WorldWideScience

Sample records for higher bmi z-scores

  1. Shorter sleep duration is associated with higher energy intake and an increase in BMI z-score in young children predisposed to overweight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rangan, A.; Zheng, M.; Olsen, N. J.

    2018-01-01

    in a group of young obesity-predisposed children, and to assess whether intakes of energy or macronutrients mediate this relationship. Methods: Participants included 368 Danish children aged 2–6 years from the Healthy Start Study, a 1.3 year randomised controlled intervention trial. Sleep habits were...... was 10.7 h (range 8.8–12.5 h). After controlling for potential confounders, a significant inverse association between nighttime sleep duration and ΔBMI z-score (β=−0.090, P=0.046) was observed. This relationship was mediated by energy intake, with all macronutrients contributing to this mediation effect...

  2. The effect of prenatal maternal cigarette smoking on children's BMI z-score with SGA as a mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salahuddin, Meliha; Pérez, Adriana; Ranjit, Nalini; Hoelscher, Deanna M; Kelder, Steven H

    2018-02-21

    The goal of this study was to assess the effect of prenatal maternal cigarette smoking on children's BMI z-score trajectories, and to evaluate whether small-for-gestational-age (SGA) acts as a potential mediator between prenatal maternal cigarette smoking and child's BMI z-score at 4 years of age. Group-based trajectory modeling (GBTM) methods were employed to describe and classify developmental BMI z-score trajectories (the outcome of interest) in children from 9 months to 4 years of age (n = 5221) in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B) study (2001-2005). Further analysis examined whether the identified BMI z-score trajectories varied with the exposure, prenatal maternal cigarette smoking. Mediation analyses were utilized to examine whether being SGA (binary measure) acted as a potential mediator in the relationship between prenatal maternal cigarette smoking and BMI z-score among 4-year-old children. Using GBTM, two BMI z-score trajectory groups were identified: normal BMI z-score (57.8%); and high BMI z-score (42.2%). Children of mothers who smoked cigarettes during pregnancy were 2.1 times (RR 95% CI: 1.1-4.0, P value = 0.023) more at risk of being in the high BMI z-score trajectory group. Prenatal cigarette smoking was positively related to SGA at birth, but SGA was inversely related to BMI z-score at 4 years. The direct effect (0.19, 95% CI: 0.18, 0.19; P value BMI z-score among 4-year-old children was stronger and in the opposite direction of the indirect effect (-0.04, 95% CI: -0.04, -0.04; P value BMI z-score group, as well with SGA. The effects of prenatal smoking on BMI z-score at 4 years appears to act through pathways other than SGA.

  3. Differences in BMI z-Scores between Offspring of Smoking and Nonsmoking Mothers: A Longitudinal Study of German Children from Birth through 14 Years of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenske, Nora; Müller, Manfred J.; Plachta-Danielzik, Sandra; Keil, Thomas; Grabenhenrich, Linus; von Kries, Rüdiger

    2014-01-01

    Background: Children of mothers who smoked during pregnancy have a lower birth weight but have a higher chance to become overweight during childhood. Objectives: We followed children longitudinally to assess the age when higher body mass index (BMI) z-scores became evident in the children of mothers who smoked during pregnancy, and to evaluate the trajectory of changes until adolescence. Methods: We pooled data from two German cohort studies that included repeated anthropometric measurements until 14 years of age and information on smoking during pregnancy and other risk factors for overweight. We used longitudinal quantile regression to estimate age- and sex-specific associations between maternal smoking and the 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 90th quantiles of the BMI z-score distribution in study participants from birth through 14 years of age, adjusted for potential confounders. We used additive mixed models to estimate associations with mean BMI z-scores. Results: Mean and median (50th quantile) BMI z-scores at birth were smaller in the children of mothers who smoked during pregnancy compared with children of nonsmoking mothers, but BMI z-scores were significantly associated with maternal smoking beginning at the age of 4–5 years, and differences increased over time. For example, the difference in the median BMI z-score between the daughters of smokers versus nonsmokers was 0.12 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.21) at 5 years, and 0.30 (95% CI: 0.08, 0.39) at 14 years of age. For lower BMI z-score quantiles, the association with smoking was more pronounced in girls, whereas in boys the association was more pronounced for higher BMI z-score quantiles. Conclusions: A clear difference in BMI z-score (mean and median) between children of smoking and nonsmoking mothers emerged at 4–5 years of age. The shape and size of age-specific effect estimates for maternal smoking during pregnancy varied by age and sex across the BMI z-score distribution. Citation: Riedel C, Fenske N, M

  4. The Interplay among BMI z-Score, Peer Victmization, and Self-Concept in Outpatient Children and Adolescents with Overweight or Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchini, Dario; Licenziati, Maria Rosaria; Affuso, Gaetana; Garrasi, Alessandra; Corciulo, Nicola; Driul, Daniela; Tanas, Rita; Fiumani, Perla Maria; Di Pietro, Elena; Pesce, Sabino; Crinò, Antonino; Maltoni, Giulio; Iughetti, Lorenzo; Sartorio, Alessandro; Deiana, Manuela; Lombardi, Francesca; Valerio, Giuliana

    2017-06-01

    Research has provided evidence that obesity is associated with peer victimization and low levels of self-concept. No study has examined the relationship between BMI z-score, self-concept in multiple domains, and peer victimization. The aim of the research was to investigate the interplay between BMI z-score, self-concept in multiple domains (physical, athletic, social), and peer victimization, testing direct, mediated, and moderated associations. Eighty hundred fifteen outpatient children and adolescents were consecutively recruited in 14 hospitals distributed over the Italian country. The sample consisted of 419 males and 396 females; mean age 10.91 ± 1.97 years (range 6-14 years) and mean BMI z-score 1.85 ± 0.74 (range -0.97 ± 3.27). Peer victimization and self-concept were assessed with a revised Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire and with the Self-Perception Profile for Children. A structural equation model approach was used to determine the associations among variables, testing two competing models. In both models, path analysis revealed that BMI z-score was directly associated with peer victimization and self-concept in multiple domains. In the first model, peer victimization mediated the relationship between BMI-score and self-concept, whereas in the alternative model, self-concept mediated the relationship between BMI z-score and peer victimization. Interaction analyses revealed that social competence moderated the relationship between BMI z-score and peer victimization and that peer victimization moderated the relationship between BMI z-score and physical appearance. Higher levels of BMI z-score are a risk factor for peer victimization and poor self-concept. When high levels of BMI z-score are associated with a negative self-concept, the risk of victimization increases. Preventive and supportive interventions are needed to avoid negative consequences on quality of life in children and adolescents with obesity.

  5. The association between glucocorticoid therapy and BMI z-score changes in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arpe, Marie-Louise Hyre; Rørvig, Sascha; Kok, Karin

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Few studies have addressed the common issue of weight gain in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) during early phases of treatment, and even fewer have used the appropriate measure for weight fluctuation in children, BMI-for-age z-scores (BAZs). The purpose of this study......) treatment but not in periods without GC. ΔBAZ was larger in boys compared to girls, and ΔBAZ was higher in patients who were under/normal weight at diagnosis, compared to patients who were overweight/obese (1.26 ± 1.29 vs. -0.04 ± 0.41; p = 0.032). CONCLUSION: BAZ increased significantly in children...

  6. Association between Children's Physical Activity and Parental Practices Enhancing Children's Physical Activity: The Moderating Effects of Children's BMI z-Score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Liszewska

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Parental practices that aim at increasing children's physical activity were found to be related to children's physical activity. So far, however, the association between these two sets of variables was studied without considering the moderating role of children's BMI z-score, which may determine the effectiveness of parental practices. The present study aims at filling this void.Design: Longitudinal data were collected among 879 dyads of children (6–11 years old and their parents. Seven parental physical activity practices were assessed at baseline. Physical activity, body mass, and height (measured among children were assessed twice (at baseline and 7-month follow-up. Body mass and height were measured objectively. Seven moderation analyses were conducted.Results: Six parental practices emerged to predict physical activity of children: collaborative social control, overall support, stimulation to be active, general encouragement for physical activity, positive social control, and modeling. Children's BMI z-score moderated three associations. The relationships between parental positive social control, overall parental support, and general parental encouragement for physical activity (at baseline, and children's physical activity (at follow-up were significant only among children with low and medium BMI z-score. In turn, collaborative social control and modeling predicted children's physical activity at the follow-up regardless child's BMI z-score.Conclusions: Parental positive social control or overall parental support may be ineffective in children with higher body mass who are in need to increase their physical activity.

  7. Trend in BMI z-score among Private Schools’ Students in Delhi using Multiple Imputation for Growth Curve Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay K Gupta

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study is to assess the trend in mean BMI z-score among private schools’ students from their anthropometric records when there were missing values in the outcome. Methodology: The anthropometric measurements of student from class 1 to 12 were taken from the records of two private schools in Delhi, India from 2005 to 2010. These records comprise of an unbalanced longitudinal data that is not all the students had measurements recorded at each year. The trend in mean BMI z-score was estimated through growth curve model. Prior to that, missing values of BMI z-score were imputed through multiple imputation using the same model. A complete case analysis was also performed after excluding missing values to compare the results with those obtained from analysis of multiply imputed data. Results: The mean BMI z-score among school student significantly decreased over time in imputed data (β= -0.2030, se=0.0889, p=0.0232 after adjusting age, gender, class and school. Complete case analysis also shows a decrease in mean BMI z-score though it was not statistically significant (β= -0.2861, se=0.0987, p=0.065. Conclusions: The estimates obtained from multiple imputation analysis were better than those of complete data after excluding missing values in terms of lower standard errors. We showed that anthropometric measurements from schools records can be used to monitor the weight status of children and adolescents and multiple imputation using growth curve model can be useful while analyzing such data

  8. At-home and away-from-home dietary patterns and BMI z-scores in Brazilian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Diana Barbosa; Bezerra, Ilana Nogueira; Pereira, Rosangela Alves; Sichieri, Rosely

    2018-01-01

    Away-from-home food intake has been associated with high rates of overweight among children and adolescents. However, there are no studies comparing at-home and away-from-home eating patterns among adolescents. The objective of this paper was to identify at-home and away-from-home dietary patterns among adolescents in Brazil, and to evaluate the relationship between these patterns and body mass index (BMI) z-scores. Data from the Brazilian National Dietary Survey 2008-2009 were analyzed in this cross-sectional study. Dietary intake was assessed by completion of written food records on two non-consecutive days. Five thousand two hundred sixty-six adolescents 10-19 years of age living in urban areas of Brazil were included in the analysis. Thirty-two food groups were examined by factor analysis, stratified by at-home and away-from-home eating. The associations between the food patterns and BMI z-scores were ascertained using linear regression analysis. In general, mean at-home food intake was greater than away-from-home food intake, but the ratio of away-from-home/at-home was greater than 30% for baked and deep-fried snacks, soft drinks, sandwiches, pizza, and desserts, and was lower than 10% for rice and beans. Three main similar dietary patterns were identified both at-home and away-from-home: the "Traditional pattern", the "Bread and Butter pattern" and the "Western pattern"; however, away-from-home patterns encompassed more overall food items. Only the at-home "Western pattern" was positively associated with BMI z-scores (β = 0.0006; p away-from-home food consumption is not associated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Variation in dietary intake and physical activity pattern as predictors of change in body mass index (BMI) Z-score among Brazilian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enes, Carla C; Slater, Betzabeth

    2013-06-01

    To assess whether changes in dietary intake and physical activity pattern are associated with the annual body mass index (BMI) z-score change among adolescents. The study was conducted in public schools in the city of Piracicaba, Sao Paulo, Brazil, with a probabilistic sample of 431 adolescents participating in wave I (2004) (hereafter, baseline) and 299 in wave II (2005) (hereafter, follow-up). BMI, usual food intake, physical activity, screen time, sexual maturation and demographic variables were assessed twice. The association between annual change in food intake, physical activity, screen time, and annual BMI z-score changes were assessed by multiple regression. The study showed a positive variation in BMI z-score over one-year. Among variables related to physical activity pattern only playing videogame and using computer increased over the year. The intake of fruits and vegetables and sugar-sweetened beverages increased over one year, while the others variables showed a reduction. An increased consumption of fatty foods (β = 0.04, p = 0.04) and sweetened natural fruit juices (β = 0.05, p = 0.03) was positively associated with the rise in BMI z-score. Unhealthy dietary habits can predict the BMI z-score gain more than the physical activity pattern. The intake of fatty foods and sweetened fruit juices is associated with the BMI z-score over one year.

  10. Variation in dietary intake and physical activity pattern as predictors of change in body mass index (BMI Z-score among Brazilian adolescents*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla C. Enes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess whether changes in dietary intake and physical activity pattern are associated with the annual body mass index (BMI z-score change among adolescents. Methods: The study was conducted in public schools in the city of Piracicaba, Sao Paulo, Brazil, with a probabilistic sample of 431 adolescents participating in wave I (2004 (hereafter, baseline and 299 in wave II (2005 (hereafter, follow-up. BMI, usual food intake, physical activity, screen time, sexual maturation and demographic variables were assessed twice. The association between annual change in food intake, physical activity, screen time, and annual BMI z-score changes were assessed by multiple regression. Results: The study showed a positive variation in BMI z-score over one-year. Among variables related to physical activity pattern only playing videogame and using computer increased over the year. The intake of fruits and vegetables and sugar-sweetened beverages increased over one year, while the others variables showed a reduction. An increased consumption of fatty foods (β = 0.04, p = 0.04 and sweetened natural fruit juices (β = 0.05, p = 0.03 was positively associated with the rise in BMI z-score. Conclusions: Unhealthy dietary habits can predict the BMI z-score gain more than the physical activity pattern. The intake of fatty foods and sweetened fruit juices is associated with the BMI z-score over one year.

  11. Fiber intake, not dietary energy density, is associated with subsequent change in BMI z-score among sub-groups of children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kring, Sofia I Iqbal; Heitmann, Berit L

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Results from short-term studies demonstrate that energy density influences energy intake, but in children and adolescents the long-term effects of energy density and obesity development are sparse. We examined the longitudinal relationship between dietary energy density, fiber intake...... to collect dietary energy intake. Overweight was defined as 1.05 SD, equivalent to the 85th percentile, of age- and sex-specific BMI z-score reference values. RESULTS: An inverse association between fiber intake and subsequent excess weight gain was observed among the normal weight boys. In overweight boys......, there was a direct association with excess weight gain. A high energy intake was associated with a higher weight gain among overweight than among normal-weight boys. No significant association between dietary energy density and subsequent excess weight change was seen. The prevalence of overweight increased from 27...

  12. How you look versus how you feel: Associations between BMI z-score, body dissatisfaction, peer victimization, and self-worth for African American and white adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, Carolyn; Nishina, Adrienne; Adams, Ryan E

    2015-08-01

    Being overweight and having negative self-perceptions (body dissatisfaction) can have problematic consequences for adolescents physically, socially, and psychologically. Understanding associations between weight, self-perceptions, and peer experiences across ethnicities is particularly important given recent increases in obesity among ethnic minorities. The current study aimed to address these issues by examining Body Mass Index (BMI) z-scores and body dissatisfaction predicting change in general self-worth over time via peer victimization experiences in a diverse sample of 236 youth (ages 10-16 years). Body dissatisfaction predicted decreases in self-worth over time even after controlling for BMI z-score. BMI z-scores predicted decreases in self-worth over time only for white adolescents, whereas body dissatisfaction directly predicted decreases in self-worth for African American youth and indirectly via peer victimization for white youth. Associations were also considered by gender. Implications for intervention efforts for both white and African American adolescents are discussed. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Exercise and BMI z-score in Overweight and Obese Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis of Randomized Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, George A; Kelley, Kristi S; Pate, Russell R

    2017-05-01

    Examine the effects of selected types of exercise (aerobic, strength training, both) on BMI z-score in overweight and obese children and adolescents. Randomized exercise intervention trials ≥ 4 weeks were included. Studies were retrieved by searching six electronic databases, cross-referencing and expert review. Dual selection and abstraction occurred. Risk of bias and confidence in cumulative evidence were assessed. Network meta-analysis was performed using multivariate random-effects meta-regression models while surface under the cumulative ranking curves were used to calculate a hierarchy of exercise treatments. The number needed to treat (NNT) and percentile improvement (U 3 ) were also calculated. Thirty-four studies representing 2,239 participants were included. Median exercise occurred 3 times per week, 50 minutes per session over a 12-week period. Statistically significant reductions in BMI z-score were found for aerobic exercise and combined aerobic and strength exercise, but not strength training alone (M±SD, 95% CI: aerobic, -0.10, -0.15 to -0.05; aerobic and strength, -0.11, -0.19 to -0.03; strength, 0.04, -0.07 to 0.15). Combined aerobic and strength training was ranked best, followed by aerobic exercise and strength training. The NNT was 2 for both aerobic exercise and combined aerobic exercise and strength training. Percentile improvements were 28.8% for aerobic exercise and 31.5% for combined aerobic exercise and strength training. Confidence in effect estimates was ranked as low for aerobic exercise and very low for combined aerobic and strength training as well as strength training. Aerobic exercise and combined aerobic exercise and strength training are associated with reductions in BMI z-score. © 2016 Chinese Cochrane Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  14. BMI z-scores are a poor indicator of adiposity among 2- to 19-year-olds with very high BMIs, NHANES 1999-2000 to 2013-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) growth charts are widely used, BMI-for-age z-Scores (BMIz) are known to be uninformative above the 97th percentile. This study compared the relations of BMIz and other BMI metrics (%BMIp95, percent of 95th percentile, and BMI minus 95th ...

  15. Changes in parent motivation predicts changes in body mass index z-score (zBMI) and dietary intake among preschoolers enrolled in a family-based obesity intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Allen, Jason; Kuhl, Elizabeth S; Filigno, Stephanie S; Clifford, Lisa M; Connor, Jared M; Stark, Lori J

    2014-10-01

    To examine whether changes in parent motivation over the course of a pediatric obesity intervention are significantly associated with long-term changes in treatment outcomes.   Study hypotheses were tested with a secondary data analysis of a randomized controlled trial (N = 42). Study analyses tested whether baseline to posttreatment change in total score for a self-report parent motivation measure (Parent Motivation Inventory [PMI]) was significantly associated with baseline to 6-month follow-up changes in body mass index z-score (zBMI), dietary variables, and physical activity.   Increases in PMI were significantly associated with decreased zBMI, decreased consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and sweets, and increased consumption of artificially sweetened beverages.   Given that increases in parent motivation were associated with some treatment benefits, future research should evaluate the impact of directly assessing and targeting parent motivation on weight outcomes for preschoolers participating in a weight management program. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Eating behaviour patterns and BMI in Portuguese higher education students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poínhos, Rui; Oliveira, Bruno M P M; Correia, Flora

    2013-12-01

    Our aim was to determine prototypical patterns of eating behaviour among Portuguese higher education students, and to relate these patterns with BMI. Data from 280 higher education students (63.2% females) aged between 18 and 27 years were analysed. Several eating behaviour dimensions (emotional and external eating, flexible and rigid restraint, binge eating, and eating self-efficacy) were assessed, and eating styles were derived through cluster analysis. BMI for current, desired and maximum self-reported weights and the differences between desired and current BMI and between maximum and current BMI were calculated. Women scored higher in emotional eating and restraint, whereas men showed higher eating self-efficacy. Men had higher current, desired and maximum BMI. Cluster analysis showed three eating styles in both male and female subsamples: "Overeating", "High self-efficacy" and "High restraint". High self-efficacy women showed lower BMI values than the others, and restrictive women had higher lost BMI. High self-efficacy men showed lower desired BMI than overeaters, and lower maximum and lost BMI than highly restrictive ones. Restrictive women and men differ on important eating behaviour features, which may be the cause of differences in the associations with BMI. Eating self-efficacy seems to be a central variable influencing the relationships between other eating behaviour dimensions and BMI. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. APLIKASI Z-SCORE METHOD DALAM PEMBENTUKAN PORTOFOLIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deannes Isynuwardhana

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The problem that often occurs in forming portfolio was regarding the selection and weighting the stock wichhad to be included in portfolio. This study attempted to solve the problem by using a simple model, which wasexpected to be applied easily by investors. This was a descriptive research with quantitative approach, andused stocks that was categorized as “blue chip” in Indonesia’s stock exchange as a sample. Stock selectionprocess used Z-score method with 6 criteria. There were, price earning ratio, price to book value, debt to equityratio, gross profit margin, return on equity, and stock’s historical price. The weighting of each stock inportfolio was then calculated by were used Bodie, Kane, and Markus (2011 approach. The coefficient ofvariation, risk and return of the market used as benchmark to measure portfolio performance. The result showedthat portfolio which formed by Z-score method give higher return than the market. Although the portfolioprovided greater risk, but it was not comparable with the marker return that gave negative results in return.The result suggested that portfolio which was created using the Z-score method could be applied by investorsin Indonesia’s stock exchange.

  18. Snacking Is Longitudinally Associated with Declines in Body Mass Index z Scores for Overweight Children, but Increases for Underweight Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taillie, Lindsey Smith; Wang, Dantong; Popkin, Barry M

    2016-06-01

    Few studies, to our knowledge, have examined the longitudinal association of snacking with child body mass index (BMI), especially in China, where the incidence of overweight and obesity has increased rapidly. Our objective was to examine the longitudinal association between snacking and BMI z score and to test whether this association differs by baseline weight status. Using data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (2006, 2009, and 2011), we characterized snack intake for 9 provinces and 3 megacities. We used linear mixed-effects models to examine longitudinally the association between snacking (none, low, medium, and high tertiles according to energy) and BMI z score in children aged 2-13 y at baseline, controlling for sex, urbanicity, parental education, physical activity, and foods consumed at meals (n = 2277 observations). We tested whether this association differed by baseline underweight, normal weight, or overweight/obese. Snacking is prevalent in Chinese children, with fruit being the most common snack. Snacking was not associated with meaningful BMI z score changes in normal-weight children. However, in children who were underweight at baseline, snacking in the top tertiles was associated with increases in BMI z scores from 2006 to 2011 (+1.2 and +1.1 BMI z score units for ages 2-6 and 7-13 y, respectively) (P overweight/obese 2- to 6-y-old children at baseline, being in the lowest snacking tertile was associated with declines in BMI z score (-3.3), whereas in overweight 7- to 13-y-old children, being in the top tertile of snacking was associated with the greatest decline in BMI z score (-2.1) (P overweight/obese children and increased BMI in underweight children. More work will be needed to monitor this relation as Chinese diets continue to westernize. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  19. Differences in body mass index z-scores and weight status in a Dutch pediatric psychiatric population with and without use of second-generation antipsychotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Hoogd, Sjoerd; Overbeek, Wieske A; Heerdink, Eibert R; Correll, Christoph U; de Graeff, Elisabeth R; Staal, Wouter G

    2012-04-01

    Weight gain and metabolic adverse effects of second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) have become a major concern, particularly in youth. However, the specific contribution of SGAs versus other medications or the underlying illness is unclear. In a chart review study of psychiatric outpatients aged ≤ 18 years treated with SGAs and psychiatric controls without lifetime SGA, use body mass index (BMI) z-scores between patients and controls were compared in the entire sample, patients without co-medications, diagnostic subgroups, and age subgroups. In patients with follow-up data, weight z-score change was calculated. Altogether, 592 Caucasian patients aged 4-18 (mean: 10.0) years with a psychiatric diagnosis were included. BMI z-scores in 96 youth treated with SGAs for 9.0 ± 6.1 months were significantly higher than in 496 patients without lifetime SGA use (0.81 ± 1.1 vs. 0.05 ± 1.2; pz-score differences remained significant in all age groups z-score increased significantly from -0.17 ± 1.5 to 0.25 ± 1.4 (p<0.0001) with 12.5% transitioning to overweight or obese status. These data show robust and significant differences in sex- and age-adjusted body weight and weight status in young pediatric Caucasian samples with and without use of SGAs independent of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) (American Psychiatric Association 2000 ) diagnosis and nonantipsychotic medications. Weight status and metabolic effects of SGAs require careful attention, especially in youth.

  20. Increased genetic variance of BMI with a higher prevalence of obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokholm, Benjamin; Silventoinen, Karri; Ängquist, Lars

    2011-01-01

    populations. Several recent studies suggest that the genetic effects on adiposity may be stronger when combined with presumed risk factors for obesity. We tested the hypothesis that a higher prevalence of obesity and overweight and a higher BMI mean is associated with a larger genetic variation in BMI....

  1. Classification of Airflow Limitation Based on z-Score Underestimates Mortality in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejero, Elena; Prats, Eva; Casitas, Raquel; Galera, Raúl; Pardo, Paloma; Gavilán, Adelaida; Martínez-Cerón, Elisabet; Cubillos-Zapata, Carolina; Del Peso, Luis; García-Río, Francisco

    2017-08-01

    Global Lung Function Initiative recommends reporting lung function measures as z-score, and a classification of airflow limitation (AL) based on this parameter has recently been proposed. To evaluate the prognostic capacity of the AL classifications based on z-score or percentage predicted of FEV 1 in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). A cohort of 2,614 patients with COPD recruited outside the hospital setting was examined after a mean (± SD) of 57 ± 13 months of follow-up, totaling 10,322 person-years. All-cause mortality was analyzed, evaluating the predictive capacity of several AL staging systems. Based on Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease guidelines, 461 patients (17.6%) had mild, 1,452 (55.5%) moderate, 590 (22.6%) severe, and 111 (4.2%) very severe AL. According to z-score classification, 66.3% of patients remained with the same severity, whereas 23.7% worsened and 10.0% improved. Unlike other staging systems, patients with severe AL according to z-score had higher mortality than those with very severe AL (increase of risk by 5.2 and 3.9 times compared with mild AL, respectively). The predictive capacity for 5-year survival was slightly higher for FEV 1 expressed as percentage of predicted than as z-score (area under the curve: 0.714-0.760 vs. 0.649-0.708, respectively). A severity-dependent relationship between AL grades by z-score and mortality was only detected in patients younger than age 60 years. In patients with COPD, the AL classification based on z-score predicts worse mortality than those based on percentage of predicted. It is possible that the z-score underestimates AL severity in patients older than 60 years of age with severe functional impairment.

  2. [Impact to Z-score Mapping of Hyperacute Stroke Images by Computed Tomography in Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Shota; Sakaguchi, Kenta; Hosono, Makoto; Ishii, Kazunari; Murakami, Takamichi; Ichikawa, Katsuhiro

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a hybrid-type iterative reconstruction method on Z-score mapping of hyperacute stroke in unenhanced computed tomography (CT) images. We used a hybrid-type iterative reconstruction [adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR)] implemented in a CT system (Optima CT660 Pro advance, GE Healthcare). With 15 normal brain cases, we reconstructed CT images with a filtered back projection (FBP) and ASiR with a blending factor of 100% (ASiR100%). Two standardized normal brain data were created from normal databases of FBP images (FBP-NDB) and ASiR100% images (ASiR-NDB), and standard deviation (SD) values in basal ganglia were measured. The Z-score mapping was performed for 12 hyperacute stroke cases by using FBP-NDB and ASiR-NDB, and compared Z-score value on hyperacute stroke area and normal area between FBP-NDB and ASiR-NDB. By using ASiR-NDB, the SD value of standardized brain was decreased by 16%. The Z-score value of ASiR-NDB on hyperacute stroke area was significantly higher than FBP-NDB (pASiR100% for Z-score mapping had potential to improve the accuracy of Z-score mapping.

  3. APLIKASI Z-SCORE METHOD DALAM PEMBENTUKAN PORTOFOLIO

    OpenAIRE

    Deannes Isynuwardhana

    2017-01-01

    The problem that often occurs in forming portfolio was regarding the selection and weighting the stock wichhad to be included in portfolio. This study attempted to solve the problem by using a simple model, which wasexpected to be applied easily by investors. This was a descriptive research with quantitative approach, andused stocks that was categorized as “blue chip” in Indonesia’s stock exchange as a sample. Stock selectionprocess used Z-score method with 6 criteria. There were, price earni...

  4. Aplikasi Z-score Method Dalam Pembentukan Portofolio

    OpenAIRE

    Isynuwardhana, Deannes

    2013-01-01

    The problem that often occurs in forming portfolio was regarding the selection and weighting the stock wichhad to be included in portfolio. This study attempted to solve the problem by using a simple model, which wasexpected to be applied easily by investors. This was a descriptive research with quantitative approach, andused stocks that was categorized as “blue chip” in Indonesia's stock exchange as a sample. Stock selectionprocess used Z-score method with 6 criteria. There were, price earni...

  5. Dietary intake in the early years and its relationship to BMI in a bi-ethnic group: the Born in Bradford 1000 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Samuel; Bryant, Maria; Sahota, Pinki; Barber, Stuart

    2018-04-02

    To assess relationships between dietary intake at age 12, 18 and 36 months and BMI Z-scores at age 36 months in a bi-ethnic group. A prospective cohort study comparing cross-sectional and longitudinal data. Exposures included dietary intake at 12, 18 and 36 months (FFQ) with an outcome of BMI Z-score at age 36 months. Born in Bradford 1000 study, Bradford, UK. Infants at age 12 months (n 722; 44 % White British, 56 % Pakistani), 18 months (n 779; 44 % White British, 56 % Pakistani) and 36 months (n 845; 45 % White British, 55 % Pakistani). Diet at age 12 months was not associated with BMI Z-score at age 36 months. Higher consumption of vegetables at 18 and 36 months was associated with a lower BMI Z-score at 36 months (model coefficient (95 % CI): -0·20 (-0·36, -0·03) and -0·16 (-0·31, -0·02), respectively). Higher consumption of high-fat chips at age 36 months was associated with a lower BMI Z-score at age 36 months (-0·16 (-0·32, 0·00)). Overall, White British children had higher 36-month BMI Z-scores than Pakistani children (adjusted mean difference (95 % CI): 0·21 (0·02, 0·41)). Our findings indicate that dietary intake at 18 and 36 months was somewhat related to BMI Z-score at age 36 months and suggest the importance of early interventions aimed at establishing healthy eating behaviours.

  6. Characteristics of screen media use associated with higher BMI in young adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickham, David S; Blood, Emily A; Walls, Courtney E; Shrier, Lydia A; Rich, Michael

    2013-05-01

    This study investigates how characteristics of young adolescents' screen media use are associated with their BMI. By examining relationships between BMI and both time spent using each of 3 screen media and level of attention allocated to use, we sought to contribute to the understanding of mechanisms linking media use and obesity. We measured heights and weights of 91 13- to 15-year-olds and calculated their BMIs. Over 1 week, participants completed a weekday and a Saturday 24-hour time-use diary in which they reported the amount of time they spent using TV, computers, and video games. Participants carried handheld computers and responded to 4 to 7 random signals per day by completing onscreen questionnaires reporting activities to which they were paying primary, secondary, and tertiary attention. Higher proportions of primary attention to TV were positively associated with higher BMI. The difference between 25th and 75th percentiles of attention to TV corresponded to an estimated +2.4 BMI points. Time spent watching television was unrelated to BMI. Neither duration of use nor extent of attention paid to video games or computers was associated with BMI. These findings support the notion that attention to TV is a key element of the increased obesity risk associated with TV viewing. Mechanisms may include the influence of TV commercials on preferences for energy-dense, nutritionally questionable foods and/or eating while distracted by TV. Interventions that interrupt these processes may be effective in decreasing obesity among screen media users.

  7. Z-score linear discriminant analysis for EEG based brain-computer interfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Zhang

    Full Text Available Linear discriminant analysis (LDA is one of the most popular classification algorithms for brain-computer interfaces (BCI. LDA assumes Gaussian distribution of the data, with equal covariance matrices for the concerned classes, however, the assumption is not usually held in actual BCI applications, where the heteroscedastic class distributions are usually observed. This paper proposes an enhanced version of LDA, namely z-score linear discriminant analysis (Z-LDA, which introduces a new decision boundary definition strategy to handle with the heteroscedastic class distributions. Z-LDA defines decision boundary through z-score utilizing both mean and standard deviation information of the projected data, which can adaptively adjust the decision boundary to fit for heteroscedastic distribution situation. Results derived from both simulation dataset and two actual BCI datasets consistently show that Z-LDA achieves significantly higher average classification accuracies than conventional LDA, indicating the superiority of the new proposed decision boundary definition strategy.

  8. Higher BMI Is Associated with Reduced Cognitive Performance in Division I Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Fedor

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Poor cardiovascular fitness has been implicated as a possible mechanism for obesity-related cognitive decline, though no study has examined whether BMI is associated with poorer cognitive function in persons with excellent fitness levels. The current study examined the relationship between BMI and cognitive function by the Immediate Post Concussion and Cognitive Test (ImPACT in Division I collegiate athletes. Methods: Participants had an average age of 20.14 ± 1.78 years, were 31.3% female, and 53.9% football players. BMI ranged from 19.04 to 41.14 and averaged 26.72 ± 4.62. Results: Regression analyses revealed that BMI incrementally predicted performance on visual memory (R2 change = 0.015, p = 0.026 beyond control variables. Follow-up partial correlation analyses revealed small but significant negative correlations between BMI and verbal memory (r = -0.17, visual memory (r = -0.16, and visual motor speed (r = -0.12. Conclusions: These results suggest that higher BMI is associated with reduced cognitive function, even in a sample expected to have excellent levels of cardiovascular fitness. Further work is needed to better understand mechanisms for these associations.

  9. Higher BMI is associated with reduced cognitive performance in division I athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedor, Andrew; Gunstad, John

    2013-01-01

    Poor cardiovascular fitness has been implicated as a possible mechanism for obesity-related cognitive decline, though no study has examined whether BMI is associated with poorer cognitive function in persons with excellent fitness levels. The current study examined the relationship between BMI and cognitive function by the Immediate Post Concussion and Cognitive Test (ImPACT) in Division I collegiate athletes. Participants had an average age of 20.14 ± 1.78 years, were 31.3% female, and 53.9% football players. BMI ranged from 19.04 to 41.14 and averaged 26.72 ± 4.62. Regression analyses revealed that BMI incrementally predicted performance on visual memory (R(2) change = 0.015, p = 0.026) beyond control variables. Follow-up partial correlation analyses revealed small but significant negative correlations between BMI and verbal memory (r = -0.17), visual memory (r = -0.16), and visual motor speed (r = -0.12). These results suggest that higher BMI is associated with reduced cognitive function, even in a sample expected to have excellent levels of cardiovascular fitness. Further work is needed to better understand mechanisms for these associations. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  10. Uninvolved Maternal Feeding Style Moderates the Association of Emotional Overeating to Preschoolers' Body Mass Index z-Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankey, Maren; Williams, Natalie A; Dev, Dipti

    2016-09-01

    To examine the relation between preschoolers' eating behaviors and body mass index (BMI) z-scores (BMIz) and the moderating role of permissive parent feeding styles in these associations. Cross-sectional study involving mothers' report of food-related parenting styles and child eating behaviors. Small city in southern Mississippi. Mother-preschooler dyads (n = 104). Child body BMIz. Moderated multiple regression. An uninvolved feeding style moderated the relationship between emotional eating and BMIz such that children with higher emotional overeating scores had higher a BMIz in the presence of an uninvolved feeding style (B = 2.16; P = .01). An uninvolved feeding style may be a risk factor for higher BMIz in preschoolers who tend to overeat to cope with negative emotions. For other children in this population, self-regulatory aspects of eating may be more important than mothers' feeding style in the maintenance of healthy weight. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Faster eating rates are associated with higher energy intakes during an ad libitum meal, higher BMI and greater adiposity among 4·5-year-old children: results from the Growing Up in Singapore Towards Healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Anna; Goh, Ai Ting; Fries, Lisa R; Sadananthan, Suresh A; Velan, S Sendhil; Michael, Navin; Tint, Mya-Thway; Fortier, Marielle V; Chan, Mei Jun; Toh, Jia Ying; Chong, Yap-Seng; Tan, Kok Hian; Yap, Fabian; Shek, Lynette P; Meaney, Michael J; Broekman, Birit F P; Lee, Yung Seng; Godfrey, Keith M; Chong, Mary F F; Forde, Ciarán G

    2017-04-01

    Faster eating rates are associated with increased energy intake, but little is known about the relationship between children's eating rate, food intake and adiposity. We examined whether children who eat faster consume more energy and whether this is associated with higher weight status and adiposity. We hypothesised that eating rate mediates the relationship between child weight and ad libitum energy intake. Children (n 386) from the Growing Up in Singapore Towards Healthy Outcomes cohort participated in a video-recorded ad libitum lunch at 4·5 years to measure acute energy intake. Videos were coded for three eating-behaviours (bites, chews and swallows) to derive a measure of eating rate (g/min). BMI and anthropometric indices of adiposity were measured. A subset of children underwent MRI scanning (n 153) to measure abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adiposity. Children above/below the median eating rate were categorised as slower and faster eaters, and compared across body composition measures. There was a strong positive relationship between eating rate and energy intake (r 0·61, P<0·001) and a positive linear relationship between eating rate and children's BMI status. Faster eaters consumed 75 % more energy content than slower eating children (Δ548 kJ (Δ131 kcal); 95 % CI 107·6, 154·4, P<0·001), and had higher whole-body (P<0·05) and subcutaneous abdominal adiposity (Δ118·3 cc; 95 % CI 24·0, 212·7, P=0·014). Mediation analysis showed that eating rate mediates the link between child weight and energy intake during a meal (b 13·59; 95 % CI 7·48, 21·83). Children who ate faster had higher energy intake, and this was associated with increased BMI z-score and adiposity.

  12. Socioeconomic differences in childhood BMI trajectories in Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rita; Tilling, Kate; Lawlor, Debbie A; Howe, Laura D; Hughes, Rachael A; Bogdanovich, Natalia; Matush, Lidia; Nicoli, Emily; Oken, Emily; Kramer, Michael S; Martin, Richard M

    2018-02-28

    To examine associations of parental socioeconomic position with early-life offspring body mass index (BMI) trajectories in a middle-income country. Overall, 12,385 Belarusian children born 1996-97 and enrolled in a randomised breastfeeding promotion trial at birth, with 3-14 measurements of BMI from birth to 7 years. Cohort analysis in which exposures were parental education (common secondary or less; advanced secondary or partial university; completed university) and occupation (manual; non-manual) at birth, and the outcome was BMI z-score trajectories estimated using multilevel linear spline models, controlling for trial arm, location, parental BMI, maternal smoking status and number of older siblings. Infants born to university-educated mothers were heavier at birth than those born to secondary school-educated mothers [by 0.13 BMI z-score units (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.07, 0.19) for girls and 0.11 (95% CI: 0.05, 0.17) for boys; equivalent for an infant of average birth length to 43 and 38 g, respectively]. Between the ages of 3-7 years children of the most educated mothers had larger BMI increases than children of the least educated mothers. At age 7 years, after controlling for trial arm and location,  children of university-educated mothers had higher BMIs than those born to secondary school-educated mothers by 0.11 z-score (95% CI: 0.03, 0.19) among girls and 0.18 (95% CI: 0.1, 0.27) among boys, equivalent to differences in BMI for a child of average height of 0.19 and 0.26 kg/m 2 , respectively. After further controlling for parental BMI, these differences attenuated to 0.08 z-score (95% CI: 0, 0.16) and 0.16 z-score (95% CI: 0.07, 0.24), respectively, but changed very little after additional adjustment for number of older siblings and mother's smoking status. Associations were similar when based on paternal educational attainment and highest household occupation. In Belarus, consistent with some middle-income countries, higher socioeconomic

  13. Correlation of body mass index Z-scores with glucose and lipid profiles among overweight and obese children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira-de-Almeida, Carlos Alberto; Mello, Elza Daniel de

    To evaluate the prevalence of abnormalities in plasma lipid and glucose profiles among overweight and obese children and adolescents, and to assess the presence of a correlation between body mass index Z-scores and indicators of comorbidities related to both profiles. This was a multicenter cross-sectional study conducted at two outpatient clinics. The study included all 417 comers for the first visit from 2008 to 2012, aged between 7 and 18 years, with BMI above the Z-score +1. Anthropometry and blood sampling were obtained. The prevalence of dyslipidemias, hyperglycemia, and insulin resistance were evaluated, together with the correlations of these variables with the increase of Z-BMI. Dyslipidemia was observed in 43.4% of the boys and 66.1% of the girls, with no difference between genders. High glucose levels were detected in 6.2% of the individuals. Insulin resistance was present in 32.3% and 41.7% of the cases, with no statistical significance between boys and girls. Correlations between the Z-BMI were noted for triglycerides in the entire group and among girls; for HDL-c, only among girls; for glucose, a correlation was observed for the entire group, but not when stratified by gender. The indicators of insulin resistance were all correlated with Z-BMI, even when corrected for age. Overweight and obesity give origin to a high prevalence of dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. BMI Z-scores showed a weak positive correlation with glucose and triglyceride, and negative with HDL-c. In turn, the strongest positive correlation was found with insulin resistance indicators. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  14. Associations of maternal macronutrient intake during pregnancy with infant BMI peak characteristics and childhood BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ling-Wei; Aris, Izzuddin M; Bernard, Jonathan Y; Tint, Mya-Thway; Colega, Marjorelee; Gluckman, Peter D; Tan, Kok Hian; Shek, Lynette Pei-Chi; Chong, Yap-Seng; Yap, Fabian; Godfrey, Keith M; van Dam, Rob M; Chong, Mary Foong-Fong; Lee, Yung Seng

    2017-03-01

    Background: Infant body mass index (BMI) peak characteristics and early childhood BMI are emerging markers of future obesity and cardiometabolic disease risk, but little is known about their maternal nutritional determinants. Objective: We investigated the associations of maternal macronutrient intake with infant BMI peak characteristics and childhood BMI in the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes study. Design: With the use of infant BMI data from birth to age 18 mo, infant BMI peak characteristics [age (in months) and magnitude (BMI peak ; in kg/m 2 ) at peak and prepeak velocities] were derived from subject-specific BMI curves that were fitted with the use of mixed-effects model with a natural cubic spline function. Associations of maternal macronutrient intake (assessed by using a 24-h recall during late gestation) with infant BMI peak characteristics ( n = 910) and BMI z scores at ages 2, 3, and 4 y were examined with the use of multivariable linear regression. Results: Mean absolute maternal macronutrient intakes (percentages of energy) were 72 g protein (15.6%), 69 g fat (32.6%), and 238 g carbohydrate (51.8%). A 25-g (∼100-kcal) increase in maternal carbohydrate intake was associated with a 0.01/mo (95% CI: 0.0003, 0.01/mo) higher prepeak velocity and a 0.04 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.08) higher BMI peak These associations were mainly driven by sugar intake, whereby a 25-g increment of maternal sugar intake was associated with a 0.02/mo (95% CI: 0.01, 0.03/mo) higher infant prepeak velocity and a 0.07 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.13) higher BMI peak Higher maternal carbohydrate and sugar intakes were associated with a higher offspring BMI z score at ages 2-4 y. Maternal protein and fat intakes were not consistently associated with the studied outcomes. Conclusion: Higher maternal carbohydrate and sugar intakes are associated with unfavorable infancy BMI peak characteristics and higher early childhood BMI. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT

  15. BMI mediates the association between low educational level and higher blood pressure during pregnancy in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jwa, Seung Chik; Fujiwara, Takeo; Hata, Akira; Arata, Naoko; Sago, Haruhiko; Ohya, Yukihiro

    2013-04-25

    Research investigating the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and blood pressure (BP) during pregnancy is limited and its underlying pathway is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the mediators of the association between educational level as an indicator of the SES and BP in early and mid-pregnancy among Japanese women. Nine hundred and twenty-three pregnant women in whom BP was measured before 16 weeks and at 20 weeks of gestation were enrolled in this study. Maternal educational levels were categorized into three groups: high (university or higher), mid (junior college), and low (junior high school, high school, or vocational training school). The low educational group had higher systolic (low vs. high, difference = 2.39 mmHg, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.59 to 4.19) and diastolic BP levels (low vs. high, difference = 0.74 mmHg, 95% CI: -0.52 to 1.99) in early pregnancy. However, the same associations were not found after adjustment for pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI). BP reduction was observed in mid-pregnancy in all three educational groups and there was no association between educational level and pregnancy-induced hypertension. In Japanese women, the low educational group showed higher BP during pregnancy than the mid or high educational groups. Pre-pregnancy BMI mediates the association between educational level and BP.

  16. Maternal attitudes and child-feeding practices: relationship with the BMI of Chilean children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uauy Ricardo

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chile has experienced the nutritional transition due to both social and economic progress. As a consequence, higher rates of overweight and obesity have been observed in children. In western countries, researchers have tried to determine pathways by which parents influence their children's eating behavior; up to now findings have been inconsistent. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cross-sectional and retrospective relationship between maternal attitudes and child-feeding practices and children's weight status in children who had been subject of an obesity prevention intervention for two years. Methods In 2006, for a cross-sectional study, a random sample of 232 children (125 girls, mean age 11.91 ± 1.56 y and 107 boys mean age 11.98 ± 1.51 y was selected from three primary schools from a small city called Casablanca. Weight and height were determined to assess their nutritional status, using body mass index (BMI z scores. Child-feeding practices and attitudes were determined cross-sectionally in 2006, using the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ. To analyze the relationship between trends in weight change and child-feeding practices and attitudes, BMI z scores of all the 232 children in 2003 were used. Results Cross-sectionally, mothers of overweight children were significantly more concerned (P z score was positively correlated with concern for child's weight (r = 0.28, P z score between age 9 and 12 was positively correlated with concern for child's weight, but only in boys (r = 0.21, P z score at age 12. Conclusion Mothers of overweight children were more concerned with their children's weight; this indicated the Western negative attitude towards childhood overweight. None of the child-feeding practices were significantly correlated with a change in BMI z score.

  17. Evaluating Z Scores to Quantify Levator Hiatal Distensibility by 3-Dimensional Ultrasonography in Nulliparas and Women With Pelvic Organ Prolapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Lieming; Liu, Minghui; Zhao, Baihua; Qing, Zhenzhen

    2018-03-12

    To use Z scores to quantify hiatal distensibility and to test the performance of Z scores for levator hiatal areas in predicting substantial pelvic organ prolapse (POP). We undertook a retrospective study of the data from 145 nulliparas and 166 patients with POP who had a clinical POP examination with 3-dimensional translabial ultrasonography. Z scores were used to normalize levator hiatal areas of nulliparas. The Z score model for the hiatal area was built by the formula Z score = (measured value - predicted mean value)/predicted standard deviation and was used to evaluate hiatal ballooning in women with POP. Valid data were gathered from 134 nulliparas and 159 patients with POP. POP stage 1 was found in 46 women, stage 2 in 62, stage 3 in 43, and stage 4 in 8. We built the Z score model as follows: Z-Av = (measured value - 17.15)/3.11, where Av represented the minimal levator hiatal area on the maximum Valsalva maneuver. The levator hiatal area was strongly related to the POP stage (P < .001). On a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the cutoff of Z-Av was 1 for POP stage 2 or higher (sensitivity, 77%; specificity, 60%) and substantial POP on ultrasonography (sensitivity, 84%; specificity, 75%). Hiatal distensibility can be exactly evaluated by Z-Av. A Z-Av value of less than 1.0 was defined as a "normal hiatal expansion," 1 to 3 as "mild ballooning," 3 to 5 as "moderate ballooning," 5 to 7 as "marked ballooning," and 7 or greater as "severe ballooning." © 2018 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  18. Viewing as little as 1 hour of TV daily is associated with higher change in BMI between kindergarten and first grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Travis; Scharf, Rebecca J; Conaway, Mark R; DeBoer, Mark D

    2015-08-01

    Evaluate associations between TV viewing and weight status in children from kindergarten to first grade. Linear and logistic regression was used to evaluate associations of TV-viewing time on BMI-z-score cross-sectionally at kindergarten and first grade and longitudinally in between, among a nationally representative sample of 14,645 children from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort 2011. All analyses were adjusted for sex, race/ethnicity, parental education, and household income. Weekday TV-viewing time was correlated with BMI-z-score (P TV daily, children watching ≥1 h in kindergarten and first grade had a greater odds of overweight (1.50-1.60) and obesity (1.58-1.73). Children watching 1-TV had a greater odds of becoming overweight (1.39) and obese (1.86) between evaluations. Children watching as little as 1-TV daily were more likely to become overweight and obese over time. Physicians should encourage families to restrict TV-viewing time to reduce weight gain. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  19. Mid-upper-arm-circumference and mid-upper-arm circumference z-score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, J; Andersen, A; Fisker, A B

    2012-01-01

    Mid-upper-arm circumference (MUAC) is a simple method of assessing nutritional status in children above 6 months of age. In 2007 World Health Organization (WHO) introduced a MUAC z-score for children above 3 months of age. We evaluated whether MUAC or MUAC z-score had the best ability to identify...

  20. Differences in distribution of T-scores and Z-scores among bone densitometry tests in postmenopausal women (a comparative study)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendlova, J.

    2002-01-01

    To determine the character of T-score and Z-score value distribution in individually selected methods of bone densitometry and to compare them using statistical analysis. We examined 56 postmenopausal women with an age between 43 and 68 years with osteopenia or osteoporosis according to the WHO classification. The following measurements were made in each patient: T-score and Z-score for: 1) Stiffness index (S) of the left heel bone, USM (index). 2) Bone mineral density of the left heel bone (BMDh), DEXA (g of Ca hydroxyapatite per cm 2 ). 3) Bone mineral density of trabecular bone of the L1 vertebra (BMDL1). QCT (mg of Ca hydroxyapatite per cm 3 ). The densitometers used in the study were: ultrasonometer to measure heel bone, Achilles plus LUNAR, USA: DEXA to measure heel bone, PIXl, LUNAR, USA: QCT to measure the L1 vertebra, CT, SOMATOM Plus, Siemens, Germany. Statistical analysis: differences between measured values of T-scores (Z-scores) were evaluated by parametric or non-parametric methods of determining the 95 % confidence intervals (C.I.). Differences between Z-score and T-score values for compared measurements were statistically significant; however, these differences were lower for Z-scores. Largest differences in 95 % C.I., characterizing individual measurements of T-score values (in comparison with Z-scores), were found for those densitometers whose age range of the reference groups of young adults differed the most, and conversely, the smallest differences in T-score values were found when the differences between the age ranges of reference groups were smallest. The higher variation in T-score values in comparison to Z-scores is also caused by a non-standard selection of the reference groups of young adults for the QCT, PIXI and Achilles Plus densitometers used in the study. Age characteristics of the reference group for T-scores should be standardized for all types of densitometers. (author)

  1. Analisis Potensi Kebangkrutan PT. Berlian Laju Tanker, Tbk. dengan Menggunakan Altman’s Z Score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iswandi Iswandi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available PT. Berlian Laju Tanker, Tbk. (BLTA is a company engaged in the ocean transportation services listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange and the Singapore Stock Exchange. In 2009 and 2010 BLTA experienced a net loss. At the end of 2011 the company rocked the financial markets in Indonesia and Singapore being unable to meet financial obligations to financial institutions and corporate bondholders. Given such conditions until the end of August 2012 BLTA can not submit audited financial statement of year 2011 to the authorities of stock exchange and public. By using the 2007 to 2010 audited financial statements and June 2011 inhouse financial statement were analyzed using Altman's Z score model can be known that since 2007 BLTA produce a Z score were classified bankruptcy. Investors should analyze the financial condition by using Z Score in order to minimized shareholders and bondholders potential losses.

  2. Higher Birthweight and Maternal Pre-pregnancy BMI Persist with Obesity Association at Age 9 in High Risk Latino Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjaer, Thora Wesenberg; Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel; Medrano, Rosalinda; Elwan, Deena; Mehta, Kala; Christensen, Vibeke Brix; Wojcicki, Janet M

    2018-02-03

    Childhood obesity is increasing especially in Latinos and early intervention is essential to prevent later obesity complications. Latino children (n = 201) recruited at two San Francisco hospitals were assessed at birth including infant anthropometrics and feeding practices and followed to age 9 with annual anthropometric assessments. We evaluated the relationship between perinatal risk factors and obesity at age 9 and chronic obesity (obesity at both 5 and 9 years). Higher birthweight [odds ratio (OR) 2.48, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-5.81] and maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) (OR 1.09, 95% CI 1.00-1.18) were associated with increased risk for obesity at 9 years. Higher maternal pre-pregnancy BMI (OR 1.10, 95% CI 1.01-1.20) was associated with chronic obesity. Additionally, prenatal depression symptoms were protective (OR 0.33, 95% CI 0.11-0.94) against chronic obesity. We found no association between maternal age and education, exclusive breastfeeding at 4-6 weeks, rapid infant weight gain, and obesity or chronic obesity. Perinatal risk factors for obesity including higher birthweight and maternal pre-pregnancy BMI persisted until age 9, whereas, other variables significant at age 5 in our cohort and other populations including exclusive breastfeeding and rapid infant weight gain were no longer associated with increased risk.

  3. Reducing Inter-Laboratory Differences between Semen Analyses Using Z Score and Regression Transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Leushuis

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Standardization of the semen analysis may improve reproducibility. We assessed variability between laboratories in semen analyses and evaluated whether a transformation using Z scores and regression statistics was able to reduce this variability. Materials and Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study. We calculated between-laboratory coefficients of variation (CVB for sperm concentration and for morphology. Subsequently, we standardized the semen analysis results by calculating laboratory specific Z scores, and by using regression. We used analysis of variance for four semen parameters to assess systematic differences between laboratories before and after the transformations, both in the circulation samples and in the samples obtained in the prospective cohort study in the Netherlands between January 2002 and February 2004. Results: The mean CVB was 7% for sperm concentration (range 3 to 13% and 32% for sperm morphology (range 18 to 51%. The differences between the laboratories were statistically significant for all semen parameters (all P<0.001. Standardization using Z scores did not reduce the differences in semen analysis results between the laboratories (all P<0.001. Conclusion: There exists large between-laboratory variability for sperm morphology and small, but statistically significant, between-laboratory variation for sperm concentration. Standardization using Z scores does not eliminate between-laboratory variability.

  4. Nutritional intake and weight z-scores in very low birth weight infants in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proaño, Alvaro; Aragón, Romina Elena; Rivera, Fabiola; Zegarra, Jaime

    2016-03-29

    To determine the actual nutritional intake of very low birth weight infants and their growth outcome during the first month of life. Additionally, we identified factors that account for a negative neonatal outcome in this population. A case-series study was conducted in a tertiary hospital in Lima, Peru between 2011 and 2012 and the data was obtained from medical records. No feeding protocol was used during this study. Daily fluids, energy and protein intakes were documented and weekly weight z-scores were calculated. A logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors for an adverse outcome, defined as neonatal mortality or extra-uterine growth restriction, during the first 28 days of life. After applying selection criteria, 76 participants were included. The nutritional intakes were similar to standard values seen in the literature, but protein intakes were suboptimal in all of the four weeks. Birth weight z-score was associated with an adverse outcome (p=0.035). It was determined that having a birth weight z-score under -1.09 predicted a negative outcome with an area under the curve of 96.8% [93.5%, 100%] with a 95% confidence interval. Protein intakes are widely deficient in the population of this study. Nevertheless, an adverse outcome during the neonatal period is more associated with a poor birth weight z-score than nutrition-related factors.

  5. Validation of the Six Sigma Z-score for the quality assessment of clinical laboratory timeliness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ialongo, Cristiano; Bernardini, Sergio

    2018-03-28

    The International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine has introduced in recent times the turnaround time (TAT) as mandatory quality indicator for the postanalytical phase. Classic TAT indicators, namely, average, median, 90th percentile and proportion of acceptable test (PAT), are in use since almost 40 years and to date represent the mainstay for gauging the laboratory timeliness. In this study, we investigated the performance of the Six Sigma Z-score, which was previously introduced as a device for the quantitative assessment of timeliness. A numerical simulation was obtained modeling the actual TAT data set using the log-logistic probability density function. Five thousand replicates for each size of the artificial TAT random sample (n=20, 50, 250 and 1000) were generated, and different laboratory conditions were simulated manipulating the PDF in order to generate more or less variable data. The Z-score and the classic TAT indicators were assessed for precision (%CV), robustness toward right-tailing (precision at different sample variability), sensitivity and specificity. Z-score showed sensitivity and specificity comparable to PAT (≈80% with n≥250), but superior precision that ranged within 20% by moderately small sized samples (n≥50); furthermore, Z-score was less affected by the value of the cutoff used for setting the acceptable TAT, as well as by the sample variability that reflected into the magnitude of right-tailing. The Z-score was a valid indicator of laboratory timeliness and a suitable device to improve as well as to maintain the achieved quality level.

  6. Influence of higher BMI for hepatitis B- and C-related hepatocellular carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Masakazu; Tashiro, Hirotaka; Kobayashi, Tsuyoshi; Kuroda, Shintaro; Hamaoka, Michinori; Ohdan, Hideki

    2017-08-01

    Although obesity is associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development, its impact on the surgical outcomes of patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-and hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related HCC remains unclear. We retrospectively analyzed 714 patients with HCC who underwent curative hepatectomy. Among them, the HBV-related HCC group (n = 125) and HCV-related HCC group (n = 426) were subdivided according to the presence of body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m 2 . The surgical outcomes were compared. The 5-year overall survival rate after hepatectomy in the HBV-related HCC group was significantly better than that in the HCV-related HCC group. The 5-year overall survival rates of the HBV-related HCC with and without BMI ≥ 25 kg/m 2 groups were 65 and 85%, respectively. The 5-year overall survival rates in the HCV-related HCC with and without BMI ≥ 25 kg/m 2 groups were 75 and 65%, respectively. The HBV-related HCC with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m 2 groups had a significantly worse prognosis than the HBV-related HCC without BMI ≥ 25 kg/m 2 groups, while the HCV-related HCC with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m 2 groups had a significantly better prognosis than the HCV-related HCC without BMI ≥ 25 kg/m 2 groups. Multivariate analysis revealed that BMI ≥ 25 kg/m 2 was the positive and negative prognostic factor for the surgical outcomes of patients with HBV- and HCV-related HCC, respectively. BMI ≥ 25 kg/m 2 negatively affected the surgical outcomes of patients with HBV-related HCC and positively affected those of patients with HCV-related HCC.

  7. Maternal Metabolic Health Parameters During Pregnancy in Relation to Early Childhood BMI Trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montazeri, Parisa; Vrijheid, Martine; Martinez, David; Basterrechea, Mikel; Fernandez-Somoano, Ana; Guxens, Monica; Iñiguez, Carmen; Lertxundi, Aitana; Murcia, Mario; Tardon, Adonina; Sunyer, Jordi; Valvi, Damaskini

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the associations between maternal metabolic parameters and early childhood BMI trajectories. Two thousand two hundred fifty-one children born in Spain between 2004 and 2008 were analyzed. Five BMI z score trajectories from birth to age 4 years were identified by using latent class growth analysis. Multinomial regression assessed the associations between maternal metabolic parameters and offspring's BMI trajectories. Children in the reference BMI trajectory had average size at birth followed by a slower BMI gain. Maternal prepregnancy obesity was associated with trajectories of accelerated BMI gain departing from either higher (relative risk ratio [RRR] = 1.77; 95% CI: 1.07-2.91) or lower size at birth (RRR = 1.91; 95% CI: 1.17-3.12). Gestational weight gain (GWG) above clinical guidelines was associated with a trajectory of higher birth size followed by accelerated BMI gain (RRR = 2.14; 95% CI: 1.53-2.97). Maternal serum triglycerides were negatively associated with BMI trajectories departing from lower birth sizes. Gestational diabetes, maternal serum cholesterol, and C-reactive protein were unrelated to children's BMI trajectories. Maternal prepregnancy obesity, GWG, and serum triglycerides are associated with longitudinal BMI trajectories in early childhood that may increase disease risk in later life. Health initiatives should promote healthy weight status before and during pregnancy to improve maternal and child health. © 2018 The Obesity Society.

  8. Identification of Outliers in Grace Data for Indo-Gangetic Plain Using Various Methods (Z-Score, Modified Z-score and Adjusted Boxplot) and Its Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, S.

    2015-12-01

    Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) data are widely used for the hydrological studies for large scale basins (≥100,000 sq km). GRACE data (Stokes Coefficients or Equivalent Water Height) used for hydrological studies are not direct observations but result from high level processing of raw data from the GRACE mission. Different partner agencies like CSR, GFZ and JPL implement their own methodology and their processing methods are independent from each other. The primary source of errors in GRACE data are due to measurement and modeling errors and the processing strategy of these agencies. Because of different processing methods, the final data from all the partner agencies are inconsistent with each other at some epoch. GRACE data provide spatio-temporal variations in Earth's gravity which is mainly attributed to the seasonal fluctuations in water level on Earth surfaces and subsurface. During the quantification of error/uncertainties, several high positive and negative peaks were observed which do not correspond to any hydrological processes but may emanate from a combination of primary error sources, or some other geophysical processes (e.g. Earthquakes, landslide, etc.) resulting in redistribution of earth's mass. Such peaks can be considered as outliers for hydrological studies. In this work, an algorithm has been designed to extract outliers from the GRACE data for Indo-Gangetic plain, which considers the seasonal variations and the trend in data. Different outlier detection methods have been used such as Z-score, modified Z-score and adjusted boxplot. For verification, assimilated hydrological (GLDAS) and hydro-meteorological data are used as the reference. The results have shown that the consistency amongst all data sets improved significantly after the removal of outliers.

  9. Empirical Percentile Growth Curves with Z-scores Considering Seasonal Compensatory Growths for Japanese Thoroughbred Horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ONODA, Tomoaki; YAMAMOTO, Ryuta; SAWAMURA, Kyohei; MURASE, Harutaka; NAMBO, Yasuo; INOUE, Yoshinobu; MATSUI, Akira; MIYAKE, Takeshi; HIRAI, Nobuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Percentile growth curves are often used as a clinical indicator to evaluate variations of children’s growth status. In this study, we propose empirical percentile growth curves using Z-scores adapted for Japanese Thoroughbred horses, with considerations of the seasonal compensatory growth that is a typical characteristic of seasonal breeding animals. We previously developed new growth curve equations for Japanese Thoroughbreds adjusting for compensatory growth. Individual horses and residual effects were included as random effects in the growth curve equation model and their variance components were estimated. Based on the Z-scores of the estimated variance components, empirical percentile growth curves were constructed. A total of 5,594 and 5,680 body weight and age measurements of male and female Thoroughbreds, respectively, and 3,770 withers height and age measurements were used in the analyses. The developed empirical percentile growth curves using Z-scores are computationally feasible and useful for monitoring individual growth parameters of body weight and withers height of young Thoroughbred horses, especially during compensatory growth periods. PMID:24834004

  10. Observing Maternal Restriction of Food with 3–5-Year-Old Children: Relationships with Temperament and Later Body Mass Index (BMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire V. Farrow

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Overt parental restriction of food has previously been associated with child weight; however, most research has relied on self-reported feeding behaviour, or observations which give little opportunity to observe restriction of food. Using a novel lab-based observational technique to increase the opportunity to observe maternal feeding restriction, we explored the relationships between maternal restriction, child responses to restriction and child temperament with child body mass index (BMI Z-scores over time. Sixty-two mother child dyads were recruited to the study when their children were aged 3–5 years and were followed up 2 years later (N = 39 dyads. Families were observed during a feeding interaction in the laboratory where cookies were offered with the main meal to increase the opportunity for maternal restriction of food. Feeding observations were coded and child temperament and BMI were measured. Controlling for current child BMI Z-scores, greater maternal verbal and physical restriction of food at 3–5 years was related to higher child BMI Z-scores at 5–7 years. More emotional children were less likely to experience restriction and less likely to accept attempts to restrict their food intake. Further research should consider children’s reactions to parental feeding behaviours in greater depth and explore how feeding practices interact with child temperament in the prediction of changes in child weight.

  11. Correlation of body mass index Z-scores with glucose and lipid profiles among overweight and obese children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Nogueira-de-Almeida

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of abnormalities in plasma lipid and glucose profiles among overweight and obese children and adolescents, and to assess the presence of a correlation between body mass index Z-scores and indicators of comorbidities related to both profiles. Methods: This was a multicenter cross-sectional study conducted at two outpatient clinics. The study included all 417 comers for the first visit from 2008 to 2012, aged between 7 and 18 years, with BMI above the Z-score +1. Anthropometry and blood sampling were obtained. The prevalence of dyslipidemias, hyperglycemia, and insulin resistance were evaluated, together with the correlations of these variables with the increase of Z-BMI. Results: Dyslipidemia was observed in 43.4% of the boys and 66.1% of the girls, with no difference between genders. High glucose levels were detected in 6.2% of the individuals. Insulin resistance was present in 32.3% and 41.7% of the cases, with no statistical significance between boys and girls. Correlations between the Z-BMI were noted for triglycerides in the entire group and among girls; for HDL-c, only among girls; for glucose, a correlation was observed for the entire group, but not when stratified by gender. The indicators of insulin resistance were all correlated with Z-BMI, even when corrected for age. Conclusions: Overweight and obesity give origin to a high prevalence of dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. BMI Z-scores showed a weak positive correlation with glucose and triglyceride, and negative with HDL-c. In turn, the strongest positive correlation was found with insulin resistance indicators. Resumo: Objetivo: Avaliar a prevalência de anormalidades nos perfis lipídico e glicêmico entre crianças e adolescentes com sobrepeso e obesidade e também verificar se existe correlação entre os escores-z de índice de massa corporal (z-IMC e indicadores de comorbidades ligados a esses perfis. Métodos: Estudo de corte transversal

  12. Penerapan Aplikasi Z-Score Method Dalam Pembentukan Portofolio Saham Yang Optimal

    OpenAIRE

    Pinem, Katarina Labore

    2015-01-01

    The result of the research shows that by using Z-score methode in 23 Blue Chip companies in 2013 there are six companies that could be the candidate of optimal portfolio, they are UNVR, AALI, MYOR, KLBF, INCO, and AKRA. Based on calculation, an investor who invest in this stock will get portfolio return at the rate of 0.13% and 1.63% standard deviation. To invest, investors can share their stock into some companies, in which UNVR has 3.766% proportion , AALI has 35.026% proportion, MYOR has ...

  13. PREDICTIVE ANALYSIS SOFTWARE FOR MODELING THE ALTMAN Z-SCORE FINANCIAL DISTRESS STATUS OF COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ILIE RĂSCOLEAN

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Literature shows some bankruptcy methods for determining the financial distress status of companies and based on this information we chosen Altman statistical model because it has been used a lot in the past and like that it has become a benchmark for other methods. Based on this financial analysis flowchart, programming software was developed that allows the calculation and determination of the bankruptcy probability for a certain rate of failure Z-score, corresponding to a given interval that is equal to the ratio of the number of bankrupt companies and the total number of companies (bankrupt and healthy interval.

  14. Social factors and television use during meals and snacks is associated with higher BMI among pre-school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Lise; Farmer, Anna; Girard, Manon; Peterson, Kelly

    2008-12-01

    The present paper examines the relationship between social factors, food consumption during television viewing, and overall television viewing and how these are associated with BMI when the role of familial and social factors are considered in a population-based birth cohort of pre-school children from Québec (Canada). The analyses were performed using data from the Longitudinal Study of Child Development in Québec (1998-2002) (LSCDQ). The study follows a representative sample (n 2103) of children born in 1998 in the Canadian province of Québec. A nutrition assessment was conducted on 1549 children aged 4.5 years and included a 24 h dietary recall, an eating behaviour and television viewing questionnaire, and a measurement of children's heights and weights. Statistical analyses were performed. Nearly one-quarter of children ate at least twice daily in front of the television. Children who consumed snacks while watching television on a daily basis had higher BMI than children who did so less frequently. Children who ate snacks in front of the television every day, or some times during the week, ate more carbohydrates (total), more fat and less protein, fewer fruits and vegetables, and drank soft drinks more often than children who never ate snacks in front of the television. Health professionals should target parents of children at risk of overweight/obesity with focused strategies to help children change the types of foods consumed during television viewing and to reduce the time spent watching television, particularly during meal times, which may change children's dietary intake and eating patterns.

  15. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry diagnostic discordance between Z-scores and T-scores in young adults.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carey, John J

    2009-01-01

    Diagnostic criteria for postmenopausal osteoporosis using central dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) T-scores have been widely accepted. The validity of these criteria for other populations, including premenopausal women and young men, has not been established. The International Society for Clinical Densitometry (ISCD) recommends using DXA Z-scores, not T-scores, for diagnosis in premenopausal women and men aged 20-49 yr, though studies supporting this position have not been published. We examined diagnostic agreement between DXA-generated T-scores and Z-scores in a cohort of men and women aged 20-49 yr, using 1994 World Health Organization and 2005 ISCD DXA criteria. Four thousand two hundred and seventy-five unique subjects were available for analysis. The agreement between DXA T-scores and Z-scores was moderate (Cohen\\'s kappa: 0.53-0.75). The use of Z-scores resulted in significantly fewer (McNemar\\'s p<0.001) subjects diagnosed with "osteopenia," "low bone mass for age," or "osteoporosis." Thirty-nine percent of Hologic (Hologic, Inc., Bedford, MA) subjects and 30% of Lunar (GE Lunar, GE Madison, WI) subjects diagnosed with "osteoporosis" by T-score were reclassified as either "normal" or "osteopenia" when their Z-score was used. Substitution of DXA Z-scores for T-scores results in significant diagnostic disagreement and significantly fewer persons being diagnosed with low bone mineral density.

  16. Exposure to violence in childhood is associated with higher body mass index in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, Holly C; Milliren, Carly; Austin, S Bryn; Sheridan, Margaret A; McLaughlin, Katie A

    2015-12-01

    To determine whether different types of childhood adversity are associated with body mass index (BMI) in adolescence, we studied 147 adolescents aged 13-17 years, 41% of whom reported exposure to at least one adversity (maltreatment, abuse, peer victimization, or witness to community or domestic violence). We examined associations between adversity type and age- and sex-specific BMI z-scores using linear regression and overweight and obese status using logistic regression. We adjusted for potential socio-demographic, behavioral, and psychological confounders and tested for effect modification by gender. Adolescents with a history of sexual abuse, emotional abuse, or peer victimization did not have significantly different BMI z-scores than those without exposure (p>0.05 for all comparisons). BMI z-scores were higher in adolescents who had experienced physical abuse (β=0.50, 95% CI 0.12-0.91) or witnessed domestic violence (β=0.85, 95% CI 0.30-1.40). Participants who witnessed domestic violence had almost 6 times the odds of being overweight or obese (95% CI: 1.09-30.7), even after adjustment for potential confounders. No gender-by-adversity interactions were found. Exposure to violence in childhood is associated with higher adolescent BMI. This finding highlights the importance of screening for violence in pediatric practice and providing obesity prevention counseling for youth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Physical Activity Producing Low, but Not Medium or Higher, Vertical Impacts Is Inversely Related to BMI in Older Adults: Findings From a Multicohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhakeem, Ahmed; Hannam, Kimberly; Deere, Kevin C; Hartley, April; Clark, Emma M; Moss, Charlotte; Edwards, Mark H; Dennison, Elaine; Gaysin, Tim; Kuh, Diana; Wong, Andrew; Cooper, Cyrus; Cooper, Rachel; Tobias, Jon H

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background High impact physical activity (PA) is thought to improve skeletal health, but its relation to other health outcomes are unclear. We investigated associations between PA impact magnitude and body mass index (BMI) in older adults. Methods Data were taken from the Cohort for Skeletal Health in Bristol and Avon (COSHIBA), Hertfordshire Cohort Study, and MRC National Survey of Health and Development. Vertical acceleration peaks from 7-day hip-worn accelerometer recordings were used to classify PA as low (0.5 impact. Cohort-specific associations of low, medium, and higher impact PA with BMI were examined using linear regressions and estimates combined using random-effects meta-analysis. Results A total of 1182 participants (mean age = 72.7 years, 68% female) were included. Low, medium, and higher impact PA were inversely related to BMI in initial models. After adjustment for confounders and other impacts, low, but not medium or higher, impacts were inversely related to BMI (−0.31, p impacts). In adjusted analyses of body composition measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in COSHIBA, low, but not medium or higher, impacts were inversely related to total body fat mass (−0.19, p impact PA was weakly and positively associated with lean mass (0.05, p = .06). Conclusions Greater exposure to PA producing low magnitude vertical impacts was associated with lower BMI and fat mass at older age. Low impact PA may help reduce obesity risk in older adults. PMID:29028919

  18. Warm Parenting Associated with Decreasing or Stable Child BMI during Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Kyung E; Jelalian, Elissa; Boutelle, Kerri; Dickstein, Susan; Seifer, Ronald; Wing, Rena

    2016-04-01

    While authoritative parenting, which includes high levels of warmth and behavioral control, has been associated with lower risk of obesity, little is known about how general parenting impacts child weight loss during treatment. Our goal was to examine the relationship between several general parenting dimensions and 'decreasing /stable' child BMI during a 16-week family-based behavioral weight control program. Forty-four overweight parent-child dyads (child age 8 to 12 years) enrolled in the program. Families were videotaped at baseline eating dinner in their home. Using the General Parenting Observational Scale (GPOS), meals were coded for several general parenting dimensions. Primary outcome was percent of children whose BMI 'decreased or stayed the same.' Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the relationship between general parenting and decreasing/stable child BMI. Forty families (91%) completed the program. Children had a mean BMI change of -0.40 (SD 1.57), which corresponds to a -0.15 (SD 0.20) change in BMI z-score (BMI-Z); 75% of children had decreasing/stable BMI. In the unadjusted models, lower parent BMI, higher parent education, and higher levels of parental warmth were significantly associated with decreasing/stable child BMI. In the multivariable model, only higher level of warmth was associated with increased odds of decreasing/stable child BMI (OR = 1.28; 95% CI, 1.01, 1.62). Baseline parental warmth may influence a child's ability to lower/maintain BMI during a standard family-based behavioral weight control program. Efforts to increase parent displays of warmth and emotional support towards their overweight child may help to increase the likelihood of treatment success.

  19. Evaluation of cortical bone mass, thickness and density by z-scores in osteopenic conditions and in relation to menopause and estrogen treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meema, S.; Meema, H.E.

    1982-01-01

    Z-scores express, differences from normals in standard deviation units, and are particularly useful for comparison of changes where normal values are age- and sex-dependent. We determined z-scores for bone mineral mass, cortical thickness, and bone mineral density in the radius in various conditions and diseases in both sexes. In the males, z-scores were calculated for age, but in the females z-scores for menopausal status (years postmenopausal exclusive of years on estrogen treatment) were found to be more appropriate. With few exceptions, changes in a disease were of a similar order in both sexes. For bone minerals mass few mean z-scores were significantly increased, but diseases with significantly decreased mean z-scores were numerous. The usefulness of z-scores in diagnosis and study of metabolic bone disease is discussed. (orig.)

  20. DETERMINAN PROFITABILITAS BANK MELALUI Z-SCORE, STRUKTUR MODAL, SIZE, RISIKO KREDIT DAN PERMODALAN PADA INDUSTRI PERBANKAN NASIONAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Ferry Ananda

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the influence of the value of the Z-Score, capital structure, size, credit risk and capital as measured by CAR on bank profitability. The object of this study is on the national banking industry. The sampling technique used in this research is purposive sampling. The sample in this study is a bank which went public on the Stock Exchange prior to the year 2013 and to publish financial statements in 2013 and 2014. The samples were 27 banks. Period study in 2013 and 2014. The analysis technique used multiple linear regression. The results showed that simultaneous Z-Score, capital structure, size, credit risk and capital effect on profitability. Partially value of the Z-Score, size, risk and CAR effect on profitability, while the capital structure policy has no effect on profitability.

  1. Predicting Corporate Financial Distress in Sri Lanka: An Extension to Z-Score Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.G.M. Nanayakkara

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to develop a better financial distress prediction model for the Sri Lankan companies using the Z-score model. Fourteen variables have been selected consisting of accounting, cash flow and market based variables. Multivariate Discriminate Analysis (MDA was used as the analytical technique and stepwise method was used to select the variables with the best discriminating power to a dataset of sixty-seven matched pairs of failed and non-failed quoted public companies over the period 2002 to 2011. The final models are validated using the cross validation method. The results indicate that a model with four predictors of earnings before interest and taxes, cash flow from operations to total debts, retained earnings to total assets, and firm size have achieved the classification accuracy of 85.8% in one year prior to the distress with a very low type I error. Moreover, the model has correctly classified the cases by 79.9% and 69.4% in two year and three year prior to distress respectively. The study has further revealed that the companies with negative cutoff value fall into distress zone while the companies with positive cutoff values fall into safety area. Hence, the study concluded that the companies with cutoff values approximately zero should be considered on mitigating actions for financial distress not only on the accounting information but also on the cash flow and market data.

  2. Gestational Weight Gain-for-Gestational Age Z-Score Charts Applied across U.S. Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Stephanie A; Hutcheon, Jennifer A; Bodnar, Lisa M; Petito, Lucia C; Abrams, Barbara

    2018-03-01

    Gestational weight gain may be a modifiable contributor to infant health outcomes, but the effect of gestational duration on gestational weight gain has limited the identification of optimal weight gain ranges. Recently developed z-score and percentile charts can be used to classify gestational weight gain independent of gestational duration. However, racial/ethnic variation in gestational weight gain and the possibility that optimal weight gain differs among racial/ethnic groups could affect generalizability of the z-score charts. The objectives of this study were (1) to apply the weight gain z-score charts in two different U.S. populations as an assessment of generalisability and (2) to determine whether race/ethnicity modifies the weight gain range associated with minimal risk of preterm birth. The study sample included over 4 million live, singleton births in California (2007-2012) and Pennsylvania (2003-2013). We implemented a noninferiority margin approach in stratified subgroups to determine weight gain ranges for which the adjusted predicted marginal risk of preterm birth (gestation gain between California and Pennsylvania births, and among several racial/ethnic groups in California. The optimal ranges decreased as severity of prepregnancy obesity increased in all groups. The findings support the use of weight gain z-score charts for studying gestational age-dependent outcomes in diverse U.S. populations and do not support weight gain recommendations tailored to race/ethnicity. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Predicting Coronary Artery Aneurysms in Kawasaki Disease at a North American Center: An Assessment of Baseline z Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Mary Beth F; Gauvreau, Kimberlee; Kim, Susan; Tang, Alexander; Dedeoglu, Fatma; Fulton, David R; Lo, Mindy S; Baker, Annette L; Sundel, Robert P; Newburger, Jane W

    2017-05-31

    Accurate risk prediction of coronary artery aneurysms (CAAs) in North American children with Kawasaki disease remains a clinical challenge. We sought to determine the predictive utility of baseline coronary dimensions adjusted for body surface area ( z scores) for future CAAs in Kawasaki disease and explored the extent to which addition of established Japanese risk scores to baseline coronary artery z scores improved discrimination for CAA development. We explored the relationships of CAA with baseline z scores; with Kobayashi, Sano, Egami, and Harada risk scores; and with the combination of baseline z scores and risk scores. We defined CAA as a maximum z score (zMax) ≥2.5 of the left anterior descending or right coronary artery at 4 to 8 weeks of illness. Of 261 patients, 77 patients (29%) had a baseline zMax ≥2.0. CAAs occurred in 15 patients (6%). CAAs were strongly associated with baseline zMax ≥2.0 versus Baseline zMax ≥2.0 had a C statistic of 0.77, good sensitivity (80%), and excellent negative predictive value (98%). None of the risk scores alone had adequate discrimination. When high-risk status per the Japanese risk scores was added to models containing baseline zMax ≥2.0, none were significantly better than baseline zMax ≥2.0 alone. In a North American center, baseline zMax ≥2.0 in children with Kawasaki disease demonstrated high predictive utility for later development of CAA. Future studies should validate the utility of our findings. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  4. Higher body mass index associated with severe early childhood caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Katherine; Schroth, Robert J; Levi, Jeremy A; Yaffe, Aaron B; Mittermuller, Betty-Anne; Sellers, Elizabeth A C

    2016-08-20

    Severe Early Childhood Caries (S-ECC) is an aggressive form of tooth decay in preschool children affecting quality of life and nutritional status. The purpose was to determine whether there is an association between Body Mass Index (BMI) and S-ECC. Children with S-ECC were recruited on the day of their slated dental surgery under general anesthesia. Age-matched, caries-free controls were recruited from the community. All children were participating in a larger study on nutrition and S-ECC. Analysis was restricted to children ≥ 24 months of age. Parents completed a questionnaire and heights and weights were recorded. BMI scores and age and gender adjusted BMI z-scores and percentiles were calculated. A p-value ≤ 0.05 was significant. Two hundred thirty-five children were included (141 with S-ECC and 94 caries-free). The mean age was 43.3 ± 12.8 months and 50.2 % were male. Overall, 34.4 % of participants were overweight or obese. Significantly more children with S-ECC were classified as overweight or obese when compared to caries-free children (p = 0.038) and had significantly higher mean BMI z-scores than caries-free children (0.78 ± 1.26 vs. 0.22 ± 1.36, p = 0.002). Those with S-ECC also had significantly higher BMI percentiles (69.0 % ± 29.2 vs. 56.8 % ± 31.7, p = 0.003). Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that BMI z-scores were significantly and independently associated with S-ECC and annual household income as were BMI percentiles. Children with S-ECC in our sample had significantly higher BMI z-scores than caries-free peers.

  5. Bankruptcy Prediction Using the Altman Z-score Model in Oman: A Case Study of Raysut Cement Company SAOG and its subsidiaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shariq Mohammed

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Financial health is of great concern for a business firm. For measuring the financial health of a business firm, there are lots of techniques available. However, Altman’s Z-score has been proven to be a reliable tool. This model envisages predicting the possibilities of bankruptcy of manufacturing organization. Multiple discriminate analyses (MDA are useful tools in such situations. The use of MDA helps to consolidate the effect of all ratios. Keeping the above view in mind, the “Z score” analysis has been adopted to monitor the financial health of the company. The current study has been conducted to assess the financial health of a firm namely Raysut Cement Company SAOG and its subsidiaries in Oman. This study was based on the secondary data which was obtained from the published sources i.e. Annual report for the period of 8 years (2007 to 2014. The study revealed that the Company Raysut Cement Company SAOG and its subsidiaries are financially sound as they have higher Z score than the benchmark (2.99 except in some years of study. The findings of the study may be useful for the managers to take financial decision, the stockholders to choose investment options and others to look after their interest in the concerned cement manufacturers of the country.

  6. The role of a FADS1 polymorphism in the association of fatty acid blood levels, BMI and blood pressure in young children-Analyses based on path models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maike Wolters

    Full Text Available The recent obesity epidemic in children also showed an increase in the prevalence of hypertension. As blood pressure (BP is associated with (long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC PUFA, genetic variation in desaturase enzymes being involved in the synthesis of LC PUFA may be associated with BP. This study aimed to investigate the direct effects (independent of mediating variables and indirect effects (mediated through intermediate variables of a common variant in the FADS1 gene, rs174546, known to affect delta-5 desaturase (D5D activity on PUFA level, body mass index (BMI and BP.A subsample of the IDEFICS (Identification and prevention of dietary- and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants baseline survey including 520 children aged 2 to <10 years from six European countries was included. The association between rs174546 (Tz-score as well as the mediating effects of selected key PUFA levels (dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, DGLA; arachidonic acid, ARA; eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA or estimated D5D activity (D5D index and BMI z-score were investigated through path model analyses, adjusting for sex, age, educational level of parents, family history of hypertension, lifestyle factors and blood levels of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, triglycerides and low density lipoprotein cholesterol. Whole blood fatty acids were measured by a validated gas chromatographic method and recorded as percentage of weight of all fatty acids detected.Minor allele carriers of the SNP rs174546 had significantly higher DGLA and lower ARA and EPA levels as well as a lower D5D index. Via ARA and BMI z-score, the polymorphism had an indirect lowering effect on systolic BP z-score for each additional T allele (standardized effect estimate -0.057, p = 0.007. For DGLA, EPA and D5D index, the indirect effects of rs174546 on systolic BP were also negative but did not reach significance. DGLA and EPA had an increasing indirect effect on

  7. Computer-assisted lateralization of unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy using Z-score parametric F-18 FDG PET images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Ching-yee Oliver; Gannon, James; Bong, Jeffrey; Wong, Christiana O; Saha, Gopal B

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the use of unbiased computer-assisted lateralization of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) by z-score parametric PET imaging (ZPET). 38 patients with histologically proven unilateral TLE due to pure hippocampal sclerosis, referred for pre-surgical PET evaluation of intractable seizure over a 5-year period, were included. The F-18 FDG images were oriented along temporal long axis and then transformed into ZPET images on a voxel by voxel basis. Multiple regions of interests (21 in total) were placed on cortical, subcortical and cerebellar structures on twenty-eight out of 38 patients with totally seizure-free (class I) outcome. Paired t-tests with Bonferroni correction were used to determine the location of the most asymmetric regions as variables for subsequent discriminant analysis of the entire group of the patients. The computer program identified the anterior half of the temporal lobe (p < 0.0005) and thalami (p = 0.021) as the most asymmetric regions in TLE patients with Class I outcome. Discriminant analysis using z-scores from a total of 8 ROIs (in 4 pairs) on these structures correctly lateralized thirty-seven out of 38 (97%) patients (sensitivity = 94%; specificity = 100%). The only false localization came from a patient with equivocal z-scores on the temporal lobes and this patient turned out to have poor outcome. The computer-assisted lateralization of TLE using ZPET provides an accurate, fast and objective way of seizure evaluation

  8. Comparison of the fixed ratio and the Z-score of FEV1/FVC in the elderly population: a long-term mortality analysis from the Third National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Dong Kyu; Baek, Seunghee; Lee, Sei Won; Lee, Jae Seung; Lee, Sang-Do; Oh, Yeon-Mok

    2018-01-01

    Despite the ongoing intense debate on the definition of airflow limitation by spirometry in the elderly population, there have only been few studies comparing the fixed ratio and the Z -score of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV 1 )/forced vital capacity (FVC) in terms of long-term mortalities. In this study, we aimed to identify the proper method for accurately defining the airflow limitation in terms of long-term mortality prediction in the elderly population. Data were collected from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in the US. Non-Hispanic Caucasians aged 65-80 years were included. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves of both methods were plotted and compared for 10-year all-cause, respiratory, and COPD mortalities. Of 1,331 subjects, the mean age was 71.7 years and 805 (60.5%) were males. For the 10-year all-cause mortality, the area under the curve (AUC) of the fixed ratio was significantly greater than that of the Z -score of FEV 1 /FVC, but both showed poor prediction performance (0.633 vs 0.616, p ratio and the Z -score of FEV 1 /FVC showed comparable prediction performance with greater AUCs (0.784 vs 0.778, p =0.160, and 0.896 vs 0.896, p =0.971, respectively). Interestingly, the conventional cutoff of 0.7 in the fixed ratio was consistently higher than the optimal for the 10-year all-cause, respiratory, and COPD mortalities (0.70 vs 0.69, 0.62, and 0.61, respectively), whereas that of -1.64 in the Z -score of FEV 1 /FVC was consistently lower than the optimal cutoff (-1.64 vs -1.31, -1.47, and -1.41, respectively). In the elderly population, both the fixed ratio and the Z -score of FEV 1 /FVC showed comparable prediction performance for the 10-year respiratory and COPD mortalities. However, the conventional cutoff of neither 0.70 in the fixed ratio nor -1.64 in the Z -score of FEV 1 /FVC was optimal for predicting the long-term mortalities.

  9. Height, weight and BMI percentiles and nutritional status relative to the international growth references among Pakistani school-aged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mushtaq Muhammad Umair

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Child growth is internationally recognized as an important indicator of nutritional status and health in populations. This study was aimed to compare age- and gender-specific height, weight and BMI percentiles and nutritional status relative to the international growth references among Pakistani school-aged children. Methods A population-based study was conducted with a multistage cluster sample of 1860 children aged five to twelve years in Lahore, Pakistan. Smoothed height, weight and BMI percentile curves were obtained and comparison was made with the World Health Organization 2007 (WHO and United States' Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2000 (USCDC references. Over- and under-nutrition were defined according to the WHO and USCDC references, and the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF cut-offs. Simple descriptive statistics were used and statistical significance was considered at P Results Height, weight and BMI percentiles increased with age among both boys and girls, and both had approximately the same height and a lower weight and BMI as compared to the WHO and USCDC references. Mean differences from zero for height-, weight- and BMI-for-age z score values relative to the WHO and USCDC references were significant (P Conclusion Pakistani school-aged children significantly differed from the WHO and USCDC references. However, z score means relative to the WHO reference were closer to zero and the present study as compared to the USCDC reference. Overweight and obesity were significantly higher while underweight and thinness/wasting were significantly lower relative to the WHO reference as compared to the USCDC reference and the IOTF cut-offs. New growth charts for Pakistani children based on a nationally representative sample should be developed. Nevertheless, shifting to use of the 2007 WHO child growth reference might have important implications for child health programs and primary care pediatric clinics.

  10. Difficulty buying food, BMI, and eating habits in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Anne; Maguire, Jonathon L; Carsley, Sarah; Chen, Yang; Lebovic, Gerald; Omand, Jessica; Parkin, Patricia; Birken, Catherine S

    2018-01-22

    To determine whether parent report of difficulty buying food was associated with child body mass index (BMI) z-score or with eating habits in young children. This was a cross-sectional study in primary care offices in Toronto, Ontario. Subjects were children aged 1-5 years and their caregivers, recruited through the TARGet Kids! Research Network from July 2008 to August 2011. Regression models were developed to test the association between parent report of difficulty buying food because of cost and the following outcomes: child BMI z-score, parent's report of child's intake of fruit and vegetables, fruit juice and sweetened beverages, and fast food. Confounders included child's age, sex, birth weight, maternal BMI, education, ethnicity, immigration status, and neighbourhood income. The study sample consisted of 3333 children. Data on difficulty buying food were available for 3099 children, and 431 of these (13.9%) were from households reporting difficulty buying food. There was no association with child BMI z-score (p = 0.86). Children from households reporting difficulty buying food (compared with never having difficulty buying food) had increased odds of consuming three or fewer servings of fruits and vegetables per day (odds ratio [OR]: 1.31, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03-1.69), more than one serving of fruit juice/sweetened beverage per day (OR: 1.60, 95% CI: 1.28-2.00), and, among children 1-2 years old, one or more servings of fast food per week (OR: 2.91, 95% CI: 1.67-5.08). Parental report of difficulty buying food is associated with less optimal eating habits in children but not with BMI z-score.

  11. Regression equations for calculation of z scores for echocardiographic measurements of right heart structures in healthy Han Chinese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shan-Shan; Zhang, Yu-Qi; Chen, Shu-Bao; Huang, Guo-Ying; Zhang, Hong-Yan; Zhang, Zhi-Fang; Wu, Lan-Ping; Hong, Wen-Jing; Shen, Rong; Liu, Yi-Qing; Zhu, Jun-Xue

    2017-06-01

    Clinical decision making in children with congenital and acquired heart disease relies on measurements of cardiac structures using two-dimensional echocardiography. We aimed to establish z-score regression equations for right heart structures in healthy Chinese Han children. Two-dimensional and M-mode echocardiography was performed in 515 patients. We measured the dimensions of the pulmonary valve annulus (PVA), main pulmonary artery (MPA), left pulmonary artery (LPA), right pulmonary artery (RPA), right ventricular outflow tract at end-diastole (RVOTd) and at end-systole (RVOTs), tricuspid valve annulus (TVA), right ventricular inflow tract at end-diastole (RVIDd) and at end-systole (RVIDs), and right atrium (RA). Regression analyses were conducted to relate the measurements of right heart structures to 4body surface area (BSA). Right ventricular outflow-tract fractional shortening (RVOTFS) was also calculated. Several models were used, and the best model was chosen to establish a z-score calculator. PVA, MPA, LPA, RPA, RVOTd, RVOTs, TVA, RVIDd, RVIDs, and RA (R 2  = 0.786, 0.705, 0.728, 0.701, 0.706, 0.824, 0.804, 0.663, 0.626, and 0.793, respectively) had a cubic polynomial relationship with BSA; specifically, measurement (M) = β0 + β1 × BSA + β2 × BSA 2  + β3 × BSA. 3 RVOTFS (0.28 ± 0.02) fell within a narrow range (0.12-0.51). Our results provide reference values for z scores and regression equations for right heart structures in Han Chinese children. These data may help interpreting the routine clinical measurement of right heart structures in children with congenital or acquired heart disease. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound 45:293-303, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Oxandrolone Improves Height Velocity and BMI in Patients with Cystic Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seffrood ErinE

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the effectiveness of oxandrolone in improving the nutritional status and linear growth of pediatric patients with cystic fibrosis (CF. Methods. Medical records of patients with CF treated with oxandrolone were reviewed for height z score, height velocity (HV, BMI z score, weight velocity (WV, Tanner stage, pulmonary function, liver enzyme levels, and any reported adverse events. Data were compared before (pre-Ox and after (Ox oxandrolone using a paired t-test. Results. 5 subjects (ages 8.5–14.5 years were treated with oxandrolone 2.5 mg daily for 8–38 months. After 8–12 months of treatment, there was a statistically significant improvement in HV (  cm/yr,  cm/yr, and BMI z score ( , , . Both height z score ( , , and WV (  kg/yr, Ox  kg/yr, showed beneficial trends that did not reach statistical significance. No adverse events were reported. Conclusions. In this brief clinical report, oxandrolone improved the HV and BMI z score in patients with CF. Larger studies are needed to determine if oxandrolone is an effective, safe, and affordable option to stimulate appetite, improve weight gain, and promote linear growth in patients with CF.

  13. Associations between Food Outlets around Schools and BMI among Primary Students in England: A Cross-Classified Multi-Level Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julianne Williams

    Full Text Available Researchers and policy-makers are interested in the influence that food retailing around schools may have on child obesity risk. Most previous research comes from North America, uses data aggregated at the school-level and focuses on associations between fast food outlets and school obesity rates. This study examines associations between food retailing and BMI among a large sample of primary school students in Berkshire, England. By controlling for individual, school and home characteristics and stratifying results across the primary school years, we aimed to identify if the food environment around schools had an effect on BMI, independent of socio-economic variables.We measured the densities of fast food outlets and food stores found within schoolchildren's home and school environments using Geographic Information Systems (GIS and data from local councils. We linked these data to measures from the 2010/11 National Child Measurement Programme and used a cross-classified multi-level approach to examine associations between food retailing and BMI z-scores. Analyses were stratified among Reception (aged 4-5 and Year 6 (aged 10-11 students to measure associations across the primary school years.Our multilevel model had three levels to account for individual (n = 16,956, home neighbourhood (n = 664 and school (n = 268 factors. After controlling for confounders, there were no significant associations between retailing near schools and student BMI, but significant positive associations between fast food outlets in home neighbourhood and BMI z-scores. Year 6 students living in areas with the highest density of fast food outlets had an average BMI z-score that was 0.12 (95% CI: 0.04, 0.20 higher than those living in areas with none.We found little evidence to suggest that food retailing around schools influences student BMI. There is some evidence to suggest that fast food outlet densities in a child's home neighbourhood may have an effect on BMI

  14. Associations between Food Outlets around Schools and BMI among Primary Students in England: A Cross-Classified Multi-Level Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Julianne; Scarborough, Peter; Townsend, Nick; Matthews, Anne; Burgoine, Thomas; Mumtaz, Lorraine; Rayner, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Researchers and policy-makers are interested in the influence that food retailing around schools may have on child obesity risk. Most previous research comes from North America, uses data aggregated at the school-level and focuses on associations between fast food outlets and school obesity rates. This study examines associations between food retailing and BMI among a large sample of primary school students in Berkshire, England. By controlling for individual, school and home characteristics and stratifying results across the primary school years, we aimed to identify if the food environment around schools had an effect on BMI, independent of socio-economic variables. We measured the densities of fast food outlets and food stores found within schoolchildren's home and school environments using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and data from local councils. We linked these data to measures from the 2010/11 National Child Measurement Programme and used a cross-classified multi-level approach to examine associations between food retailing and BMI z-scores. Analyses were stratified among Reception (aged 4-5) and Year 6 (aged 10-11) students to measure associations across the primary school years. Our multilevel model had three levels to account for individual (n = 16,956), home neighbourhood (n = 664) and school (n = 268) factors. After controlling for confounders, there were no significant associations between retailing near schools and student BMI, but significant positive associations between fast food outlets in home neighbourhood and BMI z-scores. Year 6 students living in areas with the highest density of fast food outlets had an average BMI z-score that was 0.12 (95% CI: 0.04, 0.20) higher than those living in areas with none. We found little evidence to suggest that food retailing around schools influences student BMI. There is some evidence to suggest that fast food outlet densities in a child's home neighbourhood may have an effect on BMI, particularly

  15. 2-Year BMI Changes of Children Referred for Multidisciplinary Weight Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer K. Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine body mass index (BMI changes among pediatric multidisciplinary weight management participants and nonparticipants. Design. In this retrospective database analysis, we used multivariable mixed effect models to compare 2-year BMI z-score trajectories among 583 eligible overweight or obese children referred to the One Step Ahead program at the Boston Children’s Primary Care Center between 2003 and 2009. Results. Of the referred children, 338 (58% attended the program; 245 (42% did not participate and were instead followed by their primary care providers within the group practice. The mean BMI z-score of program participants decreased modestly over a 2-year period and was lower than that of nonparticipants. The group-level difference in the rate of change in BMI z-score between participants and nonparticipants was statistically significant for 0–6 months (P=0.001 and 19–24 months (P=0.008; it was marginally significant for 13–18 months (P=0.051 after referral. Younger participants (<5 years had better outcomes across all time periods examined. Conclusion. Children attending a multidisciplinary program experienced greater BMI z-score reductions compared with usual primary care in a real world practice; younger participants had significantly better outcomes. Future research should consider early intervention and cost-effectiveness analyses.

  16. Associations between family-related factors, breakfast consumption and BMI among 10- to 12-year-old European children: the cross-sectional ENERGY-study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Van Lippevelde

    Full Text Available To investigate associations of family-related factors with children's breakfast consumption and BMI-z-score and to examine whether children's breakfast consumption mediates associations between family-related factors and children's BMI-z-score.Ten- to twelve-year-old children (n = 6374; mean age = 11.6 ± 0.7 years, 53.2% girls, mean BMI-z-score = 0.4 ± 1.2 and one of their parents (n = 6374; mean age = 41.4 ± 5.3 years, 82.7% female, mean BMI = 24.5 ± 4.2 kg/m(2 were recruited from schools in eight European countries (Belgium, Greece, Hungary, the Netherlands, Norway, Slovenia, Spain, and Switzerland. The children self-reported their breakfast frequency per week. The body weight and height of the children were objectively measured. The parents responded to items on family factors related to breakfast (automaticity, availability, encouragement, paying attention, permissiveness, negotiating, communicating health beliefs, parental self-efficacy to address children's nagging, praising, and family breakfast frequency. Mediation analyses were performed using multi-level regression analyses (child-school-country.Three of the eleven family-related variables were significantly associated with children's BMI-z-score. The family breakfast frequency was negatively associated with the BMI-z-score; permissiveness concerning skipping breakfast and negotiating about breakfast were positively associated with the BMI-z-score. Children's breakfast consumption was found to be a mediator of the two associations. All family-related variables except for negotiating, praising and communicating health beliefs, were significantly associated with children's breakfast consumption.Future breakfast promotion and obesity prevention interventions should focus on family-related factors including the physical home environment and parenting practices. Nevertheless, more longitudinal research and intervention studies to support these findings between family-related factors and

  17. Risky food safety behaviors are associated with higher BMI and lower healthy eating self-efficacy and intentions among African American churchgoers in Baltimore [corrected].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Anderson Steeves

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There are an estimated 9.4 million cases of foodborne illness each year. Consumers have a key role in preventing foodborne illness, but differences in the practice of food safety behaviors exist, increasing risk for certain groups in the population. Identifying groups who are more likely to practice risky food safety behaviors can assist in development of interventions to reduce the disease burden of foodborne illnesses. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the relationships of health indicators and psychosocial factors with self-reported food safety behaviors. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Data were collected via questionnaire from 153 African Americans who attend churches in Baltimore City. Individuals reported high overall concern with food safety (mean score: 0.80±0.49 on a scale of -1 to +1 and practiced food safety behaviors with moderate overall frequency (mean score: 5.26±4.01 on a scale of -12 to +12, with considerable variation in reported frequencies depending on the food safety behavior. After adjusting for demographic variables, food safety behaviors were significantly associated with BMI and psychosocial variables. Riskier food safety behaviors were associated with higher body mass index (BMI (β = -0.141 95%CI (-0.237, -0.044, p = 0.004. Self-efficacy for healthy eating (standard β [std. β] = 0.250, p = 0.005 and healthy eating intentions (std. β = 0.178, p = 0.041 were associated with better food safety behaviors scores. CONCLUSIONS: These results show important relationships between weight-related health indicators, psychosocial factors and food safety behaviors that have not previously been studied. Interventions tailored to higher-risk populations have the potential to reduce the burden of food-related illnesses. Additional studies are needed to further investigate these relationships with larger and more diverse samples.

  18. Risky Food Safety Behaviors Are Associated with Higher Bmi and Lower Healthy Eating Self-Efficacy and Intentions among African American Churchgoers in Baltimore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson Steeves, Elizabeth; Silbergeld, Ellen; Summers, Amber; Chen, Lenis; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2012-01-01

    Background There are an estimated 9.4 million cases of foodborne illness each year. Consumers have a key role in preventing foodborne illness, but differences in the practice of food safety behaviors exist, increasing risk for certain groups in the population. Identifying groups who are more likely to practice risky food safety behaviors can assist in development of interventions to reduce the disease burden of foodborne illnesses. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the relationships of health indicators and psychosocial factors with self-reported food safety behaviors. Methods and Findings Data were collected via questionnaire from 153 African Americans who attend churches in Baltimore City. Individuals reported high overall concern with food safety (mean score: 0.80±0.49 on a scale of −1 to +1) and practiced food safety behaviors with moderate overall frequency (mean score: 5.26±4.01 on a scale of −12 to +12), with considerable variation in reported frequencies depending on the food safety behavior. After adjusting for demographic variables, food safety behaviors were significantly associated with BMI and psychosocial variables. Riskier food safety behaviors were associated with higher body mass index (BMI) (β = −0.141 95%CI (−0.237, −0.044), p = 0.004). Self-efficacy for healthy eating (standard β [std. β] = 0.250, p = 0.005) and healthy eating intentions (std. β = 0.178, p = 0.041) were associated with better food safety behaviors scores. Conclusions These results show important relationships between weight-related health indicators, psychosocial factors and food safety behaviors that have not previously been studied. Interventions tailored to higher-risk populations have the potential to reduce the burden of food-related illnesses. Additional studies are needed to further investigate these relationships with larger and more diverse samples. PMID:23284894

  19. Weight and height z-scores improve after initiating ART among HIV-infected children in rural Zambia: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinywimaanzi Pamela

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deficits in growth observed in HIV-infected children in resource-poor settings can be reversed with antiretroviral treatment (ART. However, many of the studies have been conducted in urban areas with older pediatric populations. This study was undertaken to evaluate growth patterns after ART initiation in a young pediatric population in rural Zambia with a high prevalence of undernutrition. Methods Between 2007 and 2009, 193 HIV-infected children were enrolled in a cohort study in Macha, Zambia. Children were evaluated every 3 months, at which time a questionnaire was administered, height and weight were measured, and blood specimens were collected. Weight- and height-for-age z-scores were constructed from WHO growth standards. All children receiving ART at enrollment or initiating ART during the study were included in this analysis. Linear mixed effects models were used to model trajectories of weight and height-for-age z-scores. Results A high proportion of study children were underweight (59% and stunted (72% at treatment initiation. Improvements in both weight- and height-for-age z-scores were observed, with weight-for-age z-scores increasing during the first 6 months of treatment and then stabilizing, and height-for-age z-scores increasing consistently over time. Trajectories of weight-for-age z-scores differed by underweight status at treatment initiation, with children who were underweight experiencing greater increases in z-scores in the first 6 months of treatment. Trajectories of height-for-age z-scores differed by age, with children older than 5 years of age experiencing smaller increases over time. Conclusions Some of the effects of HIV on growth were reversed with ART initiation, although a high proportion of children remained underweight and stunted after two years of treatment. Partnerships between treatment and nutrition programs should be explored so that HIV-infected children can receive optimal nutritional

  20. An SPSS implementation of the nonrecursive outlier deletion procedure with shifting z score criterion (Van Selst & Jolicoeur, 1994).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Glenn L

    2006-05-01

    Sophisticated univariate outlier screening procedures are not yet available in widely used statistical packages such as SPSS. However, SPSS can accept user-supplied programs for executing these procedures. Failing this, researchers tend to rely on simplistic alternatives that can distort data because they do not adjust to cell-specific characteristics. Despite their popularity, these simple procedures may be especially ill suited for some applications (e.g., data from reaction time experiments). A user friendly SPSS Production Facility implementation of the shifting z score criterion procedure (Van Selst & Jolicoeur, 1994) is presented in an attempt to make it easier to use. In addition to outlier screening, optional syntax modules can be added that will perform tedious database management tasks (e.g., restructuring or computing means).

  1. Analisis Kebangkrutan Perusahaan dengan Menggunakan Metode Z Score (Studi Kasus pada Industri Consumer Goods di Bursa Efek Jakarta Periode 1997 – 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuning Kriesnawati

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze bankruptcy using the Z score. Research done in the consumer goods industry listed in Jakarta Stock Exchange 1997-2000 period. The results found that in 2000 the value of Z score companies has decreased, this is possible because the value of the variable X3 and X4 has decreased, but in 2001 the value of Z score Integration again experienced an increase, although not as high as in 1999, this means that the company can improve its performance. PT Mandom value of Z score indicates that the company is in a good condition or not bankruptcy. Z score value of the company from 1997 to 2001 continues to increase, it suggests that good corporate performance which proved that despite the crisis the company was still able to survive even continue to increase. Analysis of the bankruptcy of PT Unilever shows that the company is in a good condition. As in PT Mandom, the company is also not affected by the crisis. Z score value of the company from 1997 to 2001 have increased constantly, this indicates that the performance is good. Analysis of the bankruptcy of the PT Procter and Gamble shows that the company is in conditions that are less stable, this is indicated by the value of Z score in 1997 shows that the company is in the condition of the gray area, in 1998 based on assessment standards of bankruptcy, the company in 1998 experienced bankruptcy, in 1999 the company experienced a slight improvement from the beginning in a state of bankruptcy changes on the condition of the gray area, in 2000 the company was in good condition or not bankrupt, this is possible because the company sells most of its fixed assets in order to operate properly. However, in 2001 the company back on the condition of the gray area, it is because the value X2 to X5 has decreased.

  2. Higher weight, lower education: a longitudinal association between adolescents' body mass index and their subsequent educational achievement level?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Junilla K; Kleinjan, Marloes; Engels, Rutger C M E; Fisher, Jennifer O; Hermans, Roel C J

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between adolescents' body mass index (BMI) z-scores and their subsequent level of schooling, extending previous longitudinal research by using objectively measured weight and height data. A longitudinal study with 3 study waves (1-year intervals) involving 1248 Dutch adolescents (49% girls; mean age = 13.7 years) at schools providing different educational levels was used to determine adolescents who moved and did not move to a lower educational level in the first year, or in the second year, and to examine whether this movement could be predicted by BMI z-scores (zBMI), after controlling for a large range of potential confounding factors. A total of 1164 Dutch adolescents continued in the same level of education, whereas 84 adolescents moved to a lower educational level (43 moved in the first and 41 in the second year). A higher zBMI significantly increased the risk of a general transition to a lower educational level, and of a transition in the first year, but not in the second year, after controlling for potential demographic, behavioral, and psychological confounds. Findings suggest that a higher zBMI during adolescence immediately lowers educational achievement level during general secondary education. © 2014, American School Health Association.

  3. An evaluation of nutritional status of children in Anganwadi Centre of Hyderabad district of Andhra Pradesh stateusing WHO z- score technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanawaz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND In India the nationwide Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS uses the I.A.P criteria to grade under nutrition. The current WHO recommendation is to use Z score or the standard deviation system to grade under nutrition. Although widely recommended the z scores have not been widely used in India, especially in community based studies. AIMS & OBJECTIVES 1. To assess the socio-demographic profile of 0-72 months age group of children. 2. To find out the nutritional status of children using WHO z- score technique. METHODOLOGY A cross sectional, community-based was done in ICDS Anganwadi centers among the 400 ICDS children (0-6 years RESULTS There are (47.5% undernourished and (16.5% severely malnourished children according to WHO z score technique. Males (49.5% are comparatively more under nourished than females (45.5%. Female infants (31.2% are less undernourished when compared to male infants (50%. Literacy of mother had significance over the nutritional status of their children (p˂0.05. CONCLUSION The present study shows that there are still many children who are undernourished and severely malnourished in our country, even after 36 years of ICDS services. There is need to use WHO standards at the grass route levels to correctly identify the burden of under nutrition. Z score technique is simple to use, reliable and easy to understand at grass route level by health workers.

  4. [Z scores for growth and development, physical fitness, and the relationship between them in 362 preschool children in Yantai City, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhu-Mei; Zhou, Jun-Hua; Wang, Ai-Hua; Wang, Ai-Li

    2013-02-01

    To investigate the Z scores for growth and development, physical fitness, and the relationship between them in preschool children in Yantai City, China, and to provide scientific evidence for health care in children. A total of 362 children aged 3 to 4 years, whose data were recorded in the National Physical Fitness Survey in Yantai in 2010, were included in the study. Z scores for weight-for-age, height-for-age and body mass index-for-age were calculated. The relationship between Z scores and physical fitness was determined by Pearson's correlation analysis. The mean Z scores were all positive numbers. The prevalence rates of underweight and growth retardation were very low, but that of obesity was relatively high (up to 16.5% in 4-year-old boys). There were differences in physical fitness between children of different ages and between boys and girls (Pdevelopment remain at relatively high levels in preschool children in Yantai. The physical fitness is associated with age and gender in these children. There are weak correlations between Z scores and some physical fitness indices. Effective measures should be taken to adjust dietary habits and promote exercise for children, thus preventing obesity and improving physical fitness.

  5. Comparison of Alzheimer's disease with vascular dementia and non-dementia using specific voxel-based Z score maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Shirou; Shishido, Fumio; Miyajima, Masayuki; Sakuma, Koutarou; Shigihara, Takeshi; Tameta, Tadanobu; Miyazaki, Makoto; Kuroda, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the ability to discriminate between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD), and between AD and non-dementia using the program ''easy Z score imaging system'' (eZIS) developed by Matsuda et al., for the diagnosis of very early AD. Of 201 patients, we investigated 12 patients with AD, 10 with VaD, and 9 with non-dementia, who underwent brain perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography by technetium-99m ethyl cysteinate dimer ( 99m Tc-ECD) between February 2005 and September 2006. The sensitivity and specificity of the indicators of specific volume of interest (VOI) analysis, namely, severity, extent, and ratio were evaluated for the distinction of AD from VaD and non-dementia. There was a significant difference in all the criteria for severity, extent, and ratio between AD and non-dementia cases and in the ratio between AD and VaD. Between AD and non-dementia, the sensitivity and specificity of severity were 100% and 45%, respectively, using the cutoff value of 1.19. When using the cutoff value of 14.2 for extent, the sensitivity and specificity were both 100%. Using the cutoff value of 2.22 for ratio, the sensitivity of 42% and specificity of 100% were demonstrated. When comparing AD with VaD, using the cutoff value of 2.22 for ratio, the sensitivity and specificity were 42% and 100%, respectively. Using the cutoff value of 1.5 for ratio, the sensitivity and specificity between AD and VaD were 92% and 80%, respectively, thereby showing the best results. The specific VOI analysis program of AD using specific voxel-based Z score maps is not influenced by interobserver differences among radiologists and is useful to discriminate AD from VaD and non-dementia. However, the setting of the cutoff value at each institution and comparison with original and eZIS images are suggested to distinguish better AD from VaD. (author)

  6. BMI-for-age in South Asian children of 0-20 years in the Netherlands: secular changes and misclassification by WHO growth references.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wilde, J A; Dekker, M; Middelkoop, B J C

    2018-03-01

    South Asians are prone to cardiometabolic disease at lower BMI levels than most other ethnic groups, starting in childhood. The magnitude of BMI misclassifications is unknown. To compare the BMI distribution of contemporary South Asian 0-20 year olds in the Netherlands with: (1) The South Asian norm reference (secular trends); and (2) The WHO child growth standard and reference. The BMI-for-age distribution of 6677 routine measurements of 3322 South Asian children, aged 0-20 years, was described with the LMS method and BMI z-scores. The BMI distribution in South Asian 0-4 year olds was almost similar to the norm reference (mean BMI z-score = 0.11, skewness = 0.31, SD = 1.0), whereas in 5-19 year olds the distribution had shifted upwards (mean = 0.53) and widened (skewness = -0.12, SD = 1.08). Overweight (incl. obesity) and obesity peaked at 8-10 years, at 45-48% and 35-37%, respectively. Relative to the WHO references, the BMI distribution was left-shifted at ages 0-4 years (mean BMI z-score = -0.46, skewness = 0.23, SD = 0.98) and widened at ages 5-20 years (mean = 0.05; skewness = -0.02, SD = 1.40). At most ages, thinness rates were significantly higher and obesity rates lower than based on South Asian norms. A secular change of BMI-for-age in South Asian children mostly affected children >4 years. WHO references likely under-estimate overweight and obesity rates in South Asian children.

  7. Childhood BMI growth trajectories and endometrial cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Julie; Gamborg, Michael; Tilling, Kate

    2017-01-01

    Previously, we found that excess weight already in childhood has positive associations with endometrial cancer, however, associations with changes in body mass index (BMI) during childhood are not well understood. Therefore, we examined whether growth in childhood BMI is associated with endometrial...... cancer and its sub-types. A cohort of 155,505 girls from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register with measured weights and heights at the ages of 6 to 14 years and born 1930-89 formed the analytical population. BMI was transformed to age-specific z-scores. Using linear spline multilevel models......, each girl's BMI growth trajectory was estimated as the deviance from the average trajectory for three different growth periods (6.25-7.99, 8.0-10.99, 11.0-14.0 years). Via a link to health registers, 1020 endometrial cancer cases were identified, and Cox regressions were performed. A greater gain...

  8. Z Score and CIAF – A comprehensive measure of magnitude of undernutrition in a rural school going population of Kashmir, India

    OpenAIRE

    Fazili Anjum; Pandit M I; Mir A A; Bhat I A

    2012-01-01

    WHO has recently recommended the use of Z-Score or SD system to grade undernutrition as this system allows us to measure all the three indices i.e. weight for age, height for age, weight for height. 438 school children in the age group of 5-9 years were clinically and anthropometrically assessed in order to estimate the prevalence of undernutrition using the Z-Score system of classification and the recently introduced Composite Index of Anthropometric Failure (CIAF) .Only 112 (25.58%) of thes...

  9. Psychological control by parents is associated with a higher child weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodenburg, Gerda; Kremers, Stef P J; Oenema, Anke; van de Mheen, Dike

    2011-10-01

    In this examination of the association between parenting style and child weight, the neglected concept of 'psychological control' has been added to the generally accepted parenting dimensions 'support' and 'behavioural control'. Also explored is whether the potential association between parenting and child weight is moderated by socio-demographic variables (child's age/ethnicity, and parent's education level). A cross-sectional study was performed among 1,665 parent-child dyads. The children's mean age was 8 years. Their height and weight were measured to calculate their body mass index (BMI). Parents completed a questionnaire to measure the three parenting dimensions. Based on these dimensions, five parenting styles were defined: the authoritative, permissive, authoritarian, neglecting and rejecting parenting style. Child BMI z-scores were regressed on parenting style, adjusting for parental BMI, child ethnicity, and parent's education level. Rejecting parenting, characterized by high psychological control, low support and low behavioural control, is the only parenting style significantly related to child BMI z-scores (β = 0.074, p parenting, this study has further elucidated the mechanisms whereby parenting may affect child weight. Demonstrating that 'rejecting parenting' is associated with a higher child weight, emphasizes the need for longitudinal studies in which parenting style is measured three-dimensionally. Potential mediating effects of parental feeding style and children's eating style, as well as age moderation, should be included in these studies.

  10. Comparison of the fixed ratio and the Z-score of FEV1/FVC in the elderly population: a long-term mortality analysis from the Third National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oh DK

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Dong Kyu Oh,1 Seunghee Baek,2 Sei Won Lee,1 Jae Seung Lee,1 Sang-Do Lee,1 Yeon-Mok Oh1 1Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Clinical Research Center for Chronic Obstructive Airway Diseases, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea; 2Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea Background and objective: Despite the ongoing intense debate on the definition of airflow limitation by spirometry in the elderly population, there have only been few studies comparing the fixed ratio and the Z-score of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC in terms of long-term mortalities. In this study, we aimed to identify the proper method for accurately defining the airflow limitation in terms of long-term mortality prediction in the elderly population. Methods: Data were collected from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in the US. Non-Hispanic Caucasians aged 65–80 years were included. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves of both methods were plotted and compared for 10-year all-cause, respiratory, and COPD mortalities. Results: Of 1,331 subjects, the mean age was 71.7 years and 805 (60.5% were males. For the 10-year all-cause mortality, the area under the curve (AUC of the fixed ratio was significantly greater than that of the Z-score of FEV1/FVC, but both showed poor prediction performance (0.633 vs 0.616, p<0.001. For the 10-year respiratory and COPD mortalities, both the fixed ratio and the Z-score of FEV1/FVC showed comparable prediction performance with greater AUCs (0.784 vs 0.778, p=0.160, and 0.896 vs 0.896, p=0.971, respectively. Interestingly, the conventional cutoff of 0.7 in the fixed ratio was consistently higher than the optimal for the 10-year all-cause, respiratory, and COPD mortalities (0.70 vs 0.69, 0.62, and 0.61, respectively

  11. Analisis Prediksi Kebangkrutan Menggunakan Metode Altman (Z-Score Pada Perusahaan Farmasi (Studi Kasus Pada Perusahaan yang Terdaftar di Bursa Efek Indonesia Tahun 2011 – 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    fitria wulandari

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the condition of the company using the Altman Z-Score to predict the potential bankruptcy of the five pharmaceutical companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange in 2011 to 2015. The sampling method  is using purposive sampling with a sample of five pharmaceutical companies. This research is descriptive with quantitative approach. The results showed that: (1  in 2011 to 2015 the five pharmaceutical companies are in the good category, the number of  Z-Score from all companies are  ≥ 2.99. (2 Moreover  from the five pharmaceutical companies that were analyzed PT Merck Tbk in 2011, 2013 and 2014 had the highest number for Z-Score at 8.45, 6.3 and 5.92. (3 PT Kalbe Farma Tbk in 2012 and 2014 had the highest number for Z Score at 6.08 and 5.91. The results of this study are expected for pharmaceutical companies to maintain liquidity to meet all its obligations so that will interest   investors and creditors. Companies are expected  to manage assets to increase sales and generate profits.

  12. Oxandrolone Improves Height Velocity and BMI in Patients with Cystic Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd Varness

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the effectiveness of oxandrolone in improving the nutritional status and linear growth of pediatric patients with cystic fibrosis (CF. Methods. Medical records of patients with CF treated with oxandrolone were reviewed for height z score, height velocity (HV, BMI z score, weight velocity (WV, Tanner stage, pulmonary function, liver enzyme levels, and any reported adverse events. Data were compared before (pre-Ox and after (Ox oxandrolone using a paired t-test. Results. 5 subjects (ages 8.5–14.5 years were treated with oxandrolone 2.5 mg daily for 8–38 months. After 8–12 months of treatment, there was a statistically significant improvement in HV (pre-Ox=5.3±1.4 cm/yr, Ox=8.3±1.2 cm/yr, P<.01 and BMI z score (pre-Ox=−0.61±1.04, Ox=−0.30±0.86, P=.02. Both height z score (pre-Ox=−1.64±0.63, Ox=−1.30±0.49, P=.057 and WV (pre-Ox=4.2±3.7 kg/yr, Ox =6.8±1.0 kg/yr, P=.072 showed beneficial trends that did not reach statistical significance. No adverse events were reported. Conclusions. In this brief clinical report, oxandrolone improved the HV and BMI z score in patients with CF. Larger studies are needed to determine if oxandrolone is an effective, safe, and affordable option to stimulate appetite, improve weight gain, and promote linear growth in patients with CF.

  13. Z-scores-based methods and their application to biological monitoring: an example in professional soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saulière, Guillaume; Dedecker, Jérôme; Marquet, Laurie-Anne; Rochcongar, Pierre; Toussaint, Jean-Francois; Berthelot, Geoffroy

    2017-11-15

    The clinical and biological follow-up of individuals, such as the biological passport for athletes, is typically based on the individual and longitudinal monitoring of hematological or urine markers. These follow-ups aim to identify abnormal behavior by comparing the individual's biological samples to an established baseline. These comparisons may be done via different ways, but each of them requires an appropriate extra population to compute the significance levels, which is a non-trivial issue. Moreover, it is not necessarily relevant to compare the measures of a biomarker of a professional athlete to that of a reference population (even restricted to other athletes), and a reasonable alternative is to detect the abnormal values by considering only the other measurements of the same athlete. Here we propose a simple adaptive statistic based on maxima of Z-scores that does not rely on the use of an extra population. We show that, in the Gaussian framework, it is a practical and relevant method for detecting abnormal values in a series of observations from the same individual. The distribution of this statistic does not depend on the individual parameters under the null hypothesis, and its quantiles can be computed using Monte Carlo simulations. The proposed method is tested on the 3-year follow-up of ferritin, serum iron, erythrocytes, hemoglobin, and hematocrit markers in 2577 elite male soccer players. For instance, if we consider the abnormal values for the hematocrit at a 5% level, we found that 5.57% of the selected cohort had at least one abnormal value (which is not significantly different from the expected false-discovery rate). The approach is a starting point for more elaborate models that would produce a refined individual baseline. The method can be extended to the Gaussian linear model, in order to include additional variables such as the age or exposure to altitude. The method could also be applied to other domains, such as the clinical patient

  14. Assessing the effect of drought severity on height-for-age z-score in Kenyan children: a secondary analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Lillepold, BScH

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Globally, droughts are occurring more regularly and are having negative effects on population health, particularly in countries such as Kenya, where agriculture is a primary driver of the economy and a source of subsistence for many communities. Children are particularly susceptible to weather-related shocks. Previous research has shown an association between drought and cross-sectional indicators of malnutrition, such as stunting. In this study, we explored various longitudinal and spatial analysis approaches to evaluating the effect of drought on height-for-age z-scores (HAZ over time and space among young children in Kenya. Methods: Using anthropometric data from three georeferenced Kenyan Demographic and Health Surveys (KDHS and the self-calibrated Palmer Drought Severity Index, we developed multivariate linear regression and spatial lag and error models (with Moran's I calculations to investigate the association between drought severity and HAZ in children aged 0–5 years. Initial covariates included age of the child, sex, maternal age, height and education, wealth index, urban or rural location, and size at birth. We then did multilevel and geographically weighted regression modelling using frequentist or Bayesian methods and with inclusion of household-level covariates, such as livelihood zones. To assess the effect of changes in drought severity on child HAZ over time, KDHS data from 2003, 2008–09, and 2014 were analysed with spatiotemporal modelling. Findings: Preliminary results from the multivariate linear model showed a negative, non-significant association between drought severity and HAZ among Kenyan children in 2014 (β=0·033, p=0·101; however, there was a significant interaction between drought severity and age (β=–0·002, p<0·0007. The spatial lag model gave similar results. Other variables associated with HAZ included wealth index, age, sex, maternal education, and maternal height. Global Moran's I

  15. About BMI for Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... between the BMI and body fatness is fairly strong 1,2,3,7 , but even if 2 people have the same BMI, their level of body fatness may differ 12 . In general, At the same BMI, women tend to have more body fat than men. At the same BMI, Blacks have less body ...

  16. Longitudinal associations between BMI, waist circumference, and cardiometabolic risk in US youth: monitoring implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jago, R; Mendoza, J A; Chen, T; Baranowski, T

    2013-03-01

    This study examined whether change in body mass index (BMI) or waist circumference (WC) is associated with change in cardiometabolic risk factors and differences between cardiovascular disease specific and diabetes specific risk factors among adolescents. We also sought to examine any differences by gender or baseline body mass status. The article is a longitudinal analysis of pre- and post-data collected in the HEALTHY trial. Participants were 4,603 ethnically diverse adolescents who provided complete data at 6th and 8th grade assessments. The main outcome measures were percent change in the following cardiometabolic risk factors: fasting triglycerides, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and glucose as well as a clustered metabolic risk score. Main exposures were change in BMI or WC z-score. Models were run stratified by gender; secondary models were additionally stratified by baseline BMI group (normal, overweight, or obese). Analysis showed that when cardiometabolic risk factors were treated as continuous variables, there was strong evidence (P fasting glucose and the combined risk factor score for both boys and girls. There was some evidence that change in WC z-score was associated with some cardiovascular risk factors, but change in WC z-score was consistently associated with changes in fasting glucose. In conclusion, routine monitoring of BMI should be continued by health professionals, but additional information on disease risk may be provided by assessing WC. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  17. BMI and Lifetime Changes in BMI and Cancer Mortality Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghizadeh, Niloofar; Boezen, H. Marike; Schouten, Jan P.; Schröder, Carolien P.; de Vries, E. G. Elisabeth; Vonk, Judith M.

    2015-01-01

    Body Mass Index (BMI) is known to be associated with cancer mortality, but little is known about the link between lifetime changes in BMI and cancer mortality in both males and females. We studied the association of BMI measurements (at baseline, highest and lowest BMI during the study-period) and lifetime changes in BMI (calculated over different time periods (i.e. short time period: annual change in BMI between successive surveys, long time period: annual change in BMI over the entire study period) with mortality from any cancer, and lung, colorectal, prostate and breast cancer in a large cohort study (n=8,645. Vlagtwedde-Vlaardingen, 1965-1990) with a follow-up on mortality status on December 31st 2008. We used multivariate Cox regression models with adjustments for age, smoking, sex, and place of residence. Being overweight at baseline was associated with a higher risk of prostate cancer mortality (hazard ratio (HR) =2.22; 95% CI 1.19-4.17). Obesity at baseline was associated with a higher risk of any cancer mortality [all subjects (1.23 (1.01-1.50)), and females (1.40 (1.07-1.84))]. Chronically obese females (females who were obese during the entire study-period) had a higher risk of mortality from any cancer (2.16 (1.47-3.18), lung (3.22 (1.06-9.76)), colorectal (4.32 (1.53-12.20)), and breast cancer (2.52 (1.15-5.54)). We found no significant association between long-term annual change in BMI and cancer mortality risk. Both short-term annual increase and decrease in BMI were associated with a lower mortality risk from any cancer [all subjects: (0.67 (0.47-0.94)) and (0.73 (0.55-0.97)), respectively]. In conclusion, a higher BMI is associated with a higher cancer mortality risk. This study is the first to show that short-term annual changes in BMI were associated with lower mortality from any type of cancer. PMID:25881129

  18. A configuration space of homologous proteins conserving mutual information and allowing a phylogeny inference based on pair-wise Z-score probabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Maréchal Eric; Ortet Philippe; Roy Sylvaine; Bastien Olivier

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Popular methods to reconstruct molecular phylogenies are based on multiple sequence alignments, in which addition or removal of data may change the resulting tree topology. We have sought a representation of homologous proteins that would conserve the information of pair-wise sequence alignments, respect probabilistic properties of Z-scores (Monte Carlo methods applied to pair-wise comparisons) and be the basis for a novel method of consistent and stable phylogenetic recon...

  19. A configuration space of homologous proteins conserving mutual information and allowing a phylogeny inference based on pair-wise Z-score probabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastien, Olivier; Ortet, Philippe; Roy, Sylvaine; Maréchal, Eric

    2005-03-10

    Popular methods to reconstruct molecular phylogenies are based on multiple sequence alignments, in which addition or removal of data may change the resulting tree topology. We have sought a representation of homologous proteins that would conserve the information of pair-wise sequence alignments, respect probabilistic properties of Z-scores (Monte Carlo methods applied to pair-wise comparisons) and be the basis for a novel method of consistent and stable phylogenetic reconstruction. We have built up a spatial representation of protein sequences using concepts from particle physics (configuration space) and respecting a frame of constraints deduced from pair-wise alignment score properties in information theory. The obtained configuration space of homologous proteins (CSHP) allows the representation of real and shuffled sequences, and thereupon an expression of the TULIP theorem for Z-score probabilities. Based on the CSHP, we propose a phylogeny reconstruction using Z-scores. Deduced trees, called TULIP trees, are consistent with multiple-alignment based trees. Furthermore, the TULIP tree reconstruction method provides a solution for some previously reported incongruent results, such as the apicomplexan enolase phylogeny. The CSHP is a unified model that conserves mutual information between proteins in the way physical models conserve energy. Applications include the reconstruction of evolutionary consistent and robust trees, the topology of which is based on a spatial representation that is not reordered after addition or removal of sequences. The CSHP and its assigned phylogenetic topology, provide a powerful and easily updated representation for massive pair-wise genome comparisons based on Z-score computations.

  20. A configuration space of homologous proteins conserving mutual information and allowing a phylogeny inference based on pair-wise Z-score probabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maréchal Eric

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Popular methods to reconstruct molecular phylogenies are based on multiple sequence alignments, in which addition or removal of data may change the resulting tree topology. We have sought a representation of homologous proteins that would conserve the information of pair-wise sequence alignments, respect probabilistic properties of Z-scores (Monte Carlo methods applied to pair-wise comparisons and be the basis for a novel method of consistent and stable phylogenetic reconstruction. Results We have built up a spatial representation of protein sequences using concepts from particle physics (configuration space and respecting a frame of constraints deduced from pair-wise alignment score properties in information theory. The obtained configuration space of homologous proteins (CSHP allows the representation of real and shuffled sequences, and thereupon an expression of the TULIP theorem for Z-score probabilities. Based on the CSHP, we propose a phylogeny reconstruction using Z-scores. Deduced trees, called TULIP trees, are consistent with multiple-alignment based trees. Furthermore, the TULIP tree reconstruction method provides a solution for some previously reported incongruent results, such as the apicomplexan enolase phylogeny. Conclusion The CSHP is a unified model that conserves mutual information between proteins in the way physical models conserve energy. Applications include the reconstruction of evolutionary consistent and robust trees, the topology of which is based on a spatial representation that is not reordered after addition or removal of sequences. The CSHP and its assigned phylogenetic topology, provide a powerful and easily updated representation for massive pair-wise genome comparisons based on Z-score computations.

  1. Hubungan Frekuensi Sarapan dan Konsumsi Jajan dengan Z-score Imt/u pada Siswa Sekolah Dasar

    OpenAIRE

    Lani, April; Margawati, Ani; Fitranti, Deny Yudi

    2017-01-01

    Background:Nutritional status is a measure of a person's body condition that can be seen from the food consumed and the use of nutrients in the body. Skipping breakfast and consuming high calorie snack foods can lead to overweight and obesity. The aim of this research was to know the correlation between frequency of breakfast and snack consumption with BMI-for-age Score in elementary school children. Confounding variables in this research are physical activity and energy intake.Method:This wa...

  2. Z Score and CIAF – A comprehensive measure of magnitude of undernutrition in a rural school going population of Kashmir, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazili Anjum

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available WHO has recently recommended the use of Z-Score or SD system to grade undernutrition as this system allows us to measure all the three indices i.e. weight for age, height for age, weight for height. 438 school children in the age group of 5-9 years were clinically and anthropometrically assessed in order to estimate the prevalence of undernutrition using the Z-Score system of classification and the recently introduced Composite Index of Anthropometric Failure (CIAF .Only 112 (25.58% of these children were in a state of anthropometric failure as per the Z-Score system , 10.73% of them being underweight , 15.29% wasted and 8.90% stunted. The most common anthropometric failure in these children was wasting while 30.35% of these undernourished children had more than one anthropometric failure.Using underweight as the sole criteria for assessing the magnitude of undernutrition in this study would give us an underestimate and we would miss about 58% of the undernourished children in our study population.

  3. Z score and CIAF – A comprehensive measure of magnitude of under nutrition in a rural school going population of Kashmir, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazili Anjum

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available WHO has recently recommended the use of Z-Score or SD system to grade undernutrition as this system allows us to measure all the three indices i.e. weight for age, height for age, weight for height. 438 school children in the age group of 5-9 years were clinically and anthropometrically assessed in order to estimate the prevalence of undernutrition using the Z-Score system of classification and the recently introduced Composite Index of Anthropometric Failure (CIAF .Only 112 (25.58% of these children were in a state of anthropometric failure as per the Z-Score system , 10.73% of them being underweight , 15.29% wasted and 8.90% stunted. The most common anthropometric failure in these children was wasting while 30.35% of these undernourished children had more than one anthropometric failure.Using underweight as the sole criteria for assessing the magnitude of undernutrition in this study would give us an underestimate and we would miss about 58% of the undernourished children in our study population.

  4. Is It Time to Change Our Reference Curve for Femur Length? Using the Z-Score to Select the Best Chart in a Chinese Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huixia; Wei, Yumei; Su, Rina; Wang, Chen; Meng, Wenying; Wang, Yongqing; Shang, Lixin; Cai, Zhenyu; Ji, Liping; Wang, Yunfeng; Sun, Ying; Liu, Jiaxiu; Wei, Li; Sun, Yufeng; Zhang, Xueying; Luo, Tianxia; Chen, Haixia; Yu, Lijun

    2016-01-01

    Objective To use Z-scores to compare different charts of femur length (FL) applied to our population with the aim of identifying the most appropriate chart. Methods A retrospective study was conducted in Beijing. Fifteen hospitals in Beijing were chosen as clusters using a systemic cluster sampling method, in which 15,194 pregnant women delivered from June 20th to November 30th, 2013. The measurements of FL in the second and third trimester were recorded, as well as the last measurement obtained before delivery. Based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, we identified FL measurements from 19996 ultrasounds from 7194 patients between 11 and 42 weeks gestation. The FL data were then transformed into Z-scores that were calculated using three series of reference equations obtained from three reports: Leung TN, Pang MW et al (2008); Chitty LS, Altman DG et al (1994); and Papageorghiou AT et al (2014). Each Z-score distribution was presented as the mean and standard deviation (SD). Skewness and kurtosis and were compared with the standard normal distribution using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. The histogram of their distributions was superimposed on the non-skewed standard normal curve (mean = 0, SD = 1) to provide a direct visual impression. Finally, the sensitivity and specificity of each reference chart for identifying fetuses 95th percentile (based on the observed distribution of Z-scores) were calculated. The Youden index was also listed. A scatter diagram with the 5th, 50th, and 95th percentile curves calculated from and superimposed on each reference chart was presented to provide a visual impression. Results The three Z-score distribution curves appeared to be normal, but none of them matched the expected standard normal distribution. In our study, the Papageorghiou reference curve provided the best results, with a sensitivity of 100% for identifying fetuses with measurements 95th percentile, and specificities of 99.9% and 81.5%, respectively. Conclusions It

  5. Eating frequency in relation to BMI in very young children: a longitudinal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Rachael W; Iosua, Ella; Heath, Anne-Louise M; Gray, Andrew R; Taylor, Barry J; Lawrence, Julie A; Hanna, Maha; Cameron, Sonya L; Sayers, Rachel; Galland, Barbara

    2017-06-01

    Eating less frequently is associated with increased obesity risk in older children but data are potentially confounded by reverse causation, where bigger children eat less often in an effort to control their weight. Longitudinal data, particularly in younger children, are scarce. We aimed to determine whether eating frequency (meals and snacks) at 2 years of age is associated with past, current or subsequent BMI. Cohort analysis of a randomised controlled trial. Eating frequency at 2 years of age was estimated using 48 h diaries that recorded when each child ate meals and snacks (parent-defined) in five-minute blocks. Body length/height and weight were measured at 1, 2 and 3·5 years of age. Linear regression assessed associations between the number of eating occasions and BMI Z-score, before and after adjustment for potential confounding variables. Prevention of Overweight in Infancy (POI) study, Dunedin, New Zealand. Children (n 371) aged 1-3·5 years. On average, children ate 5·5 (sd 1·2) times/d at 2 years of age, with most children (88-89 %) eating 4-7 times/d. Eating frequency at 2 years was not associated with current (difference in BMI Z-score per additional eating occasion; 95 % CI: -0·02; -0·10, 0·05) or subsequent change (0·02; -0·03, 0·06) in BMI. Similarly, BMI at age 1 year did not predict eating frequency at 2 years of age (difference in eating frequency per additional BMI Z-score unit; 95 % CI: -0·03; -0·19, 0·13). Number of eating occasions per day was not associated with BMI in young children in the present study.

  6. The effects of media, self-esteem, and BMI on youth's unhealthy weight control behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer-Brown, Sarah; Lawless, Casey; Fedele, David; Dumont-Driscoll, Marilyn; Janicke, David M

    2016-04-01

    Youth engage in a variety of methods to manage their weight, including unhealthy weight control behaviors (UWCBs). The purpose of this study was to examine factors associated with youth's engagement in UWCBs, including media influence, youth's BMI z-score and self-esteem. Participants were 179 youth, aged 10-17, attending a primary care clinic appointment. Youth completed questionnaires assessing frequency of UWCBs, global self-worth, and perception of media influence to lose weight. BMI z-score was calculated based on height and weight measurements obtained from medical charts. The SPSS macro, PROCESS, was used to conduct moderation analyses. Over 40% of youth endorsed using at least one UWCB in the past year. Girls reported using more UWCBs and engaging in UWCBs more frequently than boys. For boys, media influence to lose weight was only related to UWCB frequency for those with a BMI z-score of 1.23 and above. For girls, media influence was only related to UWCB frequency for those with low to average levels of global self-worth. Girls' and boys' use of UWCBs is impacted by different factors. Prevention efforts should consider targeting factors, such as weight status and self-esteem, which are uniquely associated with gender. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Prevalence of elevated mean arterial pressure and how fitness moderates its association with BMI in youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunleye, Ayodele A; Sandercock, Gavin R; Voss, Christine; Eisenmann, Joey C; Reed, Katharine

    2013-11-01

    Cardiorespiratory fitness is known to be cardioprotective and its association with the components of the metabolic syndrome in children is becoming clearer. The aim of the present study was to examine the extent to which cardiorespiratory fitness may offset the weight-related association with mean arterial pressure (MAP) in schoolchildren. Cross-sectional study. Schoolchildren from the East of England, U.K. A total of 5983 (48% females) schoolchildren, 10 to 16 years of age, had height, weight and blood pressure measured by standard procedures and cardiorespiratory fitness assessed by the 20 m shuttle-run test. Participants were classified as fit or unfit using internationally accepted fitness cut-off points; and as normal weight, overweight or obese based on BMI, again using international cut-off points. Age-adjusted ANCOVA was used to determine the main effects and interaction of fitness and BMI on MAP Z-score. Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios of elevated MAP. Prevalence of elevated MAP in schoolchildren was 14.8% overall and 35.7% in those who were obese-unfit. Approximately 21% of participants were overweight and 5% obese, while 23% were classified as unfit. MAP generally increased across BMI categories and was higher in the aerobically unfit participants. Obese-fit males had lower MAP compared with obese-unfit males (P < 0.001); this trend was similar in females (P = 0.05). Increasing fitness level may have a positive impact on the weight-related elevations of MAP seen in obese and overweight schoolchildren.

  8. Higher Intake of Fruit, but Not Vegetables or Fiber, at Baseline Is Associated with Lower Risk of Becoming Overweight or Obese in Middle-Aged and Older Women of Normal BMI at Baseline123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautiainen, Susanne; Wang, Lu; Lee, I-Min; Manson, JoAnn E; Buring, Julie E; Sesso, Howard D

    2015-01-01

    Background: Fruit, vegetable, and dietary fiber intake have been associated with lower risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD); however, little is known about their role in obesity prevention. Objective: Our goal was to investigate whether intake of fruits, vegetables, and dietary fiber is associated with weight change and the risk of becoming overweight and obese. Methods: We studied 18,146 women aged ≥45 y from the Women’s Health Study free of CVD and cancer with an initial body mass index (BMI) of 18.5 to Fruit, vegetable, and dietary fiber intakes were assessed at baseline through a 131-item food-frequency questionnaire, along with obesity-related risk factors. Women self-reported body weight on annual questionnaires. Results: During a mean follow-up of 15.9 y, 8125 women became overweight or obese (BMI ≥25 kg/m2). Intakes of total fruits and vegetables, fruits, and dietary fiber were not associated with the longitudinal changes in body weight, whereas higher vegetable intake was associated with greater weight gain (P-trend: 0.02). In multivariable analyses, controlling for total energy intake and physical activity along with other lifestyle, clinical, and dietary factors, women in the highest vs. lowest quintile of fruit intake had an HR of 0.87 (95% CI: 0.80, 0.94; P-trend: 0.01) of becoming overweight or obese. No association was observed for vegetable or dietary fiber intake. The association between fruit intake and risk of becoming overweight or obese was modified by baseline BMI (P-interaction: fruit, but not vegetables or fiber, by middle-aged and older women with a normal BMI at baseline is associated with lower risk of becoming overweight or obese. PMID:25934663

  9. Higher Intake of Fruit, but Not Vegetables or Fiber, at Baseline Is Associated with Lower Risk of Becoming Overweight or Obese in Middle-Aged and Older Women of Normal BMI at Baseline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautiainen, Susanne; Wang, Lu; Lee, I-Min; Manson, JoAnn E; Buring, Julie E; Sesso, Howard D

    2015-05-01

    Fruit, vegetable, and dietary fiber intake have been associated with lower risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD); however, little is known about their role in obesity prevention. Our goal was to investigate whether intake of fruits, vegetables, and dietary fiber is associated with weight change and the risk of becoming overweight and obese. We studied 18,146 women aged ≥45 y from the Women's Health Study free of CVD and cancer with an initial body mass index (BMI) of 18.5 to Fruit, vegetable, and dietary fiber intakes were assessed at baseline through a 131-item food-frequency questionnaire, along with obesity-related risk factors. Women self-reported body weight on annual questionnaires. During a mean follow-up of 15.9 y, 8125 women became overweight or obese (BMI ≥25 kg/m²). Intakes of total fruits and vegetables, fruits, and dietary fiber were not associated with the longitudinal changes in body weight, whereas higher vegetable intake was associated with greater weight gain (P-trend: 0.02). In multivariable analyses, controlling for total energy intake and physical activity along with other lifestyle, clinical, and dietary factors, women in the highest vs. lowest quintile of fruit intake had an HR of 0.87 (95% CI: 0.80, 0.94; P-trend: 0.01) of becoming overweight or obese. No association was observed for vegetable or dietary fiber intake. The association between fruit intake and risk of becoming overweight or obese was modified by baseline BMI (P-interaction: fruit, but not vegetables or fiber, by middle-aged and older women with a normal BMI at baseline is associated with lower risk of becoming overweight or obese. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  10. Analysis of High Quality Agar wood Oil Chemical Compounds By Means Of SPME/ GC-MS and Z-Score Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurlaila Ismail; Mohd Ali Nor Azah; Mailina Jamil; Saiful Nizam Tajuddin; Mohd Nasir Taib

    2013-01-01

    Currently, the grading of the agar wood oil to the high and low quality is done using manually such as human trained grader. It was performed based on the agar wood oil physical properties such as human experience and perception and the oil colour, odor and long lasting aroma. Several researchers found that chemical profiles of the oil should be utilized to overcome the problem facing by manual techniques for example human nose cannot tolerate with the many oils at the same time, so that accurate result can be obtained in grading the agar wood oil. The analysis involved of SPME/ GC-MS and Z-score techniques have been proposed in this study to analyze the chemical compounds especially from the high quality samples of agar wood oil (Aquilariamalaccensis) from Malaysia. Two SPME fibers were used such as divinylbenzene-carbogen-polydimethylsiloxane (DVB-CAR-PDMS) and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) in extracting the oils compound under three different sampling temperature conditions such as 40, 60 and 80 degree Celsius. The chemical compounds extracted by SPME/ GC-MS were analyzed. The chemical compounds as identified by Z-score as significant compounds were discussed before the conclusion is made. It was found that 10-epi-γ-eudesmol, aromadendrene, β-agar ofuran, α-agar ofuran and γ-eudesmol were highlighted as significant for high quality agar wood oil and can be used as a marker compounds in classifying the agar wood oil. (author)

  11. Quality of life and BMI changes in youth participating in an integrated pediatric obesity treatment program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Keeley J; Lazorick, Suzanne; Lamson, Angela L; Ivanescu, Andrada; Collier, David N

    2013-07-10

    Changes in Quality of Life (QOL) measures over time with treatment of obesity have not previously been described for youth. We describe the changes from baseline through two follow up visits in youth QOL (assessed by the Pediatric Quality Life Inventory, PedsQL4.0), teen depression (assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire, PHQ9A), Body Mass Index (BMI) and BMI z-score. We also report caregiver proxy ratings of youth QOL. A sample of 267 pairs of youth and caregiver participants were recruited at their first visit to an outpatient weight-treatment clinic that provides care integrated between a physician, dietician, and mental health provider; of the 267, 113 attended a visit two (V2) follow-up appointment, and 48 attended visit three (V3). We investigated multiple factors longitudinally experienced by youth who are overweight and their caregivers across up to three different integrated care visits. We determined relationships at baseline in QOL, PHQ9A, and BMI z-score, as well as changes in variables over time using linear mixed models with time as a covariate. Overall across three visits the results indicate that youth had slight declines in relative BMI, significant increases in their QOL and improvements in depression. We encourage clinicians and researchers to track youth longitudinally throughout treatment to investigate not only youth's BMI changes, but also psychosocial changes including QOL.

  12. BMI Trajectories Associated With Resolution of Elevated Youth BMI and Incident Adult Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscot, Marie-Jeanne; Thomson, Russell J; Juonala, Markus; Sabin, Matthew A; Burgner, David P; Lehtimäki, Terho; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Viikari, Jorma S A; Jokinen, Eero; Tossavainen, Paivi; Laitinen, Tomi; Raitakari, Olli T; Magnussen, Costan G

    2018-01-01

    Youth with high BMI who become nonobese adults have the same cardiovascular risk factor burden as those who were never obese. However, the early-life BMI trajectories for overweight or obese youth who avoid becoming obese adults have not been described. We aimed to determine and compare the young-childhood BMI trajectories of participants according to their BMI status in youth and adulthood. Bayesian hierarchical piecewise regression modeling was used to analyze the BMI trajectories of 2717 young adults who had up to 8 measures of BMI from childhood (ages 3-18 years) to adulthood (ages 34-49 years). Compared with those with persistently high BMI, those who resolved their high youth BMI by adulthood had lower average BMI at age 6 years and slower rates of BMI change from young childhood. In addition, their BMI levels started to plateau at 16 years old for females and 21 years old for males, whereas the BMI of those whose high BMI persisted did not stabilize until 25 years old for male subjects and 27 years for female subjects. Compared with those youth who were not overweight or obese and who remained nonobese in adulthood, those who developed obesity had a higher BMI rate of change from 6 years old, and their BMI continued to increase linearly until age 30 years. Efforts to alter BMI trajectories for adult obesity should ideally commence before age 6 years. The natural resolution of high BMI starts in adolescence for males and early adulthood for females, suggesting a critical window for secondary prevention. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  13. Anthropometric adjustments are helpful in the interpretation of BMD and BMC Z-scores of pediatric patients with Prader-Willi syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hangartner, T N; Short, D F; Eldar-Geva, T; Hirsch, H J; Tiomkin, M; Zimran, A; Gross-Tsur, V

    2016-12-01

    Anthropometric adjustments of bone measurements are necessary in Prader-Willi syndrome patients to correctly assess the bone status of these patients. This enables physicians to get a more accurate diagnosis of normal versus abnormal bone, allow for early and effective intervention, and achieve better therapeutic results. Bone mineral density (BMD) is decreased in patients with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). Because of largely abnormal body height and weight, traditional BMD Z-scores may not provide accurate information in this patient group. The goal of the study was to assess a cohort of individuals with PWS and characterize the development of low bone density based on two adjustment models applied to a dataset of BMD and bone mineral content (BMC) from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurements. Fifty-four individuals, aged 5-20 years with genetically confirmed PWS, underwent DXA scans of spine and hip. Thirty-one of them also underwent total body scans. Standard Z-scores were calculated for BMD and BMC of spine and total hip based on race, sex, and age for all patients, as well as of whole body and whole-body less head for those patients with total-body scans. Additional Z-scores were generated based on anthropometric adjustments using weight, height, and percentage body fat and a second model using only weight and height in addition to race, sex, and age. As many PWS patients have abnormal anthropometrics, addition of explanatory variables weight, height, and fat resulted in different bone classifications for many patients. Thus, 25-70 % of overweight patients, previously diagnosed as normal, were subsequently diagnosed as below normal, and 40-60 % of patients with below-normal body height changed from below normal to normal depending on bone parameter. This is the first study to include anthropometric adjustments into the interpretation of BMD and BMC in children and adolescents with PWS. This enables physicians to get a more accurate diagnosis of

  14. Use of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for diagnosis and fracture risk assessment; WHO-criteria, T- and Z-score, and reference databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimai, Hans P

    2017-11-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is a two-dimensional imaging technology developed to assess bone mineral density (BMD) of the entire human skeleton and also specifically of skeletal sites known to be most vulnerable to fracture. In order to simplify interpretation of BMD measurement results and allow comparability among different DXA-devices, the T-score concept was introduced. This concept involves an individual's BMD which is then compared with the mean value of a young healthy reference population, with the difference expressed as a standard deviation (SD). Since the early nineties of the past century, the diagnostic categories "normal, osteopenia, and osteoporosis", as recommended by a WHO working Group, are based on this concept. Thus, DXA is still the globally accepted "gold-standard" method for the noninvasive diagnosis of osteoporosis. Another score obtained from DXA measurement, termed Z-score, describes the number of SDs by which the BMD in an individual differs from the mean value expected for age and sex. Although not intended for diagnosis of osteoporosis in adults, it nevertheless provides information about an individual's fracture risk compared to peers. DXA measurement can either be used as a "stand-alone" means in the assessment of an individual's fracture risk, or incorporated into one of the available fracture risk assessment tools such as FRAX® or Garvan, thus improving the predictive power of such tools. The issue which reference databases should be used by DXA-device manufacturers for T-score reference standards has been recently addressed by an expert group, who recommended use National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (NHANES III) databases for the hip reference standard but own databases for the lumbar spine. Furthermore, in men it is recommended use female reference databases for calculation of the T-score and use male reference databases for calculation of Z-score. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Associations between Family-Related Factors, Breakfast Consumption and BMI among 10- to 12-Year-Old European Children: The Cross-Sectional ENERGY-Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lippevelde, Wendy; Te Velde, Saskia J.; Verloigne, Maïté; Van Stralen, Maartje M.; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Manios, Yannis; Bere, Elling; Vik, Froydis N.; Jan, Nataša; Fernández Alvira, Juan M.; Chinapaw, Mai J. M.; Bringolf-Isler, Bettina; Kovacs, Eva; Brug, Johannes; Maes, Lea

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate associations of family-related factors with children’s breakfast consumption and BMI-z-score and to examine whether children’s breakfast consumption mediates associations between family-related factors and children’s BMI-z-score. Subjects Ten- to twelve-year-old children (n = 6374; mean age = 11.6±0.7 years, 53.2% girls, mean BMI-z-score = 0.4±1.2) and one of their parents (n = 6374; mean age = 41.4±5.3 years, 82.7% female, mean BMI = 24.5±4.2 kg/m2) were recruited from schools in eight European countries (Belgium, Greece, Hungary, the Netherlands, Norway, Slovenia, Spain, and Switzerland). The children self-reported their breakfast frequency per week. The body weight and height of the children were objectively measured. The parents responded to items on family factors related to breakfast (automaticity, availability, encouragement, paying attention, permissiveness, negotiating, communicating health beliefs, parental self-efficacy to address children’s nagging, praising, and family breakfast frequency). Mediation analyses were performed using multi-level regression analyses (child-school-country). Results Three of the eleven family-related variables were significantly associated with children’s BMI-z-score. The family breakfast frequency was negatively associated with the BMI-z-score; permissiveness concerning skipping breakfast and negotiating about breakfast were positively associated with the BMI-z-score. Children’s breakfast consumption was found to be a mediator of the two associations. All family-related variables except for negotiating, praising and communicating health beliefs, were significantly associated with children’s breakfast consumption. Conclusions Future breakfast promotion and obesity prevention interventions should focus on family-related factors including the physical home environment and parenting practices. Nevertheless, more longitudinal research and intervention studies to

  16. A Multi-Component Day-Camp Weight-Loss Program Is Effective in Reducing BMI in Children after One Year: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Traberg Larsen

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a one-year multi-component immersive day-camp weight-loss intervention for children with overweight and obesity. The study design was a parallel-group randomized controlled trial. One hundred fifteen 11-13-year-old children with overweight and obesity were randomized into either: A six-week day-camp intervention arm focusing on increased physical activity, and healthy diet followed by a subsequent one-year family-based intervention, or a standard intervention arm consisting of one weekly exercise session for six weeks. Body mass index (BMI was the primary outcome. BMI z-score, clustered cardiovascular risk z-score, and body composition were secondary outcomes. All outcomes were measured at baseline, six week-, and 52 week follow-up. After six weeks, children from the day-camp intervention arm had improved their BMI (-2.2 kg/m2 (95% CI -2.6 to -1.7, P<0.001 and all secondary outcomes when compared to the children from the standard intervention arm. After 52 weeks, the day-camp intervention arm had a lower BMI (-1.2 kg/m2 (95% CI -1.8 to -0.5, P = 0.001, and BMI z-score (-0.20 (95% CI -0.35 to -0.05, P = 0.008, and clustered cardiovascular risk z-score (-0.23 (95% CI -0.37 to -0.08, P = 0.002 compared to the standard intervention arm. No group differences were detected in body composition after 52 weeks. This study shows that the day-camp intervention arm is effective in reducing BMI and improving the metabolic health of children with overweight and obesity. However, the effects seem to be diminishing over time.

  17. Efficacy of a first course of Ibuprofen for patent ductus arteriosus closure in extremely preterm newborns according to their gestational age-specific Z-score for birth weight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doriane Madeleneau

    Full Text Available Therapeutic strategies for patent ductus arteriosus (PDA in very preterm infants remain controversial. To identify infants likely to benefit from treatment, we analysed the efficacy of a first course of ibuprofen in small-for-gestational age (SGA newborns.This single-centre retrospective study included 185 infants born at 24+0-27+6 weeks of gestation with haemodynamically significant PDA, who were treated by intravenous ibuprofen (Pedea: 10 mg/kg on day one and 5 mg/kg on days two and three. Birth weight and gestational age (GA were analysed with reference to the standard deviations from the Olsen growth curve to define GA-specific Z-scores for birth weights. The efficacy of treatment was evaluated by echocardiography 48 hours after the last dose of ibuprofen. The primary outcome was failure of the first course of ibuprofen associated in a composite criterion with the most severe outcomes.The risk of treatment failure increased according to a continuous gradient in SGA neonates. A higher risk was observed on multiple regression analysis (crude OR: 3.8; 95% CI [1.2-12.3] p = 0.02; adjusted OR: 12.8; 95% CI [2.3-70.5] p=0.003.There is a linear relationship between infant birth weight and PDA treatment: the failure rate of a first course of ibuprofen increases with increasing degree of growth restriction.

  18. Comparison of midupper arm circumference and weight-for-height z score for assessing acute malnutrition in Bangladeshi children aged 6-60 mo: an analytical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md Iqbal; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Arifeen, Shams El; Billah, Sk Masum; Faruque, Asg; Islam, M Munirul; Jackson, Alan A

    2017-11-01

    Background : In clinical settings, wasting in childhood has primarily been assessed with the use of a weight-for-height z score (WHZ), and in community settings, it has been assessed via the midupper arm circumference (MUAC) with a cutoff children were not identified when these cutoffs for MUAC were used. Objective: We determined the cutoffs for MUAC to detect wasting in Bangladeshi children aged 6-60 mo. Design: A secondary analysis was carried out on data from 27,767 children aged 6-59 mo. This analysis comprised 1 ) 9131 children across Bangladesh and 2 ) 18,636 children enrolled in a surveillance study in the Dhaka Hospital of icddr,b during 1996-2014. The area under the receiver operating curve was used to indicate the most appropriate choice for cutoffs that related MUAC with WHZ. Results: The mean ± SD age for the entire group was 21 ± 14 mo, WHZ was -1.18 ± 1.23, height-for-age z score was -1.63 ± 1.39, MUAC was 136 ± 14 mm, and 45% of subjects were girls. MUAC correlated with the WHZ ( r : 0.618, P < 0.001). Age-stratified analyses revealed that, for ages 6-24 mo, MUAC cutoffs were <120 mm for a WHZ <-3 and <125 mm for a WHZ <-2 with a sensitivity of 72.9% and 63.2%, respectively, and a specificity of 84.7% and 85.3%, respectively; for ages 25-36 mo, MUAC cutoffs were <125 mm for a WHZ <-3 and <135 mm for a WHZ <-2 with a sensitivity of 55.0% and 71.7%, respectively, and a specificity of 92.8% and 78.7% respectively; and for ages 37-60 mo, MUAC cutoffs were <135 mm for a WHZ <-3 and <140 mm for a WHZ <-2 with a sensitivity of 71.4% and 70.4%, respectively, and a specificity of 84.6% and 80.3%, respectively. Conclusion: The respective cutoffs for MUAC to better capture the vulnerability and risk of severe (WHZ <-3) and moderate (WHZ <-2) wasting would be <120 and <125 mm for ages 6-24 mo, <125 and <135 mm for ages 25-36 mo, and <135 and <140 mm for ages 37-60 mo. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  19. BMI and Lifetime Changes in BMI and Cancer Mortality Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taghizadeh, Niloofar; Boezen, H Marike; Schouten, Jan P; Schröder, Carolien P; de Vries, Elisabeth G. E.; Vonk, Judith M

    2015-01-01

    Body Mass Index (BMI) is known to be associated with cancer mortality, but little is known about the link between lifetime changes in BMI and cancer mortality in both males and females. We studied the association of BMI measurements (at baseline, highest and lowest BMI during the study-period) and

  20. Total Mini-Mental State Examination score and regional cerebral blood flow using Z score imaging and automated ROI analysis software in subjects with memory impairment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Eiji; Shiozaki, Kazumasa; Takahashi, Nobukazu; Togo, Takashi; Odawara, Toshinari; Oka, Takashi; Inoue, Tomio; Hirayasu, Yoshio

    2008-01-01

    The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) is considered a useful supplementary method to diagnose dementia and evaluate the severity of cognitive disturbance. However, the region of the cerebrum that correlates with the MMSE score is not clear. Recently, a new method was developed to analyze regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) using a Z score imaging system (eZIS). This system shows changes of rCBF when compared with a normal database. In addition, a three-dimensional stereotaxic region of interest (ROI) template (3DSRT), fully automated ROI analysis software was developed. The objective of this study was to investigate the correlation between rCBF changes and total MMSE score using these new methods. The association between total MMSE score and rCBF changes was investigated in 24 patients (mean age±standard deviation (SD) 71.5±9.2 years; 6 men and 18 women) with memory impairment using eZIS and 3DSRT. Step-wise multiple regression analysis was used for multivariate analysis, with the total MMSE score as the dependent variable and rCBF change in 24 areas as the independent variable. Total MMSE score was significantly correlated only with the reduction of left hippocampal perfusion but not with right (P<0.01). Total MMSE score is an important indicator of left hippocampal function. (author)

  1. Development of a fuzzy-stochastic programming with Green Z-score criterion method for planning water resources systems with a trading mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, X T; Huang, G H; Li, Y P; Zhang, J L; Cai, Y P; Liu, Z P; Liu, L R

    2016-12-01

    This study developed a fuzzy-stochastic programming with Green Z-score criterion (FSGZ) method for water resources allocation and water quality management with a trading-mechanism (WAQT) under uncertainties. FSGZ can handle uncertainties expressed as probability distributions, and it can also quantify objective/subjective fuzziness in the decision-making process. Risk-averse attitudes and robustness coefficient are joined to express the relationship between the expected target and outcome under various risk preferences of decision makers and systemic robustness. The developed method is applied to a real-world case of WAQT in the Kaidu-Kongque River Basin in northwest China, where an effective mechanism (e.g., market trading) to simultaneously confront severely diminished water availability and degraded water quality is required. Results of water transaction amounts, water allocation patterns, pollution mitigation schemes, and system benefits under various scenarios are analyzed, which indicate that a trading-mechanism is a more sustainable method to manage water-environment crisis in the study region. Additionally, consideration of anthropogenic (e.g., a risk-averse attitude) and systemic factors (e.g., the robustness coefficient) can support the generation of a robust plan associated with risk control for WAQT when uncertainty is present. These findings assist local policy and decision makers to gain insights into water-environment capacity planning to balance the basin's social and economic growth with protecting the region's ecosystems.

  2. Gene-diet interaction effects on BMI levels in the Singapore Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xuling; Dorajoo, Rajkumar; Sun, Ye; Han, Yi; Wang, Ling; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; Sim, Xueling; Tai, E-Shyong; Liu, Jianjun; Yuan, Jian-Min; Koh, Woon-Puay; van Dam, Rob M; Friedlander, Yechiel; Heng, Chew-Kiat

    2018-02-24

    Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 97 body-mass index (BMI) associated loci. We aimed to evaluate if dietary intake modifies BMI associations at these loci in the Singapore Chinese population. We utilized GWAS information from six data subsets from two adult Chinese population (N = 7817). Seventy-eight genotyped or imputed index BMI single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that passed quality control procedures were available in all datasets. Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI)-2010 score and ten nutrient variables were evaluated. Linear regression analyses between z score transformed BMI (Z-BMI) and dietary factors were performed. Interaction analyses were performed by introducing the interaction term (diet x SNP) in the same regression model. Analysis was carried out in each cohort individually and subsequently meta-analyzed using the inverse-variance weighted method. Analyses were also evaluated with a weighted gene-risk score (wGRS) contructed by BMI index SNPs from recent large-scale GWAS studies. Nominal associations between Z-BMI and AHEI-2010 and some dietary factors were identified (P = 0.047-0.010). The BMI wGRS was robustly associated with Z-BMI (P = 1.55 × 10 - 15 ) but not with any dietary variables. Dietary variables did not significantly interact with the wGRS to modify BMI associations. When interaction analyses were repeated using individual SNPs, a significant association between cholesterol intake and rs4740619 (CCDC171) was identified (β = 0.077, adjP interaction  = 0.043). The CCDC171 gene locus may interact with cholesterol intake to increase BMI in the Singaporean Chinese population, however most known obesity risk loci were not associated with dietary intake and did not interact with diet to modify BMI levels.

  3. BMI Trajectories from Birth to Young Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, Shannon M; Osganian, Stavroula K; Feldman, Henry A; Milliren, Carly E; Field, Alison E; Richmond, Tracy K

    2018-04-19

    This study aimed to compare BMI trajectories from childhood to early adulthood in those with overweight and/or obesity versus severe obesity. Longitudinal BMI values (2,542 measurements) were calculated from measured heights and weights for 103 children, adolescents, or young adults with overweight, obesity, or severe obesity. Segmented regression with splines was used to model BMI trajectories. Sixty-nine participants were classified as ever having severe obesity versus 34 who never had severe obesity. Trajectories and slopes did not differ by sex or race/ethnicity. Compared with those who never had severe obesity, BMI was higher in the group with severe obesity at all ages, and BMI slope was higher for those with severe obesity at age 14 (P = 0.002), with peak slope occurring later (18 years vs. 16 years) and higher (4.5 ± 0.5 kg/m 2 /y vs. 2.9 ± 0.5 kg/m 2 /y; P BMI fell below zero by the mid-20s (-0.3 ± 0.6 kg/m 2 /y); in those with severe obesity, BMI slope never reached zero (0.9 ± 0.5 kg/m 2 /y). Youth with severe obesity, compared with their peers without, started with higher BMIs, had more rapid rates of BMI increase beginning at age 14, as well as a higher peak and longer period of increase, and never achieved weight stabilization. © 2018 The Obesity Society.

  4. Body Composition Explains Greater Variance in Weight-for-Length Z-scores than Mid-Upper Arm Circumference during Infancy - A Secondary Data Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grijalva-Eternod, Carlos; Andersen, Gregers Stig; Girma, Tsinuel; Admassu, Bitiya; Kæstel, Pernille; Michaelsen, Kim F; Friis, Henrik; Wells, Jonathan CK

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Background: Traditionally, weight-for-length/height z-score (WLZ) was used to assess wasting (a mortality risk factor) in children 0-59 months. A recent consultation reached a majority position that mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) is a better mortality predictor than WLZ in children 6-59 months. In addition, MUAC collected at the ages of 6-14 weeks has shown to identify infants more likely to die before reaching one year. To understand which body compartment is most affected by undernutrition, associations between anthropometric indicators and body composition data have been studied in children aged 6-59 months. To our knowledge, no such study has been done in children aged 0-6 months. We aimed to study these associations. Methods: Weight, length, MUAC, and lean and fat mass (LM and FM, respectively) obtained by air-displacement plethysmography of infants aged 0-6 months were obtained from an Ethiopian birth cohort study. The data, originally used to construct body composition reference data, measured infants at birth, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5, 4.5, and 6 months of age. A complete set of measurements available for 2506 out of a total of 2777 child measurements (563/598, 403/436, 414/444, 413/446, 368/415, and 345/441 in each age, respectively) was used for this analys, E-mail: is. Weight and length data were transformed to sex-and age-specific weight-for-length z-score (WLZ) values using the 2006 WHO growth standards. To remove the confounding positive association between LM or FM and length, we calculated sex- and age-specific standardised residuals values obtained from regressing LM or FM on length, separately by sex and age of measurement. The associations between MUAC, WLZ, length, and body composition residuals were assessed using correlation analysis. We used regression analysis to assess the independent contribution of body composition residuals to MUAC and WLZ. All analyses were done separately by age. Results: MUAC was strongly and positively correlated

  5. Cardiometabolic Risk Assessments by Body Mass Index z-Score or Waist-to-Height Ratio in a Multiethnic Sample of Sixth-Graders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Henry S.; El ghormli, Laure; Jago, Russell; Foster, Gary D.; McMurray, Robert G.; Buse, John B.; Stadler, Diane D.; Treviño, Roberto P.; Baranowski, Tom; HEALTHY Study Group

    2014-01-01

    Convention defines pediatric adiposity by the body mass index z-score (BMIz) referenced to normative growth charts. Waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) does not depend on sex-and-age references. In the HEALTHY Study enrollment sample, we compared BMIz with WHtR for ability to identify adverse cardiometabolic risk. Among 5,482 sixth-grade students from 42 middle schools, we estimated explanatory variations (R 2) and standardized beta coefficients of BMIz or WHtR for cardiometabolic risk factors: insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), lipids, blood pressures, and glucose. For each risk outcome variable, we prepared adjusted regression models for four subpopulations stratified by sex and high versus lower fatness. For HOMA-IR, R 2 attributed to BMIz or WHtR was 19%–28% among high-fatness and 8%–13% among lower-fatness students. R 2 for lipid variables was 4%–9% among high-fatness and 2%–7% among lower-fatness students. In the lower-fatness subpopulations, the standardized coefficients for total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol and triglycerides tended to be weaker for BMIz (0.13–0.20) than for WHtR (0.17–0.28). Among high-fatness students, BMIz and WHtR correlated with blood pressures for Hispanics and whites, but not black boys (systolic) or girls (systolic and diastolic). In 11-12 year olds, assessments by WHtR can provide cardiometabolic risk estimates similar to conventional BMIz without requiring reference to a normative growth chart. PMID:25132986

  6. Cardiometabolic Risk Assessments by Body Mass Index z-Score or Waist-to-Height Ratio in a Multiethnic Sample of Sixth-Graders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry S. Kahn

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Convention defines pediatric adiposity by the body mass index z-score (BMIz referenced to normative growth charts. Waist-to-height ratio (WHtR does not depend on sex-and-age references. In the HEALTHY Study enrollment sample, we compared BMIz with WHtR for ability to identify adverse cardiometabolic risk. Among 5,482 sixth-grade students from 42 middle schools, we estimated explanatory variations (R2 and standardized beta coefficients of BMIz or WHtR for cardiometabolic risk factors: insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, lipids, blood pressures, and glucose. For each risk outcome variable, we prepared adjusted regression models for four subpopulations stratified by sex and high versus lower fatness. For HOMA-IR, R2 attributed to BMIz or WHtR was 19%–28% among high-fatness and 8%–13% among lower-fatness students. R2 for lipid variables was 4%–9% among high-fatness and 2%–7% among lower-fatness students. In the lower-fatness subpopulations, the standardized coefficients for total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol and triglycerides tended to be weaker for BMIz (0.13–0.20 than for WHtR (0.17–0.28. Among high-fatness students, BMIz and WHtR correlated with blood pressures for Hispanics and whites, but not black boys (systolic or girls (systolic and diastolic. In 11-12 year olds, assessments by WHtR can provide cardiometabolic risk estimates similar to conventional BMIz without requiring reference to a normative growth chart.

  7. The academic penalty for gaining weight: a longitudinal, change-in-change analysis of BMI and perceived academic ability in middle school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, E L; Gortmaker, S L; Davison, K K; Bryn Austin, S

    2015-09-01

    Worse educational outcomes for obese children regardless of academic ability may begin early in the life course. This study tested whether an increase in children's relative weight predicted lower teacher- and child-perceived academic ability even after adjusting for standardized test scores. Three thousand three hundred and sixty-two children participating in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort were studied longitudinally from fifth to eighth grade. Heights, weights, standardized test scores in maths and reading, and teacher and self-ratings of ability in maths and reading were measured at each wave. Longitudinal, within-child linear regression models estimated the impact of a change in body mass index (BMI) z-score on change in normalized teacher and student ratings of ability in reading and maths, adjusting for test score. A change in BMI z-score from fifth to eighth grade was not independently associated with a change in standardized test scores. However, adjusting for standardized test scores, an increasing BMI z-score was associated with significant reductions in teacher's perceptions of girls' ability in reading (-0.12, 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.23, -0.03, P=0.03) and boys' ability in math (-0.30, 95% CI: -0.43, -0.17, Pmaths ability (-0.47, 95% CI: -0.83, -0.11, P=0.01). From fifth to eighth grade, increase in BMI z-score was significantly associated with worsening teacher perceptions of academic ability for both boys and girls, regardless of objectively measured ability (standardized test scores). Future research should examine potential interventions to reduce bias and promote positive school climate.

  8. Body Composition within the First 3 Months: Optimized Correction for Length and Correlation with BMI at 2 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Colin P; Zemel, Babette S; Kiely, Mairead; Irvine, Alan D; Kenny, Louise C; O'B Hourihane, Jonathan; Murray, Deirdre M

    2016-01-01

    Although early infant growth has implications for future health, body composition reference data in infancy are limited. The aim of this study was to describe reference data for fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) corrected for length (L) within the first 3 months and to evaluate if these measures predict the body mass index (BMI) at 2 years. Term infants had air displacement plethysmography performed at birth (n = 1,063) and approximately 2 months later (n = 922, between 49 and 86 days). Age- and sex-specific reference data were generated for FM, FFM, FM/L 3 and FFM/L 2 and compared with BMI at 2 years. FM/L 3 and FFM/L 2 were the optimal indices independent of length. In the first 3 months, mean FM/L 3 increased (males, from 2.7 to 5.9 kg/m 3 ; females, from 3.2 to 6.1 kg/m 3 ), whereas FFM/L 2 remained relatively stable (males, from 11.8 to 12.7 kg/m 2 ; females, from 12.8 to 12.1 kg/m 2 ). The odds of a BMI Z-score ≥2 at 2 years increased with increasing FM (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.97-3.7) and weight (OR 2.27, 95% CI 1.64-3.13) Z-scores at 2 months. FM/L 3 and FFM/L 2 provide length-independent measures of FM and FFM in infancy. During the first 3 months, there is an increase in FM/L 3 , but not in FFM/L 2 . The weight Z-score at 2 months is as good at predicting BMI at 2 years as body composition parameters. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Height for age z score and cognitive function are associated with Academic performance among school children aged 8-11 years old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haile, Demewoz; Nigatu, Dabere; Gashaw, Ketema; Demelash, Habtamu

    2016-01-01

    Academic achievement of school age children can be affected by several factors such as nutritional status, demographics, and socioeconomic factors. Though evidence about the magnitude of malnutrition is well established in Ethiopia, there is a paucity of evidence about the association of nutritional status with academic performance among the nation's school age children. Hence, this study aimed to determine how nutritional status and cognitive function are associated with academic performance of school children in Goba town, South East Ethiopia. An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted among 131 school age students from primary schools in Goba town enrolled during the 2013/2014 academic year. The nutritional status of students was assessed by anthropometric measurement, while the cognitive assessment was measured by the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (KABC-II) and Ravens colored progressive matrices (Raven's CPM) tests. The academic performance of the school children was measured by collecting the preceding semester academic result from the school record. Descriptive statistics, bivariate and multivariable linear regression were used in the statistical analysis. This study found a statistically significant positive association between all cognitive test scores and average academic performance except for number recall (p = 0.12) and hand movements (p = 0.08). The correlation between all cognitive test scores and mathematics score was found positive and statistically significant (p academic subjects among school age children (ß = 0.53; 95 % CI: 0.11-0.95). A single unit change of age resulted 3.23 unit change in average score of all academic subjects among school age children (ß = 3.23; 95 % CI: 1.20-5.27). Nutritional status (height for age Z score) and wealth could be modifiable factors to improve academic performance of school age children. Moreover, interventions to improve nutrition for mothers and children may be

  10. Trends in BMI of urban Australian adults, 1980-2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walls, Helen L; Wolfe, Rory; Haby, Michelle M

    2010-01-01

    of 7.4 kg/m2 at the higher end for women aged 55-64 years. While the prevalence of obesity (BMI >or= 30 kg/m2) doubled, the prevalence of obesity class III (BMI >or= 40 kg/m2) increased fourfold. CONCLUSIONS: BMI in urban Australian adults has increased and its distribution has become increasingly...... right-skewed. This has resulted in a large increase in the prevalence of obesity, particularly the more severe levels of obesity. It will be important to monitor changes in the different classes of obesity and the extent to which obesity interventions both shift the BMI distribution leftwards...

  11. In Nonobese Children, Fitness and BMI are Independent Predictors of Fasting Insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Andrew M; Eickhoff, Jens; Nemeth, Blaise A; Carrel, Aaron L

    2015-05-01

    Although fitness and obesity have been shown to be independent predictors of cardiometabolic disease risk in obese children, this interaction is not well defined in nonobese children. The purpose of this study was to define the relationships between peak aerobic capacity, body composition, and fasting insulin levels in nonobese middle school children. 148 middle school children (mean age 11.0 ± 2.1 years, 49% male) underwent determination of body mass index (BMI) z-score, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, body composition by DXA scan (lean body mass and body fat percentage), and peak oxygen uptake per kg of lean body mass (VO2peak). Univariate correlations and multivariate regression analysis were used to identify independent predictors of fasting insulin using age, sex, percent body fat, body mass index z-score, and VO2peak. fasting insulin was significantly related to VO2peak (r =-0.37, p fasting insulin, while age (p = .39), sex (p = .49), and percent body fat (p = .72) did not. Among nonobese middle school children, fasting insulin is independently related to aerobic fitness after accounting for age, sex, and body composition. Public health efforts to reduce cardiometabolic disease risk among all adolescents should include exercise programs to increase cardiovascular fitness.

  12. DHA supplementation during pregnancy does not reduce BMI or body fat mass in children: follow-up of the DHA to Optimize Mother Infant Outcome randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlhausler, Beverly S; Yelland, Lisa N; McDermott, Robyn; Tapsell, Linda; McPhee, Andrew; Gibson, Robert A; Makrides, Maria

    2016-06-01

    The omega-3 (n-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has proven effective at reducing fat storage in animal studies. However, a systematic review of human trials showed a lack of quality data to support or refute this hypothesis. We sought to determine whether maternal DHA supplementation during the second half of pregnancy results in a lower body mass index (BMI) and percentage of body fat in children. We conducted a follow-up at 3 and 5 y of age of children who were born to mothers enrolled in the DOMInO (DHA to Optimize Mother Infant Outcome) double-blind, randomized controlled trial, in which women with a singleton pregnancy were provided with DHA-rich fish-oil capsules (800 mg DHA/d) or vegetable-oil capsules (control group) in the second half of pregnancy. Primary outcomes were the BMI z score and percentage of body fat at 3 and 5 y of age. Potential interactions between prenatal DHA and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) genotype as a measure of the genetic predisposition to obesity were investigated. A total of 1614 children were eligible for the follow-up. Parent or caregiver consent was obtained for 1531 children (95%), and these children were included in the analysis. BMI z scores and percentages of body fat of children in the DHA group did not differ from those of children in the control group at either 3 y of age [BMI z score adjusted mean difference: 0.03 (95% CI: -0.07, 0.13; P = 0.61); percentage of body fat adjusted mean difference: -0.26 (95% CI: -0.99, 0.46; P = 0.47)] or 5 y of age [BMI z score adjusted mean difference: 0.02 (95% CI: -0.08, 0.12; P = 0.66); percentage of body fat adjusted mean difference: 0.11 (95% CI: -0.60, 0.82; P = 0.75)]. No treatment effects were modified by the PPARγ genotype of the child. Independent of a genetic predisposition to obesity, maternal intake of DHA-rich fish oil during the second half of pregnancy does not affect the growth or body composition

  13. Effect of inhaled corticosteroid use on weight (BMI) in pediatric patients with moderate-severe asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jennifer; Nguyen, John; Kim, Yuna; Geng, Bob; Romanowski, Gale; Alejandro, Lawrence; Proudfoot, James; Xu, Ronghui; Leibel, Sydney

    2018-04-19

    Assess the relationship between inhaled corticosteroid use (ICS) and weight (BMI) in pediatric patients with moderate-severe asthma. Assess if the number of emergency department (ED) visits correlates with overall BMI trajectory. Assess the trend of prescribing biologic therapy in pediatric patients with moderate-severe asthma and determine its relationship with weight (BMI). A retrospective chart review was performed on 93 pediatric patients with moderate-severe asthma to determine the relationship between ICS use and weight (BMI), biologic therapy and BMI, and number of ED visits and BMI trajectory. A mixed effects model was employed with the correlation between repeated measures accounted for through the random effects. There is a statistically significant increase of 0.369 kg/m 2 in BMI trajectory per year in subjects on high-dose steroids compared to an increase of 0.195 kg/m 2 in the low dose group (p BMI of subjects initiated on biologic therapy (omalizumab or mepolizumab) had a statistically significant decrease in BMI trajectory of 0.818 kg/m 2 per year (p BMI trajectory (p BMI trajectory; the higher the dose, the greater the projected BMI increase per year. Initiation of biologic therapy decreased BMI trajectory over time. Lastly, those with frequent ED visits had a higher BMI trend. Future prospective studies are warranted that further evaluate the potential metabolic impacts of ICS and assess the effects of biologic therapy on BMI.

  14. Maternal weight prior and during pregnancy and offspring's BMI and adiposity at 5-6 years in the EDEN mother-child cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacota, M; Forhan, A; Saldanha-Gomes, C; Charles, M A; Heude, B

    2017-08-01

    Beyond pre-pregnancy BMI, maternal weight change before and during pregnancy may also affect offspring adiposity. To investigate the relationship between maternal weight history before and during pregnancy with children's adiposity at 5-6 years. In 1069 mother-child dyads from the EDEN Cohort, we examined by linear regression the associations of children's BMI, fat mass and abdominal adiposity at 5-6 years with maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, pre-pregnancy average yearly weight change from age 20 and gestational weight gain. The shapes of relationships were investigated using splines and polynomial functions were tested. Children's BMI and adiposity parameters were positively associated with maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, but these relationships were mainly seen in thin mothers, with no substantial variation for maternal BMI ranging from 22 to 35 kg/m 2 . Gestational weight gain was positively associated with children's BMI Z-score, but again more so in thin mothers. We found no association with pre-pregnancy weight change. Before the adiposity rebound, maternal pre-pregnancy thinness explains most of the relationship with children's BMI. The relationship may emerge at older ages in children of overweight and obese mothers, and this latency may be an obstacle to early prevention. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  15. Estimation of Non-Revenue Water Ratio for Sustainable Management Using Artificial Neural Network and Z-Score in Incheon, Republic of Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongwoo Jang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The non-revenue water (NRW ratio in a water distribution system is the ratio of the loss due to unbilled authorized consumption, apparent losses and real losses to the overall system input volume (SIV. The method of estimating the NRW ratio by measurement might not work in an area with no district metered areas (DMAs or with unclear administrative district. Through multiple regression analyses is a statistical analysis method for calculating the NRW ratio using the main parameters of the water distribution system, although its disadvantage is lower accuracy than that of the measured NRW ratio. In this study, an artificial neural network (ANN was used to estimate the NRW ratio. The results of the study proved that the accuracy of NRW ratio calculated by the ANN model was higher than by multiple regression analysis. The developed ANN model was shown to have an accuracy that varies depending on the number of neurons in the hidden layer. Therefore, when using the ANN model, the optimal number of neurons must be determined. In addition, the accuracy of the outlier removal condition was higher than that of the original data used condition.

  16. Food brand recognition and BMI in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Kristen; Moorman, Jessica; Peralta, Mericarmen; Fayhee, Kally

    2017-07-01

    Children's food brand recognition predicts health-related outcomes such as preference for obesogenic foods and increased risk for overweight. However, it is uncertain to what degree food brand recognition acts as a proxy for other factors such as parental education and income, child vocabulary, child age, child race/ethnicity, parent healthy eating guidance, child commercial TV viewing, and child dietary intake, all of which may influence or be influenced by food brand recognition. U.S. preschoolers (N = 247, average age 56 months) were measured for BMI and completed the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test plus recognition and recall measures for a selection of U.S. food brands. Parents completed measures of healthy eating guidance, child dietary intake, child commercial TV viewing, parent education, household income, parent BMI, and child age and race/ethnicity. Controlling these variables, child food brand recognition predicted higher child BMI percentile. Further, qualitative examination of children's incorrect answers to recall items demonstrated perceptual confusion between brand mascots and other fantasy characters to which children are exposed during the preschool years, extending theory on child consumer development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Summer effects on body mass index (BMI gain and growth patterns of American Indian children from kindergarten to first grade: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jianduan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overweight and obesity are highly prevalent among American Indian children, especially those living on reservations. There is little scientific evidence about the effects of summer vacation on obesity development in children. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of summer vacation between kindergarten and first grade on growth in height, weight, and body mass index (BMI for a sample of American Indian children. Methods Children had their height and weight measured in four rounds of data collection (yielded three intervals: kindergarten, summer vacation, and first grade as part of a school-based obesity prevention trial (Bright Start in a Northern Plains Indian Reservation. Demographic variables were collected at baseline from parent surveys. Growth velocities (Z-score units/year for BMI, weight, and height were estimated and compared for each interval using generalized linear mixed models. Results The children were taller and heavier than median of same age counterparts. Height Z-scores were positively associated with increasing weight status category. The mean weight velocity during summer was significantly less than during the school year. More rapid growth velocity in height during summer than during school year was observed. Obese children gained less adjusted-BMI in the first grade after gaining more than their counterparts during the previous two intervals. No statistically significant interval effects were found for height and BMI velocities. Conclusions There was no indication of a significant summer effect on children's BMI. Rather than seasonal or school-related patterns, the predominant pattern indicated by weight-Z and BMI-Z velocities might be related to age or maturation. Trial registration Bright Start: Obesity Prevention in American Indian Children Clinical Trial Govt ID# NCT00123032

  18. Use of BMI as marker of adiposity in a metabolic syndrome severity score: derivation and validation in predicting long-term disease outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurka, Matthew J; Filipp, Stephanie L; Musani, Solomon K; Sims, Mario; DeBoer, Mark D

    2018-02-01

    Estimates of adiposity in evaluating the metabolic syndrome (MetS) have traditionally utilized measures of waist circumference (WC), whereas body mass index (BMI) is more commonly used clinically. Our objective was to determine if a MetS severity Z-score employing BMI as its measure of adiposity (MetS-Z-BMI) would perform similarly to a WC-based score (MetS-Z-WC) in predicting future disease. To formulate the MetS-Z-BMI, we performed confirmatory factor analysis on a sex- and race/ethnicity-specific basis on MetS-related data for 6870 adult participants of the National Health and Nutrition Survey 1999-2010. We then validated this score and compared it to MetS-Z-WC in assessing correlations with future coronary heart disease (CHD) and Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) using Cox proportional hazard analysis of 13,094 participants of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study and Jackson Heart Study. Loading factors, which represent the relative contribution of each component to the latent MetS factor, were lower for BMI than for WC in formulating the two respective scores (MetS-Z-BMI and MetS-Z-WC). Nevertheless, MetS-Z-BMI and MetS-Z-WC exhibited similar hazard ratios (HR) toward future disease. For each one standard-deviation-unit increase in MetS-Z-BMI, HR for CHD was 1.76 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.65, 1.88) and HR for T2DM was 3.39 (CI 3.16, 3.63) (both p BMI scores in their associations with future CHD and T2DM. A MetS severity Z-score utilizing BMI as its measure of adiposity operated similarly to a WC-based score in predicting future CHD and T2DM, suggesting overall similarity in MetS-based risk as estimated by both measures of adiposity. This indicates potential clinical usefulness of MetS-Z-BMI in assessing and following MetS-related risk over time. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. BMI and BMI SDS in childhood: annual increments and conditional change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannsether, Bente; Eide, Geir Egil; Roelants, Mathieu; Bjerknes, Robert; Júlíusson, Pétur Benedikt

    2017-02-01

    Background Early detection of abnormal weight gain in childhood may be important for preventive purposes. It is still debated which annual changes in BMI should warrant attention. Aim To analyse 1-year increments of Body Mass Index (BMI) and standardised BMI (BMI SDS) in childhood and explore conditional change in BMI SDS as an alternative method to evaluate 1-year changes in BMI. Subjects and methods The distributions of 1-year increments of BMI (kg/m 2 ) and BMI SDS are summarised by percentiles. Differences according to sex, age, height, weight, initial BMI and weight status on the BMI and BMI SDS increments were assessed with multiple linear regression. Conditional change in BMI SDS was based on the correlation between annual BMI measurements converted to SDS. Results BMI increments depended significantly on sex, height, weight and initial BMI. Changes in BMI SDS depended significantly only on the initial BMI SDS. The distribution of conditional change in BMI SDS using a two-correlation model was close to normal (mean = 0.11, SD = 1.02, n = 1167), with 3.2% (2.3-4.4%) of the observations below -2 SD and 2.8% (2.0-4.0%) above +2 SD. Conclusion Conditional change in BMI SDS can be used to detect unexpected large changes in BMI SDS. Although this method requires the use of a computer, it may be clinically useful to detect aberrant weight development.

  20. Orthorexia nervosa: Assessment and correlates with gender, BMI, and personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, Crystal D; Samaghabadi, Razieh O; Hughes, Elizabeth M

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated whether orthorexia nervosa (ON; characterized by an obsessive fixation on eating healthy) may be predicted from the demographics variables of gender and BMI, and from the personality variables of self-esteem, narcissism, and perfectionism. Participants were 459 college students, who completed several online questionnaires that assessed these variables. A principal components analysis confirmed that the Eating Habits Questionnaire (Gleaves, Graham, & Ambwani, 2013) assesses three internally-consistent ON components: healthy eating behaviors, problems resulting from those behaviors, and positive feelings associated with those behaviors. A MANOVA and its tests of between subjects effects then revealed significant interactions between gender and BMI, such that for men but not women, a higher BMI was associated with greater symptomatology for all ON components. Partial correlation analyses, after controlling for gender and BMI, revealed that both narcissism and perfectionism were positively correlated with all aspects of ON symptomatology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Know Your Body Mass Index (BMI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Past Issues Special Section Know Your Body Mass Index (BMI) Past Issues / Winter 2007 Table of Contents ... aging, it pays to understand your body mass index (BMI), a measure of body fat based on ...

  2. Excess BMI in Childhood: A Modifiable Risk Factor for Type 1 Diabetes Development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Christine Therese; Geyer, Susan Michelle; Liu, Yuk-Fun; Evans-Molina, Carmella; Libman, Ingrid M; Besser, Rachel; Becker, Dorothy J; Rodriguez, Henry; Moran, Antoinette; Gitelman, Stephen E; Redondo, Maria J

    2017-05-01

    We aimed to determine the effect of elevated BMI over time on the progression to type 1 diabetes in youth. We studied 1,117 children in the TrialNet Pathway to Prevention cohort (autoantibody-positive relatives of patients with type 1 diabetes). Longitudinally accumulated BMI above the 85th age- and sex-adjusted percentile generated a cumulative excess BMI (ceBMI) index. Recursive partitioning and multivariate analyses yielded sex- and age-specific ceBMI thresholds for greatest type 1 diabetes risk. Higher ceBMI conferred significantly greater risk of progressing to type 1 diabetes. The increased diabetes risk occurred at lower ceBMI values in children <12 years of age compared with older subjects and in females versus males. Elevated BMI is associated with increased risk of diabetes progression in pediatric autoantibody-positive relatives, but the effect varies by sex and age. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  3. BMI and BMI SDS in childhood: annual increments and conditional change

    OpenAIRE

    Brannsether-Ellingsen, Bente; Eide, Geir Egil; Roelants, Mathieu; Bjerknes, Robert; Juliusson, Petur Benedikt

    2016-01-01

    Background: Early detection of abnormal weight gain in childhood may be important for preventive purposes. It is still debated which annual changes in BMI should warrant attention. Aim: To analyse 1-year increments of Body Mass Index (BMI) and standardised BMI (BMI SDS) in childhood and explore conditional change in BMI SDS as an alternative method to evaluate 1-year changes in BMI. Subjects and methods: The distributions of 1-year increments of BMI (kg/m2) and BMI SDS are summarised by...

  4. Lower Bmi-1 Expression May Predict Longer Survival of Colon Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to investigate the Bmi-1 expression and the clinical significance in colon cancer (CC. Patients and Methods: Bmi-1 expression in tumor tissue and the corresponding normal tissue was detected using immunohistological staining. The correlations between Bmi-1 expression and clinicopathological characteristics and the overall survival (OS time were analyzed. Results: The median H-scores of Bmi-1 in CC tissues and the corresponding tissues were 80.0 (0-270 and 5.0 (0-90, with no statistically significant difference (Z=-13.7, PP = 0.123. The survival rates of patients with low Bmi-1 expression were higher than those of patients with high Bmi-1 expression but the differences were not statistically significant. Conclusion: Bmi-1 expression in CC tissue is significantly higher than that in corresponding normal tissue. While there may be a trend towards improved survival, this is not statistically significant.

  5. Expression of Bmi-1 is a prognostic marker in bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Li-Hua

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The molecular mechanisms of the development and progression of bladder cancer are poorly understood. The objective of this study was to analyze the expression of Bmi-1 protein and its clinical significance in human bladder cancer. Methods We examined the expression of Bmi-1 mRNA and Bmi-1 protein by RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively in 14 paired bladder cancers and the adjacent normal tissues. The expression of Bmi-1 protein in 137 specimens of bladder cancer and 30 specimens of adjacent normal bladder tissue was determined by immunohistochemistry. Statistical analyses were applied to test the relationship between expression of Bmi-1, and clinicopathologic features and prognosis. Results Expression of Bmi-1 mRNA and protein was higher in bladder cancers than in the adjacent normal tissues in 14 paired samples (P P P P P > 0.5. In superficial bladder cancers, the expression of Bmi-1 protein in recurrent cases was higher than in recurrence-free cases (62.5% versus 13.7%, P P P > 0.05. Five-year survival in the group with higher Bmi-1 expression was 50.8%, while it was 78.5% in the group with lower Bmi-1 expression (P P Conclusion Expression of Bmi-1 was greater in bladder cancers than in the adjacent normal tissues. The examination of Bmi-1 protein expression is potentially valuable in prognostic evaluation of bladder cancer.

  6. Effect of changes in BMI and waist circumference on ambulatory blood pressure in obese children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidt, Kristian Nebelin; Olsen, Michael Hecht; Ibsen, Hans

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Weight reduction has been accompanied with a reduction in clinic blood pressure (BP) in children and adolescents; however, the effect on ambulatory BP (ABP) is uncertain. The objective was to investigate the impact of weight changes on ABP in obese children and adolescents. METHODS......: Sixty-one severely obese patients aged 10-18 years underwent lifestyle intervention at the Children's Obesity Clinic. Patients were examined with ABP monitoring at baseline and after 1 year of treatment (follow-up). To account for growth, BP and BMI were standardized into z scores, whereas waist.......05). No relationship was found between changes in these anthropometric obesity measures and changes in clinic BP. CONCLUSION: Changes in obesity measures were closely related to changes in ABP, but not to changes in clinic BP, in severe obese children and adolescents after 1 year of lifestyle intervention...

  7. Ethnicity influences BMI as evaluated from reported serum lipid values in Inuit and non-Inuit: raised upper limit of BMI in Inuit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noahsen, Paneeraq; Andersen, Stig

    2013-01-01

    To identify thresholds of BMI at which similar levels of serum lipids occur in Inuit and in non-Inuit as the impact of obesity on metabolic risk factors differ in Inuit compared to other ethnic groups. Published comparative data among Inuit and non-Inuit whites on BMI and HDL-cholesterol and triglyceride were identified for analysis. A literature search was done for BMI, lipids, Inuit and Greenland or Canada. Studies with data on triglycerides and HDL-cholesterol in Inuit and non-Inuit Caucasians were selected and data were retrieved. Regression equations were computed for BMI and HDL-cholesterol and BMI and triglycerides. BMI for similar levels of lipids in Inuit and non-Inuit and ratios of Inuit/non-Inuit BMI's were calculated. At BMI 25 kg/m2 HDL-cholesterol was 1.7/1.6 mM in Greenland Inuit/non-Inuit women and 1.7/1.5 mM in men in a major comparative study. HDL cholesterol decreased by 0.09 for each 1 kg/m2 increase in BMI. Serum triglycerides were 1.0/1.1 mM for Greenland Inuit/non-Inuit women and 0.9/ 1.4 mM for men at BMI 25 kg/m2. Slopes were around 0.1. A comparative study in Canadian Inuit/non-Inuit gave similar results. The BMI levels required for similar HDL-cholesterol or triglycerides were around 27.5 kg/m2, and Inuit/non-Inuit BMI-ratios were around 1.1. The same degree of dyslipidaemia was seen when Inuit had a 10% higher BMI compared to non-Inuit. This may support the establishment of Inuit-specific BMI cut-offs for the purposes of health screening and population health surveillance.

  8. Variations in BMI and prevalence of health risks in diverse racial and ethnic populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stommel, Manfred; Schoenborn, Charlotte A

    2010-09-01

    When examining health risks associated with the BMI, investigators often rely on the customary BMI thresholds of the 1995 World Health Organization report. However, within-interval variations in morbidity and mortality can be substantial, and the thresholds do not necessarily correspond to identifiable risk increases. Comparing the prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, coronary heart disease (CHD), asthma, and arthritis among non-Hispanic whites, blacks, East Asians and Hispanics, we examine differences in the BMI-health-risk relationships for small BMI increments. The analysis is based on 11 years of data of the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), with a sample size of 337,375 for the combined 1997-2007 Sample Adult. The analysis uses multivariate logistic regression models, employing a nonparametric approach to modeling the BMI-health-risk relationship, while relying on narrowly defined BMI categories. Rising BMI levels are associated with higher levels of chronic disease burdens in four major racial and ethnic groups, even after adjusting for many socio-demographic characteristics and three important health-related behaviors (smoking, physical activity, alcohol consumption). For all population groups, except East Asians, a modestly higher disease risk was noted for persons with a BMI ethnic groups regardless of BMI levels, the evidence presented here does not support the notion that the BMI-health-risk profile of East Asians and others warrants race-specific BMI cutoff points.

  9. Mirror extreme BMI phenotypes associated with gene dosage at the chromosome 16p11.2 locus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquemont, Sébastien; Reymond, Alexandre; Zufferey, Flore; Harewood, Louise; Walters, Robin G.; Kutalik, Zoltán; Martinet, Danielle; Shen, Yiping; Valsesia, Armand; Beckmann, Noam D.; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Belfiore, Marco; Bouquillon, Sonia; Campion, Dominique; De Leeuw, Nicole; De Vries, Bert B. A.; Esko, Tõnu; Fernandez, Bridget A.; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Fernández-Real, José Manuel; Gratacòs, Mònica; Guilmatre, Audrey; Hoyer, Juliane; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kooy, Frank R.; Kurg, Ants; Le Caignec, Cédric; Männik, Katrin; Platt, Orah S.; Sanlaville, Damien; Van Haelst, Mieke M.; Villatoro Gomez, Sergi; Walha, Faida; Wu, Bai-Lin; Yu, Yongguo; Aboura, Azzedine; Addor, Marie-Claude; Alembik, Yves; Antonarakis, Stylianos E.; Arveiler, Benoît; Barth, Magalie; Bednarek, Nathalie; Béna, Frédérique; Bergmann, Sven; Beri, Mylène; Bernardini, Laura; Blaumeiser, Bettina; Bonneau, Dominique; Bottani, Armand; Boute, Odile; Brunner, Han G.; Cailley, Dorothée; Callier, Patrick; Chiesa, Jean; Chrast, Jacqueline; Coin, Lachlan; Coutton, Charles; Cuisset, Jean-Marie; Cuvellier, Jean-Christophe; David, Albert; De Freminville, Bénédicte; Delobel, Bruno; Delrue, Marie-Ange; Demeer, Bénédicte; Descamps, Dominique; Didelot, Gérard; Dieterich, Klaus; Disciglio, Vittoria; Doco-Fenzy, Martine; Drunat, Séverine; Duban-Bedu, Bénédicte; Dubourg, Christèle; El-Sayed Moustafa, Julia S.; Elliott, Paul; Faas, Brigitte H. W.; Faivre, Laurence; Faudet, Anne; Fellmann, Florence; Ferrarini, Alessandra; Fisher, Richard; Flori, Elisabeth; Forer, Lukas; Gaillard, Dominique; Gerard, Marion; Gieger, Christian; Gimelli, Stefania; Gimelli, Giorgio; Grabe, Hans J.; Guichet, Agnès; Guillin, Olivier; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Heron, Délphine; Hippolyte, Loyse; Holder, Muriel; Homuth, Georg; Isidor, Bertrand; Jaillard, Sylvie; Jaros, Zdenek; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Joly Helas, Géraldine; Jonveaux, Philippe; Kaksonen, Satu; Keren, Boris; Kloss-Brandstätter, Anita; Knoers, Nine V. A. M.; Koolen, David A.; Kroisel, Peter M.; Kronenberg, Florian; Labalme, Audrey; Landais, Emilie; Lapi, Elisabetta; Layet, Valérie; Legallic, Solenn; Leheup, Bruno; Leube, Barbara; Lewis, Suzanne; Lucas, Josette; Macdermot, Kay D.; Magnusson, Pall; Marshall, Christian R.; Mathieu-Dramard, Michèle; Mccarthy, Mark I.; Meitinger, Thomas; Antonietta Mencarelli, Maria; Merla, Giuseppe; Moerman, Alexandre; Mooser, Vincent; Morice-Picard, Fanny; Mucciolo, Mafalda; Nauck, Matthias; Coumba Ndiaye, Ndeye; Nordgren, Ann; Pasquier, Laurent; Petit, Florence; Pfundt, Rolph; Plessis, Ghislaine; Rajcan-Separovic, Evica; Paolo Ramelli, Gian; Rauch, Anita; Ravazzolo, Roberto; Reis, Andre; Renieri, Alessandra; Richart, Cristobal; Ried, Janina S.; Rieubland, Claudine; Roberts, Wendy; Roetzer, Katharina M.; Rooryck, Caroline; Rossi, Massimiliano; Saemundsen, Evald; Satre, Véronique; Schurmann, Claudia; Sigurdsson, Engilbert; Stavropoulos, Dimitri J.; Stefansson, Hreinn; Tengström, Carola; Thorsteinsdóttir, Unnur; Tinahones, Francisco J.; Touraine, Renaud; Vallée, Louis; Van Binsbergen, Ellen; Van Der Aa, Nathalie; Vincent-Delorme, Catherine; Visvikis-Siest, Sophie; Vollenweider, Peter; Völzke, Henry; Vulto-Van Silfhout, Anneke T.; Waeber, Gérard; Wallgren-Pettersson, Carina; Witwicki, Robert M.; Zwolinksi, Simon; Andrieux, Joris; Estivill, Xavier; Gusella, James F.; Gustafsson, Omar; Metspalu, Andres; Scherer, Stephen W.; Stefansson, Kari; Blakemore, Alexandra I. F.; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Froguel, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Both underweight and obesity have been associated with increased mortality1,2. Underweight, defined as body mass index (BMI) ≤ 18,5 kg/m2 in adults 3 and ≤ −2 standard deviations (SD) in children4,5, is the main sign of a series of heterogeneous clinical conditions such as failure to thrive (FTT) 6–8, feeding and eating disorder and/or anorexia nervosa9,10. In contrast to obesity, few genetic variants underlying these clinical conditions have been reported 11, 12. We previously demonstrated that hemizygosity of a ~600 kb region on the short arm of chromosome 16 (chr16:29.5–30.1Mb), causes a highly-penetrant form of obesity often associated with hyperphagia and intellectual disabilities13. Here we show that the corresponding reciprocal duplication is associated with underweight. We identified 138 (132 novel cases) duplication carriers (108 unrelated carriers) from over 95,000 individuals clinically-referred for developmental or intellectual disabilities (DD/ID), psychiatric disorders or recruited from population-based cohorts. These carriers show significantly reduced postnatal weight (mean Z-score −0.6; p=4.4×10−4) and BMI (mean Z-score −0.5; p=2.0×10−3). In particular, half of the boys younger than 5 years are underweight with a probable diagnosis of FTT, while adult duplication carriers have an 8.7-fold (p=5.9×10−11; CI_95=[4.5–16.6]) increased risk of being clinically underweight. We observe a significant trend towards increased severity in males, as well as a depletion of male carriers among non-medically ascertained cases. These features are associated with an unusually high frequency of selective and restrictive feeding behaviours and a significant reduction in head circumference (mean Z-score −0.9; p=7.8×10−6). Each of the observed phenotypes is the converse of one reported in carriers of deletions at this locus, correlating with changes in transcript levels for genes mapping within the duplication but not within flanking

  10. Interactive Effects of Early Exclusive Breastfeeding and Pre-Pregnancy Maternal Weight Status on Young Children's BMI - A Chinese Birth Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Mei

    Full Text Available To assess if the maternal pre-pregnancy weight status (MPWS alters the association of early infant feeding pattern (at one and third months with infant body mass index (BMI in the first two years of life.A cohort of 2,220 neonates were recruited in a community-based study conducted in China. Body weight and length were measured at birth, at age one and two, with BMI calculated accordingly. The BMI z-scores (BMI-Z were computed according to the World Health Organization Growth Standard (2006. Feeding patterns were classified as exclusive breastfeeding (EBF, mixed feeding (MF, and formula feeding (FF. General linear models (GLM were employed to estimate main and interaction effects of EBF and MPWS on children's BMI-Z.No main effect of MPWS was found on child BMI-Z at ages one and two, nor the feeding patterns. An interaction between MPWS and feeding patterns was detected (p<0.05. For children who were formula fed during the first month, those who were born to overweight/obesity (OW/OB mothers had a significantly greater BMI-Z at ages one and two, compared with those with underweight/normal weight (UW/NW mothers. FF children had greater BMI-Z at ages one and two compared with their EBF and MF counterparts, when they were born to OW/OB mothers.Maternal pre-pregnancy weight control and early initiation of EBF for children are essential for healthy development in children's BMI, hence the prevention of early life obesity.

  11. Postoperative Complications of Total Joint Arthroplasty in Obese Patients Stratified by BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zusmanovich, Mikhail; Kester, Benjamin S; Schwarzkopf, Ran

    2018-03-01

    High body mass index (BMI) is associated with significant complications in patients undergoing total joint arthroplasty. Many studies have evaluated this trend, but few have looked at the rates of complications based on BMI as a continuous variable. The purpose of this study was to stratify obese patients into 3 BMI categories and evaluate their rates of complications and gauge whether transitioning from higher to lower BMI category lowers complication. Patients undergoing primary total joint arthroplasty were selected from the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database from 2008-2015 and arranged into 3 groups based on BMI: O1 (BMI 30-34.9 kg/m 2 ), O2 (BMI 35-39.9 kg/m 2 ), and O3 (BMI >40 kg/m 2 ). Thirty-day complications were recorded and evaluated utilizing univariate and multivariate analyses stratified by BMI. A total of 268,663 patients were identified. Patients with a BMI >30 kg/m 2 had more infectious and medical complications compared with nonobese patients. Furthermore, there were increased complications as the BMI categories increased. Patients with a BMI >40 kg/m 2 (O3) had longer operating times, length of stay, higher rates of readmissions, reoperations, deep venous thrombosis, renal insufficiency, superficial infections, deep infections, and wound dehiscence. These trends were present when comparing the O2 with O1 category as well. We have demonstrated increased rates of medical and surgical complications in obese patients. Furthermore, we demonstrated a stepwise increase in complication rates when transitioning to higher BMI groups. Based on our data, we believe that preoperative counseling and interventions to decrease BMI should be explored before offering elective surgery to obese patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Relationship between BMI and blood pressure in girls and boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundogdu, Zuhal

    2008-10-01

    To investigate the relationship between BMI and blood pressure as this is of crucial interest in evaluating both public health and the clinical impact of the so-called obesity epidemic. Data were gathered from 1899 children aged between 6 and 14 years, analysing and evaluating a possible relationship between BMI and systolic and diastolic blood pressure values for both girls and boys. Each child was classified on the basis of age- and sex-specific BMI percentile as normal weight (<85th percentile), overweight (95th percentile). In comparisons among age BMI percentile groups, systolic and diastolic blood pressure values were higher in obese and overweight groups than in normal weight groups for both sexes. Although BMI among girls was higher than among boys in all three percentile groups, there were no significant differences between sexes with respect to blood pressure values. The present findings emphasize the importance of the prevention of obesity in order to prevent future related problems such as hypertension in children and adolescents.

  13. The Report Card on BMI Report Cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Hannah R; Madsen, Kristine A

    2017-06-01

    Half of states in the USA have legislation requiring that schools conduct body mass index (BMI) screening among students; just under half of these states report results to parents. The effectiveness of school-based BMI screening and reporting in reducing childhood obesity is not established and the practice has raised concerns about the potential for increased weight-based stigmatization. Recent experimental studies of BMI screening and reporting have not demonstrated a positive impact on students' weight status. However, the language and formatting of BMI reports used in studies to date have been suboptimal and have likely limited the potential effectiveness of the practice. This article reviews the recent literature on school-based BMI screening and reporting and highlights important areas for future inquiry. The present review suggests that evidence to date is not sufficient to support definitive conclusions about the value of school-based BMI screening and reporting as a childhood obesity prevention tool.

  14. Concordance between self-reported pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and BMI measured at the first prenatal study contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natamba, Barnabas K; Sanchez, Sixto E; Gelaye, Bizu; Williams, Michelle A

    2016-07-26

    The 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM) gestational weight recommendations are tailored to women's pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI). Limited evidence exists on methods for estimating women's pre-pregnancy BMI, particularly for women living in low and middle income countries. Using data from collected among Peruvian pregnant women, we compared the concordance between self-reported pre-pregnancy BMI with BMI measured at the earliest prenatal study visit. Data were from the Pregnancy Outcomes Maternal and Infant Study (PrOMIS), a cohort of pregnant women at the Instituto Nacional Materno Perinatal (INMP) in Lima, Peru. 2605 women aged 18 to 49 years (mean ± SD gestational age = 10.9 ± 3.3 weeks) were included in the study. Self-reported pre-pregnancy weight and height and measured weight and height were collected at the first prenatal study contact. We assessed the concordance between measured and self-reported BMI; and, the agreement among indicators of nutritional status obtained using measured and self-reported BMI. On average, weight measured at the first prenatal study visit was 0.27 kg higher than self-reported pre-pregnancy weight (p overweight or obese BMI categories tended to be lower when using self-reported BMI (38.2 %) than when using measured BMI (47.7 %). Self-reported pre-pregnancy BMI was strongly correlated with BMI measured at the first prenatal study contact. The findings potentially suggest that, in this context, there is minimal change between pre-pregnancy BMI and BMI measured at the first prenatal study contact; or, that women in this study just recalled their most recent measured anthropometrics (including values obtained during the index pregnancy but before enrollment in the PrOMIS study).

  15. The Role of BMI1 in CRPC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    that inhibiting BMI1 decreased prostate cancer tumor growth in VCaP murine xenograft. 15. SUBJECT TERMS: Polycomb, BMI1, Androgen Receptor ...Repressive Complex, Androgen Receptor , Castration- Resistant Prostate Cancer , small molecule inhibitor 4 ACCOMPLISHMENTS A. What were the major...Qi Cao. A Novel Role of BMI1 in Androgen Receptor Pathway. 23rd Prostate Cancer Foundation Annual Scientific Retreat, Oct 26-29, 2016, Carlsbad, CA

  16. Differences in the association between childhood trauma and BMI in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However,independent of BMI group, there were significant differences in socioeconomic status (SES) between black and white women (P<0.01). Total CTQ score, as well as the sub-scales, physical and emotional neglect, and physical and sexual abuse were higher in black than white women (all P<0.05), but these scores ...

  17. Expression of Bmi-1 is a prognostic marker in bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Zi-Ke; Zeng, Mu-Sheng; Yang, Jian-An; Ye, Yun-lin; Zhang, Xing; Xu, Li-Hua; Zhou, Fang-Jian; Han, Hui; Liu, Zuo-Wei; Song, Li-Bing

    2009-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms of the development and progression of bladder cancer are poorly understood. The objective of this study was to analyze the expression of Bmi-1 protein and its clinical significance in human bladder cancer. We examined the expression of Bmi-1 mRNA and Bmi-1 protein by RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively in 14 paired bladder cancers and the adjacent normal tissues. The expression of Bmi-1 protein in 137 specimens of bladder cancer and 30 specimens of adjacent normal bladder tissue was determined by immunohistochemistry. Statistical analyses were applied to test the relationship between expression of Bmi-1, and clinicopathologic features and prognosis. Expression of Bmi-1 mRNA and protein was higher in bladder cancers than in the adjacent normal tissues in 14 paired samples (P < 0.01). By immunohistochemical examination, five of 30 adjacent normal bladder specimens (16.7%) versus 75 of 137 bladder cancers (54.3%) showed Bmi-1 protein expression (P < 0.05). Bmi-1 protein expression was intense in 20.6%, 54.3%, and 78.8% of tumors of histopathological stages G1, G2, and G3, respectively (P < 0.05). Expression of Bmi-1 protein was greater in invasive bladder cancers than in superficial bladder cancers (81.5% versus 32.5%, P < 0.05). In invasive bladder cancers, the expression of Bmi-1 protein in progression-free cancers was similar to that of cancers that have progressed (80.0% versus 82.4%, P > 0.5). In superficial bladder cancers, the expression of Bmi-1 protein in recurrent cases was higher than in recurrence-free cases (62.5% versus 13.7%, P < 0.05). Bmi-1 expression was positively correlated with tumor classification and TNM stage (P < 0.05), but not with tumor number (P > 0.05). Five-year survival in the group with higher Bmi-1 expression was 50.8%, while it was 78.5% in the group with lower Bmi-1 expression (P < 0.05). Patients with higher Bmi-1 expression had shorter survival time, whereas patients with lower Bmi-1 expression had longer

  18. Dinner rituals that correlate with child and adult BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wansink, Brian; van Kleef, Ellen

    2014-05-01

    What predicts whether a child will be at risk for obesity? Whereas past research has focused on foods, eating habits, feeding styles, and family meal patterns, this study departs from a food-centric approach to examine how various dinner rituals might influence the BMIs of children and adults. In this study of 190 parents (BMI = 29.1 ± 7.2) and 148 children (BMI = 20.3 ± 4.4), the relationship between their BMIs and everyday family dinner rituals was examined using both correlation and regression analysis (controlled for educational level of parents). Families who frequently ate dinner in the kitchen or dining room had significantly lower BMIs for both adults (r = -0.31) and children (r = -0.24) compared to families who ate elsewhere. Additionally, helping cook dinner was associated with higher BMI for girls (r = 0.26), and remaining at the table until everyone is finished with eating was associated with lower BMI for boys (r = -0.31). Dinner tables may be one place where social support and family involvement meet-both of which relate to the BMI of children as well as parents. Family meals and their rituals might be an underappreciated battleground to fight obesity. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  19. Effects of social mobility from childhood to adolescence on BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraro, Ana Paula; Gonçalves-Silva, Regina Maria Veras; Ferreira, Márcia Gonçalves; Sichieri, Rosely

    2016-04-01

    Little is known about the contribution of childhood socio-economic position (SEP) and social mobility to weight change. The present study evaluated the effect of family SEP during the pre-school years and social mobility on BMI between birth and adolescence. Longitudinal. The SEP of each child's family was classified according to an asset-based wealth index as low, medium or high. Four different categories of childhood-adolescence SEP groups were created in order to examine social mobility: low-medium/high, medium-medium, medium-high and high-high/medium. For each of these categories, BMI was tracked from birth to adolescence. Linear mixed-effects models were used to analyse the data. Cuiabá-MT, Brazil. A population-based cohort of children born between 1994 and 1999 was assessed between 1999 and 2000, and again between 2009 and 2011. A total of 1716 adolescents were followed from childhood to adolescence (71·4 % of baseline). The prevalence of overweight/obesity was 20·4 % in childhood and 27·7 % in adolescence. A higher SEP in childhood was associated with a greater prevalence of overweight in adolescence. Expressive upward social mobility occurred, mainly in the lowest SEP group. There was a greater rate of change in BMI between birth and adolescence among children with a higher SEP in childhood and children who remained in the higher SEP from childhood to adolescence. Individuals from a higher SEP in childhood and those who remained in the higher social classes showed greater rate of change in BMI. Thus, initial SEP was the major determinant of changes in BMI.

  20. Infrequent breakfast consumption is associated with higher body adiposity and abdominal obesity in Malaysian school-aged adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Nurul-Fadhilah

    Full Text Available Unhealthy dietary pattern increases the risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in growing children and adolescents. However, the way the habitual pattern of breakfast consumption influences body composition and risk of obesity in adolescents is not well defined. Thus, the aim of the present study was to assess any associations between breakfast consumption practices and body composition profiles in 236 apparently healthy adolescents aged 12 to 19 years. A self-administered questionnaire on dietary behaviour and lifestyle practices and a dietary food frequency questionnaire were used. Body composition and adiposity indices were determined using standard anthropometric measurement protocols and dual energy χ-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Mean age of the participants was 15.3±1.9 years. The majority of participants (71.2% fell in the normal body mass index (BMI ranges. Breakfast consumption patterns showed that only half of the participants (50% were consuming breakfast daily. Gender-specific multivariate analyses (ANCOVA showed that in both boys and girls, those eating breakfast at least 5 times a week had significantly lower body weight, body mass index (BMI, BMI z-scores, waist circumference, body fat mass and percent body fat (%BF compared to infrequent breakfast eaters, after adjustment for age, household income, pubertal status, eating-out and snacking practices, daily energy intakes, and daily physical activity levels. The present findings indicate that infrequent breakfast consumption is associated with higher body adiposity and abdominal obesity. Therefore, daily breakfast consumption with healthy food choices should be encouraged in growing children and adolescents to prevent adiposity during these critical years of growth.

  1. Cortisol in human milk predicts child BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn-Holbrook, Jennifer; Le, Tran Bao; Chung, Anna; Davis, Elysia Poggi; Glynn, Laura M

    2016-12-01

    Breastfeeding has been linked to lower rates of childhood obesity. Human milk contains cortisol, known to regulate glucose storage and metabolism. The aim of this study was to to test the hypothesis that early exposure to cortisol in human breast milk helps to modulate infant body mass index (BMI) trajectories over the first 2 years of life. Growth curve modeling was used to examine whether infant exposure to cortisol in human milk at 3 months predicted changes in child body mass index percentile (BMIP) at 6, 12, and 24 months of age in 51 breastfeeding mother-child pairs. Infants exposed to higher milk cortisol levels at 3 months were less likely to exhibit BMIP gains over the first 2 years of life, compared with infants exposed to lower milk cortisol. By age 2, infants exposed to higher milk cortisol levels had lower BMIPs than infants exposed to lower milk cortisol. Milk cortisol was a stronger predictor of BMIP change in girls than boys. Cortisol exposure through human milk may help to program metabolic functioning and childhood obesity risk. Further, because infant formula contains only trace amounts of glucocorticoids, these findings suggest that cortisol in milk is a novel biological pathway through which breastfeeding may protect against later obesity. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  2. Prognostic relevance of Bmi-1 expression and autoantibodies in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Wan-li; Li, Man-zhi; Song, Li-bing; Zeng, Mu-sheng; Guo, Xian-zhi; Zhang, Lan-jun; Wang, Jun-ye; Zhang, Ge; Guan, Su; Chen, Yu-min; Kong, Qing-li; Xu, Li-hua

    2010-01-01

    Overexpression of Bmi-1 has been observed in a variety of cancers, and it has been suggested to be an independent prognostic marker for the patients. The objective of this study was to determine the level of Bmi-1 expression or its autoantibodies in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and to correlate it with clinicopathologic data. We first examined Bmi-1 expression in ESCC cell lines and tumor samples by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. We then analyzed Bmi-1 protein expression in 171 clinicopathologically characterized ESCC cases by immunohistochemistry. In addition, we detected its autoantibodies in sera of patients with ESCC by ELISA. We found that Bmi-1 expression was higher in the immortalized cells, cancer cell lines and most cancer tissue than in non-tumorous control tissue at both mRNA and protein level. In addition, Bmi-1 expression was observed in 64.3% (110 of 171) archive ESCC specimen by immunohistochemistry analysis, and the location of Bmi-1 in ESCC was in the nuclei instead of cytoplasm of tumor cells. There was a significant difference of Bmi-1 expression in patients categorized according to stage (P = 0.003) and pN classification (P = 0.047). Multivariate analysis suggested that Bmi-1 expression was an independent prognostic marker for ESCC patients. A prognostic significance of Bmi-1 was also found in the subgroup of T3~T4 and N1 tumor classification. Bmi-1 autoantibodies were detected in sera of 39.0% (62 of 159) ESCC patients. The correlations between anti-Bmi-1 antibodies and tumor stage (P = 0.040), or lymph node status (P < 0.001) were significant. Our results suggest that Bmi-1 protein is a valuable marker of ESCC progression. The presence of Bmi-1 autoantibodies in sera from patients with ESCC may have clinical utility in esophageal cancer diagnosis

  3. The Impact of Waiting List BMI Changes on the Short-term Outcomes of Lung Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jomphe, Valérie; Mailhot, Geneviève; Damphousse, Véronic; Tahir, Muhammad-Ramzan; Receveur, Olivier; Poirier, Charles; Ferraro, Pasquale

    2018-02-01

    Obesity and underweight are associated with a higher postlung transplantation (LTx) mortality. This study aims to assess the impact of the changes in body mass index (BMI) during the waiting period for LTx on early postoperative outcomes. Medical records of 502 consecutive cases of LTx performed at our institution between 1999 and 2015 were reviewed. Patients were stratified per change in BMI category between pre-LTx assessment (candidate BMI) and transplant BMI as follows: A-candidate BMI, less than 18.5 or 18.5 to 29.9 and transplant BMI, less than 18.5; B-candidate BMI, less than 18.5 and transplant BMI, 18.5 to 29.9; C-candidate BMI, 18.5 to 29.9 and transplant BMI, 18.5 to 29.9; D-candidate BMI, 30 or greater and transplant BMI, 18.5 to 29.9; and E-candidate BMI, 30 or greater or 18.5 to 29.9 and transplant BMI, 30 or greater. Our primary outcome was in-hospital mortality and secondary outcomes were length of mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit length of stay (LOS), hospital LOS and postoperative complications. BMI variation during the waiting time was common, as 1/3 of patients experienced a change in BMI category. Length of mechanical ventilation (21 days vs 9 days; P = 0.018), intensive care unit LOS (26 days vs 15 days; P = 0.035), and rates of surgical complications (76% vs 44%; P = 0.018) were significantly worse in patients of group E versus group D. Obese candidates who failed to decrease BMI less than 30 by transplant exhibited an increased risk of postoperative mortality (odds ratio, 2.62; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-6.48) compared with patients in group C. Pre-LTx BMI evolution had no impact on postoperative morbidity and mortality in underweight patients. Our results suggest that obese candidates with an unfavorable pretransplant BMI evolution are at greater risk of worse post-LTx outcomes.

  4. Behavioural patterns only predict concurrent BMI status and not BMI trajectories in a sample of youth in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laxer, Rachel E; Cooke, Martin; Dubin, Joel A; Brownson, Ross C; Chaurasia, Ashok; Leatherdale, Scott T

    2018-01-01

    Youth are engaging in multiple risky behaviours, increasing their risk of overweight, obesity, and related chronic diseases. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of engaging in unique clusters of unhealthy behaviours on youths' body mass index (BMI) trajectories. This study used a linked-longitudinal sample of Grades 9 and 10 students (13 to 17 years of age) participating in the COMPASS host study. Students reported obesity-related and other risky behaviours at baseline and height and weight (to derive BMI) at baseline (2012/2013) and annually for 2 years post-baseline (2013/14 and 2014/15). Students were grouped into behavioural clusters based on response probabilities. Linear mixed effects models, using BMI as a continuous outcome measure, were used to examine the effect of engaging in clusters of risky behaviours on BMI trajectories. There were significant differences in BMI of the four behavioural clusters at baseline that remained consistent over time. Higher BMI values were found among youth classified at baseline to be Typical High School Athletes (β = 0.232 kg/m2, [confidence interval (CI): 0.03-0.50]), Inactive High Screen-User (β = 0.348 kg/m2, CI: 0.11-0.59) and Moderately Active Substance Users (β = 0.759 kg/m2, CI: 0.36-1.15) compared to students classified as Health Conscious. Despite these baseline differences, BMI appeared to increase across all behavioural clusters annually by the same amount (β = 0.6097 kg/m2, (CI) = 0.57-0.64). Although annual increases in BMI did not differ by behavioural clusters, membership in a particular behavioural cluster was associated with baseline BMI, and these differences remained consistent over time. Results indicate that intervening and modifying unhealthy behaviours earlier might have a greater impact than during adolescence. Health promotion strategies targeting the highest risk youth as they enter secondary school might be promising means to prevent or delay the onset of obesity.

  5. The Predictive Factors for Diabetic Remission in Chinese Patients with BMI > 30 kg/m2 and BMI < 30 kg/m2 Are Different.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hui; Cao, Qing; Liu, Huan; Guan, Wei; Wong, Claudia; Tong, Daniel

    2018-01-15

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass has been proven to be beneficial for patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In less-obese patient (BMI 30-35 kg/m 2 ), surgical treatment is indicated when medication fails to control the T2DM. Asian develops diabetes at a lower BMI. For lower-BMI patients, the rate of diabetes amelioration varies significantly with patients of higher BMI after surgical treatment. The factors that contribute to the post-operative diabetes response rate in lower-BMI patients have not been elucidated. Between 2010 and 2014, a total of 144 patients who underwent gastric bypass for the treatment of T2DM were included for study. Patients were divided into two groups for subgroup analysis, namely BMI > 30 kg/m 2 and BMI BMI group (BMI > 30 kg/m 2 ) was 80% (n = 90) whereas for the lower BMI (BMI BMI group, low HbA1c and high fasting C-peptide are predictive factors whereas for lower-BMI group, along with elevated C-peptide level, disease duration is the positive predictive factor for DM remission. Patients with BMI > 30 kg/m 2 and those with BMI BMI patients while duration of diabetes is for high-low-BMI patients. C-peptide is a predictor of remission in both groups. Further large-scale studies are required to define the predictors of diabetes remission after gastric bypass in low- and high-BMI patients.

  6. Neurodevelopmental problems and extremes in BMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nóra Kerekes

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Over the last few decades, an increasing number of studies have suggested a connection between neurodevelopmental problems (NDPs and body mass index (BMI. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and autism spectrum disorders (ASD both seem to carry an increased risk for developing extreme BMI. However, the results are inconsistent, and there have been only a few studies of the general population of children.Aims. We had three aims with the present study: (1 to define the prevalence of extreme (low or high BMI in the group of children with ADHD and/or ASDs compared to the group of children without these NDPs; (2 to analyze whether extreme BMI is associated with the subdomains within the diagnostic categories of ADHD or ASD; and (3 to investigate the contribution of genetic and environmental factors to BMI in boys and girls at ages 9 and 12.Method. Parents of 9- or 12-year-old twins (n = 12,496 were interviewed using the Autism—Tics, ADHD and other Comorbidities (A-TAC inventory as part of the Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS. Univariate and multivariate generalized estimated equation models were used to analyze associations between extremes in BMI and NDPs.Results. ADHD screen-positive cases followed BMI distributions similar to those of children without ADHD or ASD. Significant association was found between ADHD and BMI only among 12-year-old girls, where the inattention subdomain of ADHD was significantly associated with the high extreme BMI. ASD scores were associated with both the low and the high extremes of BMI. Compared to children without ADHD or ASD, the prevalence of ASD screen-positive cases was three times greater in the high extreme BMI group and double as much in the low extreme BMI group. Stereotyped and repetitive behaviors were significantly associated with high extreme BMIs.Conclusion. Children with ASD, with or without coexisting ADHD, are more prone to have low or high extreme BMIs than

  7. Vapreotide: BMY 41606, RC 160, Sanvar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Vapreotide [Octastatin, Sanvar, RC 160, BMY 41606] is a somatostatin analogue developed at Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, USA, which holds patent rights for vapreotide. Vapreotide provides a much higher metabolic stability than its parent compound. Vapreotide was licensed to Debiopharm for development in Europe. Vapreotide is usually administered SC although a slow-release IM formulation is also available. Other sustained-release formulations are under development. H3 Pharma plans to sign agreements for all indications in the core markets of North America, Europe and in non-core geographic regions during 2003. H3 Pharma will also seek to obtain registration and early market entry in non-core countries with help from partners. Sanvar Immediate Release (IR) has been submitted for approval within the European Union for the treatment of acute oesophageal variceal bleeding (EVB). Sanvar IR has been awarded orphan drug status in the US for EVB. In July 2003, H3 Pharma received written confirmation from the US FDA that the dossier for Sanvar is fileable for registration in the United States for the treatment of esophageal variceal bleeding (EVB). The Sanvar IR (immediate-release) formulation is expected to enter the US market by late 2004. H3 Pharma expects to file for Latin American registration for this indication in the second half of 2003, with registrations in other regions to follow. Sanvar SR has been submitted for Orphan Drug designation.

  8. Body size estimation of self and others in females varying in BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, Anne; Geuss, Michael N; Mölbert, Simone C; Giel, Katrin E; Streuber, Stephan; Romero, Javier; Black, Michael J; Mohler, Betty J

    2018-01-01

    Previous literature suggests that a disturbed ability to accurately identify own body size may contribute to overweight. Here, we investigated the influence of personal body size, indexed by body mass index (BMI), on body size estimation in a non-clinical population of females varying in BMI. We attempted to disentangle general biases in body size estimates and attitudinal influences by manipulating whether participants believed the body stimuli (personalized avatars with realistic weight variations) represented their own body or that of another person. Our results show that the accuracy of own body size estimation is predicted by personal BMI, such that participants with lower BMI underestimated their body size and participants with higher BMI overestimated their body size. Further, participants with higher BMI were less likely to notice the same percentage of weight gain than participants with lower BMI. Importantly, these results were only apparent when participants were judging a virtual body that was their own identity (Experiment 1), but not when they estimated the size of a body with another identity and the same underlying body shape (Experiment 2a). The different influences of BMI on accuracy of body size estimation and sensitivity to weight change for self and other identity suggests that effects of BMI on visual body size estimation are self-specific and not generalizable to other bodies.

  9. Body size estimation of self and others in females varying in BMI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Thaler

    Full Text Available Previous literature suggests that a disturbed ability to accurately identify own body size may contribute to overweight. Here, we investigated the influence of personal body size, indexed by body mass index (BMI, on body size estimation in a non-clinical population of females varying in BMI. We attempted to disentangle general biases in body size estimates and attitudinal influences by manipulating whether participants believed the body stimuli (personalized avatars with realistic weight variations represented their own body or that of another person. Our results show that the accuracy of own body size estimation is predicted by personal BMI, such that participants with lower BMI underestimated their body size and participants with higher BMI overestimated their body size. Further, participants with higher BMI were less likely to notice the same percentage of weight gain than participants with lower BMI. Importantly, these results were only apparent when participants were judging a virtual body that was their own identity (Experiment 1, but not when they estimated the size of a body with another identity and the same underlying body shape (Experiment 2a. The different influences of BMI on accuracy of body size estimation and sensitivity to weight change for self and other identity suggests that effects of BMI on visual body size estimation are self-specific and not generalizable to other bodies.

  10. Raised BMI cut-off for overweight in Greenland Inuit--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Stig; Fleischer Rex, Karsten; Noahsen, Paneeraq; Sørensen, Hans Christian Florian; Mulvad, Gert; Laurberg, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is associated with increased morbidity and premature death. Obesity rates have increased worldwide and the WHO recommends monitoring. A steep rise in body mass index (BMI), a measure of adiposity, was detected in Greenland from 1963 to 1998. Interestingly, the BMI starting point was in the overweight range. This is not conceivable in a disease-free, physically active, pre-western hunter population. This led us to reconsider the cut-off point for overweight among Inuit in Greenland. We found 3 different approaches to defining the cut-off point of high BMI in Inuit. First, the contribution to the height by the torso compared to the legs is relatively high. This causes relatively more kilograms per centimetre of height that increases the BMI by approximately 10% compared to Caucasian whites. Second, defining the cut-off by the upper 90-percentile of BMI from height and weight in healthy young Inuit surveyed in 1963 estimated the cut-off point to be around 10% higher compared to Caucasians. Third, if similar LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides are assumed for a certain BMI in Caucasians, the corresponding BMI in Inuit in both Greenland and Canada is around 10% higher. However, genetic admixture of Greenland Inuit and Caucasian Danes will influence this difference and hamper a clear distinction with time. Defining overweight according to the WHO cut-off of a BMI above 25 kg/m(2) in Greenland Inuit may overestimate the number of individuals with elevated BMI.

  11. Long-term changes in childhood malnutrition are associated with long-term changes in maternal BMI: evidence from Bangladesh, 1996-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Md Tanvir; Soares Magalhães, Ricardo J; Williams, Gail M; Mamun, Abdullah A

    2016-10-01

    Nutritional transition (from under- to overnutrition) among women of reproductive age (15-49 y) is becoming increasingly common in many developing countries, including Bangladesh. However, the influence of this transition on the nutritional status of children malnutrition in U5s has changed over time. We analyzed data assembled from 5 Demographic and Health Surveys conducted between 1996 and 2011 in Bangladesh to describe the nutritional status of 28,941 U5s and their mothers. A Poisson regression model was used to examine the associations between maternal BMI and stunting, underweight, and wasting in U5s over time. A nutritional transition among mothers of U5s was observed between 1996 and 2011. The height- or length-for-age and weight-for-age z score distributions of U5s showed consistent improvement; however, there was no indication of a nutritional transition. An interaction was found between maternal BMI categorized as underweight [BMI (kg/m 2 ) malnutrition in children. A nutritional transition among U5s has yet to occur in Bangladesh. However, our results indicate that improvement in maternal BMI in the past 15 y was accompanied by a reduction in malnutrition in U5s. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  12. Body mass index (BMI) in the Saudi population of Gassim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyannwo, M A; Kurashi, N Y; Gadallah, M; Hams, J; el-Essawi, O; Khan, N A; Singh, R G; Alamri, A; Beyari, T H

    1998-01-01

    In a total cross-sectional population survey of the Faizia East Primary Health District of Buraidah, Gassim region of Saudi Arabia, 6,044 (2727 male and 3317 females) subjects out of a de facto population of 7695 got their BMI computed because infants and restless or bedridden subjects could not be examined. Mean (+/- SD) and percentiles (25th & 75th) were calculated in the conventional 5-year age cohorts as well as in functional age groups, namely, 0-5, 6-12, 13-49, 50-69 and 70+ years. 5th, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th and 95th percentiles were computed only for the functional age groups. In general, the trend was for BMI to increase with age in both genders but the curve pattern showed some plateauing from about the age of 50 with slight decline in later life. Females had significantly higher indices than males, this becoming quite prominent from the 10-14 year age cohort. This difference persisted irrespective of the types of age grouping or residential location. Overall means (+/- SD) were 20.14 +/- 5.98 vs 22.22 +/- 7.21 for males and females respectively; df: 5771; p = 0.0000; 95% CI: -2.43, -1.735. Subjects in the urban living environment had significant higher indices than their rural counterpart: (21.666.92 vs 20.446.33: df: 5771; P = 0.0000; 95% CI: 1.595, -0.840). From the age of 15 about one quarter of females are overweight (BMI at the 75th percentile > 25) and from 30 years the same proportion are frankly obese (BMI > 30). Both systolic and diastolic blood pressure were significantly positively correlated with BMI in both genders: male SBP: r = 0.22, P r = 0.21, P r = 0.18, P < 0.00001.

  13. Longitudinal association between marital disruption and child BMI and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkes, Jeremy

    2012-08-01

    This research examines whether family disruptions (i.e., divorces and separation) contribute to children's weight problems. The sample consists of 7,299 observations for 2,333 children, aged 5-14, over the 1986-2006 period, from a US representative sample from the Child and Young Adult Survey accompanying the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). The study uses individual-fixed-effects models in a longitudinal framework to compare children's BMI and weight problems before and after a disruption. Furthermore, besides doing a before-after comparison for children, the study also estimates the effects at various periods relative to the disruption in order to examine whether children are affected before the disruption and whether any effects change as time passes from the disruption, as some effects may be temporary or slow to develop. Despite having a larger sample than the previous studies, the results provide no evidence that, on average, children's BMI and BMI percentile scores (measured with continuous outcomes) are affected before the disruption, after the disruption, and as time passes from the disruption, relative to a baseline period a few years before the disruption. However, children experiencing a family disruption do have an increased risk of obesity (having a BMI percentile score of 95 or higher) in the two years leading up to the disruption as well as after the disruption, and as time passes from the disruption.

  14. Comparison of BMI and physical activity between old order Amish children and non-Amish children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hairston, Kristen G; Ducharme, Julie L; Treuth, Margarita S; Hsueh, Wen-Chi; Jastreboff, Ania M; Ryan, Kathy A; Shi, Xiaolian; Mitchell, Braxton D; Shuldiner, Alan R; Snitker, Soren

    2013-04-01

    The Old Order Amish (OOA) is a conservative Christian sect of European origin living in Pennsylvania. Diabetes is rare in adult OOA despite a mean BMI rivaling that in the general U.S. non-Hispanic white population. The current study examines childhood factors that may contribute to the low prevalence of diabetes in the OOA by comparing OOA children aged 8-19 years with National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data and children from Maryland's Eastern Shore (ES), a nearby, non-Amish, rural community. We hypothesized that pediatric overweight is less common in OOA children, that physical activity (PA) and BMI are inversely correlated, and that OOA children are more physically active than ES children. We obtained anthropometric data in 270 OOA children and 229 ES children (166 non-Hispanic white, 60 non-Hispanic black, 3 Hispanic). PA was measured by hip-worn accelerometers in all ES children and in 198 OOA children. Instrumentation in 43 OOA children was identical to ES children. OOA children were approximately 3.3 times less likely than non-Hispanic white ES children and NHANES estimates to be overweight (BMI ≥85th percentile, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). Time spent in moderate/vigorous PA (MVPA) was inversely correlated to BMI z-score (r = -0.24, P = 0.0006). PA levels did not differ by ethnicity within the ES group, but OOA children spent an additional 34 min/day in light activity (442 ± 56 vs. 408 ± 75, P = 0.005) and, impressively, an additional 53 min/day in MVPA (106 ± 54 vs. 53 ± 32, P < 0.0001) compared with ES children. In both groups, boys were more active than girls but OOA girls were easily more active than ES boys. We confirmed all three hypotheses. Together with our previous data, the study implies that the OOA tend to gain their excess weight relatively late in life and that OOA children are very physically active, both of which may provide some long-term protection against diabetes.

  15. Body Mass Index (BMI) Trajectories in Infancy Differ by Population Ancestry and May Presage Disparities in Early Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sani M.; Chesi, Alessandra; Mentch, Frank; Xiao, Rui; Chiavacci, Rosetta; Mitchell, Jonathan A.; Kelly, Andrea; Hakonarson, Hakon; Grant, Struan F.A.; Zemel, Babette S.

    2015-01-01

    Context: No consensus definition exists for excess adiposity during infancy. After age 2 years, high body mass index (BMI) is related to adverse cardiometabolic outcomes. Before age 2 years, the utility of BMI as a metric of excess adiposity is unknown. Objectives: The objective of the study was to characterize infant BMI trajectories in a diverse, longitudinal cohort and investigate the relationship between the infancy BMI trajectory and childhood obesity. Subjects: Healthy, nonpreterm infants (n = 2114) in the Genetic Causes for Complex Pediatric Disorders study (The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia) with six or more BMI measurements in the first 13.5 months participated in the study. Design: For each infant, the BMI trajectory was modeled using polynomial regression. Independent effects of clinical factors on magnitude and timing of peak BMI were assessed. The relationship between infancy BMI and early childhood BMI (age 4 y) was examined (n = 1075). Results: The cohort was 53% male and 61% African-American. Peak BMI was 18.6 ± 1.7 kg/m2 and occurred at 8.6 ± 1.4 months. In multivariate analysis, boys had a higher (0.50 kg/m2, P BMI than girls. The peak was higher (0.53 kg/m2, P ≤ .001) and occurred earlier (by 12 d, P BMI. Conclusions: We demonstrate sex- and ancestry-specific differences in infancy BMI and an association of infancy peak BMI with childhood BMI. These findings support the potential utility of infancy BMI to identify children younger than age 2 years with increased risk for later obesity. PMID:25636051

  16. Trends in the Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity among Chinese Preschool Children from 2006 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yanyu; Qiao, Yijuan; Pan, Lei; Liu, Jin; Zhang, Tao; Li, Nan; Liu, Enqing; Wang, Yue; Liu, Hongyan; Liu, Gongshu; Huang, Guowei; Hu, Gang

    2015-01-01

    To examine the trends in the prevalence of overweight and obesity among preschool children from 2006 to 2014. A total of 145,078 children aged 3-6 years from 46 kindergartens finished the annual health examination in Tianjin, China. Height, weight and other information were obtained using standardized methods. Z-scores for weight, height, and BMI were calculated based on the standards for the World Health Organization (WHO) child growth standards. From 2006 to 2014, mean values of height z-scores significantly increased from 0.34 to 0.54, mean values of weight z-scores kept constant, and mean values of BMI z-scores significantly decreased from 0.40 to 0.23. Mean values of height z-scores, weight z-scores, and BMI z-scores slightly decreased among children from 3 to 4 years old, and then increased among children from 4 to 6 years old. Between 2006 and 2014, there were no significant changes in prevalence of overweight (BMI z-scores >2 SD) and obesity (BMI z-scores >3 SD) among 3-4 years children. However, prevalence of obesity (BMI z-scores >2 SD) increased from 8.8% in 2006 to 10.1% in 2010, and then kept stable until 2014 among 5-6 years children. Boys had higher prevalence of obesity than girls. Mean values of BMI z-scores decreased from 2006 to 2014 among Chinese children aged 3-6 years old due to the significant increase of height z-scores. Prevalence of obesity increased from 2006 to 2010, and then kept stable until 2014 among children aged 5-6 years. The prevalence of obesity was higher in boys than in girls.

  17. Does more education cause lower BMI, or do lower-BMI individuals become more educated? Evidence from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Rebecca; von Hippel, Paul T; Lynch, Jamie L

    2017-03-21

    More educated adults have lower average body mass index (BMI). This may be due to selection, if adolescents with lower BMI attain higher levels of education, or it may be due to causation, if higher educational attainment reduces BMI gain in adulthood. We test for selection and causation in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, which has followed a representative US cohort from age 14-22 in 1979 through age 47-55 in 2012. Using ordinal logistic regression, we test the selection hypothesis that overweight and obese adolescents were less likely to earn high school diplomas and bachelor's degrees. Then, controlling for selection with individual fixed effects, we estimate the causal effect of degree completion on BMI and obesity status. Among 18-year-old women, but not among men, being overweight or obese predicts lower odds of attaining higher levels of education. At age 47-48, higher education is associated with lower BMI, but 70-90% of the association is due to selection. Net of selection, a bachelor's degree predicts less than a 1 kg reduction in body weight, and a high school credential does not reduce BMI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Correlation between BMI and motor coordination in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Vítor P; Stodden, David F; Bianchi, Mafalda M; Maia, Jose A R; Rodrigues, Luis P

    2012-01-01

    To analyze the association between motor coordination (MC) and body mass index (BMI) across childhood and early adolescence. This study is cross-sectional. Data were collected in 7175 children (boys n=3616, girls n=3559), ages 6-14 years. BMI was calculated from measured height and weight [body mass (kg)/height (m(2))]. Motor coordination was evaluated using Kiphard-Schilling's body coordination test (KTK). Spearman's rank correlation was used to study the association between BMI and MC. A Kruskal-Wallis test was used to analyze the differences in MC between children of normal weight, overweight and obese children. Correlations between MC and BMI were negative and varied between 0.05 and 0.49. The highest negative correlations for both boys and girls was at 11 years of age. There was a general pattern of increasing negative correlations in both genders from 6 to 11 years of age and then a decrease in correlation strengths through 14 years of age. In both boys (χ(2)((2))=324.01; p<0.001) and girls (χ(2)((2))=291.20; p<0.001) there were significant differences in MC between the three groups' weight status. Normal weight children of both sexes demonstrated significantly higher MC scores than overweight. Obese children in both sexes had the lowest MC scores among all three groups. Motor coordination demonstrated an inverse relationship with BMI across childhood and into early adolescence. The strength of the inverse relation increased during childhood, but decreased through early adolescence. Overweight and obese children of both sexes demonstrated significantly lower MC than normal weight children. Copyright © 2011 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Role of BMI1 in CRPC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    we discovered that BMI1 directly binds to Androgen Receptor and prevents it from MDM2-mediated protein degradation. We further demonstrated that...lysates. As shown in Fig. 1B, IP with anti-BMI1 pulled down full-length and AR-NTD, but not AR-DBD or AR-LBD. On the other hand , pulldown with Halo...harvested at the indicated time points and immunoblot analysis with anti-AR and anti-β-actin antibodies on the same membrane ( left panel). Density of

  20. Trajectories of BMI change impact glucose and insulin metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, E I; Shaw, J; Cherbuin, N

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine, in a community setting, whether trajectory of weight change over twelve years is associated with glucose and insulin metabolism at twelve years. Participants were 532 community-living middle-aged and elderly adults from the Personality and Total Health (PATH) Through Life study. They spanned the full weight range (underweight/normal/overweight/obese). Latent class analysis and multivariate generalised linear models were used to investigate the association of Body Mass Index (BMI, kg/m 2 ) trajectory over twelve years with plasma insulin (μlU/ml), plasma glucose (mmol/L), and HOMA2 insulin resistance and beta cell function at follow-up. All models were adjusted for age, gender, hypertension, pre-clinical diabetes status (normal fasting glucose or impaired fasting glucose) and physical activity. Four weight trajectories were extracted; constant normal (mean baseline BMI = 25; follow-up BMI = 25), constant high (mean baseline BMI = 36; follow-up BMI = 37), increase (mean baseline BMI = 26; follow-up BMI = 32) and decrease (mean baseline BMI = 34; follow-up BMI = 28). At any given current BMI, individuals in the constant high and increase trajectories had significantly higher plasma insulin, greater insulin resistance, and higher beta cell function than those in the constant normal trajectory. Individuals in the decrease trajectory did not differ from the constant normal trajectory. Current BMI significantly interacted with preceding BMI trajectory in its association with plasma insulin, insulin resistance, and beta cell function. The trajectory of preceding weight has an independent effect on blood glucose metabolism beyond body weight measured at any given point in time. Copyright © 2017 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier

  1. Bmi-1 confers adaptive radioresistance to KYSE-150R esophageal carcinoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Guanyu [Department of General Surgery, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China); Liu, Luying [Department of Radiotherapy, Zhejiang Cancer Hospital, Hangzhou (China); Sharma, Sherven [David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, and the Department of Veterans Affairs, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Liu, Hai; Yang, Weifang; Sun, Xiaonan [Department of Radiotherapy, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China); Dong, Qinghua, E-mail: dongqinghua@zju.edu.cn [Biomedical Research Center, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China)

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adaptive radioresistant KYSE-150R cells expressed high level of Bmi-1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bmi-1 depletion sensitized KYSE-150R cells to RT. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bmi-1 depletion increased the generation of ROS in KYSE-150R cells exposed to radiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bmi-1 depletion impaired DNA repair capacities in KYSE-150R cells exposed to radiation. -- Abstract: Radiotherapy (RT) is a major modality of cancer treatment. However, tumors often acquire radioresistance, which causes RT to fail. The exact mechanisms by which tumor cells subjected to fractionated irradiation (FIR) develop an adaptive radioresistance are largely unknown. Using the radioresistant KYSE-150R esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) model, which was derived from KYSE-150 parental cells using FIR, the role of Bmi-1 in mediating the radioadaptive response of ESCC cells to RT was investigated. The results showed that the level of Bmi-1 expression was significantly higher in KYSE-150R cells than in the KYSE-150 parental cells. Bmi-1 depletion sensitized the KYSE-150R cells to RT mainly through the induction of apoptosis, partly through the induction of senescence. A clonogenic cell survival assay showed that Bmi-1 depletion significantly decreased the radiation survival fraction in KYSE-150R cells. Furthermore, Bmi-1 depletion increased the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the expression of oxidase genes (Lpo, Noxo1 and Alox15) in KYSE-150R cells exposed to irradiation. DNA repair capacities assessed by {gamma}-H2AX foci formation were also impaired in the Bmi-1 down-regulated KYSE-150R cells. These results suggest that Bmi-1 plays an important role in tumor radioadaptive resistance under FIR and may be a potent molecular target for enhancing the efficacy of fractionated RT.

  2. Maternal Pre-pregnancy BMI and Reproductive Health of Daughters in Young Adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mariansdatter, Saga Elise; Ernst, Andreas; Toft, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the possible associations between maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and daughters' age of menarche and subsequent markers of reproductive health. Methods Nine hundred eighty-five pregnant women (80 %) were enrolled at their routine 30th week examinations in 1988...... dehydroepiandrosterone-sulphate (DHEAS), estradiol, and free estrogen index (FEI), compared to the middle BMI tertile. This was supported by a sub-analysis using the WHO classification (underweight, BMI obese, BMI ≥ 25.00 kg/m2) as exposure groups, in which daughters...... of overweight mothers had lower levels of DHEAS and estradiol, and lower FEI compared to daughters of normal weight mothers. No associations were found for ovarian follicle count in any of the groups. Conclusions for Practice We found that higher maternal BMI is associated with earlier age of menarche...

  3. Are associations between electronic media use and BMI different across levels of physical activity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melkevik, Ole; Haug, Ellen; Rasmussen, Mette

    2015-01-01

    and girls who did not comply with physical activity guidelines. Among physically active adolescents, EM was found to be significantly associated with BMI or odds for overweight among girls, but not among boys. CONCLUSION: While the usage of EM appear to be inconsequential for BMI and the risk of overweight...... among physically active boys, we find evidence indicating that EM use is associated with BMI and risk for overweight among girls, including those who report complying with MVPA guidelines.......BACKGROUND: The use of electronic media has been found to be a risk factor for higher BMI and for being overweight. Physical activity has been found to be associated with lower BMI and lower risk for being overweight. Little is known about whether the associations between physical activity...

  4. Sickness Presenteeism Among Health Care Workers and the Effect of BMI, Cardiorespiratory Fitness, and Muscle Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Jeanette Reffstrup; Kongstad, Malte Bue; Sjøgaard, Gisela; Søgaard, Karen

    2015-12-01

    The primary objective of this study was to assess the relationship between sickness presenteeism and body mass index (BMI), cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), and maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). Female health care workers (n = 139) were analyzed cross-sectional as well as longitudinal after 3 and 12-month follow-up. Sickness presenteeism was assessed as a summed score using validated questions from three questionnaires: Health and Work Performance Questionnaire, Work Ability Index, and Quantity and Quality Method. CRF was assessed by a maximal cycling test and MVC from four muscle groups. Significant relationships were found between sickness presenteeism and BMI as well as MVC both cross-sectional and as changes over 3 months. Participants with BMI more than 30  kg/m had significantly higher sickness presenteeism than those with BMI less than 25  kg/m. This study suggests that actions that decrease BMI and increase MVC decrease the amount of sickness presenteeism.

  5. Adult BMI and Access to Built Environment Resources in a High-Poverty, Urban Geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Elizabeth L; Peek, Monica E; Makelarski, Jennifer A; Escamilla, Veronica; Lindau, Stacy T

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between BMI and access to built environment resources in a high-poverty, urban geography. Participants (aged ≥35 years) were surveyed between November 2012 and July 2013 to examine access to common health-enabling resources (grocers, outpatient providers, pharmacies, places of worship, and physical activity resources). Survey data were linked to a contemporaneous census of built resources. Associations between BMI and access to resources (potential and realized) were examined using independent t-tests and multiple linear regression. Data analysis was conducted in 2014-2015. Median age was 53.8 years (N=267, 62% cooperation rate). Obesity (BMI ≥30) prevalence was 54.9%. BMI was not associated with potential access to resources located nearest to home. Nearly all participants (98.1%) bypassed at least one nearby resource type; half bypassed nearby grocers (realized access >1 mile from home). Bypassing grocers was associated with a higher BMI (p=0.03). Each additional mile traveled from home to a grocer was associated with a 0.9-higher BMI (95% CI=0.4, 1.3). Quality and affordability were common reasons for bypassing resources. Despite potential access to grocers in a high-poverty, urban region, half of participants bypassed nearby grocers to access food. Bypassing grocers was associated with a higher BMI. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Genetic Influences on Growth Traits of BMI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelmborg, Jacob V B; Fagnani, Corrado; Silventoinen, Karri

    2008-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the interplay between genetic factors influencing baseline level and changes in BMI in adulthood.Methods and Procedures:A longitudinal twin study of the cohort of Finnish twins (N = 10,556 twin individuals) aged 20-46 years at baseline was conducted and followed up 15 years....... Data on weight and height were obtained from mailed surveys in 1975, 1981, and 1990.Results:Latent growth models revealed a substantial genetic influence on BMI level at baseline in males and females (heritability (h(2)) 80% (95% confidence interval 0.79-0.80) for males and h(2) = 82% (0.81, 0.......84) for females) and a moderate-to-high influence on rate of change in BMI (h(2) = 58% (0.50, 0.69) for males and h(2) = 64% (0.58, 0.69) for females). Only very weak evidence for genetic pleiotropy was observed; the genetic correlation between baseline and rate of change in BMI was very modest (-0.070 (-0.13, -0...

  7. A comparison of chewing rate between overweight and normal BMI individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Amy Kristin; Venn, Bernard; Lu, Louise Weiwei; Rush, Elaine; Gallo, Luigi Maria; Yong, Janet Lee Ching; Farella, Mauro

    2015-06-01

    Previous attempts to identify an 'obese eating style' have led to conflicting findings. This observational study compared the chewing features of overweight or obese young adults with those of normal range BMI. We hypothesised that chewing features are individual-specific and differ between participants of a normal BMI and high BMI. Fourteen overweight to obese participants (BMI≥25.0) were pairwise matched with 14 normal range BMI participants (18.5chewing episodes, including rate, duration, and power. Masticatory performance was assessed by a sieve test and was expressed as the percentage of particles ≤2mm after a standardised chewing test. Regardless of the meal, chewing rate was remarkably consistent among participants (ICC=0.89; 95% CI=0.79-0.94). Chewing rate did not differ between high and normal BMI participants (p>0.05), whereas chewing power was significantly higher in high BMI participants (pchewing characteristics were found between BMI groups. Participants chewed at similar rate in the natural environment (pizza) and in the laboratory (rice) setting (p>0.05). Masticatory performance did not differ significantly (p>0.05) between the high (55.9%) and normal (52.4%) BMI groups. Within the limitations of the present study, chewing characteristics appear to be individual-specific with wide variability. Overweight participants chew at a similar rate to control participants, albeit slightly stronger. Our preliminary findings need to be replicated in larger samples. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. The relation between anxiety and BMI - is it all in our curves?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghighi, Mohammad; Jahangard, Leila; Ahmadpanah, Mohammad; Bajoghli, Hafez; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2016-01-30

    The relation between anxiety and excessive weight is unclear. The aims of the present study were three-fold: First, we examined the association between anxiety and Body Mass Index (BMI). Second, we examined this association separately for female and male participants. Next, we examined both linear and non-linear associations between anxiety and BMI. The BMI was assessed of 92 patients (mean age: M=27.52; 57% females) suffering from anxiety disorders. Patients completed the Beck Anxiety Inventory. Both linear and non-linear correlations were computed for the sample as a whole and separately by gender. No gender differences were observed in anxiety scores or BMI. No linear correlation between anxiety scores and BMI was observed. In contrast, a non-linear correlation showed an inverted U-shaped association, with lower anxiety scores both for lower and very high BMI indices, and higher anxiety scores for medium to high BMI indices. Separate computations revealed no differences between males and females. The pattern of results suggests that the association between BMI and anxiety is complex and more accurately captured with non-linear correlations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Representativeness and optimal use of body mass index (BMI) in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskaran, Krishnan; Forbes, Harriet J; Douglas, Ian; Leon, David A; Smeeth, Liam

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To assess the completeness and representativeness of body mass index (BMI) data in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD), and determine an optimal strategy for their use. Design Descriptive study. Setting Electronic healthcare records from primary care. Participants A million patient random sample from the UK CPRD primary care database, aged ≥16 years. Primary and secondary outcome measures BMI completeness in CPRD was evaluated by age, sex and calendar period. CPRD-based summary BMI statistics for each calendar year (2003–2010) were age-standardised and sex-standardised and compared with equivalent statistics from the Health Survey for England (HSE). Results BMI completeness increased over calendar time from 37% in 1990–1994 to 77% in 2005–2011, was higher among females and increased with age. When BMI at specific time points was assigned based on the most recent record, calendar–year-specific mean BMI statistics underestimated equivalent HSE statistics by 0.75–1.1 kg/m2. Restriction to those with a recent (≤3 years) BMI resulted in mean BMI estimates closer to HSE (≤0.28 kg/m2 underestimation), but excluded up to 47% of patients. An alternative strategy of imputing up-to-date BMI based on modelled changes in BMI over time since the last available record also led to mean BMI estimates that were close to HSE (≤0.37 kg/m2 underestimation). Conclusions Completeness of BMI in CPRD increased over time and varied by age and sex. At a given point in time, a large proportion of the most recent BMIs are unlikely to reflect current BMI; consequent BMI misclassification might be reduced by employing model-based imputation of current BMI. PMID:24038008

  10. Is the change in body mass index among children newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus associated with obesity at transition from pediatric to adult care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyanga, Taru; Sellers, Elizabeth Ac; Wicklow, Brandy A; Doupe, Malcolm; Fransoo, Randall

    2016-12-01

    Insulin therapy is lifesaving treatment for individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Its initiation maybe associated with significant weight gain because of change from a catabolic to an anabolic state. Excessive weight-gain increases the risk of obesity and is associated with chronic disease. To examine if change in body mass index (BMI) among children in the 6 months after diagnosis with type 1 diabetes mellitus is associated with long-term obesity. This was a population-based retrospective study of 377 children (aged 2-18 yr) with type 1 diabetes. Measured heights and weights were used to calculate BMI z-scores based on Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) cut-points. Generalized Linear Models using BMI group, and age group at diagnosis; postdiagnosis weight change; and sex were applied to assess associations between postdiagnosis weight change and BMI z-score at transition to adult care. Mean BMI z-score increased from 0.28 at diagnosis, to 0.53 at 6 months and 0.66 at transition to adult care. Change in BMI z-scores differed by initial BMI group and magnitude of postdiagnosis weight change. Younger children (11 yr) had higher (p = 0.004) BMI z-scores at diagnosis but not at last visit (p = 0.1) than older (≥11 yr) children at diagnosis. BMI z-score at diagnosis, postdiagnosis weight change, female sex, and longer duration with TID were associated with higher BMI z-score at time of transition. BMI z-score at diagnosis was the strongest predictor of BMI z-score at time of transition to adult care, however; its effect was mediated by magnitude of weight change 6 months after diagnosis, sex, and age group at diagnosis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The association between BMI and health-related quality of life in the US population: sex, age and ethnicity matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laxy, M; Teuner, C; Holle, R; Kurz, C

    2018-03-01

    Obesity is a major public health problem. Detailed knowledge about the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and health-related quality of life (HRQL) is important for deriving effective and cost-effective prevention and weight management strategies. This study aims to describe the sex-, age- and ethnicity-specific association between BMI and HRQL in the US adult population. Analyses are based on pooled cross-sectional data from 41 459 participants of the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) Household Component (HC) for the years 2000-2003. BMI was calculated using self-reported height and weight, and HRQL was assessed with the EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire. Generalized additive models were fitted with a smooth function for BMI and a smooth-factor interaction for BMI with sex adjusted for age, ethnicity, poverty, smoking and physical activity. Models were further stratified by age and ethnicity. The association between BMI and HRQL is inverse U-shaped with a HRQL high point at a BMI of 22 kg m -2 in women and a HRQL high plateau at BMI values of 22-30 kg m -2 in men. Men aged 50 years and older with a BMI of 29 kg m -2 reported on average five-point higher visual analog scale (VAS) scores than peers with a BMI of 20 kg m -2 . The inverse U-shaped association is more pronounced in older people, and the BMI-HRQL relationship differs between ethnicities. In Hispanics, the BMI associated with the highest HRQL is higher than in white people and, in black women, the BMI-HRQL association has an almost linear negative slope. The results show that a more differentiated use of BMI cutoffs in scientific discussions and daily practice is indicated. The findings should be considered in the design of future weight loss and weight management programs.

  12. Effect of body weight and BMI on the efficacy of levonorgestrel emergency contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapp, Nathalie; Abitbol, Jean Louis; Mathé, Henri; Scherrer, Bruno; Guillard, Hélène; Gainer, Erin; Ulmann, André

    2015-02-01

    To further evaluate the effect of weight and body mass index (BMI) on the efficacy of levonorgestrel emergency contraception. Data from two large, multicenter, randomized controlled trials designed to assess emergency contraceptive efficacy were pooled to evaluate the effect of weight and BMI on pregnancy rates among women who received levonorgestrel. Descriptive methods (comparison of means and distributions according to pregnancy status and pregnancy rates across weight and BMI categories) as well as cubic spline modeling were used to describe the relationship between pregnancy risk and weight/BMI. The analysis population comprised 1731 women, among whom 38 pregnancies were reported. Women for whom levonorgestrel was not effective in preventing pregnancy had a significantly higher mean body weight and BMI than women who did not become pregnant (76.7 vs. 66.4 kg, p85 kg groups, respectively. Statistical modeling demonstrated a steep increase in pregnancy risk starting from a weight near 70-75 kg to reach a risk of pregnancy of 6% or greater around 80 kg. Similar results were obtained for statistical modeling of BMI as well as when the two studies were analyzed individually. All analyses showed a significant drop in the efficacy of levonorgestrel emergency contraception with increasing body weight, with pregnancy risk in the higher weight categories similar to expected rates in the absence of contraception. Like body weight, increasing BMI was highly correlated with increased pregnancy risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Predictors of Success in Bariatric Surgery: the Role of BMI and Pre-operative Comorbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cruz, Magda Rosa Ramos; Branco-Filho, Alcides José; Zaparolli, Marília Rizzon; Wagner, Nathalia Farinha; de Paula Pinto, José Simão; Campos, Antônio Carlos Ligocki; Taconeli, Cesar Augusto

    2017-11-10

    This is a retrospective review of 204 patients who underwent bariatric surgery. The impact of weight regain (WR), pre-operative comorbidities and BMI values on the recurrence of comorbidities was evaluated, and an equation was elaborated to estimate BMI at 5 years of bariatric surgery. Pre-operative data, after 1 year and after 5 years, was collected from the medical records. Descriptive analyses and bivariate hypothesis tests were performed first, and then, a generalised linear regression model with Tweedie distribution was adjusted. The hit rate and the Kendall coefficient of concordance (Kendall's W) of the equation were calculated. At the end, the Mann-Whitney test was performed between the BMI, WR and the presence of comorbidities, after a post-operative period of 5 years. The adjustment of the model resulted in an equation that estimates the mean value of BMI 5 years after surgery. The hit rate was 82.35% and the value of Kendall's W was 0.85 for the equation. It was found that patients with comorbidities presented a higher median WR (10.13%) and a higher mean BMI (30.09 kg/m 2 ) 5 years after the surgery. It is concluded that the equation is useful for estimating the mean BMI at 5 years of surgery and that patients with low pre-operative HDL and folic acid levels, with depression and/or anxiety and a higher BMI, have a higher BMI at 5 years of surgery and higher incidence of comorbid return and dissatisfaction with post-operative results.

  14. BMI in relation to sperm count

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sermondade, N; Faure, C; Fezeu, L

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND The global obesity epidemic has paralleled a decrease in semen quality. Yet, the association between obesity and sperm parameters remains controversial. The purpose of this report was to update the evidence on the association between BMI and sperm count through a systematic review...... with meta-analysis. METHODS A systematic review of available literature (with no language restriction) was performed to investigate the impact of BMI on sperm count. Relevant studies published until June 2012 were identified from a Pubmed and EMBASE search. We also included unpublished data (n = 717 men...... studies were included in the meta-analysis, resulting in a sample of 13 077 men from the general population and attending fertility clinics. Data were stratified according to the total sperm count as normozoospermia, oligozoospermia and azoospermia. Standardized weighted mean differences in sperm...

  15. Sex differences in heritability of BMI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schousboe, Karoline; Willemsen, Gonneke; Kyvik, Kirsten O

    2003-01-01

    pairs (including opposite sex pairs) aged 20-29 and 30-39 from eight different twin registries participating in the GenomEUtwin project. Quantitative genetic analyses were conducted and sex differences were explored. Variation in BMI was greater for women than for men, and in both sexes was primarily...... explained by additive genetic variance in all countries. Sex differences in the variance components were consistently significant. Results from analyses of opposite sex pairs also showed evidence of sex-specific genetic effects suggesting there may be some differences between men and women in the genetic...... factors that influence variation in BMI. These results encourage the continued search for genes of importance to the body composition and the development of obesity. Furthermore, they suggest that strategies to identify predisposing genes may benefit from taking into account potential sex specific effects....

  16. Palo Verde Unit 3 BMI nozzle modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waskey, D.

    2015-01-01

    The 61 BMI (Bottom Mount Instrumentation) nozzles of the unit 3 of the Palo Verde plant have been examined through ASME Code Case N722. The nozzle 3 was the only one with leakage noted. The ultrasound testing results are characteristic of PWSCC (Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking). The initiation likely occurred at a weld defect which was exposed to the primary water environment resulting in PWSCC. All other nozzles (60) showed no unacceptable indications. Concerning nozzle 3 one crack in J-groove weld connected large defect to primary water. An environmental model has been used to simulate and optimize the repair. The AREVA crew was on site 18 days after contract award and the job was completed in 12 days, 30 hours ahead of baseline schedule. This series of slides describes the examination of the BMI nozzles, the repair steps, and alternative design concepts

  17. The associations of Bmi-1 with progression of glomerular chronic kidney disease
.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoxia; Bai, Ming; Ning, Xiaoxuan; Ma, Feng; Liu, Limin; Liu, Ting; Liu, Minna; Wang, Hanmin; Sun, Shiren

    2018-02-01

    Our previous studies indicated that Bmi-1 plays an important role in hypoxia-induced tubular epithelial-mesenchymal transition and the development of kidney fibrosis in cellular and animal models. However, circulating Bmi-1 levels in human chronic kidney disease (CKD) and their relation to progression remains unknown. We conducted a post-hoc analysis of a prospective cohort study. The blood samples and clinical data of 230 patients with glomerular CKD and 67 healthy adults were prospectively collected between January 2010 and June 2012. Serum Bmi-1 was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). CKD patients had significantly higher serum Bmi-1 concentrations than the healthy controls (496.4 (363.1 - 675.4) pg/mL compared with 257.3 (235.4 - 303.8) pg/mL, p Bmi-1 level inversely correlated with the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (r = -0.346, p Bmi-1 levels and serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, cystatin C concentration, and the severity of tubulointerstitial fibrosis (r = 0.248, p Bmi-1 level was associated with a shorter duration of renal survival. Cox multivariate analyses further demonstrated that serum Bmi-1 concentration was an independent prognostic factor for CKD patients (HR = 6.48, p Bmi-1 levels were associated with adverse kidney disease outcome, suggesting that Bmi-1 is a novel biomarker for glomerular CKD progression. More data from larger longitudinal studies are required to validate our findings.
.

  18. Bidirectional associations between mothers' and fathers' parenting consistency and child BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Pauline W; Giallo, Rebecca; Westrupp, Elizabeth M; Wake, Melissa; Nicholson, Jan M

    2013-12-01

    Research suggests that general parenting dimensions and styles are associated with children's BMI, but directionality in this relationship remains unknown. Moreover, there has been little attention to the influences of both mothers' and fathers' parenting. We aimed to examine reciprocal relationships between maternal and paternal parenting consistency and child BMI. Participants were 4002 children and their parents in the population-based Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. Mothers and fathers self-reported parenting consistency, and children's BMI was measured at 4 biennial waves starting at age 4 to 5 years in 2004. Bidirectionality between parenting and child BMI was examined by using regression analyses in cross-lagged models. The best-fitting models indicated a modest influence from parenting to child BMI, whereas no support was found for bidirectional influences. For mothers, higher levels of parenting consistency predicted lower BMI in children from Waves 1 to 2 and 3 to 4; for example, for every SD increase in mothers' parenting consistency at Wave 1, child BMIz fell by 0.025 in Wave 2 (95% confidence interval: -0.05 to -0.003). For fathers, higher levels of parenting consistency were associated with lower child BMI from Waves 1 to 2 and 2 to 3. Parenting inconsistency of mothers and fathers prospectively predicted small increases in offspring BMI over 2-year periods across middle childhood. However, child BMI did not appear to influence parenting behavior. These findings support recent calls for expanding childhood overweight interventions to address the broad parenting context while involving both mothers and fathers.

  19. Raised BMI cut-off for overweight in Greenland Inuit – a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Stig; Fleischer Rex, Karsten; Noahsen, Paneeraq; Sørensen, Hans Christian Florian; Mulvad, Gert; Laurberg, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity is associated with increased morbidity and premature death. Obesity rates have increased worldwide and the WHO recommends monitoring. A steep rise in body mass index (BMI), a measure of adiposity, was detected in Greenland from 1963 to 1998. Interestingly, the BMI starting point was in the overweight range. This is not conceivable in a disease-free, physically active, pre-western hunter population. Objective This led us to reconsider the cut-off point for overweight among Inuit in Greenland. Design and findings We found 3 different approaches to defining the cut-off point of high BMI in Inuit. First, the contribution to the height by the torso compared to the legs is relatively high. This causes relatively more kilograms per centimetre of height that increases the BMI by approximately 10% compared to Caucasian whites. Second, defining the cut-off by the upper 90-percentile of BMI from height and weight in healthy young Inuit surveyed in 1963 estimated the cut-off point to be around 10% higher compared to Caucasians. Third, if similar LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides are assumed for a certain BMI in Caucasians, the corresponding BMI in Inuit in both Greenland and Canada is around 10% higher. However, genetic admixture of Greenland Inuit and Caucasian Danes will influence this difference and hamper a clear distinction with time. Conclusion Defining overweight according to the WHO cut-off of a BMI above 25 kg/m2 in Greenland Inuit may overestimate the number of individuals with elevated BMI. PMID:23986904

  20. Raised BMI cut-off for overweight in Greenland Inuit – a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stig Andersen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Obesity is associated with increased morbidity and premature death. Obesity rates have increased worldwide and the WHO recommends monitoring. A steep rise in body mass index (BMI, a measure of adiposity, was detected in Greenland from 1963 to 1998. Interestingly, the BMI starting point was in the overweight range. This is not conceivable in a disease-free, physically active, pre-western hunter population. Objective. This led us to reconsider the cut-off point for overweight among Inuit in Greenland. Design and findings. We found 3 different approaches to defining the cut-off point of high BMI in Inuit. First, the contribution to the height by the torso compared to the legs is relatively high. This causes relatively more kilograms per centimetre of height that increases the BMI by approximately 10% compared to Caucasian whites. Second, defining the cut-off by the upper 90-percentile of BMI from height and weight in healthy young Inuit surveyed in 1963 estimated the cut-off point to be around 10% higher compared to Caucasians. Third, if similar LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides are assumed for a certain BMI in Caucasians, the corresponding BMI in Inuit in both Greenland and Canada is around 10% higher. However, genetic admixture of Greenland Inuit and Caucasian Danes will influence this difference and hamper a clear distinction with time. Conclusion. Defining overweight according to the WHO cut-off of a BMI above 25 kg/m2 in Greenland Inuit may overestimate the number of individuals with elevated BMI.

  1. Impact of baseline BMI and weight change in CCTG adjuvant breast cancer trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerushalmi, R; Dong, B; Chapman, J W; Goss, P E; Pollak, M N; Burnell, M J; Levine, M N; Bramwell, V H C; Pritchard, K I; Whelan, T J; Ingle, J N; Shepherd, L E; Parulekar, W R; Han, L; Ding, K; Gelmon, K A

    2017-07-01

    We hypothesized that increased baseline BMI and BMI change would negatively impact clinical outcomes with adjuvant breast cancer systemic therapy. Data from chemotherapy trials MA.5 and MA.21; endocrine therapy MA.12, MA.14 and MA.27; and trastuzumab HERA/MA.24 were analyzed. The primary objective was to examine the effect of BMI change on breast cancer-free interval (BCFI) landmarked at 5 years; secondary objectives included BMI changes at 1 and 3 years; BMI changes on disease-specific survival (DSS) and overall survival (OS); and effects of baseline BMI. Stratified analyses included trial therapy and composite trial stratification factors. In pre-/peri-/early post-menopausal chemotherapy trials (N = 2793), baseline BMI did not impact any endpoint and increased BMI from baseline did not significantly affect BCFI (P = 0.85) after 5 years although it was associated with worse BCFI (P = 0.03) and DSS (P = 0.07) after 1 year. BMI increase by 3 and 5 years was associated with better DSS (P = 0.01; 0.01) and OS (P = 0.003; 0.05). In pre-menopausal endocrine therapy trial MA.12 (N = 672), patients with higher baseline BMI had worse BCFI (P = 0.02) after 1 year, worse DSS (P = 0.05; 0.004) after 1 and 5 years and worse OS (P = 0.01) after 5 years. Increased BMI did not impact BCFI (P = 0.90) after 5 years, although it was associated with worse BCFI (P = 0.01) after 1 year. In post-menopausal endocrine therapy trials MA.14 and MA.27 (N = 8236), baseline BMI did not significantly impact outcome for any endpoint. BMI change did not impact BCFI or DSS after 1 or 3 years, although a mean increased BMI of 0.3 was associated with better OS (P = 0.02) after 1 year. With the administration of trastuzumab (N = 1395) baseline BMI and BMI change did not significantly impact outcomes. Higher baseline BMI and BMI increases negatively affected outcomes only in pre-/peri-/early post-menopausal trial patients. Otherwise, BMI

  2. Self-control mediates the relationship between time perspective and BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Menna; Higgs, Suzanne; Lee, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    Trait future time perspective measures the extent to which behaviour is dominated by a striving for future goals and rewards. Trait present time perspective measures orientation towards immediate pleasure. Previous research has explored the relationship between future and present time perspective and BMI with mixed findings. In addition, the psychological mechanism underlying this relationship is unclear. Self-control is a likely candidate, as it has been related to both BMI and time perspective, but the relationship between all of these concepts has not been examined in a single study. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine if trait self-control mediates the relationship between time perspective (future and present) and BMI. Self-report time perspective (ZTPI), self-control (SCS) and height/weight data were collected using an online survey from a mixed student and community sample (N = 218) with wide ranging age (mean 29, SD 11, range 18-73 years) and BMI (mean 24, SD 4, range 15-43). The results of a structural equation model including both facets of time perspective suggested that the traits are related yet distinct measures that independently predict BMI through changes in self-control. Bootstrap mediation analysis showed that self-control mediated the relationship between both future time perspective (95% CI, -0.10 to -0.02) and present time perspective (95% CI, 0.03 to 0.17), and BMI in opposite directions. Participants with higher future time perspective scores (higher present time perspective scores) had higher (lower) self-control, which predicted lower (higher) BMI. These results are consistent with previous research suggesting an important role for time perspective in health outcomes. Self-control likely mediates the relationship between temporal perspectives and BMI, suggesting that time perspective may be a target for individualised interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Physical Activity, BMI, and Blood Pressure in US Youth: NHANES 2003-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betz, Heather Hayes; Eisenmann, Joey C; Laurson, Kelly R; DuBose, Katrina D; Reeves, Mathew J; Carlson, Joseph J; Pfeiffer, Karin A

    2018-03-15

    The objective of this study was to examine the independent and combined association of physical activity and body mass index (BMI) with blood pressure in youth. Youth aged 8-18 years from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) with BMI, blood pressure, and physical activity (accelerometer) were included in the analyses. A total of 2585 subjects (1303 males; 47% of all 8- to 18-year-olds) met these criteria. Obese youth had a systolic blood pressure that was 8 mm Hg higher than normal weight youth. A significant interaction between BMI and physical activity on blood pressure was found (P < .001), and group differences among the BMI/activity groups showed that the 3 obese groups and the overweight/least active group had significantly higher systolic blood pressure than the normal weight/active group across all analyses. The overweight/least active and normal weight/least active groups had significantly higher diastolic blood pressure than the normal weight/active group as well. This study showed a significant independent and combined association of BMI and physical activity with blood pressure in youth. Interventions need to focus on the reduction of fatness/BMI as a way to reduce the cardiovascular risk in youth.

  4. Relation between BMI and diabetes mellitus and its complications among US older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Natallia; Picone, Gabriel; Sloan, Frank; Yashkin, Arseniy

    2015-01-01

    This study examined relations between elevated body mass index (BMI) and time to diagnosis with type 2 diabetes mellitus and its complications among older adults in the United States. Data came from the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey, 1991-2010. A Cox proportional hazard model was used to assess relations between excess BMI at the first Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey interview and time to diabetes mellitus diagnosis, complications, and insulin dependence among Medicare beneficiaries, older than 65 years of age with no prior diabetes mellitus diagnosis, and who were not enrolled in Medicare Advantage (N = 14,657). Among individuals diagnosed as having diabetes mellitus, elevated BMIs were associated with a progressively higher risk of complications from diabetes mellitus. For women with a BMI ≥40, the risk of insulin dependence (hazard ratio [HR] 3.57; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.36-5.39) was twice that for women with 25 ≤ BMI diabetes mellitus. For men, the increased risk of these complications occurred at higher BMI levels than in women. Ocular complications occurred at higher BMI levels than other complication types in both men and women.

  5. Attenuated associations between increasing BMI and unfavorable lipid profiles in Chinese Buddhist vegetarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui-Jie; Han, Peng; Sun, Su-Yun; Wang, Li-Ying; Yan, Bing; Zhang, Jin-Hua; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Shu-Yu; Li, Xue-Jun

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is related to hyperlipidemia and risk of cardiovascular disease. Health benefits of vegetarian diets have well-documented in the Western countries where both obesity and hyperlipidemia were prevalent. We studied the association between BMI and various lipid/lipoprotein measures, as well as between BMI and predicted coronary heart disease probability in lean, low risk populations in Southern China. The study included 170 Buddhist monks (vegetarians) and 126 omnivore men. Interaction between BMI and vegetarian status was tested in the multivariable regression analysis adjusting for age, education, smoking, alcohol drinking, and physical activity. Compared with omnivores, vegetarians had significantly lower mean BMI, blood pressures, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol to high density lipoprotein ratio, triglycerides, apolipoprotein B and A-I, as well as lower predicted probability of coronary heart disease. Higher BMI was associated with unfavorable lipid/lipoprotein profile and predicted probability of coronary heart disease in both vegetarians and omnivores. However, the associations were significantly diminished in Buddhist vegetarians. Vegetarian diets not only lower BMI, but also attenuate the BMI-related increases of atherogenic lipid/ lipoprotein and the probability of coronary heart disease.

  6. Effects of BMI, Fat Mass, and Lean Mass on Asthma in Childhood: A Mendelian Randomization Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granell, Raquel; Henderson, A. John; Evans, David M.; Smith, George Davey; Ness, Andrew R.; Lewis, Sarah; Palmer, Tom M.; Sterne, Jonathan A. C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Observational studies have reported associations between body mass index (BMI) and asthma, but confounding and reverse causality remain plausible explanations. We aim to investigate evidence for a causal effect of BMI on asthma using a Mendelian randomization approach. Methods and Findings We used Mendelian randomization to investigate causal effects of BMI, fat mass, and lean mass on current asthma at age 7½ y in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). A weighted allele score based on 32 independent BMI-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was derived from external data, and associations with BMI, fat mass, lean mass, and asthma were estimated. We derived instrumental variable (IV) estimates of causal risk ratios (RRs). 4,835 children had available data on BMI-associated SNPs, asthma, and BMI. The weighted allele score was strongly associated with BMI, fat mass, and lean mass (all p-valuesBMI on asthma was 1.55 (95% CI 1.16–2.07) per kg/m2, p = 0.003. This effect appeared stronger for non-atopic (1.90, 95% CI 1.19–3.03) than for atopic asthma (1.37, 95% CI 0.89–2.11) though there was little evidence of heterogeneity (p = 0.31). The estimated causal RRs for the effects of fat mass and lean mass on asthma were 1.41 (95% CI 1.11–1.79) per 0.5 kg and 2.25 (95% CI 1.23–4.11) per kg, respectively. The possibility of genetic pleiotropy could not be discounted completely; however, additional IV analyses using FTO variant rs1558902 and the other BMI-related SNPs separately provided similar causal effects with wider confidence intervals. Loss of follow-up was unlikely to bias the estimated effects. Conclusions Higher BMI increases the risk of asthma in mid-childhood. Higher BMI may have contributed to the increase in asthma risk toward the end of the 20th century. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:24983943

  7. Human milk insulin is related to maternal plasma insulin and BMI: but other components of human milk do not differ by BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, B E; Patinkin, Z; Palmer, C; de la Houssaye, B; Barbour, L A; Hernandez, T; Friedman, J E; Krebs, N F

    2017-09-01

    The impact of maternal BMI and insulin sensitivity on bioactive components of human milk (HM) is not well understood. As the prevalence of obesity and diabetes rises, it is increasingly critical that we understand how maternal BMI and hormones associated with metabolic disease relate to concentrations of bioactive components in HM. This longitudinal cohort design followed 48 breastfeeding mothers through the first four months of lactation, collecting fasting morning HM samples at 2-weeks and 1, 2, 3 and 4-months, and fasting maternal blood at 2-weeks and 4-months. Insulin, glucose, adipokines leptin and adiponectin, appetite regulating hormone ghrelin, marker of oxidative stress 8OHdG and inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-a) were measured in HM and maternal plasma. A total of 26 normal weight (NW) (BMI=21.4±2.0 kg/m 2 ) and 22 overweight/obese (OW/Ob) (BMI=30.4±4.2 kg/m 2 ) were followed. Of all HM analytes measured, only insulin and leptin were different between groups - consistently higher in the OW/Ob group (leptin: P<0.001; insulin: P<0.03). HM insulin was 98% higher than maternal plasma insulin at 2-weeks and 32% higher at 4-months (P<0.001). Maternal fasting plasma insulin and HOMA-IR were positively related to HM insulin at 2-weeks (P<0.001, R 2 ⩾0.38, n=31), and 4-months (P⩽0.005, R 2 ⩾0.20, n=38). The concentrations of insulin in HM are higher than in maternal plasma and are related to maternal BMI and insulin sensitivity. With the exception of leptin, there were minimal other differences observed in HM composition across a wide range in maternal BMI.

  8. Muscle mass, BMI, and mortality among adults in the United States: A population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramowitz, Matthew K; Hall, Charles B; Amodu, Afolarin; Sharma, Deep; Androga, Lagu; Hawkins, Meredith

    2018-01-01

    The level of body-mass index (BMI) associated with the lowest risk of death remains unclear. Although differences in muscle mass limit the utility of BMI as a measure of adiposity, no study has directly examined the effect of muscle mass on the BMI-mortality relationship. Body composition was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry in 11,687 participants of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004. Low muscle mass was defined using sex-specific thresholds of the appendicular skeletal muscle mass index (ASMI). Proportional hazards models were created to model associations with all-cause mortality. At any level of BMI ≥22, participants with low muscle mass had higher body fat percentage (%TBF), an increased likelihood of diabetes, and higher adjusted mortality than other participants. Increases in %TBF manifested as 30-40% smaller changes in BMI than were observed in participants with preserved muscle mass. Excluding participants with low muscle mass or adjustment for ASMI attenuated the risk associated with low BMI, magnified the risk associated with high BMI, and shifted downward the level of BMI associated with the lowest risk of death. Higher ASMI was independently associated with lower mortality. Effects were similar in never-smokers and ever-smokers. Additional adjustment for waist circumference eliminated the risk associated with higher BMI. Results were unchanged after excluding unintentional weight loss, chronic illness, early mortality, and participants performing muscle-strengthening exercises or recommended levels of physical activity. Muscle mass mediates associations of BMI with adiposity and mortality and is inversely associated with the risk of death. After accounting for muscle mass, the BMI associated with the greatest survival shifts downward toward the normal range. These results provide a concrete explanation for the obesity paradox.

  9. Cardiorespiratory fitness, BMI, and risk of hypertension: the HYPGENE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankinen, Tuomo; Church, Timothy S; Rice, Treva; Bouchard, Claude; Blair, Steven N

    2007-10-01

    Cardiorespiratory fitness and regular physical activity are inversely associated with the risk of hypertension, and exercise training has been shown to lower elevated blood pressure (BP). Genetic factors contribute significantly to the interindividual differences in endurance training-induced changes in BP. However, similar data on the genotype-by-fitness interactions on the risk of hypertension are scarce. In 2000, we started a systematic collection of blood samples from all consenting subjects of the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study (ACLS) with a goal to generate a resource for studies addressing genotype-by-fitness interaction effects on various health-related end points. Here, we introduce the rationale and design of the first study based on the ACLS genetics resource focusing on hypertension as the health outcome (HYPGENE study), and we report the associations of cardiorespiratory fitness and body mass index (BMI) with the risk of hypertension. All HYPGENE subjects (N = 1234) were healthy and normotensive at their first clinic visit. Cases (N = 629) developed hypertension during the follow-up period (mean 8.7 yr), whereas controls (N = 605) remained normotensive (mean follow-up 10.1 yr). Cardiorespiratory fitness was the strongest predictor of the hypertension risk, with each maximal metabolic equivalent unit being associated with a 19% lower risk (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 12-24%). Each baseline BMI unit was associated with a 9% higher hypertension risk (95% CI, 4-13%). However, the association of BMI was greatly attenuated (odds ratio 1.04 [95% CI, 0.99-1.09]) when fitness also was included in the model. The HYPGENE study will provide an excellent resource to address hypotheses regarding the genetic basis of hypertension while taking cardiorespiratory fitness level into account.

  10. Correlation of endoscopic severity of gastroesophageal reflux disease (gerd) with body mass index (bmi)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafar, S.; Haq, I.U.; Butt, A.R.; Shafiq, F.; Huda, G.; Mirza, G.; Rehman, A.U.

    2007-01-01

    To assess the correlation of endoscopic severity of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) with Body Mass Index (BMI). This study was conducted on 203 patients, who presented with upper GI symptoms. Patients who fulfilled the symptom criteria were referred for endoscopy. Classification of GERD was done according to LA Grading classification system. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated as Body Weight (BW) in kilograms (kg) divided by the square of the body height (BH) in meter (m2). Patient data was analyzed using SPSS 12 software. Statistical evaluation was done using non-parametric Wilcoxon's-sign Rank test. P-value <0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Distribution of GERD was as follows: GERD-A subjects 65 (32%), GERD B subjects 72 (35.4%), GERD-C subjects 23 (11.3%), GERD-D subjects 10 (4.92%), while Non-Erosive Reflux Disease (NERD) was present in 33 subjects (16.2%). Mean BMI was 27+5.02SD (range of 18.2-38.3). BMI of patients having NERD was in normal range but patients who were having advanced disease i.e. Grade C-D were in obese range of BMI, while those who were having LA grade A-B were in overweight BMI range. When regrouped as mild GERD (grade A-B) and NERD versus severe GERD (grade C-D), there was a strong significant correlation between severity of GERD and BMI, as detected by Wilcoxon's signed Rank test (p=0.001). Higher BMI seems to be associated with higher degree of endoscopic GERD severity. (author)

  11. Maternal depression and child BMI: longitudinal findings from a US sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, C S; Shen, S; Wu, P; Must, A

    2012-04-01

    To examine the association between maternal depression and child body mass index (BMI) from Kindergarten (K) to fifth grade. Analysis of four waves of data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study - Kindergarten spanning K to fifth grade. Maternal depressive symptoms (MDSs) were measured by a brief version of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale. Data were analyzed using multiple regression analyses, adjusting for key covariates and potential confounders. The analytic sample was restricted to children of normal birth weight. The relationship between MDS and child BMI varies by child gender and age. Among girls, severe MDS at K was related to lower BMI at third grade (but not later at fifth grade) and to an increase in BMI from K to third and K to fifth grades. Among boys, severe MDS at K was related to higher boys' BMI at fifth grade. When severe MDS occurred at third grade, it was related to higher BMI at fifth grade among girls whereas no statistically significant relationship was found for boys. Low levels of physical activity in comparison to peers at fifth grade and more screen time on weekends at third grade are likely mediators of the relationship between MDS and child BMI among girls, while among boys the relationship appears to be mediated by unhealthy eating habits. Our findings, indicating developmental and gender differences in the relationship between maternal depression and child BMI, if confirmed, suggest that interventions addressing maternal depression may have concomitant impact on childhood obesity. © 2012 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2012 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  12. Prospective associations between sedentary lifestyle and BMI in midlife

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Siegler, Ilene C; Barefoot, John C

    2006-01-01

    A strong positive cross-sectional relationship between BMI and a sedentary lifestyle has been consistently observed in numerous studies. However, it has been questioned whether high BMI is a determinant or a consequence of a sedentary lifestyle.......A strong positive cross-sectional relationship between BMI and a sedentary lifestyle has been consistently observed in numerous studies. However, it has been questioned whether high BMI is a determinant or a consequence of a sedentary lifestyle....

  13. Predictors of BMI Vary along the BMI Range of German Adults – Results of the German National Nutrition Survey II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Kilson; Krems, Carolin; Heuer, Thorsten; Roth, Alexander; Hoffmann, Ingrid

    2017-01-01

    Objective The objective of the study was to identify predictors of BMI in German adults by considering the BMI distribution and to determine whether the association between BMI and its predictors varies along the BMI distribution. Methods The sample included 9,214 adults aged 18–80 years from the German National Nutrition Survey II (NVS II). Quantile regression analyses were conducted to examine the association between BMI and the following predictors: age, sports activities, socio-economic status (SES), healthy eating index-NVS II (HEI-NVS II), dietary knowledge, sleeping duration and energy intake as well as status of smoking, partner relationship and self-reported health. Results Age, SES, self-reported health status, sports activities and energy intake were the strongest predictors of BMI. The important outcome of this study is that the association between BMI and its predictors varies along the BMI distribution. Especially, energy intake, health status and SES were marginally associated with BMI in normal-weight subjects; this relationships became stronger in the range of overweight, and were strongest in the range of obesity. Conclusions Predictors of BMI and the strength of these associations vary across the BMI distribution in German adults. Consequently, to identify predictors of BMI, the entire BMI distribution should be considered. PMID:28219069

  14. Quantitative Analysis and Comparison of BMI among Han, Tibetan, and Uygur University Students in Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bai Jingya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To fully analyze and compare BMI among Han, Tibetan, and Uygur university students, to discuss the differences in their physical properties and physical health, and thus to provide some theoretical suggestions for the improvement of students’ physical health. Methods. The cross-sectional random cluster sampling was used to investigate 10103 Han, Tibetan, and Uygur university students, aged 20–24 in Northwest China, and their height and weight were measured to calculate BMI. The BMI classification criteria for Chinese established by Work Group on Obesity in China (WGOC were used for screening. Results. Han, Tibetan, and Uygur university students show low obesity rates but high overweight rates. Han, Tibetan, and Uygur university students present a high rate of underweight, normal weight, and overweight, respectively. Female Han students show higher underweight and normal weight rates, but lower overweight and obesity rates, than male Han students. Female Tibetan students show higher normal weight rate, but lower overweight and obesity rates, than male Tibetan students. BMI increases with age for male students but decreases with age for female students. Male Uygur students show higher obesity rate than female Uygur students. Tibetan and Uygur university students have higher BMI than other minorities in South China.

  15. Quantitative Analysis and Comparison of BMI among Han, Tibetan, and Uygur University Students in Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingya, Bai; Ye, He; Jing, Wang; Xi, Huanjiu; Tao, Hai

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To fully analyze and compare BMI among Han, Tibetan, and Uygur university students, to discuss the differences in their physical properties and physical health, and thus to provide some theoretical suggestions for the improvement of students' physical health. Methods. The cross-sectional random cluster sampling was used to investigate 10103 Han, Tibetan, and Uygur university students, aged 20–24 in Northwest China, and their height and weight were measured to calculate BMI. The BMI classification criteria for Chinese established by Work Group on Obesity in China (WGOC) were used for screening. Results. Han, Tibetan, and Uygur university students show low obesity rates but high overweight rates. Han, Tibetan, and Uygur university students present a high rate of underweight, normal weight, and overweight, respectively. Female Han students show higher underweight and normal weight rates, but lower overweight and obesity rates, than male Han students. Female Tibetan students show higher normal weight rate, but lower overweight and obesity rates, than male Tibetan students. BMI increases with age for male students but decreases with age for female students. Male Uygur students show higher obesity rate than female Uygur students. Tibetan and Uygur university students have higher BMI than other minorities in South China. PMID:24453807

  16. Maternal BMI during Pregnancy: Effect on trace elements Status and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maternal BMI was significantly positively related to age, parity and socioeconomic status. While a negative relationship was found between plasma copper and maternal BMI, significantly (p < 0.05) lower zinc levels were found in underweight and obese women when compared to women with normal BMI. Maternal anaemia ...

  17. The relationship between income, economic freedom, and BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, R A; Murphy, R H; Williamson, C R

    2016-05-01

    What explains increases in BMI (and obesity) over time and across countries? Although many microeconomic forces are likely explanations, increasingly scholars are arguing that macroeconomic forces such as market liberalism and globalization are root causes of the obesity epidemic. The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of economic freedom on obesity conditional on the level of income and other factors. We use an unbalanced pooled cross section of up to 135 countries for 1995 and 2000-2009. Our statistical model specifications include pooled OLS and fixed effects. First, we find that controlling for fixed effects siphons off much of the relationship previously documented between economic freedom and BMI. Second, economic freedom is associated with slightly higher BMIs but only for men in developing nations. Lastly, we show that economic freedom increases life expectancy for both men and women in developing countries. Therefore, policies aimed at reducing obesity that limit economic liberalism may come at the expense of life expectancy in the developing world. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Does the cortisol awakening response link childhood adversity to adult BMI?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kelly F; Arbel, Reout; Shapiro, Lauren S; Han, Sohyun C; Margolin, Gayla

    2018-04-26

    Childhood adversity is a risk factor for the development of obesity in adulthood. Dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity, which has been associated separately with both adverse childhood experiences and obesity, has been posited as a mechanism by which stressful experiences influence body mass index (BMI); however, this mechanism has not yet been tested longitudinally. The present study uses multireporter, longitudinal data across three time points to test whether the adolescent cortisol awakening response (CAR), an index of diurnal HPA activity, mediates the association between adversity in childhood and BMI in adulthood. Eighty-two youth, mothers, and fathers reported on adverse childhood experiences from middle childhood to late adolescence. During adolescence, youth provided saliva samples three times each morning across three days, which were assayed for cortisol to calculate CAR. During early adulthood, youth reported height and weight to calculate BMI. Greater adversity predicted flatter CAR and higher young adult BMI. Flatter CAR partially mediated the association between childhood adversity and young adult BMI. Stress-related alterations to HPA activity account in part for the childhood adversity-adult obesity link. Findings are consistent with theoretical models implicating HPA alterations as linking childhood adversity to metabolic and behavioral determinants of BMI in adulthood. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. BMI and breast cancer prognosis benefit: mammography screening reveals differences between normal weight and overweight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crispo, Anna; Grimaldi, Maria; D'Aiuto, Massimiliano; Rinaldo, Massimo; Capasso, Immacolata; Amore, Alfonso; D'Aiuto, Giuseppe; Giudice, Aldo; Ciliberto, Gennaro; Montella, Maurizio

    2015-02-01

    Few studies are available on the potential impact of body weight on breast cancer prognosis in screen-detected patients. Moreover, it is not known whether body mass index (BMI) could have a different prognostic impact in screen-detected versus symptomatic breast cancer patients. To investigate these unsolved issues, we carried out a retrospective study evaluating the effect of BMI on breast cancer prognosis in screen-detected vs symptomatic breast cancer patients. We conducted a follow-up study on 448 women diagnosed with incident, histologically-confirmed breast cancer. Patients were categorized according to their BMI as normal weight, overweight and obese. Disease free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS), and BMI curves were compared according to mode of cancer detection. Among screen-detected patients, higher BMI was associated with a significant lower DFS, whereas no significant difference was observed among symptomatic patients. OS showed similar results. In the multivariate analysis adjusting for age, education, tumor size, nodal status, estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and menopausal status, the risk for high level of BMI among screen-detected patients did not reach the statistical significance for either recurrence or survival. Our study highlights the potential impact of high bodyweight in breast cancer prognosis, the findings confirm that obesity plays a role in women breast cancer prognosis independently from diagnosis mode. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Pre-pregnancy BMI-specific optimal gestational weight gain for women in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naho Morisaki

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Institute of Medicine (IOM guidelines are the most widely used guidelines on gestational weight gain; however, accumulation of evidence that body composition in Asians differs from other races has brought concern regarding whether their direct application is appropriate. We aimed to study to what extent optimal gestational weight gain among women in Japan differs by pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI and to compare estimated optimal gestational weight gain to current Japanese and Institute of Medicine (IOM recommendations. Methods: We retrospectively studied 104,070 singleton pregnancies among nulliparous women in 2005–2011 using the Japanese national perinatal network database. In five pre-pregnancy BMI sub-groups (17.0–18.4, 18.5–19.9, 20–22.9, 23–24.9, and 25–27.4 kg/m2, we estimated the association of the rate of gestational weight gain with pregnancy outcomes (fetal growth, preterm delivery, and delivery complications using multivariate regression. Results: Weight gain rate associated with the lowest risk of adverse outcomes decreased with increasing BMI (12.2 kg, 10.9 kg, 9.9 kg, 7.7 kg, and 4.3 kg/40 weeks for the five BMI categories as described above, respectively. Current Japanese guidelines were lower than optimal gains, with the lowest risk of adverse outcomes for women with BMI below 18.5 kg/m2, and current IOM recommendations were higher than optimal gains for women with BMI over 23 kg/m2. Conclusion: Optimal weight gain during pregnancy varies largely by pre-pregnancy BMI, and defining those with BMI over 23 kg/m2 as overweight, as proposed by the World Health Organization, may be useful when applying current IOM recommendations to Japanese guidelines.

  1. Pre-pregnancy BMI-specific optimal gestational weight gain for women in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisaki, Naho; Nagata, Chie; Jwa, Seung Chik; Sago, Haruhiko; Saito, Shigeru; Oken, Emily; Fujiwara, Takeo

    2017-10-01

    The Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines are the most widely used guidelines on gestational weight gain; however, accumulation of evidence that body composition in Asians differs from other races has brought concern regarding whether their direct application is appropriate. We aimed to study to what extent optimal gestational weight gain among women in Japan differs by pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and to compare estimated optimal gestational weight gain to current Japanese and Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations. We retrospectively studied 104,070 singleton pregnancies among nulliparous women in 2005-2011 using the Japanese national perinatal network database. In five pre-pregnancy BMI sub-groups (17.0-18.4, 18.5-19.9, 20-22.9, 23-24.9, and 25-27.4 kg/m 2 ), we estimated the association of the rate of gestational weight gain with pregnancy outcomes (fetal growth, preterm delivery, and delivery complications) using multivariate regression. Weight gain rate associated with the lowest risk of adverse outcomes decreased with increasing BMI (12.2 kg, 10.9 kg, 9.9 kg, 7.7 kg, and 4.3 kg/40 weeks) for the five BMI categories as described above, respectively. Current Japanese guidelines were lower than optimal gains, with the lowest risk of adverse outcomes for women with BMI below 18.5 kg/m 2 , and current IOM recommendations were higher than optimal gains for women with BMI over 23 kg/m 2 . Optimal weight gain during pregnancy varies largely by pre-pregnancy BMI, and defining those with BMI over 23 kg/m 2 as overweight, as proposed by the World Health Organization, may be useful when applying current IOM recommendations to Japanese guidelines. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Analysis list: BMI1 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BMI1 Blood,Digestive tract,Neural,Prostate + hg19 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/BMI...1.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/BMI1.5.tsv http://db...archive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/BMI1.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/BMI...1.Blood.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/BMI1.Diges...tive_tract.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/BMI1.Neural.tsv,http://dbarchive.bioscie

  3. The Role of BMI in Hip Fracture Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinleye, Sheriff D; Garofolo, Garret; Culbertson, Maya Deza; Homel, Peter; Erez, Orry

    2018-01-01

    Obesity is an oft-cited cause of surgical morbidity and many institutions require extensive supplementary screening for obese patients prior to surgical intervention. However, in the elderly patients, obesity has been described as a protective factor. This article set out to examine the effect of body mass index (BMI) on outcomes and morbidity after hip fracture surgery. The National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database was queried for all patients undergoing 1 of 4 surgical procedures to manage hip fracture between 2008 and 2012. Patient demographics, BMI, and known factors that lead to poor surgical outcomes were included as putative predictors for complications that included infectious, cardiac, pulmonary, renal, and neurovascular events. Using χ 2 tests, 30-day postoperative complication rates were compared between 4 patient groups stratified by BMI as low weight (BMI BMI = 20-30), obese (BMI = 30-40), and morbidly obese (BMI > 40). A total of 15 108 patients underwent surgery for hip fracture over the examined 5-year period. Of these, 18% were low weight (BMI BMI = 20-30), 13% were obese (BMI = 30-40), and 2% were morbidly obese (BMI > 40). The low-weight and morbidly obese patients had both the highest mortality rates and the lowest superficial infection rates. There was a significant increase in blood transfusion rates that decreased linearly with increasing BMI. Deep surgical site infection and renal failure increased linearly with increasing BMI, however, these outcomes were confounded by comorbidities. This study demonstrates that patients at either extreme of the BMI spectrum, rather than solely the obese, are at greatest risk of major adverse events following hip fracture surgery. This runs contrary to the notion that obese hip fracture patients automatically require additional preoperative screening and perioperative services, as currently implemented in many institutions.

  4. Temporal trends in BMI in Argentina by socio-economic position and province-level economic development, 2005-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christine, Paul J; Diez Roux, Ana V; Wing, Jeffrey J; Alazraqui, Marcio; Spinelli, Hugo

    2015-04-01

    We investigated temporal trends in BMI, and assessed hypothesized predictors of trends including socio-economic position (SEP) and province-level economic development, in Argentina. Using multivariable linear regression, we evaluated cross-sectional patterning and temporal trends in BMI and examined heterogeneity in these associations by SEP and province-level economic development with nationally representative samples from Argentina in 2005 and 2009. We calculated mean annual changes in BMI for men and women to assess secular trends. Women, but not men, exhibited a strong cross-sectional inverse association between SEP and BMI, with the lowest-SEP women having an average BMI 2.55 kg/m(2) greater than the highest-SEP women. Analysis of trends revealed a mean annual increase in BMI of 0.19 kg/m(2) and 0.15 kg/m(2) for women and men, respectively, with slightly greater increases occurring in provinces with greater economic growth. No significant heterogeneity in trends existed by individual SEP. BMI is increasing rapidly over time in Argentina irrespective of various sociodemographic characteristics. Higher BMI remains more common in women of lower SEP compared with those of higher SEP.

  5. Postnatal BMI changes in children with different birthweights: A trial study for detecting early predictive factors for pediatric obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Yuichi; Nakanishi, Toshiki; Satake, Eiichiro; Matsushita, Rie; Saegusa, Hirokazu; Kubota, Akira; Natsume, Hiromune; Shibata, Yukinobu; Fujisawa, Yasuko

    2018-01-01

    Abstract. The purpose of this study was to clarify the degree of early postnatal growth by birthweight and detect early predictive factors for pediatric obesity. Body mass index (BMI) and degree of obesity were examined in children in the fourth year of elementary school and second year of junior high school. Their BMI at birth and three years of age were also examined. Based on birthweight, participants were divided into three groups: low ( 3500 g). Furthermore, according to the degree of obesity, they were divided into two groups: obese (20% ≤) and non-obese (20% >). The change of BMI from birth to three years of age (ΔBMI) showed a strong inverse relationship with birthweight and was significantly different among the three birthweight groups (low > middle > high). The ΔBMI and BMI at three years of age were higher in obese than in non-obese children and showed significant positive correlations with the degree of obesity. Early postnatal growth might be determined by birthweight and was higher in obese than in non-obese children. The ΔBMI from birth to three years of age and BMI at age of three years could be predictive factors for pediatric obesity. PMID:29403153

  6. Bmi-1 promotes invasion and metastasis, and its elevated expression is correlated with an advanced stage of breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background B-lymphoma Moloney murine leukemia virus insertion region-1 (Bmi-1) acts as an oncogene in various tumors, and its overexpression correlates with a poor outcome in several human cancers. Ectopic expression of Bmi-1 can induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and enhance the motility and invasiveness of human nasopharyngeal epithelial cells (NPECs), whereas silencing endogenous Bmi-1 expression can reverse EMT and reduce the metastatic potential of nasopharyngeal cancer cells (NPCs). Mouse xenograft studies indicate that coexpression of Bmi-1 and H-Ras in breast cancer cells can induce an aggressive and metastatic phenotype with an unusual occurrence of brain metastasis; although, Bmi-1 overexpression did not result in oncogenic transformation of MCF-10A cells. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of Bmi-1-mediated progression and the metastasis of breast cancer are not fully elucidated at this time. Results Bmi-1 expression is more pronouncedly increased in primary cancer tissues compared to matched adjacent non-cancerous tissues. High Bmi-1 expression is correlated with advanced clinicopathologic classifications (T, N, and M) and clinical stages. Furthermore, a high level of Bmi-1 indicates an unfavorable overall survival and serves as a high risk marker for breast cancer. In addition, inverse transcriptional expression levels of Bmi-1 and E-cadherin are detected between the primary cancer tissues and the matched adjacent non-cancerous tissues. Higher Bmi-1 levels are found in the cancer tissue, whereas the paired adjacent non-cancer tissue shows higher E-cadherin levels. Overexpression of Bmi-1 increases the motility and invasive properties of immortalized human mammary epithelial cells, which is concurrent with the increased expression of mesenchymal markers, the decreased expression of epithelial markers, the stabilization of Snail and the dysregulation of the Akt/GSK3β pathway. Consistent with these observations, the repression of Bmi

  7. Smoking, physical exercise, BMI and late foetal death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales-Suárez-Varela, Maria; Nohr, Ellen A; Bech, Bodil H

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to estimate the effect of maternal and paternal smoking on foetal death (miscarriage and stillbirth) and to estimate potential interactions with physical exercise and pre-pregnancy body mass index. We selected 87,930 pregnancies from the population-based Danish National......) for predominantly late foetal death (miscarriage and stillbirth). An interaction contrast ratio was used to assess potential effect measure modification of smoking by physical exercise and body mass index. The adjusted hazard ratio of foetal death was 1.22 (95 % CI 1.02-1.46) for couples where both parents smoked...... with a slightly higher hazard ratio for foetal death if both parents smoked. This study suggests that smoking may increase the negative effect of a high BMI on foetal death, but results were not statistically significant for the interaction between smoking and physical exercise....

  8. BMI change during puberty and the risk of heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindblom, J M; Bygdell, M; Sondén, A; Célind, J; Rosengren, A; Ohlsson, C

    2018-03-12

    Hospitalization for heart failure amongst younger men has increased. The reason for this is unknown but it coincides with the obesity epidemic. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between childhood BMI (Body Mass Index) and BMI change during puberty for risk of adult heart failure in men. Using the BMI Epidemiology Study (BEST), a population-based study in Gothenburg, Sweden, we collected information on childhood BMI at age 8 years and BMI change during puberty (BMI at age 20 - BMI at 8) for men born 1945-1961, followed until December 2013 (n = 37 670). BMI was collected from paediatric growth charts and mandatory military conscription tests. Information on heart failure was retrieved from high-quality national registers (342 first hospitalizations for heart failure). BMI change during puberty was independently of childhood BMI associated with risk of heart failure in a nonlinear J-shaped manner. Subjects in the upper quartile of BMI change during puberty (Q4) had more than twofold increased risk of heart failure compared with subjects in Q1 [HR (Hazard Ratio) = 2.29, 95% CI (Confidence Interval) 1.68-3.12]. Childhood BMI was not independently associated with risk of heart failure. Boys developing overweight during puberty (HR 3.14; 95% CI 2.25-4.38) but not boys with childhood overweight that normalized during puberty (HR 1.12, 95% CI 0.63-2.00) had increased risk of heart failure compared with boys without childhood or young adult overweight. BMI change during puberty is a novel risk factor for adult heart failure in men. © 2018 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  9. Television, sleep, outdoor play and BMI in young children: the GECKO Drenthe cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sijtsma, Anna; Koller, Marjory; Sauer, Pieter J J; Corpeleijn, Eva

    2015-05-01

    In this study, we investigated the interplay between screen time, sleep duration, outdoor play, having a television in the bedroom and the number of televisions at home and their association with body mass index (BMI) in preschool children. All participants, 3-4 years of age (n = 759), were part of the Groningen expert center for kids with obesity (GECKO) Drenthe birth cohort. Weight and height were measured. Total screen time, number of televisions at home, a television in the bedroom, sleep duration and time of outdoor play were self-reported by parents in a questionnaire. Ordinary least square (OLS) regression-based path analysis was used to estimate direct and indirect effects on BMI in mediation models. A television in the bedroom or more televisions at home gave a higher screen time, which were associated with decreased sleep duration and resulted in higher BMI (indirect effect = 0.0115, 95% bootstrap interval = 0.0016; 0.0368 and indirect effect = 0.0026, 95% bootstrap interval = 0.0004; 0.0078, respectively). In contrast to the direct effect of screen time, sleep duration and a television in the bedroom on BMI, no direct effect was found for outdoor play and number or televisions at home on BMI. Short sleep duration, long screen time and a television in the bedroom were associated with the presence of overweight in preschool children.

  10. Gender and socioeconomic disparities in BMI trajectories in the Seychelles: a cohort analysis based on serial population-based surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Isabelle A; Rousson, Valentin; Viswanathan, Bharathi; Bovet, Pascal

    2011-12-09

    The relationship between body mass index (BMI) and socioeconomic status (SES) tends to change over time and across populations. In this study, we examined, separately in men and women, whether the association between BMI and SES changed over successive birth cohorts in the Seychelles (Indian Ocean, African region). We used data from all participants in three surveys conducted in 1989, 1994 and 2004 in independent random samples of the population aged 25-64 years in the Seychelles (N = 3'403). We used linear regression to model mean BMI according to age, cohort, SES and smoking status, allowing for a quadratic term for age to account for a curvilinear relation between BMI and age and interactions between SES and age and between SES and cohorts to test whether the relation between SES and BMI changed across subsequent cohorts. All analyses were performed separately in men and women. BMI increased with age in all birth cohorts. BMI was lower in men of low SES than high SES but was higher in women of low SES than high SES. In all SES categories, BMI increased over successive cohorts (1.24 kg/m2 in men and 1.51 kg/m2 for a 10-year increase in birth cohorts, p < 0.001). The difference in BMI between men or women of high vs. low SES did not change significantly across successive cohorts (the interaction between SES and year of birth of cohort was statistically not significant). Smoking was associated with lower BMI in men and women (respectively -1.55 kg/m2 and 2.46 kg/m2, p < 0.001). Although large differences exist between men and women, social patterning of BMI did not change significantly over successive cohorts in this population of a middle-income country in the African region.

  11. BMI-1, a promising therapeutic target for human cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    WANG, MIN-CONG; LI, CHUN-LI; CUI, JIE; JIAO, MIN; WU, TAO; JING, LI; NAN, KE-JUN

    2015-01-01

    BMI-1 oncogene is a member of the polycomb-group gene family and a transcriptional repressor. Overexpression of BMI-1 has been identified in various human cancer tissues and is known to be involved in cancer cell proliferation, cell invasion, distant metastasis, chemosensitivity and patient survival. Accumulating evidence has revealed that BMI-1 is also involved in the regulation of self-renewal, differentiation and tumor initiation of cancer stem cells (CSCs). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these biological processes remain unclear. The present review summarized the function of BMI-1 in different human cancer types and CSCs, and discussed the signaling pathways in which BMI-1 is potentially involved. In conclusion, BMI-1 may represent a promising target for the prevention and therapy of various cancer types. PMID:26622537

  12. Earlier BMI rebound and lower pre-rebound BMI as risk of obesity among Japanese preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, N; Isojima, T; Yokoya, S; Tanaka, T; Ono, A; Yokomichi, H; Yamagata, Z; Tanaka, S; Matsubara, H; Ishikuro, M; Kikuya, M; Chida, S; Hosoya, M; Kuriyama, S; Kure, S

    2018-01-01

    Longitudinal growth data of children were analyzed to clarify the relationship between the timing of body mass index (BMI) rebound and obesity risk in later ages. Of 54 558 children born between April 2004 and March 2005 and longitudinally measured in April and October every year in the preschool period, 15 255 children were analyzed wherein no longitudinal measurement is missing after 1 year of age. BMI rebound age was determined as the age with smallest BMI value across longitudinal individual data after 1 year of age. Rebound age was compared between overweight and non-overweight groups. The subjects were divided into groups based on the timing of rebound. The sex- and age-adjusted mean of the BMI, height and weight s.d. scores for age group, along with 6 months weight and height gain, were compared among groups using analysis of covariance. Among those who were overweight at 66-71 months of age, BMI rebound age obtained at approximately 3 years of age was compared with the non-overweight group, whose BMI rebound age was utmost 66 months or later (PBMI age group showed that earlier BMI rebound results in larger BMI (PBMI rebound earlier than 30 months of age, low BMI was observed (PBMI rebound among groups with rebound age earlier than 60 months of age (PBMI rebound timing with pre-rebound low BMI leads to greater childhood obesity risk; hence, early detection and prevention is necessary for such cases.

  13. Longitudinal weight differences, gene expression, and blood biomarkers in BMI discordant identical twins

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dongen, Jenny; Willemsen, Gonneke; Heijmans, Bastiaan T.; Neuteboom, Jacoline; Kluft, Cornelis; Jansen, Rick; Penninx, Brenda W.J.; Slagboom, P. Eline; de Geus, Eco J.C.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2015-01-01

    Background BMI discordant monozygotic (MZ) twins allows an examination of the causes and consequences of adiposity in a genetically controlled design. Few studies have examined longitudinal BMI discordance in MZ pairs. Objectives To study the development over time of BMI discordance in adolescent and adult MZ twin pairs, and to examine lifestyle, metabolic, inflammatory, and gene expression differences associated with concurrent and long-term BMI discordance in MZ pairs. Subjects/Methods BMI data from 2775 MZ twin pairs, collected in eight longitudinal surveys and a biobank project between 1991 and 2011, were analyzed to characterize longitudinal discordance. Lifestyle characteristics were compared within discordant pairs (ΔBMI ≥ 3 kg/m2) and biomarkers (lipids, glucose, insulin, CRP, fibrinogen, IL-6, TNF-α and sIL-6R and liver enzymes AST, ALT and GGT) and gene expression were compared in peripheral blood from discordant pairs who participated in the NTR biobank project. Results The prevalence of discordance ranged from 3.2% in 1991 (mean age=17, SD=2.4) to 17.4% (N=202 pairs) in 2009 (mean age=35, SD=15), and was 16.5% (N=174) among pairs participating in the biobank project (mean age=35, SD=12). Of 699 MZ with BMI data from 3-5 time points, 17 pairs (2.4%) were long-term discordant (at all available time points; mean follow-up range=6.4 years). Concurrently discordant pairs showed significant differences in self-ratings of which twin eats most (p=2.3×10−13), but not in leisure time exercise activity (p=0.28) and smoking (p>0.05). Ten out of 14 biomarkers showed significantly more unfavorable levels in the heavier of twin of the discordant pairs (p-values BMI discordance is uncommon in adolescent identical pairs but increases with higher pair-mean of BMI at older ages, although long-term BMI discordance is rare. In discordant pairs, the heavier twin had a more unfavorable blood biomarker profile than the genetically matched leaner twin, in support of

  14. Inter-individual inequality in BMI: An analysis of Indonesian Family Life Surveys (1993–2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Vaezghasemi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Widening inequalities in mean Body Mass Index (BMI between social and economic groups are well documented. However, whether changes in mean BMI are followed by changes in dispersion (or variance and whether these inequalities are also occurring within social groups or across individuals remain understudied. In addition, a substantial body of literature exists on the global increase in mean BMI and prevalence of overweight and obesity. However, whether this weight gain is shared proportionately across the whole spectrum of BMI distribution, also remains understudied. We examined changes in the distribution of BMI at the population level over time to understand how changes in the dispersion reflect between-group compared to within-group inequalities in weight gain. Moreover, we investigated the entire distribution of BMI to determine in which percentiles the most weight gain is occurring over time. Utilizing four waves (from 1993 to 2007 of Indonesian Family Life Surveys (IFLS, we estimated changes in the mean and the variance of BMI over time and across various socioeconomic groups based on education and households’ expenditure per capita in 53,648 men and women aged 20–50 years. An increase in mean and standard deviation was observed among men (by 4.3% and 25%, respectively and women (by 7.3% and 20%, respectively over time. Quantile-Quantile plots showed that higher percentiles had greater increases in BMI compared to the segment of the population at lower percentiles. While between socioeconomic group differences decreased over time, within-group differences increased and were more prominent among individuals with poor education and lower per capita expenditures. Population changes in BMI cannot be fully described by average trends or single parameters such as the mean BMI. Moreover, greater increases in within-group dispersion compared with between-group differences imply that growing inequalities are not merely driven by these

  15. Overexpression of microRNA-132 enhances the radiosensitivity of cervical cancer cells by down-regulating Bmi-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gui-Feng; Zhang, Shu-Hua; Li, Xue-Feng; Cao, Li-Yan; Fu, Zhan-Zhao; Yu, Shao-Nan

    2017-10-06

    We examined the effects of microRNA-132 (miR-132) on Bmi-1 expression and radiosensitivity in HeLa, SiHa, and C33A cervical cancer (CC) cells and 104 CC patients. MiR-132 expression was decreased and Bmi-1 expression was increased in tumor tissues compared to adjacent normal tissues and in radiotherapy-resistant patients compared to radiotherapy-sensitive patients. MiR-132 expression and Bmi-1 mRNA expression were also negatively correlated in tumor tissues. HeLa, SiHa, and C33A cells were divided into blank, miR-132 negative control (NC), miR-132 inhibitor, miR-132 mimics, siBmi-1, and miR-132 inhibitor + siBmi-1 groups, after which expression of miR-132 and Bmi-1, and the interaction between them and cell survival, proliferation, and apoptosis were examined. Bmi-1 was confirmed as a target of miRNA-132. Survival was higher and apoptosis lower in the miR-132 inhibitor group than the blank group after various doses of radiation. By contrast, survival was lower and apoptosis higher in the miRNA-132 mimics and siBmi-1 groups than in the blank group. Moreover, miR-132 expression increased and Bmi-1 mRNA expression decreased in each group at radiation doses of 6 and 8 Gy. Finally, co-administration of radiotherapy and exogenous miR-132 inhibited the growth of HeLa cell transplant-induced tumors in nude mice more effectively than radiotherapy alone. These results suggest overexpression of miR-132 enhances the radiosensitivity of CC cells by down-regulating Bmi-1 and that miR-132 may be a useful new target for the treatment of CC.

  16. Physical Activity, Sleep, and BMI Percentile in Rural and Urban Ugandan Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoph, Mary J; Grigsby-Toussaint, Diana S; Baingana, Rhona; Ntambi, James M

    Uganda is experiencing a dual burden of over- and undernutrition, with overweight prevalence increasing while underweight remains common. Potential weight-related factors, particularly physical activity, sleep, and rural/urban status, are not currently well understood or commonly assessed in Ugandan youth. The purpose of this study was to pilot test a survey measuring weight-related factors in rural and urban Ugandan schoolchildren. A cross-sectional survey measured sociodemographics, physical activity, sleep patterns, and dietary factors in 148 rural and urban schoolchildren aged 11-16 in central Uganda. Height and weight were objectively measured. Rural and urban youth were compared on these factors using χ 2 and t tests. Regression was used to identify correlates of higher body mass index (BMI) percentile in the full sample and nonstunted youth. Youth were on average 12.1 ± 1.1 years old; underweight (10%) was more common than overweight (1.4%). Self-reported sleep duration and subjective sleep quality did not differ by rural/urban residence. Rural children overall had higher BMI percentile and marginally higher stunting prevalence. In adjusted analyses in both the full and nonstunted samples, higher BMI percentile was related to living in a rural area, higher frequency of physical activity, and higher subjective sleep quality; it was negatively related to being active on weekends. In the full sample, higher BMI percentile was also related to female gender, whereas in nonstunted youth, higher BMI was related to age. BMI percentile was unrelated to sedentary time, performance of active chores and sports, and dietary factors. This study is one of the first to pilot test a survey assessing weight-related factors, particularly physical activity and sleep, in Ugandan schoolchildren. BMI percentile was related to several sociodemographic, sleep, and physical activity factors among primarily normal-weight school children in Uganda, providing a basis for

  17. Association Between BMI and Recurrence of Primary Spontaneous Pneumothorax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Juntao; Yang, Yang; Zhong, Jianhong; Zuo, Chuantian; Tang, Huamin; Zhao, Huimin; Zeng, Guang; Zhang, Jianfeng; Guo, Jianji; Yang, Nuo

    2017-05-01

    Whether body mass index (BMI) is a significant risk factor for recurrence of primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP) remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to examine whether BMI and other factors are linked to risk of PSP recurrence. A consecutive cohort of 273 patients was retrospectively evaluated. Patients were divided into those who experienced recurrence (n = 81) and those who did not (n = 192), as well as into those who had low BMI (n = 75) and those who had normal or elevated BMI (n = 198). The two pairs of groups were compared in terms of baseline data, and Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to identify predictors of PSP recurrence. Rates of recurrence among all 273 patients were 20.9% at 1 year, 23.8% at 2 years, and 28.7% at 5 years. Univariate analysis identified the following significant predictors of PSP recurrence: height, weight, BMI, size of pneumothorax, and treatment modality. Multivariate analyses identified several risk factors for PSP recurrence: low BMI, pneumothorax size ≥50%, and non-surgical treatment. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis indicated that patients with low BMI showed significantly lower recurrence-free survival than patients with normal or elevated BMI (P pneumothorax size ≥50%, and non-surgical treatment were risk factors for PSP recurrence in our cohort. Low BMI may be a clinically useful predictor of PSP recurrence.

  18. BMI percentile-for-age overestimates adiposity in early compared with late maturing pubertal children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kaspar; Juul, Anders

    2015-01-01

    and bioelectric impedance analyses (BIA) were used to estimate adiposity. Clinical pubertal markers (Tanner stages and testicular volume) were evaluated. LH, FSH, estradiol, testosterone, SHBG and IGF1 levels were determined by immunoassays. RESULTS: In all age groups, higher BMI (all 1 year age-groups, P ≤ 0...

  19. Assessing the Alcohol-BMI Relationship in a US National Sample of College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Adam E.; Piazza-Gardner, Anna K.; Holton, M. Kim

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study sought to assess the body mass index (BMI)-alcohol relationship among a US national sample of college students. Design: Secondary data analysis using the Fall 2011 National College Health Assessment (NCHA). Setting: A total of 44 US higher education institutions. Methods: Participants included a national sample of college…

  20. Asthma, Smoking and BMI in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: A Community-Based Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, L.; Naqvi, H.; Russ, L.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Recent research evidence from the general population has shown that tobacco smoking and raised body mass index (BMI) are associated with worse asthma outcomes. There are indications that asthma morbidity and mortality may be higher among people with intellectual disabilities (ID) than the general population, but the reason for this is…

  1. Is there an association between food portion size and BMI among British adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albar, Salwa A; Alwan, Nisreen A; Evans, Charlotte E L; Cade, Janet E

    2014-09-14

    The prevalence of obesity has increased simultaneously with the increase in the consumption of large food portion sizes (FPS). Studies investigating this association among adolescents are limited; fewer have addressed energy-dense foods as a potential risk factor. In the present study, the association between the portion size of the most energy-dense foods and BMI was investigated. A representative sample of 636 British adolescents (11-18 years) was used from the 2008-2011 UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey. FPS were estimated for the most energy-dense foods (those containing above 10·5 kJ/g (2·5 kcal/g)). Regression models with BMI as the outcome variable were adjusted for age, sex and misreporting energy intake (EI). A positive association was observed between total EI and BMI. For each 418 kJ (100 kcal) increase in EI, BMI increased by 0·19 kg/m2 (95 % CI 0·10, 0·28; Pportion sizes of a limited number of high-energy-dense foods (high-fibre breakfast cereals, cream and high-energy soft drinks (carbonated)) were found to be positively associated with a higher BMI among all adolescents after adjusting for misreporting. When eliminating the effect of under-reporting, larger portion sizes of a number of high-energy-dense foods (biscuits, cheese, cream and cakes) were found to be positively associated with BMI among normal reporters. The portion sizes of only high-fibre breakfast cereals and high-energy soft drinks (carbonated) were found to be positively associated with BMI among under-reporters. These findings emphasise the importance of considering under-reporting when analysing adolescents' dietary intake data. Also, there is a need to address adolescents' awareness of portion sizes of energy-dense foods to improve their food choice and future health outcomes.

  2. Physical activity, BMI and metabolic risk in Portuguese adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Karina dos Santos

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2016v18n1p103   It has been reported, in the last decades, a significant decrease in physical activity (PA levels, with a consequent increase in obesity and metabolic risk factors among youth. The aims of this study were to describe PA levels, the prevalence of overweight/obesity and metabolic risk factors, and to examine the association between PA and body mass index (BMI with metabolic risk among Portuguese youth. The sample comprises 212 Portuguese adolescents (12-16 years old. Height and weight were measured. PA was estimated with the Bouchard questionnaire (3 days recall, as well as with the use of a pedometer (used for 5 consecutive days. Metabolic risk factors comprised fasting glucose, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, systolic blood pressure and waist circumference. Subjects were classified as normal weight, overweight or obese according to BMI; the maturational status was indirectly estimated with the maturity offset procedure. A continuous metabolic risk score was computed (zMR and PA values were divided into tertiles. Qui-square test, t-test and ANOVA were used in statistical analyses. SPSS 18.0 and WinPepi softwares were used and p<0.05. A moderate to high prevalence of overweight/obesity and HDL-cholesterol was found, as well as a high prevalence of high blood pressure and low to moderate PA levels among Portuguese youth. The relationship between BMI and zMR showed that obese adolescents have higher zMR when compared to normal weight or overweight adolescents. This finding suggests that increased levels of PA and reduction in the prevalence of overweight/obesity may have a positive role against the development of metabolic risk factors.

  3. Depression and BMI influences the serum vascular endothelial growth factor level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elfving, Betina; Buttenschøn, Henriette Nørmølle; Foldager, Leslie

    2014-01-01

    in serum by immunoassay and independent determinants of the serum VEGF level were assessed by generalized linear models.The main findings were that depression, severity of depression, previous depressive episodes, age and body mass index (BMI) were associated with higher serum VEGF levels. The genetic...... marker rs10434 was significantly associated with depression after correction for multiple testing, but not with the serum VEGF level. Our final model included depression and BMI as predictors of serum VEGF levels. Our study suggests a role for circulating serum VEGF in depression. Furthermore, our data...

  4. Time Course of Leptin in Patients with Anorexia Nervosa during Inpatient Treatment: Longitudinal Relationships to BMI and Psychological Factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Stroe-Kunold

    Full Text Available Leptin, a hormone secreted by adipose tissue, appears to play a major role in the homeostasis of body weight and psychobiological processes associated with anorexia nervosa (AN. However, there is scarce data on its exact influence on this disorder, in particular data over time.The present study addresses whether leptin changes during inpatient treatment play a role for treatment outcome and psychological factors in underweight AN patients.In order to understand whether leptin's role differs in relation to AN severity, data were assessed from 11 patients with a very low BMI and a higher chronicity (high severity group; HSS; mean BMI at the beginning of the study = 13.6; mean duration of illness = 5.1 years vs. nine with less severe symptoms (LSS; mean BMI = 16.2; mean duration of illness = 3.7 years. During the course of treatment, serum leptin concentrations were assessed weekly while weight (BMI was assessed twice per week. Concomitantly, psychological variables were obtained by means of electronic diaries. Unconditional linear growth models were calculated to evaluate the temporal course of leptin in relation to BMI. For HSS patients, two phases of treatment (BMI < 16 and BMI ≥ 16 kg/m2 were investigated.Leptin increased significantly with BMI in both groups of patients. For HSS patients, the increase of leptin in the first treatment phase did not predict later increases in BMI. Furthermore, the relationship of leptin and psychological factors was modulated by symptom severity. In HSS patients, higher leptin levels were associated with greater feelings of depression, anxiety, and stress whereas in LSS patients a higher leptin level showed the trend to be associated with lower psychological symptom burden.Our results suggest that leptin changes are differently associated with weight gain and psychological symptoms depending on the severity of starvation.

  5. Adrenocortical regulation, eating in the absence of hunger and BMI in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, L A; Granger, D A; Susman, E J

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine relations among adrenocortical regulation, eating in the absence of hunger, and body mass index (BMI) in children ages 5-9years (N=43). Saliva was collected before and after the Trier Social Stress Test for Children (TSST-C), and was later assayed for cortisol. Area under the curve with respect to increase (AUCi) was used as a measure of changes in cortisol release from baseline to 60min post-TSST-C. Age- and sex-specific BMI scores were calculated from measured height and weight, and eating in the absence of hunger was assessed using weighed food intake during a behavioral procedure. We also included a measure of parents' report of child impulsivity, as well as family demographic information. Participants were stratified by age into younger (5-7years) and older (8-9years) groups. In younger children, parents' reports of child impulsivity were significantly and positively associated with BMI; cortisol AUCi was not associated with BMI or eating in the absence of hunger. In older children, however, greater stress-related cortisol AUCi was related to higher BMI scores and greater energy intake in the absence of hunger. The results suggest that cortisol AUCi in response to psychosocial stress may be linked to problems with energy balance in children, with some variation by age. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Gender and Stress Perception Based Differences in BMI, Hormonal Response and Appetite in Adult Pakistani Population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haque, Z.; Haleem, D. J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate and compare the gender based variations in stress perception induced changes in leptin, cortisol and serotonin (5-HT) trends, appetite and Body Mass Index (BMI). Study Design: An analytical comparative study. Place and Duration of Study: Neurochemistry Laboratory, University of Karachi, from January to August 2013. Methodology: Appetite, BMI and serum leptin, cortisol, and 5-HT were measured in 100 men and women of aged 30 - 60 years, working in teaching institutes of Karachi, to evaluate gender based, stress perception induced variations. The samples were identified by stratified random technique. The chemical variables were estimated through ELISA. Results were analysed using one-way ANOVA and multivariate general linear model using SPSS version 17. Results: Mean stress perception, BMI and serum leptin levels were significantly more in women (p < 0.05). Serum cortisol and 5-HT were found significantly reduced in women (p < 0.05). BMI, serum cortisol and leptin were found to be increased with increasing level of stress perception (p < 0.05). VAS for hunger and desire to eat as the measure of appetite was significantly higher in men (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Stress perception attenuates the positive effect of cortisol and negative effects of leptin and 5-HT on appetite through changes in their circulatory levels. Women perceive more stress and exhibit significantly attenuated changes in hormonal levels and appetite which may be the contributing factor towards obesity. Increased BMI in women despite decreased appetite merits more studies. (author)

  7. Sexual Orientation Disparities in BMI among US Adolescents and Young Adults in Three Race/Ethnicity Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabra L. Katz-Wise

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a key public health issue for US youth. Previous research with primarily white samples of youth has indicated that sexual minority females have higher body mass index (BMI and sexual minority males have lower BMI than their same-gender heterosexual counterparts, with sexual orientation differences in males increasing across adolescence. This research explored whether gender and sexual orientation differences in BMI exist in nonwhite racial/ethnic groups. Using data from Waves I–IV (1995–2009 of the US National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 13,306, ages 11–34 years, we examined associations between sexual orientation and BMI (kg/m2 over time, using longitudinal linear regression models, stratified by gender and race/ethnicity. Data were analyzed in 2013. Among males, heterosexual individuals showed greater one-year BMI gains than gay males across all race/ethnicity groups. Among females, white and Latina bisexual individuals had higher BMI than same-race/ethnicity heterosexual individuals regardless of age; there were no sexual orientation differences in black/African Americans. Sexual orientation disparities in BMI are a public health concern across race/ethnicity groups. Interventions addressing unhealthy weight gain in youth must be relevant for all sexual orientations and race/ethnicities.

  8. The Role of BMI Change on Smoking Abstinence in a Sample of HIV-Infected Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritz, Ellen R.; Kypriotakis, George; Arduino, Roberto C.; Vidrine, Damon J.

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of cigarette smoking among persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) is approximately 40%, significantly higher than that of the general population. Identifying predictors of successful smoking cessation for PLWHA is necessary to alleviate the morbidity and mortality associated with smoking in this population. Weight gain has been associated with smoking relapse in the general population, but has not been studied among PLWHA. Data from 474 PLWHA enrolled in a smoking cessation randomized clinical trial were analyzed to examine the effect of BMI change, from baseline to 3-month follow-up, on smoking outcomes using multiple logistic regression. The odds of 7-day smoking abstinence at 3-month follow-up were 4.22 (95% CI=1.65, 10.82) times higher for participants classified as BMI decrease and 4.22 (95% CI=1.62, 11.01) times higher for participants classified as BMI increase as compared to participants with a minimal increase or decrease in BMI. In this sample, both weight gain and loss following smoking cessation were significantly associated with abstinence at 3-month follow-up among HIV-infected smokers. Further research and a better understanding of predictors of abstinence will encourage more tailored interventions, with the potential to reduce morbidity and mortality. PMID:26666313

  9. BMI, total and abdominal fat distribution, and cardiovascular risk factors in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gishti, Olta; Gaillard, Romy; Durmus, Busra; Abrahamse, Marieke; van der Beek, Eline M; Hofman, Albert; Franco, Oscar H; de Jonge, Layla L; Jaddoe, Vincent W V

    2015-05-01

    More specific total body and abdominal fat mass measures might be stronger associated with cardiovascular risk factors in childhood, than BMI. We examined the independent associations of total and abdominal fat measures with cardiovascular risk factors in school age children. We performed a population-based cohort study among 6,523 children. At the age of 6 y, we measured childhood BMI, and general and abdominal fat mass, using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and ultrasound and cardiovascular risk factors. Conditional on BMI, higher fat mass percentage and abdominal fat mass were associated with higher blood pressure, total- and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, insulin and c-peptide levels, but with lower left ventricular mass and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol (P values children. Higher childhood adiposity measures were associated with increased odds of cardiovascular risk factors clustering, with the strongest effect for fat mass percentage (odds ratios: 3.01 (95% confidence interval: 2.67, 3.9). Our results suggest that general and abdominal fat measures are associated with cardiovascular risk factors in childhood, independent from BMI. These measures may provide additional information for identification of children with an adverse cardiovascular profile.

  10. BMI-1 suppression increases the radiosensitivity of oesophageal carcinoma via the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xing-Xiao; Ma, Ming; Sang, Mei-Xiang; Zhang, Xue-Yuan; Liu, Zhi-Kun; Song, Heng; Zhu, Shu-Chai

    2018-02-01

    B-cell‑specific Moloney murine leukaemia virus integration site-1 (BMI-1) contributes to the growth of tumour cells post-irradiation (IR). The aim of the present study was to characterize the effects of BMI-1 on cell viability, radiosensitivity and its mechanisms of action in oesophageal squamous cell cancer (ESCC). Western blotting and immunohistochemistry were employed to evaluate the protein expression of BMI-1 in ESCC cells and specimens, respectively. Additionally, the protein expression levels of BMI-1, H2AK119ub and γH2AX in ESCC cells were detected following different doses of IR and at different times after IR. The protein expression levels of MDC1 and 53BP1 were also measured. Flow cytometry and MTT assays were used to determine cell cycle progression, apoptosis and cell viability. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 and the agonist IGF-1 were employed to suppress or induce the phosphorylation of Akt to determine whether BMI-1 induces radioresistance in ESCC cells via activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway. The expression of BMI-1 was higher in ESCC tissues and cells compared with that in normal oesophageal tissues and cells. In addition, BMI-1 was positively related to tumour size and lymph node metastases and negatively to the overall survival of ESCC patients. IR induced the expression of BMI-1, H2AK119ub and γH2AX in a dose- and time-dependent manner. BMI-1 knockdown lowered the expression of γH2AX, MDC1 and 53BP1, suppressed cell viability and increased radiosensitivity. G2/M phase arrest was eliminated; this was followed by an increased proportion of cells entering the G0/G1 phase after IR and BMI-1 knockdown via the upregulation of P16 and downregulation of cyclin D2 and cyclin-dependent kinase-4. Moreover, BMI-1 knockdown increased cell apoptosis, downregulated MCL-1 and p-Akt and upregulated Bax. Additionally, the inhibitory effect of the downregulation of p-Akt by LY294002 on tumour cell viability was identical to that of

  11. Longitudinal Analysis of Genetic Susceptibility and BMI Throughout Adult Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mingyang; Zheng, Yan; Qi, Lu; Hu, Frank B; Chan, Andrew T; Giovannucci, Edward L

    2018-02-01

    Little is known about the genetic influence on BMI trajectory throughout adulthood. We created a genetic risk score (GRS) comprising 97 adult BMI-associated variants among 9,971 women and 6,405 men of European ancestry. Serial measures of BMI were assessed from 18 (women) or 21 (men) years to 85 years of age. We also examined BMI change in early (from 18 or 21 to 45 years of age), middle (from 45 to 65 years of age), and late adulthood (from 65 to 80 years of age). GRS was positively associated with BMI across all ages, with stronger associations in women than in men. The associations increased from early to middle adulthood, peaked at 45 years of age in men and at 60 years of age in women (0.91 and 1.35 kg/m 2 per 10-allele increment, respectively) and subsequently declined in late adulthood. For women, each 10-allele increment in the GRS was associated with an average BMI gain of 0.54 kg/m 2 in early adulthood, whereas no statistically significant association was found for BMI change in middle or late adulthood or for BMI change in any life period in men. Our findings indicate that genetic predisposition exerts a persistent effect on adiposity throughout adult life and increases early adulthood weight gain in women. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  12. BMI may underestimate the socioeconomic gradient in true obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, G.; van Eijsden, M.; Vrijkotte, T. G. M.; Gemke, R. J. B. J.

    2013-01-01

    Body mass index (BMI) does not make a distinction between fat mass and lean mass. In children, high fat mass appears to be associated with low maternal education, as well as low lean mass because maternal education is associated with physical activity. Therefore, BMI might underestimate true obesity

  13. Optimum BMI cut points to screen asian americans for type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araneta, Maria Rosario G; Kanaya, Alka M; Hsu, William C; Chang, Healani K; Grandinetti, Andrew; Boyko, Edward J; Hayashi, Tomoshige; Kahn, Steven E; Leonetti, Donna L; McNeely, Marguerite J; Onishi, Yukiko; Sato, Kyoko K; Fujimoto, Wilfred Y

    2015-05-01

    Asian Americans manifest type 2 diabetes at low BMI levels but may not undergo diagnostic testing for diabetes if the currently recommended BMI screening cut point of ≥25 kg/m(2) is followed. We aimed to ascertain an appropriate lower BMI cut point among Asian-American adults without a prior diabetes diagnosis. We consolidated data from 1,663 participants, ages ≥45 years, without a prior diabetes diagnosis, from population- and community-based studies, including the Mediators of Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America study, the North Kohala Study, the Seattle Japanese American Community Diabetes Study, and the University of California San Diego Filipino Health Study. Clinical measures included a 2-h 75-g oral glucose tolerance test, BMI, and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Mean age was 59.7 years, mean BMI was 25.4 kg/m(2), 58% were women, and type 2 diabetes prevalence (American Diabetes Association 2010 criteria) was 16.9%. At BMI ≥25 kg/m(2), sensitivity (63.7%), specificity (52.8%), and Youden index (0.16) values were low; limiting screening to BMI ≥25 kg/m(2) would miss 36% of Asian Americans with type 2 diabetes. For screening purposes, higher sensitivity is desirable to minimize missing cases, especially if the diagnostic test is relatively simple and inexpensive. At BMI ≥23 kg/m(2), sensitivity (84.7%) was high in the total sample and by sex and Asian-American subgroup and would miss only ∼15% of Asian Americans with diabetes. The BMI cut point for identifying Asian Americans who should be screened for undiagnosed type 2 diabetes should be <25 kg/m(2), and ≥23 kg/m(2) may be the most practical. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  14. Are BMI and Sedentariness Correlated? A Multilevel Study in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thayse Natacha Gomes

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between body mass index (BMI and sedentariness (Sed in children and to examine the influence of child and school correlates on their variation. The sample comprises 580 children (337 girls, 9–11 years. Sedentariness was assessed with an accelerometer, and BMI was computed. Child- and school-level covariates were analyzed using multilevel models. No significant correlation between Sed and BMI was found. School context explains 5% and 1.5% of the total variance in Sed and BMI, respectively. At the child level, only moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was associated with both Sed (β = −0.02 ± 0.002 and BMI (β = −0.005 ± 0.002. Sleep time is related to Sed (β = −0.42 ± 0.04, while sex (β = 1.97 ± 0.13, biological maturity (β = 1.25 ± 0.07, media in the bedroom (β = 0.26 ± 0.08 and healthy (β = −0.09 ± 0.03 and unhealthy (β = −0.07 ± 0.04 diet scores were associated with BMI. None of the school-level covariates were related to BMI, but access to cafeteria (β = −0.97 ± 0.25, playground equipment (β = −0.67 ± 0.20 and restaurants (β = 0.16 ± 0.08 were related to Sed. In conclusion, Sed and BMI were not correlated. Further, they have different correlates, while children’s traits seem to play more relevant roles in their differences in Sed and BMI than the school milieu. This information should be taken into account when strategies to reduce Sed and BMI are implemented.

  15. Trajectories of BMI from early childhood through early adolescence: SES and psychosocial predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Sean P; Bluestone, Cheryl; Burke, Christopher T

    2013-02-01

    This study examined the ways in which body mass index (BMI) percentile - an identified risk factor for overweight and cardiovascular disease in adulthood - develops from birth through early adolescence. In addition, we examined whether psychosocial factors, such as parenting style and maternal depression, mediated the link between socio-economic status (SES) and BMI growth. Design. Data were obtained from phases 1-3 of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD) - a longitudinal study that followed children from 10 communities in the United States from birth to age 11. We applied growth mixture models to identify distinct subtypes of BMI development. Within these models, we performed between- and within-class mediation analyses to examine whether SES predicted class membership or differences in development within each class via maternal depression and parenting styles. Results identified three prototypic trajectories of BMI percentile growth, elevated, steady increase, and stable. We found evidence for both between- and within-class mediation, suggesting multiple pathways by which SES can affect BMI development. These findings add to the research that suggests that being in a family with a low SES is associated with falling into patterns of development characterized by early and lasting increases in BMI relative to one's peers, and that this association is partly accounted for by maternal depression and parenting styles. What is already known? Past research has found evidence that patterns of childhood overweight are impacted by socioeconomic status through psychosocial factors like parenting and depression. This evidence is often limited to individual points in time where neglectful, permissive, and authoritarian parenting and higher levels of maternal depression are associated with higher levels of overweight status among children from infancy to adolescence. However, little

  16. The relationship between BMI and striatal dopamine transporter with 99Tcm-TRODAT-1 brain SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Rongbin; Liu Xingdang; Liu Congjin; Wang Yuankai; Zhang Guangming; Tang Jie; Chen Zhengqing; Luo Shineng

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the relationship between the BMI and the brain DAT, and the influence of BMI on the brain SPECT imaging with 99 Tc m -TRODAT-1. Methods: MRI and 99 Tc m -TRODAT-1SPECT imaging were performed in 31 healthy volunteers (16 males and 15 females), and then the three-dimensional reconstruction of SPECT images were completed. Based on the MRI images, right striatum (RST) and the left striatum (LST) were drawn as ROI on the 4 most clearly consecutive transverse slices.The cerebellum (CB) was taken as the background reference area and the corresponding uptake ratios of ST/CB, LST/CB and RST/CB were calculated. The Pearson correlation tests for radio-uptake ratios (ST/CB, LST/CB, RST/CB), BMI and age were performed, Then multiple linear regression analysis using ST/CB as dependent variable and BMI and age as independent variables was performed. SPSS 15.0 was used in data analysis. Results: The ST imaging was symmetrical. The radioactivity was higher in the ST front area than that of the back area. The average uptake ratios of ST/CB, LST/CB, RST/CB were 1.71±0.16,1.70±0.16 and 1.72±0.17 respectively, in which the three ratios of the female were 1.74±0.18, 1.71±0.19 and 1.76±0.19 respectively and those of the male were 1.68±0.14, 1.68±0.13 and 1.69±0.15 respectively. ST/CB, LST/CB and RST/CB were negatively correlated with patients' BMI (r = -0.53, -0.57, -0.47, all P<0.05). The ST/CB was negatively correlated with patients' age (r=-0.39, P=0.03). The multiple linear regression analysis showed that the BMI was significant independent variable (β=-0.53, t= -3.36, P=0.002). Conclusions: The ST DAT level may decrease as patients' BMI and age increase. Females' DAT level is slightly higher than males'. For ST DAT imaging, age, gender and BMI should be all taken into consideration. (authors)

  17. Is BMI a valid measure of obesity in postmenopausal women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banack, Hailey R; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Hovey, Kathleen M; Stokes, Andrew

    2018-03-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is a widely used indicator of obesity status in clinical settings and population health research. However, there are concerns about the validity of BMI as a measure of obesity in postmenopausal women. Unlike BMI, which is an indirect measure of obesity and does not distinguish lean from fat mass, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) provides a direct measure of body fat and is considered a gold standard of adiposity measurement. The goal of this study is to examine the validity of using BMI to identify obesity in postmenopausal women relative to total body fat percent measured by DXA scan. Data from 1,329 postmenopausal women participating in the Buffalo OsteoPerio Study were used in this analysis. At baseline, women ranged in age from 53 to 85 years. Obesity was defined as BMI ≥ 30 kg/m and body fat percent (BF%) greater than 35%, 38%, or 40%. We calculated sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value to evaluate the validity of BMI-defined obesity relative BF%. We further explored the validity of BMI relative to BF% using graphical tools, such as scatterplots and receiver-operating characteristic curves. Youden's J index was used to determine the empirical optimal BMI cut-point for each level of BF% defined obesity. The sensitivity of BMI-defined obesity was 32.4% for 35% body fat, 44.6% for 38% body fat, and 55.2% for 40% body fat. Corresponding specificity values were 99.3%, 97.1%, and 94.6%, respectively. The empirical optimal BMI cut-point to define obesity is 24.9 kg/m for 35% BF, 26.49 kg/m for 38% BF, and 27.05 kg/m for 40% BF according to the Youden's index. Results demonstrate that a BMI cut-point of 30 kg/m does not appear to be an appropriate indicator of true obesity status in postmenopausal women. Empirical estimates of the validity of BMI from this study may be used by other investigators to account for BMI-related misclassification in older women.

  18. How Does the Relationship Between Motor Skill Performance and Body Mass Index Impact Physical Activity in Preschool Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Haixia; Schenkelberg, Michaela A; O'Neill, Jennifer R; Dowda, Marsha; Pate, Russell R

    2018-05-01

    To determine if weight status modifies the relationship between motor skill (MS) performance and physical activity (PA) in preschoolers. Preschoolers (N = 227, age 3-5 y) were recruited from 22 preschools. Preschoolers' MS (locomotor, object control, and total MS) were assessed with the Children's Activity and Movement in Preschool Study MS protocol. PA was measured by accelerometry. Mixed linear models were used to examine the relationship of MS performance and body mass index (BMI) z score to PA. Models were adjusted for age, race, sex, and parent education, with preschool as a random effect. There was a significant correlation between MS performance and PA (r = .14-.17, P < .05). A significant interaction was observed between BMI z score and object control, and between BMI z score and total MS score on PA (P = .03). Preschoolers with higher BMI z scores and high object control scores engaged in significantly (P = .03) more PA than preschoolers with lower BMI z scores and high object control scores (PA = 15.04 min/h and 13.54 min/h, respectively). Similarly, preschoolers with higher BMI z scores and high total MS scores spent significantly (P = .01) more time in PA compared with those with lower BMI z scores and high total MS scores (PA = 15.65 min/h and 13.91 min/h, respectively). Preschool children's MS performance is positively correlated with PA, and BMI z score modified the relationship between MS performance and PA.

  19. BMI1 loss delays photoreceptor degeneration in Rd1 mice. Bmi1 loss and neuroprotection in Rd1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zencak, Dusan; Crippa, Sylvain V; Tekaya, Meriem; Tanger, Ellen; Schorderet, Daniel E; Munier, Francis L; van Lohuizen, Maarten; Arsenijevic, Yvan

    2006-01-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a heterogeneous group of genetic disorders leading to blindness, which remain untreatable at present. Rd1 mice represent a recognized model of RP, and so far only GDNF treatment provided a slight delay in the retinal degeneration in these mice. Bmi1, a transcriptional repressor, has recently been shown to be essential for neural stem cell (NSC) renewal in the brain, with an increased appearance of glial cells in vivo in Bmi1 knockout (Bmi1-/-) mice. One of the roles of glial cells is to sustain neuronal function and survival. In the view of a role of the retinal Miller glia as a source of neural protection in the retina, the increased astrocytic population in the Bmi1-/- brain led us to investigate the effect of Bmi1 loss in Rd1 mice. We observed an increase of Müller glial cells in Rd1-Bmi1-/- retinas compared to Rd1. Moreover, Rd1-Bmi1-/- mice showed 7-8 rows of photoreceptors at 30 days of age (P30), while in Rd1 littermates there was a complete disruption of the outer nuclear layer (ONL). Preliminary ERG results showed a responsiveness of Rd1-Bmi1-/- mice in scotopic vision at P35. In conclusion, Bmi1 loss prevented, or rescued, photoreceptors from degeneration to an unanticipated extent in Rd1 mice. In this chapter, we will first provide a brief review of our work on the cortical NSCs and introduce the Bmi1 oncogene, thus offering a rational to our observations on the retina.

  20. Evaluation of the Relationship between Mitral Valve Prolapse (MVP and Body Mass Index (BMI: A Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Samim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mitral valve prolapse (MVP is a valvular heart disease in which the two valve flaps of the mitral valve do not close equally, and part of the mitral valve slips backward loosely into the left atrium during systole. In general, MVP is associated with low body mass index (BMI, as confirmed by several studies. However, the reason for the higher prevalence of MVP in patients with low BMI remains unknown. Objectives: There is no reliable evidence on the role of genetics or pathophysiological factors in this correlation, and the hypothesis that the size of BMI may lead to MVP or vice versa has not yet been established. Materials and Methods: In this study, all the articles were evaluated in terms of the inclusion criteria. In total, we found 546 articles via PubMed and Google scholar, out of which 30 articles were mainly focusing on MVP, MVR as the major complication of MVP, and BMI, which were included in this systematic review. Results: Among these reviewed studies, patients with MVP had a lower BMI score compared to the subjects without MVP. The low and high BMI score were 28±5 kg/m and 31±6 kg/m, respectively. Conclusions: In the present study, we concluded that low BMI is directly associated with the occurrence of MVP.

  1. The role of diabetes mellitus and BMI in the surgical treatment of ankle fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzetti, Riccardo Maria; Lupariello, Domenico; Venditto, Teresa; Guzzini, Matteo; Ponzo, Antonio; De Carli, Angelo; Ferretti, Andrea

    2018-02-01

    Open reduction and internal fixation is the standard treatment for displaced ankle fractures. However, the presence of comorbidities such as diabetes mellitus and body mass index (BMI) are associated with poor bone quality, and these factors may predict the development of postoperative complications. The study aim was to assess the role of diabetes mellitus and BMI in wound healing in patients younger than 65 years who were surgically treated for malleoli fractures. Ninety patients, aged from 18 to 65 years old, with surgically treated ankle fracture, were retrospectively enrolled. Patients were classified in two groups: patient with diabetes and patients without diabetes (insulin-dependent and noninsulin dependent). All patients were assessed for wound complications, Visual Analogue Scale and Foot and Ankle Disability Index (FADI) were assessed for all patients. Logistic regression was used to identify the risk of wound complications after surgery using the following factors as explanatory variables: age, gender, duration of surgery, BMI, hypercholesterolemia, smoking history, diabetes mellitus, and high blood pressure. In total, 38.9% of patients showed wound complications. Of them, 17.1% were nondiabetics and 82.9% were diabetics. We observed a significant association between DM and wound complications after surgery (P = .005). Logistic regression analysis revealed that DM (P BMI (P = .03) were associated with wound complications. The odds of having a postoperative wound complication were increased 0.16 times in the presence of diabetes and 1.14 times for increasing BMI. This study showed that diabetes mellitus and higher BMI delay the wound healing and increase the complication rate in young adult patients with surgically treated bimalleolar fractures. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Gender expression associated with BMI in a prospective cohort study of US adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryn Austin, S; Ziyadeh, Najat J; Calzo, Jerel P; Sonneville, Kendrin R; Kennedy, Grace A; Roberts, Andrea L; Haines, Jess; Scherer, Emily A

    2016-02-01

    To examine the relationship between gender expression (GE) and BMI in adolescence. Repeated measures of weight-related behaviors and BMI were collected from 1996 to 2011 via annual/biennial self-report surveys from youth aged 10 to 23 years (6,693 females, 2,978 males) in the longitudinal Growing Up Today Study. GE (very conforming [referent], mostly conforming, nonconforming) was assessed in 2010/11. Sex-stratified, multivariable linear models estimated GE group differences in BMI and the contribution of sexual orientation and weight-related exposures to group differences. Models for males included interaction terms for GE with age. In females, mostly conforming youth had 0.53 kg m(-2) and nonconforming had 1.23 kg m(-2) higher BMI; when adding adjustment for sexual orientation and weight-related exposures, GE group estimates were attenuated up to 8% and remained statistically significant. In males, mostly conforming youth had -0.67 kg m(-2) and nonconforming had -1.99 kg m(-2) lower BMI (age [in years]) interactions were between -0.09 and -0.14 kg m(-2) ; when adding adjustment for sexual orientation and weight-related exposures, GE group estimates were attenuated up to 11% and remained statistically significant. GE is a strong independent predictor of BMI in adolescence. Obesity prevention and treatment interventions with youth must address ways that gender norms may reinforce or undermine healthful behaviors. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  3. Prediction of BMI by impulsivity, eating behavior and activity level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Xiaxia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Discuss the relationship between the impulsivity, eating behavior and activity level and the body mass index (BMI. Method: Test 147 female college students with the impulsivity questionnaire (BIS-11 and BIS/BAS, Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DBEQ, Sitting Time Scale (STS and Exercising Time Scale (ETS. Results: (1 The correlation analysis indicates that BMI and impulsivity (r = 0.43 and 0.52 have a significant positive correlation with the sitting time (r = 0.61 and a significant negative correlation with the activity level (r= −0.49. (2 The path analysis indicates that the reward sensitivity directly affects BMI and indirectly affects BMI through the activity level as well; the eating behavior has an insignificantly direct impact on BMI, because its impact is generated by the intermediary role of induced diet. Conclusion: (1 The impulsivity, eating behavior and activity level are closely related to BMI; (2 the activity level, sitting time and induced diet play an intermediary role between the impulsivity and BMI.

  4. Bmi-1: At the crossroads of physiological and pathological biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Resham; Mustafi, Soumyajit Banerjee; Street, Mark; Dey, Anindya; Dwivedi, Shailendra Kumar Dhar

    2015-01-01

    Bmi-1 is a member of the Polycomb Repressor Complex1 that mediates gene silencing by regulating chromatin structure and is indispensable for self-renewal of both normal and cancer stem cells. Despite three decades of research that have elucidated the transcriptional regulation, post-translational modifications and functions of Bmi-1 in regulating the DNA damage response, cellular bioenergetics, and pathologies, the entire potential of a protein with such varied function remains to be realized. This review attempts to synthesize the current knowledge on Bmi-1 with an emphasis on its role in both normal physiology and cancer. Additionally, since cancer stem cells are emerging as a new paradigm for therapy resistance, the role of Bmi-1 in this perspective is also highlighted. The wide spectrum of malignancies that implicate Bmi-1 as a signature for stemness and oncogenesis also make it a suitable candidate for therapy. Nonetheless new approaches are vitally needed to further characterize physiological roles of Bmi-1 with the long-term goal of using Bmi-1 as a prognostic marker and a therapeutic target. PMID:26448339

  5. Prospective associations between sedentary lifestyle and BMI in midlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Laust H; Siegler, Ilene C; Barefoot, John C; Grønbaek, Morten; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2006-08-01

    A strong positive cross-sectional relationship between BMI and a sedentary lifestyle has been consistently observed in numerous studies. However, it has been questioned whether high BMI is a determinant or a consequence of a sedentary lifestyle. Using data from four follow-ups of the University of North Carolina Alumni Heart Study, we examined the prospective associations between BMI and sedentary lifestyle in a cohort of 4595 middle-aged men and women who had responded to questionnaires at the ages of 41 (standard deviation 2.3), 44 (2.3), 46 (2.0), and 54 (2.0). BMI was consistently related to increased risk of becoming sedentary in both men and women. The odds ratios of becoming sedentary as predicted by BMI were 1.04 (95% confidence limits, 1.00, 1.07) per 1 kg/m(2) from ages 41 to 44, 1.10 (1.07, 1.14) from ages 44 to 46, and 1.12 (1.08, 1.17) from ages 46 to 54. Controlling for concurrent changes in BMI marginally attenuated the effects. Sedentary lifestyle did not predict changes in BMI, except when concurrent changes in physical activity were taken into account (p sedentary lifestyle but did not provide unambiguous evidence for an effect of sedentary lifestyle on weight gain.

  6. Parental nonstandard work schedules during infancy and children's BMI trajectories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Zilanawala

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Empirical evidence has demonstrated adverse associations between parental nonstandard work schedules (i.e., evenings, nights, or weekends and child developmental outcomes. However, there are mixed findings concerning the relationship between parental nonstandard employment and children's body mass index (BMI, and few studies have incorporated information on paternal work schedules. Objective: This paper investigated BMI trajectories from early to middle childhood (ages 3-11 by parental work schedules at 9 months of age, using nationally representative cohort data from the United Kingdom. This study is the first to examine the link between nonstandard work schedules and children's BMI in the United Kingdom. Methods: We used data from the Millennium Cohort Study (2001‒2013, n = 13,021 to estimate trajectories in BMI, using data from ages 3, 5, 7, and 11 years. Joint parental work schedules and a range of biological, socioeconomic, and psychosocial covariates were assessed in the initial interviews at 9 months. Results: Compared to children in two-parent families where parents worked standard shifts, we found steeper BMI growth trajectories for children in two-parent families where both parents worked nonstandard shifts and children in single-parent families whose mothers worked a standard shift. Fathers' shift work, compared to standard shifts, was independently associated with significant increases in BMI. Conclusions: Future public health initiatives focused on reducing the risk of rapid BMI gain in childhood can potentially consider the disruptions to family processes resulting from working nonstandard hours. Contribution: Children in families in which both parents work nonstandard schedules had steeper BMI growth trajectories across the first decade of life. Fathers' nonstandard shifts were independently associated with increases in BMI.

  7. Cost of fertility treatment and live birth outcome in women of different ages and BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Shilpi; McLernon, David J; Scotland, Graham; Mollison, Jill; Wordsworth, Sarah; Bhattacharya, Siladitya

    2014-10-10

    What is the impact of different age and BMI groups on total investigation and treatment costs in women attending a secondary/tertiary care fertility clinic? Women in their early to mid-30s and women with normal BMI had higher cumulative investigation and treatment costs, but also higher probability of live birth. Female age and BMI have been used as criteria for rationing publically funded fertility treatments. Population-based data on the costs of investigating and treating infertility are lacking. A retrospective cohort study of 2463 women was conducted in a single secondary/tertiary care fertility clinic in Aberdeen, Scotland from 1998 to 2008. Participants included all women living in a defined geographical area referred from primary care to a specialized fertility clinic over an 11-year period. Women were followed up for 5 years or until live birth if this occurred sooner. Mean discounted cumulative National Health Service costs (expressed in 2010/2011 GBP) of fertility investigations, treatments (including all types of assisted reproduction), and pregnancy (including delivery episode) and neonatal admissions were calculated and summarized by age (≤ 30, 31-35, 36-40, >40 years) and BMI groupings (years, with 694 (55.1%) of these being natural conceptions. The live birth rate was highest among women in the youngest age group (64.3%), and lowest in those aged >40 years (13.4%). Overall live birth rates were generally lower in women with BMI >30 kg/m(2). The total costs of investigations were generally highest among women younger than 30 years (£491 in those with normal BMI), whilst treatment costs tended to be higher in 31-35 year olds (£1,840 in those with normal BMI). Multivariate modelling predicted a cost increase associated with treatment which was highest among women in the lowest BMI group (across all ages), and also highest among women aged 31-35 years. The increase in the predicted probability of live birth with exposure to treatment was consistent

  8. PPARγ Pro12Ala and ACE ID polymorphisms are associated with BMI and fat distribution, but not metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Passaro Angela

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolic Syndrome (MetS results from the combined effect of environmental and genetic factors. We investigated the possible association of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ2 (PPARγ2 Pro12Ala and Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE I/D polymorphisms with MetS and interaction between these genetic variants. Methods Three hundred sixty four unrelated Caucasian subjects were enrolled. Waist circumference, blood pressure, and body mass index (BMI were recorded. Body composition was estimated by impedance analysis; MetS was diagnosed by the NCEP-ATPIII criteria. A fasting blood sample was obtained for glucose, insulin, lipid profile determination, and DNA isolation for genotyping. Results The prevalence of MetS did not differ across PPARγ2 or ACE polymorphisms. Carriers of PPARγ2 Ala allele had higher BMI and fat-mass but lower systolic blood pressure compared with Pro/Pro homozygotes. A significant PPARγ2 gene-gender interaction was observed in the modulation of BMI, fat mass, and blood pressure, with significant associations found in women only. A PPARγ2-ACE risk genotype combination for BMI and fat mass was found, with ACE DD/PPARγ2 Ala subjects having a higher BMI (p = 0.002 and Fat Mass (p = 0.002. Pro12Ala was independently associated with waist circumference independent of BMI and gender. Conclusions Carriers of PPARγ2 Ala allele had higher BMI and fat-mass but not a worse metabolic profile, possibly because of a more favorable adipose tissue distribution. A gene interaction exists between Pro12Ala and ACE I/D on BMI and fat mass. Further studies are needed to assess the contribution of Pro12Ala polymorphism in adiposity distribution.

  9. Nutritional status (BMI in children suffering from asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šćepanović Anđelka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The research encompassed 708 children of both genders, aged 6 to 15. Three hundred and fifty four of the total number had been diagnosed with Asthma bronchiale, whereas the other half of the children were healthy and served as a control group. Their nutritional condition was determined on the basis of the percentile value of their BMI. Recent studies on the level of nutrition and its connection to asthma have shown contradictory results. This paper was aimed at estimating the nutritional level of sick children in relation to healthy ones. The data were analyzed in relation to group, gender and age by means of descriptive methods, univariate (analysis of variance - ANOVA and multivariate (multivariate analysis of variance - MANOVA, whereas the results were tested by Roy’s test (Pearson contingency coefficient χ, coefficient of multiple correlation R. It was determined that male children more frequently suffer from this disease than female children do. Both healthy and sick children were normally nourished. However, as regards the sick, the number of normally nourished was considerably lower, whereas the number of underweight was considerably higher, as well as those that were overweight. Intergroup differences in the distribution of certain levels of nutrition of male and female children occurred in only two non-sequential age groups, being later in boys than in girls. This uneven distribution is probably a consequence of the joint effects of environment factors, sickness and therapy.

  10. Gender and socioeconomic disparities in BMI trajectories in the Seychelles: a cohort analysis based on serial population-based surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossi Isabelle A

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between body mass index (BMI and socioeconomic status (SES tends to change over time and across populations. In this study, we examined, separately in men and women, whether the association between BMI and SES changed over successive birth cohorts in the Seychelles (Indian Ocean, African region. Methods We used data from all participants in three surveys conducted in 1989, 1994 and 2004 in independent random samples of the population aged 25-64 years in the Seychelles (N = 3'403. We used linear regression to model mean BMI according to age, cohort, SES and smoking status, allowing for a quadratic term for age to account for a curvilinear relation between BMI and age and interactions between SES and age and between SES and cohorts to test whether the relation between SES and BMI changed across subsequent cohorts. All analyses were performed separately in men and women. Results BMI increased with age in all birth cohorts. BMI was lower in men of low SES than high SES but was higher in women of low SES than high SES. In all SES categories, BMI increased over successive cohorts (1.24 kg/m2 in men and 1.51 kg/m2 for a 10-year increase in birth cohorts, p 2 and 2.46 kg/m2, p Conclusions Although large differences exist between men and women, social patterning of BMI did not change significantly over successive cohorts in this population of a middle-income country in the African region.

  11. The Relationship between BMI and DMFT/dmft among 7-11 Year-old Children in Yazd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Bahrololoomi

    2014-02-01

    Results: Mean of DMFT/dmft was 5.09 ± 1.95. Eighteen percent of children were at risk of overweight or were overweight. Children at risk of overweight and overweight children had a higher frequency of DMFT/dmft≥ 5P<0.001. Consumption of snacks and frequency of toothbrushing had a significant effect on this Index. Conclusion: This study showed a positive relationship between BMI and dental caries score, so that children with higher BMI had a higher DMFT/dmft. In Further research, this relationship should be investigated by longitudinal studies

  12. Decreased regional cerebral blood flow in the bilateral thalami and medulla oblongata determined by an easy Z-score (eZIS) analysis of (99m)Tc-ECD-SPECT images in a case of MM2-thalamic-type sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yuichi; Iwasaki, Yasushi; Yoshikura, Nobuaki; Asano, Takahiko; Hatano, Taku; Tatsumi, Shinsui; Satoh, Katsuya; Kimura, Akio; Kitamoto, Tetsuyuki; Yoshida, Mari; Inuzuka, Takashi

    2015-11-15

    We report a case of autopsy-verified MM2-thalamic-type sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) in a 46-year-old patient with a 16-month history of abnormal behavior, progressive dementia, insomnia, and speech disturbances without family history. Neurological examination revealed progressive dementia, frontal signs, insomnia, speech disturbance, gait disturbance and bilaterally exaggerated tendon reflexes. Both brain MRI and cerebrospinal fluid examinations, including 14-3-3 protein, yielded normal results. An easy Z-score (eZIS) analysis for (99m)Tc-ethyl cysteinate dimer-single photon emission computed tomography ((99m)Tc-ECD-SPECT) revealed decreased regional cerebral blood flow in the bilateral thalami and medulla oblongata. PRNP gene analysis revealed methionine homozygosity at codon 129 without mutation. Neuropathological examinations revealed severe neuronal loss, gliosis, and hypertrophic astrocytosis in the medial thalamus and inferior olivary nucleus. A slight depletion of Purkinje cells was observed. PrP immunostaining showed no obvious PrP deposits in the basal ganglia, thalamus, cerebellum, or brainstem; however, mild synaptic-type PrP deposits with some smaller plaque-like structures were only partially observed in the localized region of the frontal lobe with the spongiform change. Western blot analyses of protease-resistant PrP showed a type 2 pattern. In conclusion, eZIS analysis of (99m)Tc-ECD-SPECT images is useful for detecting both thalamic and medullary lesions. This is the first case of medullary lesions detected in a live patient with MM2-thalamic-type sCJD using SPECT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Education modifies genetic and environmental influences on BMI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Wendy; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Skytthe, Axel

    2011-01-01

    environmental correlations between education and BMI differed by level of education, analyzing women and men separately. Correlations between education and BMI were -.13 in women, -.15 in men. High BMI's were less frequent among well-educated participants, generating less variance. In women, this was due...... to restriction of all forms of variance, overall by a factor of about 2. In men, genetic variance did not vary with education, but results for shared and nonshared environmental variance were similar to those for women. The contributions of the shared environment to the correlations between education and BMI......Obesity is more common among the less educated, suggesting education-related environmental triggers. Such triggers may act differently dependent on genetic and environmental predisposition to obesity. In a Danish Twin Registry survey, 21,522 twins of same-sex pairs provided zygosity, height, weight...

  14. Alternative regression models to assess increase in childhood BMI

    OpenAIRE

    Beyerlein, Andreas; Fahrmeir, Ludwig; Mansmann, Ulrich; Toschke, André M

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Body mass index (BMI) data usually have skewed distributions, for which common statistical modeling approaches such as simple linear or logistic regression have limitations. Methods Different regression approaches to predict childhood BMI by goodness-of-fit measures and means of interpretation were compared including generalized linear models (GLMs), quantile regression and Generalized Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS). We analyzed data of 4967 childre...

  15. Normal thymus in adults: appearance on CT and associations with age, sex, BMI and smoking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, Tetsuro; Nishino, Mizuki; Hatabu, Hiroto; Gao, Wei; Dupuis, Josee; Hunninghake, Gary M.; Washko, George R.; Murakami, Takamichi; O'Connor, George T.

    2016-01-01

    To investigate CT appearance and size of the thymus in association with participant characteristics. 2540 supposedly healthy participants (mean age 58.9 years, 51 % female) were evaluated for the CT appearance of thymic glands with four-point scores (according to the ratio of fat and soft tissue), size and morphology. These were correlated with participants' age, sex, BMI and smoking history. Of 2540 participants, 1869 (74 %) showed complete fatty replacement of the thymus (Score 0), 463 (18 %) predominantly fatty attenuation (Score 1), 172 (7 %) half fatty and half soft-tissue attenuation (Score 2) and 36 (1 %) solid thymic gland with predominantly soft-tissue attenuation (Score 3). Female participants showed less fatty degeneration of the thymus with higher thymic scores within age 40-69 years (P < 0.001). Participants with lower thymic scores showed higher BMI (P < 0.001) and were more likely to be former smokers (P < 0.001) with higher pack-years (P = 0.04). Visual assessment with four-point thymic scores revealed a sex difference in the fatty degeneration of the thymus with age. Women show significantly higher thymic scores, suggesting less fat content of the thymus, during age 40-69 years. Cigarette smoking and high BMI are associated with advanced fatty replacement of the thymus. (orig.)

  16. Normal thymus in adults: appearance on CT and associations with age, sex, BMI and smoking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araki, Tetsuro [Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Center for Pulmonary Functional Imaging, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Kinki University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Osaka-Sayama (Japan); Nishino, Mizuki; Hatabu, Hiroto [Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Center for Pulmonary Functional Imaging, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Gao, Wei [Boston University School of Public Health, Department of Biostatistics, Boston, MA (United States); Dupuis, Josee [Boston University School of Public Health, Department of Biostatistics, Boston, MA (United States); The National Heart Lung and Blood Institute' s Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, MA (United States); Hunninghake, Gary M.; Washko, George R. [Harvard Medical School, The Pulmonary and Critical Care Division, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Murakami, Takamichi [Kinki University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Osaka-Sayama (Japan); O' Connor, George T. [The National Heart Lung and Blood Institute' s Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, MA (United States); Boston University School of Medicine, Pulmonary Center and Department of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-01-15

    To investigate CT appearance and size of the thymus in association with participant characteristics. 2540 supposedly healthy participants (mean age 58.9 years, 51 % female) were evaluated for the CT appearance of thymic glands with four-point scores (according to the ratio of fat and soft tissue), size and morphology. These were correlated with participants' age, sex, BMI and smoking history. Of 2540 participants, 1869 (74 %) showed complete fatty replacement of the thymus (Score 0), 463 (18 %) predominantly fatty attenuation (Score 1), 172 (7 %) half fatty and half soft-tissue attenuation (Score 2) and 36 (1 %) solid thymic gland with predominantly soft-tissue attenuation (Score 3). Female participants showed less fatty degeneration of the thymus with higher thymic scores within age 40-69 years (P < 0.001). Participants with lower thymic scores showed higher BMI (P < 0.001) and were more likely to be former smokers (P < 0.001) with higher pack-years (P = 0.04). Visual assessment with four-point thymic scores revealed a sex difference in the fatty degeneration of the thymus with age. Women show significantly higher thymic scores, suggesting less fat content of the thymus, during age 40-69 years. Cigarette smoking and high BMI are associated with advanced fatty replacement of the thymus. (orig.)

  17. Reduced cortical thickness associated with visceral fat and BMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Veit

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural brain imaging studies have shown that obesity is associated with widespread reductions in gray matter (GM volume. Although the body mass index (BMI is an easily accessible anthropometric measure, substantial health problems are more related to specific body fat compartments, like visceral adipose tissue (VAT. We investigated cortical thickness measures in a group of 72 healthy subjects (BMI range 20–35 kg/m2, age range 19–50 years. Multiple regression analyses were performed using VAT and BMI as predictors and age, gender, total surface area and education as confounds. BMI and VAT were independently associated with reductions in cortical thickness in clusters comprising the left lateral occipital area, the left inferior temporal cortex, and the left precentral and inferior parietal area, while the right insula, the left fusiform gyrus and the right inferior temporal area showed a negative correlation with VAT only. In addition, we could show significant reductions in cortical thickness with increasing VAT adjusted for BMI in the left temporal cortex. We were able to detect widespread cortical thinning in a young to middle-aged population related to BMI and VAT; these findings show close resemblance to studies focusing on GM volume differences in diabetic patients. This may point to the influence of VAT related adverse effects, like low-grade inflammation, as a potentially harmful factor on brain integrity already in individuals at risk of developing diabetes, metabolic syndromes and arteriosclerosis.

  18. Smoking and Socio-demographic correlates of BMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peizhi Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the current study was to examine the associations between Body Mass Index (BMI and socio-demographic factors and to examine the relationship between BMI, smoking status and ethnicity. Methods The Singapore Mental Health Study (SMHS surveyed Singapore Residents (Singapore Citizens and Permanent Residents aged 18 years old and above. BMI was calculated using height and weight which were self-reported by respondents. Socio-demographic characteristics and smoking status were recorded in a standardized data collection form. Results Six thousand and six hundred sixteen respondents completed the study (response rate of 75.9 % which constituted a representative sample of the adult resident population in Singapore. Ethnicity, gender and education status were associated with obesity. There was an interaction effect between ethnicity smoking status, and BMI. Indian and Malay smokers were less likely to be obese compared to Chinese smokers. The relationship between ethnicity and BMI was thus reversed when smoking was taken into account. Conclusions The study identified certain subgroups and risk factors that are associated with obesity. There is a need for further research to explore and identify genetic, metabolic and ethnic differences that underlie the interaction between ethnicity and smoking status which affects BMI.

  19. The relationship between the BMI and the emotional status of Alexandria University students, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Sadek, Heba A; Abu-Nazel, Mervat W; Shata, Zeinab N; Abd El-Fatah, Nesrin K

    2016-09-01

    Although the relationship between obesity and depression has been researched extensively, the relation of the wide range of body-weight problems, as indicated by the BMI, to emotional health problems has received little attention. To assess the rate of concomitant co-occurrence of emotional health and weight problems in Alexandria University students, and to investigate the relationship between their BMI and emotional status. A cross-sectional study was carried out on 842 university students (17-27 years), enrolled in four faculties of Alexandria University, Egypt, during the academic year 2012-2013. Participants of both sexes were interviewed to collect sociodemographic data. Weight and height were measured, and then the BMI was calculated and classified into underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese according to age-corresponding and sex-corresponding standards. The Arabic version of Depression Anxiety Stress Scales was used to assess the emotional status of students. The curve of fit was used to test the statistical quadratic trend. Co-occurrence of depression, anxiety, or stress with any weight problem was prevalent among 7.4, 6.7, and 9.6% of the students, respectively. Obese and underweight students recorded higher rates of emotional problems compared with normal and overweight students, revealing a U-shaped relationship between the BMI and emotional states (R=0.01). This relationship was significant only for anxiety and stress (Pstudents, where sex differences were evident. University preventive strategies and treatment services should address such alarming coexisting problems among youth.

  20. Smoking and BMI as a risk factor of cardiovascular disease at a doctors in Tuzla canton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merisa Imamović Kuluglić

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cardiovascular diseases are becoming the leading social and medical problem of civilization, given the trend indicates an increase of morbidity, disability and mortality from this diseases. The aim ofour study was to determine the frequency of smoking and increased BMI, as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in doctors in the Tuzla Canton and correlate values of BMI by the doctor smokers and nonsmokers.Methods: The study was conducted in 13 medical centers in the area of Tuzla canton in the second quarter of 2009. Two groups were formed by randomization of 150 doctors non-smokers and 150 doctors smokersfrom a total of 366 doctors of both sexes, age over 25 years. The study involved doctors who smoke tobacco 5 or more years. The methods of anthropometric measurements and questionnaires were used in study.Results: The results showed that the total number of doctors surveyed, 44.81% were smokers, with more women smokers (28.7% than men (21.3% smokers (p=0.011. We found that there is a signifi cant statistical difference between subjects with BMI higher than 25 and subjects with normal weight, in the group of smokers (p = 0.0001.Conclusion: It can be concluded that the frequency of smoking in the total number of surveyed doctors, is signifi cant. The increased value of BMI (over 25 is present in large number of subjects (with the larger percentage subjects of smokers.

  1. Restaurants in the Neighborhood, Eating Away from Home and BMI in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Tian

    Full Text Available To investigate the association between environmental risk factors, eating away from home, and increasing BMI of Chinese adults.Participants were selected from the recent four waves (2004, 2006, 2009, and 2011 of the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS. 10633 participants, including 5084 men and 5549 women, were used in the analysis. 24-h dietary recall data for three consecutive days with information on the time and place of consumption were collected. Nearby restaurants were measured by the number of fast food outlets, indoor restaurants, and food stands in the neighborhood. Random effects multivariable regression was used to assess associations between these variables.People living in neighborhoods with large numbers of indoor restaurants are more likely to eat away from home (p<0.05. Higher frequency of eating away from home is positively associated with BMI, but this effect is only significant for men (p<0.05. Moreover, while eating dinner or breakfast away from home contributes to BMI increase for men (p<0.05, no such association is found for lunch.Eating dinner and breakfast away from home is positively associated with BMI for Chinese men. Labeling energy and portion size for the dishes served in indoor restaurants is recommended in China.

  2. BMI and waist circumference; cross-sectional and prospective associations with blood pressure and cholesterol in 12-year-olds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marga B M Bekkers

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Childhood and adolescent overweight, defined by body mass index (BMI are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in later life. Abdominal adiposity may be more important in associations with cardiovascular diseases but waist circumference (WC has been rarely studied in children. We studied associations between BMI and WC and blood pressure (BP and cholesterol in 12-year-old children and prospectively changes in BMI or WC status between age 8 and 12 years and BP and cholesterol at age 12. STUDY DESIGN: Weight, height, WC, BP and cholesterol concentrations were measured in 1432 children at age 12 years. Linear regression was used to study the associations between high BMI and large WC (>90(th percentile and BP and cholesterol. RESULTS: Systolic BP was 4.9 mmHg higher (95% (CI 2.5, 7.2 in girls and 4.2 mmHg (95%CI 1.9, 6.5 in boys with a high BMI. Large WC was also associated with higher systolic BP in girls (3.7 mmHg (95%CI 1.3, 6.1 and boys (3.5 mmHg (95%CI 1.2, 5.8. Diastolic BP and cholesterol concentrations were significantly positively (HDL cholesterol negatively associated with high BMI and large WC, too. Normal weight children with a history of overweight did not have higher blood pressure levels or adverse cholesterol concentrations than children that were normal weight at both ages. CONCLUSION: A high BMI and large WC were associated with higher BP levels and adverse cholesterol concentrations. WC should be taken into account when examining cardiovascular risk factors in children.

  3. Long-term BMI and growth profiles in offspring of women with gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammoud, Nurah M; Visser, Gerard H A; van Rossem, Lenie; Biesma, Douwe H; Wit, Jan M; de Valk, Harold W

    2018-05-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is reported to be associated with childhood obesity, however the magnitude of this association and relation to intrauterine growth is uncertain. We, therefore, aimed to assess whether the growth trajectories of large for gestational age (LGA) and non-LGA offspring of mothers with GDM (OGDM) are different until early adolescence. We also aimed to explore whether growth trajectories of OGDM differ from those of offspring of mothers with type 1 or 2 diabetes (ODM1, ODM2). We studied height and BMI standard deviation score (SDS) of the OGDM group, up to the age of 14 years, with subgroup analysis comparing LGA with non-LGA at birth as a reflection of the intrauterine environment. All mothers with GDM who delivered at the University Medical Center Utrecht between 1990 and 2006 were contacted to participate; informed consent was received for 104 OGDM of 93 mothers. Offspring data were collected through Dutch infant welfare centres. Recorded height and weight were converted to BMI and age- and sex-specific SDS values for Dutch children. Additionally, we compared the OGDM group with ODM1 and ODM2 groups in order to identify those offspring with the highest risk of becoming overweight. Growth trajectories were compared between non-LGA and LGA OGDM and between OGDM, ODM1 and ODM2, using a random-effects model. In the longitudinal follow-up a mean of 7.4 ± 2 measurements per infant were available. Mothers had a prepregnancy BMI of 25.8 kg/m 2 and 24% of their infants were LGA at birth. Heights of OGDM were no different from those of the Dutch Growth Study. Non-LGA OGDM showed a BMI SDS comparable with that of the reference population, with a slight increase in early adolescence. LGA OGDM had a higher BMI SDS trajectory than non-LGA OGDM and the reference population, which plateaued at around 10 years of age. Comparison of growth trajectories of OGDM, ODM1 and ODM2 showed ODM2 to have the highest trajectory followed by ODM1 and OGDM

  4. BMI at birth and overweight at age four.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Jonathan D; Taylor, Yhenneko; Mowrer, Lauren; Winter, Katherine M; Dulin, Michael F

    Extensive investigation has established that an elevated weight at birth is associated with subsequent obesity and obesity related negative health outcomes. The significance of overweight at birth, however, remains ill-defined. Historically, it has been difficult to approximate adiposity in infancy in a way that is both simple and meaningful. Body-mass-index (BMI) growth charts for children younger than two years of age only became available in 2006 when published by the WHO. This retrospective cohort analysis utilised anthropometric data extracted from the electronic medical record of a large integrated healthcare system in North Carolina. BMI and weight-for-age (WFA) >85% of WHO growth charts measured newborn overweight and macrosomia respectively. Logistic regression models assessed the associations between newborn macrosomia and overweight and overweight at 4 years of age, as well as associations with maternal BMI. Models included demographic data, gestational age, and maternal diabetes status as covariates. Both BMI and WFA >85% at birth were significantly associated with overweight at age 4 years. However, the greater odds of overweight was associated with newborn BMI >85%, with an adjusted odds ratio (AOR) of 2.08 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.4-3.08) versus 1.57 (95% CI: 1.08-2.27). Maternal obesity was also more robustly correlated with newborn BMI >85%, AOR of 4.14 (95% CI: 1.6-10.7), than with newborn WFA >85%, AOR of 3.09 (95% CI: 1.41-6.77). BMI >85% at birth is independently associated with overweight at 4 years. Newborn overweight is perhaps superior to newborn macrosomia in predicting overweight at age 4. Copyright © 2016 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Change in BMI accurately predicted by social exposure to acquaintances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oloritun, Rahman O; Ouarda, Taha B M J; Moturu, Sai; Madan, Anmol; Pentland, Alex Sandy; Khayal, Inas

    2013-01-01

    Research has mostly focused on obesity and not on processes of BMI change more generally, although these may be key factors that lead to obesity. Studies have suggested that obesity is affected by social ties. However these studies used survey based data collection techniques that may be biased toward select only close friends and relatives. In this study, mobile phone sensing techniques were used to routinely capture social interaction data in an undergraduate dorm. By automating the capture of social interaction data, the limitations of self-reported social exposure data are avoided. This study attempts to understand and develop a model that best describes the change in BMI using social interaction data. We evaluated a cohort of 42 college students in a co-located university dorm, automatically captured via mobile phones and survey based health-related information. We determined the most predictive variables for change in BMI using the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) method. The selected variables, with gender, healthy diet category, and ability to manage stress, were used to build multiple linear regression models that estimate the effect of exposure and individual factors on change in BMI. We identified the best model using Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) and R(2). This study found a model that explains 68% (pchange in BMI. The model combined social interaction data, especially from acquaintances, and personal health-related information to explain change in BMI. This is the first study taking into account both interactions with different levels of social interaction and personal health-related information. Social interactions with acquaintances accounted for more than half the variation in change in BMI. This suggests the importance of not only individual health information but also the significance of social interactions with people we are exposed to, even people we may not consider as close friends.

  6. Eating tasty food to cope. Longitudinal association with BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggiano, M M; Wenger, L E; Turan, B; Tatum, M M; Morgan, P R; Sylvester, M D

    2015-04-01

    The goals of this study were to determine if a change in certain motives to eat highly palatable food, as measured by the Palatable Eating Motives Scale (PEMS), could predict a change in body mass index (BMI) over time, to assess the temporal stability of these motive scores, and to test the reliability of previously reported associations between eating tasty foods to cope and BMI. BMI, demographics, and scores on the PEMS and the Binge Eating Scale were obtained from 192 college students. Test-retest analysis was performed on the PEMS motives in groups varying in three gap times between tests. Regression analyses determined what PEMS motives predicted a change in BMI over two years. The results replicated previous findings that eating palatable food for Coping motives (e.g., to forget about problems, reduce negative feelings) is associated with BMI. Test-retest correlations revealed that motive scores, while somewhat stable, can change over time. Importantly, among overweight participants, a change in Coping scores predicted a change in BMI over 2 years, such that a 1-point change in Coping predicted a 1.76 change in BMI (equivalent to a 10.5 lb. change in body weight) independent of age, sex, ethnicity, and initial binge-eating status (Cohen's f(2) effect size = 1.44). The large range in change of Coping scores suggests it is possible to decrease frequency of eating to cope by more than 1 scale point to achieve weight losses greater than 10 lbs. in young overweight adults, a group already at risk for rapid weight gain. Hence, treatments aimed specifically at reducing palatable food intake for coping reasons vs. for social, reward, or conformity reasons, should help achieve a healthier body weight and prevent obesity if this motive-type is identified prior to significant weight gain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Change in BMI accurately predicted by social exposure to acquaintances.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman O Oloritun

    Full Text Available Research has mostly focused on obesity and not on processes of BMI change more generally, although these may be key factors that lead to obesity. Studies have suggested that obesity is affected by social ties. However these studies used survey based data collection techniques that may be biased toward select only close friends and relatives. In this study, mobile phone sensing techniques were used to routinely capture social interaction data in an undergraduate dorm. By automating the capture of social interaction data, the limitations of self-reported social exposure data are avoided. This study attempts to understand and develop a model that best describes the change in BMI using social interaction data. We evaluated a cohort of 42 college students in a co-located university dorm, automatically captured via mobile phones and survey based health-related information. We determined the most predictive variables for change in BMI using the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO method. The selected variables, with gender, healthy diet category, and ability to manage stress, were used to build multiple linear regression models that estimate the effect of exposure and individual factors on change in BMI. We identified the best model using Akaike Information Criterion (AIC and R(2. This study found a model that explains 68% (p<0.0001 of the variation in change in BMI. The model combined social interaction data, especially from acquaintances, and personal health-related information to explain change in BMI. This is the first study taking into account both interactions with different levels of social interaction and personal health-related information. Social interactions with acquaintances accounted for more than half the variation in change in BMI. This suggests the importance of not only individual health information but also the significance of social interactions with people we are exposed to, even people we may not consider as

  8. Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy in Patients With BMI >50: Single Surgeon Outcomes and Feasibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streeper, Necole M; Radtke, Andrew C; Penniston, Kristina L; McDermott, John C; Nakada, Stephen Y

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the use of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) and technical approach in the super obese population (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 50). We performed a retrospective review of 31 consecutive PNL cases with a BMI > 50 from a single surgeon (SYN) from 1995 to 2013. Procedures were performed in the prone position, and upper pole access was used. Operative time, length of hospital stay, stone burden, complication rates, and stone-free rates were measured. Of the 31 patients who underwent PNL (age 51.2 ± 12; 71% female), the mean BMI was 59.1 ± 6 kg/m(2) (range 50.4-71.7 kg/m(2)). Mean stone burden was 3.8 cm ± 2. The majority of patients (90.3%) had an upper pole puncture site for access with an operative time of 122.1 ± 75 minutes. The technique was similar to non-obese patients; however, there was a need for extra-long instrumentation. The overall stone-free rate was 71%, with utilization of a second-look PNL in 11 cases. The complication rate, Clavien grade 3 or higher, was 9.7% (3 of 31). PNL is technically feasible, safe, and effective in patients with a BMI ≥ 50. The complication rate, length of hospital stay, and stone-free rate with use of second-look PNL in super obese patients are comparable to severely obese patients. Intervention should not be automatically ruled out or delayed based on the patient's BMI alone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Weight and body mass index (BMI): current data for Austrian boys and girls aged 4 to under 19 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Michael; Gleiss, Andreas; Häusler, Gabriele; Borkenstein, Martin; Kapelari, Klaus; Köstl, Gerhard; Lassi, Michael; Schemper, Michael; Schmitt, Klaus; Blümel, Peter

    2015-01-01

    BMI reference charts are widely used to diagnose overweight, obesity and underweight in children and adolescents. To provide up-to-date national reference values for Austria. A cross-sectional sample of over 14 500 children and adolescents (4-19 years) stratified by provinces according to age- and sex-specific population proportions was drawn via schooling institutions (kindergartens, schools and vocational colleges). The generalized additive models for location, scale and shape were used for a flexible estimation of percentile curves. Austrian boys and girls have higher average weight compared with previous prevalence data. BMI centiles matching BMI values at age 18 years, which are used for defining thinness, overweight and obesity in adults, were calculated. In Austria, using reference values as thresholds, ∼18% of boys and 12% of girls are overweight (with thresholds passing through BMI 25.00-29.99 kg/m(2) in adults) and 5% of boys and 3% of girls are obese (with thresholds passing through BMI ≥30.00 kg/m(2) in adults). Overweight and obesity are common in Austria and their prevalence is increasing (using the same IOTF reference for international comparison). Up-to-date national BMI reference values are provided to classify children and adolescents according to the proposed overweight and obesity thresholds.

  10. MPEG-CS/Bmi-1RNAi Nanoparticles Synthesis and Its Targeted Inhibition Effect on CD133+ Laryngeal Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xudong; He, Jian; Wang, Jingyu; Wang, Wei

    2018-03-01

    Previous studies have confirmed that CD133+ cells in laryngeal tumor tissue have the characteristics of cancer stem cells. Bmi-1 gene expression is central to the tumorigenicity of CD133+ cells. In this study, we tried to develop a new siRNA carrier system using chitosan-methoxypolyethylene nanoparticles (CS-mPEG-NPs) that exhibit higher tumor-targeting ability and enhanced gene silencing efficacy in CD133+ tumor stem cells. It is hoped to block the self-renewal and kill the stem cells of laryngeal carcinoma. The mPEG-CS-Bmi-1RNAi-NPs were synthesized and their characters were checked. The changes in invasion ability and sensitivity to radiotherapy and chemotherapy of CD133+Hep-2 tumor cells were observed after Bmi-1 gene silencing. The mPEG-CS-Bmi-1RNAi-NPs synthesized in this experiment have a regular spherical form, a mean size of 139.70 ±6.40 nm, an encapsulation efficiency of 85.21 ± 1.94%, with drug loading capacity of 18.47 ± 1.83%, as well as low cytotoxicity, providing good protection to the loaded gene, strong resistance to nuclease degradation and high gene transfection efficiency. After Bmi-1 gene silencing, the invasion ability of CD133+ cells was weakened. Co-cultured with paclitaxel, the survival rates of CD133+Bmi-1RNAi cells were lower. After radiotherapy, the mean growth inhibition rate of CD133+/Bmi-1RNAi cells was significantly lower than CD133+ cells. In conclusion, the mPEG-CS nano-carrier is an ideal vector in gene therapy, while silencing the Bmi-1 gene can enhance the sensitivity of CD133+ tumor stem cells to chemoradiotherapy and abate their invasion ability.

  11. Relationship of glycemic and triglycerides with BMI in diabetic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parvez, A.; Ihsanullah; Rafiq, A.; Ahmad, N.; Khan, E.H.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder characterised by chronic hyperglycaemia with disturbances in carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism arising from defect in insulin secretion or action or both. The clinical guidelines recommend measurement of BMI as vital signs for evaluating the obese and diabetic patients. Methods: This study was carried out on 160 diabetics, which were divided on the basis of BMI into obese (120) and non-obese (40) diabetics from Peshawar district. All patients had their triglycerides and glucose checked after over night fast. Results: The serum triglyceride in diabetics having BMI >30 (obese) was increased as compared to patients having BMI <30 (non-obese). The comparison of serum glucose level in obese diabetics was found to be significantly raised as compared to non-obese diabetics. Conclusions and Recommendations: It was concluded that dyslipidemia is common in all diabetics. The abnormal triglyceride level can improve with good glycemic control, but do not reach the normal state. Good glycaemic control, Reducing BMI, periodic checkups of lipids and blood glucose are recommended for all diabetics in order to avoid complications. (author)

  12. Relationship of glycemic and triglycerides with BMI in diabetic patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parvez, A; Ihsanullah,; Rafiq, A; Ahmad, N; Khan, E H [Khyber Teaching Hospital, Peshawar (Pakistan). Department of Pathology

    2010-04-15

    Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder characterised by chronic hyperglycaemia with disturbances in carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism arising from defect in insulin secretion or action or both. The clinical guidelines recommend measurement of BMI as vital signs for evaluating the obese and diabetic patients. Methods: This study was carried out on 160 diabetics, which were divided on the basis of BMI into obese (120) and non-obese (40) diabetics from Peshawar district. All patients had their triglycerides and glucose checked after over night fast. Results: The serum triglyceride in diabetics having BMI >30 (obese) was increased as compared to patients having BMI <30 (non-obese). The comparison of serum glucose level in obese diabetics was found to be significantly raised as compared to non-obese diabetics. Conclusions and Recommendations: It was concluded that dyslipidemia is common in all diabetics. The abnormal triglyceride level can improve with good glycemic control, but do not reach the normal state. Good glycaemic control, Reducing BMI, periodic checkups of lipids and blood glucose are recommended for all diabetics in order to avoid complications. (author)

  13. Blood Pressure Variation Throughout Pregnancy According to Early Gestational BMI: A Brazilian Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Rebelo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The maternal cardiovascular system undergoes progressive adaptations throughout pregnancy, causing blood pressure fluctuations. However, no consensus has been established on its normal variation in uncomplicated pregnancies. Objective: To describe the variation in systolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP levels during pregnancy according to early pregnancy body mass index (BMI. Methods: SBP and DBP were measured during the first, second and third trimesters and at 30-45 days postpartum in a prospective cohort of 189 women aged 20-40 years. BMI (kg/m2 was measured up to the 13th gestational week and classified as normal-weight (<25.0 or excessive weight (≥25.0. Longitudinal linear mixed-effects models were used for statistical analysis. Results: A decrease in SBP and DBP was observed from the first to the second trimester (βSBP=-0.394; 95%CI: -0.600- -0.188 and βDBP=-0.617; 95%CI: -0.780- -0.454, as was an increase in SBP and DBP up to 30-45 postpartum days (βSBP=0.010; 95%CI: 0.006-0.014 and βDBP=0.015; 95%CI: 0.012-0.018. Women with excessive weight at early pregnancy showed higher mean SBP in all gestational trimesters, and higher mean DBP in the first and third trimesters. Excessive early pregnancy BMI was positively associated with prospective changes in SBP (βSBP=7.055; 95%CI: 4.499-9.610 and in DBP (βDBP=3.201; 95%CI: 1.136-5.266. Conclusion: SBP and DBP decreased from the first to the second trimester and then increased up to the postpartum period. Women with excessive early pregnancy BMI had higher SBP and DBP than their normal-weight counterparts throughout pregnancy, but not in the postpartum period.

  14. A community-based cluster randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of different bundles of nutrition-specific interventions in improving mean length-for-age z score among children at 24 months of age in rural Bangladesh: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sk Masum Billah

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevalence of stunting among under-five children in Bangladesh is 36%, varying with geographic and socio-economic characteristics. Previously, research groups statistically modelled the effect of 10 individual nutrition-specific interventions targeting the critical first 1000 days of life from conception, on lives saved and costs incurred in countries with the highest burden of stunted children. However, primary research on the combined effects of these interventions is limited. Our study directly addresses this gap by examining the effect of combinations of 5 preventive interventions on length-for-age z-scores (LAZ among 2-years old children. Methods This community-based cluster randomised trial (c-RCT compares 4 intervention combinations against one comparison arm. Intervention combinations are: 1 Behaviour change communication (BCC on maternal nutrition during pregnancy, exclusive breastfeeding, and complementary feeding, along with prenatal nutritional supplement (PNS and complementary food supplement (CFS; 2 BCC with PNS; 3 BCC with CFS; and 4 BCC alone. The comparison arm receives only routine health and nutrition services. From a rural district, 125 clusters were selected and randomly assigned to any one of the five study arms by block randomisation. A bespoke automated tab-based system was developed linking data collection, intervention delivery and project supervision. Total sample size is 1500 pregnant women, with minimum 1050 resultant children expected to be retained, powered to detect a difference of at least 0.4 in the mean LAZ score of children at 24 months, the main outcome variable, between the comparison arm and each intervention arm. Length and other anthropometric measurements, nutritional intake and other relevant data on mother and children are being collected during enrolment, twice during pregnancy, postpartum monthly till 6 months, and every third month thereafter till 24 months. Discussion This c

  15. Early Life Factors and Inter-Country Heterogeneity in BMI Growth Trajectories of European Children: The IDEFICS Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Börnhorst

    Full Text Available Starting from birth, this explorative study aimed to investigate between-country differences in body mass index (BMI trajectories and whether early life factors explain these differences.The sample included 7,644 children from seven European countries (Belgium, Cyprus, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Spain, Sweden participating in the multi-centre IDEFICS study. Information on early life factors and in total 53,409 repeated measurements of height and weight from 0 to <12 years of age were collected during the baseline (2007/2008 and follow-up examination (2009/2010 supplemented by records of routine child health visits. Country-specific BMI growth curves were estimated using fractional polynomial mixed effects models. Several covariates focussing on early life factors were added to the models to investigate their role in the between-countries differences.Large between-country differences were observed with Italian children showing significantly higher mean BMI values at all ages ≥ 3 years compared to the other countries. For instance, at age 11 years mean BMI values in Italian boys and girls were 22.3 [21.9;22.8; 99% confidence interval] and 22.0 [21.5;22.4], respectively, compared to a range of 18.4 [18.1;18.8] to 20.3 [19.8;20.7] in boys and 18.2 [17.8;18.6] to 20.3 [19.8;20.7] in girls in the other countries. After adjustment for early life factors, differences between country-specific BMI curves became smaller. Maternal BMI was the factor being most strongly associated with BMI growth (p<0.01 in all countries with associations increasing during childhood. Gestational weight gain (GWG was weakly associated with BMI at birth in all countries. In some countries, positive associations between BMI growth and children not being breastfed, mothers' smoking during pregnancy and low educational level of parents were found.Early life factors seem to explain only some of the inter-country variation in growth. Maternal BMI showed the strongest association

  16. BMI is not a good indicator for metabolic risk in adolescent girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    BMI (kg/m2) does not provide information about body fat percentile.Adolescents with BMI girls with low BMI can have high body fat percentile. We hypothesized that these girls are already insulin resi...

  17. The relation of weight suppression and BMI to bulimic symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butryn, Meghan L; Juarascio, Adrienne; Lowe, Michael R

    2011-11-01

    High levels of weight suppression have been associated with greater binge eating and weight gain as well as poorer treatment outcome in bulimia nervosa. This study examined the relationship between weight suppression and bulimia nervosa symptoms and explored how weight suppression might interact with body mass index (BMI) in accounting for level of symptomatology at presentation for treatment. Participants were 64 women with threshold or sub-threshold bulimia nervosa. A clinical interview assessed binge eating and purging. Weight suppression and the interaction between BMI and weight suppression predicted frequency of binge eating such that participants with low BMI and high weight suppression engaged in the most binge eating. High levels of weight suppression also predicted more frequent purging. Additional research is warranted to examine mediators of these relationships. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Alternative regression models to assess increase in childhood BMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansmann Ulrich

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body mass index (BMI data usually have skewed distributions, for which common statistical modeling approaches such as simple linear or logistic regression have limitations. Methods Different regression approaches to predict childhood BMI by goodness-of-fit measures and means of interpretation were compared including generalized linear models (GLMs, quantile regression and Generalized Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS. We analyzed data of 4967 children participating in the school entry health examination in Bavaria, Germany, from 2001 to 2002. TV watching, meal frequency, breastfeeding, smoking in pregnancy, maternal obesity, parental social class and weight gain in the first 2 years of life were considered as risk factors for obesity. Results GAMLSS showed a much better fit regarding the estimation of risk factors effects on transformed and untransformed BMI data than common GLMs with respect to the generalized Akaike information criterion. In comparison with GAMLSS, quantile regression allowed for additional interpretation of prespecified distribution quantiles, such as quantiles referring to overweight or obesity. The variables TV watching, maternal BMI and weight gain in the first 2 years were directly, and meal frequency was inversely significantly associated with body composition in any model type examined. In contrast, smoking in pregnancy was not directly, and breastfeeding and parental social class were not inversely significantly associated with body composition in GLM models, but in GAMLSS and partly in quantile regression models. Risk factor specific BMI percentile curves could be estimated from GAMLSS and quantile regression models. Conclusion GAMLSS and quantile regression seem to be more appropriate than common GLMs for risk factor modeling of BMI data.

  19. Alternative regression models to assess increase in childhood BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyerlein, Andreas; Fahrmeir, Ludwig; Mansmann, Ulrich; Toschke, André M

    2008-09-08

    Body mass index (BMI) data usually have skewed distributions, for which common statistical modeling approaches such as simple linear or logistic regression have limitations. Different regression approaches to predict childhood BMI by goodness-of-fit measures and means of interpretation were compared including generalized linear models (GLMs), quantile regression and Generalized Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS). We analyzed data of 4967 children participating in the school entry health examination in Bavaria, Germany, from 2001 to 2002. TV watching, meal frequency, breastfeeding, smoking in pregnancy, maternal obesity, parental social class and weight gain in the first 2 years of life were considered as risk factors for obesity. GAMLSS showed a much better fit regarding the estimation of risk factors effects on transformed and untransformed BMI data than common GLMs with respect to the generalized Akaike information criterion. In comparison with GAMLSS, quantile regression allowed for additional interpretation of prespecified distribution quantiles, such as quantiles referring to overweight or obesity. The variables TV watching, maternal BMI and weight gain in the first 2 years were directly, and meal frequency was inversely significantly associated with body composition in any model type examined. In contrast, smoking in pregnancy was not directly, and breastfeeding and parental social class were not inversely significantly associated with body composition in GLM models, but in GAMLSS and partly in quantile regression models. Risk factor specific BMI percentile curves could be estimated from GAMLSS and quantile regression models. GAMLSS and quantile regression seem to be more appropriate than common GLMs for risk factor modeling of BMI data.

  20. Effect Of Gender And Lifestyle Behaviors On BMI Trends In A Sample Of The First State's Undergraduate Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Malcolm J; Walls, Karri-Jo E; Rojas, Christine; Everett, Lynn M; Wentzien, Derald E

    2015-06-01

    The 2010 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) report indicates that 63.4% of Delaware's adult population is overweight and 28% is obese. Here, the authors reveal analyses acquired from detailed investigations about the importance of gender, and other lifestyle factors and behaviors on the Body Mass Index (BMI) trends amongst an indiscriminate sample of the Wesley College (Wesley) undergraduate population. A 25-question paper-format survey was distributed to 307 randomly chosen Wesley undergraduates. The accrued qualitative (or categorical) data were transferred to an Excel spreadsheet to construct and observe frequency distributions. A Chi-square test of independence (χ 2 ) was performed between BMI status (normal, overweight, obese) and the following factors: gender, diet plan, adherence to the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) MyPlate nutrition guide, use of the seasonal flu shot, weekly workout schedule, supplement usage, participation on athletic teams, questioning of label nutritional facts, and the use of added salt in food. A 2-sample proportion test was performed between students who were overweight or obese for the same factors. Also performed were t-tests for mean BMI for those who followed USDA MyPlate guidelines and for those who did not. An analysis of 278 completed surveys show that 29.5% of the Wesley respondents are overweight and 19.8% are obese. The mean BMI for males was statistically higher than the mean BMI for females. The mean BMI for students living on-campus was statistically higher than the mean BMI for students living off-campus. The results also demonstrate that adhering to the USDA dietary recommendations for fruit and dairy can be important factors in reducing the risk of obesity.

  1. Body Size Estimation from Early to Middle Childhood: Stability of Underestimation, BMI, and Gender Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silje Steinsbekk

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Individuals who are overweight are more likely to underestimate their body size than those who are normal weight, and overweight underestimators are less likely to engage in weight loss efforts. Underestimation of body size might represent a barrier to prevention and treatment of overweight; thus insight in how underestimation of body size develops and tracks through the childhood years is needed. The aim of the present study was therefore to examine stability in children’s underestimation of body size, exploring predictors of underestimation over time. The prospective path from underestimation to BMI was also tested. In a Norwegian cohort of 6 year olds, followed up at ages 8 and 10 (analysis sample: n = 793 body size estimation was captured by the Children’s Body Image Scale, height and weight were measured and BMI calculated. Overall, children were more likely to underestimate than overestimate their body size. Individual stability in underestimation was modest, but significant. Higher BMI predicted future underestimation, even when previous underestimation was adjusted for, but there was no evidence for the opposite direction of influence. Boys were more likely than girls to underestimate their body size at ages 8 and 10 (age 8: 38.0% vs. 24.1%; Age 10: 57.9% vs. 30.8% and showed a steeper increase in underestimation with age compared to girls. In conclusion, the majority of 6, 8, and 10-year olds correctly estimate their body size (prevalence ranging from 40 to 70% depending on age and gender, although a substantial portion perceived themselves to be thinner than they actually were. Higher BMI forecasted future underestimation, but underestimation did not increase the risk for excessive weight gain in middle childhood.

  2. The influence of BMI and predictors of disordered eating and life satisfaction on postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Sónia F; Silva, Elsa; Gomes, A Rui

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to compare eating behaviors, body satisfaction, exercise, and life satisfaction between normal-weight and overweight postmenopausal women and to examine the predictors of disordered eating and life satisfaction among postmenopausal women (n = 294). The overweight group had more eating disordered behavior, more body dissatisfaction, and lower physical quality of life. The increase of age predicted less disordered eating. Higher BMI, the perception of an ideal weight lower than the current one, lower body satisfaction, and physical quality of life predicted disordered eating. Higher body satisfaction, less psychosocial discomfort, and a greater degree of sexual symptom discomfort predicted life satisfaction.

  3. Changes in BMI before and during economic development and subsequent risk of cardiovascular disease and total mortality: a 35-year follow-up study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yao; Lam, Tai Hing; Jiang, Bin; Li, Lan Sun; Sun, Dong Ling; Wu, Lei; Liu, Miao; Yang, Shan Shan; Wang, Yi Yan; Tobias, Deirdre K; Sun, Qi; Hu, Frank B

    2014-09-01

    It is unclear whether changes in BMI during rapid economic development influence subsequent mortality. We analyzed whether BMI in 1976 and 1994 and changes in BMI during 1976-1994 predict cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality in a 35-year follow-up cohort of 1,696 Chinese (1,124 men and 572 women, aged 35-65 years) in Xi'an, China. Participants were categorized as underweight (economic development was associated with elevated risks of all-cause and CVD mortality. Higher BMI measured before economic development was associated with lower mortality risk, whereas BMI measured afterward was associated with increased mortality. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  4. Effect of BMI on Knee Joint Torques in Ergometer Rowing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roemer, Karen; Hortobagyi, Tibor; Richter, Chris; Munoz-Maldonado, Yolanda; Hamilton, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    Although an authoritative panel recommended the use of ergometer rowing as a non-weight-bearing form of exercise for obese adults, the biomechanical characterization of ergometer rowing is strikingly absent. We examined the interaction between body mass index (BMI) relative to the lower extremity

  5. The link between BMI and waist circumference in northern Iranian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and Objectives: Waist circumference and not body mass index explains a greater variance in obesity-related health risk. The present study assesses the link between BMI and WC in Iranian adults. Methods: In a population based cross- sectional study on 3600 adults, northern Iran, we investigated the link ...

  6. The Prevalence of Obesity as Indicated by BMI and Waist ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The prevalence of overweight and obesity in most developed countries and in urban areas of many less developed countries has been increasing markedly over the past twenty years. This study\\'s aims were to determine the prevalence of obesity using BMI and waist circumference among Nigerian adults ...

  7. Maternal Prepregnancy BMI and Risk of Cerebral Palsy in Offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forthun, Ingeborg; Wilcox, Allen J; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and risk of cerebral palsy (CP) in offspring. METHODS: The study population consisted of 188 788 children in the Mothers and Babies in Norway and Denmark CP study, using data from 2 population-based, prospective birth...

  8. Low birth weight, adult BMI and inflammation in middle age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jolene Lee Masters; Rod, Naja Hulvej; Avlund, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the association between birthweight and adult BMI with inflammation in middle age measured by interleukin 6 (IL- 6), interleukin 10 (IL-10), interleukin 18 (IL-18), high sensitivity Creactive protein (hsCRP) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (tnf-α). The study is based on partic...

  9. Bmi-1 Regulates Extensive Erythroid Self-Renewal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ah Ram Kim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Red blood cells (RBCs, responsible for oxygen delivery and carbon dioxide exchange, are essential for our well-being. Alternative RBC sources are needed to meet the increased demand for RBC transfusions projected to occur as our population ages. We previously have discovered that erythroblasts derived from the early mouse embryo can self-renew extensively ex vivo for many months. To better understand the mechanisms regulating extensive erythroid self-renewal, global gene expression data sets from self-renewing and differentiating erythroblasts were analyzed and revealed the differential expression of Bmi-1. Bmi-1 overexpression conferred extensive self-renewal capacity upon adult bone-marrow-derived self-renewing erythroblasts, which normally have limited proliferative potential. Importantly, Bmi-1 transduction did not interfere with the ability of extensively self-renewing erythroblasts (ESREs to terminally mature either in vitro or in vivo. Bmi-1-induced ESREs can serve to generate in vitro models of erythroid-intrinsic disorders and ultimately may serve as a source of cultured RBCs for transfusion therapy.

  10. Community-Specific BMI Cutoff Points for South Indian Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. B. Kishore Mohan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To analyze multiparameters related to total body composition, with specific emphasis on obesity in South Indian females, in order to derive community-specific BMI cutoff points. Patients and Methods. A total number of 87 females (of age 37.33±13.12 years from South Indian Chennai urban population participated in this clinical study. Body composition analysis and anthropometric measurements were acquired after conducting careful clinical examination. Results. BMI demonstrated high significance when normal group (21.02±1.47 kg/m2 was compared with obese group (29.31±3.95 kg/m2, <0.0001. BFM displayed high significance when normal group (14.92±4.28 kg was compared with obese group (29.94 ± 8.1 kg, <0.0001. Conclusion. Community-specific BMI cutoffs are necessary to assess obesity in different ethnic groups, and relying on WHO-based universal BMI cutoff points would be a wrong strategy.

  11. Differences in the association between childhood trauma and BMI in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    between childhood trauma and BMI in black and white South African women ... finding, including measures of body image and body size satisfaction that may explain these findings. Keywords: Childhood trauma questionnaire; Body fat; Body image; Sexual abuse; Ethnicity, ... Self-reported exposure to childhood trauma was.

  12. A comparative study on different BMI category and physical fitness ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative study on different BMI category and physical fitness health related component of sedentary male youth in Terengganu. V Eswaramoorthi, M.R. Abdullah, H Juahir, A.B.H.M. Maliki, R.M. Musa, N.A. Kosni, N Alias, N.B. Raj, S.M.M. Rasid, A Adnan ...

  13. Wpływ ilości spożywanych posiłków na wartość wskaźnika BMI = Influence amount of food meals for BMI

    OpenAIRE

    Nalepa, Dorota; Weber, Dorota; Rogala, Renata; Charzyńska-Gula, Marianna

    2016-01-01

    Nalepa, Dorota, Weber, Dorota, Rogala, Renata, Charzyńska-Gula, Marianna. Wpływ ilości spożywanych posiłków na wartość wskaźnika BMI = Influence amount of food meals for BMI. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2016;6(3):48-61. eISSN 2391-8306. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.47438 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/3400 https://pbn.nauka.gov.pl/works/719646 The journal has had 7 points in Ministry of Science and Higher Education parametric evaluation...

  14. Assessing the genetic overlap between BMI and cognitive function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marioni, R E; Yang, J; Dykiert, D; Mõttus, R; Campbell, A; Ibrahim-Verbaas, Carla A; Bressler, Jan; Debette, Stephanie; Schuur, Maaike; Smith, Albert V; Davies, Gail; Bennett, David A; Deary, Ian J; Ikram, M Arfan; Launer, Lenore J; Fitzpatrick, Annette L; Seshadri, Sudha; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Mosely Jr, Thomas H; Davies, G; Hayward, C; Porteous, D J; Visscher, P M; Deary, I J

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and low cognitive function are associated with multiple adverse health outcomes across the life course. They have a small phenotypic correlation (r=−0.11; high body mass index (BMI)−low cognitive function), but whether they have a shared genetic aetiology is unknown. We investigated the phenotypic and genetic correlations between the traits using data from 6815 unrelated, genotyped members of Generation Scotland, an ethnically homogeneous cohort from five sites across Scotland. Genetic correlations were estimated using the following: same-sample bivariate genome-wide complex trait analysis (GCTA)–GREML; independent samples bivariate GCTA–GREML using Generation Scotland for cognitive data and four other samples (n=20 806) for BMI; and bivariate LDSC analysis using the largest genome-wide association study (GWAS) summary data on cognitive function (n=48 462) and BMI (n=339 224) to date. The GWAS summary data were also used to create polygenic scores for the two traits, with within- and cross-trait prediction taking place in the independent Generation Scotland cohort. A large genetic correlation of −0.51 (s.e. 0.15) was observed using the same-sample GCTA–GREML approach compared with −0.10 (s.e. 0.08) from the independent-samples GCTA–GREML approach and −0.22 (s.e. 0.03) from the bivariate LDSC analysis. A genetic profile score using cognition-specific genetic variants accounts for 0.08% (P=0.020) of the variance in BMI and a genetic profile score using BMI-specific variants accounts for 0.42% (P=1.9 × 10−7) of the variance in cognitive function. Seven common genetic variants are significantly associated with both traits at Pcognitive function. PMID:26857597

  15. Process Optimization of Bismaleimide (BMI) Resin Infused Carbon Fiber Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, Joshua W.; Tate, LaNetra C.; Cox, Sarah B.; Taylor, Brian J.; Wright, M. Clara; Caraccio, Anne J.; Sampson, Jeffery W.

    2013-01-01

    Bismaleimide (BMI) resins are an attractive new addition to world-wide composite applications. This type of thermosetting polyimide provides several unique characteristics such as excellent physical property retention at elevated temperatures and in wet environments, constant electrical properties over a vast array of temperature settings, and nonflammability properties as well. This makes BMI a popular choice in advance composites and electronics applications [I]. Bismaleimide-2 (BMI-2) resin was used to infuse intermediate modulus 7 (IM7) based carbon fiber. Two panel configurations consisting of 4 plies with [+45deg, 90deg]2 and [0deg]4 orientations were fabricated. For tensile testing, a [90deg]4 configuration was tested by rotating the [0deg]4 configirration to lie orthogonal with the load direction of the test fixture. Curing of the BMI-2/IM7 system utilized an optimal infusion process which focused on the integration of the manufacturer-recommended ramp rates,. hold times, and cure temperatures. Completion of the cure cycle for the BMI-2/IM7 composite yielded a product with multiple surface voids determined through visual and metallographic observation. Although the curing cycle was the same for the three panellayups, the surface voids that remained within the material post-cure were different in abundance, shape, and size. For tensile testing, the [0deg]4 layup had a 19.9% and 21.7% greater average tensile strain performance compared to the [90deg]4 and [+45deg, 90deg, 90deg,-45degg] layups, respectively, at failure. For tensile stress performance, the [0deg]4 layup had a 5.8% and 34.0% greater average performance% than the [90deg]4 and [+45deg, 90deg, 90deg,-45deg] layups.

  16. Infant BMI peak as a predictor of overweight and obesity at age 2 years in a Chinese community-based cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jie; Nwaru, Bright I; Hua, Jing; Li, Xiaohong; Wu, Zhuochun

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Infant body mass index (BMI) peak has proven to be a useful indicator for predicting childhood obesity risk in American and European populations. However, it has not been assessed in China. We characterised infant BMI trajectories in a Chinese longitudinal cohort and evaluated whether BMI peak can predict overweight and obesity at age 2 years. Methods Serial measurements (n=6–12) of weight and length were taken from healthy term infants (n=2073) in a birth cohort established in urban Shanghai. Measurements were used to estimate BMI growth curves from birth to 13.5 months using a polynomial regression model. BMI peak characteristics, including age (in months) and magnitude (BMI, in kg/m2) at peak and prepeak velocities (in kg/m2/month), were estimated. The relationship between infant BMI peak and childhood BMI at age 2 years was examined using binary logistic analysis. Results Mean age at peak BMI was 7.61 months, with a magnitude of 18.33 kg/m2. Boys (n=1022) had a higher average peak BMI (18.60 vs 18.07 kg/m2, pBMI and 1 month increase in peak time, the risk of overweight at age 2 years increased by 2.11 times (OR 3.11; 95% CI 2.64 to 3.66) and 35% (OR 1.35; 95% CI 1.21 to 1.50), respectively. Similarly, higher BMI magnitude (OR 2.69; 95% CI 2.00 to 3.61) and later timing of infant BMI peak (OR 1.35; 95% CI 1.08 to 1.68) were associated with an increased risk of childhood obesity at age 2 years. Conclusions We have shown that infant BMI peak is valuable for predicting early childhood overweight and obesity in urban Shanghai. Because this is the first Chinese community-based cohort study of this nature, future research is required to examine infant populations in other areas of China. PMID:28988164

  17. Group-based developmental BMI trajectories, polycystic ovary syndrome, and gestational diabetes: a community-based longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakoly, Nadira Sultana; Earnest, Arul; Moran, Lisa J; Teede, Helena J; Joham, Anju E

    2017-11-06

    Obesity is common in young women, increasing insulin resistance (IR) and worsening pregnancy complications, including gestational diabetes (GDM). Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are commonly obese, which aggravates the severity of PCOS clinical expression. Relationships between these common insulin-resistant conditions, however, remain unclear. We conducted a secondary analysis of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH) database, including data from 8009 women aged 18-36 years across six surveys. We used latent-curve growth modelling to identify distinct body mass index (BMI) trajectories and multinomial logistic regression to explore sociodemographic and health variables characterizing BMI group membership. Logistic regression was used to assess independent risk of GDM. A total of 662 women (8.29%, 95% CI 7.68-8.89) reported PCOS. Three distinct BMI trajectories emerged, namely low stable (LSG) (63.8%), defined as an average trajectory remaining at ~25 kg/m 2 ; moderately rising (MRG) (28.8%), a curvilinear trajectory commencing in a healthy BMI and terminating in the overweight range; and high-rising (HRG) (7.4%), a curvilinear trajectory starting and terminating in the obese range. A high BMI in early reproductive life predicted membership in higher trajectories. The HRG BMI trajectory was independently associated with GDM (OR 2.50, 95% CI 1.80-3.48) and was a stronger correlate than PCOS (OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.41-2.54), maternal age, socioeconomic status, or parity. Our results suggest heterogeneity in BMI change among Australian women of reproductive age, with and without PCOS. Reducing early adult life weight represents an ideal opportunity to intervene at an early stage of reproductive life and decreases the risk of long-term metabolic complications such as GDM.

  18. Waist circumference is a better predictor of risk for frailty than BMI in the community-dwelling elderly in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Qiuju; Zheng, Zheng; Xiu, Shuangling; Chan, Piu

    2018-03-27

    Obesity is found to be associated with frailty. Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) are the commonly used measures for obesity, the former is more closely related to general obesity and body weight; the latter can more accurately reflect abdominal obesity and is more closely associated with metabolic disorders. In this study, we intend to study the relationship between frailty, BMI and WC among older people. Data were derived from the Beijing Longitudinal Study on Aging II Cohort, which included 6320 people 65 years or older from three urban districts in Beijing. A Frailty Index derived from 33 items was developed according to Rockwood's cumulative deficits method. A Frailty Index ≥ 0.25 was used as the cut-off criteria. BMI was classified as underweight, normal, overweight, or obese (BMI (≥ 28.0 kg/m 2 , 22.6%) or a larger WC (18.5%) were more likely to be frail. People with normal BMI and overweight people do not suffer from higher prevalence for frailty. In comparison with individuals with normal BMI (18.5-BMI and large WC (odds ratio 1.68; 95% CI 1.33-2.12), have overweight and large WC (odds ratio 1.58; 95% CI 1.23-1.96), or have obesity and large WC (odds ratio 2.28; 95% CI 1.79-2.89). In people with normal WC, only those who are underweight have a higher risk for frailty (odds ratio 1.65, 95% CI 1.08-2.52). In comparison with BMI, the relation of WC with the risk for frailty was much closer. Abdominal obesity is more closely associated with incidence of frailty than general obesity in the elderly. Older adults with large waist circumference are more likely to be frail. Frailty in the elderly might be more closely related to metabolic disorders. WC might be a better measurement to detect frailty than BMI, given its relationship with metabolic disorders.

  19. Maternal BMI, IGF-I Levels, and Birth Weight in African American and White Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana C. Vidal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available At birth, elevated IGF-I levels have been linked to birth weight extremes; high birth weight and low birth weight are risk factors for adult-onset chronic diseases including obesity, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes. We examined associations between plasma IGF-I levels and birth weight among infants born to African American and White obese and nonobese women. Prepregnancy weight and height were assessed among 251 pregnant women and anthropometric measurements of full term infants (≥37 weeks of gestation were taken at birth. Circulating IGF-I was measured by ELISA in umbilical cord blood plasma. Linear regression models were utilized to examine associations between birth weight and high IGF-I, using the bottom two tertiles as referents. Compared with infants with lower IGF-I levels (≤3rd tertile, those with higher IGF-I levels (>3rd tertile were 130 g heavier at birth, (β-coefficient=230, se=58.0, P=0.0001, after adjusting for gender, race/ethnicity, gestational age, delivery route, maternal BMI and smoking. Stratified analyses suggested that these associations are more pronounced in infants born to African American women and women with BMI ≥30 kg/m2; the cross product term for IGF-I and maternal BMI was statistically significant (P≤0.0004. Our findings suggest that the association between IGF-I levels and birth weight depends more on maternal obesity than African American race/ethnicity.

  20. Associations Between Parental BMI and the Family Nutrition and Physical Activity Environment in a Community Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Joel E; Helsel, Brian; Griffin, Sarah F; Liang, Jessica

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between parental BMI and the family environment and determine if differences exist in child diet and physical activity related parenting behaviors by parental BMI in a community sample of families recruited through elementary schools in a local school district. We found an association between parental BMI category and family nutrition and physical activity (FNPA) score. Families with an underweight or normal weight parent had a larger proportion (64.3%) of high (indicating a healthier family environment) FNPA scores and families with an overweight or obese parent had a smaller proportion (45.2%) of high FNPA scores (χ 2  = 5.247, P = 0.022). Families with a parent who was overweight or obese had 2.18 times the odds (95% CI 1.11-4.27) of being in the low FNPA ("less healthy" environment) group. Further, underweight/normal weight parents reported higher levels of monitoring of child diet (Z = -3.652, P authoritative parenting behaviors were associated with a less obesogenic home environment and a positive parenting style related to child eating and physical activity behaviors.

  1. Body composition differences between adults with multiple sclerosis and BMI-matched controls without MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingo, Brooks C; Young, Hui-Ju; Motl, Robert W

    2018-04-01

    Persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) have many health conditions related to overweight and obesity, but little is known about how body composition among those with MS compares to those without MS at the same weight. To compare differences in whole body and regional body composition between persons with and without MS matched for sex and body mass index (BMI). Persons with MS (n = 51) and non-MS controls (n = 51) matched for sex and BMI. Total mass, lean mass, fat mass, and percent body fat (%BF) of total body and arm, leg, and trunk segments were assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Men with MS had significantly less whole body lean mass (mean difference: 9933.5 ± 3123.1 g, p MS counterparts. Further, men with MS had significantly lower lean mass in the arm (p = 0.02) and leg (p MS. Men with MS had significantly higher %BF in all three regions (p MS. There were no differences between women with and without MS. We observed significant differences in whole body and regional body composition between BMI-matched men with and without MS. Additional research is needed to further explore differences in body composition, adipose distribution, and the impact of these differences on the health and function of men with MS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Increased BMI in children-an indicator for less compliance during orthodontic treatment with removable appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Bremen, Julia; Lorenz, Nathalie; Ludwig, Björn; Ruf, Sabine

    2018-02-19

    To assess whether or not childhood overweight is associated with lower levels of compliance during orthodontic therapy with removable appliances. Starting in 2011, all upper expansion plates and Sander II appliances were equipped with a Theramon® microsensor chip to assess appliance wear time objectively. According to their pre-treatment, BMI normal weight patients were matched to consecutively treated overweight or obese patients by gender, age, and appliance type. Cooperation was assessed with microelectronic wear time documentation over a period of at least 6 months. A total of 50 patients (25 overweight, 25 normal weight) with upper expansion plates and 64 patients (32 overweight, 32 normal weight) with Sander II appliances were analysed. Spearman Rho coefficients showed an indirect association between BMI and appliance wear time, indicating that the higher the BMI, the less the patients wore their appliances (P appliances (P appliance wear during orthodontic treatment with removable appliances. Additional factors which influenced cooperation during treatment with removable appliances were patient age and appliance type.

  3. A Comparison of Perceived and Measured Paternal Weight and BMI, and Relationship to Weight and BMI of his Children

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Power, RF

    2018-02-01

    Nineteen percent of 9 years old Irish children are overweight; seven percent are obese. Our aims were: to examine whether differences exist between paternal self-reported and measured height, weight and BMI in a population representative sample; and to explore paternal perceptions of their own weight status.\\r\

  4. Defining a BMI Cut-Off Point for the Iranian Population: The Shiraz Heart Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Babai

    Full Text Available In this study we evaluated and redefined the optimum body mass index (BMI cut-off point for the Iranian population based on metabolic syndrome (MeS risk factors. We further evaluated BMI cut-off points with and without waist circumference (WC as a cofactor of risk and compared the differences. This study is part of the largest surveillance programs conducted in Shiraz, Iran, termed the Shiraz Heart study. Our study sample included subjects between the ages of 20 to 65 years old. After excluding pregnant women, those with missing data and those with comorbid disease, a total of 12283 made up the study population. The participants underwent a series of tests and evaluations by trained professionals in accordance with WHO recommendations. Hypertension, abnormal fasting blood sugar (FBS, triglyceride (TG and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL (in the context of the definition of metabolic syndrome were prevalent among 32.4%, 27.6%, 42.1 and 44.2% of our participants, respectively. Women displayed higher rates of overall obesity compared to men (based on the definition by the WHO as higher than 30 kg/m2. Regarding MeS, 38.9% of our population had the all symptoms of MeS which was more prevalent among women (41.5% vs. 36%. When excluding WC in the definition of MeS, results showed that males tend to show a higher rate of metabolic risk factors (19.2% vs. 15.6%. Results of multivariate analysis showed that parallel to an increase in BMI, the odds ratio (OR for acquiring each component of the metabolic syndrome increased (OR = 1.178; CI: 1.166-1.190. By excluding WC, the previous OR decreased (OR = 1.105; CI: 1.093-1.118. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve analysis showed that the optimum BMI cut-off point for predicting metabolic syndrome was 26.1 kg/m2 and 26.2 kg/m2 [Accuracy (Acc = 69% and 61%, respectively] for males and females, respectively. The overall BMI cut-off for both sexes was 26.2 kg/m2 (Acc = 65% with sensitivity and

  5. Maternal BMI and migration status as predictors of childhood obesity in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Cruz, A; Wojcicki, J M; Bacardí-Gascón, M; Castellón-Zaragoza, A; García-Gallardo, J L; Schwartz, N; Heyman, M B

    2011-01-01

    To assess the association of maternal migration to Baja California, body mass index (BMI) status, children's perceived food insecurity, and childhood lifestyle behaviors with overweight (BMI > 85% ile), obesity (BMI > 95% ile) and abdominal obesity (Waist Circumference > 90% ile). Convenience sampling methods were used to recruit a cross-sectional sample of 4th, 5th and 6th grade children and their parents at Tijuana and Tecate Public Schools. Children's and parents' weights and heights were measured. Children were considered to have migrant parents if parents were not born in Baja California. One hundred and twenty-two children and their parents were recruited. The mean age of the children was 10.1 ± 1.0 years. Forty nine per cent of children were overweight or obese. Children with obese parents (BMI > 30) had greater odds of being obese, Odds Ratio (OR) 4.9 (95% Confidence Interval (CI), 1.2-19, p = 0.03). Children with migrant parents had greater odds of being obese, OR= 3.7 (95% CI, 1.6-8.3), p = 0.01) and of having abdominal obesity, OR = 3.2 (95% CI, 1.4-7.1, p = 0.01). Children from migrant parents have greater risk of higher consumption of potato chips, OR = 8.0 (95% CI, 2.1-29.1, p = 0.01). Children from non-migrant parents had greater odds of being at risk of hunger. Parental obesity and migration are associated with increased risk of obesity among Mexican children. Children whose parents were born in Baja California have greater odds of being at risk of hunger. Further studies should evaluate the role of migration on risk for childhood obesity.

  6. BMI, health behaviors, and quality of life in children and adolescents: a school-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Ratcliffe, Julie; Olds, Tim; Magarey, Anthea; Jones, Michelle; Leslie, Eva

    2014-04-01

    To explore the relationship between weight status (BMI) and health-related quality of life in children and adolescents through application of the Child Health Utility 9D, a new generic preference-based instrument. Data were collected from primary and high school students in rural and metropolitan regions of South Australia. Consenting participants (2588 in grades 4-6 and 765 in grades 9-10) were weighed and measured and categorized as underweight, healthy weight, overweight, or obese according to International Obesity Taskforce BMI cutoff points (primary outcome). Participants also completed a questionnaire including the Child Health Utility 9D and standardized measures of physical activity, sedentary behavior, sleep patterns, and eating behavior (secondary outcomes). Descriptive and multivariate linear regression analyses were undertaken to calculate mean utility differences. In comparison with healthy-weight primary school students, adjusted mean utilities were lower for overweight (-0.016, P = .02) or obese (-0.039, P = .001) students. For high school students, the adjusted mean utilities were also lower for overweight and obese students but were nonsignificant (-0.018, P > .10). Physical activity, sedentary behavior, sleep patterns, and eating behavior were all found to be significantly associated with utilities. Irrespective of BMI, young people engaging in more physical activities or less sedentary behavior, and having healthier sleep patterns or eating behavior exhibited higher utilities. Associations between utilities and sleep patterns or eating behavior were stronger than the associations with BMI. Future economic evaluations for obesity interventions should more formally investigate the relationship between changes over time in weight status and health-related quality of life for children and adolescents.

  7. The impact of sex and BMI on the clinical course of COPD and bronchial asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Wytrychowski

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Bronchial asthma is a heterogeneous disease, and is one phenotype of asthma with obesity. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is the fourth most frequent cause of death in the world. Objectives. The aim of the study was to assess the influence of BMI and sex on the clinical course of uncontrolled asthma and COPD with moderate to severe airflow limitation. Material and methods . The study was performed on 2 groups. Group A: 72 adults suffering from asthma (38 F – females, 34 M – males with at least 1 exacerbation requiring treatment with systemic corticosteroids in the year before the study. Group B: 79 patients (34 F, 45 M with COPD Grades 2 and 3 according to GOLD. Data including age, gender, BMI, disease duration, treatment, concomitant diseases, pack-years, and number of exacerbations in the last year were collected. Asthma Control Questionnaire scores in group A and COPD Assessment Test scores in group B were collected. Pulmonary function tests were performed in both groups. Results . There were no differences between females and males in the analyzed variables in both groups. Obese patients (BMI > 30.0 kg/m2 were selected for analysis from group A (18 F, 10 M and from group B (13 F, 16 M. In group A, the number of exacerbations was significantly lower in males (M 1.3 vs. F 1.9; p = 0.01. In group B the age of obese patients was higher than in patients with BMI ≤ 30.0 (68.3 vs. 62.5; p = 0.002. Conclusion . Poorer control of asthma in obese patients was associated with the female gender. Age is a risk factor for obesity development in patients with COPD.

  8. Social class differences in BMI among Danish women: applying Cockerham's health lifestyles approach and Bourdieu's theory of lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Vibeke T; Carpiano, Richard M

    2014-07-01

    Research on social class differences in obesity and weight-related outcomes has highlighted the need to consider how such class differences reflect the unequally distributed constellations of economic, cultural, and social resources that enable and constrain health-related habits and practices or health lifestyles. Motivated by this need, the present study applies a theoretical perspective that integrates Cockerham's (2005) health lifestyles theory with Bourdieu's (1984) theoretical scholarship on social class, lifestyles, and the body to analyzing class-based differences in body mass index (BMI) among adult female respondents of a 2007 Danish national survey (n = 1376). We test hypotheses concerning how respective levels of economic, cultural, and social capital that constitute women's social class membership are associated with BMI directly and via their influence on respondent's dietary-related values, preferences, behaviors, and exercise activities. Our analyses indicate that cultural and economic capital were both directly associated with BMI. Mediation analyses revealed that greater cultural and social capital were linked to higher BMI via interest in cooking; while all three forms of capital were associated with lower BMI via greater frequency of exercise. These findings provide evidence for the many-and sometimes contradictory-ways that social class can influence body weight. Identifying such patterns can inform the design of more effective population health interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Effect of silencing Bmi-1 expression in reversing cisplatin resistance in lung cancer cells and its mechanism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Nan; He, Guansheng; Rao, Jinjun; Lv, Lin

    2014-06-01

    To investigate the effect of silencing Bmi-1 expression in reversing cisplatin resistance in human lung cancer cells and explore the possible mechanisms. Cisplatin-resistant A549/DDP cells with small interference RNA (siRNA)-mediated Bmi-1 expression silencing were examined for cisplatin sensitivity using MTT assay and alterations in cell cycle distribution and apoptosis with flow cytometry, and the changes in cell senescence was assessed using β-galactosidase staining. The protein expressions of Bmi-1, P14(ARF), P16(INK4a), P53, P21, Rb and ubi-H2AK119 in the cells were determined with Western blotting. A549/DDP cells showed significantly higher Bmi-1 expression than A549 cells. After siRNA-mediated Bmi-1 silencing, A549/DDP cells showed significantly enhanced cisplatin sensitivity with an increased IC50 from 40.3±4.1 µmol/L to 18.3±2.8 µmol/L (Pcisplatin possibly by regulating INK4a/ARF/Rb senescence pathway.

  10. Secular and race/ethnic trends in glycemic outcomes by BMI in US adults: The role of waist circumference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Sandra S; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth; Popkin, Barry M

    2017-07-01

    For the same body mass index (BMI) level, waist circumference (WC) is higher in more recent years. How this impacts diabetes and prediabetes prevalence in the United States and for different race/ethnic groups is unknown. We examined prevalence differences in diabetes and prediabetes by BMI over time, investigated whether estimates were attenuated after adjusting for waist circumference, and evaluated implications of these patterns on race/ethnic disparities in glycemic outcomes. Data came from 12 614 participants aged 20 to 74 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (1988-1994 and 2007-2012). We estimated prevalence differences in diabetes and prediabetes by BMI over time in multivariable models. Relevant interactions evaluated race/ethnic differences. Among normal, overweight, and class I obese individuals, there were no significant differences in diabetes prevalence over time. However, among individuals with class II/III obesity, diabetes prevalence rose 7.6 percentage points in 2007-2012 vs 1988-1994. This estimate was partly attenuated after adjustment for mean waist circumference but not mean BMI. For prediabetes, prevalence was 10 to 13 percentage points higher over time at lower BMI values, with minimal attenuation after adjustment for WC. All patterns held within race/ethnic groups. Diabetes disparities among blacks and Mexican Americans relative to whites remained in both periods, regardless of BMI, and persisted after adjustment for WC. Diabetes prevalence rose over time among individuals with class II/III obesity and may be partly due to increasing waist circumference. Anthropometric measures did not appear to account for temporal increases in prediabetes, nor did they attenuate race/ethnic disparities in diabetes. Reasons underlying these trends require further investigation. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. MtDNA genomes reveal a relaxation of selective constraints in low-BMI individuals in a Uyghur population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hong-Xiang; Li, Lei; Jiang, Xiao-Yan; Yan, Shi; Qin, Zhendong; Wang, Xiaofeng; Jin, Li

    2017-10-01

    Considerable attention has been focused on the effect of deleterious mutations caused by the recent relaxation of selective constraints on human health, including the prevalence of obesity, which might represent an adaptive response of energy-conserving metabolism under the conditions of modern society. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) encoding 13 core subunits of oxidative phosphorylation plays an important role in metabolism. Therefore, we hypothesized that a relaxation of selection constraints on mtDNA and an increase in the proportion of deleterious mutations have played a role in obesity prevalence. In this study, we collected and sequenced the mtDNA genomes of 722 Uyghurs, a typical population with a high prevalence of obesity. We identified the variants that occurred in the Uyghur population for each sample and found that the number of nonsynonymous mutations carried by Uyghur individuals declined with elevation of their BMI (P = 0.015). We further calculated the nonsynonymous and synonymous ratio (N/S) of the high-BMI and low-BMI haplogroups, and the results showed that a significantly higher N/S occurred in the whole mtDNA genomes of the low-BMI haplogroups (0.64) than in that of the high-BMI haplogroups (0.35, P = 0.030) and ancestor haplotypes (0.41, P = 0.032); these findings indicated that low-BMI individuals showed a recent relaxation of selective constraints. In addition, we investigated six clinical characteristics and found that fasting plasma glucose might be correlated with the N/S and selective pressures. We hypothesized that a higher proportion of deleterious mutations led to mild mitochondrial dysfunction, which helps to drive glucose consumption and thereby prevents obesity. Our results provide new insights into the relationship between obesity predisposition and mitochondrial genome evolution.

  12. To Assess the Effect of Maternal BMI on Obstetrical Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhanpal, Shuchi; Aggarwal, Asha; Kaur, Gurcharan

    2012-06-01

    AIMS: To assess the effect of maternal BMI on complications in pregnancy, mode of delivery, complications of labour and delivery.METHODS:A crossectional study was carried out in the Obst and Gynae department, Kasturba Hospital, Delhi. The study enrolled 100 pregnant women. They were divided into 2 groups based on their BMI, more than or equal to 30.0 kg/m2 were categorized as obese and less than 30 kg/m2 as non obese respectively. Maternal complications in both types of patients were studied.RESULTS:CONCLUSION: As the obstetrical outcome is significantly altered due to obesity, we can improve maternal outcome by overcoming obesity. As obesity is a modifiable risk factor, preconception counseling creating awareness regarding health risk associated with obesity should be encouraged and obstetrical complications reduced.

  13. BMI, body fat and waist-to-height ratio of stunted v. non-stunted Indian children: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savanur, Mitravinda S; Ghugre, Padmini S

    2016-06-01

    To compare the BMI, body fat and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) of stunted and non-stunted children following different growth trajectories from low socio-economic strata in Mumbai, India. Cross-sectional, case-control study. Weight, height, skinfold thicknesses and waist circumference were measured. Information regarding the duration of breast-feeding, age at initiation of complementary feeding and income was obtained. Birth weight was obtained from records. BMI, body fat, WHtR and change in weight sd were calculated. Children who were beneficiaries of anganwadis, Mumbai city, India. Three hundred and thirty children aged 2-4 years were selected in each of the stunted and non-stunted groups after matching for age and sex. After adjusting for birth weight, change in weight sd, duration of breast-feeding, age at complementary feeding initiation and income, stunted children had significantly higher body fat, WHtR and BMI than the non-stunted (Pchildren were classified based on their change in weight sd. Stunted children with no change in weight sd had higher mean body fat, BMI (Pchildren had higher BMI and WHtR than the non-stunted (both Pchildren had higher BMI than the non-stunted (Pfat in young children. Such a tendency, if continued during later childhood and adolescence, can increase the risk of obesity and non-communicable diseases.

  14. Sugar-sweetened carbonated beverage consumption correlates with BMI, waist circumference, and poor dietary choices in school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collison, Kate S; Zaidi, Marya Z; Subhani, Shazia N; Al-Rubeaan, Khalid; Shoukri, Mohammed; Al-Mohanna, Futwan A

    2010-05-09

    The prevalence of obesity and overweight is increasing globally. Frequently coexisting with under-nutrition in developing countries, obesity is a major contributor to chronic disease, and will become a serious healthcare burden especially in countries with a larger percentage of youthful population. 35% of the population of Saudi Arabia are under the age of 16, and adult dietary preferences are often established during early childhood years. Our objective was to examine the dietary habits in relation to body-mass-index (BMI) and waist circumference (W_C), together with exercise and sleep patterns in a cohort of male and female Saudi school children, in order to ascertain whether dietary patterns are associated with obesity phenotypes in this population. 5033 boys and 4400 girls aged 10 to 19 years old participated in a designed Food Frequency Questionnaire. BMI and W_C measurements were obtained and correlated with dietary intake. The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity was 12.2% and 27.0% respectively, with boys having higher obesity rates than girls (P sweetened carbonated beverage (SSCB) intake in boys only. The association between male BMI and SSCB consumption was significant in a multivariate regression model (P sweetened hot beverages were higher in older versus younger children (P < 0.001). BMI and W_C were negatively correlated with hours of night-time sleep and exercise in boys, but only with night time sleep in girls, who also showed the lowest frequency of exercise. A higher intake of SSCB is associated with poor dietary choices. Male SSCB intake correlates with a higher W_C and BMI. Limiting exposure to SSCB could therefore have a large public health impact.

  15. Food Shopping and Acquisition Behaviors in Relation to BMI among Residents of Low-Income Communities in South Carolina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela D. Liese

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Low-income areas in which residents have poor access to healthy foods have been referred to as “food deserts.” It is thought that improving food access may help curb the obesity epidemic. Little is known about where residents of food deserts shop and if shopping habits are associated with body mass index (BMI. We evaluated the association of food shopping and acquisition (e.g., obtaining food from church, food pantries, etc. with BMI among 459 residents of low-income communities from two South Carolina counties, 81% of whom lived in United States Department of Agriculture-designated food deserts. Participants were interviewed about food shopping and acquisition and perceptions of their food environment, and weight and height were measured. Distances to food retail outlets were determined. Multivariable linear regression analysis was employed. Our study sample comprising largely African-American women had an average BMI of 32.5 kg/m2. The vast majority of study participants shopped at supermarkets (61% or supercenters/warehouse clubs (27%. Shopping at a supercenter or warehouse club as one’s primary store was significantly associated with a 2.6 kg/m2 higher BMI compared to shopping at a supermarket, independent of demographics, socioeconomics, physical activity, and all other food shopping/acquisition behaviors. Persons who reported shopping at a small grocery store or a convenience or dollar store as their tertiary store had a 2.6 kg/m2 lower BMI. Respondents who perceived lack of access to adequate food shopping in their neighborhoods as a problem had higher BMI. Living in a food desert census tract was not significantly associated with BMI. Other shopping attributes, including distance to utilized and nearest grocery stores, were not independently associated with BMI. These findings call into question the idea that poor spatial access to grocery stores is a key underlying factor affecting the obesity epidemic. Future research should

  16. Food Shopping and Acquisition Behaviors in Relation to BMI among Residents of Low-Income Communities in South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liese, Angela D.; Ma, Xiaonan; Hutto, Brent; Sharpe, Patricia A.; Bell, Bethany A.; Wilcox, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Low-income areas in which residents have poor access to healthy foods have been referred to as “food deserts.” It is thought that improving food access may help curb the obesity epidemic. Little is known about where residents of food deserts shop and if shopping habits are associated with body mass index (BMI). We evaluated the association of food shopping and acquisition (e.g., obtaining food from church, food pantries, etc.) with BMI among 459 residents of low-income communities from two South Carolina counties, 81% of whom lived in United States Department of Agriculture-designated food deserts. Participants were interviewed about food shopping and acquisition and perceptions of their food environment, and weight and height were measured. Distances to food retail outlets were determined. Multivariable linear regression analysis was employed. Our study sample comprising largely African-American women had an average BMI of 32.5 kg/m2. The vast majority of study participants shopped at supermarkets (61%) or supercenters/warehouse clubs (27%). Shopping at a supercenter or warehouse club as one’s primary store was significantly associated with a 2.6 kg/m2 higher BMI compared to shopping at a supermarket, independent of demographics, socioeconomics, physical activity, and all other food shopping/acquisition behaviors. Persons who reported shopping at a small grocery store or a convenience or dollar store as their tertiary store had a 2.6 kg/m2 lower BMI. Respondents who perceived lack of access to adequate food shopping in their neighborhoods as a problem had higher BMI. Living in a food desert census tract was not significantly associated with BMI. Other shopping attributes, including distance to utilized and nearest grocery stores, were not independently associated with BMI. These findings call into question the idea that poor spatial access to grocery stores is a key underlying factor affecting the obesity epidemic. Future research should consider assessing

  17. The relationship between the parameters (Heart rate, Ejection fraction and BMI) and the maximum enhancement time of ascending aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Young Ill; June, Woon Kwan; Dong, Kyeong Rae

    2007-01-01

    In this study, Bolus Tracking method was used to investigate the parameters affecting the time when contrast media is reached at 100 HU (T 100 ) and studied the relationship between parameters and T 100 because the time which is reached at aorta through antecubital vein after injecting contrast media is different from person to person. Using 64 MDCT, Cadiac CT, the data were obtained from 100 patients (male: 50, female: 50, age distribution: 21⁓81, average age: 57.5) during July and September, 2007 by injecting the contrast media at 4 ml∙sec -1 through their antecubital vein except having difficulties in stopping their breath and having arrhythmia. Using Somatom Sensation Cardiac 64 Siemens, patients’ height and weight were measured to know their mean Heart rate and BMI. Ejection Fraction was measured using Argus Program at Wizard Workstation. Variances of each parameter were analyzed depending on T 100 ’s variation with multiple comparison and the correlation of Heart rate, Ejection Fraction and BMI were analyzed, as well. According to T 100 ’s variation caused by Heart rate, Ejection Fraction and BMI variations, the higher patients’ Heart Rate and Ejection Fraction were, the faster T 100 ’s variations caused by Heart Rate and Ejection Fraction were. The lower their Heart Rate and Ejection Fraction were, the slower T 100 ’s variations were, but T 100 ’s variations caused by BMI were not affected. In the correlation between T 100 and parameters, Heart Rate (p⁄0.01) and Ejection Fraction (p⁄0.05) were significant, but BMI was not significant (p¤0.05). In the Heart Rate, Ejection Fraction and BMI depending on Fast (17 sec and less), Medium (18⁓21 sec), Slow (22 sec and over) Heart Rate was significant at Fast and Slow and Ejection Fraction was significant Fast and Slow as well as Medium and Slow (p⁄0.05), but BMI was not statistically significant. Of the parameters (Heart Rate, Ejection Fraction and BMI) which would affect T 100 , Heart

  18. Food Shopping and Acquisition Behaviors in Relation to BMI among Residents of Low-Income Communities in South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liese, Angela D; Ma, Xiaonan; Hutto, Brent; Sharpe, Patricia A; Bell, Bethany A; Wilcox, Sara

    2017-09-16

    Low-income areas in which residents have poor access to healthy foods have been referred to as "food deserts." It is thought that improving food access may help curb the obesity epidemic. Little is known about where residents of food deserts shop and if shopping habits are associated with body mass index (BMI). We evaluated the association of food shopping and acquisition (e.g., obtaining food from church, food pantries, etc.) with BMI among 459 residents of low-income communities from two South Carolina counties, 81% of whom lived in United States Department of Agriculture-designated food deserts. Participants were interviewed about food shopping and acquisition and perceptions of their food environment, and weight and height were measured. Distances to food retail outlets were determined. Multivariable linear regression analysis was employed. Our study sample comprising largely African-American women had an average BMI of 32.5 kg/m². The vast majority of study participants shopped at supermarkets (61%) or supercenters/warehouse clubs (27%). Shopping at a supercenter or warehouse club as one's primary store was significantly associated with a 2.6 kg/m² higher BMI compared to shopping at a supermarket, independent of demographics, socioeconomics, physical activity, and all other food shopping/acquisition behaviors. Persons who reported shopping at a small grocery store or a convenience or dollar store as their tertiary store had a 2.6 kg/m² lower BMI. Respondents who perceived lack of access to adequate food shopping in their neighborhoods as a problem had higher BMI. Living in a food desert census tract was not significantly associated with BMI. Other shopping attributes, including distance to utilized and nearest grocery stores, were not independently associated with BMI. These findings call into question the idea that poor spatial access to grocery stores is a key underlying factor affecting the obesity epidemic. Future research should consider assessing

  19. ERD-based online brain-machine interfaces (BMI) in the context of neurorehabilitation: optimizing BMI learning and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soekadar, Surjo R; Witkowski, Matthias; Mellinger, Jürgen; Ramos, Ander; Birbaumer, Niels; Cohen, Leonardo G

    2011-10-01

    Event-related desynchronization (ERD) of sensori-motor rhythms (SMR) can be used for online brain-machine interface (BMI) control, but yields challenges related to the stability of ERD and feedback strategy to optimize BMI learning.Here, we compared two approaches to this challenge in 20 right-handed healthy subjects (HS, five sessions each, S1-S5) and four stroke patients (SP, 15 sessions each, S1-S15). ERD was recorded from a 275-sensor MEG system. During daily training,motor imagery-induced ERD led to visual and proprioceptive feedback delivered through an orthotic device attached to the subjects' hand and fingers. Group A trained with a heterogeneous reference value (RV) for ERD detection with binary feedback and Group B with a homogenous RV and graded feedback (10 HS and 2 SP in each group). HS in Group B showed better BMI performance than Group A (p learning was significantly better (p learning relative to use of a heterogeneous RV and binary feedback.

  20. PPARγ gene polymorphism, C-reactive protein level, BMI and periodontitis in post-menopausal Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yangming; Sugita, Noriko; Yoshihara, Akihiro; Iwasaki, Masanori; Miyazaki, Hideo; Nakamura, Kazutoshi; Yoshie, Hiromasa

    2016-03-01

    Several studies have reported inconsistent results regarding the association between the PPARγPro12Ala polymorphism and obesity. Obese individuals had higher C-reactive protein (CRP) levels compared with those of normal weight, and PPARγ activation could significantly reduce serum high-sensitive CRP level. We have previously suggested that the Pro12Ala polymorphism represents a susceptibility factor for periodontitis, which is a known risk factor for increased CRP level. The aim was to investigate associations between PPARγ gene polymorphism, serum CRP level, BMI and/or periodontitis among post-menopausal Japanese women. The final sample in this study comprised 359 post-menopausal Japanese women. Periodontal parameters, including PD, CAL and BOP, were measured per tooth. PPARγPro12Ala genotype was determined by PCR-RFLP. Hs-CRP value was measured by a latex nephelometry assay. No significant differences in age, BMI or periodontal parameters were found between the genotypes. The percentages of sites with PD ≥ 4 mm were significantly higher among the hsCRP ≥ 1 mg/l group than the hsCRP periodontitis, serum CRP level or BMI in post-menopausal Japanese women. However, serum hsCRP level correlated with periodontitis in Ala allele carriers, and with BMI in non-carriers. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Markers of Oxidative Stress in Human Milk do not Differ by Maternal BMI But are Related to Infant Growth Trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Bridget E; Patinkin, Zachary W; Pyle, Laura; de la Houssaye, Becky; Davidson, Barbara S; Geraghty, Sheela; Morrow, Ardythe L; Krebs, Nancy

    2017-06-01

    Objective Obesity in adults is associated with inflammation and oxidative stress. Whether or not this phenotype is reflected in human milk (HM) composition, or may impact infant growth remains unknown. We investigated whether HM from overweight/obese (OW/Ob) mothers exhibited higher concentrations of inflammatory cytokines and markers of oxidative stress. We also correlated these bioactive components with infant growth patterns. Methods This was an observational cohort of 56 breastfeeding mothers and their infants [33 normal weight (NW) and 23 OW/Ob]. Infants were followed until 6 months of age and HM collected at 2-weeks and 4-months. Results Markers of oxidative stress, 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8OHdG) and 4-hydroxynonenol (HNE), decreased in HM over time (p < 0.001) and did not differ between NW and OW/Ob women. Concentrations of inflammatory cytokines, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α, were all inter-correlated (p < 0.001) but did not differ between NW and OW/Ob women. HM fat, protein, lactose, and total calories did not differ between NW and OW/Ob women. Infant growth patterns did not differ by group. In a model of infant weight-for-length-Z score trajectory, there was a significant interaction between both lactose and 8OHdG with maternal group: HM lactose and 8OHdG concentrations were both positively associated with increases in WLZ trajectory only among infants breastfed by OW/Ob mothers. Conclusions for Practice HM composition was relatively stable between NW and OW/Ob women. In exclusively breastfed infants, HM concentrations of lactose and 8OHdG, a marker of oxidative stress, may contribute to regulation of infant weight gain, especially among infants of OW/Ob women.

  2. Bmi-1-targeting suppresses osteosarcoma aggressiveness through the NF-κB signaling pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiaguo; Luo, Bin; Zhao, Meng

    2017-01-01

    Bone cancer is one of the most lethal malignancies and the specific causes of tumor initiation are not well understood. B-cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus integration site 1 protein (Bmi-1) has been reported to be associated with the initiation and progression of osteosarcoma, and as a prognostic indicator in the clinic. In the current study, a full-length antibody targeting Bmi-1 (AbBmi-1) was produced and the preclinical value of Bmi-1-targeted therapy was evaluated in bone carcinoma cells and tumor xenograft mice. The results indicated that the Bmi-1 expression level was markedly upregulated in bone cancer cell lines, and inhibition of Bmi-1 by AbBmi-1 reduced the invasiveness and migration of osteosarcoma cells. Overexpression of Bmi-1 promoted proliferation and angiogenesis, and increased apoptosis resistance induced by cisplatin via the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signal pathway. In addition, AbBmi-1 treatment inhibited the tumorigenicity of osteosarcoma cells in vivo. Furthermore, AbBmi-1 blocked NF-κB signaling and reduced MMP-9 expression. Furthermore, Bmi-1 promoted osteosarcoma tumor growth, whereas AbBmi-1 significantly inhibited osteosarcoma tumor growth in vitro and in vivo. Notably, AbBmi-1 decreased the percentages of Ki67-positive cells and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling-positive cells in tumors compared with Bmi-1-treated and PBS controls. Notably, MMP-9 and NF-κB expression were downregulated by treatment with AbBmi-1 in MG-63 osteosarcoma cells. In conclusion, the data provides evidence that AbBmi-1 inhibited the progression of osteosarcoma, suggesting that AbBmi-1 may be a novel anti-cancer agent through the inhibition of Bmi-1 via activating the NF-κB pathway in osteosarcoma. PMID:28983587

  3. Sugar-sweetened carbonated beverage consumption correlates with BMI, waist circumference, and poor dietary choices in school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoukri Mohammed

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of obesity and overweight is increasing globally. Frequently coexisting with under-nutrition in developing countries, obesity is a major contributor to chronic disease, and will become a serious healthcare burden especially in countries with a larger percentage of youthful population. 35% of the population of Saudi Arabia are under the age of 16, and adult dietary preferences are often established during early childhood years. Our objective was to examine the dietary habits in relation to body-mass-index (BMI and waist circumference (W_C, together with exercise and sleep patterns in a cohort of male and female Saudi school children, in order to ascertain whether dietary patterns are associated with obesity phenotypes in this population. Methods 5033 boys and 4400 girls aged 10 to 19 years old participated in a designed Food Frequency Questionnaire. BMI and W_C measurements were obtained and correlated with dietary intake. Results The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity was 12.2% and 27.0% respectively, with boys having higher obesity rates than girls (P ≤ 0.001. W_C and BMI was positively correlated with sugar-sweetened carbonated beverage (SSCB intake in boys only. The association between male BMI and SSCB consumption was significant in a multivariate regression model (P Conclusions A higher intake of SSCB is associated with poor dietary choices. Male SSCB intake correlates with a higher W_C and BMI. Limiting exposure to SSCB could therefore have a large public health impact.

  4. Effect of national wealth on BMI: An analysis of 206,266 individuals in 70 low-, middle- and high-income countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Masood

    Full Text Available This study explores the relationship between BMI and national-wealth and the cross-level interaction effect of national-wealth and individual household-wealth using multilevel analysis.Data from the World Health Survey conducted in 2002-2004, across 70 low-, middle- and high-income countries was used. Participants aged 18 years and over were selected using multistage, stratified cluster sampling. BMI was used as outcome variable. The potential determinants of individual-level BMI were participants' sex, age, marital-status, education, occupation, household-wealth and location(rural/urban at the individual-level. The country-level factors used were average national income (GNI-PPP and income inequality (Gini-index. A two-level random-intercepts and fixed-slopes model structure with individuals nested within countries was fitted, treating BMI as a continuous outcome.The weighted mean BMI and standard-error of the 206,266 people from 70-countries was 23.90 (4.84. All the low-income countries were below the 25.0 mean BMI level and most of the high-income countries were above. All wealthier quintiles of household-wealth had higher scores in BMI than lowest quintile. Each USD10000 increase in GNI-PPP was associated with a 0.4 unit increase in BMI. The Gini-index was not associated with BMI. All these variables explained 28.1% of country-level, 4.9% of individual-level and 7.7% of total variance in BMI. The cross-level interaction effect between GNI-PPP and household-wealth was significant. BMI increased as the GNI-PPP increased in first four quintiles of household-wealth. However, the BMI of the wealthiest people decreased as the GNI-PPP increased.Both individual-level and country-level factors made an independent contribution to the BMI of the people. Household-wealth and national-income had significant interaction effects.

  5. Effect of national wealth on BMI: An analysis of 206,266 individuals in 70 low-, middle- and high-income countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidpath, Daniel D.

    2017-01-01

    Background This study explores the relationship between BMI and national-wealth and the cross-level interaction effect of national-wealth and individual household-wealth using multilevel analysis. Methods Data from the World Health Survey conducted in 2002–2004, across 70 low-, middle- and high-income countries was used. Participants aged 18 years and over were selected using multistage, stratified cluster sampling. BMI was used as outcome variable. The potential determinants of individual-level BMI were participants’ sex, age, marital-status, education, occupation, household-wealth and location(rural/urban) at the individual-level. The country-level factors used were average national income (GNI-PPP) and income inequality (Gini-index). A two-level random-intercepts and fixed-slopes model structure with individuals nested within countries was fitted, treating BMI as a continuous outcome. Results The weighted mean BMI and standard-error of the 206,266 people from 70-countries was 23.90 (4.84). All the low-income countries were below the 25.0 mean BMI level and most of the high-income countries were above. All wealthier quintiles of household-wealth had higher scores in BMI than lowest quintile. Each USD10000 increase in GNI-PPP was associated with a 0.4 unit increase in BMI. The Gini-index was not associated with BMI. All these variables explained 28.1% of country-level, 4.9% of individual-level and 7.7% of total variance in BMI. The cross-level interaction effect between GNI-PPP and household-wealth was significant. BMI increased as the GNI-PPP increased in first four quintiles of household-wealth. However, the BMI of the wealthiest people decreased as the GNI-PPP increased. Conclusion Both individual-level and country-level factors made an independent contribution to the BMI of the people. Household-wealth and national-income had significant interaction effects. PMID:28662041

  6. Definition of new cut-offs of BMI and waist circumference based on body composition and insulin resistance: differences between children, adolescents and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübers, M; Pourhassan, M; Braun, W; Geisler, C; Müller, M J

    2017-09-01

    This study aims to determine associations between anthropometric traits, regional fat depots and insulin resistance in children, adolescents and adults to define new cut-offs of body mass index (BMI) or waist circumference (WC). Cross-sectional data were assessed in 433 children, adolescents and adults (aged: 6-60 years, BMI: 23.6 [21.0-27.7] kg m -2 ). Total adipose tissue (TAT), regional subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT total , SAT trunk ) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) were determined by whole-body magnetic resonance imaging, fat mass by air-displacement plethysmography. Insulin resistance was evaluated by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Bivariate as well as partial correlations and regression analyses were used. Cut-off values of BMI and WC related to regional fat depots and HOMA-IR were analysed by receiver operating characteristics curve. In adults, TAT, SAT total and SAT trunk increased linearly with increasing BMI and WC, whereas they followed a cubic function in children and adolescents with a steep increase at BMI and WC ≥1 standard deviation score and VAT at WC ≥2 standard deviation score. Sex differences were apparent in adults with women having higher masses of TAT and SAT and men having higher VAT. Using established BMI or WC cut-offs, correspondent masses of TAT, SAT total , SAT trunk and VAT increased from childhood to adulthood. In all age groups, there were positive associations between BMI, WC, SAT trunk , VAT and HOMA-IR. When compared with normative cut-offs of BMI or WC, HOMA-IR-derived cut-offs of regional fat depots were lower in all age groups. Associations between BMI, WC and regional fat depots varied between children, adolescents, young and older adults. When compared with BMI-derived and WC-derived values, an insulin resistance-derived cut-off corresponded to lower masses of regional fat depots. Thus, established BMI and WC cut-offs are not appropriate to assess metabolic disturbances associated

  7. Intuitive eating: associations with physical activity motivation and BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gast, Julie; Campbell Nielson, Amy; Hunt, Anne; Leiker, Jason J

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether university women who demonstrated internal motivation related to eating behavior may also be internally motivated to participate in regular physical activity (PA) and have a lower body mass index (BMI) when controlling for age. Traditional approaches for health promotion related to healthy weight include restrictive eating and exercise prescription. Examining motivation for eating and PA may prove an effective alternative for achieving or maintaining healthy weight for university women. Design was a cross-sectional study. Study setting was a large, public university in the western United States. Subjects . Study subjects were 200 undergraduate women with a mean age of 19 years, mostly white (90%) and of healthy weight (69%, with a BMI range of 18.5-24.9). Study measures were the Intuitive Eating Scale and the Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire. Correlations and regression models were used. Intuitive eating was examined in the sample as a whole and among subgroups of respondents grouped based on tertile rankings of intuitive eating scores. There was evidence that women who demonstrated internal motivation related to eating were also internally motivated to participate in regular PA. Women who reported being internally motivated to eat were significantly more likely to engage in PA for pleasure and to view PA as part of their self-concept. Women who reported high levels of intuitive eating had significantly lower BMI scores than those reporting medium or low levels when controlling for age. For women to achieve or maintain a healthy weight, it may be best for health professionals to examine motivation for eating and PA rather than the encouragement of restrictive eating and exercise prescriptions.

  8. BMI, life-style and psychological conditions in a sample of elderly Italian men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcellini, F; Giuli, C; Papa, R; Gagliardi, C; Malavolta, M; Mocchegiani, E

    2010-08-01

    To identify the relationship among cognitive status, psychological conditions, anthropometric measurements and life-style in a sample of elderly Italian men and women. Three hundred and six volunteers for ZINCAGE Project recruited. The sample was made up of healthy older adults living in the Marche Region aged 65 and over. All elderly were given a complete medical, anthropometric assessment, and psycho-social evaluation. Overall, the participants perceived themselves to be in very good or good (22%) or fair (69%) health; only 9% reported a poor health status. The 46% of the sample fell within the normal body mass index (BMI) range, though 38% were overweight, 12% were obese, and only 4% were underweight. In both sexes, BMI significantly decreased with age (psedentary activities (r=0.188; psedentary (r=0.221; psedentary (r=0.258; p<0.001) leisure activities were positively associated with education level (p<0.05). It was found that lower scores of physical activity were associated to higher scores of Geriatric Depression Scale (r=-0.425; p<0.01), lower scores of Mini Mental State Examination (r=0.266; p<0.001) and higher score of Perceived Stress Scale (r=-0.131; p<0.05). Men and women lead different lifestyles and have a different psychological status, with advancing age consequently stressing the need for healthy lifestyle programmes particularly in the case of overweight and obese elderly people.

  9. A comparison of pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain on gestational diabetes mellitus in pregnant women referred to Asali hospital in 91-92

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    soheila Akbari

    2014-09-01

    Results: In this study, 600pregnant women were evaluated.Mean BMI befor pregnancy in the women with GDM was significantly higher than in the women without the above-mentioned problems(P=0.0001. The mean weight gained during pregnancy in the women with these symptoms was significantly higher than that in the women without the above –mentioned problems(P=0.039(P=0.0001. Compared to pre-pregnancy BMI, weight gain during pregnancy had a higher with GDM(0.278 vs 0.077. Conclusion: Pre-pregnancy BMI in comparison with weight gain during pregnancy, had a higher correlation with GDM and macrosomia

  10. Chronic disease burden associated with overweight and obesity in Ireland: the effects of a small BMI reduction at population level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Karen; Dee, Anne; Fitzgerald, Anthony P; Doherty, Edel; Perry, Ivan J

    2014-02-10

    Overweight and obesity prevalence has risen dramatically in recent decades. While it is known that overweight and obesity is associated with a wide range of chronic diseases, the cumulative burden of chronic disease in the population associated with overweight and obesity is not well quantified. The aims of this paper were to examine the associations between BMI and chronic disease prevalence; to calculate Population Attributable Fractions (PAFs) associated with overweight and obesity; and to estimate the impact of a one unit reduction in BMI on the population prevalence of chronic disease. A cross-sectional analysis of 10,364 adults aged ≥18 years from the Republic of Ireland National Survey of Lifestyle, Attitudes and Nutrition (SLÁN 2007) was performed. Using binary regression, we examined the relationship between BMI and the selected chronic diseases. In further analyses, we calculated PAFs of selected chronic diseases attributable to overweight and obesity and we assessed the impact of a one unit reduction in BMI on the overall burden of chronic disease. Overweight and obesity prevalence was higher in men (43.0% and 16.1%) compared to women (29.2% and 13.4%), respectively. The most prevalent chronic conditions were lower back pain, hypertension, and raised cholesterol. Prevalence of chronic disease generally increased with increasing BMI. Compared to normal weight persons, the strongest associations were found in obese women for diabetes (RR 3.9, 95% CI 2.5-6.3), followed by hypertension (RR 2.9, 95% CI 2.3-3.6); and in obese men for hypertension (RR 2.1, 95% CI 1.6-2.7), followed by osteoarthritis (RR 2.0, 95% CI 1.2-3.2). Calculated PAFs indicated that a large proportion of chronic disease is attributable to increased BMI, most noticeably for diabetes in women (42%) and for hypertension in men (30%). Overall, a one unit decrease in BMI results in 26 and 28 fewer cases of chronic disease per 1,000 men and women, respectively. Overweight and obesity are

  11. Are genes associated with energy metabolism important in asthma and BMI?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepankiewicz, Aleksandra; Breborowicz, Anna; Sobkowiak, Paulina; Popiel, Anna

    2009-02-01

    Increased serum leptin levels have been observed in asthmatic patients. Leptin, via proliferation and activation of Th2 cells, may induce inflammation in asthma. It has also been demonstrated that leptin mRNA expression and protein levels increase in response to inflammatory stimuli. We hypothesized that polymorphisms in the leptin receptor, leptin and ghrelin genes, may affect their expression and, therefore, be responsible for altered response to increased leptin levels observed in asthma. To our knowledge, there were no studies on a potential role of LEPR, LEP, and GHRL polymorphisms in asthma. We analyzed 129 pediatric patients with asthma and 114 healthy children from the control group ranging from 6 to 18 years of age. The diagnosis of allergic asthma was based on clinical symptoms, the lung function test, and the positive skin prick test and/or increased immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels. Polymorphisms were genotyped by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. Statistical analyses were performed with Statistica v.7.1 software (Statistica, StatSoft, Poland; available free at http://www.broad.mit.edu/mpg/haploview/index.php). Linkage disequilibrium analysis was performed with Haploview v.4.0. We observed a statistically significant association of the 3'UTR A/G and the -2549A/G polymorphisms of the leptin gene with asthma. No association with asthma was observed for the K109R and the Q223R polymorphisms of the LEPR gene and the Met72Leu polymorphism of the ghrelin gene. In the analysis of body mass index (BMI) stratified by genotype, we found an association of the -2549A/G LEP, but not of LEPR and GHRL polymorphisms, with higher BMI values in asthmatic patients. We found suggestive evidence for linkage between the two polymorphisms of the LEPR gene (D' = 0.84 CI: 0.71-0.92; r(2) = 0.29) in linkage disequilibrium analysis: The GG haplotype was more frequent in the control healthy group (p = 0.057). No linkage

  12. The Bmi-1 helix–turn and ring finger domains are required for Bmi-1 antagonism of (–) epigallocatechin-3-gallate suppression of skin cancer cell survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Sivaprakasam; Scharadin, Tiffany M.; Han, Bingshe; Xu, Wen; Eckert, Richard L.

    2016-01-01

    The Bmi-1 Polycomb group (PcG) protein is an important epigenetic regulator of chromatin status. Elevated Bmi-1 expression is observed in skin cancer and contributes to cancer cell survival. (–) Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), an important green tea-derived cancer prevention agent, reduces Bmi-1 level resulting in reduced skin cancer cell survival. This is associated with increased p21Cip1 and p27Kip1 expression, reduced cyclin, and cyclin dependent kinase expression, and increased cleavage of apoptotic markers. These EGCG-dependent changes are attenuated by vector-mediated maintenance of Bmi-1 expression. In the present study, we identify Bmi-1 functional domains that are required for this response. Bmi-1 expression reverses the EGCG-dependent reduction in SCC-13 cell survival, but Bmi-1 mutants lacking the helix–turn–helix–turn–helix–turn (Bmi-1ΔHT) or ring finger (Bmi-1ΔRF) domains do not reverse the EGCG impact. The reduction in Ring1B ubiquitin ligase activity, observed in the presence of mutant Bmi-1, is associated with reduced ability of these mutants to interact with and activate Ring1B ubiquitin ligase, the major ligase responsible for the ubiquitination of histone H2A during chromatin condensation. This results in less chromatin condensation leading to increased tumor suppressor gene expression and reduced cell survival; thereby making the cells more susceptible to the anti-survival action of EGCG. We further show that these mutants act in a dominant-negative manner to inhibit the action of endogenous Bmi-1. Our results suggest that the HT and RF domains are required for Bmi-1 ability to maintain skin cancer cell survival in response to cancer preventive agents. PMID:25843776

  13. Endothelial function in young women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): Implications of body mass index (BMI) and insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kannishy, Ghada; Kamal, Shaheer; Mousa, Amany; Saleh, Omayma; Badrawy, Adel El; Farahaty, Reham El; Shokeir, Tarek

    2010-01-01

    Evidence regarding endothelial function in both obese and nonobese women with PCOS is contradictory. It is unknown whether obese women with PCOS carry an increased risk related to body mass index (BMI). To identify endothelial function and investigate its relationship to body mass index and insulin resistance in young women with PCOS. Twenty-two obese women with PCOS (BMI 35.2 ± 3.2) as well as fourteen lean women (BMI 22.8 ± 2.1)with PCOS were included in the study. Fasting serum insulin, blood glucose were estimated and HOMA and Quicki index were calculated. All patients were subjected to ultrasound recording of brachial artery diameter at rest and after reactive hyperemia (FMD) for assessment of endothelial function. Ten age matched healthy females with normal BMI were chosen as a control group. There were higher basal insulin levels with lower Quicki index and higher HOMA index in women with PCOS than normal group, but the differences were significant only between obese PCOS subgroup and control. On the other hand, FMD was significantly and equally decreased in both groups of women with PCOS, compared with control subjects (3.7 ± 3.2% in the nonobese subgroup and 3.5 ± 2.8% in the obese one vs. 10.6 ± 4.1% in control subjects, P, 0.001). FMD was not correlated with BMI nor insulin resistance indices. Endothelial dysfunction is already present in young women with PCOS. In this patient group, it cannot be attributed to insulin resistance or obesity. © 2010 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity . Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Body Mass Index (BMI) and All-Cause Mortality Pooling Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    The BMI and All-Cause Mortality Pooling Project quantified the risk associated with being overweight and the extent to which the relationship between BMI and all-cause mortality varies by certain factors.

  15. Risk of a venous thromboembolic episode due to caesarean section and BMI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colmorn, Lotte Berdiin; Ladelund, S; Rasmussen, S

    2014-01-01

    BMI significantly influences the risk of venous thromboembolism after emergency caesarean delivery compared with vaginal delivery.......BMI significantly influences the risk of venous thromboembolism after emergency caesarean delivery compared with vaginal delivery....

  16. BMI trajectory groups in veterans of the Iraq and Afghanistan wars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberger, Patricia H; Ning, Yuming; Brandt, Cynthia; Allore, Heather; Haskell, Sally

    2011-09-01

    The study sought to determine BMI trajectories in Iraq/Afghanistan veterans over 6 years and to examine sociodemographic factors associated with BMI trajectory membership. Our study sample included 16,656 veterans post-deployment and entering the Veteran Healthcare Administration (VHA) healthcare system. We used national VHA administrative sociodemographic data, tracked veteran BMI for 6 years, and used trajectory modeling to identify BMI trajectories and sociodemographic characteristics associated with trajectory membership. Five trajectory groups determined in the full sample were primarily differentiated by their post-deployment initial BMI: "healthy" (14.1%), "overweight" (36.3%), "borderline obese" (27.9%), "obese" (15.7%), and "severely obese" (6.0). Being female, younger, and white were associated with lower initial BMI trajectory group membership (p'seducation and white female Veterans were associated with the lowest initial BMI group (p'sEducation level and racial status are differentially related to BMI trajectory by gender. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. BMI, diet and female reproductive factors as risks for thyroid cancer: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Peterson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Thyroid cancer incidence rates have been increasing worldwide but the reason behind this is unclear. Both the increasing use of diagnostic technologies allowing the detection of thyroid cancer and a true increase in thyroid cancer incidence have been proposed. This review assesses the role of body mass index (BMI, diet, and reproductive factors on the thyroid cancer trend. METHODS: Epidemiologic studies of the selected risk factors up to June 2010 were reviewed and critically assessed. RESULTS: Among the thirty-seven studies reviewed and despite variation in the risk estimates, most papers supported a small but positive association for BMI (risk estimate range: 1.1-2.3 in males and 1.0-7.4 in females.. Among specific dietary components, there was no consistent association of thyroid cancer risk with iodine intake through fortification (risk estimate range: 0.49-1.6 or fish consumption (risk estimate range 0.6-2.2, nor with diets high in cruciferous vegetables (risk estimate range 0.6-1.9. A small number of studies showed a consistent protective effect of diets high in non-cruciferous vegetable (risk estimate range: 0.71-0.92. Among reproductive factors (pregnancy, parity, number of live births, use of prescription hormones, menstrual cycle regularity, and menopausal status, none were consistently associated with higher thyroid cancer risk. CONCLUSIONS: BMI had the strongest link to thyroid cancer risk among those examined. Detailed examinations of population-level risk factors can help identify and support prevention efforts to reduce the burden of thyroid cancer.

  18. Impact of BMI on clinical outcomes of NOAC therapy in daily care - Results of the prospective Dresden NOAC Registry (NCT01588119).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tittl, L; Endig, S; Marten, S; Reitter, A; Beyer-Westendorf, I; Beyer-Westendorf, J

    2018-03-14

    Direct acting non-Vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOAC) are characterized by a fixed dosing regimen. Despite the potential for relative underdosing due to large distribution volumes, dose adjustments for patients with high body mass index (BMI) are not recommended. Since efficacy and safety data in obese patients are scarce, we evaluated the impact of BMI on clinical outcomes in daily care patients treated with NOAC for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation or venous thromboembolism. Using prospectively collected data from a non-interventional registry, cardiovascular (CV), major bleeding events (MB) and all-cause mortality were evaluated according to BMI classes. All outcome events were centrally adjudicated using standard scientific definitions. Between November 1st 2011 and December 31st 2016, 3432 patients were enrolled into the registry (61.3% rivaroxaban; 20% apixaban; 10.1% dabigatran, 8.6% edoxaban; mean follow-up 998.1 ± 542.9 days; median 1004 days). With increasing BMI (range 13.7-57.2 kg/m 2 ), the proportion of patients receiving standard (vs. reduced) NOAC dose increased from 64.7% (underweight) to 78.9% (obesity). Although obese patients had more cardiovascular risk factors compared to normal weight patients, on-treatment rates of clinical outcomes (CV, MB, all-cause-mortality) were lowest in overweight and obese patients. In a large set of real-life NOAC recipients we found no indication that high BMI is associated with inferior NOAC effectiveness or safety, which is in line with recent epidemiological data of a "BMI paradox" that indicates a somewhat protective effect of higher BMI regarding unfavourable outcomes also in patients receiving fixed dose NOAC anticoagulation without dose adjustment for higher BMI. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. A Study on Mediation by Offspring BMI in the Association between Maternal Obesity and Child Respiratory Outcomes in the Amsterdam Born and Their Development Study Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harskamp-van Ginkel, Margreet W; London, Stephanie J; Magnus, Maria C; Gademan, Maaike G; Vrijkotte, Tanja G

    2015-01-01

    A causal relationship between maternal obesity and offspring asthma is hypothesized to begin during early development, but no underlying mechanism for the found association is identified. We quantitatively examined mediation by offspring body mass index (BMI) in the association of maternal pre-pregnancy BMI on risk of asthma and wheezing during the first 7-8 years of life in a large Amsterdam born birth cohort. For 3185 mother-child pairs, mothers reported maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and offspring outcomes "ever being diagnosed with asthma" and "wheezing in the past 12 months" on questionnaires. We measured offspring height and weight at age 5-6 years. We performed a multivariate log linear regression comparing outcomes in offspring of mothers with different BMI categories. For each category we quantified and tested mediation by offspring BMI and also investigated interaction by parental asthma. At the age of 7-8 years, 8% of the offspring ever had asthma and 7% had current wheezing. Maternal pre-pregnancy obesity was associated with higher risks of asthma (adjusted RR 2.32 (95% CI: 1.49-3.61) and wheezing (adjusted RR 2.16 (95% CI: 1.28-3.64). Offspring BMI was a mediator in the association between maternal BMI and offspring wheezing, but not for asthma. There was no interaction by parental asthma. Maternal pre-pregnancy obesity was associated with higher risks of offspring asthma and wheezing. The association between maternal obesity and offspring wheezing was both direct and indirect (mediated) through the child's own BMI.

  20. Specific food intake, fat and fiber intake, and behavioral correlates of BMI among overweight and obese members of a managed care organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherwood Nancy E

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study examined correlates of body mass index (BMI in overweight and obese members of a managed care organization seeking treatment for obesity. It assessed intake of specific foods, dietary fat or fiber, and behaviors attempted to control weight. Methods Participants were 508 men and 1293 women who were > 18 years and had a self-reported BMI > 27.0. This paper reports analyses of baseline and 24-month follow-up data from a randomized weight-loss trial. Cross-sectional and prospective relationships between BMI and behaviors were examined with regression analyses controlling for age and education. Results At baseline, hamburger and beef consumption were associated with higher BMI for men; for women, hamburger, fried chicken, hot dog, bacon or sausage, egg, French fry, and overall fat consumption were associated with higher BMI, while eating high fiber cereal, fruit, and overall fiber intake were associated with lower BMI. Virtually all forms of weight control behavior were reported more often in heavier people. Subscribing to exercise magazines, however, was associated with lower BMI. Decreased fat intake and increased fruit/vegetable/fiber intake over the course of the study were associated with reductions in BMI at 24 months. Conclusion The same behaviors that differentiate individuals with different body weight in the general population also differentiate between individuals of different body weights at the high end of the weight distribution. Educational efforts aimed at preventing weight gain and reducing obesity might benefit from focusing on specific foods known to be associated empirically with body weight and weight change over time.

  1. BMI1 and Mel-18 oppositely regulate carcinogenesis and progression of gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Wei; Sheng, Ya-Ping; Li, Qian; Qin, Wei; Lu, You-Wei; Cheng, Yu-Fan; Liu, Bing-Ya; Zhang, Feng-Chun; Li, Jin; Dimri, Goberdhan P; Guo, Wei-Jian

    2010-02-21

    The BMI1 oncogene is overexpressed in several human malignancies including gastric cancer. In addition to BMI1, mammalian cells also express Mel-18, which is closely related to BMI1. We have reported that Mel-18 functions as a potential tumor suppressor by repressing the expression of BMI1 and consequent downregulation of activated AKT in breast cancer cells. However, the mechanisms of BMI1 overexpression and the role of Mel-18 in other cancers are still not clear. The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of BMI1 and Mel-18 in gastric cancer. BMI1 was found to be overexpressed in gastric cancer cell lines and gastric tumors. Overexpression of BMI1 correlated with advanced clinical stage and lymph node metastasis; while the expression of Mel-18 negatively correlated with BMI1. BMI1 but not Mel-18 was found to be an independent prognostic factor. Downregulation of BMI1 by Mel-18 overexpression or knockdown of BMI1 expression in gastric cancer cell lines led to upregulation of p16 (p16INK4a or CDKN2A) in p16 positive cell lines and reduction of phospho-AKT in both p16-positive and p16-negative cell lines. Downregulation of BMI1 was also accompanied by decreased transformed phenotype and migration in both p16- positive and p16-negative gastric cancer cell lines. In the context of gastric cancer, BMI1 acts as an oncogene and Mel-18 functions as a tumor suppressor via downregulation of BMI1. Mel-18 and BMI1 may regulate tumorigenesis, cell migration and cancer metastasis via both p16- and AKT-dependent growth regulatory pathways.

  2. Effects of two-months balanced diet in metabolically healthy obesity: lipid correlations with gender and BMI-related differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondanelli, Mariangela; Klersy, Chaterine; Perna, Simone; Faliva, Milena Anna; Montorfano, Gigliola; Roderi, Paola; Colombo, Irma; Corsetto, Paola Antonia; Fioravanti, Marisa; Solerte, Sebastiano Bruno; Rizzo, Angela Maria

    2015-10-29

    Nowadays no researches has been performed on fatty acid profile (FA) and desaturase activity in metabolically healthy obesity (MHO). The aim of this study was to assessed gender and BMI-related difference in FA, estimated desaturase activities and the efficacy on metabolic changes produced by 2-months well-balance diet in MHO subjects. In 103 MHO subjects (30/73 M/F; age:42.2 ± 9.5) FA, estimated desaturase activity, body composition (by DXA), Body Mass Index (BMI), lipid profile, adipokines (leptin, adiponectin, grelin, glucagon-like peptide-1), insulin resistence (by Homestasis metabolic assessment), C-reactive proteine, Atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) and Body Shape Index (ABSI) have been assessed. Gender and BMI related difference have been evaluated and the efficacy produced by 2-months well-balance diet has been considered. At baseline, obese subjects, compared to overweight, show a significantly higher oleic (p insulin resistance (p = 0.006), leptin (p = 0.006), adiponectin (p <0.001), grelin (p = 0.030), CRP (p = 0.004), BMI (p <0.001) and android fat mass (p <0.001). The balanced diet intervention was effective in improving metabolic indices.

  3. Polycystic ovary syndrome patients with high BMI tend to have functional disorders of androgen excess: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Chun; Liu, Xiaoqiang; Mao, Yundong; Diao, Feiyang; Cui, Yugui; Liu, Jiayin

    2016-05-01

    Biochemical or clinical changes of hyperandrogenism are important elements of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). There is currently no consensus on the definition and diagnostic criteria of hyperandrogenism in PCOS. The aim of this study was to investigate the complex symptoms of hyperandrogenic disorders and the correlations between metabolism and hyperandrogenism in patients with PCOS from an outpatient reproductive medicine clinic in China. We conducted a case control study of 125 PCOS patients and 130 controls to evaluate differences in body mass index (BMI), total testosterone (TT), modified Ferriman-Gallwey hirsutism score, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and free androgen index (FAI) between PCOS patients and controls and subgroups of PCOS. The prevalence of acne and hirsutism did not differ significantly between the hyperandrogenic and non-hyperandrogenic subgroup. Patients with signs of hyperandrogenism had significantly higher BMI (P PCOS patients. Our results suggest that PCOS patients with high BMI tend to have functional disorders of androgen excess; therefore, BMI may be a strong predictor of hyperandrogenism in PCOS. © 2016 the Journal of Biomedical Research. All rights reserved.

  4. File list: Oth.Neu.10.BMI1.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Neu.10.BMI1.AllCell hg19 TFs and others BMI1 Neural SRX109477,SRX109480,SRX1094...82,SRX109479 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Neu.10.BMI1.AllCell.bed ...

  5. File list: Oth.ALL.05.BMI1.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.ALL.05.BMI1.AllCell hg19 TFs and others BMI1 All cell types SRX644721,SRX109477...79,SRX149715,SRX359986,SRX644717,SRX644709,SRX644713 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.ALL.05.BMI1.AllCell.bed ...

  6. Associations between Three School-Based Measures of Health: Is BMI Enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Emily H.; Houser, Robert F.; Au, Lauren E.; Sacheck, Jennifer M.

    2013-01-01

    School-based body mass index (BMI) notification programs are often used to raise parental awareness of childhood overweight and obesity, but how BMI results are associated with physical fitness and diet is less clear. This study examined the relationship between BMI, fitness, and diet quality in a diverse sample of urban schoolchildren…

  7. File list: Oth.ALL.20.BMI1.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.ALL.20.BMI1.AllCell hg19 TFs and others BMI1 All cell types SRX109477,SRX109480...17,SRX113591,SRX644729,SRX359986,SRX109479,SRX644721 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.ALL.20.BMI1.AllCell.bed ...

  8. File list: Oth.ALL.10.BMI1.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.ALL.10.BMI1.AllCell hg19 TFs and others BMI1 All cell types SRX109477,SRX109480...86,SRX644709,SRX644713,SRX644717,SRX113591,SRX644721 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.ALL.10.BMI1.AllCell.bed ...

  9. File list: Oth.Kid.10.BMI1.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Kid.10.BMI1.AllCell hg19 TFs and others BMI1 Kidney SRX149704,SRX644725,SRX1497...08,SRX644729,SRX149712,SRX644709,SRX644713,SRX644717,SRX113591,SRX644721 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Kid.10.BMI1.AllCell.bed ...

  10. File list: Oth.ALL.50.BMI1.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.ALL.50.BMI1.AllCell hg19 TFs and others BMI1 All cell types SRX109477,SRX109480...08,SRX644729,SRX113591,SRX359986,SRX644717,SRX109479 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.ALL.50.BMI1.AllCell.bed ...

  11. File list: Oth.Neu.05.BMI1.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Neu.05.BMI1.AllCell hg19 TFs and others BMI1 Neural SRX109477,SRX109480,SRX1094...82,SRX109479 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Neu.05.BMI1.AllCell.bed ...

  12. File list: Oth.Neu.50.BMI1.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Neu.50.BMI1.AllCell hg19 TFs and others BMI1 Neural SRX109477,SRX109480,SRX1094...82,SRX109479 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Neu.50.BMI1.AllCell.bed ...

  13. File list: Oth.Neu.20.BMI1.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Neu.20.BMI1.AllCell hg19 TFs and others BMI1 Neural SRX109477,SRX109480,SRX1094...82,SRX109479 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Neu.20.BMI1.AllCell.bed ...

  14. File list: Oth.Kid.20.BMI1.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Kid.20.BMI1.AllCell hg19 TFs and others BMI1 Kidney SRX644725,SRX149704,SRX1497...12,SRX644713,SRX644709,SRX149708,SRX644717,SRX113591,SRX644729,SRX644721 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Kid.20.BMI1.AllCell.bed ...

  15. File list: Oth.Kid.50.BMI1.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Kid.50.BMI1.AllCell hg19 TFs and others BMI1 Kidney SRX644725,SRX149704,SRX1497...12,SRX644709,SRX644713,SRX644721,SRX149708,SRX644729,SRX113591,SRX644717 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Kid.50.BMI1.AllCell.bed ...

  16. Bmi1 is required for hedgehog pathway-driven medulloblastoma expansion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michael, Lowell Evan; Westerman, Bart A.; Ermilov, Alexandre N.; Wang, Aiqin; Ferris, Jennifer; Liu, Jianhong; Blom, Marleen; Ellison, David W.; van Lohuizen, Maarten; Dlugosz, Andrzej A.

    2008-01-01

    Inappropriate Hedgehog (Hh) signaling underlies development of a subset of medulloblastomas, and tumors with elevated HH signaling activity express the stem cell self-renewal gene BMI1. To test whether Bmi1 is required for Hh-driven medulloblastoma development, we varied Bmi1 gene dosage in

  17. Relationship between 8/9-yr-old school children BMI, parents' BMI and educational level: a cross sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilato Valentina

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents are responsible not only for the genetic structure of their children, but also for passing onto them their behaviours and attitudes toward life. The aim of this study was to analyse the connection between school-age children's obesity and that of their parents as well as between child obesity and parents' educational level, as a proxy indicator of the socio-economic status (SES of families in Tuscany. Methods The children sample was selected from "OKkio alla Salute 2010" (a cross sectional survey carried out by the Italian Institute of Health and consisted of 1,751 (922 males and 855 females 8-9 year-old school children. Weight and height were measured by ad hoc trained personnel, and Body Mass Index (BMI categories were calculated using Cole et al.'s cut-off. Parents' weight, height and educational level were collected by a self-administered questionnaire. The educational levels were classified as high, medium and low. Results The prevalence of obese children increased along the parents' BMI category: from 1.4% for underweight mothers to 30.3% for obese mothers and from 4% for under-normal-weight fathers to 23.9% for obese fathers (p Conclusion Parents' obesity and the cultural resources of the family, particularly the father's, seem to influence the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Tuscan children.

  18. Physical activity and its related motivational attributes in adolescents with different BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, J; Kim, Y H

    2013-03-01

    A number of obesity studies have been focused on identifying the relationships between socioeconomic status and physical activity involvement. In behavioral medicine, the limited data are available on obese people's physical activity and its related psychological predictors based on psychological theories. To identify the differences in physical activity and its related motivational attributes among normal weight, overweight, and obese adolescents and to find the effect of body mass index (BMI) and the Self-Determination Theory (SDT) constructs in predicting physical activity. One thousand seventy-one students ranging from seventh to ninth grades were randomly selected from three junior high schools in Seoul (359 normal weight students, 468 overweight students, and 244 obese students). A Korean version of Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire-2 and Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire were applied to measure the participants' motivational attributes and physical activity. Overweight and obese adolescents showed higher scores on amotivation and externally motivated regulations for physical activity than their normal weight counterparts. Internal regulation was more significant for physical activity in normal weight adolescent. However, there was no difference in physical activity among the three groups. Additionally, the findings identified that BMI and the SDT constructs were significant to explain physical activity. This study offers fundamental knowledge in gaining a clearer understanding of the types of motivation most likely to contribute to the initiation and promotion of physical activity in overweight and obese adolescents.

  19. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TRUNK MUSCLES ENDURANCE AND NORMAL BMI AMONG UNIVERSITY STUDENTS WITH SEDENTARY LIFESTYLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthikeyan Selvaganapathy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The most important trunk stabilizers are the trunk flexors and extensors. The isometric endurance of the trunk muscles is an essential element for mechanical support of the spine in all positions. The study objectives were to find out the trunk flexors and extensors endurance, its relationship with normal BMI and to find out the ratio of trunk flexors to extensors endurance. Methods: In this correlation study, 50 subjects were selected by convenience sampling method on the basis of inclusion and exclusion criteria from Asia metropolitan university, Malaysia. The trunk flexors and extensors endurance were assessed by Kraus- Weber and Sorenson test respectively. Paired 't' test and Spearman correlation test were used for data analysis. Results: There was a significant difference (p 0.01 and TEE, rs (50 = -0.162, p >0.01 but there was a significant strong positive relationship between TFE and TEE, rs (50 = 0.68, p < 0.01. The ratio of trunk flexors to extensors was 0.61. Conclusion: The trunk extensors endurance is higher than trunk flexors endurance and BMI has no relationship with trunk flexors and extensors muscle endurance. The ratio of trunk flexors to extensors endurance value is low

  20. Efektivitas Layanan Weekend Banking (Studi BMI KCP PIM .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rifa Farhah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Effectiveness of Weekend Banking Services (Study at BMI KCP PIM. The aim of this research is to analyze the effectiveness of weekend banking services at Bank Muamalat Indonesia. The method that used in this research is linier regression and. The result shown that the value of adjusted R-squared was 0.313409. It means that customer’s preference (dependent variable was influenced by location, brand image, and, product and services in the amount of 31.34% and the others 68.66% was influenced by the others factor. From the paired sample t-test shown that the weekend banking services still not effective to increase the third party funds  DOI:10.15408/aiq.v6i1.1370

  1. DOES PRESENTING PATIENT'S BMI INCREASE DOCUMENTATION OF OBESITY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norm Clothier, MD, M. Kim Marvel, PhD, Courtney S. Cruickshank, MS

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Despite the associated health consequences, obesity is infrequently documented as a problem in medical charts. The purpose of this study is to determine whether a simple intervention (routine listing of the BMI on the medical chart will increase physician documentation of obesity in the medical record. Methods: Participants were resident physicians in a family medicine residency program. Participants were randomly assigned to either an experimental group or a control group. For experimental group physicians, the Body Mass Index was listed alongside other vital signs of patients seen in an ambulatory setting. Physician documentation of patient obesity was assessed by chart review after patient visits. Documentation was defined as inclusion of obesity on the problem list or in the progress note. Results: The intervention did not significantly increase the rate of documentation of obesity in the medical chart. Several reasons for the lack of change are explored, including the difficulty of treating obesity successfully.

  2. Higher Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kunle Amuwo: Higher Education Transformation: A Paradigm Shilt in South Africa? ... ty of such skills, especially at the middle management levels within the higher ... istics and virtues of differentiation and diversity. .... may be forced to close shop for lack of capacity to attract ..... necessarily lead to racial and gender equity,.

  3. Social disparities in BMI trajectories across adulthood by gender, race/ethnicity and lifetime socio-economic position: 1986-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Philippa; O'Malley, Patrick M; Johnston, Lloyd D; Schulenberg, John E

    2009-04-01

    The prevalence of obesity and overweight is rapidly increasing in industrialized countries, with long-term health and social consequences. There is also a strong social patterning of obesity and overweight, with a higher prevalence among women, racial/ethnic minorities and those from a lower socio-economic position (SEP). Most of the existing work in this area, however, is based on cross-sectional data or single cohort studies. No national studies to date have examined how social disparities in obesity and overweight differ by age and historical period using longitudinal data with repeated measures. We used panel data from the nationally representative Monitoring the Future Study (1986-2004) to examine social disparities in trajectories of body mass index (BMI) over adulthood (age 18-45). Self-reported height and weight were collected in this annual US survey of high-school seniors, followed biennially since 1976. Using growth curve models, we analysed BMI trajectories over adulthood by gender, race/ethnicity and lifetime SEP (measured by parents' education and respondent's education). BMI trajectories exhibit a curvilinear rate of change from age 18 to 45, but there was a strong period effect, such that weight gain was more rapid for more recent cohorts. As a result, successive cohorts become overweight (BMI>25) at increasingly earlier points in the life course. BMI scores were also consistently higher for women, racial/ethnic minority groups and those from a lower SEP. However, BMI scores for socially advantaged groups in recent cohorts were actually higher than those for their socially disadvantaged counterparts who were born 10 years earlier. Results highlight the importance of social status and socio-economic resources for maintaining optimal weight. Yet, even those in advantaged social positions have experienced an increase in BMI in recent years.

  4. The effect of obesity on inflammatory markers in patients with PCOS: a BMI-matched case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin Kurt, Raziye; Okyay, Ayşe Güler; Hakverdi, Ali Ulvi; Gungoren, Arif; Dolapcioglu, Kenan Serdar; Karateke, Atilla; Dogan, Mustafa Ozcil

    2014-08-01

    Previous studies have shown increased inflammatory activity in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS); however, it remains uncertain whether this increased inflammatory activity is a consequence of the disorder itself or of the accompanying obesity. We therefore aimed to test the inflammatory marker levels in obese and lean patients with PCOS by using two separate control groups with matching body mass index (BMI). A total of 120 women in reproductive age with (n = 62) and without (n = 60) PCOS were recruited for the study. Patients with PCOS were divided into two groups as obese (n = 32) and lean (n = 30) PCOS groups according to BMI. Two BMI-matched control groups were created. Furthermore, high sensitive CRP protein (hsCRP), neutrophils, lymphocytes, white blood cell count (WBC) and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) were evaluated with complete blood count. The hsCRP (5.5 ± 0.8 vs. 3.1 ± 0.7, p PCOS compared to the control group while lymphocyte count was lower (1.71 ± 0.65 vs. 1.98 ± 0.39, p = 0.008). Similarly, both obese and lean patients with PCOS had higher levels of hsCRP, neutrophils, leukocytes and NLR ratios compared to BMI-matched controls. The correlation analysis revealed a moderate correlation between NLR and hsCRP (r 0.459, p lean and obese patients with PCOS have increased inflammatory markers compared to BMI-matched control groups indicating that the inflammation seen in PCOS might be related with the presence of the disorder rather than with obesity.

  5. Associations between night work and BMI, alcohol, smoking, caffeine and exercise--a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchvold, Hogne Vikanes; Pallesen, Ståle; Øyane, Nicolas M F; Bjorvatn, Bjørn

    2015-11-12

    Shift work is associated with negative health effects. Increased prevalence of several cardiovascular risk factors among shift workers/night workers compared with day workers have been shown resulting in increased risk of cardiovascular events among shift workers and night workers. Previous studies have taken a dichotomous approach to the comparison between day and night workers. The present study uses a continuous approach and provides such a new perspective to the negative effects of night work load as a possible risk factor for undesirable health effects. This cross sectional study (The SUrvey of Shift work, Sleep and Health (SUSSH)) uses data collected from December 2008 to March 2009. The study population consists of Norwegian nurses. The study collected information about demographic and lifestyle factors: Body Mass Index (BMI), smoking habits, alcohol consumption, caffeine consumption and exercise habits. The lifestyle parameters were evaluated using multiple hierarchical regression and binary logistic regression. Number of night shifts worked last year (NNL) was used as operationalization of night work load. Adjustment for possible confounders were made. Obesity was defined as BMI > 30. Alcohol Consumption was evaluated using the short form of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test Consumption (AUDIT-C). Data were analyzed using SPSS version 22. We had data from 2059 nurses. NNL was significantly and positively associated with BMI, both when evaluated against BMI as a continuous parameter (Beta = .055, p < .05), and against obesity (OR = 1.01, 95 % CI = 1.00-1.01). The AUDIT-C score was significantly and positively associated with hours worked per week (OR = 1.03, 95 % CI = 1.01-1.05). We found a positive significant association between night work load and BMI. This suggests that workers with a heavy night work load might need special attention and frequent health checks due to higher risk of undesirable health effects.

  6. Healthier home food preparation methods and youth and caregiver psychosocial factors are associated with lower BMI in African American youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Rebecca F; Coutinho, Anastasia J; Vaeth, Elisabeth; Christiansen, Karina; Suratkar, Sonali; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2012-05-01

    Obesity disproportionately affects African American (AA) children and adolescents and leads to an increased risk of adult chronic diseases. Eating few meals at home has been implicated as a cause of obesity among youth, but to our knowledge, previous studies have not specifically investigated this relationship in AA adolescents or looked at both the healthfulness and frequency of home meals in AA households. The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between home food preparation and adolescent BMI in a sample of 240 AA adolescents aged 10-15 y and their caregivers. Multiple linear regressions were used to model psychosocial characteristics, household factors, and adolescent and caregiver food preparation behaviors as predictors of adolescent BMI, and psychosocial and household factors as predictors of food preparation behavior. Adolescents in the sample had a mean BMI-for-age percentile of 70.4, and >90% of the sample families received at least one form of food assistance. Adolescent children of caregivers who used healthier cooking methods were more likely to use healthy cooking methods themselves (P = 0.02). Having more meals prepared by a caregiver was predictive of higher BMI-for-age percentile in adolescents (P = 0.02), but healthier cooking methods used by the caregiver was associated with reduced risk of adolescent overweight or obesity (P prepared at home in AA households do not necessarily promote healthy BMI in youth. Family meals are a promising adolescent obesity prevention strategy, but it is important to target both frequency and healthfulness of meals prepared at home for effective health promotion in AA families.

  7. Do medical students adhere to advice regarding a healthy lifestyle? A pilot study of BMI and some aspects of lifestyle in medical students in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanikowska, Dominika; Sikorska, Dorota; Kuczyńska, Barbara; Grzymisławski, Marian; Bręborowicz, Andrzej; Witowski, Janusz

    2017-12-01

    The components of lifestyle of medical students, with comprehensive reporting of their physical activity and drinking and eating behavior, are rarely evaluated. Being overweight (increased body mass index - BMI) is associated with health problems, an unhealthy lifestyle (inadequate sleep, diet and exercise) being implicated. The aim was to determine if there were discrepancies between assessments of actual lifestyle and advice regarding the principles of a healthy lifestyle. The relationship between lifestyle and BMI was investigated in 270 medical students (158 females, 112 males) who answered a questionnaire about aspects of their lifestyle. The mean ±SD BMI in males (23.41 ±0.25kg/m2) was significantly higher than in females (20.52 ±0.16kg/m2). Many aspects of lifestyle differed significantly with gender, including sleep habits, number of meals eaten, types of food eaten (fast food, amounts of fresh fruit and vegetables, sweets, etc.) and alcohol consumption, males generally having less healthy lifestyles. After correcting the associations between BMI and lifestyle factors for gender, one main finding was a positive association between BMI and alcohol intake, BMI rising by 0.014 kg/m2/g alcohol intake per week. These results show clear differences between actual and advised lifestyle with regard to many aspects of sleep, food and fluid intake, and exercise. Most students, particularly males, had not adopted a healthy lifestyle. Possible future problems associated with this require more emphasis.

  8. Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    & Development (LDRD) National Security Education Center (NSEC) Office of Science Programs Richard P Databases National Security Education Center (NSEC) Center for Nonlinear Studies Engineering Institute Scholarships STEM Education Programs Teachers (K-12) Students (K-12) Higher Education Regional Education

  9. Bmi1 Is Required for Hedgehog Pathway-Driven Medulloblastoma Expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lowell Evan Michael

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Inappropriate Hedgehog (Hh signaling underlies development of a subset of medulloblastomas, and tumors with elevated HH signaling activity express the stem cell self-renewal gene BMI1. To test whether Bmi1 is required for Hh-driven medulloblastoma development, we varied Bmi1 gene dosage in transgenic mice expressing an oncogenic Hh effector, SmoA1, driven by a glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP promoter. Whereas 100% of SmoA1; Bmi1+/+ or SmoA1;Bmi1+/- mice examined between postnatal (P days 14 and 26 had typical medulloblastomas (N = 29, tumors were not detected in any of the SmoA1;Bmi1-/- animals examined (N = 6. Instead, small ectopic collections of cells were present in the region of greatest tumor load in SmoA1 animals, suggesting that medulloblastomas were initiated but failed to undergo expansion into frank tumors. Cells within these Bmi1-/- lesions expressed SmoA1 but were largely nonproliferative, in contrast to cells in Bmi1+/+ tumors (6.2% vs 81.9% PCNA-positive, respectively. Ectopic cells were negative for the progenitor marker nestin, strongly GFAP-positive, and highly apoptotic, relative to Bmi1+/+ tumor cells (29.6% vs 6.3% TUNEL-positive. The alterations in proliferation and apoptosis in SmoA1;Bmi1-/- ectopic cells are associated with reduced levels of Cyclin D1 and elevated expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p19Arf, two inversely regulated downstream targets of Bmi1. These data provide the first demonstration that Bmi1 is required for spontaneous de novo development of a solid tumor arising in the brain, suggest a crucial role for Bmi1-dependent, nestin-expressing progenitor cells in medulloblastoma expansion, and implicate Bmi1 as a key factor required for Hh pathway-driven tumorigenesis.

  10. Relationship between 8/9-yr-old school children BMI, parents' BMI and educational level: a cross sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzeri, Giacomo; Pammolli, Andrea; Pilato, Valentina; Giacchi, Mariano V

    2011-07-19

    Parents are responsible not only for the genetic structure of their children, but also for passing onto them their behaviours and attitudes toward life. The aim of this study was to analyse the connection between school-age children's obesity and that of their parents as well as between child obesity and parents' educational level, as a proxy indicator of the socio-economic status (SES) of families in Tuscany. The children sample was selected from "OKkio alla Salute 2010" (a cross sectional survey carried out by the Italian Institute of Health) and consisted of 1,751 (922 males and 855 females) 8-9 year-old school children. Weight and height were measured by ad hoc trained personnel, and Body Mass Index (BMI) categories were calculated using Cole et al.'s cut-off. Parents' weight, height and educational level were collected by a self-administered questionnaire. The educational levels were classified as high, medium and low. The prevalence of obese children increased along the parents' BMI category: from 1.4% for underweight mothers to 30.3% for obese mothers and from 4% for under-normal-weight fathers to 23.9% for obese fathers (p parents' educational level and child obesity, the lowest educational level corresponding to the highest prevalence of obese children: 9.3% for mothers with a low educational level compared to 5.8% for mothers with a high educational level (p = 0.15); similarly, the corresponding prevalence for fathers was 9.5% compared to 4.5% (p = 0.03). Parents' obesity and the cultural resources of the family, particularly the father's, seem to influence the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Tuscan children.

  11. Insulin sensitivity is reduced in children with high body-fat regardless of BMI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fairchild, Timothy J; Klakk, Heidi; Heidemann, Malene

    2018-01-01

    BF% was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were measured and the homoeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) used to assess insulin sensitivity. RESULTS: Approximately 8% of children classified as normal weight...... by BMI had high BF% (NW + Adipose). Children with high BF% had significantly higher insulin (NW + adipose: 32.3%; OW/OB + Adipose: 52.2%) and HOMA-IR scores (NW + Adipose: 32.3%; OW/OB + Adipose: 55.3%) than children classified as NW without high BF% (reference group; NW + NonAdipose). Adjusting for CRF...

  12. MicroRNA-128 suppresses paclitaxel-resistant lung cancer by inhibiting MUC1-C and BMI-1 in cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Hyebin; Park, Hyeri; Chandimali, Nisansala; Huynh, Do Luong; Zhang, Jiao Jiao; Ghosh, Mrinmoy; Gera, Meeta; Kim, Nameun; Bak, Yesol; Yoon, Do-Young; Park, Yang Ho; Kwon, Taeho; Jeong, Dong Kee

    2017-12-15

    The existence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) is the main reason for failure of cancer treatment caused by drug resistance. Therefore, eradicating cancers by targeting CSCs remains a significant challenge. In the present study, because of the important role of BMI-1 proto-oncogene, polycomb ring finger (BMI-1) and C-terminal Mucin1 (MUC1-C) in tumor growth and maintenance of CSCs, we aimed to confirm that microRNA miR-128, as an inhibitor of BMI-1 and MUC1-C, could effectively suppress paclitaxel (PTX)-resistant lung cancer stem cells. We showed that CSCs have significantly higher expression levels of BMI-1, MUC1-C, stemness proteins, signaling factors, and higher malignancy compared with normal tumor cells. After transfection with miR-128, the BMI-1 and MUC1-C levels in CSCs were suppressed. When miR-128 was stably expressed in PTX-resistant lung cancer stem cells, the cells showed decreased proliferation, metastasis, self-renewal, migration, invasive ability, clonogenicity, and tumorigenicity in vitro and in vivo and increased apoptosis compared with miR-NC (negative control) CSCs. Furthermore, miR-128 effectively decreased the levels of β-catenin and intracellular signaling pathway-related factors in CSCs. MiR-128 also decreased the luciferase activity of MUC1 reporter constructs and reduced the levels of transmembrane MUC1-C and BMI-1. These results suggested miR-128 as an attractive therapeutic strategy for PTX-resistant lung cancer via inhibition of BMI-1 and MUC1-C.

  13. Effects of pioglitazone therapy on blood parameters, weight and BMI: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Filipova

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is one of the most common diseases worldwide and insulin insufficiency and insulin resistance are two main metabolic issues connected with it. The dyslipidemia associated with insulin resistance and T2DM is characterized by higher triglycerides (TGs, higher very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and lower apo A1. Pioglitazone, a member of the thiazolidinedione class, with a proven antihyperglycemic effect, is known to positively influence insulin sensitivity and β-cell function and to have the potential to alter the lipid profile. Methods The aim of our meta-analysis is to summarize and determine the influence of pioglitazone on the glycemic profile and lipoprotein metabolism as well as on weight and BMI in order to highlight the benefit of pioglitazone therapy in patients with T2DM. A comprehensive literature search was conducted through the electronic databases PubMed, MEDLINE, Scopus, PsyInfo, eLIBRARY.ru (from 2000 until February 2016 to identify studies that investigate the effect of pioglitazone on the glycemic and lipid profile and on the weight and BMI. We chose the random-effects method as the primary analysis. Forest plots depict estimated results from the studies included in the analysis and funnel plots are used to evaluate publication bias. Sensitivity analyses were performed in order to evaluate the degree of influence of the consequent elimination of each individual study on the final result. Results Of the 1536 identified sources only 15 randomised trials were included in the meta-analysis. Pioglitazone treatment was associated with improvement in the glycemic profile. It reduced FPG levels by a mean of 1.1–2 mmol/l and HbA1c by a mean of 0.9–1.3%. Our results reaffirmed the hypothesis that pioglitazone has a positive influence on the lipid profile of T2DM patients with increase in TC and HDL, no significant changes in LDL and notable decrease in TGs. Results also showed

  14. No interactions between previously associated 2-hour glucose gene variants and physical activity or BMI on 2-hour glucose levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scott, Robert A; Chu, Audrey Y; Grarup, Niels

    2012-01-01

    to determine 2-h glucose levels is unknown. We meta-analyzed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) × BMI and SNP × physical activity (PA) interaction regression models for five SNPs previously associated with 2-h glucose levels from up to 22 studies comprising 54,884 individuals without diabetes. PA levels were......Gene-lifestyle interactions have been suggested to contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes. Glucose levels 2 h after a standard 75-g glucose challenge are used to diagnose diabetes and are associated with both genetic and lifestyle factors. However, whether these factors interact...... dichotomized, with individuals below the first quintile classified as inactive (20%) and the remainder as active (80%). BMI was considered a continuous trait. Inactive individuals had higher 2-h glucose levels than active individuals (ß = 0.22 mmol/L [95% CI 0.13-0.31], P = 1.63 × 10(-6)). All SNPs were...

  15. BMI and WHR Are Reflected in Female Facial Shape and Texture: A Geometric Morphometric Image Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Mayer

    Full Text Available Facial markers of body composition are frequently studied in evolutionary psychology and are important in computational and forensic face recognition. We assessed the association of body mass index (BMI and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR with facial shape and texture (color pattern in a sample of young Middle European women by a combination of geometric morphometrics and image analysis. Faces of women with high BMI had a wider and rounder facial outline relative to the size of the eyes and lips, and relatively lower eyebrows. Furthermore, women with high BMI had a brighter and more reddish skin color than women with lower BMI. The same facial features were associated with WHR, even though BMI and WHR were only moderately correlated. Yet BMI was better predictable than WHR from facial attributes. After leave-one-out cross-validation, we were able to predict 25% of variation in BMI and 10% of variation in WHR by facial shape. Facial texture predicted only about 3-10% of variation in BMI and WHR. This indicates that facial shape primarily reflects total fat proportion, rather than the distribution of fat within the body. The association of reddish facial texture in high-BMI women may be mediated by increased blood pressure and superficial blood flow as well as diet. Our study elucidates how geometric morphometric image analysis serves to quantify the effect of biological factors such as BMI and WHR to facial shape and color, which in turn contributes to social perception.

  16. Social disparities in body mass index (BMI) trajectories among Chinese adults in 1991-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Changchun; Liang, Ying

    2017-08-16

    Obesity is a serious public health problem in China. The relationship between obesity and socio-economic status (SES) is changing and affected by uncertainty, particularly, in developing countries. The sex-related differences in body mass index (BMI) trajectories are controversial and require substantial empirical data for updating and enriching. This study examined the relationship between SES and BMI in Chinese adults from a dynamic perspective using longitudinal data (1991-2011) from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS). Then, sex-related differences were determined. A hierarchical linear model was used. SES positively affected the male BMI changes, with faster BMI growth rates in the high-SES males over the past 20 years. By contrast, female BMI was only affected by BMI baseline and residential area. Specifically, greater BMI baseline led to greater BMI growth rate and earlier BMI decline. In the past 20 years, the BMI growth rate has been greater in the urban females than in the rural females. The relationship between SES and obesity is complex in China, and a substantial sex-related difference exists. We argue that this large sex-related difference is due to the rapid economic and social changes that have affected national health and increased the gender inequality and social role restrictions in females. We provide insights for further research and policy recommendations.

  17. Disentangling the associations between parental BMI and offspring body composition using the four‐component model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grijalva‐Eternod, Carlos; Cortina‐Borja, Mario; Williams, Jane; Fewtrell, Mary; Wells, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives This study sets out to investigate the intergenerational associations between the body mass index (BMI) of parents and the body composition of their offspring. Methods The cross‐sectional data were analyzed for 511 parent–offspring trios from London and south‐east England. The offspring were aged 5–21 years. Parental BMI was obtained by recall and offspring fat mass and lean mass were obtained using the four‐component model. Multivariable regression analysis, with multiple imputation for missing paternal values was used. Sensitivity analyses for levels of non‐paternity were conducted. Results A positive association was seen between parental BMI and offspring BMI, fat mass index (FMI), and lean mass index (LMI). The mother's BMI was positively associated with the BMI, FMI, and LMI z‐scores of both daughters and sons and of a similar magnitude for both sexes. The father's BMI showed similar associations to the mother's BMI, with his son's BMI, FMI, and LMI z‐scores, but no association with his daughter. Sensitivity tests for non‐paternity showed that maternal coefficients remained greater than paternal coefficients throughout but there was no statistical difference at greater levels of non‐paternity. Conclusions We found variable associations between parental BMI and offspring body composition. Associations were generally stronger for maternal than paternal BMI, and paternal associations appeared to differ between sons and daughters. In this cohort, the mother's BMI was statistically significantly associated with her child's body composition but the father's BMI was only associated with the body composition of his sons. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 28:524–533, 2016. © 2016 The Authors American Journal of Human Biology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26848813

  18. Physical activity modifies the FTO effect on BMI change in Japanese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinozaki, Keiko; Okuda, Masayuki; Okayama, Naoko; Kunitsugu, Ichiro

    2018-04-14

    Evidence of the effects of fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene variation and long-term effects of physical activity (PA) on adiposity in adolescents is largely scarce. This study aimed to investigate whether physical activity modulates the effects of the FTO gene on body mass index (BMI) changes in Japanese adolescents between the ages of 13 and 18 years. Data of 343 subjects (156 boys; 187 girls) who were enrolled in 2006 and 2007 from schools on Shunan City, Japan, were collected. Genotyping (rs1558902) was conducted, and anthropometric measurements and blood test results were recorded for subjects in the eighth grade. A second survey involving self-reporting of anthropometric measurements was conducted when the subjects were in the twelfth grade. PA was estimated using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire in this survey. BMI and the standard deviation score for BMI (BMI-SDS) were calculated. BMI changes and BMI-SDS changes were compared among FTO genotypes using a multivariate model. The effect of the interaction between PA and the FTO genotype on BMI changes was significant among boys but not girls. Among boys, PA had a significant negative influence on BMI-SDS changes in those with the AA genotype and a significant positive influence on BMI and BMI-SDS changes in those with the TT genotype. These data suggest that the influence of PA on BMI changes and BMI-SDS changes varied on the basis of genotype. PA modified the effect of the FTO gene on BMI changes in Japanese boys. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Correction of self-reported BMI based on objective measurements: a Belgian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drieskens, S; Demarest, S; Bel, S; De Ridder, K; Tafforeau, J

    2018-01-01

    Based on successive Health Interview Surveys (HIS), it has been demonstrated that also in Belgium obesity, measured by means of a self-reported body mass index (BMI in kg/m 2 ), is a growing public health problem that needs to be monitored as accurately as possible. Studies have shown that a self-reported BMI can be biased. Consequently, if the aim is to rely on a self-reported BMI, adjustment is recommended. Data on measured and self-reported BMI, derived from the Belgian Food Consumption Survey (FCS) 2014 offers the opportunity to do so. The HIS and FCS are cross-sectional surveys based on representative population samples. This study focused on adults aged 18-64 years (sample HIS = 6545 and FCS = 1213). Measured and self-reported BMI collected in FCS were used to assess possible misreporting. Using FCS data, correction factors (measured BMI/self-reported BMI) were calculated in function of a combination of background variables (region, gender, educational level and age group). Individual self-reported BMI of the HIS 2013 were then multiplied with the corresponding correction factors to produce a corrected BMI-classification. When compared with the measured BMI, the self-reported BMI in the FCS was underestimated (mean 0.97 kg/m 2 ). 28% of the obese people underestimated their BMI. After applying the correction factors, the prevalence of obesity based on HIS data significantly increased (from 13% based on the original HIS data to 17% based on the corrected HIS data) and approximated the measured one derived from the FCS data. Since self-reported calculations of BMI are underestimated, it is recommended to adjust them to obtain accurate estimates which are important for decision making.

  20. Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, Robert M.

    This chapter reports 1982 cases involving aspects of higher education. Interesting cases noted dealt with the federal government's authority to regulate state employees' retirement and raised the questions of whether Title IX covers employment, whether financial aid makes a college a program under Title IX, and whether sex segregated mortality…

  1. Associations of Age, BMI, and Years of Menstruation with Proximal Femur Strength in Chinese Postmenopausal Women: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huili Kang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to elucidate the associations of age, BMI, and years of menstruation with proximal femur strength in Chinese postmenopausal women, which may improve the prediction of hip fracture risk. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1322 Chinese postmenopausal women recruited from communities. DXA images were used to generate bone mineral density (BMD and geometric parameters, including cross-sectional area (CSA, outer diameter (OD, cortical thickness (CT, section modulus (SM, buckling ratio (BR at the narrow neck (NN, intertrochanter (IT, and femoral shaft (FS. Relationships of age, BMI, and years of menstruation with bone phenotypes were analyzed with the adjustment of height, age at menarche, total daily physical activity, education, smoking status, calcium tablet intake, etc. Age was associated with lower BMD, CSA, CT, SM, and higher BR (p < 0.05, which indicated a weaker bone strength at the proximal femur. BMI and years of menstruation had the positive relationships with proximal femur strength (p < 0.05. Further analyses showed that the ranges of absolute value of change slope per year, per BMI or per year of menstruation were 0.14%–1.34%, 0.20%–2.70%, and 0.16%–0.98%, respectively. These results supported that bone strength deteriorated with aging and enhanced with higher BMI and longer time of years of menstruation in Chinese postmenopausal women.

  2. Assessment of Body Mass Index (BMI in 6-11 Years Old Primary School Children in Tabriz City, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazila Farrin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity has been increasingly growing in many societies. The present study aimed to determine body mass index (BMI in primary school boys and girls in Tabriz city. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on 857 primary school students of Tabriz city in 2012-2013. First, BMI of each person was calculated, and according to the NCHS standard curves, the values below the 5th percentile were considered as malnutrition and underweight, between the 85th-95th percentiles as overweight, and equal to or above the 95th percentile as obesity. Data were analyzed by one-sample t-test and t-test. The significance level was considered to be p<0.05. Results: According to the BMI data, the frequency of underweight, overweight, and obesity in the male students, were 20.9, 5.5, and 3.1%, and in female students were 18.8, 9.7, 0.9%, and in the total number of students were 20.1, 7.4, and 2.1%, respectively. Compared to the 50th percentile, the mean BMI in male students in the age group of 9 years was higher (p<0.01 and in the age group of 6 years was lower (p<0.05. This comparison in the female students indicated higher mean BMI in the age groups of 7, 9, 10, and 11 years compared to the 50th percentile (p<0.05. The frequency of overweight among female students (9.7% was higher than male students (5.5%. However, the frequency of obesity in the male students was approximately 3.5 times higher than female students (p<0.05. Conclusion: Given the existence of both malnutrition states of underweight and obesity in the students and also the significant effect of childhood body weight on chronic disorders in adulthood, proper nutrition planning is necessary at the school level.

  3. Sleep, but not other daily routines, mediates the association between maternal employment and BMI for preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speirs, Katherine E; Liechty, Janet M; Wu, Chi-Fang

    2014-12-01

    It has been established that the more time mothers spend working outside of the home, the more likely their preschool-aged children are to be overweight. However, the mechanisms explaining this relationship are not well understood. Our objective was to explore child sleep, dietary habits, TV time, and family mealtime routines as mediators of the relationship between maternal employment status (full-time, part-time, and no or minimal employment) and child body mass index (BMI) percentile. Data were drawn from waves 1 and 2 of STRONG Kids, a prospective panel study examining childhood obesity among parent-preschooler dyads (n = 247). Mothers reported their own work hours, their child's hours of nighttime sleep, dietary habits, TV time, and mealtime routines. Trained staff measured child height and weight. Compared to working 0-19 h/week, both full-time (>35 h/week) and part-time (20-34 h/week) employment predicted higher child BMI percentile 1 year later. Hours of child nighttime sleep partially mediated the association between maternal full-time employment and child BMI percentile. Adjusting for individual and family characteristics, children whose mothers were employed full time were less likely to sleep longer hours than children whose mothers were employed 0-19 h/week (b = -0.49, p < 0.04). Shorter child nighttime sleep was associated with higher BMI percentile (b = -7.31, p < 0.001). None of the other mediation pathways tested were significant. These findings add to the growing literature on the importance of adequate sleep for young children's health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. An Exploratory Study on the Influence of Psychopathological Risk and Impulsivity on BMI and Perceived Quality of Life in Obese Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambelli, Renata; Cerniglia, Luca; Cimino, Silvia; Ballarotto, Giulia; Paciello, Marinella; Lubrano, Carla; Marchitelli, Serena; Gnessi, Lucio; Lenzi, Andrea

    2017-04-26

    The present study aimed to assess the psychological profiles of adult male and female obese patients, as well as to verify the possible influence of their psychopathological risk and impulsivity on their body mass index (BMI) and perceived quality of life. A total of 64 obese subjects accessing a center for care of their obesity were assessed through anthropometric and psychometric measurements. All anthropometric measures in men were higher than in women, while in turn, women showed higher psychopathological symptoms. Furthermore, the symptoms of somatization and psychoticism were predictors for a higher BMI in men, but there was no effect of psychopathological symptoms on the perceived quality of life (QoL) of male subjects. Moreover, in women, somatization and attentional impulsivity were predictors for a higher BMI, whereas no correlation was found between their psychopathological risk and perceived QoL. The results of regression analysis underlined that somatization is a "core" psychopathological symptom in obese subjects regardless of their sex, which is a potential predictor for a higher BMI. The psychological difficulties of the subjects had no effect on their perceived QoL, suggesting that they find it difficult to reflect on the impact that obesity has on their life.

  5. Associations between adiposity indicators and elevated blood pressure among Chinese children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, B; Wang, Z; Wang, H-J; Ma, J

    2015-04-01

    Adiposity is closely related to elevated blood pressure (BP); however, which adiposity indicator is the best predictor of elevated BP among children and adolescents is unclear. To clarify this, 99,366 participants aged 7-17 years from the Chinese National Survey on Students' Constitution and Health in 2010 were included in this study. The adiposity indicators, including weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), hip circumference, body adiposity index (BAI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and skinfold thickness, were converted into z-scores before use. The associations between elevated BP and adiposity indicators z-scores were assessed by using logistic regression model and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). In general, BAI, BMI and WHtR z-scores were superior for predicting elevated BP compared with weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, WHR and skinfold thickness z-scores. In both sexes, BMI z-score revealed slightly higher AUCs than other indicators. Our findings suggest that general adiposity indicators were equivalent, if not superior, to abdominal adiposity indicators to predict elevated BP. BMI could be a better predictor of elevated BP than other studied adiposity indicators in children.

  6. Obesogenic family types identified through latent profile analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinson, Brian C; VazquezBenitez, Gabriela; Patnode, Carrie D; Hearst, Mary O; Sherwood, Nancy E; Parker, Emily D; Sirard, John; Pasch, Keryn E; Lytle, Leslie

    2011-10-01

    Obesity may cluster in families due to shared physical and social environments. This study aims to identify family typologies of obesity risk based on family environments. Using 2007-2008 data from 706 parent/youth dyads in Minnesota, we applied latent profile analysis and general linear models to evaluate associations between family typologies and body mass index (BMI) of youth and parents. Three typologies described most families with 18.8% "Unenriched/Obesogenic," 16.9% "Risky Consumer," and 64.3% "Healthy Consumer/Salutogenic." After adjustment for demographic and socioeconomic factors, parent BMI and youth BMI Z-scores were higher in unenriched/obesogenic families (BMI difference = 2.7, p typology. In contrast, parent BMI and youth BMI Z-scores were similar in the risky consumer families relative to those in healthy consumer/salutogenic type. We can identify family types differing in obesity risks with implications for public health interventions.

  7. Changes in Adult BMI and Waist Circumference Are Associated with Increased Risk of Advanced Colorectal Neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gathirua-Mwangi, Wambui G; Monahan, Patrick; Song, Yiqing; Zollinger, Terrell W; Champion, Victoria L; Stump, Timothy E; Imperiale, Thomas F

    2017-11-01

    Waist circumference (WC) is a stronger predictor of colon cancer (CRC) risk than body mass index (BMI). However, how well change in either WC or BMI predicts risk of advanced colorectal neoplasia (AN) is unclear. To determine the relationship between change in BMI and WC from early adulthood to later age and the risk of AN and which change measure is a stronger predictor. In 4500 adults, ages 50-80, with no previous neoplasia and undergoing screening colonoscopy, BMI and WC at age 21 and at time of screening were reported. Changes in BMI and WC were defined using universal risk cutoffs. Known CRC risk factors were controlled in the logistic models. Overall, model statistics showed WC change (omnibus test χ 2  = 10.15, 2 DF, p value = 0.006) was a statistically stronger predictor of AN than BMI change (omnibus test χ 2  = 5.66, 5 DF, p value = 0.34). Independent of BMI change, participants who increased WC (OR 1.44; 95% CI 1.05-1.96) or maintained a high-risk WC (OR 2.50; 95% CI 1.38-4.53) at age 21 and at screening had an increased risk of AN compared to those with a low-risk WC. Study participants who were obese at age 21 and at screening had an increased risk of AN (OR 1.87; 95% CI 1.08-3.23) compared to those who maintained a healthy BMI. Maintaining an overweight BMI or increasing BMI was not associated with AN. Maintaining an unhealthy BMI and WC throughout adult life may increase risk of AN. WC change may be a better predictor of AN than BMI change.

  8. The decline in BMI among Japanese women after World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Shiko; Nakamura, Sayaka

    2015-07-01

    The body mass index (BMI) of the Japanese is significantly lower than is found in other high-income countries. Moreover, the average BMI of Japanese women is lower than that of Japanese men, and the age-specific BMI of Japanese women has decreased over time. The average BMI of Japanese women at age 25 decreased from 21.8 in 1948 to 20.4 in 2010 whereas that of men increased from 21.4 to 22.3 over the same period. We examine the long-term BMI trend in Japan by combining several historical data sources spanning eleven decades, from 1901 to 2012, to determine not only when but also how the BMI decline among women began: whether its inception was period-specific or cohort-specific. Our nonparametric regression analysis generated five findings. First, the BMI of Japanese women peaked with the 1930s birth cohort. This means that the trend is cohort-specific. Second, the BMI of men outpaced that of women in the next cohort. Third, the BMI of Japanese children, boys and girls alike, increased steadily throughout the 20th century. Fourth, the gender difference in the BMI trend is due to a gender difference in the weight trend, not the height trend. Fifth, these BMI trends are observed in urban and rural populations alike. We conclude that the BMI decline among Japanese women began with those who were in their late teens shortly after World War II. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Expression and clinicopathological significance of Mel-18 and Bmi-1 mRNA in gastric carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, You-Wei; Li, Jin; Guo, Wei-Jian

    2010-11-08

    The Polycomb group (PcG) genes are a class of regulators responsible for maintaining homeotic gene expression throughout cell division. PcG expression is deregulated in some types of human cancer. Both Bmi-1 and Mel-18 are of the key PcG proteins. We investigate the expression and clinicopathological roles of Mel-18 and Bmi-1 mRNA in gastric cancer. The expression of Mel-18 and Bmi-1 in a series of 71 gastric cancer tissues and paired normal mucosal tissues distant from the tumorous lesion was assayed by quantitative real time RT-PCR. The correlation between Mel-18 and Bmi-1 mRNA expression, and between Mel-18 or Bmi-1 mRNA level and clinicopathological characteristics were analyzed. Expression of Mel-18 and Bmi-1 genes was variably detected, but overexpression of Bmi-1 mRNA and decreased expression of Mel-18 mRNA were the most frequent alteration. In addition, the expression of Bmi-1 and Mel-18 mRNA inversely correlates in gastric tumors. Moreover, a significant positive correlation between Bmi-1 overexpression and tumor size, depth of invasion, or lymph node metastasis, and a significant negative correlation between Mel-18 low-expression with lymph node metastasis or the clinical stage were observed. Our data suggest that Mel-18 and Bmi-1 may play crucial but opposite roles in gastric cancer. Decreased Mel-18 and increased Bmi-1 mRNA expression was associated with the carcinogenesis and progression of gastric cancer. It is possible to list Bmi-1 and Mel-18 as biomarkers for predicting the prognosis of gastric cancer.

  10. The Longitudinal Impact of NFL PLAY 60 Programming on Youth Aerobic Capacity and BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yang; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F; Welk, Gregory J; Russell, Daniel W; Allums-Featherston, Kelly; Candelaria, Norma

    2017-03-01

    The NFL PLAY 60 campaign has actively promoted physical activity and healthy eating in youth through programs such as the PLAY 60 Challenge and Fuel Up to PLAY 60. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the impact of NFL PLAY 60 programming on longitudinal trajectories of youth aerobic capacity and BMI. Data were from the NFL PLAY 60 FitnessGram Partnership Project, a large participatory research project designed to promote physical activity and healthy eating among Kindergarten through 12th grade children and adolescents. The programming was led by teachers in school settings across 32 NFL franchise markets. A range of 50,000-100,000 students from 497 schools completed FitnessGram assessments annually starting in 2011 and continuing through 2015. The analysis was conducted in 2015. Adoption of NFL PLAY 60 programming was encouraged but not required and the program implementation was evaluated each year. The adoption was evaluated through self-reported annual survey. School assessments of aerobic capacity and BMI were evaluated using FitnessGram standards to calculate the percentage of students meeting the Healthy Fitness Zone for each test. Growth curve modeling was used to estimate the longitudinal trajectories. About 19% of schools were classified as programming schools. Annual improvements in aerobic capacity were significantly greater in schools that participated in the programs for both girls (3.0%, p<0.01) and boys (2.9%, p<0.01) compared with non-programming schools. The annual improvements in BMI Healthy Fitness Zone achievement were also higher in girls (1.3%, p<0.05) and in boys (1.2%, p<0.05) from schools that participated in the programs versus non-participating schools. Schools that implemented the programs for the entire 4-year period tended to have better improvements in aerobic capacity than schools enrolled for only 2 or 3 years (p<0.05). The results of these longitudinal analyses support the utility of the NFL PLAY 60 physical activity

  11. A population study of 5 to 15 year olds: full time maternal employment not associated with high BMI. The importance of screen-based activity, reading for pleasure and sleep duration in children's BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Anne W; Winefield, Helen; Kettler, Lisa; Roberts, Rachel; Gill, Tiffany K

    2012-04-01

    To describe the relationship between maternal full time employment and health-related and demographic variables associated with children aged 5-15 years, and the factors associated with child overweight/obesity. Data from a chronic disease and risk factor surveillance system were limited to children aged 5-15 years whose mothers responded on their behalf (n = 641). Univariate/multivariate analyses described the differences between mothers who did and did not work full time. The same data were analysed comparing children who are overweight/obese against those with a normal BMI. The children of mothers who worked full time are more likely to be older, live in a household with a higher household income, be an only child or have one sibling or other child in the household, have a sole mother family structure and not spend any time reading for pleasure. No relationship was found between maternal employment and BMI. Compared with children of normal weight, those who were overweight/obese were more likely to spend no time studying, spend more than 2 h per day in screen-based activity and sleep less than 10 h per night. Child BMI status was not related to maternal employment. Although this analysis included eight diet related variables none proved to be significant in the final models.This study has shown that mothers' working status is not related to children's BMI. The relationship between overweight/obesity of children and high levels of screen-based activity, low levels of studying, and short sleep duration suggests a need for better knowledge and understanding of sedentary behaviours of children.

  12. Prediction of BMI at age 11 in a longitudinal sample of the Ulm Birth Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Christiansen

    Full Text Available Obesity is one of the greatest public health challenges in the world with childhood prevalence rates between 20-26% and numerous associated health risks. The aim of the current study was to analyze the 11-year follow-up data of the Ulm Birth Cohort Study (UBCS, to identify whether abnormal eating behavior patterns, especially restrained eating, predict body mass index (BMI at 11 years of age and to explore other factors known to be longitudinally associated with it. Of the original UBCS, n = 422 children (~ 40% of the original sample and their parents participated in the 11-year follow-up. BMI at age 8 and 11 as well as information on restrained eating, psychological problems, depressive symptoms, lifestyle, and IQ at age 8 were assessed. Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM was used to predict children's BMI scores at age 11. PLS-SEM explained 68% of the variance of BMI at age 11, with BMI at age 8 being the most important predictor. Restrained eating, via BMI at age 8 as well as parental BMI, had further weak associations with BMI at age 11; no other predictor was statistically significant. Since established overweight at age 8 already predicts BMI scores at age 11 longitudinally, obesity interventions should be implemented in early childhood.

  13. Do substantial BMI reduction episodes among Swedish schoolchildren have any impact on their final height?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Bente B; Yngve, Agneta; Werner, Bo

    2018-02-06

    This study investigated whether substantial body mass index (BMI) reductions in Swedish schoolchildren aged seven years to 19 years, caused by disease, healthy or unhealthy behaviour, had any impact on their final height. We used height and weight data on 6572 subjects from two nationally representative longitudinal samples of Swedish children born in 1973 and 1981. These provided information on their final height and any BMI reduction episodes. Of the 6572 subjects (50.9% boys), among individuals with information on final height, 1118 had a BMI reduction of 5% and BMI reduction of 10% or more. On a group level, there was no statistically significant difference in the final height of individuals with BMI reductions of 10% or more and those without. The findings were independent of age and the subject's BMI at the start of the reduction episode. However, there were a number of cases where a substantial BMI reduction probably had an impact on the subject's final height. Our study found no evidence that a substantial BMI reduction had any impact on final height on a group level, but further analyses of specific case studies are necessary to determine whether substantial BMI reduction might have an impact on final height. ©2018 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. The dose-response analysis between BMI and common chronic diseases in northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jianxing; Tao, Yuchun; Dou, Jing; Ye, Junsen; Yu, Yaqin; Jin, Lina

    2018-03-09

    High body mass index (BMI) predisposes to several chronic diseases, but a large-scale systematic and detailed study of dose-response relationship between BMI and chronic diseases has not been reported previously. In this study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between BMI and 3 chronic diseases (hypertension, dyslipidemia and MetS) in northeast China. A sample of 16412 participants aged 18~79 years old were included in Jilin province in 2012. The lambda-mu-sigma (LMS) method was applied to examine the trend of BMI by age, and the restricted cubic splines were used to investigate the non-linear associations (dose-response curve) between BMI and chronic diseases. It was pointed out that BMI increased rapidly when young, then kept steady in middle age, and finally declined slowly in old age, and accordingly age was divided into 3 segments, which were different by gender. The odds ratios (ORs) of BMI for the chronic diseases increased relatively slowly when young, then increased dramatically in middle-age and old population, especially for men. Further, the ORs of BMI among non-smokers were lower than those among smokers, and the same trend was shown to be more apparent among drinkers and non-drinkers. The risk of BMI for common chronic diseases increased dramatically in middle-aged, especially for men with drinking and smoking habits.

  15. BMI-1 Promotes Self-Renewal of Radio- and Temozolomide (TMZ)-Resistant Breast Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yanfang; Wang, Ying; Zhao, Pengxin; Ma, Weiyuan; Hu, Zhigang; Zhang, Kaili

    2017-12-01

    Breast cancer is a hormone-dependent malignancy and is the most prevalent cause of cancer-related mortality among females. Radiation therapy and chemotherapy are common treatments of breast cancer. However, tumor relapse and metastasis following therapy are major clinical challenges. The importance of B-lymphoma Moloney murine leukemia virus insertion region-1 (BMI-1) was implicated in cell proliferation, stem cell maintenance, and tumor initiation. We established radio- and temozolomide (TMZ)-resistant (IRC-R) MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines to investigate the mechanism involved in therapeutic resistance. Cell proliferation and sphere number were dramatically elevated, and BMI-1 was remarkably upregulated, in IRC-R cells compared to parental cells. Silencing BMI-1 by RNA interference only affected the cell proliferation of IRC-R but not parental cells, suggesting the critical role of BMI-1 in radio- and TMZ resistance. We used a xenograft mice model to elucidate that BMI-1 was necessary in tumor development by assessing tumor volume and Ki67 expression. We found that Hedgehog (Hhg) signaling exerted synergized functions together with BMI-1, implicating the importance of BMI-1 in Hhg signaling. Downregulation of BMI-1 could be an effective strategy to suppress tumor growth, which supports the potential clinical use of targeting BMI-1 in breast cancer treatment.

  16. Infant BMI peak, breastfeeding, and body composition at age 3 y

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Signe Marie; Ritz, Christian; Ejlerskov, Katrine Tschentscher

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: With the increasing focus on obesity, growth patterns in infancy and early childhood have gained much attention. Although the adiposity rebound has been in focus because of a shown association with adult obesity, not much has been published about the infant peak in body mass index (BMI......) cohort were used to estimate BMI growth curves for the age span from 14 d to 19 mo by using a nonlinear mixed-effects model. BMI growth velocity before peak and age and BMI at peak were derived from the subject-specific models. Information about pregnancy and breastfeeding was assessed from background...

  17. GFAP-Cre-mediated transgenic activation of Bmi1 results in pituitary tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart A Westerman

    Full Text Available Bmi1 is a member of the polycomb repressive complex 1 and plays different roles during embryonic development, depending on the developmental context. Bmi1 over expression is observed in many types of cancer, including tumors of astroglial and neural origin. Although genetic depletion of Bmi1 has been described to result in tumor inhibitory effects partly through INK4A/Arf mediated senescence and apoptosis and also through INK4A/Arf independent effects, it has not been proven that Bmi1 can be causally involved in the formation of these tumors. To see whether this is the case, we developed two conditional Bmi1 transgenic models that were crossed with GFAP-Cre mice to activate transgenic expression in neural and glial lineages. We show here that these mice generate intermediate and anterior lobe pituitary tumors that are positive for ACTH and beta-endorphin. Combined transgenic expression of Bmi1 together with conditional loss of Rb resulted in pituitary tumors but was insufficient to induce medulloblastoma therefore indicating that the oncogenic function of Bmi1 depends on regulation of p16(INK4A/Rb rather than on regulation of p19(ARF/p53. Human pituitary adenomas show Bmi1 overexpression in over 50% of the cases, which indicates that Bmi1 could be causally involved in formation of these tumors similarly as in our mouse model.

  18. BMI and obesity incidence in relation to food patterns of Polish older people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadolowska, L.; Danowska-Oziewicz, M.; Niedzwiedzka, E.

    2006-01-01

    BMI differentiation and obesity incidence in relation to food patterns of Polish older people were analysed. The research included 422 people aged 65+ years. 21 food patterns were separated by the factor analysis. On the basis of the self-reported body mass and height, the BMI and percentages...... of overweight or obese people were calculated. The increase of the BMI and overweight and obesity incidence for both sexes was unequivocally connected with eating rye. The increase of the BMI and overweight and obesity incidence depended among women on consuming pork meat and alcoholic beverages. For men...

  19. Recombinant TAT-BMI-1 fusion protein induces ex vivo expansion of human umbilical cord blood-derived hematopoietic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codispoti, Bruna; Rinaldo, Nicola; Chiarella, Emanuela; Lupia, Michela; Spoleti, Cristina Barbara; Marafioti, Maria Grazia; Aloisio, Annamaria; Scicchitano, Stefania; Giordano, Marco; Nappo, Giovanna; Lucchino, Valeria; Moore, Malcolm A S; Zhou, Pengbo; Mesuraca, Maria; Bond, Heather Mandy; Morrone, Giovanni

    2017-07-04

    Transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) is a well-established therapeutic approach for numerous disorders. HSCs are typically derived from bone marrow or peripheral blood after cytokine-induced mobilization. Umbilical cord blood (CB) represents an appealing alternative HSC source, but the small amounts of the individual CB units have limited its applications. The availability of strategies for safe ex vivo expansion of CB-derived HSCs (CB-HSCs) may allow to extend the use of these cells in adult patients and to avoid the risk of insufficient engraftment or delayed hematopoietic recovery.Here we describe a system for the ex vivo expansion of CB-HSCs based on their transient exposure to a recombinant TAT-BMI-1 chimeric protein. BMI-1 belongs to the Polycomb family of epigenetic modifiers and is recognized as a central regulator of HSC self-renewal. Recombinant TAT-BMI-1 produced in bacteria was able to enter the target cells via the HIV TAT-derived protein transduction peptide covalently attached to BMI-1, and conserved its biological activity. Treatment of CB-CD34+ cells for 3 days with repeated addition of 10 nM purified TAT-BMI-1 significantly enhanced total cell expansion as well as that of primitive hematopoietic progenitors in culture. Importantly, TAT-BMI-1-treated CB-CD34+ cells displayed a consistently higher rate of multi-lineage long-term repopulating activity in primary and secondary xenotransplants in immunocompromised mice. Thus, recombinant TAT-BMI-1 may represent a novel, effective reagent for ex vivo expansion of CB-HSC for therapeutic purposes.

  20. Evidence for a relationship between VEGF and BMI independent of insulin sensitivity by glucose clamp procedure in a homogenous group healthy young men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Loebig

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This is the first study to experimentally explore the direct relationship between circulating VEGF levels and body mass index (BMI as well as to unravel the role of insulin sensitivity in this context under standardized glucose clamp conditions as the methodical gold-standard. In order to control for known influencing factors such as gender, medication, and arterial hypertension, we examined a highly homogeneous group of young male subjects. Moreover, to encompass also subjects beyond the normal BMI range, low weight and obese participants were additionally included and stress hormones as a main regulator of VEGF were assessed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Under euglycemic clamp conditions, VEGF was measured in 15 normal weight (BMI 20-25 kg/m(2, 15 low weight (BMI30 kg/m(2 male subjects aged 18-30 years and the insulin sensitivity index (ISI was calculated. Since stress axis activation promotes VEGF secretion, concentrations of ACTH, cortisol, and catecholamines were monitored. Despite of comparable ACTH (P = 0.145, cortisol (P = 0.840, and norepinephrine (P = 0.065 levels, VEGF concentrations differed significantly between BMI-groups (P = 0.008 with higher concentrations in obese subjects as compared to normal weight (P = 0.061 and low weight subjects (P = 0.002. Pearson's correlation analysis revealed a positive relationship between BMI and VEGF levels (r = 0.407; P = 0.010 but no correlation of VEGF with ISI (r = 0.224; P = 0.175. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data demonstrate a positive correlation between concentrations of circulating VEGF levels and BMI in healthy male subjects under highly controlled conditions. This relationship which is apparently disconnected from insulin sensitivity may be part of some pathogenetic mechanisms underlying obesity and type 2 diabetes.

  1. [Estimation of the population attributable fraction due to obesity in hospital admissions for flu valued according to Body Mass Index (BMI) and CUN-BAE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávila-Batista, V; Carriedo, D; Díez, F; Pueyo Bastida, A; Martínez Durán, B; Martin, V

    2018-03-01

    The obesity pandemic together with the influenza pandemic could lead to a significant burden of disease. The body mass index (BMI) does not discriminate obesity appropriately. The CUN-BAE has recently been used as an estimate of body fatness for Caucasians, including BMI, gender, and age. The aim of this study is to assess the population attributable fraction of hospital admissions due to influenza, due to the body fatness measured with the BMI, and the CUN-BAE. A multicentre study was conducted using matched case-controls. Cases were hospital admissions with the influenza confirmed by the RT-PCR method between 2009 and 2011. The risk of hospital admission and the population attribuible fraction were calculated using the BMI or the CUN-BAE for each adiposity category in a conditional logical regression analysis adjusted for confounding variables. The analyzes were estimated in the total sample, in unvaccinated people, and those less than 65 years-old. A total of 472 hospitalised cases and 493 controls were included in the study. Compared to normal weight, the aOR of influenza hospital admissions increases with each level of BMI (aOR=1.26; 2.06 and 11.64) and CUN-BAE (aOR=2.78; 4.29; 5.43 and 15.18). The population attributable fraction of influenza admissions using CUN-BAE is 3 times higher than that estimated with BMI (0,72 vs. 0,27), with the differences found being similar the non-vaccinated and under 65 year-olds. The BMI could be underestimating the burden of disease attributable to obesity in individuals hospitalised with influenza. There needs to be an appropriate assessment of the impact of obesity and vaccine recommendation criteria. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Increased Hair Cortisol Concentrations and BMI in Patients With Pituitary-Adrenal Disease on Hydrocortisone Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staufenbiel, Sabine M; Andela, Cornelie D; Manenschijn, Laura; Pereira, Alberto M; van Rossum, Elisabeth F C; Biermasz, Nienke R

    2015-06-01

    Intrinsic imperfections and lack of reliable biomarkers preclude optimal individual dosing of hydrocortisone replacement in adrenal insufficiency (AI). However, the clinical relevance of optimal dosing is exemplified by frequently occurring side effects of overreplacement and the dangers of underreplacement. Cortisol in scalp hair has been identified as a retrospective biomarker for long-term cortisol exposure. We compared hair cortisol concentrations (CORT(hair)) of patients with primary or secondary AI on replacement therapy with those of patient controls with a pituitary disease without AI (PCs) and of healthy controls (HCs). In this cross-sectional study, hair samples and anthropometric data were collected in 132 AI patients (52 males), 42 PCs (11 males), and 195 HCs (90 males). The proximal 3 cm of hair were used. CORT(hair) were measured using an ELISA. CORT(hair) were higher in AI patients than in HCs and PCs (P AI patients demonstrated higher CORT(hair) than female patients (P AI patients had higher body mass index (BMI) than HCs (P AI.

  3. Structural and Interpersonal Characteristics of Family Meals: Associations with Adolescent BMI and Dietary Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M.; Jin, Seok Won; Hannan, Peter; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2013-01-01

    The last decade of research has suggested that family meals play an important role in promoting healthful dietary intake in youth. However, little is known about the structural characteristics and interpersonal dynamics of family meals that may help to inform why family meals are protective for youth. The current mixed methods, cross-sectional study conducted in 2010–2011 includes adolescents and parents who participated in two linked population-based studies. Participants included 40 parents (91.5% female) and adolescents (57.5% female) from the Minneapolis/St. Paul area participating in EAT 2010 and F-EAT. The structural (e.g. length of the meal, types of foods served) and interpersonal characteristics (e.g., communication, emotion/affect management) of family meals were described and associations between interpersonal dynamics at family meals and adolescent body mass index (BMI) and dietary intake were examined via direct observational methods. Families were video-recorded during two mealtimes in their homes. Results indicated that family meals were approximately 20 minutes in length, included multiple family members, were typically served family style (70%) and occurred in the kitchen 62% of the time and 38% of the time in another room (e.g., family room, office). Additionally, significant associations were found between positive interpersonal dynamics (i.e., communication, affect management, interpersonal involvement, overall family functioning) at family meals and lower adolescent BMI and higher vegetable intake. These findings add to the growing body of literature on family meals by providing a better understanding of what is happening at family meals in order to inform obesity prevention studies and recommendations for providers working with families of youth. PMID:23567247

  4. EFFECTS OF A SCHOOL-BASED INTERVENTION ON BMI AND MOTOR ABILITIES IN CHILDHOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Graf

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Obesity in childhood is increasing worldwide. To combat overweight and obesity in childhood, the school-based Children's Health InterventionaL Trial (CHILT project combines health education and physical activity. This paper examines the effect of intervention on the body mass index (BMI and motor abilities after 20.8 ± 1.0 months in 12 randomly selected primary schools compared with 5 randomly selected control schools. The anthropometric data were assessed, BMI was calculated. Coordination was determined by lateral jumping and endurance performance by a 6-minute run. No difference in the prevalence of overweight and obesity was found between the intervention (IS and control schools (CS either at baseline or following intervention (each p > 0.05. The increase in the number of lateral jumps was significantly higher in the IS than in the CS (p < 0.001. For the 6-minute run the increase in distance run was significantly improved in IS (p = 0.020. All variables were controlled for gender and age. Overweight and obese children in both IS and CS produced significantly lower scores in coordination and endurance tasks than normal and underweight children during both examinations (each p < 0.001, adjusted for gender and age. Preventive intervention in primary schools offers an effective means to improve motor skills in childhood and to break through the vicious circle of physical inactivity - motor deficits - frustration - increasing inactivity possibly combined with an excess energy intake and weight gain. To prevent overweight and obesity these measures have to be intensified

  5. Parental Activity as Influence on Childrenˋs BMI Percentiles and Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanette Erkelenz, Susanne Kobel, Sarah Kettner, Clemens Drenowatz, Jürgen M. Steinacker and the Research Group "Join the Healthy Boat - Primary School"

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Parents play a crucial role in the development of their children’s lifestyle and health behaviour. This study aims to examine associations between parental physical activity (PA and children’s BMI percentiles (BMIPCT, moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA as well as participation in organised sports. Height and body weight was measured in 1615 in German children (7.1 ± 0.6 years, 50.3% male and converted to BMIPCT. Parental BMI was calculated based on self-reported height and body weight. Children’s MVPA and sports participation as well as parental PA were assessed via parental questionnaire. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA, controlling for age and family income was used to examine the association between parental and children’s PA levels as well as BMIPCT. 39.7% of the parents classified themselves as physically active and 8.3% of children were classified as overweight or obese. Lower BMIPCT were observed with both parents being physically active (44.5 ± 26.3 vs. 50.2 ± 26.9 and 52.0 ± 28.4, respectively. There was no association between parental and children’s PA levels but children with at least one active parent displayed a higher participation in organised sports (102.0 ± 96.6 and 117.7 ± 123.6 vs. 73.7 ± 100.0, respectively. Children of active parents were less likely to be overweight and obese. The lack of association between subjectively assessed parental PA and child MVPA suggests that parental support for PA in children is more important than parents being a role model. More active parents, however, may be more likely to facilitate participation in organised sports. These results underline the importance of the inclusion of parents in health promotion and obesity prevention programmes in children.

  6. Association between infancy BMI peak and body composition and blood pressure at age 5-6 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hof, Michel H. P.; Vrijkotte, Tanja G. M.; de Hoog, Marieke L. A.; van Eijsden, Manon; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.

    2013-01-01

    The development of overweight is often measured with the body mass index (BMI). During childhood the BMI curve has two characteristic points: the adiposity rebound at 6 years and the BMI peak at 9 months of age. In this study, the associations between the BMI peak and body composition measures and

  7. BDNF and BMI effects on brain structures of bipolar offspring: results from the global mood and brain science initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, R B; Brietzke, E; McIntyre, R S; Cao, B; Lee, Y; Japiassú, L; Chen, K; Lu, R; Lu, W; Li, T; Xu, G; Lin, K

    2017-12-01

    To compare brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels between offspring of individuals with bipolar disorders (BD) and healthy controls (HCs) and investigate the effects of BDNF levels and body mass index (BMI) on brain structures. Sixty-seven bipolar offspring and 45 HCs were included (ages 8-28). Structural images were acquired using 3.0 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging. Serum BDNF levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Multivariate and univariate analyses of covariance were conducted. Significantly higher BDNF levels were observed among bipolar offspring, relative to HCs (P > 0.025). Offspring status moderated the association between BDNF and BMI (F 1 =4.636, P = 0.034). After adjustment for relevant covariates, there was a trend for a significant interaction of group and BDNF on neuroimaging parameters (Wilks'λ F 56,94 =1.463, P = 0.052), with significant effects on cerebellar white matter and superior and middle frontal regions. Brain volume and BDNF were positively correlated among HCs and negatively correlated among bipolar offspring. Interactions between BDNF and BMI on brain volumes were non-significant among HCs (Wilks'λ F 28,2 =2.229, P = 0.357), but significant among bipolar offspring (Wilks'λ F 28,12 =2.899, P = 0.028). Offspring status and BMI moderate the association between BDNF levels and brain structures among bipolar offspring, underscoring BDNF regulation and overweight/obesity as key moderators of BD pathogenesis. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Nonlinear association of BMI with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis of 414,587 participants in prospective studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccardi, Francesco; Dhalwani, Nafeesa N; Papamargaritis, Dimitris; Webb, David R; Murphy, Gavin J; Davies, Melanie J; Khunti, Kamlesh

    2017-02-01

    The relationship between BMI and mortality has been extensively investigated in the general population; however, it is less clear in people with type 2 diabetes. We aimed to assess the association of BMI with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus. We searched electronic databases up to 1 March 2016 for prospective studies reporting associations for three or more BMI groups with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Study-specific associations between BMI and the most-adjusted RR were estimated using restricted cubic splines and a generalised least squares method before pooling study estimates with a multivariate random-effects meta-analysis. We included 21 studies including 24 cohorts, 414,587 participants, 61,889 all-cause and 4470 cardiovascular incident deaths; follow-up ranged from 2.7 to 15.9 years. There was a strong nonlinear relationship between BMI and all-cause mortality in both men and women, with the lowest estimated risk from 31-35 kg/m 2 and 28-31 kg/m 2 (p value for nonlinearity 1) respectively. The risk of mortality at higher BMI values increased significantly only in women, whilst lower values were associated with higher mortality in both sexes. Limited data for cardiovascular mortality were available, with a possible inverse linear association with BMI (higher risk for BMI type 2 diabetes, BMI is nonlinearly associated with all-cause mortality with lowest risk in the overweight group in both men and women. Further research is needed to clarify the relationship with cardiovascular mortality and assess causality and sex differences.

  9. Low BMI is correlated with increased TGF-β and IL-10 mRNA levels in the peripheral blood of breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao; Wang, Qian; Sun, Bing; Meng, Xiangying; Li, Lan; Yang, Liuchun; Cong, Yang; Liu, Jiannan; Xuan, Liang; Huang, Yan; Wu, Shikai

    2018-03-01

    Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), interleukin-10 (IL-10), and forkhead box P3 (Foxp3) have important roles in breast cancer development. Previous studies confirmed a correlation between these immune molecules and tumor characteristics, but their association with nutritional status in breast cancer is largely unknown. We aimed to investigate the association between body mass index (BMI), hemoglobin, total protein, albumin, globulin (GLB), albumin/GLB ratio (AGR), pre-albumin, prognostic nutritional index, and TGF-β, IL-10, and Foxp3 mRNA expression in patients with breast cancer. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to detect the mRNA expression of TGF-β, IL-10, and Foxp3 in the peripheral blood of 107 patients with breast cancer and 21 healthy controls. We found that TGF-β mRNA levels were 2.6-fold, 3.2-fold, and 2.3-fold higher in patients with low BMI (BMI (BMI BMI ≥ 25), respectively (P BMI, may strongly affect systematic immune function in patients with breast cancer. © 2018 IUBMB Life, 70(3):237-245, 2018. © 2018 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  10. Human variation and body mass index: a review of the universality of BMI cut-offs, gender and urban-rural differences, and secular changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascie-Taylor, C G Nicholas; Goto, Rie

    2007-03-01

    Use of BMI as a surrogate for body fat percentage is debatable and universal BMI cut-off points do not seem appropriate; lower cut-off points than currently recommended by WHO should be used in some populations, especially in Asia. The adult WHO BMI database indicates that, on average, women are more obese than men, while men are more likely to be pre-obese than women. Urban rates of overweight and obesity are generally higher than rural rates in both sexes. The trend in pre-obesity and obesity over time is generally upward, with very marked increases in the USA and UK in both sexes over the last 10 years.

  11. BMI, waist circumference at 8 and 12 years of age and FVC and FEV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.B.M. Bekkers (Marga); A.H. Wijga (Alet); U. Gehring (Ulrike); G.H. Koppelman (Gerard); J.C. de Jongste (Johan); H.A. Smit (Henriëtte); B. Brunekreef (Bert)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: In adults, overweight is associated with reduced lung function, in children evidence on this association is conflicting. We examined the association of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) at age 12, and of persistently (at ages 8 and 12 years) high BMI and

  12. BMI, waist circumference at 8 and 12 years of age and FVC and FEV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, Marga B.; Wijga, Alet H.; Gehring, Ulrike; Koppelman, Gerard H.; de Jongste, Johan C.; Smit, Henriette A.; Brunekreef, Bert

    2015-01-01

    Background: In adults, overweight is associated with reduced lung function, in children evidence on this association is conflicting. We examined the association of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) at age 12, and of persistently (at ages 8 and 12 years) high BMI and large WC, with

  13. Fedmerelatererede sundhedsomkostninger vurderet ud fra måling af enten BMI eller taljeomkreds--sekundaerpublikation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard, Betina; Olsen, Kim Rose; Søgaard, Jes

    2009-01-01

    circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI). The analyses show that the combination of BMI and WC does not improve the identification of high-risk individuals compared with the use of WC alone. The health service costs increase by 1.24% in women and 2.08% in men pr. cm increase in WC above the normal range....

  14. Venous and autonomic function in formerly pre-eclamptic women and BMI-matched controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidema, Wieteke M; van Drongelen, Joris; Spaanderman, Marc E A; Scholten, Ralph R

    2018-03-25

    Pre-pregnancy reduced plasma volume increases the risk on subsequent pre-eclamptic pregnancy. Reduced plasma volume is thought to reflect venous reserve capacity, especially when venous vasculature is constricted and sympathetic tone is elevated. As obesity might affect these variables and also relates to pre-eclampsia, increased body weight may underlie these observations. We hypothesized that the relationship between reduced venous reserve and preeclampsia is independent of body mass index (BMI). We compared the non-pregnant venous reserve capacity in 30 formerly pre-eclamptic women, equally divided in 3 BMI-classes (BMI 19.5-24.9, BMI 25-29.9, BMI ≥30) to 30 controls. Cases and controls were matched for BMI, age and parity. The venous reserve capacity was quantified by assessing plasma volume and venous compliance. The autonomic nervous system regulating the venous capacitance was evaluated with heart rate variability analysis in resting supine position and during positive head-up tilt (HUT). Formerly pre-eclamptic women had in supine position lower plasma volume than controls (1339 ± 79 vs 1547 ± 139 ml/m 2 (pBMI-matched controls, reduced venous reserve capacity. This is reflected by lower plasma volume and venous compliance, the autonomic balance is shifted towards sympathetic dominance and lower baroreceptor sensitivity. This suggests that not BMI, but underlying reduced venous reserve relates to pre-eclampsia. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Bmi-1 expression modulates non-small cell lung cancer progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Dan; Ye, Yunlin; Fu, Yujie; Wang, Jinglong; Kuang, Bohua; Wang, Hongbo; Wang, Xiumin; Zu, Lidong; Xiao, Gang; Hao, Mingang; Wang, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that the role of B lymphoma Mo-MLV insertion region 1 homolog (Bmi-1) is responsible for multiple cancer progression. However, Bmi-1 in controlling gene expression in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) development is not well explored. Here we report that the Bmi-1 level is highly increased in primary NSCLC tissues compared to matched adjacent non-cancerous tissues and required for lung tumor growth in xenograft model. Furthermore, we also demonstrate that Bmi-1 level is lower in matched involved lymph node cancerous tissues than the respective primary NSCLC tissues. We find that Bmi-1 does not affect cell cycle and apoptosis in lung cancer cell lines as it does not affect the expression of p16/p19, Pten, AKT and P-AKT. Mechanistic analyses note that reduction of Bmi-1 expression inversely regulates invasion and metastasis of NSCLC cells in vitro and in vivo, followed by induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Using genome microarray assays, we find that RNAi-mediated silence of Bmi-1 modulates some important molecular genetics or signaling pathways, potentially associated with NSCLC development. Taken together, our findings disclose for the first time that Bmi-1 level accumulates strongly in early stage and then declines in late stage, which is potentially important for NSCLC cell invasion and metastasis during progression. PMID:25880371

  16. Mother's pre-pregnancy BMI is an important determinant of adverse cardiometabolic risk in childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maternal adiposity is associated with poor offspring cardiometabolic health. We aimed to evaluate the relationship of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) on the BMI, body composition and cardiometabolic characteristics of the offspring. Forty offspring of overweight/obese mothers (O-OW) and...

  17. No seasonality of birth in BMI at 7 years of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Camilla Bjørn; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.; Heitmann, Berit

    2016-01-01

    Seasonal variation in birth weight was found in a previous Danish study. In the present study we investigated if the seasonality in birth weight tracked into BMI at 7 years of age, but found no seasonality of birth in either BMI, overweight, or obesity. © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd...

  18. Fedmerelatererede sundhedsomkostninger vurderet ud fra måling af enten BMI eller taljeomkreds--sekundaerpublikation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard, Betina; Olsen, Kim Rose; Søgaard, Jes

    2009-01-01

    circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI). The analyses show that the combination of BMI and WC does not improve the identification of high-risk individuals compared with the use of WC alone. The health service costs increase by 1.24% in women and 2.08% in men pr. cm increase in WC above the normal range...

  19. The effects of breastfeeding on childhood BMI: a propensity score matching approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Laura A; Hernández Alava, Mónica; Kelly, Michael P; Campbell, Michael J

    2017-12-01

    Many studies have found a statistical association between breastfeeding and childhood adiposity. This paper investigates whether breastfeeding has an effect on subsequent childhood body mass index (BMI) using propensity scores to account for confounding. We use data from the Millennium Cohort Study, a nationally representative UK cohort survey, which contains detailed information on infant feeding and childhood BMI. Propensity score matching is used to investigate the mean BMI in children breastfed exclusively and partially for different durations of time. We find statistically significant influences of breastfeeding on childhood BMI, particularly in older children, when breastfeeding is prolonged and exclusive. At 7 years, children who were exclusively breastfed for 16 weeks had a BMI 0.28 kg/m2 (95% confidence interval 0.07 to 0.49) lower than those who were never breastfed, a 2% reduction from the mean BMI of 16.6 kg/m2. For this young cohort, even small effects of breastfeeding on BMI could be important. In order to reduce BMI, breastfeeding should be encouraged as part of wider lifestyle intervention. This evidence could help to inform public health bodies when creating public health guidelines and recommendations. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health.

  20. Contribution of polycomb homologues Bmi-1 and Mel-18 to medulloblastoma pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiederschain, Dmitri; Chen, Lin; Johnson, Brett; Bettano, Kimberly; Jackson, Dowdy; Taraszka, John; Wang, Y Karen; Jones, Michael D; Morrissey, Michael; Deeds, James; Mosher, Rebecca; Fordjour, Paul; Lengauer, Christoph; Benson, John D

    2007-07-01

    Bmi-1 and Mel-18 are structural homologues that belong to the Polycomb group of transcriptional regulators and are believed to stably maintain repression of gene expression by altering the state of chromatin at specific promoters. While a number of clinical and experimental observations have implicated Bmi-1 in human tumorigenesis, the role of Mel-18 in cancer cell growth has not been investigated. We report here that short hairpin RNA-mediated knockdown of either Bmi-1 or Mel-18 in human medulloblastoma DAOY cells results in the inhibition of proliferation, loss of clonogenic survival, anchorage-independent growth, and suppression of tumor formation in nude mice. Furthermore, overexpression of both Bmi-1 and Mel-18 significantly increases the clonogenic survival of Rat1 fibroblasts. In contrast, stable downregulation of Bmi-1 or Mel-18 alone does not affect the growth of normal human WI38 fibroblasts. Proteomics-based characterization of Bmi-1 and Mel-18 protein complexes isolated from cancer cells revealed substantial similarities in their respective compositions. Finally, gene expression analysis identified a number of cancer-relevant pathways that may be controlled by Bmi-1 and Mel-18 and also showed that these Polycomb proteins regulate a set of common gene targets. Taken together, these results suggest that Bmi-1 and Mel-18 may have overlapping functions in cancer cell growth.

  1. BMI1 is expressed in canine osteosarcoma and contributes to cell growth and chemotherapy resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Hayat Shahi

    Full Text Available BMI1, a stem cell factor and member of the polycomb group of genes, has been shown to contribute to growth and chemoresistance of several human malignancies including primary osteosarcoma (OSA. Naturally occurring OSA in the dog represents a large animal model of human OSA, however the potential role of BMI1 in canine primary and metastatic OSA has not been examined. Immunohistochemical staining of canine primary and metastatic OSA tumors revealed strong nuclear expression of BMI1. An identical staining pattern was found in both primary and metastatic human OSA tissues. Canine OSA cell lines (Abrams, Moresco, and D17 expressed high levels of BMI1 compared with canine osteoblasts and knockdown or inhibition of BMI1 by siRNA or by small molecule BMI1-inhibitor PTC-209 demonstrated a role for BMI1 in canine OSA cell growth and resistance to carboplatin and doxorubicin chemotherapy. These findings suggest that inhibition of BMI1 in primary or metastatic OSA may improve response to chemotherapy and that the dog may serve as a large animal model to evaluate such therapy.

  2. BMI1 is expressed in canine osteosarcoma and contributes to cell growth and chemotherapy resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahi, Mehdi Hayat; York, Daniel; Gandour-Edwards, Regina; Withers, Sita S; Holt, Roseline; Rebhun, Robert B

    2015-01-01

    BMI1, a stem cell factor and member of the polycomb group of genes, has been shown to contribute to growth and chemoresistance of several human malignancies including primary osteosarcoma (OSA). Naturally occurring OSA in the dog represents a large animal model of human OSA, however the potential role of BMI1 in canine primary and metastatic OSA has not been examined. Immunohistochemical staining of canine primary and metastatic OSA tumors revealed strong nuclear expression of BMI1. An identical staining pattern was found in both primary and metastatic human OSA tissues. Canine OSA cell lines (Abrams, Moresco, and D17) expressed high levels of BMI1 compared with canine osteoblasts and knockdown or inhibition of BMI1 by siRNA or by small molecule BMI1-inhibitor PTC-209 demonstrated a role for BMI1 in canine OSA cell growth and resistance to carboplatin and doxorubicin chemotherapy. These findings suggest that inhibition of BMI1 in primary or metastatic OSA may improve response to chemotherapy and that the dog may serve as a large animal model to evaluate such therapy.

  3. Meta-analysis of genome-wide linkage studies in BMI and obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saunders, Catherine L.; Chiodini, Benedetta D.; Sham, Pak; Lewis, Cathryn M.; Abkevich, Victor; Adeyemo, Adebowale A.; de Andrade, Mariza; Arya, Rector; Berenson, Gerald S.; Blangero, John; Boehnke, Michael; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Chagnon, Yvon C.; Chen, Wei; Comuzzie, Anthony G.; Deng, Hong-Wen; Duggirala, Ravindranath; Feitosa, Mary F.; Froguel, Philippe; Hanson, Robert L.; Hebebrand, Johannes; Huezo-Dias, Patricia; Kissebah, Ahmed H.; Li, Weidong; Luke, Amy; Martin, Lisa J.; Nash, Matthew; Ohman, Muena; Palmer, Lyle J.; Peltonen, Leena; Perola, Markus; Price, R. Arlen; Redline, Susan; Srinivasan, Sathanur R.; Stern, Michael P.; Stone, Steven; Stringham, Heather; Turner, Stephen; Wijmenga, Cisca; Collier, David A.

    Objective: The objective was to provide an overall assessment of genetic linkage data of BMI and BMI-defined obesity using a nonparametric genome scan meta-analysis. Research Methods and Procedures: We identified 37 published studies containing data on over 31,000 individuals from more than >10,000

  4. Bmi1 confers resistance to oxidative stress on hematopoietic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunsuke Nakamura

    Full Text Available The polycomb-group (PcG proteins function as general regulators of stem cells. We previously reported that retrovirus-mediated overexpression of Bmi1, a gene encoding a core component of polycomb repressive complex (PRC 1, maintained self-renewing hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs during long-term culture. However, the effects of overexpression of Bmi1 on HSCs in vivo remained to be precisely addressed.In this study, we generated a mouse line where Bmi1 can be conditionally overexpressed under the control of the endogenous Rosa26 promoter in a hematopoietic cell-specific fashion (Tie2-Cre;R26Stop(FLBmi1. Although overexpression of Bmi1 did not significantly affect steady state hematopoiesis, it promoted expansion of functional HSCs during ex vivo culture and efficiently protected HSCs against loss of self-renewal capacity during serial transplantation. Overexpression of Bmi1 had no effect on DNA damage response triggered by ionizing radiation. In contrast, Tie2-Cre;R26Stop(FLBmi1 HSCs under oxidative stress maintained a multipotent state and generally tolerated oxidative stress better than the control. Unexpectedly, overexpression of Bmi1 had no impact on the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS.Our findings demonstrate that overexpression of Bmi1 confers resistance to stresses, particularly oxidative stress, onto HSCs. This thereby enhances their regenerative capacity and suggests that Bmi1 is located downstream of ROS signaling and negatively regulated by it.

  5. Convergence of BMI1 and CHD7 on ERK Signaling in Medulloblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Badodi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: We describe molecular convergence between BMI1 and CHD7 in the initiation of medulloblastoma. Identified in a functional genomic screen in mouse models, a BMI1High;CHD7Low expression signature within medulloblastoma characterizes patients with poor overall survival. We show that BMI1-mediated repression of the ERK1/2 pathway leads to increased proliferation and tumor burden in primary human MB cells and in a xenograft model, respectively. We provide evidence that repression of the ERK inhibitor DUSP4 by BMI1 is dependent on a more accessible chromatin configuration in G4 MB cells with low CHD7 expression. These findings extend current knowledge of the role of BMI1 and CHD7 in medulloblastoma pathogenesis, and they raise the possibility that pharmacological targeting of BMI1 or ERK may be particularly indicated in a subgroup of MB with low expression levels of CHD7. : Badodi et al. find convergence of the chromatin modifiers BMI1 and CHD7 in medulloblastoma pathogenesis, and they show that this pathway regulates tumor proliferation and growth via ERK signaling. Keywords: BMI1, CHD7, DUSP4, ERK, medulloblastoma, PcG genes, mouse models, epigenetics, chromatin

  6. Differences in genetic and environmental variation in adult BMI by sex, age, time period, and region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silventoinen, Karri; Jelenkovic, Aline; Sund, Reijo

    2017-01-01

    Background: Genes and the environment contribute to variation in adult body mass index [BMI (in kg/m(2))], but factors modifying these variance components are poorly understood.Objective: We analyzed genetic and environmental variation in BMI between men and women from young adulthood to old age...

  7. Differences in genetic and environmental variation in adult BMI by sex, age, time period, and region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silventoinen, Karri; Jelenkovic, Aline; Sund, Reijo

    2017-01-01

    Background: Genes and the environment contribute to variation in adult body mass index [BMI (in kg/m(2))], but factors modifying these variance components are poorly understood. Objective: We analyzed genetic and environmental variation in BMI between men and women from young adulthood to old age...

  8. The Obesogenic Quality of the Home Environment: Associations with Diet, Physical Activity, TV Viewing, and BMI in Preschool Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Schrempft

    Full Text Available The home environment is thought to play a key role in early weight trajectories, although direct evidence is limited. There is general agreement that multiple factors exert small individual effects on weight-related outcomes, so use of composite measures could demonstrate stronger effects. This study therefore examined whether composite measures reflecting the 'obesogenic' home environment are associated with diet, physical activity, TV viewing, and BMI in preschool children.Families from the Gemini cohort (n = 1096 comp