticipation tasks. Soccer players often need to prevent opponents from successfully predicting their line of attack, and consequently may try to deceive them; for example, by performing a step-over. We examined how AON activations and expertise effects are modified by the presence of deception. Three groups of participants; higher-skilled males, lower-skilled males and lower-skilled females, viewed video clips in point-light format, from a defender’s perspective, of a player approaching and turning with the ball. The observer’s task in the scanner was to determine whether the move was normal or deceptive (involving a step-over, while whole-brain functional images were acquired. In a second counterbalanced block with identical stimuli the task was to predict the direction of the ball. Activations of AON for identification of deception overlapped with activations from the direction identification task. Higher-skilled players showed significantly greater activation than lower-skilled players in a subset of AON areas; and lower-skilled males in turn showed greater activation than lower-skilled females, but females showed more activation in visual cortex. Activation was greater for deception identification than for direction identification in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, medial frontal cortex, anterior insula, cingulate gyrus, and premotor cortex. Conversely, greater activation for direction than deception identification was found in anterior cingulate cortex and caudate nucleus. Results are consistent with the view that explicit identification of deceptive moves entails cognitive effort and also activates limbic structures associated with social cognition and

  3. Brain aromatase (Cyp19A2) and estrogen receptors, in larvae and adult pejerrey fish Odontesthes bonariensis: Neuroanatomical and functional relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobl-Mazzulla, P. H.; Lethimonier, C.; Gueguen, M.M.; Karube, M.; Fernandino, J.I.; Yoshizaki, G.; Patino, R.; Strussmann, C.A.; Kah, O.; Somoza, G.M.

    2008-01-01

    Although estrogens exert many functions on vertebrate brains, there is little information on the relationship between brain aromatase and estrogen receptors. Here, we report the cloning and characterization of two estrogen receptors, ?? and ??, in pejerrey. Both receptors' mRNAs largely overlap and were predominantly expressed in the brain, pituitary, liver, and gonads. Also brain aromatase and estrogen receptors were up-regulated in the brain of estradiol-treated males. In situ hybridization was performed to study in more detail, the distribution of the two receptors in comparison with brain aromatase mRNA in the brain of adult pejerrey. The estrogen receptors' mRNAs exhibited distinct but partially overlapping patterns of expression in the preoptic area and the mediobasal hypothalamus, as well as in the pituitary gland. Moreover, the estrogen receptor ??, but not ??, were found to be expressed in cells lining the preoptic recess, similarly as observed for brain aromatase. Finally, it was shown that the onset expression of brain aromatase and both estrogen receptors in the head of larvae preceded the morphological differentiation of the gonads. Because pejerrey sex differentiation is strongly influenced by temperature, brain aromatase expression was measured during the temperature-sensitive window and was found to be significantly higher at male-promoting temperature. Taken together these results suggest close neuroanatomical and functional relationships between brain aromatase and estrogen receptors, probably involved in the sexual differentiation of the brain and raising interesting questions on the origin (central or peripheral) of the brain aromatase substrate. ?? 2008 Elsevier Inc.

  4. Altered intrinsic functional brain architecture in female patients with bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Kong, Qing-Mei; Li, Ke; Li, Xue-Ni; Zeng, Ya-Wei; Chen, Chao; Qian, Ying; Feng, Shi-Jie; Li, Ji-Tao; Su, Yun'Ai; Correll, Christoph U; Mitchell, Philip B; Yan, Chao-Gan; Zhang, Da-Rong; Si, Tian-Mei

    2017-11-01

    Bulimia nervosa is a severe psychiatric syndrome with uncertain pathogenesis. Neural systems involved in sensorimotor and visual processing, reward and impulsive control may contribute to the binge eating and purging behaviours characterizing bulimia nervosa. However, little is known about the alterations of functional organization of whole brain networks in individuals with this disorder. We used resting-state functional MRI and graph theory to characterize functional brain networks of unmedicated women with bulimia nervosa and healthy women. We included 44 unmedicated women with bulimia nervosa and 44 healthy women in our analyses. Women with bulimia nervosa showed increased clustering coefficient and path length compared with control women. The nodal strength in patients with the disorder was higher in the sensorimotor and visual regions as well as the precuneus, but lower in several subcortical regions, such as the hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus and orbitofrontal cortex. Patients also showed hyperconnectivity primarily involving sensorimotor and unimodal visual association regions, but hypoconnectivity involving subcortical (striatum, thalamus), limbic (amygdala, hippocampus) and paralimbic (orbitofrontal cortex, parahippocampal gyrus) regions. The topological aberrations correlated significantly with scores of bulimia and drive for thinness and with body mass index. We reruited patients with only acute bulimia nervosa, so it is unclear whether the topological abnormalities comprise vulnerability markers for the disorder developing or the changes associated with illness state. Our findings show altered intrinsic functional brain architecture, specifically abnormal global and local efficiency, as well as nodal- and network-level connectivity across sensorimotor, visual, subcortical and limbic systems in women with bulimia nervosa, suggesting that it is a disorder of dysfunctional integration among large-scale distributed brain regions. These abnormalities

  5. Alcohol Binge Drinking and Executive Functioning during Adolescent Brain Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad Gil-Hernandez

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption in adolescents causes negative effects on familiar, social, academic life, as well as neurocognitive alterations. The binge drinking (BD pattern of alcohol is characterized by the alternation of episodes of heavy drinking in a short interval of time, and periods of abstinence, a practice that can result in important brain alterations; even more than regular alcohol consumption. The prefrontal cortex, which acts as neural support for the executive processes, is particularly affected by alcohol; however, not all studies are in agreement about how BD alcohol consumption affects executive functioning. Some research has found that alcohol consumption in adolescence does not significantly affect executive functioning while others found it does. It is possible that these discrepancies could be due to the history of alcohol consumption, that is, at what age the subjects started drinking. The aim of our study is to assess the performance on executive functioning tasks of 13–19-year-old adolescents according to their pattern of alcohol consumption. We hypothesize that BD adolescents will perform worse than non-BD subjects in tasks that evaluate executive functions, and these differences will increase depending on how long they have been consuming alcohol. Three hundred and twenty-two students (48.14% females; age range 13–22 years; mean aged 16.7 ± 2.59 participated in the study; all of them had begun drinking at the age of 13 years. Participant were divided into three groups, according to their age range (13–15, 16–18, and 19–22 years and divided according to their pattern of alcohol consumption (BD and control groups. Then, the subjects were evaluated with neuropsychological tasks that assess executive functions like working memory, inhibition, cognitive flexibility, or self-control among others. The entire sample showed a normal improvement in their executive performance, but this improvement was more stable and robust in

  6. Alcohol Binge Drinking and Executive Functioning during Adolescent Brain Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Hernandez, Soledad; Mateos, Patricia; Porras, Claudia; Garcia-Gomez, Raquel; Navarro, Enrique; Garcia-Moreno, Luis M

    2017-01-01

    Alcohol consumption in adolescents causes negative effects on familiar, social, academic life, as well as neurocognitive alterations. The binge drinking (BD) pattern of alcohol is characterized by the alternation of episodes of heavy drinking in a short interval of time, and periods of abstinence, a practice that can result in important brain alterations; even more than regular alcohol consumption. The prefrontal cortex, which acts as neural support for the executive processes, is particularly affected by alcohol; however, not all studies are in agreement about how BD alcohol consumption affects executive functioning. Some research has found that alcohol consumption in adolescence does not significantly affect executive functioning while others found it does. It is possible that these discrepancies could be due to the history of alcohol consumption, that is, at what age the subjects started drinking. The aim of our study is to assess the performance on executive functioning tasks of 13-19-year-old adolescents according to their pattern of alcohol consumption. We hypothesize that BD adolescents will perform worse than non-BD subjects in tasks that evaluate executive functions, and these differences will increase depending on how long they have been consuming alcohol. Three hundred and twenty-two students (48.14% females; age range 13-22 years; mean aged 16.7 ± 2.59) participated in the study; all of them had begun drinking at the age of 13 years. Participant were divided into three groups, according to their age range (13-15, 16-18, and 19-22 years) and divided according to their pattern of alcohol consumption (BD and control groups). Then, the subjects were evaluated with neuropsychological tasks that assess executive functions like working memory, inhibition, cognitive flexibility, or self-control among others. The entire sample showed a normal improvement in their executive performance, but this improvement was more stable and robust in the control group

  7. Nuclear calcium signalling in the regulation of brain function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bading, Hilmar

    2013-09-01

    Synaptic activity initiates biochemical processes that have various outcomes, including the formation of memories, increases in neuronal survival and the development of chronic pain and addiction. Virtually all activity-induced, long-lasting adaptations of brain functions require a dialogue between synapses and the nucleus that results in changes in gene expression. Calcium signals that are induced by synaptic activity and propagate into the nucleus are a major route for synapse-to-nucleus communication. Recent findings indicate that diverse forms of neuroadaptation require calcium transients in the nucleus to switch on the necessary genomic programme. Deficits in nuclear calcium signalling as a result of a reduction in synaptic activity or increased extrasynaptic NMDA receptor signalling may underlie the aetiologies of various diseases, including neurodegeneration and cognitive dysfunction.

  8. Brain motor functional changes after somatosensory discrimination training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarasso, Elisabetta; Agosta, Federica; Temporiti, Federico; Adamo, Paola; Piccolo, Fabio; Copetti, Massimiliano; Gatti, Roberto; Filippi, Massimo

    2017-08-31

    Somatosensory discrimination training may modulate cognitive processes, such as movement planning and monitoring, which can be useful during active movements. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of somatosensory discrimination training on brain functional activity using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during motor and sensory tasks in healthy subjects. Thirty-nine healthy young subjects were randomized into two groups: the experimental group underwent somatosensory discrimination training consisting of shape, surface and two-point distance discrimination; and the control group performed a simple object manipulation. At baseline and after 2 weeks of training, subjects underwent sensorimotor evaluations and fMRI tasks consisting of right-hand tactile stimulation, manipulation of a simple object, and complex right-hand motor sequence execution. Right-hand dexterity improved in both groups, but only the experimental group showed improvements in all manual dexterity tests. After training, the experimental group showed: decreased activation of the ipsilateral sensorimotor areas during the tactile stimulation task; increased activation of the contralateral postcentral gyrus and thalamus bilaterally during the manipulation task; and a reduced recruitment of the ipsilateral pre/postcentral gyri and an increased activation of the basal ganglia and cerebellum contralaterally during the complex right-hand motor task. In healthy subjects, sensory discrimination training was associated with lateralization of brain activity in sensorimotor areas during sensory and motor tasks. Further studies are needed to investigate the usefulness of this training in motor rehabilitation of patients with focal lesions in the central nervous system.

  9. The temporal structures and functional significance of scale-free brain activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Biyu J; Zempel, John M; Snyder, Abraham Z; Raichle, Marcus E

    2010-05-13

    Scale-free dynamics, with a power spectrum following P proportional to f(-beta), are an intrinsic feature of many complex processes in nature. In neural systems, scale-free activity is often neglected in electrophysiological research. Here, we investigate scale-free dynamics in human brain and show that it contains extensive nested frequencies, with the phase of lower frequencies modulating the amplitude of higher frequencies in an upward progression across the frequency spectrum. The functional significance of scale-free brain activity is indicated by task performance modulation and regional variation, with beta being larger in default network and visual cortex and smaller in hippocampus and cerebellum. The precise patterns of nested frequencies in the brain differ from other scale-free dynamics in nature, such as earth seismic waves and stock market fluctuations, suggesting system-specific generative mechanisms. Our findings reveal robust temporal structures and behavioral significance of scale-free brain activity and should motivate future study on its physiological mechanisms and cognitive implications. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Bladder function in patients with dystonia undergoing deep brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordasini, Livio; Kessler, Thomas M; Kiss, Bernhard; Schüpbach, Michael; Pollo, Claudio; Kaelin-Lang, Alain

    2014-09-01

    Neurogenic bladder dysfunction is well described in Parkinson's disease and has a major impact on quality of live. In contrast, little is known about the extent of urinary symptoms in other movement disorders such as dystonia and about the role of the basal ganglia in bladder control.. A consecutive series of 11 patients with severe dystonia undergoing deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the globus pallidus internus was prospectively enrolled. Bladder function was assessed by the International Prostate Symptom Score and urodynamic investigation (UDI) before DBS surgery and afterwards in the conditions with and without DBS. In UDI before DBS surgery, detrusor overactivity was found in 36% (4/11) of dystonia patients. With pallidal DBS ON, maximum flow rate significantly decreased, post-void residual significantly increased and detrusor overactivity disappeared.. Pathological urodynamic changes can be found in a relevant percentage of dystonia patients. Pallidal DBS has a relaxing effect on detrusor function indicating a role of the basal ganglia in lower urinary tract control. Thus, a better understanding on how subcortical networks influence lower urinary tract function might open new therapeutic perspectives.. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Academic Brain Drain: Impact and Implications for Public Higher Education Quality in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odhiambo, George O.

    2013-01-01

    The flight of human capital is a phenomenon that has been of concern to academics and development practitioners for decades. Unfortunately, there is no systematic record of the number of skilled professionals that many African countries have continued to lose to the developed world. Termed the "brain drain", it represents the loss of…

  12. Disrupted Brain Functional Organization in Epilepsy Revealed by Graph Theory Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jie; Nair, Veena A; Gaggl, Wolfgang; Prabhakaran, Vivek

    2015-06-01

    The human brain is a complex and dynamic system that can be modeled as a large-scale brain network to better understand the reorganizational changes secondary to epilepsy. In this study, we developed a brain functional network model using graph theory methods applied to resting-state fMRI data acquired from a group of epilepsy patients and age- and gender-matched healthy controls. A brain functional network model was constructed based on resting-state functional connectivity. A minimum spanning tree combined with proportional thresholding approach was used to obtain sparse connectivity matrices for each subject, which formed the basis of brain networks. We examined the brain reorganizational changes in epilepsy thoroughly at the level of the whole brain, the functional network, and individual brain regions. At the whole-brain level, local efficiency was significantly decreased in epilepsy patients compared with the healthy controls. However, global efficiency was significantly increased in epilepsy due to increased number of functional connections between networks (although weakly connected). At the functional network level, there were significant proportions of newly formed connections between the default mode network and other networks and between the subcortical network and other networks. There was a significant proportion of decreasing connections between the cingulo-opercular task control network and other networks. Individual brain regions from different functional networks, however, showed a distinct pattern of reorganizational changes in epilepsy. These findings suggest that epilepsy alters brain efficiency in a consistent pattern at the whole-brain level, yet alters brain functional networks and individual brain regions differently.

  13. Transdiagnostic Associations Between Functional Brain Network Integrity and Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffield, Julia M; Kandala, Sridhar; Tamminga, Carol A; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Keshavan, Matcheri S; Sweeney, John A; Clementz, Brett A; Lerman-Sinkoff, Dov B; Hill, S Kristian; Barch, Deanna M

    2017-06-01

    Cognitive impairment occurs across the psychosis spectrum and is associated with functional outcome. However, it is unknown whether these shared manifestations of cognitive dysfunction across diagnostic categories also reflect shared neurobiological mechanisms or whether the source of impairment differs. To examine whether the general cognitive deficit observed across psychotic disorders is similarly associated with functional integrity of 2 brain networks widely implicated in supporting many cognitive domains. A total of 201 healthy control participants and 375 patients with psychotic disorders from the Bipolar-Schizophrenia Network on Intermediate Phenotypes (B-SNIP) consortium were studied from September 29, 2007, to May 31, 2011. The B-SNIP recruited healthy controls and stable outpatients from 6 sites: Baltimore, Maryland; Boston, Massachusetts; Chicago, Illinois; Dallas, Texas; Detroit, Michigan; and Hartford, Connecticut. All participants underwent cognitive testing and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Data analysis was performed from April 28, 2015, to February 21, 2017. The Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia was used to measure cognitive ability. A principal axis factor analysis on the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia battery yielded a single factor (54% variance explained) that served as the measure of general cognitive ability. Functional network integrity measures included global and local efficiency of the whole brain, cingulo-opercular network (CON), frontoparietal network, and auditory network and exploratory analyses of all networks from the Power atlas. Group differences in network measures, associations between cognition and network measures, and mediation models were tested. The final sample for the current study included 201 healthy controls, 143 patients with schizophrenia, 103 patients with schizoaffective disorder, and 129 patients with psychotic bipolar disorder (mean [SD] age, 35.1 [12.0] years

  14. Intellectual function, activities of daily living and computerized tomography of the brain in geriatric demented patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omura, Fumiaki; Ogura, Chikara; Kishimoto, Akira; Okubo, Masayo; Imamoto, Atsushi (Tottori Univ., Yonago (Japan). School of Medicine); Tsuchie, Harutaka; Sugihara, Kanichiro; Fujii, Shozo

    1984-09-01

    Thirty eight patients of geriatric dementia (mean age 74.9 years) were examined by computerized tomography (CT) and their intellectual functions and activities of daily living (ADL) were evaluated. CT was evaluated by both visual assessment method and direct measuring method. Intellectual function was evaluated by Jikei University dementia rating scale. ADL was evaluated by both Hasegawa's rating scale and Sengoku's rating scale. Results were as follows: significant influence by age was observed in intellectual functions and ADL of subjects above 75 years old. There were good correlations between the higher intellectual function, the better grooming and hygiene, and less needs of nursing care. The severe brain atrophy evaluated by the visual assessment method was correlated with the depressed level of intellectual function. When brain atrophy is mild despite high degree of dementia, reexamination should be made to explore somatic diseases inducing depression of mental activity. It also should be noted that sex and age difference is important in studying geriatric patients.

  15. Neuropsychological Characteristics and Their Association with Higher-Level Functional Capacity in Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayoko Miura

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Little is known about the relationship between cognitive functions and higher-level functional capacity (e.g. intellectual activity, social role, and social participation in Parkinson's disease (PD. The purpose of this study was to clarify neuropsychological characteristics and their association with higher-level functional capacity in PD patients. Methods: Participants were 31 PD patients and 23 demographically matched healthy controls. Neuropsychological tests were conducted. One year later, a questionnaire survey evaluated higher-level functional capacity in daily living. Results: The PD group scored significantly lower than the control group in all cognitive domains, particularly executive function and processing. Executive function, processing speed, language, and memory were significantly correlated with higher-level functional capacity in PD patients. Stepwise regression showed that only executive function (Trail Making Test-B, together with disease severity (HY stage, predicted the higher-level functional capacity. Conclusion: Our findings provide evidence of a relationship between executive function and higher-level functional capacity in patients with PD.

  16. Cognitive reserve is associated with the functional organization of brain in healthy aging: A MEG Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eugenia eLopez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The proportion of elderly people in the population has increased rapidly in the last century and consequently healthy aging is expected to become a critical area of research in neuroscience. Evidence reveals how healthy aging depends on three main behavioral factors: social lifestyle, cognitive activity and physical activity. In this study, we focused on the role of cognitive activity, concentrating specifically on educational and occupational attainment factors, which were considered two of the main pillars of cognitive reserve.21 subjects with similar rates of social lifestyle, physical and cognitive activity were selected from a sample of 55 healthy adults. These subjects were divided into two groups according to their level of cognitive reserve; one group comprised subjects with high cognitive reserve (9 members and the other contained those with low cognitive reserve (12 members. To evaluate the cortical brain connectivity network, all participants were recorded by Magnetoencephalography (MEG while they performed a memory task (modified version of the Sternberg´s Task. We then applied two algorithms (Phase Locking Value & Phase-Lag Index to study the dynamics of functional connectivity. In response to the same task, the subjects with lower cognitive reserve presented higher functional connectivity than those with higher cognitive reserve.These results may indicate that participants with low cognitive reserve needed a greater 'effort' than those with high cognitive reserve to achieve the same level of cognitive performance. Therefore, we conclude that cognitive reserve contributes to the modulation of the functional connectivity patterns of the aging brain.

  17. Family functioning in severe brain injuries: correlations with caregivers' burden, perceived social support and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramonti, Francesco; Bonfiglio, Luca; Di Bernardo, Carolina; Ulivi, Chiara; Virgillito, Alessandra; Rossi, Bruno; Carboncini, Maria Chiara

    2015-01-01

    Severe brain injuries have long-term consequences on functional status and psychosocial functioning. Family life can be greatly influenced as well, and features of high caregiver burden can emerge. Although the data on caregivers' distress are constantly increasing, less information is available about the role of family functioning. Thirty caregivers of hospitalised patients with severe brain injuries received questionnaires for the evaluation of caregiver burden, family functioning and perceived social support. A semi-structured interview was performed for the evaluation of quality of life. Family cohesion and adaptability positively correlated with caregivers' quality of life and perceived social support. Partner caregivers' scores were significantly higher on the time-dependent burden than those of sons and daughters, whereas the latter scored higher on the emotional burden.

  18. Measuring Social Returns to Higher Education Investments in Hong Kong: Production Function Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voon, Jan P.

    2001-01-01

    Uses a growth model involving an aggregate production function to measure social benefits from human capital improvements due to investments in Hong Kong higher education. Returns calculated using the production-function approach are significantly higher than those derived from the wage-increment method. Returns declined during the past 10 years.…

  19. Design space exploration of a particle filter using higher-0rder functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wester, Rinse; Kuper, Jan

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a design space exploration methodology based on higher-order functions to facilitate the tradeoff between execution time and area usage on FPGAs. Higher-order function are transformed, resulting in parameterized nodes where the amount of parallelism and thereby performance, can

  20. Assessment of Alzheimer's Patients with the BNI Screen for Higher Cerebral Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prigatano, George P.; Smason, Ivan

    1994-01-01

    Assessing higher cerebral functions in patients with known or suspected dementia requires sampling numerous abilities quickly and accurately. This paper reports on the performance of 20 patients with probable dementia of the Alzheimer's type (DAT) on the BNI Screen for Higher Cerebral Functions (BNI Screen). These patients' performances were…

  1. Brain structure and functional connectivity associated with pornography consumption: the brain on porn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, Simone; Gallinat, Jürgen

    2014-07-01

    Since pornography appeared on the Internet, the accessibility, affordability, and anonymity of consuming visual sexual stimuli have increased and attracted millions of users. Based on the assumption that pornography consumption bears resemblance with reward-seeking behavior, novelty-seeking behavior, and addictive behavior, we hypothesized alterations of the frontostriatal network in frequent users. To determine whether frequent pornography consumption is associated with the frontostriatal network. In a study conducted at the Max Planck Institute for Human Development in Berlin, Germany, 64 healthy male adults covering a wide range of pornography consumption reported hours of pornography consumption per week. Pornography consumption was associated with neural structure, task-related activation, and functional resting-state connectivity. Gray matter volume of the brain was measured by voxel-based morphometry and resting state functional connectivity was measured on 3-T magnetic resonance imaging scans. We found a significant negative association between reported pornography hours per week and gray matter volume in the right caudate (P < .001, corrected for multiple comparisons) as well as with functional activity during a sexual cue-reactivity paradigm in the left putamen (P < .001). Functional connectivity of the right caudate to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex was negatively associated with hours of pornography consumption. The negative association of self-reported pornography consumption with the right striatum (caudate) volume, left striatum (putamen) activation during cue reactivity, and lower functional connectivity of the right caudate to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex could reflect change in neural plasticity as a consequence of an intense stimulation of the reward system, together with a lower top-down modulation of prefrontal cortical areas. Alternatively, it could be a precondition that makes pornography consumption more rewarding.

  2. Shannon entropy of brain functional complex networks under the influence of the psychedelic Ayahuasca

    OpenAIRE

    Viol, A.; Palhano-Fontes, Fernanda; Onias, Heloisa; de Araujo, Draulio B.; Viswanathan, G. M.

    2016-01-01

    The entropic brain hypothesis holds that the key facts concerning psychedelics are partially explained in terms of increased entropy of the brain?s functional connectivity. Ayahuasca is a psychedelic beverage of Amazonian indigenous origin with legal status in Brazil in religious and scientific settings. In this context, we use tools and concepts from the theory of complex networks to analyze resting state fMRI data of the brains of human subjects under two distinct conditions: (i) under ordi...

  3. Functional brain alterations in anorexia nervosa: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuglset, Tone Seim; Landrø, Nils Inge; Reas, Deborah Lynn; Rø, Øyvind

    2016-01-01

    Neuroimaging allows for the identification of brain abnormalities and alterations that are associated with anorexia nervosa (AN). We performed a scoping review to map out the extent and nature of recent research activity on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in individuals diagnosed with, or recovered from, AN (AN-REC). A literature search of PubMed, Psychinfo and Embase was conducted using the search terms "anorexia nervosa" AND "functional magnetic resonance imaging." We included fMRI studies that involved a comparison between individuals with AN or AN-REC and healthy controls published in English language between 2010 and 2015. A total of 49 papers were included, regardless of the experimental stimuli or paradigm. Findings varied considerably across studies, reflecting methodological differences in study design, such as sample differences and experimental paradigms. Collectively, studies published during the past five years suggest altered activation in regions related to the fronto-striato and the limbic circuits, which are theorized to have an important role in the pathophysiology of AN.

  4. Influence of estradiol on functional brain organization for working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Jane E; Swearingen, Joshua E; Corbly, Christine R; Curry, Thomas E; Kelly, Thomas H

    2012-02-01

    Working memory is a cognitive function that is affected by aging and disease. To better understand the neural substrates for working memory, the present study examined the influence of estradiol on working memory using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Pre-menopausal women were tested on a verbal n-back task during the early (EF) and late follicular (LF) phases of the menstrual cycle. Although brain activation patterns were similar across the two phases, the most striking pattern that emerged was that estradiol had different associations with the two hemispheres. Increased activation in left frontal circuitry in the LF phase was associated with increased estradiol levels and decrements in working memory performance. In contrast, increased activation in right hemisphere regions in the LF phase was associated with improved task performance. The present study showed that better performance in the LF than the EF phase was associated with a pattern of reduced recruitment of the left-hemisphere and increased recruitment of the right-hemisphere in the LF compared to EF phase. We speculate that estradiol interferes with left-hemisphere working-memory processing in the LF phase, but that recruitment of the right hemisphere can compensate for left-hemisphere interference. This may be related to the proposal that estradiol can reduce cerebral asymmetries by modulating transcallosal communication (Hausmann, 2005). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Brain potentials index executive functions during random number generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joppich, Gregor; Däuper, Jan; Dengler, Reinhard; Johannes, Sönke; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni; Münte, Thomas F

    2004-06-01

    The generation of random sequences is considered to tax different executive functions. To explore the involvement of these functions further, brain potentials were recorded in 16 healthy young adults while either engaging in random number generation (RNG) by pressing the number keys on a computer keyboard in a random sequence or in ordered number generation (ONG) necessitating key presses in the canonical order. Key presses were paced by an external auditory stimulus to yield either fast (1 press/800 ms) or slow (1 press/1300 ms) sequences in separate runs. Attentional demands of random and ordered tasks were assessed by the introduction of a secondary task (key-press to a target tone). The P3 amplitude to the target tone of this secondary task was reduced during RNG, reflecting the greater consumption of attentional resources during RNG. Moreover, RNG led to a left frontal negativity peaking 140 ms after the onset of the pacing stimulus, whenever the subjects produced a true random response. This negativity could be attributed to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and was absent when numbers were repeated. This negativity was interpreted as an index for the inhibition of habitual responses. Finally, in response locked ERPs a negative component was apparent peaking about 50 ms after the key-press that was more prominent during RNG. Source localization suggested a medial frontal source. This effect was tentatively interpreted as a reflection of the greater monitoring demands during random sequence generation.

  6. Serotonin and brain function: a tale of two receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carhart-Harris, RL; Nutt, DJ

    2017-01-01

    Previous attempts to identify a unified theory of brain serotonin function have largely failed to achieve consensus. In this present synthesis, we integrate previous perspectives with new and older data to create a novel bipartite model centred on the view that serotonin neurotransmission enhances two distinct adaptive responses to adversity, mediated in large part by its two most prevalent and researched brain receptors: the 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors. We propose that passive coping (i.e. tolerating a source of stress) is mediated by postsynaptic 5-HT1AR signalling and characterised by stress moderation. Conversely, we argue that active coping (i.e. actively addressing a source of stress) is mediated by 5-HT2AR signalling and characterised by enhanced plasticity (defined as capacity for change). We propose that 5-HT1AR-mediated stress moderation may be the brain’s default response to adversity but that an improved ability to change one’s situation and/or relationship to it via 5-HT2AR-mediated plasticity may also be important – and increasingly so as the level of adversity reaches a critical point. We propose that the 5-HT1AR pathway is enhanced by conventional 5-HT reuptake blocking antidepressants such as the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), whereas the 5-HT2AR pathway is enhanced by 5-HT2AR-agonist psychedelics. This bipartite model purports to explain how different drugs (SSRIs and psychedelics) that modulate the serotonergic system in different ways, can achieve complementary adaptive and potentially therapeutic outcomes. PMID:28858536

  7. Data-driven analysis of functional brain interactions during free listening to music and speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jun; Hu, Xintao; Han, Junwei; Jiang, Xi; Zhu, Dajiang; Guo, Lei; Liu, Tianming

    2015-06-01

    Natural stimulus functional magnetic resonance imaging (N-fMRI) such as fMRI acquired when participants were watching video streams or listening to audio streams has been increasingly used to investigate functional mechanisms of the human brain in recent years. One of the fundamental challenges in functional brain mapping based on N-fMRI is to model the brain's functional responses to continuous, naturalistic and dynamic natural stimuli. To address this challenge, in this paper we present a data-driven approach to exploring functional interactions in the human brain during free listening to music and speech streams. Specifically, we model the brain responses using N-fMRI by measuring the functional interactions on large-scale brain networks with intrinsically established structural correspondence, and perform music and speech classification tasks to guide the systematic identification of consistent and discriminative functional interactions when multiple subjects were listening music and speech in multiple categories. The underlying premise is that the functional interactions derived from N-fMRI data of multiple subjects should exhibit both consistency and discriminability. Our experimental results show that a variety of brain systems including attention, memory, auditory/language, emotion, and action networks are among the most relevant brain systems involved in classic music, pop music and speech differentiation. Our study provides an alternative approach to investigating the human brain's mechanism in comprehension of complex natural music and speech.

  8. Parent psychological functioning and communication predict externalizing behavior problems after pediatric traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Stacey P; Wade, Shari L; Cassedy, Amy; Taylor, H Gerry; Stancin, Terry; Brown, Tanya M; Kirkwood, Michael W

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents sustaining traumatic brain injury (TBI) show increased prevalence of behavior problems. This study investigated the associations of parent mental health, family functioning, and parent-adolescent interaction with adolescent externalizing behavior problems in the initial months after TBI, and examined whether injury severity moderated these associations. 117 parent-adolescent dyads completed measures of family functioning, adolescent behavior, and parent mental health an average of 108 days post-TBI. Dyads also engaged in a 10-min video-recorded problem-solving activity coded for parent behavior and tone of interaction. Overall, higher ratings of effective parent communication were associated with fewer externalizing behavior problems, whereas poorer caregiver psychological functioning was associated with greater adolescent externalizing behaviors. Results failed to reveal moderating effects of TBI severity on the relationship between socio-environmental factors and behavior problems. Interventions targeting parent communication and/or improving caregiver psychological health may ameliorate potential externalizing behavior problems after adolescent TBI.

  9. Functional abnormalities in normally appearing athletes following mild traumatic brain injury: a functional MRI study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slobounov, Semyon M.; Zhang, K.; Pennell, D.; Ray, W.; Johnson, B.; Sebastianelli, W.

    2010-01-01

    Memory problems are one of the most common symptoms of sport-related mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI), known as concussion. Surprisingly, little research has examined spatial memory in concussed athletes given its importance in athletic environments. Here, we combine functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with a virtual reality (VR) paradigm designed to investigate the possibility of residual functional deficits in recently concussed but asymptomatic individuals. Specifically, we report performance of spatial memory navigation tasks in a VR environment and fMRI data in 15 athletes suffering from MTBI and 15 neurologically normal, athletically active age matched controls. No differences in performance were observed between these two groups of subjects in terms of success rate (94 and 92%) and time to complete the spatial memory navigation tasks (mean = 19.5 and 19.7 s). Whole brain analysis revealed that similar brain activation patterns were observed during both encoding and retrieval among the groups. However, concussed athletes showed larger cortical networks with additional increases in activity outside of the shared region of interest (ROI) during encoding. Quantitative analysis of blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal revealed that concussed individuals had a significantly larger cluster size during encoding at parietal cortex, right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and right hippocampus. In addition, there was a significantly larger BOLD signal percent change at the right hippocampus. Neither cluster size nor BOLD signal percent change at shared ROIs was different between groups during retrieval. These major findings are discussed with respect to current hypotheses regarding the neural mechanism responsible for alteration of brain functions in a clinical setting. PMID:20039023

  10. Dogs cannot bark: event-related brain responses to true and false negated statements as indicators of higher-order conscious processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Cornelia; Kübler, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated event-related brain potentials elicited by true and false negated statements to evaluate if discrimination of the truth value of negated information relies on conscious processing and requires higher-order cognitive processing in healthy subjects across different levels of stimulus complexity. The stimulus material consisted of true and false negated sentences (sentence level) and prime-target expressions (word level). Stimuli were presented acoustically and no overt behavioral response of the participants was required. Event-related brain potentials to target words preceded by true and false negated expressions were analyzed both within group and at the single subject level. Across the different processing conditions (word pairs and sentences), target words elicited a frontal negativity and a late positivity in the time window from 600-1000 msec post target word onset. Amplitudes of both brain potentials varied as a function of the truth value of the negated expressions. Results were confirmed at the single-subject level. In sum, our results support recent suggestions according to which evaluation of the truth value of a negated expression is a time- and cognitively demanding process that cannot be solved automatically, and thus requires conscious processing. Our paradigm provides insight into higher-order processing related to language comprehension and reasoning in healthy subjects. Future studies are needed to evaluate if our paradigm also proves sensitive for the detection of consciousness in non-responsive patients.

  11. Functional language shift to the right hemisphere in patients with language-eloquent brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieg, Sandro M; Sollmann, Nico; Hauck, Theresa; Ille, Sebastian; Foerschler, Annette; Meyer, Bernhard; Ringel, Florian

    2013-01-01

    Language function is mainly located within the left hemisphere of the brain, especially in right-handed subjects. However, functional MRI (fMRI) has demonstrated changes of language organization in patients with left-sided perisylvian lesions to the right hemisphere. Because intracerebral lesions can impair fMRI, this study was designed to investigate human language plasticity with a virtual lesion model using repetitive navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). Fifteen patients with lesions of left-sided language-eloquent brain areas and 50 healthy and purely right-handed participants underwent bilateral rTMS language mapping via an object-naming task. All patients were proven to have left-sided language function during awake surgery. The rTMS-induced language errors were categorized into 6 different error types. The error ratio (induced errors/number of stimulations) was determined for each brain region on both hemispheres. A hemispheric dominance ratio was then defined for each region as the quotient of the error ratio (left/right) of the corresponding area of both hemispheres (ratio >1 = left dominant; ratio right dominant). Patients with language-eloquent lesions showed a statistically significantly lower ratio than healthy participants concerning "all errors" and "all errors without hesitations", which indicates a higher participation of the right hemisphere in language function. Yet, there was no cortical region with pronounced difference in language dominance compared to the whole hemisphere. This is the first study that shows by means of an anatomically accurate virtual lesion model that a shift of language function to the non-dominant hemisphere can occur.

  12. Alcohol affects brain functional connectivity and its coupling with behavior: greater effects in male heavy drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokri-Kojori, E; Tomasi, D; Wiers, C E; Wang, G-J; Volkow, N D

    2017-08-01

    Acute and chronic alcohol exposure significantly affect behavior but the underlying neurobiological mechanisms are still poorly understood. Here, we used functional connectivity density (FCD) mapping to study alcohol-related changes in resting brain activity and their association with behavior. Heavy drinkers (HD, N=16, 16 males) and normal controls (NM, N=24, 14 males) were tested after placebo and after acute alcohol administration. Group comparisons showed that NM had higher FCD in visual and prefrontal cortices, default mode network regions and thalamus, while HD had higher FCD in cerebellum. Acute alcohol significantly increased FCD within the thalamus, impaired cognitive and motor functions, and affected self-reports of mood/drug effects in both groups. Partial least squares regression showed that alcohol-induced changes in mood/drug effects were associated with changes in thalamic FCD in both groups. Disruptions in motor function were associated with increases in cerebellar FCD in NM and thalamus FCD in HD. Alcohol-induced declines in cognitive performance were associated with connectivity increases in visual cortex and thalamus in NM, but in HD, increases in precuneus FCD were associated with improved cognitive performance. Acute alcohol reduced 'neurocognitive coupling', the association between behavioral performance and FCD (indexing brain activity), an effect that was accentuated in HD compared with NM. Findings suggest that reduced cortical connectivity in HD contribute to decline in cognitive abilities associated with heavy alcohol consumption, whereas increased cerebellar connectivity in HD may have compensatory effects on behavioral performance. The results reveal how drinking history alters the association between brain FCD and individual differences in behavioral performance.

  13. Functional neuroanatomy of executive function after neonatal brain injury in adults who were born very preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalpakidou, Anastasia K; Allin, Matthew P G; Walshe, Muriel; Giampietro, Vincent; McGuire, Philip K; Rifkin, Larry; Murray, Robin M; Nosarti, Chiara

    2014-01-01

    Individuals who were born very preterm (VPT; history of periventricular haemorrhage and ventricular dilatation (PVH+VD), 17 VPT individuals with a history of uncomplicated periventricular haemorrhage (UPVH), 13 VPT individuals with no history of neonatal brain injury and 17 controls received an MRI scan whilst completing a verbal fluency task with two cognitive loads ('easy' and 'hard' letters). Two groups of VPT individuals (PVH+VD; n = 10, UPVH; n = 8) performed an n-back task with three cognitive loads (1-, 2-, 3-back). Results demonstrated that VPT individuals displayed hyperactivation in frontal, temporal, and parietal cortices and in caudate nucleus, insula and thalamus compared to controls, as demands of the verbal fluency task increased, regardless of type of neonatal brain injury. On the other hand, during the n-back task and as working memory load increased, the PVH+VD group showed less engagement of the frontal cortex than the UPVH group. In conclusion, this study suggests that the functional neuroanatomy of different executive-type processes is altered following VPT birth and that neural activation associated with specific aspects of executive function (i.e., working memory) may be particularly sensitive to the extent of neonatal brain injury.

  14. Imaging Brain Function with Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy in Unconstrained Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana B. Balardin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the neural correlates of motor and cognitive processes under naturalistic experimentation is challenging due to the movement constraints of traditional brain imaging technologies. The recent advent of portable technologies that are less sensitive to motion artifacts such as Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS have been made possible the study of brain function in freely-moving participants. In this paper, we describe a series of proof-of-concept experiments examining the potential of fNIRS in assessing the neural correlates of cognitive and motor processes in unconstrained environments. We show illustrative applications for practicing a sport (i.e., table tennis, playing a musical instrument (i.e., piano and violin alone or in duo and performing daily activities for many hours (i.e., continuous monitoring. Our results expand upon previous research on the feasibility and robustness of fNIRS to monitor brain hemodynamic changes in different real life settings. We believe that these preliminary results showing the flexibility and robustness of fNIRS measurements may contribute by inspiring future work in the field of applied neuroscience.

  15. Structural and Functional Brain Changes at Early and Late Stages of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokouhi, Mahsa; Clarke, Collin; Morley-Forster, Patricia; Moulin, Dwight E; Davis, Karen D; St Lawrence, Keith

    2017-10-14

    Brain plasticity is demonstrated in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), although it is unclear how it modulates at different stages of CRPS. The observation that symptoms can progress over time suggests that the pattern of brain changes might also evolve. We measured structural and functional changes as well as sensorimotor integration at the early stage (ES) and late stage (LS) of CRPS. Twelve ES patients, 16 LS patients, and 16 age- and sex-matched controls were recruited. Gray matter (GM) volume was estimated using voxel-based morphometry. Cerebral perfusion was measured using arterial spin labeling, because it provides a measure of resting neural activity. Connectivity to sensorimotor regions was evaluated using blood-oxygen level-dependent images. The ES group showed reduced GM volume and perfusion in areas associated with spatial body perception, somatosensory cortex, and the limbic system, whereas the LS group exhibited increased perfusion in the motor cortex but no changes in GM volume. However, in the LS group, GM volume in areas associated with pain processing was negatively correlated with average pain levels, likely reflecting a response to ongoing pain. Furthermore, connectivity to sensorimotor cortex showed disruptions in regions associated with motor control and planning, implying impairment of higher-order motor control. This article presents brain changes at ES and LS of CRPS. We found different patterns of brain changes between these 2 stages. Understanding modulation of brain plasticity at different stages of CRPS could help understand the diversity in outcomes and treatment response and hopefully improve treatment planning. Copyright © 2017 The American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of alcohol intake on brain structure and function in non-alcohol-dependent drinkers

    OpenAIRE

    Bruin, Eveline Astrid de

    2005-01-01

    About 85% of the adult population in the Netherlands regularly drinks alcohol. Chronic excessive alcohol intake in alcohol-dependent individuals is known to have damaging effects on brain structure and function. Relatives of alcohol-dependent individuals display differences in brain function that are similar to those found in alcoholics, even if they have never been drinking alcohol. This suggests that brain damage in alcohol-dependent individuals is at least partly related to genetic factors...

  17. Aberrant brain regional homogeneity and functional connectivity in middle-aged T2DM patients: a resting-state functional MRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daihong Liu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM has been associated with cognitive impairment. However, its neurological mechanism remains elusive. Combining regional homogeneity (ReHo and functional connectivity (FC analyses, the present study aimed to investigate brain functional alterations in middle-aged T2DM patients, which could provide complementary information for the neural substrates underlying T2DM-associated brain dysfunction. Twenty-five T2DM patients and 25 healthy controls were involved in neuropsychological testing and structural and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data acquisition. ReHo analysis was conducted to determine the peak coordinates of brain regions with abnormal local brain activity synchronization. Then, the identified brain regions were considered as seeds, and FC between these brain regions and global voxels was computed. Finally, the potential correlations between the imaging indices and neuropsychological data were also explored. Compared with healthy controls, T2DM patients exhibited higher ReHo values in the anterior cingulate gyrus and lower ReHo in right fusiform gyrus, right precentral gyrus and right medial orbit of the superior frontal gyrus. Considering these areas as seed regions, T2DM patients displayed aberrant FC, mainly in the frontal and parietal lobes. The pattern of FC alterations in T2DM patients was characterized by decreased connectivity and positive to negative or negative to positive converted connectivity. Digital Span Test forward scores revealed significant correlations with the ReHo values of the right precentral gyrus (ρ = 0.527, p = 0.014 and FC between the right fusiform gyrus and middle temporal gyrus (ρ = -0.437, p = 0.048. Our findings suggest that T2DM patients suffer from cognitive dysfunction related to spatially local and remote brain activity synchronization impairment. The patterns of ReHo and FC alterations shed light on the mechanisms underlying T2DM-associated brain

  18. Altered Small-World Efficiency of Brain Functional Networks in Acupuncture at ST36: A Functional MRI Study

    OpenAIRE

    Bo Liu; Jun Chen; Jinhui Wang; Xian Liu; Xiaohui Duan; Xiaojing Shang; Yu Long; Zhiguang Chen; Xiaofang Li; Yan Huang; Yong He

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acupuncture in humans can produce clinical effects via the central nervous system. However, the neural substrates of acupuncture's effects remain largely unknown. RESULTS: We utilized functional MRI to investigate the topological efficiency of brain functional networks in eighteen healthy young adults who were scanned before and after acupuncture at the ST36 acupoints (ACUP) and its sham point (SHAM). Whole-brain functional networks were constructed by thresholding temporal correl...

  19. Complex network analysis of brain functional connectivity under a multi-step cognitive task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Shi-Min; Chen, Wei; Liu, Dong-Bai; Tang, Ming; Chen, Xun

    2017-01-01

    Functional brain network has been widely studied to understand the relationship between brain organization and behavior. In this paper, we aim to explore the functional connectivity of brain network under a multi-step cognitive task involving consecutive behaviors, and further understand the effect of behaviors on the brain organization. The functional brain networks are constructed based on a high spatial and temporal resolution fMRI dataset and analyzed via complex network based approach. We find that at voxel level the functional brain network shows robust small-worldness and scale-free characteristics, while its assortativity and rich-club organization are slightly restricted to the order of behaviors performed. More interestingly, the functional connectivity of brain network in activated ROIs strongly correlates with behaviors and is obviously restricted to the order of behaviors performed. These empirical results suggest that the brain organization has the generic properties of small-worldness and scale-free characteristics, and its diverse functional connectivity emerging from activated ROIs is strongly driven by these behavioral activities via the plasticity of brain.

  20. Beyond sex differences: new approaches for thinking about variation in brain structure and function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joel, Daphna; Fausto-Sterling, Anne

    2016-01-01

    In the study of variation in brain structure and function that might relate to sex and gender, language matters because it frames our research questions and methods. In this article, we offer an approach to thinking about variation in brain structure and function that pulls us outside the sex differences formulation. We argue that the existence of differences between the brains of males and females does not unravel the relations between sex and the brain nor is it sufficient to characterize a population of brains. Such characterization is necessary for studying sex effects on the brain as well as for studying brain structure and function in general. Animal studies show that sex interacts with environmental, developmental and genetic factors to affect the brain. Studies of humans further suggest that human brains are better described as belonging to a single heterogeneous population rather than two distinct populations. We discuss the implications of these observations for studies of brain and behaviour in humans and in laboratory animals. We believe that studying sex effects in context and developing or adopting analytical methods that take into account the heterogeneity of the brain are crucial for the advancement of human health and well-being. PMID:26833844

  1. State-Dependent Changes of Connectivity Patterns and Functional Brain Network Topology in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barttfeld, Pablo; Wicker, Bruno; Cukier, Sebastian; Navarta, Silvana; Lew, Sergio; Leiguarda, Ramon; Sigman, Mariano

    2012-01-01

    Anatomical and functional brain studies have converged to the hypothesis that autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are associated with atypical connectivity. Using a modified resting-state paradigm to drive subjects' attention, we provide evidence of a very marked interaction between ASD brain functional connectivity and cognitive state. We show that…

  2. Differential effect of spinal cord injury and functional impairment on human brain activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curt, A; Bruehlmeier, M; Leenders, KL; Roelcke, U; Dietz, [No Value

    Reorganization of human brain function after spinal cord injury (SCI) has been shown in electrophysiological studies. However, it is less clear how far changes of brain activation in SCI patients are influenced by the extent of SCI (neuronal lesion) or the consequent functional impairment. Positron

  3. From the Left to the Right: How the Brain Compensates Progressive Loss of Language Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, Alexander; Habedank, Birgit; Herholz, Karl; Kessler, Josef; Winhuisen, Lutz; Haupt, Walter F.; Heiss, Wolf-Dieter

    2006-01-01

    In normal right-handed subjects language production usually is a function of the left brain hemisphere. Patients with aphasia following brain damage to the left hemisphere have a considerable potential to compensate for the loss of this function. Sometimes, but not always, areas of the right hemisphere which are homologous to language areas of the…

  4. Effects of alcohol intake on brain structure and function in non-alcohol-dependent drinkers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, Eveline Astrid de

    2005-01-01

    About 85% of the adult population in the Netherlands regularly drinks alcohol. Chronic excessive alcohol intake in alcohol-dependent individuals is known to have damaging effects on brain structure and function. Relatives of alcohol-dependent individuals display differences in brain function that

  5. The Effect of Antibiotics in Early Life on Brain Function and Behaviour

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Research has found that these microorganisms, known as gut microbiota, play an important role in the development and normal function of our immune and nervous systems. This project will offer important insights into how antibiotics might disrupt gut microbiota and affect brain function in young children. Brain chemistry ...

  6. Analysis of structure-function network decoupling in the brain systems of spastic diplegic cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dongha; Pae, Chongwon; Lee, Jong Doo; Park, Eun Sook; Cho, Sung-Rae; Um, Min-Hee; Lee, Seung-Koo; Oh, Maeng-Keun; Park, Hae-Jeong

    2017-10-01

    Manifestation of the functionalities from the structural brain network is becoming increasingly important to understand a brain disease. With the aim of investigating the differential structure-function couplings according to network systems, we investigated the structural and functional brain networks of patients with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy with periventricular leukomalacia compared to healthy controls. The structural and functional networks of the whole brain and motor system, constructed using deterministic and probabilistic tractography of diffusion tensor magnetic resonance images and Pearson and partial correlation analyses of resting-state functional magnetic resonance images, showed differential embedding of functional networks in the structural networks in patients. In the whole-brain network of patients, significantly reduced global network efficiency compared to healthy controls were found in the structural networks but not in the functional networks, resulting in reduced structural-functional coupling. On the contrary, the motor network of patients had a significantly lower functional network efficiency over the intact structural network and a lower structure-function coupling than the control group. This reduced coupling but reverse directionality in the whole-brain and motor networks of patients was prominent particularly between the probabilistic structural and partial correlation-based functional networks. Intact (or less deficient) functional network over impaired structural networks of the whole brain and highly impaired functional network topology over the intact structural motor network might subserve relatively preserved cognitions and impaired motor functions in cerebral palsy. This study suggests that the structure-function relationship, evaluated specifically using sparse functional connectivity, may reveal important clues to functional reorganization in cerebral palsy. Hum Brain Mapp 38:5292-5306, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals

  7. Theory of brain function, quantum mechanics and superstrings

    CERN Document Server

    Nanopoulos, Dimitri V.

    1995-01-01

    Recent developments/efforts to understand aspects of the brain function at the {\\em sub-neural} level are discussed. MicroTubules (MTs) participate in a wide variety of dynamical processes in the cell especially in bioinformation processes such as learning and memory, by possessing a well-known binary error-correcting code with 64 words. In fact, MTs and DNA/RNA are unique cell structures that possess a code system. It seems that the MTs' code system is strongly related to a kind of ``Mental Code" in the following sense. The MTs' periodic paracrystalline structure make them able to support a superposition of coherent quantum states, as it has been recently conjectured by Hameroff and Penrose, representing an external or mental order, for sufficient time needed for efficient quantum computing. Then the quantum superposition collapses spontaneously/dynamically through a new, string-derived mechanism for collapse proposed recently by Ellis, Mavromatos, and myself. At the moment of collapse, organized quantum exo...

  8. Surviving a brain tumor in childhood: impact on family functioning in adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, Laura; Schappin, Renske; Gooskens, Rob; Huisman, Jaap; Jongmans, Marian

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate family functioning in families with an adolescent survivor of a pediatric brain tumor. We explored whether adolescent, parent, disease and treatment factors, and demographic characteristics predicted family functioning. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 45 adolescent

  9. Dynamic Functional Segregation and Integration in Human Brain Network During Complex Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen Ren; Junhua Li; Taya, Fumihiko; deSouza, Joshua; Thakor, Nitish V; Bezerianos, Anastasios

    2017-06-01

    The analysis of the topology and organization of brain networks is known to greatly benefit from network measures in graph theory. However, to evaluate dynamic changes of brain functional connectivity, more sophisticated quantitative metrics characterizing temporal evolution of brain topological features are required. To simplify conversion of time-varying brain connectivity to a static graph representation is straightforward but the procedure loses temporal information that could be critical in understanding the brain functions. To extend the understandings of functional segregation and integration to a dynamic fashion, we recommend dynamic graph metrics to characterise temporal changes of topological features of brain networks. This study investigated functional segregation and integration of brain networks over time by dynamic graph metrics derived from EEG signals during an experimental protocol: performance of complex flight simulation tasks with multiple levels of difficulty. We modelled time-varying brain functional connectivity as multi-layer networks, in which each layer models brain connectivity at time window t + Δt. Dynamic graph metrics were calculated to quantify temporal and topological properties of the network. Results show that brain networks under the performance of complex tasks reveal a dynamic small-world architecture with a number of frequently connected nodes or hubs, which supports the balance of information segregation and integration in brain over time. The results also show that greater cognitive workloads caused by more difficult tasks induced a more globally efficient but less clustered dynamic small-world functional network. Our study illustrates that task-related changes of functional brain network segregation and integration can be characterized by dynamic graph metrics.

  10. Dynamic brain architectures in local brain activity and functional network efficiency associate with efficient reading in bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Gangyi; Chen, Hsuan-Chih; Zhu, Zude; He, Yong; Wang, Suiping

    2015-10-01

    The human brain is organized as a dynamic network, in which both regional brain activity and inter-regional connectivity support high-level cognitive processes, such as reading. However, it is still largely unknown how the functional brain network organizes to enable fast and effortless reading processing in the native language (L1) but not in a non-proficient second language (L2), and whether the mechanisms underlying local activity are associated with connectivity dynamics in large-scale brain networks. In the present study, we combined activation-based and multivariate graph-theory analysis with functional magnetic resonance imaging data to address these questions. Chinese-English unbalanced bilinguals read narratives for comprehension in Chinese (L1) and in English (L2). Compared with L2, reading in L1 evoked greater brain activation and recruited a more globally efficient but less clustered network organization. Regions with both increased network efficiency and enhanced brain activation in L1 reading were mostly located in the fronto-temporal reading-related network (RN), whereas regions with decreased global network efficiency, increased clustering, and more deactivation in L2 reading were identified in the default mode network (DMN). Moreover, functional network efficiency was closely associated with local brain activation, and such associations were also modulated by reading efficiency in the two languages. Our results demonstrate that an economical and integrative brain network topology is associated with efficient reading, and further reveal a dynamic association between network efficiency and local activation for both RN and DMN. These findings underscore the importance of considering interregional connectivity when interpreting local BOLD signal changes in bilingual reading. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. An evaluation of the left-brain vs. right-brain hypothesis with resting state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Jared A; Zielinski, Brandon A; Ferguson, Michael A; Lainhart, Janet E; Anderson, Jeffrey S

    2013-01-01

    Lateralized brain regions subserve functions such as language and visuospatial processing. It has been conjectured that individuals may be left-brain dominant or right-brain dominant based on personality and cognitive style, but neuroimaging data has not provided clear evidence whether such phenotypic differences in the strength of left-dominant or right-dominant networks exist. We evaluated whether strongly lateralized connections covaried within the same individuals. Data were analyzed from publicly available resting state scans for 1011 individuals between the ages of 7 and 29. For each subject, functional lateralization was measured for each pair of 7266 regions covering the gray matter at 5-mm resolution as a difference in correlation before and after inverting images across the midsagittal plane. The difference in gray matter density between homotopic coordinates was used as a regressor to reduce the effect of structural asymmetries on functional lateralization. Nine left- and 11 right-lateralized hubs were identified as peaks in the degree map from the graph of significantly lateralized connections. The left-lateralized hubs included regions from the default mode network (medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, and temporoparietal junction) and language regions (e.g., Broca Area and Wernicke Area), whereas the right-lateralized hubs included regions from the attention control network (e.g., lateral intraparietal sulcus, anterior insula, area MT, and frontal eye fields). Left- and right-lateralized hubs formed two separable networks of mutually lateralized regions. Connections involving only left- or only right-lateralized hubs showed positive correlation across subjects, but only for connections sharing a node. Lateralization of brain connections appears to be a local rather than global property of brain networks, and our data are not consistent with a whole-brain phenotype of greater "left-brained" or greater "right-brained" network strength

  12. An evaluation of the left-brain vs. right-brain hypothesis with resting state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared A Nielsen

    Full Text Available Lateralized brain regions subserve functions such as language and visuospatial processing. It has been conjectured that individuals may be left-brain dominant or right-brain dominant based on personality and cognitive style, but neuroimaging data has not provided clear evidence whether such phenotypic differences in the strength of left-dominant or right-dominant networks exist. We evaluated whether strongly lateralized connections covaried within the same individuals. Data were analyzed from publicly available resting state scans for 1011 individuals between the ages of 7 and 29. For each subject, functional lateralization was measured for each pair of 7266 regions covering the gray matter at 5-mm resolution as a difference in correlation before and after inverting images across the midsagittal plane. The difference in gray matter density between homotopic coordinates was used as a regressor to reduce the effect of structural asymmetries on functional lateralization. Nine left- and 11 right-lateralized hubs were identified as peaks in the degree map from the graph of significantly lateralized connections. The left-lateralized hubs included regions from the default mode network (medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, and temporoparietal junction and language regions (e.g., Broca Area and Wernicke Area, whereas the right-lateralized hubs included regions from the attention control network (e.g., lateral intraparietal sulcus, anterior insula, area MT, and frontal eye fields. Left- and right-lateralized hubs formed two separable networks of mutually lateralized regions. Connections involving only left- or only right-lateralized hubs showed positive correlation across subjects, but only for connections sharing a node. Lateralization of brain connections appears to be a local rather than global property of brain networks, and our data are not consistent with a whole-brain phenotype of greater "left-brained" or greater "right-brained

  13. Whole-brain analytic measures of network communication reveal increased structure-function correlation in right temporal lobe epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Wirsich

    2016-01-01

    In rTLE patients, we found a widespread hypercorrelated functional network. Network communication analysis revealed greater unspecific branching of the shortest path (search information in the structural connectome and a higher global correlation between the structural and functional connectivity for the patient group. We also found evidence for a preserved structural rich-club in the patient group. In sum, global augmentation of structure-function correlation might be linked to a smaller functional repertoire in rTLE patients, while sparing the central core of the brain which may represent a pathway that facilitates the spread of seizures.

  14. The blind brain: how (lack of) vision shapes the morphological and functional architecture of the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardi, Emiliano; Handjaras, Giacomo; Pietrini, Pietro

    2014-11-01

    Since the early days, how we represent the world around us has been a matter of philosophical speculation. Over the last few decades, modern neuroscience, and specifically the development of methodologies for the structural and the functional exploration of the brain have made it possible to investigate old questions with an innovative approach. In this brief review, we discuss the main findings from a series of brain anatomical and functional studies conducted in sighted and congenitally blind individuals by our's and others' laboratories. Historically, research on the 'blind brain' has focused mainly on the cross-modal plastic changes that follow sensory deprivation. More recently, a novel line of research has been developed to determine to what extent visual experience is truly required to achieve a representation of the surrounding environment. Overall, the results of these studies indicate that most of the brain fine morphological and functional architecture is programmed to develop and function independently from any visual experience. Distinct cortical areas are able to process information in a supramodal fashion, that is, independently from the sensory modality that carries that information to the brain. These observations strongly support the hypothesis of a modality-independent, i.e. more abstract, cortical organization, and may contribute to explain how congenitally blind individuals may interact efficiently with an external world that they have never seen. © 2014 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  15. Effect of intermittent hypoxic training on hypoxia tolerance based on brain functional connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guang; Zhang, Tinglin; Chen, Xiaojian; Shang, Chungang; Wang, You

    2016-12-01

    The difference of brain functional connectivity between hypoxic and normal states was studied. The impact of intermittent hypoxic training on the hypoxia tolerance of the brain was explored. Multivariable empirical mode decomposition was applied to extract common inherent modes of multichannel EEG adaptively instead of a priori selection of filter bandwidth, and the first two scales of intrinsic mode functions expressed the differences in brain connectivity. To quantify synchronization and search for consistent performance, coherence, phase locking value and synchronization likelihood were all utilized. Brain networks extracted from these synchronization measures all displayed that both local and global functional connectivity declined with increasing time in a hypoxic state. Furthermore, early hypoxia of the brain was represented on brain connectivity before mental fatigue was detected by conventional neurobehavioral evaluation. The decrease of connectivity tended to slow down in hypoxic conditions after training, which indicated that hypoxia tolerance strengthened because of the hypoxic training.

  16. Neuroimaging Biomarkers of Caloric Restriction on Brain Metabolic and Vascular Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ai-Ling; Parikh, Ishita; Hoffman, Jared D; Ma, David

    2017-03-01

    Non-invasive neuroimaging methods have been developed as powerful tools for identifying in vivo brain functions for studies in humans and animals. Here we review the imaging biomarkers that are being used to determine the changes within brain metabolic and vascular functions induced by caloric restriction (CR), and their potential usefulness for future studies with dietary interventions in humans. CR causes an early shift in brain metabolism of glucose to ketone bodies, and enhances ATP production, neuronal activity and cerebral blood flow (CBF). With age, CR preserves mitochondrial activity, neurotransmission, CBF, and spatial memory. CR also reduces anxiety in aging mice. Neuroimaging studies in humans show that CR restores abnormal brain activity in the amygdala of women with obesity and enhances brain connectivity in old adults. Neuroimaging methods have excellent translational values and can be widely applied in future studies to identify dietary effects on brain functions in humans.

  17. Problem-Solving After Traumatic Brain Injury in Adolescence: Associations With Functional Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Shari L; Cassedy, Amy E; Fulks, Lauren E; Taylor, H Gerry; Stancin, Terry; Kirkwood, Michael W; Yeates, Keith O; Kurowski, Brad G

    2017-08-01

    To examine the association of problem-solving with functioning in youth with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Cross-sectional evaluation of pretreatment data from a randomized controlled trial. Four children's hospitals and 1 general hospital, with level 1 trauma units. Youth, ages 11 to 18 years, who sustained moderate or severe TBI in the last 18 months (N=153). Problem-solving skills were assessed using the Social Problem-Solving Inventory (SPSI) and the Dodge Social Information Processing Short Stories. Everyday functioning was assessed based on a structured clinical interview using the Child and Adolescent Functional Assessment Scale (CAFAS) and via adolescent ratings on the Youth Self Report (YSR). Correlations and multiple regression analyses were used to examine associations among measures. The TBI group endorsed lower levels of maladaptive problem-solving (negative problem orientation, careless/impulsive responding, and avoidant style) and lower levels of rational problem-solving, resulting in higher total problem-solving scores for the TBI group compared with a normative sample (Pproblem-solving composites were associated with overall functioning on the CAFAS, only maladaptive problem-solving (PProblem-solving after TBI differs from normative samples and is associated with functional impairments. The relation of problem-solving deficits after TBI with global functioning merits further investigation, with consideration of the potential effects of problem-solving interventions on functional outcomes. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Sparse coding reveals greater functional connectivity in female brains during naturalistic emotional experience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudan Ren

    Full Text Available Functional neuroimaging is widely used to examine changes in brain function associated with age, gender or neuropsychiatric conditions. FMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging studies employ either laboratory-designed tasks that engage the brain with abstracted and repeated stimuli, or resting state paradigms with little behavioral constraint. Recently, novel neuroimaging paradigms using naturalistic stimuli are gaining increasing attraction, as they offer an ecologically-valid condition to approximate brain function in real life. Wider application of naturalistic paradigms in exploring individual differences in brain function, however, awaits further advances in statistical methods for modeling dynamic and complex dataset. Here, we developed a novel data-driven strategy that employs group sparse representation to assess gender differences in brain responses during naturalistic emotional experience. Comparing to independent component analysis (ICA, sparse coding algorithm considers the intrinsic sparsity of neural coding and thus could be more suitable in modeling dynamic whole-brain fMRI signals. An online dictionary learning and sparse coding algorithm was applied to the aggregated fMRI signals from both groups, which was subsequently factorized into a common time series signal dictionary matrix and the associated weight coefficient matrix. Our results demonstrate that group sparse representation can effectively identify gender differences in functional brain network during natural viewing, with improved sensitivity and reliability over ICA-based method. Group sparse representation hence offers a superior data-driven strategy for examining brain function during naturalistic conditions, with great potential for clinical application in neuropsychiatric disorders.

  19. Brain microRNAs and insights into biological functions and therapeutic potential of brain enriched miRNA-128.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlakha, Yogita K; Saini, Neeru

    2014-02-21

    MicroRNAs, the non-coding single-stranded RNA of 19-25 nucleotides are emerging as robust players of gene regulation. Plethora of evidences support that the ability of microRNAs to regulate several genes of a pathway or even multiple cross talking pathways have significant impact on a complex regulatory network and ultimately the physiological processes and diseases. Brain being a complex organ with several cell types, expresses more distinct miRNAs than any other tissues. This review aims to discuss about the microRNAs in brain development, function and their dysfunction in brain tumors. We also provide a comprehensive summary of targets of brain specific and brain enriched miRNAs that contribute to the diversity and plasticity of the brain. In particular, we uncover recent findings on miRNA-128, a brain-enriched microRNA that is induced during neuronal differentiation and whose aberrant expression has been reported in several cancers. This review describes the wide spectrum of targets of miRNA-128 that have been identified till date with potential roles in apoptosis, angiogenesis, proliferation, cholesterol metabolism, self renewal, invasion and cancer progression and how this knowledge might be exploited for the development of future miRNA-128 based therapies for the treatment of cancer as well as metabolic diseases.

  20. Sleep inertia, sleep homeostatic, and circadian influences on higher-order cognitive functions

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, Tina M.; Scheer, Frank A. J. L.; Ronda, Joseph M.; Czeisler, Charles A.; Wright, Kenneth P.

    2015-01-01

    Sleep inertia, sleep homeostatic, and circadian processes modulate cognition, including reaction time, memory, mood, and alertness. How these processes influence higher-order cognitive functions is not well known. Six participants completed a 73-daylong study that included two 14-daylong 28h forced desynchrony protocols, to examine separate and interacting influences of sleep inertia, sleep homeostasis, and circadian phase on higher-order cognitive functions of inhibitory control and selectiv...

  1. Neurocognitive performance of children with higher functioning autism spectrum disorders on the NEPSY-II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron-Linnankoski, Sarianna; Reinvall, Outi; Lahervuori, Anne; Voutilainen, Arja; Lahti-Nuuttila, Pekka; Korkman, Marit

    2015-01-01

    This study examined patterns of strengths and weaknesses in the neurocognitive performance of children with higher functioning autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The participants were 30 children with higher functioning ASD ranging from 6 to 11 years, and 60 typically developing (TD) children, who were matched with the children with higher functioning ASD in terms of age, gender, and maternal education. The TD children were drawn from the Finnish standardization sample for the NEPSY-II. The cognitive abilities of the children with higher functioning ASD were assessed with the WISC-III, and the neurocognitive performance of the children with higher functioning ASD and TD children on the NEPSY-II was compared. The children with higher functioning ASD were found to have strengths in verbal reasoning skills with respect to the population mean and weaknesses in set-shifting, verbal fluency, and narrative memory in comparison with the TD children. Minor weaknesses were also observed in facial memory and fine and visuomotor skills.

  2. Asymmetry of Hemispheric Network Topology Reveals Dissociable Processes between Functional and Structural Brain Connectome in Community-Living Elders

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Sun; Junhua Li; John Suckling; Lei Feng

    2017-01-01

    Human brain is structurally and functionally asymmetrical and the asymmetries of brain phenotypes have been shown to change in normal aging. Recent advances in graph theoretical analysis have showed topological lateralization between hemispheric networks in the human brain throughout the lifespan. Nevertheless, apparent discrepancies of hemispheric asymmetry were reported between the structural and functional brain networks, indicating the potentially complex asymmetry patterns between struct...

  3. Functional Brain Correlates of Upper Limb Spasticity and Its Mitigation following Rehabilitation in Chronic Stroke Survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Pundik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Arm spasticity is a challenge in the care of chronic stroke survivors with motor deficits. In order to advance spasticity treatments, a better understanding of the mechanism of spasticity-related neuroplasticity is needed. Objective. To investigate brain function correlates of spasticity in chronic stroke and to identify specific regional functional brain changes related to rehabilitation-induced mitigation of spasticity. Methods. 23 stroke survivors (>6 months were treated with an arm motor learning and spasticity therapy (5 d/wk for 12 weeks. Outcome measures included Modified Ashworth scale, sensory tests, and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI for wrist and hand movement. Results. First, at baseline, greater spasticity correlated with poorer motor function (P=0.001 and greater sensory deficits (P=0.003. Second, rehabilitation produced improvement in upper limb spasticity and motor function (P<0.0001. Third, at baseline, greater spasticity correlated with higher fMRI activation in the ipsilesional thalamus (rho=0.49, P=0.03. Fourth, following rehabilitation, greater mitigation of spasticity correlated with enhanced fMRI activation in the contralesional primary motor (r=-0.755, P=0.003, premotor (r=−0.565, P=0.04, primary sensory (r=−0.614, P=0.03, and associative sensory (r=−0.597, P=0.03 regions while controlling for changes in motor function. Conclusions. Contralesional motor regions may contribute to restoring control of muscle tone in chronic stroke.

  4. The Effects of Long Duration Bed Rest on Brain Functional Connectivity and Sensorimotor Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassady, K.; Koppelmans, V.; De Dios, Y.; Stepanyan, V.; Szecsy, D.; Gadd, N.; Wood, S.; Reuter-Lorenz, P.; Castenada, R. Riascos; Kofman, I.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Long duration spaceflight has been associated with detrimental alterations in human sensorimotor functioning. Prolonged exposure to a head-down tilt (HDT) position during long duration bed rest can resemble several effects of the microgravity environment such as reduced sensory inputs, body unloading and increased cephalic fluid distribution. The question of whether microgravity affects other central nervous system functions such as brain functional connectivity and its relationship with behavior is largely unknown, but of importance to the health and performance of astronauts both during and post-flight. In the present study, we investigate the effects of prolonged exposure to HDT bed rest on resting state brain functional connectivity and its association with behavioral changes in 17 male participants. To validate that our findings were not due to confounding factors such as time or task practice, we also acquired resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and behavioral measurements from 14 normative control participants at four time points. Bed rest participants remained in bed with their heads tilted down six degrees below their feet for 70 consecutive days. Rs-fMRI and behavioral data were obtained at seven time points averaging around: 12 and 8 days prior to bed rest; 7, 50, and 70 days during bed rest; and 8 and 12 days after bed rest. 70 days of HDT bed rest resulted in significant increases in functional connectivity during bed rest followed by a reversal of changes in the post bed rest recovery period between motor cortical and somatosensory areas of the brain. In contrast, decreases in connectivity were observed between temporoparietal regions. Furthermore, post-hoc correlation analyses revealed a significant relationship between motor-somatosensory network connectivity and standing balance performance changes; participants that exhibited the greatest increases in connectivity strength showed the least deterioration in postural

  5. Solution of volume-surface integral equations using higher-order hierarchical Legendre basis functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.; Meincke, Peter; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2007-01-01

    The problem of electromagnetic scattering by composite metallic and dielectric objects is solved using the coupled volume-surface integral equation (VSIE). The method of moments (MoM) based on higher-order hierarchical Legendre basis functions and higher-order curvilinear geometrical elements...

  6. High spatial resolution brain functional MRI using submillimeter balanced steady-state free precession acquisition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Pei-Hsin; Chung, Hsiao-Wen [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Ping-Huei [Imaging Research Center, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan and Department of Medical Imaging, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China); Wu, Ming-Long, E-mail: minglong.wu@csie.ncku.edu.tw [Institute of Medical Informatics, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan and Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Chuang, Tzu-Chao [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan (China); Shih, Yi-Yu [Siemens Limited Healthcare Sector, Taipei 11503, Taiwan (China); Huang, Teng-Yi [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China)

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: One of the technical advantages of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is its precise localization of changes from neuronal activities. While current practice of fMRI acquisition at voxel size around 3 × 3 × 3 mm{sup 3} achieves satisfactory results in studies of basic brain functions, higher spatial resolution is required in order to resolve finer cortical structures. This study investigated spatial resolution effects on brain fMRI experiments using balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) imaging with 0.37 mm{sup 3} voxel volume at 3.0 T. Methods: In fMRI experiments, full and unilateral visual field 5 Hz flashing checkerboard stimulations were given to healthy subjects. The bSSFP imaging experiments were performed at three different frequency offsets to widen the coverage, with functional activations in the primary visual cortex analyzed using the general linear model. Variations of the spatial resolution were achieved by removing outerk-space data components. Results: Results show that a reduction in voxel volume from 3.44 × 3.44 × 2 mm{sup 3} to 0.43 × 0.43 × 2 mm{sup 3} has resulted in an increase of the functional activation signals from (7.7 ± 1.7)% to (20.9 ± 2.0)% at 3.0 T, despite of the threefold SNR decreases in the original images, leading to nearly invariant functional contrast-to-noise ratios (fCNR) even at high spatial resolution. Activation signals aligning nicely with gray matter sulci at high spatial resolution would, on the other hand, have possibly been mistaken as noise at low spatial resolution. Conclusions: It is concluded that the bSSFP sequence is a plausible technique for fMRI investigations at submillimeter voxel widths without compromising fCNR. The reduction of partial volume averaging with nonactivated brain tissues to retain fCNR is uniquely suitable for high spatial resolution applications such as the resolving of columnar organization in the brain.

  7. Associations between executive functioning, coping, and psychosocial functioning after acquired brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolters Gregório, Gisela; Ponds, Rudolf W H M; Smeets, Sanne M J; Jonker, Frank; Pouwels, Climmy G J G; Verhey, Frans R; van Heugten, Caroline M

    2015-09-01

    To examine the relationships between executive functioning, coping, depressive symptoms, and quality of life in individuals with neuropsychiatric symptoms after acquired brain injury (ABI). Cross-sectional study. Individuals (n = 93) in the post-acute and chronic phase (>3 months) after ABI and their significant others (N = 58) were recruited from outpatient clinics of four mental health centres in the Netherlands. Outcome measures were the Trail Making Test, Stroop Colour Word Test, Frontal Systems Behavioural Scale, Utrecht Coping List, Patient Health Questionnaire, and Life Satisfaction Questionnaire. Data were analysed with multiple regression analyses. Self-reported executive dysfunction was associated with greater use of passive coping styles (β = .37, p executive functioning (β = -.94, p executive functioning tests were not associated with coping, depressive symptoms, or quality of life. For clinicians, these data indicate that individuals who report greater difficulties with executive functioning after ABI are inclined to use maladaptive passive coping styles, which should be targeted in treatment. In comparison, individuals who report greater difficulties with executive functioning should not be prompted to use problem-focused coping styles. These individuals may benefit from other coping styles, such as the use of seeking social support or acceptance of problems. Coping influences the association between executive functioning and quality of life. Individuals who report difficulties with executive functioning after ABI may be inclined to use passive coping styles, which are maladaptive. Problem-focused coping strategies may be more useful for individuals who have strong executive abilities. This study was a cross-sectional study; thus, a cause-and-ef