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Sample records for higher attendance rates

  1. Are Interpersonal Violence Rates Higher Among Young Women in College Compared With Those Never Attending College?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Ann L; Follingstad, Diane R; Bush, Heather M; Fisher, Bonnie S

    2016-05-01

    Estimates of sexual violence and partner violence rates among young women are generated primarily from college samples. Few studies have data to compare rates among similar-aged women attending college with those who never attended college. This study aims to estimate rates of partner violence by type (sexual, physical, and psychological) and severity (mild, moderate, severe), sexual harassment, and knowing or suspecting that someone put a drug in a drink (drugged drink) among a national sample of 959 young women aged 18 to 24 in an intimate relationship in the past 12 months who were either currently in college (college;n= 272) or never attended college (non-college;n= 687). After adjusting for demographic differences between these two groups, no significant differences were found in rates of sexual partner violence (28.4% non-college, 23.5% college), physical partner violence (27.9% non-college, 26.3% college), psychological partner violence (Mscore: 6.10 non-college, 5.59 college), sexual harassment (15.5% non-college, 14.1% college), or drugged drink (8.5% non-college, 7.8% college). Finding high rates of interpersonal violence among young women who are and are not currently attending college indicates the need to target all young adults with violence prevention interventions in educational, workplace, and other community-based settings. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Non-English speakers attend gastroenterology clinic appointments at higher rates than English speakers in a vulnerable patient population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewell, Justin L.; Kushel, Margot B.; Inadomi, John M.; Yee, Hal F.

    2009-01-01

    Goals We sought to identify factors associated with gastroenterology clinic attendance in an urban safety net healthcare system. Background Missed clinic appointments reduce the efficiency and availability of healthcare, but subspecialty clinic attendance among patients with established healthcare access has not been studied. Study We performed an observational study using secondary data from administrative sources to study patients referred to, and scheduled for an appointment in, the adult gastroenterology clinic serving the safety net healthcare system of San Francisco, California. Our dependent variable was whether subjects attended or missed a scheduled appointment. Analysis included multivariable logistic regression and classification tree analysis. 1,833 patients were referred and scheduled for an appointment between 05/2005 and 08/2006. Prisoners were excluded. All patients had a primary care provider. Results 683 patients (37.3%) missed their appointment; 1,150 (62.7%) attended. Language was highly associated with attendance in the logistic regression; non-English speakers were less likely than English speakers to miss an appointment (adjusted odds ratio 0.42 [0.28,0.63] for Spanish, 0.56 [0.38,0.82] for Asian language, p gastroenterology clinic appointment, not speaking English was most strongly associated with higher attendance rates. Patient related factors associated with not speaking English likely influence subspecialty clinic attendance rates, and these factors may differ from those affecting general healthcare access. PMID:19169147

  3. An Analysis of Florida's School Districts' Attendance Policies and their Relationship to High School Attendance Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Ryan Turner

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this non-experimental correlational study was to determine the relationship between the type of attendance policies in the high schools of the 67 Florida school districts, the size of the school district (number of high school students), the socioeconomic status SES) of the school district, and the average daily attendance rate of…

  4. Mobile Phone-Based Mood Ratings Prospectively Predict Psychotherapy Attendance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruehlman-Senecal, Emma; Aguilera, Adrian; Schueller, Stephen M

    2017-09-01

    Psychotherapy nonattendance is a costly and pervasive problem. While prior research has identified stable patient-level predictors of attendance, far less is known about dynamic (i.e., time-varying) factors. Identifying dynamic predictors can clarify how clinical states relate to psychotherapy attendance and inform effective "just-in-time" interventions to promote attendance. The present study examines whether daily mood, as measured by responses to automated mobile phone-based text messages, prospectively predicts attendance in group cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for depression. Fifty-six Spanish-speaking Latino patients with elevated depressive symptoms (46 women, mean age=50.92years, SD=10.90years), enrolled in a manualized program of group CBT, received daily automated mood-monitoring text messages. Patients' daily mood ratings, message response rate, and delay in responding were recorded. Patients' self-reported mood the day prior to a scheduled psychotherapy session significantly predicted attendance, even after controlling for patients' prior attendance history and age (OR=1.33, 95% CI [1.04, 1.70], p=.02). Positive mood corresponded to a greater likelihood of attendance. Our results demonstrate the clinical utility of automated mood-monitoring text messages in predicting attendance. These results underscore the value of text messaging, and other mobile technologies, as adjuncts to psychotherapy. Future work should explore the use of such monitoring to guide interventions to increase attendance, and ultimately the efficacy of psychotherapy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Favouring New Indigenous Leadership: Indigenous Students Attending Higher Education in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Manuel Lopez

    2016-01-01

    The opportunities to attend higher education in Mexico have traditionally been offered to the middle class population since around 30% of students who finish high school are able to attend higher education. The main reason for this low attendance is the poverty in which much of the population lives and the lack of higher education institutions in…

  6. The Educational Benefits of Attending Higher Performing Schools: Evidence from Chicago High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allensworth, Elaine M.; Moore, Paul T.; Sartain, Lauren; de la Torre, Marisa

    2017-01-01

    Policymakers are implementing reforms with the assumption that students do better when attending high-achieving schools. In this article, we use longitudinal data from Chicago Public Schools to test that assumption. We find that the effects of attending a higher performing school depend on the school's performance level. At elite public schools…

  7. Student nurse absenteeism in higher education: An argument against enforced attendance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipscomb, Martin; Snelling, Paul C

    2010-08-01

    Unauthorised student nurse absenteeism in higher education troubles many university lecturers. Anecdotally, absenteeism is occasionally raised as an issue by attending students who resent others "getting away" with non-attendance and some policy documents appear to suggest that attendance should be mandated. This paper argues against enforced attendance in higher education and challenges those who would mandate attendance to explain and justify their position. Drawing on a range of nursing and non-nursing material we here discuss some of the literature on attendance, absenteeism, effort or time spent in study and grade attainment. Informed by this admittedly partial review we maintain that the evidence linking grade attainment with attendance and study effort is less conclusive than intuition might initially suggest. We note that enforcing attendance apparently runs counter to important pedagogic (humanistic and androgogic) principles. We propose that responses to absenteeism cannot be separated from questions of 'harm' and we suggest that lecturers should refrain from associating non-attendance with unprofessional behaviour and poor professionalization. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Access and Perceived ICT Usability among Students with Disabilities Attending Higher Education Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiman, Tali; Fichten, Catherine S.; Olenik-Shemesh, Dorit; Keshet, Noam S.; Jorgensen, Mary

    2017-01-01

    An increasing number of students with disabilities are attending higher education. These students might face various difficulties coping with academic skills and with learning methods compared to students without disabilities. Integrating information and communication technologies (ICTs) in academic studies may be effective and constructive for…

  9. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Factors That Influence Black Males to Attend Institutions of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etheridge, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative, narrative study was to explore the intrinsic and extrinsic factors that motivated Black males to attend institutions of higher education. The Self-determination theory and the Integrated Model for Educational Choice formed the theoretical framework for this study. Eight Black males who were between the ages of 18…

  10. Reducing non-attendance rates in a community mental health team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippidou, Maria; Lingwood, Susie; Mirza, Ilyas

    2014-01-01

    The project aimed to improve productivity of psychiatric out patient clinic using quality improvement techniques through "Listening Into Action", a national programme designed to engage and support front-line clinicians to make improvements to patient care. We identified reasons as to why our patients missed appointments and then introduced a system to reduce "did not attend" (DNA) rates. Non-attendance at appointments results in a waste of resources and increases waiting times. It has been reported that DNA rates in mental health are higher compared to other settings. Therefore, reducing DNA rates are a priority for mental health care providers. We collected DNA rates over a period of months over May 2013 to September 2013. We conducted a patient survey to inquire why the patients missed their appointments. The aim of the project and results from the survey were presented and discussed at the multi-disciplinary team meeting to generate ideas for improvement and engage the team with the project. As the most frequent response from the survey was 'forgetting the appointment', we decided to introduce text messaging as an intervention to remind patients of their appointments. We also ensured that staff updated the mobile phone records for the patients at each appointment. We monitored the DNA rates after introducing this change on a monthly basis. Following our intervention, there was an overall reduction in DNA rates for all disciplines from 11.4% to 10.62% with the greatest change for medical DNA's from 17.7% to 11.8 %. Results from a patient survey showed that the reasons for non-attendance are multi-factorial and require a complex approach. Our intervention was a simple one but still it demonstrated some effectiveness. Reducing DNA rates requires interventions to be regularly monitored so that their effect is sustained over a period of time.

  11. Translocation of threatened New Zealand falcons to vineyards increases nest attendance, brooding and feeding rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara M Kross

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic landscapes can be rich in resources, and may in some cases provide potential habitat for species whose natural habitat has declined. We used remote videography to assess whether reintroducing individuals of the threatened New Zealand falcon Falco novaeseelandiae into a highly modified agricultural habitat affected the feeding rates of breeding falcons or related breeding behavior such as nest attendance and brooding rates. Over 2,800 recording hours of footage were used to compare the behavior of falcons living in six natural nests (in unmanaged, hilly terrain between 4 km and 20 km from the nearest vineyard, with that of four breeding falcon pairs that had been transported into vineyards and nested within 500 m of the nearest vineyard. Falcons in vineyard nests had higher feeding rates, higher nest attendance, and higher brooding rates. As chick age increased, parents in vineyard nests fed chicks a greater amount of total prey and larger prey items on average than did parents in hill nests. Parents with larger broods brought in larger prey items and a greater total sum of prey biomass. Nevertheless, chicks in nests containing siblings received less daily biomass per individual than single chicks. Some of these results can be attributed to the supplementary feeding of falcons in vineyards. However, even after removing supplementary food from our analysis, falcons in vineyards still fed larger prey items to chicks than did parents in hill nests, suggesting that the anthropogenic habitat may be a viable source of quality food. Although agricultural regions globally are rarely associated with raptor conservation, these results suggest that translocating New Zealand falcons into vineyards has potential for the conservation of this species.

  12. Telephone reminders reduced the non-attendance rate in a gastroenterology outpatient clinic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Maja Haunstrup; Ainsworth, Mark Andrew

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Non-attendance is a global health-care problem. The aim of the present study was 1) to investigate if a telephone reminder could reduce the non-attendance rate, 2) to study reasons for non-attendance and 3) to evaluate if a permanent implementation would be economically advantageous......,705). Patients in the following three-month period were reminded by telephone one weekday in advance of their appointment, when possible (intervention group, n = 2,479). Non-attending patients in the intervention group received a questionnaire. Based on the results, a financial cost-benefit analysis was made...

  13. Effectiveness of school dental screening on stimulating dental attendance rates in Vikarabad town: A randomized controlled trial

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    Gadde Praveen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The school dental screening program has been in existence from the beginning of 20 th century. Its value in encouraging attendance among school children is not fully established. Aim: The aim was to determine the effectiveness of school dental screening on stimulating dental attendance rates among school children in Vikarabad town. Objectives: (a To compare the dental attendance rates between 6-9 and 10-13 years old age groups, among male and female school children in Vikarabad town. (b To identify the type of dental treatment received by the school children. Materials and Methods: A randomized controlled trial was conducted among school children aged 6-13 years old from 16 schools that were randomly selected and divided into two groups. Eight schools had a dental screening program (study group = 300 children and had blanket referral cards and 8 schools that did not have the intervention (control group = 300. The dental attendance rates were determined after 3 months of follow-up period by evaluating the blanket referral cards for the study group and by an oral questionnaire for the control group. Results: The dental attendance rate was 27% for the study group and 18% for the control group which is statistically significant. The attendance rate was higher among 10-13 years of children both in test group and control groups. Among the children who visited the dentist, 53% in the control group and 69% from the test group got simple amalgam and glass ionomer cement restorations. Conclusion: The dental attendance rates were improved following school dental screening.

  14. slide positivity rate of malaria among patients attending two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Key words: malaria, slide positivity rate, Kano metropolis. INTRODUCTION. Malaria has a worldwide distribution, affecting people of all ages, with an enormous burden amounting to. 300-500 million clinical cases per year, 80% of which occur in Africa (Lucas & Gills, 2003). Globally ten (10) new cases of malaria occur every ...

  15. The effect of sporting events on emergency department attendance rates in a district general hospital in Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGreevy, A; Millar, L; Murphy, B; Davison, G W; Brown, R; O'Donnell, M E

    2010-10-01

    Previous studies have reported a conflicting relationship between the effect of live and televised sporting events on attendance rates to emergency departments (ED). The objectives of this study were to investigate the relationship of major sporting events on emergency department attendance rates and to determine the potential effects of such events on service provision. A retrospective analysis of ED attendances to a district general hospital (DGH) and subsequent admissions over a 24-h period following live and televised sporting activities was performed over a 5-year period. Data were compiled from the hospital's emergency record books including the number of attendances, patient demographics, clinical complaint and outcome. Review patients were excluded. Analysis of sporting events was compiled for live local, regional and national events as well as world-wide televised sporting broadcasts. A total of 137,668 (80,445 men) patients attended from April 2002 to July 2007. Mean attendance rate per day was 80 patients (men = 47). Mean admission rate was 13.6 patients per day. Major sporting events during the study period included; Soccer: 4 FA Cup and 1 World Cup (WC) finals; Rugby: 47 Six Nations, 25 Six nations games involving Ireland, 1 WC final, 2 WC semi-finals, 2 WC quarter-finals and 4 WC games involving Ireland; and Gaelic Football [Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA)]: 5 All-Ireland finals, 11 semi-finals, 11 quarter-finals and 5 provincial finals. There was a significantly higher patient admission rate during the soccer FA Cup final, Rugby Six Nations and games involving Ireland and for GAA semi- and quarter-final games (p = 0.001-0.01). There was no difference identified in total attendance or non-admission rates for sporting events throughout the study period. Although there was no correlation identified between any of these sporting events and total emergency department attendances (r 0.07), multinomial logistic regression demonstrated that FA Cup final (p

  16. Telephone reminders reduced the non-attendance rate in a gastroenterology outpatient clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeppesen, Maja Haunstrup; Ainsworth, Mark Andrew

    2015-06-01

    Non-attendance is a global health-care problem. The aim of the present study was 1) to investigate if a telephone reminder could reduce the non-attendance rate, 2) to study reasons for non-attendance and 3) to evaluate if a permanent implementation would be economically advantageous in a gastroenterology outpatient clinic like ours. This was a comparative intervention study with a historical control group in a gastroenterology outpatient clinic. The study lasted six months. Patients with a scheduled appointment in the first three-month period received no reminder (control group, n = 2,705). Patients in the following three-month period were reminded by telephone one weekday in advance of their appointment, when possible (intervention group, n = 2,479). Non-attending patients in the intervention group received a questionnaire. Based on the results, a financial cost-benefit analysis was made. In the intervention group, 1,577 (64%) patients answered the reminder telephone call. The non-attendance rate was significantly lower in the intervention group (6.1%) than in the control group (10.5%) (p < 0.00001). Only 1.3% of the patients who answered the reminder turned out to be non-attendees. The most common explanation for non-attendance in the intervention group was forgetfulness (39%). The reminder telephone call was cost-effective. In this outpatient clinic, telephone reminders were cost-effective and significantly reduced the non-attendance rate by 43%.

  17. Self-rated health and quality of life in adults attending regional disability services in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Boland, Máirín C

    2009-04-01

    There is limited background information on self-rated health in people with disability in Ireland. This paper examines self-rated health scores and dimensions of functioning in people attending disability services and compares scores to the general population in Ireland, which has not been done before.

  18. Predicting University Preference and Attendance: Applied Marketing in Higher Education Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Robert W.; Zallocco, Ronald L.

    1983-01-01

    A multi-attribute attitude model was used to determine whether a multicriteria scale can be used to predict student preferences for and attendance at universities. Data were gathered from freshmen attending five state universities in Ohio. The results indicate a high level of predictability. (Author/MLW)

  19. Low rates of PTSD in men attending childbirth: a preliminary study.

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    Bradley, Rachel; Slade, Pauline; Leviston, Angela

    2008-09-01

    To investigate whether men experience symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after attending their partner's labour and delivery and the prevalence and predictors of symptoms of PTSD, anxiety, and depression. This quantitative study involved a large sample, within-participants design with questionnaires completed at recruitment and six weeks follow-up. Within 72 hours of attending their partner giving birth, 199 men provided demographic details and completed questions about their partner's pregnancy, labour and delivery. Six weeks later they completed a second questionnaire booklet containing measures of symptoms of post-traumatic stress, anxiety, and depression. No men reported symptoms at significant levels on all three dimensions of PTSD (intrusions, avoidance, and hyperarousal) although 12% reported clinically significant symptoms on at least one dimension. The dimension with the highest frequency was hyperarousal. Linear regression indicated more PTSD symptoms were predicted by trait anxiety, fewer children, the pregnancy being unplanned, being present at actual delivery, and feeling less confident about coping, less prepared, and more distressed during the process of childbirth. Prevalence of clinically significant symptoms of depression and anxiety was 8 and 7%, respectively, and was predicted by higher trait anxiety. In this sample there was little evidence for the full constellation of PTSD in men attending their partner giving birth. Using a trauma perspective in this context may not be supported. Those symptoms most commonly reported could be viewed primarily as anxiety and were linked with less previous experience of attending childbirth. Attendance at actual delivery was a key predictor of symptoms.

  20. Telephone reminders reduced the non-attendance rate in a gastroenterology outpatient clinic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Maja Haunstrup; Ainsworth, Mark Andrew

    2015-01-01

    in a gastroenterology outpatient clinic like ours. METHODS: This was a comparative intervention study with a historical control group in a gastroenterology outpatient clinic. The study lasted six months. Patients with a scheduled appointment in the first three-month period received no reminder (control group, n = 2......,705). Patients in the following three-month period were reminded by telephone one weekday in advance of their appointment, when possible (intervention group, n = 2,479). Non-attending patients in the intervention group received a questionnaire. Based on the results, a financial cost-benefit analysis was made......-attendees. The most common explanation for non-attendance in the intervention group was forgetfulness (39%). The reminder telephone call was cost-effective. CONCLUSION: In this outpatient clinic, telephone reminders were cost-effective and significantly reduced the non-attendance rate by 43%....

  1. Delayed high school start times later than 8:30am and impact on graduation rates and attendance rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeever, Pamela Malaspina; Clark, Linda

    2017-04-01

    The first purpose of this study was to investigate changes in high school graduation rates with a delayed school start time of later than 8:30am. The second aim of the study was to analyze the association between a delayed high school start time later than 8:30am and attendance rates. In the current study, a pre-post design using a repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to examine changes in attendance and graduation rates 2 years after a delayed start was implemented. Public high schools from 8 school districts (n=29 high schools) located throughout 7 different states. Schools were identified using previous research from the Children's National Medical Center's Division of Sleep Medicine Research Team. A total membership of more than 30,000 high school students enrolled in the 29 schools identified by the Children's National Medical Center's Research Team. A pre-post design was used for a within-subject design, controlling for any school-to-school difference in the calculation of the response variable. This is the recommended technique for a study that may include data with potential measurement error. Findings from this study linked a start time of later than 8:30am to improved attendance rates and graduation rates. Attendance rates and graduation rates significantly improved in schools with delayed start times of 8:30am or later. School officials need to take special notice that this investigation also raises questions about whether later start times are a mechanism for closing the achievement gap due to improved graduation rates. Copyright © 2017 National Sleep Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A Comparative Study of Neural Networks and ANFIS for Forecasting Attendance Rate of Soccer Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Şahin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to develop and apply a neural network (NN approach and an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS model for forecasting the attendance rates at soccer games. The models were designed based on the characteristics of the problem. Past real data was used. Training data was used for training the models, and the testing data was used for evaluating the performance of the forecasting models. The obtained forecasting results were compared to the actual data and to each other. To evaluate the performance of the models, two statistical indicators, Mean Absolute Deviation (MAD and mean absolute percent error (MAPE, were used. Based on the results, the proposed neural network approach and the ANFIS model were shown to be effective in forecasting attendance at soccer games. The neural network approach performed better than the ANFIS model. The main contribution of this study is to introduce two effective techniques for estimating attendance at sports games. This is the first attempt to use an ANFIS model for that purpose.

  3. The Development of a Web-Based Attendance System with RFID for Higher Education Institution in Binus University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniali, S.; Mayliana

    2014-03-01

    This study focuses on the development of a web-based attendance system with RFID in a Indonesian higher education institution. The development of this system is motivated due to the fact that the students' attendance records are one of the important elements that reflect their academic achievements. However, the current manual practice implemented is causing such a hassle. Empowering the usage of the new RFID based student card, a new web based-attendance system has been built to cater the recording and reporting of not just the student's' attendances, but also the lecturer's and taught topics in the class. The development of this system is inspired by the senior management. And the system can be easily accessed through the learning management system and can generate a report in real time, This paper will discuss in details the development until the maintaining phase of the system. Result achieved is the innovation of developing the system proved reliable to support related business processes and empowered the intention to maximize the usage of the RFID card. Considered as a successful implementation, this paper will give an input for others who want to implement a similar system.

  4. Does it pay to attend a for-profit college? Vertical and horizontal stratification in higher education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denice, Patrick

    2015-07-01

    Despite the recent growth of for-profit colleges, scholars are only beginning to understand the labor market consequences of attending these institutions. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, I find that for-profit associate's degree holders encounter lower hourly earnings than associate's degree holders educated at public or private, nonprofit colleges, and earnings that are not significantly different than high school graduates. However, individuals who complete a bachelor's degree by attending college in either the for-profit or nonprofit sectors encounter positive returns. These findings, robust to model selection, suggest that the distinction between for-profit and nonprofit colleges constitutes an important axis in the horizontal dimension of education at the sub-baccalaureate level, and complicate notions of vertical stratification such that higher levels of educational attainment do not necessarily guarantee a wage premium. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Association between sporting event attendance and self-rated health: an analysis of multiyear cross-sectional national data in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yuhei; Sato, Mikihiro; Nakazawa, Makoto

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which sporting event attendance is associated with self-rated health. Drawing from an economic model of health production and psychological research on the health benefits of psychosocial resources, sporting event attendance was hypothesized to have a positive relationship with self-rated health. A two-level multilevel ordered logistic regression was used to analyze multiyear cross-sectional data collected from national surveys in Japan. The results demonstrate that, controlling for the effects of personal and environmental characteristics, sporting event attendance positively correlates with self-rated health over a 12-year period. Specifically, when compared to individuals who did not attend any sporting event during the past year, those who attended a sporting event were 33% more likely to indicate a higher level of self-rated health. These findings provide evidence for a positive association between sport spectatorship and the perception of general health and contribute to the literature examining the relationship between sport spectatorship and health outcomes.

  6. The Effect of Family Characteristics on Higher Education Attendance in India: A Multivariate Logit Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramanik, Shaswati

    2015-01-01

    Family characteristics in terms of parental education and income are an important influence on individual's participation in higher education. In India it could be found that categorically those who are out of the higher education system belong to marginalized groups due to their economic class, caste, gender, religion etc. despite massive…

  7. [Attendance rate in the Polish Cervical Cancer Screening Program in the years 2007-2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaczyński, Marek; Karowicz-Bilinska, Agata; Rokita, Wojciech; Molińska-Glura, Marta; Januszek-Michalecka, Lucyna; Seroczyński, Przemysław; Uchlik, Joanna; Nowak-Markwitz, Ewa

    2010-09-01

    In Poland in 2007, according to the National Cancer Registry 3431 women were diagnosed with cervical cancer and 1907 died. To change the unfavorable epidemiologic situation, in 2005 the Ministry of Health (MH), the National Health Fund (NHF) and the Polish Gynecological Society following WHO/IARC guidelines developed a National Population-Based Cervical Cancer Screening Program. Its implementation and roll-out started in 2006. The target population are women aged 25 to 59 insured in the National Health Fund. A Pap test is done with a three-year interval, free of charge. The system is based on personal invitations sent by regular post. Invitation to screening is supported by a social educational campaign "Choose Life" run under one slogan and logo across the whole country The NHF data base enables identification of women to screen. Pap smears are collected by gynecologists and since 2008 also by midwives trained and certified by the Program National Coordinating Center Pap test results are reported in the Bethesda 2001 system. The Screening Program has its system of quality assurance and control and is supported by a specially designed computer data base called SIMP (System of Information Monitoring in Prophylaxis) with online access to all records. In addition to organized, population-based screening there is also opportunistic screening in Poland practiced either by private gynecological practices or by some units that cooperate with the National Health Fund, but do Pap tests as an element of comprehensive gynecological examination. Those smears are not registered in the SIMP. Our aim was analysis of attendance rate in the Cervical Cancer Screening Program in the years 2007-2009. We also investigated correlation between screening coverage and invitation sending schedule, as well as between coverage and screening accessibility determined by the number of gynaecological practices where Pap smears are collected. Attendance rate in the Screening Program was evaluated

  8. Risk-associated health disorders occuring in junior schoolchildren who attend schools with higher stress and intensity of educational process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Zaitseva

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We performed comparative sanitary-hygienic assessment of regime, stress and intensity of educational process in different educational establishments, a comprehensive secondary school and an innovative educational establishment - lyceum. We detected that studying regime tended to be tight, classes were longer and more intense than in an ordinary school, and educational process involved considerable intellectual, sensory and emotional loads for children; such loads reached "1st category intense" level. Schoolchildren attending lyceums are also busy with additional educational programs and it significantly increases length of total educational load on them. By the end of a school year 20% of lyceum pupils suffer from sympathoadrenal system overstress and it doesn't only determine emotional tonus level in children but also leads to disorders in concentration and decision-making speed, lower reading speed and articulation, slower motor reactions. 15% of lyceum pupils have higher activity of autonomous nervous system and lower adaptation of cardiovascular system to psycho emotional and physical loads. Lyceum pupils also run 2.5 times higher risk of chronic nervous system diseases evolvement than school children attending ordinary schools. Autonomous nervous system disorders, posture disorders and nutrition disorders are predominant nosologic pathology forms in lyceum pupils as they occur in them 1.6-2.9 times more frequent than in schoolchildren of the same age who attend an ordinary comprehensive school. We detected direct correlation between higher intellectual and emotional components of educational process, and total educational intensity as well, and frequency of autonomous system disorders and musculoskeletal system diseases in pupils.

  9. Compensatory Policies Attending Equality and Inequality in Mexico Educational Practice among Vulnerable Groups in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, René Pedroza; Monroy, Guadalupe Villalobos; Fabela, Ana María Reyes

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an estimate of the prevalence of social inequality in accessing higher education among vulnerable groups in Mexico. Estimates were determined from statistical data provided by governmental agencies on the level of poverty among the Mexican population. In Mexico, the conditions of poverty and vulnerability while trying to access…

  10. United States private schools have higher rates of exemptions to school immunization requirements than public schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Jana; Tserenpuntsag, Boldtsetseg; McNutt, Louise-Anne; Halsey, Neal

    2014-07-01

    To compare medical, religious, and personal belief immunization exemption rates between private and public schools in US. Exemption rates were calculated using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention School Immunization Assessment Surveys for the 2009-2010 school year excluding states with incomplete survey data. Standardized exemption rates weighted on enrollments in public and private schools were calculated. Differences in exemption rates between public and private schools were tested using Wilcoxon signed rank test. The overall state exemption rate was higher in US private than public schools, 4.25% (SD 4.27) vs 1.91% (1.67), P = .0001 and private schools had higher exemption rates for all types of exemptions; medical 0.58% (0.71) vs 0.34% (0.34) respectively (P = .0004), religious 2.09% (3.14) vs 0.83% (1.05) respectively (P = .0001), and personal belief 6.10% (4.12) vs 2.79% (1.57), respectively (P = .006). Overall exemption rates were significantly higher in states that allowed personal belief exemptions. Exemption rates were significantly higher in US private than in public schools. Children attending private schools may be at higher risk of vaccine-preventable diseases than public school children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Rich or poor: Who should pay higher tax rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murilo Castro de Oliveira, Paulo

    2017-08-01

    A dynamic agent model is introduced with an annual random wealth multiplicative process followed by taxes paid according to a linear wealth-dependent tax rate. If poor agents pay higher tax rates than rich agents, eventually all wealth becomes concentrated in the hands of a single agent. By contrast, if poor agents are subject to lower tax rates, the economic collective process continues forever.

  12. Supervisors' Performance Ratings Correlated with Selected Personal Characteristics of Attendants in a Mental Retardation Developmental Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, Joseph; And Others

    A research study investigated the relationship between personal characteristics and selected demographic data of 75 attendants in a mental retardation developmental center and the assessment by 24 administrators of the attendants' job performance. Instruments used included a 20-item Direct Care Performance Scale and the Demographic Data Scale,…

  13. The effectiveness of policy changes designed to increase the attendance rate for outpatient retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) screening examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Gerard P; Tauber, Kate; Emmanuel, Gregory; Horgan, Michael J; Simon, John W

    2013-06-01

    To determine the effectiveness of a series of policy changes designed to increase the attendance rate for outpatient retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) screening examinations. We retrospectively reviewed the records of consecutive neonatal intensive care unit patients before and after the implementation of policy changes. Policy changes included parent education forms, streamlined scheduling, and creation of a log for all patients seen. The primary outcome measure was attendance rates for the first outpatient appointment after discharge. The Fisher exact test was used to compare rates between the two groups. Before the policy was implemented, 22 of 52 (42%) neonates and their caregivers attended their first outpatient ROP screening examination on the recommended date. This rate improved significantly after policy implementation, when 46 of 57 (81%) neonates and their caregivers were seen on the recommended date (P attendance rates for initial outpatient ROP examinations and the number of patients who ultimately met criteria for conclusion of acute retinal screening examinations significantly improved after the implementation of new policies. Copyright © 2013 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Chlamydia trachomatis infection and sexual behaviour among female students attending higher education in the Republic of Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connell, Emer

    2009-10-29

    BACKGROUND: There are no prevalence data on Chlamydia trachomatis relating to female students attending higher education available for the Republic of Ireland. This information is required to guide on the necessity for Chlamydia screening programmes in higher education settings. This research aimed to determine the prevalence of and predictive risk factors for Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection among female higher education students in Ireland. METHODS: All females presenting during one-day periods at Student Health Units in three higher education institutions in two cities in the Republic of Ireland were invited to participate. Participants completed a questionnaire on lifestyle and socio-demographic factors and provided a urine sample. Samples were tested for C. trachomatis DNA by a PCR based technique (Cobas Amplicor, Roche). To examine possible associations between a positive test and demographic and lifestyle risk factors, a univariate analysis was performed. All associations with a p value < 0.05 were included in a multivariate logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Of the 460 sexually active participants 22 tested positive (prevalence 4.8%; 95% CI 3.0 to 7.1%). Variables associated with significantly increased risk were current suggestive symptoms, two or more one-night stands and three or more lifetime sexual partners. The students displayed high-risk sexual behaviour. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of C. trachomatis infection and the lack of awareness of the significance of suggestive symptoms among sexually experienced female students demonstrate the need for a programme to test asymptomatic or non-presenting higher education students. The risk factors identified by multivariate analysis may be useful in identifying those who are most likely to benefit from screening. Alcohol abuse, condom use, sexual behaviour (at home and abroad) and, knowledge of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) (including asymptomatic nature or relevant symptoms) were

  15. Chlamydia trachomatis infection and sexual behaviour among female students attending higher education in the Republic of Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vellinga Akke

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are no prevalence data on Chlamydia trachomatis relating to female students attending higher education available for the Republic of Ireland. This information is required to guide on the necessity for Chlamydia screening programmes in higher education settings. This research aimed to determine the prevalence of and predictive risk factors for Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection among female higher education students in Ireland. Methods All females presenting during one-day periods at Student Health Units in three higher education institutions in two cities in the Republic of Ireland were invited to participate. Participants completed a questionnaire on lifestyle and socio-demographic factors and provided a urine sample. Samples were tested for C. trachomatis DNA by a PCR based technique (Cobas Amplicor, Roche. To examine possible associations between a positive test and demographic and lifestyle risk factors, a univariate analysis was performed. All associations with a p value Results Of the 460 sexually active participants 22 tested positive (prevalence 4.8%; 95% CI 3.0 to 7.1%. Variables associated with significantly increased risk were current suggestive symptoms, two or more one-night stands and three or more lifetime sexual partners. The students displayed high-risk sexual behaviour. Conclusion The prevalence of C. trachomatis infection and the lack of awareness of the significance of suggestive symptoms among sexually experienced female students demonstrate the need for a programme to test asymptomatic or non-presenting higher education students. The risk factors identified by multivariate analysis may be useful in identifying those who are most likely to benefit from screening. Alcohol abuse, condom use, sexual behaviour (at home and abroad and, knowledge of sexually transmitted infections (STIs (including asymptomatic nature or relevant symptoms were identified as target areas for health promotion strategies

  16. Estimating diversification rates for higher taxa: BAMM can give problematic estimates of rates and rate shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Andreas L S; Wiens, John J

    2018-01-01

    Estimates of diversification rates are invaluable for many macroevolutionary studies. Recently, an approach called BAMM (Bayesian Analysis of Macro-evolutionary Mixtures) has become widely used for estimating diversification rates and rate shifts. At the same time, several articles have concluded that estimates of net diversification rates from the method-of-moments (MS) estimators are inaccurate. Yet, no studies have compared the ability of these two methods to accurately estimate clade diversification rates. Here, we use simulations to compare their performance. We found that BAMM yielded relatively weak relationships between true and estimated diversification rates. This occurred because BAMM underestimated the number of rates shifts across each tree, and assigned high rates to small clades with low rates. Errors in both speciation and extinction rates contributed to these errors, showing that using BAMM to estimate only speciation rates is also problematic. In contrast, the MS estimators (particularly using stem group ages), yielded stronger relationships between true and estimated diversification rates, by roughly twofold. Furthermore, the MS approach remained relatively accurate when diversification rates were heterogeneous within clades, despite the widespread assumption that it requires constant rates within clades. Overall, we caution that BAMM may be problematic for estimating diversification rates and rate shifts. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  17. Attendance Rates in a Workplace Predict Subsequent Outcome of Employment-Based Reinforcement of Cocaine Abstinence in Methadone Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donlin, Wendy D.; Knealing, Todd W.; Needham, Mick; Wong, Conrad J.; Silverman, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed whether attendance rates in a workplace predicted subsequent outcome of employment-based reinforcement of cocaine abstinence. Unemployed adults in Baltimore methadone programs who used cocaine (N = 111) could work in a workplace for 4 hr every weekday and earn $10.00 per hour in vouchers for 26 weeks. During an induction…

  18. Higher rates of sex evolve in spatially heterogeneous environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becks, Lutz; Agrawal, Aneil F

    2010-11-04

    The evolution and maintenance of sexual reproduction has puzzled biologists for decades. Although this field is rich in hypotheses, experimental evidence is scarce. Some important experiments have demonstrated differences in evolutionary rates between sexual and asexual populations; other experiments have documented evolutionary changes in phenomena related to genetic mixing, such as recombination and selfing. However, direct experiments of the evolution of sex within populations are extremely rare (but see ref. 12). Here we use the rotifer, Brachionus calyciflorus, which is capable of both sexual and asexual reproduction, to test recent theory predicting that there is more opportunity for sex to evolve in spatially heterogeneous environments. Replicated experimental populations of rotifers were maintained in homogeneous environments, composed of either high- or low-quality food habitats, or in heterogeneous environments that consisted of a mix of the two habitats. For populations maintained in either type of homogeneous environment, the rate of sex evolves rapidly towards zero. In contrast, higher rates of sex evolve in populations experiencing spatially heterogeneous environments. The data indicate that the higher level of sex observed under heterogeneity is not due to sex being less costly or selection against sex being less efficient; rather sex is sufficiently advantageous in heterogeneous environments to overwhelm its inherent costs. Counter to some alternative theories for the evolution of sex, there is no evidence that genetic drift plays any part in the evolution of sex in these populations.

  19. Estimating primary care attendance rates for fever in infants after meningococcal B vaccination in England using national syndromic surveillance data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harcourt, Sally; Morbey, Roger A; Bates, Chris; Carter, Helen; Ladhani, Shamez N; de Lusignan, Simon; Smith, Gillian E; Elliot, Alex J

    2018-01-25

    In September 2015, the United Kingdom became the first country to introduce the multicomponent group B meningococcal vaccine (4CMenB) into a national infant immunisation programme. In early clinical trials 51-61% of infants developed a fever when 4CMenB was administered with other routine vaccines. Whilst administration of prophylactic paracetamol is advised, up to 3% of parents may seek medical advice for fever following vaccination. We used research-level general practitioner consultations to identify any increase in attendances for all-cause fever in vaccine-eligible infants following 4CMenB introduction in England. Consultations for infant all-cause fever in the year following the vaccine introduction were identified from The Phoenix Partnership (TPP) ResearchOne general practice database using Read (CTV3) codes. Average daily consultation rates and incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were calculated for vaccine-eligible age groups and compared to the two years preceding vaccine introduction. The difference between pre- and post-vaccine all-cause fever consultations was estimated. All-cause fever consultations in vaccine-eligible 7-10 week olds were 1.6-fold higher (IRR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.22-2.05) compared to the two previous years and 1.5-fold higher (IRR 1.47; 95% CI, 1.17-1.86) in 15-18 week-olds. There were no significant differences in 0-6 or 11-14 week-olds. Applying the difference between pre- and post-vaccine consultation rates to the 4CMenB vaccine-eligible age groups across England estimated 1825 additional fever consultations in the year following 4CMenB introduction. We found a small but significant difference in all-cause fever consultation rates in vaccine-eligible infants who would have received 4CMenB with other vaccines. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Enabling Higher Data Rates for Planetary Science Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, L. J.; Townes, S. A.; Lazio, J.; Bell, D. J.; Chahat, N. E.; Kovalik, J. M.; Kuperman, I.; Sauder, J.; Liebrecht, P. E.

    2017-12-01

    The data rate from deep space spacecraft has increased by more than 10 orders of magnitude since the first lunar missions in the 1960s. The demand for increased data rates has stemmed from the increasing sophistication of the science questions being addressed and the concomitant increase in the complexity of the missions themselves (from fly-by to orbit to land and rove). Projections for the next few decades suggest the demand for data rates for deep space missions will continue to increase by approximately one order of magnitude every decade, driven by these same factors. Achieving higher data rates requires a partnership between the spacecraft and the ground system. We describe a series of technology developments for flight telecommunications systems, both at radio frequency (RF) and optical, to enable spacecraft to transmit and receive larger data volumes. These technology developments include deployable high gain antennas for small spacecraft, re-programmable software-defined radios, and optical communication packages designed for CubeSat form factors. The intent is that these developments would provide enhancements in capability for both spacecraft-Earth and spacecraft-spacecraft telecommunications. We also describe the future planning for NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN), which remains the prime conduit for data from all planetary science missions. Through a combination of new antennas and backends being installed over the next five years and incorporation of optical communications, the DSN aims to ensure that the historical improvements in data rates and volumes will continue for many decades. Part of this research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  1. Traditional food consumption is associated with higher nutrient intakes in Inuit children attending childcare centres in Nunavik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris Gagné

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To describe traditional food (TF consumption and to evaluate its impact on nutrient intakes of preschool Inuit children from Nunavik. Design. A cross-sectional study. Methods. Dietary intakes of children were assessed with a single 24-hour recall (n=217. TF consumption at home and at the childcare centres was compared. Differences in children's nutrient intakes when consuming or not consuming at least 1 TF item were examined using ANCOVA. Results. A total of 245 children attending childcare centres in 10 communities of Nunavik were recruited between 2006 and 2010. The children's mean age was 25.0±9.6 months (11–54 months. Thirty-six percent of children had consumed at least 1 TF item on the day of the recall. TF contributed to 2.6% of total energy intake. Caribou and Arctic char were the most reported TF species. Land animals and fish/shellfish were the main contributors to energy intake from TF (38 and 33%, respectively. In spite of a low TF intake, children who consumed TF had significantly (p<0.05 higher intakes of protein, omega-3 fatty acids, iron, phosphorus, zinc, copper, selenium, niacin, pantothenic acid, riboflavin, and vitamin B12, and lower intakes of energy and carbohydrate compared with non-consumers. There was no significant difference in any of the socio-economic variables between children who consumed TF and those who did not. Conclusion. Although TF was not eaten much, it contributed significantly to the nutrient intakes of children. Consumption of TF should be encouraged as it provides many nutritional, economic, and sociocultural benefits.

  2. Attendance Rates in A Workplace Predict Subsequent Outcome of Employment-Based Reinforcement of Cocaine Abstinence in Methadone Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Donlin, Wendy D; Knealing, Todd W; Needham, Mick; Wong, Conrad J; Silverman, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed whether attendance rates in a workplace predicted subsequent outcome of employment-based reinforcement of cocaine abstinence. Unemployed adults in Baltimore methadone programs who used cocaine (N  =  111) could work in a workplace for 4 hr every weekday and earn $10.00 per hour in vouchers for 26 weeks. During an induction period, participants provided urine samples but could work independent of their urinalysis results. After the induction period, participants had to prov...

  3. AN EVALUATION OF THE COMMUNICATION SKILLS AND EMPATHIC TENDENCIES OF STUDENTS ATTENDING POLICE VOCATIONAL SCHOOL OF HIGHER EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür DİNÇER

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to find out whether Police Vocational School of Higher Education students comprehend the duties and responsibilities of being a police correctly and practice what has to be done through correct methods within this context; to e valuate their empathy tendencies and communication skills; to find solutions if they have any shortcomings in communication skills; to make up for their shortcomings in showing empathy or to strengthen their existing skills. The study included a total of 9 09 students attending Samsun 19 Mayıs Police Vocational School of Higher Education. Of these 909 students, 207 (45,6% females and 247 (54,4% males were in their first year while 252 (55,4% males and 203 (%44,6 females were in their second year. The dat a was collected through a 25 - item 5 likert scale developed by Korkut (1996 in order to understand how individuals evaluate their communication skills. The scale is scored from (1 never to (5 always. To find out empathy tendencies, Empathic Tendencies Sc ale developed by Dökmen (1988 was used. The scale is a Likert type scale; it includes 20 questions which are scored from 1 to 5. The lowest score a person can get from the scale is 20 while the highest score is 100. Frequency percentage was used to find o ut the age distribution of the group. Mean and standard deviation were used to present the group’s communication skill levels and independent groups t - test was used to present the state of differentiation based on gender, age and question factor. General c ommunication skills of the research group were below the average communication level score while their empathy tendencies were high. There were significant differences in communication levels in terms of their year of study, gender and their department at high school (P<0,05. As a result, studies of individual development in the education of professional groups which are interlocked with humans will enable an increase in

  4. Reduction Rates for Higher Americium Oxidation States in Nitric Acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimes, Travis Shane [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mincher, Bruce Jay [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Schmitt, Nicholas C [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-30

    The stability of hexavalent americium was measured using multiple americium concentrations and nitric acid concentrations after contact with the strong oxidant sodium bismuthate. Contrary to our hypotheses Am(VI) was not reduced faster at higher americium concentrations, and the reduction was only zero-order at short time scales. Attempts to model the reduction kinetics using zero order kinetic models showed Am(VI) reduction in nitric acid is more complex than the autoreduction processes reported by others in perchloric acid. The classical zero-order reduction of Am(VI) was found here only for short times on the order of a few hours. We did show that the rate of Am(V) production was less than the rate of Am(VI) reduction, indicating that some Am(VI) undergoes two electron-reduction to Am(IV). We also monitored the Am(VI) reduction in contact with the organic diluent dodecane. A direct comparison of these results with those in the absence of the organic diluent showed the reduction rates for Am(VI) were not statistically different for both systems. Additional americium oxidations conducted in the presence of Ce(IV)/Ce(III) ions showed that Am(VI) is reduced without the typical growth of Am(V) observed in the systems sans Ce ion. This was an interesting result which suggests a potential new reduction/oxidation pathway for Am in the presence of Ce; however, these results were very preliminary, and will require additional experiments to understand the mechanism by which this occurs. Overall, these studies have shown that hexavalent americium is fundamentally stable enough in nitric acid to run a separations process. However, the complicated nature of the reduction pathways based on the system components is far from being rigorously understood.

  5. Opportunistic and other intestinal parasites among HIV/AIDS patients attending Gambi higher clinic in Bahir Dar city, North West Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemu, Abebe; Shiferaw, Yitayal; Getnet, Gebeyaw; Yalew, Aregaw; Addis, Zelalem

    2011-08-01

    To determine the magnitude of opportunistic and non-opportunistic intestinal parasitic infections among HIV/AIDS patients in Bahir Dar. Cross-sectional study was conducted among HIV/AIDS patients attending Gambi higher clinic from April1-May 30, 2009. Convenient sampling technique was employed to identify the study subjects and hence a total of 248 subjects were included. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic data of patients. Stool samples were examined by direct saline, iodine wet mount, formol-ether sedimentation concentration and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique. Out of 248 enrolled in the study, 171(69.0%) (90 males and 81 females) were infected with one or more intestinal parasites. The highest rate of intestinal parasites were observed among HIV/AIDS patients (80.3%, 151/188), and the infection rate of HIV negative individuals was 33.3% (20/60). Cryptosporidum parvum (43.6%), Isospora belli (15.5%) and Blastocystis hominis (10.5%) were opportunistic parasites that were found only in HIV/AIDS patients. Opportunistic parasite infections are common health problem among HIV/AIDS patients in the study area. Therefore, early detection and treatment of these parasites are important to improve the quality of life of HIV/AIDS patients. Copyright © 2011 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Systematic Review of the Research on Motor Fitness of 1st-Year Students Attending Polish Institutions of Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Podstawski

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study. To establish: 1 the amount of research on general motor fitness of 1st-year students, conducted at selected Polish institutions of higher education between 1953-2010; 2 the number and kind of motor tests applied in this kind of research as well as the frequency of these tests during the period under study. Material and methods: The material for this research was composed of the publications on motor fitness of the first-year students taking part in specific motor trials applied at Polish tertiary institutions between 1953 - 2010. A diagnostic poll method was used in the research. Results: Fifty-four original research cases conducted in the period under study were observed. Within this period the trials such as: “100m run”, “jump from the run-up”, “grenade throw” and “ shot put” were more popular during the earlier years, while the trials such us: “zig-zag run”, “standing long jump”, and “medicine ball throw” were characteristic of more recent studies. Some of the most popular motor trials were: “standing long jump” – 38 cases, “medicine ball throw” – 30 cases, “zig-zag run” – 28 cases, “shuttle runs” – 9 cases, "short distance runs” – 12 cases, “downward bend from standing position” – 10 cases, and "vertical jump” – 8 cases. Conclusions: 1. Little research concerning the level of physical fitness of first-year students attending Polish tertiary institutions was conducted in the years 1953-2010; 2. The amount of motor fitness research carried out during this period fails to provide constant systematic assessment of the state of the students’ physical condition, which is a result of too large dispersions in time and territory where the measurements were taken; 3. In the motor fitness tests conducted with 1st-year students the determining variable was mainly gender, and only few research cases were found in which general motor fitness was analyzed according to

  7. Social motivation in prospective memory: higher importance ratings and reported performance rates for social tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penningroth, Suzanna L; Scott, Walter D; Freuen, Margaret

    2011-03-01

    Few studies have addressed social motivation in prospective memory (PM). In a pilot study and two main studies, we examined whether social PM tasks possess a motivational advantage over nonsocial PM tasks. In the pilot study and Study 1, participants listed their real-life important and less important PM tasks. Independent raters categorized the PM tasks as social or nonsocial. Results from both studies showed a higher proportion of tasks rated as social when important tasks were requested than when less important tasks were requested. In Study 1, participants also reported whether they had remembered to perform each PM task. Reported performance rates were higher for tasks rated as social than for those rated as nonsocial. Finally, in Study 2, participants rated the importance of two hypothetical PM tasks, one social and one nonsocial. The social PM task was rated higher in importance. Overall, these findings suggest that social PM tasks are viewed as more important than nonsocial PM tasks and they are more likely to be performed. We propose that consideration of the social relevance of PM will lead to a more complete and ecologically valid theoretical description of PM performance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Awareness of female students attending higher educational institutions toward legalization of safe abortion and associated factors, Harari Region, Eastern Ethiopia: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geleto, Ayele; Markos, Jote

    2015-03-17

    Unsafe abortion has been recognized as an important public health problem in the world. It accounts for 14% of all maternal deaths in sub-Saharan African countries. In Ethiopia, 32% of all maternal deaths are accounted to unsafe abortion. Taking the problem of unsafe abortion into consideration, the penal code of Ethiopia was amended in 2005, to permit safe abortion under a set of circumstances. However, lack of awareness on the revised penal code is a major barrier that hinders women to seek safe abortion. The aim of this study is to assess awareness of female students attending higher educational institutions toward legalization of safe abortion and associated factors in Harari region, eastern Ethiopia. Institution-based descriptive cross sectional study was conducted among 762 female students who are attending five higher educational institutions in Harari Region. Systematic sampling method was used to identify study participants from randomly selected colleges. Self administered structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Data were entered in to Epi Info version 6.04 and analyzed by SPSS version 17.0 statistical packages. Frequency, percentage and ratio were used to describe variables. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was done to control confounders and odds ratio with 95% confidence interval was used to identify factors associated with awareness of female students to legalization of abortion. 762 study participants completed the survey questionnaire making the response rate 90.2%. Only 272 (35.7%) of the respondents reported that they have good awareness about legalization of safe abortion. Studying other fields than health and medicine [AOR 0.48; 95%CI (0.23, 0.85)], being the only child for their family [AOR 0.28; 95%CI (0.13, 0.86)], having no boy friend [AOR 0.34; 95%CI (0.12, 0.74)], using family planning [AOR 0.50; 95%CI (0.13 and 0.86)], being 25 years or older [AOR 1.64; 95%CI (1.33, 2.80)] were significantly associated with awareness

  9. Dropout rates and factors associated with dropout from treatment among elderly patients attending the outpatient services of a tertiary care hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Sandeep; Dua, Devakshi; Chakrabarti, Subho; Avasthi, Ajit

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the "dropout" rates from treatment and associated factors among elderly patients attending a tertiary care psychiatry outpatient facility. Data of 1422 patients aged ≥60 years, attending the walk-in clinic were evaluated. Out of 1422 patients, 406 (28.55%) belonged to the "dropout" group. In the "dropout" group, the age of patients was significantly higher than the followed-up group, and a higher proportion of patients were >70 years old. Significantly lower proportion of patients with diagnosis of depressive disorders belonged to the "dropout" group and significantly higher proportion of patients with "other" diagnoses belonged to the dropped out group. In patients with depressive disorders, a higher proportion of the patients in the "dropout" group were Hindu by religion (68.7% vs. 58.7%; χ 2 = 4.26; P = 0.03). In patients with bipolar disorder, patients in the "dropout" group had significantly higher income (Rs. 13,323 [standard deviation [SD] = 16,769] vs. 5681 [SD = 9422]; t -test value: 2-25; P = 0.028) and lesser proportion of patients were of the male gender (63.15 vs. 86.95%; Mann-Whitney U value = 257.5; P = 0.039). In the group of other diagnoses, a higher proportion of patients in the "dropout" group were currently single (32.3% vs. 18.7%; χ 2 = 4.12; P = 0.042), from rural locality (63.1% vs. 46.72%; χ 2 = 4.33; P = 0.037) and were not prescribed medications (40% vs. 22.4%; χ 2 = 6.05; P = 0.04). Dropout from treatment among elderly patients is associated with higher age, not being prescribed medications, and diagnosis other than the affective disorders, psychotic disorders, and the cognitive disorders.

  10. The attendance of women in mammographic early detection programme and the results of the observation of the breast glands condition. 1. The attendance of higher schools female employees in mammography examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romejko, M.; Kleszczewska, J.; Liszek, A.; Tarlowska, L.; Wronkowski, Z.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the first part of this work is to assess the attendance in the early detection (mammography) in female employees of Warsaw-based higher schools aged 40-69. During the 4.5 year period (1985-1989) 1325 female employees of higher schools (23.5% of the schools' total employment) turned up to the Female Cancer Prevention Center of The Higher Schools' Medical Center (ZOZ) in Warsaw. Observation of this group continued until June 30, 1992. Majority of the women (56.5%) showed up only once, 21.7% came twice, and 21.8% at least three times. Out of the 1021 women (77% of all the examined female employees) who showed no symptoms in the first test, only 37% came again for the second checkup. Out of the 305 women who had changes detected in their X-ray images, 66% turned up for the second test. 23 women (1.7%) had suspicious mammography results or typical cancer symptoms in the first test. The present work shows that the reason of the insufficient attendance of higher schools' female employees in early detection programs need to be investigated and that a more efficient early detection system must be developed. (author)

  11. Climate warming causes declines in crop yields and lowers school attendance rates in Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Trevon L; Sesink Clee, Paul R; Njabo, Kevin Y; Tróchez, Anthony; Morgan, Katy; Meñe, Demetrio Bocuma; Anthony, Nicola M; Gonder, Mary Katherine; Allen, Walter R; Hanna, Rachid; Smith, Thomas B

    2018-01-01

    Although a number of recent studies suggest that climate associated shifts in agriculture are affecting social and economic systems, there have been relatively few studies of these effects in Africa. Such studies would be particularly useful in Central Africa, where the impacts of climate warming are predicted to be high but coincide with an area with low adaptive capacity. Focusing on plantain (Musa paradisiaca), we assess whether recent climate change has led to reduced yields. Analysis of annual temperature between 1950 and 2013 indicated a 0.8°C temperature increase over this 63-year period - a trend that is also observed in monthly temperatures in the last twenty years. From 1991 to 2011, there was a 43% decrease in plantain productivity in Central Africa, which was explained by shifts in temperature (R 2 =0.68). This decline may have reduced rural household wealth and decreased parental investment in education. Over the past two decades, there was a six month decrease in the duration of school attendance, and the decline was tightly linked to plantain yield (R 2 =0.82). By 2080, mean annual temperature is expected to increase at least 2°C in Central Africa, and our models predict a concomitant decrease of 39% in plantain yields and 51% in education outcomes, relative to the 1991 baseline. These predictions should be seen as a call-to-action for policy interventions such as farmer training programs to enhance the adaptive capacity of food production systems to mitigate impacts on rural income and education. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Graduation Rates and the Higher Education Demographic Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunsaker, B. Tom; Thomas, Douglas E.

    2013-01-01

    In his 1918 orienting work, The Higher Learning in America, Veblen highlights two primary aims of the higher education institution: (a) scientific and scholarly inquiry, and (b) the instruction of students (Veblen, 1918). As of 2006, this overarching mission remained intact. In contemporary literature, a common measure of the efficacy of the…

  13. ESTIMATING RETURN RATE OF HIGHER EDUCATION FUND IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semenikhina V. A.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the Russian government pays great attention to the field of higher and postgraduate education. But in the Russian scientific literature there are gaps related to the effectiveness of the overall evaluation of the higher education sector. The article dwells upon the problem of interregional income spread of the Russian population. Empirical estimator of difference influence accounting for human capital accumulated in Russian regions on wage levels and maximum increase of total wage levels and population income for 2001-2011 is carried out. Higher education, exceeding the influence of accumulated volume of the main funds, has a great influence on income spread in Russian regions. Besides, increase of higher education fund in Russian regions contributes to the population’s wage increase and growth in income, but at the same time it decreases legal wages. Results of the study extend knowledge of the economics of education of the Russian Federation.

  14. Emotional Competence and Drop-Out Rates in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, Emma

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to compare the emotional competence of first year undergraduates enrolled on a high or low drop-out rate (HDR and LDR, respectively) course, at a newly established university within the UK. Design/methodology/approach: A mixed methods approach using both quantitative and qualitative data collection methods was…

  15. Higher resting heart rate variability predicts skill in expressing some emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuck, Natalie L; Grant, Rosemary C I; Sollers, John J; Booth, Roger J; Consedine, Nathan S

    2016-12-01

    Vagally mediated heart rate variability (vmHRV) is a measure of cardiac vagal tone, and is widely viewed as a physiological index of the capacity to regulate emotions. However, studies have not directly tested whether vmHRV is associated with the ability to facially express emotions. In extending prior work, the current report tested links between resting vmHRV and the objectively assessed ability to facially express emotions, hypothesizing that higher vmHRV would predict greater expressive skill. Eighty healthy women completed self-reported measures, before attending a laboratory session in which vmHRV and the ability to express six emotions in the face were assessed. A repeated measures analysis of variance revealed a marginal main effect for vmHRV on skill overall; individuals with higher resting vmHRV were only better able to deliberately facially express anger and interest. Findings suggest that differences in resting vmHRV are associated with the objectively assessed ability to facially express some, but not all, emotions, with potential implications for health and well-being. © 2016 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  16. Student Ratings of Instruction in Turkish Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nehir Sert

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The end-of-term student evaluations have a twofold purpose: to provide information for administrators to make personnel decisions, and to help instructors to improve the quality of their teaching. The aim of this study is to investigate the ‘utility’ of the Student Ratings of Instruction (SRI. To that end, the concerns of the administrators, instructors and students regarding the use of the SRI in formative and summative evaluations are questioned. This study also investigates possible variables associated with the SRI: 1 what are the differences in ratings among the below-average, average and the above-average students? and 2 what is the correlation between the students’ grades and ratings? The participants of the study consisted of 5 administrators, 17 instructors and 292 students from the faculty of education of a foundation university in Ankara. A triangulation of quantitative and qualitative methods was adopted. In the first phase, causal comparative and correlation research methods were implemented. In the second phase, qualitative data were collected through semi-structured interviews. The results revealed that there was no significant difference in the SRI among the below-average, average and above-average students. The correlation between the student grades and the SRI was significant at a low level. The SRI were reportedly utilised to make teaching more effective and to make decisions when employing part-time personnel only. The permanent personnel were not affected by the SRI. Suggestions have been put forward to verify the usefulness of SRI.

  17. Expensive Brains: “Brainy” Rodents have Higher Metabolic Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrero, Raúl; May-Collado, Laura J.; Agnarsson, Ingi; Hernández, Cristián E.

    2011-01-01

    Brains are the centers of the nervous system of animals, controlling the organ systems of the body and coordinating responses to changes in the ecological and social environment. The evolution of traits that correlate with cognitive ability, such as relative brain size is thus of broad interest. Brain mass relative to body mass (BM) varies among mammals, and diverse factors have been proposed to explain this variation. A recent study provided evidence that energetics play an important role in brain evolution (Isler and van Schaik, 2006). Using composite phylogenies and data drawn from multiple sources, these authors showed that basal metabolic rate (BMR) correlates with brain mass across mammals. However, no such relationship was found within rodents. Here we re-examined the relationship between BMR and brain mass within Rodentia using a novel species-level phylogeny. Our results are sensitive to parameter evaluation; in particular how species mass is estimated. We detect no pattern when applying an approach used by previous studies, where each species BM is represented by two different numbers, one being the individual that happened to be used for BMR estimates of that species. However, this approach may compromise the analysis. When using a single value of BM for each species, whether representing a single individual, or available species mean, our findings provide evidence that brain mass (independent of BM) and BMR are correlated. These findings are thus consistent with the hypothesis that large brains evolve when the payoff for increased brain mass is greater than the energetic cost they incur. PMID:21811456

  18. The Religious and Spiritual Experiences of Undergraduate Gay Males Attending a Religiously Affiliated Institution of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Melvin D., III

    2013-01-01

    This doctoral thesis studied the religious and spiritual experiences of undergraduate gay males at a Protestant affiliated higher education institution and how undergraduate gay males made sense of their personal journeys. Data was collected from four participants and analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Five themes emerged…

  19. Do physicians attend to base rates? Prevalence data and statistical discrimination in the diagnosis of coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maserejian, Nancy N; Lutfey, Karen E; McKinlay, John B

    2009-12-01

    To examine whether physicians attend to gender prevalence data in diagnostic decision making for coronary heart disease (CHD) and to test the hypothesis that previously reported gender differences in CHD diagnostic certainty are due to discrimination arising from reliance on prevalence data ("statistical discrimination"). A vignette-based experiment of 256 randomly sampled primary care physicians conducted from 2006 to 2007. Factorial experiment. Physicians observed patient presentations of cardinal CHD symptoms, standardized across design factors (gender, race, age, socioeconomic status). Structured interview. Most physicians perceived the U.S. population CHD prevalence as higher in men (48.4 percent) or similar by gender (44.9 percent). For the observed patient, 52 percent did not change their CHD diagnostic certainty based on patient gender. Forty-eight percent of physicians were inconsistent in their population-level and individual-level CHD assessments. Physicians' assessments of CHD prevalence did not attenuate the observed gender effect in diagnostic certainty for the individual patient. Given an adequate presentation of CHD symptoms, physicians may deviate from their prevalence data during diagnostic decision making. Physicians' priors on CHD prevalence did not explain the gender effect in CHD certainty. Future research should examine personal stereotypes as an explanation for gender differences.

  20. Role of Individual, Family, and Peers in Sexual Initiation Among Late Adolescents Attending Institutions of Higher Learning in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Samad, Shazimah; Hairi, Noran Naqiah; Ismail, Maslinor

    2016-05-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the prevalence and the factors associated with sexual initiation among the late adolescents in 6 institutions of higher learning in Malaysia. A total of 1572 students completed self-administered questionnaires between April and September 2013. Hierarchical multivariate logistic regression analyses stratified by gender were employed to identify the correlates of sexual initiation. The analyses were further adjusted by sampling weights. The overall prevalence of sexual initiation was 9.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 8.3-11.6), 18.1% (95% CI = 15.1-21.5) among males, and 4.1% (95% CI = 2.9-5.9) among females. The risk factors identified in this study supported the influence of the individual, family, and peer factors in the social-ecological model on adolescents' behaviors. The findings suggest the need for risk-reduction strategies aimed at the individual, family, and peer levels as well as the importance of gender-specific focus in assuring better outcomes. © 2016 APJPH.

  1. Attendance as control

    OpenAIRE

    Beckton, Julian

    2013-01-01

    Student attendance in higher education, particularly at lectures, is a topic that researchers have largely neglected, other than in relatively small scale studies. This paper reviews university attendance policies based on documentary research in university web sites. While there are acknowledged methodological limitations to this approach, some universities are beginning to implement automated recording of student attendance in UK higher education and others are debating the merits of doing ...

  2. Effect of exposure to good vs poor medical trainee performance on attending physician ratings of subsequent performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeates, Peter; O'Neill, Paul; Mann, Karen; Eva, Kevin W

    2012-12-05

    Competency-based models of education require assessments to be based on individuals' capacity to perform, yet the nature of human judgment may fundamentally limit the extent to which such assessment is accurately possible. To determine whether recent observations of the Mini Clinical Evaluation Exercise (Mini-CEX) performance of postgraduate year 1 physicians influence raters' scores of subsequent performances, consistent with either anchoring bias (scores biased similar to previous experience) or contrast bias (scores biased away from previous experience). Internet-based randomized, blinded experiment using videos of Mini-CEX assessments of postgraduate year 1 trainees interviewing new internal medicine patients. Participants were 41 attending physicians from England and Wales experienced with the Mini-CEX, with 20 watching and scoring 3 good trainee performances and 21 watching and scoring 3 poor performances. All then watched and scored the same 3 borderline video performances. The study was completed between July and November 2011. The primary outcome was scores assigned to the borderline videos, using a 6-point Likert scale (anchors included: 1, well below expectations; 3, borderline; 6, well above expectations). Associations were tested in a multivariable analysis that included participants' sex, years of practice, and the stringency index (within-group z score of initial 3 ratings). The mean rating scores assigned by physicians who viewed borderline video performances following exposure to good performances was 2.7 (95% CI, 2.4-3.0) vs 3.4 (95% CI, 3.1-3.7) following exposure to poor performances (difference of 0.67 [95% CI, 0.28-1.07]; P = .001). Borderline videos were categorized as consistent with failing scores in 33 of 60 assessments (55%) in those exposed to good performances and in 15 of 63 assessments (24%) in those exposed to poor performances (P performances compared with 25 of 63 assessments (39.5%) in those exposed to poor performances (P poor

  3. Using Group Counseling to Improve the Attendance of Elementary School Students with High Rates of Absenteeism: An Action Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb-Landman, Eleanor

    2012-01-01

    The foundations of academic and social learning are laid in the early years of school, and attendance is critical to school success. However, research suggests that chronic absenteeism is a significant problem at the elementary school level (Chang & Romero, 2008; Romero & Lee, 2007). This paper presents the results of an action research…

  4. Effect of a policy to reduce user fees on the rate of skilled birth attendance across socioeconomic strata in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Étienne V; Karp, Igor; Serme, Jean De Dieu; Bicaba, Abel

    2016-05-01

    In Sub-Saharan Africa, maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality rates are associated with underutilization of skilled birth attendance (SBA). In 2007, Burkina Faso introduced a subsidy scheme for SBA fees. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Burkina Faso's subsidy policy on SBA rate across socioeconomic status (SES) strata. We used a quasi-experimental design. The data sources were two representative surveys (n = 1408 and n = 1403) of women from Houndé and Ziniaré health districts of Burkina Faso, and a survey of health centres assessing structural quality of care. Multilevel Poisson regression models were used with robust variance estimators. We estimated adjusted rate ratios (RR) and rate differences (RD) as a function of time and SES. For lowest-SES women, immediately upon the introduction of the subsidy policy, the rate of SBA was 45% higher (RR = 1.45, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.19-1.77) than expected in the absence of subsidy introduction. The results indicated a sustained effect after introduction of the subsidy policy, based on RR estimate (95% CI) of 1.48 (1.21-1.81) at 2 years. For middle-SES women, the RR estimates were 1.28 (1.09-1.49) immediately after introduction of the subsidy policy and 1.30 (1.11-1.51) at 2 years, respectively. For highest-SES women, the RR estimates were 1.19 (1.02-1.38) immediately after subsidy introduction and 1.21 (1.06-1.38) at 2 years, respectively. The RD (95% CI) was 14% (3-24%) for lowest-SES women immediately after introduction of the policy, and the effect was sustained at 14% (4-25%) at 2 years. Our study suggests that the introduction of a user-fee subsidy in Burkina Faso resulted in increased rates of SBA across all SES strata. The increase was sustained over time and strongest among the poorest women. These findings have important implications for evidence-informed policy making in Burkina Faso and other countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. © The Author 2015. Published by

  5. Higher Magnitude Cash Payments Improve Research Follow-up Rates Without Increasing Drug Use or Perceived Coercion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festinger, David S.; Marlowe, Douglas B.; Dugosh, Karen L.; Croft, Jason R.; Arabia, Patricia L.

    2008-01-01

    In a prior study (Festinger et al., 2005) we found that neither the mode (cash vs. gift card) nor magnitude ($10, $40, or $70) of research follow-up payments increased rates of new drug use or perceptions of coercion. However, higher payments and payments in cash were associated with better follow-up attendance, reduced tracking efforts, and improved participant satisfaction with the study. The present study extended those findings to higher payment magnitudes. Participants from an urban outpatient substance abuse treatment program were randomly assigned to receive $70, $100, $130, or $160 in either cash or a gift card for completing a follow-up assessment at 6 months post-admission (n ≅ 50 per cell). Apart from the payment incentives, all participants received a standardized, minimal platform of follow-up efforts. Findings revealed that neither the magnitude nor mode of payment had a significant effect on new drug use or perceived coercion. Consistent with our previous findings, higher payments and cash payments resulted in significantly higher follow-up rates and fewer tracking calls. In addition participants receiving cash vs. gift cards were more likely to use their payments for essential, non-luxury purchases. Follow-up rates for participants receiving cash payments of $100, $130, and $160 approached or exceeded the FDA required minimum of 70% for studies to be considered in evaluations of new medications. This suggests that the use of higher magnitude payments and cash payments may be effective strategies for obtaining more representative follow-up samples without increasing new drug use or perceptions of coercion. PMID:18395365

  6. Decision aid on breast cancer screening reduces attendance rate: results of a large-scale, randomized, controlled study by the DECIDEO group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourmaud, Aurelie; Soler-Michel, Patricia; Oriol, Mathieu; Regnier, Véronique; Tinquaut, Fabien; Nourissat, Alice; Bremond, Alain; Moumjid, Nora; Chauvin, Franck

    2016-01-01

    Controversies regarding the benefits of breast cancer screening programs have led to the promotion of new strategies taking into account individual preferences, such as decision aid. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of a decision aid leaflet on the participation of women invited to participate in a national breast cancer screening program. This Randomized, multicentre, controlled trial. Women aged 50 to 74 years, were randomly assigned to receive either a decision aid or the usual invitation letter. Primary outcome was the participation rate 12 months after the invitation. 16 000 women were randomized and 15 844 included in the modified intention-to-treat analysis. The participation rate in the intervention group was 40.25% (3174/7885 women) compared with 42.13% (3353/7959) in the control group (p = 0.02). Previous attendance for screening (RR = 6.24; [95%IC: 5.75-6.77]; p < 0.0001) and medium household income (RR = 1.05; [95%IC: 1.01-1.09]; p = 0.0074) were independently associated with attendance for screening. This large-scale study demonstrates that the decision aid reduced the participation rate. The decision aid activate the decision making process of women toward non-attendance to screening. These results show the importance of promoting informed patient choices, especially when those choices cannot be anticipated. PMID:26883201

  7. The relationship between attendance at birth and maternal mortality rates: an exploration of United Nations' data sets including the ratios of physicians and nurses to population, GNP per capita and female literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, J J; Wharrad, H

    2001-05-01

    the proportion of births attended by trained health personnel (83%, n=118). Multiple regression analyses reveal a more complex picture, with nurses disappearing altogether when regressed with physicians, GNP, female literacy and MMR. The three variables, attendance at birth by trained personnel, GNP and physicians per 1000 population explained 87% of the variation in MMR (n=112) when included in the multiple regression analysis. As in the previous papers, caution is required regarding the validity and reliability of the UN data sources used in these analyses. Maternal mortality rates are particularly susceptible to inaccuracies. Nevertheless, the strength of the positive correlations suggests that real relationships are identified between the independent variables and the dependent variable of MMR. The strength of the linear and multiple correlations between births attended by trained personnel and lower MMRs indicates that maternal deaths are substantially reduced when a high proportion of births are attended by health professionals, including primary health care workers trained in midwifery skills, with the maintenance of an aseptic environment, the identification of maternal and foetal complications, and the opportunity when necessary to transfer parturient mothers to centres with higher level skills and facilities.

  8. Religious affiliation and psychiatric morbidity in Brazil: higher rates among evangelicals and spiritists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalgalarrondo, Paulo; Marín-León, Leticia; Botega, Neury José; Berti De Azevedo Barros, Marilisa; Bosco De Oliveira, Helenice

    2008-11-01

    To verify the association between the prevalence of mental symptoms and excessive alcohol intake with religious affiliation, church attendance and personal religiosity. A household survey of 515 adults randomly sampled included the WHO SUPRE-MISS questionnaire, SRQ-20 and AUDIT. Weighted prevalences were estimated and logistic analyses were performed. Minor psychiatric morbidity was greater among Spiritists and Protestants/ Evangelicals than in Catholics and in the ;no-religion' group. The latter had a greater frequency of abusive alcohol drinking pattern and Protestants/Evangelicals showed lower drinking patterns. Although belonging to Protestant/Evangelical churches in Brazil may inhibit alcohol involvement it seems to be associated to a higher frequency of depressive symptoms. Processes of seeking relief in new religious affiliations among sub-groups with previous minor psychiatric symptoms may probably occur in the Brazilian society.

  9. A higher chest compression rate may be necessary for metronome-guided cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Tae Nyoung; Kim, Sun Wook; You, Je Sung; Cho, Young Soon; Chung, Sung Phil; Park, Incheol

    2012-01-01

    Metronome guidance is a simple and economical feedback system for guiding cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). However, a recent study showed that metronome guidance reduced the depth of chest compression. The results of previous studies suggest that a higher chest compression rate is associated with a better CPR outcome as compared with a lower chest compression rate, irrespective of metronome use. Based on this finding, we hypothesized that a lower chest compression rate promotes a reduction in chest compression depth in the recent study rather than metronome use itself. One minute of chest compression-only CPR was performed following the metronome sound played at 1 of 4 different rates: 80, 100, 120, and 140 ticks/min. Average compression depths (ACDs) and duty cycles were compared using repeated measures analysis of variance, and the values in the absence and presence of metronome guidance were compared. Both the ACD and duty cycle increased when the metronome rate increased (P = .017, metronome rates of 80 and 100 ticks/min were significantly lower than those for the procedures without metronome guidance. The ACD and duty cyle for chest compression increase as the metronome rate increases during metronome-guided CPR. A higher rate of chest compression is necessary for metronome-guided CPR to prevent suboptimal quality of chest compression. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Vastus Lateralis Motor Unit Firing Rate Is Higher in Women With Patellofemoral Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallina, Alessio; Hunt, Michael A; Hodges, Paul W; Garland, S Jayne

    2018-05-01

    To compare neural drive, determined from motor unit firing rate, in the vastus medialis and lateralis in women with and without patellofemoral pain. Cross-sectional study. University research laboratory. Women (N=56) 19 to 35 years of age, including 36 with patellofemoral pain and 20 controls. Not applicable. Participants sustained an isometric knee extension contraction at 10% of their maximal voluntary effort for 70 seconds. Motor units (N=414) were identified using high-density surface electromyography. Average firing rate was calculated between 5 and 35 seconds after recruitment for each motor unit. Initial firing rate was the inverse of the first 3 motor unit interspike intervals. In control participants, vastus medialis motor units discharged at higher rates than vastus lateralis motor units (P=.001). This was not observed in women with patellofemoral pain (P=.78) because of a higher discharge rate of vastus lateralis compared with control participants (P=.002). No between-group differences were observed for vastus medialis (P=.93). Similar results were obtained for the initial motor unit firing rate. These findings suggest that women with patellofemoral pain have a higher neural drive to vastus lateralis but not vastus medialis, which may be a contributor of the altered patellar kinematics observed in some studies. The different neural drive may be an adaptation to patellofemoral pain, possibly to compensate for decreased quadriceps force production, or a precursor of patellofemoral pain. Copyright © 2018 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Does the Economic Crisis Have an Influence on the Higher Education Dropout Rate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leão Fernandes, Graça; Chagas Lopes, Margarida

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to identify the effects of the economic crisis on higher education (HE) dropout rates at Lisbon School of Economics and Management (ISEG)--Universidade de Lisboa, after having controlled for individual characteristics, family background, High School and HE trajectories. Our main hypothesis is that the economic crisis induces…

  12. Will ageing lead to a higher real exchange rate for the Netherlands?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ewijk, C.; Volkerink, M.

    2012-01-01

    Long term projections for the Netherlands indicate that demand for nontradables—e.g. health care services—will increase relative to supply due to population ageing. If this leads to higher future real exchanges rates this will erode the return of the savings currently made to prepare for ageing.

  13. Will ageing lead to a higher real exchange rate for the Netherlands?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ewijk, C.; Volkerink, M.

    2011-01-01

    Long-term projections for the Netherlands indicate that demand for nontradables - e.g. health care services - will increase relative to supply due to population ageing. If this leads to higher future real exchanges rates this will erode the return of the savings currently made to prepare for ageing.

  14. [C-section rate in low-risk women: a useful indicator to compare hospitals attending deliveries with different risks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Librero, Julián; Peiró, Salvador; Belda, Ana; Calabuig, Julia

    2014-01-01

    the C-section rate has been criticized as a performance indicator for not considering that different hospitals manage deliveries with diverse risks. In this work we explore the characteristics of a new indicator restricted to low C-section risk deliveries. retrospective cohort of all births (n=214,611) in all public hospitals during 2005-2010 in the Valencia Region, Spain (source: minimum basic dataset). A low-risk subpopulation consisting of women under-35, no history of c-section, between 37 and 41 gestational weeks, and with a single fetus, with cephalic presentation and normal weight (2500-3999 g) was constructed. We analyzed variability in the new indicator, its correlation with the crude indicator and, using multilevel logistic regression models, the presence of residual risks. a total of 117 589 births (58.4% of the whole deliveries) were identified as low C-section risk. The c-section rate in these women was 11.9% (24.4% for all deliveries) ranging between hospitals from 7.0% to 28.9%. The c-section rate in low-risk and total deliveries correlated strongly (r=0.88). The remaining risks in the population of low risk did not alter the hospital effect on the c-section rate. the percentage of C-section in low risk women include a high volume of deliveries, correlated with the crude indicator and residual risks are not differentially influenced by hospitals, being a useful indicator for monitoring the quality of obstetric care in the National Health System.

  15. Why do younger women have higher breast cancer recurrence rates after breast-conserving surgery?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Reiki; Matsuda, Masakazu; Miyayama, Haruhiko; Okazaki, Shinji; Kai, Chiharu; Ozaki, N.

    2003-01-01

    Preventing breast cancer recurrence after breast-conserving surgery is an important issue. The main factors contributing to such recurrence are positive margins, absence of radiotherapy and young age. To investigate the clinical significance of age in breast-conserving surgery, we examined the relationship between clinicopathological findings or outcome and age, especially young age. The cases were divided into three groups by age; 35 years old or less, 36-50y.o. and 51y.o. or higher. Between April 1989 and March 2003, 743 patients were treated with breast-conserving surgery. There were 49 patients aged 35 years old or less (6.6%). Younger age significantly correlated with positive surgical margin, lymph node metastases, higher proliferative activity, negative estrogen receptor (ER) or progesterone receptor (PgR), larger tumor size, and shorter nipple-tumor distances. Although younger patients had a higher recurrence rate irrespective of radiotherapy, margin status had an impact on recurrence rate. Thus, the reason young age was a significant factor for breast recurrence after breast-conserving surgery was that young patients frequently had numerous risk factors such as positive margin, higher proliferative activity, positive nodes, negative ER/PgR and larger tumor. However, negative surgical margins could reduce recurrence rates even in young women. These results suggest that more suitable criteria and strategies may be needed for young patients with breast cancer. (author)

  16. Cardiovascular risk rate in hypertensive patients attended in primary health care units: the influence of pharmaceutical care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Yuri Milen Firmino

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular complications are relevant due to their frequency and severity on the hypertension scenario. Studies refer Pharmaceutical Care (PC as capable of decreasing cardiovascular risk rate (%CVR on hypertensive patients. This study aimed to investigate, through a randomized clinical assay, the influence of PC service on the %CVR of hypertensive patients assisted in a health primary care unit from Fortaleza-Ceará. Two study groups were formed: i. Intervention Group (IG, which received orientation about taking medicines, actions aiming to prevent/solve medicine interactions and adverse effects and non-pharmacological interventions for 9 months and, ii. Control Group (CG, which received traditional assistance of the unit and was monitored during the same period. It was observed a statistically significant reduction on %CVR (10.76 to 7.86; p=0.04 and systolic blood pressure levels (SBP (137.69 to 131.54; p<0.01 in the IG, while, in the CG, there was no significant alteration. 151 Drug Related Problem (DRP were identified and it was realized 124 pharmaceutical interventions, with 89.2% of them resulting on solution/prevention of the problem. Our findings indicated that the inclusion of the PC service in the hypertensive health assistance was more effective at the %CVR and the SBP reduction in comparison to the traditional assistance offered.

  17. Calm Merino ewes have a higher ovulation rate and more multiple pregnancies than nervous ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lier, E; Hart, K W; Viñoles, C; Paganoni, B; Blache, D

    2017-07-01

    In 1990, two selection lines of Merino sheep were established for low and high behavioural reactivity (calm and nervous temperament) at the University of Western Australia. Breeding records consistently showed that calm ewes weaned 10% to 19% more lambs than the nervous ewes. We hypothesise that calm ewes could have a higher ovulation rate than nervous ewes and/or calm ewes could have a lower rate of embryo mortality than nervous ewes. We tested these hypotheses by comparing the ovulation rate and the rate of embryo mortality between the calm and nervous lines before and after synchronisation and artificial insemination. Merino ewes from the temperament selection lines (calm, n=100; nervous, n=100) were synchronised (early breeding season) for artificial insemination (day 0) (intravaginal sponges containing fluogestone acetate and eCG immediately after sponge withdrawal). On day-17 and 11 ovarian cyclicity and corpora lutea, and on days 30 and 74 pregnancies and embryos/foetuses were determined by ultrasound. Progesterone, insulin and leptin concentrations were determined in blood plasma samples from days 5, 12 and 17. Ovarian cyclicity before and after oestrus synchronisation did not differ between the lines, but ovulation rate did (day-17: calm 1.63; nervous 1.26; Pewes was higher than on day-17. Loss of embryos by day 30 was high (calm: 71/150; nervous: 68/130); but nervous ewes had a lower proportion (15/47) of multiple pregnancies compared with calm ewes (30/46; Pewes had higher insulin (32.0 pmol/l±1.17 SEM; P=0.013) and lower leptin (1.18 μg/l±0.04 SEM; P=0.002) concentrations than calm ewes (insulin: 27.8 pmol/l±1.17 SEM; leptin: 1.35 μg/l±0.04 SEM). The differences in reproductive outcomes between the calm and nervous ewes were mainly due to a higher ovulation rate in calm ewes. We suggest that reproduction in nervous ewes is compromised by factors leading up to ovulation and conception, or the uterine environment during early pregnancy, that reflect

  18. The development of rhythmic attending in auditory sequences: attunement, referent period, focal attending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, C; Jones, M R; Baruch, C

    2000-12-15

    This paper is divided into three sections. The first section is theoretical; it extends Dynamic Attending Theory (Jones, M. R. Psychological Review 83 (1976) 323; Jones, M. R. Perception and Psychophysics 41(6) (1987) 631; Jones, M. R. Psychomusicology 9(2) (1990) 193; Jones, M. R., & Boltz, M. Psychological Review 96(3) (1989) 459) to developmental questions concerning tempo and time hierarchies. Generally Dynamic Attending Theory proposes that, when listening to a complex auditory sequence, listeners spontaneously focus on events occurring at an intermediate rate (the referent level), and they then may shift attention to events occurring over longer or shorter time spans, that is at lower (faster) or higher (slower) hierarchical levels (focal attending). The second section of the paper is experimental. It examines maturational changes of three dynamic attending activities involving referent period and level, attunement, and focal attending. Tasks involve both motor tapping (including spontaneous motor tempo and synchronization with simple sequences and music) and tempo discrimination. We compare performances by 4-, 6-, 8-, and 10-year-old children and adults, with or without musical training. Results indicate three changes with increased age and musical training: (1) a slowing of the mean spontaneous tapping rate (a reflection of the referent period) and mean synchronization rate (a reflection of the referent level), (2) enhanced ability to synchronize tapping and discriminate tempo (improved attunement), and (3) an enlarged range of tapping rates towards slower rates and higher hierarchical levels (improved focal attending). A final section considers results in light of the theory proposed here. It is suggested that growth trends can be expressed in terms of listeners' engagement of slower attending oscillators with age and experience, accompanied by the passage from the initial use of a single oscillator towards the coupling of multiple oscillators.

  19. Effect of the Transcendental Meditation Program on Graduation, College Acceptance and Dropout Rates for Students Attending an Urban Public High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbert, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    High school graduation rates nationally have declined in recent years, despite public and private efforts. The purpose of the current study was to determine whether practice of the Quiet Time/Transcendental Meditation® program at a medium-size urban school results in higher school graduation rates compared to students who do not receive training…

  20. Splenectomy is associated with higher infection and pneumonia rates among trauma laparotomy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fair, Kelly A; Connelly, Christopher R; Hart, Kyle D; Schreiber, Martin A; Watters, Jennifer M

    2017-05-01

    Splenectomy increases lifetime risk of thromboembolism (VTE) and is associated with long-term infectious complications, primarily, overwhelming post-splenectomy infection (OPSI). Our objective was to evaluate risk of VTE and infection at index hospitalization post-splenectomy. Retrospective review of all patients who received a laparotomy in the NTDB. Propensity score matching for splenectomy was performed, based on ISS, abdominal abbreviated injury score >3, GCS, sex and mechanism. Major complications, VTE, and infection rates were compared. Multiple logistic regression models were utilized to evaluate splenectomy-associated complications. 93,221 laparotomies were performed and 17% underwent splenectomy. Multiple logistic regression models did not demonstrate an association between splenectomy and major complications (OR 0.96, 95% CI 0.91-1.03, p = 0.25) or VTE (OR 1.05, 95% CI 0.96-1.14, p = 0.33). Splenectomy was independently associated with infection (OR 1.07, 95% CI 1.00-1.14, p = 0.045). Subgroup analysis of patients with infection demonstrated that splenectomy was most strongly associated with pneumonia (OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.26-1.57, p Splenectomy is not associated with higher overall complication or VTE rates during index hospitalization. However, splenectomy is associated with a higher rate of pneumonia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. With age a lower individual breathing reserve is associated with a higher maximal heart rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtscher, Martin; Gatterer, Hannes; Faulhaber, Martin; Burtscher, Johannes

    2018-01-01

    Maximal heart rate (HRmax) is linearly declining with increasing age. Regular exercise training is supposed to partly prevent this decline, whereas sex and habitual physical activity do not. High exercise capacity is associated with a high cardiac output (HR x stroke volume) and high ventilatory requirements. Due to the close cardiorespiratory coupling, we hypothesized that the individual ventilatory response to maximal exercise might be associated with the age-related HRmax. Retrospective analyses have been conducted on the results of 129 consecutively performed routine cardiopulmonary exercise tests. The study sample comprised healthy subjects of both sexes of a broad range of age (20-86 years). Maximal values of power output, minute ventilation, oxygen uptake and heart rate were assessed by the use of incremental cycle spiroergometry. Linear multivariate regression analysis revealed that in addition to age the individual breathing reserve at maximal exercise was independently predictive for HRmax. A lower breathing reserve due to a high ventilatory demand and/or a low ventilatory capacity, which is more pronounced at a higher age, was associated with higher HRmax. Age explained the observed variance in HRmax by 72% and was improved to 83% when the variable "breathing reserve" was entered. The presented findings indicate an independent association between the breathing reserve at maximal exercise and maximal heart rate, i.e. a low individual breathing reserve is associated with a higher age-related HRmax. A deeper understanding of this association has to be investigated in a more physiological scenario. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. New system for higher recovery rate of water borne Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Gad, Jens; Klinting, Mette

    2012-01-01

    Background: The two most common water borne pathogenic protozoa, Cryptosporidium and Giardia, cause diarrhea worldwide. Detecting these parasites in water samples depends on effective parasite recovery from the water matrix. The reported low recovery rates of the currently used filter methods...... motivate the development of systems with higher recovery rates. Materials and methods: Five replicates of IMS purified Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts (N=2x103) were injected into a specially coated filter unit with a carefully chosen pore size. Following filtration, sonication was performed...... were 85% were recorded when the filter was sonicated. Sonication usually affects parasite viability but could be tuned into a useful tool for enhanced backwash collection of parasites using a specially constructed filter unit and a sonication protocol. The filtration...

  3. Why the EU-15 Maintains Higher CIT Rates than the New Member States?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karpowicz Andrzej

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The European Union is not a homogenous area. This lack of homogeneity extends to taxes, which vary across jurisdictions. On average, Western Europe imposes significantly higher taxes on capital than New Member States, which joined the Community in 2004 and 2007. Often this fact is simply taken for granted. However, there are several arguments that can explain this variance. Although several of these arguments are well known and have been researched, they have not been assessed in combination, or used in a comparative analysis of corporate income tax (CIT rates between EU member states. Because of interest in harmonizing CIT throughout the EU, the roots of divergent CIT is of particular and timely value. Therefore, this article we attempts to demonstrate the differences in CIT rates in the EU-15 and New Member States. In so doing the general characteristics of these country grouping is identified, and then discussed in the context of the taxation theory.

  4. Higher order constraints on the Higgs production rate from fixed-target DIS data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekhin, S.; Bluemlein, J.; Moch, S.

    2011-01-01

    The constraints of fixed-target DIS data in fits of parton distributions including QCD corrections to next-to-next-to leading order are studied. We point out a potential problem in the analysis of the NMC data which can lead to inconsistencies in the extracted value for α s (M Z ) and the gluon distribution at higher orders in QCD. The implications for predictions of rates for Standard Model Higgs boson production at hadron colliders are investigated. We conclude that the current range of excluded Higgs boson masses at the Tevatron appears to be much too large. (orig.)

  5. Strain rate effects in nuclear steels at room and higher temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomos, G. E-mail: george.solomos@jrc.it; Albertini, C.; Labibes, K.; Pizzinato, V.; Viaccoz, B

    2004-04-01

    An investigation of strain rate, temperature and size effects in three nuclear steels has been conducted. The materials are: ferritic steel 20MnMoNi55 (vessel head), austenitic steel X6CrNiNb1810 (upper internal structure), and ferritic steel 26NiCrMo146 (bolting). Smooth cylindrical tensile specimens of three sizes have been tested at strain rates from 0.001 to 300 s{sup -1}, at room and elevated temperatures (400-600 deg. C). Full stress-strain diagrams have been obtained, and additional parameters have been calculated based on them. The results demonstrate a clear influence of temperature, which amounts into reducing substantially mechanical strengths with respect to RT conditions. The effect of strain rate is also shown. It is observed that at RT the strain rate effect causes up shifting of the flow stress curves, whereas at the higher temperatures a mild downshifting of the flow curves is manifested. Size effect tendencies have also been observed. Some implications when assessing the pressure vessel structural integrity under severe accident conditions are considered.

  6. Higher Growth Rate of Branch Duct Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasms Associates With Worrisome Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Jennifer M; Argiriadi, Pamela; Lee, Karen; Liu, Xiaoyu; Bagiella, Emilia; Lucas, Aimee L; Kim, Michelle Kang; Kumta, Nikhil A; Nagula, Satish; Sarpel, Umut; DiMaio, Christopher J

    2018-03-11

    or invasive cancers. BD-IPMNs that developed worrisome features were associated with a significantly higher rate of growth than lesions with low-risk features. Low risk BD-IPMNs that grow more than 2.5 mm/year might require surveillance. Copyright © 2018 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Flare up rate related to root canal treatment of asymptomatic pulpally necrotic central incisor teeth in patients attending a military hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Negrish, Abdul Rohman Salem; Habahbeh, Riyad

    2006-10-01

    This prospective study was conducted to determine the flare up rate related to root canal treatment of asymptomatic non vital maxillary central incisor teeth performed in one and two appointments and the relationship, if any between pain and number of treatment visits. The frequency of postobturation pain and swelling was recorded and evaluated over an observation period of 1 week in a 120 consecutive patients undergoing root canal treatment. The patients were assigned randomly into one of two groups of 60 patients each. The canals of all teeth were prepared and filled using the step-back preparation and lateral condensation filling techniques. The data were analyzed statistically using Mann-Whitney test. Eight of the 120 patients were excluded from the analysis as they failed to attend for postoperative reviews. Out of the 112 patients involved in the study 90 patients had no pain, 9 patients had slight pain, 8 patients had moderate pain, and 5 patients had severe pain after 2 days. After 7 days 104 patients had no pain, 4 patients had slight pain, 3 patients had moderate pain and 1 patient had severe pain. No statistically significant difference in the incidence and degree of postoperative pain was found between one and two visit Endodontic procedures. The rate of post obturation flare up in asymptomatic Endodontically treated non vital maxillary centarl incisors was 11.6 and 3.6% after 2 and 7 days, respectively.

  8. Rabies Vaccination: Higher Failure Rates in Imported Dogs than in those Vaccinated in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rota Nodari, E; Alonso, S; Mancin, M; De Nardi, M; Hudson-Cooke, S; Veggiato, C; Cattoli, G; De Benedictis, P

    2017-03-01

    The current European Union (EU) legislation decrees that pets entering the EU from a rabies-infected third country have to obtain a satisfactory virus-neutralizing antibody level, while those moving within the EU require only rabies vaccination as the risk of moving a rabid pet within the EU is considered negligible. A number of factors driving individual variations in dog vaccine response have been previously reported, including a high rate of vaccine failure in puppies, especially those subject to commercial transport. A total of 21 001 observations collected from dogs (2006-2012) vaccinated in compliance with the current EU regulations were statistically analysed to assess the effect of different risk factors related to rabies vaccine efficacy. Within this framework, we were able to compare the vaccination failure rate in a group of dogs entering the Italian border from EU and non-EU countries to those vaccinated in Italy prior to international travel. Our analysis identified that cross-breeds and two breed categories showed high vaccine success rates, while Beagles and Boxers were the least likely to show a successful response to vaccination (88.82% and 90.32%, respectively). Our analysis revealed diverse performances among the commercially available vaccines, in terms of serological peak windows, and marked differences according to geographical area. Of note, we found a higher vaccine failure rate in imported dogs (13.15%) than in those vaccinated in Italy (5.89%). Our findings suggest that the choice of vaccine may influence the likelihood of an animal achieving a protective serological level and that time from vaccination to sampling should be considered when interpreting serological results. A higher vaccine failure in imported compared to Italian dogs highlights the key role that border controls still have in assessing the full compliance of pet movements with EU legislation to minimize the risk of rabies being reintroduced into a disease-free area.

  9. Does higher income inequality adversely influence infant mortality rates? Reconciling descriptive patterns and recent research findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, Arjumand; Jones, Marcella K; Erwin, Paul Campbell

    2015-04-01

    As the struggle continues to explain the relatively high rates of infant mortality (IMR) exhibited in the United States, a renewed emphasis is being placed on the role of possible 'contextual' determinants. Cross-sectional and short time-series studies have found that higher income inequality is associated with higher IMR at the state level. Yet, descriptively, the longer-term trends in income inequality and in IMR seem to call such results into question. To assess whether, over the period 1990-2007, state-level income inequality is associated with state-level IMR; to examine whether the overall effect of income inequality on IMR over this period varies by state; to test whether the association between income inequality and IMR varies across this time period. IMR data--number of deaths per 1000 live births in a given state and year--were obtained from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control Wonder database. Income inequality was measured using the Gini coefficient, which varies from zero (complete equality) to 100 (complete inequality). Covariates included state-level poverty rate, median income, and proportion of high school graduates. Fixed and random effects regressions were conducted to test hypotheses. Fixed effects models suggested that, overall, during the period 1990-2007, income inequality was inversely associated with IMR (β = -0.07, SE (0.01)). Random effects models suggested that when the relationship was allowed to vary at the state-level, it remained inverse (β = -0.05, SE (0.01)). However, an interaction between income inequality and time suggested that, as time increased, the effect of income inequality had an increasingly positive association with total IMR (β = 0.009, SE (0.002)). The influence of state income inequality on IMR is dependent on time, which may proxy for time-dependent aspects of societal context. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Invasive acacias experience higher ant seed removal rates at the invasion edges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Montesinos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Seed dispersal is a key process for the invasion of new areas by exotic species. Introduced plants often take advantage of native generalist dispersers. Australian acacias are primarily dispersed by ants in their native range and produce seeds bearing a protein and lipid rich reward for ant mutualists (elaiosome. Nevertheless, the role of myrmecochory in the expansion of Australian acacias in European invaded areas is still not clear. We selected one European population of Acacia dealbata and another of A. longifolia and offered elaiosome-bearing and elaiosome-removed seeds to local ant communities. For each species, seeds were offered both in high-density acacia stands and in low-density invasion edges. For both acacia species, seed removal was significantly higher at the low-density edges. For A. longifolia, manual elimination of elaiosomes reduced the chance of seed removal by 80% in the low-density edges, whereas it made no difference on the high-density stands. For A. dealbata, the absence of elaiosome reduced seed removal rate by 52%, independently of the acacia density. Our data suggests that invasive acacias have found effective ant seed dispersers in Europe and that the importance of such dispersers is higher at the invasion edges.

  11. Optimizing rate of nitrogen application for higher growth and yield of wheat (triticum aestivum l.) cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maqsood, M.; Shehzad, M.A.; Asim, A.; Ahmad, W.

    2012-01-01

    In order to optimize the nitrogen rates in three wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars for obtaining higher grain yield, a split plot experiment based on Randomized Complete Block Design with three replicates was conducted in the research field of University of Agriculture, Faisalabad during Rabi season 2006-07. Among treatments nitrogen levels (N0= 0, N/sub 1/= 50, N2= 100, N3= 150 kg ha/sup -1/) in main while wheat cultivars (V1= Punjnad-I, V/sub 2/= Fareed-2006, V3=Uqab-2000) were allocated in sub plots during the course of growing season. Traits as plant height, fertile tillers, spike length, spikelets spike-1, grains spike-1, 1000-grain weight, straw yield, grain yield and harvest index (HI) were significantly (P=0.05) affected by treatment combinations. Maximum grain yield was obtained by V3 (Uqab-2000) cultivar when treated with N3 (150 kg ha/sup -1/) fertilizer level. Also, results showed that with increasing nitrogen rates, wheat yield increases significantly up to a level of significance (P=0.05). Increasing nitrogen levels led to significantly increase in plant height (101.81 cm), spike bearing tillers (495.77), grains spike/sup -1/ (61.45), straw yield (8.60 t ha/sup -1/) and harvest index (36.17%) of V3 (Uqab-2000). In all traits except germination count, V3 (Uqab-2000) was found to be superior. (author)

  12. Effect of additives for higher removal rate in lithium niobate chemical mechanical planarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Sukhoon; Lee, Hyunseop; Cho, Hanchul; Lee, Sangjik; Kim, Hyoungjae; Kim, Sungryul; Park, Jaehong; Jeong, Haedo

    2010-01-01

    High roughness and a greater number of defects were created by lithium niobate (LN; LiNbO 3 ) processes such as traditional grinding and mechanical polishing (MP), should be decreased for manufacturing LN device. Therefore, an alternative process for gaining defect-free and smooth surface is needed. Chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) is suitable method in the LN process because it uses a combination approach consisting of chemical and mechanical effects. First of all, we investigated the LN CMP process using commercial slurry by changing various process conditions such as down pressure and relative velocity. However, the LN CMP process time using commercial slurry was long to gain a smooth surface because of lower material removal rate (MRR). So, to improve the material removal rate (MRR), the effects of additives such as oxidizer (hydrogen peroxide; H 2 O 2 ) and complexing agent (citric acid; C 6 H 8 O 7 ) in a potassium hydroxide (KOH) based slurry, were investigated. The manufactured slurry consisting of H 2 O 2 -citric acid in the KOH based slurry shows that the MRR of the H 2 O 2 at 2 wt% and the citric acid at 0.06 M was higher than the MRR for other conditions.

  13. Higher Rates of DZ Twinning in a Twenty-First Century Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhea, Sally Ann; Corley, Robin P; Heath, Andrew C; Iacono, William G; Neale, Michael C; Hewitt, John K

    2017-09-01

    The Colorado Twin Registry is a population based registry initiated in 1984 with the involvement of the Colorado Department of Health, Division of Vital Statistics. Recruitment includes birth cohorts several years prior to 1984 and all subsequent years. As part of a recent evaluation of Colorado birth records for the years 2006 through 2008 we became aware of a shifting trend in the proportion of MZ and DZ twins in the Colorado population. Historically (Bulmer 1970 The biology of twinning in man, Clarendon, Oxford) we have expected a 1/3, 1/3, 1/3 ratio of MZ, same-sex DZ and opposite sex DZ twins in Caucasian populations. An excess of MZ pairs in most studies was assumed to be due to selection bias. Somewhat more recently, Hur et al.(1995 Behav Genet 25, 337-340) provided evidence that the DZ twinning rate was falling and that therefore selection bias was not the reason for higher MZ enrollment in most twin studies. They suggested that twin researchers might consider strategies to over-enroll DZ pairs to maximize statistical power. In contrast, we now find that of the 3217 twin births in Colorado from 2006 to 2008 with identified sex information the MZ rate is estimated at only 22%, and we have corroborating reports from other states of similar estimates. These were calculated applying Weinberg's rule which assumes an equal birth rate for same sex and opposite sex DZ pairs so that the proportion of MZ in a sample is the proportion of same sex (MM + FF) minus the proportion of opposite-sex (MF, FM). We explore factors, such as an increase in the proportion of non-Caucasian parents and an increase in average maternal age, which may contribute to this shift.

  14. Higher Education Support Services and Graduation Rates of Structured Education Program Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepner, Seth

    2017-01-01

    The 1st-year retention rate of the Structured Education Program (SEP) is 90%, yet the 6-year graduation rate of SEP students is 29%. The gap between SEP 1st-year retention and graduation rates is the problem that this study addressed. The low graduation rate of SEP students is an important issue because graduation rates are used to measure the…

  15. Re-attenders to the emergency department of a major urban hospital serving a population of 290,000.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ramasubbu, B

    2015-01-01

    The national Emergency Medicine Programme (EMP) in Ireland, defines a re-attender as any patient re-presenting to the Emergency Department (ED) within 28 days with the same chief complaint. A retrospective, electronic patient record audit was carried out on all re-attenders to Connolly ED during November 2012. There were 2919 attendances made up from 2530 patients; 230 patients re-attended a total of 389 times. The re-attendance rate was 13% (389\\/2919). 63 (27%) were frequent presenters. There was a significantly higher admission rate at second attendance than first (89 (39%) vs 39 (17%), p < 0.001). 25% (57\\/230) of patients \\'left before completion of treatment\\' (LBCT) at first attendance (significantly higher than the number at second attendance (p < 0.01)). 14\\/57 (25%) of those who LBCT at first attendance required admission at second attendance. 28\\/89 (31%) of second attendance admissions were failed discharges from first attendance. Reasons for re-attendance are multi-factorial and include both patient and departmental factors.

  16. Increased Total Anesthetic Time Leads to Higher Rates of Surgical Site Infections in Spinal Fusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puffer, Ross C; Murphy, Meghan; Maloney, Patrick; Kor, Daryl; Nassr, Ahmad; Freedman, Brett; Fogelson, Jeremy; Bydon, Mohamad

    2017-06-01

    A retrospective review of a consecutive series of spinal fusions comparing patient and procedural characteristics of patients who developed surgical site infections (SSIs) after spinal fusion. It is known that increased surgical time (incision to closure) is associated with a higher rate of postoperative SSIs. We sought to determine whether increased total anesthetic time (intubation to extubation) is a factor in the development of SSIs as well. In spine surgery for deformity and degenerative disease, SSI has been associated with operative time, revealing a nearly 10-fold increase in SSI rates in prolonged surgery. Surgical time is associated with infections in other surgical disciplines as well. No studies have reported whether total anesthetic time (intubation to extubation) has an association with SSIs. Surgical records were searched in a retrospective fashion to identify all spine fusion procedures performed between January 2010 and July 2012. All SSIs during that timeframe were recorded and compared with the list of cases performed between 2010 and 2012 in a case-control design. There were 20 (1.7%) SSIs in this fusion cohort. On univariate analyses of operative factors, there was a significant association between total anesthetic time (Infection 7.6 ± 0.5 hrs vs. no infection -6.0 ± 0.1 hrs, P operative time (infection 5.5 ± 0.4 hrs vs. no infection - 4.4 ± 0.06 hrs, P infections, whereas level of pathology and emergent surgery were not significant. On multivariate logistic analysis, BMI and total anesthetic time remained independent predictors of SSI whereas ASA status and operative time did not. Increasing BMI and total anesthetic time were independent predictors of SSIs in this cohort of over 1000 consecutive spinal fusions. 3.

  17. Removal of boron(III) by N-methylglucamine-type cellulose derivatives with higher adsorption rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inukai, Yoshinari; Tanaka, Yoshiharu; Matsuda, Toshio; Mihara, Nobutake; Yamada, Kouji; Nambu, Nobuyoshi; Itoh, Osamu; Doi, Takao; Kaida, Yasuhiko; Yasuda, Seiji

    2004-01-01

    To obtain adsorbents for boron(III) derived from a natural polymer, two forms (powder and fiber) of N-methylglucamine-type cellulose derivatives were newly synthesized. After the graft polymerization of two forms of cellulose with vinyl monomer having epoxy groups, the N-methylglucamine-type cellulose derivatives were obtained by the reaction of the grafted cellulose with N-methylglucamine. The adsorption capacities of the cellulose derivatives for boron(III) were the same levels as that of a commercially available N-methylglucamine-type polystyrene resin. However, the cellulose derivatives adsorbed boron(III) more quickly than the polystyrene resin. The adsorption and desorption of boron(III) with a column method using the cellulose fiber were achieved at a higher flow rate than that using the polystyrene resin. In addition, the boron(III), adsorbed on the cellulose fiber column, was quantitatively recovered with dilute hydrochloric acid in 20- and 200-fold increased concentrations. Consequently, it was found that the cellulose derivatives were superior to the polystyrene resin as adsorbents for boron(III) for treatment of a large quantity of wastewater

  18. Continuous fermentation and in-situ reed separation of butyric acid for higher sugar consumption rate and productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baroi, George Nabin; Skiadas, Ioannis; Westermann, Peter

    that disconnection of the REED system resulted to much lower (48 and 83% for glucose and xylose, respectively) sugars consumption rates and consequently lower butyric acid production rates. It was also noticeable that continuous operation, even without the REED system, resulted to higher glucose consumption rates...

  19. Does adding metformin to clomifene citrate lead to higher pregnancy rates in a subset of women with polycystic ovary syndrome?

    OpenAIRE

    Moll, E.; Korevaar, J.C.; Bossuyt, P.M.M.; van der Veen, F.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND An RCT among newly diagnosed, therapy naive women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) showed no significant differences in ovulation rate, ongoing pregnancy rate or spontaneous abortion rate in favour of clomifene citrate plus metformin compared with clomifene citrate. We wanted to assess whether there are specific subgroups of women with PCOS in whom clomifene citrate plus metformin leads to higher pregnancy rates. METHODS Subgroup analysis based on clinical and biochemical para...

  20. Higher USA State Resident Neuroticism Is Associated With Lower State Volunteering Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Stewart J H

    2017-12-01

    Highly neurotic persons have dispositional characteristics that tend to precipitate social anxiety that discourages formal volunteering. With the 50 American states as analytical units, Study 1 found that state resident neuroticism correlated highly ( r = -.55) with state volunteering rates and accounted for another 26.8% of the volunteering rate variance with selected state demographics controlled. Study 2 replicated Study 1 during another period and extended the association to college student, senior, secular, and religious volunteering rates. Study 3 showed state resident percentages engaged in other social behaviors involving more familiarity and fewer demands than formal volunteering related to state volunteering rates but not to neuroticism. In Study 4, state resident neuroticism largely accounted statistically for relations between state volunteering rates and state population density, collectivism, social capital, Republican preference, and well-being. This research is the first to show that state resident neuroticism is a potent predictor of state volunteering rates.

  1. Predicting higher education graduation rates from institutional characteristics and resource allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence A. Hamrick

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available This study incorporated institutional characteristics (e.g., Carnegie type, selectivity and resource allocations (e.g., instructional expenditures, student affairs expenditures into a statistical model to predict undergraduate graduation rates. Instructional expenditures, library expenditures, and a number of institutional classification variables were significant predictors of graduation rates. Based on these results, recommendations as well as warranted cautions are included about allocating academic financial resources to optimize graduation rates

  2. Do Astronauts have a Higher Rate of Orthopedic Shoulder Conditions than a Cohort of Working Professionals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, Mitzi S.; Murray, Jocelyn D.; Young, Millenia; Wear, Mary L.; Tarver, W. J.; Van Baalen, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Occupational surveillance of astronaut shoulder injuries began with operational concerns at the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) during Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) training. NASA has implemented several occupational health initiatives during the past 20 years to decrease the number and severity of injuries, but the individual success rate is unknown. Orthopedic shoulder injury and surgery rates were calculated, but classifying the rates as normal, high or low was highly dependent on the comparison group. The purpose of this study was to identify a population of working professionals and compare orthopedic shoulder consultation and surgery rates.

  3. Predicting higher education graduation rates from institutional characteristics and resource allocation

    OpenAIRE

    Florence A. Hamrick; John H. Schuh; Mack C. Shelley

    2004-01-01

    This study incorporated institutional characteristics (e.g., Carnegie type, selectivity) and resource allocations (e.g., instructional expenditures, student affairs expenditures) into a statistical model to predict undergraduate graduation rates. Instructional expenditures, library expenditures, and a number of institutional classification variables were significant predictors of graduation rates. Based on these results, recommendations as well as warranted cautions are included about allocat...

  4. Results of a pilot scale melter test to attain higher production rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, M.L.; Perez, J.M. Jr.; Chapman, C.C.

    1991-01-01

    A pilot-scale melter test was completed as part of the effort to enhance glass production rates. The experiment was designed to evaluate the effects of bulk glass temperature and feed oxide loading. The maximum glass production rate obtained, 86 kg/hr-m 2 , was over 200% better than the previous record for the melter used

  5. Heroin addicts have higher discount rates for delayed rewards than non-drug-using controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, K N; Petry, N M; Bickel, W K

    1999-03-01

    Fifty-six heroin addicts and 60 age-matched controls were offered choices between monetary rewards ($11-$80) available immediately and larger rewards ($25-$85) available after delays ranging from 1 week to 6 months. Participants had a 1-in-6 chance of winning a reward that they chose on one randomly selected trial. Delay-discounting rates were estimated from the pattern of participants' choices. The discounting model of impulsiveness (Ainslie, 1975) implies that delay-discounting rates are positively correlated with impulsiveness. On average, heroin addicts' discount rates were twice those of controls (p = .004), and discount rates were positively correlated with impulsivity as measured by self-report questionnaires (p discounting rate as a measure of impulsiveness, a characteristic associated with substance abuse.

  6. Introverts' and Extraverts' Responses to Nonverbal Attending Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genthner, Robert W.; Moughan, James

    1977-01-01

    The different responses of introverts and extraverts to two types of helper nonverbal attending were examined. Subjects were 26 introverts and 26 extraverts, as defined by Eysenck and Eysenck's questionnaire. Introverts rated the listener higher than did extraverts, independent of his posture. (Author)

  7. Higher speciation and lower extinction rates influence mammal diversity gradients in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamma, Krishnapriya; Ramakrishnan, Uma

    2015-02-04

    Little is known about the patterns and correlates of mammal diversity gradients in Asia. In this study, we examine patterns of species distributions and phylogenetic diversity in Asia and investigate if the observed diversity patterns are associated with differences in diversification rates between the tropical and non-tropical regions. We used species distribution maps and phylogenetic trees to generate species and phylogenetic diversity measures for 1° × 1° cells across mainland Asia. We constructed lineage-through-time plots and estimated diversification shift-times to examine the temporal patterns of diversifications across orders. Finally, we tested if the observed gradients in Asia could be associated with geographical differences in diversification rates across the tropical and non-tropical biomes. We estimated speciation, extinction and dispersal rates across these two regions for mammals, both globally and for Asian mammals. Our results demonstrate strong latitudinal and longitudinal gradients of species and phylogenetic diversity with Southeast Asia and the Himalayas showing highest diversity. Importantly, our results demonstrate that differences in diversification (speciation, extinction and dispersal) rates between the tropical and the non-tropical biomes influence the observed diversity gradients globally and in Asia. For the first time, we demonstrate that Asian tropics act as both cradles and museums of mammalian diversity. Temporal and spatial variation in diversification rates across different lineages of mammals is an important correlate of species diversity gradients observed in Asia.

  8. Vigorous physical activity predicts higher heart rate variability among younger adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Richard; McBerty, Victoria; Zaky, Adam; Gianotti, Melino

    2017-06-14

    Baseline heart rate variability (HRV) is linked to prospective cardiovascular health. We tested intensity and duration of weekly physical activity as predictors of heart rate variability in young adults. Time and frequency domain indices of HRV were calculated based on 5-min resting electrocardiograms collected from 82 undergraduate students. Hours per week of both moderate and vigorous activity were estimated using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. In regression analyses, hours of vigorous physical activity, but not moderate activity, significantly predicted greater time domain and frequency domain indices of heart rate variability. Adjusted for weekly frequency, greater daily duration of vigorous activity failed to predict HRV indices. Future studies should test direct measurements of vigorous activity patterns as predictors of autonomic function in young adulthood.

  9. Reducing Error Rates for Iris Image using higher Contrast in Normalization process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminu Ghali, Abdulrahman; Jamel, Sapiee; Abubakar Pindar, Zahraddeen; Hasssan Disina, Abdulkadir; Mat Daris, Mustafa

    2017-08-01

    Iris recognition system is the most secured, and faster means of identification and authentication. However, iris recognition system suffers a setback from blurring, low contrast and illumination due to low quality image which compromises the accuracy of the system. The acceptance or rejection rates of verified user depend solely on the quality of the image. In many cases, iris recognition system with low image contrast could falsely accept or reject user. Therefore this paper adopts Histogram Equalization Technique to address the problem of False Rejection Rate (FRR) and False Acceptance Rate (FAR) by enhancing the contrast of the iris image. A histogram equalization technique enhances the image quality and neutralizes the low contrast of the image at normalization stage. The experimental result shows that Histogram Equalization Technique has reduced FRR and FAR compared to the existing techniques.

  10. Higher contamination rate than usual. Treatment and disinfection of water in hot whirlpool systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herschman, W

    1985-10-01

    Hot whirlpools must meet the hygienic standards set in the Federal Law Concerning Prevention of Epidemics of 18 Dec 1979. The low water volume of whirlpool systems and the extraordinary contamination rate in uninterrupted operation require a specific water treatment and disinfestation technology to make up for the poor buffer capacity of the low water volume. (orig./BWI).

  11. Mechanisms promoting higher growth rate in arctic than in temperate shorebirds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schekkerman, H.; Tulp, I.Y.M.; Piersma, T.; Visser, G.H.

    2003-01-01

    We compared prefledging growth, energy expenditure, and time budgets in the arctic-breeding red knot (Calidris canutus) to those in temperate shorebirds, to investigate how arctic chicks achieve a high growth rate despite energetic difficulties associated with precocial development in a cold

  12. Mechanisms promoting higher growth rate in arctic than in temperate shorebirds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schekkerman, H; Tulp, Ingrid; Piersma, T.; Visser, G.H.

    We compared prefledging growth, energy expenditure, and time budgets in the arctic-breeding red knot (Calidris canutus) to those in temperate shorebirds, to investigate how arctic chicks achieve a high growth rate despite energetic difficulties associated with precocial development in a cold

  13. Honest signaling in trust interactions: smiles rated as genuine induce trust and signal higher earning opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Centorrino, S.; Djemai, E.; Hopfensitz, A.; Milinski, M.; Seabright, P.

    2015-01-01

    We test the hypothesis that smiles perceived as honest serve as a signal that has evolved to induce cooperation in situations requiring mutual trust. Potential trustees (84 participants from Toulouse, France) made two video clips averaging around 15 seconds for viewing by potential senders before the latter decided whether to ‘send’ or ‘keep’ a lower stake (4 euros) or higher stake (8 euros). Senders (198 participants from Lyon, France) made trust decisions with respect to the recorded clips....

  14. Surgical site infection and transfusion rates are higher in underweight total knee arthroplasty patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Manrique, MD

    2017-03-01

    Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that UW TKA patients have a higher likelihood of developing SSI and requiring blood transfusions. The specific reasons are unclear, but we conjecture that it may be related to decreased wound healing capabilities and low preoperative hemoglobin. Investigation of local tissue coverage and hematologic status may be beneficial in this patient population to prevent SSI. Based on the results of this study, a prospective evaluation of these factors should be undertaken.

  15. How to Pay for Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killingsworth, Charles C.

    The financial crisis for institutions of higher education is deepening. Higher tuition rates may be one of the answers, but this would exclude even more young people from attending college because of inability to pay, at a time when greater equality of opportunity in higher education has become an important goal. Federal support has helped but not…

  16. Accuracy of rate coding: When shorter time window and higher spontaneous activity help

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Leváková, Marie; Tamborrino, M.; Košťál, Lubomír; Lánský, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 95, č. 2 (2017), č. článku 022310. ISSN 2470-0045 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-08066S; GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB17AT048 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : rate coding * observation window * spontaneous activity * Fisher information * perfect integrate- and -fire model * Wiener process Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research OBOR OECD: Biology (theoretical, mathematical, thermal, cryobiology, biological rhythm), Evolutionary biology Impact factor: 2.366, year: 2016

  17. Comparison of higher order spectra in heart rate signals during two techniques of meditation: Chi and Kundalini meditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goshvarpour, Ateke; Goshvarpour, Atefeh

    2013-02-01

    The human heartbeat is one of the important examples of complex physiologic fluctuations. For the first time in this study higher order spectra of heart rate signals during meditation have explored. Specifically, the aim of this study was to analysis and compares the contribution of quadratic phase coupling of human heart rate variability during two forms of meditation: (1) Chinese Chi (or Qigong) meditation and (2) Kundalini Yoga meditation. For this purpose, Bispectrum was estimated by using biased, parametric and the direct (FFT) method. The results show that the mean Bispectrum magnitude of heart rate signals increased during Kundalini Yoga meditation, but it decreased significantly during Chi meditation. However, in both meditation techniques phase-coupled harmonics are shifted to the higher frequencies during meditation. In addition, it has shown that not only there are significant differences between rest and meditation states, but also heart rate patterns appear to be influenced by different types of meditation.

  18. Higher rate of compensation after surgical treatment versus conservative treatment for acute Achilles tendon rupture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveen, Thor-Magnus; Troelsen, Anders; Barfod, Kristoffer Weisskirchner

    2015-01-01

    in the period from 1992 to 2010 in the DPIA database were identified and patient records were reviewed manually. RESULTS: The compensation awarded for the 18-year period totalled 18,147,202 DKK with 41% of patient claims being recognised. Out of 180 surgically treated patients, 79 received a total compensation...... of 14,051,377 DKK, median 47,637 (range: 5,000-3,577,043). Of 114 non-surgically treated patients, 40 received 3,715,224 DKK in compensation, with a median amount of 35,788 DKK (range: 5,000-830,073). CONCLUSION: Compensation after surgical treatment was 3.8 times higher than compensation after non......-surgical treatment. It is noteworthy that 34.5% of patients had an overlooked diagnosis which underlines the importance of a correct primary diagnosis. FUNDING: not relevant. TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant....

  19. Weaker gun state laws are associated with higher rates of suicide secondary to firearms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alban, Rodrigo F; Nuño, Miriam; Ko, Ara; Barmparas, Galinos; Lewis, Azaria V; Margulies, Daniel R

    2018-01-01

    Firearm-related suicides comprise over two-thirds of gun-related violence in the United States, and gun laws and policies remain under scrutiny, with many advocating for revision of the regulatory map for lawful gun ownership, aiming at restricting access and distribution of these weapons. However, the quantitative relationship between how strict gun laws are and the incidence of firearm violence with their associated mortality is largely unknown. We therefore, sought to explore the impact of firearm law patterns among states on the incidence and outcomes of firearm-related suicide attempts, utilizing established objective criteria. The National Inpatient Sample for the years 1998-2011 was queried for all firearm-related suicides. Discharge facilities were stratified into five categories (A, B, C, D, and F, with A representing states with the most strict and F representing states with the least strict laws) based on the Brady Campaign to prevent Gun Violence that assigns scorecards for every state. The primary outcomes were suicide attempts and in-hospital mortality per 100,000 populations by Brady state grade. During the 14-year study period, 34,994 subjects met inclusion criteria. The mean age was 42.0 years and 80.1% were male. A handgun was utilized by 51.8% of patients. The overall mortality was 33.3%. Overall, 22.0% had reported psychoses and 19.3% reported depression. After adjusting for confounding factors and using group A as reference, there were higher adjusted odds for suicide attempts for patients admitted in group C, D, and F category states (1.73, 2.09, and 1.65, respectively, all P gun laws, and these injuries tend to be associated with a higher mortality. Efforts aimed at nationwide standardization of firearm state laws are warranted, particularly for young adults and suicide-prone populations. III. Trauma Outcomes study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Lead Burden as a Factor for Higher Complication Rate in Patients With Implantable Cardiac Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Kolibash

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Lead revisions have increased over the last decade. Patients who do not undergo lead extraction face an increased lead burden. Consequences of increased lead burden have not been fully defined. We sought to characterize the complication rate and outcomes in patients with sterile redundant leads. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 242 consecutive patients [mean age 74 ± 12 years; 66.9% male] who underwent lead revision that resulted in an abandoned lead from January 2005 to June 2010. Patients were placed in a cohort based on number of leads after last recorded procedure (Group A: ≤2 [n=58]; Group B: 3-4 [n=168]; Group C: ≥5 [n=16]. Prespecified inhospital and long-term follow-up events were compared. Mortality rates were obtained from Social Security Death Index. Median follow-up was 2 years. Results: Baseline age, gender and race demographics were similar among the three groups. Increasing lead burden was associated with more adverse periprocedural events (A: 3.4%, B: 10.1%, C: 25.0%; P=0.031 and long-term device-related events (A: 1.7%, B: 13.0%, C: 18.8%; P=0.031. Device-related readmissions increased in frequency as lead burden increased (A: 3.5%, B: 18.5%, C: 37.5%; P=0.002. Combined periprocedural and late events also increased with more redundant leads (A: 5.2%, B: 23.2%, C: 44.0%; P=0.001. Total major events were infrequent (3.3%. There was no procedure-related mortality. Long-term all-cause mortality was not significantly different (A: 17.2%, B: 23.8%, C: 25.0%; P=0.567. Conclusions: Greater lead burden was associated with increased number of periprocedural and long-term minor events. It did not significantly impact major events or mortality.

  1. An integrated approach for a higher success rate in mergers and acquisitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Bertoncelj

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper outlines the importance of balanced management of hard and soft key success factors, combining the economic logic of corporate performance and human capital through an integrated approach to mergers and acquisitions. The study, based on a questionnaire and interviews, suggests that the achievement level ofmergers and acquisitions’ objectives of acquiring companies in Slovenia should be comparable to findings of similar studies; namely, the objectives that drove the deal were met only half the time. The results indicate that five hard success factors – a professional target search and due diligence, a realistic assessment of synergies, theright mix of financial sources, a detailed post-acquisition integration plan already prepared in the pre-deal phase and its speedy implementation – and five soft success factors – a new “combined” organizational culture, a competent management team, innovative employees, efficient and consistent communication and a creative business environment – are becoming increasingly relevant. Even though they differ in their importance for individual companies in the sample, they are all considered essential to increasing the success rate of corporate combinations

  2. Sex-role reversal of a monogamous pipefish without higher potential reproductive rate in females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogabe, Atsushi; Yanagisawa, Yasunobu

    2007-12-07

    In monogamous animals, males are usually the predominant competitors for mates. However, a strictly monogamous pipefish Corythoichthys haematopterus exceptionally exhibits a reversed sex role. To understand why its sex role is reversed, we measured the adult sex ratio and the potential reproductive rate (PRR), two principal factors influencing the operational sex ratio (OSR), in a natural population of southern Japan. The adult sex ratio was biased towards females throughout the breeding season, but the PRR, which increased with water temperature, did not show sexual difference. We found that an alternative index of the OSR (Sf/Sm: sex ratio of 'time in') calculated from the monthly data was consistently biased towards females. The female-biased OSR associated with sex-role reversal has been reported in some polyandrous or promiscuous pipefish, but factors biasing the OSR differed between these pipefish and C. haematopterus. We concluded that the similar PRR between the sexes in C. haematopterus does not confer reproductive benefit of polygamous mating on either sex, resulting in strict monogamous mating, and its female-biased adult sex ratio promotes female-female competition for a mate, resulting in sex-role reversal.

  3. Lower serotonin level and higher rate of fibromyalgia syndrome with advancing pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atasever, Melahat; Namlı Kalem, Muberra; Sönmez, Çiğdem; Seval, Mehmet Murat; Yüce, Tuncay; Sahin Aker, Seda; Koç, Acar; Genc, Hakan

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the relationship between changes in serotonin levels during pregnancy and fibromyalgia syndrome (FS) and the relationships between FS and the physical/psychological state, biochemical and hormonal parameters, which may be related to the musculoskeletal system. This study is a prospective case-control study conducted with 277 pregnant women at the obstetric unit of Ankara University Faculty of Medicine, in the period between January and June 2015. FS was determined based on the presence or absence of the 2010 ACR diagnostic criteria and all the volunteers were asked to answer the questionnaires as Fibromyalgia Impact Criteria (FIQ), Widespread Pain Index (WPI), Symptom Severity Scale (SS), Beck Depression Inventory and Visual Analog Scale (VAS). Biochemical and hormonal markers (glucose, TSH, T4, Ca (calcium), P (phosphate), PTH (parathyroid hormone) and serotonin levels) relating to muscle and bone metabolism were measured. In the presence of fibromyalgia, the physical and psychological parameters are negatively affected (p serotonin levels may contribute to the development of fibromyalgia but this was not statistically significant. The Beck Depression Inventory scale statistically showed that increasing scores also increase the risk of fibromyalgia (p serotonin levels in women with FS are lower than the control group and that serotonin levels reduce as pregnancy progresses. Anxiety and depression in pregnant women with FS are higher than the control group. The presence of depression increases the likelihood of developing FS at a statistically significant level. Serotonin impairment also increases the chance of developing FS, but this correlation has not been shown to be statistically significant.

  4. Biodegradation testing of chemicals with high Henry’s constants – separating mass and effective concentration reveals higher rate constants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch, Heidi; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus; Comber, Mike

    Microextraction (HS-SPME) was applied directly on the test systems to measure substrate depletion by biodegradation relative to abiotic controls. HS-SPME was also applied to determine air to water partitioning ratios. Water phase biodegradation rate constants, kwater, were up to 72 times higher than test system...

  5. Higher dosage nicotine patches increase one-year smoking cessation rates : results from the European CEASE trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonnesen, P; Paoletti, P; Gustavsson, G; Russell, MA; Saracci, R; Gulsvik, A; Rijcken, B

    The Collaborative European Anti-Smoking Evaluation (CEASE) was a European multicentre, randomized, double-blind placebo controlled smoking cessation study, The objectives were to determine whether higher dosage and longer duration of nicotine patch therapy would increase the success rate. Thirty-six

  6. Understanding the Effect of Response Rate and Class Size Interaction on Students Evaluation of Teaching in a Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Kuwaiti, Ahmed; AlQuraan, Mahmoud; Subbarayalu, Arun Vijay

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to investigate the interaction between response rate and class size and its effects on students' evaluation of instructors and the courses offered at a higher education Institution in Saudi Arabia. Study Design: A retrospective study design was chosen. Methods: One thousand four hundred and forty four different courses…

  7. Children Receiving Free or Reduced-Price School Lunch Have Higher Food Insufficiency Rates in Summer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jin; Barnidge, Ellen; Kim, Youngmi

    2015-09-01

    In 2012, 20% of households in the United States with children lacked consistent access to adequate food. Food insufficiency has significant implications for children, including poor physical and mental health outcomes, behavior problems, and low educational achievements. The National School Lunch Program (NSLP) is one policy solution to reduce food insufficiency among children from low-income families. The objective of this project was to evaluate the association between NSLP participation and household food insufficiency by examining trajectories of food insufficiency over 10 calendar months. The calendar months included both nonsummer months when school is in session and summer months when school is out of session. The study used the data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation and conducted linear growth curve analyses in the multilevel modeling context. Comparisons were made between the trajectories of food insufficiencies among recipients of free or reduced-price lunch and their counterparts who are eligible but choose not to participate in the program. Heads of households that included children receiving free or reduced-price lunch (n = 6867) were more likely to be female, black, unmarried, and unemployed, and have a lower educational attainment than those whose children were eligible but did not receive free or reduced-price lunch (n = 11,396). For households participating in the NSLP, the food insufficiency rate was consistent from January to May at ∼4%, and then increased in June and July to >5%. Meanwhile, food insufficiency among eligible nonrecipients was constant throughout the year at nearly 2%. The NSLP protects households from food insufficiency. Policies should be instituted to make enrollment easier for households. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  8. Informatics technology mimics ecology: dense, mutualistic collaboration networks are associated with higher publication rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco D Sorani

    Full Text Available Information technology (IT adoption enables biomedical research. Publications are an accepted measure of research output, and network models can describe the collaborative nature of publication. In particular, ecological networks can serve as analogies for publication and technology adoption. We constructed network models of adoption of bioinformatics programming languages and health IT (HIT from the literature.We selected seven programming languages and four types of HIT. We performed PubMed searches to identify publications since 2001. We calculated summary statistics and analyzed spatiotemporal relationships. Then, we assessed ecological models of specialization, cooperativity, competition, evolution, biodiversity, and stability associated with publications.Adoption of HIT has been variable, while scripting languages have experienced rapid adoption. Hospital systems had the largest HIT research corpus, while Perl had the largest language corpus. Scripting languages represented the largest connected network components. The relationship between edges and nodes was linear, though Bioconductor had more edges than expected and Perl had fewer. Spatiotemporal relationships were weak. Most languages shared a bioinformatics specialization and appeared mutualistic or competitive. HIT specializations varied. Specialization was highest for Bioconductor and radiology systems. Specialization and cooperativity were positively correlated among languages but negatively correlated among HIT. Rates of language evolution were similar. Biodiversity among languages grew in the first half of the decade and stabilized, while diversity among HIT was variable but flat. Compared with publications in 2001, correlation with publications one year later was positive while correlation after ten years was weak and negative.Adoption of new technologies can be unpredictable. Spatiotemporal relationships facilitate adoption but are not sufficient. As with ecosystems, dense

  9. Informatics technology mimics ecology: dense, mutualistic collaboration networks are associated with higher publication rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorani, Marco D

    2012-01-01

    Information technology (IT) adoption enables biomedical research. Publications are an accepted measure of research output, and network models can describe the collaborative nature of publication. In particular, ecological networks can serve as analogies for publication and technology adoption. We constructed network models of adoption of bioinformatics programming languages and health IT (HIT) from the literature.We selected seven programming languages and four types of HIT. We performed PubMed searches to identify publications since 2001. We calculated summary statistics and analyzed spatiotemporal relationships. Then, we assessed ecological models of specialization, cooperativity, competition, evolution, biodiversity, and stability associated with publications.Adoption of HIT has been variable, while scripting languages have experienced rapid adoption. Hospital systems had the largest HIT research corpus, while Perl had the largest language corpus. Scripting languages represented the largest connected network components. The relationship between edges and nodes was linear, though Bioconductor had more edges than expected and Perl had fewer. Spatiotemporal relationships were weak. Most languages shared a bioinformatics specialization and appeared mutualistic or competitive. HIT specializations varied. Specialization was highest for Bioconductor and radiology systems. Specialization and cooperativity were positively correlated among languages but negatively correlated among HIT. Rates of language evolution were similar. Biodiversity among languages grew in the first half of the decade and stabilized, while diversity among HIT was variable but flat. Compared with publications in 2001, correlation with publications one year later was positive while correlation after ten years was weak and negative.Adoption of new technologies can be unpredictable. Spatiotemporal relationships facilitate adoption but are not sufficient. As with ecosystems, dense, mutualistic

  10. [Factors Associated with Stress Check Attendance: Possible Effect of Timing of Annual Health Examination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishimaru, Tomohiro; Hattori, Michihiro; Nagata, Masako; Kuwahara, Keisuke; Watanabe, Seiji; Mori, Koji

    2018-01-01

    The stress check program has been part of annual employees' health screening since 2015. Employees are recommended, but not obliged, to undergo the stress check offered. This study was designed to examine the factors associated with stress check attendance. A total of 31,156 Japanese employees who underwent an annual health examination and a stress check service at an Occupational Health Service Center in 2016 participated in this study. Data from the annual health examination and stress check service included stress check attendance, date of attendance (if implemented), gender, age, workplace industry, number of employees at the workplace, and tobacco and alcohol consumption. Data were analyzed using multiple logistic regression. The mean rate of stress check attendance was 90.8%. A higher rate of stress check attendance was associated with a lower duration from the annual health examination, age ≥30 years, construction and transport industry, and 50-999 employees at the workplace. A lower rate of stress check attendance was associated with medical and welfare industry and ≥1,000 employees at the workplace. These findings provide insights into developing strategies for improving the rate of stress check attendance. In particular, stress check attendance may improve if the stress check service and annual health examination are conducted simultaneously.

  11. Attending to auditory memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Jacqueline F; Moscovitch, Morris; Alain, Claude

    2016-06-01

    Attention to memory describes the process of attending to memory traces when the object is no longer present. It has been studied primarily for representations of visual stimuli with only few studies examining attention to sound object representations in short-term memory. Here, we review the interplay of attention and auditory memory with an emphasis on 1) attending to auditory memory in the absence of related external stimuli (i.e., reflective attention) and 2) effects of existing memory on guiding attention. Attention to auditory memory is discussed in the context of change deafness, and we argue that failures to detect changes in our auditory environments are most likely the result of a faulty comparison system of incoming and stored information. Also, objects are the primary building blocks of auditory attention, but attention can also be directed to individual features (e.g., pitch). We review short-term and long-term memory guided modulation of attention based on characteristic features, location, and/or semantic properties of auditory objects, and propose that auditory attention to memory pathways emerge after sensory memory. A neural model for auditory attention to memory is developed, which comprises two separate pathways in the parietal cortex, one involved in attention to higher-order features and the other involved in attention to sensory information. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Heroin and cocaine abusers have higher discount rates for delayed rewards than alcoholics or non-drug-using controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Kris N; Petry, Nancy M

    2004-04-01

    To test a prediction of the discounting model of impulsiveness that discount rates would be positively associated with addiction. The delay-discount rate refers to the rate of reduction in the present value of a future reward as the delay to that reward increases. We estimated participants' discount rates on the basis of their pattern of choices between smaller immediate rewards ($11-80) and larger, delayed rewards ($25-85; at delays from 1 week to 6 months) in a questionnaire format. Participants had a one-in-six chance of winning a reward that they chose on one randomly selected trial. Heroin (n = 27), cocaine (n = 41) and alcohol (n = 33) abusers and non-drug-using controls (n = 44) were recruited from advertisements. They were tested in a drug abuse research clinic at a medical school. On average, the cocaine and heroin groups had higher rates than controls (both P rates for heroin abusers (P = 0.03), but not for cocaine or alcohol abusers (both P > 0.50). These data suggest that discount rates vary with the preferred drug of abuse, and that high discount rates should be considered in the development of substance abuse prevention and treatment efforts.

  13. Concerns and perceptions immediately following Superstorm Sandy: ratings for property damage were higher than for health issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael

    Governmental officials, health and safety professionals, early responders, and the public are interested in the perceptions and concerns of people faced with a crisis, especially during and immediately after a disaster strikes. Reliable information can lead to increased individual and community preparedness for upcoming crises. The objective of this research was to evaluate concerns of coastal and central New Jersey residents within the first 100 days of Superstorm Sandy's landfall. Respondents living in central New Jersey and Jersey shore communities were differentially impacted by the storm, with shore residents having higher evacuation rates (47% vs. 13%), more flood waters in their homes, longer power outages (average 23 vs. 6 days), and longer periods without Internet (29 vs. 6 days). Ratings of concerns varied both among and within categories as a function of location (central vs. coastal New Jersey), stressor level (ranging from 1 to 3 for combinations of power outages, high winds, and flooding), and demographics. Respondents were most concerned about property damage, health, inconveniences, ecological services, and nuclear power plants in that order. Respondents from the shore gave higher ratings to the concerns within each major category, compared to those from central Jersey. Four findings have implications for understanding future risk, recovery, and resiliency: (1) respondents with the highest stressor level (level 3) were more concerned about water damage than others, (2) respondents with flood damage were more concerned about water drainage and mold than others, (3) respondents with the highest stressor levels rated all ecological services higher than others, and (4) shore respondents rated all ecological services higher than central Jersey residents. These data provide information to design future preparedness plans, improve resiliency for future severe weather events, and reduce public health risk.

  14. Using Attendance Worksheets to Improve Student Attendance, Participation, and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoads, Edward

    2013-06-01

    As science instructors we are faced with two main barriers with respect to student learning. The first is motivating our students to attend class and the second is to make them active participants in the learning process once we have gotten them to class. As we head further into the internet age this problem only gets exacerbated as students have replaced newspapers with cell phones which can surf the web, check their emails, and play games. Quizzes can motivated the students to attend class but do not necessarily motivate them to pay attention. Active learning techniques work but we as instructors have been bombarded by the active learning message to the point that we either do it already or refuse to. I present another option which in my classroom has doubled the rate at which students learn my material. By using attendance worksheets instead of end of class quizzes I hold students accountable for not just their attendance but for when they show up and when they leave the class. In addition it makes the students an active participant in the class even without using active learning techniques as they are writing notes and answering the questions you have posed while the class is in progress. Therefore using attendance worksheets is an effective tool to use in order to guide student learning.

  15. Higher dose rate Gamma Knife radiosurgery may provide earlier and longer-lasting pain relief for patients with trigeminal neuralgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, John Y K; Sandhu, Sukhmeet; Miller, Denise; Solberg, Timothy; Dorsey, Jay F; Alonso-Basanta, Michelle

    2015-10-01

    Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) utilizes cobalt-60 as its radiation source, and thus dose rate varies as the fixed source decays over its half-life of approximately 5.26 years. This natural decay results in increasing treatment times when delivering the same cumulative dose. It is also possible, however, that the biological effective dose may change based on this dose rate even if the total dose is kept constant. Because patients are generally treated in a uniform manner, radiosurgery for trigeminal neuralgia (TN) represents a clinical model whereby biological efficacy can be tested. The authors hypothesized that higher dose rates would result in earlier and more complete pain relief but only if measured with a sensitive pain assessment tool. One hundred thirty-three patients were treated with the Gamma Knife Model 4C unit at a single center by a single neurosurgeon during a single cobalt life cycle from January 2006 to May 2012. All patients were treated with 80 Gy with a single 4-mm isocenter without blocking. Using an output factor of 0.87, dose rates ranged from 1.28 to 2.95 Gy/min. The Brief Pain Inventory (BPI)-Facial was administered before the procedure and at the first follow-up office visit 1 month from the procedure (mean 1.3 months). Phone calls were made to evaluate patients after their procedures as part of a retrospective study. Univariate and multivariate linear regression was performed on several independent variables, including sex, age in deciles, diagnosis, follow-up duration, prior surgery, and dose rate. In the short-term analysis (mean 1.3 months), patients' self-reported pain intensity at its worst was significantly correlated with dose rate on multivariate analysis (p = 0.028). Similarly, patients' self-reported interference with activities of daily living was closely correlated with dose rate on multivariate analysis (p = 0.067). A 1 Gy/min decrease in dose rate resulted in a 17% decrease in pain intensity at its worst and a 22% decrease

  16. Theoretical and computational study of the energy dependence of the muon transfer rate from hydrogen to higher-Z gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakalov, Dimitar, E-mail: dbakalov@inrne.bas.bg [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Tsarigradsko chaussée 72, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Adamczak, Andrzej [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakow (Poland); Stoilov, Mihail [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Tsarigradsko chaussée 72, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Vacchi, Andrea [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, Via A. Valerio 2, 34127 Trieste (Italy)

    2015-01-23

    The recent PSI Lamb shift experiment and the controversy about proton size revived the interest in measuring the hyperfine splitting in muonic hydrogen as an alternative possibility for comparing ordinary and muonic hydrogen spectroscopy data on proton electromagnetic structure. This measurement critically depends on the energy dependence of the muon transfer rate to heavier gases in the epithermal range. The available data provide only qualitative information, and the theoretical predictions have not been verified. We propose a new method by measurements of the transfer rate in thermalized target at different temperatures, estimate its accuracy and investigate the optimal experimental conditions. - Highlights: • Method for measuring the energy dependence of muon transfer rate to higher-Z gases. • Thermalization and depolarization of muonic hydrogen studied by Monte Carlo method. • Optimal experimental conditions determined by Monte Carlo simulations. • Mathematical model and for estimating the uncertainty of the experimental results.

  17. [Effect of high magnesium ion concentration on the electron transport rate and proton exchange in thylakoid membranes in higher plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignat'ev, A R; Khorobrykh, S A; Ivanov, B N

    2001-01-01

    The effects of magnesium ion concentration on the rate of electron transport in isolated pea thylakoids were investigated in the pH range from 4.0 up to 8.0. In the absence of magnesium ions in the medium and in the presence of 5 mM MgCl2 in the experiments not only without added artificial acceptors but also with ferricyanide or methylviologen as an acceptor, this rate had a well-expressed maximum at pH 5.0. It was shown that, after depression to minimal values at pH 5.5-6.5, it gradually rose with increasing pH. An increase in magnesium ion concentration up to 20 mM essentially affected the electron transfer rate: it decreased somewhat at pH 4.0-5.0 but increased at higher pH values. At this magnesium ion concentration, the maximum rate was at pH 6.0-6.5 and the minimum, at pH 7.0. Subsequent rise upon increasing pH to 8.0 was expressed more sharply. The influence of high magnesium ion concentration on the rate of electron transport was not observed in the presence of gramicidin D. It was found that without uncoupler, the changes in the electron transfer rate under the influence of magnesium ions correlated to the changes in the first-order rate constant of the proton efflux from thylakoids. It is supposed that the change in the ability of thylakoids to keep protons by the action of magnesium ions is the result of electrostatic interactions of these ions with the charges on the external surface of membranes. A possible role of regulation of the electron transport rate by magnesium ions in vivo is discussed.

  18. Does adding metformin to clomifene citrate lead to higher pregnancy rates in a subset of women with polycystic ovary syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, E; Korevaar, J C; Bossuyt, P M M; van der Veen, F

    2008-08-01

    An RCT among newly diagnosed, therapy naive women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) showed no significant differences in ovulation rate, ongoing pregnancy rate or spontaneous abortion rate in favour of clomifene citrate plus metformin compared with clomifene citrate. We wanted to assess whether there are specific subgroups of women with PCOS in whom clomifene citrate plus metformin leads to higher pregnancy rates. Subgroup analysis based on clinical and biochemical parameters of 111 women randomized to clomifene citrate plus metformin compared with 114 women randomized to clomifene citrate plus placebo. The data for age, BMI, waist-hip ratio (WHR) and plasma testosterone were available in all women, 2 h glucose in 80% of women and homeostatic model assessment for assessing insulin sensitivity (HOMA) in 50% of women. Of the women who were allocated to the metformin group, 44 women (40%) reached an ongoing pregnancy. In the placebo group, 52 women (46%) reached an ongoing pregnancy. There was a significantly different chance of an ongoing pregnancy for metformin versus placebo between subgroups based on age and WHR (P = 0.014). There was a positive effect of metformin versus placebo on pregnancy rate in older women (>or=28 years) with a high WHR, a negative effect of metformin versus placebo in young women (Metformin may be an effective addition to clomifene citrate in infertile women with PCOS, especially in older and viscerally obese patients.

  19. Factors associated with non-attendance, opportunistic attendance and reminded attendance to cervical screening in an organized screening program: a cross-sectional study of 12,058 Norwegian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriksen Tormod

    2011-04-01

    likelihood of attendance in an organized screening program was higher among women who were aware of cervical screening, which suggests a potential for a higher attendance rate through improving the public knowledge of screening. Further, the lower awareness among opportunistic than reminded attendees suggests that physicians may inform their patients better when smears are taken at the physician's initiative.

  20. Does Prison Crowding Predict Higher Rates of Substance Use Related Parole Violations? A Recurrent Events Multi-Level Survival Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Ruderman

    Full Text Available This administrative data-linkage cohort study examines the association between prison crowding and the rate of post-release parole violations in a random sample of prisoners released with parole conditions in California, for an observation period of two years (January 2003 through December 2004.Crowding overextends prison resources needed to adequately protect inmates and provide drug rehabilitation services. Violence and lack of access to treatment are known risk factors for drug use and substance use disorders. These and other psychosocial effects of crowding may lead to higher rates of recidivism in California parolees.Rates of parole violation for parolees exposed to high and medium levels of prison crowding were compared to parolees with low prison crowding exposure. Hazard ratios (HRs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were estimated using a Cox model for recurrent events. Our dataset included 13070 parolees in California, combining individual level parolee data with aggregate level crowding data for multilevel analysis.Comparing parolees exposed to high crowding with those exposed to low crowding, the effect sizes from greatest to least were absconding violations (HR 3.56 95% CI: 3.05-4.17, drug violations (HR 2.44 95% CI: 2.00-2.98, non-violent violations (HR 2.14 95% CI: 1.73-2.64, violent and serious violations (HR 1.88 95% CI: 1.45-2.43, and technical violations (HR 1.86 95% CI: 1.37-2.53.Prison crowding predicted higher rates of parole violations after release from prison. The effect was magnitude-dependent and particularly strong for drug charges. Further research into whether adverse prison experiences, such as crowding, are associated with recidivism and drug use in particular may be warranted.

  1. Does Prison Crowding Predict Higher Rates of Substance Use Related Parole Violations? A Recurrent Events Multi-Level Survival Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruderman, Michael A; Wilson, Deirdra F; Reid, Savanna

    2015-01-01

    This administrative data-linkage cohort study examines the association between prison crowding and the rate of post-release parole violations in a random sample of prisoners released with parole conditions in California, for an observation period of two years (January 2003 through December 2004). Crowding overextends prison resources needed to adequately protect inmates and provide drug rehabilitation services. Violence and lack of access to treatment are known risk factors for drug use and substance use disorders. These and other psychosocial effects of crowding may lead to higher rates of recidivism in California parolees. Rates of parole violation for parolees exposed to high and medium levels of prison crowding were compared to parolees with low prison crowding exposure. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using a Cox model for recurrent events. Our dataset included 13070 parolees in California, combining individual level parolee data with aggregate level crowding data for multilevel analysis. Comparing parolees exposed to high crowding with those exposed to low crowding, the effect sizes from greatest to least were absconding violations (HR 3.56 95% CI: 3.05-4.17), drug violations (HR 2.44 95% CI: 2.00-2.98), non-violent violations (HR 2.14 95% CI: 1.73-2.64), violent and serious violations (HR 1.88 95% CI: 1.45-2.43), and technical violations (HR 1.86 95% CI: 1.37-2.53). Prison crowding predicted higher rates of parole violations after release from prison. The effect was magnitude-dependent and particularly strong for drug charges. Further research into whether adverse prison experiences, such as crowding, are associated with recidivism and drug use in particular may be warranted.

  2. Does Prison Crowding Predict Higher Rates of Substance Use Related Parole Violations? A Recurrent Events Multi-Level Survival Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruderman, Michael A.; Wilson, Deirdra F.; Reid, Savanna

    2015-01-01

    Objective This administrative data-linkage cohort study examines the association between prison crowding and the rate of post-release parole violations in a random sample of prisoners released with parole conditions in California, for an observation period of two years (January 2003 through December 2004). Background Crowding overextends prison resources needed to adequately protect inmates and provide drug rehabilitation services. Violence and lack of access to treatment are known risk factors for drug use and substance use disorders. These and other psychosocial effects of crowding may lead to higher rates of recidivism in California parolees. Methods Rates of parole violation for parolees exposed to high and medium levels of prison crowding were compared to parolees with low prison crowding exposure. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using a Cox model for recurrent events. Our dataset included 13070 parolees in California, combining individual level parolee data with aggregate level crowding data for multilevel analysis. Results Comparing parolees exposed to high crowding with those exposed to low crowding, the effect sizes from greatest to least were absconding violations (HR 3.56 95% CI: 3.05–4.17), drug violations (HR 2.44 95% CI: 2.00–2.98), non-violent violations (HR 2.14 95% CI: 1.73–2.64), violent and serious violations (HR 1.88 95% CI: 1.45–2.43), and technical violations (HR 1.86 95% CI: 1.37–2.53). Conclusions Prison crowding predicted higher rates of parole violations after release from prison. The effect was magnitude-dependent and particularly strong for drug charges. Further research into whether adverse prison experiences, such as crowding, are associated with recidivism and drug use in particular may be warranted. PMID:26492490

  3. Higher Rate of Tuberculosis in Second Generation Migrants Compared to Native Residents in a Metropolitan Setting in Western Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Florian M.; Fiebig, Lena; Hauer, Barbara; Brodhun, Bonita; Glaser-Paschke, Gisela; Haas, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Background In Western Europe, migrants constitute an important risk group for tuberculosis, but little is known about successive generations of migrants. We aimed to characterize migration among tuberculosis cases in Berlin and to estimate annual rates of tuberculosis in two subsequent migrant generations. We hypothesized that second generation migrants born in Germany are at higher risk of tuberculosis compared to native (non-migrant) residents. Methods A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted. All tuberculosis cases reported to health authorities in Berlin between 11/2010 and 10/2011 were eligible. Interviews were conducted using a structured questionnaire including demographic data, migration history of patients and their parents, and language use. Tuberculosis rates were estimated using 2011 census data. Results Of 314 tuberculosis cases reported, 154 (49.0%) participated. Of these, 81 (52.6%) were first-, 14 (9.1%) were second generation migrants, and 59 (38.3%) were native residents. The tuberculosis rate per 100,000 individuals was 28.3 (95CI: 24.0–32.6) in first-, 10.2 (95%CI: 6.1–16.6) in second generation migrants, and 4.6 (95%CI: 3.7–5.6) in native residents. When combining information from the standard notification variables country of birth and citizenship, the sensitivity to detect second generation migration was 28.6%. Conclusions There is a higher rate of tuberculosis among second generation migrants compared to native residents in Berlin. This may be explained by presumably frequent contact and transmission within migrant populations. Second generation migration is insufficiently captured by the surveillance variables country of birth and citizenship. Surveillance systems in Western Europe should allow for quantifying the tuberculosis burden in this important risk group. PMID:26061733

  4. Modified Mitchell osteotomy alone does not have higher rate of residual metatarsalgia than combined first and lesser metatarsal osteotomy

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    Shu-Jung Chen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Transfer metatarsalgia (TM is a common forefoot disorder secondary to hallux valgus (HV. Some authors suggest that a combined lesser metatarsal osteotomy while undergoing HV surgery improves metatarsalgia, whereas others concluded that isolated HV corrective osteotomy can improve symptomatic metatarsalgia. The main purpose of this retrospective study was to compare clinical outcomes in patients with and without combined lesser metatarsal osteotomy while receiving HV correction surgery. We retrospectively reviewed the patients who underwent osteotomy for HV correction between January 2000 and December 2010. All patients underwent HV correction with modified Mitchell osteotomy. Clinical evaluations including the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society score and residual metatarsalgia were assessed, and radiographic measurements were carried out. Sixty-five patients (83 feet meeting the selection criteria were enrolled. Thirty feet receiving a combined lesser metatarsal osteotomy were classified as the combined surgery (CS group, and the others were classified as the control (CN group (53 feet. The overall rate of persistent symptomatic metatarsalgia was 19.28% after operative treatment. There were six feet with residual metatarsalgia in the CS group, and 10 feet in the CN group. There was no significant difference in the rate of persistent symptoms between the two groups (p = 0.9. According to this result, modified Mitchell osteotomy alone did not have a higher rate of residual metatarsalgia than CS. We also found that the average recovery rate of TM was about 80.7% and those patients whose preoperative HV angle was > 30° had the higher risk of residual metatarsalgia after surgery.

  5. Exploring the school attendance of children with epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Piccin Zanni

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The childhood epilepsy is a chronic disease that can have an impact in various spheres of life of the child, including academic performance and school attendance. This study aimed to describe and compare the school attendance of children with epilepsy who attend mainstream and special schools. Participants were 56 children aged between 7 and 14 years who attended regular or special schools located in two Brazilian cities of medium size. To collect the information we used two instruments: Data sheet of identification and characterization of the child and Data sheet to record the attendance school. The results showed that children in special schools had higher rates of absenteeism compared to students in regular schools. Additionally, we observed that these children use more drugs and have implications on health more severe than children in regular schools. Thus, it is the childhood epilepsy as a disease complex that brings substantial effects on various areas of children’s lives by reinforcing the need for studies that might expand the knowledge to and the experiences associated with the education of these children.

  6. Obese Japanese adults with type 2 diabetes have higher basal metabolic rates than non-diabetic adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Rieko; Ohkawara, Kazunori; Ishikawa-Takata, Kazuko; Morita, Akemi; Watanabe, Shaw; Tanaka, Shigeho

    2011-01-01

    Several cross-sectional studies in Pima Indians and Caucasians have indicated that obese individuals with type 2 diabetes have a higher basal metabolic rate (BMR) than healthy, obese individuals. However, no study has investigated this comparison in Japanese subjects, who are known to be susceptible to type 2 diabetes due to genetic characteristics. Thirty obese Japanese adults with pre-type 2 diabetes (n=7) or type 2 diabetes (n=13) or without diabetes (n=10) participated in this study. BMR was measured using indirect calorimetry. The relationships between residual BMR (calculated as measured BMR minus BMR adjusted for fat-free mass, fat mass, age, and sex) and biomarkers including fasting glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)), fasting insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-R), triglycerides, and free fatty acids were examined using Pearson's correlation. BMR in diabetic subjects adjusted for fat-free mass, fat mass, age, and sex was 7.1% higher than in non-diabetic subjects. BMR in diabetic subjects was also significantly (pBMR and fasting glucose (r=0.391, p=0.032). These results indicate that in the Japanese population, obese subjects with type 2 diabetes have higher BMR compared with obese non-diabetic subjects. The fasting glucose level may contribute to these differences.

  7. Impact of influenza vaccination on respiratory illness rates in children attending private boarding schools in England, 2013-2014: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brousseau, N; Green, H K; Andrews, N; Pryse, R; Baguelin, M; Sunderland, A; Ellis, J; Pebody, R

    2015-12-01

    Several private boarding schools in England have established universal influenza vaccination programmes for their pupils. We evaluated the impact of these programmes on the burden of respiratory illnesses in boarders. Between November 2013 and May 2014, age-specific respiratory disease incidence rates in boarders were compared between schools offering and not offering influenza vaccine to healthy boarders. We adjusted for age, sex, school size and week using negative binomial regression. Forty-three schools comprising 14 776 boarders participated. Almost all boarders (99%) were aged 11-17 years. Nineteen (44%) schools vaccinated healthy boarders against influenza, with a mean uptake of 48·5% (range 14·2-88·5%). Over the study period, 1468 respiratory illnesses were reported in boarders (5·66/1000 boarder-weeks); of these, 33 were influenza-like illnesses (ILIs, 0·26/1000 boarder-weeks) in vaccinating schools and 95 were ILIs (0·74/1000 boarder-weeks) in non-vaccinating schools. The impact of vaccinating healthy boarders was a 54% reduction in ILI in all boarders [rate ratio (RR) 0·46, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·28-0·76]. Disease rates were also reduced for upper respiratory tract infections (RR 0·72, 95% CI 0·61-0·85) and chest infections (RR 0·18, 95% CI 0·09-0·36). These findings demonstrate a significant impact of influenza vaccination on ILI and other clinical endpoints in secondary-school boarders. Additional research is needed to investigate the impact of influenza vaccination in non-boarding secondary-school settings.

  8. Epidemiology of frequent attenders: a 3-year historic cohort study comparing attendance, morbidity and prescriptions of one-year and persistent frequent attenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ter Riet Gerben

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background General Practitioners spend a disproportionate amount of time on frequent attenders. So far, trials on the effect of interventions on frequent attenders have shown negative results. However, these trials were conducted in short-term frequent attenders. It would be more reasonable to target intervention at persistent frequent attenders. Typical characteristics of persistent frequent attenders, as opposed to 1-year frequent attenders and non-frequent attenders, may generate hypotheses regarding modifiable factors on which new randomized trials may be designed. Methods We used the data of all 28,860 adult patients from 5 primary healthcare centers. Frequent attenders were patients whose attendance rate ranked in the (age and sex adjusted top 10 percent during 1 year (1-year frequent attenders or 3 years (persistent frequent attenders. All other patients on the register over the 3-year period were referred to as non-frequent attenders. The lists of medical problems coded by the GP using the International Classification of Primary Care (ICPC were used to assess morbidity. First, we determined which proportion of 1-year frequent attenders was still a frequent attender during the next two consecutive years and calculated the GPs' workload for these patients. Second, we compared morbidity and number of prescriptions for non-frequent attenders, 1-year frequent attenders and persistent frequent attenders. Results Of all 1-year frequent attenders, 15.4% became a persistent frequent attender equal to 1.6% of all patients. The 1-year frequent attenders (3,045; 10.6% were responsible for 39% of the face-to-face consultations; the 470 patients who would become persistent frequent attenders (1.6% were responsible for 8% of all consultations in 2003. Persistent frequent attenders presented more social problems, more psychiatric problems and medically unexplained physical symptoms, but also more chronic somatic diseases (especially diabetes

  9. Issue 7: Museum Attendance, Population Shifts, and Changing Tastes

    OpenAIRE

    Haselhoff, Kim; Ong, Paul M.

    2005-01-01

    SCS Fact Sheet no. 7 looks at the extent to which Southern California residents attend art and cultural museums. The findings are consistent with other studies, which have found differences in museum attendance based on ethnic and socioeconomic characteristics. We also found similarities in the general rate of museum attendance in the region over the past twenty years, as well as some changes in attendance rates among groups over the past two decades.

  10. The rate and factors associated with non-adherence to surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and hormonal therapy among breast cancer patients attending public hospitals in Malaysia

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    Nur Aishah Taib

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The role of breast cancer treatments in reducing recurrence and death has been established. However, the treatments side effects greatly impact on quality of life and little is known about the non-adherence rates. The purpose of this study was to determine the non-adherence rates to surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and hormonal therapy, and factors that affect it in public hospitals in Malaysia. Methods: A multicentre cross-sectional study was conducted in six public hospitals involving all newly diagnosed breast cancer patients in 2012. Data were collected through medical record reviews and interview by using structured questionnaire. Non-adherence was categorized as any breast cancer patients refusing or discontinuing any treatment due to non-medical reasons. Univariable logistic regression and multiple logistic regressions were used for analysis. Results: A total of 340 breast cancer patients were included in the study. The proportion for non-adherence to surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and hormonal therapy were 14%, 30.1%, 33.3% and 36.3% respectively. Factors associated with non-adherence to surgery were localities involving Kuala Lumpur (2 (OR: 3.41, Johor (OR: 8.38 and Kelantan (OR: 6.32, and those required mastectomy (OR: 5.66. No factors were found to be associated with non-adherence to chemotherapy, radiotherapy and hormonal therapy. These three treatment modalities were then combined as oncology therapy and the only independent factor associated with non-adherence to oncology therapy was Perak locality (OR: 1.42. Conclusion: Non-adherence to breast cancer treatments was high among breast cancer patients at public hospitals in Malaysia. Factors influencing non-adherence were locations and mastectomy implicating of socio-culture, body image issues, psychological disturbance and treatment navigation. Community educational programs focusing on correcting misconceptions, treatment outcomes and treatments’ side effects

  11. Is the higher rate of parental child homicide in stepfamilies an effect of non-genetic relatedness?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hans TEMRIN; Johanna NORDLUND; Mikael RYING; Birgitta S. TULLBERG

    2011-01-01

    In an evolutionary perspective individuals are expected to vary the degree of parental love and care in relation to the fitness value that a child represents. Hence, stepparents are expected to show less solicitude than genetically related parents, and this lack of genetic relatedness has been used to explain the higher frequencies of child abuse and homicide found in stepfamilies.However, other factors than non-genetic relatedness may cause this over-representation in stepfamilies. Here we use a 45-year data set of parental child homicides in Sweden to test two hypotheses related to the higher incidence in stepfamilies: 1) adults in different types of family differ in their general disposition to use violence, and 2) parents are more likely to kill stepchildren than genetically related children. Of the 152 perpetrators in biparental families there was an overrepresentation of perpetrators in stepfamilies (n=27) compared with the general population. We found support for the first hypothesis in that both general and violent crime rates were higher in stepfamilies, both in the general population and among perpetrators of child homicide. However, we found no support for the second hypothesis because of the 27 perpetrators in stepfamilies the perpetrator killed a genetically related child in 13 cases, a stepchild in 13 cases and both types of children in one case. Moreover, out of the 12 families where the perpetrator lived with both stepchildren and genetic children, there was no bias towards killing stepchildren. Thus, we found no evidence for an effect of non-genetic relatedness per se [Current Zoology 57 (3): 253-59, 2011].

  12. Training in Using Earplugs or Using Earplugs with a Higher than Necessary Noise Reduction Rating? A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Salmani Nodoushan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL is one of the most common occupational diseases and the second most common cause of workers' claims for occupational injuries. Objective: Due to high prevalence of NIHL and several reports of improper use of hearing protective devices (HPDs, we conducted this study to compare the effect of face-to-face training in effective use of earplugs with appropriate NRR to overprotection of workers by using earplugs with higher than necessary noise reduction rating (NRR. Methods: In a randomized clinical trial, 150 workers referred to occupational medicine clinic were randomly allocated to three arms—a group wearing earplugs with an NRR of 25 with no training in appropriate use of the device; a group wearing earplugs with an NRR of 25 with training; another group wearing earplugs with an NRR of 30, with no training. Hearing threshold was measured in the study groups by real ear attenuation at threshold (REAT method. This trial is registered with Australian New Zealand clinical trials Registry, number ACTRN00363175. Results: The mean±SD age of the participants was 28±5 (range: 19–39 years. 42% of participants were female. The mean noise attenuation in the group with training was 13.88 dB, significantly higher than those observed in other groups. The highest attenuation was observed in high frequencies (4, 6, and 8 kHz in the group with training. Conclusion: Training in appropriate use of earplugs significantly affects the efficacy of earplugs—even more than using an earplug with higher NRR.

  13. Is the higher rate of parental child homicide in stepfamilies an effect of non-genetic relatedness?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans TEMRIN, Johanna NORDLUND, Mikael RYING, Birgitta S. TULLBERG

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In an evolutionary perspective individuals are expected to vary the degree of parental love and care in relation to the fitness value that a child represents. Hence, stepparents are expected to show less solicitude than genetically related parents, and this lack of genetic relatedness has been used to explain the higher frequencies of child abuse and homicide found in stepfamilies. However, other factors than non-genetic relatedness may cause this over-representation in stepfamilies. Here we use a 45-year data set of parental child homicides in Sweden to test two hypotheses related to the higher incidence in stepfamilies: 1 adults in different types of family differ in their general disposition to use violence, and 2 parents are more likely to kill stepchildren than genetically related children. Of the 152 perpetrators in biparental families there was an overrepresentation of perpetrators in stepfamilies (n=27 compared with the general population. We found support for the first hypothesis in that both general and violent crime rates were higher in stepfamilies, both in the general population and among perpetrators of child homicide. However, we found no support for the second hypothesis because of the 27 perpetrators in stepfamilies the perpetrator killed a genetically related child in 13 cases, a stepchild in 13 cases and both types of children in one case. Moreover, out of the 12 families where the perpetrator lived with both stepchildren and genetic children, there was no bias towards killing stepchildren. Thus, we found no evidence for an effect of non-genetic relatedness per se [Current Zoology 57 (3: 253–259, 2011].

  14. The Offer of Advanced Imaging Techniques Leads to Higher Acceptance Rates for Screening Colonoscopy - a Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Heinz; Gallitz, Julia; Hable, Robert; Vieth, Michael; Tontini, Gian Eugenio; Neurath, Markus Friedrich; Riemann, Jurgen Ferdinand; Neumann, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Colonoscopy plays a fundamental role in early diagnosis and management of colorectal cancer and requires public and professional acceptance to ensure the ongoing success of screening programs. The aim of the study was to prospectively assess whether patient acceptance rates to undergo screening colonoscopy could be improved by the offer of advanced imaging techniques. Overall, 372 randomly selected patients were prospectively included. A standardized questionnaire was developed that inquired of the patients their knowledge regarding advanced imaging techniques. Second, several media campaigns and information events were organized reporting about advanced imaging techniques, followed by repeated evaluation. After one year the evaluation ended. At baseline, 64% of the patients declared that they had no knowledge about new endoscopic methods. After twelve months the overall grade of information increased significantly from 14% at baseline to 34%. The percentage of patients who decided to undergo colonoscopy because of the offer of new imaging methods also increased significantly from 12% at baseline to 42% after 12 months. Patients were highly interested in the offer of advanced imaging techniques. Knowledge about these techniques could relatively easy be provided using local media campaigns. The offer of advanced imaging techniques leads to higher acceptance rates for screening colonoscopies.

  15. 3D versus 2D Systematic Transrectal Ultrasound-Guided Prostate Biopsy: Higher Cancer Detection Rate in Clinical Practice

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    Alexandre Peltier

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To compare prostate cancer detection rates of extended 2D versus 3D biopsies and to further assess the clinical impact of this method in day-to-day practice. Methods. We analyzed the data of a cohort of 220 consecutive patients with no prior history of prostate cancer who underwent an initial prostate biopsy in daily practice due to an abnormal PSA and/or DRE using, respectively, the classical 2D and the new 3D systems. All the biopsies were done by a single experienced operator using the same standardized protocol. Results. There was no significant difference in terms of age, total PSA, or prostate volume between the two groups. However, cancer detection rate was significantly higher using the 3D versus the 2D system, 50% versus 34% (P<0.05. There was no statistically significant difference while comparing the 2 groups in term of nonsignificant cancer detection. Conclusion. There is reasonable evidence demonstrating the superiority of the 3D-guided biopsies in detecting prostate cancers that would have been missed using the 2D extended protocol.

  16. Exploring the relationship between general practice characteristics, and attendance at walk-in centres, minor injuries units and EDs in England 2012/2013: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammes, Peter; Morris, Richard W; Brangan, Emer; Checkland, Kath; England, Helen; Huntley, Alyson; Lasserson, Daniel; MacKichan, Fiona; Salisbury, Chris; Wye, Lesley; Purdy, Sarah

    2016-10-01

    For several years, EDs in the UK NHS have faced considerable increases in attendance rates. Walk-in centres (WiCs) and minor injuries units (MIUs) have been suggested as solutions. We aimed to investigate the associations between practice and practice population characteristics with ED attendance rates or combined ED/WiC/MIU attendance, and the associations between WiC/MIU and ED attendance. We used general practice-level data including 7462 English practices in 2012/2013 and present adjusted regression coefficients from linear multivariable analysis for relationships between patients' emergency attendance rates and practice characteristics. Every percentage-point increase in patients reporting inability to make an appointment was associated with an increase in emergency attendance by 0.36 (95% CI 0.06 to 0.66) per 1000 population. Percentage-point increases in patients unable to speak to a general practitioner (GP)/nurse within two workdays and patients able to speak often to their preferred GP were associated with increased emergency attendance/1000 population by 0.23 (95% CI 0.05 to 0.42) and 0.10 (95% CI 0.00 to 0.19), respectively. Practices in areas encompassing several towns (conurbations) had higher attendance than rural practices, as did practices with more non-UK-qualified GPs. Practice population characteristics associated with increased emergency attendance included higher unemployment rates, higher percentage of UK whites and lower male life expectancy, which showed stronger associations than practice characteristics. Furthermore, higher MIU or WiC attendance rates were associated with lower ED attendance rates. Improving availability of appointments and opportunities to speak a GP/nurse at short notice might reduce ED attendance. Establishing MIUs and WiCs might also reduce ED attendance. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  17. Group Prenatal Care Attendance: Determinants and Relationship with Care Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Shayna D; Grilo, Stephanie; Lewis, Jessica B; Novick, Gina; Rising, Sharon Schindler; Tobin, Jonathan N; Ickovics, Jeannette R

    2017-04-01

    Objectives Group prenatal care results in improved birth outcomes in randomized controlled trials, and better attendance at group prenatal care visits is associated with stronger clinical effects. This paper's objectives are to identify determinants of group prenatal care attendance, and to examine the association between proportion of prenatal care received in a group context and satisfaction with care. Methods We conducted a secondary data analysis of pregnant adolescents (n = 547) receiving group prenatal care in New York City (2008-2012). Multivariable linear regression models were used to test associations between patient characteristics and percent of group care sessions attended, and between the proportion of prenatal care visits that occurred in a group context and care satisfaction. Results Sixty-seven groups were established. Group sizes ranged from 3 to 15 women (mean = 8.16, SD = 3.08); 87 % of groups enrolled at least five women. Women enrolled in group prenatal care supplemented group sessions with individual care visits. However, the percent of women who attended each group session was relatively consistent, ranging from 56 to 63 %. Being born outside of the United States was significantly associated with higher group session attendance rates [B(SE) = 11.46 (3.46), p = 0.001], and women who received a higher proportion of care in groups reported higher levels of care satisfaction [B(SE) = 0.11 (0.02), p prenatal care as possible in a group setting, as well as value-based reimbursement models and other incentives to encourage more widespread adoption of group prenatal care.

  18. How Do Females With PTSD and Substance Abuse View 12-Step Groups? An Empirical Study of Attitudes and Attendance Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najavits, Lisa M; de Haan, Hein; Kok, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Self-help groups are beneficial for many people with addiction, predominantly through 12-step models. Yet obstacles to attendance also occur. We explored attendance patterns and attitudes toward self-help groups by 165 outpatient females with co-occurring posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorder (SUD), the first study of its kind. Cross-sectional self-report data compared adults versus adolescents, and those currently attending self-help versus not attending. We also explored attendance in relation to perceptions of the PTSD/SUD relationship and symptom severity. Adults reported higher attendance at self-help than adolescents, both lifetime and currently. Among current attendees, adults also attended more weekly groups than adolescents. Yet only a minority of both age cohorts attended any self-help in the past week. Adults perceived a stronger relationship between PTSD and SUD than adolescents, but both age groups gave low ratings to the fact that self-help groups do not address PTSD. That item also had low ratings by both those currently attending and not attending self-help. Analysis of those not currently attending identified additional negative attitudes toward self-help (spirituality, addiction as a life-long illness, sayings, and the fellowship). Symptom severity was not associated with attendance, but may reflect a floor effect. Finally, a surprising finding was that all-female groups were not preferred by any subsample. Conclusions/Importance. Creative solutions are needed to address obstacles to self-help among this population. Addressing trauma and PTSD, not just SUD, was valued by females we surveyed, and may be more helpful than all-female groups per se.

  19. HIV positivity but not HPV/p16 status is associated with higher recurrence rate in anal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Joshua E; Panico, Vinicius J A; Marconato, Heloisa M F; Sherr, David L; Christos, Paul; Pirog, Edyta C

    2013-12-01

    .06). The regional and distant failure rate was not related to HPV/p16 positivity or histologic differentiation of ACA; however, HIV positivity appeared to be associated with a higher recurrence rate and worse recurrence-free survival.

  20. Satellite telemetry reveals higher fishing mortality rates than previously estimated, suggesting overfishing of an apex marine predator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Michael E; Cortés, Enric; Vaudo, Jeremy J; Harvey, Guy C McN; Sampson, Mark; Wetherbee, Bradley M; Shivji, Mahmood

    2017-08-16

    Overfishing is a primary cause of population declines for many shark species of conservation concern. However, means of obtaining information on fishery interactions and mortality, necessary for the development of successful conservation strategies, are often fisheries-dependent and of questionable quality for many species of commercially exploited pelagic sharks. We used satellite telemetry as a fisheries-independent tool to document fisheries interactions, and quantify fishing mortality of the highly migratory shortfin mako shark ( Isurus oxyrinchus ) in the western North Atlantic Ocean. Forty satellite-tagged shortfin mako sharks tracked over 3 years entered the Exclusive Economic Zones of 19 countries and were harvested in fisheries of five countries, with 30% of tagged sharks harvested. Our tagging-derived estimates of instantaneous fishing mortality rates ( F = 0.19-0.56) were 10-fold higher than previous estimates from fisheries-dependent data (approx. 0.015-0.024), suggesting data used in stock assessments may considerably underestimate fishing mortality. Additionally, our estimates of F were greater than those associated with maximum sustainable yield, suggesting a state of overfishing. This information has direct application to evaluations of stock status and for effective management of populations, and thus satellite tagging studies have potential to provide more accurate estimates of fishing mortality and survival than traditional fisheries-dependent methodology. © 2017 The Author(s).

  1. Water Exchange Produces Significantly Higher Adenoma Detection Rate Than Water Immersion: Pooled Data From 2 Multisite Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Felix W; Koo, Malcolm; Cadoni, Sergio; Falt, Premysl; Hsieh, Yu-Hsi; Amato, Arnaldo; Erriu, Matteo; Fojtik, Petr; Gallittu, Paolo; Hu, Chi-Tan; Leung, Joseph W; Liggi, Mauro; Paggi, Silvia; Radaelli, Franco; Rondonotti, Emanuele; Smajstrla, Vit; Tseng, Chih-Wei; Urban, Ondrej

    2018-03-02

    To test the hypothesis that water exchange (WE) significantly increases adenoma detection rates (ADR) compared with water immersion (WI). Low ADR was linked to increased risk for interval colorectal cancers and related deaths. Two recent randomized controlled trials of head-to-head comparison of WE, WI, and traditional air insufflation (AI) each showed that WE achieved significantly higher ADR than AI, but not WI. The data were pooled from these 2 studies to test the above hypothesis. Two trials (5 sites, 14 colonoscopists) that randomized 1875 patients 1:1:1 to AI, WI, or WE were pooled and analyzed with ADR as the primary outcome. The ADR of AI (39.5%) and WI (42.4%) were comparable, significantly lower than that of WE (49.6%) (vs. AI P=0.001; vs. WI P=0.033). WE insertion time was 3 minutes longer than that of AI (Prate (vs. AI) of the >10 mm advanced adenomas. Right colon combined advanced and sessile serrated ADR of AI (3.4%) and WI (5%) were comparable and were significantly lower than that of WE (8.5%) (vs. AI P<0.001; vs. WI P=0.039). Compared with AI and WI, the superior ADR of WE offsets the drawback of a significantly longer insertion time. For quality improvement focused on increasing adenoma detection, WE is preferred over WI. The hypothesis that WE could lower the risk of interval colorectal cancers and related deaths should be tested.

  2. Impact of Attendance Policies on Course Attendance among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenneville, Tiffany; Jordan, Cary

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to investigate whether having a graded attendance policy would have an effect on course attendance among college students, and (b) to examine beliefs about education and attendance policies among college students. Results support the utility of graded attendance policies for increasing class attendance…

  3. Speech-based Class Attendance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faizel Amri, Umar; Nur Wahidah Nik Hashim, Nik; Hazrin Hany Mohamad Hanif, Noor

    2017-11-01

    In the department of engineering, students are required to fulfil at least 80 percent of class attendance. Conventional method requires student to sign his/her initial on the attendance sheet. However, this method is prone to cheating by having another student signing for their fellow classmate that is absent. We develop our hypothesis according to a verse in the Holy Qur’an (95:4), “We have created men in the best of mould”. Based on the verse, we believe each psychological characteristic of human being is unique and thus, their speech characteristic should be unique. In this paper we present the development of speech biometric-based attendance system. The system requires user’s voice to be installed in the system as trained data and it is saved in the system for registration of the user. The following voice of the user will be the test data in order to verify with the trained data stored in the system. The system uses PSD (Power Spectral Density) and Transition Parameter as the method for feature extraction of the voices. Euclidean and Mahalanobis distances are used in order to verified the user’s voice. For this research, ten subjects of five females and five males were chosen to be tested for the performance of the system. The system performance in term of recognition rate is found to be 60% correct identification of individuals.

  4. Attendance at antenatal clinics in inner-city Johannesburg, South Africa and its associations with birth outcomes: analysis of data from birth registers at three facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumede, Siphamandla; Black, Vivian; Naidoo, Nicolette; Chersich, Matthew F

    2017-07-04

    Antenatal care (ANC) clinics serve as key gateways to screening and treatment interventions that improve pregnancy outcomes, and are especially important for HIV-infected women. By disaggregating data on access to ANC, we aimed to identify variation in ANC attendance by level of care and across vulnerable groups in inner-city Johannesburg, and document the impact of non-attendance on birth outcomes. This record review of routine health service data involved manual extraction of 2 years of data from birth registers at a primary-, secondary- and tertiary-level facility within inner-city Johannesburg. Information was gathered on ANC attendance, HIV testing and status, pregnancy duration, delivery mode and birth outcomes. Women with an unknown attendance status were considered as not having attended clinic, but effects of this assumption were tested in sensitivity analyses. Multiple logistic regression was used to identify associations between ANC attendance and birth outcomes. Of 31,179 women who delivered, 88.7% (27,651) had attended ANC (95% CI = 88.3-89.0). Attendance was only 77% at primary care (5813/7543), compared to 89% at secondary (3661/4113) and 93% at tertiary level (18,177/19,523). Adolescents had lower ANC attendance than adults (85%, 1951/2295 versus 89%, 22,039/24,771). Only 37% of women not attending ANC had an HIV test (1308/3528), compared with 93% of ANC attenders (25,756/27,651). Caesarean section rates were considerably higher in women who had attended ANC (40%, 10,866/27,344) than non-attenders (13%, 422/3360). Compared to those who had attended ANC, non-attenders were 1.6 fold more likely to have a preterm delivery (95% CI adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.4-1.8) and 1.4 fold more likely to have a stillbirth (aOR 95% CI = 1.1-1.9). Similar results were seen in analyses where missing data on ANC attendance was classified in different ways. Inner-city Johannesburg has an almost 5% lower ANC attendance rate than national levels. Attendance is

  5. Attendance at antenatal clinics in inner-city Johannesburg, South Africa and its associations with birth outcomes: analysis of data from birth registers at three facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siphamandla Gumede

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antenatal care (ANC clinics serve as key gateways to screening and treatment interventions that improve pregnancy outcomes, and are especially important for HIV-infected women. By disaggregating data on access to ANC, we aimed to identify variation in ANC attendance by level of care and across vulnerable groups in inner-city Johannesburg, and document the impact of non-attendance on birth outcomes. Methods This record review of routine health service data involved manual extraction of 2 years of data from birth registers at a primary-, secondary- and tertiary-level facility within inner-city Johannesburg. Information was gathered on ANC attendance, HIV testing and status, pregnancy duration, delivery mode and birth outcomes. Women with an unknown attendance status were considered as not having attended clinic, but effects of this assumption were tested in sensitivity analyses. Multiple logistic regression was used to identify associations between ANC attendance and birth outcomes. Results Of 31,179 women who delivered, 88.7% (27,651 had attended ANC (95% CI = 88.3–89.0. Attendance was only 77% at primary care (5813/7543, compared to 89% at secondary (3661/4113 and 93% at tertiary level (18,177/19,523. Adolescents had lower ANC attendance than adults (85%, 1951/2295 versus 89%, 22,039/24,771. Only 37% of women not attending ANC had an HIV test (1308/3528, compared with 93% of ANC attenders (25,756/27,651. Caesarean section rates were considerably higher in women who had attended ANC (40%, 10,866/27,344 than non-attenders (13%, 422/3360. Compared to those who had attended ANC, non-attenders were 1.6 fold more likely to have a preterm delivery (95% CI adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.4–1.8 and 1.4 fold more likely to have a stillbirth (aOR 95% CI = 1.1–1.9. Similar results were seen in analyses where missing data on ANC attendance was classified in different ways. Conclusion Inner-city Johannesburg has an almost 5

  6. Infant outcomes of certified nurse midwife attended home births: United States 2000 to 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, M H

    2010-09-01

    Home births attended by certified nurse midwives (CNMs) make up an extremely small proportion of births in the United States (home deliveries compared with certified nurse midwife in-hospital deliveries in the United States as measured by the risk of adverse infant outcomes among women with term, singleton, vaginal deliveries. United States linked birth and infant death files for the years 2000 to 2004 were used for the analysis. Adverse neonatal outcomes including death were determined by place of birth and attendant type for in-hospital certified nurse midwife, in-hospital 'other' midwife, home certified nurse midwife, home 'other' midwife, and free-standing birth center certified nurse midwife deliveries. For the 5-year period there were 1 237 129 in-hospital certified nurse midwife attended births; 17 389 in-hospital 'other' midwife attended births; 13 529 home certified nurse midwife attended births; 42 375 home 'other' midwife attended births; and 25 319 birthing center certified nurse midwife attended births. The neonatal mortality rate per 1000 live births for each of these categories was, respectively, 0.5 (deaths=614), 0.4 (deaths=7), 1.0 (deaths=14), 1.8 (deaths=75), and 0.6 (deaths=16). The adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for neonatal mortality for home certified nurse midwife attended deliveries vs in-hospital certified nurse midwife attended deliveries was 2.02 (1.18, 3.45). Deliveries at home attended by CNMs and 'other midwives' were associated with higher risks for mortality than deliveries in-hospital by CNMs.

  7. International comparisons of preterm birth: higher rates of late preterm birth are associated with lower rates of stillbirth and neonatal death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisonkova, S; Sabr, Y; Butler, B; Joseph, K S

    2012-12-01

    To examine international rates of preterm birth and potential associations with stillbirths and neonatal deaths at late preterm and term gestation. Ecological study. Canada, USA and 26 countries in Europe. All deliveries in 2004. Information on preterm birth (Statistics Canada, the EURO-PERISTAT project and the National Center for Health Statistics. Pearson correlation coefficients and random-intercept Poisson regression were used to examine the association between preterm birth rates and gestational age-specific stillbirth and neonatal death rates. Rate ratios with 95% confidence intervals were estimated after adjustment for maternal age, parity and multiple births. Stillbirths and neonatal deaths ≥ 32 and ≥ 37 weeks of gestation. International rates of preterm birth (births. Preterm birth rates at 32-36 weeks were inversely associated with stillbirths at ≥ 32 weeks (adjusted rate ratio 0.94, 95% CI 0.92-0.96) and ≥ 37 weeks (adjusted rate ratio 0.88, 95% CI 0.85-0.91) of gestation and inversely associated with neonatal deaths at ≥ 32 weeks (adjusted rate ratio 0.88, 95% CI 0.85-0.91) and ≥ 37 weeks (adjusted rate ratio 0.82, 95% CI 0.78-0.86) of gestation. Countries with high rates of preterm birth at 32-36 weeks of gestation have lower stillbirth and neonatal death rates at and beyond 32 weeks of gestation. Contemporary rates of preterm birth are indicators of both perinatal health and obstetric care services. © 2012 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2012 RCOG.

  8. Does adding metformin to clomifene citrate lead to higher pregnancy rates in a subset of women with polycystic ovary syndrome?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moll, E.; Korevaar, J. C.; Bossuyt, P. M. M.; van der Veen, F.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An RCT among newly diagnosed, therapy naive women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) showed no significant differences in ovulation rate, ongoing pregnancy rate or spontaneous abortion rate in favour of clomifene citrate plus metformin compared with clomifene citrate. We wanted to

  9. Dietary habits and physical activity levels in Jordanian adolescents attending private versus public schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayyem, R F; Al-Hazzaa, H M; Abu-Mweis, S S; Bawadi, H A; Hammad, S S; Musaiger, A O

    2014-07-08

    The present study examined differences in dietary habits and physical activity levels between students attending private and public high schools in Jordan. A total of 386 secondary-school males and 349 females aged 14-18 years were randomly recruited using a multistage, stratified, cluster sampling technique. Dietary habits and physical activity level were self-reported in a validated questionnaire. The prevalence of obesity was significantly higher among adolescents in private (26.0%) than in public schools (16.7%). The frequency of breakfast intake was significantly higher among adolescents in private schools, whereas French fries and sweets intake was significantly higher in public schools. Television viewing showed a significant interaction with school type by sex. A higher rate of inactivity was found among students attending private schools. Despite a slightly better overall dietary profile for students in private schools, they had a higher rate of overweight and obesity compared with those in public schools.

  10. High-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in human papillomavirus self-sampling of screening non-attenders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lam, J U H; Elfström, K M; Ejegod, D. M.

    2018-01-01

    precancer lesions. Here, we compare the cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (⩾CIN2) detection rate between non-attenders who participated in self-sampling and women attending routine screening. METHODS: A total of 23 632 women who were qualified as non-attenders in the Copenhagen Region were......BACKGROUND: Self-sampling for human papillomavirus (HPV) offered to women who do not participate in cervical cancer screening is an increasingly popular method to increase screening coverage. The rationale behind self-sampling is that unscreened women harbour a high proportion of undetected...... higher detection rates for ⩾CIN2 than routine cytology-based screening, and similar detection rates as HPV and cytology co-testing. This reinforces the importance of self-sampling for screening non-attenders in organised cervical cancer screening.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 14...

  11. Student attendance and academic performance in undergraduate obstetrics/gynecology clinical rotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deane, Richard P; Murphy, Deirdre J

    2013-12-04

    of ≥60%) were present only among students with attendance rates of 80% or higher. The odds of a distinction grade increased with each 10% increase in attendance (adjusted odds ratio, 5.52; 95% CI, 2.17-14.00). The majority of failure grades (6/10 students; 60%) occurred in students with attendance rates lower than 80%. The adjusted odds ratio for failure with attendance rates of 80% or higher was 0.11 (95% CI, 0.02-0.72). Among fourth-year medical students completing an 8-week obstetrics/gynecology clinical rotation, attendance at clinical and tutorial-based activities was positively correlated with overall examination scores. Further research is needed to understand whether the relationship is causal, and whether improving attendance rates can improve academic performance.

  12. Treatment outcomes and loss to follow-up rate of male patients with gonococcal and nongonococcal urethritis who attended the sexually transmitted disease clinic: An 8-year retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeyaphan, Charussri; Jiamton, Sukhum; Chanyachailert, Pattriya; Surawan, Theetat; Omcharoen, Viboon

    2017-01-01

    Poor follow-up compliance of patients with infectious urethritis is a recognized and serious public health problem in Thailand. The aim of this study was to determine treatment outcomes and loss to follow-up rate of male patients with gonococcal urethritis (GU) and non-GU (NGU) at a sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic at Thailand's tertiary hospital. This retrospective chart review of male patients who sought treatment at STDs Clinic, Siriraj Hospital, and who were diagnosed with GU and/or NGU was conducted during January 2007 to December 2014 study period. Two hundred and twenty-seven male urethritis patients were included in this study with a mean age was 29.5 years. GU and NGU were found in 120 (52.9%) and 107 (47.1%) of patients, respectively. Overall prevalence of GU and NGU during the 8-year study period at STD Clinic, Siriraj Hospital, was 8.6% and 7.8%, respectively. Ninety-six patients (42.3%) were lost to follow-up. Recurrent urethritis was found in 23.8% of patients, and HIV infection was identified in 11.6%. Mean age of patients lost to follow-up was 29 years. Compared with patients who attended every scheduled follow-up visit, men who have sex with men had a significantly lower rate of loss to follow-up ( P = 0.012). Almost half of patients with GU or NGU were lost to follow-up, and one-quarter had recurrent urethritis. Fast and easy access to services that provide accurate diagnostic testing and effective treatment should be a public health priority to prevent complications and reduce rates of disease transmission.

  13. Higher dropout rate in non-native patients than in native patients in rehabilitation in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloots, Maurits; Scheppers, Emmanuel F.; van de Weg, Frans B.; Bartels, Edien A.; Geertzen, Jan H.; Dekker, Joost; Dekker, Jaap

    Dropout from a rehabilitation programme often occurs in patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain of non-native origin. However, the exact dropout rate is not known. The objective of this study was to determine the difference in dropout rate between native and non-native patients with chronic

  14. Accounting for Risk of Non-Completion in Private and Social Rates of Return to Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toutkoushian, Robert K.; Shafiq, M. Najeeb; Trivette, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Conventional studies of the private and social rates of return to a Bachelor's degree focus on the earnings difference between Bachelor degree holders and high school graduates, and find that there are large rates of return for degree recipients. The estimates in these studies, however, do not take into account the risk of not completing a degree.…

  15. Trauma centers with higher rates of angiography have a lesser incidence of splenectomy in the management of blunt splenic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capecci, Louis M; Jeremitsky, Elan; Smith, R Stephen; Philp, Frances

    2015-10-01

    Nonoperative management (NOM) for blunt splenic injury (BSI) is well-established. Angiography (ANGIO) has been shown to improve success rates with NOM. Protocols for NOM are not standardized and vary widely between centers. We hypothesized that trauma centers that performed ANGIO at a greater rate would demonstrate decreased rates of splenectomy compared with trauma centers that used ANGIO less frequently. A large, multicenter, statewide database (Pennsylvania Trauma Systems Foundation) from 2007 to 2011 was used to generate the study cohort of patients with BSI (age ≥ 13). The cohort was divided into 2 populations based on admission to centers with high (≥13%) or low (Splenectomy rates were then compared between the 2 groups, and multivariable logistic regression for predictors of splenectomy (failed NOM) were also performed. The overall rate of splenectomy in the entire cohort was 21.0% (1,120 of 5,333 BSI patients). The high ANGIO group had a lesser rate of splenectoy compared with the low ANGIO group (19% vs 24%; P splenectomy compared with low ANGIO centers (odds ratio, 0.68; 95% CI 0.58-0.80; P splenectomy rates compared with centers with lesser rate of ANGIO. Inclusion of angiographic protocols for NOM of BSI should be considered strongly. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Education Pays, 2010: The Benefits of Higher Education for Individuals and Society. Trends in Higher Education Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Sandy; Ma, Jennifer; Payea, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    Students who attend institutions of higher education obtain a wide range of personal, financial, and other lifelong benefits; likewise, taxpayers and society as a whole derive a multitude of direct and indirect benefits when citizens have access to postsecondary education. Accordingly, uneven rates of participation in higher education across…

  17. Higher prevalence of sexual transmitted diseases and correlates of genital warts among heterosexual males attending sexually transmitted infection clinics (MSCs) in Jiangmen, China: implication for the up-taking of STD related service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shujie; Tang, Weiming; Zhu, Zhengjun; Lu, Hekun; Tan, Xueling; Zhang, Baoyuan; Best, John; Yang, Ligang; Zheng, Heping; Jiang, Ning; Yin, Yueping; Yang, Bin; Chen, Xiangsheng

    2015-01-01

    Increasing burden of STDs is one of China's major public health concerns. However, only a limited number of studies have ever investigated the prevalence of these STDs, particular for genital warts and its correlates among heterosexual males attending STD clinics in China. In order to fill this gap, we conducted a cross-sectional study among MSCs in Jiangmen, China, between the years of 2009 and 2010. The eligible participants were recruited from several STD-clinics in public hospitals. We collected demographic information and behaviors of the participants. After HIV and syphilis testing, we further checked whether the participants had genital warts and genital herpes. In addition, urine samples were collected from part of the participants for CT and NG testing. Of the 533 eligible participants, over three-fifths were aged 35 or below, nearly three quarters had no college degree, over three-fifths were residence of Jiangmen. The prevalence of HIV, syphilis, genital warts, genital herpes, CT and NG were 0.19%, 7.50%, 7.32%, 5.25%, 9.73% and 6.19%, respectively. Living with family members (versus living alone), no STD-related service in past year, experiencing STDs related symptoms in past year, and sex with FSWs in last three months were positively associated with genital warts, with adjusted ORs of 5.54 (95% CI 1.94-15.81), 2.26 (95% CI 1.08-4.74), 1.99 (95% CI 1.00-3.99) and 2.01 (95% CI 1.00-4.04), respectively. Our study indicates that the prevalence of STDs among MSCs in Jiangmen was high, which may further spread HIV among MSCs. Targeted interventions that focused on STDs related services uptake should be implemented urgently.

  18. Higher prevalence of sexual transmitted diseases and correlates of genital warts among heterosexual males attending sexually transmitted infection clinics (MSCs in Jiangmen, China: implication for the up-taking of STD related service.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shujie Huang

    Full Text Available Increasing burden of STDs is one of China's major public health concerns. However, only a limited number of studies have ever investigated the prevalence of these STDs, particular for genital warts and its correlates among heterosexual males attending STD clinics in China. In order to fill this gap, we conducted a cross-sectional study among MSCs in Jiangmen, China, between the years of 2009 and 2010.The eligible participants were recruited from several STD-clinics in public hospitals. We collected demographic information and behaviors of the participants. After HIV and syphilis testing, we further checked whether the participants had genital warts and genital herpes. In addition, urine samples were collected from part of the participants for CT and NG testing.Of the 533 eligible participants, over three-fifths were aged 35 or below, nearly three quarters had no college degree, over three-fifths were residence of Jiangmen. The prevalence of HIV, syphilis, genital warts, genital herpes, CT and NG were 0.19%, 7.50%, 7.32%, 5.25%, 9.73% and 6.19%, respectively. Living with family members (versus living alone, no STD-related service in past year, experiencing STDs related symptoms in past year, and sex with FSWs in last three months were positively associated with genital warts, with adjusted ORs of 5.54 (95% CI 1.94-15.81, 2.26 (95% CI 1.08-4.74, 1.99 (95% CI 1.00-3.99 and 2.01 (95% CI 1.00-4.04, respectively.Our study indicates that the prevalence of STDs among MSCs in Jiangmen was high, which may further spread HIV among MSCs. Targeted interventions that focused on STDs related services uptake should be implemented urgently.

  19. Higher Precision of Heart Rate Compared with VO2 to Predict Exercise Intensity in Endurance-Trained Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Victor M; den Tillaar, Roland Van; Marques, Mario C

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the precision of oxygen uptake with heart rate regression during track running in highly-trained runners. Twelve national and international level male long-distance road runners (age 30.7 ± 5.5 yrs, height 1.71 ± 0.04 m and mass 61.2 ± 5.8 kg) with a personal best on the half marathon of 62 min 37 s ± 1 min 22 s participated in the study. Each participant performed, in an all-weather synthetic track five, six min bouts at constant velocity with each bout at an increased running velocity. The starting velocity was 3.33 m·s(-1) with a 0.56 m·s(-1) increase on each subsequent bout. VO2 and heart rate were measured during the runs and blood lactate was assessed immediately after each run. Mean peak VO2 and mean peak heart rate were, respectively, 76.2 ± 9.7 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1) and 181 ± 13 beats·min(-1). The linearity of the regressions between heart rate, running velocity and VO2 were all very high (r > 0.99) with small standard errors of regression (i.e. Sy.x at the velocity associated with the 2 and 4 mmol·L(-1) lactate thresholds). The strong relationships between heart rate, running velocity and VO2 found in this study show that, in highly trained runners, it is possible to have heart rate as an accurate indicator of energy demand and of the running speed. Therefore, in this subject cohort it may be unnecessary to use VO2 to track changes in the subjects' running economy during training periods. Key pointsHeart rate is used in the control of exercise intensity in endurance sports.However, few studies have quantified the precision of its relationship with oxygen uptake in highly trained runners.We evaluated twelve elite half-marathon runners during track running at various intensities and established three regressions: oxygen uptake / heart rate; heart rate / running velocity and oxygen uptake / running velocity.The three regressions presented, respectively, imprecision of 4,2%, 2,75% and 4,5% at the velocity

  20. Are Cancer incidence Rates Among Present And Past Workers Of The research Centers Of The Atomic Energy Commission higher Than The Rates Among The General Population?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litai, D.

    1999-01-01

    Cancer incidence rates among the workers of the AEC and its retirees have increased several fold in the last decade compared to the rates experienced in previous ones. This has brought about a wave of claims for compensation with negative repercussions in the media about the state of radiation safety in the nuclear research centers in the country. The Nuclear Research Center - Negev, being, generally closed to public and media visits, has taken the brunt of this criticism. Consequently, the question spelled out in the title has caused much concern and deserves to be discussed and explained. The purpose of this paper is to review what we know in this context and to show that the observed morbidity rates, worrying as they may be, are entirely natural, and, by and large, unrelated to the occupational exposures of the workers. It is well known that cancer incidence rates in the population rise steeply with age, especially over 50. As both research centers are approaching the age of 40, it is clear that a very large fraction of the workers and all retirees have passed this age and many are already in their sixties and even seventies. It is a well established fact that close to 40% of the population in this country (and many others as well) develop some type of cancer during their lifetime and close to a half of these succumb to it. As most of those cancers occur after the age of 50, this explains the increased rates alluded to above. Notably, numerous research centers around the globe have reached similar ages in the last decade and experience similar increases in morbidity, that have caused understandable concern and the initiation of epidemiological studies intended to identify the health effects of extended exposures to low doses, if any. Such studies have been carried out in several countries and followed, altogether, about 100,000 workers through 40 years. The studies showed no excess of cancer mortality among workers compared to the general population (adjusted

  1. Examining the Effects of Religious Attendance on Resilience for Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Lydia K; Miles, Andrew

    2018-02-01

    Growing older often brings hardship, adversity, and even trauma. Resilience is a broad term used to describe flourishing despite adversity. To date, resilience and the connections to religion have not been well studied, despite compelling evidence that religious practice can promote psychological health. This research examines the role that religion plays in promoting resilience among older adults. Research questions include: (a) What is the relationship between religion and trait resilience? and (b) Does religion promote resilient reintegration following traumatic life events? Results indicate that religious service attendance is tied to higher levels of trait resilience and that both service attendance and trait resilience directly predict lower levels of depression and higher rates of resilient reintegration following traumatic life events. Findings suggest that religious service attendance has protective properties that are worthy of consideration when investigating resilience.

  2. Faster eating rates are associated with higher energy intakes during an ad libitum meal, higher BMI and greater adiposity among 4·5-year-old children: results from the Growing Up in Singapore Towards Healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Anna; Goh, Ai Ting; Fries, Lisa R; Sadananthan, Suresh A; Velan, S Sendhil; Michael, Navin; Tint, Mya-Thway; Fortier, Marielle V; Chan, Mei Jun; Toh, Jia Ying; Chong, Yap-Seng; Tan, Kok Hian; Yap, Fabian; Shek, Lynette P; Meaney, Michael J; Broekman, Birit F P; Lee, Yung Seng; Godfrey, Keith M; Chong, Mary F F; Forde, Ciarán G

    2017-04-01

    Faster eating rates are associated with increased energy intake, but little is known about the relationship between children's eating rate, food intake and adiposity. We examined whether children who eat faster consume more energy and whether this is associated with higher weight status and adiposity. We hypothesised that eating rate mediates the relationship between child weight and ad libitum energy intake. Children (n 386) from the Growing Up in Singapore Towards Healthy Outcomes cohort participated in a video-recorded ad libitum lunch at 4·5 years to measure acute energy intake. Videos were coded for three eating-behaviours (bites, chews and swallows) to derive a measure of eating rate (g/min). BMI and anthropometric indices of adiposity were measured. A subset of children underwent MRI scanning (n 153) to measure abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adiposity. Children above/below the median eating rate were categorised as slower and faster eaters, and compared across body composition measures. There was a strong positive relationship between eating rate and energy intake (r 0·61, P<0·001) and a positive linear relationship between eating rate and children's BMI status. Faster eaters consumed 75 % more energy content than slower eating children (Δ548 kJ (Δ131 kcal); 95 % CI 107·6, 154·4, P<0·001), and had higher whole-body (P<0·05) and subcutaneous abdominal adiposity (Δ118·3 cc; 95 % CI 24·0, 212·7, P=0·014). Mediation analysis showed that eating rate mediates the link between child weight and energy intake during a meal (b 13·59; 95 % CI 7·48, 21·83). Children who ate faster had higher energy intake, and this was associated with increased BMI z-score and adiposity.

  3. HIGHER PRECISION OF HEART RATE COMPARED WITH VO2 TO PREDICT EXERCISE INTENSITY IN ENDURANCE-TRAINED RUNNERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor M. Reis

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to assess the precision of oxygen uptake with heart rate regression during track running in highly-trained runners. Twelve national and international level male long-distance road runners (age 30.7 ± 5.5 yrs, height 1.71 ± 0.04 m and mass 61.2 ± 5.8 kg with a personal best on the half marathon of 62 min 37 s ± 1 min 22 s participated in the study. Each participant performed, in an all-weather synthetic track five, six min bouts at constant velocity with each bout at an increased running velocity. The starting velocity was 3.33 m·s-1 with a 0.56 m·s-1 increase on each subsequent bout. VO2 and heart rate were measured during the runs and blood lactate was assessed immediately after each run. Mean peak VO2 and mean peak heart rate were, respectively, 76.2 ± 9.7 mL·kg-1·min-1 and 181 ± 13 beats·min-1. The linearity of the regressions between heart rate, running velocity and VO2 were all very high (r > 0.99 with small standard errors of regression (i.e. Sy.x < 5% at the velocity associated with the 2 and 4 mmol·L-1 lactate thresholds. The strong relationships between heart rate, running velocity and VO2 found in this study show that, in highly trained runners, it is possible to have heart rate as an accurate indicator of energy demand and of the running speed. Therefore, in this subject cohort it may be unnecessary to use VO2 to track changes in the subjects' running economy during training periods.

  4. Utilization of skilled birth attendants at delivery among urban women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Maternal mortality ratio remains high in Nigeria and the Presence of skilled birth attendants at delivery is a key strategy towards reducing the rate. Objective: To determine the rate and factors that affect utilization of skilled birth attendants (SBA) among Igbo women in Nnewi, South-Eastern Nigeria. Methodology: ...

  5. Score of Inattention Subscale of ADHD Rating Scale-IV is Significantly Higher for AD/HD than PDD.

    OpenAIRE

    Fujibayashi, Hiromi; Kitayama, Shinji; Matsuo, Masafumi

    2010-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) and pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) must be differentiated because the respective treatments are different. However, they are difficult to distinguish because they often show similar symptoms. At our hospital, we have the rearer of a patient answer both the ADHD Rating Scale-IV (ADHD-RS) and the Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire (ASSQ), and use the results as an aid for the diagnosis of AD/HD or PDD. These results were compared wit...

  6. Hydraulic conductance as well as nitrogen accumulation plays a role in the higher rate of leaf photosynthesis of the most productive variety of rice in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylaran, Renante D; Adachi, Shunsuke; Ookawa, Taiichiro; Usuda, Hideaki; Hirasawa, Tadashi

    2011-07-01

    An indica variety Takanari is known as one of the most productive rice varieties in Japan and consistently produces 20-30% heavier dry matter during ripening than Japanese commercial varieties in the field. The higher rate of photosynthesis of individual leaves during ripening has been recognized in Takanari. By using pot-grown plants under conditions of minimal mutual shading, it was confirmed that the higher rate of leaf photosynthesis is responsible for the higher dry matter production after heading in Takanari as compared with a japonica variety, Koshihikari. The rate of leaf photosynthesis and shoot dry weight became larger in Takanari after the panicle formation and heading stages, respectively, than in Koshihikari. Roots grew rapidly in the panicle formation stage until heading in Takanari compared with Koshihikari. The higher rate of leaf photosynthesis in Takanari resulted not only from the higher content of leaf nitrogen, which was caused by its elevated capacity for nitrogen accumulation, but also from higher stomatal conductance. When measured under light-saturated conditions, stomatal conductance was already decreased due to the reduction in leaf water potential in Koshihikari even under conditions of a relatively small difference in leaf-air vapour pressure difference. In contrast, the higher stomatal conductance was supported by the maintenance of higher leaf water potential through the higher hydraulic conductance in Takanari with the larger area of root surface. However, no increase in root hydraulic conductivity was expected in Takanari. The larger root surface area of Takanari might be a target trait in future rice breeding for increasing dry matter production.

  7. Association between higher levels of sexual function, activity, and satisfaction and self-rated successful aging in older postmenopausal women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Wesley K.; Charo, Lindsey; Vahia, Ipsit V.; Depp, Colin; Allison, Matthew; Jeste, Dilip V.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To determine if measures of successful-aging are associated with sexual activity, satisfaction, and function in older post-menopausal women. Design Cross-sectional study using self-report surveys; analyses include chi-square and t-tests and multiple linear regression analyses. Setting Community-dwelling older post-menopausal women in the greater San Diego Region. Participants 1,235 community-dwelling women aged 60-89 years participating at the San Diego site of the Women's Health Initiative. Measurements Demographics and self-report measures of sexual activity, function, and satisfaction and successful aging. Results Sexual activity and functioning (desire, arousal, vaginal tightness, use of lubricants, and ability to climax) were negatively associated with age, as were physical and mental health. In contrast, sexual satisfaction and self-rated successful aging and quality of life remained unchanged across age groups. Successful aging measures were positively associated with sexual measures, especially self-rated quality of life and sexual satisfaction. Conclusions Self-rated successful aging, quality of life, and sexual satisfaction appear to be stable in the face of declines in physical health, some cognitive abilities, and sexual activity and function and are positively associated with each other across ages 60-89 years. PMID:21797827

  8. Do More Hospital Beds Lead to Higher Hospitalization Rates? A Spatial Examination of Roemer’s Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delamater, Paul L.; Messina, Joseph P.; Grady, Sue C.; WinklerPrins, Vince; Shortridge, Ashton M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Roemer’s Law, a widely cited principle in health care policy, states that hospital beds that are built tend to be used. This simple but powerful expression has been invoked to justify Certificate of Need regulation of hospital beds in an effort to contain health care costs. Despite its influence, a surprisingly small body of empirical evidence supports its content. Furthermore, known geographic factors influencing health services use and the spatial structure of the relationship between hospital bed availability and hospitalization rates have not been sufficiently explored in past examinations of Roemer’s Law. We pose the question, “Accounting for space in health care access and use, is there an observable association between the availability of hospital beds and hospital utilization?” Methods We employ an ecological research design based upon the Anderson behavioral model of health care utilization. This conceptual model is implemented in an explicitly spatial context. The effect of hospital bed availability on the utilization of hospital services is evaluated, accounting for spatial structure and controlling for other known determinants of hospital utilization. The stability of this relationship is explored by testing across numerous geographic scales of analysis. The case study comprises an entire state system of hospitals and population, evaluating over one million inpatient admissions. Results We find compelling evidence that a positive, statistically significant relationship exists between hospital bed availability and inpatient hospitalization rates. Additionally, the observed relationship is invariant with changes in the geographic scale of analysis. Conclusions This study provides evidence for the effects of Roemer’s Law, thus suggesting that variations in hospitalization rates have origins in the availability of hospital beds. This relationship is found to be robust across geographic scales of analysis. These findings suggest

  9. Fish community reassembly after a coral mass mortality: higher trophic groups are subject to increased rates of extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, David; Pinyol-Gallemí, Aleix; Alcoverro, Teresa; Arthur, Rohan

    2015-05-01

    Since Gleason and Clements, our understanding of community dynamics has been influenced by theories emphasising either dispersal or niche assembly as central to community structuring. Determining the relative importance of these processes in structuring real-world communities remains a challenge. We tracked reef fish community reassembly after a catastrophic coral mortality in a relatively unfished archipelago. We revisited the stochastic model underlying MacArthur and Wilson's Island Biogeography Theory, with a simple extension to account for trophic identity. Colonisation and extinction rates calculated from decadal presence-absence data based on (1) species neutrality, (2) trophic identity and (3) site-specificity were used to model post-disturbance reassembly, and compared with empirical observations. Results indicate that species neutrality holds within trophic guilds, and trophic identity significantly increases overall model performance. Strikingly, extinction rates increased clearly with trophic position, indicating that fish communities may be inherently susceptible to trophic downgrading even without targeted fishing of top predators. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  10. Differential campsite pricing and campground attendance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbur F. LaPage; Paula L. Cormier; George T. Hamilton; Alan D. Cormier

    1975-01-01

    Several changes in the characteristics of campers' visits were discovered by comparing camping permit data before and after the start of differential campsite pricing at a New Hampshire state park campground in 1973. Differentials included a premium charge for waterfront sites and a preferential rate for New Hampshire residents. Attendance by state residents...

  11. The Active Management of Risk in Multiparous Pregnancy at Term: association between a higher preventive labor induction rate and improved birth outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, James M.; Caughey, Aaron; Stenson, Ms. Morghan H.; Cronholm, Peter; Kellar, Lisa; Bennett, Ian; Margo, Katie; Stratton, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine if exposure of multiparous women to a high rate of preventive labor induction was associated with a significantly lower cesarean delivery rate. Study Design Retrospective cohort study involving 123 multiparas, who were exposed to the frequent use of preventive labor induction, and 304 multiparas, who received standard management. Rates of cesarean delivery and other adverse birth outcomes were compared in the two groups. Logistic regression controlled for confounding covariates. Results The exposed group had a lower cesarean delivery rate (aOR 0.09, 0.8% vs. 9.9%, p = 0.02) and a higher uncomplicated vaginal delivery rate (OR 0.53, 78.9% vs. 66.4%, p=0.01). Exposure was not associated with higher rates of other adverse birth outcomes. Conclusion Exposure of multiparas to a high rate of preventive labor induction was significantly associated with improved birth outcomes including a very low cesarean delivery rate. A prospective randomized trial is needed to determine causality. PMID:19254584

  12. Potential impact on HIV incidence of higher HIV testing rates and earlier antiretroviral therapy initiation in MSM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillips, Andrew N; Cambiano, Valentina; Miners, Alec

    2015-01-01

    count 350/μl. We investigated what would be required to reduce HIV incidence in MSM to below 1 per 1000 person-years (i.e. cost-effective. METHODS: A dynamic, individual-based simulation model was calibrated to multiple data sources...... with viral suppression to 80%, and it would be 90%, if ART is initiated at diagnosis. The scenarios required for such a policy to be cost-effective are presented. CONCLUSION: This analysis provides targets for the proportion of all HIV-positive MSM with viral suppression required to achieve substantial......BACKGROUND: Increased rates of testing, with early antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation, represent a key potential HIV-prevention approach. Currently, in MSM in the United Kingdom, it is estimated that 36% are diagnosed by 1 year from infection, and the ART initiation threshold is at CD4 cell...

  13. PCR reveals significantly higher rates of Trypanosoma cruzi infection than microscopy in the Chagas vector, Triatoma infestans: High rates found in Chuquisaca, Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucero David E

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Andean valleys of Bolivia are the only reported location of sylvatic Triatoma infestans, the main vector of Chagas disease in this country, and the high human prevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in this region is hypothesized to result from the ability of vectors to persist in domestic, peri-domestic, and sylvatic environments. Determination of the rate of Trypanosoma infection in its triatomine vectors is an important element in programs directed at reducing human infections. Traditionally, T. cruzi has been detected in insect vectors by direct microscopic examination of extruded feces, or dissection and analysis of the entire bug. Although this technique has proven to be useful, several drawbacks related to its sensitivity especially in the case of small instars and applicability to large numbers of insects and dead specimens have motivated researchers to look for a molecular assay based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR as an alternative for parasitic detection of T. cruzi infection in vectors. In the work presented here, we have compared a PCR assay and direct microscopic observation for diagnosis of T. cruzi infection in T. infestans collected in the field from five localities and four habitats in Chuquisaca, Bolivia. The efficacy of the methods was compared across nymphal stages, localities and habitats. Methods We examined 152 nymph and adult T. infestans collected from rural areas in the department of Chuquisaca, Bolivia. For microscopic observation, a few drops of rectal content obtained by abdominal extrusion were diluted with saline solution and compressed between a slide and a cover slip. The presence of motile parasites in 50 microscopic fields was registered using 400× magnification. For the molecular analysis, dissection of the posterior part of the abdomen of each insect followed by DNA extraction and PCR amplification was performed using the TCZ1 (5' – CGA GCT CTT GCC CAC ACG GGT GCT – 3

  14. Effect of temperature during ion sputtering on the surface segregation rate of antimony in an iron-antimony alloy at higher temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oku, M.; Hirokawa, K.; Kimura, H.; Suzuki, S.

    1986-01-01

    The surface segregation of antimony in an iron-0.23 at% antimony alloy was studied by XPS. The segregation rate in the temperature range between 800 and 900 K depends on the temperature during sputtering with argon ion of kinetic energy of 1 keV. The sputtering at room temperature or 473 K gives higher values of the segregation rate than those at 673 K. Both cases give the activation energy of 170 kJmol -1 for the surface segregation rate. The segregation of antimony is not observed after the sample is heated at 1000 K. (author)

  15. Loose regulation of medical marijuana programs associated with higher rates of adult marijuana use but not cannabis use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Arthur Robin; Santaella-Tenorio, Julian; Mauro, Christine M; Levin, Frances R; Martins, Silvia S

    2017-11-01

    Most US states have passed medical marijuana laws (MMLs), with great variation in program regulation impacting enrollment rates. We aimed to compare changes in rates of marijuana use, heavy use and cannabis use disorder across age groups while accounting for whether states enacted medicalized (highly regulated) or non-medical mml programs. Difference-in-differences estimates with time-varying state-level MML coded by program type (medicalized versus non-medical). Multi-level linear regression models adjusted for state-level random effects and covariates as well as historical trends in use. Nation-wide cross-sectional survey data from the US National Survey of Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) restricted use data portal aggregated at the state level. Participants comprised 2004-13 NSDUH respondents (n ~ 67 500/year); age groups 12-17, 18-25 and 26+ years. States had implemented eight medicalized and 15 non-medical MML programs. Primary outcome measures included (1) active (past-month) marijuana use; (2) heavy use (> 300 days/year); and (3) cannabis use disorder diagnosis, based on DSM-IV criteria. Covariates included program type, age group and state-level characteristics throughout the study period. Adults 26+ years of age living in states with non-medical MML programs increased past-month marijuana use 1.46% (from 4.13 to 6.59%, P = 0.01), skewing towards greater heavy marijuana by 2.36% (from 14.94 to 17.30, P = 0.09) after MMLs were enacted. However, no associated increase in the prevalence of cannabis use disorder was found during the study period. Our findings do not show increases in prevalence of marijuana use among adults in states with medicalized MML programs. Additionally, there were no increases in adolescent or young adult marijuana outcomes following MML passage, irrespective of program type. Non-medical marijuana laws enacted in US states are associated with increased marijuana use, but only among adults aged 26+ years. Researchers and

  16. Work stress among nursing home care attendants in Taiwan: a questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hui-Chuan; Kung, Yuan-Wei; Huang, Hsiao-Chien; Ho, Pei-Yu; Lin, Ya-Ying; Chen, Wen-Shin

    2007-07-01

    Care attendants constitute the main workforce in nursing homes, but their heavy workload, low autonomy, and indefinite responsibility result in high levels of stress and may affect quality of care. However, few studies have focused of this problem. The aim of this study was to examine work-related stress and associated factors that affect care attendants in nursing homes and to offer suggestions for how management can alleviate these problems in care facilities. We recruited participants from nine nursing homes with 50 or more beds located in middle Taiwan; 110 care attendants completed the questionnaire. The work stress scale for the care attendants was validated and achieved good reliability (Cronbach's alpha=0.93). We also conducted exploratory factor analysis. Six factors were extracted from the work stress scale: insufficient ability, stressful reactions, heavy workload, trouble in care work, poor management, and working time problems. The explained variance achieved 64.96%. Factors related to higher work stress included working in a hospital-based nursing home, having a fixed schedule, night work, feeling burden, inconvenient facility, less enthusiasm, and self-rated higher stress. Work stress for care attendants in nursing homes is related to human resource management and quality of care. We suggest potential management strategies to alleviate work stress for these workers.

  17. Being born under adverse economic conditions leads to a higher cardiovascular mortality rate later in life: evidence based on individuals born at different stages of the business cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Berg, Gerard J; Doblhammer-Reiter, Gabriele; Christensen, Kaare

    2011-01-01

    since the 1870s and including the cause of death. To capture exogenous variation of conditions early in life, we use the state of the business cycle around birth. We find significant negative effects of economic conditions around birth on the individual CV mortality rate at higher ages...

  18. Boarding is associated with higher rates of medication delays and adverse events but fewer laboratory-related delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sri-On, Jiraporn; Chang, Yuchiao; Curley, David P; Camargo, Carlos A; Weissman, Joel S; Singer, Sara J; Liu, Shan W

    2014-09-01

    Hospital crowding and emergency department (ED) boarding are large and growing problems. To date, there has been a paucity of information regarding the quality of care received by patients boarding in the ED compared with the care received by patients on an inpatient unit. We compared the rate of delays and adverse events at the event level that occur while boarding in the ED vs while on an inpatient unit. This study was a secondary analysis of data from medical record review and administrative databases at 2 urban academic teaching hospitals from August 1, 2004, through January 31, 2005. We measured delayed repeat cardiac enzymes, delayed partial thromboplastin time level checks, delayed antibiotic administration, delayed administration of home medications, and adverse events. We compared the incidence of events during ED boarding vs while on an inpatient unit. Among 1431 patient medical records, we identified 1016 events. Emergency department boarding was associated with an increased risk of home medication delays (risk ratio [RR], 1.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.26-1.88), delayed antibiotic administration (RR, 2.49; 95% CI, 1.72-3.52), and adverse events (RR, 2.36; 95% CI, 1.15-4.72). On the contrary, ED boarding was associated with fewer delays in repeat cardiac enzymes (RR, 0.17; 95% CI, 0.09-0.27) and delayed partial thromboplastin time checks (RR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.27-0.96). Compared with inpatient units, ED boarding was associated with more medication-related delays and adverse events but fewer laboratory-related delays. Until we can eliminate ED boarding, it is critical to identify areas for improvement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Low-birthweight rates higher among Bangladeshi neonates measured during active birth surveillance compared to national survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemm, Rolf D W; Merrill, Rebecca D; Wu, Lee; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Ali, Hasmot; Labrique, Alain; Christian, Parul; West, Keith P

    2015-10-01

    Birth size is an important gauge of fetal and neonatal health. Birth size measurements were collected within 72 h of life for 16 290 live born, singleton infants in rural Bangladesh from 2004 to 2007. Gestational age was calculated based on the date of last menstrual period. Newborns were classified as small-for-gestational age (SGA) based on a birthweight below the 10th percentile for gestational age, using three sets of US reference data. Birth size distributions were explored based on raw values as well as after z-score standardisation in reference to World Health Organization (WHO) 2006 growth standards. Mean (SD) birthweight (g), length (cm) and head circumference (cm) measurements, completed within [median (25th, 75th percentile)] 15 (8, 23) h of life, were 2433 (425), 46.4 (2.4) and 32.4 (1.6), respectively. Twenty-two per cent were born preterm. Over one-half (55.3%) of infants were born low birthweight; 46.6%, 37.0% and 33.6% had a weight, length and head circumference below -2 z-scores of the WHO growth standard at birth; and 70.9%, 72.2% and 59.8% were SGA for weight based on Alexander et al., Oken et al. and Olsen et al. references, respectively. Infants in this typical rural Bangladesh setting were commonly born small, reflecting a high burden of fetal growth restriction and preterm birth. Our findings, produced by active birth surveillance, suggest that low birthweight is far more common than suggested by cross-sectional survey estimates. Interventions that improve fetal growth during pregnancy may have the largest impact on reducing SGA rates. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Numerical and experimental investigation of the bell-mouth inlet design of a centrifugal fan for higher internal flow rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang Hyeon; Heo, Seung; Cheong, Cheolung; Kim, Tae Hoon

    2013-01-01

    The energy efficiency of a household refrigerator is one of the most critical characteristics considered by manufacturers and consumers. Numerous studies in various fields have been conducted to increase energy efficiency. One of the most efficient methods to reduce the energy consumption of a refrigerator is by improving the performance of fans inside the refrigerator. A number of studies reported various ways to enhance fan performance. However, the majority of these studies focused solely on the fan and did not consider the working environment of the fan, such as the inlet and outlet flow characteristics. The expected performance of fans developed without consideration of these characteristics cannot be determined because complex inlet and outlet flow passage could adversely affect performance. This study investigates the effects of the design of the bell-mouth inlet on the performance of a centrifugal fan in a household refrigerator. In preliminary numerical studies, significant flow loss is identified through the bell-mouth inlet in the target fan system. Several design factors such as tip clearance, inner fence, motor-box struts, and guide vane are proposed to resolve these flow losses. The effects of these factors on fan performance are investigated using computational fluid dynamics techniques to solve incompressible Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations for predicting the circulating flow of the fan. Experiments are then performed to validate the numerical predictions. Results indicate that four design factors positively affect fan performance in terms of flow rate. The guide vane is the most effective design factor to consider for improving fan performance. Further studies are conducted to investigate the detailed effects of the guide vane by varying its install angle, install location, height, and length. These studies determine the optimum design of the guide vane to achieve the highest performance of the fan and the related flow characteristics

  1. Numerical and experimental investigation of the bell-mouth inlet design of a centrifugal fan for higher internal flow rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Hyeon; Heo, Seung; Cheong, Cheolung [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Hoon [Refrigeration Division, Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-15

    The energy efficiency of a household refrigerator is one of the most critical characteristics considered by manufacturers and consumers. Numerous studies in various fields have been conducted to increase energy efficiency. One of the most efficient methods to reduce the energy consumption of a refrigerator is by improving the performance of fans inside the refrigerator. A number of studies reported various ways to enhance fan performance. However, the majority of these studies focused solely on the fan and did not consider the working environment of the fan, such as the inlet and outlet flow characteristics. The expected performance of fans developed without consideration of these characteristics cannot be determined because complex inlet and outlet flow passage could adversely affect performance. This study investigates the effects of the design of the bell-mouth inlet on the performance of a centrifugal fan in a household refrigerator. In preliminary numerical studies, significant flow loss is identified through the bell-mouth inlet in the target fan system. Several design factors such as tip clearance, inner fence, motor-box struts, and guide vane are proposed to resolve these flow losses. The effects of these factors on fan performance are investigated using computational fluid dynamics techniques to solve incompressible Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations for predicting the circulating flow of the fan. Experiments are then performed to validate the numerical predictions. Results indicate that four design factors positively affect fan performance in terms of flow rate. The guide vane is the most effective design factor to consider for improving fan performance. Further studies are conducted to investigate the detailed effects of the guide vane by varying its install angle, install location, height, and length. These studies determine the optimum design of the guide vane to achieve the highest performance of the fan and the related flow characteristics

  2. Father Attendance in Nurse Home Visitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, John R.; Olds, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Our aim was to examine the rates and predictors of father attendance at nurse home visits in replication sites of the Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP). Early childhood programs can facilitate father involvement in the lives of their children, but program improvements require an understanding of factors that predict father involvement. The sample consisted of 29,109 low-income, first-time mothers who received services from 694 nurses from 80 sites. We conducted mixed-model multiple regression analyses to identify population, implementation, site, and nurse influences on father attendance. Predictors of father attendance included a count of maternal visits (B = 0.12, SE = 0.01, F = 3101.77), frequent contact between parents (B = 0.61, SE = 0.02, F = 708.02), cohabitation (B = 1.41, SE = 0.07, F = 631.51), White maternal race (B = 0.77, SE = 0.06, F = 190.12), and marriage (B = 0.42, SE = 0.08, F = 30.08). Random effects for sites and nurses predicted father-visit participation (2.7 & 6.7% of the variance, respectively), even after controlling for population sociodemographic characteristics. These findings suggest that factors operating at the levels of sites and nurses influence father attendance at home visits, even after controlling for differences in populations served. Further inquiry about these influences on father visit attendance is likely to inform program-improvement efforts. PMID:25521707

  3. Age, place of living and education influences the pregnancy universal thyroid function screening program attendance - questionnaire study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milewicz, Tomasz; Zuk, Małgorzata; Stochmal, Ewa; Hubalewska-Dydejczyk, Alicja; Galicka-Latała, Danuta; Juszczyk, Leszek; Krzysiek, Józef

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess attendance at the universal screening programme for thyroid function in pregnancy and attempt to evaluate the influence of age, number of past pregnancies, level of education, and place of residence on the attendance. The study was performed by means of a questionnaire. Our study was performed on the basis of an anonymous questionnaire handed out to 543 women aged 16-45 years, on the third day of their puerperal stay in one of five obstetric wards in southern Poland. The questionnaire contained questions about participation in plasma level measurements of TSH, fT4, total T4, thyroid antibodies or thyroid ultrasound scanning at least once in pregnancy. The rate of attendance at any examination of thyroid function among pregnant women was 26.7%. The highest attendance rate (32.7%) was found among women living in provincial capitals or with higher education (41.3%), whereas the lowest was among women who had completed only primary school (11%) and those living in county towns (15%). The number of previous pregnancies did not influence the thyroid screening attendance. Women over 21 years of age participated in this screening programme more frequently (27.1-30%). Less than one third of pregnant women participated in the thyroid function screening. Place of living, education level, and age were the main factors influencing the attendance rate.

  4. Point-Counterpoint: Should Attendance Be Required in Collegiate Classrooms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Jo Ann M.; Lohrey, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines two divergent viewpoints about whether or not class attendance should be mandatory in higher education. The authors, both accounting professors at the same institution, delineate their respective viewpoints citing school policy, federal regulations and academic freedom as factors which motivate their attendance policy.

  5. CBP Time and Attendance Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The TAMS, supports time and attendance (payroll), overtime cap monitoring, overtime scheduling functions, budget reporting, staffing level reporting, and a variety...

  6. APPRAISAL OF STUDENT RATING AS A MEASURE TO MANAGE THE QUALITY OF HIGHER EDUCATION IN INDIA: AN INSTITUTIONAL STUDY USING SIX SIGMA MODEL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Vijay

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Students' rating of teaching is one of the most widely accepted methods of measuring the quality in Higher Education worldwide. The overall experience gained by the students during their academic journey in their respective college is a key factor to determine the Institutional Quality. This study was conducted among the Physical Therapy students with an objective to capture the overall experience related to various aspects of their Academic environment including teaching and learning process adopted in their college. To facilitate that, a unique questionnaire called,"Academic Environment Evaluation Questionnaire (AEEQ was developed covering all the important teaching elements of the Higher Education Institutions. The students' opinion was captured and analyzed through six sigma analytical tool using Poisson distribution model. From the non-conformance level captured through the responses from the students about the various categories of teaching and learning elements, the corresponding Sigma rating for each teaching element was measured. Accordingly, a six point Quality rating system was developed customizing to each sigma values. This study brings a new, innovative student driven Quality rating system for the Higher Education Institutions in India.

  7. Why September Matters: Improving Student Attendance. Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Linda S.

    2014-01-01

    This brief examines absences in September and students' attendance over the rest of the year. Attendance should be addressed before it becomes problematic. Chronic absenteeism, missing more than 20 days of a school year, is an early indicator of disengagement. High absence rates have negative consequences not only for individual students, but also…

  8. Postpartum care attendance at a rural district hospital in Zambia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Lagro (Joep); A. Liche (Agnes); J. Mumba (John); R. Ntebeka (Ruth); J. van Roosmalen (Jos)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractPostpartum care is an important tool in both preventive and promotive maternal health care. We studied the postpartum care attendance rate in 540 women who delivered at a district hospital in Zambia. Forty-two percent of the women attended postpartum care within six weeks of delivery.

  9. Indigenous Australians and Preschool Education: Who Is Attending?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, Nicholas

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the individual, family, household and area level characteristics associated with preschool attendance for Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians (aged three to five years who are not at school). Controlling for these factors explains all of the difference between Indigenous and non-Indigenous attendance rates for…

  10. Attendance Policies, Student Attendance, and Instructor Verbal Aggressiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Jason; Forbus, Robert; Cistulli, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The authors utilized an experimental design across six sections of a managerial communications course (N = 173) to test the impact of instructor verbal aggressiveness and class attendance policies on student class attendance. The experimental group received a policy based on the principle of social proof (R. B. Cialdini, 2001), which indicated…

  11. Endometrial Scratch Injury Induces Higher Pregnancy Rate for Women With Unexplained Infertility Undergoing IUI With Ovarian Stimulation: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maged, Ahmed M; Al-Inany, Hesham; Salama, Khaled M; Souidan, Ibrahim I; Abo Ragab, Hesham M; Elnassery, Noura

    2016-02-01

    To explore the impact of endometrial scratch injury (ESI) on intrauterine insemination (IUI) success. One hundred and fifty four infertile women received 100 mg of oral clomiphene citrate for 5 days starting on day 3 of the menstrual cycle. Patients were randomized to 2 equal groups: Group C received IUI without ESI and group S had ESI. Successful pregnancy was confirmed by ultrasound. 13, 21, and 10 women got pregnant after the first, second, and third IUI trials, respectively, with 28.6% cumulative pregnancy rate (PR). The cumulative PR was significantly higher in group S (39%) compared to group C (18.2%). The PR in group S was significantly higher compared to that in group C at the second and third trials. The PR was significantly higher in group S at the second trial compared to that reported in the same group at the first trial but nonsignificantly higher compared to that reported during the third trial, while in group C, the difference was nonsignificant. Eight pregnant women had first trimester abortion with 18.2% total abortion rate with nonsignificant difference between studied groups. The ESI significantly improves the outcome of IUI in women with unexplained infertility especially when conducted 1 month prior to IUI. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Being born under adverse economic conditions leads to a higher cardiovascular mortality rate later in life: evidence based on individuals born at different stages of the business cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Gerard J; Doblhammer-Reiter, Gabriele; Christensen, Kaare

    2011-05-01

    We connect the recent medical and economic literatures on the long-run effects of early-life conditions by analyzing the effects of economic conditions on the individual cardiovascular (CV) mortality rate later in life, using individual data records from the Danish Twin Registry covering births since the 1870s and including the cause of death. To capture exogenous variation of conditions early in life, we use the state of the business cycle around birth. We find significant negative effects of economic conditions around birth on the individual CV mortality rate at higher ages. There is no effect on the cancer-specific mortality rate. From variation within and between monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs born under different conditions, we conclude that the fate of an individual is more strongly determined by genetic and household-environmental factors if early-life conditions are poor. Individual-specific qualities come more to fruition if the starting position in life is better.

  13. Higher Prevalence and Awareness, but Lower Control Rate of Hypertension in Patients with Diabetes than General Population: The Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Hyun Ko

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundWe investigated the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control rate of hypertension in Korean adults with diabetes using nationally representative data.MethodsUsing data of 5,105 adults from the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2011 (4,389 nondiabetes mellitus [non-DM], 242 newly diagnosed with DM (new-DM, and 474 previously diagnosed with DM (known-DM, we analyzed the prevalence of hypertension (mean systolic blood pressure ≥140 mm Hg, diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mm Hg, or use of antihypertensive medication and control rate of hypertension (blood pressure [BP] <130/80 mm Hg.ResultsThe prevalence of hypertension in diabetic adults was 54.6% (44.4% in new-DM and 62.6% in known-DM, P<0.0001 and P<0.0001, respectively compared with non-DM adults (26.2%. Compared to non-DM, awareness (85.7%, P<0.001 and treatment (97.0%, P=0.020 rates were higher in known-DM, whereas no differences were found between new-DM and non-DM. Control rate among all hypertensive subjects was lower in new-DM (14.9%, compared to non-DM (35.1%, P<0.001 and known-DM (33.3%, P=0.004. Control rate among treated subjects was also lower in new-DM (25.2%, compared to non-DM (68.4%, P<0.0001 and known-DM (39.9%, P<0.0001.ConclusionHigher prevalence and low control rate of hypertension in adults with diabetes suggest that stringent efforts are needed to control BP in patients with diabetes, particularly in newly diagnosed diabetic patients.

  14. Higher success rate with transcranial electrical stimulation of motor-evoked potentials using constant-voltage stimulation compared with constant-current stimulation in patients undergoing spinal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigematsu, Hideki; Kawaguchi, Masahiko; Hayashi, Hironobu; Takatani, Tsunenori; Iwata, Eiichiro; Tanaka, Masato; Okuda, Akinori; Morimoto, Yasuhiko; Masuda, Keisuke; Tanaka, Yuu; Tanaka, Yasuhito

    2017-10-01

    During spine surgery, the spinal cord is electrophysiologically monitored via transcranial electrical stimulation of motor-evoked potentials (TES-MEPs) to prevent injury. Transcranial electrical stimulation of motor-evoked potential involves the use of either constant-current or constant-voltage stimulation; however, there are few comparative data available regarding their ability to adequately elicit compound motor action potentials. We hypothesized that the success rates of TES-MEP recordings would be similar between constant-current and constant-voltage stimulations in patients undergoing spine surgery. The objective of this study was to compare the success rates of TES-MEP recordings between constant-current and constant-voltage stimulation. This is a prospective, within-subject study. Data from 100 patients undergoing spinal surgery at the cervical, thoracic, or lumbar level were analyzed. The success rates of the TES-MEP recordings from each muscle were examined. Transcranial electrical stimulation with constant-current and constant-voltage stimulations at the C3 and C4 electrode positions (international "10-20" system) was applied to each patient. Compound muscle action potentials were bilaterally recorded from the abductor pollicis brevis (APB), deltoid (Del), abductor hallucis (AH), tibialis anterior (TA), gastrocnemius (GC), and quadriceps (Quad) muscles. The success rates of the TES-MEP recordings from the right Del, right APB, bilateral Quad, right TA, right GC, and bilateral AH muscles were significantly higher using constant-voltage stimulation than those using constant-current stimulation. The overall success rates with constant-voltage and constant-current stimulations were 86.3% and 68.8%, respectively (risk ratio 1.25 [95% confidence interval: 1.20-1.31]). The success rates of TES-MEP recordings were higher using constant-voltage stimulation compared with constant-current stimulation in patients undergoing spinal surgery. Copyright © 2017

  15. Self-Sampling for Human Papillomavirus Testing among Non-Attenders Increases Attendance to the Norwegian Cervical Cancer Screening Programme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espen Enerly

    Full Text Available Increasing attendance to screening offers the best potential for improving the effectiveness of well-established cervical cancer screening programs. Self-sampling at home for human papillomavirus (HPV testing as an alternative to a clinical sampling can be a useful policy to increase attendance. To determine whether self-sampling improves screening attendance for women who do not regularly attend the Norwegian Cervical Cancer Screening Programme (NCCSP, 800 women aged 25-69 years in the Oslo area who were due to receive a 2nd reminder to attend regular screening were randomly selected and invited to be part of the intervention group. Women in this group received one of two self-sampling devices, Evalyn Brush or Delphi Screener. To attend screening, women in the intervention group had the option of using the self-sampling device (self-sampling subgroup or visiting their physician for a cervical smear. Self-sampled specimens were split and analyzed for the presence of high-risk (hr HPV by the CLART® HPV2 test and the digene® Hybrid Capture (HC2 test. The control group consisted of 2593 women who received a 2nd reminder letter according to the current guidelines of the NCCSP. The attendance rates were 33.4% in the intervention group and 23.2% in the control group, with similar attendance rates for both self-sampling devices. Women in the self-sampling subgroup responded favorably to both self-sampling devices and cited not remembering receiving a call for screening as the most dominant reason for previous non-attendance. Thirty-two of 34 (94.1% hrHPV-positive women in the self-sampling subgroup attended follow-up. In conclusion, self-sampling increased attendance rates and was feasible and well received. This study lends further support to the proposal that self-sampling may be a valuable alternative for increasing cervical cancer screening coverage in Norway.

  16. Self-Sampling for Human Papillomavirus Testing among Non-Attenders Increases Attendance to the Norwegian Cervical Cancer Screening Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enerly, Espen; Bonde, Jesper; Schee, Kristina; Pedersen, Helle; Lönnberg, Stefan; Nygård, Mari

    2016-01-01

    Increasing attendance to screening offers the best potential for improving the effectiveness of well-established cervical cancer screening programs. Self-sampling at home for human papillomavirus (HPV) testing as an alternative to a clinical sampling can be a useful policy to increase attendance. To determine whether self-sampling improves screening attendance for women who do not regularly attend the Norwegian Cervical Cancer Screening Programme (NCCSP), 800 women aged 25-69 years in the Oslo area who were due to receive a 2nd reminder to attend regular screening were randomly selected and invited to be part of the intervention group. Women in this group received one of two self-sampling devices, Evalyn Brush or Delphi Screener. To attend screening, women in the intervention group had the option of using the self-sampling device (self-sampling subgroup) or visiting their physician for a cervical smear. Self-sampled specimens were split and analyzed for the presence of high-risk (hr) HPV by the CLART® HPV2 test and the digene® Hybrid Capture (HC)2 test. The control group consisted of 2593 women who received a 2nd reminder letter according to the current guidelines of the NCCSP. The attendance rates were 33.4% in the intervention group and 23.2% in the control group, with similar attendance rates for both self-sampling devices. Women in the self-sampling subgroup responded favorably to both self-sampling devices and cited not remembering receiving a call for screening as the most dominant reason for previous non-attendance. Thirty-two of 34 (94.1%) hrHPV-positive women in the self-sampling subgroup attended follow-up. In conclusion, self-sampling increased attendance rates and was feasible and well received. This study lends further support to the proposal that self-sampling may be a valuable alternative for increasing cervical cancer screening coverage in Norway.

  17. Associations between usual school lunch attendance and eating habits and sedentary behaviour in French children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubuisson, C; Lioret, S; Dufour, A; Volatier, J L; Lafay, L; Turck, D

    2012-12-01

    Our objective was to investigate whether school lunch attendance was associated with overall eating habits and sedentary behaviour in a French sample of children and adolescents. Data for the study were taken from the second French cross-sectional dietary survey (INCA2-2006-07). In total, 1413 school children aged 3-17 years old were classified according to their school type and their usual school lunch attendance. Eating habits included meal regularity, dietary diversity, purchase in vending machine, snacking habits and frequency of eating in fast-foods. Two composite indices of eating habits were derived from multiple correspondence analyses. Sedentary behaviour was assessed by the average daily screen times for TV and computer. The association between school lunch attendance and each variable was tested. Multivariate association between school lunch attendance and the composite indices of eating habits and sedentary behaviours was studied. In all, 69.0% (CI(95%): 64.2-73.9) of secondary school children and 63.0% (CI(95%): 58.5-67.5) of pre- and elementary school children usually attended school lunch at least once a week. Pre- and elementary school children attending school lunches showed a higher dietary diversity score (P=0.02) and ate morning snacks more frequently (P=0.02). In secondary school children, attending school canteen was related to a lower rate of skipping breakfast (P=0.04) and main meals (P=0.01). In all school children, school lunch attendance was simultaneously associated with healthier overall eating habits and less sedentary behaviour. In France, children attending school canteens seem to have healthier eating habits and display less sedentary behaviour, independently of their socio-economic and demographic background.

  18. Improving the ablation efficiency of excimer laser systems with higher repetition rates through enhanced debris removal and optimized spot pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arba-Mosquera, Samuel; Klinner, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate the reasons for the required increased radiant exposure for higher-repetition-rate excimer lasers and determine experimentally possible compensations to achieve equivalent ablation profiles maintaining the same single-pulse energies and radiant exposures for laser repetition rates ranging from 430 to 1000 Hz. Schwind eye-tech-solutions GmbH and Co. KG, Kleinostheim, Germany. Experimental study. Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) plates were photoablated. The pulse laser energy was maintained during all experiments; the effects of the flow of the debris removal, the shot pattern for the correction, and precooling the PMMA plates were evaluated in terms of achieved ablation versus repetition rate. The mean ablation performance ranged from 88% to 100%; the variability between the profile measurements ranged from 1.4% to 6.2%. Increasing the laser repetition rate from 430 Hz to 1000 Hz reduced the mean ablation performance from 98% to 91% and worsened the variability from 1.9% to 4.3%. Increasing the flow of the debris removal, precooling the PMMA plates to -18°C, and adapting the shot pattern for the thermal response of PMMA to excimer ablation helped stabilize the variability. Only adapting the shot pattern for the thermal response of PMMA to excimer ablation helped stabilize the mean ablation performance. The ablation performance of higher-repetition-rate excimer lasers on PMMA improved with improvements in the debris removal systems and shot pattern. More powerful debris removal systems and smart shot patterns in terms of thermal response improved the performance of these excimer lasers. Copyright © 2014 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Older Adults With a Combination of Vision and Hearing Impairment Experience Higher Rates of Cognitive Impairment, Functional Dependence, and Worse Outcomes Across a Set of Quality Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Jacob G S; Guthrie, Dawn M

    2017-08-01

    Hearing and vision impairment were examined across several health-related outcomes and across a set of quality indicators (QIs) in home care clients with both vision and hearing loss (or dual sensory impairment [DSI]). Data collected using the Resident Assessment Instrument for Home Care (RAI-HC) were analyzed in a sample of older home care clients. The QIs represent the proportion of clients experiencing negative outcomes (e.g., falls, social isolation). The average age of clients was 82.8 years ( SD = 7.9), 20.5% had DSI and 8.5% had a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Clients with DSI were more likely to have a diagnosis of dementia (not AD), have functional impairments, report loneliness, and have higher rates across 20 of the 22 QIs, including communication difficulty and cognitive decline. Clients with highly impaired hearing, and any visual impairment, had the highest QI rates. Individuals with DSI experience higher rates of adverse events across many health-related outcomes and QIs. Understanding the unique contribution of hearing and vision in this group can promote optimal quality of care.

  20. Central nervous system tumours among adolescents and young adults (15-39 years) in Southern and Eastern Europe: Registration improvements reveal higher incidence rates compared to the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakis, Marios K; Panagopoulou, Paraskevi; Papathoma, Paraskevi; Tragiannidis, Athanasios; Ryzhov, Anton; Zivkovic-Perisic, Snezana; Eser, Sultan; Taraszkiewicz, Łukasz; Sekerija, Mario; Žagar, Tina; Antunes, Luis; Zborovskaya, Anna; Bastos, Joana; Florea, Margareta; Coza, Daniela; Demetriou, Anna; Agius, Domenic; Strahinja, Rajko M; Sfakianos, Georgios; Nikas, Ioannis; Kosmidis, Sofia; Razis, Evangelia; Pourtsidis, Apostolos; Kantzanou, Maria; Dessypris, Nick; Petridou, Eleni Th

    2017-11-01

    To present incidence of central nervous system (CNS) tumours among adolescents and young adults (AYAs; 15-39 years) derived from registries of Southern and Eastern Europe (SEE) in comparison to the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER), US and explore changes due to etiological parameters or registration improvement via evaluating time trends. Diagnoses of 11,438 incident malignant CNS tumours in AYAs (1990-2014) were retrieved from 14 collaborating SEE cancer registries and 13,573 from the publicly available SEER database (1990-2012). Age-adjusted incidence rates (AIRs) were calculated; Poisson and joinpoint regression analyses were performed for temporal trends. The overall AIR of malignant CNS tumours among AYAs was higher in SEE (28.1/million) compared to SEER (24.7/million). Astrocytomas comprised almost half of the cases in both regions, albeit the higher proportion of unspecified cases in SEE registries (30% versus 2.5% in SEER). Similar were the age and gender distributions across SEE and SEER with a male-to-female ratio of 1.3 and an overall increase of incidence by age. Increasing temporal trends in incidence were documented in four SEE registries (Greater Poland, Portugal North, Turkey-Izmir and Ukraine) versus an annual decrease in Croatia (-2.5%) and a rather stable rate in SEER (-0.3%). This first report on descriptive epidemiology of AYAs malignant CNS tumours in the SEE area shows higher incidence rates as compared to the United States of America and variable temporal trends that may be linked to registration improvements. Hence, it emphasises the need for optimisation of cancer registration processes, as to enable the in-depth evaluation of the observed patterns by disease subtype. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A Randomized Controlled Trial Offering Higher- Compared with Lower-Dairy Second Meals Daily in Preschools in Guinea-Bissau Demonstrates an Attendance-Dependent Increase in Weight Gain for Both Meal Types and an Increase in Mid-Upper Arm Circumference for the Higher-Dairy Meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, Payal; Schlossman, Nina; Balan, Ionela; Pruzensky, William; Balan, Adrian; Brown, Carrie; Gamache, Madeleine G; Schleicher, Molly M; de Sa, Augusto Braima; Saltzman, Edward; Wood, Lauren; Roberts, Susan B

    2016-01-01

    Controversy remains over the most effective approaches to prevent childhood malnutrition. We tested the feasibility and effectiveness of delivering ready-to-use supplementary foods (RUSFs) as a second daily meal in preschool children aged 3-5 y in Guinea-Bissau, and compared RUSFs with different levels of dairy protein. This study was a 3 mo cluster-randomized controlled pilot trial of 2 RUSFs differing in dairy protein in 533 boys and girls from 9 preschools. Children receiving RUSFs were compared with wait-listed controls, and all students received a daily school lunch. The RUSFs were delivered 5 d/wk for 3 mo and contained 478 kcal and 11.5 g protein per 92-g daily serving. Deliveries included a ready-to-use supplementary food with 15% of protein from dairy sources (RUSF-15%) or one with 33% of protein from dairy sources (RUSF-33%). Intention-to-treat (ITT) and per-protocol analyses (>50 d of RUSF consumption) were conducted. Changes in the weight-for-age z score (WAZ) and height-for-age z score were primary outcomes. Additional outcomes included changes in mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), hemoglobin, and retinol binding protein. Baseline anthropometry was not different between groups (WAZ, -0.48 ± 1.04) and increased significantly over time (P 50 d had a significantly greater increase in WAZ relative to the increase in controls (+0.40 and +0.32 for RUSF-15% and RUSF-33%, respectively, compared with +0.24 in controls, P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively). RUSF-33%, but not RUSF-15%, also eliminated a decrease in MUAC observed in controls (-0.01 cm in RUSF-33% compared with -0.34 cm in controls, P < 0.05). The only difference between RUSF-15% and RUSF-33% was a mean decrease in hemoglobin in children receiving RUSF-15% (-0.5 compared with -0.002 g/dL, P = 0.05). Implementation of 2-meal preschool feeding programs is feasible in low-income countries, and there are measurable benefits relative to 1-meal programs in children attending preschool regularly. In

  2. The Zulu traditional birth attendant

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some of the important practices of Zulu traditional birth attendants ... the people as regards pregnancy and labour. This article docu- .... into account previous perinatal deaths. ... They were either widows or married to husbands unable to work.

  3. Enhancing Brain Lesions during Acute Optic Neuritis and/or Longitudinally Extensive Transverse Myelitis May Portend a Higher Relapse Rate in Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orman, G; Wang, K Y; Pekcevik, Y; Thompson, C B; Mealy, M; Levy, M; Izbudak, I

    2017-05-01

    Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders are inflammatory demyelinating disorders with optic neuritis and/or longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis episodes. We now know that neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders are associated with antibodies to aquaporin-4, which are highly concentrated on astrocytic end-feet at the blood-brain barrier. Immune-mediated disruption of the blood-brain barrier may manifest as contrast enhancement on brain MR imaging. We aimed to delineate the extent and frequency of contrast enhancement on brain MR imaging within 1 month of optic neuritis and/or longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis attacks and to correlate contrast enhancement with outcome measures. Brain MRIs of patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders were evaluated for patterns of contrast enhancement (periependymal, cloudlike, leptomeningeal, and so forth). The Fisher exact test was used to evaluate differences between the proportion of contrast enhancement in patients who were seropositive and seronegative for aquaporin-4 antibodies. The Mann-Whitney test was used to compare the annualized relapse rate and disease duration between patients with and without contrast enhancement and with and without seropositivity. Brain MRIs of 77 patients were evaluated; 59 patients (10 males, 49 females) were scanned within 1 month of optic neuritis and/or longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis attacks and were included in the analysis. Forty-eight patients were seropositive, 9 were seronegative, and 2 were not tested for aquaporin-4 antibodies. Having brain contrast enhancement of any type during an acute attack was significantly associated with higher annualized relapse rates ( P = .03) and marginally associated with shorter disease duration ( P = .05). Having periependymal contrast enhancement was significantly associated with higher annualized relapse rates ( P = .03). Brain MRIs of patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders with contrast

  4. Higher tacrolimus trough levels on days 2-5 post-renal transplant are associated with reduced rates of acute rejection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Seaghdha, C M

    2011-04-06

    We analyzed the association between whole-blood trough tacrolimus (TAC) levels in the first days post-kidney transplant and acute cellular rejection (ACR) rates. Four hundred and sixty-four consecutive, deceased-donor kidney transplant recipients were included. All were treated with a combination of TAC, mycophenolate mofetil and prednisolone. Patients were analyzed in four groups based on quartiles of the mean TAC on days 2 and 5 post-transplant: Group 1: median TAC 11 ng\\/mL (n = 122, range 2-13.5 ng\\/mL), Group 2: median 17 ng\\/mL (n = 123, range 14-20 ng\\/mL), Group 3: median 24 ng\\/mL (n = 108, range 20.5-27 ng\\/mL) and Group 4: median 33.5 ng\\/mL (n = 116, range 27.5-77.5 ng\\/mL). A graded reduction in the rates of ACR was observed for each incremental days 2-5 TAC. The one-yr ACR rate was 24.03% (95% CI 17.26-32.88), 22.20% (95% CI 15.78-30.70), 13.41% (95% CI 8.15-21.63) and 8.69% (95% CI 4.77-15.55) for Groups 1-4, respectively (p = 0.003). This study suggests that higher early TACs are associated with reduced rates of ACR at one yr.

  5. Association between attendance at religious services and self-reported health in 22 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Amanda; Rose, Richard; Bobak, Martin

    2009-08-01

    There are consistent reports of protective associations between attendance at religious services and better self-rated health but existing data rarely consider the social or individual context of religious behaviour. This paper investigates whether attendance at religious services is associated with better self-rated health in diverse countries across Europe. It also explores whether the association varies with either individual-level (gender, educational, social contact) or country-level characteristics (overall level of religious practice, corruption, GDP). Cross-sectional data from round 2 of the European Social Survey were used and 18,328 men and 21,373 women from 22 European countries were included in multilevel analyses, with country as higher level. Compared to men who attended religious services at least once a week, men who never attended were almost twice as likely to describe their health as poor, with an age and education adjusted odds ratio of 1.83 [95% CI, 1.49-2.26]. A similar but weaker effect was seen in women, with an age and education adjusted odds ratio of 1.38 [1.19-1.61]. The associations were reduced only marginally in men by controlling for health status, social contact and country-level variables, but weakened in women. The relationships were stronger in people with longstanding illness, less than university education and in more affluent countries with lower levels of corruption and higher levels of religious belief. These analyses confirm that an association between less frequent attendance at religious services and poor health exists across Europe, but emphasise the importance of taking individual and contextual factors into account. It remains unclear to what extent the observed associations reflect reverse causality or are due to differing perceptions of health.

  6. Interferon-free treatment for patients with chronic hepatitis C and autoimmune liver disease: higher SVR rates with special precautions for deterioration of autoimmune hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Tatsuo; Yasui, Shin; Nakamura, Masato; Nakamoto, Shingo; Takahashi, Koji; Wu, Shuang; Sasaki, Reina; Haga, Yuki; Ogasawara, Sadahisa; Saito, Tomoko; Kobayashi, Kazufumi; Kiyono, Soichiro; Ooka, Yoshihiko; Suzuki, Eiichiro; Chiba, Tetsuhiro; Maruyama, Hitoshi; Imazeki, Fumio; Moriyama, Mitsuhiko; Kato, Naoya

    2018-02-20

    Interferon-free treatment can achieve higher sustained virological response (SVR) rates, even in patients in whom hepatitis C virus (HCV) could not be eradicated in the interferon treatment era. Immune restoration in the liver is occasionally associated with HCV infection. We examined the safety and effects of interferon-free regimens on HCV patients with autoimmune liver diseases. All 7 HCV patients with autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) completed treatment and achieved SVR. Three patients took prednisolone (PSL) at baseline, and 3 did not take PSL during interferon-free treatment. In one HCV patient with AIH and cirrhosis, PSL were not administered at baseline, but she needed to take 40 mg/day PSL at week 8 for liver dysfunction. She also complained back pain and was diagnosed with vasospastic angina by coronary angiography at week 11. However, she completed interferon-free treatment. All 5 HCV patients with primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) completed treatment and achieved SVR. Three of these HCV patients with PBC were treated with UDCA during interferon-free treatment. Interferon-free regimens could result in higher SVR rates in HCV patients with autoimmune liver diseases. As interferon-free treatment for HCV may have an effect on hepatic immunity and activity of the autoimmune liver diseases, careful attention should be paid to unexpected adverse events in their treatments. Total 12 patients with HCV and autoimmune liver diseases [7 AIH and PBC], who were treated with interferon-free regimens, were retrospectively analyzed.

  7. Leflunomide is associated with a higher flare rate compared to methotrexate in the treatment of chronic uveitis in juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichler, J; Benseler, S M; Krumrey-Langkammerer, M; Haas, J-P; Hügle, B

    2015-01-01

    Chronic anterior uveitis is a serious complication of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA); disease flares are highly associated with loss of vision. Leflunomide (LEF) is used successfully for JIA joint disease but its effectiveness in uveitis has not been determined. The aim of this study was to determine whether LEF improves flare rates of uveitis in JIA patients compared to preceding methotrexate (MTX) therapy. A single-centre retrospective study of consecutive children with JIA and chronic anterior uveitis was performed. All children initially received MTX and were then switched to LEF. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data, dose and duration of MTX and LEF therapy, concomitant medications and rate of anterior uveitis flares, as determined by an expert ophthalmologist, were obtained. Flare rates were compared using a generalized linear mixed model with a negative binomial distribution. A total of 15 children were included (80% females, all antinuclear antibody positive). The median duration of MTX therapy was 51 (range 26-167) months; LEF was given for a median of 12 (range 4-47) months. Anti-tumour necrosis factor (anti-TNF-α) co-medication was given to four children while on MTX. By contrast, LEF was combined with anti-TNF-α treatment in six children. On MTX, JIA patients showed a uveitis flare rate of 0.0247 flares/month, while LEF treatment was associated with a significantly higher flare rate of 0.0607 flares/month (p = 0.008). Children with JIA had significantly more uveitis flares on LEF compared to MTX despite receiving anti-TNF-α co-medication more frequently. Therefore, LEF may need to be considered less effective in controlling chronic anterior uveitis.

  8. Improving the Quantity and Quality of Attendance Data to Enhance Student Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Eleri; Price, Trevor; Lloyd, Steve; Thomas, Steve

    2005-01-01

    This article draws attention to local and global attendance monitoring in higher education. The paper outlines benefits of attendance monitoring for both the individual learner and university, and compares traditional paper-based attendance monitoring systems with an electronic system piloted in the Business School and School of Technology at the…

  9. Ways to be different: Foraging adaptations that facilitate higher intake rates in a northerly wintering shorebird compared with a low-latitude conspecific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruthrauff, Daniel R.; Dekinga, Anne; Gill, Robert E.; van Gils, Jan A.; Piersma, Theunis

    2015-01-01

    At what phenotypic level do closely related subspecies that live in different environments differ with respect to food detection, ingestion and processing? This question motivated an experimental study on rock sandpipers (Calidris ptilocnemis). The species' nonbreeding range spans 20 deg of latitude, the extremes of which are inhabited by two subspecies: C. p. ptilocnemis that winters primarily in upper Cook Inlet, Alaska (61°N) and C. p. tschuktschorum that overlaps slightly with C. p. ptilocnemis but whose range extends much farther south (∼40°N). In view of the strongly contrasting energetic demands of their distinct nonbreeding distributions, we conducted experiments to assess the behavioral, physiological and sensory aspects of foraging and we used the bivalve Macoma balthica for all trials. C. p. ptilocnemis consumed a wider range of prey sizes, had higher maximum rates of energy intake, processed shell waste at higher maximum rates and handled prey more quickly. Notably, however, the two subspecies did not differ in their abilities to find buried prey. The subspecies were similar in size and had equally sized gizzards, but the more northern ptilocnemis individuals were 10–14% heavier than their same-sex tschuktschorum counterparts. The higher body mass in ptilocnemis probably resulted from hypertrophy of digestive organs (e.g. intestine, liver) related to digestion and nutrient assimilation. Given the previously established equality of the metabolic capacities of the two subspecies, we propose that the high-latitude nonbreeding range of ptilocnemis rock sandpipers is primarily facilitated by digestive (i.e. physiological) aspects of their foraging ecology rather than behavioral or sensory aspects.

  10. Core-needle biopsy of breast cancer is associated with a higher rate of distant metastases 5 to 15 years after diagnosis than FNA biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sennerstam, Roland B; Franzén, Bo S H; Wiksell, Hans O T; Auer, Gert U

    2017-10-01

    The literature offers discordant results regarding whether diagnostic biopsy is associated with the dissemination of cancer cells, resulting in local and/or distant metastasis. The long-term outcomes of patients with breast cancer were compared between those who were diagnosed using either fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) or core-needle biopsy (CNB) during 2 decades: the 1970s and 1990s. In the 1970s, the only diagnostic needle biopsy method used for breast cancer in Sweden was FNAB. CNB was introduced 1989 and became established in Stockholm Gotland County in the early 1990s. The authors compared the clinical outcomes of patients diagnosed using FNAB from 1971 to 1976 (n = 354) versus those of patients diagnosed using CNB from 1991 to 1995 (n = 1729). Adjusting for differences in various treatment modalities, mammography screening, tumor size, DNA ploidy, and patient age between the 2 decades, 2 strictly matched samples representing FNAB (n = 181) and CNB (n = 203) were selected for a 15-year follow-up study. In a comparison of the rates of distant metastasis in the strictly matched patient groups from the FNAB and CNB cohorts, significantly higher rates of late-appearing (5-15 years after diagnosis) distant metastasis were observed among the patients who were diagnosed on CNB compared with those who were diagnosed on FNAB. No significant difference in local metastasis was observed between the 2 groups. At 5 to 15 years after diagnosis of the primary tumor, CNB-diagnosed patients had significantly higher rates of distant metastases than FNAB-diagnosed patients. Cancer Cytopathol 2017;125:748-56. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  11. Effect of 60Co γ-irradiation on germination rate of corms and selection of a higher temperature-tolerance mutant 'zf893' of Crocus sativus L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qiaosheng; Wang Zhiping; Pan Jianyong; Li Xuebing; Xu Bujin; Zou Fenglian; Lu Gang

    2009-01-01

    The effects of 60 Co γ-rays irradiation on germination rate of corms of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) were studied and the results were as follows: (1) The corm germination rate raised with the corm fresh weight M (g) increasing, and the corms of 3 60 Co γ-rays, the typical radiation effect of dose on germination rate were obtained, and the semi-lethal dose (D 50 ) for the corms of 3 60 Co γ-rays and the stigma productivity of ZF893 was 1.3 times as that of the parent, for the field growing period, total weight of daughter corms and flower numbers of ZF893 were 22%, 27% and 30% higher than that of the parent, respectively. (4) The soluble protein SDS-PAGE patterns between ZF893 and it's parent were very similar, but the 54.8kD bands were much stronger in ZF893 and the 20.9 kD bands which were clear in ZF893, but were nearly absent in it's parent. (authors)

  12. Mechanistic dissimilarities between environmentally-influenced fatigue-crack propagation at near-threshold and higher growth rates in lower-strength steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suresh, S.; Ritchie, R. O.

    1981-11-01

    The role of hydrogen gas in influencing fatigue crack propagation is examined for several classes of lower strength pressure vessel and piping steels. Based on measurements over a wide range of growth rates from 10/sup -8/ to 10/sup -2/ mm/cycle, crack propagation rates are found to be significantly higher in dehumidified gaseous hydrogen compared to moist air in two distinct regimes of crack growth, namely (i) at the intermediate range of growth typically above approx. 10/sup -5/ mm/cycle, and (ii) at the near-threshold region below approx. 10/sup -6/ mm/cycle approaching lattice dimensions per cycle. Both effects are seen at maximum stress intensities (K/sub max/) far below the sustained-load threshold stress intensity for hydrogen-assisted cracking (K/sub Iscc/). Characteristics of environmentally influenced fatigue crack growth in each regime are shown to be markedly different with regard to fractography and the effect of such variables as load ratio and frequency. It is concluded that the primary mechanisms responsible for the influence of the environment in each regime are distinctly different. Whereas corrosion fatigue behavior at intermediate growth rates can be attributed to hydrogen embrittlement processes, the primary role of moist environments at near-threshold levels is shown to involve a contribution from enhanced crack closure due to the formation of crack surface corrosion deposits at low load ratios.

  13. Geometrical Sparing Factors for the Rectum and Bladder in the Prediction of Grade 2 and Higher Complications After High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy for Cervical Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.-W.; Liang, J.-A.; Hung, Y.-C.; Yeh, L.-S.; Chang, W.-C.; Yang, S.-N.; Lin, F.-J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to assess the predictive values of geometrical sparing factors for the rectum and bladder in high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy (HDRICB) for Grade 2 and higher late sequelae in patients with cervical cancer. Methods: A total of 392 patients were enrolled in this study. They were treated with external beam radiotherapy to the pelvis, after which HDRICB was performed using Ir-192 remote after-loading at 1-week intervals for three or four sessions. The geometrical sparing factor (GSF) was defined as the average of the ratios between the reference doses and the Point A dose. Results: A total of 46 patients (11.7%) had Grade 2 or higher late rectal complications (36 Grade 2, 9 Grade 3, and 1 Grade 4). In all, 32 patients (8.2%) had Grade 2 or higher late bladder complications (14 Grade 2, 16 Grade 3, and 2 Grade 4). Multivariate analysis demonstrated a high risk of rectal sequelae in patients who developed bladder complications (p = 0.0004, hazard ratio 3.54) and had a rectal GSF greater than 0.7 (p = 0.01, hazard ratio 1.99). The high risk factors for bladder complications were development of rectal complications (p = 0.0004, hazard ratio 3.74), concurrent chemotherapy (p = 0.0001, relative risk 3.94), and a bladder GSF greater than 0.9 (p = 0.01, hazard ratio, 2.53). Conclusion: This study demonstrates the predictive value of GSFs in HDRICB for cervical cancer. Patients with rectal GSFs greater than 0.7 or bladder GSFs greater than 0.9 are at risk for Grade 2 and higher late sequelae.

  14. Geometrical sparing factors for the rectum and bladder in the prediction of grade 2 and higher complications after high-dose-rate brachytherapy for cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shang-Wen; Liang, Ji-An; Hung, Yao-Ching; Yeh, Lian-Shung; Chang, Wei-Chun; Yang, Shih-Neng; Lin, Fang-Jen

    2009-12-01

    This study aimed to assess the predictive values of geometrical sparing factors for the rectum and bladder in high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy (HDRICB) for Grade 2 and higher late sequelae in patients with cervical cancer. A total of 392 patients were enrolled in this study. They were treated with external beam radiotherapy to the pelvis, after which HDRICB was performed using Ir-192 remote after-loading at 1-week intervals for three or four sessions. The geometrical sparing factor (GSF) was defined as the average of the ratios between the reference doses and the Point A dose. A total of 46 patients (11.7%) had Grade 2 or higher late rectal complications (36 Grade 2, 9 Grade 3, and 1 Grade 4). In all, 32 patients (8.2%) had Grade 2 or higher late bladder complications (14 Grade 2, 16 Grade 3, and 2 Grade 4). Multivariate analysis demonstrated a high risk of rectal sequelae in patients who developed bladder complications (p = 0.0004, hazard ratio 3.54) and had a rectal GSF greater than 0.7 (p = 0.01, hazard ratio 1.99). The high risk factors for bladder complications were development of rectal complications (p = 0.0004, hazard ratio 3.74), concurrent chemotherapy (p = 0.0001, relative risk 3.94), and a bladder GSF greater than 0.9 (p = 0.01, hazard ratio, 2.53). This study demonstrates the predictive value of GSFs in HDRICB for cervical cancer. Patients with rectal GSFs greater than 0.7 or bladder GSFs greater than 0.9 are at risk for Grade 2 and higher late sequelae.

  15. Analysis of 162 colon injuries in patients with penetrating abdominal trauma: concomitant stomach injury results in a higher rate of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Patricia A; Kirton, Orlando C; Dresner, Lisa S; Tortella, Bartholomew; Kestner, Mark M

    2004-02-01

    Fecal contamination from colon injury has been thought to be the most significant factor for the development of surgical site infection (SSI) after trauma. However, there are increasing data to suggest that other factors may play a role in the development of postinjury infection in patients after colon injury. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of gastric wounding on the development of SSI and nonsurgical site infection (NSSI) in patients with colon injury. Post hoc analysis was performed on data prospectively collected for 317 patients presenting with penetrating hollow viscus injury. One hundred sixty-two patients with colon injury were subdivided into one of three groups: patients with isolated colon wounds (C), patients with colon and stomach wounds with or without other organ injury (C+S), and patients with colon and other organ injury but no stomach injury (C-S) and assessed for the development of SSI and NSSI. Infection rates were also determined for patients who sustained isolated gastric injury (S) and gastric injury in combination with other injuries other than colon (S-C). Penetrating Abdominal Trauma Index, operative times, and transfusion were assessed. Discrete variables were analyzed by Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel chi2 test and Fisher's exact test. Risk factor analysis was performed by multivariate logistic regression. C+S patients had a higher rate of SSI infection (31%) than C patients (3.6%) (p=0.008) and C-S patients (13%) (p=0.021). Similarly, the incidence of NSSI was also significantly greater in the C+S group (37%) compared with the C patients (7.5%) (p=0.07) and the C-S patients (17%) (p=0.019). There was no difference in the rate of SSI or NSSI between the C and C-S groups (p=0.3 and p=0.24, respectively). The rate of SSI was significantly greater in the C+S patients when compared with the S-C patients (31% vs. 10%, p=0.008), but there was no statistical difference in the rate of NSSI in the C+S group and the S-C group (37

  16. Elevated basal progesterone levels are associated with increased preovulatory progesterone rise but not with higher pregnancy rates in ICSI cycles with GnRH antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, Mehmet Firat; Erdem, Mehmet; Mutlu, Ilknur; Bulut, Berk; Erdem, Ahmet

    2017-09-01

    To ascertain the association between basal progesterone (P) levels and the occurrence of preovulatory progesterone rise (PPR) and clinical pregnancy rates (CPRs) in ICSI cycles with GnRH antagonists. Serum P levels of 464 patients were measured on day 2 and day of hCG of cycles. Cycles with basal P levels>1.6ng/mL were cancelled. All embryos were cryopreserved in cycles with P levels≥2ng/mL on the day of hCG. The primary outcome measures were the incidence of PPR (P>1.5ng/mL) and CPR with regard to basal P. Basal P levels were significantly higher in cycles with PPR than in those without PPR (0.63±0.31 vs. 0.48±0.28ng/mL). Area under the curve for basal P according to ROC analysis to discriminate between elevated and normal P levels on the day of hCG was 0.65 (0.58-0.71 95% CI, pcycles with and without PPR was 0.65ng/mL. Cycles with basal P levels above 0.65ng/mL had a significantly higher incidence of PPR (30.9% vs. 13.5%) but similar clinical and cumulative pregnancy rates (38.8% vs. 31.1% and 41.7% vs. 32.6%, respectively) in comparison to cycles with basal P levels below 0.65ng/mL. In multivariate regression analysis, basal P levels, LH level on the first day of antagonist administration, and estradiol levels on the day of hCG trigger were the variables that predicted PPR. Basal P levels were associated with increased incidence of PPR but not with CPR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Flight Attendant Fatigue: A Quantitative Review of Flight Attendant Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    Hellesoy, 1994; Hunt & Space, 1994; Nagda & Koontz , 2003; Nesthus et al., 2007; Rayman, 1997; Smolensky, Lee, Mott, & Colligan, 1982; Tashkin...www.boeing. com/commercial/cabinair/ventilation.pdf Nagda, N.L., & Koontz , M.D. (2003). Review of studies on flight attendant health and comfort in

  18. Emergency department attendance patterns during Ramadan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Taimur; Khan, Hameed Ullah; Ahmed, Israr; Eldali, Abdelmoneim

    2016-01-01

    Patient attendance in the emergency department (ED) is inherently variable and unpredictable. Resources might be better allocated if use of the ER could be predicted during the month of fasting (Ramadan), healthy adult Muslims do not eat or drink from dawn to sunset and in the Middle East, social activities occur mostly during night. There is no published data that has reported changes in local ED attendance pattern during Ramadan. Determine if there are differences in tertiary care ed attendance during Ramadan compared to other times of the year. Retrospective, using data from the hospital integrated clinical information system. Tertiary care institution in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. All ED visits during the Islamic calendar years of 1431-1434 (December 18, 2009-October 13, 2013) were analyzed. Patient volume, acuity, demographics and admission rate variability between Ramadan and other months. During the study period of 4 years, of 226075 ED patients, 129178 (57.14%) patients were seen during the day shift (07:00 to 18:59). During Ramadan, 10 293 (60%) patients presented during the night shift compared with the day shift (P many ED patients were actually fasting during the study period. This study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital and the patient population presenting to our ed is predominantly Muslim; therefore, the results may not be generalized to populations that are not predominantly Muslim.

  19. What is the empirical evidence that hospitals with higher-risk adjusted mortality rates provide poorer quality care? A systematic review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Mohammed A

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite increasing interest and publication of risk-adjusted hospital mortality rates, the relationship with underlying quality of care remains unclear. We undertook a systematic review to ascertain the extent to which variations in risk-adjusted mortality rates were associated with differences in quality of care. Methods We identified studies in which risk-adjusted mortality and quality of care had been reported in more than one hospital. We adopted an iterative search strategy using three databases – Medline, HealthSTAR and CINAHL from 1966, 1975 and 1982 respectively. We identified potentially relevant studies on the basis of the title or abstract. We obtained these papers and included those which met our inclusion criteria. Results From an initial yield of 6,456 papers, 36 studies met the inclusion criteria. Several of these studies considered more than one process-versus-risk-adjusted mortality relationship. In total we found 51 such relationships in a widen range of clinical conditions using a variety of methods. A positive correlation between better quality of care and risk-adjusted mortality was found in under half the relationships (26/51 51% but the remainder showed no correlation (16/51 31% or a paradoxical correlation (9/51 18%. Conclusion The general notion that hospitals with higher risk-adjusted mortality have poorer quality of care is neither consistent nor reliable.

  20. AA Attendance and Abstinence for Dually Diagnosed Patients: A Meta-Analytic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott Tonigan, J; Pearson, Matthew R; Magill, Molly; Hagler, Kylee J

    2018-05-29

    There is consensus that best clinical practice for dual diagnosis (DD) is integrated mental health and substance use treatment augmented with Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) attendance. This is the first quantitative review of the direction and magnitude of the association between AA attendance and alcohol abstinence for DD patients. A systematic literature search (1993-2017) identified 22 studies yielding 24 effect sizes that met our inclusion criteria (8,075 patients). Inverse-variance weighting of correlation coefficients (r) was used to aggregate sample-level findings and study aims were addressed using random and mixed effect models. Sensitivity and publication bias analyses were conducted to assess the likelihood of bias in the overall estimate of AA-related benefit. AA exposure and abstinence for DD patients were significantly and positively associated (r w =.249; 95% CI.203-.293; Tau=.097). There was also significant heterogeneity in the distribution of effect sizes, (Q(23)=90.714, pAA-related benefit did not differ between 6 (k=7) and 12 (k=12) month follow-up, (Q=.068, pAA benefit was not adversely or substantively impacted by pooling RCT and observational samples (Q=.763, pAA (Q=.023, pAA) is common and, in many cases, DD patients who attend AA will report higher rates of alcohol abstinence relative to DD patients who do not attend AA. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. 75 FR 34140 - Establishment of the Personal Care Attendants Workforce Advisory Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ... services and supports; aging and disability populations and services; practices that help reduce high personal care attendant workforce vacancy and turnover rates; Medicaid, Medicare, the Older Americans Act...

  2. Church Attendance and Religious Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Nilsen Kvande

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that gender may moderate the relationship between religiousness and mental health in most countries, but few studies have been conducted in Norway and Denmark. This study examined gender differences in religious experiences and church attendance as predictors of existential well-being among 295 women and 233 men from the general Norwegian population. Analyses showed that the structural equation models for women and men did not differ significantly on the global level. The models for women and men, however, showed different patterns. Among men, church attendance and negative religious experiences predicted existential well-being; among women, positive and negative religious experiences were related to existential well-being, but church attendance was not. The present findings suggest that men may benefit more from active religiousness, whereas women may benefit more from affective religiousness. Comparing these results with research in other cultural contexts, we find that different operationalizations of church attendance yield the same types of patterns across cultural contexts. Consequently, the benefits of religiousness may be similar for women and men irrespective of cultural context.

  3. Attendance Policies and Student Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risen, D. Michael

    2007-01-01

    The details described in this case study examine the issues related to attendance policies and how such policies might be legally used to affect student grades. Concepts discussed should cause graduate students in educational administration to reflect on the issues presented from various points of view when the students complete an analysis of the…

  4. Reference Values for the Marx Activity Rating Scale in a Young Athletic Population: History of Knee Ligament Injury Is Associated With Higher Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Kenneth L; Peck, Karen Y; Thompson, Brandon S; Svoboda, Steven J; Owens, Brett D; Marshall, Stephen W

    2015-01-01

    Activity-related patient-reported outcome measures are an important component of assessment after knee ligament injury in young and physically active patients; however, normative data for most activity scales are limited. To present reference values by sex for the Marx Activity Rating Scale (MARS) within a young and physically active population while accounting for knee ligament injury history and sex. Cross-sectional study. Level 2. All incoming freshman entering a US Service Academy in June of 2011 were recruited to participate in this study. MARS was administered to 1169 incoming freshmen (203 women) who consented to participate within the first week of matriculation. All subjects were deemed healthy and medically fit for military service on admission. Subjects also completed a baseline questionnaire that asked for basic demographic information and injury history. We calculated means with standard deviations, medians with interquartile ranges, and percentiles for ordinal and continuous variables, and frequencies and proportions for dichotomous variables. We also compared median scores by sex and history of knee ligament injury using the Kruskal-Wallis test. MARS was the primary outcome of interest. The median MARS score was significantly higher for men when compared with women (χ(2) = 13.22, df = 1, P MARS scores between men and women (χ(2) = 0.47, df = 1, P = 0.493) who reported a history of injury. Overall, median MARS scores were significantly higher among those who reported a history of knee ligament injury when compared with those who did not (χ(2) = 9.06, df = 1, P = 0.003). Assessing activity as a patient-reported outcome after knee ligament injury is important, and reference values for these instruments need to account for the influence of prior injury and sex. © 2015 The Author(s).

  5. Long-Term Results of Fixed High-Dose I-131 Treatment for Toxic Nodular Goiter: Higher Euthyroidism Rates in Geriatric Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gül Ege Aktaş

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Geriatric patient population has special importance due to particular challenges. In addition to the increase in incidence of toxic nodular goiter (TNG with age, it has a high incidence in the regions of low-medium iodine intake such as in our country. The aim of this study was to evaluate the overall outcome of high fixed dose radioiodine (RAI therapy, and investigate the particular differences in the geriatric patient population. Methods: One hundred and three TNG patients treated with high dose I-131 (370-740 MBq were retrospectively reviewed. The baseline characteristics; age, gender, scintigraphic patterns and thyroid function tests before and after treatment, as well as follow-up, duration of antithyroid drug (ATD medication and achievement of euthyroid or hypothyroid state were evaluated. The patient population was divided into two groups as those=>65 years and those who were younger, in order to assess the effect of age. Results: Treatment success was 90% with single dose RAI therapy. Hyperthyroidism was treated in 7±7, 2 months after RAI administration. At the end of the first year, overall hypothyroidism rate was 30% and euthyroid state was achieved in 70% of patients. Age was found to be the only statistically significant variable effecting outcome. A higher ratio of euthyroidism was achieved in the geriatric patient population. Conclusion: High fixed dose I-131 treatment should be preferred in geriatric TNG patients in order to treat persistent hyperthyroidism rapidly. The result of this study suggests that high fixed dose RAI therapy is a successful modality in treating TNG, and high rates of euthyroidism can be achieved in geriatric patients.

  6. Compulsory Attendance Policies: About Age or Intervention? SREB Focus Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, SREB state policy-makers have focused on actions to reduce dropout rates and increase high school graduation rates. Some policy-makers have suggested that raising their state's compulsory attendance age (often called the dropout age) to require students to stay in school until age 17 or 18 is an important step. However,…

  7. Student decisions about lecture attendance: do electronic course materials matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings-Gagliardi, Susan; Mazor, Kathleen M

    2007-10-01

    This study explored whether first-year medical students make deliberate decisions about attending nonrequired lectures. If so, it sought to identify factors that influence these decisions, specifically addressing the potential impact of electronic materials. Medical students who completed first-year studies between 2004 and 2006 responded to an open-ended survey question about their own lecture-attendance decisions. Responses were coded to capture major themes. Students' ratings of the electronic materials were also examined. Most respondents made deliberate attendance decisions. Decisions were influenced by previous experiences with the lecturer, predictions of what would occur during the session itself, personal learning preferences, and learning needs at that particular time, with the overriding goal of maximizing learning. Access to electronic materials did not influence students' choices. Fears that the increasing availability of technology-enhanced educational materials has a negative impact on lecture attendance seem unfounded.

  8. Familial prostate cancer has a more aggressive course than sporadic prostate cancer after treatment for localized disease, mainly due to a higher rate of distant metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupelian, Patrick A.; Klein, Eric A.; Suh, John H; Kupelian, Varant A.

    1997-01-01

    with negative and positive family history were 83% and 72% percent, respectively (p=0.013). The 5-year locRFS rates for patients with negative and positive family history were 91% and 87% percent, respectively (p=0.45). The 5-year dRFS rates for patients with negative and positive family history were 91% and 84%, respectively (p=0.032). Table 1 displays the statistical significance in crude (univariate) and adjusted (multivariate) analysis of all factors analyzed with respect to outcomes of interest. After adjusting for potential confounders, family history of prostate cancer remained strongly associated with biochemical failure. For RP patients, even in the presence of pathologic parameters, family history remained a strong independent predictor of biochemical, clinical, and distant failure (data not shown). Conclusion: Our findings suggest that familial prostate cancer may have a more aggressive course after treatment than non-familial prostate cancer, and that clinical and/or pathological parameters may not adequately predict this course. Familial prostate cancer seems associated with a higher rate of distant metastases. Further studies need to be performed to confirm these findings

  9. After microvascular decompression to treat trigeminal neuralgia, both immediate pain relief and recurrence rates are higher in patients with arterial compression than with venous compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lei; Gu, Xiaoyan; Sun, Guan; Guo, Jun; Lin, Xin; Zhang, Shuguang; Qian, Chunfa

    2017-07-04

    We explored differences in postoperative pain relief achieved through decompression of the trigeminal nerve compressed by arteries and veins. Clinical characteristics, intraoperative findings, and postoperative curative effects were analyzed in 72 patients with trigeminal neuralgia who were treated by microvascular decompression. The patients were divided into arterial and venous compression groups based on intraoperative findings. Surgical curative effects included immediate relief, delayed relief, obvious reduction, and invalid result. Among the 40 patients in the arterial compression group, 32 had immediate pain relief of pain (80.0%), 5 cases had delayed relief (12.5%), and 3 cases had an obvious reduction (7.5%). In the venous compression group, 12 patients had immediate relief of pain (37.5%), 13 cases had delayed relief (40.6%), and 7 cases had an obvious reduction (21.9%). During 2-year follow-up period, 6 patients in the arterial compression group experienced recurrence of trigeminal neuralgia, but there were no recurrences in the venous compression group. Simple artery compression was followed by early relief of trigeminal neuralgia more often than simple venous compression. However, the trigeminal neuralgia recurrence rate was higher in the artery compression group than in the venous compression group.

  10. Exploring the relationship between general practice characteristics and attendance at Walk-in Centres, Minor Injuries Units and Emergency Departments in England 2009/10-2012/2013: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammes, Peter; Morris, Richard W; Brangan, Emer; Checkland, Kath; England, Helen; Huntley, Alyson; Lasserson, Daniel; MacKichan, Fiona; Salisbury, Chris; Wye, Lesley; Purdy, Sarah

    2017-08-08

    The UK National Health Service Emergency Departments (ED) have recently faced increasing attendance rates. This study investigated associations of general practice and practice population characteristics with emergency care service attendance rates. A longitudinal design with practice-level measures of access and continuity of care, patient population demographics and use of emergency care for the financial years 2009/10 to 2012/13. The main outcome measures were self-referred discharged ED attendance rate, and combined self-referred discharged ED, self-referred Walk-in Centre (WiC) and self-referred Minor Injuries Unit (MIU) attendance rate per 1000 patients. Multilevel models estimated adjusted regression coefficients for relationships between patients' emergency attendance rates and patients' reported satisfaction with opening hours and waiting time at the practice, proportion of patients having a preferred GP, and use of WiC and MIU, both between practices, and within practices over time. Practice characteristics associated with higher ED attendance rates included lower percentage of patients satisfied with waiting time (0.22 per 1% decrease, 95%CI 0.02 to 0.43) and lower percentage having a preferred GP (0.12 per 1% decrease, 95%CI 0.02 to 0.21). Population influences on higher attendance included more elderly, more female and more unemployed patients, and lower male life-expectancy and urban conurbation location. Net reductions in ED attendance were only seen for practices whose WiC or MIU attendance was high, above the 60th centile for MIU and above the 75th centile for WiC. Combined emergency care attendance fell over time if more patients within a practice were satisfied with opening hours (-0.26 per 1% increase, 95%CI -0.45 to -0.08). Practices with more patients satisfied with waiting time, having a preferred GP, and using MIU and WIC services, had lower ED attendance. Increases over time in attendance at MIUs, and patient satisfaction with opening hours

  11. Daycare attendance and risk for respiratory morbidity among young very low birth weight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Erika W; Sadek-Badawi, Mona; Palta, Mari

    2009-11-01

    Daycare attendance and very low birth weight (VLBW, < or =1,500 g) are associated with respiratory morbidity during childhood. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether daycare attendance is associated with even higher risk for respiratory problems among VLBW children. We hypothesized that VLBW children attending daycare, in a private home or daycare center, are at higher risk for respiratory problems than VLBW children not attending daycare. We also investigated whether the effect of daycare is independent or synergistic with respiratory risk resulting from being VLBW, as indicated by having bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) as a neonate. We conducted a prospective study of VLBW children followed from birth to age 2-3 (N = 715). Logistic regression was used to evaluate the relationship between daycare attendance and respiratory problems, adjusting for known neonatal risk factors for poor respiratory outcomes. Attending daycare in either a private home or in a daycare center was significantly associated with higher risk of lower respiratory infections than never attending. Attending a daycare center was also associated with higher risk for wheezy chest, cough without a cold, and respiratory medication use. While having BPD was associated with increased risk for respiratory problems, daycare attendance and BPD were not found to be synergistic risk factors for respiratory problems among VLBW children, but acted independently to increase risk. This implies that the increase in risk for respiratory problems associated with daycare attendance may be similar among VLBW children and those of normal birth weight.

  12. Indexed effective orifice area is a significant predictor of higher mid- and long-term mortality rates following aortic valve replacement in patients with prosthesis-patient mismatch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Lin, Yiyun; Kang, Bo; Wang, Zhinong

    2014-02-01

    Prosthesis-patient mismatch (PPM) is defined as a too-small effective orifice area (EOA) of an inserted prosthetic relative to body size, resulting in an abnormally high postoperative gradient. It is unclear, however, whether residual stenosis after aortic valve replacement (AVR) has a negative impact on mid- and long-term survivals. We searched electronic databases, including PubMed, Embase, Medline and the Cochrane controlled trials register, through October 2012, to identify published full-text English studies on the association between PPM and mortality rates. A significant PPM was defined as an indexed EOA (iEOA)<0.85 cm2/m2, and severe PPM as an iEOA<0.65 cm2/m2. Two reviewers independently assessed the studies for inclusion and extracted data. Fourteen observational studies, involving 14 874 patients, met our final inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis demonstrated that PPM significantly increased mid-term (odds ratio [OR] 1.42, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.19-1.69) and long-term (OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.26-1.84) all-cause mortalities. Subgroup analysis showed that PPM was associated with higher mid- and long-term mortality rates only in younger and predominantly female populations. Risk-adjusted sensitivity analysis showed that severe PPM was associated with reduced survival (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.50, 95% CI 1.24-1.80), whereas moderate PPM was not (adjusted HR 0.96, 95% CI 0.86-1.07). Regardless of severity, however, PPM had a negative effect on survival in patients with impaired ejection fraction (adjusted HR 1.26, 95% CI 1.09-1.47). PPM (iEOA<0.85 cm2/m2) after AVR tended to be associated with increased long-term all-cause mortality in younger patients, females and patients with preoperative left ventricular dysfunction. Severe PPM (iEOA<0.65 cm2/m2) was a significant predictor of reduced long-term survival in all populations undergoing AVR.

  13. Azacitidine-lenalidomide (ViLen) combination yields a high response rate in higher risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS)-ViLen-01 protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittelman, Moshe; Filanovsky, Kalman; Ofran, Yishai; Rosenbaum, Hanna; Raanani, Pia; Braester, Andrei; Goldschmidt, Neta; Kirgner, Ilya; Herishanu, Yair; Perri, Chava; Ellis, Martin; Oster, Howard S

    2016-10-01

    Azacitidine treatment is effective in higher risk MDS (HR-MDS), with less than 50 % response, lasting 2 years. Aza and lenalidomide (Len) have a potential synergistic effect. ViLen-01 phase IIa trial includes 6-month induction (Aza 75 mg/m(2)/day, days 1-5, Len 10 mg/day, days 6-21, every 28 days), 6-month consolidation (Aza 75 mg/m(2)/day, days 1-5, every 28 days), and 12-month maintenance (Len 10 mg/day, days 1-21, every 28 days). Response was evaluated according to IWG criteria. Totally, 25 patients enrolled, with an average of 76.3 years old (60-87), and 88 % with major comorbidities. Thirteen patients completed induction, 7 proceeded for consolidation, and 2 for maintenance. The overall response rate (ORR) was 72 % (18/25), with 6 (24 %) for CR, 3 (12 %) for marrow CR, and 9 (36 %) for hematologic improvement (HI). The 7 non-responding patients were on the study 3 days to 4.1 months. At 6 months, 4 of 6 evaluable patients achieved complete cytogenetic response and 2 with del (5q) at diagnosis. Adverse events (AEs) were as expected in these patients: grades III-IV, mainly hematologic-thrombocytopenia (20 patients) and neutropenia (13 patients). The common non-hematologic AEs were infections (14 patients), nausea (7), vomiting (7), diarrhea (7), and skin reactions (5). The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 12 ± 1.36 months, with median overall survival (OS) of 12 ± 1.7 months. Quality of life (FACT questionnaire) data were available for 12 patients with a tendency towards improved QoL. This trial with elderly HR-MDS patients with an expected poor prognosis demonstrates a high (72 %) response rate and a reasonable expected safety profile but a relatively short PFS and OS.

  14. Associations between classroom CO2 concentrations and student attendance in Washington and Idaho.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shendell, D G; Prill, R; Fisk, W J; Apte, M G; Blake, D; Faulkner, D

    2004-10-01

    Student attendance in American public schools is a critical factor in securing limited operational funding. Student and teacher attendance influence academic performance. Limited data exist on indoor air and environmental quality (IEQ) in schools, and how IEQ affects attendance, health, or performance. This study explored the association of student absence with measures of indoor minus outdoor carbon dioxide concentration (dCO(2)). Absence and dCO(2) data were collected from 409 traditional and 25 portable classrooms from 22 schools located in six school districts in the states of Washington and Idaho. Study classrooms had individual heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems, except two classrooms without mechanical ventilation. Classroom attributes, student attendance and school-level ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status (SES) were included in multivariate modeling. Forty-five percent of classrooms studied had short-term indoor CO(2) concentrations above 1000 p.p.m. A 1000 p.p.m. increase in dCO(2) was associated (P student absence. Annual ADA was 2% higher (P student attendance, and occupant health and student performance, with longer term indoor minus outdoor CO(2) concentrations and more accurately measured ventilation rates. If our findings are confirmed, improving classroom ventilation should be considered a practical means of reducing student absence. Adequate or enhanced ventilation may be achieved, for example, with educational training programs for teachers and facilities staff on ventilation system operation and maintenance. Also, technological interventions such as improved automated control systems could provide continuous ventilation during occupied times, regardless of occupant thermal comfort demands.

  15. Deep breathing exercises with positive expiratory pressure at a higher rate improve oxygenation in the early period after cardiac surgery--a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urell, Charlotte; Emtner, Margareta; Hedenström, Hans; Tenling, Arne; Breidenskog, Marie; Westerdahl, Elisabeth

    2011-07-01

    In addition to early mobilisation, a variety of breathing exercises are used to prevent postoperative pulmonary complications after cardiac surgery. The optimal duration of the treatment is not well evaluated. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of 30 versus 10 deep breaths hourly, while awake, with positive expiratory pressure on oxygenation and pulmonary function the first days after cardiac surgery. A total of 181 patients, undergoing cardiac surgery, were randomised into a treatment group, performing 30 deep breaths hourly the first postoperative days, or into a control group performing 10 deep breaths hourly. The main outcome measurement arterial blood gases and the secondary outcome pulmonary function, evaluated with spirometry, were determined on the second postoperative day. Preoperatively, both study groups were similar in terms of age, SpO(2), forced expiratory volume in 1s and New York Heart Association classification. On the second postoperative day, arterial oxygen tension (PaO(2)) was 8.9 ± 1.7 kPa in the treatment group and 8.1 ± 1.4 kPa in the control group (p = 0.004). Arterial oxygen saturation (SaO(2)) was 92.7 ± 3.7% in the treatment group and 91.1 ± 3.8% in the control group (p = 0.016). There were no differences in measured lung function between the groups or in compliance to the breathing exercises. Compliance was 65% of possible breathing sessions. A significantly increased oxygenation was found in patients performing 30 deep breaths the first two postoperative days compared with control patients performing 10 deep breaths hourly. These results support the implementation of a higher rate of deep breathing exercises in the initial phase after cardiac surgery. Copyright © 2010 European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Higher Education: Open for Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilde, Christian, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This book addresses a problem in higher learning, which is newly recognized in the academic spotlight: the overcommercialization of higher education. The book asks that you, the reader, think about the following: Did you go to a Coke or Pepsi school? Do your children attend a Nike or Adidas school? Is the college in your town a Dell or Gateway…

  17. Variations in Student Perceptions of Service Quality of Higher Education Institutions in Brazil: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Domingos Fernandes; dos Santos, Guido Salvi; Castro, Felipe Nalon

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine, through a longitudinal study, undergraduate student perceptions of service expectations, priorities and quality of the higher education institution that they attend, using an importance-performance rating matrix. Design/methodology/approach: This research was carried out with students exposed to a…

  18. Automated attendance management and alert system | Rahim ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Automated attendance management and alert system. ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences ... AAMAS provides various functions, from managing and recording students' attendance record, to sending automatic alerts to students ...

  19. Impact of conference attendance on librarians' leadership ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... attendance to leadership developments hows approximately 0.370.m Conference attendance was highly recommended as a means of enhancing leadership development of academic librarians. Keywords: Experiential learning, self efficacy, attitude, Conference, Impact, Leadership, Teamwork, development, brainstorm, ...

  20. Attendance Control System based on RFID technology

    OpenAIRE

    Nurbek Saparkhojayev; Selim Guvercin

    2012-01-01

    In Kazakhstan, checking students' attendance is one of the important issues for universities, because many universities evaluate students attendance and while giving the final grade, professors consider their total number of appearances on classes during the whole semester. This brings to the idea of having some tool to control students attendance. Some universities prefer to use paper sheet for controlling attendance, whereas some universities prefer to use paper sheet for checking students'...

  1. Higher neonatal growth rate and body condition score at 7 months are predictive factors of obesity in adult female Beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, Lucie; Thorin, Chantal; Flanagan, John; Biourge, Vincent; Serisier, Samuel; Nguyen, Patrick

    2017-04-13

    The risks during early growth on becoming overweight in adulthood are widely studied in humans. However, early-life predictive factors for canine adult overweight and obesity have not yet been studied. To identify factors that may help explain the development of overweight and obesity at adulthood in dogs, a longitudinal study of 2 years was conducted in 24 female Beagle dogs of the same age, sexual status, and raised under identical environmental conditions. By means of a hierarchical classification on principal components with the following quantitative values: fat-free mass (FFM), percentage fat mass and pelvic circumference at 2 years of age, three groups of dogs were established and were nominally named: ideal weight (IW, n = 9), slightly overweight (OW1, n = 6) and overweight (OW2, n = 9). With the aim of identifying predictive factors of development of obesity at adulthood parental characteristics, growth pattern, energy balance and plasma factors were analysed by logistic regression analysis. At 24 months, the group compositions were in line with the body condition scores (BCS 1-9) values of the IW (5 or 6/9), the OW1 (6/9) and the OW2 (7 or 8/9) groups. Logistic regression analysis permitted the identification of neonatal growth rate during the first 2 weeks of life (GR 2W ) and BCS at 7 months as predictors for the development of obesity at adulthood. Seventy percent of dogs with either GR 2W >125% or with BCS > 6/9 at 7 months belonged to the OW2 group. Results from energy intake and expenditure, corrected for FFM, showed that there was a greater positive energy imbalance between 7 and 10 months for the OW2, compared to the IW group. This study expands the understanding of previously reported risk factors for being overweight or obese in dogs, establishing that (i) 15 out of 24 of the studied dogs became overweight and (ii) GR 2W and BCS at 7 months of age could be used as predictive factors as overweight adult dogs in the OW2

  2. 29 CFR 785.28 - Involuntary attendance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Involuntary attendance. 785.28 Section 785.28 Labor... POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS HOURS WORKED Application of Principles Lectures, Meetings and Training Programs § 785.28 Involuntary attendance. Attendance is not voluntary, of...

  3. Successful Attendance Policies and Programs. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Partnerships, Inc., 2012

    2012-01-01

    What steps can be taken to assure that High School students have the best attendance possible? It is commonly believed and well supported by research that students who attend school regularly are more successful than those who do not. The challenge for high schools is to design and implement attendance policies and programs that monitor,…

  4. Kindergarten attendance may reduce developmental impairments in children: results from the Bavarian Pre-School Morbidity Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caniato, Riccardo N; Alvarenga, Marlies E; Stich, Heribert L; Jansen, Holger; Baune, Berhard T

    2010-08-01

    The relative risks and benefits of children attending kindergarten or pre-school remain uncertain and controversial. We used data from the Bavarian Pre-School Morbidity Survey (BPMS) to look at the prevalence of developmental impairments in pre-school children entering primary school and to assess if these were correlated with the duration of kindergarten attendance. We collected data from all school beginners in the district of Dingolfing, Bavaria from 2004 to 2007 (n = 4,005) and utilised a retrospective cross-sectional study design to review the information. The children were assessed for motor, cognitive, language and psychosocial impairments using a standardized medical assessment. Point prevalence of impairments of speech, cognition, motor functioning and psychosocial functioning were compared by chi(2)-test for the variable of time spent in kindergarten. We detected a high incidence of impairments, with boys showing higher rates than girls in all the areas assessed. Longer length of time spent in kindergarten was associated with reduced rates of motor, cognitive and psychosocial impairments. There was no clear correlation between length of kindergarten attendance and speech disorders. Kindergarten attendance may have a positive effect on a number of domains of development including motor, cognitive and psychosocial development, but no significant effect on speech impairments. Implications for public health policies are discussed.

  5. Factors influencing improved attendance in the UK fire service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litchfield, I; Hinckley, P

    2016-12-01

    Sickness absence rates in the UK continue to exceed those in much of the developed world, with an annual cost to employers of £29 billion. Rates of sickness absence in the public sector are higher than those in the private sector, with the exception of the fire service where they are consistently lower. To understand the influences that increase attendance among operational firefighters. A series of semi-structured interviews undertaken with operational staff to explore their attitudes to sickness absence. Review and analysis of participant responses identified a number of key themes, namely employee well-being, including physical fitness and mental health; employee engagement with the fire service as manifested by culture, experience, nature of the job and leadership; organizational factors including the staffing model and relationship with occupational health services and policy, which describes both refinements to and implementation of targeted policies. Previously observed factors such as improved fitness and the distinct firefighter culture play a role, yet other factors emerged that could explain the differences. These include the greater work-life balance offered by their shift patterns, the terms and conditions of employment and perhaps most importantly the evolution of precisely targeted policies that understand the unique nature of the operational fire service. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine.

  6. Best practices: increased attendance in inpatient group psychotherapy improves patient outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Andrew C; Hooke, Geoffrey R

    2009-04-01

    This column describes an initiative that promoted increased attendance in group psychotherapy and its effect on patient outcomes. Information on patient- and staff-rated outcomes, readmission rates, and patient satisfaction was gathered for 2,782 inpatients in a private psychiatric facility in Australia. On average, after the initiative was implemented, patients went from attending one session per day to two sessions. Inpatients admitted after implementation had better patient- and staff-rated outcomes and lower rates of readmission within one month of discharge. However, patients' treatment satisfaction ratings declined. These findings indicate that increasing attendance in group psychotherapy can be a useful adjunct to hospital treatment.

  7. Explanations of changes in church attendance between 1970 and 2009

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ingen, Erik; Moor, Nienke

    2015-01-01

    We deduce hypotheses from theories on religious change to explain changes in church attendance rates. Using a new dataset with 51 countries across a long period we apply panel regression models, which enable us to test well-known theories in a more strict and dynamic fashion than do cross-sectional

  8. Campylobacter spp among Children with acute diarrhea attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isolation rate in developing countries is between 5-35%. This study aimed at finding prevalence of children with campylobacter infection among children with acute diarrhea attending Mulago hospital. Objective: The objective was to establish the proportion of children infected with Campylobacter spp among children with ...

  9. Contraceptive‑seeking Behavior of Women Attending Antenatal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contraceptive‑seeking Behavior of Women Attending Antenatal Care in a Developing Country: A Veritable Tool for Slowing Population Growth. ... Background: The use of modern contraceptives has been embraced by developed nations as a means of achieving controlled growth rate. Nigeria, Africa's most populous nation ...

  10. The Choice of Contraceptive Method among New Clients attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background Nigeria is Africa's most populous state with a low rate of contraceptive use. Factors affecting the method of contraception chosen vary widely across different parts of the country. We studied the preferred methods and characteristics of new clients attending a family planning clinic in a teaching hospital in ...

  11. Impact of Training traditional birth attendants on maternal mortality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of Training traditional birth attendants on maternal mortality and ... with focus on reducing the high rate of maternal and new-born mortality in rural settings in ... What is needed is to identify TBAs, map their distribution and train them on ...

  12. Knowledge Attitude and Practice Towards Skilled Care Attendance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    response rate was 851 (91.8%) of the sample size. ... Conclusion: The study revealed that skilled care attendance at birth is still very low as compared to other ... Introduction. Maternal Mortality in Eritrea is one of the highest in the world.

  13. Skilled Birth Attendance in Nigeria: A Function of Frequency and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    The utilization rate of maternal services remains low in sub-Saharan Africa and may ... This study examines the influence of antenatal care (ANC) on skilled birth attendance (SBA) in Nigeria. ... Despite 70% of the women ... poor health outcomes during pregnancy such as .... approximately 50 percent more likely to have had.

  14. Factors influencing non-attendance of clinic appointments in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    without an appointment, with an average of eight patients per day missing their appointment. The low rate of compliance with clinic appointments was of concern for the physicians at both the diabetes clinics. Prior to the current study, the reasons for non-attendance had not been examined. Materials and methods. A sample ...

  15. Effect of weather on football attendances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cairns, J A

    1984-01-01

    On the premise that weather should have an effect on spectator attendance at sports events in outdoor settings (a topic which has received surprisingly little formalized study), the author examined the record of home attendances for three football teams in Scotland. In general, it was found that the greater the rainfall on the day of the match the lower the attendance. Dividing spectators into different groups, it was further found that an additional hour of sunshine was associated 162 more adults attending Aberdeen matches, while high temperatures appeared to increase juvenile attendance (by 57 for ever 1 deg. C. rise in temperature). Weather disruption of football games is attended by a number of costs, both direct and indirect. Quantifying the impact of weather can shed substantial light on the problem of scheduling for the season. For example, since certain periods are, on average, wetter than others, rescheduling to drier periods might encourage greater attendance.

  16. Patterns of attendance to health checks in a municipality setting: the Danish ‘Check Your Health Preventive Program’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Louise Bjerregaard

    2017-03-01

    More than half of a general population voluntarily attended a general health check, despite a resource intensive offer. People with low resources had lower attendance rates. This study adds a detailed description of mutually exclusive groups of attenders, for use in future planning and implementation of preventive actions.

  17. Number needed to eat: pizza and resident conference attendance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosimini, Michael J; Mackintosh, Liza; Chang, Todd P

    2016-12-01

    The didactic conference is a common part of the resident education curriculum. Given the demands of clinical responsibilities and restrictions on duty hours, maximising education is a challenge faced by all residency programmes. To date, little research exists with respect to how the provision of complimentary food affects physician and resident conference attendance. The objective of this study was to determine whether complimentary food improves resident arrival times and attendance at educational conferences and, furthermore, to test whether this provision is a potentially cost-effective tool for improving education. A retrospective review of 36 resident educational Friday noon conferences, including 1043 resident arrivals, was performed. Data were analysed for total attendance, arrival times, number needed to eat (NNE) and the percentage of residents arriving on time, and compared between days on which food was and was not provided. Median attendance was 3.7% higher (p = 0.04) on days on which food was provided, at a cost of US$46 for each additional resident in attendance. Arrival times were also statistically significantly improved when food was provided, with a median improvement of 0.7 minutes (p = 0.02) and an 11.0% increase in on-time arrivals (p < 0.001). The NNE was 10.6. Complimentary food improves both attendance and arrival times by a small, but statistically significant, degree. The provision of complimentary food can be considered as an incentive for attendance and on-time arrival at didactic educational sessions, although more cost-effective modalities may exist. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.

  18. Traditional birth attendants in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. M. Smit

    1994-03-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs and traditional healers form an important link in the chain of health personnel providing primary health care in Malawi. In spite of the establishment of hospitals and health centres, it is to these traditional healers and TBAs that the majority of people turn in times of sickness and child-birth. Approximately 60 percent of all deliveries in Malawi occur in the villages. It is therefore important that due regard be paid to the activities of these traditional practitioners in order to ensure the achievement of the goal - "Health for all by the year 2000". The training of TBAs is seen as part of the Maternal and Child Health Services in the country.

  19. Traditional birth attendants in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. M. Smit

    1994-05-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs and traditional healers form an important link in the chain of health personnel providing primary health care in Malawi. In spite of the establishment of hospitals and health centres, it is to these traditional healers and TBAs that the majority of people turn in times of sickness and child-birth. Approximately 60 percent of all deliveries in Malawi occur in the villages. It is therefore important that due regard be paid to the activities of these traditional practitioners in order to ensure the achievement of the goal - "Health for all by the year 2000". The training of TBAs is seen as part of the Maternal and Child Health Services in the country.

  20. An Investigation into Patient Non-Attendance and Use of a Short-Message Reminder System at a University Dental Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storrs, Mark J; Ramov, Helen M; Lalloo, Ratilal

    2016-01-01

    Non-attended appointments in health care facilities create inefficiencies and loss of clinical productivity: clinical teaching hours are reduced, impacting students' ability to meet the competencies necessary for professional registration. The aim of this study was to assess demographic and time-related factors for patient non-attendance at a dental school clinic in Australia. Appointment data were extracted from the patient management system for the years 2011 and 2012. Data included the status of appointment (attended, cancelled, or failed to attend [FTA]) and an array of demographic and time-related factors. Multinomial logistic regression was conducted to assess relationships between these factors and appointment status. Attendance rates were also compared by year following implementation of a short message service (SMS) reminder at the beginning of 2012. The results showed that, of 58,622 appointments booked with students during 2011 and 2012, 68% of patients attended, 23% cancelled, and 9% were FTA. The percentage of non-attended (cancelled or FTA) appointments differed by demographic and time-related factors. Females were 7% less likely to be FTA, those aged 16-24 years were five times more likely to be FTA, and early morning appointments were 18% less likely to be cancelled and FTA. With the SMS reminder system, the odds of a cancellation were 15% higher, but FTAs were 14% lower (both were statistically significant differences). This study found that failing to attend an appointment was significantly related to a number of factors. Clinical scheduling and reminder systems may need to take these factors into account to decrease the number of teaching hours lost due to patients' missing their appointments.

  1. Development of the system for checking attendance of the lecture at the university using the card reader

    OpenAIRE

    田中,武; 大村,道郎; 楠,茂之; 安井,良親; 山田,明宏

    2003-01-01

    Development of the system for checking attendance of the lecture at the university using the card reader was demonstrated. The rate of checking attendance of the lecture was about 4 to 12 students per minute. The break time of lecture at the Hiroshima Institute of Technology was 10 minute. Therefore, it is possible to check about 40 students' attendance of the lecture for the break time. Also, the probability that check exactly attendance was about 50%. The real time system for checking atten...

  2. Inequalities in Dental Attendance throughout the Life-course

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify socio-economic inequalities in regular dental attendance throughout the life-course. The analyses relied on data from SHARE (waves 1 to 3 of the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe), which includes retrospective information on life-course dental attendance of 26,525 persons currently aged 50 years or greater from 13 European countries (Austria, Poland, Spain, Italy, the Netherlands, Belgium, Greece, the Czech Republic, France, Denmark, Switzerland, Germany, and Sweden). Inequalities in dental attendance were assessed by means of Concentration Indices. Socio-economic disparities in regular dental attendance were identified as early as childhood. Moreover, higher educational attainment resulted in increased probabilities of regular dental attendance throughout subsequent life-years in all nations. In most countries, inequality levels remained relatively inelastic throughout the life-course. These findings suggest that a considerable proportion of inequalities in dental care use is already established at childhood and persists throughout the life-course. PMID:22699676

  3. Does provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling lead to higher HIV testing rate and HIV case finding in Rwandan clinics?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kayigamba, Felix R.; van Santen, Daniëla; Bakker, Mirjam I.; Lammers, Judith; Mugisha, Veronicah; Bagiruwigize, Emmanuel; de Naeyer, Ludwig; Asiimwe, Anita; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F.

    2016-01-01

    Provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling (PITC) is promoted as a means to increase HIV case finding. We assessed the effectiveness of PITC to increase HIV testing rate and HIV case finding among outpatients in Rwandan health facilities (HF). PITC was introduced in six HFs in 2009-2010. HIV

  4. Lower estimated glomerular filtration rate and higher albuminuria are associated with mortality and end-stage renal disease. A collaborative meta-analysis of kidney disease population cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astor, Brad C; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Gansevoort, Ron T

    2011-01-01

    We studied here the independent associations of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and albuminuria with mortality and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We performed a collaborative meta-analysis of 13 studies totaling 21,688 patients selected...

  5. Payment for antiretroviral drugs is associated with a higher rate of patients lost to follow-up than those offered free-of-charge therapy in Nairobi, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zachariah, R.; van Engelgem, I.; Massaquoi, M.; Kocholla, L.; Manzi, M.; Suleh, A.; Phillips, M.; Borgdorff, M.

    2008-01-01

    This retrospective analysis of routine programme data from Mbagathi District Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya shows the difference in rates of loss to follow-up between a cohort that paid 500 shillings/month (approximately US$7) for antiretroviral drugs (ART) and one that received medication free of charge.

  6. Lower estimated glomerular filtration rate and higher albuminuria are associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. A collaborative meta-analysis of high-risk population cohorts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velde, Marije; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Coresh, Josef; Astor, Brad C.; Woodward, Mark; Levey, Andrew S.; de Jong, Paul E.; Gansevoort, Ron T.

    Screening for chronic kidney disease is recommended in people at high risk, but data on the independent and combined associations of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and albuminuria with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality are limited. To clarify this, we performed a collaborative

  7. Effects of Class Size and Attendance Policy on University Classroom Interaction in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yin; Chang, Te-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Classroom interaction experience is one of the main parts of students' learning lives. However, surprisingly little research has investigated students' perceptions of classroom interaction with different attendance policies across different class sizes in the higher education system. To elucidate the effects of class size and attendance policy on…

  8. Preschool Attendance in Chicago Public Schools: Relationships with Learning Outcomes and Reasons for Absences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, Stacy B.; Gwynne, Julia A.; Stitziel Pareja, Amber; Allensworth, Elaine M.; Moore, Paul; Jagesic, Sanja; Sorice, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Significant attention is currently focused on ensuring that children are enrolled in preschool. However, regular attendance is also critically important. Children with better preschool attendance have higher kindergarten readiness scores, this is especially true for students entering with low skills. Unfortunately, many preschool-aged children are…

  9. Comparison of Complications and Surgical Outcomes of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Between Junior Attending Surgeons and Senior Attending Surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Jun; Xiao, Lingyan; Xu, Leilei; Shi, Benlong; Qian, Bangping; Zhu, Zezhang; Qiu, Yong

    2018-04-24

    To our knowledge, few studies have compared complications and surgical outcomes of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) between junior attending surgeons and senior attending surgeons. To compare surgical strategies, complications, and outcomes of posterior corrective surgery for AIS between junior attending surgeons and senior attending surgeons. According to experience level of operation surgeons, the patients were assigned to 2 groups. Group A was the "junior surgeon" group. Group B was the "senior surgeon" group. The following parameters were compared between the 2 groups: age, sex, diagnosis, hospital of record, surgeon experience level, type of instrumentation, type of screws, estimated blood loss, duration of surgery, length of fusion, correction techniques, main curve correction, and thoracic kyphosis correction. A total of 132 patients with AIS were included in group A, whereas 207 were in group B. The translational technique was used more often in group A (P Senior surgeons used more monoaxial screws than junior surgeons (P senior group (P senior group had significant better correction rates of severe main curve (>70°) and thoracic kyphosis than the junior group (P Senior attending surgeons outperformed junior surgeons in blood loss control, thoracic kyphosis correction, and correction of severe curves. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Long-term patterns of dental attendance and caries experience among British adults: a retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldossary, Arwa; Harrison, Victoria E; Bernabé, Eduardo

    2015-02-01

    There is inconclusive evidence on the value of regular dental attendance. This study explored the relationship between long-term patterns of dental attendance and caries experience. We used retrospective data from 3,235 adults, ≥ 16 yrs of age, who participated in the Adult Dental Health Survey in the UK. Participants were classified into four groups (always, current, former, and never regular-attenders) based on their responses to three questions on lifetime dental-attendance patterns. The association between dental-attendance patterns and caries experience, as measured using the decayed, missing, or filled teeth (DMFT) index, was tested in negative binomial regression models, adjusting for demographic (sex, age, and country of residence) and socio-economic (educational attainment, household income, and social class) factors. A consistent pattern of association between long-term dental attendance and caries experience was found in adjusted models. Former and never regular-attenders had a significantly higher DMFT score and numbers of decayed and missing teeth, but fewer filled teeth, than always regular-attenders. No differences in DMFT or its components were found between current and always regular-attenders. The findings of this study show that adults with different lifetime trajectories of dental attendance had different dental statuses. © 2014 Eur J Oral Sci.

  11. The return of the Traditional Birth Attendant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Lane

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sub–Saharan Africa and Southern Asia lag behind other regions in the provision of antenatal care and skilled attendance at birth (although typically attended by a family member or villager and over 32 million of the 40 million births not attended by skilled health personnel in 2012 occurred in rural areas. Overall, one–quarter of women in developing nations still birth alone or with a relative to assist them.

  12. Barriers to School Attendance and Gender Inequality: Empirical Evidence from a Sample of Ghanaian Schoolchildren

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Sharon; McCoy, Dana C.; Godfrey, Erin B.

    2016-01-01

    Governments in sub-Saharan Africa have made marked efforts to increase school enrollment. Yet attendance and completion rates remain low, particularly for girls. This study examines the reasons that school children do not attend school in a sample of Ghanaian students. Girls were more likely to miss school because a family member was sick, whereas…

  13. Does Improved Water Access Increase Child School Attendance? A Quasi-Experimental Approach From Rural Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Y.; Cook, J.

    2012-12-01

    not measure the portion of children that engage in both activities. Indeed, children may very well be "attending" school according to an enrollment measure, but they may be doing so at low rates that prevent them from advancing to higher grade levels. Although enrollment rates may remain constant pre- and post-water access, school attendance may increase with the provision of water. This paper overcomes previous limitations by utilizing panel data from a quasi-experimental study and a continuous measure for school attendance collected over one year via random school attendance checks. In total, we collected data on 642 children from randomly selected households. Using a difference-in-difference estimator, our preliminary analysis finds that water access increases school attendance by 6% and is statistically significant at the 5% significance level. When using school enrollment as the outcome variable preliminary analysis finds that water access increases enrollment by 3%, although it is only marginally significant at the 10% significance level. Data on schooling via random school attendance checks provide a more reliable measure for the true impact of water access on schooling, and our preliminary findings suggest that the impact may be higher than previously estimated.

  14. Are High-Severity Fires Burning at Much Higher Rates Recently than Historically in Dry-Forest Landscapes of the Western USA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, William L

    2015-01-01

    Dry forests at low elevations in temperate-zone mountains are commonly hypothesized to be at risk of exceptional rates of severe fire from climatic change and land-use effects. Their setting is fire-prone, they have been altered by land-uses, and fire severity may be increasing. However, where fires were excluded, increased fire could also be hypothesized as restorative of historical fire. These competing hypotheses are not well tested, as reference data prior to widespread land-use expansion were insufficient. Moreover, fire-climate projections were lacking for these forests. Here, I used new reference data and records of high-severity fire from 1984-2012 across all dry forests (25.5 million ha) of the western USA to test these hypotheses. I also approximated projected effects of climatic change on high-severity fire in dry forests by applying existing projections. This analysis showed the rate of recent high-severity fire in dry forests is within the range of historical rates, or is too low, overall across dry forests and individually in 42 of 43 analysis regions. Significant upward trends were lacking overall from 1984-2012 for area burned and fraction burned at high severity. Upward trends in area burned at high severity were found in only 4 of 43 analysis regions. Projections for A.D. 2046-2065 showed high-severity fire would generally be still operating at, or have been restored to historical rates, although high projections suggest high-severity fire rotations that are too short could ensue in 6 of 43 regions. Programs to generally reduce fire severity in dry forests are not supported and have significant adverse ecological impacts, including reducing habitat for native species dependent on early-successional burned patches and decreasing landscape heterogeneity that confers resilience to climatic change. Some adverse ecological effects of high-severity fires are concerns. Managers and communities can improve our ability to live with high-severity fire in

  15. Higher caloric intake in hospitalized adolescents with anorexia nervosa is associated with reduced length of stay and no increased rate of refeeding syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Neville H; Keane-Miller, Casey; Sainani, Kristin L; Kapphahn, Cynthia J

    2013-11-01

    To determine the effect of higher caloric intake on weight gain, length of stay (LOS), and incidence of hypophosphatemia, hypomagnesemia, and hypokalemia in adolescents hospitalized with anorexia nervosa. Electronic medical records of all subjects 10-21 years of age with anorexia nervosa, first admitted to a tertiary children's hospital from Jan 2007 to Dec 2011, were retrospectively reviewed. Demographic factors, anthropometric measures, incidence of hypophosphatemia (≤3.0 mg/dL), hypomagnesemia (≤1.7 mg/dL), and hypokalemia (≤3.5 mEq/L), and daily change in percent median body mass index (BMI) (%mBMI) from baseline were recorded. Subjects started on higher-calorie diets (≥1,400 kcal/d) were compared with those started on lower-calorie diets (Refeeding hypophosphatemia depends on the degree of malnutrition but not prescribed caloric intake, within the range studied. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Implementation of the forced answering option within online surveys: Do higher item response rates come at the expense of participation and answer quality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Décieux Jean Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Online surveys have become a popular method for data gathering for many reasons, including low costs and the ability to collect data rapidly. However, online data collection is often conducted without adequate attention to implementation details. One example is the frequent use of the forced answering option, which forces the respondent to answer each question in order to proceed through the questionnaire. The avoidance of missing data is often the idea behind the use of the forced answering option. However, we suggest that the costs of a reactance effect in terms of quality reduction and unit nonresponse may be high because respondents typically have plausible reasons for not answering questions. The objective of the study reported in this paper was to test the influence of forced answering on dropout rates and data quality. The results show that requiring participants answer every question increases dropout rates and decreases quality of answers. Our findings suggest that the desire for a complete data set has to be balanced against the consequences of reduced data quality.

  17. Attendroid : An Android Application in Attendance Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorissa Joana E. Buenas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This research involves an android application in attendance management system. The study sought to provide an alternative solution to the increasing demand for time management in the College of Engineering and Computing Sciences in Batangas State University ARASOF. Through the said Android application the attendance checking will be much easier, for it will reduce the roll call that takes a lot of time. It was developed to help the lecturers have sufficient time for teaching and the students for learning. The researchers used research design, development process, and programming procedures in their study. The “Attendroid”, was designed and develop using Eclipse, Java Script, Php and HTML. This application is for android phones and tablet which has portable hotspot. The android application for the students will run on 2.2versions of android and higher. The android application has gone through an evaluation to test whether the system is acceptable in terms of security, accuracy, reliability, maintainability and user-friendliness against the manual checking of attendance. The result shows that the respondents are more favorable in the Attendroid because it can be gleaned that they gave an excellent feedback to the application compared to the manual process of attendance checking. After thorough study of the old ways of attendance checking against the newly developed application, a necessity to improve the manual checking was observed, and therefore, strengthen the advantages of implementing Attendroid. Based on the result of the proposed users’ acceptability, Attendroid could become the formal attendance checking system of the College of Engineering and Computing Sciences.

  18. Higher rates of triple-class virological failure in perinatally HIV-infected teenagers compared with heterosexually infected young adults in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, A; Lodwick, R; Noguera-Julian, A; Gibb, D M; Butler, K; Costagliola, D; Sabin, C; van Sighem, A; Ledergerber, B; Torti, C; Mocroft, A; Podzamczer, D; Dorrucci, M; De Wit, S; Obel, N; Dabis, F; Cozzi-Lepri, A; García, F; Brockmeyer, N H; Warszawski, J; Gonzalez-Tome, M I; Mussini, C; Touloumi, G; Zangerle, R; Ghosn, J; Castagna, A; Fätkenheuer, G; Stephan, C; Meyer, L; Campbell, M A; Chene, G; Phillips, A

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the time to, and risk factors for, triple-class virological failure (TCVF) across age groups for children and adolescents with perinatally acquired HIV infection and older adolescents and adults with heterosexually acquired HIV infection. We analysed individual patient data from cohorts in the Collaboration of Observational HIV Epidemiological Research Europe (COHERE). A total of 5972 participants starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) from 1998, aged 500 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL despite ≥ 4 months of use. TCVF was defined as cumulative failure of two NRTIs, an NNRTI and a bPI. The median number of weeks between diagnosis and the start of ART was higher in participants with perinatal HIV infection compared with participants with heterosexually acquired HIV infection overall [17 (interquartile range (IQR) 4-111) vs. 8 (IQR 2-38) weeks, respectively], and highest in perinatally infected participants aged 10-14 years [49 (IQR 9-267) weeks]. The cumulative proportion with TCVF 5 years after starting ART was 9.6% [95% confidence interval (CI) 7.0-12.3%] in participants with perinatally acquired infection and 4.7% (95% CI 3.9-5.5%) in participants with heterosexually acquired infection, and highest in perinatally infected participants aged 10-14 years when starting ART (27.7%; 95% CI 13.2-42.1%). Across all participants, significant predictors of TCVF were those with perinatal HIV aged 10-14 years, African origin, pre-ART AIDS, NNRTI-based initial regimens, higher pre-ART viral load and lower pre-ART CD4. The results suggest a beneficial effect of starting ART before adolescence, and starting young people on boosted PIs, to maximize treatment response during this transitional stage of development. © 2016 The Authors. HIV Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British HIV Association.

  19. Socio-economic factors associated with delivery assisted by traditional birth attendants in Iraq, 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudatsikira Emmanuel

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditional birth attendants (TBAs are likely to deliver lower quality maternity care compared to professional health workers. It is important to characterize women who are assisted by TBAs in order to design interventions specific to such groups. We thus conducted a study to assess if socio-economic status and demographic factors are associated with having childbirth supervised by traditional birth attendants in Iraq. Methods Iraqi Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS data for 2000 were used. We estimated frequencies and proportions of having been delivered by a traditional birth attendant and other social characteristics. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between having been delivered by a TBA and wealth, area of residence (urban versus rural, parity, maternal education and age. Results Altogether 22,980 women participated in the survey, and of these women, 2873 had delivery information and whether they were assisted by traditional birth attendants (TBAs or not during delivery. About 1 in 5 women (26.9% had been assisted by TBAs. Compared to women of age 35 years or more, women of age 25–34 years were 22% (AOR = 1.22, 95%CI [1.08, 1.39] more likely to be assisted by TBAs during delivery. Women who had no formal education were 42% (AOR = 1.42, 95%CI [1.22, 1.65] more likely to be delivered by TBAs compared to those who had attained secondary or higher level of education. Women in the poorest wealth quintile were 2.52 (AOR = 2.52, 95%CI [2.14, 2.98] more likely to be delivered by TBAs compared to those in the richest quintile. Compared to women who had 7 or more children, those who had 1 or 2 were 28% (AOR = 0.72, 95%CI [0.59, 0.87] less likely to be delivered by TBAs. Conclusion Findings from this study indicate that having delivery supervised by traditional birth attendants was associated with young maternal age, low education, and being poor. Meanwhile women having 1 or 2 children were

  20. Socio-economic factors associated with delivery assisted by traditional birth attendants in Iraq, 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siziya, Seter; Muula, Adamson S; Rudatsikira, Emmanuel

    2009-04-02

    Traditional birth attendants (TBAs) are likely to deliver lower quality maternity care compared to professional health workers. It is important to characterize women who are assisted by TBAs in order to design interventions specific to such groups. We thus conducted a study to assess if socio-economic status and demographic factors are associated with having childbirth supervised by traditional birth attendants in Iraq. Iraqi Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) data for 2000 were used. We estimated frequencies and proportions of having been delivered by a traditional birth attendant and other social characteristics. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between having been delivered by a TBA and wealth, area of residence (urban versus rural), parity, maternal education and age. Altogether 22,980 women participated in the survey, and of these women, 2873 had delivery information and whether they were assisted by traditional birth attendants (TBAs) or not during delivery. About 1 in 5 women (26.9%) had been assisted by TBAs. Compared to women of age 35 years or more, women of age 25-34 years were 22% (AOR = 1.22, 95%CI [1.08, 1.39]) more likely to be assisted by TBAs during delivery. Women who had no formal education were 42% (AOR = 1.42, 95%CI [1.22, 1.65]) more likely to be delivered by TBAs compared to those who had attained secondary or higher level of education. Women in the poorest wealth quintile were 2.52 (AOR = 2.52, 95%CI [2.14, 2.98]) more likely to be delivered by TBAs compared to those in the richest quintile. Compared to women who had 7 or more children, those who had 1 or 2 were 28% (AOR = 0.72, 95%CI [0.59, 0.87]) less likely to be delivered by TBAs. Findings from this study indicate that having delivery supervised by traditional birth attendants was associated with young maternal age, low education, and being poor. Meanwhile women having 1 or 2 children were less likely to be delivered by TBAs. These factors should be

  1. Apolipoprotein CIII overexpression exacerbates diet-induced obesity due to adipose tissue higher exogenous lipid uptake and retention and lower lipolysis rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposo, Helena F; Paiva, Adriene A; Kato, Larissa S; de Oliveira, Helena C F

    2015-01-01

    Hypertriglyceridemia is a common type of dyslipidemia found in obesity. However, it is not established whether primary hyperlipidemia can predispose to obesity. Evidences have suggested that proteins primarily related to plasma lipoprotein transport, such as apolipoprotein (apo) CIII and E, may significantly affect the process of body fat accumulation. We have previously observed an increased adiposity in response to a high fat diet (HFD) in mice overexpressing apoCIII. Here, we examined the potential mechanisms involved in this exacerbated response of apoCIII mice to the HFD. We measured body energy balance, tissue capacity to store exogenous lipids, lipogenesis and lipolysis rates in non-transgenic and apoCIII overexpressing mice fed a HFD during two months. Food intake, fat excretion and whole body CO2 production were similar in both groups. However, the adipose tissue mass (45 %) and leptin plasma levels (2-fold) were significantly greater in apoCIII mice. Lipogenesis rates were similar, while exogenous lipid retention was increased in perigonadal (2-fold) and brown adipose tissues (40 %) of apoCIII mice. In addition, adipocyte basal lipolysis (55 %) and in vivo lipolysis index (30 %) were significantly decreased in apoCIII mice. A fat tolerance test evidenced delayed plasma triglyceride clearance and greater transient availability of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) during the post-prandial state in the apoCIII mice plasma. Thus, apoCIII overexpression resulted in increased NEFA availability to adipose uptake and decreased adipocyte lipolysis, favoring lipid enlargement of adipose depots. We propose that plasma apoCIII levels represent a new risk factor for diet-induced obesity.

  2. Treatment Results of Postoperative Radiotherapy on Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity: Coexistence of Multiple Minor Risk Factors Results in Higher Recurrence Rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Kang-Hsing; Wang, Hung-Ming; Kang, Chung-Jan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the treatment results of postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) on squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (OSCC). Materials and Methods: This study included 302 OSCC patients who were treated by radical surgery and PORT. Indications for PORT include Stage III or IV OSCC according to the 2002 criteria of the American Joint Committee on Cancer, the presence of perineural invasion or lymphatic invasion, the depth of tumor invasion, or a close surgical margin. Patients with major risk factors, such as multiple nodal metastases, a positive surgical margin, or extracapsular spreading, were excluded. The prescribed dose of PORT ranged from 59.4 to 66.6Gy (median, 63Gy). Results: The 3-year overall and recurrence-free survival rates were 73% and 70%, respectively. Univariate analysis revealed that differentiation, perineural invasion, lymphatic invasion, bone invasion, location (hard palate and retromolar trigone), invasion depths ≥10mm, and margin distances ≤4mm were significant prognostic factors. The presence of multiple significant factors of univariate analysis correlated with disease recurrence. The 3-year recurrence-free survival rates were 82%, 76%, and 45% for patients with no risk factors, one or two risk factors, and three or more risk factors, respectively. After multivariate analysis, the number of risk factors and lymphatic invasion were significant prognostic factors. Conclusion: PORT may be an adequate adjuvant therapy for OSCC patients with one or two risk factors of recurrence. The presence of multiple risk factors and lymphatic invasion correlated with poor prognosis, and more aggressive treatment may need to be considered.

  3. Community College Attendance and Socioeconomic Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sueuk; Pascarella, Ernest T.

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the National Education Longitudinal Study, 1988 (NELS: 88), this paper documents differences in the socioeconomic plans of students in two-year and four-year colleges. We found attendance at a two-year college led to a modest but statistically significant disadvantage in socioeconomic plans. However, the impact of attending a…

  4. Autotrophic and heterotrophic nitrification-anoxic denitrification dominated the anoxic/oxic sewage treatment process during optimization for higher loading rate and energy savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xueyu; Zheng, Shaokui; Zhang, Hangyu; Duan, Shoupeng

    2018-04-30

    This study clarified the dominant nitrogen (N)-transformation pathway and the key ammonia-oxidizing microbial species at three loading levels during optimization of the anoxic/oxic (A/O) process for sewage treatment. Comprehensive N-transformation activity analysis showed that ammonia oxidization was performed predominantly by aerobic chemolithotrophic and heterotrophic ammonia oxidization, whereas N 2 production was performed primarily by anoxic denitrification in the anoxic unit. The abundances of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), nitrite-oxidizing bacteria, and anaerobic AOB in activated sludge reflected their activities on the basis of high-throughput sequencing data. AOB amoA gene clone libraries revealed that the predominant AOB species in sludge samples shifted from Nitrosomonas europaea (61% at the normal loading level) to Nitrosomonas oligotropha (58% and 81% at the two higher loading levels). Following isolation and sequencing, the predominant culturable heterotrophic AOB in sludge shifted from Agrobacterium tumefaciens (42% at the normal loading level) to Acinetobacter johnsonii (52% at the highest loading level). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Infusion-related febrile reaction after haploidentical stem cell transplantation in children is associated with higher rates of engraftment syndrome and acute graft-versus-host disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yao; Huang, Xiao-Jun; Liu, Kai-Yan; Chen, Huan; Chen, Yu-Hong; Zhang, Xiao-Hui; Wang, Feng-Rong; Han, Wei; Wang, Jing-Zhi; Wang, Yu; Yan, Chen-Hua; Zhang, Yuan-Yuan; Sun, Yu-Qian; Xu, Lan-Ping

    2015-12-01

    The clinical significance and prognostic impact of IRFR in pediatric recipients of haploidentical SCT are not clearly understood. Therefore, we attempted to determine how IRFR affects clinical outcomes in children. Clinical data from 100 consecutive pediatric patients (60 boys and 40 girls; median age, 12 yr [range, 2-18 yr] after haploidentical SCT between January 2010 and December 2012 were collected retrospectively. IRFR was described as unexplained fever (>38 °C) within 24 h after the infusion of haploidentical PBSCs. Thirty-eight (38.0%) cases met the criteria for IRFR. ES was found in 24 (63.2%) of the 38 children with IRFR, with the median time of developing ES of +9 (7-16) days, while only 15 (25.4%) of the 59 children without IRFR were found with ES (p children after haploidentical SCT. Thirty-eight children comprised the IRFR group, and 59 were in the control (non-IRFR) group. High incidence of ES was observed in children with the occurrence of IRFR. Similarly, the incidence of stage I-IV and II-IV aGVHD was significantly higher in the febrile group. Multivariate analysis showed IRFR to be the risk factor for ES and aGVHD. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. The prevalence and impact of depression in self-referred clients attending an employee assistance program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Raymond W; Wolinsky, Debra; Kinsella, Cynthia; Woo, Cindy; Cayley, Paula M; Walker, Anne B

    2012-11-01

    To determine the prevalence and characteristics of clients with depression attending an employee assistance program (EAP). Anonymized data were obtained from 10,794 consecutive clients, including 9105 employees, self-referred to PPC Canada, a large, external EAP. Assessment measures included the self-rated nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Clinical characteristics of depressed clients (PHQ-9 score ≥ 10) were compared with those of nondepressed clients. Thirty-seven percent of the employee sample met PHQ-9 criteria for clinically significant depression. Compared with clients without depression, they had significantly higher rates of anxiety, psychotropic medication use, problem substance use, global problems with functioning, absenteeism, impairment in work-related tasks, and low job satisfaction. A large proportion of EAP clients were clinically depressed with associated negative effects on personal and occupational functioning.

  7. Ablation of arginylation in the mouse N-end rule pathway: loss of fat, higher metabolic rate, damaged spermatogenesis, and neurological perturbations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher S Brower

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In the N-end rule pathway of protein degradation, the destabilizing activity of N-terminal Asp, Glu or (oxidized Cys residues requires their conjugation to Arg, which is recognized directly by pathway's ubiquitin ligases. N-terminal arginylation is mediated by the Ate1 arginyltransferase, whose physiological substrates include the Rgs4, Rgs5 and Rgs16 regulators of G proteins. Here, we employed the Cre-lox technique to uncover new physiological functions of N-terminal arginylation in adult mice. We show that postnatal deletion of mouse Ate1 (its unconditional deletion is embryonic lethal causes a rapid decrease of body weight and results in early death of approximately 15% of Ate1-deficient mice. Despite being hyperphagic, the surviving Ate1-deficient mice contain little visceral fat. They also exhibit an increased metabolic rate, ectopic induction of the Ucp1 uncoupling protein in white fat, and are resistant to diet-induced obesity. In addition, Ate1-deficient mice have enlarged brains, an enhanced startle response, are strikingly hyperkinetic, and are prone to seizures and kyphosis. Ate1-deficient males are also infertile, owing to defects in Ate1(-/- spermatocytes. The remarkably broad range of specific biological processes that are shown here to be perturbed by the loss of N-terminal arginylation will make possible the dissection of regulatory circuits that involve Ate1 and either its known substrates, such as Rgs4, Rgs5 and Rgs16, or those currently unknown.

  8. Surgery for diverticular disease results in a higher hernia rate compared to colorectal cancer: a population-based study from Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, E S; Robertson, D I; Whitehead, M; Xu, J; Hall, S F

    2017-11-16

    Incisional hernias are a well described complication of abdominal surgery. Previous studies identified malignancy and diverticular disease as risk factors. We compared incisional hernia rates between colon resection for colorectal cancer (CRC) and diverticular disease (DD). We performed a retrospective, population-based, matched cohort study. Provincial databases were linked through the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences. These databases include all patients registered under the universal Ontario Health Insurance Plan. Patients aged 18-105 undergoing open colon resection, without ostomy formation between April 1, 2002 and March 31, 2009, were included. We excluded those with previous surgery, hernia, obstruction, and perforation. The primary outcomes were surgery for hernia repair, or diagnosis of hernia in clinic. We identified 4660 cases of DD. These were matched 2:1 by age and gender to 8933 patients with CRC for a total of 13,593. At 5 years, incisional hernias occurred in 8.3% of patients in the CRC cohort, versus 13.1% of those undergoing surgery for DD. After adjusting for important confounders (comorbidity score, wound infection, age, diabetes, prednisone and chemotherapy), hernias were still more likely in patients with DD [HR 1.58, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.43-1.76, P < 0.001]. The only significant covariate was wound infection (HR 1.63, 95% CI 1.43-1.87, P < 0.001). Our study found that incisional hernias occur more commonly in patients with DD than CRC.

  9. A Study on Attendance and Academic Achievement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sund, Kristian J.; Bignoux, Stephane

    In this study we attempt to answer Romer’s (1993) question: “Should attendance be mandatory?” Contrary to many existing studies, we conclude that in the case of business and management programs the answer is ‘no’. In a study of over 900 undergraduate strategy students, spanning four academic years......, we examine the link between attendance and exam results. Unlike prior research on this topic, our findings show that attendance is not the best determinant of student performance. We find instead that the best determinant of student performance for third year bachelor students is their over......-all degree classification, which we see as a proxy for academic ability. We suggest that attendance may simply be a reflection of student conscientiousness, engagement and motivation. We also challenge the assumptions about gender differences found in prior research on student attendance and student...

  10. Fast-Rate Capable Electrode Material with Higher Energy Density than LiFePO4: 4.2V LiVPO4F Synthesized by Scalable Single-Step Solid-State Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minkyung; Lee, Seongsu; Kang, Byoungwoo

    2016-03-01

    Use of compounds that contain fluorine (F) as electrode materials in lithium ion batteries has been considered, but synthesizing single-phase samples of these compounds is a difficult task. Here, it is demonstrated that a simple scalable single-step solid-state process with additional fluorine source can obtain highly pure LiVPO 4 F. The resulting material with submicron particles achieves very high rate capability ≈100 mAh g -1 at 60 C-rate (1-min discharge) and even at 200 C-rate (18 s discharge). It retains superior capacity, ≈120 mAh g -1 at 10 C charge/10 C discharge rate (6-min) for 500 cycles with >95% retention efficiency. Furthermore, LiVPO 4 F shows low polarization even at high rates leading to higher operating potential >3.45 V (≈3.6 V at 60 C-rate), so it achieves high energy density. It is demonstrated for the first time that highly pure LiVPO 4 F can achieve high power capability comparable to LiFePO 4 and much higher energy density (≈521 Wh g -1 at 20 C-rate) than LiFePO 4 even without nanostructured particles. LiVPO 4 F can be a real substitute of LiFePO 4.

  11. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy was associated with a higher severe late toxicity rate in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients compared with radiotherapy alone: a meta-analysis based on randomized controlled trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Cheng-run; Ying, Hong-mei; Kong, Fang-fang; Zhai, Rui-ping; Hu, Chao-su

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the incidence and risk of severe late toxicity with concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients. Eligible studies included prospective randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating CCRT versus radiotherapy alone in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma and in which data on severe late toxicities were available. Random effects or fixed effect models were applied to obtain the summary incidence, relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Five RCTs with 1102 patients with NPC were included in this analysis. The summary incidence of overall severe late toxicities in patients receiving CCRT was 30.7% (95% CI, 18–47.2%) and the incidence of radiotherapy alone group was 21.7% (95% CI, 13.3–33.4%). The use of concurrent chemotherapy was associated with an increased risk of severe late toxicities, with a RR of 1.349 (95% CI, 1.108–1.643; P = 0.005). As for specific late toxicity, CCRT significantly increased the risk of ear deafness/otitis (RR = 1.567; 95% CI, 1.192–2.052), but other late toxicities were not significantly different. Patients receiving concurrent chemotherapy regimens with 3-week high-dose cisplatin (HC) have a higher risk of ear deafness/otitis (RR = 1.672; 95% CI, 1.174–2.382; P = 0.026). However, there was no significant increase in the RR of severe ear complication with the addition of non-3-week high-dose cisplatin (nonHC) regimens (RR = 1.433; 95% CI, 0.946–2.171; P = 0.095). With the present evidence, the addition of concurrent chemotherapy seems to increase the risk of severe late toxicities in patients with NPC, especially when using HC regimen for the occurrence of severe ototoxicity

  12. Pregnant women with HIV in rural Nigeria have higher rates of antiretroviral treatment initiation, but similar loss to follow-up as non-pregnant women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliyu, Muktar H; Blevins, Meridith; Megazzini, Karen M; Parrish, Deidra D; Audet, Carolyn M; Chan, Naomi; Odoh, Chisom; Gebi, Usman I; Muhammad, Mukhtar Y; Shepherd, Bryan E; Wester, C William; Vermund, Sten H

    2015-11-01

    We examined antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation and retention by sex and pregnancy status in rural Nigeria. We studied HIV-infected ART-naïve patients aged ≥15 years entering care from June 2009 to September 2013. We calculated the probability of early ART initiation and cumulative incidence of loss to follow-up (LTFU) during the first year of ART, and examined the association between LTFU and sex/pregnancy using Cox regression. The cohort included 3813 ART-naïve HIV-infected adults (2594 women [68.0%], 273 [11.8%] of them pregnant). The proportion of pregnant clients initiating ART within 90 days of enrollment (78.0%, 213/273) was higher than among non-pregnant women (54.3%,1261/2321) or men (53.0%, 650/1219), both pPregnant women initiated ART sooner than non-pregnant women and men (median [IQR] days from enrollment to ART initiation for pregnant women=7 days [0-21] vs 14 days [7-49] for non-pregnant women and 14 days [7-42] for men; pPregnant women with HIV in rural Nigeria were more likely to initiate ART but were no more likely to be retained in care. Our findings underscore the importance of effective retention strategies across all patient groups, regardless of sex and pregnancy status. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Are lower levels of physical activity and self-rated fitness associated with higher levels of psychological distress in Croatian young adults? A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovro Štefan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Although previous evidence has shown that physical activity and physical fitness lower the level of psychological distress, little is known of simultaneous associations between of physical activity and physical fitness and with psychological distress, especially in young adults. Therefore, the main purpose of the present study was to explore both separate and simultaneous association between physical activity and physical fitness with psychological distress. Methods Participants in this cross-sectional study were 2,100 university students (1,041 men and 1,059 women chosen from eight faculties in the city of Zagreb. Physical activity, physical fitness and psychological distress were assessed using structured questionnaires. The associations were examined using logistic regression analysis. Results After adjusting for gender, body-mass index, self-rated health, material status, binge drinking, chronic disease/s and sleep quality, “insufficient” physical activity (OR = 2.60; 95% CI [1.92–3.52] and “lower” levels of physical fitness (tertile 2; OR = 1.94; 95% CI [1.25–3.01] and tertile 1; OR = 2.59; 95% CI [1.65–4.08] remained associated with “high” psychological distress. When physical activity and physical fitness were entered simultaneously into the model, “insufficient” physical activity (OR = 2.35; 95% CI [1.72–3.21] and “lower” levels of physical fitness (tertile 2; OR = 1.77; 95% CI [1.24–2.77] and tertile 1; OR = 2.00; 95% CI [1.26–3.20] remained associated with “high” psychological distress. Conclusion Our study shows that both “insufficient” physical activity and “lower” levels of physical fitness are associated with “high” psychological distress, even after adjusting for numerous covariates. Therefore, special policies aiming to increase the levels of physical activity and fitness are warranted.

  14. Birth Order, Child Labor and School Attendance in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick M. Emerson; Andre Portela Souza

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of birth order on the child labor incidence and school attendance of Brazilian children. Evidence from the psychology and sociology literature suggests that earlier-born children tend to have higher innate abilities. The economic implications of these findings are that earlier-born children may have more intra-household resources directed to them when they are young, and better outcomes as adults in areas such as education and earnings. However, in the context ...

  15. Higher rates of metabolic syndrome among women taking zidovudine as compared to tenofovir in rural Africa: preliminary data from the CART-1 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labhardt, Niklaus Daniel; Cheleboi, Molisana; Faturyiele, Olatunbosun; Motlatsi, Mokete M; Pfeiffer, Karolin; Lejone, Thabo Ismael; Cerutti, Bernard; Muser, Jürgen; Gupta, Ravi Shankar; Lynen, Lutgarde; Hatz, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Due to its side effects stavudine (D4T) has been replaced by zidovudine (AZT) and tenofovir (TDF) in most low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). In 2014 about 38% of adult first-line regimens contain AZT and 62% TDF [1]. Whereas the unfavourable metabolic outcomes of D4T in comparison to TDF have been described extensively, studies from LMICs comparing metabolic profiles between patients on AZT and TDF are scarce. Given the high number of patients in LMICs still taking AZT, data on their metabolic profile are needed. We present rates of metabolic syndrome (MS) in adult patients taking either AZT- or TDF-containing first-line, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase (NNRTI)-based regimens. Data derived from a cross-sectional multi-disease screening conducted in ten facilities in two rural districts of Lesotho, Southern Africa [2]. Patients were eligible if aged ≥25 years and on NNRTI-containing first-line ART ≥6 months. The MS definition for Africa of the International Diabetes Federation was applied [3]. Assessed potential predictors for MS were age, time on ART, virologic suppression, body-mass index (BMI), alcohol consumption, wealth quintile, NNRTI (nevirapine (NVP) or Efavirenz (EFV)), history of previous D4T exposure and ART-backbone (AZT or TDF). Statistical analyses - stratified for sex - comprised univariate logistic regression for each predictor variable with subsequent construction of a multivariate model including all predictors with an association to MS at a significance levelwomen. In women, aged ≥35 years, AZT-backbone, NVP-base, BMI ≥25kg/m2 and taking ART for ≥4.5 years were associated with MS in univariate analysis. In the multivariate model only AZT (adjusted odds-ratio: 2.2, 95% CI 1.4-3.6; p=0.001) and BMI ≥25kg/m2 (9.8; 2.8-34.1, pwomen who are on ART for ≥6 months predisposes to the development of metabolic syndrome. Given that, still 38% of first-line regimens in LMIC contain AZT, this finding needs to be verified in other

  16. A Longitudinal Study of Adenoma Detection Rate in Gastroenterology Fellowship Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianotti, Robert J; Oza, Sveta Shah; Tapper, Elliot B; Kothari, Darshan; Sheth, Sunil G

    2016-10-01

    Current guidelines suggest that a gastroenterology fellow in training needs to perform 140 colonoscopies to achieve competency. Data are limited regarding adenoma detection rate (ADR) in fellowship. To assess how fellow ADR correlates with number of colonoscopies performed. We performed a retrospective study examining consecutive colonoscopies performed by gastroenterology fellows. Fellow ADR before and after the 140 procedure benchmark was compared to colonoscopies performed by attending only with whom these fellows trained. A threshold for ideal procedure count was performed using ROC analysis. We analyzed 2021 average-risk colonoscopies performed by 10 gastroenterology fellows under the supervision of an attending physician. When fellows had performed 140 colonoscopies under attending supervision (p = 0.02). The ADR of fellows who had performed >140 colonoscopies under attending supervision was greater than that of attending-only colonoscopies (36 vs. 25 %, p 325 (male patients) and 539 (female patients) colonoscopies was determined to be ideal for achieving adequate ADR based on ROC analysis. Our data suggest that ADR increases after fellows perform >140 colonoscopies under attending supervision, and thereafter surpasses the ADR of attending-only colonoscopies. Some of the differences may be driven by detection of small adenomas. The findings of this study suggest that a higher threshold for number of colonoscopies performed under attending supervision may be needed to achieve adequate ADR during fellowship prior to independent practice.

  17. Self-reported practices among traditional birth attendants surveyed in western Kenya: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucher, Sherri; Konana, Olive; Liechty, Edward; Garces, Ana; Gisore, Peter; Marete, Irene; Tenge, Constance; Shipala, Evelyn; Wright, Linda; Esamai, Fabian

    2016-08-12

    The high rate of home deliveries conducted by unskilled birth attendants in resource-limited settings is an important global health issue because it is believed to be a significant contributing factor to maternal and newborn mortality. Given the large number of deliveries that are managed by unskilled or traditional birth attendants outside of health facilities, and the fact that there is on-going discussion regarding the role of traditional birth attendants in the maternal newborn health (MNH) service continuum, we sought to ascertain the practices of traditional birth attendants in our catchment area. The findings of this descriptive study might help inform conversations regarding the roles that traditional birth attendants can play in maternal-newborn health care. A structured questionnaire was used in a survey that included one hundred unskilled birth attendants in western Kenya. Descriptive statistics were employed. Inappropriate or outdated practices were reported in relation to some obstetric complications and newborn care. Encouraging results were reported with regard to positive relationships that traditional birth attendants have with their local health facilities. Furthermore, high rates of referral to health facilities was reported for many common obstetric emergencies and similar rates for reporting of pregnancy outcomes to village elders and chiefs. Potentially harmful or outdated practices with regard to maternal and newborn care among traditional birth attendants in western Kenya were revealed by this study. There were high rates of traditional birth attendant referrals of pregnant mothers with obstetric complications to health facilities. Policy makers may consider re-educating and re-defining the roles and responsibilities of traditional birth attendants in maternal and neonatal health care based on the findings of this survey.

  18. Higher Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kunle Amuwo: Higher Education Transformation: A Paradigm Shilt in South Africa? ... ty of such skills, especially at the middle management levels within the higher ... istics and virtues of differentiation and diversity. .... may be forced to close shop for lack of capacity to attract ..... necessarily lead to racial and gender equity,.

  19. Clinic Attendance of Youth With Sickle Cell Disease on Hydroxyurea Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingerski, Lisa M; Arnold, Trisha L; Banks, Gabrielle; Porter, Jerlym S; Wang, Winfred C

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study is to describe rates of clinic attendance of youth with sickle cell disease prescribed hydroxyurea and examine potential demographic and medical factors related to consistent clinic attendance. Participants included 148 youth diagnosed with sickle cell disease and prescribed hydroxyurea during a single calendar year. Clinic attendance and potential demographic and medical factors related to attendance were extracted via systematic retrospective medical chart review. Youth attended 90.3% of scheduled appointments and 85.1% of youth attended at least 80% of scheduled clinic appointments during the study window. Adjusting for other factors, multivariate analysis revealed families with fewer children in the household, families with private insurance, youth experiencing fever, and youth not experiencing pain during the calendar year were more likely to consistently attend clinic visits. Adherence to clinic appointments is critical to optimizing health outcomes for youth with sickle cell disease and integral for adequate monitoring of youth prescribed hydroxyurea, in particular. Findings may aid providers in appropriately identifying possible barriers to clinic attendance to develop attendance promotion interventions.

  20. Syphilis and HIV infections among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niama, Roch Fabien; Loukabou Bongolo, Nadia Claricelle; Bayonne Kombo, Edith Sophie; Yengo, Ruth; Mayengue, Pembe Issamou; Mandingha Kosso, Etoka-Beka; Louzolo, Igor; Macosso, Lucette; Dzeret, Ghislain; Dzabatou Babeaux, Angélie Serge Patrick; Puruehnce, Marie-Francke; Parra, Henri Joseph

    2017-01-01

    HIV and syphilis during pregnancy remain a public health concern especially in developing countries. Pregnant women attending antenatal clinics sites for the first time between September and December 2011 and who accepted to participate in the study were enrolled. The objective was to estimate the syphilis and HIV infection rate in this population. A study was conducted in 44 selected ANCs from 12 departments (5 urban and 7 rural). Pregnant women who accepted to participate in the study, attending selected sentinel ANCs sites for the first time between September and December 2011 were enrolled. To detect HIV antibodies, two consecutive ELISA assays were used (Genscreen Ultra HIV Ag/Ac, (BioRad, France) and Enzygnostic Intergral II (Siemens, GMBH, Marbug-Germany). In case of discordant results, the Western blot test II, HIV1 and 2 (Bio-Rad, Marne la Coquette, France) was used as the reference method. The RPR (Bio-Scan, Karnataka, India) test was performed to detect syphilis infection. The RPR positive results were confirmed using the TPHA test (Biotech, Cambridge, UK). Data were analyzed using SPSS 17.0 software. A total of 2979 pregnant women attending ANCs were enrolled. The global HIV infection rate was estimated to be 3.6% (CI: 95%; 3.0-4.4). As expected, HIV prevalence was significantly higher in women aged above 25 years (4.4% (3.4-5.6), p = 0.026) and those attending urban ANCs (5.04%, p pregnant women (3.92%). The risk for syphilis occurrence was significantly higher among the single women compared to the married ones (4.4% VS 2.7%; p HIV and syphilis coinfection occurred in 22 cases (0.73%). The prevalence's of syphilis and HIV were relatively low. Marital status and sentinel site location were a risk factor associated with HIV and syphilis infections respectively. Therefore, substantial effort is needed to reinforce prevention strategies in this population to prevent mother-to-child and further horizontal transmissions of these infections.

  1. Patient-Centered Handovers: Ethnographic Observations of Attending and Resident Physicians: Ethnographic Observations of Attending and Resident Physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mount-Campbell, Austin F; Rayo, Michael F; OʼBrien, James J; Allen, Theodore T; Patterson, Emily S

    Handover communication improvement initiatives typically employ a "one size fits all" approach. A human factors perspective has the potential to guide how to tailor interventions to roles, levels of experience, settings, and types of patients. We conducted ethnographic observations of sign-outs by attending and resident physicians in 2 medical intensive care units at one institution. Digitally audiotaped data were manually analyzed for content using codes and time spent using box plots for emergent categories. A total of 34 attending and 58 resident physician handovers were observed. Resident physicians spent more time for "soon to be discharged" and "higher concern" patients than attending physicians. Resident physicians spent less time discussing patients which they had provided care for within the last 3 days ("handbacks"). The study suggested differences for how handovers were conducted for attending and resident physicians for 3 categories of patients; handovers differ on the basis of role or level of expertise, patient type, and amount of prior knowledge of the patient. The findings have implications for new directions for subsequent research and for how to tailor quality improvement interventions based upon the role, level of experience, level of prior knowledge, and patient categories.

  2. Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    & Development (LDRD) National Security Education Center (NSEC) Office of Science Programs Richard P Databases National Security Education Center (NSEC) Center for Nonlinear Studies Engineering Institute Scholarships STEM Education Programs Teachers (K-12) Students (K-12) Higher Education Regional Education

  3. CpG Oligonucleotide and Interleukin 2 stimulation enables higher cytogenetic abnormality detection rates than 12-o-tetradecanolyphorbol-13-acetate in Asian patients with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, Fiona Pui San; Lau, Lai Ching; Lim, Alvin Soon Tiong; Lim, Tse Hui; Lee, Geok Yee; Tien, Sim Leng

    2014-12-01

    The present study was designed to compare abnormality detection rates using DSP30 + IL2 and 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in Asian patients with B-CLL. Hematological specimens from 47 patients (29 newly diagnosed, 18 relapsed) were established as 72 h-DSP30 + IL2 and TPA cultures. Standard methods were employed to identify clonal aberrations by conventional cytogenetics (CC). The B-CLL fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) panel comprised ATM, CEP12, D13S25, and TP53 probes. DSP30 + IL2 cultures had a higher chromosomal abnormality detection rate (67 %) compared to TPA (44 %, p 0.05). Thirteen cases with abnormalities were found exclusively in DSP30 + IL2 cultures compared to one found solely in TPA cultures. DSP30 + IL2 cultures were comparable to the FISH panel in detecting 11q-, +12 and 17p- but not 13q-. It also has a predilection for 11q- bearing leukemic cells compared to TPA. FISH had a higher abnormality detection rate (84.1 %) compared to CC (66.0 %) with borderline significance (p = 0.051), albeit limited by its coverage. In conclusion, DSP30 + IL2 showed a higher abnormality detection rate. However, FISH is indispensable to circumvent low mitotic indices and detect subtle abnormalities.

  4. Treatment of moderate acute malnutrition with ready-to-use supplementary food results in higher overall recovery rates compared with a corn-soya blend in children in southern Ethiopia: an operations research trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakochuk, Crystal; van den Briel, Tina; Stephens, Derek; Zlotkin, Stanley

    2012-10-01

    Moderate and severe acute malnutrition affects 13% of children malnutrition affects fewer children but is associated with higher rates of mortality and morbidity. Supplementary feeding programs aim to treat moderate acute malnutrition and prevent the deterioration to severe acute malnutrition. The aim was to compare recovery rates of children with moderate acute malnutrition in supplementary feeding programs by using the newly recommended ration of ready-to-use supplementary food (RUSF) and the more conventional ration of corn-soya blend (CSB) in Ethiopia. A total of 1125 children aged 6-60 mo with moderate acute malnutrition received 16 wk of CSB or RUSF. Children were randomly assigned to receive one or the other food. The daily rations were purposely based on the conventional treatment rations distributed at the time of the study in Ethiopia: 300 g CSB and 32 g vegetable oil in the control group (1413 kcal) and 92 g RUSF in the intervention group (500 kcal). The higher ration size of CSB was provided because of expected food sharing. The HR for children in the CSB group was 0.85 (95% CI: 0.73, 0.99), which indicated that they had 15% lower recovery (P = 0.039). Recovery rates of children at the end of the 16-wk treatment period trended higher in the RUSF group (73%) than in the CSB group (67%) (P = 0.056). In comparison with CSB, the treatment of moderate acute malnutrition with RUSF resulted in higher recovery rates in children, despite the large ration size and higher energy content of the conventional CSB ration.

  5. The Quality of Written Feedback by Attendings of Internal Medicine Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Jeffrey L; Kay, Cynthia; Jackson, Wilkins C; Frank, Michael

    2015-07-01

    Attending evaluations are commonly used to evaluate residents. Evaluate the quality of written feedback of internal medicine residents. Retrospective. Internal medicine residents and faculty at the Medical College of Wisconsin from 2004 to 2012. From monthly evaluations of residents by attendings, a randomly selected sample of 500 written comments by attendings were qualitatively coded and rated as high-, moderate-, or low-quality feedback by two independent coders with good inter-rater reliability (kappa: 0.94). Small group exercises with residents and attendings also coded the utterances as high, moderate, or low quality and developed criteria for this categorization. In-service examination scores were correlated with written feedback. There were 228 internal medicine residents who had 6,603 evaluations by 334 attendings. Among 500 randomly selected written comments, there were 2,056 unique utterances: 29% were coded as nonspecific statements, 20% were comments about resident personality, 16% about patient care, 14% interpersonal communication, 7% medical knowledge, 6% professionalism, and 4% each on practice-based learning and systems-based practice. Based on criteria developed by group exercises, the majority of written comments were rated as moderate quality (65%); 22% were rated as high quality and 13% as low quality. Attendings who provided high-quality feedback rated residents significantly lower in all six of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) competencies (p service examination scores. Most attending written evaluation was of moderate or low quality. Attendings who provided high-quality feedback appeared to be more discriminating, providing significantly lower ratings of residents in all six ACGME core competencies, and across a greater range. Attendings' negative written comments on medical knowledge correlated with lower in-service training scores.

  6. Reasons for non-attendance to cervical screening and preferences for HPV self-sampling in Dutch women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosgraaf, R.P.; Ketelaars, P.J.W.; Verhoef, V.M.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Meijer, C.J.W.; Melchers, W.J.G.; Bekkers, R.L.M.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: High attendance rates in cervical screening are essential for effective cancer prevention. Offering HPV self-sampling to non-responders increases participation rates. The objectives of this study were to determine why non-responders do not attend regular screening, and why they do or do

  7. Metabolic Syndrome among Undergraduate Students Attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: A total of 384 first-year students attending university medical clinics for obligatory medical ... Keywords: Metabolic syndrome, Obesity, Hypertension, Diabetes, Dyslipidemia, ..... requires the attention of all health professionals.

  8. Employee Lounge Attendant | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Job Summary Under the direction of the Chief, Conference Management, the Employee Lounge Attendant is responsible to prepare coffee, beverages, and ... The incumbent also assists with food preparation for daily meals as well as ensure ...

  9. Physical Environmental Barriers to School Attendance among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    environment were the major barriers to school attendance. Conclusion: To ... Key words: Parents/caregivers, children with disabilities, barriers. Introduction .... It is not safe to walk ... feeling, learning, behaviour, and fits or convulsions. [19] The ...

  10. Impact of Students’ Class Attendance on Recalling Previously Acquired Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camellia Hemyari

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, availability of class material including typed lectures, the professor’s Power Point slides, sound recordings, and even videos made a group of students feel that it is unnecessary to attend the classes. These students usually read and memorize typed lectures within two or three days prior to the exams and usually pass the tests even with low attendance rate. Thus, the question is how effective is this learning system and how long the one-night memorized lessons may last.Methods: A group of medical students (62 out of 106 students, with their class attendance and educational achievements in the Medical Mycology and Parasitology course being recorded since two years ago, was selected and their knowledge about this course was tested by multiple choice questions (MCQ designed based on the previous lectures.Results: Although the mean re-exam score of the students at the end of the externship was lower than the corresponding final score, a significant association was found between the scores of the students in these two exams (r=0.48, P=0.01. Moreover, a significant negative association was predicted between the number of absences and re-exam scores (r=-0.26, P=0.037.Conclusion: As our findings show, the phenomenon of recalling the acquired lessons is preserved for a long period of time and it is associated with the students’ attendance. Many factors including generation effect (by taking notes and cued-recall (via slide picture might play a significant role in the better recalling of the learned information in students with good class attendance.Keywords: STUDENT, MEMORY, LONG-TERM, RECALL, ABSENTEEISM, LEARNING

  11. Oral Presentations Have a Significantly Higher Publication Rate, But Not Impact Factors, Than Poster Presentations at the International Society for Study of Lumbar Spine meeting: Review of 1126 Abstracts From 2010 to 2012 Meetings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtori, Seiji; Orita, Sumihisa; Eguchi, Yawara; Aoki, Yasuchika; Suzuki, Miyako; Kubota, Gou; Inage, Kazuhide; Shiga, Yasuhiro; Abe, Koki; Kinoshita, Hideyuki; Inoue, Masahiro; Kanamoto, Hirohito; Norimoto, Masaki; Umimura, Tomotaka; Furuya, Takeo; Masao, Koda; Maki, Satoshi; Akazawa, Tsutomu; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

    2018-03-05

    A retrospective study. The aim of this study was to determine the publication rate and impact factors (IFs) among all abstracts presented at the 2010 and 2012 meetings of the International Society for the Study of Lumbar Spine (ISSLS). The publication rate of abstracts presented at overseas meetings was reported to be around 50%. However, the publication rate and IFs of oral and poster presentations made at ISSLS meetings were unclear. Moreover, whether the publication rates and IFs differed for papers associated with oral or poster presentations at ISSLS meetings was unknown. We investigated all 1126 abstracts (oral, special posters, general posters) presented at ISSLS meetings held between 2010 and 2012. PubMed was searched to identify publications and IFs were determined using journal citation reports. We also compared the publication rates and IFs between oral and poster presentations. The overall publication rate was 50.1% for three ISSLS meetings (564 publications/1126 abstracts). The overall publication rate for oral presentations, special posters, and general posters given in the 2010 to 2012 meetings was 62.0%, 48.3, and 46.6%, respectively. Overall, papers related to oral presentations had significantly higher publication rates than those of special and general posters (P = 0.0002). The average IFs of publications associated with abstracts presented at three ISSLS meetings was 2.802 for oral presentations, 2.593 for special posters, and 2.589 for general posters. There were no significant differences in average IFs between oral and poster presentations (P > 0.05). The publication rate for abstracts presented at ISSLS meetings was high and similar to publication rates for abstracts presented at other meetings concerning orthopedic and spine research. However, there was no significant difference in IFs between oral and poster presentations, suggesting that abstract evaluations cannot predict IFs of the eventual publication. 4.

  12. Attendance and Exam Performance at University

    OpenAIRE

    David O. Allen; Don J. Webber

    2006-01-01

    Marburger (2006) explored the link between absenteeism and exam performance by assessing the impact on absenteeism of removing a university wide policy of mandatory attendance for a single class. His results indicate that while an attendance policy has a strong impact on reducing absenteeism the link between absenteeism and exam performance is weak.This paper presents an alternative exploration into the link between absenteeism and exam performance by assessing the impact of implementing a mo...

  13. Authors attain comparable or slightly higher rates of citation publishing in an open access journal (CytoJournal compared to traditional cytopathology journals - A five year (2007-2011 experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora K Frisch

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The era of Open Access (OA publication, a platform which serves to better disseminate scientific knowledge, is upon us, as more OA journals are in existence than ever before. The idea that peer-reviewed OA publication leads to higher rates of citation has been put forth and shown to be true in several publications. This is a significant benefit to authors and is in addition to another relatively less obvious but highly critical component of the OA charter, i.e. retention of the copyright by the authors in the public domain. In this study, we analyzed the citation rates of OA and traditional non-OA publications specifically for authors in the field of cytopathology. Design: We compared the citation patterns for authors who had published in both OA and traditional non-OA peer-reviewed, scientific, cytopathology journals. Citations in an OA publication (CytoJournal were analyzed comparatively with traditional non-OA cytopathology journals (Acta Cytologica, Cancer Cytopathology, Cytopathology, and Diagnostic Cytopathology using the data from web of science citation analysis site (based on which the impact factors (IF are calculated. After comparing citations per publication, as well as a time adjusted citation quotient (which takes into account the time since publication, we also analyzed the statistics after excluding the data for meeting abstracts. Results: Total 28 authors published 314 publications as articles and meeting abstracts (25 authors after excluding the abstracts. The rate of citation and time adjusted citation quotient were higher for OA in the group where abstracts were included (P < 0.05 for both. The rates were also slightly higher for OA than non-OA when the meeting abstracts were excluded, but the difference was statistically insignificant (P = 0.57 and P = 0.45. Conclusion : We observed that for the same author, the publications in the OA journal attained a higher rate of citation than the publications in the

  14. The Classroom Performance System (CPS): Effects on student participation, attendance, and achievement in multicultural anatomy and physiology classes at South Texas College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Termos, Mohamad Hani

    2011-12-01

    The Classroom Performance System (CPS) is an instructional technology tool that increases student performance and addresses different learning styles. Instructional technologies are used to promote active learning; however, student embarrassment issue in a multicultural setting is not addressed. This study assessed the effect of the CPS on student participation, attendance, and achievement in multicultural college-level anatomy and physiology classes at South Texas College, where the first spoken language is not English. Quantitative method and quasi-experimental design were employed and comparative statistic methods and pre-post tests were used to collect the data. Participants were college students and sections of study were selected by convenient sampling. Participation was 100% during most of the lectures held and participation rate did not strike above 68% in control group. Attendance was significantly higher in CPS sections than the control group as shown by t-tests. Experimental sections had a higher increase in the pre-post test scores and student averages on lecture exams increased at a higher rate as compared to the control group. Therefore, the CPS increased student participation, attendance, and achievement in multicultural anatomy and physiology classes. The CPS can be studied in other settings where the first spoken language is English or in other programs, such as special education programs. Additionally, other variables can be studied and other methodologies can be employed.

  15. Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, Robert M.

    This chapter reports 1982 cases involving aspects of higher education. Interesting cases noted dealt with the federal government's authority to regulate state employees' retirement and raised the questions of whether Title IX covers employment, whether financial aid makes a college a program under Title IX, and whether sex segregated mortality…

  16. Comparing resident cataract surgery outcomes under novice versus experienced attending supervision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puri S

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sidharth Puri,1 Amanda E Kiely,2 Jiangxia Wang,3 Alonzo S Woodfield,4 Saras Ramanathan,5 Shameema Sikder21Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, 2Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, 3Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, 4Kaiser Permanente South Sacramento Medical Center, Sacramento, 5San Francisco School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USAPurpose: To determine whether supervision by an attending new to surgical teaching or an experienced attending measurably influences intraoperative complications rates or outcomes in phacoemulsification performed by ophthalmology residents.Setting: Single tertiary hospital.Design: Retrospective cohort study. Methods: Resident-performed phacoemulsification cases supervised by one novice attending (N=189 and experienced attending (N=172 over 1 year were included. Data included: resident year, patient age, sex, preoperative risk factors (4+ dense/white/brunescent cataracts, Flomax, zonular dialysis, pseudoexfoliation, glaucoma risk, post-vitrectomy, intraoperative risk factors (Trypan blue, iris hooks, and intraoperative complications (capsule tears, vitreous loss, zonular dialysis, zonular dehiscence, burns, nuclear fragment loss, Descemet’s tear. Experienced attending data were compared against those of the novice attending.Results: Regarding preoperative risks, experienced attending cases more likely involved 4+ cataract (P=0.005, Flomax (P<0.001, or glaucoma risk (P=0.001. For intraoperative risks, novice attending cases more likely involved Trypan blue (P<0.001. Regarding complications, novice attending cases were associated with vitreous loss (P=0.002 and anterior capsule tears (P<0.001. When comparing total complications, the novice attending was more likely to have both increased number of cases with complications and total complications than the experienced attending. The novice

  17. Determinants of frequent attendance in Danish general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jeanette Therming; Andersen, John Sahl; Tjønneland, Anne

    2016-01-01

    . below recommended level), and hormone therapy in women (1.52; 1.42-1.63) were all significant determinants of frequent attendance. CONCLUSIONS: In addition to pre-existing medical conditions, gender, socio-demographic and gender-specific factors, lifestyle (obesity, smoking, exercise and alcohol use.......57-0.69, >4 years higher education vs. no vocational training) and employment (0.61; 0.57-0.65) were inversely associated with frequent attendance. Finally, obesity (1.54; 1.14-2.08), smoking (1.21; 1.12-1.30, current vs. never), physical activity (0.84; 0.80-89), alcohol consumption (0.83; 0.78-0.87 above vs...

  18. Dental caries, age and anxiety: factors influencing sedation choice for children attending for emergency dental care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, P; Freeman, R

    2001-02-01

    The aim of the study was to examine how physical (dental caries) and psychosocial (age, dental anxiety and dental health behaviour) factors, associated with child and parent, influenced dentists' sedation choice when a child presents in pain. 600 parents whose children were aged between 5 and 11 years took part: 200 attended for routine dental care (RDC); the remaining 400 attended as emergency patients and were offered either dental general anaesthesia (DGA) or relative analgesia (RA). The subjects were approached and invited to take part. The researcher was blind as to the child's pattern of dental attendance and the type of sedation offered. All parents and children completed self-reported ratings of dental anxiety. The children's teeth were examined to determine past and present dental caries experience. The results showed that children who were offered DGA had greater experience of dentinal caries, were younger and dentally anxious. The children offered RA were older, had a higher frequency of brushing their teeth with fluoride toothpaste and were also dentally anxious. Discriminant analysis showed that 2 canonical functions provided clear categorisation of the three treatment groups. Function 1 was a physical (dental caries) factor, which was related to the child's experience of dentinal caries. Function 2 was a psychosocial factor, which was related to the child's age, dental anxiety and frequency of tooth brushing. A greater proportion of the variance in the treatment offered was explained by Function 1, suggesting that the most important factor in the decision to offer DGA was dentinal caries. Function 2 was of lesser importance. The findings have implications for the type of sedation offered to children presenting for emergency care. These children may not otherwise receive treatment and the need to provide less anxiety provoking forms of sedation must be promoted. By doing so, parents who have only brought their children when in pain may take advantage

  19. Obstetric complications: does training traditional birth attendants make a difference?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia E. Bailey

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the effect that a training intervention for traditional birth attendants (TBAs in Guatemala had on the detection of obstetric complications, the referral of patients with complications to the formal health care system, and, ultimately, those patients' utilization of essential obstetric care services. Methods. Using a quasi-experimental design, a surveillance system of births was implemented to collect population-based information from 3 518 women between 1990 and 1993. All women were interviewed postpartum by physicians. There were three key independent variables in our study: 1 geographical area (intervention community and non-intervention community, 2 time in relation to the training intervention (before or after, and 3 presence or absence of a TBA at the time of the complication. The key dependent variables for women interviewed were 1 development of an obstetric complication, 2 detection of the problem by the TBA, 3 referral to a health facility, 4 compliance with referral, and 5 use of services. Results. The incidence of postpartum complications decreased after the intervention, controlling for intervention community. On the other hand, after the intervention TBAs were less likely to recognize most maternal complications, and referral rates did not increase significantly. The likelihood of using health care services increased six-fold among women who were not attended by TBAs, and no increase was observed among those who were attended by TBAs. Conclusion. Training TBAs may have had a positive effect on the rate, detection, and referral of postpartum complications. However, the evidence is less convincing for overall increases in the detection of complications, in referral to the formal health care system, and in the utilization of essential obstetric services among women attended by TBAs.

  20. Where There Are (Few) Skilled Birth Attendants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prata, Ndola; Rowen, Tami; Bell, Suzanne; Walsh, Julia; Potts, Malcolm

    2011-01-01

    Recent efforts to reduce maternal mortality in developing countries have focused primarily on two long-term aims: training and deploying skilled birth attendants and upgrading emergency obstetric care facilities. Given the future population-level benefits, strengthening of health systems makes excellent strategic sense but it does not address the immediate safe-delivery needs of the estimated 45 million women who are likely to deliver at home, without a skilled birth attendant. There are currently 28 countries from four major regions in which fewer than half of all births are attended by skilled birth attendants. Sixty-nine percent of maternal deaths in these four regions can be attributed to these 28 countries, despite the fact that these countries only constitute 34% of the total population in these regions. Trends documenting the change in the proportion of births accompanied by a skilled attendant in these 28 countries over the last 15-20 years offer no indication that adequate change is imminent. To rapidly reduce maternal mortality in regions where births in the home without skilled birth attendants are common, governments and community-based organizations could implement a cost-effective, complementary strategy involving health workers who are likely to be present when births in the home take place. Training community-based birth attendants in primary and secondary prevention technologies (e.g. misoprostol, family planning, measurement of blood loss, and postpartum care) will increase the chance that women in the lowest economic quintiles will also benefit from global safe motherhood efforts. PMID:21608417

  1. Impact of extrinsic factors on fine motor performance of children attending day care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Corsi

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To assess the impact of extrinsic factors on fine motor performance of children aged 2-years old. Methods: 73 children attending public and 21 private day care centers were assessed. Day care environment was evaluated using the Infant/Toddler Environment Rating Scale-Revised Edition (ITERS-R, fine motor performance was assessed through the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-III (BSITD-III, socioeconomic data, maternal education and time of start at the day care were collected through interviews. Spearman's correlation coefficient was calculated to assess the association between the studied variables. Results: The time at the day care was positively correlated with the children's performance in some fine motor tasks of the BSITD-III, showing that the activities developed in day care centers were important for the refinement of specific motor skills, while the overall fine motor performance by the scale was associated with maternal education and the ITERS-R scale sub-item “language and understanding”. Conclusions: Extrinsic factors such as higher maternal education and quality of day care centers are associated with fine motor performance in children attending day care.

  2. Impact of extrinsic factors on fine motor performance of children attending day care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsi, Carolina; Santos, Mariana Martins Dos; Marques, Luísa de Andrade Perez; Rocha, Nelci Adriana Cicuto Ferreira

    2016-12-01

    To assess the impact of extrinsic factors on fine motor performance of children aged two years old. 73 children attending public and 21 private day care centers were assessed. Day care environment was evaluated using the Infant/Toddler Environment Rating Scale - Revised Edition (ITERS-R), fine motor performance was assessed through the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development - III (BSITD-III), socioeconomic data, maternal education and time of start at the day care were collected through interviews. Spearman's correlation coefficient was calculated to assess the association between the studied variables. The time at the day care was positively correlated with the children's performance in some fine motor tasks of the BSITD-III, showing that the activities developed in day care centers were important for the refinement of specific motor skills, while the overall fine motor performance by the scale was associated with maternal education and the ITERS-R scale sub-item "language and understanding". Extrinsic factors such as higher maternal education and quality of day care centers are associated with fine motor performance in children attending day care. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. A Statewide Look at Attendance and Chronic Absenteeism in Elementary Schools in Oregon. Chronic Absenteeism in Oregon Elementary Schools. Part 1 of 4. September 2016. Research Brief Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oregon Department of Education, 2016

    2016-01-01

    This brief highlights the importance of using a measure like chronic absenteeism, rather than average daily attendance, in order to identify concerning patterns in elementary attendance rates. The chronic absenteeism measurement is better able to shine a light on the number of individual students struggling with attendance. Subsequent briefs in…

  4. Authors attain comparable or slightly higher rates of citation publishing in an open access journal (CytoJournal) compared to traditional cytopathology journals - A five year (2007-2011) experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, Nora K; Nathan, Romil; Ahmed, Yasin K; Shidham, Vinod B

    2014-01-01

    The era of Open Access (OA) publication, a platform which serves to better disseminate scientific knowledge, is upon us, as more OA journals are in existence than ever before. The idea that peer-reviewed OA publication leads to higher rates of citation has been put forth and shown to be true in several publications. This is a significant benefit to authors and is in addition to another relatively less obvious but highly critical component of the OA charter, i.e. retention of the copyright by the authors in the public domain. In this study, we analyzed the citation rates of OA and traditional non-OA publications specifically for authors in the field of cytopathology. We compared the citation patterns for authors who had published in both OA and traditional non-OA peer-reviewed, scientific, cytopathology journals. Citations in an OA publication (CytoJournal) were analyzed comparatively with traditional non-OA cytopathology journals (Acta Cytologica, Cancer Cytopathology, Cytopathology, and Diagnostic Cytopathology) using the data from web of science citation analysis site (based on which the impact factors (IF) are calculated). After comparing citations per publication, as well as a time adjusted citation quotient (which takes into account the time since publication), we also analyzed the statistics after excluding the data for meeting abstracts. Total 28 authors published 314 publications as articles and meeting abstracts (25 authors after excluding the abstracts). The rate of citation and time adjusted citation quotient were higher for OA in the group where abstracts were included (P citation than the publications in the traditional non-OA journals in the field of cytopathology over a 5 year period (2007-2011). However, this increase was statistically insignificant if the meeting abstracts were excluded from the analysis. Overall, the rates of citation for OA and non-OA were slightly higher to comparable.

  5. Once bitten, twice shy? Medically-attended injuries can sensitise parents to children's risk of injuries on playgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrongiello, B A; Howard, A W; Rothman, L; Sandomierski, M

    2009-02-01

    To compare risk perceptions of parents whose child sustained a medically attended playground injury (cases) with those of parents whose child had not (controls) to address two questions. Does having a child experience a medically attended injury: (1) sensitise parents to children's injury vulnerability and severity; (2) influence parents' appraisal of the injury mechanism (child's behaviour), attributions for injuries or beliefs about strategies for prevention? Each case-control parent dyad was assigned to one of two conditions: (1) being presented with 10 common injury-risk playground behaviours specific to the equipment on which their child had been hurt, and asked to appraise injury vulnerability and severity; or (2) being presented with scenarios about playground injuries that varied in severity but were all based on the same child behaviour, and asked questions about this behaviour, attributions for injury and strategies for prevention. The results support the occurrence of a sensitisation process. Compared with control parents, case parents showed higher ratings of injury severity and children's vulnerability to injury, made fewer attributions for injuries to bad luck, and endorsed a greater diversity of prevention strategies, including parent (closer supervision), child (teaching rules about safe play on playgrounds) and environmental (modifications to playgrounds). A child's medically attended injury can create a "teachable moment" for the parent. Linking injury-prevention programming to this teachable moment may increase the likelihood of evoking changes in parental supervisory behaviour and their setting of rules limiting their child's risk behaviours to reduce the occurrence of childhood injury.

  6. Frequency and characteristics of individuals with seasonal pattern among depressive patients attending primary care in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azorin, Jean-Michel; Adida, Marc; Belzeaux, Raoul

    2015-01-01

    High rates of bipolar disorder (BD) have been found among major depressives with seasonal pattern (SP) consulting in psychiatric departments, as well as among patients seeking primary care. As SP was reported to be common in the latter, the current study was designed to assess (a) the frequency and characteristics of SP among major depressives attending primary care and (b) the prevalence and aspects of BD in this population. Among 400 patients who consulted French general practitioners (GPs) for major depression between February and December 2010, 390 could be included in the study: 167 (42.8%) met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, criteria for seasonal pattern [SP(+)], whereas 223 (57.2%) did not meet these criteria [SP(-)]. The two groups were compared on demographic, clinical, family history and temperamental characteristics. Compared to SP(-), SP(+) patients were more frequently female, married and with a later age at first depressive episode, and showed more atypical vegetative symptoms, comorbid bulimia and stimulant abuse. They also exhibited more lifetime depressive episodes, were more often diagnosed as having BD II and met more often bipolarity specifier criteria, with higher rates of bipolar temperaments and a higher BD family loading. Among SP(+) patients, 68.9% met the bipolarity specifier criteria, whereas 31.1% did not. Seasonality was not influenced by climatic conditions. The following independent variables were associated with SP: BD according to bipolarity specifier, female gender, comorbid bulimia nervosa, hypersomnia, number of depressive episodes and family history of substance abuse. Seasonal pattern is frequent among depressive patients attending primary care in France and may be indicative of hidden bipolarity. Given the risks associated with both SP and bipolarity, GPs are likely to have a major role in regard to prevention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Who attends recovery high schools after substance use treatment? A descriptive analysis of school aged youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner-Smith, Emily E; Finch, Andrew J; Hennessy, Emily A; Moberg, D Paul

    2018-06-01

    Recovery high schools (RHSs) are an alternative high school option for adolescents with substance use disorders (SUDs), designed to provide a recovery-focused learning environment. The aims of this study were to examine the characteristics of youth who choose to attend RHSs, and to compare them with local and national comparison samples of youth in recovery from SUDs who were not enrolled in RHSs. We conducted secondary analysis of existing data to compare characteristics of youth in three samples: (1) adolescents with SUDs who enrolled in RHSs in Minnesota, Texas, and Wisconsin after discharge from treatment (RHSs; n = 171, 51% male, 86% White, 4% African American, 5% Hispanic); (2) a contemporaneously recruited local comparison sample of students with SUDs who did not enroll in RHSs (n = 123, 60% male, 77% White, 5% African American, 12% Hispanic); and (3) a national comparison sample of U.S. adolescents receiving SUD treatment (n = 12,967, 73% male, 37% White, 15% African American, 30% Hispanic). Students enrolled in RHSs had elevated levels of risk factors for substance use and relapse relative to both the local and national comparison samples. For instance, RHS students reported higher rates of pre-treatment drug use, past mental health treatment, and higher rates of post-treatment physical health problems than adolescents in the national comparison sample. We conclude that RHSs serve a population with greater co-occurring problem severity than the typical adolescent in SUD treatment; programming offered at RHSs should attend to these complex patterns of risk factors. SUD service delivery policy should consider RHSs as an intensive recovery support model for the most high-risk students with SUDs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Association between attendance and overall academic performance on a module within a professional pharmacy degree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Nigel; Burnett, Kathryn M; McCarron, Paul A

    2018-03-01

    As the higher education (HE) classroom begins to adopt newer internet-based technologies, the relationship between attendance and performance needs to be re-evaluated, particularly for professional degree courses such as pharmacy. In the present study, we aimed to establish if an association exists between attendance at all timetabled classes and academic performance, in a Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics (CPT) module, as part of the Master of Pharmacy (MPharm) degree course at Ulster University. Data on attendance, final examination and coursework performance were collected over two academic years (2013-14 and 2014-15) of the CPT module at Ulster. In total 67 students were analysed. The MPharm degree at Ulster University implements an attendance policy, both as a pastoral support tool and to reinforce the need for professional conduct as a pharmacist. Student (2013-14 and 2014-15, n = 35 and 32, respectively) attendance on the module across both year groups was approximately 80%. We observed positive, and statistically significant relationships between attendance and performance on the examination, and especially in the coursework elements of the module. Student failure (below 40%) in the final examination was linked to attendance below an 80% threshold in nine of 12 cases. Reasons for not attending class varied, but illness was unquestionably the most commonly cited extenuation. Taken together, these data confirm a convincing association between student attendance and academic achievement. Our studies promote the use of attendance monitoring policies for professional degree courses such as pharmacy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Streptococcus pneumoniae(Spn) Nasopharyngeal Carriage in Children Under 3 Years Old, Attending Day Care Centers in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Angela; Rearte, Analía; Von Spetch, Martha; Laban, Celia; Papucci, Santiago Lopez; Badano, Andrea; Ferrario, Claudia; Pereda, Rosana; Flores, Devora; Berry, Diana; Aguilera, Alejandra; Sponton, Norma; Sorhouet, Cecilia; Napoli, Daniela; Devoto, Susana; Vizzotti, Carla

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background In 2012 the 13-valent conjugated pneumococcal vaccine (PCV-13) was introduced in the National Immunization Program. We performed an epidemiological study to describe SPN nasopharyngeal carriage prevalence. Methods Between June to September 2015 it was performed a cross-sectional study among children Salta (North West), Trelew (South), Rosario (Centre), Buenos Aires (Capital city) and Posadas (North East)). Samples were analyzed at references hospitals of each city and isolates were submitted to the INEI “Dr. Carlos G. Malbrán “, for confirming and serotyping. We considered completed schedule 3 doses of PCV13, administrated14 days prior to enrollment. Results We included 359 toddlers, 61,6% (IC95% 56,3–66,6) were SPN carriers. Median age was 24 months, without significative difference in carriage status. Multivariate analysis showed that independently of age, sex and socioeconomic level, variables associated with carriage were: · City: Taking Salta as reference (less carriage prevalence), Rosario and Posadas were statistically associated with higher prevalence rates: OR: 3,1 (IC95% 1,3–7,1) y OR: 2,8 (IC96% 1,2–6,3) respectively · Children attending to public day care centers had higher carriage rates than those attending private ones: OR: 1,9 (IC95% 1,06–3,4) · Children sharing bedroom with 3 or more persons, were associated to mayor risk or carriage: OR: 1,7 (IC95% 1,03–2,7) We found 46 serotypes in the 221 isolates. (2 couldn’t be serotyped), 90,9% (IC95% 86,3–94,3) were non PCV 13 serotypes (most frequent were 15B, 23B and 11A). Only 7 of 46 were PCV13 serotypes. (Graphic 1) Of the 20 toddlers with PCV13 serotypes, 16 were completely vaccinated Graphic 1: S pneumoniae serotype distribution. N = 221 Conclusion Nasopharyngeal carriage of SPN was high in children < 3 years old attending day care centers. Most isolates were Non PCV13 serotypes. The independent predictors for higher prevalence rates were: 1- Children living

  10. Does Attendance Matter? An Examination of Student Attitudes, Participation, Performance and Attendance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massingham, Peter; Herrington, Tony

    2006-01-01

    Non attendance of lectures and tutorials appears to be a growing trend. The literature suggests many possible reasons including students' changing lifestyle, attitudes, teaching and technology. This paper looks at the reasons for non attendance of students in the Faculty of Commerce at the University of Wollongong and identifies relationships…

  11. Ecological factors regulating brood attendance patterns of the western sandpiper calidris mauri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruthrauff, D.R.; Keller, J.N.; Rizzolo, D.J.

    2009-01-01

    Parental brood attendance patterns vary greatly among shorebird species. For monogamous calidridine species, biparental care with female-first brood departure is most common. It is believed that adult sandpipers balance potential individual survival costs associated with extended parental care against the benefit gained by their brood of prolonged parental care. These costs and benefits are difficult to quantify and factors affecting the termination of parental brood attendance are unclear. We compared clutch size, nesting phenology, and parental attendance patterns of Western Sandpipers Calidris mauri at Nome and Kanaryarmiut, Alaska, sites separated by three degrees of latitude. The sites differed in breeding density and duration of breeding season, but the distribution of clutch sizes did not differ between sites or between nesting attempts. Parental attendance patterns were similar between sites, suggesting that parental attendance is a highly conserved life-history trait in Western Sandpipers. Male Western Sandpipers attended broods longer than females, and the duration of parental attendance decreased at a similar rate for both sexes as the season progressed. Male and female Western Sandpipers undertake differential migrations to their non-breeding grounds, with males typically settling at more northerly locations and females at more southerly sites, a migration pattern shared by certain other monogamous calidridine species. These same species exhibit similar parental brood attendance patterns, suggesting the strong role of overall migration distance in shaping the expression of parental attendance behaviours. A contrast of more geographically disjunct sites coupled with a better understanding of the migratory connectivity between Western Sandpiper breeding and non-breeding populations would elucidate the role of cross-seasonal effects on parental brood attendance decisions. ?? 2009 British Ornithologists' Union.

  12. RFID and IOT for Attendance Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedy Irawan Joseph

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, RFID technology has been widely used in various sectors, such as in-education, transportation, agriculture, animal husbandry, store sales and other sectors. RFID utilization in education is student attendance monitoring system, by using Internet of Things (IoT and Cloud technology, it will produce a real time attendance monitoring system that can be accessed by various parties, such as lecturer, campus administration and parents. With this monitoring system if there are students who are not present can be immediately discovered and can be taken immediate action and the learning process can run smoothly.

  13. Swaziland's traditional birth attendants survey | Lech | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs) Survey in Swaziland was undertaken between March 27th 1996 and April 8th 1996. The objective of the survey was to generate reliable information regarding activities of TBAs in Swaziland. The survey was conducted in 25 Chiefdoms sampled out of a total of 206 Chiefdoms ...

  14. Service Station Attendant. Performance Objectives. Basic Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, John

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of 24 terminal objectives for a basic secondary level service station attendant course. The materials were developed for a two-semester course (2 and 3 hours daily). The specialized classroom and shop experiences are designed to enable the student…

  15. Vaginal Trichomoniasis among Patients Attending Primary Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trichomoniasis is widely distributed all over the world and remains a common infection among female patients attending sexually transmitted disease clinics. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of trichomonal infection in HIV/AIDS and non-HIV control groups of patients in a population of women.

  16. Electronic Attendance Application Using Raspberry Pi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Dzul Aiman Aslan; Saaidi Ismail; Mohamad Safuan Sulaiman

    2016-01-01

    Raspberry Pi is a cheap mini-computer that officially runs on a Linux distribution Operating System (OS) such as Raspbian. It has many input and output mechanisms simulating a computer which make it useful replacement for a computer system. SimpleCV, an open source python-based image processing software and Telegram, a popular social application provide API that allow communication trough a device such as Raspberry Pi. Combining these two, an electronic attendance has been developed using open source basis, and the electronic attendance also provide enhancement of current system that is to record the person face and sending information through Telegram application. The methodology include gathering requirements on remaining system and test it on Linux which will discuss further. This project is serve as a prototype for enhancement of current Commersial Of The Shelf (COTS) electronic attendance that only record ID of the attendees. In the future, the electronic attendance can be enhanced with many features and should be make in-a-box for commercialization. (author)

  17. Attendance at NHS mandatory training sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Darren

    2015-02-17

    To identify factors that affect NHS healthcare professionals' attendance at mandatory training sessions. A quantitative approach was used, with a questionnaire sent to 400 randomly selected participants. A total of 122 responses were received, providing a mix of qualitative and quantitative data. Quantitative data were analysed using statistical methods. Open-ended responses were reviewed using thematic analysis. Clinical staff value mandatory training sessions highly. They are aware of the requirement to keep practice up-to-date and ensure patient safety remains a priority. However, changes to the delivery format of mandatory training sessions are required to enable staff to participate more easily, as staff are often unable to attend. The delivery of mandatory training should move from classroom-based sessions into the clinical area to maximise participation. Delivery should be assisted by local 'experts' who are able to customise course content to meet local requirements and the requirements of different staff groups. Improved arrangements to provide staff cover, for those attending training, would enable more staff to attend training sessions.

  18. Psychological distress and symptoms among patients attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The study was carried out to investigate the manifestations of psychological distress and symptoms among individuals receiving treatment for sexually transmitted diseases and to compare them with individuals who were not suffering from sexually transmitted diseases. Methods: Patients attending the sexually ...

  19. Malaria parasitemia amongst pregnant women attending selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study to determine malaria parasitemia amongst 300 randomly selected pregnant women attending government and private healthcare facilities in Rivers State was carried out. Blood samples were obtained through venous procedure and the presence or absence of Plasmodium was determined ...

  20. Mental Health and Substance Use Characteristics of Flight Attendants Enrolled in an In-Patient Substance Abuse Treatment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Gail; Diaz, Naelys; McIlveen, John; Weiner, Michael; Mullaney, Donald

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the prevalence rates of co-occurring mental health problems among 70 flight attendants in substance abuse treatment. Results indicated that flight attendants in treatment were more likely to experience alcohol dependency than drug dependency. A high proportion of participants reported clinical levels of…

  1. An investigation into why patients do not attend for out-patient radiology appointments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, Rebecca; Reeves, Pauline J.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Patients who do not attend (DNA) for out-patient hospital appointments cause delays in the diagnosis and subsequent treatment of their own, and other patient's, illnesses, with potentially hazardous consequences. This also impacts upon waiting lists. Failure to attend is viewed as a specific type of non-compliance and social cognition theories have been applied to previous studies in an attempt to uncover the reasons why patients choose not to keep their appointments. Methods: A case-control study was conducted throughout the X-ray departments of a District General type of NHS Trust, using telephone interview questionnaires based on the Health Belief Model, in an attempt to identify any significant differences between attenders and non-attenders, so that likely non-attenders could be targeted. Results: Principal reasons for non-attendance were that the patient forgot or that they did not receive their appointment. The results differed from previous research, in that specific health beliefs were not the primary reasons for non-attendance. Departments that gave patients the opportunity to arrange their appointments for a mutually convenient time had exceptionally low DNA rates, as did those which had rigorous confirmation systems in place

  2. Attendance at Religious Services, Prayer, Religious Coping, and Religious/Spiritual Identity as Predictors of All-Cause Mortality in the Black Women's Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderWeele, Tyler J; Yu, Jeffrey; Cozier, Yvette C; Wise, Lauren; Argentieri, M Austin; Rosenberg, Lynn; Palmer, Julie R; Shields, Alexandra E

    2017-04-01

    Previous longitudinal studies have consistently shown an association between attendance at religious services and lower all-cause mortality, but the literature on associations between other measures of religion and spirituality (R/S) and mortality is limited. We followed 36,613 respondents from the Black Women's Health Study from 2005 through December 31, 2013 to assess the associations between R/S and incident all-cause mortality using proportional hazards models. After control for numerous demographic and health covariates, together with other R/S variables, attending religious services several times per week was associated with a substantially lower mortality rate ratio (mortality rate ratio = 0.64, 95% confidence interval: 0.51, 0.80) relative to never attending services. Engaging in prayer several times per day was not associated with mortality after control for demographic and health covariates, but the association trended towards a higher mortality rate ratio when control was made for other R/S variables (for >2 times/day vs. weekly or less, mortality rate ratio = 1.28, 95% confidence interval: 0.99, 1.67; P-trend < 0.01). Religious coping and self-identification as a very religious/spiritual person were associated with lower mortality when adjustment was made only for age, but the association was attenuated when control was made for demographic and health covariates and was almost entirely eliminated when control was made for other R/S variables. The results indicate that service attendance was the strongest R/S predictor of mortality in this cohort. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Ultra-high-resolution C-arm flat-detector CT angiography evaluation reveals 3-fold higher association rate for sporadic intracranial cavernous malformations and developmental venous anomalies: a retrospective study in consecutive 58 patients with 60 cavernous malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocak, Burak [Aksaray State Hospital, Department of Radiology, Aksaray (Turkey); Kizilkilic, Osman; Kocer, Naci; Islak, Civan [Istanbul University, Department of Radiology, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul (Turkey); Oz, Buge; Bakkaloglu, Dogu Vuralli [Istanbul University, Department of Pathology, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul (Turkey); Isler, Cihan [Istanbul University, Department of Neurosurgery, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2017-06-15

    The imaging and surgical literature has confusing association rates for the association between sporadic intracranial cavernous malformations (CMs) and developmental venous anomalies (DVAs). In this study, our purpose was to determine the association rate using ultra-high-resolution C-arm flat-detector CT angiography (FDCTA) and compare it with literature. Fifty-eight patients with 60 sporadic intracranial CMs that underwent an FDCTA study were included in our retrospective study. Re-evaluation of radiological data was performed based on the criteria defined by authors. Isotropic volumetric reconstructions with ultra-high resolution (voxel size of 102 μm{sup 3} for initial; 67 μm{sup 3} and 32 μm{sup 3} for further evaluation) were used for assessment. Sixteen patients underwent surgery for excision of their CMs. Fifty-one of all patients (87.9 %) were associated with a DVA. Undefined local venous structures (UD-LVSs) were observed in the remaining 7 patients (12.1 %). The strength of interobserver agreement was excellent [kappa(k) coefficient = 0.923]. Ultra-high-resolution FDCTA evaluation of CMs and DVAs reveals 3-fold higher association rate compared to the literature. FDCTA for patients with sporadic CMs could help identify the associated DVAs that remained undetected or unclear with other imaging modalities, which can be useful in decision-making processes, planning surgery, and during operation. (orig.)

  4. Perceived oral health, oral self-care habits and dental attendance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perceived oral health, oral self-care habits and dental attendance among pregnant women in Benin-City, Nigeria. ... Results: The majority of the respondents (81.7%) rated their oral health as excellent/good using the global oral health rating scale. Seventy one percent of the respondents did not change their oral self-care ...

  5. Conference attendance does not correlate with emergency medicine residency in-training examination scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gene Hern, H; Wills, Charlotte; Alter, Harrison; Bowman, Steven H; Katz, Eric; Shayne, Philip; Vahidnia, Farnaz

    2009-12-01

    The residency review committee for emergency medicine (EM) requires residents to have greater than 70% attendance of educational conferences during residency training, but it is unknown whether attendance improves clinical competence or scores on the American Board of Emergency Medicine (ABEM) in-training examination (ITE). This study examined the relationship between conference attendance and ITE scores. The hypothesis was that greater attendance would correlate to a higher examination score. This was a multi-center retrospective cohort study using conference attendance data and examination results from residents in four large county EM residency training programs. Longitudinal multi-level models, adjusting for training site, U.S. Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step 1 score, and sex were used to explore the relationship between conference attendance and in-training examination scores according to year of training. Each year of training was studied, as well as the overall effect of mean attendance as it related to examination score. Four training sites reported data on 405 residents during 2002 to 2008; 386 residents had sufficient data to analyze. In the multi-level longitudinal models, attendance at conference was not a significant predictor of in-training percentile score (coefficient = 0.005, 95% confidence interval [CI] = -0.053 to 0.063, p = 0.87). Score on the USMLE Step 1 examination was a strong predictor of ITE score (coefficient = 0.186, 95% CI = 0.155 to 0.217; p ITE scores. Conference attendance may represent an important part of EM residency training but perhaps not of ITE performance. (c) 2009 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  6. Costs of Medically Attended Acute Gastrointestinal Infections: The Polish Prospective Healthcare Utilization Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czech, Marcin; Rosinska, Magdalena; Rogalska, Justyna; Staszewska, Ewa; Stefanoff, Pawel

    The burden of acute gastrointestinal infections (AGIs) on the society has not been well studied in Central European countries, which prevents the implementation of effective, targeted public health interventions. We investigated patients of 11 randomly selected general practices and 8 hospital units. Each patient meeting the international AGI case definition criteria was interviewed on costs incurred related to the use of health care resources. Follow-up interview with consenting patients was conducted 2 to 4 weeks after the general practitioner (GP) visit or discharge from hospital, collecting information on self-medication costs and indirect costs. Costs were recalculated to US dollars by using the purchasing power parity exchange rate for Poland. Weighting the inpatient costs by age-specific probability of hospital referral by GPs, the societal cost of a medically attended AGI case was estimated to be US $168. The main cost drivers of direct medical costs were cost of hospital bed days (US $28), cost of outpatient pharmacotherapy (US $20), and cost of GP consultation (US $10). Patients covered only the cost of outpatient pharmacotherapy. Considering the AGI population GP consultation rate, the age-adjusted societal cost of medically attended AGI episodes was estimated at US $2222 million, of which 53% was attributable to indirect costs. Even though AGIs generate a low cost for individuals, they place a high burden on the society, attributed mostly to indirect costs. Higher resources could be allocated to the prevention and control of AGIs. Copyright © 2013, International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Effect of training traditional birth attendants on neonatal mortality (Lufwanyama Neonatal Survival Project): randomised controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Christopher J; Phiri-Mazala, Grace; Guerina, Nicholas G; Kasimba, Joshua; Mulenga, Charity; MacLeod, William B; Waitolo, Nelson; Knapp, Anna B; Mirochnick, Mark; Mazimba, Arthur; Fox, Matthew P; Sabin, Lora; Seidenberg, Philip; Simon, Jonathon L; Hamer, Davidson H

    2011-02-03

    To determine whether training traditional birth attendants to manage several common perinatal conditions could reduce neonatal mortality in the setting of a resource poor country with limited access to healthcare. Prospective, cluster randomised and controlled effectiveness study. Lufwanyama, an agrarian, poorly developed district located in the Copperbelt province, Zambia. All births carried out by study birth attendants occurred at mothers' homes, in rural village settings. 127 traditional birth attendants and mothers and their newborns (3559 infants delivered regardless of vital status) from Lufwanyama district. Using an unblinded design, birth attendants were cluster randomised to intervention or control groups. The intervention had two components: training in a modified version of the neonatal resuscitation protocol, and single dose amoxicillin coupled with facilitated referral of infants to a health centre. Control birth attendants continued their existing standard of care (basic obstetric skills and use of clean delivery kits). The primary outcome was the proportion of liveborn infants who died by day 28 after birth, with rate ratios statistically adjusted for clustering. Secondary outcomes were mortality at different time points; and comparison of causes of death based on verbal autopsy data. Among 3497 deliveries with reliable information, mortality at day 28 after birth was 45% lower among liveborn infants delivered by intervention birth attendants than control birth attendants (rate ratio 0.55, 95% confidence interval 0.33 to 0.90). The greatest reductions in mortality were in the first 24 hours after birth: 7.8 deaths per 1000 live births for infants delivered by intervention birth attendants compared with 19.9 per 1000 for infants delivered by control birth attendants (0.40, 0.19 to 0.83). Deaths due to birth asphyxia were reduced by 63% among infants delivered by intervention birth attendants (0.37, 0.17 to 0.81) and by 81% within the first two days

  8. Effect of training traditional birth attendants on neonatal mortality (Lufwanyama Neonatal Survival Project): randomised controlled study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phiri-Mazala, Grace; Guerina, Nicholas G; Kasimba, Joshua; Mulenga, Charity; MacLeod, William B; Waitolo, Nelson; Knapp, Anna B; Mirochnick, Mark; Mazimba, Arthur; Fox, Matthew P; Sabin, Lora; Seidenberg, Philip; Simon, Jonathon L; Hamer, Davidson H

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine whether training traditional birth attendants to manage several common perinatal conditions could reduce neonatal mortality in the setting of a resource poor country with limited access to healthcare. Design Prospective, cluster randomised and controlled effectiveness study. Setting Lufwanyama, an agrarian, poorly developed district located in the Copperbelt province, Zambia. All births carried out by study birth attendants occurred at mothers’ homes, in rural village settings. Participants 127 traditional birth attendants and mothers and their newborns (3559 infants delivered regardless of vital status) from Lufwanyama district. Interventions Using an unblinded design, birth attendants were cluster randomised to intervention or control groups. The intervention had two components: training in a modified version of the neonatal resuscitation protocol, and single dose amoxicillin coupled with facilitated referral of infants to a health centre. Control birth attendants continued their existing standard of care (basic obstetric skills and use of clean delivery kits). Main outcome measures The primary outcome was the proportion of liveborn infants who died by day 28 after birth, with rate ratios statistically adjusted for clustering. Secondary outcomes were mortality at different time points; and comparison of causes of death based on verbal autopsy data. Results Among 3497 deliveries with reliable information, mortality at day 28 after birth was 45% lower among liveborn infants delivered by intervention birth attendants than control birth attendants (rate ratio 0.55, 95% confidence interval 0.33 to 0.90). The greatest reductions in mortality were in the first 24 hours after birth: 7.8 deaths per 1000 live births for infants delivered by intervention birth attendants compared with 19.9 per 1000 for infants delivered by control birth attendants (0.40, 0.19 to 0.83). Deaths due to birth asphyxia were reduced by 63% among infants delivered by

  9. How the integration of traditional birth attendants with formal health systems can increase skilled birth attendance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Abbey; Morgan, Alison

    2011-11-01

    Forty years of safe motherhood programming has demonstrated that isolated interventions will not reduce maternal mortality sufficiently to achieve MDG 5. Although skilled birth attendants (SBAs) can intervene to save lives, traditional birth attendants (TBAs) are often preferred by communities. Considering the value of both TBAs and SBAs, it is important to review strategies for maximizing their respective strengths. To describe mechanisms to integrate TBAs with the health system to increase skilled birth attendance and examine the components of successful integration. A systematic review of interventions linking TBAs and formal health workers, measuring outcomes of skilled birth attendance, referrals, and facility deliveries. Thirty-three articles met the selection criteria. Mechanisms used for integration included training and supervision of TBAs, collaboration skills for health workers, inclusion of TBAs at health facilities, communication systems, and clear definition of roles. Impact on skilled birth attendance depended on selection of TBAs, community participation, and addressing barriers to access. Successful approaches were context-specific. The integration of TBAs with formal health systems increases skilled birth attendance. The greatest impact is seen when TBA integration is combined with complementary actions to overcome context-specific barriers to contact among SBAs, TBAs, and women. Copyright © 2011 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Characterisation of commensal Escherichia coli isolated from apparently healthy cattle and their attendants in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madoshi, Balichene; Kudirkiene, Egle; Mtambo, Madundo

    2016-01-01

    attendants on cattle farms in Tanzania were investigated. Seventeen E. coli genomes representing different ERIC-PCR types of commensal E. coli were sequenced in order to determine their possible importance as a reservoir for both antimicrobial resistance genes and virulence factors. Both human and cattle...... isolates were highly resistant to tetracycline (40.8% and 33.1%), sulphamethazole-trimethoprim (49.0% and 8.8%) and ampicillin (44.9% and 21.3%). However, higher proportion of resistant E. coli and higher frequency of resistance to more than two antimicrobials was found in isolates from cattle attendants...

  11. Disparity in Dental Attendance Among Older Adult Populations: A Comparative Analysis Across Selected European Countries and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manski, Richard; Moeller, John; Chen, Haiyan; Widström, Eeva; Listl, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Background The current study addresses the extent to which diversity in dental attendance across population subgroups exists within and between the United States and selected European countries. Method The analyses relied on 2006/2007 data from the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) and 2004–2006 data from of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) in the United States for respondents aged 51 years and older. Logistic regression models were estimated to identify impacts of dental care coverage and oral as well as general health status on dental care use. Results We were unable to discern significant differences in dental attendance across population subgroups in countries with and without social health insurance, between the USA and European countries, and between European countries classified by social welfare regime. Patterns of diverse dental use were found, but they did not appear predominately in countries classified by welfare state regime or by presence or absence of social health insurance. Conclusions Findings of this study suggest that income and education have stronger and more persistent correlation with dental use than the correlation between dental insurance and dental use across European countries. We conclude that (1) higher overall rates of coverage in most European countries, compared to relatively lower rates in the USA, contribute to this finding and that (2) policies targeted to improving the income of older persons and their awareness of the importance of oral health care in both Europe and the USA can contribute to improving the use of dental services. PMID:26465093

  12. Recreation, consumption of wild game, risk, and the Department of Energy sites: Perceptions of people attending the Lewiston, ID, Roundup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, J.

    1999-01-01

    In this article, recreational rates of people attending the Lewiston Roundup rodeo in northwestern Idaho were examined, as well as their perceptions of the safety of consuming fish and game form two Department of Energy (DOE) facilities: the Hanford Site and the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). These are two of DOE's largest sites. Lewiston is closer to Hanford, but is in the same state as INEEL. Men engaged in significantly higher hunting and fishing rates than women, but there were no gender differences in camping and hiking rates. Rates of hunting and camping decreased significantly with age, while rates of hiking were lowest for 31- to 45-yr-olds. Level of education generally was not related to rates of recreation. Over 70% of the subjects ate deer, elk, and self-caught fish; 30--50% ate grouse, moose, and waterfowl; and fewer people ate other game species. Overall, subjects were less concerned about eating the fish and game from INEEL than from Hanford, and more people thought Hanford should be cleaned up completely compared to INEEL. Mean rates of fishing, hiking, and camping all exceeded the DOE's maximum recreational exposure assumption of 14 d/yr used in their future use documents

  13. Health and nutrition knowledge, attitudes and practices of pregnant women attending and not-attending ANC clinics in Western Kenya: a cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perumal, Nandita; Cole, Donald C; Ouédraogo, Hermann Z; Sindi, Kirimi; Loechl, Cornelia; Low, Jan; Levin, Carol; Kiria, Christine; Kurji, Jaameeta; Oyunga, Mary

    2013-07-11

    Antenatal care (ANC) is a key strategy to decreasing maternal mortality in low-resource settings. ANC clinics provide resources to improve nutrition and health knowledge and promote preventive health practices. We sought to compare the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) among women seeking and not-seeking ANC in rural Kenya. Data from a community-based cross-sectional survey conducted in Western Province, Kenya were used. Nutrition knowledge (NKS), health knowledge (HKS), attitude score (AS), and dietary diversity score (DDS) were constructed indices. χ2 test and Student's t-test were used to compare proportions and means, respectively, to assess the difference in KAP among pregnant women attending and not-attending ANC clinics. Multiple regression analyses were used to assess the impact of the number of ANC visits (none, ANC clinics while 39% had not. The mean (±SD) NKS was 4.6 (1.9) out of 11, HKS was 6.2 (1.7) out of 12, DDS was 4.9 (1.4) out of 12, and AS was 7.4 (2.2) out of 10. Nutrition knowledge, attitudes, and DDS were not significantly different between ANC clinic attending and non-attending women. Among women who attended ANC clinics, 82.6% received malaria and/or antihelmintic treatment, compared to 29.6% of ANC clinic non-attendees. Higher number of ANC clinic visits and higher maternal education level were significantly positively associated with maternal health knowledge. Substantial opportunities exist for antenatal KAP improvement among women in Western Kenya, some of which could occur with greater ANC attendance. Further research is needed to understand multi-level factors that may affect maternal knowledge and practices.

  14. Education and Social Cohesion: Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moiseyenko, Olena

    2005-01-01

    Social cohesion is understood as the social networks and the norms of reciprocity and trustworthiness that arise from connections among individuals. When students attend higher education institutions, they go through a process of socialization, and it is vital to ensure that they acquire the core values that underpin the social cohesion. This…

  15. Attending to weak signals: the leader's challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerfoot, Karlene

    2005-12-01

    Halverson and Isham (2003) quote sources that report the accidental death rate of simply being in a hospital is " ... four hundred times more likely than your risk of death from traveling by train, forty times higher than driving a car, and twenty times higher than flying in a commercial aircraft" (p. 13). High-reliability organizations such as nuclear power plants and aircraft carriers have been pioneers in the business of recognizing weak signals. Weike and Sutcliffe (2001) note that high-reliability organizations distinguish themselves from others because of their mindfulness which enables them to see the significance of weak signals and to give strong interventions to weak signals. To act mindfully, these organizations have an underlying mental model of continually updating, anticipating, and focusing the possibility of failure using the intelligence that weak signals provides. Much of what happens is unexpected in health care. However, with a culture that is continually looking for weak signals, and intervenes and rescues when these signals are detected, the unexpected happens less often. This is the epitome of how leaders can build a culture of safety that focuses on recognizing the weak signals to manage the unforeseen.

  16. Communication between residents and attending doctors on call after hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoselsky Persky, Michal A; Yinnon, Amos M; Freier-Dror, Yossi; Henshke-Bar-Meir, Ruth

    2013-12-01

    Off-hours medical care in hospitals is provided by residents, while attendings on call are available for assistance. This study evaluated the gap between residents' expectations and professional guidelines' requirements of attendings on call and what actually occurs during night shifts, while comparing surgical and medical specialties. Two questionnaires based on professional guidelines were filled by residents. The first queried about residents' expectations of attendings on call, and the second asked about communication with the attendings during actual night shifts. While 91 (100%) of residents expected the attending on call to be available by phone during the shift, only 44 (48%) expected the attending to initiate contact, and only 17 (19%) expected the attending to visit the ward or emergency department (ED) without being requested to do so. In 127 shifts (84%), some form of communication occurred. Residents called their attendings during 105 shifts (70%). However, attendings initiated contact with residents at the beginning or during the shift in only 67 (44%) and 62 (41%) shifts, respectively, and initiated a visit to the ward/ED during the shift in only 41 cases (27%). Surgical attendings initiated contact in these three ways significantly more frequently than medical attendings [21 (28%) versus 46 (61%), 20 (26%) versus 42 (56%) and 4 (5%) versus 37 (50%), respectively; P communication during night shifts between residents and attendings occurs in most shifts, attendings initiate far less contact with residents than is required by the guidelines. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Prevalence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium species in dog park attending dogs compared to non-dog park attending dogs in one region of Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Andrea; Ruch-Gallie, Rebecca; Scorza, Valeria; Lin, Philip; Lappin, Michael R

    2012-03-23

    Dog parks are very popular in urban areas, but there are no current studies attempting to correlate visits to dog parks and risk of colonization by enteric parasites. The purpose of this study was to determine whether dog park visitation is associated with an increased prevalence of enteric parasites or an increase in prevalence of gastrointestinal signs in dogs in northern Colorado. Feces from dogs owned by veterinary students or Veterinary Teaching Hospital staff members were submitted with a completed survey form detailing dog park attendance rates, fecal character scores, and other clinical information. Feces were examined microscopically for parasites after sugar centrifugation, for Giardia spp. cysts and Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts by a commercially available immunofluorescence assay (FA) and the FA positive samples were genotyped after PCR amplification. The Giardia assemblages were determined using the glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) β-giardin and triose phosphate isomerase (TPI) genes and the Cryptosporidium species were determined using the heat shock protein-70 gene. A total of 129 fecal samples were assayed; 66 were from dog park attending dogs and 63 were from non-dog park-attending dogs. The overall parasite prevalence rate was 7.0% (9 of 129 samples). Dog park attending dogs were more likely to be positive for Giardia or Cryptosporidium than non-dog park-attending dogs (p=0.0279), but there was no association of gastrointestinal signs with dog park attendance or with fecal flotation or FA results. The five Giardia isolates were assemblage C and/or D and the one Cryptosporidium isolate was Ctenocephalides canis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Performance goals on simulators boost resident motivation and skills laboratory attendance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanidis, Dimitrios; Acker, Christina E; Greene, Frederick L

    2010-01-01

    To assess the impact of setting simulator training goals on resident motivation and skills laboratory attendance. Residents followed a proficiency-based laparoscopic curriculum on the 5 Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery and 9 virtual reality tasks. Training goals consisted of the average expert performance on each task + 2 SD (mandatory) and best expert performance (optional). Residents rated the impact of the training goals on their motivation on a 20-point visual analog scale. Performance and attendance data were analyzed and correlated (Spearman's). Data are reported as medians (range). General Surgery residency program at a regional referral Academic Medical Center. General surgery residents (n = 15). During the first 5 months of the curriculum, weekly attendance rate was 51% (range, 8-96). After 153 (range, 21-412) repetitions, resident speed improved by 97% (range, 18-230), errors improved by 17% (range, 0-24), and motion efficiency by 59% (range, 26-114) compared with their baseline. Nine (60%) residents achieved proficiency in 7 (range, 3-14) and the best goals in 3.5 (range, 1-9) tasks; the other 6 residents had attendance rates motivation as 15 (range, 1-18) and setting a best goal as 13 (range, 1-18). Motivation ratings correlated positively with attendance rates, number of repetitions, performance improvement, and achievement of proficiency and best goals (r = 0.59-0.75; p motivation to participate in a simulator curriculum. While more stringent goals may potentiate this effect, they have a limited impact on senior residents. Further research is needed to investigate ways to improve skills laboratory attendance. Copyright 2010 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Two distinct groups of non-attenders in an organized mammography screening program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aro, A R; de Koning, H J; Absetz, P

    2001-01-01

    , more socially isolated, depressed and anxious than ELSE. Level of depression among REAL was clearly higher (10.80) than the mean value (7.91, SD = 7.28) of the age group, and was also slightly above the cut-off score of 10 indicating mild or moderate depression. Trait anxiety was also markedly higher...... (40.18) than that of the same age group (37.76, SD = 8.95). CONCLUSIONS: Further research should clarify determinants and consequences of depression and anxiety among real non-attenders. Knowledge gaps and attitudinal barriers among non-attenders require more targeted campaigns....... taken elsewhere (ELSE, n = 233) were urban, well-to-do women, who took care of their health by own initiation and felt more susceptible to breast cancer, and also expected mammogram to be painful. Other (real) non-attenders (REAL, n = 155) were less compliant with health recommendations and services...

  20. Socio-demographic determinants of skilled birth attendant at delivery in rural southern Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyeh, Alfred Kwesi; Akpakli, David Etsey; Kukula, Vida; Ekey, Rosemond Akepene; Narh-Bana, Solomon; Adjei, Alexander; Gyapong, Margaret

    2017-07-11

    Maternal mortality is the subject of the United Nations' fifth Millennium Development Goal, which is to reduce the maternal mortality ratio by three quarters from 1990 to 2015. The giant strides made by western countries in dropping of their maternal mortality ratio were due to the recognition given to skilled attendants at delivery. In Ghana, nine in ten mothers receive antenatal care from a health professional whereas only 59 and 68% of deliveries are assisted by skilled personnel in 2008 and 2010 respectively. This study therefore examines the determinants of skilled birth attendant at delivery in rural southern Ghana. This study comprises of 1874 women of reproductive age who had given birth 2 years prior to the study whose information were extracted from the Dodowa Health and Demographic Surveillance System. The univariable and multivariable associations between exposure variables (risk factors) and skilled birth attendant at delivery were explored using logistic regression. Out of a total of 1874 study participants, 98.29% of them receive antenatal care services during pregnancy and only 68.89% were assisted by skilled person at their last delivery prior to the survey. The result shows a remarkable influence of maternal age, level of education, parity, socioeconomic status and antenatal care attendance on skilled attendants at delivery. Although 69% of women in the study had skilled birth attendants at delivery, women from poorest households, higher parity, uneducated, and not attending antenatal care and younger women were more likely to deliver without a skilled birth attendants at delivery. Future intervention in the study area to bridge the gap between the poor and least poor women, improve maternal health and promote the use of skilled birth at delivery is recommended.

  1. Attendance at Prescribed Pelvic Floor Physical Therapy in a Diverse, Urban Urogynecology Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Megan Brady; Genereux, Madeleine; Brincat, Cynthia; Adams, William; Brubaker, Linda; Mueller, E R; Fitzgerald, Colleen M

    2017-11-11

    Pelvic floor physical therapy (PFPT) is a common and effective treatment for several pelvic floor disorders, but there is limited knowledge about adherence to the therapy or what factors influence attendance. To determine rates of PFPT attendance (initiation and completion) as well as correlates of PFPT attendance. Retrospective cohort analysis. Urban outpatient clinics at a tertiary medical center treating women with pelvic floor disorders. Patients prescribed PFPT during the time period January 1, 2014, through January 1, 2015. Number of PFPT visits recommended and attended; diagnoses associated with PFPT referral. Two-thirds of participants (66%; 118/180) initiated PFPT but less than one-third (29%; 52/180) completed the full treatment course. On univariate analysis, age, body mass index, diagnosis requiring PFPT treatment, marital or employment status, insurance type, number of comorbidities, incontinence status on examination, and stage of prolapse did not differ between PFPT initiators and noninitiators. Those who self-identified as Hispanic were less likely to initiate PFPT when compared with non-Hispanic patients, although this only trended toward significance (odds ratio 0.40, 95% confidence interval 0.14-1.09; exact P = .078). Two thirds (66%) of patients initiated PFPT but less than one third (29%) completed the treatment course. There appears to be an opportunity to augment PFPT attendance, as well as explore racial disparities in attendance. To be determined. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Mobile phone messaging reminders for attendance at healthcare appointments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurol-Urganci, Ipek; de Jongh, Thyra; Vodopivec-Jamsek, Vlasta; Atun, Rifat; Car, Josip

    2013-12-05

    review author. Study design features, characteristics of target populations, interventions and controls, and results data were extracted by two review authors and confirmed by a third author. Two authors assessed the risk of bias of the included studies. As the intervention characteristics and outcome measures were similar across included studies, we conducted a meta-analysis to estimate an overall effect size. We included eight randomised controlled trials involving 6615 participants. Four of these studies were newly identified during this update.We found moderate quality evidence from seven studies (5841 participants) that mobile text message reminders improved the rate of attendance at healthcare appointments compared to no reminders (risk ratio (RR) 1.14 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03 to 1.26)). There was also moderate quality evidence from three studies (2509 participants) that mobile text message reminders had a similar impact to phone call reminders (RR 0.99 (95% CI 0.95 to 1.02). Low quality evidence from one study (291 participants) suggests that mobile text message reminders combined with postal reminders improved the rate of attendance at healthcare appointments compared to postal reminders alone (RR 1.10 (95% CI 1.02 to 1.19)). Overall, the attendance to appointment rates were 67.8% for the no reminders group, 78.6% for the mobile phone messaging reminders group and 80.3% for the phone call reminders group. One study reported generally that there were no adverse effects during the study period; none of the studies reported in detail on specific adverse events such as loss of privacy, data misinterpretation, or message delivery failure. Two studies reported that the costs per text message per attendance were respectively 55% and 65% lower than costs per phone call reminder. The studies included in the review did not report on health outcomes or people's perceptions of safety related to receiving reminders by text message. Low to moderate quality evidence

  3. Smartphone use during inpatient attending rounds: prevalence, patterns and potential for distraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz-Sidlow, Rachel J; Ludwig, Allison; Miller, Scott; Sidlow, Robert

    2012-10-01

    While there are numerous benefits of smartphone use for physicians, little is known about the negative effects of using these devices in the context of patient care. To assess resident and faculty smartphone use during inpatient attending rounds and its potential as a source of distraction during transfer of clinical information. Cross-sectional survey. University-affiliated public teaching hospital. All housestaff and inpatient faculty in the departments of Medicine and Pediatrics. Participants were asked about smartphone ownership, usage patterns during attending rounds, and whether team members had ever missed important data during rounds due to distraction from smartphones. Attendings were asked whether policies should be established for smartphone use during rounds. The overall response rate was 73%. Device ownership was prevalent (89% residents, 98% faculty), as was use of smartphones during inpatient rounds (57% residents, 28% attendings). According to self-reports, smartphones were used during rounds for patient care (85% residents, 48% faculty), reading/responding to personal texts/e-mails (37% residents, 12% faculty), and other non-patient care uses (15% residents, 0% faculty). Nineteen percent of residents and 12% of attendings believed they had missed important information because of distraction from smartphones. Residents and faculty agreed that smartphones "can be a serious distraction during attending rounds," and nearly 80% of faculty believed that smartphone policies should be established. Smartphone use during attending rounds is prevalent and can distract users during important information transfer. Attendings strongly favored the institution of formal policies governing appropriate smartphone use during inpatient rounds. Copyright © 2012 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  4. 38 CFR 21.374 - Authorization for travel of attendants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... severity of the veteran's disability. Attendants may only be used to enable a veteran to attend... or marriage is the veteran's (i) Spouse, (ii) Parent, (iii) Child, (iv) Brother, (v) Sister, (vi...

  5. Physical Fitness, Grit, School Attendance, and Academic Performance among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, Jonathan M; Chen, Yen T; Castelli, Darla M

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of grit as a construct representing perseverance to overcoming barriers and the total number of school absences to academic performance (AP) while controlling for sociodemographics, fitness (i.e., PACER), and Body Mass Index (BMI). Adolescents ( N = 397, SD = 1.85; 80.9% females; 77.1% Hispanic) from an urban, minority-majority city in the Southern United States completed the FitnessGram® assessment of physical fitness (e.g., aerobic capacity and Body Mass Index (BMI)) and the valid and reliable short grit survey. The schools provided sociodemographics, attendance, and AP data for the adolescents. Adolescents with higher grit scores ( r s = 0.21, P < 0.001) and less total absences ( r s = -0.35, P < 0.001) performed better on AP. Hierarchical multiple regression indicated that grit and absences were associated with AP ( β = 0.13, P < 0.01 and β = -0.35, P < 0.001, resp.). Grit and a total number of absences are significant contributors to academic success, particularly among Hispanic adolescents. Further, grit and school attendance may serve as a better measure of protective factors over proximal health measures of cardiovascular health and BMI.

  6. Students Attendance Management System Based On RFID And Fingerprint Reader

    OpenAIRE

    Moth Moth Myint Thein; Chaw Myat Nweand Hla Myo Tun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Today students class attendance is become more important part for any organizationsinstitutions. The conventional method of taking attendance by calling names or signing on paper is very time consuming and insecure hence inefficient. This paper presents the manual students attendance management into computerized system for convenience or data reliability. So the system is developed by the integration of ubiquitous computing systems into classroom for managing the students attendance ...

  7. The account system for students school‘s attendance

    OpenAIRE

    Birgėlienė, Raminta

    2007-01-01

    SUMMARY The account system for students school‘s attendance The purpose of the created students school‘s attendance account system is to assist teachers in registering, observing and making reports on students school‘s attendance. This work presents the of secondary school students���result attendance account transferred to the informatics system. The system includes the analysis, separable processes, adjustable structured analysis and projections‘methods, which allow dealing with a real prob...

  8. Frequent attenders in general practice and immigrant status in Norway: a nationwide cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Esperanza; Gimeno-Feliu, Luis-Andrés; Calderón-Larrañaga, Amaia; Prados-Torres, Alexandra

    2014-12-01

    To compare the likelihood of being a frequent attender (FA) to general practice among native Norwegians and immigrants, and to study socioeconomic and morbidity factors associated with being a FA for natives and immigrants. Linked register data for all inhabitants in Norway with at least one visit to the general practitioner (GP) in 2008 (2 967 933 persons). Immigrants were grouped according to their country of origin into low- (LIC), middle- (MIC), and high-income countries (HIC). FAs were defined as patients whose attendance rate ranked in the top 10% (cut-off point > 7 visits). FAs were compared with other GP users by means of multivariate binary logistic analyses adjusting for socioeconomic and morbidity factors. Among GP users during the daytime, immigrants had a higher likelihood of being a FA compared with natives (OR (95% CI): 1.13 (1.09-1.17) and 1.15 (1.12-1.18) for HIC, 1.84 (1.78-1.89) and 1.66 (1.63-1.70) for MIC, and 1.77 (1.67-1.89) and 1.65 (1.57-1.74) for LIC for men and women respectively). Pregnancy, middle income earned in Norway, and having cardiologic and psychiatric problems were the main factors associated with being a FA. Among immigrants, labour immigrants and the elderly used GPs less often, while refugees were overrepresented among FAs. Psychiatric, gastroenterological, endocrine, and non-specific drug morbidity were relatively more prevalent among immigrant FA compared with natives. Although immigrants account for a small percentage of all FAs, GPs and policy-makers should be aware of differences in socioeconomic and morbidity profiles to provide equality of health care.

  9. Failure to attend out-patient clinics: is it in our DNA?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Roberts, Kinley

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE: This paper aims to determine the reasons why patients miss clinic appointments and to ascertain patients\\' views on the implementation of reminder systems and penalty fees to reduce the rates of did not attend (DNAs). Overall, the paper seeks to establish novel ways to run a more efficient out-patient department (OPD) service to improve waiting times and access for patients to limited neurology resources. DESIGN\\/METHODOLOGY\\/APPROACH: A questionnaire-based study was approved by the audit committee and was offered to 204 out-patients attending the neurology clinics over a three-month period (July to September 2009). The patients\\' demographic details and non-attendance records were reviewed. The paper aimed to ascertain, from the patients\\' perspective, why people failed to attend clinic appointments. Each participant was asked their views on how they felt their public hospital service might reduce the number of DNAs at their neurology OPD. FINDINGS: A total of 204 patients took part. Participants had a mean age of 31 years (range 25-75 years) with a modal peak in the 26 to 35 age bracket. Almost 10 per cent of those surveyed admitted to missing a hospital out-patient appointment in the past. The most common reason was that they simply "forgot" (28 per cent). DNA rates by age range were proportionally similar to the overall age profile of attenders. Over 55 per cent said they would like a pre-appointment reminder via a mobile telephone text message, 19 per cent preferred a pre-appointment telephone call, and 19 per cent an e-mail. Of those surveyed, 47 per cent said they would be willing to pay a fee on booking that could be refunded on attending for their appointment. The majority of these felt Euro 20 was the most appropriate amount (39 per cent). The rate of acceptance for various fee amounts was uniform across age ranges. Over half (52 per cent) said that they would agree to a "buddy" system whereby the appointment reminder was sent to the patient

  10. Multitudes attend the Night of Science

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The Night of Science, which took place in the Parc de la Perle du Lac in Geneva last weekend, was a great success, with 30 000 visitors attending according to the organisers. Many curious people flocked to the stands and animations until late on Saturday night and all afternoon on Sunday. The CERN stand (photo) received a great amount of interest from participants. Both kids and adults discovered the activities of the Laboratory and the data-processing revolution initiated by CERN, from the Web to the Computing Grid. Hats off to the CERN collaborators in the Communication Group and IT Department who made this event a success.

  11. Positively essential: traditional birth attendants in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stronge, Shirley

    2011-06-01

    One of the biggest challenges for healthcare professionals working in developing countries is the lack of trained personnel to carry out much needed health care provision. Shirley Stronge worked as a nurse/midwife tutor in a rural area in the north of Malawi. Millennium Development Goals four and five have focused our attention on the care required by mothers and newborns. Shirley has chosen to reflect on the role of Traditional Birth Attendants in the north of Malawi and their positive impact on maternity services in this area.

  12. Postpartum Visit Attendance Increases the Use of Modern Contraceptives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba W. Masho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Delays in postpartum contraceptive use may increase risk for unintended or rapid repeat pregnancies. The postpartum care visit (PPCV is a good opportunity for women to discuss family planning options with their health care providers. This study examined the association between PPCV attendance and modern contraceptive use using data from a managed care organization. Methods. Claims and demographic and administrative data came from a nonprofit managed care organization in Virginia (2008–2012. Information on the most recent delivery for mothers with singleton births was analyzed (N = 24,619. Routine PPCV (yes, no and modern contraceptive use were both dichotomized. Descriptive analyses provided percentages, frequencies, and means. Multiple logistic regression was conducted and ORs and 95% CIs were calculated. Results. More than half of the women did not attend their PPCV (50.8% and 86.9% had no modern contraceptive use. After controlling for the effects of confounders, women with PPCV were 50% more likely to use modern contraceptive methods than women with no PPCV (OR = 1.50, 95% CI = 1.31, 1.72. Conclusions. These findings highlight the importance of PPCV in improving modern contraceptive use and guide health care policy in the effort of reducing unintended pregnancy rates.

  13. Teaching Guatemalan traditional birth attendants about obstetrical emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Kimberly; Dowling, Donna; Mettler, Gretchen

    2018-06-01

    Guatemala's Maternal Mortality Rate is 65th highest in the world at 120 deaths per 100,000 births. Contributing to the problem is traditional birth attendants (TBAs) attend most births yet lack knowledge about obstetrical emergencies. Government trainings in existence since 1955 have not changed TBA knowledge. Government trainings are culturally insensitive because they are taught in Spanish with written material, even though most TBAs are illiterate and speak Mayan dialects. The purpose of the observational study was to evaluate the effect of an oral training, that was designed to be culturally sensitive in TBAs' native language, on TBAs' knowledge of obstetrical emergencies. one hundred ninety-one TBAs participated. The study employed a pretest-posttest design. A checklist was used to compare TBAs' knowledge of obstetrical emergencies before and after the training. the mean pretest score was 5.006±SD 0.291 compared to the mean posttest score of 8.549±SD 0.201. Change in knowledge was a P value of 0.00. results suggest an oral training that was designed to be culturally sensitive in the native language improved TBAs' knowledge of obstetrical emergencies. Future trainings should follow a similar format to meet the needs of illiterate audiences in remote settings. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Postpartum Visit Attendance Increases the Use of Modern Contraceptives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masho, Saba W; Cha, Susan; Charles, RaShel; McGee, Elizabeth; Karjane, Nicole; Hines, Linda; Kornstein, Susan G

    2016-01-01

    Background. Delays in postpartum contraceptive use may increase risk for unintended or rapid repeat pregnancies. The postpartum care visit (PPCV) is a good opportunity for women to discuss family planning options with their health care providers. This study examined the association between PPCV attendance and modern contraceptive use using data from a managed care organization. Methods. Claims and demographic and administrative data came from a nonprofit managed care organization in Virginia (2008-2012). Information on the most recent delivery for mothers with singleton births was analyzed ( N = 24,619). Routine PPCV (yes, no) and modern contraceptive use were both dichotomized. Descriptive analyses provided percentages, frequencies, and means. Multiple logistic regression was conducted and ORs and 95% CIs were calculated. Results. More than half of the women did not attend their PPCV (50.8%) and 86.9% had no modern contraceptive use. After controlling for the effects of confounders, women with PPCV were 50% more likely to use modern contraceptive methods than women with no PPCV (OR = 1.50, 95% CI = 1.31, 1.72). Conclusions. These findings highlight the importance of PPCV in improving modern contraceptive use and guide health care policy in the effort of reducing unintended pregnancy rates.

  15. Preferential streaming of the ductus venosus toward the right atrium is associated with a worse outcome despite a higher rate of invasive procedures in human fetuses with left diaphragmatic hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stressig, R; Fimmers, R; Schaible, T; Degenhardt, J; Axt-Fliedner, R; Gembruch, U; Kohl, T

    2013-12-01

    Preferential streaming of the ductus venosus (DV) toward the right atrium has been observed in fetuses with left diaphragmatic hernia (LDH). The purpose of this retrospective study was to compare survival rates to discharge between a group with preferential streaming of the DV toward the right heart and a group in which this abnormal flow pattern was not present. We retrospectively searched our patient records for fetuses with LDH in whom liver position, DV streaming and postnatal outcome information was available. 55 cases were found and divided into two groups: Group I fetuses exhibited abnormal DV streaming toward the right side of the heart; group II fetuses did not. Various prognostic and outcome parameters were compared. 62 % of group I fetuses and 88 % of group II fetuses survived to discharge (p = 0.032). Fetoscopic tracheal balloon occlusion (FETO) was performed in 66 % of group I fetuses and 23 % of group II fetuses (p = 0.003). Postnatal ECMO therapy was performed in 55 % of group I fetuses and 23 % of group II infants (p = 0.025). Moderate to severe chronic lung disease in survivors was observed in 56 % of the survivors of group I and 9 % of the survivors of group II (p = 0.002). Preferential streaming of the DV toward the right heart in human fetuses with left-sided diaphragmatic hernia was associated with a poorer postnatal outcome despite a higher rate of invasive pre- and postnatal procedures compared to fetuses without this flow abnormality. Specifically, abnormal DV streaming was found to be an independent predictor for FETO. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Self-Efficacy, Motivation, and Academic Adjustment among African American Women Attending Institutions of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Deneia M.; Love, Keisha M.; Roan-Belle, Clarissa; Tyler, Keneth M.; Brown, Carrie Lynn; Garriott, Patton O.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among self-efficacy beliefs, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and academic adjustment among 111 African American women in college. Results revealed that self-efficacy beliefs predicted Motivation to Know, Externally Regulated motivation, Identified motivation, and academic adjustment. Furthermore,…

  17. Problems and Expectations of University Students Attending Higher Education in Turkey: Orientation Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutlu, Mustafa

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this research is to find out the problems and expectations of the students in Inonu University (in Malatya, a city in east Turkey) concerning the orientation services. An additional objective is to ascertain whether students' expectations with regard to orientation services differ according to their sex, their place of origin, and…

  18. Emotional disturbances among adult diabetic patients attending a diabetic clinic in a Malaysian general hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali SabriRadeef1, Ramli Musa, NikNurFatnoonBintiNik Ahmad, Ghasak Ghazi Faisal

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Emotional disturbances such as depression, anxiety and stress play an important role in the management of diabetes mellitus since their presence can adversely affect glycemic control, quality of life and compliance with medications. Despite this, emotional disturbances are consistently under-diagnosed and under-treated by physicians in general practice. Objectives: This study aims to determine the prevalence and severity of emotional disturbances among diabetic patients Methodology: This is a cross sectional study conducted on a sample of 200 patients with diabetes mellitus attending the diabetic clinic at the Hospital Tengku Ampuan Afzan, Pahang state, Malaysia. The prevalence and severity of depressive, anxiety and stress symptoms were assessed in those diabetic patients by using the self-rating Bahasa Malaysia version of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales (DASS-42. Results: The prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress among diabetic patients was 13.5%, 28%, 11% respectively. Most of the patients with emotional disturbances had moderate depression and anxiety symptoms. However, stress symptoms were mild. Although females showed higher prevalence of emotional disturbances, only anxiety was significantly higher than males. Conclusion: Diabetic patients are at risk to develop psychiatric illnesses in the form of depression, anxiety and stress. Anxiety symptoms were more prominent than depression and stress in diabetic patients

  19. Patterns and correlates of Gamblers Anonymous attendance in pathological gamblers seeking professional treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, Nancy M

    2003-08-01

    Although Gamblers Anonymous (GA) is a popular intervention for gamblers, many attendees later present for professional treatment. This study evaluated gambling and psychosocial problems in individuals seeking professional treatment for gambling and compared those with and without a history of GA attendance. At intake to treatment, 342 pathological gamblers completed the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) and South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS). Fifty-four percent attended GA previously. Compared to non-GA attendees, GA attendees were older, had higher incomes, and were less likely to be single. They had higher SOGS scores, more years of gambling problems, and larger debts. GA attendees also had more serious family conflicts and less serious drug problems. Individuals with a history of GA attendance were more likely to be abstinent from gambling 2 months after treatment initiation. Logistic regression revealed that the number of professional sessions and GA meetings attended during treatment was independently associated with short-term abstinence. These data suggest that individuals entering professional treatment for gambling with a history of GA attendance differ from those who do not, and these differences may impact treatment recommendations and outcomes.

  20. Church attendance and self-esteem among adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Robbins, Mandy; Francis, Leslie J.; Williams, Emyr

    2007-01-01

    A total of 279 young people (123 males and 156 females) aged between 12 and 16 years of age attending one school in Wales completed the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory alongside a measure of frequency of church attendance. The data indicate a small positive correlation (r = .18) between self-esteem and church attendance.

  1. 32 CFR 724.213 - Attendance of witnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... BOARD Authority/Policy for Departmental Discharge Review § 724.213 Attendance of witnesses. Arrangement for attendance of witnesses testifying in behalf of the applicant at discharge review hearings is the... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Attendance of witnesses. 724.213 Section 724.213...

  2. 46 CFR 201.125 - Attendance and mileage fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Attendance and mileage fees. 201.125 Section 201.125 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION POLICY, PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Subpoenas (Rule 12) § 201.125 Attendance and mileage fees. Persons attending...

  3. Social environment and frequent attendance in Danish general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedsted, Peter; Olesen, Frede

    2005-01-01

    of 1423 (73.7%) frequent attenders and 1103 (74.9%) infrequent attenders responded. Male frequent attendance was associated, with statistical significance, with living alone and being without work or on a disability pension. Among women, lack of professional education or being without work tended...

  4. Effects of a free school breakfast programme on school attendance, achievement, psychosocial function, and nutrition: a stepped wedge cluster randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maddison Ralph

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Approximately 55,000 children in New Zealand do not eat breakfast on any given day. Regular breakfast skipping has been associated with poor diets, higher body mass index, and adverse effects on children's behaviour and academic performance. Research suggests that regular breakfast consumption can improve academic performance, nutrition and behaviour. This paper describes the protocol for a stepped wedge cluster randomised trial of a free school breakfast programme. The aim of the trial is to determine the effects of the breakfast intervention on school attendance, achievement, psychosocial function, dietary habits and food security. Methods/Design Sixteen primary schools in the North Island of New Zealand will be randomised in a sequential stepped wedge design to a free before-school breakfast programme consisting of non-sugar coated breakfast cereal, milk products, and/or toast and spreads. Four hundred children aged 5-13 years (approximately 25 per school will be recruited. Data collection will be undertaken once each school term over the 2010 school year (February to December. The primary trial outcome is school attendance, defined as the proportion of students achieving an attendance rate of 95% or higher. Secondary outcomes are academic achievement (literacy, numeracy, self-reported grades, sense of belonging at school, psychosocial function, dietary habits, and food security. A concurrent process evaluation seeks information on parents', schools' and providers' perspectives of the breakfast programme. Discussion This randomised controlled trial will provide robust evidence of the effects of a school breakfast programme on students' attendance, achievement and nutrition. Furthermore the study provides an excellent example of the feasibility and value of the stepped wedge trial design in evaluating pragmatic public health intervention programmes. Trial Registration Number Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry

  5. Effects of a free school breakfast programme on school attendance, achievement, psychosocial function, and nutrition: a stepped wedge cluster randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Turley, Maria; Gorton, Delvina; Jiang, Yannan; Michie, Jo; Maddison, Ralph; Hattie, John

    2010-11-29

    Approximately 55,000 children in New Zealand do not eat breakfast on any given day. Regular breakfast skipping has been associated with poor diets, higher body mass index, and adverse effects on children's behaviour and academic performance. Research suggests that regular breakfast consumption can improve academic performance, nutrition and behaviour. This paper describes the protocol for a stepped wedge cluster randomised trial of a free school breakfast programme. The aim of the trial is to determine the effects of the breakfast intervention on school attendance, achievement, psychosocial function, dietary habits and food security. Sixteen primary schools in the North Island of New Zealand will be randomised in a sequential stepped wedge design to a free before-school breakfast programme consisting of non-sugar coated breakfast cereal, milk products, and/or toast and spreads. Four hundred children aged 5-13 years (approximately 25 per school) will be recruited. Data collection will be undertaken once each school term over the 2010 school year (February to December). The primary trial outcome is school attendance, defined as the proportion of students achieving an attendance rate of 95% or higher. Secondary outcomes are academic achievement (literacy, numeracy, self-reported grades), sense of belonging at school, psychosocial function, dietary habits, and food security. A concurrent process evaluation seeks information on parents', schools' and providers' perspectives of the breakfast programme. This randomised controlled trial will provide robust evidence of the effects of a school breakfast programme on students' attendance, achievement and nutrition. Furthermore the study provides an excellent example of the feasibility and value of the stepped wedge trial design in evaluating pragmatic public health intervention programmes. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR) - ACTRN12609000854235.

  6. Enhanced tortuosity for electrolytes in microwave irradiated self-organized carbon-doped Ni/Co hydroxide nanocomposite electrodes with higher Ni/Co atomic ratio and rate capability for an asymmetric supercapacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Niraj; Kumar, Viresh; Panda, H S

    2017-11-03

    We demonstrate a green, facile and rapid microwave-mediated process for fabricating carbon black (CB) incorporated Ni/Co hydroxide porous nanocomposites and study the effect of various mass loading of CB on supercapacitor performance. The structure and interactions between CB and Ni/Co hydroxide are characterized by using x-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, which suggest the miniaturization of the single-phase Ni/Co hydroxide formation time. A morphology study reveals that the addition of CB into Ni/Co hydroxide develops a loose network structure with well-defined architectural pores. In addition, the nanocomposites demonstrate noticeable improvements in porosity and atomic ratio of Ni/Co with an increasing percentage of carbon, which results in a higher diffusion of electrolytes, and hence electrical conduction. The developed electrode materials exhibit a maximum specific capacitance value of 1526 Fg -1 at current density 1 Ag -1 with excellent cyclic stability (92% retention at 5000 cycles), energy density (76 Wh Kg -1 ), power density (250 W Kg -1 ) and rate capability. A solid state asymmetric supercapacitor device is fabricated and utilized to brighten a commercial LED effectively for validating real usage.

  7. Enhanced tortuosity for electrolytes in microwave irradiated self-organized carbon-doped Ni/Co hydroxide nanocomposite electrodes with higher Ni/Co atomic ratio and rate capability for an asymmetric supercapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Niraj; Kumar, Viresh; Panda, H. S.

    2017-11-01

    We demonstrate a green, facile and rapid microwave-mediated process for fabricating carbon black (CB) incorporated Ni/Co hydroxide porous nanocomposites and study the effect of various mass loading of CB on supercapacitor performance. The structure and interactions between CB and Ni/Co hydroxide are characterized by using x-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, which suggest the miniaturization of the single-phase Ni/Co hydroxide formation time. A morphology study reveals that the addition of CB into Ni/Co hydroxide develops a loose network structure with well-defined architectural pores. In addition, the nanocomposites demonstrate noticeable improvements in porosity and atomic ratio of Ni/Co with an increasing percentage of carbon, which results in a higher diffusion of electrolytes, and hence electrical conduction. The developed electrode materials exhibit a maximum specific capacitance value of 1526 Fg-1 at current density 1 Ag-1 with excellent cyclic stability (92% retention at 5000 cycles), energy density (76 Wh Kg-1), power density (250 W Kg-1) and rate capability. A solid state asymmetric supercapacitor device is fabricated and utilized to brighten a commercial LED effectively for validating real usage.

  8. Minor injury attendance times to the ED.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Conlon, Ciaran

    2009-07-01

    The Health Service Executive (HSE) highlights the need for effective patient throughput and management, whilst providing appropriate staffing and therapeutic interventions. It acknowledges that patient need is integral to the development of a nurse led service and advocates planning staffing levels to reflect arrival times of patients. An observational study of all patients who presented to the emergency department in July 2005 and February 2006 was undertaken (n=7768). The study identified 1577 patients suitable for treatment by the Advanced Nurse Practitioner (ANP) in these two months, which represents 20% of all patient attendances to the ED in this time period. A data collection tool was devised collectively by the ANPs to identify appropriate patients. The findings of the study revealed that 73% of patients suitable for the ANP service presented between the hours of 0800 and 2000, of which 54% attended between 0800 and 1600 h. Sunday emerged as the busiest day in July 2005 whereas Monday was found to be the busiest day in February 2006. Friday was found to be consistently busy for both months.

  9. [Dynamic Attending Binds Time and Rhythm Perception].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Tsuyoshi; Ono, Fuminori; Kadota, Hiroshi

    2017-11-01

    Relations between time and rhythm perception are discussed in this review of psychophysical research relevant to the multiple-look effect and dynamic-attending theory. Discrimination of two neighboring intervals that are marked by three successive sounds is improved when the presentation of the first (standard, S) interval is repeated before that of the second (comparison, C), as SSSSC. This improvement in sensitivity, called the multiple-look effect, occurs because listeners (1) perceive regular rhythm during the repetition of the standard interval, (2) predict the timing of subsequent sounds, and (3) detect sounds that are deviated from the predicted timing. The dynamic-attending theory attributes such predictions to the entrainment of attentional rhythms. An endogenous attentional rhythm is synchronized with the periodic succession of sounds marking the repeated standard. The standard and the comparison are discriminated on the basis of whether the ending marker of the comparison appears at the peak of the entrained attentional rhythm. This theory is compatible with the findings of recent neurophysiological studies that relate temporal prediction to neural oscillations.

  10. Acute symptomatic hyponatremia in a flight attendant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madero, Magdalena; Monares, Enrique; Domínguez, Aurelio Méndez; Ayus, Juan Carlos

    2015-08-01

    Acute symptomatic hyponatremia after thiazide diuretic initiation is a medical emergency. Here we describe the case of a flight attendant who developed acute hyponatremia during a flight and the potential risk factors for developing this condition. A 57-year-old flight attendant with history of essential hypertension was recently started on a thiazide diuretic. As she did routinely when working, she increased her water intake during a flight from London to Mexico City. She complained of nausea and headache during the flight. Upon arrival, she developed severe disorientation and presented to the hospital emergency room (ER) with a Glasgow scale of 12, hypoxia, and a generalized tonic clonic seizure. Her laboratory results on arrival were consistent with severe hyponatremia (serum Na 116 mEql/L) and severe cerebral edema by CT scan. She was treated with hypertonic saline, with complete resolution of the neurologic symptoms. We describe high water intake and hypoxia related to decreased partial pressure of oxygen in the cabin as the two main risk factors for thiazide-induced acute hyponatremia in this case.

  11. Barriers to dental attendance in older patients

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shanahan, D

    2017-04-01

    Health professionals in Ireland are increasingly concerned about the quality of oral health in older patients. The aim of this study is to identify the obstacles that face this age-group when accessing dental care, so that we are in a better position to address them. A questionnaire was completed by 105 patients attending a geriatric outpatient clinic. Over 50 percent of respondents had not attended a dentist in over 36 months, for the reasons that \\'I have no problem or need for treatment’ (62%) and ‘I have no teeth, and therefore I have no need to go’ (54%). While it is common to assume that no teeth means no need to see a dentist, research shows that regular dental visits are vital for ensuring the early screening of oral cancer and other mucosal pathologies, and the optimisation of existing rosthesis\\/restorations. The chief recommendation of this paper is thus to provide better education and access to older people on the importance of visiting the dentist.

  12. Where to Attend? Estimating the Effects of Beginning College at a Two-Year Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, C. Lockwood

    2012-01-01

    Two-year colleges are an important part of the higher education system in the United States but there are concerns as to how attendance at these institutions affects educational attainment and labor market outcomes. This paper uses data from a nationally representative survey to examine the impact of students beginning their college career at a…

  13. Divergent Urban-Rural Trends in College Attendance: State Policy Bias and Structural Exclusion in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Tony; Jiang, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Despite the massive expansion of higher education in China since 1998, the cohort trends of urban and rural "hukou" holders in college attendance have widened sharply. Prevailing explanations emphasize the advantages of urban students over rural students in school quality and household financial resources. We propose the structural…

  14. sero-epidemiology of toxocara canis infection in chil- dren attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-06-01

    Jun 1, 2015 ... dogs.2. The prevalence of toxocariasis is generally higher in tropical and developing countries than in developed countries and has been associated with .... canis sero-positivity and characteris- tics of children attending four selected hospitals in the. Central Region, Ghana. Variable Group. (Characteristic).

  15. Minimum Wage and Community College Attendance: How Economic Circumstances Affect Educational Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Betsy

    2013-01-01

    How do changes in minimum wages affect community college enrollment and employment? In particular, among adults without associate's or bachelor's degrees who may earn near the minimum wage, do endowment effects of a higher minimum wage encourage school attendance? Among adults without associate's or bachelor's degrees who may earn near the minimum…

  16. High content of MYHC II in vastus lateralis is accompanied by higher VO2/power output ratio during moderate intensity cycling performed both at low and at high pedalling rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majerczak, J; Szkutnik, Z; Karasinski, J; Duda, K; Kolodziejski, L; Zoladz, J A

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between the content of various types of myosin heavy chain isoforms (MyHC) in the vastus lateralis muscle and pulmonary oxygen uptake during moderate power output incremental exercise, performed at low and at high pedalling rates. Twenty one male subjects (mean +/- SD) aged 24.1 +/- 2.8 years; body mass 72.9 +/- 7.2 kg; height 179.1 +/- 4.8 cm; BMI 22.69 +/- 1.89 kg.m(-2); VO2max 50.6 +/- 5.3 ml.kg.min(-1), participated in this study. On separate days, they performed two incremental exercise tests at 60 rev.min(-1) and at 120 rev.min(-1), until exhaustion. Gas exchange variables were measured continuously breath by breath. Blood samples were taken for measurements of plasma lactate concentration prior to the exercise test and at the end of each step of the incremental exercise. Muscle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis muscle, using Bergström needle, and they were analysed for the content of MyHC I and MyHC II using SDS--PAGE and two groups (n=7, each) were selected: group H with the highest content of MyHC II (60.7 % +/- 10.5 %) and group L with the lowest content of MyHC II (27.6 % +/- 6.1 %). We have found that during incremental exercise at the power output between 30-120 W, performed at 60 rev.min(-1), oxygen uptake in the group H was significantly greater than in the group L (ANCOVA, p=0.003, upward shift of the intercept in VO2/power output relationship). During cycling at the same power output but at 120 rev.min(-1), the oxygen uptake was also higher in the group H, when compared to the group L (i.e. upward shift of the intercept in VO2/power output relationship, ANCOVA, p=0.002). Moreover, the increase in pedalling rate from 60 to 120 rev.min(-1) was accompanied by a significantly higher increase of oxygen cost of cycling and by a significantly higher plasma lactate concentration in subjects from group H. We concluded that the muscle mechanical efficiency, expressed by the VO2/PO ratio

  17. Prevalence of Hookworm Infection Among Patients Attending Aminu

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    The above prevalence rate of infection could become higher in years to come ... majority of the infected individuals live in poverty- ... pregnant women in developing countries are suffering .... Darjeeling, India with 42.8% (Pal et al., 2007),.

  18. A Comparison of Sexual Minority Youth Who Attend Religiously Affiliated Schools and Their Nonreligious-School-Attending Counterparts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Brandon T.; Heck, Nicholas C.; Cochran, Bryan N.

    2015-01-01

    Sexual minority youth are an at-risk group for negative health outcomes. The present study compares descriptive characteristics and outness of sexual minority youth who attend religious schools to sexual minorities who do not attend religious schools, and also investigates if attending religiously affiliated schools is associated with levels of…

  19. Stress Factors Associated With Burnout Among Attending Physicians: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Yurika; Takayashiki, Ayumi; Ito, Makoto; Maeno, Takami; Seo, Emiko; Maeno, Tetsuhiro

    2018-03-01

    Burnout in attending physicians is a crucial issue that may negatively impact patient outcomes, as well as affect the quality of training provided to residents. To investigate the association between burnout and stress-coping ability, we conducted a cross-sectional study of attending physicians. From April 2013 to March 2014, we distributed an anonymous, self-administered questionnaire to 1,897 attending physicians who attended teaching-related training sessions and workshops. The questionnaire included the Maslach Burnout Inventory General Survey (MBI-GS, Japanese version) to evaluate burnout; the sense of coherence scale (SOC, Japanese version) to measure stress-coping ability, with higher scores indicating higher stress-coping ability; the Brief Scales for Job Stress (BSJS) to assess stress and buffering factors; demographic factors; mean weekly working hours; and factors related to instructing residents. The MBI-GS was used to determine the presence of physician burnout. Subjects were divided into tertiles based on SOC scores. We conducted logistic regression analysis of burnout using the following independent variables: physician experience, sex, mean weekly working hours, SOC group, mental workload, and reward from work. Of the 1,543 (81.3%) attending physicians who responded, 376 did not meet the inclusion criteria and 106 had missing data, thus 1,061 (55.9%) were analyzed. The prevalence of burnout was 17.2%. Physicians with burnout had significantly fewer years of experience as a doctor (P burnout. On the BSJS, the mean score of all stress factors was higher and that of buffering factors was lower in physicians with burnout (P burnout were 35.7%, 12.8%, and 3.2% in the low, middle, and high SOC groups, respectively (P burnout in the low SOC group was 4.7 (95% confidence interval: 2.31 - 9.63) (P burnout among attending physicians was significantly associated with SOC scores after adjustment for stress factors and buffering factors.

  20. Correlation of self-assessment with attendance in an evidence-based medicine course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Beatriz U

    2015-12-01

    In previous studies, correlations between attendance and grades in lectures have given variable results and, when statistically significant, the correlation has been weak. In some studies, a sex effect has been reported. Lectures are a teacher-centered learning activity. Therefore, it appeared interesting to evaluate if a stronger correlation between attendance and grades would occur in a face-to-face "evidence-based medicine" course with few lectures and more time dedicated to active learning methods. Small-group work and peer learning were used to foster deep learning and to engage students in their own learning process. Most of the time, students worked in small groups solving contextualized problems and critically analyzing the quality of published medical literature. Peer learning was also developed in collaborative evaluations, and constant feedback was provided. Therefore, it was hypothesized that high attenders would develop a higher self-perception of learning and obtain higher marks than low attenders. Student self-perceptions of their capacity to apply evidence-based medicine were measured by the application of an online self-assessment survey, and objective learning was measured as the grades obtained in a final accumulative individual test. It was found that male students obtained higher grades and were more confident in their achievements than their female peers, despite male and female student attendance being similar. In addition, attendance was correlated with the perceived capacity to apply evidence-based medicine only in male students and was not correlated with academic outcome. Copyright © 2015 The American Physiological Society.

  1. A Randomized Experiment Using Absenteeism Information to "Nudge" Attendance. REL 2017-252

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Todd; Duncan, Teresa; Wolford, Tonya; Ternovski, John; Subramanyam, Shruthi; Reitano, Adrienne

    2017-01-01

    Reducing student absenteeism is a key part of the School District of Philadelphia's plan to boost graduation rates. One of the district's goals is to increase guardians' awareness of absenteeism, with the hope that greater awareness will lead to guardians' taking a more active role in improving their student's attendance and academic performance.…

  2. AIDS Risk Among Students Attending Seventh-day Adventist Schools in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Gary L.; Hopp, Joyce W.; Marshak, Helen P. Hopp; Neish, Christine; Rhoads, Gayle

    1998-01-01

    Surveys of students attending Seventh-Day Adventist (SDA) high schools assessed sexual and drug-use behaviors that placed them at risk for contracting or transmitting HIV. Comparison of the results with data from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey indicated that SDA students had lower rates of sexual intercourse and substance use. Parental…

  3. Extended cardiac rehabilitation for socially vulnerable patients improves attendance and outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten Melgaard; Meillier, Lucette Kirsten; Larsen, Mogens Lytken

    2013-01-01

    Patients living alone or having a low socioeconomic status are likely to quit cardiac rehabilitation. We aimed to compare patients being offered extended rehabilitation (ERP) with those being offered standard rehabilitation (SRP) as concerns 1) attendance rates and 2) achievement of treatment goals...

  4. The Relationship of School Uniforms to Student Attendance, Achievement, and Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowell, Russell Edward

    2012-01-01

    This causal-comparative study examined the relationship of school uniforms to attendance, academic achievement, and discipline referral rates, using data collected from two high schools in rural southwest Georgia county school systems, one with a uniforms program and one without a uniforms program. After accounting for race and students with…

  5. Effect of Peer Attendance on College Students' Learning Outcomes in a Microeconomics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jennjou; Lin, Tsui-Fang

    2015-01-01

    The authors' main purpose in this article is to examine whether peer presence, measured by overall class attendance rate, has any significant effect on college students' academic performance. They use a rich dataset from an intermediate microeconomics course from the fall of 2008 to the spring of 2013 at a public university in Taiwan. The…

  6. Kinvolved: Utilizing Technology to Communicate, Evaluate, and Advocate for Improved Attendance and Family and Community Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, Miriam; Meis, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    The American K-12 grade education system is experiencing a truancy crisis. Nationally, 15%, or 7.5 million students, miss an entire month of school annually [1], with that rate frequently doubling or even tripling among students from underserved communities [2]. Research has identified attendance as one of three primary indicators of high school…

  7. Students Attendance Management System Based On RFID And Fingerprint Reader

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moth Moth Myint Thein

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Today students class attendance is become more important part for any organizationsinstitutions. The conventional method of taking attendance by calling names or signing on paper is very time consuming and insecure hence inefficient. This paper presents the manual students attendance management into computerized system for convenience or data reliability. So the system is developed by the integration of ubiquitous computing systems into classroom for managing the students attendance using RFID and fingerprint reader. The system is designed to implement an attendance management system based on RFID and fingerprint reader which students need to use their student identification card ID and their finger ID to success the attendance where only authentic student can be recorded the attendance during the class. In this system passive RFID tag and reader pairs are used to register the student ID cards individually and fingerprint reader is used for attendance. This system takes attendance electronically with the help of the RFID and finger print device and the records of the attendance are stored in a database. Students roll call percentages and their details are easily seenvia Graphical User Interface GUI. This system will have the required databases for students attendance teachers subjects and students details. This application is implemented by Microsoft Visual Studio and Microsoft SQL Server as IDE. C language is used to implement this system.

  8. Do young people attending addiction services differ from those attending youth mental health services?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Grant; Merry, Sally; Robinson, Elizabeth

    2010-07-01

    We aimed to describe and compare the self-reported substance use, psychopathology and psychosocial morbidity in adolescents attending two adolescent outpatient services, a triage-based mental health service and an engagement-focused addiction service in Auckland, New Zealand. A naturalistic cross-section of 131 (addiction service = 67, mental health service = 64) 14-18-year-old boys and girls attending each service completed a standardised screening and assessment instrument, the Drug Use Screening Inventory-Revised. The Drug Use Screening Inventory-Revised measures self-reported problems across 10 domains of functioning, including substance use, behaviour, psychiatric symptoms and school and family functioning. Descriptive statistics were used to provide an overview of the self-reported morbidity in each group and t-tests were used to determine differences between the two groups. Adolescents attending the addiction service reported significantly more problems with substance use, school performance and peer relationships than those attending the mental health service. There was no significant difference in reported psychiatric symptoms, behavioural problems, social competency, health problems, family problems, difficulties in work functioning or leisure time between the two groups. Young people presenting to engagement-focused substance use services report similar difficulties to those at mental health services across most areas of psychosocial functioning. Addiction services may require equivalent staffing expertise and workforce development to that in mental health to effectively meet young people's needs.

  9. Review of educational interventions to increase traditional birth attendants' neonatal resuscitation self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendhi, Marvesh M; Cartmell, Kathleen B; Newman, Susan D; Premji, Shahirose; Pope, Charlene

    2018-05-21

    Annually, up to 2.7 million neonatal deaths occur worldwide, and 25% of these deaths are caused by birth asphyxia. Infants born in rural areas of low-and-middle-income countries are often delivered by traditional birth attendants and have a greater risk of birth asphyxia-related mortality. This review will evaluate the effectiveness of neonatal resuscitation educational interventions in improving traditional birth attendants' knowledge, perceived self-efficacy, and infant mortality outcomes in low-and-middle-income countries. An integrative review was conducted to identify studies pertaining to neonatal resuscitation training of traditional birth attendants and midwives for home-based births in low-and-middle-income countries. Ten studies met inclusion criteria. Most interventions were based on the American Association of Pediatrics Neonatal Resuscitation Program, World Health Organization Safe Motherhood Guidelines and American College of Nurse-Midwives Life Saving Skills protocols. Three studies exclusively for traditional birth attendants reported decreases in neonatal mortality rates ranging from 22% to 65%. These studies utilized pictorial and oral forms of teaching, consistent in addressing the social cognitive theory. Studies employing skill demonstration, role-play, and pictorial charts showed increased pre- to post-knowledge scores and high self-efficacy scores. In two studies, a team approach, where traditional birth attendants were assisted, was reported to decrease neonatal mortality rate from 49-43/1000 births to 10.5-3.7/1000 births. Culturally appropriate methods, such as role-play, demonstration, and pictorial charts, can contribute to increased knowledge and self-efficacy related to neonatal resuscitation. A team approach to training traditional birth attendants, assisted by village health workers during home-based childbirths may reduce neonatal mortality rates. Copyright © 2018 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All

  10. Psychological Distress, Related Work Attendance, and Productivity Loss in Small-to-Medium Enterprise Owner/Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocker, Fiona; Martin, Angela; Scott, Jenn; Venn, Alison; Sanderson, Kristy

    2013-01-01

    Owner/managers of small-to-medium enterprises (SMEs) are an under-researched population in terms of psychological distress and the associated health and economic consequences. Using baseline data from the evaluation of the Business in Mind program, a mental health promotion intervention amongst SME owner/managers, this study investigated: (i) prevalence of high/very high psychological distress, past-month sickness absenteeism and presenteeism days in SME owner/managers; (ii) associated, self-reported lost productivity; and (iii) associations between work, non-work and business-specific factors and work attendance behaviours. In our sample of 217 SME owner/managers 36.8% reported high/very high psychological distress. Of this group 38.7% reported past-month absenteeism, 82.5% reported past-month presenteeism, and those reporting presenteeism were 50% less productive as than usual. Negative binomial regression was used to demonstrate the independent effects of socio-demographic, work-related wellbeing and health-related factors, as well as various individual and business characteristics on continuous measures of absenteeism and presenteeism days. Health-related factors (self-rated health and treatment) were the strongest correlates of higher presenteeism days (p absenteeism days (p absenteeism days. SME-specific information about the occurrence of psychological distress, work attendance behaviour, and the variables that influence these decisions, are needed for the development of guidelines for managing psychological distress within this sector. PMID:24132134

  11. Endovascular treatment of basilar and ICA termination aneurysms: effects of the use of HydroCoils on treatment stability in a subgroup of patients prone to a higher recurrence rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geyik, Serdar; Yavuz, Kivilcim; Cekirge, Saruhan; Saatci, Isil

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the stability of occlusion of terminal bifurcation aneurysms after embolization with hydrogel-coated coils. Of 35 bifurcation aneurysms, 34 were treated with hydrogel-coated coils in combination with platinum coils, and 1 was treated with hydrogel-coated coils only. Aneurysms were located at the basilar tip in 17 patients, and the internal carotid artery (ICA) bifurcation in 18 patients. The patient population consisted of 20 women and 15 men with ages ranging from 21 to 65 years. The aneurysm was found in 16 patients on presentation for subarachnoid hemorrhage, and in 19 patients the finding was incidental. Of the 35 aneurysms, 25 were small, 9 were large and 1 was giant. The giant aneurysm was located at the basilar tip and showed partial thrombosis. All except two basilar tip aneurysms were treated with balloon assistance. The remaining two basilar tip aneurysms were embolized with the assistance of an aneurysmal neck bridge device. The mean percentage occluded aneurysm volume for all devices was in the range 34-100%. Follow-up angiograms were obtained at 1 year in 6 patients, 2 years in 11 patients, and 3 years in 18 patients. Angiograms obtained immediately after embolization demonstrated a Raymond class 1 occlusion in 29 patients (82.9%) and a Raymond class 2 occlusion in 6 patients (17.1%). In four of these six patients follow-up angiograms demonstrated regrowth with resultant Raymond class 3 occlusion. In the other two patients, Raymond class 2 occlusion remained stable on follow-up angiograms. In patients who had a Raymond class 1 occlusion on the angiogram obtained immediately after embolization, no regrowth was seen on the follow-up angiograms. The overall recanalization rate was 11.4% (three large, one giant) at 6 months. Retreatment was not considered in three of these patients and they were to be followed; the other patient was retreated. Our initial procedural data demonstrate that higher volumetric occlusion was

  12. Endovascular treatment of basilar and ICA termination aneurysms: effects of the use of HydroCoils on treatment stability in a subgroup of patients prone to a higher recurrence rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geyik, Serdar; Yavuz, Kivilcim; Cekirge, Saruhan; Saatci, Isil [Hacettepe University Hospital, Interventional Neuroradiology Unit, Radiology Department, Ankara (Turkey)

    2007-12-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the stability of occlusion of terminal bifurcation aneurysms after embolization with hydrogel-coated coils. Of 35 bifurcation aneurysms, 34 were treated with hydrogel-coated coils in combination with platinum coils, and 1 was treated with hydrogel-coated coils only. Aneurysms were located at the basilar tip in 17 patients, and the internal carotid artery (ICA) bifurcation in 18 patients. The patient population consisted of 20 women and 15 men with ages ranging from 21 to 65 years. The aneurysm was found in 16 patients on presentation for subarachnoid hemorrhage, and in 19 patients the finding was incidental. Of the 35 aneurysms, 25 were small, 9 were large and 1 was giant. The giant aneurysm was located at the basilar tip and showed partial thrombosis. All except two basilar tip aneurysms were treated with balloon assistance. The remaining two basilar tip aneurysms were embolized with the assistance of an aneurysmal neck bridge device. The mean percentage occluded aneurysm volume for all devices was in the range 34-100%. Follow-up angiograms were obtained at 1 year in 6 patients, 2 years in 11 patients, and 3 years in 18 patients. Angiograms obtained immediately after embolization demonstrated a Raymond class 1 occlusion in 29 patients (82.9%) and a Raymond class 2 occlusion in 6 patients (17.1%). In four of these six patients follow-up angiograms demonstrated regrowth with resultant Raymond class 3 occlusion. In the other two patients, Raymond class 2 occlusion remained stable on follow-up angiograms. In patients who had a Raymond class 1 occlusion on the angiogram obtained immediately after embolization, no regrowth was seen on the follow-up angiograms. The overall recanalization rate was 11.4% (three large, one giant) at 6 months. Retreatment was not considered in three of these patients and they were to be followed; the other patient was retreated. Our initial procedural data demonstrate that higher volumetric occlusion was

  13. Barriers to and determinants of medication adherence among hypertensive patients attended National Health Service Hospital, Sunderland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Umair Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypertension is a silent killer, a time bomb in both the developed and developing nations of the world. It is one of the most significant risk factors for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality resulting from target-organ damage to blood vessels in the heart, brain, kidney and eyes. Adherence to long-term therapy for chronic illnesses like hypertension is an important tool to enhance the effectiveness of pharmacotherapy. Objective: The two objectives of this study were to evaluate the extent and reasons of non-adherence in patients attended National Health Service (NHS Hospital, Sunderland. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted for 4 months in the out-patient department of NHS Hospital. A total of 200 patients were selected randomly for this study. Morisky′s Medication Adherence Scale was used to assess the adherence rate and the reason of non-adherence. Data were entered and analyzed using Microsoft Excel 2010. Results: The overall adherence rate was found to be 79% (n = 158. Adherence rate in females were low was compared with their male counterparts (74.7% vs. 85.7%. The higher rate of adherence was found in age group of 30-40 years (82%, n = 64. The major intentional and non-intentional reason of non-adherence was side-effects and forgetfulness respectively. Conclusion: Overall, more than three-fourth of the hypertensive participants were found to be adherent to their treatment. On the basis of factors associated with non-adherence, it is analyzed that suitable therapy must be designed for patients individually to increase medication adherence and its effectiveness.

  14. Depression and anxiety among Grade 11 and 12 learners attending schools in central Bloemfontein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M A A Strydom

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Anxiety disorders are the most common childhood psychiatric disorders. Previous research suggests that South African rates may be high. Our study examined the prevalence and severity of anxiety and depression among Grade 11 and 12 learners attending schools in central Bloemfontein. Learners’ perception of the important stressors as well as the most relevant coping strategies were investigated. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted by using self-assessment rating scales and questionnaires. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS was used to screen for anxiety and depressive symptoms. Participants were provided with an additional list of possible stressors and coping skills, from which they identified those applicable to themselves. All students enrolled in Grades 11 and 12 at the selected schools during August 2009 were eligible for inclusion. Results. Five hundred and fifteen learners participated in the study, of whom 32.0% presented with moderate or severe anxiety and 5.3% with moderate or severe depressive symptoms. Mild symptoms were reported by an additional 29.0% on the anxiety subscale and 14% on the depression subscale of the HADS. Academic workload was reported as the main source of stress (81.4%. Conclusions. Although the study has limitations in terms of methodology and size, resulting in undetermined validity, it indicates possible higher prevalence rates for anxiety and depression than in previous South African studies and worldwide prevalence rates for adolescents. Pupils were generally hesitant to seek help from formal assistance structures provided by the schools, and preferred discussing problems with parents or friends.

  15. Self-Sampling for Human Papillomavirus Testing among Non-Attenders Increases Attendance to the Norwegian Cervical Cancer Screening Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enerly, Espen; Bonde, Jesper; Schee, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    Increasing attendance to screening offers the best potential for improving the effectiveness of well-established cervical cancer screening programs. Self-sampling at home for human papillomavirus (HPV) testing as an alternative to a clinical sampling can be a useful policy to increase attendance....... To determine whether self-sampling improves screening attendance for women who do not regularly attend the Norwegian Cervical Cancer Screening Programme (NCCSP), 800 women aged 25-69 years in the Oslo area who were due to receive a 2nd reminder to attend regular screening were randomly selected and invited...... alternative for increasing cervical cancer screening coverage in Norway....

  16. Estimating attendance for breast cancer screening in ethnic groups in London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Møller Henrik

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast screening uptake in London is below the Government's target of 70% and we investigate whether ethnicity affects this. Information on the ethnicity for the individual women invited is unavailable, so we use an area-based method similar to that routinely used to derive a geographical measure for socioeconomic deprivation. Methods We extracted 742,786 observations on attendance for routine appointments between 2004 and 2007 collected by the London Quality Assurance Reference Centre. Each woman was assigned to a lower super output (LSOA based on her postcode of residence. The proportions of the ethnic groups within each LSOA are known, so that the likelihood of a woman belonging to White, Black and Asian groups can be assigned. We investigated screening attendance by age group, socioeconomic deprivation using the Index of Deprivation 2004 income quintile, invitation type and breast screening service. Using logistic regression analysis we calculated odds ratios for attendance based on ethnic composition of the population, adjusting for age, socioeconomic status, the invitation type and screening service. Results The unadjusted attendance odds ratios were high for the White population (OR: 3.34 95% CI [3.26-3.42] and low for the Black population (0.13 [0.12-0.13] and the Asian population (0.55 [0.53-0.56]. Multivariate adjustment reduced the differences, but the Black population remained below unity (0.47 [0.44-0.50]; while the White (1.30 [1.26-1.35] and Asian populations (1.10 [1.05-1.15] were higher. There was little difference in the attendance between age groups. Attendance was highest for the most affluent group and fell sharply with increasing deprivation. For invitation type, the routine recall was higher than the first call. There were wide variations in the attendance for different ethnic groups between the individual screening services. Conclusions Overall breast screening attendance is low in communities with

  17. Estimating attendance for breast cancer screening in ethnic groups in London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renshaw, Christine; Jack, Ruth H; Dixon, Steve; Møller, Henrik; Davies, Elizabeth A

    2010-03-25

    Breast screening uptake in London is below the Government's target of 70% and we investigate whether ethnicity affects this. Information on the ethnicity for the individual women invited is unavailable, so we use an area-based method similar to that routinely used to derive a geographical measure for socioeconomic deprivation. We extracted 742,786 observations on attendance for routine appointments between 2004 and 2007 collected by the London Quality Assurance Reference Centre. Each woman was assigned to a lower super output (LSOA) based on her postcode of residence. The proportions of the ethnic groups within each LSOA are known, so that the likelihood of a woman belonging to White, Black and Asian groups can be assigned. We investigated screening attendance by age group, socioeconomic deprivation using the Index of Deprivation 2004 income quintile, invitation type and breast screening service. Using logistic regression analysis we calculated odds ratios for attendance based on ethnic composition of the population, adjusting for age, socioeconomic status, the invitation type and screening service. The unadjusted attendance odds ratios were high for the White population (OR: 3.34 95% CI [3.26-3.42]) and low for the Black population (0.13 [0.12-0.13]) and the Asian population (0.55 [0.53-0.56]). Multivariate adjustment reduced the differences, but the Black population remained below unity (0.47 [0.44-0.50]); while the White (1.30 [1.26-1.35]) and Asian populations (1.10 [1.05-1.15]) were higher. There was little difference in the attendance between age groups. Attendance was highest for the most affluent group and fell sharply with increasing deprivation. For invitation type, the routine recall was higher than the first call. There were wide variations in the attendance for different ethnic groups between the individual screening services. Overall breast screening attendance is low in communities with large Black populations, suggesting the need to improve

  18. Incidence and predictors of onboard injuries among Sri Lankan flight attendants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agampodi Thilini C

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Occupational injuries among flight attendants have not been given appropriate attention in Sri Lanka. The purpose of this study was to estimate the incidence of onboard injury among Sri Lankan flight attendants and to describe the determinants of onboard injury. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out among Sri Lankan flight attendants. All flight attendants undergoing their annual health and first aid training were invited to participate. Flight attendants who flew continuously for a six-month period prior to data collection were included in the study sample. Recall history of injuries for a period of six months was recorded. Results The study sample consisted of 98 (30.4% male and 224 (69.6% female flight attendants. The mean age of the study sample was 31 years (SD = 8 and the average duration of service was 10 years (SD = 7. A total of 100 onboard falls, slips or trips in the previous six months were reported by 52 (16.1% respondents. Of the total sample, 128 (39.8% cabin crew members reported an injury in the six months preceding the study. This represents a total injury incidence of 795 per 1000 person per year. The leading causes of injury was pulling, pushing or lifting (60.2%. The commonest type of injuries were strains and sprains (52.3%. Turbulence related injuries were reported by 38 (29.7% flight attendants. The upper limbs (44.5% and the back (32% were the commonest sites affected. After controlling for other factors, female flight attendants had 2.9 times higher risk (95% CI 1.2–7.2 of sustaining and injury than males. Irrespective of sex, body weight less than 56 kilograms (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.4–5.8 and less than seven years of on board experience (OR 10.5, 95% CI 3.6–31.0 were associated with higher risk of injury. Conclusion Work related injury is a major occupational hazard to flight attendants. Appropriate preventive strategies are required to minimize them.

  19. Inequality in access to health care in Cambodia: socioeconomically disadvantaged women giving birth at home assisted by unskilled birth attendants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Rathavuth; Them, Rathnita

    2015-03-01

    Cambodia faces major challenges in its effort to provide access to health care for all. Although there is a sharp improvement in health and health care in Cambodia, 6 in 10 women still deliver at home assisted by unskilled birth attendants. This practice is associated with higher maternal and infant deaths. This article analyzes the 2005 Cambodia Demographic and Health Survey data to examine the relationship between socioeconomic inequality and deliveries at home assisted by unskilled birth attendants. It is evident that babies in poorer households are significantly more likely to be delivered at home by an unskilled birth attendant than those in wealthier households. Moreover, delivery at home by an unskilled attendant is associated with mothers who have no education, live in a rural residence, and are farmers, and with higher birth order children. Results from this analysis demonstrate that socioeconomic inequality is still a major factor contributing to ill health in Cambodia. © 2011 APJPH.

  20. Pre-School Attendance and Child Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauchmüller, Robert; Gørtz, Mette; Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    Earlier research suggests that children's development is shaped in their early years of life. This paper examines whether differences in day-care experiences during pre-school age are important for children's cognitive and language development at the age of 15. The analysis is based on class...... performance at the end of elementary schooling. We assess the effects of attended types and qualities of day-care institutions on various child outcomes as measured by school grades in mathematics, science, English and Danish for the whole Danish population as well as outcomes from the 2006 PISA Denmark...... survey and a 2007 PISA Copenhagen survey. We use administrative registries to generate indicators such as child-staff ratios, child-pedagogues ratios, and the share of male staff and of staff with non-Danish origins. Furthermore, we use information on the average levels of educational attainments...

  1. Day-care attendance and child development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauchmüller, Robert; Gørtz, Mette; Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    Earlier research suggests that children’s development is shaped in their early years of life. This paper examines whether differences in day-care experiences during pre-school age are important for children’s cognitive and language development at the age of 15. The analysis is based on class...... performance at the end of elementary schooling. We assess the effects of attended types and qualities of day-care institutions on various child outcomes as measured by school grades in mathematics, science, English and Danish for the whole Danish population as well as outcomes from the 2006 PISA Denmark...... survey and a 2007 PISA Copenhagen survey. We use administrative registries to generate indicators such as child-staff ratios, child-pedagogues ratios, and the share of male staff and of staff with non-Danish origins. Furthermore, we use information on the average levels of educational attainments...

  2. Lipoid Pneumonia in a Gas Station Attendant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladis Isabel Yampara Guarachi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The exogenous lipoid pneumonia, uncommon in adults, is the result of the inhalation and/or aspiration of lipid material into the tracheobronchial tree. This is often confused with bacterial pneumonia and pulmonary tuberculosis due to a nonspecific clinical and radiologic picture. It presents acutely or chronically and may result in pulmonary fibrosis. We describe here a case of lipoid pneumonia in a gas station attendant who siphoned gasoline to fill motorcycles; he was hospitalized due to presenting with a respiratory infection that was hard to resolve. The patient underwent bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage, which, on cytochemical (oil red O evaluation, was slightly positive for lipid material in the foamy cytoplasm of alveolar macrophages. Due to his occupational history and radiographic abnormalities suggestive of lipoid pneumonia, a lung biopsy was performed to confirm the diagnosis. The patient was serially treated with segmental lung lavage and showed clinical, functional, and radiological improvement.

  3. Day-care attendance and child development:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauchmüller, Robert; Gørtz, Mette; Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    performance at the end of elementary schooling. We assess the effects of attended types and qualities of day-care institutions on various child outcomes as measured by school grades in mathematics, science, English and Danish for the whole Danish population as well as outcomes from the 2006 PISA Denmark...... survey and a 2007 PISA Copenhagen survey. We use administrative registries to generate indicators such as child-staff ratios, child-pedagogues ratios, and the share of male staff and of staff with non-Danish origins. Furthermore, we use information on the average levels of educational attainments......, of total work experiences, ages and hourly wages of staff members. Those indicators show the expected correlations with children’s development outcomes, better day-care quality being linked to better child outcomes ten years later. We use rich administrative information about the children’s background...

  4. Anxiety and depression symptoms among women attending group-based patient education courses for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Listøl, Wenche; Høberg-Vetti, Hildegunn; Eide, Geir Egil; Bjorvatn, Cathrine

    2017-01-01

    Women carrying BRCA -mutations are facing significant challenges, including decision making regarding surveillance and risk-reducing surgery. They often report that they are left alone with these important decisions. In order to enhance the genetic counselling session we organized a group-based patient education (GPE) course for women with BRCA -mutations. The study aims were to characterize women attending a group-based patient education (GPE) course for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer, consider the usefulness of the course, evaluate symptoms of anxiety and depression among the participants, and finally investigate whether their levels of anxiety and depression changed from before to after the course session. A prospective study was conducted. Two weeks before (T1) and 2 weeks after (T2) attending the GPE-course the participants received questionnaires by mail. We collected information on demographic- and medical variables, anxiety and depression using Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), self-efficacy using The Bergen Genetic Counseling Self-Efficacy scale (BGCSES) and coping style using the Threatening Medical Situations Inventory (TMSI). A total of N  = 100 (77% response rate) women participated at baseline and 75 (58% response rate) also completed post-course assessment. The mean level of anxiety symptoms was elevated among participants but decreased significantly during follow-up. Lower anxiety symptom levels were associated with "longer time since disclosure of gene test result", "higher levels of self-efficacy" and having experienced "loss of a close relative due to breast or ovarian cancer". Lower depression symptom levels were associated with "higher levels of education" and "loss of a close relative due to breast or ovarian cancer". The women in this study seemed to benefit from the GPE course. Women newly diagnosed with a BRCA mutation who reported lower levels of self-efficacy and lower levels of education were more vulnerable. These

  5. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among patients attending infertility and sexually transmitted diseases clinic (STD) in Kano, North Western Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwankwo, E O; Sadiq, Magaji N

    2014-09-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted disease in the world with severe complications. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and possible risk factors of C. trachomatis in Kano. There is dearth of information on this subject in this locality. Urine samples, Endocervical swabs and Urethral swab were collected from consecutive patients attending the Infertility and STD clinics in Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital (AKTH) between June and December 2012, after administering a questionnaire by the attending physician and also obtaining an informed consent.Samples were analyzed using Diaspot Chlamydia kit, a rapid immunoassay test for the detection of genital chlamydial antigen in urinogenital samples. A total of 125 consecutive samples were collected, comprising 69 females and 56 males aged between 14 - 55 years. Twelve samples tested positive for C. trachomatis antigen giving a prevalence rate of 9.6%. The age group prevalence were as follows 25 - 29 yrs (17.1%), 20 - 24 (16.7%), 15 - 19 (12.5%), 30 - 34 (11.1%) and > 49 years (9.0%). Married patients were associated with higher infection rate than single (8.3%), and divorced patients (33.3%). A higher percentage of the patients (95.2%) were not aware of the existence of C. trachomatis infection and its complications. Previous STD exposure was associated with increased risk of Chlamydia infection. C. trachomatis infection if unchecked will continue to pose a threat to reproductive life with its established complications. Since asymptomatic cases are common in the population regular screening should be encouraged for every adult especially before commencement of marital life.

  6. Mobile phone messaging reminders for attendance at healthcare appointments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Car, Josip; Gurol-Urganci, Ipek; de Jongh, Thyra; Vodopivec-Jamsek, Vlasta; Atun, Rifat

    2012-07-11

    studies against the inclusion criteria, with any disagreements resolved by a third review author. Study design features, characteristics of target populations, interventions and controls, and results data were extracted by two review authors and confirmed by a third author. Primary outcomes of interest were rate of attendance at healthcare appointments. We also considered health outcomes as a result of the intervention, patients' and providers' evaluation of the intervention, perceptions of safety, costs, and potential harms or adverse effects. As the intervention characteristics and outcome measures were similar across included studies, we conducted a meta-analysis to estimate an overall effect size. We included four randomised controlled trials involving 3547 participants. Three studies with moderate quality evidence showed that mobile text message reminders improved the rate of attendance at healthcare appointments compared to no reminders (risk ratio (RR) 1.10 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03 to 1.17)). One low quality study reported that mobile text message reminders with postal reminders, compared to postal reminders, improved rate of attendance at healthcare appointments (RR 1.10 (95% CI 1.02 to 1.19)). However, two studies with moderate quality of evidence showed that mobile phone text message reminders and phone call reminders had a similar impact on healthcare attendance (RR 0.99 (95% CI 0.95 to 1.03). The costs per attendance of mobile phone text message reminders were shown to be lower compared to phone call reminders. None of the included studies reported outcomes related to harms or adverse effects of the intervention, nor health outcomes or user perception of safety related to the intervention. There is moderate quality evidence that mobile phone text message reminders are more effective than no reminders, and low quality evidence that text message reminders with postal reminders are more effective than postal reminders alone. Further, according to the

  7. Exposure to organophosphate flame retardants of hotel room attendants in Wuhan City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yun; Shang, Yinzhu; Li, Jing; Feng, Jingwen; He, Zhenyu; Covaci, Adrian; Wang, Peng; Luo, Jing; Mao, Xiang; Shi, Bin; Hu, Liqin; Luo, Dan; Mei, Surong

    2018-05-01

    Indoor environments provide sources of exposure to organophosphate flame retardants (PFRs), which are artificially synthesized fire-protecting agents used as additives in interior products. As public spaces, hotels are required to meet stricter fire-precaution criteria. As such, room attendants may be exposed to higher levels of PFRs. Our goal was to characterize the exposure of hotel room attendants to PFRs by measuring metabolites in their urine and the corresponding parent PFRs in dust and hand-wipes collected from 27 hotels located in Wuhan City, China. The exposure of the attendants was found to be omnipresent: urinary metabolites of PFRs, such as DPHP (diphenyl phosphate), BDCIPP (bis(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate), and DoCP (di-o-cresyl phosphate) & DpCP (di-p-cresyl phosphate) were detected with high frequency (87%, 79% and 87%, respectively). We observed that metabolites in post-shift urine were consistently present at higher levels than those in the first morning voids (p  7 stories) had significantly higher BDCIPP and DPHP concentrations than those from low-rise buildings. A possible reason is that high-rise buildings may use high-grade fireproof building materials to meet stricter fire restrictions. Overall, these results indicate that PFRs exposure in hotels is a contributor to the personal exposure of hotel room attendants. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of decomposition on carcass attendance in a guild of carrion-breeding flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, M S; Elgar, M A

    2003-09-01

    Many forensically important calliphorids, sarcophagids and muscids (Diptera) oviposit or larviposit on corpses only during the early stages of decomposition, yet individuals may attend bodies throughout decay. A field study was conducted to investigate how patterns of carcass use and attendance by some fly species are affected by decomposition. Five fly traps were placed in the forest and baited with whole, fresh piglet carcasses. Piglets decomposed in traps throughout the experiment, and all were skeletonized within 6 days. Flies were trapped at both early and late decomposition stages, and the species and population structures of trap catches were compared. More flies attended carcasses early rather than late in decay. For all species, flies attending early were mainly gravid females, but few gravid females attended late in decay. No females ovi- or larviposited late in decay, whereas females of all fly species deposited offspring early in decay. The number of males trapped of each species correlated positively with the number of females with eggs at early development stages. Observations were made of fly predation by European wasps Vespula germanica Fabricius (Hymenoptera, Vespidae) and jumper ants Myrmecia pilosula Smith (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) throughout the experiment. There was a higher risk for smaller fly species of being killed following predator attack. Ants and wasps attacked smaller fly species, whereas only wasps attacked larger fly species.

  9. Truth telling in medical practice: students' opinions versus their observations of attending physicians' clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Woung-Ru; Fang, Ji-Tseng; Fang, Chun-Kai; Fujimori, Maiko

    2013-07-01

    Truth telling or transmitting bad news is a problem that all doctors must frequently face. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate if medical students' opinions of truth telling differed from their observations of attending physicians' actual clinical practice. The subjects were 275 medical clerks/interns at a medical center in northern Taiwan. Data were collected on medical students' opinions of truth telling, their observations of physicians' clinical practice, students' level of satisfaction with truth telling practiced by attending physicians, and cancer patients' distress level when they were told the truth. Students' truth-telling awareness was significantly higher than the clinical truth-telling practice of attending physicians (pmedical students' opinions on truth telling and attending physicians' actual clinical practice. More research is needed to objectively assess physicians' truth telling in clinical practice and to study the factors affecting the method of truth telling used by attending physicians in clinical practice. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Psychological distress, related work attendance, and productivity loss in small-to-medium enterprise owner/managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocker, Fiona; Martin, Angela; Scott, Jenn; Venn, Alison; Sanderson, Kristy

    2013-10-15

    Owner/managers of small-to-medium enterprises (SMEs) are an under-researched population in terms of psychological distress and the associated health and economic consequences. Using baseline data from the evaluation of the Business in Mind program, a mental health promotion intervention amongst SME owner/managers, this study investigated: (i) prevalence of high/very high psychological distress, past-month sickness absenteeism and presenteeism days in SME owner/managers; (ii) associated, self-reported lost productivity; and (iii) associations between work, non-work and business-specific factors and work attendance behaviours. In our sample of 217 SME owner/managers 36.8% reported high/very high psychological distress. Of this group 38.7% reported past-month absenteeism, 82.5% reported past-month presenteeism, and those reporting presenteeism were 50% less productive as than usual. Negative binomial regression was used to demonstrate the independent effects of socio-demographic, work-related wellbeing and health-related factors, as well as various individual and business characteristics on continuous measures of absenteeism and presenteeism days. Health-related factors (self-rated health and treatment) were the strongest correlates of higher presenteeism days (p < 0.05). Work-related wellbeing factors (job tension and job satisfaction) were the strongest correlates of higher absenteeism days (p < 0.05). Higher educational attainment, treatment and neuroticism were also correlated with more absenteeism days. SME-specific information about the occurrence of psychological distress, work attendance behaviour, and the variables that influence these decisions, are needed for the development of guidelines for managing psychological distress within this sector.

  11. Psychological Distress, Related Work Attendance, and Productivity Loss in Small-to-Medium Enterprise Owner/Managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Venn

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Owner/managers of small-to-medium enterprises (SMEs are an under-researched population in terms of psychological distress and the associated health and economic consequences. Using baseline data from the evaluation of the Business in Mind program, a mental health promotion intervention amongst SME owner/managers, this study investigated: (i prevalence of high/very high psychological distress, past-month sickness absenteeism and presenteeism days in SME owner/managers; (ii associated, self-reported lost productivity; and (iii associations between work, non-work and business-specific factors and work attendance behaviours. In our sample of 217 SME owner/managers 36.8% reported high/very high psychological distress. Of this group 38.7% reported past-month absenteeism, 82.5% reported past-month presenteeism, and those reporting presenteeism were 50% less productive as than usual. Negative binomial regression was used to demonstrate the independent effects of socio-demographic, work-related wellbeing and health-related factors, as well as various individual and business characteristics on continuous measures of absenteeism and presenteeism days. Health-related factors (self-rated health and treatment were the strongest correlates of higher presenteeism days (p < 0.05. Work-related wellbeing factors (job tension and job satisfaction were the strongest correlates of higher absenteeism days (p < 0.05. Higher educational attainment, treatment and neuroticism were also correlated with more absenteeism days. SME-specific information about the occurrence of psychological distress, work attendance behaviour, and the variables that influence these decisions, are needed for the development of guidelines for managing psychological distress within this sector.

  12. Psychological distress as a predictor of frequent attendance in family practice: a cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedsted, Peter; Fink, Per; Olesen, Frede

    2001-01-01

    In cross-sectional studies, psychological distress has been associated with frequent health care utilization. However, there is a need for prospective studies to confirm these findings. This cohort study evaluated whether psychological distress predicted frequent attendance in family practice.......16 [0.99-1.36] for SCL and OR 1.31 [1.05-1.65] for Whiteley). Psychological distress involved an increased risk of future frequent attendance among adult patients consulting family practice in the daytime about an illness........ In 1990, 185 consecutive adults who consulted their primary care physician (PCP) about an illness were rated on two psychometric scales (Hopkins Symptom Check List [SCL-8] and Whiteley-7), and their annual number of face-to-face contacts with a family practice was followed until 1996. Frequent attenders...

  13. Did the strategy of skilled attendance at birth reach the poor in Indonesia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatt, Laurel; Stanton, Cynthia; Makowiecka, Krystyna; Adisasmita, Asri; Achadi, Endang; Ronsmans, Carine

    2007-10-01

    To assess whether the strategy of "a midwife in every village" in Indonesia achieved its aim of increasing professional delivery care for the poorest women. Using pooled Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) data from 1986-2002, we examined trends in the percentage of births attended by a health professional and deliveries via caesarean section. We tested for effects of the economic crisis of 1997, which had a negative impact on Indonesias health system. We used logistic regression, allowing for time-trend interactions with wealth quintile and urban/rural residence. There was no change in rates of professional attendance or caesarean section before the programmes full implementation (1986-1991). After 1991, the greatest increases in professional attendance occurred among the poorest two quintiles -- 11% per year compared with 6% per year for women in the middle quintile (P = 0.02). These patterns persisted after the economic crisis had ended. In contrast, most of the increase in rates of caesarean section occurred among women in the wealthiest quintile. Rates of caesarean deliveries remained at less than 1% for the poorest two-fifths of the population, but rose to 10% for the wealthiest fifth. The Indonesian village midwife programme dramatically reduced socioeconomic inequalities in professional attendance at birth, but the gap in access to potentially life-saving emergency obstetric care widened. This underscores the importance of understanding the barriers to accessing emergency obstetric care and of the ways to overcome them, especially among the poor.

  14. Characteristics of people attending psychiatric clinics in inner Sydney homeless hostels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielssen, Olav B; Stone, William; Jones, Naidene M; Challis, Sarah; Nielssen, Amelia; Elliott, Gordon; Burns, Nicholas; Rogoz, Astrid; Cooper, Lucy E; Large, Matthew M

    2018-03-05

    To describe the characteristics of people attending mental health clinics at shelters for the homeless in inner city Sydney. Retrospective review of medical records of homeless hostel clinic attenders. Mental health clinics located in three inner city homeless hostels. Consecutive series of clinic attenders, 21 July 2008 - 31 December 2016. Demographic characteristics; social, medical and mental health histories of homeless people. 2388 individual patients were seen at the clinics during the 8.5-year study period. Their mean age was 42 years (standard deviation, 13 years), 93% were men, and 56% were receiving disability support pensions. 59% of attenders had been homeless for more than a year, and 34% of all attenders reported sleeping in the open. The most common diagnoses were substance use disorder (66%), psychotic illness (51%), acquired brain injury (14%), and intellectual disability (5%). Most patients had more than one diagnosis. Early life and recent trauma was reported by 42% of patients. Pathways to homelessness included release from prison (28% of the homeless), discharge from a psychiatric hospital (21%), loss of public housing tenancy (21%), and inability to pay rent because of problem gambling. The high rates of substance use and mental disorder among homeless people in inner Sydney confirms the need for increased access to treatment for these conditions in this setting. Homelessness among those with mental illness might be reduced by developing alternative housing models, and supporting people with multiple problems to retain tenancy.

  15. Student and staff experiences of attendance monitoring in undergraduate obstetrics and gynecology: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deane RP

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Richard P Deane, Deirdre J Murphy Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Trinity College Dublin, The University of Dublin, Coombe Women & Infants University Hospital, Dublin, Republic of Ireland  Background: Despite the widespread introduction of active learning strategies to engage students across modern medical curricula, student attendance and attendance monitoring remain a challenging issue for medical educators. In addition, there is little published evidence available to medical educators regarding the use of attendance monitoring systems. The aim of this study was to evaluate the opinions of students and staff about the use of a paper-based student logbook to record student attendance across all clinical and classroom-based learning activities within an undergraduate clinical rotation in obstetrics and gynecology (OBGYN. Methods: Each student undertaking the clinical rotation in OBGYN was required to complete a paper-based logbook in a booklet format that listed every clinical and classroom-based activity that the student was expected to attend. A cross-sectional survey evaluating the acceptability, practicality, and effect on access to learning opportunities of using the logbook was undertaken. The survey was conducted among all medical students who completed their OBGYN rotation over a full academic year and staff who taught on the program. Results: The response rate was 87% (n=128/147 among students and 80% (n=8/10 among staff. Monitoring attendance was widely acceptable to students (n=107/128, 84% and staff (n=8/8, 100%. Most students (n=95/128, 74% and staff (n=7/8, 88% recommended that attendance should be mandatory during rotations. Almost all staff felt that attendance should contribute toward academic credit (n=7/8, 88%, but students were divided (n=73/128, 57%. Students (n=94/128, 73% and staff (n=6/8, 75% reported that the use of the logbook to record attendance with tutor signatures was a satisfactory system, although

  16. [Frequent attendance in a Primary Health Care District].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez Granados, Nicolás; Vaquero Abellán, Manuel; Toledano Estepa, Manuel; Pérez Díaz, Manuel Modesto; Redondo Pedraza, Rosa

    2017-10-09

    To describe the distribution of frequent attenders (FA) through the different primary care practices in Cordoba-Guadalquivir Health District (Córdoba, Spain). An ecological study was performed, including data from 2011 to 2015. Defining FA as those subjects who made12 or more appointments per year; independently analysed for nursing, general practice and paediatrics. Prevalence of frequent attendance and FA/professional ratio were used as dependent variables. Demographic characteristics from district population, number of health professionals and use of general facilities were also examinated. Aiming to understand FA distribution, primary health settings were classified according to facility size and environmental location (urban, suburban and rural). The mean prevalence for FA was 10.86% (0.5 SE) for nursing; general practice 21.70% (0.7 SE) and for paediatrics 16.96% (0.7 SE). FA/professional ratios for the different professional categories were: 101.07 (5.0 SE) for nursing, 239.74 (9.0 SE) for general practice and 159.54 (9.8 SE) for paediatrics. A major part of primary health care users make a high number of consultations. From this group, women overuse nursing and general practitioner services more compared to men. A higher prevalence of FAs was observed in smaller settings, in rural areas. Although taking the FAs:professional ratio as the bar, medium-size practices are more highly overused. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Attending to the reasons for attribute non-attendance in choice experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alemu, Mohammed Hussen; Mørkbak, Morten Raun; Olsen, Søren Bøye

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on behavioural reasons underlying stated attribute non-attendance in choice experiments. In order to identify and incorporate procedures for dealing with heterogeneous attribute processing strategies, we ask respondents follow-up questions regarding their reasons for ignoring...... not affect their utility. Excluding these genuine zero preferences, as the standard approach essentially does, might bias results. Other respondents claim to have ignored attributes to simplify choices. However, we find that these respondents have actually not completely ignored attributes. We argue along...... the rationally adaptive behavioural model that valid preference information may indeed be elicited in these cases, and we illustrate how recoding of non-attendance statements conditional on stated reasons may be a more appropriate solution than the current standard way of taking stated non...

  18. Attendance and achievement in medicine: investigating the impact of attendance policies on academic performance of medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Bs; Hande, S; Komattil, R

    2013-04-01

    The attendance mandate for the medical course in Melaka Manipal Medical College, Manipal, India was increased from 75% to 90% based on the assumption that the mandatory increase will improve the students' performance. To find out whether there is any correlation between class attendance and academic performance. This was an institution based retrospective analytical study. Students who have completed Phase I (first two and a half years) of the MBBS course were included in the study. Student marks and attendance, from the database were obtained from three random batches, each, from two clusters A and B respectively. Those who had a mandatory attendance requirement of 75% belonged to A (n = 243), and those who had a mandatory attendance percentage of 90% belonged to B (n = 360). Statistical analyses performed included, Pearson 2 tailed correlation to correlate class attendance with student performance; Cluster analysis to classify group average in a similarity matrix; t-test to determine significance of difference in percentage of students who attained 100% when the college changed mandatory attendance from 75% to 90%; Mann-Whitney test to find out if there was a better performance in university exam when attendance policy changed. There was a significant correlation between attendance and the students who passed in the University exam. The number of students in the pass category was maximum (>90%) compared to students in distinction and failed categories. Percentage of students with 100% attendance rose from 4% (n = 10) to 11% (n = 40) when the mandatory attendance was increased from 75% to 90%. Attendance policy correlated with better academic performance. Reducing absenteeism, probably contributed to the improved academic performance of the students. But the link between attendance and best and worst performances could not be predicted because of small numbers in every batch.

  19. Automobile Accidents Attended by Mobile Emergency Care Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Virgínia Gomes Barros

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Automobile accidents are increasing every day and are becoming a serious public health problem due to the high morbidity and mortality rate. The goal of the current study was to characterise the traffic accidents attended by the Mobile Emergency Care Service (MECS in Ibiara, PB. Methods: This exploratory, descriptive, documentary study adopted a quantitative approach and analysis of data. The population consisted of all victims of traffic accidents attended by MECS in the city of Ibiara, PB, from June 2015 to June 2016. The following variables were studied: age, gender, time and day of the week the accident occurred, nature of the incident, substance ingested by the victim, wearing personal protective equipment (PPE or not, the anatomical lesions on the victim and the body regions hit during the accident. Results: The sample consisted of 49 accident victims, and the majority (81.6% were male, predominately 30 to 59 years. Events occurring at night (63.3% and during the week (65.3% predominated. The most frequent type of accident was motorcycle fall (71.4%, with almost half having consumed alcohol (46.9% and most not wearing PPE (77.6%. The regions of the body most affected were the lower limbs (67.3% and upper limbs (53.1%. Conclusion: The main factor/cause of these accidents was due to imprudence and violation of traffic laws, highlighting the need to invest in traffic education policies, to direct campaigns for the prevention of traffic accidents, as well as expand the surveillance of traffic laws by authorities.

  20. The eighty-hour workweek: surgical attendings' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griner, Devan; Menon, Rema P; Kotwall, Cyrus A; Clancy, Thomas V; Hope, William W

    2010-01-01

    The year 2008 was a sentinel year in resident education; this was the first graduating general surgery class trained entirely under the 80-hour workweek. The purpose of this study was to evaluate attending surgeon perceptions of surgical resident attitudes and performance before and after duty-hour restrictions. An electronic survey was sent to all surgical teaching institutions in North Carolina. Both surgeon and hospital characteristics were documented. The survey consisted of questions designed to assess residents' attitudes/performance before and after the implementation of the work-hour restriction. In all, 77 surveys were returned (33% response rate). The survey demonstrated that 92% of educators who responded to the survey recognized a difference between the restricted residents (RRs) and the nonrestricted residents (NRRs), and most respondents (67%) attributed this to both the work-hour restrictions and the work ethic of current residents. Most attending surgeons reported no difference between the RRs and the NRRs in most categories; however, they identified a negative change in the areas of work ethic, technical skills development, decision-making/critical-thinking skills, and patient ownership among the RR group. Most surgeons expressed less trust (55%) with patient care and less confidence (68%) in residents' ability to operate independently in the RR group. Eighty-nine percent indicated that additional decreases in work hours would continue to hamper the mission of timely and comprehensive resident education. The perception of surgical educators was that RRs are clearly different from the NRRs and that the primary difference is in work ethic and duty-hour restrictions. Although similar in most attributes, RRs are perceived as having a lower baseline work ethic and a less developed technical skill set, decision-making ability, and sense of patient ownership. Subsequent study is needed to evaluate these concerns. Copyright 2010 Association of Program

  1. School attendance in childhood cancer survivors and their siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Amy E; Tsangaris, Elena; Barrera, Maru; Guger, Sharon; Brown, Robert; Urbach, Stacey; Stephens, Derek; Nathan, Paul C

    2013-01-01

    To investigate school absenteeism among childhood cancer survivors and their siblings and examine factors related to absenteeism in survivors. A cross-sectional study was conducted among consecutive cancer survivors attending a large pediatric cancer survivor clinic. Absenteeism rates were obtained for survivors and their closest in age sibling from school report cards. Absenteeism was compared with a population control group of 167752 students using 1-sample t tests. The Child Vulnerability Scale, Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory, and Behavior Assessment System for Children were administered to survivors. Univariate and multiple regression analyses assessed variables associated with days absent. One hundred thirty-one survivors (median age at assessment: 13.4 years, range 8.0-19.2; median age at diagnosis: 9.4 years, range 4.3-17.3) and 77 siblings (median age at assessment: 13 years, age range 7-18) participated. Survivors and siblings missed significantly more school days than the population control group (mean ± SD: 9.6 ± 9.2 and 9.9 ± 9.8 vs 5.0 ± 5.6 days, respectively, P sibling pairs (N = 77), there was no difference in absenteeism (9.6 ± 9.2 vs 9.9 ± 9.8 days, P = .85). Absenteeism in survivors was significantly associated with a low Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Physical Health Summary Score (P = .01). Parents' perception of their child's vulnerability and emotional and social functioning were not associated with absenteeism. Childhood cancer survivors and siblings miss more school than the general population. The only predictor of absenteeism in survivors is poor physical quality of health. More research should be devoted to school attendance and other outcomes in siblings of childhood cancer survivors. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Did professional attendance at home births improve early neonatal survival in Indonesia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatt, Laurel; Stanton, Cynthia; Ronsmans, Carine; Makowiecka, Krystyna; Adisasmita, Asri

    2009-07-01

    BACKGROUND Early neonatal mortality has been persistently high in developing countries. Indonesia, with its national policy of home-based, midwife-assisted birth, is an apt context for assessing the effect of home-based professional birth attendance on early neonatal survival. METHODS We pooled four Indonesian Demographic and Health Surveys and used multivariate logistic regression to analyse trends in first-day and early neonatal mortality. We measured the effect of the context of delivery, including place and type of provider, and tested for changes in trend when the 'Midwife in the Village' programme was initiated. RESULTS Reported first-day mortality did not decrease significantly between 1986 and 2002, whereas early neonatal mortality decreased by an average of 3.2% annually. The rate of the decline did not change over the time period, either in 1989 when the Midwife in the Village programme was initiated, or in any year following when uptake of professional care increased. In simple and multivariate analyses, there were no significant differences in first-day or early neonatal death rates comparing home-based births with or without a professional midwife. Early neonatal mortality was higher in public facilities, likely due to selection. Biological determinants (twin births, male sex, short birth interval, previous early neonatal loss) were important for both outcomes. CONCLUSIONS Decreasing newborn death rates in Indonesia are encouraging, but it is not clear that these decreases are associated with greater uptake of professional delivery care at home or in health facilities. This may suggest a need for improved training in immediate newborn care, strengthened emergency referral, and continued support for family planning policies.

  3. Anxiety and depression among subjects attending genetic counseling for hereditary cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorvatn, Cathrine; Eide, Geir Egil; Hanestad, Berit R; Havik, Odd E

    2008-05-01

    The main aims of the study were to investigate changes in anxiety and depression over time in subjects attending genetic counseling (GC) for hereditary cancer, and secondly, to identify psychological, social, and medical variables associated with the course and outcome of anxiety and depression. Of 275 eligible individuals, 221 consented to participate, 214 returned the baseline questionnaire, and were included in a prospective multi-center study. Questionnaires were mailed to the subjects before and after the GC. The mean values for anxiety and depression were quite low at all assessments. Mixed linear analyzes revealed that both anxiety and depression declined over time. Higher age, GC-related self-efficacy, and social support were associated with lower levels of anxiety. More social support, satisfaction with GC, self-rated physical function, and GC-related self-efficacy were associated with lower levels of depression. The effects of social support on both anxiety and depression had a significant interaction with time. The results support the buffer theory, which proposes that social support acts as a buffer, protecting people from the potentially pathogenic influence of stressful life events, such as GC. Subjects with less social support and less GC-related self-efficacy seem to be more vulnerable to anxiety and depression and should be offered extra attention by counselors.

  4. Profile of frequent attenders to a Dublin inner city emergency department

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ramasubbu, B

    2016-04-01

    A retrospective review of the demographics, co-morbidities and substance misuse of the 20 most frequent presenters to the Mater Misericordiae University Hospital emergency department during 2014 was carried out in an attempt to better understand the epidemiology of their presentations. Eighty-five percent were male and 15% female (p<0.001). The average age was 40.6 years with a median 38.5 years. All were unemployed and 7 (35%) had no fixed abode. Thirteen patients (65%) lived an average of 4.5 kilometres from the ED. In this study the presence of a mental illness, homelessness, alcohol or drug misuse were associated with significantly higher attendance rates (p=0.001, p<0.001, p<0.05, p<0.001 respectively). Early identification of these patients and targeting them for effective case-based community-led treatment strategies could improve their quality of life, decrease their cost of care and ultimately lead to more effective utilisation of our already overburdened emergency departments.

  5. An Efficient Automatic Attendance System Using Fingerprint Reconstruction Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Ramakrishnan, Josphineleela; Ramakrishnan, M.

    2012-01-01

    Biometric time and attendance system is one of the most successful applications of biometric technology. One of the main advantage of a biometric time and attendance system is it avoids "buddy-punching". Buddy punching was a major loophole which will be exploiting in the traditional time attendance systems. Fingerprint recognition is an established field today, but still identifying individual from a set of enrolled fingerprints is a time taking process. Most fingerprint-based biometric syste...

  6. Birth attendance and magnitude of obstetric complications in Western Kenya: a retrospective case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liambila, Wilson N; Kuria, Shiphrah N

    2014-09-08

    with higher odds of the occurrence of obstetric complications compared to deliveries that were assisted by non-skilled attendants at home. Women cited many barriers which need to be addressed in order to improve their access to skilled providers for delivery and in managing obstetric complications.

  7. Effect of ant attendance by Monomorium minimum (Buckley) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) on predation and parasitism of the soybean aphid Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, John J; Horn, David J

    2008-10-01

    Ant attendance is known to affect the population dynamics of aphids and may increase or decrease aphid populations through stimulation, predation, or protection. In this study, we performed a series of laboratory experiments to examine the effects of ant attendance on populations of the soybean aphid Aphis glycines. Aphid colonies were exposed to the predators Harmonia axyridis (Coccinellidae) and Orius insidiosus (Anthocoridae) and a parasitoid Aphidius colemani (Aphidiidae) in the presence and absence of attending Monomorium minimum (Formicidae). We also tested for direct effects of ant attendance in the absence of natural enemies. Ants attending soybean aphid populations were observed harassing or killing O. insidiosus and H. axyridis. Attendance interfered with both predator species, resulting in reduced predation and an increase in aphid numbers up to 10-fold in the presence of ants. Ants were not observed directly interfering with the parasitoid A. colemani, but the number of parasitized aphids was higher in aphid colonies that were left unattended by ants.

  8. The association of generalized anxiety disorder and Somatic Symptoms with frequent attendance to health care services: A cross-sectional study from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujanpää, Tero S; Jokelainen, Jari; Auvinen, Juha P; Timonen, Markku J

    2017-03-01

    Objective Generalized anxiety disorder is associated with higher rate of physical comorbities, unexplained symptoms, and health care utilization. However, the role of somatic symptoms in determining health care utilization is unclear. The present study aims to assess the association of frequent attendance of health care services between generalized anxiety disorder symptoms and somatic symptoms. Method This study was conducted cross-sectionally using the material of the 46-year follow-up survey of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966. Altogether, 5585 cohort members responded to the questionnaires concerning health care utilization, illness history, physical symptoms, and generalized anxiety disorder-7 screening tool. Odds ratios belonging to the highest decile in health care utilization were calculated for generalized anxiety disorder symptoms and all (n = 4) somatic symptoms of Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 controlled for confounding factors. Results Adjusted Odds ratios for being frequent attender of health care services were 2.29 (95% CI 1.58-3.31) for generalized anxiety disorder symptoms and 1.28 (95% CI 0.99-1.64), 1.94 (95% CI 1.46-2.58), 2.33 (95% CI 1.65-3.28), and 3.64 (95% CI 2.15-6.18) for 1, 2, 3, and 4 somatic symptoms, respectively. People with generalized anxiety disorder symptoms had on average a higher number of somatic symptoms (1.8) than other cohort members (0.9). Moreover, 1.6% of people without somatic symptoms tested positive for generalized anxiety disorder, meanwhile 22.6% of people with four somatic symptoms tested positive for generalized anxiety disorder. Conclusions Both generalized anxiety disorder symptoms and somatic symptoms are associated with a higher risk for being a health care frequent attender.

  9. Association of a full-day vs part-day preschool intervention with school readiness, attendance, and parent involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Arthur J; Richardson, Brandt A; Hayakawa, Momoko; Lease, Erin M; Warner-Richter, Mallory; Englund, Michelle M; Ou, Suh-Ruu; Sullivan, Molly

    2014-11-26

    Early childhood interventions have demonstrated positive effects on well-being. Whether full-day vs part-day attendance improves outcomes is unknown. To evaluate the association between a full- vs part-day early childhood program and school readiness, attendance, and parent involvement. End-of-preschool follow-up of a nonrandomized, matched-group cohort of predominantly low-income, ethnic minority children enrolled in the Child-Parent Centers (CPC) for the full day (7 hours; n = 409) or part day (3 hours on average; n = 573) in the 2012-2013 school year in 11 schools in Chicago, Illinois. The Midwest CPC Education Program provides comprehensive instruction, family-support, and health services from preschool to third grade. School readiness skills at the end of preschool, attendance and chronic absences, and parental involvement. The readiness domains in the Teaching Strategies GOLD Assessment System include a total of 49 items with a score range of 105-418. The specific domains are socioemotional with 9 items (score range, 20-81), language with 6 items (score range, 15-54), literacy with 12 items (score range, 9-104), math with 7 items (score, 8-60), physical health with 5 items (score range, 14-45), and cognitive development with 10 items (score range, 18-90). Full-day preschool participants had higher scores than part-day peers on socioemotional development (58.6 vs 54.5; difference, 4.1; 95% CI, 0.5-7.6; P = .03), language (39.9 vs 37.3; difference, 2.6; 95% CI, 0.6-4.6; P = .01), math (40.0 vs 36.4; difference, 3.6; 95% CI, 0.5-6.7; P = .02), physical health (35.5 vs 33.6; difference, 1.9; 95% CI, 0.5-3.2; P = .006), and the total score (298.1 vs 278.2; difference, 19.9; 95% CI, 1.2-38.4; P = .04). Literacy (64.5 vs 58.6; difference, 5.9; 95% CI, -0.07 to 12.4; P = .08) and cognitive development (59.7 vs 57.7; difference, 2.0; 95% CI, -2.4 to 6.3; P = .38) were not significant. Full-day preschool graduates also had higher

  10. Perceptual organization at attended and unattended locations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Shihui; Glyn W. Humphreys

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the effects of attention on forming perceptual units by proximity grouping and by uniform connectedness (UC). In Experiment 1 a row of three global letters defined by either proximity or UC was presented at the center of the visual field. Participants were asked to identify the letter in the middle of stimulus arrays while ignoring the flankers. The stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) between stimulus arrays and masks varied between 180 and 500 ms. We found that responses to targets defined by proximity grouping were slower than to those defined by UC at median SOAs but there were no differences at short or long SOAs. Incongruent flankers slowed responses to targets and this flanker compatibility effect was larger for UC than for proximity-defined flankers. Experiment 2 examined the effects of spatial precueing on discrimination responses to proximity- and UC-defined targets. The advantage for targets defined by UC over targets defined by proximity grouping was greater at uncued relative to cued locations. The results suggest that the advantage for UC over proximity grouping in forming perceptual units is contingent on the stimuli not being fully attended, and that paying attention to the stimuli differentially benefits proximity grouping.

  11. Obstetrical referrals by traditional birth attendants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Rozina; Hashmi, Haleema; Mustafa, Rubina

    2012-01-01

    In Pakistan 90% of births are conducted by TBA's. In most cases, TBA's are unable to diagnose the complications and are often unable to take decisions on timely referral. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, nature and outcome of life threatening obstetrical conditions in referrals by Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs). This Observational, Descriptive study was conducted from January to December 2007, in the obstetrical unit of Fatima Hospital, Baqai Medical University, a tertiary care community based hospital. The study included patients referred by TBA's who developed life threatening obstetric conditions (LTOCs). Total 64 patients were referred by TBA's. The prevalence was 7.8%. Out of them, 53 (82.8%) patients admitted with life threatening obstetric conditions. The near-miss morbidities and mortalities were 45 (84.9%) and 8 (15%) respectively. Maternal mortality to Near-miss morbidity ratio was 1:6. Obstructed labour caused near-miss morbidity in 32 (60.3%) patients with no mortality. Postpartum haemorrhage as life threatening condition developed in 16 (30.1%) patients with 10 (18.8%) near-miss morbidities and 6 (11.3%) mortalities. Puerperal sepsis accounted for 1 (1.88%) near-miss morbidity and 2 (3.76%) mortalities. The mortality index for puerperal sepsis is (66.6%) almost double of postpartum haemorrhage (37.5%). Mortality to near miss morbidity ratio is high. Misidentification and late referrals of complicated cases by TBA's were responsible for near-miss morbidities and mortalities.

  12. Response of beach-nesting American Oystercatchers to off-road vehicles: An experimental approach reveals physiological nuances and decreased nest attendance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felton, Shilo K.; Pollock, Kenneth H.; Simons, Theodore R.

    2018-01-01

    Shorebird populations face increasing challenges as rising sea levels and growing human populations constrain their breeding habitats. On recreational beaches, the nesting season often coincides with a season of high visitor use, increasing the potential for conflict, which may negatively influence beach-nesting shorebird species. We designed a field experiment to study the responses of nesting American Oystercatchers (Haematopus palliatus) to off-road passenger vehicles (ORVs) at Cape Hatteras and Cape Lookout National Seashores in North Carolina, USA. We used continuous video and heart rate recordings to assess changes in the behavior and physiology of incubating oystercatchers. We conducted driving experiments affecting 7 nesting pairs in 2014 and 19 nesting pairs in 2015, between April and July of each year. Experimental treatments were repeated throughout the incubation period for each nest. Although responses were highly variable within and among pairs, paired randomized permutation tests indicated that, overall, oystercatcher pairs spent a greater proportion of time with their heads up and exhibited slower heart rates during driving treatments. Pairs also left their nests more frequently and attended their nests for a lower proportion of time during driving treatments, although these responses diminished over time. Higher nest attendance and lower departure rates late in incubation may have reflected a stronger attachment to nests closer to hatching or habituation to the driving treatment, although individuals continued to exhibit physiological responses to passing vehicles throughout incubation. Beach-nesting birds may benefit from reduced vehicle traffic at their nesting sites, allowing parents to spend more time attending the nest and less time on defensive behaviors.

  13. Towards universal access to skilled birth attendance: the process of transforming the role of traditional birth attendants in Rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hong; Qian, Xu; Chen, Lili; Li, Jian; Escobar, Erin; Story, Mary; Tang, Shenglan

    2016-03-21

    Institution-based childbirth, with the ultimate goal of universal access to skilled birth attendance (SBA), has been selected as a key strategy to reduce the maternal mortality rate in many developing countries. However, the question of how to engage traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in the advocacy campaign for SBA poses a number of challenges. This paper aims to demonstrate how TBAs in rural regions of China have been integrated into the health system under a policy of institutional delivery. Research was conducted through literature and document reviews and individual in-depth interviews with stakeholders of the safe motherhood program in rural Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China. A total of 33 individual interviews were conducted with regional and local politicians, policy makers, health managers, health providers, civil society members, village cadres for women affairs, former TBAs, village maternal health workers, mothers and their mother-in-laws. Since 1998, TBA's traditional role of providing in-home care during childbirth has been restructured and their social role has been strengthened in rural Guangxi. TBAs were redesigned to function as the linkage between women and the health system. A new policy in 1999 shifted the role of TBAs to village maternal health workers whose responsibilities were mainly to promote perinatal care and institution-based delivery of pregnant women. This successful transformation involved engaging with government and other actors, training TBAs for their new role, and providing incentives and sanctions for human resources management. The China experience of transforming the role of TBAs in Guangxi rural area is an example of successfully engaging TBAs in promoting institution-based childbirth.

  14. Results of the 2015 Scoliosis Research Society Survey on Single Versus Dual Attending Surgeon Approach for Adult Spinal Deformity Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheer, Justin K; Sethi, Rajiv K; Hey, Lloyd A; LaGrone, Michael O; Keefe, Malla; Aryan, Henry E; Errico, Thomas J; Deviren, Vedat; Hart, Robert A; Lafage, Virginie; Schwab, Frank; Daubs, Michael D; Ames, Christopher P

    2017-06-15

    An electronic survey administered to Scoliosis Research Society (SRS) membership. To characterize surgeon practices and views regarding the use of two attending surgeons for adult spinal deformity (ASD) surgery. The use of two experienced attending surgeons can decrease the operative time, estimated blood loss, and perioperative complication rates. However, the current practice patterns for the use of two attending surgeons remains unknown. An electronic, 27-question survey regarding single/dual attending surgeons was administered to the SRS membership. Determinants included: surgeon/practice demographics, assistant type/level of training, and questions regarding use of two attending surgeons. Overall reporting and comparisons between groups were made: US versus international, academic versus private practice, and experience 15 years. A total of 199 surgeons responded from 27 different countries. Overall and between the groups, the respondents significantly reported believing that two attending spine surgeons improves safety, decreases complications, and improves outcomes (P < 0.01). Approximately, 67.3% reported using a second attending ≤25% of the time (33.2% do not), and 24.1% use one ≥51% of the time (similar between groups); 51.1% that have a second attending feel it's limited by reimbursement and access concerns and 71.9% have difficulty getting the second attending reimbursed. 72.3% use a second attending for ALL of the following reasons (no difference between groups): "it's safer/reduces complications," "it decreases operative time," "it decreases blood loss," "it results in improved outcomes," "it's less work and stress for me." If reimbursement was equal/assured for a second attending, 67.5% would use one "more often" or "always." The respondents feel that having a second attending surgeon improves patient care, however most do not use one often. Reasons include reimbursement/access concerns and the majority would use one if reimbursement was

  15. Predicting intention to attend and actual attendance at a universal parent-training programme: a comparison of social cognition models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Sarah; Calam, Rachel

    2011-07-01

    The predictive validity of the Health Belief Model (HBM) and the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) were examined in relation to 'intention to attend' and 'actual attendance' at a universal parent-training intervention for parents of children with behavioural difficulties. A validation and reliability study was conducted to develop two questionnaires (N = 108 parents of children aged 4-7).These questionnaires were then used to investigate the predictive validity of the two models in relation to 'intention to attend' and 'actual attendance' at a parent-training intervention ( N = 53 parents of children aged 4-7). Both models significantly predicted 'intention to attend a parent-training group'; however, the TPB accounted for more variance in the outcome variable compared to the HBM. Preliminary investigations highlighted that attendees were more likely to intend to attend the groups, have positive attitudes towards the groups, perceive important others as having positive attitudes towards the groups, and report elevated child problem behaviour scores. These findings provide useful information regarding the belief-based factors that affect attendance at universal parent-training groups. Possible interventions aimed at increasing 'intention to attend' and 'actual attendance' at parent-training groups are discussed.

  16. Higher Education, Poverty and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilak, Jandhyala B. G.

    2010-01-01

    There is a presumption among many policy makers that higher education is not necessary for economic growth and development; it is literacy and basic education and at best secondary education that are argued to be important. Estimates of internal rate of return contributed to strengthening of such a presumption. Accordingly, higher education has…

  17. Endometrial scratching in women with implantation failure after a first IVF/ICSI cycle; does it lead to a higher live birth rate? The SCRaTCH study: A randomized controlled trial (NTR 5342)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoogenhuijze, N.E.; H.L. Torrance (Helen); F. Mol (Femke); J.S.E. Laven (Joop); Scheenjes, E.; T. Traas (Theo); Janssen, C.; B.J. Cohlen (Ben); G. Teklenburg (Gijs); J.P. de Bruin (J.); van Oppenraaij, R.; Maas, J.W.M.; Moll, E.; K. Fleischer; M.H.A. van Hooff (Marcel); C.H. de Koning; A.E.P. Cantineau (Astrid); C.B. Lambalk (Cornelius); M.F.G. Verberg; Nijs, M.; Manger, A.P.; M.M.E. van Rumste (Minouche); van der Voet, L.F.; Preys-Bosman, A.; Visser, J.; Brinkhuis, E.; den Hartog, J.E.; A. Sluijmer (Alexander); Jansen, F.W.; Hermes, W.; Bandell, M.L.; Pelinck, M.J.; J. van Disseldorp (Jeroen); M. van Wely (Madelon); J.M.J. Smeenk; Pieterse, Q.D.; J.C. Boxmeer (Jolanda); Groenewoud, E.R.; M.J.C. Eijkemans (René); J.C. Kasius (J. C.); F.J.M. Broekmans (Frank)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Success rates of assisted reproductive techniques (ART) are approximately 30%, with the most important limiting factor being embryo implantation. Mechanical endometrial injury, also called 'scratching', has been proposed to positively affect the chance of implantation after

  18. Endometrial scratching in women with implantation failure after a first IVF/ICSI cycle; does it lead to a higher live birth rate? The SCRaTCH study: a randomized controlled trial (NTR 5342)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenhuijze, N.E. van; Torrance, H.L.; Mol, F.; Laven, J.S.; Scheenjes, E.; Traas, M.A.F.; Janssen, C.; Cohlen, B.; Teklenburg, G.; Bruin, J.P. de; Oppenraaij, R. van; Maas, J.W.; Moll, E.; Fleischer, K.; Hooff, M.H. van; Koning, C.; Cantineau, A.; Lambalk, C.B.; Verberg, M.; Nijs, M.; Manger, A.P.; Rumste, M. van; Voet, L.F. van der; Preys-Bosman, A.; Visser, J.; Brinkhuis, E.; Hartog, J.E. Den; Sluijmer, A.; Jansen, F.W.; Hermes, W.; Bandell, M.L.; Pelinck, M.J.; Disseldorp, J. van; Wely, M. van; Smeenk, J.; Pieterse, Q.D.; Boxmeer, J.C.; Groenewoud, E.R.; Eijkemans, M.J.; Kasius, J.C.; Broekmans, F.J.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Success rates of assisted reproductive techniques (ART) are approximately 30%, with the most important limiting factor being embryo implantation. Mechanical endometrial injury, also called 'scratching', has been proposed to positively affect the chance of implantation after embryo

  19. Endometrial scratching in women with implantation failure after a first IVF/ICSI cycle; does it lead to a higher live birth rate? The SCRaTCH study: a randomized controlled trial (NTR 5342)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoogenhuijze, N. E.; Torrance, H. L.; Mol, F.; Laven, J. S. E.; Scheenjes, E.; Traas, M. A. F.; Janssen, C.; Cohlen, B.; Teklenburg, G.; de Bruin, J. P.; van Oppenraaij, R.; Maas, J. W. M.; Moll, E.; Fleischer, K.; van Hooff, M. H.; de Koning, C.; Cantineau, A.; Lambalk, C. B.; Verberg, M.; Nijs, M.; Manger, A. P.; van Rumste, M.; van der Voet, L. F.; Preys-Bosman, A.; Visser, J.; Brinkhuis, E.; den Hartog, J. E.; Sluijmer, A.; Jansen, F. W.; Hermes, W.; Bandell, M. L.; Pelinck, M. J.; van Disseldorp, J.; van Wely, M.; Smeenk, J.; Pieterse, Q. D.; Boxmeer, J. C.; Groenewoud, E. R.; Eijkemans, M. J. C.; Kasius, J. C.; Broekmans, F. J. M.

    2017-01-01

    Success rates of assisted reproductive techniques (ART) are approximately 30%, with the most important limiting factor being embryo implantation. Mechanical endometrial injury, also called 'scratching', has been proposed to positively affect the chance of implantation after embryo transfer, but the

  20. Endometrial scratching in women with implantation failure after a first IVF/ICSI cycle; does it lead to a higher live birth rate? The SCRaTCH study : A randomized controlled trial (NTR 5342)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoogenhuijze, N. E.; Torrance, H. L.; Mol, F.; Laven, Joop S E; Scheenjes, E.; Traas, M.A.F.; Janssen, Bert J C; Cohlen, B.; Teklenburg, G.; Bruin, Jacob P; van Oppenraaij, R.; Maas, J. W M; Moll, Etelka; Fleischer, K.; van Hooff, Marcel H; de Koning, C.; Cantineau, A.; Lambalk, Cornelis B.; Verberg, M.F.G.; Nijs, M. M.; Manger, A. P.; Van Rumste, M. M.; Van der Voet, L F; Preys-Bosman, A.; Visser, J.; Brinkhuis, E.A.; den Hartog, J. E.; Sluijmer, A.; Jansen, F. W.; Hermes, W.; Bandell, M. L.; Pelinck, M. J.; van Disseldorp, J.; Wely, M.; Smeenk, J.; Pieterse, Q.D.; Boxmeer, J.C.; Groenewoud, Eva R.; Eijkemans, M. J.C.; Kasius, J. C.; Broekmans, F. J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Success rates of assisted reproductive techniques (ART) are approximately 30%, with the most important limiting factor being embryo implantation. Mechanical endometrial injury, also called 'scratching', has been proposed to positively affect the chance of implantation after embryo

  1. Endometrial scratching in women with implantation failure after a first IVF/ICSI cycle; does it lead to a higher live birth rate? The SCRaTCH study: a randomized controlled trial (NTR 5342).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hoogenhuijze, N E; Torrance, H L; Mol, F; Laven, J S E; Scheenjes, E; Traas, M A F; Janssen, C; Cohlen, B; Teklenburg, G; de Bruin, J P; van Oppenraaij, R; Maas, J W M; Moll, E; Fleischer, K; van Hooff, M H; de Koning, C; Cantineau, A; Lambalk, C B; Verberg, M; Nijs, M; Manger, A P; van Rumste, M; van der Voet, L F; Preys-Bosman, A; Visser, J; Brinkhuis, E; den Hartog, J E; Sluijmer, A; Jansen, F W; Hermes, W; Bandell, M L; Pelinck, M J; van Disseldorp, J; van Wely, M; Smeenk, J; Pieterse, Q D; Boxmeer, J C; Groenewoud, E R; Eijkemans, M J C; Kasius, J C; Broekmans, F J M

    2017-07-21

    Success rates of assisted reproductive techniques (ART) are approximately 30%, with the most important limiting factor being embryo implantation. Mechanical endometrial injury, also called 'scratching', has been proposed to positively affect the chance of implantation after embryo transfer, but the currently available evidence is not yet conclusive. The primary aim of this study is to determine the effect of endometrial scratching prior to a second fresh in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI) cycle on live birth rates in women with a failed first IVF/ICSI cycle. Multicenter randomized controlled trial in Dutch academic and non-academic hospitals. A total of 900 women will be included of whom half will undergo an endometrial scratch in the luteal phase of the cycle prior to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation using an endometrial biopsy catheter. The primary endpoint is the live birth rate after the 2 nd fresh IVF/ICSI cycle. Secondary endpoints are costs, cumulative live birth rate (after the full 2 nd IVF/ICSI cycle and over 12 months of follow-up); clinical and ongoing pregnancy rate; multiple pregnancy rate; miscarriage rate and endometrial tissue parameters associated with implantation failure. Multiple studies have been performed to investigate the effect of endometrial scratching on live birth rates in women undergoing IVF/ICSI cycles. Due to heterogeneity in both the method and population being scratched, it remains unclear which group of women will benefit from the procedure. The SCRaTCH trial proposed here aims to investigate the effect of endometrial scratching prior to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation in a large group of women undergoing a second IVF/ICSI cycle. NTR 5342 , registered July 31 st , 2015. Version 4.10, January 4th, 2017.

  2. Skilled attendance at delivery; how skilled are institutional birth attendants? : An explorative study on birth attendants at Bansang Hospital, The Gambia

    OpenAIRE

    Kreyberg, Ina; Helsingen, Lise Mørkved

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background: As reflected in the United Nations Millennium Development Goals (UN MDG 5), reducing maternal mortality represents an important area of concern. The common causes of maternal deaths may be preventable and treatable by having access to emergency obstetric care (EmOC), including skilled birth attendance (SBA), when needed. Measuring the presence of a birth attendant has been the main focus until now, not their skills and qualifications, and by this we cannot presuppose ...

  3. Disparity in dental attendance among older adult populations: a comparative analysis across selected European countries and the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manski, Richard; Moeller, John; Chen, Haiyan; Widström, Eeva; Listl, Stefan

    2016-02-01

    The current study addresses the extent to which diversity in dental attendance across population subgroups exists within and between the USA and selected European countries. The analyses relied on 2006/2007 data from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) and 2004-2006 data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) in the USA for respondents≥51 years of age. Logistic regression models were estimated to identify impacts of dental-care coverage, and of oral and general health status, on dental-care use. We were unable to discern significant differences in dental attendance across population subgroups in countries with and without social health insurance, between the USA and European countries, and between European countries classified according to social welfare regime. Patterns of diverse dental use were found, but they did not appear predominately in countries classified according to welfare state regime or according to the presence or absence of social health insurance. The findings of this study suggest that income and education have a stronger, and more persistent, correlation with dental use than the correlation between dental insurance and dental use across European countries. We conclude that: (i) higher overall rates of coverage in most European countries, compared with relatively lower rates in the USA, contribute to this finding; and that (ii) policies targeted to improving the income of older persons and their awareness of the importance of oral health care in both Europe and the USA can contribute to improving the use of dental services. © 2015 FDI World Dental Federation.

  4. Traditional birth attendants in an endemic area of tetanus neonatorum in Thailand: pitfalls in the control program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chongsuvivatwong, V; Bucharkorn, L; Treetrong, R

    1991-12-01

    A survey of the characteristics of traditional birth attendants in Krabi Province, Thailand, where the incidence rate of tetanus neonatorum was the highest in the country, was conducted in order to obtain background information necessary for planning a training curriculum and to evaluate previous training courses. Five second year medical students were used as research assistants. After the questionnaire was constructed and tested, the students went to visit a sample of 116 traditional birth attendants (TBAs) to interview them about their personal backgrounds, techniques and practices in delivery and beliefs and attitudes towards midwifery. The study revealed that these TBAs were a mixture of Buddhist and Islamic females whose literacy rate was 53 percent. Ninety-one per cent knew about the availability of an injection for antenatal care at the health center, but only about half knew that it was for tetanus prevention. More than half provided antenatal care at their own home but 85 per cent conducted delivery at the client's home. About eighty per cent of the TBAs claimed that sterilization of instruments was performed. However, dressing of the umbilical cord was done inappropriately using various kinds of powders by about 40 per cent. The majority of TBAs had experience with complicated labors but only 30 per cent were referred, perhaps, due to excessive self-confidence and supernatural beliefs. The trained TBAs possessed a higher level of knowledge of immunization and sterile techniques for cord cutting and dressing of the stumps of the umbilical cord than the untrained group. However, knowledge of sterilization of instruments was not significantly different, indicating a need to improve teaching in this area.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. The Real University Cost in a ''Free'' Higher Education Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psacharopoulos, G.; Papakonstantinou, G.

    2005-01-01

    Using a sample of over 3000 first year university entrants in Greece, we investigate the time and expense incurred in preparation for the highly competitive higher education entry examinations, as well as what students spend privately while attending university. It is shown that in a constitutionally ''free for all'' higher education country,…

  6. Jack Barney award: the effect of fatigue on cognitive and psychomotor skills of trauma residents and attending surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerdes, Jodi; Kahol, Kanav; Smith, Marshall; Leyba, Mario J; Ferrara, John J

    2008-12-01

    Fatigue and sleep deprivation and their effects on surgical proficiency have been actively researched areas. Past studies that have focused solely on residents have provided an important insight into how fatigue affects residents' ability to perform. This study aims to quantify the effect of fatigue on attending surgeons. To quantify the effect of fatigue on psychomotor and cognitive skills of surgical residents and attending surgeons, visiohaptic simulations were created to mimic realistic interactions. Both groups showed a significant decrement in proficiency measures postcall. When tasks were separated based on psychomotor versus cognitive-dominated skills, attending surgeons made 25% fewer (P Psychomotor skills were equally affected in both groups. Call-associated fatigue is associated with increased error rates in the cognitive skill domain, although less so in attending surgeons compared with their resident counterparts.

  7. Class Attendance and Performance in Principles of Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Elchanan; Johnson, Eric

    2006-01-01

    A sample of 347 students, enrolled in principles of economics classes during the period 1997-2001, is used to examine the relation between class attendance and student performance on examinations. Among the questions examined are: Is attendance related to performance, with and without controls for other factors? Do only substantial levels of…

  8. Attendance of male partners to different reproductive health services ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Additional in-depth interviews were conducted among married men found attending RH services. Factors that motivates the uptake of locally available RH services together with their partners were explored. Results: A total of 204 men participated in the study, 94.4 % (193/204) of them reported to have ever attended the RH ...

  9. Implementing Nunavut Education Act: Compulsory School Attendance Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwarteng, E. Fredua

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the implementation of Nunavut compulsory school attendance policy as part of the Nunavut Education Act (2002). Using a bottom-up approach to policy implementation in the literature and the author's six years teaching experience in Nunavut, the paper argues that the compulsory school attendance policy may not achieve its…

  10. Management of School Attendance in the UK: A Strategic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Prior to 1997, managing school attendance was the sole responsibility of the Department for Education and Skills (DfES). Since devolution, responsibility for school attendance has resided with each of the four UK-wide administrations. These are the Department for Children, Schools and Families (DCSF) in England; the Scottish Executive Education…

  11. 16 CFR 1012.4 - Public attendance at agency meetings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public attendance at agency meetings. 1012.4 Section 1012.4 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL MEETINGS POLICY-MEETINGS BETWEEN AGENCY PERSONNEL AND OUTSIDE PARTIES § 1012.4 Public attendance at agency meetings. (a) Any person...

  12. Rural-Nonrural Differences in College Attendance Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Soo-Yong; Irvin, Matthew J.; Meece, Judith L.

    2015-01-01

    Using data from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988, this study documented college attendance patterns of rural youth in terms of the selectivity of first postsecondary institution of attendance, the timing of transition to postsecondary education, and the continuity of enrollment. The study also examined how these college attendance…

  13. Factors affecting disclosure of serostatus to children attending Jinja ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors affecting disclosure of serostatus to children attending Jinja Hospital ... twenty children and all (ten) health workers at Jinja Hospital paediatric HIV clinic. ... and child attending psychosocial support group (OR 7.4 CI 3.6-15.3 p < 0.001).

  14. Knowledge and Practice of Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction. One of the strategies Ministries of Health and their partners have adopted with the aim of promoting safe motherhood since the 1980's is training unskilled traditional birth attendants (TBAs). However, the assumption that training of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) would contribute greatly to reduce maternal ...

  15. 39 CFR 6.4 - Attendance by conference telephone call.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Attendance by conference telephone call. 6.4 Section 6.4 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE THE BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE U.S. POSTAL SERVICE MEETINGS (ARTICLE VI) § 6.4 Attendance by conference telephone call. For regularly scheduled meetings of...

  16. Women's persistent utilisation of unskilled birth attendants in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... facilities to address the discrepancy between antenatal attendance and delivery by skilled birth attendance. We hope that the information generated from this study will be used by the policy makers leading to appropriate interventions or strategies which will reduce the number of home deliveries and maternal deaths.

  17. Traditional Birth Attendants Issue: A Menace in Developing Countries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: A significant proportion of births in Nigeria still occur at homes of traditional birth attendant. Traditional birth attendants are popular in developing and low resource countries. They lack no formal education or medical training and their clients end up with obstetric complications which lead to severe morbidity ...

  18. Barriers to Skilled Birth Attendance: A Survey among Mothers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    More than seventy percent of the participants gave birth attended by a traditional birth attendant, but only 27% had intended to give birth at home. Sixty-four percent had made advance arrangements for the childbirth. Only 22% were informed about expected time of birth during antenatal care. Our findings suggest that the ...

  19. 6 CFR 13.23 - Subpoenas for attendance at hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Subpoenas for attendance at hearing. 13.23 Section 13.23 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 13.23 Subpoenas for attendance at hearing. (a) A party wishing to procure the...

  20. Improving Emergency Attendance and Mortality – The Case for Unit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    METHODS: The study compared the outcomes (attendance and mortality) in a Single Emergency Model (SEM) with a USM, over a two-year period. Two groups of patients were studied - the SEM phase comprising 809 patients, and the USM phase comprising 3,505 patients. Data on patients' attendance and mortality in the ...