WorldWideScience

Sample records for higher altitudes omission

  1. Water-Vapor Raman Lidar System Reaches Higher Altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, Thierry; McDermid, I. Stewart

    2010-01-01

    A Raman lidar system for measuring the vertical distribution of water vapor in the atmosphere is located at the Table Mountain Facility (TMF) in California. Raman lidar systems for obtaining vertical water-vapor profiles in the troposphere have been in use for some time. The TMF system incorporates a number of improvements over prior such systems that enable extension of the altitude range of measurements through the tropopause into the lower stratosphere. One major obstacle to extension of the altitude range is the fact that the mixing ratio of water vapor in the tropopause and the lower stratosphere is so low that Raman lidar measurements in this region are limited by noise. Therefore, the design of the TMF system incorporates several features intended to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio. These features include (1) the use of 355-nm-wavelength laser pulses having an energy (0.9 J per pulse) that is high relative to the laser-pulse energy levels of prior such systems, (2) a telescope having a large aperture (91 cm in diameter) and a narrow field of view (angular width .0.6 mrad), and (3) narrow-bandpass (wavelength bandwidth 0.6 nm) filters for the water-vapor Raman spectral channels. In addition to the large-aperture telescope, three telescopes having apertures 7.5 cm in diameter are used to collect returns from low altitudes.

  2. Metabolic characteristics and response to high altitude in Phrynocephalus erythrurus (Lacertilia: Agamidae, a lizard dwell at altitudes higher than any other living lizards in the world.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolong Tang

    Full Text Available Metabolic response to high altitude remains poorly explored in reptiles. In the present study, the metabolic characteristics of Phrynocephaluserythrurus (Lacertilia: Agamidae, which inhabits high altitudes (4500 m and Phrynocephalusprzewalskii (Lacertilia: Agamidae, which inhabits low altitudes, were analysed to explore the metabolic regulatory strategies for lizards living at high-altitude environments. The results indicated that the mitochondrial respiratory rates of P. erythrurus were significantly lower than those of P. przewalskii, and that proton leak accounts for 74~79% of state 4 and 7~8% of state3 in P. erythrurus vs. 43~48% of state 4 and 24~26% of state3 in P. przewalskii. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activity in P. erythrurus was lower than in P. przewalskii, indicating that at high altitude the former does not, relatively, have a greater reliance on anaerobic metabolism. A higher activity related to β-hydroxyacyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase (HOAD and the HOAD/citrate synthase (CS ratio suggested there was a possible higher utilization of fat in P. erythrurus. The lower expression of PGC-1α and PPAR-γ in P. erythrurus suggested their expression was not influenced by cold and low PO2 at high altitude. These distinct characteristics of P. erythrurus are considered to be necessary strategies in metabolic regulation for living at high altitude and may effectively compensate for the negative influence of cold and low PO2.

  3. Autoshaping, random control, and omission training in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locurto, C; Terrace, H S; Gibbon, J

    1976-11-01

    The role of the stimulus-reinforcer contingency in the development and maintenance of lever contact responding was studied in hooded rats. In Experiment I, three groups of experimentally naive rats were trained either on autoshaping, omission training, or a random-control procedure. Subjects trained by the autoshaping procedure responded more consistently than did either random-control or omission-trained subjects. The probability of at least one lever contact per trial was slightly higher in subjects trained by the omission procedure than by the random-control procedure. However, these differences were not maintained during extended training, nor were they evident in total lever-contact frequencies. When omission and random-control subjects were switched to the autoshaping condition, lever contacts increased in all animals, but a pronounced retardation was observed in omission subjects relative to the random-control subjects. In addition, subjects originally exposed to the random-control procedure, and later switched to autoshaping, acquired more rapidly than naive subjects that were exposed only on the autoshaping procedure. In Experiment II, subjects originally trained by an autoshaping procedure were exposed either to an omission, a random-control, or an extinction procedure. No differences were observed among the groups either in the rate at which lever contacts decreased or in the frequency of lever contacts at the end of training. These data implicate prior experience in the interpretation of omission-training effects and suggest limitations in the influence of stimulus-reinforcer relations in autoshaping.

  4. Autoshaping, random control, and omission training in the rat1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locurto, Charles; Terrace, H. S.; Gibbon, John

    1976-01-01

    The role of the stimulus-reinforcer contingency in the development and maintenance of lever contact responding was studied in hooded rats. In Experiment I, three groups of experimentally naive rats were trained either on autoshaping, omission training, or a random-control procedure. Subjects trained by the autoshaping procedure responded more consistently than did either random-control or omission-trained subjects. The probability of at least one lever contact per trial was slightly higher in subjects trained by the omission procedure than by the random-control procedure. However, these differences were not maintained during extended training, nor were they evident in total lever-contact frequencies. When omission and random-control subjects were switched to the autoshaping condition, lever contacts increased in all animals, but a pronounced retardation was observed in omission subjects relative to the random-control subjects. In addition, subjects originally exposed to the random-control procedure, and later switched to autoshaping, acquired more rapidly than naive subjects that were exposed only on the autoshaping procedure. In Experiment II, subjects originally trained by an autoshaping procedure were exposed either to an omission, a random-control, or an extinction procedure. No differences were observed among the groups either in the rate at which lever contacts decreased or in the frequency of lever contacts at the end of training. These data implicate prior experience in the interpretation of omission-training effects and suggest limitations in the influence of stimulus-reinforcer relations in autoshaping. PMID:16811960

  5. THREE-DIMENSIONAL NON-VACUUM PULSAR OUTER-GAP MODEL: LOCALIZED ACCELERATION ELECTRIC FIELD IN THE HIGHER ALTITUDES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirotani, Kouichi [Academia Sinica, Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics (ASIAA), P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2015-01-10

    We investigate the particle accelerator that arises in a rotating neutron-star magnetosphere. Simultaneously solving the Poisson equation for the electro-static potential, the Boltzmann equations for relativistic electrons and positrons, and the radiative transfer equation, we demonstrate that the electric field is substantially screened along the magnetic field lines by pairs that are created and separated within the accelerator. As a result, the magnetic-field-aligned electric field is localized in higher altitudes near the light cylinder and efficiently accelerates the positrons created in the lower altitudes outward but does not accelerate the electrons inward. The resulting photon flux becomes predominantly outward, leading to typical double-peak light curves, which are commonly observed from many high-energy pulsars.

  6. The Non-omission of Nonfinite Be

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carson Schütze

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available It has long been known that children learning English optionally omit finite forms of the verb be (both copula and auxiliary. What makes be omissions possible? A classic answer is that be is semantically empty, hence a good choice to omit under performance-related pressures. What would this hypothesis lead us to expect about the infinitive form of be? In terms of semantic vacuity, nonfinite be is an even better choice for omission than finite be , since it does not carry tense or agreement information—most such deletions would be completely recoverable. Thus, the semantic vacuity hypothesis would lead us to expect omission of nonfinite be to be at least as frequent as omission of finite be . This is contrasted with the suggestion that be omission be incorporated into the Root/Optional Infinitive phenomenon. The latter finiteness hypothesis makes different predictions from the semantic vacuity hypothesis with respect to the relative rate of nonfinite be omission. The finding is that, in each relevant transcript, omission of finite be is attested, use of nonfinite be is attested, but there are no instances of omission of nonfinite be , contra the prediction of the semantic vacuity hypothesis. I develop an analysis within the Agreement/Tense Omission Model of the underspecification of Infl (cf. Schütze 1997. I claim that finite forms of be in (adult and child English are fused V+I heads, in the sense of Halle & Marantz’s (1993 Distributed Morphology. Their locus for vocabulary insertion has values for person/number, tense, and lexical category. The fused vocabulary items cannot be inserted in a syntactic structure in which INFL features have been underspecified. Overt be arises only when both AgrS and Tense are fully specified. Null be , i.e. Ø, the default member of the paradigm, arises from underspecification of Tense and/or underspecification of AgrS.

  7. Athletes at High Altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodaee, Morteza; Grothe, Heather L; Seyfert, Jonathan H; VanBaak, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Athletes at different skill levels perform strenuous physical activity at high altitude for a variety of reasons. Multiple team and endurance events are held at high altitude and may place athletes at increased risk for developing acute high altitude illness (AHAI). Training at high altitude has been a routine part of preparation for some of the high level athletes for a long time. There is a general belief that altitude training improves athletic performance for competitive and recreational athletes. A review of relevant publications between 1980 and 2015 was completed using PubMed and Google Scholar. Clinical review. Level 3. AHAI is a relatively uncommon and potentially serious condition among travelers to altitudes above 2500 m. The broad term AHAI includes several syndromes such as acute mountain sickness (AMS), high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE), and high altitude cerebral edema (HACE). Athletes may be at higher risk for developing AHAI due to faster ascent and more vigorous exertion compared with nonathletes. Evidence regarding the effects of altitude training on athletic performance is weak. The natural live high, train low altitude training strategy may provide the best protocol for enhancing endurance performance in elite and subelite athletes. High altitude sports are generally safe for recreational athletes, but they should be aware of their individual risks. Individualized and appropriate acclimatization is an essential component of injury and illness prevention.

  8. Automatic detection of omissions in medication lists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Sharique; Duncan, George T; Neill, Daniel B; Padman, Rema

    2011-01-01

    Evidence suggests that the medication lists of patients are often incomplete and could negatively affect patient outcomes. In this article, the authors propose the application of collaborative filtering methods to the medication reconciliation task. Given a current medication list for a patient, the authors employ collaborative filtering approaches to predict drugs the patient could be taking but are missing from their observed list. The collaborative filtering approach presented in this paper emerges from the insight that an omission in a medication list is analogous to an item a consumer might purchase from a product list. Online retailers use collaborative filtering to recommend relevant products using retrospective purchase data. In this article, the authors argue that patient information in electronic medical records, combined with artificial intelligence methods, can enhance medication reconciliation. The authors formulate the detection of omissions in medication lists as a collaborative filtering problem. Detection of omissions is accomplished using several machine-learning approaches. The effectiveness of these approaches is evaluated using medication data from three long-term care centers. The authors also propose several decision-theoretic extensions to the methodology for incorporating medical knowledge into recommendations. Results show that collaborative filtering identifies the missing drug in the top-10 list about 40-50% of the time and the therapeutic class of the missing drug 50%-65% of the time at the three clinics in this study. Results suggest that collaborative filtering can be a valuable tool for reconciling medication lists, complementing currently recommended process-driven approaches. However, a one-size-fits-all approach is not optimal, and consideration should be given to context (eg, types of patients and drug regimens) and consequence (eg, the impact of omission on outcomes).

  9. 75 FR 78897 - Definition of Omission From Gross Income

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ... Definition of Omission From Gross Income AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Final regulations. SUMMARY: This document contains final regulations defining an omission from gross income for... overstatement of basis in a sold asset results in an omission from gross income. The regulations will affect any...

  10. 31 CFR 8.34 - Knowledge of client's omission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Knowledge of client's omission. 8.34... client's omission. Each attorney, certified public accountant, or enrolled practitioner who knows that a client has not complied with applicable law, or has made an error in or omission from any document...

  11. Altitude Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Altitude Lab evaluates the performance of complete oxygen systems operated in individually controlled hypobaric chambers, which duplicate pressures that would be...

  12. Guide to Altitude Decompression Sickness Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    fitness flight gender growth helium hormone human hyperbaric hypobaric hypoxia incidence injury interface interruption intra in-vitro isobaric male...exposure in hypobaric chambers and, due to its omission of other training, was not adequate for any other use. The two items required prior to...were kept in the contractor lab. 3. Hypobaric exposure records (Research Chamber Flight Records, including AF Forms 361) were kept by Altitude and

  13. [Arterial hypertension due to altitude].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domej, Wolfgang; Trapp, Michael; Miggitsch, Eva Maria; Krakher, Tiziana; Riedlbauer, Rita; Roher, Peter; Schwaberger, Günther

    2008-01-01

    The behavior of blood pressure under hypoxic conditions depends on individual factors, altitude and duration of stay at altitude. While most humans are normotensive at higher altitudes, a few will react with moderate hypertension or hypotension. Excessive elevation of arterial blood pressure is not even to be expected below 4,000 m. Rather, several weeks' stay at higher altitude will decrease systolic and diastolic blood pressure at rest as well as during physical exertion. A high-altitude treatment for rehabilitation purposes at moderate altitude may be recommended for patients with cardio-circulatory disorders. Improvements can last several months even after returning to accustomed altitudes. Furthermore, endurance-trained hypertensive patients with pharmacologically controlled arterial blood pressure might be able to participate in mountain treks without additional health risk.

  14. 48 CFR 925.901 - Omission of the audit clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Omission of the audit clause. 925.901 Section 925.901 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Additional Foreign Acquisition Clauses 925.901 Omission of the audit clause...

  15. Article Omission in Headlines and Child Language: A Processing Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Lange, J.

    2008-01-01

    The results of the crosslinguistic (Dutch, Italian and German) database analysis and experiments presented in my study show that there are interesting similarities between the pattern of article omission by adults in newspaper headlines and the pattern of article omission observed in language

  16. 31 CFR 10.21 - Knowledge of client's omission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Knowledge of client's omission. 10.21... § 10.21 Knowledge of client's omission. A practitioner who, having been retained by a client with respect to a matter administered by the Internal Revenue Service, knows that the client has not complied...

  17. Altitude and endurance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusko, Heikki K; Tikkanen, Heikki O; Peltonen, Juha E

    2004-10-01

    The benefits of living and training at altitude (HiHi) for an improved altitude performance of athletes are clear, but controlled studies for an improved sea-level performance are controversial. The reasons for not having a positive effect of HiHi include: (1) the acclimatization effect may have been insufficient for elite athletes to stimulate an increase in red cell mass/haemoglobin mass because of too low an altitude (altitude training period (training effect at altitude may have been compromised due to insufficient training stimuli for enhancing the function of the neuromuscular and cardiovascular systems; and (3) enhanced stress with possible overtraining symptoms and an increased frequency of infections. Moreover, the effects of hypoxia in the brain may influence both training intensity and physiological responses during training at altitude. Thus, interrupting hypoxic exposure by training in normoxia may be a key factor in avoiding or minimizing the noxious effects that are known to occur in chronic hypoxia. When comparing HiHi and HiLo (living high and training low), it is obvious that both can induce a positive acclimatization effect and increase the oxygen transport capacity of blood, at least in 'responders', if certain prerequisites are met. The minimum dose to attain a haematological acclimatization effect is > 12 h a day for at least 3 weeks at an altitude or simulated altitude of 2100-2500 m. Exposure to hypoxia appears to have some positive transfer effects on subsequent training in normoxia during and after HiLo. The increased oxygen transport capacity of blood allows training at higher intensity during and after HiLo in subsequent normoxia, thereby increasing the potential to improve some neuromuscular and cardiovascular determinants of endurance performance. The effects of hypoxic training and intermittent short-term severe hypoxia at rest are not yet clear and they require further study.

  18. Omission and other sins: Tracking the quality of online machine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Omission and other sins: Tracking the quality of online machine translation output over four years. ... Journal Home > Vol 46 (2016) > ... We believe users should be made aware of the risks they unknowingly take when using online MT.

  19. Cognitive function at rest and during exercise following breakfast omission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komiyama, Takaaki; Sudo, Mizuki; Okuda, Naoki; Yasuno, Tetsuhiko; Kiyonaga, Akira; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Higaki, Yasuki; Ando, Soichi

    2016-04-01

    It has been suggested that breakfast omission, as opposed to breakfast consumption, has the detrimental effects on cognitive function. However, the effects of acute exercise following breakfast omission on cognitive function are poorly understood, particularly during exercise. The purpose of this study was to examine the interactive effects of breakfast and exercise on cognitive function. Ten participants completed cognitive tasks at rest and during exercise in the breakfast consumption or omission conditions. Blood glucose concentration was measured immediately after each cognitive task. We used cognitive tasks to assess working memory [Spatial Delayed Response (DR) task] and executive function [Go/No-Go (GNG) task]. The participants cycled ergometer for 30 min while keeping their heart rate at 140 beats·min(-1). Accuracy of the GNG task was lower at rest in the breakfast omission condition than that in the breakfast consumption condition (Go trial: P=0.012; No-Go trial: P=0.028). However, exercise improved accuracy of the Go trial in the breakfast omission condition (P=0.013). Reaction time in the Go trial decreased during exercise relative to rest in both conditions (P=0.002), and the degree of decreases in reaction time was not different between conditions (P=0.448). Exercise and breakfast did not affect the accuracy of the Spatial DR task. The present results indicate that breakfast omission impairs executive function, but acute exercise improved executive function even after breakfast omission. It appears that beneficial effects of acute exercise on cognitive function are intact following breakfast omission. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of nutrient omission in Caesalpinia echinata plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Valiengo Valeri

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth, the morphological alterations and the mineral composition of brazilwood (Caesalpinia echinata plants caused by mineral nutrients omission in a green house experiment. The experimental units were distributed in the green house according to a completely random design. The treatments, each repeated five times, were the following : check (natural soil, complete (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, B, Cu, Mn, and Zn and a complete solution but for the omission of one of the nutrients in parenthesis. Each plot was represented by a plant growing in a 7 dm3 vase filled with Quartzarenic Neosol. The analyzed variables were the following: visual nutritional deficiency symptoms, plant height, stem diameter, shoot dry matter, stem, branches and leaves included, and leaf nutrients level. The omission of nitrogen limited plant growth in height and shoot biomass production. The first visual deficiency symptoms were those due to N omission followed by those caused by P, Ca, Mg, S, Cu, and Mn omissions. Later on the K and B deficiency symptoms became visible. The omission of a nutrient always caused its level in the leaves to be significantly lower than that found when it was not omitted.

  1. High Altitude and Heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Yalcin

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, situations associated with high altitude such as mountaineering, aviation increasingly draw the attention of people. Gas pressure decreases and hypoxia is encountered when climbing higher. Physiological and pathological responses of human body to different heights are different. Therefore, physiological and pathological changes that may occur together with height and to know the clinical outcomes of these are important . Acute mountain sickness caused by high altitude and high altitude cerebral edema are preventable diseases with appropriate precautions. Atmospheric oxygen decreasing with height, initiates many adaptive mechanisms. These adaptation mechanisms and acclimatization vary widely among individuals because of reasons such as environmental factors, exercise and cold. High altitude causes different changes in the cardiovascular system with various mechanisms. Although normal individuals easily adapt to these changes, this situation can lead to undesirable results in people with heart disease. For this reason, it should be known the effective evaluation of the people with known heart disease before traveling to high altitude and the complications due to the changes with height and the recommendations can be made to these patients. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(2.000: 211-222

  2. Primary Care Providers' Perspectives on Errors of Omission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poghosyan, Lusine; Norful, Allison A; Fleck, Elaine; Bruzzese, Jean-Marie; Talsma, AkkeNeel; Nannini, Angela

    2017-01-01

    Despite recent focus on patient safety in primary care, little attention has been paid to errors of omission, which represent significant gaps in care and threaten patient safety in primary care but are not well studied or categorized. The purpose of this study was to develop a typology of errors of omission from the perspectives of primary care providers (PCPs) and understand what factors within practices lead to or prevent these omissions. A qualitative descriptive design was used to collect data from 26 PCPs, both physicians and nurse practitioners, from the New York State through individual interviews. One researcher conducted all interviews, which were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed in ATLAS.ti, Berlin by 3 researchers using content analysis. They immersed themselves into data, read transcripts independently, and conducted inductive coding. The final codes were linked to each other to develop the typology of errors of omission and the themes. Data saturation was reached at the 26th interview. PCPs reported that omitting patient teaching, patient followup, emotional support, and addressing mental health needs were the main categories of errors of omission. PCPs perceived that time constraints, unplanned patient visits and emergencies, and administrative burden led to these gaps in care. They emphasized that organizational support and infrastructure, effective teamwork and communication, and preparation for the patient encounter were important safeguards to prevent errors of omission within their practices. Errors of omission are common in primary care and could threaten patient safety. Efforts to eliminate them should focus on strengthening organizational attributes of practices, improving teamwork and communication, and assigning manageable workload to PCPs. Practice and policy change is necessary to address gaps in care and prevent them before they result in patient harm. © Copyright 2017 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  3. Anticipated Regret and Omission Bias in HPV Vaccination Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Holm

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated effects of anticipated regret on parents’ HPV vaccination intentions and effects of omission bias on HPV vaccination intentions and vaccine uptake. An online survey was completed by 851 parents of adolescent girls in Denmark, a country where HPV vaccine safety is currently...... heavily debated. Multivariate regression analyses revealed anticipated inaction regret as a significant positive predictor of vaccination intentions, and, anticipated action regret as a significant negative predictor of vaccination intentions. Multivariate analyses also revealed omission bias...... in a hypothetical vaccination vignette as a significant negative predictor of HPV vaccination intention as well as vaccine uptake. Finally, the study tested effects of anticipated regret and omission bias on evaluations of two extisting Danish pro-vaccine campaign videos. Here, the result revealed anticipated...

  4. Stereotyping by Omission: Eliminate the Negative, Accentuate the Positive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergsieker, Hilary B.; Leslie, Lisa M.; Constantine, Vanessa S.; Fiske, Susan T.

    2014-01-01

    Communicators, motivated by strategic self-presentation, selectively underreport negative content in describing their impressions of individuals and stereotypes of groups, particularly for targets whom they view ambivalently with respect to warmth and competence. Communicators avoid overtly inaccurate descriptions, preferring to omit negative information and emphasize positive information about mixed individual targets (Study 1). With more public audiences, communicators increasingly prefer negativity omission to complete accuracy (Study 2), a process driven by self-presentation concerns (Study 3), and moderated by bidimensional ambivalence. Similarly, in an extension of the Princeton Trilogy studies, reported stereotypes of ethnic and national outgroups systematically omitted negative dimensions over 75 years—as anti-prejudice norms intensified—while neutral and positive stereotype dimensions remained constant (Study 4). Multiple assessment methods confirm this stereotyping-by-omission phenomenon (Study 5). Implications of negativity omission for innuendo and stereotype stagnation are discussed. PMID:22448889

  5. 45 CFR 60.6 - Reporting errors, omissions, and revisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reporting errors, omissions, and revisions. 60.6 Section 60.6 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION NATIONAL PRACTITIONER DATA BANK FOR ADVERSE INFORMATION ON PHYSICIANS AND OTHER HEALTH CARE PRACTITIONERS Reporting of...

  6. Omission, Suggestion, Completion : Film and the Imagination of the Spectator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanich, Julian

    2018-01-01

    This article counters the widespread assumption that film is exclusively a medium of showing, presentation or appearing by emphasizing the importance of the viewer’s act of imagination. At the center of attention is the aesthetic principle of omission, suggestion, and completion in film – in other

  7. Legitimate lies : The relationship between omission, commission, and cheating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pittarello, Andrea; Rubaltelli, Enrico; Motro, Daphna

    Across four experiments, we show that when people can serve their self-interest, they are more likely to refrain from reporting the truth ( lie of omission) than actively lie ( lie of commission). We developed a novel online "Heads or Tails" task in which participants can lie to win a monetary

  8. Omissions and Preventions as Cases of Genuine Causation | Hunt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This analysis provides a basis for solving a number of puzzles about 'negative' events. Any 'intuition' of difference between causal statements employing such descriptions and others employing positive descriptions of events is also explained. With omissions, where this intuition has some basis, it is shown that nevertheless ...

  9. Formal Model of Certificate Omission Schemes in VANET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feiri, Michael; Petit, Jonathan; Kargl, Frank

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of certificate omission schemes in VANET have been so far proven by simulation. However, the research community is lacking of a formal model that would allow implementers and policy makers to select the optimal parameters for such schemes. In this paper, we lay the foundations of the

  10. Children's Omission of Prepositions in English and Icelandic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Katrina Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation is to empirically test the hypothesis that children's omission of functional elements reflects performance factors (McKee, 1994; McKee & Iwasaki, 2001), rather than lack of knowledge (Felix, 1987; Radford, 1990, 1995; Tomasello, 2000). The multi-level production system treats content and function morphemes…

  11. Altitude Compensating Nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruf, Joseph H.; Jones, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The dual-bell nozzle (fig. 1) is an altitude-compensating nozzle that has an inner contour consisting of two overlapped bells. At low altitudes, the dual-bell nozzle operates in mode 1, only utilizing the smaller, first bell of the nozzle. In mode 1, the nozzle flow separates from the wall at the inflection point between the two bell contours. As the vehicle reaches higher altitudes, the dual-bell nozzle flow transitions to mode 2, to flow full into the second, larger bell. This dual-mode operation allows near optimal expansion at two altitudes, enabling a higher mission average specific impulse (Isp) relative to that of a conventional, single-bell nozzle. Dual-bell nozzles have been studied analytically and subscale nozzle tests have been completed.1 This higher mission averaged Isp can provide up to a 5% increase2 in payload to orbit for existing launch vehicles. The next important step for the dual-bell nozzle is to confirm its potential in a relevant flight environment. Toward this end, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Armstrong Flight Research Center (AFRC) have been working to develop a subscale, hot-fire, dual-bell nozzle test article for flight testing on AFRC's F15-D flight test bed (figs. 2 and 3). Flight test data demonstrating a dual-bell ability to control the mode transition and result in a sufficient increase in a rocket's mission averaged Isp should help convince the launch service providers that the dual-bell nozzle would provide a return on the required investment to bring a dual-bell into flight operation. The Game Changing Department provided 0.2 FTE to ER42 for this effort in 2014.

  12. [Mistakes and omissions in judicial reports prepared in emergency services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turla, Ahmet; Aydin, Berna; Sataloğlu, Neva

    2009-03-01

    We aimed in this study to determine any mistakes or omissions made while preparing judicial reports, which contribute to the judicial process. In this study, we evaluated as samples 351 judicial reports of victims who applied to the Emergency Service of Ondokuz Mayis University between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2005 with respect to the judicial facts, and we recorded any mistakes or omissions of data in these reports. We determined that there was no record of age in 6% of the judicial reports, of examination time in 71.8%, of traumatic lesion or not in 30.5%, of the state of consciousness in 58.7%, and of the presence or not of life-threatening risks in 2.6%. The name of the physician who prepared the report was not provided in 8.0% of the reports. The most important omission is that none of the reports had the name, surname or signature of the person who had taken the prepared report. We concluded that, after graduation, it is necessary for physicians, who are responsible for both treating the patients and writing judicial reports, to attend in-service training programs. They must also be properly advised regarding their responsibilities in judicial cases.

  13. Altitude exposures during commercial flight: a reappraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, Neil B; Kregenow, David A; Mahoney, Anne M; Kirtland, Steven H; Horan, Kathleen L; Holm, James R; Gerbino, Anthony J

    2013-01-01

    Hypobaric hypoxia during commercial air travel has the potential to cause or worsen hypoxemia in individuals with pre-existing cardiopulmonary compromise. Knowledge of cabin altitude pressures aboard contemporary flights is essential to counseling patients accurately about flying safety. The objective of the study was to measure peak cabin altitudes during U.S. domestic commercial flights on a variety of aircraft. A handheld mountaineering altimeter was carried by the investigators in the plane cabin during commercial air travel and peak cabin altitude measured. The values were then compared between aircraft models, aircraft classes, and distances flown. The average peak cabin altitude on 207 flights aboard 17 different aircraft was 6341 +/- 1813 ft (1933 m +/- 553 m), significantly higher than when measured in a similar fashion in 1988. Peak cabin altitude was significantly higher for flights longer than 750 mi (7085 +/- 801 ft) compared to shorter flights (5160 +/- 2290 ft/1573 +/- 698 m). Cabin altitude increased linearly with flight distance for flights up to 750 mi in length, but was independent of flight distance for flights exceeding 750 mi. Peak cabin altitude was less than 5000 ft (1524 m) in 70% of flights shorter than 500 mi. Peak cabin altitudes greater than 8000 ft (2438 m) were measured on approximately 10% of the total flights. Peak cabin altitude on commercial aircraft flights has risen over time. Cabin altitude is lower with flights of shorter distance. Physicians should take these factors into account when determining an individual's need for supplemental oxygen during commercial air travel.

  14. Topographical variations in behavior during autoshaping, automaintenance, and omission training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldridge, G D; Pear, J J

    1987-05-01

    Three pigeons were exposed to an autoshaping and automaintenance procedure while a computer-controlled tracking system continuously recorded the position of the bird's head as it moved freely in the experimental chamber. Although only 2 birds pecked the key during the conditional stimulus (red keylight), all 3 birds exhibited stable patterns of approaching the conditional stimulus and withdrawing from the intertrial stimulus (white keylight). Subsequent exposure to an omission procedure, in which pecks on the red key cancelled the presentation of food upon the termination of the red keylight, greatly reduced key pecking, but approaching and pecking in the vicinity of the conditional stimulus were maintained at high levels. When the omission contingency was removed key pecking increased. During all phases the birds withdrew from the area of the white key and engaged in repetitive back-and-forth or circuiting movements during this intertrial stimulus. The data document (a) the strong control the conditional stimulus in autoshaping and automaintenance exerts over approach to the key and pecking motions whether or not the conditional stimulus elicits key pecking at a high level; and (b) withdrawal from the vicinity of the key and the occurrence of stereotypic behavior during the intertrial interval.

  15. Cardiovascular Effects of Altitude on Performance Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ankit B; Coplan, Neil

    Altitude plays an important role in cardiovascular performance and training for athletes. Whether it is mountaineers, skiers, or sea-level athletes trying to gain an edge by training or living at increased altitude, there are many potential benefits and harms of such endeavors. Echocardiographic studies done on athletes at increased altitude have shown evidence for right ventricular dysfunction and pulmonary hypertension, but no change in left ventricular ejection fraction. In addition, 10% of athletes are susceptible to pulmonary hypertension and high-altitude pulmonary edema. Some studies suggest that echocardiography may be able to identify athletes susceptible to high-altitude pulmonary edema prior to competing or training at increased altitudes. Further research is needed on the long-term effects of altitude training, as repeated, transient episodes of pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular dysfunction may have long-term implications. Current literature suggests that performance athletes are not at higher risk for ventricular arrhythmias when training or competing at increased altitudes. For sea-level athletes, the optimal strategy for attaining the benefits while minimizing the harms of altitude training still needs to be clarified, although-for now-the "live high, train low" approach appears to have the most rationale.

  16. 7 CFR 1.51 - Claims based on negligence, wrongful act or omission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Claims based on negligence, wrongful act or omission. 1.51 Section 1.51 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Claims § 1.51 Claims based on negligence, wrongful act or omission. (a) Authority of the Department...

  17. Classical altitude training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedmann-Bette, B

    2008-08-01

    For more than 40 years, the effects of classical altitude training on sea-level performance have been the subject of many scientific investigations in individual endurance sports. To our knowledge, no studies have been performed in team sports like football. Two well-controlled studies showed that living and training at an altitude of >or=1800-2700 m for 3-4 weeks is superior to equivalent training at sea level in well-trained athletes. Most of the controlled studies with elite athletes did not reveal such an effect. However, the results of some uncontrolled studies indicate that sea-level performance might be enhanced after altitude training also in elite athletes. Whether hypoxia provides an additional stimulus for muscular adaptation, when training is performed with equal intensity compared with sea-level training is not known. There is some evidence for an augmentation of total hemoglobin mass after classical altitude training with duration >or=3 weeks at an altitude >or=2000 m due to altitude acclimatization. Considerable individual variation is observed in the erythropoietic response to hypoxia and in the hypoxia-induced reduction of aerobic performance capacity during training at altitude, both of which are thought to contribute to inter-individual variation in the improvement of sea-level performance after altitude training.

  18. HIGH-ALTITUDE ILLNESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwitya Elvira

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakHigh-altitude illness (HAI merupakan sekumpulan gejala paru dan otak yang terjadi pada orang yang baru pertama kali mendaki ke ketinggian. HAI terdiri dari acute mountain sickness (AMS, high-altitude cerebral edema (HACE dan high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE. Tujuan tinjauan pustaka ini adalah agar dokter dan wisatawan memahami risiko, tanda, gejala, dan pengobatan high-altitude illness. Perhatian banyak diberikan terhadap penyakit ini seiring dengan meningkatnya popularitas olahraga ekstrim (mendaki gunung tinggi, ski dan snowboarding dan adanya kemudahan serta ketersediaan perjalanan sehingga jutaan orang dapat terpapar bahaya HAI. Di Pherice, Nepal (ketinggian 4343 m, 43% pendaki mengalami gejala AMS. Pada studi yang dilakukan pada tempat wisata di resort ski Colorado, Honigman menggambarkan kejadian AMS 22% pada ketinggian 1850 m sampai 2750 m, sementara Dean menunjukkan 42% memiliki gejala pada ketinggian 3000 m. Aklimatisasi merupakan salah satu tindakan pencegahan yang dapat dilakukan sebelum pendakian, selain beberapa pengobatan seperti asetazolamid, dexamethasone, phosopodiestrase inhibitor, dan ginko biloba.Kata kunci: high-altitude illness, acute mountain sickness, edema cerebral, pulmonary edema AbstractHigh-altitude illness (HAI is symptoms of lung and brain that occurs in people who first climb to altitude. HAI includes acute mountain sickness (AMS, high-altitude cerebral edema (HACE and high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE. The objective of this review was to understand the risks, signs, symptoms, and treatment of high-altitude illness. The attention was given to this disease due to the rising popularity of extreme sports (high mountain climbing, skiing and snowboarding and the ease and availability of the current travelling, almost each year, millions of people could be exposed to the danger of HAI. In Pherice, Nepal (altitude 4343 m, 43% of climbers have symptoms of AMS. Furthermore, in a study conducted at sites in

  19. Stimulus- and response-reinforcer contingencies in autoshaping, operant, classical, and omission training procedures in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atnip, G W

    1977-07-01

    Separate groups of rats received 500 trials of lever-press training under autoshaping (food delivery followed 10-second lever presentations, or occurred immediately following a response); operant conditioning (responding was necessary for food delivery); and classical conditioning (food followed lever presentations regardless of responding). Each group then received 500 trials on an omission procedure in which food was omitted on trials with a response. Another group received 1000 trials on the omission procedure, and a fifth group, random control, received 1000 uncorrelated presentations of lever and food. The autoshaping, operant, and classical groups reached high response levels by the end of initial training. Acquisition was fastest in the autoshaping group. Responding remained consistently low in the control group. The omission group responded at a level between the control group and the other three groups. During omission training, responding in these three groups declined to the omission-group level. During omission training, the rats continued contacting the lever frequently after lever pressing had declined. Response maintenance under omission training seems not to require topographic similarity between the response and reinforcer-elicited consummatory behaviors.

  20. High altitude illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman-Ksycińska, Anna; Kluz-Zawadzka, Jolanta; Lewandowski, Bogumił

    High-altitude illness is a result of prolonged high-altitude exposure of unacclimatized individuals. The illness is seen in the form of acute mountain sickness (AMS) which if not treated leads to potentially life-threatening high altitude pulmonary oedema and high-altitude cerebral oedema. Medical problems are caused by hypobaric hypoxia stimulating hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) release. As a result, the central nervous system, circulation and respiratory system function impairment occurs. The most important factor in AMS treatment is acclimatization, withdrawing further ascent and rest or beginning to descent; oxygen supplementation, and pharmacological intervention, and, if available, a portable hyperbaric chamber. Because of the popularity of high-mountain sports and tourism better education of the population at risk is essential.

  1. Endurance training at altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Philo U; Pyne, David B; Gore, Christopher J

    2009-01-01

    Since the 1968 Olympic Games when the effects of altitude on endurance performance became evident, moderate altitude training ( approximately 2000 to 3000 m) has become popular to improve competition performance both at altitude and sea level. When endurance athletes are exposed acutely to moderate altitude, a number of physiological responses occur that can comprise performance at altitude; these include increased ventilation, increased heart rate, decreased stroke volume, reduced plasma volume, and lower maximal aerobic power ((.)Vo(2max)) by approximately 15% to 20%. Over a period of several weeks, one primary acclimatization response is an increase in the volume of red blood cells and consequently of (.)Vo(2max). Altitudes > approximately 2000 m for >3 weeks and adequate iron stores are required to elicit these responses. However, the primacy of more red blood cells for superior sea-level performance is not clear-cut since the best endurance athletes in the world, from Ethiopia (approximately 2000 to 3000 m), have only marginally elevated hemoglobin concentrations. The substantial reduction in (.)Vo(2max) of athletes at moderate altitude implies that their training should include adequate short-duration (approximately 1 to 2 min), high-intensity efforts with long recoveries to avoid a reduction in race-specific fitness. At the elite level, athlete performance is not dependent solely on (.)Vo(2max), and the "smallest worthwhile change" in performance for improving race results is as little as 0.5%. Consequently, contemporary statistical approaches that utilize the concept of the smallest worthwhile change are likely to be more appropriate than conventional statistical methods when attempting to understand the potential benefits and mechanisms of altitude training.

  2. Omission of Dysphagia Therapies in Hospital Discharge Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kind, Amy; Anderson, Paul; Hind, Jacqueline; Robbins, JoAnne; Smith, Maureen

    2009-01-01

    Background Despite the wide implementation of dysphagia therapies, it is unclear whether these therapies are successfully communicated beyond the inpatient setting. Objective To examine the rate of dysphagia recommendation omissions in hospital discharge summaries for high-risk sub-acute care (i.e., skilled nursing facility, rehabilitation, long-term care) populations. Design Retrospective cohort study Subjects All stroke and hip fracture patients billed for inpatient dysphagia evaluations by speech-language pathologists (SLPs) and discharged to sub-acute care in 2003-2005 from a single large academic medical center (N=187). Measurements Dysphagia recommendations from final SLP hospital notes and from hospital (physician) discharge summaries were abstracted, coded, and compared for each patient. Recommendation categories included: dietary (food and liquid), postural/compensatory techniques (e.g., chin-tuck), rehabilitation (e.g., exercise), meal pacing (e.g., small bites), medication delivery (e.g., crush pills), and provider/supervision (e.g., 1-to-1 assist). Results 45% of discharge summaries omitted all SLP dysphagia recommendations. 47%(88/186) of patients with SLP dietary recommendations, 82%(93/114) with postural, 100%(16/16) with rehabilitation, 90%(69/77) with meal pacing, 95%(21/22) with medication, and 79%(96/122) with provider/supervision recommendations had these recommendations completely omitted from their discharge summaries. Conclusions Discharge summaries omitted all categories of SLP recommendations at notably high rates. Improved post-hospital communication strategies are needed for discharges to sub-acute care. PMID:20098999

  3. High Altitude Launch for a Practical SSTO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Denis, Vincent

    2003-01-01

    Existing engineering materials allow the constuction of towers to heights of many kilometers. Orbital launch from a high altitude has significant advantages over sea-level launch due to the reduced atmospheric pressure, resulting in lower atmospheric drag on the vehicle and allowing higher rocket engine performance. High-altitude launch sites are particularly advantageous for single-stage to orbit (SSTO) vehicles, where the payload is typically 2% of the initial launch mass. An earlier paper enumerated some of the advantages of high altitude launch of SSTO vehicles. In this paper, we calculate launch trajectories for a candidate SSTO vehicle, and calculate the advantage of launch at launch altitudes 5 to 25 kilometer altitudes above sea level. The performance increase can be directly translated into increased payload capability to orbit, ranging from 5 to 20% increase in the mass to orbit. For a candidate vehicle with an initial payload fraction of 2% of gross lift-off weight, this corresponds to 31% increase in payload (for 5-km launch altitude) to 122% additional payload (for 25-km launch altitude).

  4. Eating patterns in adolescents with type 1 diabetes: Associations with metabolic control, insulin omission, and eating disorder pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisting, Line; Reas, Deborah Lynn; Bang, Lasse; Skrivarhaug, Torild; Dahl-Jørgensen, Knut; Rø, Øyvind

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate eating patterns among male and female adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D), and the associations with age, zBMI, eating disorder (ED) pathology, intentional insulin omission, and metabolic control. The sample consisted of 104 adolescents (58.6% females) with child-onset T1D, mean age of 15.7 years (SD 1.8) and mean zBMI of 0.4 (SD 0.8). The Child Eating Disorder Examination (ChEDE) assessed meal/snack frequency and ED pathology. T1D clinical data was obtained from the Norwegian Childhood Diabetes Registry. A significantly lower proportion of females than males (73.8% vs 97.7%) consumed breakfast on a daily basis. Approximately 50% of both genders ate lunch and 90% ate dinner daily. Among females, skipping breakfast was significantly associated with higher global ED psychopathology, shape concerns, self-induced vomiting, binge eating, insulin omission due to shape/weight concerns, and poorer metabolic control. Less frequent lunch consumption was significantly associated with poorer metabolic control. Skipping dinner was significantly associated with older age, higher dietary restraint, eating concerns, self-induced vomiting, and insulin omission. Among males, less frequent consumption of lunch and evening snacks was associated with attitudinal features of ED, including shape/weight concerns and dietary restraint. Among adolescents with T1D, irregular or infrequent meal consumption appears to signal potential ED pathology, as well as being associated with poorer metabolic control. These findings suggest the importance of routinely assessing eating patterns in adolescents with T1D to improve detection of ED pathology and to facilitate improved metabolic control and the associated risk of somatic complications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Inappropriate prescribing and prescribing omissions among drug-related problems using STOPP-START criteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdoorn, M.A.; Kwint, H.-F.; Faber, A.; L. Bouvy, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background and objectives: Medication review has been suggested as a way to prevent drug related problems (DRPs). Screening tools have been formulated to identify potentially inappropriate medicines (PIMs) and potential prescribing omissions (PPOs) respectively called Screening Tool of Older

  6. High-Altitude Illnesses: Physiology, Risk Factors, Prevention, and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew T. Taylor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available High-altitude illnesses encompass the pulmonary and cerebral syndromes that occur in non-acclimatized individuals after rapid ascent to high altitude. The most common syndrome is acute mountain sickness (AMS which usually begins within a few hours of ascent and typically consists of headache variably accompanied by loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, disturbed sleep, fatigue, and dizziness. With millions of travelers journeying to high altitudes every year and sleeping above 2,500 m, acute mountain sickness is a wide-spread clinical condition. Risk factors include home elevation, maximum altitude, sleeping altitude, rate of ascent, latitude, age, gender, physical condition, intensity of exercise, pre-acclimatization, genetic make-up, and pre-existing diseases. At higher altitudes, sleep disturbances may become more profound, mental performance is impaired, and weight loss may occur. If ascent is rapid, acetazolamide can reduce the risk of developing AMS, although a number of high-altitude travelers taking acetazolamide will still develop symptoms. Ibuprofen can be effective for headache. Symptoms can be rapidly relieved by descent, and descent is mandatory, if at all possible, for the management of the potentially fatal syndromes of high-altitude pulmonary and cerebral edema. The purpose of this review is to combine a discussion of specific risk factors, prevention, and treatment options with a summary of the basic physiologic responses to the hypoxia of altitude to provide a context for managing high-altitude illnesses and advising the non-acclimatized high-altitude traveler.

  7. High altitude organic gold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouliot, Mariève; Pyakurel, Dipesh; Smith-Hall, Carsten

    2018-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Ophiocordyceps sinensis (Berk.) G.H.Sung, J.M.Sung, Hywel-Jones & Spatafora, a high altitude Himalayan fungus-caterpillar product found in alpine meadows in China, Bhutan, Nepal, and India, has been used in the Traditional Chinese Medicine system for over 2000 years...

  8. Reasons for omission of enforcement of an administrative judge's verdict and means of legal protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alen Rajko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Besides general repercussions of an omission of enforcement of court decisions on the protection of the rights of the parties and on the functioning of the legal system, such an omission in the administrative dispute has additional implications, related primarily to the realization of the constitutional guarantee of judicial review of administrative decisions, the concept of separation of powers, construction of a democratic state, etc. After general considerations of the matter of enforcement of court decisions, the author analyzes the normative framework of the enforcement of judgments of the administrative courts, as well as the evolution of this framework, points out the open questions regarding mentioned regulation, as well as the means of legal protection in case of an omission of enforcement of the verdict.

  9. The Impact of Altitude on Sleep-Disordered Breathing in Children Dwelling at High Altitude: A Crossover Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Benjamin H; Brinton, John T; Ingram, David G; Halbower, Ann C

    2017-09-01

    Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is prevalent among children and is associated with adverse health outcomes. Worldwide, approximately 250 million individuals reside at altitudes higher than 2000 meters above sea level (masl). The effect of chronic high-altitude exposure on children with SDB is unknown. This study aims to determine the impact of altitude on sleep study outcomes in children with SDB dwelling at high altitude. A single-center crossover study was performed to compare results of high-altitude home polysomnography (H-PSG) with lower altitude laboratory polysomnography (L-PSG) in school-age children dwelling at high altitude with symptoms consistent with SDB. The primary outcome was apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), with secondary outcomes including obstructive AHI; central AHI; and measures of oxygenation, sleep quality, and pulse rate. Twelve participants were enrolled, with 10 included in the final analysis. Median altitude was 1644 masl on L-PSG and 2531 masl on H-PSG. Median AHI was 2.40 on L-PSG and 10.95 on H-PSG. Both obstructive and central respiratory events accounted for the difference in AHI. Oxygenation and sleep fragmentation were worse and pulse rate higher on H-PSG compared to L-PSG. These findings reveal a clinically substantial impact of altitude on respiratory, sleep, and cardiovascular outcomes in children with SDB who dwell at high altitude. Within this population, L-PSG underestimates obstructive sleep apnea and central sleep apnea compared to H-PSG. Given the shortage of high-altitude pediatric sleep laboratories, these results suggest a role for home sleep apnea testing for children residing at high altitude. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Armadilhas cognitivas: o caso das omissões na gênese dos acidentes de trabalho Cognitive traps: the case of omission in the genesis of work-related accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ldeberto Muniz de Almeida

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo discute-se o tema das omissões na gênese de acidentes do trabalho, tendo como referência contribuições de James Reason. Os autores descrevem três acidentes de trabalho ocorridos em atividades de manutenção, e nos quais a omissão de passos na execução da atividade foi apontada como "causa" nas análises efetuadas pelas empresas, acarretando atribuição de culpa aos acidentados. Nos três casos, a análise efetuada pelos autores revelou que, na seqüência de passos da atividade havia presença simultânea de pelo menos quatro das características apontadas por Reason como geradoras de omissões, caracterizando as denominadas armadilhas cognitivas.This article discusses omissions in work-related accidents. The authors present James Reason's concepts on task characteristics which can increase the chance of operator omission. These ideas were applied to three accidents in which worker omission was given as the "cause" and "proof" of victim's guilt. Analysis of these accidents as a stepwise sequence of activities shows at least four of Reason's omissions characteristics. The expression "cognitive trap" is used to describe their simultaneous presence, and these omissions are highlighted as an organizational aspect requiring consideration in accident-prevention strategies.

  11. The association between nurse staffing and omissions in nursing care: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Peter; Recio-Saucedo, Alejandra; Dall'Ora, Chiara; Briggs, Jim; Maruotti, Antonello; Meredith, Paul; Smith, Gary B; Ball, Jane

    2018-03-08

    To identify nursing care most frequently missed in acute adult inpatient wards and to determine evidence for the association of missed care with nurse staffing. Research has established associations between nurse staffing levels and adverse patient outcomes including in-hospital mortality. However, the causal nature of this relationship is uncertain and omissions of nursing care (referred as missed care, care left undone or rationed care) have been proposed as a factor which may provide a more direct indicator of nurse staffing adequacy. Systematic review. We searched the Cochrane Library, CINAHL, Embase and Medline for quantitative studies of associations between staffing and missed care. We searched key journals, personal libraries and reference lists of articles. Two reviewers independently selected studies. Quality appraisal was based on the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence quality appraisal checklist for studies reporting correlations and associations. Data were abstracted on study design, missed care prevalence and measures of association. Synthesis was narrative. Eighteen studies gave subjective reports of missed care. Seventy-five per cent or more nurses reported omitting some care. Fourteen studies found low nurse staffing levels were significantly associated with higher reports of missed care. There was little evidence that adding support workers to the team reduced missed care. Low Registered Nurse staffing is associated with reports of missed nursing care in hospitals. Missed care is a promising indicator of nurse staffing adequacy. The extent to which the relationships observed represent actual failures, is yet to be investigated. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Brain Food at High Altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Vishal

    2016-01-01

    Scenic view at high altitude is a pleasure to the eyes, but it has some shortcoming effects as well. High altitude can be divided into different categories, i.e., high altitude (3000-5000 ft), very high altitude (5000-8000 ft), and extreme altitude (above 8000 ft). Much of the population resides at high altitude, and others go there for tourism. Military personnel are also posted there to defend boundaries. As we ascent to high altitude, partial pressure of oxygen reduces, whereas concentration remains the same; this reduces the availability of oxygen to different body parts. This pathophysiological condition is known as hypobaric hypoxia (HH) which leads to oxidative stress and further causes cognitive dysfunction in some cases. Hypoxia causes neurodegeneration in different brain regions; however, the hippocampus is found to be more prone in comparison to other brain regions. As the hippocampus is affected most, therefore, spatial memory is impaired most during such condition. This chapter will give a brief review of the damaging effect of high altitude on cognition and also throw light on possible herbal interventions at high altitude, which can improve cognitive performance as well as provide protection against the deteriorating effect of hypobaric hypoxia at high altitude.

  13. 45 CFR 61.6 - Reporting errors, omissions, revisions or whether an action is on appeal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reporting errors, omissions, revisions or whether an action is on appeal. 61.6 Section 61.6 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION HEALTHCARE INTEGRITY AND PROTECTION DATA BANK FOR FINAL ADVERSE INFORMATION ON...

  14. Pengaruh Dividend Initiations dan Dividend Cut/Omissions terhadap Return Saham di Bursa Efek Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Dwi Ari Ambarwati

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates market reactions to initiations and cut/omissions of cash dividend payment. Consistent with prior literature, the result of this research tend to support the propositions that shareholders make considerable use of the information implicit in dividend announcement. Shareholders react positively significant to the dividend initiations announcement and negatively significant to the dividend cut/omissions announcement. A multiple regression model is formulated to identify the factors that contribute significantly to the capital gain (loss suffered by shareholders when firm decide to initiate (cut/omit dividend. Result indicate that, in conformity with the information content hypothesis, the shareholders’s respond to dividend initiations significantly depends on  the firm size and the cumulative return movement (CARM in the preceding period. Whereas, the shareholders’s re¬spond to dividend cut/omissions significantly depends on the cumulative return movement (CARM in the preced¬ing period and risk/corrected beta of the firm at alpha 1% and 5%.Keywords: Signaling hypothesis, Dividend initiations, dividend cut/omissions

  15. The Lack of Omission of Clitics in Greek Children with SLI: An Experimental Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manika, S.; Varlokosta, S.; Wexler, K.

    2010-01-01

    Object clitics are not uniformly acquired across languages; French-, Italian, Catalan- speaking TD children show late acquisition of clitics, omission and a preference for using full DPs in contrast to Spanish-, Romanian- and Greek-speaking ones. This variation has been explained through the

  16. 17 CFR 210.4-03 - Inapplicable captions and omission of unrequired or inapplicable financial statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... omission of unrequired or inapplicable financial statements. 210.4-03 Section 210.4-03 Commodity and... unrequired or inapplicable financial statements. (a) No caption should be shown in any financial statement as to which the items and conditions are not present. (b) Financial statements not required or...

  17. 26 CFR 301.6229(c)(2)-1T - Substantial omission of income (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....6229(c)(2)-1T Substantial omission of income (temporary). (a) Partnership return—(1) General rule. (i) If any partnership omits from the gross income stated in its return an amount properly includible... omitted from gross income if information sufficient to apprise the Commissioner of the nature and amount...

  18. 24 CFR 1710.29 - Use of property report-misstatements, omissions or representation of HUD approval prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-misstatements, omissions or representation of HUD approval prohibited. 1710.29 Section 1710.29 Housing and Urban...—misstatements, omissions or representation of HUD approval prohibited. Nothing is these regulations shall be construed to authorize or approve the use of a property report containing any untrue statement of a material...

  19. Detecting intentional insulin omission for weight loss in girls with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinhas-Hamiel, Orit; Hamiel, Uri; Greenfield, Yuval; Boyko, Valentina; Graph-Barel, Chana; Rachmiel, Marianna; Lerner-Geva, Liat; Reichman, Brian

    2013-12-01

    Intentional insulin omission is a unique inappropriate compensatory behavior that occurs in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus, mostly in females, who omit or restrict their required insulin doses in order to lose weight. Diagnosis of this underlying disorder is difficult. We aimed to use clinical and laboratory criteria to create an algorithm to assist in the detection of intentional insulin omission. The distribution of HbA1c levels from 287 (181 females) patients with type 1 diabetes were used as reference. Data from 26 patients with type 1 diabetes and intentional insulin omission were analysed. The Weka (Waikato Environment for Knowledge Analysis) machine learning software, decision tree classifier with 10-fold cross validation was used to developed prediction models. Model performance was assessed by cross-validation in a further 43 patients. Adolescents with intentional insulin omission were discriminated by: female sex, HbA1c>9.2%, more than 20% of HbA1c measurements above the 90th percentile, the mean of 3 highest delta HbA1c z-scores>1.28, current age and age at diagnosis. The models developed showed good discrimination (sensitivity and specificity 0.88 and 0.74, respectively). The external test dataset revealed good performance of the model with a sensitivity and specificity of 1.00 and 0.97, respectively. Using data mining methods we developed a clinical prediction model to determine an individual's probability of intentionally omitting insulin. This model provides a decision support system for the detection of intentional insulin omission for weight loss in adolescent females with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Altitude Compensating Nozzle Transonic Performance Flight Demonstration, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Altitude compensating nozzles continue to be of interest for use on future launch vehicle boosters and upper stages because of their higher mission average Isp and...

  1. Training at altitude in practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, F W

    1992-10-01

    There can be little doubt that training at altitude is fundamental to preparing an athlete for competition at altitude. However the value of training at altitude for competition at sea level appears on the one hand to lack total acceptance amongst sports scientists; and on the other to hold some cloak of mystery for coaches who have yet to enjoy first hand experience. The fact is that very few endurance athletes will ignore the critical edge which altitude training affords. Each fraction of a percentage of performance advantage gained through methods which are within the rules of fair play in sport, may shift the balance between failure and achievement. Moreover, there is growing support for application of training at altitude for speed-related disciplines. This paper aims to demystify the subject by dealing with practical aspects of training at altitude. Such aspects include a checklist of what should and should not be done at altitude, when to use altitude relative to target competitions, and specific training examples.

  2. [Hemoglobin and testosterone: importance on high altitude acclimatization and adaptation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Gustavo F

    2011-03-01

    The different types of response mechanisms that the organism uses when exposed to hypoxia include accommodation, acclimatization and adaptation. Accommodation is the initial response to acute exposure to high altitude hypoxia and is characterized by an increase in ventilation and heart rate. Acclimatization is observed in individuals temporarily exposed to high altitude, and to some extent, it enables them to tolerate the high altitudes. In this phase, erythropoiesis is increased, resulting in higher hemoglobin and hematocrit levels to improve oxygen delivery capacity. Adaptation is the process of natural acclimatization where genetical variations and acclimatization play a role in allowing subjects to live without any difficulties at high altitudes. Testosterone is a hormone that regulates erythropoiesis and ventilation and could be associated to the processes of acclimatization and adaptation to high altitude. Excessive erythrocytosis, which leads to chronic mountain sickness, is caused by low arterial oxygen saturation, ventilatory inefficiency and reduced ventilatory response to hypoxia. Testosterone increases during acute exposure to high altitude and also in natives at high altitude with excessive erythrocytosis. Results of current research allow us to conclude that increase in serum testosterone and hemoglobin is adequate for acclimatization, as they improve oxygen transport, but not for high altitude adaptation, since high serum testosterone levels are associated to excessive erythrocytosis.

  3. Learning not to respond: Role of the hippocampus in withholding responses during omission training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Norman M; Naeem, Maliha

    2017-02-01

    Autoshaping is a Pavlovian learning paradigm in which rats experience pairings of a CS and a US independently of their behavior. When the CS is a lever inserted into the test cage and the US is food delivered to an adjacent magazine, many rats acquire a lever-pressing response called 'sign-tracking' even though that response has no effect on the occurrence of either the CS or the US. Since these lever presses are always followed by the US, it has been suggested that sign-tracking could be due to unintended reinforcement of the response. To eliminate the possibility of such instrumental learning the omission schedule, in which a response to the CS cancels the US, was introduced. Previous research has shown that training rats on autoshaping and switching them to an omission schedule generally reduces but does not eliminate sign-tracking, suggesting that it may be due to both Pavlovian and instrumental learning. In the present study naive rats trained on an omission schedule sign-tracked less than a control group exposed to random, unpaired CS and US presentations, suggesting that they learned to withhold the lever press response because of the negative contingency between that response and the US. In a second experiment rats with dorsal hippocampus lesions sign-tracked more than sham-lesioned rats on omission schedules, suggesting that this case of learning not to respond is hippocampus-based. This conclusion is consistent with many previous findings on the inability of hippocampal rats to withhold or suppress responding, and with studies suggesting that one form of extinction of learned responses in normal rats is due to competition from hippocampus-based learning not to respond. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. High altitude dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G K Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Approximately, 140 million people worldwide live permanently at high altitudes (HAs and approximately another 40 million people travel to HA area (HAA every year for reasons of occupation, sports or recreation. In India, whole of Ladakh region, part of Northwest Kashmir, Northern part of Sikkim and Tenga valley of Arunachal are considered inhabited areas of HAA. The low quantity of oxygen, high exposure of ultraviolet (UV light, very low humidity, extreme subzero temperature in winter, high wind velocity, make this region difficult for lowlanders as well as for tourists. Acute mountain sickness, HA pulmonary edema, HA cerebral edema, and thromboembolic conditions are known to occur in HA. However, enough knowledge has not been shared on dermatoses peculiar to this region. Xerosis, UV-related skin disorders (tanning, photomelanosis, acute and chronic sunburn, polymorphic light eruption, chronic actinic dermatitis, actinic cheilitis, etc., cold injuries (frostbite, chilblains, acrocyanosis, erythrocyanosis, etc. nail changes (koilonychias, airborne contact dermatitis, insect bite reaction, and skin carcinoma (basal cell carcinomas, squamous cell carcinomas, and also rarely malignant melanoma are the dermatoses seen in HAAs. Early diagnosis and knowledge of HA dermatoses may prevent serious consequences of disease and improve the quality of life for the visitors as well as for native of the place.

  5. Acute high-altitude sickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M. Luks

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available At any point 1–5 days following ascent to altitudes ≥2500 m, individuals are at risk of developing one of three forms of acute altitude illness: acute mountain sickness, a syndrome of nonspecific symptoms including headache, lassitude, dizziness and nausea; high-altitude cerebral oedema, a potentially fatal illness characterised by ataxia, decreased consciousness and characteristic changes on magnetic resonance imaging; and high-altitude pulmonary oedema, a noncardiogenic form of pulmonary oedema resulting from excessive hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction which can be fatal if not recognised and treated promptly. This review provides detailed information about each of these important clinical entities. After reviewing the clinical features, epidemiology and current understanding of the pathophysiology of each disorder, we describe the current pharmacological and nonpharmacological approaches to the prevention and treatment of these diseases.

  6. Altitude training improves glycemic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu-Man; Lin, Hsueh-Yi; Kuo, Chia-Hua

    2013-08-31

    Under altitude hypoxia condition, energy reliance on anaerobic glycolysis increases to compensate the shortfall caused by reduced fatty acid oxidation. Short-term moderate altitude exposure plus endurance physical activity has been found to improve glucose tolerance (not fasting glucose) in humans, which is associated with the improvement in the whole-body insulin sensitivity. However, most of people cannot accommodate high altitude exposure above 4500 M due to acute mountain sickness and insulin resistance. There is a wide variation among individuals in response to the altitude challenge. In particular, the improvement in glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity by prolonged altitude hiking activity was not apparent in those individuals with low baseline dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) concentration. In rats, exercise training recovery under prolonged hypoxia exposure (14-15% oxygen, 8 h per day for 6 weeks) can also improve insulin sensitivity, secondary to an effective suppression of adiposity. After prolonged hypoxia training, obese abnormality in upregulated baseline levels of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and AS160 phosphorylation in skeletal muscle can be reversed. In humans, moderate hypoxia increases postprandial blood distribution towards skeletal muscle during a training recovery. This physiological response plays a role in the redistribution of fuel storage among important energy storage sites and may explain its potent effect on the favorable change in body composition. Altitude training can exert strong impact on our metabolic system, and has the potential to be designed as a non-pharmacological or recreational intervention regimen for correcting metabolic syndromes.

  7. Respiratory Muscle Training and Cognitive Function Exercising at Altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quackenbush, Joseph; Duquin, Aubrey; Helfer, Samuel; Pendergast, David R

    2016-01-01

    Hiking and trekking often occur at altitudes up to 12,000 ft altitude. The hypoxia-induced hyperventilation at altitude paradoxically reduces arterial CO2 (Paco2). A reduction in Paco2 results in vasoconstriction of the blood vessels of the brain and thus in local hypoxia. The local hypoxia likely affects cognitive function, which may result in reduced performance and altitude accidents. Recent publications have demonstrated that voluntary isocapnic hyperventilatory training of the respiratory muscles (VIHT) can markedly enhance exercise endurance as it is associated with reduced ventilation and its energy cost. VIHT may be useful in blunting the altitude-induced hyperventilation leading to higher Paco2 and improved cognitive function. This study examined the effects of VIHT, compared to control (C) and placebo (PVIHT) groups, on selected measures of executive functioning, including working memory and processing speed (i.e., Stroop Test, Symbol Digit Modalities Test, and Digit Span Forward) at simulated altitude up to 12,000 ft. Associated physiological parameters were also measured. The Digit Span Forward Test did not show improvements after VIHT in any group. The VIHT group, but not C or PVIHT groups, improved significantly (17-30%) on the Stroop Test. Similarly the VIHT group, but not the C and PVIHT groups, improved correct responses (26%) and number of attempts (24%) on the Symbol Digit Modalities Test. In addition, reaction time was also improved (16%). VIHT improved processing speed and working memory during exercise at altitude.

  8. Omission of expected reward sensitizes the brain dopaminergic system of classically conditioned Atlantic salmon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vindas, M.A.; Höglund, Erik; Folkedal, O.

    in fishes. Here we show that the omission of expected reward (OER) leads to increased aggression towards conspecifics in classically conditioned Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Furthermore, in response to an acute stressor, OER fish displayed increased dopaminergic (DA) neurotransmission compared to controls....... There was also a general downregulation of dopamine receptor D1 gene expression in the telencephalon of OER groups, which suggests a coping mechanism in response to unbalanced DA metabolism. These results indicate that animals subjected to unpredictable reward conditions develop a senzitation of the DA...

  9. High-altitude pulmonary hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X-Q. Xu

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available High-altitude pulmonary hypertension (HAPH is a specific disease affecting populations that live at high elevations. The prevalence of HAPH among those residing at high altitudes needs to be further defined. Whereas reduction in nitric oxide production may be one mechanism for the development of HAPH, the roles of endothelin-1 and prostaglandin I2 pathways in the pathogenesis of HAPH deserve further study. Although some studies have suggested that genetic factors contribute to the pathogenesis of HAPH, data published to date are insufficient for the identification of a significant number of gene polymorphims in HAPH. The clinical presentation of HAPH is nonspecific. Exertional dyspnoea is the most common symptom and signs related to right heart failure are common in late stages of HAPH. Echocardiography is the most useful screening tool and right heart catheterisation is the gold standard for the diagnosis of HAPH. The ideal management for HAPH is migration to lower altitudes. Phosphodiesterase 5 is an attractive drug target for the treatment of HAPH. In addition, acetazolamide is a promising therapeutic agent for high-altitude pulmonary hypertension. To date, no evidence has confirmed whether endothelin-receptor antagonists have efficacy in the treatment of high-altitude pulmonary hypertension.

  10. Exercise capacity and selected physiological factors by ancestry and residential altitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bianba; Berntsen, Sveinung; Andersen, Lars Bo

    2014-01-01

    AIM: Several physiological compensatory mechanisms have enabled Tibetans to live and work at high altitude, including increased ventilation and pulmonary diffusion capacity, both of which serve to increase oxygen transport in the blood. The aim of the present study was to compare exercise capacity...... Tibetans vs. Han Chinese may reflect a better adaptation to life at high altitude. Tibetans at the lower residential altitude of 3700 m demonstrated a better exercise capacity than residents at a higher altitude of 4300 m when measured at their respective residential altitudes. Such altitude- or ancestry...... (maximal power output) and selected physiological factors (arterial oxygen saturation and heart rate at rest and during maximal exercise, resting hemoglobin concentration, and forced vital capacity) in groups of native Tibetan children living at different residential altitudes (3700 vs. 4300 m above sea...

  11. Research progress on high altitude retinopathy and application of Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Xiang Huang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available High altitude retinopathy(HARrefers to the body which can't adapt to the hypobaric hypoxia environment at high altitude leading to retinal diseases, which typically manifested as retinal hemorrhages, optic disc edema and cotton wool spots. With the development of high altitude medicine, HAR become a hot topic of eye research in recent years. New researches show a significantly higher incidence of HAR, and HAR has a close contact with acute mountain sickness, high altitude cerebral edema and high altitude pulmonary edema. A further study in pathogenesis and prevention measures of HAR will promote the prevention of altitude sickness. Traditional Chinese Medicine has achieved good effects in the prevention of altitude sickness, but the effect and mechanism of herbs on HAR has not been reported. Through read and summarize the relevant literatures and reports, the author will give an overview of the research advances on HAR's pathogenesis and application of Traditional Chinese Medicine.

  12. Effect of Breakfast Omission on Energy Intake and Evening Exercise Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, David J; Barutcu, Asya; Machin, Claire; Stensel, David J; James, Lewis J

    2015-12-01

    Breakfast omission may reduce daily energy intake. Exercising fasted impairs performance compared with exercising after breakfast, but the effect breakfast omission has on evening exercise performance is unknown. This study assessed the effect of omitting breakfast on evening exercise performance and within-day energy intake. Ten male, habitual breakfast eaters completed two trials in a randomized, counterbalanced order. Subjects arrived at the laboratory in an overnight-fasted state and either consumed or omitted a 733 ± 46 kcal (3095 ± 195 kJ) breakfast. Ad libitum energy intake was assessed at 4.5 h (lunch) and 11 h (dinner). At 9 h, subjects completed a 30-min cycling exercise at approximately 60% VO2peak, followed by a 30-min maximal cycling performance test. Food was not permitted for subjects once they left the laboratory after dinner until 0800 h the following morning. Acylated ghrelin, GLP-1(7-36), glucose, and insulin were assessed at 0, 4.5, and 9 h. Subjective appetite sensations were recorded throughout. Energy intake was 199 ± 151 kcal greater at lunch (P daily energy intake but may impair performance later that day, even after consuming lunch.

  13. Omission in Possible: the Forensic Linguistics Autopsy of the Court Interpreting Praxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taufiq Jati Murtaya

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available To have a proportional rendition, an interpreter has to deal with the dilemmatic decision of technique employment. In fact, in a case of court interpreting there are a bunch of oppressive moments, since its impact is exclusively stroke on the hearings’ route; and generally in the law enforcement constitution. For that fundamental circumstance, this article links the perspectives to achieve the goal how the court interpreting should be held from the notion of one of the interpreting strategies, namely the omission and the conceptual perspective of forensic linguistics. Here, this article reviews some points of view from both sides; and scrutinizes what lies beneath so the findings are beneficial for the court interpreting practices and studies. This article articulates that the omissions are taken for the sake of the prosecution flawless systemic process. Thus, the interpreter should be aware of the nuance of the two main conditions of the witness examination session i.e. the examination-in-chief and the cross-examination. More importantly, the forensic linguistics considers this as the effort in a working condition of the court interpreter to keep the most proportional judicial atmosphere in balance in terms of symmetrical and asymmetrical relation. This article then proposes the significance of having more knowledge on forensic linguistics for a court interpreter in doing and learning court interpreting.

  14. Nutritional Status of the Cauliflower Cultivar ‘Verona’ Grown with Omission of out Added Macronutrients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Matheus Saraiva; Cecílio Filho, Arthur Bernardes; de Carvalho, Leonardo Bianco

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of plant nutritional status allows an understanding of the physiological responses of plants to crop fertilization. A hydroponic experiment evaluated the symptoms of macronutrient deficiency in cauliflower ‘Verona’ and determined: a) the macronutrient contents of foliar tissues when visual symptoms were observed, b) macronutrients content of foliar and inflorescence tissues at harvest. The effect of nutrient deficiency on inflorescence mass was also evaluated. Nitrogen deficiency caused chlorosis followed by purple color in the old leaves, while P deficiency caused only chlorosis in old leaves. Chlorosis at the edge of old leaves progressing to the center of the leaves was observed with the omission of K, and after was observed necrosis in the chlorotic areas. Ca deficiency caused tip burn in new leaves, while Mg deficiency caused internerval chlorosis in old leaves. The omission of each macronutrient reduced inflorescence dry matter. This deleterious effect was larger for N, P, and K deficiencies, reducing inflorescence dry matter by 87, 49, and 42%, respectively. When the nutrient solutions without N, P, K, Ca, or Mg were supplied to cauliflower plants, the macronutrient contents at harvest were 8.8, 0.6, 3.5, 13.0, and 0.8 g kg-1 in the foliar tissues and 27.3, 2.2, 21.6, 1.1, and 0.7 g kg-1 in the inflorescence tissues, respectively. PMID:25856380

  15. Critical Omissions and New Directions for Sustainable Tourism: A Situated Macro–Micro Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca A. Camargo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper traces the history and evolution of sustainable tourism and identifies some critical issues and omissions in this and related approaches such as responsible tourism, ecotourism and pro-poor tourism. The academic, institutional and practical intersections of sustainable tourism and responsible tourism are examined. It reveals that important theoretical and practical considerations around well-being, inclusion, and sustainability have been omitted. A critical look at ecotourism reveals additional concerns, such as a cornucopia of guidelines and principles, without clear ethical justifications to support them. At the same time, academics in this domain have been slow to consider the modernist and neoliberal influences shaping ecotourism and sustainable tourism development, such as through the discourse of ecological modernization. We identify some key omissions, such as the missing ‘body’ in sustainable tourism discourse, lack of critical analysis of postcolonial and dependency issues, and propose re-situating ‘sustainable tourism’ within a micro–macro, local-global systems approach informed by a clear framework of justice and ethics.

  16. Nutritional status of the cauliflower cultivar 'verona' grown with omission of out added macronutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Matheus Saraiva; Cecílio Filho, Arthur Bernardes; de Carvalho, Leonardo Bianco

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of plant nutritional status allows an understanding of the physiological responses of plants to crop fertilization. A hydroponic experiment evaluated the symptoms of macronutrient deficiency in cauliflower 'Verona' and determined: a) the macronutrient contents of foliar tissues when visual symptoms were observed, b) macronutrients content of foliar and inflorescence tissues at harvest. The effect of nutrient deficiency on inflorescence mass was also evaluated. Nitrogen deficiency caused chlorosis followed by purple color in the old leaves, while P deficiency caused only chlorosis in old leaves. Chlorosis at the edge of old leaves progressing to the center of the leaves was observed with the omission of K, and after was observed necrosis in the chlorotic areas. Ca deficiency caused tip burn in new leaves, while Mg deficiency caused internerval chlorosis in old leaves. The omission of each macronutrient reduced inflorescence dry matter. This deleterious effect was larger for N, P, and K deficiencies, reducing inflorescence dry matter by 87, 49, and 42%, respectively. When the nutrient solutions without N, P, K, Ca, or Mg were supplied to cauliflower plants, the macronutrient contents at harvest were 8.8, 0.6, 3.5, 13.0, and 0.8 g kg-1 in the foliar tissues and 27.3, 2.2, 21.6, 1.1, and 0.7 g kg-1 in the inflorescence tissues, respectively.

  17. Diagnostic criteria of high-altitude de-adaptation for high-altitude migrants returning to the plains: a multicenter, randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi-quan ZHOU

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To investigate the diagnostic method of high-altitude de-adaptation and constitute the diagnostic criteria of high-altitude de-adaptation for people returning to the plains from high-altitude. Methods  Epidemiological survey and clinical multicenter randomized controlled studies were used to determine/perform blood picture, routine urine analysis, routine stool examination, myocardial enzymes, liver and kidney functions, nerve function, sex hormone, microalbuminuria, ECG, echocardiography, pulmonary function tests, and so on, in 3011 subjects after they returned to the plains from high-altitude. The diagnostic criteria of high-altitude de-adaptation were formulated by a comparative analysis of the obtained data with those of healthy subjects living in the same area, altitude, and age. The regularity and characteristics of high-altitude de-adaptation syndrome were found and diagnostic criteria for high-altitude de-adaptation was established based on the results. Results  The investigative results showed that the incidence of high-altitude de-adaptation syndrome was found in 84.36% of population returning to the plains from high-altitude. About 60% of them were considered to have mild reactions, 30% medium, and only 10% were severe. The lower the altitude they returned to, the longer the duration of stay in highland, and the heavier the labor they engaged in high altitude, the higher the incidence rate of high-altitude de-adaptation syndrome was. Patients with high-altitude de-adaptation syndrome exhibited hematological abnormality and abnormal ventricular function, especially the right ventricular diastolic function after returning for 1 year to 5 years. Long-term hypoxia exposure often caused obvious change in cardiac morphology with left and right ventricular hypertrophy, particularly the right ventricle. In addition, low blood pressure and low pulse pressure were found at times. Microalbuminuria was found in some high-altitude de

  18. Defining the "dose" of altitude training: how high to live for optimal sea level performance enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Robert F; Karlsen, Trine; Resaland, Geir K; Ge, R-L; Harber, Matthew P; Witkowski, Sarah; Stray-Gundersen, James; Levine, Benjamin D

    2014-03-15

    Chronic living at altitudes of ∼2,500 m causes consistent hematological acclimatization in most, but not all, groups of athletes; however, responses of erythropoietin (EPO) and red cell mass to a given altitude show substantial individual variability. We hypothesized that athletes living at higher altitudes would experience greater improvements in sea level performance, secondary to greater hematological acclimatization, compared with athletes living at lower altitudes. After 4 wk of group sea level training and testing, 48 collegiate distance runners (32 men, 16 women) were randomly assigned to one of four living altitudes (1,780, 2,085, 2,454, or 2,800 m). All athletes trained together daily at a common altitude from 1,250-3,000 m following a modified live high-train low model. Subjects completed hematological, metabolic, and performance measures at sea level, before and after altitude training; EPO was assessed at various time points while at altitude. On return from altitude, 3,000-m time trial performance was significantly improved in groups living at the middle two altitudes (2,085 and 2,454 m), but not in groups living at 1,780 and 2,800 m. EPO was significantly higher in all groups at 24 and 48 h, but returned to sea level baseline after 72 h in the 1,780-m group. Erythrocyte volume was significantly higher within all groups after return from altitude and was not different between groups. These data suggest that, when completing a 4-wk altitude camp following the live high-train low model, there is a target altitude between 2,000 and 2,500 m that produces an optimal acclimatization response for sea level performance.

  19. Analysis of high-altitude de-acclimatization syndrome after exposure to high altitudes: a cluster-randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Binfeng; Wang, Jianchun; Qian, Guisheng; Hu, Mingdong; Qu, Xinming; Wei, Zhenghua; Li, Jin; Chen, Yan; Chen, Huaping; Zhou, Qiquan; Wang, Guansong

    2013-01-01

    The syndrome of high-altitude de-acclimatization commonly takes place after long-term exposure to high altitudes upon return to low altitudes. The syndrome severely affects the returnee's quality of life. However, little attention has been paid to careful characterization of the syndrome and their underlying mechanisms. Male subjects from Chongqing (n = 67, 180 m) and Kunming (n = 70, 1800 m) visited a high-altitude area (3650 m) about 6 months and then returned to low-altitude. After they came back, all subjects were evaluated for high-altitude de-acclimatization syndrome on the 3(rd), 50(th), and 100(th). Symptom scores, routine blood and blood gas tests, and myocardial zymograms assay were used for observation their syndrome. The results showed that the incidence and severity of symptoms had decreased markedly on the 50(th) and 100(th) days, compared with the 3(rd) day. The symptom scores and incidence of different symptoms were lower among subjects returning to Kunming than among those returning to Chongqing. On the 3(rd) day, RBC, Hb, Hct, CK, CK-MB, and LDH values were significantly lower than values recorded at high altitudes, but they were higher than baseline values. On the 50(th) day, these values were not different from baseline values, but LDH levels did not return to baseline until the 100(th) day. These data show that, subjects who suffered high-altitude de-acclimatization syndrome, the recovery fully processes takes a long time (≥ 100(th) days). The appearance of the syndrome is found to be related to the changes in RBC, Hb, Hct, CK, CK-MB, and LDH levels, which should be caused by reoxygenation after hypoxia.

  20. Determination of taste-active compounds of a bitter Camembert cheese by omission tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, E; Septier, C; Leconte, N; Salles, C; Le Quere, J L

    2001-11-01

    The taste-active compounds of a Camembert cheese selected for its intense bitterness defect were investigated. The water-soluble fraction (WSE) was extracted with pure water and fractionated by successive tangential ultrafiltrations and nanofiltration. The physicochemical assessment of these fractions led to the construction of a model WSE which was compared by sensory evaluation to the crude water-soluble extract, using a panel of 16 trained tasters. As no significant difference was perceived, this model WSE was then used directly or mixed with other cheese components for omission tests. Among the main taste characteristics of the WSE (salty, sour, umami and bitter), bitterness was found to be due to small peptides whose mass distribution was obtained by RPHPLC-MS (400-3000 Da) and whose taste properties are discussed.

  1. The surprising costs of silence: Asymmetric preferences for prosocial lies of commission and omission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Emma; Hart, Joanna; Moore, Kendra; Rubin, Emily; Yadav, Kuldeep; Halpern, Scott

    2018-01-01

    Across 7 experiments (N = 3883), we demonstrate that communicators and targets make egocentric moral judgments of deception. Specifically, communicators focus more on the costs of deception to them-for example, the guilt they feel when they break a moral rule-whereas targets focus more on whether deception helps or harms them. As a result, communicators and targets make asymmetric judgments of prosocial lies of commission and omission: Communicators often believe that omitting information is more ethical than telling a prosocial lie, whereas targets often believe the opposite. We document these effects within the context of health care discussions, employee layoffs, and economic games, among both clinical populations (i.e., oncologists and cancer patients) and lay people. We identify moderators and downstream consequences of this asymmetry. We conclude by discussing psychological and practical implications for medicine, management, behavioral ethics, and human communication. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Temporal and identity prediction in visual-auditory events: Electrophysiological evidence from stimulus omissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Laarhoven, Thijs; Stekelenburg, Jeroen J; Vroomen, Jean

    2017-04-15

    A rare omission of a sound that is predictable by anticipatory visual information induces an early negative omission response (oN1) in the EEG during the period of silence where the sound was expected. It was previously suggested that the oN1 was primarily driven by the identity of the anticipated sound. Here, we examined the role of temporal prediction in conjunction with identity prediction of the anticipated sound in the evocation of the auditory oN1. With incongruent audiovisual stimuli (a video of a handclap that is consistently combined with the sound of a car horn) we demonstrate in Experiment 1 that a natural match in identity between the visual and auditory stimulus is not required for inducing the oN1, and that the perceptual system can adapt predictions to unnatural stimulus events. In Experiment 2 we varied either the auditory onset (relative to the visual onset) or the identity of the sound across trials in order to hamper temporal and identity predictions. Relative to the natural stimulus with correct auditory timing and matching audiovisual identity, the oN1 was abolished when either the timing or the identity of the sound could not be predicted reliably from the video. Our study demonstrates the flexibility of the perceptual system in predictive processing (Experiment 1) and also shows that precise predictions of timing and content are both essential elements for inducing an oN1 (Experiment 2). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. No Change in Running Mechanics With Live High-Train Low Altitude Training in Elite Distance Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickford, Abigail S L; Wilhite, Daniel P; Chapman, Robert F

    2017-01-01

    Investigations into ventilatory, metabolic, and hematological changes with altitude training have been completed; however, there is a lack of research exploring potential gait-kinematic changes after altitude training, despite a common complaint of athletes being a lack of leg "turnover" on return from altitude training. To determine if select kinematic variables changed in a group of elite distance runners after 4 wk of altitude training. Six elite male distance runners completed a 28-d altitude-training intervention in Flagstaff, AZ (2150 m), following a modified "live high-train low" model, wherein higherintensity runs were performed at lower altitudes (945-1150 m) and low-intensity sessions were completed at higher altitudes (1950-2850 m). Gait parameters were measured 2-9 d before departure to altitude and 1 to 2 d after returning to sea level at running speeds of 300-360 m/min. No differences were found in ground-contact time, swing time, or stride length or frequency after altitude training (P > .05). Running mechanics are not affected by chronic altitude training in elite distance runners. The data suggest that either chronic training at altitude truly has no effect on running mechanics or completing the live high-train low model of altitude training, where higher-velocity workouts are completed at lower elevations, mitigates any negative mechanical adaptations that may be associated with chronic training at slower speeds.

  4. 17 CFR 260.7a-16 - Inclusion of items, differentiation between items and answers, omission of instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inclusion of items, differentiation between items and answers, omission of instructions. 260.7a-16 Section 260.7a-16 Commodity and... INDENTURE ACT OF 1939 Formal Requirements § 260.7a-16 Inclusion of items, differentiation between items and...

  5. Polygenetic Karsted Hardground Omission Surfaces in Lower Silurian Neritic Limestones: a Signature of Early Paleozoic Calcite Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Noel P.; Desrochers, André; Kyser, Kurt T.

    2015-04-01

    Exquisitely preserved and well-exposed rocky paleoshoreline omission surfaces in Lower Silurian Chicotte Formation limestones on Anticosti Island, Quebec, are interpreted to be the product of combined marine and meteoric diagenesis. The different omission features include; 1) planar erosional bedding tops, 2) scalloped erosional surfaces, 3) knobs, ridges, and swales at bedding contacts, and 4) paleoscarps. An interpretation is proposed that relates specific omission surface styles to different diagenetic-depositional processes that took place in separate terrestrial-peritidal-shallow neritic zones. Such processes were linked to fluctuations in relative sea level with specific zones of diagenesis such as; 1) karst corrosion, 2) peritidal erosion, 3) subtidal seawater flushing and cementation, and 4) shallow subtidal deposition. Most surfaces are interpreted to have been the result of initial extensive shallow-water synsedimentary lithification that were, as sea level fell, altered by exposure and subaerial corrosion, only to be buried by sediments as sea level rose again. This succession was repeated several times resulting in a suite of recurring polyphase omission surfaces through many meters of stratigraphic section. Synsedimentary cloudy marine cements are well preserved and are thus interpreted to have been calcitic originally. Aragonite components are rare and thought to have to have been dissolved just below the Silurian seafloor. Large molluscs that survived such seafloor removal were nonetheless leached and the resultant megamoulds were filled with synsedimentary calcite cement. These Silurian inner neritic-strandline omission surfaces are temporally unique. They are part of a suite of marine omission surfaces that are mostly found in early Paleozoic neritic carbonate sedimentary rocks. These karsted hardgrounds formed during a calcite-sea time of elevated marine carbonate saturation and extensive marine cement precipitation. The contemporaneous greenhouse

  6. Effects of altitude and exercise on pulmonary capillary integrity: evidence for subclinical high-altitude pulmonary edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldridge, Marlowe W; Braun, Ruedi K; Yoneda, Ken Y; Walby, William F

    2006-03-01

    Strenuous exercise may be a significant contributing factor for development of high-altitude pulmonary edema, particularly at low or moderate altitudes. Thus we investigated the effects of heavy cycle ergometer exercise (90% maximal effort) under hypoxic conditions in which the combined effects of a marked increase in pulmonary blood flow and nonuniform hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction could add significantly to augment the mechanical stress on the pulmonary microcirculation. We postulated that intense exercise at altitude would result in an augmented permeability edema. We recruited eight endurance athletes and examined their bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) for red blood cells (RBCs), protein, inflammatory cells, and soluble mediators at 2 and 26 h after intense exercise under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. After heavy exercise, under all conditions, the athletes developed a permeability edema with high BALF RBC and protein concentrations in the absence of inflammation. We found that exercise at altitude (3,810 m) caused significantly greater leakage of RBCs [9.2 (SD 3.1)x10(4) cells/ml] into the alveolar space than that seen with normoxic exercise [5.4 (SD 1.2)x10(4) cells/ml]. At altitude, the 26-h postexercise BALF revealed significantly higher RBC and protein concentrations, suggesting an ongoing capillary leak. Interestingly, the BALF profiles following exercise at altitude are similar to that of early high-altitude pulmonary edema. These findings suggest that pulmonary capillary disruption occurs with intense exercise in healthy humans and that hypoxia augments the mechanical stresses on the pulmonary microcirculation.

  7. Incidence and Symptoms of High Altitude Illness in South Pole Workers: Antarctic Study of Altitude Physiology (ASAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J. Anderson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Each year, the US Antarctic Program rapidly transports scientists and support personnel from sea level (SL to the South Pole (SP, 2835 m providing a unique natural laboratory to quantify the incidence of acute mountain sickness (AMS, patterns of altitude related symptoms and the field effectiveness of acetazolamide in a highly controlled setting. We hypothesized that the combination of rapid ascent (3 hr, accentuated hypobarism (relative to altitude, cold, and immediate exertion would increase altitude illness risk. Methods Medically screened adults (N = 246, age = 37 ± 11 yr, 30% female, BMI = 26 ± 4 kg/m 2 were recruited. All underwent SL and SP physiological evaluation, completed Lake Louise symptom questionnaires (LLSQ, to define AMS, and answered additional symptom related questions (eg, exertional dyspnea, mental status, cough, edema and general health, during the 1st week at altitude. Acetazolamide, while not mandatory, was used by 40% of participants. Results At SP, the barometric pressure resulted in physiological altitudes that approached 3400 m, while T ° C averaged -42, humidity 0.03%. Arterial oxygen saturation averaged 89% ± 3%. Overall, 52% developed LLSQ defined AMS. The most common symptoms reported were exertional dyspnea-(87%, sleeping difficulty-(74%, headache-(66%, fatigue-(65%, and dizziness/lightheadedness-(46%. Symptom severity peaked on days 1-2, yet in >20% exertional dyspnea, fatigue and sleep problems persisted through day 7. AMS incidence was similar between those using acetazolamide and those abstaining (51 vs. 52%, P = 0.87. Those who used acetazolamide tended to be older, have less altitude experience, worse symptoms on previous exposures, and less SP experience. Conclusion The incidence of AMS at SP tended to be higher than previously reports in other geographic locations at similar altitudes. Thus, the SP constitutes a more intense altitude exposure than might be expected considering physical

  8. Disposable urea biosensor based on nanoporous ZnO film fabricated from omissible polymeric substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahmanian, Reza; Mozaffari, Sayed Ahmad; Abedi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, a facile and simple fabrication method of a semiconductor based urea biosensor was reported via three steps: (i) producing a ZnO–PVA composite film by means of a polymer assisted electrodeposition of zinc oxide (ZnO) on the F-doped SnO 2 conducting glass (FTO) using water soluble polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), (ii) obtaining a nanoporous ZnO film by PVA omission via a subsequent post-treatment by annealing of the ZnO–PVA film, and (iii) preparation of a FTO/ZnO/Urs biosensor by exploiting a nanoporous ZnO film as an efficient and excellent platform area for electrostatic immobilization of urease enzyme (Urs) which was forced by the difference in their isoelectric point (IEP). The characterization techniques focused on the analysis of the ZnO–PVA film surfaces before and after annealing, which had a prominent effect on the porosity of the prepared ZnO film. The surface characterization of the nanostructured ZnO film by a field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE–SEM), exhibited a film surface area as an effective bio-sensing matrix for enzyme immobilization. The structural characterization and monitoring of the biosensor fabrication was performed using UV–Vis, Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR), Raman Spectroscopy, Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), Cyclic Voltammetry (CV), and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. The impedimetric results of the FTO/ZnO/Urs biosensor showed a high sensitivity for urea detection within 8.0–110.0 mg dL −1 with the limit of detection as 5.0 mg dL −1 . - Highlights: • Novel disposable impedimetric urea biosensor fabrication based on ZnO–nanoporous transducer • Exploiting omissible PVA polymer as a simple strategy for ZnO–nanoporous film preparation • ZnO–nanoporous film as a good pore framework with large surface area/volume for enzyme immobilization • Application of impedimetric measurement for urea monitoring due to its rapidity, sensitivity, and repeatability

  9. Disposable urea biosensor based on nanoporous ZnO film fabricated from omissible polymeric substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahmanian, Reza; Mozaffari, Sayed Ahmad, E-mail: mozaffari@irost.ir; Abedi, Mohammad

    2015-12-01

    In the present study, a facile and simple fabrication method of a semiconductor based urea biosensor was reported via three steps: (i) producing a ZnO–PVA composite film by means of a polymer assisted electrodeposition of zinc oxide (ZnO) on the F-doped SnO{sub 2} conducting glass (FTO) using water soluble polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), (ii) obtaining a nanoporous ZnO film by PVA omission via a subsequent post-treatment by annealing of the ZnO–PVA film, and (iii) preparation of a FTO/ZnO/Urs biosensor by exploiting a nanoporous ZnO film as an efficient and excellent platform area for electrostatic immobilization of urease enzyme (Urs) which was forced by the difference in their isoelectric point (IEP). The characterization techniques focused on the analysis of the ZnO–PVA film surfaces before and after annealing, which had a prominent effect on the porosity of the prepared ZnO film. The surface characterization of the nanostructured ZnO film by a field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE–SEM), exhibited a film surface area as an effective bio-sensing matrix for enzyme immobilization. The structural characterization and monitoring of the biosensor fabrication was performed using UV–Vis, Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR), Raman Spectroscopy, Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), Cyclic Voltammetry (CV), and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. The impedimetric results of the FTO/ZnO/Urs biosensor showed a high sensitivity for urea detection within 8.0–110.0 mg dL{sup −1} with the limit of detection as 5.0 mg dL{sup −1}. - Highlights: • Novel disposable impedimetric urea biosensor fabrication based on ZnO–nanoporous transducer • Exploiting omissible PVA polymer as a simple strategy for ZnO–nanoporous film preparation • ZnO–nanoporous film as a good pore framework with large surface area/volume for enzyme immobilization • Application of impedimetric measurement for urea monitoring due to its rapidity, sensitivity, and

  10. Altitude Stress During Participation of Medical Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soon Bae; Kim, Jong Sung; Kim, Sang Jun; Cho, Su Hee

    2016-01-01

    Medical congresses often held in highlands. We reviewed several medical issues associated with altitude stress especially while physicians have participated medical congress held in high altitude. Altitude stress, also known as an acute mountain sickness (AMS), is caused by acute exposure to low oxygen level at high altitude which is defined as elevations at or above 1,200 m and AMS commonly occurs above 2,500 m. Altitude stress with various symptoms including insomnia can also be experienced in airplane. AMS and drunken state share many common features in symptoms, neurologic manifestations and even show multiple microbleeds in corpus callosum and white matter on MRI. Children are more susceptible to altitude stress than adults. Gradual ascent is the best method for the prevention of altitude stress. Adequate nutrition (mainly carbohydrates) and hydration are recommended. Consumption of alcohol can exacerbate the altitude-induced impairments in judgment and the visual senses and promote psychomotor dysfunction. For prevention or treatment of altitude stress, acetazolamide, phosphodiesterase inhibitors, dexamethasone and erythropoietin are helpful. Altitude stress can be experienced relatively often during participation of medical congress. It is necessary to remind the harmful effect of AMS because it can cause serious permanent organ damage even though the symptoms are negligible in most cases. PMID:27621942

  11. Characterisation of aroma profiles of commercial soy sauce by odour activity value and omission test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yunzi; Su, Guowan; Zhao, Haifeng; Cai, Yu; Cui, Chun; Sun-Waterhouse, Dongxiao; Zhao, Mouming

    2015-01-15

    Twenty-seven commercial soy sauces produced through three different fermentation processes (high-salt liquid-state fermentation soy sauce, HLFSS; low-salt solid-state fermentation soy sauce, LSFSS; Koikuchi soy sauce, KSS) were examined to identify the aroma compounds and the effect of fermentation process on the flavour of the soy sauce was investigated. Results showed that 129 volatiles were identified, of which 41 aroma-active components were quantified. The types of odorants occurring in the three soy sauce groups were similar, although their intensities significantly differed. Many esters and phenols were found at relatively high intensities in KSS, whereas some volatile acids only occurred in LSFSS. Furthermore, 23 aroma compounds had average OAVs>1, among which 3-methylbutanal, ethyl acetate, 4-hydroxy-2-ethyl-5-methyl-3(2H)-furanone, 2-methylbutanal and 3-(methylthio)propanal exhibited the highest average OAVs (>100). In addition, omission tests verified the important contribution of the products resulting from amino acid catabolism to the characteristic aroma of soy sauce. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Dorsomedial striatum lesions affect adjustment to reward uncertainty, but not to reward devaluation or omission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Carmen; Glueck, Amanda C; Conrad, Shannon E; Morón, Ignacio; Papini, Mauricio R

    2016-09-22

    The dorsomedial striatum (DMS) has been implicated in the acquisition of reward representations, a proposal leading to the hypothesis that it should play a role in situations involving reward loss. We report the results of an experiment in which the effects of DMS excitotoxic lesions were tested in consummatory successive negative contrast (reward devaluation), autoshaping training with partial vs. continuous reinforcement (reward uncertainty), and appetitive extinction (reward omission). Animals with DMS lesions exhibited reduced lever pressing responding, but enhanced goal entries, during partial reinforcement training in autoshaping. However, they showed normal negative contrast, acquisition under continuous reinforcement (CR), appetitive extinction, and response facilitation in early extinction trials. Open-field testing also indicated normal motor behavior. Thus, DMS lesions selectively affected the behavioral adjustment to a situation involving reward uncertainty, producing a behavioral reorganization according to which goal tracking (goal entries) became predominant at the expense of sign tracking (lever pressing). This pattern of results shows that the function of the DMS in situations involving reward loss is not general, but restricted to reward uncertainty. We suggest that a nonassociative, drive-related process induced by reward uncertainty requires normal output from DMS neurons. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Misleading by Omission: Rethinking the Obligation to Inform Research Subjects about Funding Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manson, Neil C

    2017-11-15

    Informed consent requirements for medical research have expanded over the past half-century. The Declaration of Helsinki now includes an explicit positive obligation to inform subjects about funding sources. This is problematic in a number of ways and seems to oblige researchers to disclose information irrelevant to most consent decisions. It is argued here that such a problematic obligation involves an "informational fallacy." The aim in the second part of the paper is to provide a better approach to making sense of how a failure to inform about funding sources wrongs subjects: by making appeals to obligations to refrain from misleading by omission. This alternative approach-grounded in a general obligation to refrain from misleading, an obligation that is independent of informed consent-provides a basis for a norm that protects subjects' interests, without the informational fallacy. The approach developed here avoids the problems identified with the currently specified general obligation to inform about funding sources. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Omissão de macronutrientes em plantas de amendoim Deficiency of macronutrients in peanuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Solano de Oliveira Rodrigues Filho

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Plantas de amendoim Arachis hypogaea L. 'Tatu' foram cultivadas em condições de casa de vegetação, em vasos de Mitscherlich contendo areia lavada e irrigados com solução nutritiva completa e com soluções nutritivas com a omissão de cada macronutriente (N, P, K, Ca, Mg e S. As plantas mostraram sintomas de deficiência de macronutrientes, com exceção do fósforo, na ausência de cada elemento, relacionados com os seus baixos teores e redução no crescimento, desenvolvimento e produção de matéria seca.Peanut plants (Arachis hypogaea L. were cultivated in washed sand, under greenhouse conditions, irrigated with a complete nutrient solution and nutrient solutions with absence of each macronutrient (N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S. Typical symptoms of macronutrient deficiencies were observed, except for phosphorus, related to the content of the element in the plant. The absence of macronutrients also influenced the plant dry matter production, development and height.

  15. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy ameliorates acute brain injury after porcine intracerebral hemorrhage at high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hai-tao; Bian, Chen; Yuan, Ji-chao; Liao, Xiao-jun; Liu, Wei; Zhu, Gang; Feng, Hua; Lin, Jiang-kai

    2015-06-15

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) at high altitude is not well understood to date. This study investigates the effects of high altitude on ICH, and examines the acute neuroprotection of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy against high-altitude ICH. Minipigs were placed in a hypobaric chamber for 72 h before the operation. ICH was induced by an infusion of autologous arterial blood (3 ml) into the right basal ganglia. Animals in the high-altitude ICH group received HBO therapy (2.5 ATA for 60 min) 30 min after ICH. Blood gas, blood glucose and brain tissue oxygen partial pressure (PbtO2) were monitored continuously for animals from all groups, as were microdialysis products including glucose, lactate, pyruvate and glutamate in perihematomal tissue from 3 to 12 h post-ICH. High-altitude ICH animals showed significantly lower PbtO2, higher lactate/pyruvate ratio (LPR) and glutamate levels than low-altitude ICH animals. More severe neurological deficits, brain edema and neuronal damage were also observed in high-altitude ICH. After HBO therapy, PbtO2 was significantly increased and LPR and glutamate levels were significantly decreased. Brain edema, neurological deficits and neuronal damage were also ameliorated. The data suggested a more serious disturbance of tissue oxygenation and cerebral metabolism in the acute stage after ICH at high altitude. Early HBO treatment reduced acute brain injury, perhaps through a mechanism involving the amelioration of the derangement of cerebral oxygenation and metabolism following high-altitude ICH.

  16. Homofobia e educação: quando a omissão também é signo de violência Homophobia and education: when omission is also a sign of violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilson Fernandes Dinis

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Provocado pelo conceito de "amolador de facas", criado pelo psicólogo Luis Antonio Baptista, este artigo busca discutir alguns aspectos da violência contra estudantes LGBTT e a omissão do tema da diversidade sexual e de gênero no currículo escolar como forma oculta de homofobia e da cumplicidade de educadores e educadoras com essa violência.Being motivated by the concept of "knife sharpener" created by the psychologist Luis Antonio Baptista, this article aims to discuss some aspects of the violence against LGBTT students and the omission of the topic of gender and sexual diversity in schools curriculum as a hidden way of homophobia and as a sign of educators' complicity in this violence.

  17. Effect of egg composition and oxidoreductase on adaptation of Tibetan chicken to high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, C L; He, L J; Li, P C; Liu, H Y; Wei, Z H

    2016-07-01

    Tibetan chickens have good adaptation to hypoxic conditions, which can be reflected by higher hatchability than lowland breeds when incubated at high altitude. The objective of this trial was to study changes in egg composition and metabolism with regards the adaptation of Tibetan chickens to high altitude. We measured the dry weight of chicken embryos, egg yolk, and egg albumen, and the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and succinic dehydrogenase (SDH) in breast muscle, heart, and liver from embryos of Tibetan chicken and Dwarf chicken (lowland breed) incubated at high (2,900 m) and low (100 m) altitude. We found that growth of chicken embryos was restricted at high altitude, especially for Dwarf chicken embryos. In Tibetan chicken, the egg weight was lighter, but the dry weight of egg yolk was heavier than that of Dwarf chicken. The LDH activities of the three tissues from the high altitude groups were respectively higher than those of the lowland groups from d 15 to hatching, except for breast muscle of Tibetan chicken embryos on d 15. In addition, under the high altitude environment, the heart tissue from Tibetan chicken had lower LDH activity than that from Dwarf chicken at d 15 and 18. The lactic acid content of blood from Tibetan chicken embryos was lower than that of Dwarf chicken at d 12 and 15 of incubation at high altitude. There was no difference in SDH activity in the three tissues between the high altitude groups and the lowland groups except in three tissues of hatchlings and at d 15 of incubation in breast muscle, nor between the two breeds at high altitude except in the heart of hatchlings. Consequently, the adaptation of Tibetan chicken to high altitude may be associated with higher quantities of yolk in the egg and a low metabolic oxygen demand in tissue, which illuminate the reasons that the Tibetan chicken have higher hatchability with lower oxygen transport ability. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  18. Variation in aerodynamic coefficients with altitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faiza Shahid

    Full Text Available Precise aerodynamics performance prediction plays key role for a flying vehicle to get its mission completed within desired accuracy. Aerodynamic coefficients for same Mach number can be different at different altitude due to difference in Reynolds number. Prediction of these aerodynamics coefficients can be made through experiments, analytical solution or Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD. Advancements in computational power have generated the concept of using CFD as a virtual Wind Tunnel (WT, hence aerodynamic performance prediction in present study is based upon CFD (numerical test rig. Simulations at different altitudes for a range of Mach numbers with zero angle of attack are performed to predict axial force coefficient behavior with altitude (Reynolds number. Similar simulations for a fixed Mach number ‘3’ and a range of angle of attacks are also carried out to envisage the variation in normal force and pitching moment coefficients with altitude (Reynolds number. Results clearly depict that the axial force coefficient is a function of altitude (Reynolds number and increase as altitude increases, especially for subsonic region. Variation in axial force coefficient with altitude (Reynolds number slightly increases for larger values of angle of attacks. Normal force and pitching moment coefficients do not depend on altitude (Reynolds number at smaller values of angle of attacks but show slight decrease as altitude increases. Present study suggests that variation of normal force and pitching moment coefficients with altitude can be neglected but the variation of axial force coefficient with altitude should be considered for vehicle fly in dense atmosphere. It is recommended to continue this study to more complex configurations for various Mach numbers with side slip and real gas effects. Keywords: Mach number, Reynolds number, Blunt body, Altitude effect, Angle of attacks

  19. Glucose Homeostasis During Short-term and Prolonged Exposure to High Altitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ader, Marilyn; Bergman, Richard N.

    2015-01-01

    Most of the literature related to high altitude medicine is devoted to the short-term effects of high-altitude exposure on human physiology. However, long-term effects of living at high altitudes may be more important in relation to human disease because more than 400 million people worldwide reside above 1500 m. Interestingly, individuals living at higher altitudes have a lower fasting glycemia and better glucose tolerance compared with those who live near sea level. There is also emerging evidence of the lower prevalence of both obesity and diabetes at higher altitudes. The mechanisms underlying improved glucose control at higher altitudes remain unclear. In this review, we present the most current evidence about glucose homeostasis in residents living above 1500 m and discuss possible mechanisms that could explain the lower fasting glycemia and lower prevalence of obesity and diabetes in this population. Understanding the mechanisms that regulate and maintain the lower fasting glycemia in individuals who live at higher altitudes could lead to new therapeutics for impaired glucose homeostasis. PMID:25675133

  20. Responsabilidade civil do Estado por omissão estatal Civil liability of the State for environmental neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haide Maria Hupffer

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Constituição Federal de 1988 é um divisor de águas ao assumir-se como Constituição Ambiental, provocando uma ruptura em relação ao conceito de responsabilidade civil. Partindo de uma abordagem qualitativa, dialética e jurisprudencial, este artigo analisa o Princípio Responsabilidade desenvolvido por hans jonas e realiza um diálogo com o instituto da responsabilidade civil ambiental, identificando, com apoio na legislação constitucional e infraconstitucional, as controvérsias doutrinárias acerca da natureza da responsabilidade estatal (objetiva ou subjetiva frente a casos de omissão da administração pública e à ocorrência de dano ambiental. Conclui-se que o Superior Tribunal de Justiça assume uma dimensão mais alargada do conceito de responsabilidade civil do Estado, demonstrando uma tendência pela responsabilidade civil objetiva com base no risco. Assim, o Brasil, salvo algumas divergências doutrinárias, adota a responsabilidade civil objetiva do Estado pela teoria do risco administrativo alicerçada no ato ilícito e na aceitação do risco.The Federal Constitution of 1988 is a 'water divisor' since it assumes the role of Environmental Constitution, causing a rapture of the concept of civil liability. Starting from a qualitative, dialectical and jurisprudential approach, this article analyzes the Principle of Liability according to Hans Jonas in order to dialogue with the Institute of Civil Environmental Liability, identifying, with the support of the constitutional and infraconstitutional legislation, the doctrinary controversies about the nature of state liability (objective or subjective towards cases of neglect by the public administration and the event of environmental damage. It is possible to conclude that the Higher Court of Justice assumes a larger dimension of the civil liability of the State, thus showing the tendency towards the objective civil liability based on the risk. Therefore, Brazil, regarded some

  1. Omission and Resupply of Nitrogen Affect Physiological and Enzymatic Activities and the Gene Expression of Eucalypt Clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loane Vaz Fernandes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The mineral nutrient uptake of plants in the field occurs in pulses, due to variations in the substance concentrations at the root surface. The fluctuations in nutrient supply probably induce changes in the plant, which are to date unknown for Eucalyptus. This study evaluated these changes in plant growth, nutritional status, photosynthesis, and gene expression, which can serve as biomarkers of the nitrogen status, of four eucalypt clones exposed to N omission and resupply. A greenhouse experiment with four Eucalyptus clones was installed, and after initial growth exposed to N omission for 21 d, followed by N resupply in nutrient solution for 14 d. Nitrogen omission decreased the total N and photosynthetic pigments, net photosynthesis and photochemical dissipation, and increased enzyme activity especially in leaves and the gene expression in leaves and roots. Nitrogen resupply decreased these variations, indicating recovery. The total N concentration was highly and significantly correlated with net photosynthesis, enzyme activity, expression of genes GS2;1 and Gln1;3 in the leaves and AMT1;2 in the roots, contents of chlorophyll a and b, and photochemical energy dissipation. The enzymes GS and NR in the leaves and the genes AMT1;2, GS2;1 and Gln1;3 proved to be sensitive N indicators.

  2. Cortical gamma activity during auditory tone omission provides evidence for the involvement of oscillatory activity in top-down processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurtubay, I G; Alegre, M; Valencia, M; Artieda, J

    2006-11-01

    Perception is an active process in which our brains use top-down influences to modulate afferent information. To determine whether this modulation might be based on oscillatory activity, we asked seven subjects to detect a silence that appeared randomly in a rhythmic auditory sequence, counting the number of omissions ("count" task), or responding to each omission with a right index finger extension ("move" task). Despite the absence of physical stimuli, these tasks induced a 'non-phase-locked' gamma oscillation in temporal-parietal areas, providing evidence of intrinsically generated oscillatory activity during top-down processing. This oscillation is probably related to the local neural activation that takes place during the process of stimulus detection, involving the functional comparison between the tones and the absence of stimuli as well as the auditory echoic memory processes. The amplitude of the gamma oscillations was reduced with the repetition of the tasks. Moreover, it correlated positively with the number of correctly detected omissions and negatively with the reaction time. These findings indicate that these oscillations, like others described, may be modulated by attentional processes. In summary, our findings support the active and adaptive concept of brain function that has emerged over recent years, suggesting that the match of sensory information with memory contents generates gamma oscillations.

  3. Occupational health of miners at altitude: adverse health effects, toxic exposures, pre-placement screening, acclimatization, and worker surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vearrier, David; Greenberg, Michael I

    2011-08-01

    Mining operations conducted at high altitudes provide health challenges for workers as well as for medical personnel. To review the literature regarding adverse health effects and toxic exposures that may be associated with mining operations conducted at altitude and to discuss pre-placement screening, acclimatization issues, and on-site surveillance strategies. We used the Ovid ( http://ovidsp.tx.ovid.com ) search engine to conduct a MEDLINE search for "coal mining" or "mining" and "altitude sickness" or "altitude" and a second MEDLINE search for "occupational diseases" and "altitude sickness" or "altitude." The search identified 97 articles of which 76 were relevant. In addition, the references of these 76 articles were manually reviewed for relevant articles. CARDIOVASCULAR EFFECTS: High altitude is associated with increased sympathetic tone that may result in elevated blood pressure, particularly in workers with pre-existing hypertension. Workers with a history of coronary artery disease experience ischemia at lower work rates at high altitude, while those with a history of congestive heart failure have decreased exercise tolerance at high altitude as compared to healthy controls and are at higher risk of suffering an exacerbation of their heart failure. PULMONARY EFFECTS: High altitude is associated with various adverse pulmonary effects, including high-altitude pulmonary edema, pulmonary hypertension, subacute mountain sickness, and chronic mountain sickness. Mining at altitude has been reported to accelerate silicosis and other pneumoconioses. Miners with pre-existing pneumoconioses may experience an exacerbation of their condition at altitude. Persons traveling to high altitude have a higher incidence of Cheyne-Stokes respiration while sleeping than do persons native to high altitude. Obesity increases the risk of pulmonary hypertension, acute mountain sickness, and sleep-disordered breathing. NEUROLOGICAL EFFECTS: The most common adverse neurological

  4. Dosimetric significance of cosmic radiation in the altitude of SST and in free space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allkofer, O C [Kiel Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Reine und Angewandte Kernphysik

    1977-01-01

    The integral cosmic-ray flux, and hence the dose rate, increases with altitude. At the cruising altitude of the subsonic jets, about 10 km, the dose rate is already about a factor 70 higher than at sea level. At the higher altitudes of SST the situation is different because the composition of the galactic component differs from that at the subsonic level, the solar flares are more efficient, and a small number of heavy nuclei are still present. In free space an additional radiation hazard appears when the radiation belts have to be crossed.

  5. Physiological aspects of altitude training and the use of altitude simulators

    OpenAIRE

    Ranković Goran; Radovanović Dragan

    2005-01-01

    Altitude training in various forms is widely practiced by athletes and coaches in an attempt to improve sea level endurance. Training at high altitude may improve performance at sea level through altitude acclimatization, which improves oxygen transport and/or utilization, or through hypoxia, which intensifies the training stimulus. This basic physiological aspect allows three training modalities: live high and train high (classic high-altitude training), live low and train high (training thr...

  6. Variation in aerodynamic coefficients with altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Faiza; Hussain, Mukkarum; Baig, Mirza Mehmood; Haq, Ihtram ul

    Precise aerodynamics performance prediction plays key role for a flying vehicle to get its mission completed within desired accuracy. Aerodynamic coefficients for same Mach number can be different at different altitude due to difference in Reynolds number. Prediction of these aerodynamics coefficients can be made through experiments, analytical solution or Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Advancements in computational power have generated the concept of using CFD as a virtual Wind Tunnel (WT), hence aerodynamic performance prediction in present study is based upon CFD (numerical test rig). Simulations at different altitudes for a range of Mach numbers with zero angle of attack are performed to predict axial force coefficient behavior with altitude (Reynolds number). Similar simulations for a fixed Mach number '3' and a range of angle of attacks are also carried out to envisage the variation in normal force and pitching moment coefficients with altitude (Reynolds number). Results clearly depict that the axial force coefficient is a function of altitude (Reynolds number) and increase as altitude increases, especially for subsonic region. Variation in axial force coefficient with altitude (Reynolds number) slightly increases for larger values of angle of attacks. Normal force and pitching moment coefficients do not depend on altitude (Reynolds number) at smaller values of angle of attacks but show slight decrease as altitude increases. Present study suggests that variation of normal force and pitching moment coefficients with altitude can be neglected but the variation of axial force coefficient with altitude should be considered for vehicle fly in dense atmosphere. It is recommended to continue this study to more complex configurations for various Mach numbers with side slip and real gas effects.

  7. Usefulness of training camps at high altitude for well-trained adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Suchý

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Opinions on the suitability of sports training at altitudes of 1800-2200 m above sea level (ASL for increasing performance in youth are not unanimous. The objective of this study was to test the influence of a ten day altitude training camp on performance in well-trained adolescent cross-country skiers. Methods: A running test of 3 × 2 km (aerobic, anaerobic and critical intensity was used with a rest interval of 10 minutes. The test was performed 4 times - an initial test at a lowland (900 m ASL prior to departure for altitude, two tests at altitude (1850 m ASL, a final test ten days after returning to lower altitudes. The aerobic, anaerobic and critical load intensities were set by graded a load test. For all individual tests, the participants maintained the same heart rate individually defined for the various segments using a heart rate monitor. Changes in speed between the tests were compared. The body's internal response was also monitored by the concentration of lactate (2 and 8 minutes after each exertion. Participants: Well-trained adolescent cross-country skiers (N = 11, age: 14.4 ± 1.2 years, weight: 54.4 ± 8.6 kg, height: 170 ± 7 cm, fat: 13 ± 2.6%. Results: The average times attained in the first altitude test for aerobic and anaerobic load were higher (p < .05 than in the entry test at low altitude. In the second altitude test the average times for all intensities were significantly (p < .05 higher than in the first altitude test. In the tests after returning to the lower altitudes the times attained for all intensities were on average higher than at altitude. The average lactate concentration levels following the various intensities were similar (p > .05. The dynamics of the cool-down monitored via the lactate value at the eighth minute after completing the relevant segment showed that at altitude the adolescents cooled down significantly (p < .05 slower rate following the aerobic and anaerobic intensity than at

  8. Altitude valve for railway suspension control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuan; Zhang, Lihao; Li, Qingxuan; Chen, WanSong

    2017-09-01

    With the variation of people and material during vehicle service, the gravity of vehicle could be unbalanced. As a result it might cause accident. In order to solve this problem, altitude valve is assembled on board. It can adjust the gravity of vehicle by the intake and outlet progress of the spring in the altitude valve to prevent the tilt of vehicles.

  9. High-altitude adaptations in vertebrate hemoglobins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Roy E.

    2007-01-01

    Vertebrates at high altitude are subjected to hypoxic conditions that challenge aerobic metabolism. O2 transport from the respiratory surfaces to tissues requires matching between the O2 loading and unloading tensions and theO2-affinity of blood, which is an integrated function of hemoglobin......, birds and ectothermic vertebrates at high altitude....

  10. Update in the understanding of altitude-induced limitations to performance in team-sport athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billaut, François; Aughey, Robert J

    2013-12-01

    The internationalism of field-based team sports (TS) such as football and rugby requires teams to compete in tournaments held at low to moderate altitude (∼1200-2500 m). In TS, acceleration, speed and aerobic endurance are physical characteristics associated with ball possession and, ultimately, scoring. While these qualities are affected by the development of neuromuscular fatigue at sea level, arterial hypoxaemia induced by exposure to altitude may further hinder the capacity to perform consecutive accelerations (CAC) or sprint endurance and thereby change the outcome of a match. The higher the altitude, the more severe the hypoxaemia, and thus, the larger the expected decline in aerobic endurance, CAC and match running performance. Therefore, it is critical for athletes and coaches to understand how arterial hypoxaemia affects aerobic endurance and CAC and the magnitude of decline they may face at altitude for optimal preparation and increased chances of success. This mini review summarises the effects of acute altitude/hypoxia exposure on aerobic endurance, CAC and activity profiles of TS athletes performing in the laboratory and during matches at natural altitude, and analyses the latest findings about the consequences of arterial hypoxaemia on the relationship between peripheral perturbations, neural adjustments and performance during repeated sprints or CAC. Finally, we briefly discuss how altitude training can potentially help athletes prepare for competition at altitude.

  11. A Comparitive Analysis of the Influence of Weather on the Flight Altitudes of Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamoun-Baranes, Judy; van Loon, Emiel; van Gasteren, Hans; van Belle, Jelmer; Bouten, Willem; Buurma, Luit

    2006-01-01

    Birds pose a serious risk to flight safety worldwide. A Bird Avoidance Model (BAM) is being developed in the Netherlands to reduce the risk of bird aircraft collisions. In order to develop a temporally and spatially dynamic model of bird densities, data are needed on the flight-altitude distribution of birds and how this is influenced by weather. This study focuses on the dynamics of flight altitudes of several species of birds during local flights over land in relation to meteorological conditions.We measured flight altitudes of several species in the southeastern Netherlands using tracking radar during spring and summer 2000. Representatives of different flight strategy groups included four species: a soaring species (buzzard ), an obligatory aerial forager (swift Apus apus), a flapping and gliding species (blackheaded gull Larus ridibundus), and a flapping species (starling Sturnus vulgaris).Maximum flight altitudes varied among species, during the day and among days. Weather significantly influenced the flight altitudes of all species studied. Factors such as temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric instability, cloud cover, and sea level pressure were related to flight altitudes. Different combinations of factors explained 40% 70% of the variance in maximum flight altitudes. Weather affected flight strategy groups differently. Compared to flapping species, buzzards and swifts showed stronger variations in maximum daily altitude and f lew higher under conditions reflecting stronger thermal convection. The dynamic vertical distributions of birds are important for risk assessment and mitigation measures in flight safety as well as wind turbine studies.

  12. Performance of portable ventilators at altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeman, Thomas; Britton, Tyler; Rodriquez, Dario; Branson, Richard

    2014-09-01

    Aeromedical transport of critically ill patients requires continued, accurate performance of equipment at altitude. Changes in barometric pressure can affect the performance of mechanical ventilators calibrated for operation at sea level. Deploying ventilators that can maintain a consistent tidal volume (VT) delivery at various altitudes is imperative for lung protection when transporting wounded war fighters to each echelon of care. Three ventilators (Impact 731, Hamilton T1, and CareFusion Revel) were tested at pediatric (50 and 100 mL) and adult (250-750 mL) tidal VTs at 0 and 20 cm H₂O positive end expiratory pressure and at inspired oxygen of 0.21 and 1.0. Airway pressure, volume, and flow were measured at sea level as well as at 8,000, 16,000, and 22,000 ft (corresponding to barometric pressures of 760, 564, 412, and 321 mm Hg) using a calibrated pneumotachograph connected to a training test lung in an altitude chamber. Set VT and delivered VT as well as changes in VT at each altitude were compared by t test. The T1 delivered VT within 10% of set VT at 8,000 ft. The mean VT was less than set VT at sea level as a result of circuit compressible volume with the Revel and the 731. Changes in VT varied widely among the devices at sea level and at altitude. Increasing altitudes resulted in larger VT than set for the Revel and the T1. The 731 compensated for changes in altitude delivered VT within 10% at the adult settings at all altitudes. Altitude compensation is an active software algorithm. Only the 731 actively accounts for changes in barometric pressure to maintain the set VT at all tested altitudes.

  13. Altitude training and haemoglobin mass from the optimised carbon monoxide rebreathing method determined by a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Christopher J; Sharpe, Ken; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Saunders, Philo U; Humberstone, Clare E; Robertson, Eileen Y; Wachsmuth, Nadine B; Clark, Sally A; McLean, Blake D; Friedmann-Bette, Birgit; Neya, Mitsuo; Pottgiesser, Torben; Schumacher, Yorck O; Schmidt, Walter F

    2013-12-01

    To characterise the time course of changes in haemoglobin mass (Hbmass) in response to altitude exposure. This meta-analysis uses raw data from 17 studies that used carbon monoxide rebreathing to determine Hbmass prealtitude, during altitude and postaltitude. Seven studies were classic altitude training, eight were live high train low (LHTL) and two mixed classic and LHTL. Separate linear-mixed models were fitted to the data from the 17 studies and the resultant estimates of the effects of altitude used in a random effects meta-analysis to obtain an overall estimate of the effect of altitude, with separate analyses during altitude and postaltitude. In addition, within-subject differences from the prealtitude phase for altitude participant and all the data on control participants were used to estimate the analytical SD. The 'true' between-subject response to altitude was estimated from the within-subject differences on altitude participants, between the prealtitude and during-altitude phases, together with the estimated analytical SD. During-altitude Hbmass was estimated to increase by ∼1.1%/100 h for LHTL and classic altitude. Postaltitude Hbmass was estimated to be 3.3% higher than prealtitude values for up to 20 days. The within-subject SD was constant at ∼2% for up to 7 days between observations, indicative of analytical error. A 95% prediction interval for the 'true' response of an athlete exposed to 300 h of altitude was estimated to be 1.1-6%. Camps as short as 2 weeks of classic and LHTL altitude will quite likely increase Hbmass and most athletes can expect benefit.

  14. Diagnostic omission errors in acute paediatric practice: impact of a reminder system on decision-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fisher Helen

    2006-11-01

    consultation (McNemar test, p Conclusion We have shown that junior doctors used a Web-based diagnostic reminder system during acute paediatric assessments to significantly improve the quality of their diagnostic workup and reduce diagnostic omission errors. These benefits were achieved without any adverse effects on patient management following a quick consultation.

  15. Iron Supplementation and Altitude: Decision Making Using a Regression Tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura A. Garvican-Lewis, Andrew D. Govus, Peter Peeling, Chris R. Abbiss, Christopher J. Gore

    2016-03-01

    not increase in the 8 athletes with Ferritin-Pre <35 µg.L-1 who were supplemented with 105 mg.d-1, it is possible that in these athletes this dose was insufficient to support erythropoiesis. Furthermore, athletes with higher Ferritin-Pre, but large daily iron requirements, may also benefit from supplementation at altitude. The lack of improvement in Hbmass in non-supplemented athletes, may be related to reduced iron availability and mobility, despite plentiful iron stores, perhaps due to an increase in hepcidin post-exercise (Peeling, 2010. In summary, our regression tree suggests if sufficient iron is made available (via supplementation, even ID athletes can improve Hbmass in response to altitude. Some athletes with otherwise normal ferritin may also require supplementation to maintain an iron balance capable of supporting both the haematological and non-haematological adaptations to altitude. We recommend an individualised approach when deciding whether iron supplementation is appropriate, particularly concerning the dose provided.

  16. Right ventricular morphology and function in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients living at high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güvenç, Tolga Sinan; Erer, Hatice Betül; Kul, Seref; Perinçek, Gökhan; Ilhan, Sami; Sayar, Nurten; Yıldırım, Binnaz Zeynep; Doğan, Coşkun; Karabağ, Yavuz; Balcı, Bahattin; Eren, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary vasculature is affected in patients with chronic pulmonary obstructive disease (COPD). As a result of increased pulmonary resistance, right ventricular morphology and function are altered in COPD patients. High altitude and related hypoxia causes pulmonary vasoconstriction, thereby affecting the right ventricle. We aimed to investigate the combined effects of COPD and altitude-related chronic hypoxia on right ventricular morphology and function. Forty COPD patients living at high altitude (1768 m) and 41 COPD patients living at sea level were enrolled in the study. All participants were diagnosed as COPD by a pulmonary diseases specialist depending on symptoms, radiologic findings and pulmonary function test results. Detailed two-dimensional echocardiography was performed by a cardiologist at both study locations. Oxygen saturation and mean pulmonary artery pressure were higher in the high altitude group. Right ventricular end diastolic diameter, end systolic diameter, height and end systolic area were significantly higher in the high altitude group compared to the sea level group. Parameters of systolic function, including tricuspid annular systolic excursion, systolic velocity of tricuspid annulus and right ventricular isovolumic acceleration were similar between groups, while fractional area change was significantly higher in the sea level groups compared to the high altitude group. Indices of diastolic function and myocardial performance index were similar between groups. An increase in mean pulmonary artery pressure and right ventricular dimensions are observed in COPD patients living at high altitude. Despite this increase, systolic and diastolic functions of the right ventricle, as well as global right ventricular performance are similar in COPD patients living at high altitude and sea level. Altitude-related adaptation to chronic hypoxia could explain these findings. Copyright © 2012 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic

  17. ABOUT TRANSITION ALTITUDE IN RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is about establishing a common transition altitude over all territory of Russian Federation. The main objective is to prove the necessity of a common transition altitude in Russian airspace and to define, which variant of tran- sition altitude (low, medium, high is the most suitable to be implemented in Russia. ICAO and IFALPA points of view, data and experience from different states and regions all over the world were examined in order to show all the advantages and disadvantages of different approaches towards common transition altitude. The research showed that the most appro- priate common transition altitude in Russia will be 10000 feet (3050 meters, it will cover almost all the international aero- dromes and regions in the country. Only several exceptions are needed in mountainous areas. This article can be used to further study of the possibility of implementation of common transition altitude, because it can’t take into consideration all the local features of all the FIRs (Flight Information Regions in Russia. The conclusion is establishing a common transi- tion altitude over such a big part of the world as Russian Federation will lead to improvement of the flight safety, harmoni- zation with ICAO and IFALPA policies and flexibility in airspace design.

  18. Variability of Diurnal Temperature Range During Winter Over Western Himalaya: Range- and Altitude-Wise Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhar, M. S.; Devi, Usha; Dash, S. K.; Singh, G. P.; Singh, Amreek

    2018-04-01

    The current trends in diurnal temperature range, maximum temperature, minimum temperature, mean temperature, and sun shine hours over different ranges and altitudes of Western Himalaya during winter have been studied. Analysis of 25 years of data shows an increasing trend in diurnal temperature range over all the ranges and altitudes of Western Himalaya during winter, thereby confirming regional warming of the region due to present climate change and global warming. Statistical studies show significant increasing trend in maximum temperature over all the ranges and altitudes of Western Himalaya. Minimum temperature shows significant decreasing trend over Pir Panjal and Shamshawari range and significant increasing trend over higher altitude of Western Himalaya. Similarly, sunshine hours show significant decreasing trend over Karakoram range. There exists strong positive correlation between diurnal temperature range and maximum temperature for all the ranges and altitudes of Western Himalaya. Strong negative correlation exists between diurnal temperature range and minimum temperature over Shamshawari and Great Himalaya range and lower altitude of Western Himalaya. Sunshine hours show strong positive correlation with diurnal temperature range over Pir Panjal and Great Himalaya range and lower and higher altitudes.

  19. United States high-altitude test experiences. A review emphasizing the impact on the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoerlin, H.

    1976-06-01

    The US high-altitude nuclear explosions of the 1955-1962 period are listed chronologically; dates, locations, and yields are given. The major physical phases of the interactions of the weapon outputs with the atmosphere are described, such as the formation of fireballs at the low high-altitudes and the partition of energies and their distribution over very large spaces at the higher high-altitudes. The effects of these explosions on the normal activities of populations and the protective measures taken are documented. Many scientific observations, together with their significance and values, are reviewed. 109 refs

  20. The Roles of Public Higher Education Expenditure and the Privatization of the Higher Education on U.S. States Economic Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curs, Bradley R.; Bhandari, Bornali; Steiger, Christina

    2011-01-01

    Previous empirical literature finds that government expenditure on higher education has a negative, or null, effect on U.S. economic growth rates. This empirical result may be driven by omission of an important variable--the privatization of higher education. Using state-level panel data from 1970 to 2005, this analysis investigates whether the…

  1. Crescimento e sintomas de deficiência nutricional em Iris germanica L. decorrentes da omissão de macronutrientes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yara Brito Chaim Jardim Rosa

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A busca crescente por Iris germanica L. pela farmacologia, medicina, indústria de perfume e cosméticos, tem demandado pesquisas relacionadas à nutrição mineral dessa planta. Assim, o objetivo dessa pesquisa foi analisar o crescimento e os sintomas visuais de deficiência em Iris germânica, sob condições de omissão de macronutrientes. O experimento foi conduzido na área de Jardinocultura da Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados (UFGD em Dourados – MS. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos casualizados com dez repetições, sendo que, a unidade experimental foi composta por uma planta de Iris germanica L., cultivada em vaso plástico com capacidade para 3 kg usando como substrato areia lavada esterilizada. Para analisar o crescimento e os sintomas de deficiência, e observar a suscetibilidade a doenças foram utilizados cinco tratamentos que corresponderam à solução nutritiva completa de Hogland e Arnon (macro e micronutrientes, e a omissão individual de N, P, K, e Ca. A deficiência de um macronutriente, especialmente N, Ca e P, além de promover diminuição do crescimento da planta e do número de gemas emergidas do rizoma, resultaram em alterações morfológicas, traduzidas como sintomas característicos de deficiência. A omissão de K contribuiu para o aumento da severidade de bacteriose causado por Erwinia spp.

  2. Single protein omission reconstitution studies of tetracycline binding to the 30S subunit of Escherichia coli ribosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buck, M.; Cooperman, B.S.

    1990-01-01

    In previous work the authors showed that on photolysis of Escherichia coli ribosomes in the presence of [ 3 H]tetracycline (TC) the major protein labeled is S7, and they presented strong evidence that such labeling takes place from a high-affinity site related to the inhibitory action of TC. In this work they use single protein omission reconstitution (SPORE) experiments to identify those proteins that are important for high-affinity TC binding to the 30S subunit, as measured by both cosedimentation and filter binding assays. With respect to both sedimentation coefficients and relative Phe-tRNA Phe binding, the properties of the SPORE particles they obtain parallel very closely those measured earlier, with the exception of the SPORE particle lacking S13. A total of five proteins, S3, S7, S8, S14, and S19, are shown to be important for TC binding, with the largest effects seen on omission of proteins S7 and S14. Determination of the protein compositions of the corresponding SPORE particles demonstrates that the observed effects are, for the most part, directly attributable to the omission of the given protein rather than reflecting an indirect effect of omitting one protein on the uptake of another. A large body of evidence supports the notion that four of these proteins, S3, S7, S14, and S19, are included, along with 16S rRNA bases 920-1,396, in one of the major domains of the 30S subunit. The results support the conclusion that the structure of this domain is important for the binding of TC and that, within this domain, TC binds directly to S7

  3. Hematocrit and Hemoglobin Levels of Nonhuman Apes at Moderate Altitudes: A Comparison with Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortola, Jacopo P; Wilfong, DeeAnn

    2016-12-01

    Mortola, Jacopo P. and DeeAnn Wilfong. Hematocrit and hemoglobin levels of nonhuman apes at moderate altitudes: a comparison with humans. High Alt Med Biol. 17:323-335, 2016.-We asked to what extent the hematologic response (increase in hematocrit [Hct] and in blood hemoglobin concentration [Hb]) of humans to altitude hypoxia was shared by our closest relatives, the nonhuman apes. Data were collected from 29 specimens of 7 species of apes at 2073 m altitude (barometric pressure Pb = 598 mm Hg); additional data originated from apes located at a lower altitude (1493 m, Pb = 639 mm Hg). The human altitude profiles of Hct and Hb between sea level and 3000 m were constructed from a compilation of literature sources that (all combined) comprised data sets of 10,000-12,000 subjects for each gender. These human data were binned for 0-250 m altitude (sea level) and for each 500 m of progressively higher altitudes. Values of Hb and Hct of both men and women were significantly higher than at sea level at the 1500 bin (1250-1750 m); hence, the altitude threshold for the human hematological responses must be between 1000 and 1500 m. In the nonhuman apes, no increase in Hct or Hb was apparent at 1500 m; at 2000 m, the increase was significant only for the Hb of females. At either altitude in the group of nonhuman apes, the increase in Hct was much less than in humans, and that of Hb was significantly less at 1500 m. We conclude that lack of, or minimal, hematopoietic response to moderate altitude can occur in mammalian species that are not genetically adapted to high altitudes. Polycythemia is not a common response to altitude hypoxia and, at least at moderate altitudes, the degree of the human response may represent the exception among apes rather than the rule.

  4. [Correlation between EGLN1 gene, protein express in lung tissue of rats and pulmonary artery pressure at different altitude].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S H; Li, S; Sun, L; Bai, Z Z; Yang, Q Y; Ga, Q; Jin, G E

    2016-08-23

    no statistical difference (P> 0.05); the mean PAP of rats in high altitude group began to rise on the 7(th) day (28.7±7.7) mmHg, which was higher than that in low altitude group (Pth) day; it was significantly proportional with exposure to hypoxic time, and compared to low altitude group and moderate altitude group, there was significant difference (Phigh altitude group were significantly decreased, furthermore, the expression level decreased with the increase of hypoxia exposure time (Phigh altitude group was significantly increased under hypobaric hypoxia, it was 72 times more than that of the moderate altitude group, and nearly 300 times than that of the low altitude group, respectively (both P<0.001=. EGLN1 gene expression in lung tissue of rat is affected by hypoxia, the expression level increases with the increase of the altitude; but the protein expression level, in contrast with gene expression level, is decreased with the increase of altitude and is significantly negatively correlated with mean PAP.

  5. Intriguing radiation signatures at aviation altitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiska, W. K.

    2017-12-01

    The Automated Radiation Measurements for Aerospace Safety (ARMAS) project captures absorbed dose in Si with a fleet of 6 instruments on research aircraft. These dose rates are then converted to an effective dose rate. Over 325 flights since 2013 have captured global radiation at nearly all altitudes and latitudes. The radiation is predominantly caused by atmospheric neutrons and protons from galactic cosmic rays (GCRs). We have not yet obtained dose from solar energetic particle (SEP) events, which are rather rare. On 13 flights we have also measured dose rates that are up to twice the GCR background for approximately a half an hour per event while flying at higher magnetic latitudes near 60 degrees. The timing of the radiation appears to be coincident with periods of mild geomagnetic disturbances while flying above 10 km at L-shells of 3 to 6. The radiation source is best modeled as secondary gamma-ray photons caused by precipitating ultra-relativistic electrons from the outer Van Allen radiation belt originating as loss cone electrons scattered by electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves. We describe the observations and the lines of evidence for this intriguing new radiation source relevant to aviation crew and frequent flyers.

  6. HSP70 expression in the copper butterfly Lycaena tityrus across altitudes and temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karl, I.; Sørensen, Jesper Givskov; Loeschcke, Volker

    2009-01-01

    temperatures show differences in HSP70 expression. HSP70 expression increased substantially at the higher rearing temperature in low-altitude butterflies, which might represent an adaptation to occasionally occurring heat spells. On the other hand, high-altitude butterflies showed much less plasticity...... in response to rearing temperatures, and overall seem to rely more on genetically fixed thermal stress resistance. Whether the latter indicates a higher vulnerability of high-altitude populations to global warming needs further investigation. HSP70 expression increased with both colder and warmer induction......The ability to express heat-shock proteins (HSP) under thermal stress is an essential mechanism for ectotherms to cope with unfavourable conditions. In this study, we investigate if Copper butterflies originating from different altitudes and/or being exposed to different rearing and induction...

  7. Low-altitude trapped protons at the geomagnetic equator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzik, T. G.; Miah, M. A.; Mitchell, J. M.; Wefel, J. P.

    1989-01-01

    Geomagnetically trapped protons in the 0.6- to 9-MeV energy range were measured at latitudes near the geomagnetic equator by the Phoenix 1 experiment on board the S81-1 mission from May to November 1982. The protons show a distribution in latitude along the line of minimum magnetic field strength with a full width at half maximum of about 10 deg but with no appreciable longitudinal variation. Between 170 and 290 Km the peak proton flux shows a fifth-power altitude dependence, in contrast to previous measurements at higher altitudes, possibly demonstrating source attenuation. The efficiency of the telescope is calculated as a function of particle pitch angle and used to investigate the time dependence (1969-1982) of the intensity.

  8. Low-altitude trapped protons at the geomagnetic equator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzik, T.G.; Miah, M.A.; Mitchell, J.W.; Wefel, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    Geomagnetically trapped protons in the 0.6- to 9-MeV energy range were measured at latitudes near the geomagnetic equator by the Phoenix 1 experiment on board the S81-1 mission from May to November 1982. The protons show a distribution in latitude along the line of minimum magnetic field strength with a full width at half maximum of ∼10 0 but with no appreciable longitudinal variation. Between 170 and 290 km the peak proton flux shows a fifth-power altitude dependence, in contrast to previous measurements at higher altitudes, possibly demonstrating source attenuation. The efficiency of the telescope is calculated as a function of particle pitch angle and used to investigate the time dependence (1969--1982) of the intensity. copyright American Geophysical Union 1989

  9. High Altitude Clear Air Turbulence Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory conducted the High Altitude Clear Air Turbulence Project in the mid 1960s with the intention of better understanding air...

  10. Introduction to altitude/hypoxic training symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilber, Randall L

    2007-09-01

    Altitude/hypoxic training has traditionally been an intriguing and controversial area of research and sport performance. This controversial aspect was evident recently in the form of scholarly debates in highly regarded professional journals, as well as the World Anti-Doping Agency's (WADA) consideration of placing "artificially-induced hypoxic conditions" on the 2007 Prohibited List of Substances/Methods. In light of the ongoing controversy surrounding altitude/hypoxic training, this symposium was organized with the following objectives in mind: 1) to examine the primary physiological responses and underlying mechanisms associated with altitude/hypoxic training, including the influence of genetic predisposition; 2) to present evidence supporting the effect of altitude/hypoxic acclimatization on both hematological and nonhematological markers, including erythrocyte volume, skeletal muscle-buffering capacity, hypoxic ventilatory response, and physiological efficiency/economy; 3) to evaluate the efficacy of several contemporary simulated altitude modalities and training strategies, including hypoxic tents, nitrogen apartments, and intermittent hypoxic exposure (IHE) or training, and to address the legal and ethical issues associated with the use of simulated altitude; and 4) to describe different altitude/hypoxic training strategies used by elite-level athletes, including Olympians and military special forces. In addressing these objectives, papers will be presented on the topics of: 1) effect of hypoxic "dose" on physiological responses and sea-level performance (Drs. Benjamin Levine and James Stray-Gundersen), 2) nonhematological mechanisms of improved performance after hypoxic exposure (Dr. Christopher Gore), 3) application of altitude/hypoxic training by elite athletes (Dr. Randall Wilber), and 4) military applications of hypoxic training (Dr. Stephen Muza).

  11. START (screening tool to alert doctors to the right treatment)--an evidence-based screening tool to detect prescribing omissions in elderly patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Barry, P J

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Inappropriate prescribing encompasses acts of commission i.e. giving drugs that are contraindicated or unsuitable, and acts of omission i.e. failure to prescribe drugs when indicated due to ignorance of evidence base or other irrational basis e.g. ageism. There are considerable published data on the prevalence of inappropriate prescribing; however, there are no recent published data on the prevalence of acts of omission. The aim of this study was to calculate the prevalence of acts of prescribing omission in a population of consecutively hospitalised elderly people. METHODS: A screening tool (screening tool to alert doctors to the right treatment acronym, START), devised from evidence-based prescribing indicators and arranged according to physiological systems was prepared and validated for identifying prescribing omissions in older adults. Data on active medical problems and prescribed medicines were collected in 600 consecutive elderly patients admitted from the community with acute illness to a teaching hospital. On identification of an omitted medication, the patient\\'s medical records were studied to look for a valid reason for the prescribing omission. RESULTS: Using the START list, we found one or more prescribing omissions in 57.9% of patients. In order of prevalence, the most common prescribing omissions were: statins in atherosclerotic disease (26%), warfarin in chronic atrial fibrillation (9.5%), anti-platelet therapy in arterial disease (7.3%) and calcium\\/vitamin D supplementation in symptomatic osteoporosis (6%). CONCLUSION: Failure to prescribe appropriate medicines is a highly prevalent problem among older people presenting to hospital with acute illness. A validated screening tool (START) is one method of systematically identifying appropriate omitted medicines in clinical practice.

  12. Early history of high-altitude physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, John B

    2016-02-01

    High-altitude physiology can be said to have begun in 1644 when Torricelli described the first mercury barometer and wrote the immortal words "We live submerged at the bottom of an ocean of the element air." Interestingly, the notion of atmospheric pressure had eluded his teacher, the great Galileo. Blaise Pascal was responsible for describing the fall in pressure with increasing altitude, and Otto von Guericke gave a dramatic demonstration of the enormous force that could be developed by atmospheric pressure. Robert Boyle learned of Guericke's experiment and, with Robert Hooke, constructed the first air pump that allowed small animals to be exposed to a low pressure. Hooke also constructed a small low-pressure chamber and exposed himself to a simulated altitude of about 2400 meters. With the advent of ballooning, humans were rapidly exposed to very low pressures, sometimes with tragic results. For example, the French balloon, Zénith, rose to over 8000 m, and two of the three aeronauts succumbed to the hypoxia. Paul Bert was the first person to clearly state that the deleterious effects of high altitude were caused by the low partial pressure of oxygen (PO2), and later research was accelerated by high-altitude stations and expeditions to high altitude. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.

  13. Acúmulo de nutrientes em frutos de cafeeiro em duas altitudes de cultivo: micronutrientes Nutrient accumulation in coffee fruits at two at two plantation altitudes: micronutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Galvêas Laviola

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Dado à importância de se conhecer a exportação de micronutrientes pelos frutos, bem como, as épocas em que são mais demandados pelo cafeeiro, estudou-se o acúmulo de B, Cu, Fe, Mn e Zn em frutos de Coffea arabica L da antese à maturação, em lavouras estabelecidas em duas altitudes. Estudou-se também a variação no teor desses elementos. Estudou-se o acúmulo de B, Cu, Fe, Mn e Zn em frutos de cafeeiro arábico da antese à maturação em duas altitudes, bem como a variação na concentração dos elementos em folhas dos ramos produtivos. O experimento foi constituído da variedade de cafeeiro (Coffea arabica L. Catuaí IAC 44 cultivada a 720 e 950 m de altitude, no município de Martins Soares-MG. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente ao acaso, com três repetições, usando um esquema de parcela subdividida no tempo. O aumento da altitude influenciou o ciclo reprodutivo do cafeeiro, demandando maior tempo para formação dos frutos. O consumo de nutrientes pelos frutos, assim como o enchimento de grãos, foi mais crítico em condições de menor altitude, já que a planta necessitou completar esses processos em menor espaço de tempo. No estádio de expansão rápida, a percentagem de acúmulo de micronutrientes foi maior na altitude de 720 m, comparada à de 950 m. De modo geral, a altitude influenciou a variação das concentrações foliares de nutrientes, apesar de não se ter observado resposta-padrão da concentração foliar ao aumento da altitude. Conclui-se que a altitude teve influência na extensão do ciclo, bem como no acúmulo de micronutrientes em frutos e na variação, das concentrações foliares destes elementos em folhas de cafeeiro.In view of the importance of knowing fruit micronutrients export from the soil, and the season in which its coffee-plant demand is higher, the accumulation of B, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn in fruits as well as the variation in the leaf content of the elements in productive branches of

  14. [Physiological aspects of altitude training and the use of altitude simulators].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranković, Goran; Radovanović, Dragan

    2005-01-01

    Altitude training in various forms is widely practiced by athletes and coaches in an attempt to improve sea level endurance. Training at high altitude may improve performance at sea level through altitude acclimatisation, which improves oxygen transport and/or utilisation, or through hypoxia, which intensifies the training stimulus. This basic physiological aspect allows three training modalities: live high and train high (classic high-altitude training), live low and train high (training through hypoxia), and live high and train low (the new trend). In an effort to reduce the financial and logistical challenges of travelling to high-altitude training sites, scientists and manufactures have developed artificial high-altitude environments, which simulate the hypoxic conditions of moderate altitude (2000-3000 meters). Endurance athletes from many sports have recently started using nitrogen environments, or hypoxic rooms and tents as part of their altitude training programmes. The results of controlled studies on these modalities of high-altitude training, their practical approach, and ethics are summarised.

  15. Physiological aspects of altitude training and the use of altitude simulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranković Goran

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Altitude training in various forms is widely practiced by athletes and coaches in an attempt to improve sea level endurance. Training at high altitude may improve performance at sea level through altitude acclimatization, which improves oxygen transport and/or utilization, or through hypoxia, which intensifies the training stimulus. This basic physiological aspect allows three training modalities: live high and train high (classic high-altitude training, live low and train high (training through hypoxia, and live high and train low (the new trend. In an effort to reduce the financial and logistical challenges of traveling to high-altitude training sites, scientists and manufactures have developed artificial high-altitude environments, which simulate the hypoxic conditions of moderate altitude (2000-3000 meters. Endurance athletes from many sports have recently started using nitrogen environments, or hypoxic rooms and tents as part of their altitude training programmes. The results of controlled studies on these modalities of high-altitude training, their practical approach, and ethics are summarized.

  16. INDIGENOUS STUDENTS IN PUBLIC SCHOOLS IN URBAN RONDÔNIA: THE OMISSION OF PUBLIC POLICY FAILURE OF ETHNIC ORIGINS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanubia Sampaio Santos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the outline of a study that is underway, seeking evidence and question the reality of Indian students in schools not as the situations of indigenous affirmation and omission identity (ethnic belonging in urban public schools in Rondônia. The obtained data show everyday situations that characterize violence and prejudice against students indígenas.Essas and other situations that reveals the interethnic tension remains dormant and can manifest in many different situations. At school, occurs in intercultural interaction. To discuss these and other issues raised in the survey, support for authors who discuss indigenous education, management, public policy, anti-colonialist project, empowerment, autonomy and leadership indigenous perspective of the indigenous movement with Grupioni (2001, Lopes da Silva (2000; D'Angelis (2012; Bergamaschi (2012, Both (2009; Mendonça (2009; Castoriadis (1988; Secchi (2008; Tadeu da Silva (1999 and Paulo Freire (1982 with their outstanding contribution to the dialogue on indigenous education. Keywords: Indian student. Urban school. Prejudice. Omission identity.

  17. Application of a sensory-instrumental tool to study apple texture characteristics shaped by altitude and time of harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Mathilde; Corollaro, Maria Laura; Manfrini, Luigi; Endrizzi, Isabella; Aprea, Eugenio; Zanella, Angelo; Corelli Grappadelli, Luca; Gasperi, Flavia

    2018-02-01

    Texture is important in the preferences of apple consumers. Of the pre-harvest factors affecting fruit quality and especially texture, altitude and subsequent climatic conditions are crucial, determining differences in the physiological mechanisms of fruit growth, ripening stage and chemical composition, as demonstrated by several studies. This work applies a detailed sensory-instrumental protocol developed in a previous paper to investigate the impact of altitude, time of harvest and their cross-effect on sensory characteristics of apple, with a focus on texture. Sensory differences were found in relation to altitude, although the profile results were mainly affected by the time of harvest. Fruit from lower altitude was described as juicier, crunchier and sweeter than samples from higher altitude, which were floury, sourer and more astringent. Texture performance, soluble solids content and titratable acidity corroborated this sensory description. Moreover, anatomical data showed that fruit from lower altitude had a larger volume, a higher number of cells and a higher percentage of intercellular spaces. We demonstrated that differences between fruit from various altitudes can be perceived through human senses, and that the proposed sensory-instrumental tool can be used to describe such differences. This study brings more understanding about the impact of altitude and time of harvest on apple sensory properties. This work could support apple producers, from semi-mountainous regions (Alps, Tyrol, etc.), in advertising and valorising their products with their specific characteristics in a more efficient manner. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. S-40: Acute Phase Protein Increse in High Altitude Mountaineers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolga Saka

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available “Erciyes Tigers” are an elite group of high altitude climbers. They have been climbing ErciyesMountain (3500 m, in Kayseri, Turkey once a week at least for ten years. When they climb Erciyes in winter, they also take a snow bath. This study investigated the effects of regular high altitude climbing on the metabolic and hematological responses of mountaineers. Venous blood samples were taken to investigate hematological, biochemical parameters and some hormone values from 21 mountaineers and 16 healthy age-matched sedentary volunteers at resting condition. The neutrophil/lymphocyte (N/L ratio was calculated. The N/L was associated with an increased risk of long-term mortality and it could provide a good measure of exercise stress and subsequent recovery. Most of the hematological and biochemical parameters i.e., erythrocyte, leukocyte, hemoglobin and hematocrit values did not change significantly. The neutrophil to lymphocyte (N/L ratio was significantly (p<0.04 decreased in the mountaineer compared with the sedentary group. Total protein (p<0.000 and albumin (0.001 were lower, while ferritin (p<0.04, creatine (p<0.03 and creatine phosphokinase levels (p<0.01 were higher in mountaineers. Our results show that regular high altitude climbing increased serum levels of some acute-phase proteins and these increments were not transient.

  19. Acute high-altitude illness | Hofmeyr | South African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A substantial proportion of South Africa (SA)'s population lives at high altitude (>1 500 m), and many travel to very high altitudes (>3 500 m) for tourism, business, recreation or religious pilgrimages every year. Despite this, knowledge of acute altitude illnesses is poor among SA doctors. At altitude, the decreasing ambient ...

  20. Energy and emissions characterization of an eco-efficient biomass cook stove at different altitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pérez-Bayer, Juan F.; Graciano-Bustamante, Diana S.; Gómez-Betancur, José A.

    2013-01-01

    Around 2.5 billion people depend on wood as their main fuel for heating and cooking.In this work is studied the effect of altitude (678 and 1976 meters above sea level) on energy performance and emissions of an improved wood stove under standardized cooking tests. The experiments were carried out under the Water Boiling (WBT) and Controlled Cooking (CCT) Tests. The efficiency decreased about 24 % with increasing altitude in WBT, and specific fuel consumption increased 27.3 % due to the air density changes. Regarding the controlled cooking test, the specific fuel consumption and specific emissions increased by 15.3 % and 16 %, respectively. It is highlighted that altitude significantly affects the 'Plancha' wood stove behavior. Specific emissions increased at higher altitudes, so it is necessary to redesign wood stoves according to their geographical location in order to optimize the cooking process. (author)

  1. Can High Altitude Influence Cytokines and Sleep?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir de Aquino Lemos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of persons who relocate to regions of high altitude for work, pleasure, sport, or residence increases every year. It is known that the reduced supply of oxygen (O2 induced by acute or chronic increases in altitude stimulates the body to adapt to new metabolic challenges imposed by hypoxia. Sleep can suffer partial fragmentation because of the exposure to high altitudes, and these changes have been described as one of the responsible factors for the many consequences at high altitudes. We conducted a review of the literature during the period from 1987 to 2012. This work explored the relationships among inflammation, hypoxia and sleep in the period of adaptation and examined a novel mechanism that might explain the harmful effects of altitude on sleep, involving increased Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β, Interleukin-6 (IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α production from several tissues and cells, such as leukocytes and cells from skeletal muscle and brain.

  2. Can High Altitude Influence Cytokines and Sleep?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aquino Lemos, Valdir; dos Santos, Ronaldo Vagner Thomatieli; Lira, Fabio Santos; Rodrigues, Bruno; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco Tulio

    2013-01-01

    The number of persons who relocate to regions of high altitude for work, pleasure, sport, or residence increases every year. It is known that the reduced supply of oxygen (O2) induced by acute or chronic increases in altitude stimulates the body to adapt to new metabolic challenges imposed by hypoxia. Sleep can suffer partial fragmentation because of the exposure to high altitudes, and these changes have been described as one of the responsible factors for the many consequences at high altitudes. We conducted a review of the literature during the period from 1987 to 2012. This work explored the relationships among inflammation, hypoxia and sleep in the period of adaptation and examined a novel mechanism that might explain the harmful effects of altitude on sleep, involving increased Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), Interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) production from several tissues and cells, such as leukocytes and cells from skeletal muscle and brain. PMID:23690660

  3. Altitude Registration of Limb-Scattered Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moy, Leslie; Bhartia, Pawan K.; Jaross, Glen; Loughman, Robert; Kramarova, Natalya; Chen, Zhong; Taha, Ghassan; Chen, Grace; Xu, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    One of the largest constraints to the retrieval of accurate ozone profiles from UV backscatter limb sounding sensors is altitude registration. Two methods, the Rayleigh scattering attitude sensing (RSAS) and absolute radiance residual method (ARRM), are able to determine altitude registration to the accuracy necessary for long-term ozone monitoring. The methods compare model calculations of radiances to measured radiances and are independent of onboard tracking devices. RSAS determines absolute altitude errors, but, because the method is susceptible to aerosol interference, it is limited to latitudes and time periods with minimal aerosol contamination. ARRM, a new technique introduced in this paper, can be applied across all seasons and altitudes. However, it is only appropriate for relative altitude error estimates. The application of RSAS to Limb Profiler (LP) measurements from the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) on board the Suomi NPP (SNPP) satellite indicates tangent height (TH) errors greater than 1 km with an absolute accuracy of +/-200 m. Results using ARRM indicate a approx. 300 to 400m intra-orbital TH change varying seasonally +/-100 m, likely due to either errors in the spacecraft pointing or in the geopotential height (GPH) data that we use in our analysis. ARRM shows a change of approx. 200m over 5 years with a relative accuracy (a long-term accuracy) of 100m outside the polar regions.

  4. Preliminary study on alterations of altitude road traffic in China from 2006 to 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hui; Yin, Zhiyong; Xiang, Hongyi; Liao, Zhikang; Wang, Zhengguo

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Road traffic can play an important role in strengthening regional economic activities, especially at high altitude, and it is necessary to know important traffic-related information. Although previous studies reported on road traffic in China, there has been little research on high-altitude road traffic to date. Method The annual official census of road traffic safety from 2006 to 2013 was used to obtain data on the general population, registered drivers, registered vehicles, newly built roads, road traffic accidents (RTAs), mortality rate per 100 000 populations and per 10 000 vehicles in high-altitude provinces, including Tibet, Qinghai, Xinjiang, Gansu, Yunnan, Sichuan, and Chongqing. These provincial data were reviewed retrospectively, with the national data as the reference. Statistical analysis (i.e., t test) was used to compare the estimated average annual change rate of population, number of registered drivers, registered vehicles, and newly built roads in high-altitude provinces with the national rates. Results Compared with the national data, there are significantly higher annual rates of population growth in Tibet and Xinjiang, registered drivers in Gansu, registered vehicles in Gansu, Sichuan, and Chongqing, and newly built roads in Tibet and Qinghai. Among the investigated provinces, Tibet, Qinghai, and Yunnan had a higher proportion of the roads with the high class. RTAs and RTA-induced casualties in the high-altitude provinces indicated a decreasing trend. The mortality rate per 10 000 vehicles and per 100 000 populations showed a decreasing trend, while the RTA-related mortality rate in Tibet, Qinghai, Xinjiang and Gansu remained high. Conclusions Major changes for road traffic in high-altitude provinces have occurred over the past decade; however, the RTA-related mortality rate in high-altitude provinces has remained high. This study furthers understanding about road traffic safety in China; further studies on road traffic safety at

  5. Preliminary study on alterations of altitude road traffic in China from 2006 to 2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhao

    Full Text Available Road traffic can play an important role in strengthening regional economic activities, especially at high altitude, and it is necessary to know important traffic-related information. Although previous studies reported on road traffic in China, there has been little research on high-altitude road traffic to date.The annual official census of road traffic safety from 2006 to 2013 was used to obtain data on the general population, registered drivers, registered vehicles, newly built roads, road traffic accidents (RTAs, mortality rate per 100 000 populations and per 10 000 vehicles in high-altitude provinces, including Tibet, Qinghai, Xinjiang, Gansu, Yunnan, Sichuan, and Chongqing. These provincial data were reviewed retrospectively, with the national data as the reference. Statistical analysis (i.e., t test was used to compare the estimated average annual change rate of population, number of registered drivers, registered vehicles, and newly built roads in high-altitude provinces with the national rates.Compared with the national data, there are significantly higher annual rates of population growth in Tibet and Xinjiang, registered drivers in Gansu, registered vehicles in Gansu, Sichuan, and Chongqing, and newly built roads in Tibet and Qinghai. Among the investigated provinces, Tibet, Qinghai, and Yunnan had a higher proportion of the roads with the high class. RTAs and RTA-induced casualties in the high-altitude provinces indicated a decreasing trend. The mortality rate per 10 000 vehicles and per 100 000 populations showed a decreasing trend, while the RTA-related mortality rate in Tibet, Qinghai, Xinjiang and Gansu remained high.Major changes for road traffic in high-altitude provinces have occurred over the past decade; however, the RTA-related mortality rate in high-altitude provinces has remained high. This study furthers understanding about road traffic safety in China; further studies on road traffic safety at high altitude should be

  6. Radiation exposure and high-altitude flight. NCRP Commentary No. 12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Enhanced air crew and public radiation exposure while flying at current altitudes and speeds has not been adequately addressed. However, the commercial aircraft industry continues to expand with greater numbers of passengers and more air crews year by year. With the expected expansions in high-altitude flight in the next two decades there will be many more people exposed to higher levels of ionizing radiation than currently. The equivalent dose rates at the higher altitudes are of the order of two to three times those received at current aircraft altitudes, but are not known very well, partly because of limitations in the knowledge of the component radiations, especially the high-energy neutron component. The risks are also more uncertain than for low-LET exposures on the ground because of uncertainty in an average W R to use for high-LET radiations. Exposures of current air crew are presently comparable with the average exposures of other radiation workers on the ground (EPA, 1995). Substantially higher exposures must be expected at high altitudes to air crew (perhaps approaching or possibly exceeding the current limit for workers on the ground). Higher exposures to sensitive groups of the population such as the fetuses carried by pregnant women are of special concern. Therefore, steps must be taken to improve our knowledge base with respect to dose levels and risks at these high altitudes. Following acquisition of this knowledge, modifications in radiation protection practices with respect to air crew and passengers will need to be considered and recommended to assure that adequate radiation protection is provided with respect to high-altitude flight

  7. Omissões legislativas inconstitucionais: reflexões acerca do seu correto delineamento teórico e da legitimidade democrática do seu controle

    OpenAIRE

    João Paulo de Aguiar Santos

    2013-01-01

    A presente dissertação objetiva, a partir principalmente de reflexões abstratas, fornecer elementos capazes de fomentar um coerente questionamento em relação à formulação teórica dominante no que se refere ao estudo da inconstitucionalidade por omissão. Busca-se evidenciar o contexto histórico e jurídico em que o instituto foi desenvolvido para, em seguida, defender a necessidade de se partir para um novo delineamento teórico das circunstâncias aptas a caracterizarem a ocorrência de uma omiss...

  8. Increased Hypoxic Dose After Training at Low Altitude with 9h Per Night at 3000m Normobaric Hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Amelia J; Saunders, Philo U; Vallance, Brent S; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Gore, Christopher J

    2015-12-01

    This study examined effects of low altitude training and a live-high: train-low protocol (combining both natural and simulated modalities) on haemoglobin mass (Hbmass), maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max), time to exhaustion, and submaximal exercise measures. Eighteen elite-level race-walkers were assigned to one of two experimental groups; lowHH (low Hypobaric Hypoxia: continuous exposure to 1380 m for 21 consecutive days; n = 10) or a combined low altitude training and nightly Normobaric Hypoxia (lowHH+NHnight: living and training at 1380 m, plus 9 h.night(-1) at a simulated altitude of 3000 m using hypoxic tents; n = 8). A control group (CON; n = 10) lived and trained at 600 m. Measurement of Hbmass, time to exhaustion and VO2max was performed before and after the training intervention. Paired samples t-tests were used to assess absolute and percentage change pre and post-test differences within groups, and differences between groups were assessed using a one-way ANOVA with least significant difference post-hoc testing. Statistical significance was tested at p altitude (1380 m) combined with sleeping in altitude tents (3000 m) as one effective alternative to traditional altitude training methods, which can improve Hbmass. Key pointsIn some countries, it may not be possible to perform classical altitude training effectively, due to the low elevation at altitude training venues. An additional hypoxic stimulus can be provided by simulating higher altitudes overnight, using altitude tents.Three weeks of combined (living and training at 1380 m) and simulated altitude exposure (at 3000 m) can improve haemoglobin mass by over 3% in comparison to control values, and can also improve time to exhaustion by ~9% in comparison to baseline.We recommend that, in the context of an altitude training camp at low altitudes (~1400 m) the addition of a relatively short exposure to simulated altitudes of 3000 m can elicit physiological and performance benefits, without compromise to

  9. Monitoring of total body water to examine the progress of acclimatization of runners at varying altitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Semerád

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our pilot study was to find out if total body water (TBW changes could objectively modify the course of adaptation during training for elite runners at different altitudes. The aim of this pilot study is to summarize the indication of the progress of acclimatization at high altitudes (1000–2700 meters above sea level during alpine conditioning. In three training camps at various altitudes the TBW of elite runners (F = 3, M = 1; n = 4; age 23 } 0.9 was monitored, in order to check the progress of acclimatization. We used BIA measurement methods (Bodystat 1500 at different high altitude running camps at the Czech Republic, Morocco and Ethiopia. Changes in TBW were used to check the progress of acclimatization. We discovered that the retention peaks of TBW corresponded with critical days (p ≤ 0.04; Cohen’s d. The highest measured increases of TBW at an altitude of 1000 m were for runner 1, 1.7 litres and for runner 2, 2.1 litres with retention peaks for both occurring on the 5th day. At an altitude of 1770 m runner 1 reached an increase of TBW of 6.3 litres, with a retention peak on the 11th day, and runner 3 had an increase of 5.1 litres with a peak on the 8th day. In the acclimatization phase we found two critical periods, from the 4th–6th day, and after the 10th–12th day. For runner 4 in altitude 2700m who completed the camp at a higher altitude, the situation is more complicated because there were fluctuations of the content of TBW in the range of 1.25 litres, with the highest depression on the 5th and then again an unsettled rise and reaching a maximum on the 12th, when she nearly returned to the initial value. Detected retention peaks reflected different levels of altitude (5th–12th days.We can conclude that the measuring of changes in TBW during camps at higher altitudes may be one of the biomarkers during acclimatization to altitude.

  10. Atmospheric electron flux at airplane altitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enomoto, R.; Chiba, J.; Ogawa, K.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Takasaki, F.; Kifune, T.; Matsubara, Y.; Nishimura, J.

    1991-01-01

    We have developed a new detector to systematically measure the cosmic-ray electron flux at airplane altitudes. We loaded a lead-glass-based electron telescope onto a commercial cargo airplane. The first experiment was carried out using the air route between Narita (Japan) and Sydney (Australia); during this flight we measured the electron flux at various altitudes and latitudes. The thresholds of the electron energies were 1, 2, and 4 GeV. The results agree with a simple estimation using one-dimensional shower theory. A comparison with a Monte Carlo calculation was made

  11. Coping with unpredictability: Dopaminergic and neurotrophic responses to omission of expected reward in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vindas, Marco A; Sørensen, Christina; Johansen, Ida

    2014-01-01

    Comparative studies are imperative for understanding the evolution of adaptive neurobiological processes such as neural plasticity, cognition, and emotion. Previously we have reported that prolonged omission of expected rewards (OER, or 'frustrative nonreward') causes increased aggression....... Subsequently, the expected food reward was delayed for 30 minutes during two out of three meals per day in the OER treatment, while the previously established routine was maintained in control groups. After 8 days there was no effect of OER on baseline brain stem serotonin (5-HT) or dopamine (DA) activity....... Subsequent exposure to acute confinement stress led to increased plasma cortisol and elevated turnover of brain stem DA and 5-HT in all animals. The DA response was potentiated and DA receptor 1 (D1) mRNA abundance was reduced in the OER-exposed fish, indicating a sensitization of the DA system. In addition...

  12. Increased Cardiometabolic Risk and Worsening Hypoxemia at High Altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miele, Catherine H; Schwartz, Alan R; Gilman, Robert H; Pham, Luu; Wise, Robert A; Davila-Roman, Victor G; Jun, Jonathan C; Polotsky, Vsevolod Y; Miranda, J Jaime; Leon-Velarde, Fabiola; Checkley, William

    2016-06-01

    Miele, Catherine H., Alan R. Schwartz, Robert H. Gilman, Luu Pham, Robert A. Wise, Victor G. Davila-Roman, Jonathan C. Jun, Vsevolod Y. Polotsky, J. Jaime Miranda, Fabiola Leon-Velarde, and William Checkley. Increased cardiometabolic risk and worsening hypoxemia at high altitude. High Alt Med Biol. 17:93-100, 2016.-Metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, diabetes, and dyslipidemia are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. While excessive erythrocytosis is associated with cardiovascular complications, it is unclear how worsening hypoxemia of any degree affects cardiometabolic risk factors in high-altitude populations. We studied the relationship between daytime resting oxyhemoglobin saturation and cardiometabolic risk factors in adult participants living in Puno, Peru (3825 m above sea level). We used multivariable logistic regression models to study the relationship between having a lower oxyhemoglobin saturation and markers of cardiometabolic risk. Nine hundred and fifty-four participants (mean age 55 years, 52% male) had information available on pulse oximetry and markers of cardiometabolic risk. Average oxyhemoglobin saturation was 90% (interquartile range 88%-92%) and 43 (4.5%) had excessive erythrocytosis. Older age, decreased height-adjusted lung function, and higher body mass index (BMI) were associated with having an oxyhemoglobin saturation ≤85%. When adjusting for age, sex, socioeconomic status, having excessive erythrocytosis, and site, we found that each 5% decrease in oxyhemoglobin saturation was associated with a higher adjusted odds of metabolic syndrome (OR = 1.35, 95% CI: 1.07-1.72, p 2 mass units (OR = 1.29, 95% CI: 1.00-1.67, p < 0.05), hemoglobin A1c ≥6.5% (OR = 1.66, 95% CI: 1.09-2.51, p < 0.04), and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) ≥3 mg/L (OR = 1.46, 95% CI: 1.09-1.96, p < 0.01). In high-altitude populations in Puno, Peru, a higher BMI and lower pulmonary function were

  13. Omission of Breast Radiotherapy in Low-risk Luminal A Breast Cancer: Impact on Health Care Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, K; Yap, M L; Yong, J H E; Mittmann, N; Hoch, J S; Fyles, A W; Warde, P; Gutierrez, E; Lymberiou, T; Foxcroft, S; Liu, F F

    2016-09-01

    The economic burden of cancer care is substantial, including steep increases in costs for breast cancer management. There is mounting evidence that women age ≥ 60 years with grade I/II T1N0 luminal A (ER/PR+, HER2- and Ki67 ≤ 13%) breast cancer have such low local recurrence rates that adjuvant breast radiotherapy might offer limited value. We aimed to determine the total savings to a publicly funded health care system should omission of radiotherapy become standard of care for these patients. The number of women aged ≥ 60 years who received adjuvant radiotherapy for T1N0 ER+ HER2- breast cancer in Ontario was obtained from the provincial cancer agency. The cost of adjuvant breast radiotherapy was estimated through activity-based costing from a public payer perspective. The total saving was calculated by multiplying the estimated number of luminal A cases that received radiotherapy by the cost of radiotherapy minus Ki-67 testing. In 2010, 748 women age ≥ 60 years underwent surgery for pT1N0 ER+ HER2- breast cancer; 539 (72%) underwent adjuvant radiotherapy, of whom 329 were estimated to be grade I/II luminal A subtype. The cost of adjuvant breast radiotherapy per case was estimated at $6135.85; the cost of Ki-67 at $114.71. This translated into an annual saving of about $2.0million if radiotherapy was omitted for all low-risk luminal A breast cancer patients in Ontario and $5.1million across Canada. There will be significant savings to the health care system should omission of radiotherapy become standard practice for women with low-risk luminal A breast cancer. Copyright © 2016 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Radiation Safety Issues in High Altitude Commercial Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Shinn, Judy L.

    1995-01-01

    The development of a global economy makes the outlook for high speed commercial intercontinental flight feasible, and the development of various configurations operating from 20 to 30 km have been proposed. In addition to the still unresolved issues relating to current commercial operations (12-16 km), the higher dose rates associated with the higher operating altitudes makes il imperative that the uncertainties in the atmospheric radiation environment and the associated health risks be re-examined. Atmospheric radiation associated with the galactic cosmic rays forms a background level which may, under some circumstances, exceed newly recommended allowable exposure limits proposed on the basis of recent evaluations of the A -bomb survivor data (due to increased risk coefficients). These larger risk coefficients, within the context of the methodology for estimating exposure limits, are resulting in exceedingly low estimated allowable exposure limits which may impact even present day flight operations and was the reason for the CEC workshop in Luxembourg (1990). At higher operating altitudes, solar particles events can produce exposures many orders of magnitude above background levels and pose significant health risks to the most sensitive individuals (such as during pregnancy). In this case the appropriate quality factors are undefined, and some evidence exists which indicates that the quality factor for stochastic effects is a substantial underestimate.

  15. Effects of altitude and water on flowering and fruiting of jatropha curcas l

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiyu, M.A.; Zhou, L.; Guanglan, P.U.; Hou, L.

    2015-01-01

    Field survey was conducted at three different altitudes in the dry-hot valley of Chin-sha River,China. The variances of flowering and fruiting and the quantity of fruit at three different altitudes areas (Low 800m, Middle 1,200m and High 1,700m) were observed and recorded. Data of 100-seeds weight came from 9 experimental groups which classified by three fruiting periods (early, middle and late) at three different altitudes. To ensure single variable, water effect was studied in the cline banks where situated in the 1,200m and controlled by artificial irrigation. The results showed that flowering and fruiting time under different altitude had significant difference, the lower altitude, the earlier flowering. Fruit number in the middle elevation was remarkably higher than the other two altitude areas. Fruit quantity in early and middle fruiting period accounted for 85 percent at 1,200m, which was significantly higher than the late fruiting period. 100-seeds weight between low and middle elevation, early and middle fruiting period had no significant difference respectively, but they were, respectively, higher than the high altitude and late fruiting period. The maximum of the 100-seeds weight was 65.17g while the lightest was only 49.51g. Water promoted flowering earlier, fruiting delayed but open flower and whole fruiting stage extended. Average fruit numbers in the early and middle stages with regularly irrigation were 220.8 per tree and 195.6 per tree respectively, which were 2.26 times as the same period of plant without irrigation. Therefore, in hilly areas, J. curcas optimal elevation is 800 -1,200m and have high demand for water during flowering and fruiting period. (author)

  16. The structure of high altitude O+ energization and outflow: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Nilsson

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Multi-spacecraft observations from the CIS ion spectrometers on board the Cluster spacecraft have been used to study the structure of high-altitude oxygen ion energization and outflow. A case study taken from 12 April 2004 is discussed in more detail. In this case the spacecraft crossed the polar cap, mantle and high-altitude cusp region at altitudes between 4RE and 8RE and 2 of the spacecraft provided data. The oxygen ions were seen as a beam with narrow energy distribution, and increasing field-aligned velocity and temperature at higher altitude further in the upstream flow direction. The peak O+ energy was typically just above the highest energy of observed protons. The observed energies reached the upper limit of the CIS ion spectrometer, i.e. 38keV. Moment data from the spacecraft have been cross-correlated to determine cross-correlation coefficients, as well as the phase delay between the spacecraft. Structures in ion density, temperature and field-aligned flow appear to drift with the observed field-perpendicular drift. This, together with a velocity dispersion analysis, indicates that much of the structure can be explained by transverse heating well below the spacecraft. However, temperature isotropy and the particle flux as a function of field-aligned velocity are inconsistent with a single altitude Maxwellian source. Heating over extended altitude intervals, possibly all the way up to the observation point, seem consistent with the observations.

  17. EFFECT OF HIGH ALTITUDE ON ERECTILE FUNCTION IN OTHERWISE HEALTHY INDIVIDUALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usama Bin Zubair

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the effect of high altitude on Erectile function in otherwise healthy individuals and associated socio demographic factors. Study Design: Cross sectional descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: January 2014 to March 2014 at Goma, Siachin. Material and Methods: One hundred & twenty two married male subjects living at an altitude of more than 15000 feet for more than 3 month and less than one year were included in the study. Erectile dysfunction (ED was assessed using International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5. Age, education, smoking, monthly income, any drug intake, altitude, duration of stay and weather conditions were correlated independently with ED. Results: Out of 122, 26 (21.3% had no ED, 18 had mild, 28 (14.8% had mild to moderate, 36(29.5% had moderate and 14 (11.5% had severe ED. Advancing age, low monthly income, smoking, high altitude, cold weather and longer duration of stay had significant association with ED (p-value<0.05 while education and use of any drug were not found significantly associated in our study. Conclusion: This study showed a high prevalence of erectile dysfunction among otherwise healthy individuals when exposed to high altitude. Special attention should be paid on individuals with more age, less income and those working or residing at higher altitudes in peak winter season. Smoking and stay for longer durations should also be discouraged.

  18. Pituitary, gonadal and adrenal hormones after prolonged residence at extreme altitude in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, M; Pal, K; Prasad, R; Malhotra, A S; Rao, K S; Sawhney, R C

    1997-06-01

    High altitude-induced alterations in pituitary, gonadal and adrenal hormones were studied in (i) eugonadal men from the armed forces who were resident at sea level (SL), (ii) SL residents staying at an altitude of 3542 m for periods ranging from 3 to 12 months (acclimatized lowlanders, ALL), (iii) ALL who stayed at 6300 m for 6 months, (iv) ALL who trekked from 3542 to 5080 m and stayed at an altitude of more than 6300 m in the glacier region for 6 months, and (v) high-altitude natives (HAN) resident at an altitude of 3300-3700 m. Circulating levels of LH, FSH, prolactin, cortisol, testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and progesterone in ALL at 3542 m and in HAN were not significantly different (p > 0.05) from the SL control values. When the ALL living at 3542 m trekked to an extreme altitude of 5080 m, their testosterone levels showed a significant decrease (p 0.05) from the SL values. The LH levels after trekking to 5080 m were significantly higher (p 0.05) from the SL values. Plasma progesterone levels tended to increase on arrival at 5080 m but a significant increase (p < 0.001) was evident only after a 6-month stay at extreme altitude. These observations suggest that prolonged residence at lower as well as at extreme altitude does not appreciably alter blood levels of pituitary, gonadal or adrenal hormones except for plasma levels of progesterone. The exact mechanism and significance of this increase remains unknown, but may be important in increasing the sensitivity of the hypoxic ventilatory response and activation of haemoglobin synthesis.

  19. Time course of the hemoglobin mass response to natural altitude training in elite endurance cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvican, L; Martin, D; Quod, M; Stephens, B; Sassi, A; Gore, C

    2012-02-01

    To determine the time course of hemoglobin mass (Hb(mass)) to natural altitude training, Hb(mass), erythropoietin [EPO], reticulocytes, ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) were measured in 13 elite cyclists during, and 10 days after, 3 weeks of sea level (n=5) or altitude (n=8, 2760 m) training. Mean Hb(mass), with a typical error of ∼2%, increased during the first 11 days at altitude (mean ± standard deviation 2.9 ± 2.0%) and was 3.5 ± 2.5% higher than baseline after 19 days. [EPO] increased 64.2 ± 18.8% after 2 nights at altitude but was not different from baseline after 12 nights. Hb(mass) and [EPO] did not increase in sea level. Reticulocytes (%) were slightly elevated in altitude at Days 5 and 12 (18.9 ± 17.7% and 20.4 ± 25.3%), sTfR was elevated at Day 12 (18.9 ± 15.0%), but both returned to baseline by Day 20. Hb(mass) and [EPO] decreased on descent to sea level while ferritin increased. The mean increase in Hb(mass) observed after 11 days (∼300 h) of altitude training was beyond the measurement error and consitent with the mean increase after 300 h of simulated live high:train low altitude. Our results suggest that in elite cyclists, Hb(mass) increases progressively with 3 weeks of natural altitude exposure, with greater increases expected as exposure persists. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. Dietary Recommendations for Cyclists during Altitude Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalczyk, Małgorzata; Czuba, Miłosz; Zydek, Grzegorz; Zając, Adam; Langfort, Józef

    2016-01-01

    The concept of altitude or hypoxic training is a common practice in cycling. However, several strategies for training regimens have been proposed, like “live high, train high” (LH-TH), “live high, train low” (LH-TL) or “intermittent hypoxic training” (IHT). Each of them combines the effect of acclimatization and different training protocols that require specific nutrition. An appropriate nutrition strategy and adequate hydration can help athletes achieve their fitness and performance goals in this unfriendly environment. In this review, the physiological stress of altitude exposure and training will be discussed, with specific nutrition recommendations for athletes training under such conditions. However, there is little research about the nutrition demands of athletes who train at moderate altitude. Our review considers energetic demands and body mass or body composition changes due to altitude training, including respiratory and urinary water loss under these conditions. Carbohydrate intake recommendations and hydration status are discussed in detail, while iron storage and metabolism is also considered. Last, but not least the risk of increased oxidative stress under hypoxic conditions and antioxidant supplementation suggestions are presented. PMID:27322318

  1. Dietary Recommendations for Cyclists during Altitude Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalczyk, Małgorzata; Czuba, Miłosz; Zydek, Grzegorz; Zając, Adam; Langfort, Józef

    2016-06-18

    The concept of altitude or hypoxic training is a common practice in cycling. However, several strategies for training regimens have been proposed, like "live high, train high" (LH-TH), "live high, train low" (LH-TL) or "intermittent hypoxic training" (IHT). Each of them combines the effect of acclimatization and different training protocols that require specific nutrition. An appropriate nutrition strategy and adequate hydration can help athletes achieve their fitness and performance goals in this unfriendly environment. In this review, the physiological stress of altitude exposure and training will be discussed, with specific nutrition recommendations for athletes training under such conditions. However, there is little research about the nutrition demands of athletes who train at moderate altitude. Our review considers energetic demands and body mass or body composition changes due to altitude training, including respiratory and urinary water loss under these conditions. Carbohydrate intake recommendations and hydration status are discussed in detail, while iron storage and metabolism is also considered. Last, but not least the risk of increased oxidative stress under hypoxic conditions and antioxidant supplementation suggestions are presented.

  2. Ocular morbidity among porters at high altitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnyawali, Subodh; Shrestha, Gauri Shankar; Khanal, Safal; Dennis, Talisa; Spencer, John C

    2017-01-01

    High altitude, often characterized by settings over 2400m, can be detrimental to the human body and pose a significant risk to ocular health. Reports concerning various ocular morbidities occurring as a consequence of high altitude are limited in the current literature. This study was aimed at evaluating the ocular health of porters working at high altitudesof Himalayas in Nepal. A mobile eye clinic was set up in Ghat and patient data were collected from its out- patient unit by a team of seven optometrists which was run for five days. Ghat is a small village in north-eastern Nepal, located at 2860 m altitude. Travellers walking through the trekking route were invited to get their eyes checked at the clinic. Comprehensive ocular examinations were performed, including visual acuities, objective and subjective refraction, anterior and posterior segment evaluations, and intraocular pressure measurements; blood pressure and blood glucose levels were also measured as required. Ocular therapeutics, prescription glasses, sunglasses and ocular health referrals were provided free of cost as necessary. A total of 1890 people visited the eye clinic, among which 57.4% (n=1084) were porters. Almost half of the porters had an ocular morbidity. Correctable refractive error was most prevalent, with other ocular health-related complications, including dry eye disease, infectious disorders, glaucoma and cataract. Proper provision of regular and effective eye care services should be made more available for those residing at these high altitudes in Nepal. © NEPjOPH.

  3. Altitude, Orthocenter of a Triangle and Triangulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coghetto Roland

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the altitudes of a triangle (the cevians perpendicular to the opposite sides. Using the generalized Ceva’s Theorem, we prove the existence and uniqueness of the orthocenter of a triangle [7]. Finally, we formalize in Mizar [1] some formulas [2] to calculate distance using triangulation.

  4. 76 FR 11675 - IFR Altitudes; Miscellaneous Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-03

    ... action is needed because of changes occurring in the National Airspace System. These changes are designed... matters of flight safety and operational efficiency in the National Airspace System, are related to... RIVER, AK NDB BARTER ISLAND, AK NDB... 2000 From To MEA MAA Sec. 95.3000 Low Altitude RNAV Routes Sec...

  5. Dietary Recommendations for Cyclists during Altitude Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Michalczyk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept of altitude or hypoxic training is a common practice in cycling. However, several strategies for training regimens have been proposed, like “live high, train high” (LH-TH, “live high, train low” (LH-TL or “intermittent hypoxic training” (IHT. Each of them combines the effect of acclimatization and different training protocols that require specific nutrition. An appropriate nutrition strategy and adequate hydration can help athletes achieve their fitness and performance goals in this unfriendly environment. In this review, the physiological stress of altitude exposure and training will be discussed, with specific nutrition recommendations for athletes training under such conditions. However, there is little research about the nutrition demands of athletes who train at moderate altitude. Our review considers energetic demands and body mass or body composition changes due to altitude training, including respiratory and urinary water loss under these conditions. Carbohydrate intake recommendations and hydration status are discussed in detail, while iron storage and metabolism is also considered. Last, but not least the risk of increased oxidative stress under hypoxic conditions and antioxidant supplementation suggestions are presented.

  6. Changes of Thymoquinone, Thymol, and Malondialdehyde Content of Black Cumin (Nigella sativa L. in Response to Indonesia Tropical Altitude Variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herlina

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Black cumin cultivated in many subtropical regions in the world, including Asia, Middle East, and North Africa. The most active constituent of black cumin is thymoquinone representing 18.4%–24% of the volatile oil and thymol. Data about thymoquinone and thymol came from the country of origin, but no data from tropical region. This study aimed to analyze the production of chlorophyll, thymoquinone, thymol, and malondialdehyde from black cumin cultivated at three altitudes of Indonesian tropical region. The result showed that Kuwait accession cultivated at middle altitude contains the highest levels of thymoquinone (2940.43 mg/kg, and the highest levels of thymol were found in India accession cultivated at high altitude (141.46 mg/kg. Data showed that the level of malondialdehyde at low (220 meter above sea level [masl] and middle (560 masl altitudes is higher than high (1.280 masl altitude.

  7. Capabilities of unmanned aircraft vehicles for low altitude weed detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflanz, Michael; Nordmeyer, Henning

    2014-05-01

    Sustainable crop production and food security require a consumer and environmental safe plant protection. It is recently known, that precise weed monitoring approaches could help apply pesticides corresponding to field variability. In this regard the site-specific weed management may contribute to an application of herbicides with higher ecologically aware and economical savings. First attempts of precision agriculture date back to the 1980's. Since that time, remote sensing from satellites or manned aircrafts have been investigated and used in agricultural practice, but are currently inadequate for the separation of weeds in an early growth stage from cultivated plants. In contrast, low-cost image capturing at low altitude from unmanned aircraft vehicles (UAV) provides higher spatial resolution and almost real-time processing. Particularly, rotary-wing aircrafts are suitable for precise path or stationary flight. This minimises motion blur and provides better image overlapping for stitching and mapping procedures. Through improved image analyses and the recent increase in the availability of microcontrollers and powerful batteries for UAVs, it can be expected that the spatial mapping of weeds will be enhanced in the future. A six rotors microcopter was equipped with a modified RGB camera taking images from agricultural fields. The hexacopter operates within predefined pathways at adjusted altitudes (from 5 to 10 m) by using GPS navigation. Different scenarios of optical weed detection have been carried out regarding to variable altitude, image resolution, weed and crop growth stages. Our experiences showed high capabilities for site-specific weed control. Image analyses with regard to recognition of weed patches can be used to adapt herbicide application to varying weed occurrence across a field.

  8. High altitude pulmonary edema among "Amarnath Yatris"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvaiz A Koul

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Annual pilgrimage (Yatra to the cave shrine of Shri Amarnath Ji′ is a holy ritual among the Hindu devotees of Lord Shiva. Located in the Himalayan Mountain Range (altitude 13,000 ft in south Kashmir, the shrine is visited by thousands of devotees and altitude sickness is reportedly common. Materials and Methods: More than 600,000 pilgrims visited the cave shrine in 2011 and 2012 with 239 recorded deaths. Thirty one patients with suspected altitude sickness were referred from medical centers en-route the cave to Sher-i-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences, a tertiary-care center in capital Srinagar (5,000 ft. The clinical features and the response to treatment were recorded. Results: Thirty-one patients (all lowlanders, 19 male; age 18-60 years, median 41 had presented with acute onset breathlessness of 1-4 days (median 1.9 d starting within 12-24 h of a rapid ascent; accompanied by cough (68%, headache (8%, dizziness and nausea (65%. Sixteen patients had associated encephalopathy. Clinical features on admission included tachypnea ( n = 31, tachycardia ( n = 23, bilateral chest rales ( n = 29, cyanosis ( n = 22 and grade 2-4 encephalopathy. Hypoxemia was demonstrable in 24 cases and bilateral infiltrates on radiologic imaging in 29. Ten patients had evidence of high-altitude cerebral edema. All patients were managed with oxygen, steroids, nifedipine, sildenafil and other supportive measures including invasive ventilation ( n = 3. Three patients died due to multiorgan dysfunction. Conclusions: Altitude sickness is common among Amaranath Yatris from the plains and appropriate educational strategies should be invoked for prevention and prompt treatment.

  9. Pathology of high altitude pulmonary oedema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, N.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To describe autopsy findings in fatal cases of high altitude pulmonary oedema. Study Design: Descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out between 1999 and 2002 at an army field medical unit in Baltistan, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi and Army Medical College, Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Patients and Methods:Autopsies were performed in 17 fatal cases of High Altitude Pulmonary Edema (HAPE) occurring among soldiers serving in Siachen. Results:All cases were males with a mean age of 26.8 years (19-35). The mean altitude at which HAPE occurred was 5192 meters (2895-6492), and the mean duration of stay at these altitudes was 15.3 days (1-30). Eleven individuals had undergone proper acclimatization. The commonest clinical findings were cough (70%), dyspnoea (53%), nausea (47%), headache (41%), vomiting (35%), chest pain (35%) and tightness in chest (24%). Cyanosis and frothy secretions in the nostrils and mouth were present in all but one case. Mean combined weight of lungs was 1470 grams (1070-1810). There was marked congestion of outer and cut surfaces. Interstitial oedema was present in all cases. RBCs and leukocyte infiltrates were seen in 13 and alveolar hyaline membranes in 9 cases. Thrombi were seen in 2 cases. Cerebral oedema was present in 9 cases. Conclusion:HAPE can occur after more than two weeks of stay at high altitudes despite proper acclimatization. Concomitant cerebral oedema is frequently present. Our autopsy findings are consistent with what has been reported previously. (author)

  10. Variable Omission of "ne" in Real-Time French Chat: A Corpus-Driven Comparison of Educational and Non-Educational Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Compernolle, Remi A.; Williams, Lawrence

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on the variable omission of the French negative particle "ne" (the first marker of verbal negation) in synchronous (i.e., real-time) electronic communication environments. Patterns of variation in a corpus of non-educational chat (i.e., free, public-access Internet chat) are analyzed and compared to data produced by first-,…

  11. 24 CFR 401.403 - Rejection of a request for a Restructuring Plan because of actions or omissions of owner or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... likely to be remedied in a cost-effective manner through the Restructuring Plan. (3) Exception for sale... Restructuring Plan because of actions or omissions of owner or affiliate or project condition. 401.403 Section...-MARKET) Restructuring Plan § 401.403 Rejection of a request for a Restructuring Plan because of actions...

  12. Lexical diversity and omission errors as predictors of language ability in the narratives of sequential Spanish-English bilinguals: a cross-language comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Peggy F; Walden, Patrick R

    2013-08-01

    This study explored the utility of language sample analysis for evaluating language ability in school-age Spanish-English sequential bilingual children. Specifically, the relative potential of lexical diversity and word/morpheme omission as predictors of typical or atypical language status was evaluated. Narrative samples were obtained from 48 bilingual children in both of their languages using the suggested narrative retell protocol and coding conventions as per Systematic Analysis of Language Transcripts (SALT; Miller & Iglesias, 2008) software. An additional lexical diversity measure, VocD, was also calculated. A series of logistical hierarchical regressions explored the utility of the number of different words, VocD statistic, and word and morpheme omissions in each language for predicting language status. Omission errors turned out to be the best predictors of bilingual language impairment at all ages, and this held true across languages. Although lexical diversity measures did not predict typical or atypical language status, the measures were significantly related to oral language proficiency in English and Spanish. The results underscore the significance of omission errors in bilingual language impairment while simultaneously revealing the limitations of lexical diversity measures as indicators of impairment. The relationship between lexical diversity and oral language proficiency highlights the importance of considering relative language proficiency in bilingual assessment.

  13. Bovine fasciolosis at increasing altitudes: Parasitological and malacological sampling on the slopes of Mount Elgon, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howell Alison

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To clarify the extent and putative transmission zone of bovine fasciolosis on the slopes of Mount Elgon, Uganda, conjoint parasitological and malacological surveys, inclusive of inspection of animals at slaughter, were undertaken at increasing altitudes. Results A total of 239 cattle were sampled across eight locations ranging in elevation from 1112-2072 m. Faecal material was examined for presence of Fasciola eggs and sera were tested by ELISA for antibodies against Fasciola antigens. Bolstering this, 38 cattle at slaughter from 2 abattoir sites at 1150 m and 1947 m were inspected; in addition, wild buffalo stool (n = 10 opportunistically picked within Mount Elgon National Park (MENP at 3640 m was examined. By faecal egg detection, prevalence of Fasciola gigantica at low (1500 m altitude sites was 43.7% (95% CI 35.4-52.2 and 1.1% (95% CI 0.0-6.0, respectively, while by ELISA was much higher, low altitude - 77.9% (95% CI 69.7-85.4 and high altitude - 64.5% (95% CI 51.3-76.3. The decline in prevalence with increasing altitude was corroborated by abattoir sampling. Thirty seven aquatic habitats, ranging from 1139-3937 m in altitude were inspected for freshwater snails, 12 of which were within MENP. At lower altitudes, Lymnaea (Radix natalensis was common, and often abundant, but at higher altitudes became much rarer ceasing to be found above 1800 m. On the other hand, Lymnaea (Galba truncatula was found only at altitudes above 3000 m and within MENP alone. The snail identifications were confirmed by DNA analysis of the ribosomal 18S gene. Conclusions Active infections of F. gigantica in cattle are common in lower altitude settings but appear to diminish with increasing elevation. This is likely due to a growing paucity of intermediate hosts, specifically populations of L. natalensis for which a natural boundary of 1800 m appeared. Although F. hepatica was not encountered, the presence of several

  14. The lactate paradox revisited in lowlanders during acclimatization to 4100 m and in high-altitude natives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hall, Gerrit; Lundby, C; Araoz, M

    2009-01-01

    Chronic hypoxia has been proposed to induce a closer coupling in human skeletal muscle between ATP utilization and production in both lowlanders (LN) acclimatizing to high altitude and high-altitude natives (HAN), linked with an improved match between pyruvate availability and its use...... and remained at this higher level during the acclimatization period. HAN had similar high values; however, at the moment of exhaustion their muscle lactate, ADP and IMP content and Cr/PCr ratio were higher than in LN. In conclusion, sea-level residents in the course of acclimatization to high altitude did...... not exhibit a reduced capacity for the active muscle to produce lactate. Thus, the lactate paradox concept could not be demonstrated. High-altitude natives from the Andes actually exhibit a higher anaerobic energy production than lowlanders after 8 weeks of acclimatization reflected by an increased muscle...

  15. The impact of altitude on the sleep of young elite soccer players (ISA3600)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, Charli; Schmidt, Walter F; Aughey, Robert J; Bourdon, Pitre C; Soria, Rudy; Claros, Jesus C Jimenez; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Buchheit, Martin; Simpson, Ben M; Hammond, Kristal; Kley, Marlen; Wachsmuth, Nadine; Gore, Christopher J; Roach, Gregory D

    2013-01-01

    Background Altitude training is used by elite athletes to improve sports performance, but it may also disrupt sleep. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of 2 weeks at high altitude on the sleep of young elite athletes. Methods Participants (n=10) were members of the Australian under-17 soccer team on an 18-day (19-night) training camp in Bolivia, with six nights at near sea level in Santa Cruz (430 m) and 13 nights at high altitude in La Paz (3600 m). Sleep was monitored using polysomnography during a baseline night at 430 m and three nights at 3600 m (immediately after ascent, 1 week after ascent and 2 weeks after ascent). Data were analysed using effect size statistics. Results All results are reported as comparisons with baseline. Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep was likely lower immediately upon ascent to altitude, possibly lower after 1 week and similar after 2 weeks. On all three nights at altitude, hypopneas and desaturations were almost certainly higher; oxygen saturation was almost certainly lower; and central apnoeas, respiratory arousals and periodic breathing were very likely higher. The effects on REM sleep were common to all but one participant, but the effects on breathing were specific to only half the participants. Conclusions The immediate effects of terrestrial altitude of 3600 m are to reduce the amount of REM sleep obtained by young elite athletes, and to cause 50% of them to have impaired breathing during sleep. REM sleep returns to normal after 2 weeks at altitude, but impaired breathing does not improve. PMID:24282215

  16. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) alleles in the Quechua, a high altitude South American native population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupert, J L; Devine, D V; Monsalve, M V; Hochachka, P W

    1999-01-01

    Recently it was reported that an allelic variant of the gene encoding angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) was significantly over-represented in a cohort of elite British mountaineers. It was proposed that this may be evidence for a specific genetic factor influencing the human capacity for physical performance. The implication that this allele could enhance performance at high altitude prompted us to determine its frequency in Quechua speaking natives living at altitudes greater than 3000m on the Andean Altiplano in South America. We found that the frequency of the putative performance allele in the Quechuas, although significantly higher than in Caucasians, was not different from lowland Native American populations. This observation suggests that, although the higher frequency of the 'performance allele' may have facilitated the migration of the ancestral Quechua to the highlands, the ACE insertion allele has not been subsequently selected for in this high altitude population.

  17. CAMEX-4 ER-2 HIGH ALTITUDE DROPSONDE V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The CAMEX-4 ER-2 High Altitude Dropsonde dataset was collected by the ER-2 High Altitude Dropsonde System (EHAD), which used dropwinsondes fitted with Global...

  18. Development and quality of pineapple guava fruit in two locations with different altitudes in Cundinamarca, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Parra-Coronado

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruit growth is stimulated by different weather conditions. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of weather conditions on the physicochemical properties of pineapple guava fruit growth. Twenty trees were marked in two production areas located at different altitudes (1,800 and 2,580 m.a.s.l., and measurements were performed every 7 days from 99 and 141 days post-anthesis to harvest at altitudes of 1,800 and 2,580 m.a.s.l., respectively. The results indicate that altitude and weather conditions greatly influence the growth and development of pineapple guava fruit, and these effects are primarily manifested in the physical characteristics of the fruit. The weight and size of the fruit at harvest are directly related to the altitude of the production area. The weather condition that has the greatest impact on total titratable acidity at harvest is cumulative radiation during fruit growth; the highest value of total soluble solids at harvest corresponds to the location with the higher altitude, lower rainfall and relative humidity and higher cumulative radiation during the fruit growth period. The hue angle and pulp firmness at harvest are not influenced by the location or weather conditions at any location and do not determine the fruit quality at harvest time.

  19. Macroscopic time and altitude distribution of plasma turbulence induced in ionospheric modification experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, H.; Dubois, D.; Russell, D.; Hanssen, A.

    1996-01-01

    This is the final report of a three-year Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This research concentrated on the time dependence of the heater, induced-turbulence, and electron-density profiles excited in the ionosphere by a powerful radio-frequency heater wave. The macroscopic density is driven by the ponderomotive pressure and the density self-consistently determines the heater propagation. For typical parameters of the current Arecibo heater, a dramatic quasi-periodic behavior was found. For about 50 ms after turn-on of the heater wave, the turbulence is concentrated at the first standing-wave maximum of the heater near reflection altitude. From 50--100 ms the standing-wave pattern drops by about 1--2 km in altitude and the quasi-periodicity reappears at the higher altitudes with a period of roughly 50 ms. This behavior is due to the half-wavelength density depletion grating that is set up by the ponderomotive pressure at the maxima of the heater standing-wave pattern. Once the grating is established the heater can no longer propagate to higher altitudes. The grating is then unsupported by the heater at these altitudes and decays, allowing the heater to propagate again and initiate another cycle. For stronger heater powers, corresponding to the Arecibo upgrade and the HAARP heater now under construction, the effects are much more dramatic

  20. Optic neuropathy following an altitude exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steigleman, Allan; Butler, Frank; Chhoeu, Austin; O'Malley, Timothy; Bower, Eric; Giebner, Stephen

    2003-09-01

    This case report describes a 20-yr-old man who presented with retro-orbital pain and blurred vision in his left eye 3 wk after an altitude exposure in a hypobaric chamber. He was found to have significant deficits in color vision and visual fields consistent with an optic neuropathy in his left eye. The patient was diagnosed with decompression sickness and treated with hyperbaric oxygen with a U.S. Navy Treatment Table VI. All signs and symptoms resolved with a single hyperbaric oxygen treatment but recurred. A head MRI revealed a left frontoethmoid sinus opacity. A concomitant sinusitis was diagnosed. The patient had full resolution of symptoms after a total of four hyperbaric oxygen treatments and antibiotic therapy at 6-wk follow-up. Although a para-infectious etiology for this patient's optic neuropathy cannot be excluded, his history of altitude exposure and significant, rapid response to hyperbaric oxygen treatment strongly implies decompression sickness in this case.

  1. Spatial and temporal distribution of ionospheric currents-4: altitude ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (a) The continuous distribution of current density model reproduces the altitude distribution parameters of EEJ current density very well, (b) the altitude distribution parameters of EEJ current density in India and Peru are not significantly different and (c) The altitude distribution parameters of EEJ current density from rockets ...

  2. Neutral barium cloud evolution at different altitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Lei; Xu Ronglan

    2002-01-01

    Considering the joint effects of diffusion, collision, oxidation and photoionization, the authors study the evolution of the barium cloud at different altitudes in the space plasma active experiment. The results present the variation of the loss rate, number density distribution and brightness of the barium cloud over the range from 120 to 260 km. This can be divided into oxidation, oxidation plus photoionization and photoionization regions

  3. ANALYSIS OF ACUTE RESPONSES OF YOUNG BIATHLON ATHLETES LIVING AT DIFFERENT ALTITUDES TO MAXIMAL AEROBIC EXERCISE AT 2000M

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozan Sever

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In the study, the acute response of the 2000m maximal aerobic test on the biathletes living at different altitudes was analyzed. A total of 67 athletes (Mean age = 14,69 ± 1,22, Mean BMI = 19.60 ± 2.29 consisting of boys and girls represent the sample of the study who were tested during the qualification process of Turkey national team. The athletes divided into two groups. Thirty-two of the athletes living above the altitude of 1500m (considered as the altitude where physiological adaptation occurs coded as the high-altitude group, and thirty-five living below 1500m coded as the low altitude group. A shuttle-run test was applied to measure the aerobic power of the athletes. During the test, the heart rates were monitored continuously. The athletes living above 1500m showed higher VO2max and total lap score in the shuttle-run test compared to the athletes living below 1500m. But this difference was found to be statistically insignificant. The Living altitude – VO2max – Total Laps variables had positive moderate correlation each other (r = 0,363, r = 0,355. As the altitude increases, the endurance score increases. When each stage of the shuttle-run test examined, it was seen that those who live at low altitudes tend to give up the shuttle-run test earlier, although there was no difference in the mean heart rates between groups. Findings showed that the physiological response of the biathletes who had similar training history was influenced by the altitude they live on. In this respect, altitude adaptation in biathletes is thought to affect the score in competitions and national team selections.

  4. HIGH ALTITUDES EFFECTS ON HEMATOLOGIC BLOOD PARAMETERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasim Rushiti

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The approach and the objective of this experiment are consistent with the determination of changes of blood parameters after the stay of the students at an altitude of 1800-2300 meters, for a ten-day long ski course. In this paper are included a total of 64 students of the Faculty of Sport Sciences in Prishtina, of the age group of 19-25 (the average age is 21. All students previously have undergone a medical check for TA, arterial pulse and respiratory rate. In particular, the health situation is of subjects was examined, then, all students, at the same time, gave blood for analysis. In this experiment, three main hematologic parameters were taken in consideration: such as hemoglobin, hematocrit and red blood cells. The same analyses were carried out after the 10-day stay at a high altitude. The results of the experiment have shown significant changes after the ten-day stay at high altitude, despite the previous results that show changes only after the twenty-day stay in such elevations.

  5. Altitude variation of cosmic-ray neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, T.; Uwamino, Y.; Ohkubo, T.; Hara, A.

    1987-01-01

    The altitude variation of the cosmic-ray neutron energy spectrum and the dose equivalent rate was measured at an average geomagnetic latitude of 24 degrees N by using the high-efficiency multi-sphere neutron spectrometer and neutron dose-equivalent counter developed by the authors. The data were obtained from a 2-h flight over Japan on 27 February 1985. The neutron energy spectra measured at sea level and at altitudes of 4880 m and at 11,280 m were compared with the calculated spectra of O'Brien and with other experimental spectra, and they are in moderately good agreement with them. The dose equivalent rate increases according to a quadratic curve up to about 6000 m and then increases linearly between 6000 m and 11,280 m. The dependence of dose equivalent rates at sea level and at an altitude of 12,500 m on geomagnetic latitude also is given by referring to other experimental results

  6. What's missing in missing data? Omissions in survey responses among parents of children with advanced cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Abby R; Dussel, Veronica; Orellana, Liliana; Kang, Tammy; Geyer, J Russel; Feudtner, Chris; Wolfe, Joanne

    2014-08-01

    Missing data is a common phenomenon with survey-based research; patterns of missing data may elucidate why participants decline to answer certain questions. To describe patterns of missing data in the Pediatric Quality of Life and Evaluation of Symptoms Technology (PediQUEST) study, and highlight challenges in asking sensitive research questions. Cross-sectional, survey-based study embedded within a randomized controlled trial. Three large children's hospitals: Dana-Farber/Boston Children's Cancer and Blood Disorders Center (DF/BCCDC); Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP); and Seattle Children's Hospital (SCH). At the time of their child's enrollment, parents completed the Survey about Caring for Children with Cancer (SCCC), including demographics, perceptions of prognosis, treatment goals, quality of life, and psychological distress. Eighty-six of 104 parents completed surveys (83% response). The proportion of missing data varied by question type. While 14 parents (16%) left demographic fields blank, over half (n=48; 56%) declined to answer at least one question about their child's prognosis, especially life expectancy. The presence of missing data was unrelated to the child's diagnosis, time from progression, time to death, or parent distress (p>0.3 for each). Written explanations in survey margins suggested that addressing a child's life expectancy is particularly challenging for parents. Parents of children with cancer commonly refrain from answering questions about their child's prognosis, however, they may be more likely to address general cure likelihood than explicit life expectancy. Understanding acceptability of sensitive questions in survey-based research will foster higher quality palliative care research.

  7. Efeito da omissão de macronutrientes em sisal Macronutrients deficiency on sisal (Agave sisalana perr.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Luiz de Barbos Salgado

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available Plantas de sisal (Agave sisalana Perr. foram cultivadas em casa de vegetação, em vasos contendo areia lavada e irrigados com solução nutritiva completa e com soluções nutritivas com a omissão de cada macronutriente. As plantas mostraram, na ausência de cada nutriente, os sintomas típicos de sua carência, relacionados com baixos teores do respectivo elemento nas folhas, e redução no seu crescimento e desenvolvimento.Sisal plants were cultivated in washed sand during twenty-one months. The plants were irrigated with complete nutrient solution and solutions with absence of each macronutrient (N, P, K, Ca, Mg e S. The plants, in the absence of each macronutrient, showed typical symptoms which were related to the low level of the respective element in the leaf. The growing of the leaves was reduced by the absence of the macronutrients.

  8. A inclusão digital no Brasil e a responsabilidade civil estatal por omissão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Siebeneichler de Andrade

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available As inovações tecnológicas e a caracterização da sociedade da informação geraram o reconhecimento da liberdade de informação como direito prestacional, razão pela qual sua efetividade criou deveres jurídicos estatais para proteger a segurança das informações digitais e promover o acesso igualitário às tecnologias da informação, cujo cumprimento não tem sido realizado com eficiência. Uma forma para afastar essa omissão estatal consiste na busca pela responsabilidade civil extracontratual objetiva do Estado. Contudo, a ausência de leis sobre políticas públicas de inclusão digital não tem possibilitado maiores avanços nesse âmbito, o que tem ocasionado um déficit no desenvolvimento econômico e tecnológico brasileiro.

  9. [Geographic Altitude of Residence and Alcohol Dependence in a Peruvian Population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiñones-Laveriano, Dante Manuel; Espinoza-Chiong, César; Scarsi-Mejia, Ottavia; Rojas-Camayo, José; Mejia, Christian Richard

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the association between alcohol dependence and altitude of residence in 11 villages in two high altitude areas of Peru. An analytical cross-sectional study was performed using a survey conducted by physicians in primary health care in 11 villages until 2013, that were divided into low altitude (≤2500m asl (above sea level)), and high altitude (>2500m asl) areas. The CAGE test for alcoholism (cut point, ≥2) was applied to those who responded positively when asked if they consumed alcohol. Statistical associations were obtained with generalised linear models Of the 737 participants, 51% were women and the median age was 36 years [interquartile range, 25-50], 334 (45%) lived at low altitude, and 113 (15%) had alcohol dependence. The highest frequency of alcoholism was positively associated with being a village considered extremely poor (Likelihood Ratio (LP)=2.42; 95%CI, 1.40-4.19), while being female (LP=0.44; 95%CI, 0.23-0.89) and residing at high altitude (LP=0.15; 95%CI, 0.07-0.31) were negatively associated. These were adjusted for nine socio-occupational and pathological variables. According to these data, there is a higher frequency of alcohol dependence in being, male, extremely poor, and residing at low altitude. These results should be taken into account by professionals who work in primary care and those involved in mental health care, because of their implications in society. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  10. On the High Altitude Platform (HAP W-CDMA System Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. de Haro-Ariet

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The performance of a downlink power control model, based on a n-thpower distance law, is evaluated for high altitude platform station(HAPS W-CDMA systems. The downlink capacity using this model iscompared with the uplink capacity. It is shown that the uplink capacityis higher than the downlink capacity.

  11. Errors and omissions in hospital prescriptions: a survey of prescription writing in a hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calligaris, Laura; Panzera, Angela; Arnoldo, Luca; Londero, Carla; Quattrin, Rosanna; Troncon, Maria G; Brusaferro, Silvio

    2009-05-13

    The frequency of drug prescription errors is high. Excluding errors in decision making, the remaining are mainly due to order ambiguity, non standard nomenclature and writing illegibility. The aim of this study is to analyse, as a part of a continuous quality improvement program, the quality of prescriptions writing for antibiotics, in an Italian University Hospital as a risk factor for prescription errors. The point prevalence survey, carried out in May 26-30 2008, involved 41 inpatient Units. Every parenteral or oral antibiotic prescription was analysed for legibility (generic or brand drug name, dose, frequency of administration) and completeness (generic or brand name, dose, frequency of administration, route of administration, date of prescription and signature of the prescriber). Eight doctors (residents in Hygiene and Preventive Medicine) and two pharmacists performed the survey by reviewing the clinical records of medical, surgical or intensive care section inpatients. The antibiotics drug category was chosen because its use is widespread in the setting considered. Out of 756 inpatients included in the study, 408 antibiotic prescriptions were found in 298 patients (mean prescriptions per patient 1.4; SD +/- 0.6). Overall 92.7% (38/41) of the Units had at least one patient with antibiotic prescription. Legibility was in compliance with 78.9% of generic or brand names, 69.4% of doses, 80.1% of frequency of administration, whereas completeness was fulfilled for 95.6% of generic or brand names, 76.7% of doses, 83.6% of frequency of administration, 87% of routes of administration, 43.9% of dates of prescription and 33.3% of physician's signature. Overall 23.9% of prescriptions were illegible and 29.9% of prescriptions were incomplete. Legibility and completeness are higher in unusual drugs prescriptions. The Intensive Care Section performed best as far as quality of prescription writing was concerned when compared with the Medical and Surgical Sections

  12. ACUTE PHASE PROTEIN INCREASE IN HIGH ALTITUDE MOUNTAINEERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolga Saka

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Many middle-aged Turks go hiking in mountains to breathe some fresh air or to maintain fitness. Objective: This study investigated the effects of regular high altitude mountain climbing on the metabolic and hematological responses of mountaineers. Methods: Hematological and biochemical parameters were studied, as well as some hormonal values of 21 mountaineers and 16 healthy age-matched sedentary volunteers. Results: The neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR was significantly lower (p<0.04 in mountaineers compared with the sedentary group. Total protein (p<0.001 and albumin (p<0.001 were lower, while the levels of ferritin (p<0.04, creatine (p<0.03 and creatine phosphokinase (p<0.01 were higher in mountaineers. Other hematological and biochemical parameters, i.e., erythrocytes, leukocytes, hemoglobin and hematocrit, did not change significantly. Conclusion: Our results show that regular exposure to high altitude increased the serum levels of some acute phase proteins with anti-inflammatory properties.

  13. Preacclimatization in hypoxic chambers for high altitude sojourns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küpper, Thomas E A H; Schöffl, Volker

    2010-09-01

    Since hypoxic chambers are more and more available, they are used for preacclimatization to prepare for sojourns at high altitude. Since there are different protocols and the data differ, there is no general consensus about the standard how to perform preacclimatization by simulated altitude. The paper reviews the different types of exposure and focuses on the target groups which may benefit from preacclimatization. Since data about intermittent hypoxia for some hours per day to reduce the incidence of acute mountain sickness differ, it is suggested to perform preacclimatization by sleeping some nights at a simulated altitude which follows the altitude profile of the "gold standard" for high altitude acclimatization.

  14. On the dependence of the OH* Meinel emission altitude on vibrational level: SCIAMACHY observations and model simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Burrows

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of the OH Meinel emissions in the terrestrial nightglow are one of the standard ground-based techniques to retrieve upper mesospheric temperatures. It is often assumed that the emission peak altitudes are not strongly dependent on the vibrational level, although this assumption is not based on convincing experimental evidence. In this study we use Envisat/SCIAMACHY (Scanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY observations in the near-IR spectral range to retrieve vertical volume emission rate profiles of the OH(3-1, OH(6-2 and OH(8-3 Meinel bands in order to investigate whether systematic differences in emission peak altitudes can be observed between the different OH Meinel bands. The results indicate that the emission peak altitudes are different for the different vibrational levels, with bands originating from higher vibrational levels having higher emission peak altitudes. It is shown that this finding is consistent with the majority of the previously published results. The SCIAMACHY observations yield differences in emission peak altitudes of up to about 4 km between the OH(3-1 and the OH(8-3 band. The observations are complemented by model simulations of the fractional population of the different vibrational levels and of the vibrational level dependence of the emission peak altitude. The model simulations reproduce the observed vibrational level dependence of the emission peak altitude well – both qualitatively and quantitatively – if quenching by atomic oxygen as well as multi-quantum collisional relaxation by O2 is considered. If a linear relationship between emission peak altitude and vibrational level is assumed, then a peak altitude difference of roughly 0.5 km per vibrational level is inferred from both the SCIAMACHY observations and the model simulations.

  15. Deficiência nutricional em plântulas de feijão-de-corda decorrente da omissão de macro e micronutrientes Nutritional deficiency in cowpea seedlings due to omission of macro and micronutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael de Souza Miranda

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O feijão-de-corda [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp] cv. Pitiúba é uma importante cultura nos âmbitos econômico e social do Nordeste do Brasil, especialmente no Estado do Ceará, que é considerado o maior produtor desta região. Com a finalidade de caracterizar os sintomas de deficiências nutricionais em plântulas de feijão-de-corda, as sementes foram semeadas em areia exaustivamente lavada e, após um período de cinco dias, as plântulas foram transferidas para uma solução nutritiva completa para o período de aclimatação. Após três dias, as plântulas foram submetidas aos diferentes tratamentos. O experimento teve os seguintes tratamentos: solução nutritiva completa (N; P; K; Ca; Mg; S e micronutrientes e omissão individual de cada elemento -N; -P; -K; -Ca; -Mg; -S; -B; -Fe, bem como ausência de aeração. Os sintomas das deficiências foram observados, caracterizados e registrados por fotografias. No final do experimento, as medidas de comprimento e os teores de matérias fresca e seca das raízes e parte aérea das plântulas foram analisados. Todos os macros e micronutrientes causaram sintomas de deficiência e afetaram o desenvolvimento das plântulas. Os sintomas foram desenvolvidos primeiramente em plântulas com carência em Fe, Ca e N. A matéria seca total foi reduzida em todos os tratamentos com ausência de nutrientes. A ausência de Ca, N e Fe foi responsável por uma maior redução da biomassa. A ordem decrescente de redução foi a seguinte: Ca > N > Fe > P > K > Mg > S > Aeração > B > Completo.The Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp] cv. Pitiúba is an important crop in the economic and social contexts in the Northeast of Brazil, especially in the state of Ceará, which is considered the largest producer of this region. With the purpose of characterizing the symptoms of nutritional deficiencies in Cowpea seedlings, the seeds were sowed in washed sand and, after a period of five days, the seedlings were

  16. Altitude training induced alterations in erythrocyte rheological properties: a controlled comparison study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bor-Kucukatay, Melek; Colak, Ridvan; Erken, Gülten; Kilic-Toprak, Emine; Kucukatay, Vural

    2014-01-01

    Altitude training is frequently used by athletes to improve sea-level performance. However, the objective benefits of altitude training are controversial. This study aimed to investigate the possible alterations in hemorheological parameters in response to altitude training. Sprague Dawley rats, were divided into 6 groups: live low-train low (LLTL), live high-train high (LHTH), live high-train low (LHTL) and their controls live high and low (LHALC), live high (LHC), live low (LLC). LHC and LHTH groups were exposed to hypoxia (15% O2, altitudes of 3000 m), 4 weeks. LHALC and LHTL were exposed to 12 hours hypoxia/normoxia per day, 4 weeks. Hypoxia was maintained by a hypoxic tent. The training protocol corresponded to 60-70% of maximal exercise capacity. Rats of training groups ran on treadmill for 20-30 min/day, 4 days/week, 4 weeks. Erythrocyte deformability of LHC group was increased compared to LHALC and LLC. Deformability of LHTH group was higher than LHALC and LLTL groups. No statistically significant alteration in erythrocyte aggregation parameters was observed. There were no significant relationships between RBC deformability and exercise performance. The results of this study show that, living (LHC) and training at altitude (LHTH) seems more advantageous in hemorheological point of view.

  17. Maximal exercise and muscle oxygen extraction in acclimatizing lowlanders and high altitude natives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, Carsten; Sander, Mikael; van Hall, Gerrit

    2006-01-01

    , and is the focus of the present study. We have studied six lowlanders during maximal exercise at sea level (SL) and with acute (AH) exposure to 4,100 m altitude, and again after 2 (W2) and 8 weeks (W8) of altitude sojourn, where also eight high altitude native (Nat) Aymaras were studied. Fractional arterial muscle...... O(2) extraction at maximal exercise was 90.0+/-1.0% in the Danish lowlanders at sea level, and remained close to this value in all situations. In contrast to this, fractional arterial O(2) extraction was 83.2+/-2.8% in the high altitude natives, and did not change with the induction of normoxia....... The capillary oxygen conductance of the lower extremity, a measure of oxygen diffusing capacity, was decreased in the Danish lowlanders after 8 weeks of acclimatization, but was still higher than the value obtained from the high altitude natives. The values were (in ml min(-1) mmHg(-1)) 55.2+/-3.7 (SL), 48...

  18. Understanding of Altitude Illness and Use of Pharmacotherapy Among Trekkers and Porters in the Annapurna Region of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havryliuk, Tatiana; Acharya, Bhuwan; Caruso, Emily; Cushing, Tracy

    2015-09-01

    We surveyed Nepali porters and guides as well as English- and non-English-speaking trekkers on their knowledge of altitude illness and its treatment during trekking expeditions to the Annapurna region of Nepal. From March 15 to April 15, 2014, Nepali porters and visiting trekkers were surveyed regarding their ability to recognize and treat altitude illness in Manang, Nepal (3540 m). Their personal use of medications and home remedies and presence of acute mountain sickness (AMS) symptoms were also assessed. 504 subjects were surveyed, including 108 Nepalis. Overall incidence of AMS symptoms was 16%, 5% among Nepalis, and 21% among trekkers. Subjects recognized that headache (88%) was one of the symptoms of AMS, however many reported not knowing the symptoms of high altitude pulmonary edema (40%) or high altitude cerebral edema (42%). 58% of subjects reported carrying and 16% reported taking acetazolamide, while only 2 (0.4%) respondents took dexamethasone. The majority of subjects reported that they would be able to recognize (67%) and treat (62%) altitude illness. Trekkers reported a higher incidence of AMS symptoms than Nepalis. Although most respondents recognized symptoms of AMS, both Nepalis and trekkers lacked knowledge regarding more serious presentations of altitude illness, thus both groups were overconfident in their ability to recognize and treat altitude illness.

  19. Dose-response of altitude training: how much altitude is enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Benjamin D; Stray-Gundersen, James

    2006-01-01

    Altitude training continues to be a key adjunctive aid for the training of competitive athletes throughout the world. Over the past decade, evidence has accumulated from many groups of investigators that the "living high--training low" approach to altitude training provides the most robust and reliable performance enhancements. The success of this strategy depends on two key features: 1) living high enough, for enough hours per day, for a long enough period of time, to initiate and sustain an erythropoietic effect of high altitude; and 2) training low enough to allow maximal quality of high intensity workouts, requiring high rates of sustained oxidative flux. Because of the relatively limited access to environments where such a strategy can be practically applied, numerous devices have been developed to "bring the mountain to the athlete," which has raised the key issue of the appropriate "dose" of altitude required to stimulate an acclimatization response and performance enhancement. These include devices using molecular sieve technology to provide a normobaric hypoxic living or sleeping environment, approaches using very high altitudes (5,500m) for shorter periods of time during the day, and "intermittent hypoxic training" involving breathing very hypoxic gas mixtures for alternating 5 minutes periods over the course of 60-90 minutes. Unfortunately, objective testing of the strategies employing short term (less than 4 hours) normobaric or hypobaric hypoxia has failed to demonstrate an advantage of these techniques. Moreover individual variability of the response to even the best of living high--training low strategies has been great, and the mechanisms behind this variability remain obscure. Future research efforts will need to focus on defining the optimal dosing strategy for these devices, and determining the underlying mechanisms of the individual variability so as to enable the individualized "prescription" of altitude exposure to optimize the performance of

  20. Changes in Running Economy, Respiratory Exchange Ratio and VO2max in Runners following a 10-day Altitude Training Camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diebel, Sebastian R; Newhouse, Ian; Thompson, David S; Johnson, Vineet B K

    2017-01-01

    Running economy (RE) and VO 2 max are important predictors of endurance performance for elite and semi-elite endurance athletes, with RE being an appropriate predictor in a homogenous running population. Altitude training has been observed to change RE (mL.kg -1 .min -1 ), and VO 2 max due to alterations resulting from acclimatization. This study tracked changes in RE and VO 2 max before and after a 10-day altitude training camp at 1828 meters. VO 2 max, RE expressed calorically, and respiratory exchange ratio (RER), were measured below anaerobic threshold (AT) to observe differences between pre-and post-altitude training. Eight varsity cross-country runners between the ages of 18 and 22 years performed an incremental treadmill test, pre- and post-10-day altitude training. Paired samples t-tests were used to statistically analyze the data. Average RE (VO 2 mL.kg -1 .min -1 ) improved following altitude intervention ( M = 56.44 ± 4.28) compared to pre-altitude training (61.30 ± 7.56). These differences were statistically significant t ( 7 )= 2.71, p =.014. RE expressed as kcals.kg -1 .km -1 improved following altitude training (16.73 ± 2.96) compared to (18.44 ± 4.04) pre-altitude training and was statistically significant t( 7 ) =3.08, p = .008. RER taken during the last minute of steady-state was higher (0.97, ± .019) post-altitude training, compared to (0.90 ± .043) pre-altitude. These differences were statistically significant t ( 7 ) -3.62, p =.008. VO 2 max (mL.kg -1 .min -1 ) was lower in 6 out of 8 participants (63.91, ± 8.65) post-altitude compared to (69.90, ± 10.80) pre-altitude and was statistically significant t( 7 ) = 2.33, p =.026. The observed improvements in RE may be beneficial for endurance athletes competing and/or training at moderate altitudes near 1828 meters.

  1. Altitude Testing of Large Liquid Propellant Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Bryon T.; Raines, Nickey G.

    2010-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration entered a new age on January 14, 2004 with President Bush s announcement of the creation the Vision for Space Exploration that will take mankind back to the Moon and on beyond to Mars. In January, 2006, after two years of hard, dedicated labor, engineers within NASA and its contractor workforce decided that the J2X rocket, based on the heritage of the Apollo J2 engine, would be the new engine for the NASA Constellation Ares upper stage vehicle. This engine and vehicle combination would provide assured access to the International Space Station to replace that role played by the Space Shuttle and additionally, would serve as the Earth Departure Stage, to push the Crew Excursion Vehicle out of Earth Orbit and head it on a path for rendezvous with the Moon. Test as you fly, fly as you test was chosen to be the guiding philosophy and a pre-requisite for the engine design, development, test and evaluation program. An exhaustive survey of national test facility assets proved the required capability to test the J2X engine at high altitude for long durations did not exist so therefore, a high altitude/near space environment testing capability would have to be developed. After several agency concepts the A3 High Altitude Testing Facility proposal was selected by the J2X engine program on March 2, 2007 and later confirmed by a broad panel of NASA senior leadership in May 2007. This facility is to be built at NASA s John C. Stennis Space Center located near Gulfport, Mississippi. 30 plus years of Space Shuttle Main Engine development and flight certification testing makes Stennis uniquely suited to support the Vision For Space Exploration Return to the Moon. Propellant handling infrastructure, engine assembly facilities, a trained and dedicated workforce and a broad and varied technical support base will all ensure that the A3 facility will be built on time to support the schedule needs of the J2X engine and the ultimate flight

  2. Evolved changes in the intracellular distribution and physiology of muscle mitochondria in high-altitude native deer mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalingam, Sajeni; McClelland, Grant B; Scott, Graham R

    2017-07-15

    Mitochondrial function changes over time at high altitudes, but the potential benefits of these changes for hypoxia resistance remains unclear. We used high-altitude-adapted populations of deer mice, which exhibit enhanced aerobic performance in hypoxia, to examine whether changes in mitochondrial physiology or intracellular distribution in the muscle contribute to hypoxia resistance. Permeabilized muscle fibres from the gastrocnemius muscle had higher respiratory capacities in high-altitude mice than in low-altitude mice. Highlanders also had higher mitochondrial volume densities, due entirely to an enriched abundance of subsarcolemmal mitochondria, such that more mitochondria were situated near the cell membrane and adjacent to capillaries. There were several effects of hypoxia acclimation on mitochondrial function, some of which were population specific, but they differed from the evolved changes in high-altitude natives, which probably provide a better indication of adaptive traits that improve performance and hypoxia resistance at high altitudes. High-altitude natives that have evolved to live in hypoxic environments provide a compelling system to understand how animals can overcome impairments in oxygen availability. We examined whether these include changes in mitochondrial physiology or intracellular distribution that contribute to hypoxia resistance in high-altitude deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus). Mice from populations native to high and low altitudes were born and raised in captivity, and as adults were acclimated to normoxia or hypobaric hypoxia (equivalent to 4300 m elevation). We found that highlanders had higher respiratory capacities in the gastrocnemius (but not soleus) muscle than lowlanders (assessed using permeabilized fibres with single or multiple inputs to the electron transport system), due in large part to higher mitochondrial volume densities in the gastrocnemius. The latter was attributed to an increased abundance of subsarcolemmal

  3. Eficiência nutricional do milho cv. BRS 1030 submetido à omissão de macronutrientes em solução nutritiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ancélio Ricardo de Oliveira Gondim

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Em casa de vegetação, desenvolveu-se experimento com delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com sete tratamentos e três repetições, a fim de estudar a influência da omissão de nutrientes nas relações de eficiência (eficiência de absorção, translocação e utilização deplantas de milho cv. BRS 1030 crescidas em solução nutritiva de Hoagland & Arnon (1950, completa e com omissão de N, P, K, Ca, Mg e S, durante 30 dias. Após esse período, as plantas foram coletadas, separadas em parte aérea e raiz, secadas e em seguida pesadas e moídas, para determinação dos teores de macronutrientes e obtenção dos índices de eficiência. A omissão de macronutrientes promove diminuição na produção de massa seca da planta inteira e na eficiência de absorção dos nutrientes, quando comparada à do tratamento completo. A omissão de P, Mg e S resulta em maior eficiência de utilização, comparada com o tratamento completo. Plantas deficientes retranslocam os nutrientes, tentando manter seu conteúdo nas folhas medianas (ou parte aérea em relação aos demais órgãos.

  4. HIGH ALTITUDES EFFECTS ON HEMATOLOGIC BLOOD PARAMETERS

    OpenAIRE

    Hasim Rushiti; Florian Miftari; Besim Halilaj

    2015-01-01

    The approach and the objective of this experiment are consistent with the determination of changes of blood parameters after the stay of the students at an altitude of 1800-2300 meters, for a ten-day long ski course. In this paper are included a total of 64 students of the Faculty of Sport Sciences in Prishtina, of the age group of 19-25 (the average age is 21). All students previously have undergone a medical check for TA, arterial pulse and respiratory rate. In particular, the health situat...

  5. The Effects of a 10-day Altitude Training Camp at 1828 Meters on Varsity Cross-Country Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diebel, Sebastian R; Newhouse, Ian; Thompson, David S; Johnson, Vineet B K

    2017-01-01

    Altitude training has been shown to alter blood lactate (BL) levels due to alterations resulting from acclimatization. This study aims to estimate the impact of altitude training on BL changes immediately following an incremental treadmill test and during recovery before and after 10-day altitude training at approximately 1828 meters. Eight varsity cross-country runners performed an incremental treadmill test (ITT), pre and post-altitude training. Resting and post-warm-up BL values were recorded. During ITT, heart rate (HR), oxygen saturation (SpO2), and time to exhaustion were monitored. BL was also measured post-ITT at 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 minutes. The average of all BL values was higher following altitude intervention (8.8 ± 4.6 mmol/L) compared to pre-intervention (7.4 ± 3.3 mmol/L). These differences were statistically significant ( t (6) = -2.40, p = .026). BL immediately (0 minutes) after the ITT was higher following the altitude intervention (13.6 ± 3.6 mmol/L) compared to pre-intervention (9.7 ± 3.8 mmol/L) and was statistically significant ( t (7) = -3.30, p = .006). Average HR during the ITT was lower following the altitude intervention (176.9 ± 11.1 bpm) compared to pre (187 ± 9.5 bpm), these differences were statistically significant ( t (28)= 18.07, p= altitude intervention at 1828 meters may benefit varsity cross-country runners. The higher post-exercise BL may be attributed to more anaerobic contributions. Lower HR may suggest a larger stroke volume and/or more efficient O2 carrying capacity.

  6. Coping with unpredictability: dopaminergic and neurotrophic responses to omission of expected reward in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A Vindas

    Full Text Available Comparative studies are imperative for understanding the evolution of adaptive neurobiological processes such as neural plasticity, cognition, and emotion. Previously we have reported that prolonged omission of expected rewards (OER, or 'frustrative nonreward' causes increased aggression in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar. Here we report changes in brain monoaminergic activity and relative abundance of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and dopamine receptor mRNA transcripts in the same paradigm. Groups of fish were initially conditioned to associate a flashing light with feeding. Subsequently, the expected food reward was delayed for 30 minutes during two out of three meals per day in the OER treatment, while the previously established routine was maintained in control groups. After 8 days there was no effect of OER on baseline brain stem serotonin (5-HT or dopamine (DA activity. Subsequent exposure to acute confinement stress led to increased plasma cortisol and elevated turnover of brain stem DA and 5-HT in all animals. The DA response was potentiated and DA receptor 1 (D1 mRNA abundance was reduced in the OER-exposed fish, indicating a sensitization of the DA system. In addition OER suppressed abundance of BDNF in the telencephalon of non-stressed fish. Regardless of OER treatment, a strong positive correlation between BDNF and D1 mRNA abundance was seen in non-stressed fish. This correlation was disrupted by acute stress, and replaced by a negative correlation between BDNF abundance and plasma cortisol concentration. These observations indicate a conserved link between DA, neurotrophin regulation, and corticosteroid-signaling pathways. The results also emphasize how fish models can be important tools in the study of neural plasticity and responsiveness to environmental unpredictability.

  7. Coping with unpredictability: dopaminergic and neurotrophic responses to omission of expected reward in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vindas, Marco A; Sørensen, Christina; Johansen, Ida B; Folkedal, Ole; Höglund, Erik; Khan, Uniza W; Stien, Lars H; Kristiansen, Tore S; Braastad, Bjarne O; Øverli, Øyvind

    2014-01-01

    Comparative studies are imperative for understanding the evolution of adaptive neurobiological processes such as neural plasticity, cognition, and emotion. Previously we have reported that prolonged omission of expected rewards (OER, or 'frustrative nonreward') causes increased aggression in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Here we report changes in brain monoaminergic activity and relative abundance of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and dopamine receptor mRNA transcripts in the same paradigm. Groups of fish were initially conditioned to associate a flashing light with feeding. Subsequently, the expected food reward was delayed for 30 minutes during two out of three meals per day in the OER treatment, while the previously established routine was maintained in control groups. After 8 days there was no effect of OER on baseline brain stem serotonin (5-HT) or dopamine (DA) activity. Subsequent exposure to acute confinement stress led to increased plasma cortisol and elevated turnover of brain stem DA and 5-HT in all animals. The DA response was potentiated and DA receptor 1 (D1) mRNA abundance was reduced in the OER-exposed fish, indicating a sensitization of the DA system. In addition OER suppressed abundance of BDNF in the telencephalon of non-stressed fish. Regardless of OER treatment, a strong positive correlation between BDNF and D1 mRNA abundance was seen in non-stressed fish. This correlation was disrupted by acute stress, and replaced by a negative correlation between BDNF abundance and plasma cortisol concentration. These observations indicate a conserved link between DA, neurotrophin regulation, and corticosteroid-signaling pathways. The results also emphasize how fish models can be important tools in the study of neural plasticity and responsiveness to environmental unpredictability.

  8. Variation in the pattern of omissions and substitutions of grammatical morphemes in the spontaneous speech of so-called agrammatic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miceli, G; Silveri, M C; Romani, C; Caramazza, A

    1989-04-01

    We describe the patterns of omissions (and substitutions) of freestanding grammatical morphemes and the patterns of substitutions of bound grammatical morphemes in 20 so-called agrammatic patients. Extreme variation was observed in the patterns of omissions and substitutions of grammatical morphemes, both in terms of the distribution of errors for different grammatical morphemes as well as in terms of the distribution of omissions versus substitutions. Results are discussed in the context of current debates concerning the possibility of a theoretically motivated distinction between the clinical categories of agrammatism and paragrammatism and, more generally, concerning the theoretical usefulness of any clinical category. The conclusion is reached that the observed heterogeneity in the production of grammatical morphemes among putatively agrammatic patients renders the clinical category of agrammatism, and by extension all other clinical categories from the classical classification scheme (e.g., Broca's aphasia, Wernicke's aphasia, and so forth) to more recent classificatory attempts (e.g., surface dyslexia, deep dysgraphia, and so forth), theoretically useless.

  9. Energy and emissions characterization of an eco-efficient biomass cook stove at different altitudes; Caracterización energética y emisiones de una estufa de cocción ecoeficiente con biomasa a diferentes altitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pérez-Bayer, Juan F.; Graciano-Bustamante, Diana S.; Gómez-Betancur, José A. [Universidad de Antioquia. Grupo de manejo eficiente de la energía. Medellín (Colombia)

    2013-07-01

    Around 2.5 billion people depend on wood as their main fuel for heating and cooking.In this work is studied the effect of altitude (678 and 1976 meters above sea level) on energy performance and emissions of an improved wood stove under standardized cooking tests. The experiments were carried out under the Water Boiling (WBT) and Controlled Cooking (CCT) Tests. The efficiency decreased about 24 % with increasing altitude in WBT, and specific fuel consumption increased 27.3 % due to the air density changes. Regarding the controlled cooking test, the specific fuel consumption and specific emissions increased by 15.3 % and 16 %, respectively. It is highlighted that altitude significantly affects the 'Plancha' wood stove behavior. Specific emissions increased at higher altitudes, so it is necessary to redesign wood stoves according to their geographical location in order to optimize the cooking process. (author)

  10. The FAA altitude chamber training flight profile : a survey of altitude reactions, 1965-1989.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-01

    Reactions from 1,161 trainees out of 12,759 trainees subjected to the FAA altitude chamber training flights from 1965-1989 are annotated in this survey. Although there were some mild and expected reactions, these training profiles appear to provide a...

  11. The re-establishment of the normal blood lactate response to exercise in humans after prolonged acclimatization to altitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hall, Gerrit; Calbet, J A; Søndergaard, H

    2001-01-01

    1. One to five weeks of chronic exposure to hypoxia has been shown to reduce peak blood lactate concentration compared to acute exposure to hypoxia during exercise, the high altitude 'lactate paradox'. However, we hypothesize that a sufficiently long exposure to hypoxia would result in a blood......, in lowlanders acclimatized for 9 weeks to an altitude of 5260 m, the arterial lactate concentration was similar at 0 m acute hypoxia and 5260 m chronic hypoxia. The net lactate release from the active leg was higher at 5260 m chronic hypoxia compared to 0 m acute hypoxia, implying an enhanced lactate...... utilization with prolonged acclimatization to altitude. The present study clearly shows the absence of a lactate paradox in lowlanders sufficiently acclimatized to altitude....

  12. Efeito da omissão de macronutrientes no crescimento, nos sintomas de deficiências nutricionais e na composição mineral em gravioleiras (Annona muricata Effect of macronutrient omission in growth, symptoms of nutricional deficiency and mineral composition in soursop plants (Annona muricata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnalda Maria Fernandes Batista

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da omissão de macronutrientes no crescimento, nos sintomas de deficiências nutricionais e na composição mineral em gravioleiras, conduziu-se experimento em casa de vegetação, mediante a técnica do elemento faltante. O delineamento foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições e sete tratamentos, sendo completo (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S e micronutrientes e com omissão individual de N, P, K, Ca, Mg e S. As omissões dos macronutrientes afetaram o crescimento em altura, diâmetro das plantas e produção de matéria seca, quando comparados ao tratamento completo. Com base nos teores em g/kg dos macronutrientes nas folhas, encontraram-se os seguintes valores adequados nos tratamento completo e com omissão: N = 14,70 e 8,82; P = 0,92 e 0,47; K = 12,35 e 2,62; Ca = 14,11 e 3,44; Mg = 3,59 e 1,09; S = 5,32 e 2,30.This work had the objective of evaluating the effect of macronutrient omission in growth, symptoms of nutritional deficiency and mineral composition in soursop plants. It was carried out an experiment in greenhouse conditions, using the missing element technique. It was developed a randomized experiment with four repetition and seven treatments being completed (N, P, K, Ca. Mg, S and micronutrients and with the omission of N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S from a complete solution. Omissions related to all macronutrients affected plant growth in height, diameter and dry matter yield compared to the complete treatment. Based on the contents in g/kg found in leaves, the levels to adequate (complete and deficient nutrient were defined as following: N = 14,70 and 8,82; P = 0,92 and 0,47; K = 12,35 and 2,62; Ca = 14,11 and 3,44; Mg = 3,59 and 1,09; S = 5,32 and 2,30, respectively.

  13. Hemoglobin correction factors for estimating the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia in pregnant women residing at high altitudes in Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Hadary Cohen

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available This study had two primary objectives: 1 to derive a method to determine hemoglobin cutoffs that could be used to better estimate the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia in pregnancy at high altitudes and 2 to estimate the prevalence of anemia in a sample of pregnant women residing in two cities in Bolivia, La Paz (3 600 meters and El Alto (4 000 meters. We derived a hemoglobin-altitude curve from previously published data on the mean hemoglobin concentrations of nonanemic women of childbearing age at various altitudes. In addition, we abstracted data on hemoglobin concentration during pregnancy from medical records of women from La Paz and El Alto who had given birth at a maternity hospital in La Paz between January and June of 1996. Using our approach and two other previously published, currently used methods, we calculated and compared prevalences of iron deficiency anemia in this population using hemoglobin cutoffs determined from a hemoglobin-altitude curve corrected for pregnancy. The hemoglobin-altitude curve derived in this study provided a better fit to data for women of childbearing age than the two other models. Those models used cutoffs based on non-iron-replete populations of children or men, both of which were residing below 4 000 m, and then extrapolated to women and higher altitudes. The estimated prevalences of iron deficiency anemia in pregnancy using the hemoglobin cutoffs determined in this study were higher than those estimated by the two other approaches.

  14. Numerical simulation of altitude impact on pulverized coal combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pei, Xiaohui; He, Boshu; Ling, Ling; Wang, Lei [Beijing Jiaotong Univ., Beijing (China). Inst. of Mechanical, Electronic and Control Engineering

    2013-07-01

    A drop-tube Furnace simulation model has been developed to investigate the pulverized coal combustion characteristics under different altitudes using the commercially available software Fluent. The altitude conditions of 0, 500, 1,000, 1,500 m have been discussed. The results included the fields of temperature, pressure, velocity, the coal burnout, CO burnout and NO emission in the tube furnace. The variation of these parameters with altitude has been analyzed. The coal combustion characteristics were affected by the altitude. The time and space for coal burnout should be increased with the rise of altitude. The valuable results could be referenced in the design of coal- fired furnaces for the high altitude areas.

  15. Reducing body fat with altitude hypoxia training in swimmers: role of blood perfusion to skeletal muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Michael; Liao, Chin-An; Huang, Chih-Yang; Lee, Wen-Chih; Hou, Chien-Wen; Yu, Szu-Hsien; Harris, M Brennan; Hsu, Tung-Shiung; Lee, Shin-Da; Kuo, Chia-Hua

    2013-02-28

    Swimmers tend to have greater body fat than athletes from other sports. The purpose of the study was to examine changes in body composition after altitude hypoxia exposure and the role of blood distribution to the skeletal muscle in swimmers. With a constant training volume of 12.3 km/day, young male swimmers (N = 10, 14.8 ± 0.5 years) moved from sea-level to a higher altitude of 2,300 meters. Body composition was measured before and after translocation to altitude using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) along with 8 control male subjects who resided at sea level for the same period of time. To determine the effects of hypoxia on muscle blood perfusion, total hemoglobin concentration (THC) was traced by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in the triceps and quadriceps muscles under glucose-ingested and insulin-secreted conditions during hypoxia exposure (16% O2) after training. While no change in body composition was found in the control group, subjects who trained at altitude had unequivocally decreased fat mass (-1.7 ± 0.3 kg, -11.4%) with increased lean mass (+0.8 ± 0.2 kg, +1.5%). Arterial oxygen saturation significantly decreased with increased plasma lactate during hypoxia recovery mimicking 2,300 meters at altitude (~93% versus ~97%). Intriguingly, hypoxia resulted in elevated muscle THC, and sympathetic nervous activities occurred in parallel with greater-percent oxygen saturation in both muscle groups. In conclusion, the present study provides evidence that increased blood distribution to the skeletal muscle under postprandial condition may contribute to the reciprocally increased muscle mass and decreased body mass after a 3-week altitude exposure in swimmers.

  16. Vegetation Carbon Storage, Spatial Patterns and Response to Altitude in Lancang River Basin, Southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation plays a very important role of carbon (C sinks in the global C cycle. With its complex terrain and diverse vegetation types, the Lancang River Basin (LRB of southwest China has huge C storage capacity. Therefore, understanding the spatial variations and controlling mechanisms of vegetation C storage is important to understand the regional C cycle. In this study, data from a forest inventory and field plots were used to estimate and map vegetation C storage distribution in the LRB, to qualify the quantitative relationships between vegetation C density and altitude at sublot and township scale, and a linear model or polynomial model was used to identify the relationship between C density and altitude at two spatial scales and two statistical scales. The results showed that a total of 300.32 Tg C was stored in the LRB, an important C sink in China. The majority of C storage was contributed by forests, notably oaks. The vegetation C storage exhibited nonlinear variation with latitudinal gradients. Altitude had tremendous influences on spatial patterns of vegetation C storage of three geomorphological types in the LRB. C storage decreased with increasing altitude at both town and sublot scales in the flat river valley (FRV region and the mid-low mountains gorge (MMG region, and first increased then decreased in the alpine gorge (AG region. This revealed that, in southwest China, altitude changes the latitudinal patterns of vegetation C storage; especially in the AG area, C density in the mid-altitude (3100 m area was higher than that of adjacent areas.

  17. Tropical temperature altitude amplification in the hiatus period (1998-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ducić Vladan D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the period 1998-2012 there was a stagnation in temperature rise, despite the GHGs radiation forcing is increased (hiatus period. According to Global Circulation Models simulations, expected response on the rise of GHGs forcing is tropical temperature altitude amplification - temperature increases faster in higher troposphere than in lower troposphere. In this paper, two satellite data sets, UAH MSU and RSS, were used to test altitude temperature amplification in tropic (20°N-20°S in the hiatus period. We compared data from satellite data sets from lower troposphere (TLT and middle troposphere (TMT in general and particularly for land and ocean (for UAH MSU. The results from both satellite measurements showed the presence of hiatus, i.e. slowdown of the temperature rise in the period 1998-2012 compared to period 1979-2012 (UAH MSU and temperature fall for RSS data. Smaller increase, i.e. temperature fall over ocean showed that hiatus is an ocean phenomenon above all. Data for UAH MSU showed that temperature altitude amplification in tropic was not present either for period 1979-2012, or 1998-2012. RSS data set also do not show temperature altitude amplification either for longer (1979-2012, or for shorter period (1998-2012. RSS data for successive 15-year periods from 1979-1993 till 1998-2012 does not show tropical temperature altitude amplification and in one case negative trend is registered in TLT and in two cases in TMT. In general, our results do not show presence of temperature altitude amplification in tropic in the hiatus period. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III47007

  18. [BEHAVIOR OF HEMOGLOBIN CONCENTRATION, HEMATOCRIT AND OXYGEN SATURATION IN COLOMBIAN UNIVERSITY POPULATION AT DIFFERENT ALTITUDES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trompetero González, Andrea Catalina; Cristancho Mejía, Edgar; Benavides Pinzón, William Fernando; Serrato Roa, Mauricio; Landinez Macias, María Paula; Rojas, Joel

    2015-11-01

    the development of this research is base on the growing interest in understanding the adaptations to chronic hipoxia mainly in the range of intermediate altitudes (1 500-3 000 m.s.n.m) and the need to establish parameters of normality in the variables [Hb], Hct and SO2 for diagnostic and characterization of the population purposes. to analyze the behavior of the [Hb], Hct and SaO2 at different intermediate altitudes (970 m.s.n.m, 1 520 m.s.n.m, 1 728 m.s.n.m, 1 923 m.s.n.m, 2 180 m.s.n.m and 2 600 m.s.n.m) in order to contribute to the knowledge of the high altitude physiology and the clinical field to support the diagnosis of anemia. clinically healthy subjects with low levels of physical activity and food consumption report containing iron. Total of 264 participants of both genders between 18 and 30 years. The blood samples were collected from the antecubital vein and the earlobe and analyzed in a radiometer. A non-parametric statistical analysis was performed. with increasing of altitude, [Hb] and Hct values were increased while the SO2 decreased. Men showed higher values than women in [Hb] and Hct, related to lower values of SO2 than women. a threshold variable was not found, perhaps because of the small distance between the altitudes. The values reported were similar but not identical to other studies. This difference could be explained by genetic diversity among populations. this study allows for the first values of characterization of the study population. All altitudes were above the cutoff for the diagnosis of anemia ([Hb] 12 g/dl). Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  19. Hemoglobin and testosterone: importance on high altitude acclimatization and adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzales, Gustavo F.; Jefe de la Unidad de Reproducción, Instituto de Investigaciones de la Altura y Jefe del Laboratorio de Endocrinología y Reproducción, Facultad de Ciencias y Filosofía, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Doctor en Medicina y Doctor en Ciencias. Especialista en Endocrinología.

    2011-01-01

    The different types of response mechanisms that the organism uses when exposed to hypoxia include accommodation, acclimatization and adaptation. Accommodation is the initial response to acute exposure to high altitude hypoxia and is characterized by an increase in ventilation and heart rate. Acclimatization is observed in individuals temporarily exposed to high altitude, and to some extent, it enables them to tolerate the high altitudes. In this phase, erythropoiesis is increased, resulti...

  20. Aspirated Compressors for High Altitude Engines, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aurora Flight Sciences proposes to incorporate aspirated compressor technology into a high altitude, long endurance (HALE) concept engine. Aspiration has been proven...

  1. Does 'altitude training' increase exercise performance in elite athletes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundby, Carsten; Robach, Paul

    2016-07-01

    What is the topic of this review? The aim is to evaluate the effectiveness of various altitude training strategies as investigated within the last few years. What advances does it highlight? Based on the available literature, the foundation to recommend altitude training to athletes is weak. Athletes may use one of the various altitude training strategies to improve exercise performance. The scientific support for such strategies is, however, not as sound as one would perhaps imagine. The question addressed in this review is whether altitude training should be recommended to elite athletes or not. © 2016 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2016 The Physiological Society.

  2. Altitude variations of ionospheric currents at auroral latitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamide, Y.; Brekke, A.

    1993-01-01

    On the basis of updated EISCAT experiments, the first full derivation of the ionospheric current density of the auroral electrojets at six different altitudes are presented. It is found that current vectors at different altitudes are quite different, although the eastward and westward currents prevail in the evening and morning sectors, respectively, once the currents are integrated over altitude. The eastward electrojet becomes almost northward whilst the westward electrojet becomes almost southward, at the highest altitude, 125 km, in this study. The physical implications of these characteristics are discussed

  3. The effect of altitude hypoxia on glucose homeostasis in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, J J; Hansen, J M; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal

    1997-01-01

    1. Exposure to altitude hypoxia elicits changes in glucose homeostasis with increases in glucose and insulin concentrations within the first few days at altitude. Both increased and unchanged hepatic glucose production (HGP) have previously been reported in response to acute altitude hypoxia...... (noradrenaline and adrenaline) and day 7 (adrenaline), but not at sea level. 4. In conclusion, insulin action decreases markedly in response to two days of altitude hypoxia, but improves with more prolonged exposure. HGP is always unchanged. The changes in insulin action may in part be explained by the changes...

  4. High Altitude Warfare: The Kargil Conflict and the Future

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Acosta, Marcus

    2003-01-01

    The unique combination of thin air, freezing temperatures, and mountainous terrain that forms the high altitude environment has resisted advances in military technology for centuries, The emergence...

  5. APOLLO 16 COMMANDER JOHN YOUNG ENTERS ALTITUDE CHAMBER FOR TESTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    Apollo 16 commander John W. Young prepares to enter the lunar module in an altitude chamber in the Manned Spacecraft Operations Building at the spaceport prior to an altitude run. During the altitude run, in which Apollo 16 lunar module pilot Charles M. Duke also participated, the chamber was pumped down to simulate pressure at an altitude in excess of 200,000 feet. Young, Duke and command module pilot Thomas K. Mattingly II, are training at the Kennedy Space Center for the Apollo 16 mission. Launch is scheduled from Pad 39A, March 17, 1972.

  6. Aero-thermo-dynamic analysis of the Spaceliner-7.1 vehicle in high altitude flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuppardi, Gennaro; Morsa, Luigi; Sippel, Martin; Schwanekamp, Tobias

    2014-12-01

    SpaceLiner, designed by DLR, is a visionary, extremely fast passenger transportation concept. It consists of two stages: a winged booster, a vehicle. After separation of the two stages, the booster makes a controlled re-entry and returns to the launch site. According to the current project, version 7-1 of SpaceLiner (SpaceLiner-7.1), the vehicle should be brought at an altitude of 75 km and then released, undertaking the descent path. In the perspective that the vehicle of SpaceLiner-7.1 could be brought to altitudes higher than 75 km, e.g. 100 km or above and also for a speculative purpose, in this paper the aerodynamic parameters of the SpaceLiner-7.1 vehicle are calculated in the whole transition regime, from continuum low density to free molecular flows. Computer simulations have been carried out by three codes: two DSMC codes, DS3V in the altitude interval 100-250 km for the evaluation of the global aerodynamic coefficients and DS2V at the altitude of 60 km for the evaluation of the heat flux and pressure distributions along the vehicle nose, and the DLR HOTSOSE code for the evaluation of the global aerodynamic coefficients in continuum, hypersonic flow at the altitude of 44.6 km. The effectiveness of the flaps with deflection angle of -35 deg. was evaluated in the above mentioned altitude interval. The vehicle showed longitudinal stability in the whole altitude interval even with no flap. The global bridging formulae verified to be proper for the evaluation of the aerodynamic coefficients in the altitude interval 80-100 km where the computations cannot be fulfilled either by CFD, because of the failure of the classical equations computing the transport coefficients, or by DSMC because of the requirement of very high computer resources both in terms of the core storage (a high number of simulated molecules is needed) and to the very long processing time.

  7. Effects of ascent to high altitude on human antimycobacterial immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Eisen

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis infection, disease and mortality are all less common at high than low altitude and ascent to high altitude was historically recommended for treatment. The immunological and mycobacterial mechanisms underlying the association between altitude and tuberculosis are unclear. We studied the effects of altitude on mycobacteria and antimycobacterial immunity.Antimycobacterial immunity was assayed in 15 healthy adults residing at low altitude before and after they ascended to 3400 meters; and in 47 long-term high-altitude residents. Antimycobacterial immunity was assessed as the extent to which participants' whole blood supported or restricted growth of genetically modified luminescent Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG mycobacteria during 96 hours incubation. We developed a simplified whole blood assay that could be used by a technician in a low-technology setting. We used this to compare mycobacterial growth in participants' whole blood versus positive-control culture broth and versus negative-control plasma.Measurements of mycobacterial luminescence predicted the number of mycobacterial colonies cultured six weeks later. At low altitude, mycobacteria grew in blood at similar rates to positive-control culture broth whereas ascent to high altitude was associated with restriction (p ≤ 0.002 of mycobacterial growth to be 4-times less than in culture broth. At low altitude, mycobacteria grew in blood 25-times more than negative-control plasma whereas ascent to high altitude was associated with restriction (p ≤ 0.01 of mycobacterial growth to be only 6-times more than in plasma. There was no evidence of differences in antimycobacterial immunity at high altitude between people who had recently ascended to high altitude versus long-term high-altitude residents.An assay of luminescent mycobacterial growth in whole blood was adapted and found to be feasible in low-resource settings. This demonstrated that ascent to or residence at high altitude was

  8. Influence of growing altitude, shade and harvest period on quality and biochemical composition of Ethiopian specialty coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolessa, Kassaye; D'heer, Jolien; Duchateau, Luc; Boeckx, Pascal

    2017-07-01

    Coffee quality is a key characteristic for the international market, comprising cup quality and chemical bean constituents. In Ethiopia, using total specialty cup scores, coffees are grouped into Q1 (specialty 1) ≥ 85 and Q2 (80-84.75). This classification results in market segmentation and higher prices. Although different studies have evaluated the effects of altitude and shade on bean quality, optimum shade levels along different altitudinal ranges are not clearly indicated. Information on effects of harvest periods on coffee quality is also scanty. The present study examined the influences of these factors and their interactions on Ethiopian coffee quality RESULTS: Coffee from high altitude with open or medium shade and early to middle harvest periods had a superior bean quality. These growing conditions also favoured the production of beans with lower caffeine. An increasing altitude, from mid to high, at approximately 400 m, decreased caffeine content by 10%. At high altitude, dense shade decreased Q1 coffee by 50%. Compared to late harvesting, early harvesting increased the percentage from 27% to 73%. At mid altitude, > 80% is Q2 coffee. Changes of quality scores driven by altitude, shade and harvest period are small, although they may induce dramatic switches in the fraction Q1 versus Q2 coffee. The latter affects both farmers' profits and competitiveness in international markets. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Adaptive remodeling of skeletal muscle energy metabolism in high-altitude hypoxia: Lessons from AltitudeOmics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicco, Adam J; Le, Catherine H; Gnaiger, Erich; Dreyer, Hans C; Muyskens, Jonathan B; D'Alessandro, Angelo; Nemkov, Travis; Hocker, Austin D; Prenni, Jessica E; Wolfe, Lisa M; Sindt, Nathan M; Lovering, Andrew T; Subudhi, Andrew W; Roach, Robert C

    2018-05-04

    Metabolic responses to hypoxia play important roles in cell survival strategies and disease pathogenesis in humans. However, the homeostatic adjustments that balance changes in energy supply and demand to maintain organismal function under chronic low oxygen conditions remain incompletely understood, making it difficult to distinguish adaptive from maladaptive responses in hypoxia-related pathologies. We integrated metabolomic and proteomic profiling with mitochondrial respirometry and blood gas analyses to comprehensively define the physiological responses of skeletal muscle energy metabolism to 16 days of high-altitude hypoxia (5260 m) in healthy volunteers from the AltitudeOmics project. In contrast to the view that hypoxia down-regulates aerobic metabolism, results show that mitochondria play a central role in muscle hypoxia adaptation by supporting higher resting phosphorylation potential and enhancing the efficiency of long-chain acylcarnitine oxidation. This directs increases in muscle glucose toward pentose phosphate and one-carbon metabolism pathways that support cytosolic redox balance and help mitigate the effects of increased protein and purine nucleotide catabolism in hypoxia. Muscle accumulation of free amino acids favor these adjustments by coordinating cytosolic and mitochondrial pathways to rid the cell of excess nitrogen, but might ultimately limit muscle oxidative capacity in vivo Collectively, these studies illustrate how an integration of aerobic and anaerobic metabolism is required for physiological hypoxia adaptation in skeletal muscle, and highlight protein catabolism and allosteric regulation as unexpected orchestrators of metabolic remodeling in this context. These findings have important implications for the management of hypoxia-related diseases and other conditions associated with chronic catabolic stress. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Impact of habitat variability and altitude on growth dynamics and reproductive allocation in Ferula jaeschkeana Vatke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubaid Yaqoob

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ferula jaeschkeana Vatke is an important threatened medicinal plant of the Himalayan region. The present study was carried out to determine the impact of the habitat variability and altitudinal gradient on the morphological and reproductive features of the species under study. The species exhibited great variability in its morphological traits under different environmental conditions. The plants were more vigorous and taller at a low altitude site, Kashmir University Botanical Garden (KUBG while the plants of a high altitude site, Gulmarg were shorter. With increased altitude, a significant reduction in the number of umbels per flowering stem, umbellules per umbel and flowers per umbellule occurred. An increase in the number of stigma and anthers was also observed in some plants at higher altitudes. Principal component analysis (PCA revealed that the habitat of KUBG and Dachigam proved relatively better for the growth of F. jaeschkeana. Maximum resources were allocated to the growth and development of the stem followed by root tubers, leaves and inflorescence. Reproductive success of the plant species varied along the altitudinal gradient and ranged from 64% to 72%. Increasing altitude resulted in a decrease in the allocation of biomass to reproductive structures in the form of decreasing dry weight. The total resource budget per plant was maximum in low altitude Drang (572.6 ± 158.36 g and Dachigam (568.4 ± 133.42 g populations and was least in the Gulmarg population (333.4 ± 82.89 g. The reproductive effort was higher (50.83% for the high altitude Gulmarg population. The regression analysis revealed a positive correlation and predicts that plant height has a direct impact on the umbel diameter and leaf length. Our results present a detailed account on the variation of growth characteristics, reproductive success and changes in allocation patterns in relation to the environmental conditions of this valuable medicinal plant species

  11. The role of oxygen-increased respirator in humans ascending to high altitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Guanghao

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute mountain sickness (AMS is common for people who live in low altitude areas ascending to the high altitude. Many instruments have been developed to treat mild cases of AMS. However, long-lasting and portable anti-hypoxia equipment for individual is not yet available. Methods Oxygen-increased respirator (OIR has been designed to reduce the risk of acute mountain sickness in acute exposure to low air pressure. It can increase the density of oxygen by increasing total atmospheric pressure in a mask. Male subjects were screened, and eighty-eight were qualified to perform the experiments. The subjects were divided into 5 groups and were involved in some of the tests at 4 different altitudes (Group 1, 2: 3700 m; Group 3,4,5: 4000 m, 4700 m, 5380 m with and without OIR. These tests include heart rate, saturation of peripheral oxygen (SpO2, malondialdehyde (MDA, superoxide dismutase (SOD, blood lactate (BLA and PWC (physical work capacity -170. Results The results showed that higher SpO2, lower heart rate (except during exercise and better recovery of heart rate were observed from all the subjects ’with OIR’ compared with ’without OIR’ (P Conclusions We suggested that OIR may play a useful role in protecting people ascending to high altitude before acclimatization.

  12. Altitude profiles of total chlorinated paraffins in humus and spruce needles from the Alps (MONARPOP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iozza, Saverio, E-mail: saverio.iozza@empa.c [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research, Laboratory for Analytical Chemistry, Uberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); University of Basel, Department of Chemistry, St. Johanns-Ring 19, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Schmid, Peter, E-mail: peter.schmid@empa.c [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research, Laboratory for Analytical Chemistry, Uberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Oehme, Michael, E-mail: michael.oehme@unibas.c [University of Basel, Department of Chemistry, St. Johanns-Ring 19, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Bassan, Rodolfo [Regional Agency for Environmental Prevention and Protection of Veneto (Italy); Belis, Claudio [Regional Agency for Environmental Protection of Lombardia (Italy); Jakobi, Gert; Kirchner, Manfred; Schramm, Karl-Werner [GSF-National Research Centre for Environment and Health (Germany); Kraeuchi, Norbert [Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research (Switzerland); Moche, Wolfgang; Offenthaler, Ivo; Weiss, Peter [Federal Environment Agency Ltd. (Austria); Simoncic, Primoz [Slovenian Forestry Institute (Slovenia); Knoth, Wilhelm [Federal Environment Agency (Germany)

    2009-12-15

    Chlorinated paraffins (CPs) are toxic, bioaccumulative, persistent, and ubiquitously present in the environment. CPs were analyzed in humus and needle samples, which were taken within the Monitoring Network in the Alpine Region for Persistent and other Organic Pollutants (MONARPOP) at sampling sites of 7 different altitude profiles in the Alps. Gas chromatography combined with electron ionization tandem mass spectrometry (EI-MS/MS) was used for the determination of total CPs (sum of short, medium and long chain CPs). CPs were found in all samples; the concentrations varied between 7 and 199 ng g{sup -1} dry weight (dw) and within 26 and 460 ng g{sup -1} dw in humus and needle samples, respectively. A clear vertical tendency within the individual altitude profiles could not be ascertained. Within all altitude profiles, elevated concentrations were observed in humus samples taken between 700 and 900 m and between 1300 and 1500 m. In the needle samples no similar correlation could be observed due to higher variation of the data. - For the first time, CP levels of humus and spruce needle samples from the Alps (MONARPOP) were presented including the evaluation of altitude profiles.

  13. Altitude training causes haematological fluctuations with relevance for the Athlete Biological Passport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonne, Thomas Christian; Lundby, Carsten; Lundby, Anne Kristine; Sander, Mikael; Bejder, Jacob; Nordsborg, Nikolai Baastrup

    2015-08-01

    The impact of altitude training on haematological parameters and the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) was evaluated in international-level elite athletes. One group of swimmers lived high and trained high (LHTH, n = 10) for three to four weeks at 2130 m or higher whereas a control group (n = 10) completed a three-week training camp at sea-level. Haematological parameters were determined weekly three times before and four times after the training camps. ABP thresholds for haemoglobin concentration ([Hb]), reticulocyte percentage (RET%), OFF score and the abnormal blood profile score (ABPS) were calculated using the Bayesian model. After altitude training, six swimmers exceeded the 99% ABP thresholds: two swimmers exceeded the OFF score thresholds at day +7; one swimmer exceeded the OFF score threshold at day +28; one swimmer exceeded the threshold for RET% at day +14; and one swimmer surpassed the ABPS threshold at day +14. In the control group, no values exceeded the individual ABP reference range. In conclusion, LHTH induces haematological changes in Olympic-level elite athletes which can exceed the individually generated references in the ABP. Training at altitude should be considered a confounding factor for ABP interpretation for up to four weeks after altitude exposure but does not consistently cause abnormal values in the ABP. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. The paradox of extreme high-altitude migration in bar-headed geese Anser indicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, L. A.; Balachandran, S.; Batbayar, N.; Butler, P. J.; Chua, B.; Douglas, D. C.; Frappell, P. B.; Hou, Y.; Milsom, W. K.; Newman, S. H.; Prosser, D. J.; Sathiyaselvam, P.; Scott, G. R.; Takekawa, J. Y.; Natsagdorj, T.; Wikelski, M.; Witt, M. J.; Yan, B.; Bishop, C. M.

    2013-01-01

    Bar-headed geese are renowned for migratory flights at extremely high altitudes over the world's tallest mountains, the Himalayas, where partial pressure of oxygen is dramatically reduced while flight costs, in terms of rate of oxygen consumption, are greatly increased. Such a mismatch is paradoxical, and it is not clear why geese might fly higher than is absolutely necessary. In addition, direct empirical measurements of high-altitude flight are lacking. We test whether migrating bar-headed geese actually minimize flight altitude and make use of favourable winds to reduce flight costs. By tracking 91 geese, we show that these birds typically travel through the valleys of the Himalayas and not over the summits. We report maximum flight altitudes of 7290 m and 6540 m for southbound and northbound geese, respectively, but with 95 per cent of locations received from less than 5489 m. Geese travelled along a route that was 112 km longer than the great circle (shortest distance) route, with transit ground speeds suggesting that they rarely profited from tailwinds. Bar-headed geese from these eastern populations generally travel only as high as the terrain beneath them dictates and rarely in profitable winds. Nevertheless, their migration represents an enormous challenge in conditions where humans and other mammals are only able to operate at levels well below their sea-level maxima. PMID:23118436

  15. Short-term cardiorespiratory adaptation to high altitude in children compared with adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriemler, S; Radtke, T; Bürgi, F; Lambrecht, J; Zehnder, M; Brunner-La Rocca, H P

    2016-02-01

    As short-term cardiorespiratory adaptation to high altitude (HA) exposure has not yet been studied in children, we assessed acute mountain sickness (AMS), hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR) at rest and maximal exercise capacity (CPET) at low altitude (LA) and HA in pre-pubertal children and their fathers. Twenty father-child pairs (11 ± 1 years and 44 ± 4 years) were tested at LA (450 m) and HA (3450 m) at days 1, 2, and 3 after fast ascent (HA1/2/3). HVR was measured at rest and CPET was performed on a cycle ergometer. AMS severity was mild to moderate with no differences between generations. HVR was higher in children than adults at LA and increased at HA similarly in both groups. Peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) relative to body weight was similar in children and adults at LA and decreased significantly by 20% in both groups at HA; maximal heart rate did not change at HA in children while it decreased by 16% in adults (P < 0.001). Changes in HVR and VO2 peak from LA to HA were correlated among the biological child-father pairs. In conclusion, cardiorespiratory adaptation to altitude seems to be at least partly hereditary. Even though children and their fathers lose similar fractions of aerobic capacity going to high altitude, the mechanisms might be different. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Altitude control in honeybees: joint vision-based learning and guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portelli, Geoffrey; Serres, Julien R; Ruffier, Franck

    2017-08-23

    Studies on insects' visual guidance systems have shed little light on how learning contributes to insects' altitude control system. In this study, honeybees were trained to fly along a double-roofed tunnel after entering it near either the ceiling or the floor of the tunnel. The honeybees trained to hug the ceiling therefore encountered a sudden change in the tunnel configuration midways: i.e. a "dorsal ditch". Thus, the trained honeybees met a sudden increase in the distance to the ceiling, corresponding to a sudden strong change in the visual cues available in their dorsal field of view. Honeybees reacted by rising quickly and hugging the new, higher ceiling, keeping a similar forward speed, distance to the ceiling and dorsal optic flow to those observed during the training step; whereas bees trained to follow the floor kept on following the floor regardless of the change in the ceiling height. When trained honeybees entered the tunnel via the other entry (the lower or upper entry) to that used during the training step, they quickly changed their altitude and hugged the surface they had previously learned to follow. These findings clearly show that trained honeybees control their altitude based on visual cues memorized during training. The memorized visual cues generated by the surfaces followed form a complex optic flow pattern: trained honeybees may attempt to match the visual cues they perceive with this memorized optic flow pattern by controlling their altitude.

  17. Accuracy of Handheld Blood Glucose Meters at High Altitude

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Mol, Pieter; Krabbe, Hans G.; de Vries, Suzanna T.; Fokkert, Marion J.; Dikkeschei, Bert D.; Rienks, Rienk; Bilo, Karin M.; Bilo, Henk J. G.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Due to increasing numbers of people with diabetes taking part in extreme sports (e. g., high-altitude trekking), reliable handheld blood glucose meters (BGMs) are necessary. Accurate blood glucose measurement under extreme conditions is paramount for safe recreation at altitude. Prior

  18. Quadrant to Measure the Sun's Altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windsor, A Morgan, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The changing altitude of the Sun (either over the course of a day or longer periods) is a phenomenon that students do not normally appreciate. However, the altitude of the Sun affects many topics in disciplines as diverse as astronomy, meteorology, navigation, or horology, such as the basis for seasons, determination of latitude and longitude, or…

  19. Improving estimation of flight altitude in wildlife telemetry studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poessel, Sharon; Duerr, Adam E.; Hall, Jonathan C.; Braham, Melissa A.; Katzner, Todd

    2018-01-01

    Altitude measurements from wildlife tracking devices, combined with elevation data, are commonly used to estimate the flight altitude of volant animals. However, these data often include measurement error. Understanding this error may improve estimation of flight altitude and benefit applied ecology.There are a number of different approaches that have been used to address this measurement error. These include filtering based on GPS data, filtering based on behaviour of the study species, and use of state-space models to correct measurement error. The effectiveness of these approaches is highly variable.Recent studies have based inference of flight altitude on misunderstandings about avian natural history and technical or analytical tools. In this Commentary, we discuss these misunderstandings and suggest alternative strategies both to resolve some of these issues and to improve estimation of flight altitude. These strategies also can be applied to other measures derived from telemetry data.Synthesis and applications. Our Commentary is intended to clarify and improve upon some of the assumptions made when estimating flight altitude and, more broadly, when using GPS telemetry data. We also suggest best practices for identifying flight behaviour, addressing GPS error, and using flight altitudes to estimate collision risk with anthropogenic structures. Addressing the issues we describe would help improve estimates of flight altitude and advance understanding of the treatment of error in wildlife telemetry studies.

  20. Respiratory Muscle Training and Exercise Endurance at Altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfer, Samuel; Quackenbush, Joseph; Fletcher, Michael; Pendergast, David R

    2016-08-01

    Climbing and trekking at altitude are common recreational and military activities. Physiological effects of altitude are hypoxia and hyperventilation. The hyperventilatory response to altitude may cause respiratory muscle fatigue and reduce sustained submaximal exercise. Voluntary isocapnic hyperpnea respiratory muscle training (VIHT) improves exercise endurance at sea level and at depth. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that VIHT would improve exercise time at altitude [3600 m (11,811 ft)] compared to control and placebo groups. Subjects pedaled an ergometer until exhaustion at simulated altitude in a hypobaric chamber while noninvasive arterial saturation (Sao2), ventilation (VE), and oxygen consumption (Vo2) were measured. As expected, Sao2 decreased to 88 ± 4% saturation at rest and to 81 ± 2% during exercise, and was not affected by VIHT. VIHT resulted in a 40% increase in maximal training VE compared to pre-VIHT. Exercise endurance significantly increased 44% after VIHT (P = altitude post-VIHT increased more (49%) for longer (21 min) and decreased less (11% at 25.4 ± 6.7 min). VIHT improved exercise time at altitude and sustained VE. This suggests that VIHT reduced respiratory muscle fatigue and would be useful to trekkers and military personnel working at altitude. Helfer S, Quackenbush J, Fletcher M, Pendergast DR. Respiratory muscle training and exercise endurance at altitutde. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2016; 87(8):704-711.

  1. Effect of high altitude cosmic irradiation upon cell generation time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soleilhavoup, J.P.; Croute, F.; Tixador, R.; Blanquet, Y.; Planel, H.

    1975-01-01

    Paramecia cultures placed at 3800 meter altitude show a proliferating activity acceleration compared to control cultures placed at low altitude under the same environment conditions. These results confirm the cosmic irradiation influence upon the activating effect produced by the natural ionizing radiations on living organisms [fr

  2. Exercise and Training at Altitudes: Physiological Effects and Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Cecilia Vargas Pinilla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An increase in altitude leads to a proportional fall in the barometric pressure, and a decrease in atmospheric oxygen pressure, producing hypobaric hypoxia that affects, in different degrees, all body organs, systems and functions. The chronically reduced partial pressure of oxygen causes that individuals adapt and adjust to physiological stress. These adaptations are modulated by many factors, including the degree of hypoxia related to altitude, time of exposure, exercise intensity and individual conditions. It has been established that exposure to high altitude is an environmental stressor that elicits a response that contributes to many adjustments and adaptations that influence exercise capacity and endurance performance. These adaptations include in crease in hemoglobin concentration, ventilation, capillary density and tissue myoglobin concentration. However, a negative effect in strength and power is related to a decrease in muscle fiber size and body mass due to the decrease in the training intensity. Many researches aim at establishing how training or living at high altitudes affects performance in athletes. Training methods, such as living in high altitudes training low, and training high-living in low altitudes have been used to research the changes in the physical condition in athletes and how the physiological adaptations to hypoxia can enhanceperformance at sea level. This review analyzes the literature related to altitude training focused on how physiological adaptations to hypoxic environments influence performance, and which protocols are most frequently used to train in high altitudes.

  3. Cold induced peripheral vasodilation at high altitudes- a field study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, H.A.M.; Ruiten, H.J.A. van

    2000-01-01

    A significant reduction in cold-induced vasodilation (CIVD) is observed at high altitudes. No agreement is found in the literature about acclimatization effects on CIVD. Two studies were performed to investigate the effect of altitude acclimatization on CIVD. In the first study 13 male subjects

  4. Increase of cerebral blood flow at high altitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, N A

    1992-01-01

    but rather somewhat sharpened over five days at almost 4000 meters of altitude. This, along with other evidence, shows that CBF does not in itself adapt to chronic hypoxia. Nevertheless, a decrease in CBF is seen over days at constant altitude primarily due to increase in the hematocrit. The cerebral...

  5. Timing the arrival at 2340m altitude for aerobic performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schuler, B; Thomsen, JJ; Gassmann, M

    2007-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and performance increase upon altitude acclimatization at moderate altitude. Eight elite cyclists were studied at sea level, and after 1 (Day 1), 7 (Day 7), 14 (Day 14) and 21 (Day 21) days of exposure to 2340 m. Capillary blood...

  6. Air to muscle O2 delivery during exercise at altitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calbet, J.A.; Lundby, C.

    2009-01-01

    , diffusion limitation explains most of the additional Pao2-Pao2. With altitude, acclimatization exercise (Pao2-Pao2) is reduced, but does not reach the low values observed in high altitude natives, who possess an exceptionally high DLo2. Convective O2 transport depends on arterial O2 content (Cao2), cardiac...

  7. Higher Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kunle Amuwo: Higher Education Transformation: A Paradigm Shilt in South Africa? ... ty of such skills, especially at the middle management levels within the higher ... istics and virtues of differentiation and diversity. .... may be forced to close shop for lack of capacity to attract ..... necessarily lead to racial and gender equity,.

  8. Errors in Computing the Normalized Protein Catabolic Rate due to Use of Single-pool Urea Kinetic Modeling or to Omission of the Residual Kidney Urea Clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugirdas, John T

    2017-07-01

    The protein catabolic rate normalized to body size (PCRn) often is computed in dialysis units to obtain information about protein ingestion. However, errors can manifest when inappropriate modeling methods are used. We used a variable volume 2-pool urea kinetic model to examine the percent errors in PCRn due to use of a 1-pool urea kinetic model or after omission of residual urea clearance (Kru). When a single-pool model was used, 2 sources of errors were identified. The first, dependent on the ratio of dialyzer urea clearance to urea distribution volume (K/V), resulted in a 7% inflation of the PCRn when K/V was in the range of 6 mL/min per L. A second, larger error appeared when Kt/V values were below 1.0 and was related to underestimation of urea distribution volume (due to overestimation of effective clearance) by the single-pool model. A previously reported prediction equation for PCRn was valid, but data suggest that it should be modified using 2-pool eKt/V and V coefficients instead of single-pool values. A third source of error, this one unrelated to use of a single-pool model, namely omission of Kru, was shown to result in an underestimation of PCRn, such that each ml/minute Kru per 35 L of V caused a 5.6% underestimate in PCRn. Marked overestimation of PCRn can result due to inappropriate use of a single-pool urea kinetic model, particularly when Kt/V <1.0 (as in short daily dialysis), or after omission of residual native kidney clearance. Copyright © 2017 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. AltitudeOmics: Resetting of cerebrovascular CO2 reactivity following acclimatization to high altitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Lin eFan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies reported enhanced cerebrovascular CO2 reactivity upon ascent to high altitude using linear models. However, there is evidence that this response may be sigmoidal in nature. Moreover, it was speculated that these changes at high altitude are mediated by alterations in acid-base buffering. Accordingly, we reanalyzed previously published data to assess middle cerebral blood flow velocity (MCAv responses to modified rebreathing at sea level (SL, upon ascent (ALT1 and following 16 days of acclimatization (ALT16 to 5,260 m in 21 lowlanders. Using sigmoid curve fitting of the MCAv responses to CO2, we found the amplitude (95% vs. 129%, SL vs. ALT1, 95% confidence intervals (CI [77, 112], [111, 145], respectively, P=0.024 and the slope of the sigmoid response (4.5 vs. 7.5 %/mmHg, SL vs. ALT1, 95% CIs [3.1, 5.9], [6.0, 9.0], respectively, P=0.026 to be enhanced at ALT1, which persisted with acclimatization at ALT16 (amplitude: 177%, 95% CI [139, 215], P<0.001; slope: 10.3 %/mmHg, 95% CI [8.2, 12.5], P=0.003 compared to SL. Meanwhile, the sigmoidal response midpoint was unchanged at ALT1 (SL: 36.5 mmHg; ALT1: 35.4 mmHg, 95% CIs [34.0, 39.0], [33.1, 37.7], respectively, P=0.982, while it was reduced by ~7 mmHg at ALT16 (28.6 mmHg, 95% CI [26.4, 30.8], P=0.001 vs. SL, indicating leftward shift of the cerebrovascular CO2 response to a lower arterial partial pressure of CO2 (PaCO2 following acclimatization to altitude. Sigmoid fitting revealed a leftward shift in the midpoint of the cerebrovascular response curve which could not be observed with linear fitting. These findings demonstrate that there is resetting of the cerebrovascular CO2 reactivity operating point to a lower PaCO2 following acclimatization to high altitude. This cerebrovascular resetting is likely the result of an altered acid-base buffer status resulting from prolonged exposure to the severe hypocapnia associated with ventilatory acclimatization to high altitude.

  10. Low-Altitude Operation of Unmanned Rotorcraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Sebastian

    Currently deployed unmanned rotorcraft rely on preplanned missions or teleoperation and do not actively incorporate information about obstacles, landing sites, wind, position uncertainty, and other aerial vehicles during online motion planning. Prior work has successfully addressed some tasks such as obstacle avoidance at slow speeds, or landing at known to be good locations. However, to enable autonomous missions in cluttered environments, the vehicle has to react quickly to previously unknown obstacles, respond to changing environmental conditions, and find unknown landing sites. We consider the problem of enabling autonomous operation at low-altitude with contributions to four problems. First we address the problem of fast obstacle avoidance for a small aerial vehicle and present results from over a 1000 rims at speeds up to 10 m/s. Fast response is achieved through a reactive algorithm whose response is learned based on observing a pilot. Second, we show an algorithm to update the obstacle cost expansion for path planning quickly and demonstrate it on a micro aerial vehicle, and an autonomous helicopter avoiding obstacles. Next, we examine the mission of finding a place to land near a ground goal. Good landing sites need to be detected and found and the final touch down goal is unknown. To detect the landing sites we convey a model based algorithm for landing sites that incorporates many helicopter relevant constraints such as landing sites, approach, abort, and ground paths in 3D range data. The landing site evaluation algorithm uses a patch-based coarse evaluation for slope and roughness, and a fine evaluation that fits a 3D model of the helicopter and landing gear to calculate a goodness measure. The data are evaluated in real-time to enable the helicopter to decide on a place to land. We show results from urban, vegetated, and desert environments, and demonstrate the first autonomous helicopter that selects its own landing sites. We present a generalized

  11. Effect of altitude on biochemical composition and quality of green arabica coffee beans can be affected by shade and postharvest processing method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worku, Mohammed; de Meulenaer, Bruno; Duchateau, Luc; Boeckx, Pascal

    2018-03-01

    Although various studies have assessed altitude, shade and postharvest processing effects on biochemical content and quality of coffee beans, data on their interactions are scarce. The individual and interactive effects of these factors on the caffeine, chlorogenic acids (CGA) and sucrose contents as well as physical and sensory qualities of green coffee beans from large plantations in southwestern Ethiopia were evaluated. Caffeine and CGA contents decreased with increasing altitude; they respectively declined 0.12 and 1.23gkg -1 100m -1 . Sucrose content increased with altitude; however, the altitude effect was significant for wet-processed beans (3.02gkg -1 100m -1 ), but not for dry-processed beans (0.36g kg -1 100m -1 ). Similarly, sucrose content increased with altitude with much stronger effect for coffee grown without shade (2.11gkg -1 100m -1 ) compared to coffee grown under shade (0.93gkg -1 100m -1 ). Acidity increased with altitude when coffee was grown under shade (0.22 points 100m -1 ), but no significant altitude effect was observed on coffee grown without shade. Beans grown without shade showed a higher physical quality score for dry (37.2) than for wet processing (29.1). These results generally underline the complex interaction effects between altitude and shade or postharvest processing on biochemical composition and quality of green arabica coffee beans. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Ajouts, omissions, substitutions : la main fautive des copistes dans le texte de L’Éducation sentimentale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Déborah Boltz

    2009-01-01

    que l’on ne dispose pas des épreuves corrigées du roman. À côté des transformations de dernière minute voulues par Flaubert, cette copie contient de nombreuses erreurs dues à la négligence des scribes : des altérations du texte qui ont échappé à l’œil de l’écrivain et qui ont été reproduites dans les deux éditions de L’Éducation sentimentale publiées de son vivant (en 1869 et 1879. À partir d’exemples précis, on cherchera à montrer comment ces erreurs de tous ordres (ajouts, omissions, substitutions, déplacements… ont pu, sur de nombreux points, modifier la lecture du texte de L’Éducation sentimentale. Quelles répercussions ces modifications « non auctoriales » ont-elles sur le sens ou sur l’interprétation du roman? Quels sont les réseaux de sens non voulus par l’auteur qui se sont trouvés induits abusivement par ces « fautes de lecture » ? À l’inverse, quelles sont les logiques significatives, construites par l’écrivain, dont ces lapsus calami nous privent ?“Finished! Old friend! Yes, this book of mine is finished … I have been at my table since yesterday, eight o’clock in the morning. My head’s about to burst. No matter, it's a real weight off my shoulders.” This is the famous note where Flaubert announces to Jules Duplan the completion of his novel that has taken him almost five years to write. But in fact, on May 16, 1869, Flaubert has not quite finished with his “bouquin”, as provesthe intense work of rereading and corrections that he will accomplish during the following months. After having spent a week “adjusting” his manuscript (from May 16th to the 24th, he hands it over to be copied. It is this carefully handwritten fair copy of the manuscript which the printer will use for his proofs. It is this same copy that Flaubert will send to a few close friends, in particular Maxime Du Camp who will write twelve pages of comments… Finally, it is also with this copy that Flaubert

  13. Efeito da omissão de macronutrientes e boro no crescimento, nos sintomas de deficiências nutricionais e na composição mineral de plantas de camucamuzeiro Effect of omission of macronutrient and boron on growth, on symptoms of nutritional deficiency and mineral composition in camucamuzeiro plants (Myrciaria dubia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael de Jesus Matos Viégas

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da omissão de macronutrientes e do micronutriente boro no crescimento, nos sintomas de deficiências nutricionais e na composição mineral em plantas de camucamuzeiro, conduziu-se experimento em casa de vegetação, mediante a técnica do elemento faltante. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições e oito tratamentos, sendo completo (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S e micronutrientes e omissão individual de N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S e B. Os sintomas visuais de deficiências foram, de modo geral, de fácil caracterização para todos os nutrientes. Com exceção do fósforo, as omissões dos demais nutrientes afetaram a produção de matéria seca, quando comparados ao tratamento completo. Com base nos teores em g kg-1, dos macronutrientes, e em mg kg-1, do micronutriente boro nas folhas, infere-se em uma primeira aproximação dos valores adequados (completo, ou seja: 16,9 a 18,2 de N ; 1,2 a 1,9 de P; 5,2 a 6,0 de K; 9,9 a 11,7 de Ca; 1,4 a 3,6 de Mg; 2,4 a 2,8 de S ; 8,4 a 9,5 de B e do deficiente (omissão , 6,5 a 7,9 de N ; =0,9 de P; =1,7 de K ; 5,4 a 6,5 de Ca; =0,7 de Mg; 0,7 a 1,2 de S e 1,1 a 1,9 de BThe effects of omission of macronutrient and boron on growth, on symptoms of nutritional deficiency and mineral composition of plants of "camucamuzeiro" were evaluated. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, by means of the missing element technique. The experimental design was completely randomized, with eight treatments and four repetitions, including complete (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S and micronutrients and individual omission of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S and B. The visual symptoms of deficiency were easily characterized for all the nutrients. Excepting for P, dry mass was affected by the omission of all the other nutrients, when compared with the complete treatment. Based on the macronutrient (g kg-1 and on the micronutrient boron (mg kg-1 on leaves contents, a first approach of the

  14. Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    & Development (LDRD) National Security Education Center (NSEC) Office of Science Programs Richard P Databases National Security Education Center (NSEC) Center for Nonlinear Studies Engineering Institute Scholarships STEM Education Programs Teachers (K-12) Students (K-12) Higher Education Regional Education

  15. Trekking at high altitudes. How safe is it for your patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, C S

    1990-07-01

    Even healthy persons may experience some form of altitude illness when they hike or ski in high mountains. Therefore, it is imperative that those with compromised cardiac or pulmonary function take extra precautions by allowing time for ascent, by recognizing and accepting their limitations, and by descending promptly at the first sign of trouble. Certain medications, such as anticoagulants and strong tranquilizers, are probably best discontinued at higher elevations. In all caes, preventive and treatment measures should be available.

  16. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ALTITUDES AND THE CONTENTS OF PROTEIN, CARBOHYDRATES, LIPIDS OF PUMPKIN (Cucurbita moschata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suranto Tjiptowibisono

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Cucurbita moschata or pumpkin can be used as an alternative food mainly due to its carbohydrate content, and it is very easy to grow in many different habitats. The objective of this research was to evaluate the biochemical contents of C. moschata based on the altitudes and also to examine whether any relationship between the environmental conditions and protein, carbohydrate and lipid contents. Proximate analysis was used for statistical consideration of the results obtained. Chemical analysis was conducted by using mesocarp of pumpkin after cleaning, peeling and removing seeds from the center of fruits. Kjedahl and soxhlet methods were used to look at the content of protein and lipid respectively. Meanwhile, the method of difference was employed to measure the percentage of carbohydrates. Although there was no significant relationship between the biochemical contents and the environmental conditions, it was recorded that plants grown at higher altitudes with high soil pH and air temperature tended to have higher protein, carbohydrate and lipid contents, compared to that of higher soil moisture. This results showed that the highest biochemical contents of protein, carbohydrate and lipid of two varieties C. moschata were evident at the lowest altitude.

  17. Population Trends of Central European Montane Birds Provide Evidence for Adverse Impacts of Climate Change on High-Altitude Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Flousek

    Full Text Available Climate change is among the most important global threats to biodiversity and mountain areas are supposed to be under especially high pressure. Although recent modelling studies suggest considerable future range contractions of montane species accompanied with increased extinction risk, data allowing to test actual population consequences of the observed climate changes and identifying traits associated to their adverse impacts are very scarce. To fill this knowledge gap, we estimated long-term population trends of montane birds from 1984 to 2011 in a central European mountain range, the Giant Mountains (Krkonoše, where significant warming occurred over this period. We then related the population trends to several species' traits related to the climate change effects. We found that the species breeding in various habitats at higher altitudes had more negative trends than species breeding at lower altitudes. We also found that the species moved upwards as a response to warming climate, and these altitudinal range shifts were associated with more positive population trends at lower altitudes than at higher altitudes. Moreover, long-distance migrants declined more than residents or species migrating for shorter distances. Taken together, these results indicate that the climate change, besides other possible environmental changes, already influences populations of montane birds with particularly adverse impacts on high-altitude species such as water pipit (Anthus spinoletta. It is evident that the alpine species, predicted to undergo serious climatically induced range contractions due to warming climate in the future, already started moving along this trajectory.

  18. Characteristics of high altitude oxygen ion energization and outflow as observed by Cluster: a statistical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, H.; Waara, M.; Arvelius, S.; Yamauchi, M.; Lundin, R. [Inst. of Space Physics, Kiruna (Sweden); Marghitu, O. [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Extraterrestriche Physik, Garching (Germany); Inst. for Space Sciences, Bucharest (Romania); Bouhram, M. [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Extraterrestriche Physik, Garching (Germany); CETP-CNRS, Saint-Maur (France); Hobara, Y. [Inst. of Space Physics, Kiruna (Sweden); Univ. of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Reme, H.; Sauvaud, J.A.; Dandouras, I. [Centre d' Etude Spatiale des Rayonnements, Toulouse (France); Balogh, A. [Imperial Coll. of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Kistler, L.M. [Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham (United States); Klecker, B. [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Extraterrestriche Physik, Garching (Germany); Carlson, C.W. [Space Science Lab., Univ. of California, Berkeley (United States); Bavassano-Cattaneo, M.B. [Ist. di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario, Roma (Italy); Korth, A. [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Sonnensystemforschung, Katlenburg-Lindau (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    The results of a statistical study of oxygen ion outflow using cluster data obtained at high altitude above the polar cap is reported. Moment data for both hydrogen ions (H{sup +}) and oxygen ions (O{sup +}) from 3 years (2001-2003) of spring orbits (January to May) have been used. The altitudes covered were mainly in the range 5-12 R{sub E} geocentric distance. It was found that O{sup +} is significantly transversely energized at high altitudes, indicated both by high perpendicular temperatures for low magnetic field values as well as by a tendency towards higher perpendicular than parallel temperature distributions for the highest observed temperatures. The O{sup +} parallel bulk velocity increases with altitude in particular for the lowest observed altitude intervals. O{sup +} parallel bulk velocities in excess of 60 km s{sup -1} were found mainly at higher altitudes corresponding to magnetic field strengths of less than 100 nT. For the highest observed parallel bulk velocities of O{sup +} the thermal velocity exceeds the bulk velocity, indicating that the beam-like character of the distribution is lost. The parallel bulk velocity of the H{sup +} and O{sup +} was found to typically be close to the same throughout the observation interval when the H{sup +} bulk velocity was calculated for all pitch-angles. When the H{sup +} bulk velocity was calculated for upward moving particles only the H{sup +} parallel bulk velocity was typically higher than that of O{sup +}. The parallel bulk velocity is close to the same for a wide range of relative abundance of the two ion species, including when the O{sup +} ions dominates. The thermal velocity of O{sup +} was always well below that of H{sup +}. Thus perpendicular energization that is more effective for O{sup +} takes place, but this is not enough to explain the close to similar parallel velocities. Further parallel acceleration must occur. The results presented constrain the models of perpendicular heating and parallel

  19. Characteristics of high altitude oxygen ion energization and outflow as observed by Cluster: a statistical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Nilsson

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The results of a statistical study of oxygen ion outflow using Cluster data obtained at high altitude above the polar cap is reported. Moment data for both hydrogen ions (H+ and oxygen ions (O+ from 3 years (2001-2003 of spring orbits (January to May have been used. The altitudes covered were mainly in the range 5–12 RE geocentric distance. It was found that O+ is significantly transversely energized at high altitudes, indicated both by high perpendicular temperatures for low magnetic field values as well as by a tendency towards higher perpendicular than parallel temperature distributions for the highest observed temperatures. The O+ parallel bulk velocity increases with altitude in particular for the lowest observed altitude intervals. O+ parallel bulk velocities in excess of 60 km s-1 were found mainly at higher altitudes corresponding to magnetic field strengths of less than 100 nT. For the highest observed parallel bulk velocities of O+ the thermal velocity exceeds the bulk velocity, indicating that the beam-like character of the distribution is lost. The parallel bulk velocity of the H+ and O+ was found to typically be close to the same throughout the observation interval when the H+ bulk velocity was calculated for all pitch-angles. When the H+ bulk velocity was calculated for upward moving particles only the H+ parallel bulk velocity was typically higher than that of O+. The parallel bulk velocity is close to the same for a wide range of relative abundance of the two ion species, including when the O+ ions dominates. The thermal velocity of O+ was always well below that of H+. Thus perpendicular energization that is more effective for O+ takes place, but this is not enough to explain the close to similar parallel velocities. Further

  20. Characteristics of high altitude oxygen ion energization and outflow as observed by Cluster: a statistical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Nilsson

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The results of a statistical study of oxygen ion outflow using Cluster data obtained at high altitude above the polar cap is reported. Moment data for both hydrogen ions (H+ and oxygen ions (O+ from 3 years (2001-2003 of spring orbits (January to May have been used. The altitudes covered were mainly in the range 5–12 RE geocentric distance. It was found that O+ is significantly transversely energized at high altitudes, indicated both by high perpendicular temperatures for low magnetic field values as well as by a tendency towards higher perpendicular than parallel temperature distributions for the highest observed temperatures. The O+ parallel bulk velocity increases with altitude in particular for the lowest observed altitude intervals. O+ parallel bulk velocities in excess of 60 km s-1 were found mainly at higher altitudes corresponding to magnetic field strengths of less than 100 nT. For the highest observed parallel bulk velocities of O+ the thermal velocity exceeds the bulk velocity, indicating that the beam-like character of the distribution is lost. The parallel bulk velocity of the H+ and O+ was found to typically be close to the same throughout the observation interval when the H+ bulk velocity was calculated for all pitch-angles. When the H+ bulk velocity was calculated for upward moving particles only the H+ parallel bulk velocity was typically higher than that of O+. The parallel bulk velocity is close to the same for a wide range of relative abundance of the two ion species, including when the O+ ions dominates. The thermal velocity of O+ was always well below that of H+. Thus perpendicular energization that is more effective for O+ takes place, but this is not enough to explain the close to similar parallel velocities. Further parallel acceleration must occur. The results presented constrain the models of perpendicular heating and parallel acceleration. In particular centrifugal acceleration of the outflowing ions, which may

  1. The influence of altitude and landforms on some biochemical and hematological parameters in Ouled Djellal ewes from arid area of South East Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titaouine, Mohammed; Meziane, Toufik

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted on Ouled Djellal ewes in arid area of south-east Algeria in order to reveal the influence of altitude and landforms on some hematological and biochemical parameters. A total of 160 ewes having 3-5 years of age, multiparous, non-pregnant, non-lactating and reared in arid areas of South East Algeria were included. Blood samples were divided according to factors of altitude and landform (plain region at 150 m above sea level, tableland region at 600 m above sea level and mountain region at 1000 m above sea level). The whole blood was analyzed for hematology, and plasma samples for biochemical analysis. The study found lowest glucose concentrations were detected in tableland region at 600 m. In plain region at 150 m, ewes had a higher (pewes at 1000 m and tableland ewes at 600 m were higher (pewes at 150 m. The highest calcium concentration was found at the altitude of 150 m and the lowest at the altitude of 1000 m (1.12±0.35 mmol/L vs. 0.52±0.03 mmol/L). Phosphorus levels were higher at altitudes of 150 m than at the altitude of 600 m and 1000 m (0.93±0.42 mmol/L vs. 0.68±0.54 mmol/L, 0.23±0.01 mmol/L). The highest hemoglobin concentration and value of hematocrit were detected in mountain ewes at the altitude of 1000 m (120.61 g/L, 40%) and the lowest at the altitude of 150 m (73.2 g/L, 31%) (pewes reared in arid area may be affected by altitude and landforms.

  2. DLR HABLEG- High Altitude Balloon Launched Experimental Glider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wlach, S.; Schwarzbauch, M.; Laiacker, M.

    2015-09-01

    The group Flying Robots at the DLR Institute of Robotics and Mechatronics in Oberpfaffenhofen conducts research on solar powered high altitude aircrafts. Due to the high altitude and the almost infinite mission duration, these platforms are also denoted as High Altitude Pseudo-Satellites (HAPS). This paper highlights some aspects of the design, building, integration and testing of a flying experimental platform for high altitudes. This unmanned aircraft, with a wingspan of 3 m and a mass of less than 10 kg, is meant to be launched as a glider from a high altitude balloon in 20 km altitude and shall investigate technologies for future large HAPS platforms. The aerodynamic requirements for high altitude flight included the development of a launch method allowing for a safe transition to horizontal flight from free-fall with low control authority. Due to the harsh environmental conditions in the stratosphere, the integration of electronic components in the airframe is a major effort. For regulatory reasons a reliable and situation dependent flight termination system had to be implemented. In May 2015 a flight campaign was conducted. The mission was a full success demonstrating that stratospheric research flights are feasible with rather small aircrafts.

  3. Omissão de nutrientes em plantas de pinhão-manso cultivadas em solução nutritiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janini Tatiane Lima Souza Maia

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available O pinhão-manso (Jatropha curcas L., pertecente à família Euphorbiaceae, é uma planta oleaginosa que tem recebido expressiva atenção para produção de biocombustível. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da deficiência de macro e micronutrientes no crescimento e estado nutricional de pinhão-manso, cultivado em solução nutritiva. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com treze tratamentos e três repetições. Os tratamentos constituíram-se de solução completa e omissão individual de cada um dos seguintes nutrientes: N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, B, Cu, Mn, Mo, Zn ou Fe. A ordem decrescente de restrição da produção de massa de matéria seca foi N>Mg>S>K>Ca=P>Zn>B=Fe. As omissões de N e de P foram as que mais afetaram os teores dos macronutrientes da parte aérea das plantas e os sintomas de deficiências observados foram clorose, redução do crescimento e folhas deformadas.

  4. Characterization of the Key Aroma Compounds in Chinese Vidal Icewine by Gas Chromatography-Olfactometry, Quantitative Measurements, Aroma Recombination, and Omission Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yue; Tang, Ke; Xu, Yan; Li, Ji-Ming

    2017-01-18

    The key aroma compounds of Chinese Vidal icewine were characterized by means of gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) on polar and nonpolar columns, and their flavor dilution (FD) factors were determined by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). A total of 59 odor-active aroma compounds in three ranks of Vidal icewines were identified, and 28 odorants (FD ≥ 9) were further quantitated for aroma reconstitution and omission tests. β-Damascenone showed the highest FD value of 2187 in all icewines. Methional and furaneol were first observed as important odorants in Vidal icewine. Aroma recombination experiments revealed a good similarity containing the 28 important aromas. Omission tests corroborated the significant contribution of β-damascenone and the entire group of esters. Besides, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (furaneol) and 3-(methylthio)-1-propanal (methional) also had significant effects on icewine character, especially on apricot, caramel, and tropical fruit characteristics.

  5. Application of altitude/hypoxic training by elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilber, Randall L

    2007-09-01

    At the Olympic level, differences in performance are typically less than 0.5%. This helps explain why many contemporary elite endurance athletes in summer and winter sport incorporate some form of altitude/hypoxic training within their year-round training plan, believing that it will provide the "competitive edge" to succeed at the Olympic level. The purpose of this paper is to describe the practical application of altitude/hypoxic training as used by elite athletes. Within the general framework of the paper, both anecdotal and scientific evidence will be presented relative to the efficacy of several contemporary altitude/hypoxic training models and devices currently used by Olympic-level athletes for the purpose of legally enhancing performance. These include the three primary altitude/hypoxic training models: 1) live high+train high (LH+TH), 2) live high+train low (LH+TL), and 3) live low+train high (LL+TH). The LH+TL model will be examined in detail and will include its various modifications: natural/terrestrial altitude, simulated altitude via nitrogen dilution or oxygen filtration, and hypobaric normoxia via supplemental oxygen. A somewhat opposite approach to LH+TL is the altitude/hypoxic training strategy of LL+TH, and data regarding its efficacy will be presented. Recently, several of these altitude/hypoxic training strategies and devices underwent critical review by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) for the purpose of potentially banning them as illegal performance-enhancing substances/methods. This paper will conclude with an update on the most recent statement from WADA regarding the use of simulated altitude devices.

  6. Altitude Training in Elite Swimmers for Sea Level Performance (Altitude Project).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Ferran A; Iglesias, Xavier; Feriche, Belén; Calderón-Soto, Carmen; Chaverri, Diego; Wachsmuth, Nadine B; Schmidt, Walter; Levine, Benjamin D

    2015-09-01

    This controlled, nonrandomized, parallel-groups trial investigated the effects on performance, V˙O2 and hemoglobin mass (tHbmass) of four preparatory in-season training interventions: living and training at moderate altitude for 3 and 4 wk (Hi-Hi3, Hi-Hi), living high and training high and low (Hi-HiLo, 4 wk), and living and training at sea level (SL) (Lo-Lo, 4 wk). From 61 elite swimmers, 54 met all inclusion criteria and completed time trials over 50- and 400-m crawl (TT50, TT400), and 100 (sprinters) or 200 m (nonsprinters) at best stroke (TT100/TT200). Maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2max) and HR were measured with an incremental 4 × 200 m test. Training load was estimated using cumulative training impulse method and session RPE. Initial measures (PRE) were repeated immediately (POST) and once weekly on return to SL (PostW1 to PostW4). tHbmass was measured in duplicate at PRE and once weekly during the camp with CO rebreathing. Effects were analyzed using mixed linear modeling. TT100 or TT200 was worse or unchanged immediately at POST, but improved by approximately 3.5% regardless of living or training at SL or altitude after at least 1 wk of SL recovery. Hi-HiLo achieved greater improvement 2 (5.3%) and 4 wk (6.3%) after the camp. Hi-HiLo also improved more in TT400 and TT50 2 (4.2% and 5.2%, respectively) and 4 wk (4.7% and 5.5%) from return. This performance improvement was not linked linearly to changes in V˙O2max or tHbmass. A well-implemented 3- or 4-wk training camp may impair performance immediately but clearly improves performance even in elite swimmers after a period of SL recovery. Hi-HiLo for 4 wk improves performance in swimming above and beyond altitude and SL controls through complex mechanisms involving altitude living and SL training effects.

  7. Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, Robert M.

    This chapter reports 1982 cases involving aspects of higher education. Interesting cases noted dealt with the federal government's authority to regulate state employees' retirement and raised the questions of whether Title IX covers employment, whether financial aid makes a college a program under Title IX, and whether sex segregated mortality…

  8. Altitude training considerations for the winter sport athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Robert F; Stickford, Jonathon L; Levine, Benjamin D

    2010-03-01

    Winter sports events routinely take place at low to moderate altitudes, and nearly all Winter Olympic Games have had at least one venue at an altitude >1000 m. The acute and chronic effects of altitude can have a substantial effect on performance outcomes. Acutely, the decline in oxygen delivery to working muscle decreases maximal oxygen uptake, negatively affecting performance in endurance events, such as cross-country skiing and biathlon. The reduction in air resistance at altitude can dramatically affect sports involving high velocities and technical skill components, such as ski jumping, speed skating, figure skating and ice hockey. Dissociation between velocity and sensations usually associated with work intensity (ventilation, metabolic signals in skeletal muscle and heart rate) may impair pacing strategy and make it difficult to determine optimal race pace. For competitions taking place at altitude, a number of strategies may be useful, depending on the altitude of residence of the athlete and ultimate competition altitude, as follows. First, allow extra time and practice (how much is yet undetermined) for athletes to adjust to the changes in projectile motion; hockey, shooting, figure skating and ski jumping may be particularly affected. These considerations apply equally in the reverse direction; that is, for athletes practising at altitude but competing at sea level. Second, allow time for acclimatization for endurance sports: 3-5 days if possible, especially for low altitude (500-2000 m); 1-2 weeks for moderate altitude (2000-3000 m); and at least 2 weeks if possible for high altitude (>3000 m). Third, increase exercise-recovery ratios as much as possible, with 1:3 ratio probably optimal, and consider more frequent substitutions for sports where this is allowed, such as ice hockey. Fourth, consider the use of supplemental O(2) on the sideline (ice hockey) or in between heats (skating and Alpine skiing) to facilitate recovery. For competitions at sea

  9. Oxidative stress and the high altitude environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Krzeszowiak

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years there has been considerable interest in mountain sports, including mountaineering, owing to the general availability of climbing clothing and equipment as well trainings and professional literature. This raised a new question for the environmental and mountain medicine: Is mountaineering harmful to health? Potential hazards include the conditions existing in the alpine environment, i.e. lower atmospheric pressure leading to the development of hypobaric hypoxia, extreme physical effort, increased UV radiation, lack of access to fresh food, and mental stress. A reasonable measure of harmfulness of these factors is to determine the increase in the level of oxidative stress. Alpine environment can stimulate the antioxidant enzyme system but under specific circumstances it may exceed its capabilities with simultaneous consumption of low-molecular antioxidants resulting in increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS. This situation is referred to as oxidative stress. Rapid and uncontrolled proliferation of reactive oxygen species leads to a number of adverse changes, resulting in the above-average damage to the lipid structures of cell membranes (peroxidation, proteins (denaturation, and nucleic acids. Such situation within the human body cannot take place without resultant systemic consequences. This explains the malaise of people returning from high altitude and a marked decrease in their physical fitness. In addition, a theory is put forward that the increase in the level of oxidative stress is one of the factors responsible for the onset of acute mountain sickness (AMS. However, such statement requires further investigation because the currently available literature is inconclusive. This article presents the causes and effects of development of oxidative stress in the high mountains.

  10. In vitro fermentation characteristics and effective utilisable crude protein in leaves and green pods of Moringa stenopetala and Moringa oleifera cultivated at low and mid-altitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melesse, A; Steingass, H; Boguhn, J; Rodehutscord, M

    2013-06-01

    This study was conducted to assess the in vitro nutrient digestibility and utilisation of leaves and green pods of two Moringa species in supplementing the feed of ruminant animals during the dry season. Samples were analysed for proximate nutrients using official methods. The metabolisable energy (ME), organic matter digestibility (OMD) and effective utilisable crude protein (uCP) were estimated using the Hohenheim in vitro gas test method. Gas volume in Moringa stenopetala leaves and green pods was generally higher than those of Moringa oleifera. Gas volume for leaves was similar between low and mid-altitudes but was higher for green pods at mid-altitude. M. stenopetala leaves contained significantly higher ME (9.8 MJ/kg DM) and OMD (75%) than those of M. oleifera. Similarly, M. stenopetala green pods had higher ME and OMD values than those of M. oleifera. For green pods, the ME and OMD values were significantly higher at mid-altitude than those at low altitude although these values for leaves were similar between both altitudes. Moringa oleifera leaves had higher effective uCP than those of M. stenopetala. Nevertheless, the effective uCP was higher for green pods of M. stenopetala than those of M. oleifera. The effective uCP for leaves cultivated at mid-altitude was slightly higher than those at low altitude. This study suggested that leaves and green pods could be used as alternative energy and protein supplements for tropical ruminants, particularly during dry periods. It was further concluded that leaves were generally better in nutrient compositions and in vitro nutrient digestibility characteristics than green pods. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Fog Chemistry at Different Altitudes in the Swiss Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michna, P.; Eugster, W.; Wanner, H.

    2010-07-01

    During two extended summer seasons in 2006 and 2007, we installed two battery driven versions of the Caltech active strand cloud water collector (MiniCASCC) at the Niesen mountain in the northern Swiss Alps. Along, we measured air temperature, relative humidity, wind, and visibility. During these two field operation phases we gained weekly samples of fogwater, where we analysed the major anions and cations, and the stable water isotopes δD and δ18O. The fog collectors were installed at an altitude of 2300 and 1600 m asl to resolve altitudinal differences in fog chemistry. We found a large variability between the events, but no clear altitudinal gradient. At both sites, the most important ions were nitrate, ammonium, and sulphate. Higher concentrations occured preferably in late spring (start of sampling period) and in autumn (end of sampling). Compared to previous studies at lower elevations in the Swiss Plateau during wintertime, our measurements showed considerable lower ion loads in the fogwater. The combination of these results suggest that lowest ion loads are found in convective clouds with a short lifetime and that the highest ion loads occur during radiation fog events at lower elevations.

  12. Densities inferred from ESA's Venus Express aerobraking campaign at 130 km altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruinsma, Sean; Marty, Jean-Charles; Svedhem, Håkan; Williams, Adam; Mueller-Wodarg, Ingo

    2015-04-01

    In June-July 2014, ESA performed a planned aerobraking campaign with Venus Express to measure neutral densities above 130 km in Venus' atmosphere by means of the engineering accelerometers. To that purpose, the orbit perigee was lowered to approximately 130 km in order to enhance the atmospheric drag effect to the highest tolerable levels for the spacecraft; the accelerometer resolution and precision were not sufficient at higher altitudes. This campaign was requested as part of the Venus Express Atmospheric Drag Experiment (VExADE). A total of 18 orbits (i.e. days) were processed using the attitude quaternions to correctly orient the spacecraft bus and solar arrays in inertial space, which is necessary to accurately compute the exposed surface in the ram direction. The accelerometer data provide good measurements approximately from 130-140 km altitude; the length of the profiles is about 85 seconds, and they are on the early morning side (LST=4.5) at high northern latitude (70°N-82°N). The densities are a factor 2-3 larger than Hedin's VTS-3 thermosphere model, which is consistent with earlier results obtained via classical precise orbit determination at higher altitudes. Wavelike structures with amplitudes of 20% and more are detected, with wavelengths of about 100-500 km. We cannot entirely rule out that these waves are caused by the spacecraft or due to some unknown instrumental effect, but we estimate this probability to be very low.

  13. Hemoglobin and hematocrit values of Saudi newborns in the high altitude of Abha, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassuni, W.; Asindi, A.A.; Mustafa, F.S.; Hassan, B.; Din, Z.S.; Kumar, R.K.

    1996-01-01

    A study was designed to determine the red cell values (hemoglobin and hematocrit) of neonates born in the high altitude of Abha and to compare these values with known values of other lowland areas of Saudi Arabia. From the cord blood of 587 normal, appropriate for gestational age and term infants born in 1993 in Abha Maternity Hospital, the ranges of Hb and Hct were 130 to 240 g/L and 0.24 to 0.79 L/L respectively. The mean Hb was 187 g/L. There was no significant difference between the male and female values. Also, 17% of the infants in this study were polycythemic, while no polycythemia was recorded in these lowland areas and only 2% to 4% in the general global newborn population. It was therefore revealed that Abha newborns had higher red cell values at the birth when compared to other newborns in the low altitude areas of Riyadh and Jeddah (P<0.001). We postulate that high altitude (2700 meters above sea level) of Abha, and therefore its relative hypoxia, has induced high red cell values in infants born in the city. The phenomenon therefore warrants the adoption of higher red cell reference values and not necessarily those already documented in other Saudi new born populations. (author)

  14. Radiation level measured by a portable Geiger-Mueller counter at the altitude of commercial air routes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, Takashi

    1995-01-01

    The background intensities of naturally occurring radiation were measured aboard scheduled commercial airplanes using a newly developed Geiger-Mueller counter with a pocket computer. The preliminary results show that the radiation at the cruising altitude of a commercial airplane on a transcontinental flight is 40 times higher than the ground-level. (author)

  15. Altitude training causes haematological fluctuations with relevance for the Athlete Biological Passport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonne, Thomas Christian; Lundby, Carsten; Lundby, Anne Kristine

    2015-01-01

    The impact of altitude training on haematological parameters and the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) was evaluated in international-level elite athletes. One group of swimmers lived high and trained high (LHTH, n = 10) for three to four weeks at 2130 m or higher whereas a control group (n = 10......) completed a three-week training camp at sea-level. Haematological parameters were determined weekly three times before and four times after the training camps. ABP thresholds for haemoglobin concentration ([Hb]), reticulocyte percentage (RET%), OFF score and the abnormal blood profile score (ABPS) were...... calculated using the Bayesian model. After altitude training, six swimmers exceeded the 99% ABP thresholds: two swimmers exceeded the OFF score thresholds at day +7; one swimmer exceeded the OFF score threshold at day +28; one swimmer exceeded the threshold for RET% at day +14; and one swimmer surpassed...

  16. System for indicating fuel-efficient aircraft altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary, B. L. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for indicating the altitude at which an aircraft should fly so the W/d ratio (weight of the aircraft divided by the density of air) more closely approaches the optimum W/d for the aircraft. A passive microwave radiometer on the aircraft is directed at different angles with respect to the horizon to determine the air temperature, and therefore the density of the air, at different altitudes. The weight of the aircraft is known. The altitude of the aircraft is changed to fly the aircraft at an altitude at which is W/d ratio more closely approaches the optimum W/d ratio for that aircraft.

  17. The radiation protection problems of high altitude and space flight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper considers the radiation environment in aircraft at high altitudes and spacecraft in low earth orbit and in deep space and the factors that influence the dose equivalents. Altitude, latitude and solar cycle are the major influences for flights below the radiation belts. In deep space, solar cycle and the occurrence of solar particle events are the factors of influence. The major radiation effects of concern are cancer and infertility in males. In high altitude aircraft the radiation consists mainly of protons and neutrons, with neutrons contributing about half the equivalent dose. The average dose rate at altitudes of transcontinental flights that approach the polar regions are greater by a factor of about 2.5 than on routes at low latitudes. Current estimates of does to air crews suggest they are well within the ICRP (1990) recommended dose limits for radiation workers

  18. Sequencing of 50 human exomes reveals adaptation to high altitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yi, Xin; Liang, Yu; Huerta-Sanchez, Emilia

    2010-01-01

    Residents of the Tibetan Plateau show heritable adaptations to extreme altitude. We sequenced 50 exomes of ethnic Tibetans, encompassing coding sequences of 92% of human genes, with an average coverage of 18x per individual. Genes showing population-specific allele frequency changes, which repres...... in genetic adaptation to high altitude.......Residents of the Tibetan Plateau show heritable adaptations to extreme altitude. We sequenced 50 exomes of ethnic Tibetans, encompassing coding sequences of 92% of human genes, with an average coverage of 18x per individual. Genes showing population-specific allele frequency changes, which...... represent strong candidates for altitude adaptation, were identified. The strongest signal of natural selection came from endothelial Per-Arnt-Sim (PAS) domain protein 1 (EPAS1), a transcription factor involved in response to hypoxia. One single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at EPAS1 shows a 78% frequency...

  19. Ben Macdhui High Altitude Trace Gas and Aerosol Transport Experiment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Piketh, SJ

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The Ben Macdhui High Altitude Aerosol and Trace Gas Transport Experiment (BHATTEX) was started to characterize the nature and magnitude of atmospheric, aerosol and trace gas transport paths recirculation over and exiting from southern Africa...

  20. A comparison of the incidence and understanding of altitude illness between porters and trekkers in the Solu Khumbu Region of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, Lauren; Sherpa, Chhewang; Nickol, Annabel; Windsor, Jeremy

    2011-09-01

    Altitude illness can occur in anyone who ascends to high altitude. Better understanding of altitude illness is associated with a lower incidence of acute mountain sickness (AMS). The purpose of this study is to compare, for the first time, the incidence and understanding of altitude illness between foreign trekkers and indigenous porters in Nepal. Interviews and questionnaires were completed at the International Porter Protection Group Rescue Post at Machermo (4470 m). Participants completed the Lake Louise acute mountain sickness self-assessment questionnaire. They were also asked about their actions in response to high altitude illness scenarios as well as their perception of the vulnerability of porters vs trekkers to altitude illness. Ascent profile, age, gender, ethnic origin, and altitude of home residence were also obtained. Trekkers (n=131) had a significantly higher incidence of AMS (21% vs 8%) than porters (n=92; P porters (whose home villages were below 3050 m, n=61) had a numerically higher, though not significantly different, incidence of AMS (10% vs 3%) compared to highland porters (n=31). The majority of trekkers and porters recognized the symptoms of altitude illness and the most appropriate action to be taken. Despite the lower incidence of AMS in porters, around half felt that they were at greater risk than trekkers. Porters had a lower incidence of AMS, which may be attributable to repeated ascents through the trekking season, or differences in reporting symptoms. Both trekkers and porters demonstrated appropriate knowledge of actions to be taken in response to altitude illness. Copyright © 2011 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Changes in balance and joint position sense during a 12-day high altitude trek: The British Services Dhaulagiri medical research expedition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah B Clarke

    Full Text Available Postural control and joint position sense are essential for safely undertaking leisure and professional activities, particularly at high altitude. We tested whether exposure to a 12-day trek with a gradual ascent to high altitude impairs postural control and joint position sense. This was a repeated measures observational study of 12 military service personnel (28±4 years. Postural control (sway velocity measured by a portable force platform during standing balance, a Sharpened Romberg Test and knee joint position sense were measured, in England (113m elevation and at 3 research camps (3619m, 4600m and 5140m on a 12-day high altitude trek in the Dhaulagiri region of Nepal. Pulse oximetry, and Lake Louise scores were also recorded on the morning and evening of each trek day. Data were compared between altitudes and relationships between pulse oximetry, Lake Louise score, and sway velocity were explored. Total sway velocity during standing balance with eyes open (p = 0.003, d = 1.9 and during Sharpened Romberg test with eyes open (p = 0.007, d = 1.6 was significantly greater at altitudes of 3619m and 5140m when compared with sea level. Anterior-posterior sway velocity during standing balance with eyes open was also significantly greater at altitudes of 3619m and 5140m when compared with sea level (p = 0.001, d = 1.9. Knee joint position sense was not altered at higher altitudes. There were no significant correlations between Lake Louise scores, pulse oximetry and postural sway. Despite a gradual ascent profile, exposure to 3619 m was associated with impairments in postural control without impairment in knee joint position sense. Importantly, these impairments did not worsen at higher altitudes of 4600 m or 5140 m. The present findings should be considered during future trekking expeditions when developing training strategies targeted to manage impairments in postural control that occur with increasing altitude.

  2. Changes in balance and joint position sense during a 12-day high altitude trek: The British Services Dhaulagiri medical research expedition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Sarah B; Deighton, Kevin; Newman, Caroline; Nicholson, Gareth; Gallagher, Liam; Boos, Christopher J; Mellor, Adrian; Woods, David R; O'Hara, John P

    2018-01-01

    Postural control and joint position sense are essential for safely undertaking leisure and professional activities, particularly at high altitude. We tested whether exposure to a 12-day trek with a gradual ascent to high altitude impairs postural control and joint position sense. This was a repeated measures observational study of 12 military service personnel (28±4 years). Postural control (sway velocity measured by a portable force platform) during standing balance, a Sharpened Romberg Test and knee joint position sense were measured, in England (113m elevation) and at 3 research camps (3619m, 4600m and 5140m) on a 12-day high altitude trek in the Dhaulagiri region of Nepal. Pulse oximetry, and Lake Louise scores were also recorded on the morning and evening of each trek day. Data were compared between altitudes and relationships between pulse oximetry, Lake Louise score, and sway velocity were explored. Total sway velocity during standing balance with eyes open (p = 0.003, d = 1.9) and during Sharpened Romberg test with eyes open (p = 0.007, d = 1.6) was significantly greater at altitudes of 3619m and 5140m when compared with sea level. Anterior-posterior sway velocity during standing balance with eyes open was also significantly greater at altitudes of 3619m and 5140m when compared with sea level (p = 0.001, d = 1.9). Knee joint position sense was not altered at higher altitudes. There were no significant correlations between Lake Louise scores, pulse oximetry and postural sway. Despite a gradual ascent profile, exposure to 3619 m was associated with impairments in postural control without impairment in knee joint position sense. Importantly, these impairments did not worsen at higher altitudes of 4600 m or 5140 m. The present findings should be considered during future trekking expeditions when developing training strategies targeted to manage impairments in postural control that occur with increasing altitude.

  3. Performance, combustion timing and emissions from a light duty vehicle at different altitudes fueled with animal fat biodiesel, GTL and diesel fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Ángel; García-Contreras, Reyes; Armas, Octavio

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Effects of altitude, alternative fuels and driving conditions on emissions have been studied. • Combustion timing was studied by means of on-line thermodynamic diagnosis. • Altitude particularly increases the combustion duration of paraffinic fuels. • Altitude increases NOx emissions more than ten times compared to the sea level. • Effect of fuels on particulate matter is masked when diesel particle filters work efficiently. - Abstract: The altitude effect on performance, emissions and thermodynamic diagnosis under real world driving conditions has been evaluated using two alternative fuels and a diesel fuel. Three places, at different altitudes, were selected for the tests, from 0 to 2500 m above the sea level. Besides, two type of circuits (Urban and Extra-urban) have been selected in order to evaluate these two driving pattern conditions. A light duty diesel vehicle equipped with the same after-treatment system as Euro 5 engines was used as test vehicle. Thermodynamic diagnosis shows that, when the engine works with two pre-injection events (mainly at high altitude and without EGR) the ignition delay agrees of the cetane number of fuels. At urban conditions, altitude increases the combustion duration of all fuels and particularly with paraffinic fuels. The effect of altitude on THC and CO emissions is not noticeable, but at high altitude, NOx emissions during extra-urban tests were around three times higher than those from testing along the urban circuit. Besides, compared to circuits next to the sea level, these emissions at both circuits (urban and extra-urban) were around ten times higher, respectively, than the limits established by the Euro standards. The effect of fuels on pollutant emissions was masked by the variability associated to real driving conditions.

  4. Altitude training for elite endurance performance: a 2012 update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fudge, Barry W; Pringle, Jamie S M; Maxwell, Neil S; Turner, Gareth; Ingham, Stephen A; Jones, Andrew M

    2012-01-01

    Altitude training is commonly used by endurance athletes and coaches in pursuit of enhancement of performance on return to sea level. The purpose of the current review article was to update and evaluate recent literature relevant to the practical application of altitude training for endurance athletes. Consequently, the literature can be considered in either of two categories: performance-led investigations or mechanistic advancements/insights. Each section discusses the relevant literature and proposes future directions where appropriate.

  5. A dictionary of altitudes in the United States (second edition)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannett, Henry

    1891-01-01

    I have the honor to transmit herewith the manuscript of a second edition of a Dictionary of Altitudes, the first edition having been published in 1884. The present work is considerably enlarged, mainly by the addition of determinations of altitudes by railroads. Besides the additions of matter, the principal change from the earlier edition consists in the substitution of a single alphabetic arrangement throughout the work for an alphabetic arrangement by States.

  6. Enhancing team-sport athlete performance: is altitude training relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billaut, François; Gore, Christopher J; Aughey, Robert J

    2012-09-01

    Field-based team sport matches are composed of short, high-intensity efforts, interspersed with intervals of rest or submaximal exercise, repeated over a period of 60-120 minutes. Matches may also be played at moderate altitude where the lower oxygen partial pressure exerts a detrimental effect on performance. To enhance run-based performance, team-sport athletes use varied training strategies focusing on different aspects of team-sport physiology, including aerobic, sprint, repeated-sprint and resistance training. Interestingly, 'altitude' training (i.e. living and/or training in O(2)-reduced environments) has only been empirically employed by athletes and coaches to improve the basic characteristics of speed and endurance necessary to excel in team sports. Hypoxia, as an additional stimulus to training, is typically used by endurance athletes to enhance performance at sea level and to prepare for competition at altitude. Several approaches have evolved in the last few decades, which are known to enhance aerobic power and, thus, endurance performance. Altitude training can also promote an increased anaerobic fitness, and may enhance sprint capacity. Therefore, altitude training may confer potentially-beneficial adaptations to team-sport athletes, which have been overlooked in contemporary sport physiology research. Here, we review the current knowledge on the established benefits of altitude training on physiological systems relevant to team-sport performance, and conclude that current evidence supports implementation of altitude training modalities to enhance match physical performances at both sea level and altitude. We hope that this will guide the practice of many athletes and stimulate future research to better refine training programmes.

  7. Functions and Design Scheme of Tibet High Altitude Test Base

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Yongqing; Guo Jian; Yin Yu; Mao Yan; Li Guangfan; Fan Jianbin; Lu Jiayu; Su Zhiyi; Li Peng; Li Qingfeng; Liao Weiming; Zhou Jun

    2010-01-01

    @@ The functional orientation of the Tibet High Altitude Test Base, subordinated to the State Grid Corporation of China (SGCC), is to serve power transmission projects in high altitude areas, especially to provide technical support for southwestern hydropower delivery projects by UHVDC transmission and Qinghai-Tibet grid interconnection project. This paper presents the matters concerned during siting and planning, functions,design scheme, the main performances and parameters of the test facilities, as well as the tests and research tasks already carried out.

  8. Collision risks at sea: species composition and altitude distributions of birds in Danish offshore wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blew, J.; Hoffmann, M.; Nehls, G. [BioConsult SH (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    This study investigates the collision risks of birds in operating offshore wind farms, focussing on all bird species present in the direct vicinity of the wind farms, their altitude distribution and reactions. The project was conducted jointly by BioConsult SH and the University of Hamburg in the two Danish offshore wind farms Horns Rev (North Sea) and Nysted (Baltic Sea) in the framework of a Danish-German cooperation and financed by the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU). Data were collected between March 2005 and November 2006, using a ship anchored at the edge of the offshore wind farms. In this way, bird species of all sizes could be considered. Daytime observations yielded data on species composition, flight routes and potential reactions of the birds. Radar observations provided altitude distributions inside and outside the wind farm area and also reactions. The results shall help to further describe and assess the collision risk of different species groups. Since data analysis is still running, exemplary results will be presented here. 114 species have been recorded in Nysted and 99 in Horns Rev, approximately 65% of which have been observed inside the wind farm areas. Migrating birds seem to avoid flying into the wind farms, whereas individuals present in the areas for extended time periods utilize areas within the wind farms. While a barrier effect exists for species on migration, resident species probably have a higher collision risk. Raptors migrating during daylight frequently enter the wind farm area on their flight routes, correcting their flight paths in order to avoid collisions. Radar results show that during times of intensive migration, the proportion of birds flying at high altitudes and thus above windmill height is higher than in times of low migration intensity. Consequently, there is a lower proportion of migrating birds flying within the risk area. Data will be further analysed to

  9. The Study of a Super Low Altitude Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Atsushi; Homma, Masanori; Utashima, Masayoshi

    This paper reports the result of a study for super low altitude satellite. The altitude of this satellite's orbit is lower than ever. The altitude of a conventional earth observing satellite is generally around from 600km to 900km. The lowest altitude of earth observing satellite launched in Japan was 350km; the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). By comparison, the satellite reported in this paper is much lower than that and it is planned to orbit below 200km. Furthermore, the duration of the flight planned is more than two years. Any satellite in the world has not achieved to keep such a low altitude that long term. The satellite in such a low orbit drops quickly because of the strong air drag. Our satellite will cancel the air drag effect by ion engine thrust. To realize this idea, a drag-free system will be applied. This usually leads a complicated and expensive satellite system. We, however, succeeded in finding a robust control law for a simple system even under the unpredictable change of air drag. When the altitude of the satellite is lowered successfully, the spatial resolution of an optical sensor can be highly improved. If a SAR is equipped with the satellite, it enables the drastic reduction of electric power consumption and the fabulous spatial resolution improvement at the same time.

  10. Shilajit: A panacea for high-altitude problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meena, Harsahay; Pandey, H K; Arya, M C; Ahmed, Zakwan

    2010-01-01

    High altitude problems like hypoxia, acute mountain sickness, high altitude cerebral edema, pulmonary edema, insomnia, tiredness, lethargy, lack of appetite, body pain, dementia, and depression may occur when a person or a soldier residing in a lower altitude ascends to high-altitude areas. These problems arise due to low atmospheric pressure, severe cold, high intensity of solar radiation, high wind velocity, and very high fluctuation of day and night temperatures in these regions. These problems may escalate rapidly and may sometimes become life-threatening. Shilajit is a herbomineral drug which is pale-brown to blackish-brown, is composed of a gummy exudate that oozes from the rocks of the Himalayas in the summer months. It contains humus, organic plant materials, and fulvic acid as the main carrier molecules. It actively takes part in the transportation of nutrients into deep tissues and helps to overcome tiredness, lethargy, and chronic fatigue. Shilajit improves the ability to handle high altitudinal stresses and stimulates the immune system. Thus, Shilajit can be given as a supplement to people ascending to high-altitude areas so that it can act as a "health rejuvenator" and help to overcome high-altitude related problems.

  11. Evaluation of Intensive Care Unit Ventilators at Altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeman, Thomas; Rodriquez, Dario; Petro, Michael; Branson, Richard

    Devices may forgo US military air worthiness and safety testing in an attempt to expedite the availability of critical assets such as mechanical ventilators with a waiver for one-time use in extenuating circumstances. We evaluated two Intensive Care Unit (ICU) level ventilators: Drager Evita XL and Puritan Bennett (PB) 840 in an altitude chamber at sea level and altitudes of 8,000 and 16,000 feet. Altitude affected delivered tidal volumes (VTs) in volume control mode (VCV) and Pressure Regulated Volume Controlled (PRVC) mode at altitude with the Evita XL but the differences were not considered clinically important with the PB 840. Sixty-seven percent of the V T s were outside the ASTM standard of ± 10% of set V T with the Evita XL at altitude. The PB 840 did not deliver V T s that were larger than the ASTM standard up to an altitude of 16,000 feet while the majority of the delivered V T s with the Därger XL were greater than the ASTM standard. This could present a patient safety issue. Caregivers must be aware of the capabilities and limitations of ICU ventilators when utilized in a hypobaric environment in order to provide safe care. Copyright © 2017 Air Medical Journal Associates. All rights reserved.

  12. Can people with Raynaud's phenomenon travel to high altitude?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luks, Andrew M; Grissom, Colin K; Jean, Dominique; Swenson, Erik R

    2009-01-01

    To determine whether high altitude travel adversely affects mountain enthusiasts with Raynaud's phenomenon. Volunteers with Raynaud's phenomenon were recruited using announcements disseminated by organizations dedicated to climbing or wilderness travel and Internet discussion boards dedicated to mountain activities to complete an online, anonymous survey. Survey questions addressed demographic variables, aspects of their Raynaud's phenomenon, and features of their mountain activities. Respondents compared experiences with Raynaud's phenomenon between high (>2440 m; 8000 feet) and low elevations and rated agreement with statements concerning their disease and the effects of high altitude. One hundred forty-two people, 98% of whom had primary Raynaud's phenomenon, completed the questionnaire. Respondents spent 5 to 7 days per month at elevations above 2440 m and engaged in 5.4 +/- 2.0 different activities. Eighty-nine percent of respondents engaged in winter sports and only 22% reported changing their mountain activities because of Raynaud's phenomenon. Respondents reported a variety of tactics to prevent and treat Raynaud's attacks, but only 12% used prophylactic medications. Fifteen percent of respondents reported an episode of frostbite following a Raynaud's phenomenon attack at high altitude. There was considerable heterogeneity in participants' perceptions of the frequency, duration, and severity of attacks at high altitude compared to their home elevation. Motivated individuals with primary Raynaud's phenomenon, employing various prevention and treatment strategies, can engage in different activities, including winter sports, at altitudes above 2440 m. Frostbite may be common in this population at high altitude, and care must be taken to prevent its occurrence.

  13. Caracterización energética y emisiones de una estufa de cocción ecoeficiente con biomasa a diferentes altitudes//Energy and emissions characterization of an eco‐efficient biomass cook stove at different altitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan F. Pérez-Bayer

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Cerca de 2500 millones de personas dependen de la leña como su principal combustible para calefacción y cocción.En este trabajo se estudia el efecto de la altitud (678 y 1976 metros sobre el nivel del mar, msnm en el desempeño energético y las emisiones de una estufa de cocción eco-eficiente con biomasa.Los experimentos se llevaron a cabo bajo las pruebas de ebullición de agua y cocción controlada. El rendimiento disminuyó 24% al aumentar la altitud en la prueba de ebullición, y el consumo específico de combustible aumentó 27,3% debido a los cambios en la densidad del aire. En la prueba de cocción controlada, el consumo específico de combustible y las emisiones específicas aumentaron 15,3% y 16%, respectivamente. La altitud afectó significativamente el desempeño de la estufa tipo "Plancha", por lo que es necesario el rediseño de las estufas de acuerdo a su ubicación geográfica con el fin de optimizar el proceso de cocción.Palabras claves: estufa de cocción eco-eficiente, biomasa, combustión, altitud, energía y emisiones, pruebas de desempeño WBT–CCT.______________________________________________________________________________AbstractAround 2.5 billion people depend on wood as their main fuel for heating and cooking.In this work is studied the effect of altitude (678 and 1976 meters above sea level on energy performance and emissions of an improved wood stove under standardized cooking tests. The experiments were carried out under the Water Boiling (WBTand Controlled Cooking (CCT Tests. The efficiency decreased about 24% with increasing altitude in WBT, and specific fuel consumption increased 27.3% due to the air density changes. Regarding the controlled cooking test, the specific fuel consumption and specific emissions increased by 15.3% and 16 %, respectively. It is highlighted that altitude significantly affects the “Plancha” wood stove behavior. Specific emissions increased at higher altitudes, so it is

  14. Glucose intolerance associated with hypoxia in people living at high altitudes in the Tibetan highland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumiya, Kiyohito; Sakamoto, Ryota; Ishimoto, Yasuko; Kimura, Yumi; Fukutomi, Eriko; Ishikawa, Motonao; Suwa, Kuniaki; Imai, Hissei; Chen, Wenling; Kato, Emiko; Nakatsuka, Masahiro; Kasahara, Yoriko; Fujisawa, Michiko; Wada, Taizo; Wang, Hongxin; Dai, Qingxiang; Xu, Huining; Qiao, Haisheng; Ge, Ri-Li; Norboo, Tsering; Tsering, Norboo; Kosaka, Yasuyuki; Nose, Mitsuhiro; Yamaguchi, Takayoshi; Tsukihara, Toshihiro; Ando, Kazuo; Inamura, Tetsuya; Takeda, Shinya; Ishine, Masayuki; Otsuka, Kuniaki; Matsubayashi, Kozo

    2016-02-23

    To clarify the association between glucose intolerance and high altitudes (2900-4800 m) in a hypoxic environment in Tibetan highlanders and to verify the hypothesis that high altitude dwelling increases vulnerability to diabetes mellitus (DM) accelerated by lifestyle change or ageing. Cross-sectional epidemiological study on Tibetan highlanders. We enrolled 1258 participants aged 40-87 years. The rural population comprised farmers in Domkhar (altitude 2900-3800 m) and nomads in Haiyan (3000-3100 m), Ryuho (4400 m) and Changthang (4300-4800 m). Urban area participants were from Leh (3300 m) and Jiegu (3700 m). Participants were classified into six glucose tolerance-based groups: DM, intermediate hyperglycaemia (IHG), normoglycaemia (NG), fasting DM, fasting IHG and fasting NG. Prevalence of glucose intolerance was compared in farmers, nomads and urban dwellers. Effects of dwelling at high altitude or hypoxia on glucose intolerance were analysed with the confounding factors of age, sex, obesity, lipids, haemoglobin, hypertension and lifestyle, using multiple logistic regression. The prevalence of DM (fasting DM)/IHG (fasting IHG) was 8.9% (6.5%)/25.1% (12.7%), respectively, in all participants. This prevalence was higher in urban dwellers (9.5% (7.1%)/28.5% (11.7%)) and in farmers (8.5% (6.1%)/28.5% (18.3%)) compared with nomads (8.2% (5.7%)/15.7% (9.7%)) (p=0.0140/0.0001). Dwelling at high altitude was significantly associated with fasting IHG+fasting DM/fasting DM (ORs for >4500 and 3500-4499 m were 3.59/4.36 and 2.07/1.76 vs intolerance. Socioeconomic factors, hypoxaemia and the effects of altitudes >3500 m play a major role in the high prevalence of glucose intolerance in highlanders. Tibetan highlanders may be vulnerable to glucose intolerance, with polycythaemia as a sign of poor hypoxic adaptation, accelerated by lifestyle change and ageing. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please

  15. Kajian Teknologi High Altitude Platform (HAP [Study of High Altitude Platform (HAP Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amry Daulat Gultom

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available High Altitude Platform (HAP merupakan solusi alternatif untuk mengatasi keterbatasan infrastruktur terestrial maupun satelit. HAP merupakan pesawat ataupun balon udara yang ditempatkan pada ketinggian 20-50 km di atas permukaan bumi. Kelebihan yang utama dari HAP adalah kemudahan dalam penempatan, fleksibilitas, biaya operasionalnya rendah, delay  propagasi rendah, sudut elevasi lebar, cakupan yang luas. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui potensi HAP untuk komunikasi pita lebar dan perkembangannya di Indonesia. Analisis dilakukan secara deskriptif dengan mengolah data literatur yang didapat. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa di Indonesia terdapat potensi teknologi HAP untuk komunikasi pita lebar dengan lebar pita 2x300 MHz di band 27,9-28,2 GHz dan 31-31,3 GHz. Namun, belum ada peraturan yang mengatur alokasi frekuensi untuk HAP secara khusus di Indonesia.*****High Altitude Platform (HAP has been developed as an alternative solution in order to overcome limitation of terrestrial and satellite communication system. HAP is an aircraft or balloon situated on 20-50 km above the earth. Main advantages of HAP are flexibility in deployment, low propagation delay, wide elevation angle and broad coverage. The research is conducted to gather HAP potential for broadband communication and its development in Indonesia. Analysis is conducted by descriptive analysis from literature study gather. The research result shows that in Indonesia, there is potential of HAP technology for broadband communication with 2x300 MHz bandwidth within 27,9-28,2 GHz and 31-31,3 GHz. Yet, there are no specific regulations managing frequency allocation for HAP in Indonesia.

  16. Fit for high altitude: are hypoxic challenge tests useful?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthys Heinrich

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Altitude travel results in acute variations of barometric pressure, which induce different degrees of hypoxia, changing the gas contents in body tissues and cavities. Non ventilated air containing cavities may induce barotraumas of the lung (pneumothorax, sinuses and middle ear, with pain, vertigo and hearing loss. Commercial air planes keep their cabin pressure at an equivalent altitude of about 2,500 m. This leads to an increased respiratory drive which may also result in symptoms of emotional hyperventilation. In patients with preexisting respiratory pathology due to lung, cardiovascular, pleural, thoracic neuromuscular or obesity-related diseases (i.e. obstructive sleep apnea an additional hypoxic stress may induce respiratory pump and/or heart failure. Clinical pre-altitude assessment must be disease-specific and it includes spirometry, pulsoximetry, ECG, pulmonary and systemic hypertension assessment. In patients with abnormal values we need, in addition, measurements of hemoglobin, pH, base excess, PaO2, and PaCO2 to evaluate whether O2- and CO2-transport is sufficient. Instead of the hypoxia altitude simulation test (HAST, which is not without danger for patients with respiratory insufficiency, we prefer primarily a hyperoxic challenge. The supplementation of normobaric O2 gives us information on the acute reversibility of the arterial hypoxemia and the reduction of ventilation and pulmonary hypertension, as well as about the efficiency of the additional O2-flow needed during altitude exposure. For difficult judgements the performance of the test in a hypobaric chamber with and without supplemental O2-breathing remains the gold standard. The increasing numbers of drugs to treat acute pulmonary hypertension due to altitude exposure (acetazolamide, dexamethasone, nifedipine, sildenafil or to other etiologies (anticoagulants, prostanoids, phosphodiesterase-5-inhibitors, endothelin receptor antagonists including mechanical aids to

  17. Fit for high altitude: are hypoxic challenge tests useful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthys, Heinrich

    2011-02-28

    Altitude travel results in acute variations of barometric pressure, which induce different degrees of hypoxia, changing the gas contents in body tissues and cavities. Non ventilated air containing cavities may induce barotraumas of the lung (pneumothorax), sinuses and middle ear, with pain, vertigo and hearing loss. Commercial air planes keep their cabin pressure at an equivalent altitude of about 2,500 m. This leads to an increased respiratory drive which may also result in symptoms of emotional hyperventilation. In patients with preexisting respiratory pathology due to lung, cardiovascular, pleural, thoracic neuromuscular or obesity-related diseases (i.e. obstructive sleep apnea) an additional hypoxic stress may induce respiratory pump and/or heart failure. Clinical pre-altitude assessment must be disease-specific and it includes spirometry, pulsoximetry, ECG, pulmonary and systemic hypertension assessment. In patients with abnormal values we need, in addition, measurements of hemoglobin, pH, base excess, PaO2, and PaCO2 to evaluate whether O2- and CO2-transport is sufficient.Instead of the hypoxia altitude simulation test (HAST), which is not without danger for patients with respiratory insufficiency, we prefer primarily a hyperoxic challenge. The supplementation of normobaric O2 gives us information on the acute reversibility of the arterial hypoxemia and the reduction of ventilation and pulmonary hypertension, as well as about the efficiency of the additional O2-flow needed during altitude exposure. For difficult judgements the performance of the test in a hypobaric chamber with and without supplemental O2-breathing remains the gold standard. The increasing numbers of drugs to treat acute pulmonary hypertension due to altitude exposure (acetazolamide, dexamethasone, nifedipine, sildenafil) or to other etiologies (anticoagulants, prostanoids, phosphodiesterase-5-inhibitors, endothelin receptor antagonists) including mechanical aids to reduce periodical or

  18. A randomly-controlled study on the cardiac function at the early stage of return to the plains after short-term exposure to high altitude.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiquan Zhou

    Full Text Available High altitude acclimatization and adaptation mechanisms have been well clarified, however, high altitude de-adaptation mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we conducted a controlled study on cardiac functions in 96 healthy young male who rapidly entered the high altitude (3700 m and returned to the plains (1500 m after 50 days. Ninety eight healthy male who remained at low altitude were recruited as control group. The mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF, left ventricular fraction shortening (LVFS, cardiac function index (Tei index were tested. Levels of serum creatine kinase isoform MB (CK-MB, lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme-1 (LDH-1, endothelin-1 (ET-1, nitrogen oxide (NO, serum hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α, 8-iso-prostaglandin F(2α (8-iso PGF(2α, superoxide dismutase (SOD and malonaldehyde (MDA were measured at an altitude of 3700 m and 1500 m respectively. The results showed that after short-term exposure to high altitude mPAP and Tei index increased significantly, while LVEF and LVFS decreased significantly. These changes were positively correlated with altitude. On the 15(th day after the subjects returned to low altitude, mPAP, LVEF and LVFS levels returned to the same level as those of the control subjects, but the Tei index in the returned subjects was still significantly higher than that in the control subjects (P<0.01. We also found that changes in Tei index was positively correlated with mPAP, ET-1, HIF-1α and 8-iso PGF(2α levels, and negatively correlated with the level of NO, LVEF, LVFS, CK-MB and LDH-1. These findings suggest that cardiac function de-adapts when returning to the plains after short-term exposure to high altitude and the function recovery takes a relatively long time.

  19. Hydrological processes in glacierized high-altitude basins of the western Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeelani, Ghulam; Shah, Rouf A.; Fryar, Alan E.; Deshpande, Rajendrakumar D.; Mukherjee, Abhijit; Perrin, Jerome

    2018-03-01

    Western Himalaya is a strategically important region, where the water resources are shared by China, India and Pakistan. The economy of the region is largely dependent on the water resources delivered by snow and glacier melt. The presented study used stable isotopes of water to further understand the basin-scale hydro-meteorological, hydrological and recharge processes in three high-altitude mountainous basins of the western Himalayas. The study provided new insights in understanding the dominant factors affecting the isotopic composition of the precipitation, snowpack, glacier melt, streams and springs. It was observed that elevation-dependent post-depositional processes and snowpack evolution resulted in the higher isotopic altitude gradient in snowpacks. The similar temporal trends of isotopic signals in rivers and karst springs reflect the rapid flow transfer due to karstification of the carbonate aquifers. The attenuation of the extreme isotopic input signal in karst springs appears to be due to the mixing of source waters with the underground karst reservoirs. Basin-wise, the input-output response demonstrates the vital role of winter precipitation in maintaining the perennial flow in streams and karst springs in the region. Isotopic data were also used to estimate the mean recharge altitude of the springs.

  20. On the altitude dependence of transversely heated O+ distributions in the cusp/cleft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kistler

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The present paper focuses on the altitude dependence of oxygen ion conics in the dayside cusp/cleft region. Here, combining oxygen data from the Akebono, Interball-2 and Cluster satellites allows, for the first time, one to follow the global development of energetic (up to ~10keV ion outflow over a continuous and broad altitude range up to about 5.5 Earth radii (RE. According to earlier statistical studies, the results are consistent with a height-integrated energization of ions at altitudes up to 3.5 RE. Higher up, the results inferred from Cluster observations put forward evidence of a saturation of both a transverse energization rate and ion gyroradii. We suggest that such results may be interpreted as finite perpendicular wavelength effects (a few tens of km in the wave-particle interactions. To substantiate the suggestion, we carry out two-dimensional, Monte Carlo simulations of ion conic production that incorporate such effects and limited residence times due to the finite latitudinal extent of the heating region.Key words. Magnetospheric physics (auroral phenomena – Space plasma physics (charged particle motion and acceleration; wave-particle interactions

  1. Altitude profiles of total chlorinated paraffins in humus and spruce needles from the Alps (MONARPOP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iozza, Saverio; Schmid, Peter; Oehme, Michael; Bassan, Rodolfo; Belis, Claudio; Jakobi, Gert; Kirchner, Manfred; Schramm, Karl-Werner; Kräuchi, Norbert; Moche, Wolfgang; Offenthaler, Ivo; Weiss, Peter; Simoncic, Primoz; Knoth, Wilhelm

    2009-12-01

    Chlorinated paraffins (CPs) are toxic, bioaccumulative, persistent, and ubiquitously present in the environment. CPs were analyzed in humus and needle samples, which were taken within the Monitoring Network in the Alpine Region for Persistent and other Organic Pollutants (MONARPOP) at sampling sites of 7 different altitude profiles in the Alps. Gas chromatography combined with electron ionization tandem mass spectrometry (EI-MS/MS) was used for the determination of total CPs (sum of short, medium and long chain CPs). CPs were found in all samples; the concentrations varied between 7 and 199 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw) and within 26 and 460 ng g(-1) dw in humus and needle samples, respectively. A clear vertical tendency within the individual altitude profiles could not be ascertained. Within all altitude profiles, elevated concentrations were observed in humus samples taken between 700 and 900 m and between 1300 and 1500 m. In the needle samples no similar correlation could be observed due to higher variation of the data.

  2. Impact of Sleeping Altitude on Symptoms of Acute Mountain Sickness on Mt. Fuji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Masahiro; Uno, Tadashi; Endo, Junko; Handa, Yoko; Hasegawa, Tatsuya

    2018-05-09

    Horiuchi, Masahiro, Tadashi Uno, Junko Endo, Yoko Handa, and Tatsuya Hasegawa. Impact of sleeping altitude on symptoms of acute mountain sickness on Mt. Fuji. High Alt Med Biol. 00:000-000, 2018. We sought to investigate the factors influencing acute mountain sickness (AMS) on Mt. Fuji in Japan, in particular, to assess the effects of sleeping altitude, by means of a questionnaire survey. This study involved 1932 participants who climbed Mt. Fuji, and obtained information regarding sex, age, and whether participants stayed at the mountain lodges. The AMS survey excluded the perceived sleep difficulties assessed with the Lake Louise Scoring (LLS) system for all climbers. The overall prevalence of AMS was 31.6% for all participants (LLS score ≥3 with headache, excluding sleep difficulties). A univariate analysis revealed that overnight stay at Mt. Fuji was associated with an increased prevalence of AMS, but that sex and age were not. For overnight lodgers, the mean sleeping altitude in participants with AMS was slightly higher than that in participants without AMS (p lodge, especially one above 2870 m, may be associated with an increased prevalence of AMS on Mt. Fuji.

  3. Effects of erythrocyte infusion on VO2max at high altitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Young, Jette Feveile; Sawka, M N; Muza, S R

    1996-01-01

    This study investigated whether autologous erythrocyte infusion would ameliorate the decrement in maximal O2 uptake (VO2max) experienced by lowlanders when they ascend to high altitude. VO2max was measured in 16 men (treadmill running) at sea level (SL) and on the 1st (HA1) and 9th (HA9) days...... of high-altitude (4,300 m) residence. After VO2max was measured at SL, subjects were divided into two matched groups (n = 8). Twenty-four hours before ascent to high altitude, the experimental group received a 700-ml infusion of autologous erythrocytes and saline (42% hematocrit), whereas the control...... group received only saline. The VO2max of erythrocyte-infused [54 +/- 1 (SE) ml.kg-1.min-1] and control subjects (52 +/- 2 ml.kg-1.min-1) did not differ at SL before infusion. The decrement in VO2max on HA1 did not differ between groups, averaging 26% overall, despite higher (P

  4. Evaluating the Capability of High-Altitude Infrasound Platforms to Cover Gaps in Existing Networks.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, Daniel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-01

    A variety of Earth surface and atmospheric sources generate low frequency sound waves that can travel great distances. Despite a rich history of ground-based sensor studies, very few experiments have investigated the prospects of free floating microphone arrays at high altitudes. However, recent initiatives have shown that such networks have very low background noise and may sample an acoustic wave field that is fundamentally different than that at the Earth's surface. The experiments have been limited to at most two stations at altitude, limiting their utility in acoustic event detection and localization. We describe the deployment of five drifting microphone stations at altitudes between 21 and 24 km above sea level. The stations detected one of two regional ground-based explosions as well as the ocean microbarom while traveling almost 500 km across the American Southwest. The explosion signal consisted of multiple arrivals; signal amplitudes did not correlate with sensor elevation or source range. A sparse network method that employed curved wave front corrections was able to determine the backazimuth from the free flying network to the acoustic source. Episodic broad band signals similar to those seen on previous flights in the same region were noted as well, but their source remains unclear. Background noise levels were commensurate with those on infrasound stations in the International Monitoring System (IMS) below 2 seconds, but sensor self noise appears to dominate at higher frequencies.

  5. Effect of oxygen supplementation in a hatchery at high altitude and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of oxygen supplementation on broiler eggs in a hatchery at high altitude on the growth performance and ascites syndrome of broilers reared at low altitude. The treatment groups were low altitude with no oxygen supplemented in the hatchery (LA-NOX); high altitude with ...

  6. Effect of altitude on physiological performance: a statistical analysis using results of international football games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSharry, Patrick E

    2007-12-22

    To assess the effect of altitude on match results and physiological performance of a large and diverse population of professional athletes. Statistical analysis of international football (soccer) scores and results. FIFA extensive database of 1460 football matches in 10 countries spanning over 100 years. Altitude had a significant (Pnegative impact on physiological performance as revealed through the overall underperformance of low altitude teams when playing against high altitude teams in South America. High altitude teams score more and concede fewer goals with increasing altitude difference. Each additional 1000 m of altitude difference increases the goal difference by about half of a goal. The probability of the home team winning for two teams from the same altitude is 0.537, whereas this rises to 0.825 for a home team with an altitude difference of 3695 m (such as Bolivia v Brazil) and falls to 0.213 when the altitude difference is -3695 m (such as Brazil v Bolivia). Altitude provides a significant advantage for high altitude teams when playing international football games at both low and high altitudes. Lowland teams are unable to acclimatise to high altitude, reducing physiological performance. As physiological performance does not protect against the effect of altitude, better predictors of individual susceptibility to altitude illness would facilitate team selection.

  7. Reducing pulmonary injury by hyperbaric oxygen preconditioning during simulated high altitude exposure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhuo; Gao, Chunjin; Wang, Yanxue; Liu, Fujia; Ma, Linlin; Deng, Changlei; Niu, Ko-Chi; Lin, Mao-Tsun; Wang, Chen

    2011-09-01

    Hyperbaric oxygen preconditioning (HBO₂P + HAE) has been found to be beneficial in preventing the occurrence of ischemic damage to brain, spinal cord, heart, and liver in several disease models. In addition, pulmonary inflammation and edema are associated with a marked reduction in the expression levels of both aquaporin (AQP) 1 and AQP5 in the lung. Here, the aims of this study are first to ascertain whether acute lung injury can be induced by simulated high altitude in rats and second to assess whether HBO2P + HAE is able to prevent the occurrence of the proposed high altitude-induced ALI. Rats were randomly divided into the following three groups: the normobaric air (NBA; 21% O₂ at 1 ATA) group, the HBO₂P + high altitude exposure (HAE) group, and the NBA + HAE group. In HBO₂P + HAE group, animals received 100% O₂ at 2.0 ATA for 1 hour per day, for five consecutive days. In HAE groups, animals were exposed to a simulated HAE of 6,000 m in a hypobaric chamber for 24 hours. Right after being taken out to the ambient, animals were anesthetized generally and killed and thoroughly exsanguinated before their lungs were excised en bloc. The lungs were used for both histologic and molecular evaluation and analysis. In NBA + HAE group, the animals displayed higher scores of alveolar edema, neutrophil infiltration, and hemorrhage compared with those of NBA controls. In contrast, the levels of both AQP1 and AQP5 proteins and mRNA expression in the lung in the NBA + HAE group were significantly lower than those of NBA controls. However, the increased lung injury scores and the decreased levels of both AQP1 and AQP5 proteins and mRNA expression in the lung caused by HAE was significantly reduced by HBO₂P + HAE. Our results suggest that high altitude pulmonary injury may be prevented by HBO2P + HAE in rats.

  8. [Effects of altitudes on soil microbial biomass and enzyme activity in alpine-gorge regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Rui; Wu, Fu Zhong; Yang, Wan Qin; Xu, Zhen Feng; Tani, Bo; Wang, Bin; Li, Jun; Chang, Chen Hui

    2016-04-22

    In order to understand the variations of soil microbial biomass and soil enzyme activities with the change of altitude, a field incubation was conducted in dry valley, ecotone between dry valley and mountain forest, subalpine coniferous forest, alpine forest and alpine meadow from 1563 m to 3994 m of altitude in the alpine-gorge region of western Sichuan. The microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen, and the activities of invertase, urease and acid phosphorus were measured in both soil organic layer and mineral soil layer. Both the soil microbial biomass and soil enzyme activities showed the similar tendency in soil organic layer. They increased from 2158 m to 3028 m, then decreased to the lowest value at 3593 m, and thereafter increased until 3994 m in the alpine-gorge region. In contrast, the soil microbial biomass and soil enzyme activities in mineral soil layer showed the trends as, the subalpine forest at 3028 m > alpine meadow at 3994 m > montane forest ecotone at 2158 m > alpine forest at 3593 m > dry valley at 1563 m. Regardless of altitudes, soil microbial biomass and soil enzyme activities were significantly higher in soil organic layer than in mineral soil layer. The soil microbial biomass was significantly positively correlated with the activities of the measured soil enzymes. Moreover, both the soil microbial biomass and soil enzyme activities were significantly positively correlated with soil water content, organic carbon, and total nitrogen. The activity of soil invertase was significantly positively correlated with soil phosphorus content, and the soil acid phosphatase was so with soil phosphorus content and soil temperature. In brief, changes in vegetation and other environmental factors resulting from altitude change might have strong effects on soil biochemical properties in the alpine-gorge region.

  9. The Effect of Sex on Heart Rate Variability at High Altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boos, Christopher John; Vincent, Emma; Mellor, Adrian; O'Hara, John; Newman, Caroline; Cruttenden, Richard; Scott, Phylip; Cooke, Mark; Matu, Jamie; Woods, David Richard

    2017-12-01

    There is evidence suggesting that high altitude (HA) exposure leads to a fall in heart rate variability (HRV) that is linked to the development of acute mountain sickness (AMS). The effects of sex on changes in HRV at HA and its relationship to AMS are unknown. HRV (5-min single-lead ECG) was measured in 63 healthy adults (41 men and 22 women) 18-56 yr of age at sea level (SL) and during a HA trek at 3619, 4600, and 5140 m, respectively. The main effects of altitude (SL, 3619 m, 4600 m, and 5140 m) and sex (men vs women) and their potential interaction were assessed using a factorial repeated-measures ANOVA. Logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the ability of HRV to predict AMS. Men and women were of similar age (31.2 ± 9.3 vs 31.7 ± 7.5 yr), ethnicity, and body and mass index. There was main effect for altitude on heart rate, SD of normal-to-normal (NN) intervals (SDNN), root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD), number of pairs of successive NN differing by >50 ms (NN50), NN50/total number of NN, very low-frequency power, low-frequency (LF) power, high-frequency (HF) power, and total power (TP). The most consistent effect on post hoc analysis was reduction in these HRV measures between 3619 and 5140 m at HA. Heart rate was significantly lower and SDNN, RMSSD, LF power, HF power, and TP were higher in men compared with women at HA. There was no interaction between sex and altitude for any of the HRV indices measured. HRV was not predictive of AMS development. Increasing HA leads to a reduction in HRV. Significant differences between men and women emerge at HA. HRV was not predictive of AMS.

  10. Agroforestry systems, nutrients in litter and microbial activity in soils cultivated with coffee at high altitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystal de Alcantara Notaro

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Agroforestry systems are an alternative option for sustainable production management. These systems contain trees that absorb nutrients from deeper layers of the soil and leaf litter that help improve the soil quality of the rough terrain in high altitude areas, which are areas extremely susceptible to environmental degradation. The aim of this study was to characterize the stock and nutrients in litter, soil activity and the population of microorganisms in coffee (Coffea arabica L. plantations under high altitude agroforestry systems in the semi-arid region of the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. Samples were collected from the surface litter together with soil samples taken at two depths (0-10 and 10-20 cm from areas each subject to one of the following four treatments: agroforestry system (AS, native forest (NF, biodynamic system (BS and coffee control (CT.The coffee plantation had been abandoned for nearly 15 years and, although there had been no management or harvesting, still contained productive coffee plants. The accumulation of litter and mean nutrient content of the litter, the soil nutrient content, microbial biomass carbon, total carbon, total nitrogen, C/N ratio, basal respiration, microbial quotient, metabolic quotient and microbial populations (total bacteria, fluorescent bacteria group, total fungi and Trichoderma spp. were all analyzed. The systems thatwere exposed to human intervention (A and BS differed in their chemical attributes and contained higher levels of nutrients when compared to NF and CT. BS for coffee production at high altitude can be used as a sustainable alternative in the high altitude zones of the semi-arid region in Brazil, which is an area that is highly susceptible to environmental degradation.

  11. [Relationship between baroreflex function and training effects on altitude training].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagida, Ryo; Ogawa, Yojiro; Mizuochi, Fumio; Suzuki, Tsukasa; Takahashi, Masanori; Iwasaki, Kenichi

    2012-05-01

    Altitude training is frequently used for athletes requiring competitive endurance in an attempt to improve their sea-level performance. However, there has been no study in which the mechanisms by which spontaneous arterial-cardiac baroreflex function changes was examined in responders or nonresponders of altitude training. The purpose of this study was to clarify the different effects of altitude training on baroreflex function between responders and nonresponders. Twelve university student cross-country skiers (6 men, 6 women; age, 19±1 years) participated in the altitude training in a camp for 3 weeks, which was carried out in accordance with the method of Living High-Training Low. Baroreflex function was estimated by transfer function analysis before and after the training. The responders of the training were 3 men and 2 women, and the nonresponders were 3 men and 4 women. In the responders, the transfer function gain in the high-frequency range significantly increased after the training (28.9→46.5 ms/mmHg p=0.021). On the other hand, no significant change in this index was observed in the nonresponders (25.9→21.2 ms/mmHg p=0.405). As indicated by the results of transfer function gain in the high-frequency range, the baroreflex function in the responders increased significantly after the altitude training, whereas no significant change was observed in the nonresponders.

  12. Mobile platform of altitude measurement based on a smartphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roszkowski, Paweł; Kowalczyk, Marcin

    2016-09-01

    The article presents a low cost, fully - functional meter of altitude and pressure changes in a form of mobile application controlled by Android OS (operating system). The measurements are possible due to pressure sensor inserted in majority of latest modern mobile phones, which are known as smartphones. Using their computing capabilities and other equipment components like GPS receiver in connection with data from the sensor enabled authors to create a sophisticated handheld measuring platform with many unique features. One of them is a drawing altitude maps mode in which user can create maps of altitude changes just by moving around examined area. Another one is a convenient mode for altitude measurement. It is also extended with analysis tools which provide a possibility to compare measured values by displaying the data in a form of plots. The platform consists of external backup server, where the user can secure all gathered data. Moreover, the results of measurement's accuracy examination process which was executed after building the solution were shown. At the end, the realized meter of altitude was compared to other popular altimeters, which are available on the market currently.

  13. Effect of phosphate supplementation on oxygen delivery at high altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, S. C.; Singh, M. V.; Rawal, S. B.; Sharma, V. M.; Divekar, H. M.; Tyagi, A. K.; Panwar, M. R.; Swamy, Y. V.

    1987-09-01

    In the present communication, effect of low doses of phosphate supplementation on short-term high altitude adaptation has been examined. Studies were carried out in 36 healthy, male, sea-level residents divided in a double blind fashion into drug and placebo treated groups. 3.2 mmol of phosphate were given orally to each subject of the drug treated group once a day for 4 days on arrival at an altitude of 3,500 m. Sequential studies were done in the subjects in both groups on the 3rd, 7th, 14th and 21st day of their altitude stay. Haemoglobin, haematocrit, erythrocyte and reticulocyte counts increased to the similar extent in both groups. Blood pH, pO2 and adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) did not differ between the two groups. On 3rd day of the altitude stay, inorganic phosphate and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3 DPG) levels in the drug treated group increased significantly as compared to the placebo group. No significant difference in inorganic phosphate and 2,3 DPG was observed later on in the two groups. Psychological and clinical tests also indicated that the drug treated subjects felt better as compared to the placebo treated subjects. The present study suggests that low doses of phosphate increases circulating 2,3-DPG concentration which in turn brings about beneficial effect towards short term high altitude adaptation.

  14. A method for sampling microbial aerosols using high altitude balloons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, N C; Stewart, M; Granger, D; Guzik, T G; Christner, B C

    2014-12-01

    Owing to the challenges posed to microbial aerosol sampling at high altitudes, very little is known about the abundance, diversity, and extent of microbial taxa in the Earth-atmosphere system. To directly address this knowledge gap, we designed, constructed, and tested a system that passively samples aerosols during ascent through the atmosphere while tethered to a helium-filled latex sounding balloon. The sampling payload is ~ 2.7 kg and comprised of an electronics box and three sampling chambers (one serving as a procedural control). Each chamber is sealed with retractable doors that can be commanded to open and close at designated altitudes. The payload is deployed together with radio beacons that transmit GPS coordinates (latitude, longitude and altitude) in real time for tracking and recovery. A cut mechanism separates the payload string from the balloon at any desired altitude, returning all equipment safely to the ground on a parachute. When the chambers are opened, aerosol sampling is performed using the Rotorod® collection method (40 rods per chamber), with each rod passing through 0.035 m3 per km of altitude sampled. Based on quality control measurements, the collection of ~ 100 cells rod(-1) provided a 3-sigma confidence level of detection. The payload system described can be mated with any type of balloon platform and provides a tool for characterizing the vertical distribution of microorganisms in the troposphere and stratosphere. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Transcriptome and network changes in climbers at extreme altitudes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Chen

    Full Text Available Extreme altitude can induce a range of cellular and systemic responses. Although it is known that hypoxia underlies the major changes and that the physiological responses include hemodynamic changes and erythropoiesis, the molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways mediating such changes are largely unknown. To obtain a more complete picture of the transcriptional regulatory landscape and networks involved in extreme altitude response, we followed four climbers on an expedition up Mount Xixiabangma (8,012 m, and collected blood samples at four stages during the climb for mRNA and miRNA expression assays. By analyzing dynamic changes of gene networks in response to extreme altitudes, we uncovered a highly modular network with 7 modules of various functions that changed in response to extreme altitudes. The erythrocyte differentiation module is the most prominently up-regulated, reflecting increased erythrocyte differentiation from hematopoietic stem cells, probably at the expense of differentiation into other cell lineages. These changes are accompanied by coordinated down-regulation of general translation. Network topology and flow analyses also uncovered regulators known to modulate hypoxia responses and erythrocyte development, as well as unknown regulators, such as the OCT4 gene, an important regulator in stem cells and assumed to only function in stem cells. We predicted computationally and validated experimentally that increased OCT4 expression at extreme altitude can directly elevate the expression of hemoglobin genes. Our approach established a new framework for analyzing the transcriptional regulatory network from a very limited number of samples.

  16. Atmospheric Sampling of Aerosols to Stratospheric Altitudes using High Altitude Balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerde, E. A.; Thomas, E.

    2010-12-01

    Although carbon dioxide represents a long-lived atmospheric component relevant to global climate change, it is also understood that many additional contributors influence the overall climate of Earth. Among these, short-lived components are more difficult to incorporate into models due to uncertainties in the abundances of these both spatially and temporally. Possibly the most significant of these short-lived components falls under the heading of “black carbon” (BC). There are numerous overlapping definitions of BC, but it is basically carbonaceous in nature and light absorbing. Due to its potential as a climate forcer, an understanding of the BC population in the atmosphere is critical for modeling of radiative forcing. Prior measurements of atmospheric BC generally consist of airplane- and ground-based sampling, typically below 5000 m and restricted in time and space. Given that BC has a residence time on the order of days, short-term variability is easily missed. Further, since the radiative forcing is a result of BC distributed through the entire atmospheric column, aircraft sampling is by definition incomplete. We are in the process of planning a more comprehensive sampling of the atmosphere for BC using high-altitude balloons. Balloon-borne sampling is a highly reliable means to sample air through the entire troposphere and into the lower stratosphere. Our system will incorporate a balloon and a flight train of two modules. One module will house an atmospheric sampler. This sampler will be single-stage (samples all particle sizes together), and will place particles directly on an SEM sample stub for analysis. The nozzle depositing the sample will be offset from the center of the stub, placing the aerosol particles toward the edge. At various altitudes, the stub will be rotated 45 degrees, providing 6-8 sample “cuts” of particle populations through the atmospheric column. The flights will reach approximately 27 km altitude, above which the balloons

  17. Upward Shift and Steepening of the Blood Pressure Response to Exercise in Hypertensive Subjects at High Altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravita, Sergio; Faini, Andrea; Baratto, Claudia; Bilo, Grzegorz; Macarlupu, Josè Luis; Lang, Morin; Revera, Miriam; Lombardi, Carolina; Villafuerte, Francisco C; Agostoni, Piergiuseppe; Parati, Gianfranco

    2018-06-09

    Acute exposure to high-altitude hypobaric hypoxia induces a blood pressure rise in hypertensive humans, both at rest and during exercise. It is unclear whether this phenomenon reflects specific blood pressure hyperreactivity or rather an upward shift of blood pressure levels. We aimed at evaluating the extent and rate of blood pressure rise during exercise in hypertensive subjects acutely exposed to high altitude, and how these alterations can be counterbalanced by antihypertensive treatment. Fifty-five subjects with mild hypertension, double-blindly randomized to placebo or to a fixed-dose combination of an angiotensin-receptor blocker (telmisartan 80 mg) and a calcium-channel blocker (nifedipine slow release 30 mg), performed a cardiopulmonary exercise test at sea level and after the first night's stay at 3260 m altitude. High-altitude exposure caused both an 8 mm Hg upward shift ( P blood pressure/oxygen consumption relationship during exercise, independent of treatment. Telmisartan/nifedipine did not modify blood pressure reactivity to exercise (blood pressure/oxygen consumption slope), but downward shifted ( P blood pressure and oxygen consumption by 26 mm Hg, both at sea level and at altitude. Muscle oxygen delivery was not influenced by altitude exposure but was higher on telmisartan/nifedipine than on placebo ( P blood pressure response to exercise. The effect of the combination of telmisartan/nifedipine slow release outweighed these changes and was associated with better muscle oxygen delivery. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01830530. © 2018 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  18. Plants, birds and butterflies: short-term responses of species communities to climate warming vary by taxon and with altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Tobias; Plattner, Matthias; Amrhein, Valentin

    2014-01-01

    As a consequence of climate warming, species usually shift their distribution towards higher latitudes or altitudes. Yet, it is unclear how different taxonomic groups may respond to climate warming over larger altitudinal ranges. Here, we used data from the national biodiversity monitoring program of Switzerland, collected over an altitudinal range of 2500 m. Within the short period of eight years (2003-2010), we found significant shifts in communities of vascular plants, butterflies and birds. At low altitudes, communities of all species groups changed towards warm-dwelling species, corresponding to an average uphill shift of 8 m, 38 m and 42 m in plant, butterfly and bird communities, respectively. However, rates of community changes decreased with altitude in plants and butterflies, while bird communities changed towards warm-dwelling species at all altitudes. We found no decrease in community variation with respect to temperature niches of species, suggesting that climate warming has not led to more homogenous communities. The different community changes depending on altitude could not be explained by different changes of air temperatures, since during the 16 years between 1995 and 2010, summer temperatures in Switzerland rose by about 0.07°C per year at all altitudes. We discuss that land-use changes or increased disturbances may have prevented alpine plant and butterfly communities from changing towards warm-dwelling species. However, the findings are also consistent with the hypothesis that unlike birds, many alpine plant species in a warming climate could find suitable habitats within just a few metres, due to the highly varied surface of alpine landscapes. Our results may thus support the idea that for plants and butterflies and on a short temporal scale, alpine landscapes are safer places than lowlands in a warming world.

  19. An Undergraduate-Built Prototype Altitude Determination System (PADS) for High Altitude Research Balloons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verner, E.; Bruhweiler, F. C.; Abot, J.; Casarotto, V.; Dichoso, J.; Doody, E.; Esteves, F.; Morsch Filho, E.; Gonteski, D.; Lamos, M.; Leo, A.; Mulder, N.; Matubara, F.; Schramm, P.; Silva, R.; Quisberth, J.; Uritsky, G.; Kogut, A.; Lowe, L.; Mirel, P.; Lazear, J.

    2014-12-01

    In this project a multi-disciplinary undergraduate team from CUA, comprising majors in Physics, Mechanical Engineering, Electrical Engineering, and Biology, design, build, test, fly, and analyze the data from a prototype attitude determination system (PADS). The goal of the experiment is to determine if an inexpensive attitude determination system could be built for high altitude research balloons using MEMS gyros. PADS is a NASA funded project, built by students with the cooperation of CUA faculty, Verner, Bruhweiler, and Abot, along with the contributed expertise of researchers and engineers at NASA/GSFC, Kogut, Lowe, Mirel, and Lazear. The project was initiated through a course taught in CUA's School of Engineering, which was followed by a devoted effort by students during the summer of 2014. The project is an experiment to use 18 MEMS gyros, similar to those used in many smartphones, to produce an averaged positional error signal that could be compared with the motion of the fixed optical system as recorded through a string of optical images of stellar fields to be stored on a hard drive flown with the experiment. The optical system, camera microprocessor, and hard drive are enclosed in a pressure vessel, which maintains approximately atmospheric pressure throughout the balloon flight. The experiment uses multiple microprocessors to control the camera exposures, record gyro data, and provide thermal control. CUA students also participated in NASA-led design reviews. Four students traveled to NASA's Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility in Palestine, Texas to integrate PADS into a large balloon gondola containing other experiments, before being shipped, then launched in mid-August at Ft. Sumner, New Mexico. The payload is to fly at a float altitude of 40-45,000 m, and the flight last approximately 15 hours. The payload is to return to earth by parachute and the retrieved data are to be analyzed by CUA undergraduates. A description of the instrument is presented

  20. Effect of Acute, Subacute, and Repeated Exposure to High Altitude (5050 m on Psychomotor Vigilance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matiram Pun

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: High altitude (HA hypoxia may affect cognitive performance and sleep quality. Further, vigilance is reduced following sleep deprivation. We investigated the effect on vigilance, actigraphic sleep indices, and their relationships with acute mountain sickness (AMS during very HA exposure, acclimatization, and re-exposure.Methods: A total of 21 healthy altitude-naive individuals (25 ± 4 years; 13 females completed 2 cycles of altitude exposure separated by 7 days at low altitude (LA, 520 m. Participants slept at 2900 m and spent the day at HA, (5050 m. We report acute altitude exposure on Day 1 (LA vs. HA1 and after 6 days of acclimatization (HA1 vs. HA6. Vigilance was quantified by reaction speed in the 10-min psychomotor vigilance test reaction speed (PVT-RS. AMS was evaluated using the Environmental Symptoms Questionnaire Cerebral Score (AMS-C score. Nocturnal rest/activity was recorded to estimate sleep duration using actigraphy.Results: In Cycle 1, PVT-RS was slower at HA1 compared to LA (4.1 ± 0.8 vs. 4.5 ± 0.6 s-1, respectively, p = 0.029, but not at HA6 (4.6 ± 0.7; p > 0.05. In Cycle 2, PVT-RS at HA1 (4.6 ± 0.7 and HA6 (4.8 ± 0.6 were not different from LA (4.8 ± 0.6, p > 0.05 and significantly greater than corresponding values in Cycle 1. In both cycles, AMS scores were higher at HA1 than at LA and HA6 (p < 0.05. Estimated sleep durations (TST at LA, 1st and 5th nights were 431.3 ± 28.7, 418.1 ± 48.6, and 379.7 ± 51.4 min, respectively, in Cycle 1 and they were significantly reduced during acclimatization exposures (LA vs. 1st night, p > 0.05; LA vs. 5th night, p = 0.012; and 1st vs. 5th night, p = 0.054. LA, 1st and 5th nights TST in Cycle 2 were 477.5 ± 96.9, 430.9 ± 34, and 341.4 ± 32.2, respectively, and we observed similar deteriorations in TST as in Cycle 1 (LA vs. 1st night, p > 0.05; LA vs. 5th night, p = 0.001; and 1st vs. 5th night, p < 0.0001. At HA1, subjects who reported higher AMS-C scores exhibited slower

  1. Reduced oxygen at high altitude limits maximum size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, L S; Chapelle, G

    2003-11-07

    The trend towards large size in marine animals with latitude, and the existence of giant marine species in polar regions have long been recognized, but remained enigmatic until a recent study showed it to be an effect of increased oxygen availability in sea water of a low temperature. The effect was apparent in data from 12 sites worldwide because of variations in water oxygen content controlled by differences in temperature and salinity. Another major physical factor affecting oxygen content in aquatic environments is reduced pressure at high altitude. Suitable data from high-altitude sites are very scarce. However, an exceptionally rich crustacean collection, which remains largely undescribed, was obtained by the British 1937 expedition from Lake Titicaca on the border between Peru and Bolivia in the Andes at an altitude of 3809 m. We show that in Lake Titicaca the maximum length of amphipods is 2-4 times smaller than other low-salinity sites (Caspian Sea and Lake Baikal).

  2. [Cardiorespiratory capacity in children living at moderate altitude].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Campos, Rossana; Arruda, Miguel; Almonacid-Fierro, Alejandro; Holbold, Edílson; Amaral-Camargo, Cristiane; Gamero, Diego; Cossio-Bolanos, Marco A

    2014-04-01

    To determine the cardiorespiratory capacity of school children living at moderate altitude. 795 children (394 children and 401 girls) were selected from urban public schools in Arequipa, Peru at moderate altitude (2,320 m). Anthropometric variables (body mass, height, body fat percentage) and cardiorespiratory capacity were assessed using the Course Navette test, considering the following categories: deficient, poor, fair, good, very good and excellent. The results showed significant differences in all categories (poverweight (r=-0.20 to -0.22) and a moderate negative correlation with obesity (r=-0.39 to -0.42) were described for both genders. Low levels of cardiorespiratory capacity in boys and girls living at moderate altitude are observed, which is negatively correlated with excess body weight. The results suggest that 1 in 5 children are likely to suffer some type of cardiovascular event.

  3. Are macroinvertebrates in high altitude streams affected by oxygen deficiency?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Dean; Rostgaard, S.; Vásconez, J. J.

    2003-01-01

    1. The solubility of oxygen in water increases with decreasing temperature. This has led to a general perception of cold, high mountain streams as more oxygen rich than warmer lowland streams, and that macroinvertebrates inhabiting high altitude streams have had no need to adapt to critical oxygen...... conditions. However, this fails to take into account that oxygen solubility declines with decreasing atmospheric pressure, which may be of importance at high altitudes. 2. Based on samples of macroinvertebrate benthos and in situ measurements of respiratory oxygen demand of macroinvertebrates in small...... the mean weight-specific respiratory rate of macroinvertebrates declined by only 50%, from 400 to 3800 m. We suggest that this disproportionately large gap between availability and demand of oxygen at high altitudes may imply a potential oxygen deficiency for the fauna, and we discuss how oxygen deficiency...

  4. Interactions of carbon monoxide and hemoglobin at high altitude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collier, C.R. (Univ. of Southern California Medical Center, Los Angeles); Goldsmith, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    The health risks to U.S. populations who are exposed to ambient carbon monoxide and live at altitudes (such as Denver, Salt Lake City, and Albuquerque) were evaluated using a set of mathematical models. The assumption that a given increase in carboxyhemoglobin would require a more stringent volumetric air quality standard was tested. The results using the model predict that the 8-h or 1-h standards adopted for sea level condition need not be altered to protect individuals against health risks at altitude, if the standards are in volumetric terms. They would need to be reduced if the standards are left in gravimetric terms. If the guideline is to be based on a given decrement of oxygen tension, many other variables must be specified, but expected differences in ambient carbon monoxide have a small impact compared to the effect of altitude itself.

  5. Wilderness medicine at high altitude: recent developments in the field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah NM

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Neeraj M Shah,1 Sidra Hussain,2 Mark Cooke,3 John P O’Hara,3 Adrian Mellor3,4 1Division of Asthma, Allergy and Lung Biology, King’s College London, UK; 2School of Medicine, University College London, London, UK; 3Research Institute for Sport, Physical Activity and Leisure, Leeds Beckett University, Leeds, UK; 4Academic Department of Military Anaesthesia and Critical Care, Royal Centre for Defence Medicine, Birmingham, UK Abstract: Travel to high altitude is increasingly popular. With this comes an increased incidence of high-altitude illness and therefore an increased need to improve our strategies to prevent and accurately diagnose these. In this review, we provide a summary of recent advances of relevance to practitioners who may be advising travelers to altitude. Although the Lake Louise Score is now widely used as a diagnostic tool for acute mountain sickness (AMS, increasing evidence questions the validity of doing so, and of considering AMS as a single condition. Biomarkers, such as brain natriuretic peptide, are likely correlating with pulmonary artery systolic pressure, thus potential markers of the development of altitude illness. Established drug treatments include acetazolamide, nifedipine, and dexamethasone. Drugs with a potential to reduce the risk of developing AMS include nitrate supplements, propagators of nitric oxide, and supplemental iron. The role of exercise in the development of altitude illness remains hotly debated, and it appears that the intensity of exercise is more important than the exercise itself. Finally, despite copious studies demonstrating the value of preacclimatization in reducing the risk of altitude illness and improving performance, an optimal protocol to preacclimatize an individual remains elusive. Keywords: hypoxia, acute mountain sickness, acclimatization, biomarkers, preacclimatization

  6. The Quechua manta pouch: a caretaking practice for buffering the Peruvian infant against the multiple stressors of high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tronick, E Z; Thomas, R B; Daltabuit, M

    1994-08-01

    The manta pouch--a caretaking practice of tightly swaddling and enclosing the infant in a set of cloths and blankets--and other caretaking practices are described for high-altitude resident (> 4,000 m) Quechua mother-infant pairs (N = 14). The manta pouch modifies the microenvironment inside the pouch so that, compared to the ambient environment, the temperature is higher and more stable, the humidity is higher, the partial pressure of O2 is lower, and stimulation levels are reduced. As the infant gets older, the characteristics of the pouch are modified such that the infant is increasingly exposed to ambient conditions. These caretaking practices may benefit the infant by buffering the infant from the multiple ecological stressors of high altitude, but they may also incur costs by exposing the infant to additional microenvironmental stressors (e.g., higher CO2 levels) and by reducing stimulation and limiting infant movement.

  7. Prevalence of photodermatosis in four regions at different altitudes in Yunnan province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Danqi; Hang, Yuntao; Chen, Hao; Li, Hanying

    2006-08-01

    Idiopathic photodermatoses are common diseases in dermatology clinics that are associated with ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. The group includes a few dermatoses such as polymorphous light eruption (PLE) and chronic actinic dermatitis (CAD). The prevalence of PLE and CAD in China has not been previously reported. To investigate the population-based prevalence of polymorphous light eruption (PLE) and chronic actinic dermatitis (CAD) in six minority groups living in four regions with significantly different altitudes in the Yunnan province, a questionnaire survey was administered to 4899 residents of random villages in Yuanjiang county (Dai and Hani minorities), Kunming city (Han people and Yi minority), Lijiang county (Naxi minority), and Shangri-La county (Zang minority). The altitudes of these counties are 380 m, 1870 m, 2410 m and 3280 m a.s.l., respectively. The results showed that, first, there were 2400 males (49.0%) and 2499 females (51.0%). The prevalence of PLE was 0.65% (32/4899), and the prevalence of CAD was 0.18% (9/4899). PLE was higher among females than males (3.8 vs 1, P 0.05). Second, the prevalence of PLE was increased in higher elevations regions compared to lower elevations (P 0.05). Third, the mean times of sun exposure for PLE and CAD were 6.0 and 6.5 h/day, respectively. The mean durations of PLE and CAD were 5.8 years, and 6.6 years, respectively. The study demonstrated that the prevalence of PLE is higher than that of CAD in Yunnan, and that the prevalence of PLE is correlated with altitude.

  8. Rare Particle Searches with the high altitude SLIM experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Balestra, S; Fabbri, F; Giacomelli, G; Giacomelli, R; Giorgini, M; Kumar, A; Manzoor, S; McDonald, J; Margiotta, A; Medinaceli, E; Nogales, J; Patrizii, L; Popa, V; Quereshi, I; Saavedra, O; Sher, G; Shahzad, M; Spurio, M; Ticona, R; Togo, V; Velarde, A; Zanini, A

    2005-01-01

    The search for rare particles in the cosmic radiation remains one of the main aims of non-accelerator particle astrophysics. Experiments at high altitude allow lower mass thresholds with respect to detectors at sea level or underground. The SLIM experiment is a large array of nuclear track detectors located at the Chacaltaya High Altitude Laboratory (5290 m a.s.l.). The preliminary results from the analysis of a part of the first 236 sq.m exposed for more than 3.6 y are here reported. The detector is sensitive to Intermediate Mass Magnetic Monopoles and to SQM nuggets and Q-balls, which are possible Dark Matter candidates.

  9. Viticultura tropical a gran altitud. Condiciones y expresiones del terroir

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Quijano Rico

    2009-01-01

    Nuestro proyecto se inició en 1982 en la Loma de Puntalarga, entre 2500 y2600 metros de altitud, a 5,78 ºN y 72,98 ºW, en la cordillera oriental de los Andes. Las variedades más utilizadas actualmente son Pinot noir, Riesling y cruzamientos de Riesling x Silvaner. Desde 1984 se realizan trabajos de investigación sobre temas pertinentes. La baja latitud, la elevada altitud, el volumen de precipitación relativamente modesto y la transparencia del cielo, determinan el flujo de radiación solar in...

  10. Variation of the gravity acceleration with the latitude and altitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Lopes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The propose of this work is an equation for the module of the acceleration vector of the gravity, varying with the latitude and altitude. For this purpose, the following values of the gravity acceleration were used, at the sea level: in the equator, g0 = 9,7803 m/s2, and in the latitude of 450, gP = 9,8062 m/s2. The terrestrial profile were assumed as being a revolution ellipsoid, flattened in the poles, and the acceleration of the gravity varying with the altitude, at sea level, was considered dependent of the latitude too.

  11. The GRAD high-altitude balloon flight over Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichhorn, G.; Coldwell, R.L.; Dunnam, F.E.; Rester, A.C.; Trombka, J.I.; Starr, R.; Lasche, G.P.

    1989-01-01

    The Gamma Ray Advanced Detector(GRAD) consists of a n-type germanium detector inside an active bismuth-germanate Compton and charged particle shield with additional active plastic shielding across the aperture. It will be flown on a high altitude balloon at 36 km altitude at a latitude of 78 degree S over Antarctica for observations of gamma radiation emitted by the radioactive decay of 56 Co in the Supernova SN1987A, for assessment of the performance of bismuth-germanate scintillation material in the radiation environment of near space, for gathering information on the gamma-ray background over Antarctica, and for testing fault-tolerant software

  12. Ecophysiological Responses of Three Tree Species to a High-Altitude Environment in the Southeastern Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jirui Gong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper measured the ecophysiological responses of Populus cathayana Rehd., Salix longistamina C. Wang et P. Y. Fu., and Ulmus pumila L. to high altitude in the Tibetan Plateau based on changes in water relations, gas exchange, and chlorophyll fluorescence. P. cathayana and U. pumila have higher survival rates than S. longistamina, but the latter has highest biomass. S. longistamina has higher water-use efficiency (WUE, lower transpiration rates (E, higher water potential (Ψ, highest light saturation point (LSP and higher photosystem II (PSII photochemistry efficiency (Fv’/Fm’ and non-photochemistry quenching (NPQ than the other species, and is thus adapted to its habitat for afforestation. U. pumila has lower E, light compensation point (LCP, dark respiration (Rd, Fv’/Fm’ and electron transport rate (ETR, with higher Ψ, apparent quantum yield (AQY, net photosynthetic rate (Pn and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ, which helps it maintain water balance and utilize weak light to survive at high altitude. Relative low WUE, Ψ, Rd, NPQ, with high E, Pn, Fv’/Fm’ and biomass, imply that P. cathayana is more suitable for shelterbelt forests than for a semi-arid habitat. These three species can adapt to high-altitude conditions by different physiological mechanisms and morphological characteristics, which can provide a theoretical basis for afforestation and forest management in the Qinghai Tibetan Plateau.

  13. Long-Term Intermittent Work at High Altitude: Right Heart Functional and Morphological Status and Associated Cardiometabolic Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Brito

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Living at high altitude or with chronic hypoxia implies functional and morphological changes in the right ventricle and pulmonary vasculature with a 10% prevalence of high-altitude pulmonary hypertension (HAPH. The implications of working intermittently (day shifts at high altitude (hypobaric hypoxia over the long term are still not well-defined. The aim of this study was to evaluate the right cardiac circuit status along with potentially contributory metabolic variables and distinctive responses after long exposure to the latter condition.Methods: A cross-sectional study of 120 healthy miners working at an altitude of 4,400–4,800 m for over 5 years in 7-day commuting shifts was designed. Echocardiography was performed on day 2 at sea level. Additionally, biomedical and biochemical variables, Lake Louise scores (LLSs, sleep disturbances and physiological variables were measured at altitude and at sea level.Results: The population was 41.8 ± 0.7 years old, with an average of 14 ± 0.5 (range 5–29 years spent at altitude. Most subjects still suffered from mild to moderate symptoms of acute mountain sickness (mild was an LLS of 3–5 points, including cephalea; moderate was LLS of 6–10 points (38.3% at the end of day 1 of the shift. Echocardiography showed a 23% mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP >25 mmHg, 9% HAPH (≥30 mmHg, 85% mild increase in right ventricle wall thickness (≥5 mm, 64% mild right ventricle dilation, low pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR and fairly good ventricle performance. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA (OR 8.84 (1.18–66.39; p < 0.05 and insulin (OR: 1.11 (1.02–1.20; p < 0.05 were associated with elevated mPAP and were defined as a cut-off. Interestingly, the correspondence analysis identified association patterns of several other variables (metabolic, labor, and biomedical with higher mPAP.Conclusions: Working intermittently at high altitude involves a distinctive pattern. The most relevant and

  14. Short-term adaptation and chronic cardiac remodelling to high altitude in lowlander natives and Himalayan Sherpa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stembridge, Mike; Ainslie, Philip N; Shave, Rob

    2015-11-01

    What is the topic of this review? At high altitude, the cardiovascular system must adapt in order to meet the metabolic demand for oxygen. This review summarizes recent findings relating to short-term and life-long cardiac adaptation to high altitude in the context of exercise capacity. What advances does it highlight? Both Sherpa and lowlanders exhibit smaller left ventricular volumes at high altitude; however, myocardial relaxation, as evidenced by diastolic untwist, is reduced only in Sherpa, indicating that short-term hypoxia does not impair diastolic relaxation. Potential remodelling of systolic function, as evidenced by lower left ventricular systolic twist in Sherpa, may facilitate the requisite sea-level mechanical reserve required during exercise, although this remains to be confirmed. Both short-term and life-long high-altitude exposure challenge the cardiovascular system to meet the metabolic demand for O2 in a hypoxic environment. As the demand for O2 delivery increases during exercise, the circulatory component of oxygen transport is placed under additional stress. Acute adaptation and chronic remodelling of cardiac structure and function may occur to facilitate O2 delivery in lowlanders during sojourn to high altitude and in permanent highland residents. However, our understanding of cardiac structural and functional adaption in Sherpa remains confined to a higher maximal heart rate, lower pulmonary vascular resistance and no differences in resting cardiac output. Ventricular form and function are intrinsically linked through the left ventricular (LV) mechanics that facilitate efficient ejection, minimize myofibre stress during contraction and aid diastolic recoil. Recent examination of LV mechanics has allowed detailed insight into fundamental cardiac adaptation in high-altitude Sherpa. In this symposium report, we review recent advances in our understanding of LV function in both lowlanders and Sherpa at rest and discuss the potential consequences

  15. Long-Term Intermittent Exposure to High Altitude Elevates Asymmetric Dimethylarginine in First Exposed Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüneburg, Nicole; Siques, Patricia; Brito, Julio; De La Cruz, Juan José; León-Velarde, Fabiola; Hannemann, Juliane; Ibanez, Cristian; Böger, Rainer H

    2017-09-01

    Lüneburg, Nicole, Patricia Siques, Julio Brito, Juan José De La Cruz, Fabiola León-Velarde, Juliane Hannemann, Cristian Ibanez, and Rainer Böger. Long-term intermittent exposure to high altitude elevates asymmetric dimethylarginine in first exposed young adults. High Alt Med Biol. 18:226-233, 2017.-Hypoxia-induced dysregulation of pulmonary and cerebral circulation may be related to an impaired nitric oxide (NO) pathway. We investigated the effect of chronic intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (CIH) on metabolites of the NO pathway. We measured asymmetric and symmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA and SDMA) and monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) and assessed their associations with acclimatization in male draftees (n = 72) undergoing CIH shifts at altitude (3550 m) during 3 months. Sixteen Andean natives living at altitude (3675 m) (chronic hypobaric hypoxia [CH]) were included for comparison. In CIH, ADMA and L-NMMA plasma concentrations increased from 1.14 ± 0.04 to 1.95 ± 0.09 μmol/L (mean ± SE) and from 0.22 ± 0.07 to 0.39 ± 0.03 μmol/L, respectively, (p < 0.001 for both) after 3 months, whereas SDMA did not change. The concentrations of ADMA and L-NMMA were higher in CH (3.48 ± 0.07, 0.53 ± 0.08 μmol/L; p < 0.001) as compared with CIH. In both CIH and CH, ADMA correlated with hematocrit (r 2  = 0.07, p < 0.05; r 2  = 0.26; p < 0.01). In CIH, an association of ADMA levels with poor acclimatization status was observed. We conclude that the endogenous NO synthase inhibitors, ADMA and L-NMMA, are elevated in hypoxia. This may contribute to impaired NO production at altitude and may also be predictive of altitude-associated health impairment.

  16. Formação pedagógica de professores de nutrição: uma omissão consentida? Teacher training for nutrition professors: a tacitly accepted omission?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilce Maria da Silva Campos Costa

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Apesar dos novos papéis preconizados pelas Diretrizes Curriculares Nacionais aos profissionais de Nutrição, pouca atenção tem sido dada ao desenvolvimento docente para atuação nos novos cenários. O objetivo deste ensaio é o de discutir um dos desafios à formação do nutricionista, a prática docente e a formação pedagógica do professor da área da saúde, para pensar formas de oportunizar um ensino de melhor qualidade, com base em autores que discutem a docência universitária. Identificam-se como causas da resistência docente às mudanças, a desvalorização das atividades de ensino e a supremacia das atividades de pesquisa nas universidades. O estudo permitiu sugerir a necessidade de reflexão por parte dos professores de Nutrição sobre as questões da docência universitária e sobre o desenvolvimento docente em uma perspectiva crítica e reflexiva, que possa ancorar mudanças pedagógicas necessárias à formação de nutricionistas.Despite the new roles called in for the National Curricular Guidelines for teachers in nutrition courses, little attention has been paid to the professional development of the nutrition professional acting as a teacher. Based on the work of authors who discuss university teaching, this essay discusses some of the challenges involved in training nutritionists, such as teaching practice and teacher training for the professor in the health field, with the goal of providing higher-quality teaching. The devaluation of teaching and the supremacy of research at universities have been identified as the causes of teachers' resistance to change. This study reveals the need for professors of nutrition to reflect on the questions of university teaching and teacher development from a critical and reflective perspective which can anchor the pedagogical changes needed to train the nutritionist.

  17. Aircraft Survivability: Survivability in The Low Altitude Regime, Summer 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    elevation, sun location, temperature, humidity, ozone level, visibility, cloud coverage, and wind speed and direction. Survivability in the Low Altitude...JASP Summer PMSG 14–16 July 2009 Key West, FL AUG 45th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit 2–5 August 2009 Denver, CO

  18. General introduction to altitude adaptation and mountain sickness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartsch, P.; Saltin, B.

    2008-01-01

    ascent (average ascent rate 300 m/day above 2000 m a.s.l.), primarily in order to sleep and feel well, and minimize the risk of mountain sickness. A new classification of altitude levels based on the effects on performance and well-being is proposed and an overview given over the various modalities using...

  19. Effect of altitude on fatty acid composition in Turkish hazelnut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the change of fatty acid composition in Delisava, Yomra, Sivri and Karayaglı Turkish hazelnut varieties with altitude. Fatty acid composition were determined by gas chromatography (GC) equiped with flame ionisation detector (FID) after obtained fatty acid methyl esters from crude ...

  20. Climate Change Impacts on High-Altitude Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Pauli

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Reviewed: Climate Change Impacts on High-Altitude Ecosystems By Münir Öztürk, Khalid Rehman Hakeem, I. Faridah-Hanum and Efe. Recep, Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing, 2015. xvii + 696 pp. US$ 239.00. ISBN 978-3-319-12858-0.

  1. Climate Change Impacts on High-Altitude Ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Harald Pauli

    2016-01-01

    Reviewed: Climate Change Impacts on High-Altitude Ecosystems By Münir Öztürk, Khalid Rehman Hakeem, I. Faridah-Hanum and Efe. Recep, Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing, 2015. xvii + 696 pp. US$ 239.00. ISBN 978-3-319-12858-0.

  2. Bats aloft: Variation in echolocation call structure at high altitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bats alter their echolocation calls in response to changes in ecological and behavioral conditions, but little is known about how they adjust their call structure in response to changes in altitude. This study examines altitudinal variation in the echolocation calls of Brazilian free-tailed bats, T...

  3. Civilian Training in High-Altitude Flight Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-01

    A survey was conducted to determine if training in high-altitude physiology should : be required for civilian pilots; what the current status of such training was; and, : if required, what should be included in an ideal curriculum. The survey include...

  4. Limnology and cyanobacterial diversity of high altitude lakes of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Limnological data of four high altitude lakes from the cold desert region of Himachal Pradesh, India, has been correlated with cyanobacterial diversity. Physico-chemical characteristics and nutrient contents of the studied lakes revealed that Sissu Lake is mesotrophic while Chandra Tal, Suraj Tal and Deepak Tal are ...

  5. Modeling of Air Attenuation Effects on Gamma Detection at Altitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detwiler, R. S.

    2002-01-01

    This paper focuses on modeling the detection capabilities of NaI sensor systems at high altitudes for ground sources. The modeling was done with the Monte Carlo N-Transport (MCNP) code developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The specific systems modeled were the fixed wing and helicopter aircraft sensor systems, assets of the U. S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office (NNSA/NV) Aerial Measuring System (AMS). In previous (2001) modeling, Sodium Iodine (NaI) detector responses were simulated for both point and distributed surface sources as a function of gamma energy and altitude. For point sources, photo-peak efficiencies were calculated for a zero radial distance and an offset equal to the altitude. For distributed sources approximating an infinite plane, gross count efficiencies were calculated and normalized to a uniform surface deposition of 1 (micro)Ci/m 2 . To validate the calculations, benchmark measurements were made for simple source-detector configurations. The 2002 continuation of the modeling presented here includes checking models against available data, and modifications to allow more effective and accurate directional biasing of ground point and distributed sources. Fixed-wing data results will be shown for two point sources as a function of altitude

  6. The effect of acute exhaustive swimming exercise and high altitude ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Windows 7

    2012-06-05

    Jun 5, 2012 ... At low altitude, combined administration of vitamin E and ... inflammatory response within the muscles and other organs of .... temperature of 32°C. The depth of water in the tank was 30 cm. ..... protein and enhances the secretion of glucocorticoids .... convert more cholesterol towards bile acid synthesis and.

  7. Transcriptome and network changes in climbers at extreme altitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Fang; Zhang, Wei; Liang, Yu

    2012-01-01

    Extreme altitude can induce a range of cellular and systemic responses. Although it is known that hypoxia underlies the major changes and that the physiological responses include hemodynamic changes and erythropoiesis, the molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways mediating such changes are lar...

  8. PHYSICAL ADAPTATION OF CHILDREN TO LIFE AT HIGH-ALTITUDE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEMEER, K; HEYMANS, HSA; ZIJLSTRA, WG

    Children permanently exposed to hypoxia at altitudes of > 3000 m above sea level show a phenotypical form of adaptation. Under these environmental conditions, oxygen uptake in the lungs is enhanced by increases in ventilation, lung compliance, and pulmonary diffusion. Lung and thorax volumes in

  9. Lens autofluorescence is not increased at high altitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessel, Line; Kofoed, Peter Kristian; Zubieta-Calleja, Gustavo

    2010-01-01

    in Denmark. RESULTS: No significant differences in lens fluorescence or transmittance were found between Bolivian and Danish volunteers. CONCLUSION: Age-corrected lens fluorescence and transmittance were comparable for healthy participants living at high altitude near the equator and healthy volunteers...

  10. Pathophysiology of acute mountain sickness and high altitude pulmonary oedema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sutton, J R; Lassen, N

    1979-01-01

    We review the evidence that acute mountain sickness (AMS) and high altitude pulmonary oedema (HAPO) occur together more often than is realized. We hypothesize that AMS and HAPO have a common pathophysiological basis: both are due to increased pressure and flow in the microcirculation, causing...

  11. Diurnal variations of serum erythropoietin at sea level and altitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, T; Poulsen, T D; Fogh-Andersen, N

    1996-01-01

    in 2, 3 diphosphoglycerate. After 64 h at altitude, six of the nine subjects had down-regulated their serum-EPO concentrations so that median values were three times above those at sea level. These six subjects had significant diurnal variations of serum-EPO concentration at sea level; the nadir......This study tested the hypothesis that the diurnal variations of serum-erythropoietin concentration (serum-EPO) observed in normoxia also exist in hypoxia. The study also attempted to investigate the regulation of EPO production during sustained hypoxia. Nine subjects were investigated at sea level...... and during 4 days at an altitude of 4350 m. Median sea level serum-EPO concentration was 6 (range 6-13) U.l-1. Serum-EPO concentration increased after 18 and 42 h at altitude, [58 (range 39-240) and 54 (range 36-340) U.l-1, respectively], and then decreased after 64 and 88 h at altitude [34 (range 18...

  12. 14 CFR 91.119 - Minimum safe altitudes: General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... than 500 feet to any person, vessel, vehicle, or structure. (d) Helicopters. Helicopters may be... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum safe altitudes: General. 91.119 Section 91.119 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION...

  13. Flight Control of the High Altitude Wind Power System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Podgaets, A.R.; Ockels, W.J.

    2007-01-01

    Closed loop Laddermill flight control problem is considered in this paper. Laddermill is a high altitude kites system for energy production. The kites have been simulated as rigid bodies and the cable as a thin elastic line. Euler angles and cable speed are controls. Flight control is written as a

  14. Organics, Meteoritic Material, and other Elements in High Altitude Aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, M.; Murphy, D. M.; Thomson, D. S.

    1998-01-01

    Recent in situ measurements of the chemical composition of single aerosol particles at altitudes up to 19 km have revealed a number of surprising features about ambient particles. Upper tropospheric aerosols in the study region often contained more organic material than sulfate.

  15. Diurnal variations of serum erythropoietin at sea level and altitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, T; Poulsen, T D; Fogh-Andersen, N

    1996-01-01

    in 2, 3 diphosphoglycerate. After 64 h at altitude, six of the nine subjects had down-regulated their serum-EPO concentrations so that median values were three times above those at sea level. These six subjects had significant diurnal variations of serum-EPO concentration at sea level; the nadir...

  16. Acetazolamide improves cerebral oxygenation during exercise at high altitude

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuyk, J.; Bos, J. van den; Terhell, K.; Bos, R. de; Vletter, A.; Valk, P.; Beuzekom, M. van; Kleef, J. van; Dahan, A.

    2006-01-01

    Acute mountain sickness is thought to be triggered by cerebral hypoxemia and be prevented by acetazolamide (Actz). The effect of Actz on cerebral oxygenation at altitude remains unknown. In 16 members of the 2005 Dutch Cho Oyu (8201 m, Tibet) expedition, the influence of Actz and exercise (750 mg PO

  17. Variation in the isotopic content of precipitation with altitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stowhas, L.; Silva, C.; Moser, H.; Stichler, W.

    1975-03-01

    Monthly precipitation and single storms have been collected during three years at 12 stations along a W-E profile in Chile, going from Juan Fernandez Islands to Valparaiso, Santiago and Infiernillo in the Andes, and analysed for their deuterium content. The deltaD values are correlated with the altitude of the station, the mean temperature - which also largely depends on the altitude - and the distance from the sea. The correlation parameters show however important variations from year to year and even more from month to month. For instance, in the stretch Santiago (520 m a.s.l.) - La Parva (2680 m) the mean isotopic gradient with altitude were: -1.84 deltaD per mil/100 m in 1970, -1.09 in 1971 and -2.0 in 1972. The low value observed in 1971 could be a consequence of the peculiar weather characteristics of this unusually dry year. In the stretch from the coast to Santiago the trend of the isotopic composition of precipitation is more complicated, because the so-called continental effect is superimposed to the altitude effect. The deuterium content variations have been also determined in snowpack profiles at La Parva station. The results show that snow melting occurs slowly at the bottom during the whole winter, at the expenses of the heat stored during summer in the soil. The melting of the surface snow layers only starts at the end of the winter and then proceeds very fast

  18. Mast cells in the human lung at high altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Donald

    1992-12-01

    Mast cell densities in the lung were measured in five native highlanders of La Paz (3600 m) and in one lowlander dying from high-altitude pulmonary oedema (HAPO) at 3440 m. Two of the highlanders were mestizos with normal pulmonary arteries and the others were Aymara Indians with muscular remodelling of their pulmonary vasculature. The aim of the investigation was to determine if accumulation of mast cells in the lung at high altitude (HA) is related to alveolar hypoxia alone, to a combination of hypoxia and muscularization of the pulmonary arterial tree, or to oedema of the lung. The lungs of four lowlanders were used as normoxic controls. The results showed that the mast cell density of the two Mestizos was in the normal range of lowlanders (0.6-8.8 cells/mm2). In the Aymara Indians the mast cell counts were raised (25.6-26.0 cells/mm2). In the lowlander dying from HAPO the mast cell count was greatly raised to 70.1 cells/mm2 lung tissue. The results show that in native highlanders an accumulation of mast cells in the lung is not related to hypoxia alone but to a combination of hypoxia and muscular remodelling of the pulmonary arteries. However, the most potent cause of increased mast cell density in the lung at high altitude appears to be high-altitude pulmonary oedema.

  19. Effect of acute exposure to moderate altitude on muscle power: hypobaric hypoxia vs. normobaric hypoxia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén Feriche

    Full Text Available When ascending to a higher altitude, changes in air density and oxygen levels affect the way in which explosive actions are executed. This study was designed to compare the effects of acute exposure to real or simulated moderate hypoxia on the dynamics of the force-velocity relationship observed in bench press exercise. Twenty-eight combat sports athletes were assigned to two groups and assessed on two separate occasions: G1 (n = 17 in conditions of normoxia (N1 and hypobaric hypoxia (HH and G2 (n = 11 in conditions of normoxia (N2 and normobaric hypoxia (NH. Individual and complete force-velocity relationships in bench press were determined on each assessment day. For each exercise repetition, we obtained the mean and peak velocity and power shown by the athletes. Maximum power (Pmax was recorded as the highest P(mean obtained across the complete force-velocity curve. Our findings indicate a significantly higher absolute load linked to P(max (∼ 3% and maximal strength (1 RM (∼ 6% in G1 attributable to the climb to altitude (P<0.05. We also observed a stimulating effect of natural hypoxia on P(mean and P(peak in the middle-high part of the curve (≥ 60 kg; P<0.01 and a 7.8% mean increase in barbell displacement velocity (P<0.001. No changes in any of the variables examined were observed in G2. According to these data, we can state that acute exposure to natural moderate altitude as opposed to simulated normobaric hypoxia leads to gains in 1 RM, movement velocity and power during the execution of a force-velocity curve in bench press.

  20. Oxidative stress in elite athletes training at moderate altitude and at sea level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-López, Josefa; Calderón-Soto, Carmen; Pérez-Sánchez, Matías; Feriche, Belén; Iglesias, Xavier; Chaverri, Diego; Rodréguez, Ferran A

    2018-03-24

    Using a controlled parallel group longitudinal trial design, we investigated the effects of different training interventions on the prooxidant/antioxidant status of elite athletes: living and training at moderate altitude for 3 (Hi-Hi3) and 4 weeks (Hi-Hi), and for 4 weeks too, living high and training high and low (Hi-HiLo) and living and training at sea level (Lo-Lo). From 61 swimmers, 54 completed the study. Nitrites, carbonyls, and lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels were assessed in plasma. Enzymatic antioxidants glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GRd), and non-enzymatic antioxidants total glutathione (GST), reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) were analysed in the erythrocyte fraction. At the end of the intervention, nitrites levels were similar in all altitude groups but higher than in the Lo-Lo controls (P = .02). Hi-HiLo had greater GPx activity than Hi-Hi and Hi-Hi3 during most of the intervention (P ≤ .001). GRd activity was higher in Lo-Lo than in Hi-Hi at the end of the training camp (P ≤ .001). All groups showed increased levels of LPO, except Lo-Lo, and carbonyls at the end of the study (P ≤ .001). Training at altitude for 3 or 4 weeks drives oxidative stress leading to cellular damage mainly by worsening the antioxidant capacities. The GSSG/GSH ratio appears to be related to perceived exertion and fatigue. The stronger antioxidant defence showed by the Hi-HiLo group suggests an inverse relationship between redox alterations and performance. Further studies are required to investigate the role of oxidative stress in acclimatization, performance, and health.

  1. Low-Altitude Aerial Methane Concentration Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bara J. Emran

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Detection of leaks of fugitive greenhouse gases (GHGs from landfills and natural gas infrastructure is critical for not only their safe operation but also for protecting the environment. Current inspection practices involve moving a methane detector within the target area by a person or vehicle. This procedure is dangerous, time consuming, labor intensive and above all unavailable when access to the desired area is limited. Remote sensing by an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV equipped with a methane detector is a cost-effective and fast method for methane detection and monitoring, especially for vast and remote areas. This paper describes the integration of an off-the-shelf laser-based methane detector into a multi-rotor UAV and demonstrates its efficacy in generating an aerial methane concentration map of a landfill. The UAV flies a preset flight path measuring methane concentrations in a vertical air column between the UAV and the ground surface. Measurements were taken at 10 Hz giving a typical distance between measurements of 0.2 m when flying at 2 m/s. The UAV was set to fly at 25 to 30 m above the ground. We conclude that besides its utility in landfill monitoring, the proposed method is ready for other environmental applications as well as the inspection of natural gas infrastructure that can release methane with much higher concentrations.

  2. Pressure breathing in fighter aircraft for G accelerations and loss of cabin pressurization at altitude--a brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauritzsen, Lars P; Pfitzner, John

    2003-04-01

    The purpose of this brief review is to outline the past and present use of pressure breathing, not by patients but by fighter pilots. Of the historical and recent references quoted, most are from aviation-medicine journals that are not often readily available to anesthesiologists. Pressure breathing at moderate levels of airway pressure gave World War II fighter pilots a tactical altitude advantage. With today's fast and highly maneuverable jet fighters, very much higher airway pressures of the order of 8.0 kPa (identical with 60 mmHg) are used. They are used in conjunction with a counterpressure thoracic vest and an anti-G suit for the abdomen and lower body. Pressurization is activated automatically in response to +Gz accelerations, and to a potentially catastrophic loss of cabin pressurization at altitude. During +Gz accelerations, pressure breathing has been shown to maintain cerebral perfusion by raising the systemic arterial pressure, so increasing the level of G-tolerance that is afforded by the use of anti-G suits and seat tilt-back angles alone. This leaves the pilot less reliant on rigorous, and potentially distracting, straining maneuvers. With loss of cabin pressurization at altitude, pressure breathing of 100% oxygen at high airway pressures enables the pilot's alveolar PO(2) to be maintained at a safe level during emergency descent. Introduced in military aviation, pressure breathing for G-tolerance and pressure breathing for altitude presented as concepts that may be of general physiological interest to many anesthesiologists.

  3. Effect of altitude on the protein metabolism of Bolivian children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    San Miguel Simron, J.L.; Berger, J.; Spielvogel, H.; Tellez Castellon, W.; Lujan Medina, C.; Caceres, E.

    1996-01-01

    The malnutrition is prevalent and is a major problem among Bolivian children. It is caused by several interacting factors: (1) inadequate protein energy intake due to low socio-economic status; (ii) exposure to acute, repeated and chronic bacterial infections; (iii) exposure to multiple and chronic parasitic infections; (iv) high altitude of the capital, La Paz, 3600 m, with a numerous populations compared to the rest of the country. The research objectives in the first phase are: (i) determination of protein utilization with a non-invasive method using stable isotope tracer among children living at high and low altitude; (ii) determination of protein metabolism among eutrophic children without parasitic or acute bacterial infections at both altitudes; (iii) determination of protein requirement among these children. Two groups of 10 pubertal children, matched for age and sex, of same socio-economic status, eutrophic, without malnutrition, infections or intestinal parasites will be studied; the different status being arrived by anthropometric, nutritional intake, biochemical and pediatrical evaluation. For the metabolic study, stable isotopes L-[1-13C] leucine labelled casein will be used and 13 CO 2 excreted will be measured. All the basic nutritional assessment and VCO 2 measurements will be performed in Bolivia, while the samples of expired gas will be stored in Vacutainers for further analysis by isotope radio mass spectrometer (IRMS), in Clermont-Ferrand, France. The plans for future work is based on the study of the effects of the different variables and their interactions. The following will be evaluated: (i) the socio-economic status; (ii) the bacterial infections: (iii) the parasitic infections; (iv) the altitude. As published by Obert, et al., the socio-economic variable is more connected with the nutritional status than with the altitude. 12 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  4. Effect of altitude on the protein metabolism of Bolivian children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Miguel Simron, J L; Berger, J; Spielvogel, H; Tellez Castellon, W; Lujan Medina, C; Caceres, E [Instituto Boliviano de Boliviano de Biologia de Altura, La Paz (Bolivia). Dept. de Nutricion; Beaufrere, B; Gachons, P; Coudert, J [Laboratoire de Nutrition Humaine, Clermont-Ferrand (France)

    1997-12-31

    The malnutrition is prevalent and is a major problem among Bolivian children. It is caused by several interacting factors: (1) inadequate protein energy intake due to low socio-economic status; (ii) exposure to acute, repeated and chronic bacterial infections; (iii) exposure to multiple and chronic parasitic infections; (iv) high altitude of the capital, La Paz, 3600 m, with a numerous populations compared to the rest of the country. The research objectives in the first phase are: (i) determination of protein utilization with a non-invasive method using stable isotope tracer among children living at high and low altitude; (ii) determination of protein metabolism among eutrophic children without parasitic or acute bacterial infections at both altitudes; (iii) determination of protein requirement among these children. Two groups of 10 pubertal children, matched for age and sex, of same socio-economic status, eutrophic, without malnutrition, infections or intestinal parasites will be studied; the different status being arrived by anthropometric, nutritional intake, biochemical and pediatrical evaluation. For the metabolic study, stable isotopes L-[1-13C] leucine labelled casein will be used and {sup 13}CO{sub 2} excreted will be measured. All the basic nutritional assessment and VCO{sub 2} measurements will be performed in Bolivia, while the samples of expired gas will be stored in Vacutainers for further analysis by isotope radio mass spectrometer (IRMS), in Clermont-Ferrand, France. The plans for future work is based on the study of the effects of the different variables and their interactions. The following will be evaluated: (i) the socio-economic status; (ii) the bacterial infections: (iii) the parasitic infections; (iv) the altitude. As published by Obert, et al., the socio-economic variable is more connected with the nutritional status than with the altitude. 12 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab.

  5. Women at Altitude: Effects of Menstrual Cycle Phase and Alpha-Adrenergic Blockade on High Altitude Acclimatization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moore, Lorna

    1998-01-01

    .... Results indicated that the effects of the menstrual cycle were modest. In year 2, we evaluated the safety and efficacy of administering an a-adrenergic blocker and made selected observations during a brief exposure to an altitude of 4300 m...

  6. Why Are High Altitude Natives So Strong at High Altitude? Nature vs. Nurture: Genetic Factors vs. Growth and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brutsaert, Tom

    Among high-altitude natives there is evidence of a general hypoxia tolerance leading to enhanced performance and/or increased capacity in several important domains. These domains likely include an enhanced physical work capacity, an enhanced reproductive capacity, and an ability to resist several common pathologies of chronic high-altitude exposure. The "strength" of the high-altitude native in this regard may have both a developmental and a genetic basis, although there is better evidence for the former (developmental effects) than for the latter. For example, early-life hypoxia exposure clearly results in lung growth and remodeling leading to an increased O2 diffusing capacity in adulthood. Genetic research has yet to reveal a population genetic basis for enhanced capacity in high-altitude natives, but several traits are clearly under genetic control in Andean and Tibetan populations e.g., resting and exercise arterial O2 saturation (SaO2). This chapter reviews the effects of nature and nurture on traits that are relevant to the process of gas exchange, including pulmonary volumes and diffusion capacity, the maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), the SaO2, and the alveolar-arterial oxygen partial pressure difference (A-aDO2) during exercise.

  7. High altitude flights in equatorial regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redkar, R. T.

    A thorough analysis of balloon flights made from Hyderabad, India (Latitude 17°28'N, Longitude 78°35'E), and other equatorial sites has been made. It has been shown that limited success is expected for flights made from equatorial latitudes with balloons made out of natural colour polyethylene film, since the best known balloon film in the world today viz. Winzen Stratofilm is tested for low temperature brittleness only at -80°C., whereas the tropopause temperatures over equatorial latitudes vary between -80°C and -90°C. The success becomes even more critical when flights are made with heavy payloads and larger balloons particularly at night when in the absence of solar radiation the balloon film becomes more susceptible to low temperature brittle failure. It is recommended that in case of capped balloons longer caps should be used to fully cover the inflated protion of the balloon at the higher level equatorial tropopause. It is also advised that the conditions such as wind shears in the tropopause should be critically studied before launching and a day with the tropopause temperature nearer to -80°C should be chosen. Special care also should be taken while handling the balloon on ground and during launching phase. Properties of Winzen Stratofilm have been critically studied and fresh mandates have been recommended on the basis of limiting values of film stresses which caused balloon failures in the equatorial tropopause. It is also emphasized that the data on such flights is still meagre especially for flights with heavy payloads and larger balloons. It has been also shown that it is safest to use balloons made out of grey coloured film which retains its flexibility with the absorption of solar radiation, the success obtained with such balloons so far being 100%. The drawback, however, is that these balloons cannot be used for night flights. Stratospheric wind regimes over Hyderabad are also discussed with a view to determine the period over which long

  8. The influence of altitude and landforms on some biochemical and hematological parameters in Ouled Djellal ewes from arid area of South East Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Titaouine

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted on Ouled Djellal ewes in arid area of south-east Algeria in order to reveal the influence of altitude and landforms on some hematological and biochemical parameters. Materials and Methods: A total of 160 ewes having 3-5 years of age, multiparous, non-pregnant, non-lactating and reared in arid areas of South East Algeria were included. Blood samples were divided according to factors of altitude and landform (plain region at 150 m above sea level, tableland region at 600 m above sea level and mountain region at 1000 m above sea level. The whole blood was analyzed for hematology, and plasma samples for biochemical analysis. Results: The study found lowest glucose concentrations were detected in tableland region at 600 m. In plain region at 150 m, ewes had a higher (p<0.01 concentration of cholesterol and triglyceride. Furthermore, a higher concentration of total proteins (p<0.01 and urea (p<0.05 were detected in plain region at 150 m. The average blood creatinine concentration in mountain ewes at 1000 m and tableland ewes at 600 m were higher (p<0.05 that in plain ewes at 150 m. The highest calcium concentration was found at the altitude of 150 m and the lowest at the altitude of 1000 m (1.12±0.35 mmol/L vs. 0.52±0.03 mmol/L. Phosphorus levels were higher at altitudes of 150 m than at the altitude of 600 m and 1000 m (0.93±0.42 mmol/L vs. 0.68±0.54 mmol/L, 0.23±0.01 mmol/L. The highest hemoglobin concentration and value of hematocrit were detected in mountain ewes at the altitude of 1000 m (120.61 g/L, 40% and the lowest at the altitude of 150 m (73.2 g/L, 31% (p<0.001. Conclusion: We concluded that hematological and biochemical parameters in Ouled Djellel ewes reared in arid area may be affected by altitude and landforms.

  9. Oxygen transport and cardiovascular function at extreme altitude: lessons from Operation Everest II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, J. R.; Reeves, J. T.; Groves, B. M.; Wagner, P. D.; Alexander, J. K.; Hultgren, H. N.; Cymerman, A.; Houston, C. S.

    1992-01-01

    Operation Everest II was designed to examine the physiological responses to gradual decompression simulating an ascent of Mt Everest (8,848 m) to an inspired PO2 of 43 mmHg. The principal studies conducted were cardiovascular, respiratory, muscular-skeletal and metabolic responses to exercise. Eight healthy males aged 21-31 years began the "ascent" and six successfully reached the "summit", where their resting arterial blood gases were PO2 = 30 mmHg and PCO2 = 11 mmHg, pH = 7.56. Their maximal oxygen uptake decreased from 3.98 +/- 0.2 L/min at sea level to 1.17 +/- 0.08 L/min at PIO2 43 mmHg. The principal factors responsible for oxygen transport from the atmosphere to tissues were (1) Alveolar ventilation--a four fold increase. (2) Diffusion from the alveolus to end capillary blood--unchanged. (3) Cardiac function (assessed by hemodynamics, echocardiography and electrocardiography)--normal--although maximum cardiac output and heart rate were reduced. (4) Oxygen extraction--maximal with PvO2 14.8 +/- 1 mmHg. With increasing altitude maximal blood and muscle lactate progressively declined although at any submaximal intensity blood and muscle lactate was higher at higher altitudes.

  10. Protective effects of Astragalus-Lilygranules on intestinal mucosal barrier of mice in high altitude hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling LI

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To investigate the protective effect of Astragalus-Lily Granules on intestinal mucosa and intestinal flora homeostasis in mice under high altitude hypoxia condition. Methods  We put mice into high altitude hypoxia cabin to establish high altitude hypoxia model mice. Sixty Kunming mice were randomly divided into control group, model group, Astragalus-Lily particles (ALP low, medium and high dose groups [1.75, 3.5, 7g/(kg•d] respectively. After three days of routine feeding, the ALP mice received drug by intragastric administration, once a day for continuous 17 days,control group and model group were given double distilled water in same volume. From the 15th day, all the mice but control group were exposed to simulated high altitude hypoxia condition for 3 days in a high altitude hypoxia cabin after they were gavaged for half an hour daily. By the 18th day, the fresh mouse feces were collected and smeared to observe the changes of microflora. The pathological changes of intestinal tissues were observed by HE staining and the expression of HIF-1αprotein in intestines was detected by immunohistochemistry. Results  The enterococci and gram negative bacteria showed a higher proportion (65.2%±2.4% and 56.7%±3.3%, respectively in the model group compared with the control group (24.7%±1.2%, 23.2%±1.5%, respectively, P<0.05. The pathological score of intestinal mucosal necrosis and edema (3.10±0.99, 3.30±0.67 respectively and inflammatory cell count (15.93±3.30, 16.40±3.97/ HP respectively was higher compared with the model group (0.70±0.67, 0.80±0.78; 4.07±2.12, 4.28±2.16/HP respectively; P<0.05. HIF-1αexpression increased significantly compared with the model group (P<0.05. The enterococci (46.7%±2.0%, 32.0%±2.6% respectively and gram negative bacteria rate (34.2%±1.6%, 38.0%±2.8% respectively in the ALP medium and high dose groups were lower compared with the model group (24.7%±1.2%, 23.2%±1.5% respectively, P<0

  11. Numerical simulation of the ionization effects of low- and high-altitude nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Zhengyu; Wang Xiang

    2007-01-01

    Low-altitude and high-altitude nuclear explosions are sources of intensive additional ionization in ionosphere. In this paper, in terms of the ionization equilibrium equation system and the equation of energy deposition of radiation in atmosphere, and considering the influence of atmosphere, the temporal and spatial distribution of ionization effects caused by atmospheric nuclear detonation are investigated. The calculated results show that the maximum of additional free electron density produced by low-altitude nuclear explosion is greater than that by the high-altitude nuclear burst. As to the influence of instant nuclear radiation, there is obvious difference between the low-altitude and the high-altitude explosions. The influence range and the continuance time caused by delayed nuclear radiation is less for the low-altitude nuclear detonation than that for the high-altitude one. (authors)

  12. Science 101: Why Does It Take Longer to Boil Potatoes at High Altitudes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Bill

    2017-01-01

    Why Does It Take Longer to Boil Potatoes at High Altitudes? This column provides background science information for elementary teachers. This month's issue looks at why water boils at different temperatures at different altitudes.

  13. Incidence and care of environmental dermatoses in the high-altitude region of Ladakh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G K Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Low humidity, high-velocity wind, excessive ultraviolet (UV exposure, and extreme cold temperature are the main causes of various types of environmental dermatoses in high altitudes. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was carried out in patients visiting the lone dermatology department in Ladakh between July 2009 and June 2010. The aim was to identify the common environmental dermatoses in high altitudes so that they can be treated easily or prevented. The patients were divided into three demographic groups, namely, lowlanders, Ladakhis (native highlanders, and tourists. Data was analyzed in a tabulated fashion. Results: A total of 1,567 patients with skin ailments were seen, of whom 965 were lowlanders, 512 native Ladakhis, and 90 were tourists. The skin disorders due to UV rays, dry skin, and papular urticaria were common among all groups. The frequency of melasma ( n = 42; 49.4%, chronic actinic dermatitis (CAD ( n = 18; 81.81% of total CAD cases, and actinic cheilitis ( n = 3; 100% was much higher among the native Ladakhis. The frequency of cold-related injuries was much lesser among Ladakhis ( n = 1; 1.19% than lowlanders ( n = 70; 83.33% and tourists ( n = 13; 15.47% ( P < 0.05. Conclusion: Dryness of skin, tanning, acute or chronic sunburn, polymorphic light reaction, CAD, insect bite reactions, chilblain, and frostbite are common environmental dermatoses of high altitudes. Avoidance of frequent application of soap, application of adequate and suitable emollient, use of effective sunscreen, and wearing of protective clothing are important guidelines for skin care in this region.

  14. An appraisal of precipitation distribution in the high-altitude catchments of the Indus basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahri, Zakir Hussain; Ludwig, Fulco; Moors, Eddy; Ahmad, Bashir; Khan, Asif; Kabat, Pavel

    2016-04-01

    Scarcity of in-situ observations coupled with high orographic influences has prevented a comprehensive assessment of precipitation distribution in the high-altitude catchments of Indus basin. Available data are generally fragmented and scattered with different organizations and mostly cover the valleys. Here, we combine most of the available station data with the indirect precipitation estimates at the accumulation zones of major glaciers to analyse altitudinal dependency of precipitation in the high-altitude Indus basin. The available observations signified the importance of orography in each sub-hydrological basin but could not infer an accurate distribution of precipitation with altitude. We used Kriging with External Drift (KED) interpolation scheme with elevation as a predictor to appraise spatiotemporal distribution of mean monthly, seasonal and annual precipitation for the period of 1998-2012. The KED-based annual precipitation estimates are verified by the corresponding basin-wide observed specific runoffs, which show good agreement. In contrast to earlier studies, our estimates reveal substantially higher precipitation in most of the sub-basins indicating two distinct rainfall maxima; 1st along southern and lower most slopes of Chenab, Jhelum, Indus main and Swat basins, and 2nd around north-west corner of Shyok basin in the central Karakoram. The study demonstrated that the selected gridded precipitation products covering this region are prone to significant errors. In terms of quantitative estimates, ERA-Interim is relatively close to the observations followed by WFDEI and TRMM, while APHRODITE gives highly underestimated precipitation estimates in the study area. Basin-wide seasonal and annual correction factors introduced for each gridded dataset can be useful for lumped hydrological modelling studies, while the estimated precipitation distribution can serve as a basis for bias correction of any gridded precipitation products for the study area

  15. Influence of the altitude on the burning velocity of the natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrieta, Andres Amell; Garcia Posada, Jorge Mario; Quilindo Valencia, Arvey; Henao Vallejo, Diego Alberto

    2004-01-01

    By the increasing use of natural gas in cities of Latin America located to high altitude, is necessary to study the effect of the altitude on the combustion, for example the burning velocity. This work is an experimental study of as it changes to the burning velocity with the altitude, being made test in sites with altitude of 40, 550, 1.020, 1.550, 2.040 and 2.550 meters. The result was that the variations are slight

  16. Desenvolvimento e estado nutricional da beterraba em função da omisão de nutrientes Effect of macronutrient omission on growth and nutritional status on table beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana U Alves

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da omissão de macronutrientes no desenvolvimento e no estado nutricional da beterraba, assim como descrever sintomas visuais de deficiência nutricional, um experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação da UNESP, Campus de Jaboticabal, SP. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com sete tratamentos, que corresponderam à solução completa (macro e micronutrientes e à omissão individual de N, P, K, Ca, Mg e S, com três repetições. Avaliou-se a altura das plantas, o número de folhas, a área foliar, a matéria seca da parte aérea, da raiz e planta inteira, os teores dos macronutrientes da parte aérea e raiz e descritos as desordens nutricionais. As omissões individuais de N, P, K e Ca foram as mais limitantes para o crescimento vegetativo da beterraba, reduzindo consideravelmente a altura, o número de folhas e as matérias secas de parte aérea, raiz e planta inteira. Foram observados sintomas de deficiência nutricional de cada elemento. Os teores dos macronutrientes na parte aérea do tratamento completo e com omissão dos nutrientes foram respectivamente: N = 32,9 - 13,8; P = 9,0 - 0,8; K = 126,0 - 15,1; Ca = 12,0 - 1,0; Mg = 10,1 - 0,7; S = 3,6 - 1,2 g kg-1.An experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions, in Jaboticabal, São Paulo State, Brazil, to evaluate the effects of macronutrient omission on beet nutritional status and development, as well as to describe nutritional deficiency symptoms. The experiment was arranged in completely randomized design with three replications and seven treatments, corresponding to complete nutritive solution (macro and micronutrients and individual N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S omission. Plant height, number of leaves, leaf area, shoot, root and whole plant dry mass and macronutrient levels were determined and nutritional deficiency symptoms were described. Individual omissions of N, P, K or Ca were the most limiting for beet growth

  17. Coca: High Altitude Remedy of the Ancient Incas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondich, Amy Sue; Joslin, Jeremy D

    2015-12-01

    The use of coca leaf for medicinal purposes is a centuries-old tradition of the native peoples of South America. Coca products are thought by many laypersons to provide risk-free benefits to users participating in strenuous activities at high altitude. Physiologic studies of coca have increased understanding of its possible mechanism of action as well as its potential impact on high altitude activities. This present work explores the role of coca throughout the history of the Andean peoples and explores whether this ancient remedy has a place in modern medicine. A focused summary of research articles with particular relevance to the field of wilderness medicine is also included to better provide the reader with lessons not only from history but also from another culture. Copyright © 2015 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Measurements of radioactive dust in high altitude air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Mika; Kohara, Eri; Muronoi, Naohiro; Masuda, Yousuke; Midou, Tomotaka; Ishida, Yukiko; Shimizu, Toshihiko; Saga, Minoru; Endo, Hiromu

    2012-01-01

    The radioactivity in samples of airborne dust was measured. The samples had been collected at high altitude by the Japan Air Self-Defense Force. The data were obtained for the gross beta activity, gamma nuclide determination and radiochemical analysis. It was shown that there was no appreciable difference between the activity levels obtained in this time and in the year before. Seasonal variations were not very pronounced. It was found that the radioactivity at high altitude had been stable at a low level. Radioactive gases (gaseous radioiodine and xenon gas) were not detected. This report does not include the result on radionuclide measurements that Technical Research and Development Institute executed for examining the nuclear emergency situation at Fukushima Daiichi and Daini nuclear power plants after Tohoku Region Pacific Ocean Earthquake on March 11, 2011. (author)

  19. Ascent to moderate altitude impairs overnight memory improvements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesler, Noemi; Latshang, Tsogyal D; Lo Cascio, Christian M; Stadelmann, Katrin; Stoewhas, Anne-Christin; Kohler, Malcolm; Bloch, Konrad E; Achermann, Peter; Huber, Reto

    2015-02-01

    Several studies showed beneficial effects of sleep on memory performance. Slow waves, the electroencephalographic characteristic of deep sleep, reflected on the neuronal level by synchronous slow oscillations, seem crucial for these benefits. Traveling to moderate altitudes decreases deep sleep. In a randomized cross-over design healthy male subjects performed a visuo-motor learning task in Zurich (490 m) and at Davos Jakobshorn (2590 m) in random order. Memory performance was assessed immediately after learning, before sleep, and in the morning after a night of sleep. Sleep EEG recordings were performed during the nights. Our findings show an altitude induced reduction of sleep dependent memory performance. Moreover, this impaired sleep dependent memory performance was associated with reduced slow wave derived measures of neuronal synchronization. Our results are consistent with a critical role of slow waves for the beneficial effects of sleep on memory that is susceptible to natural environmental influences. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. High-altitude haematology: Quechua-Aymara comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, J; Quilici, J C; Rivière, G

    1981-01-01

    Haematological studies have been carried out at various altitudes between 450 m and 4800 m, on two separate human groups (Quechuas and Aymaras) living in South America. Changes in the haematological parameters do not develop linearly in relation to the attitude. Th impact of chronic hypoxia on erythropoiesis is greater above 3000 m. The haemogram varies quantitatively and not qualitatively (mean corpuscular volume and mean haemoglobin concentration remain constant). The haematological study also reveals the greater adaptability to high altitude of the Aymaras, an adaptability characterized by an increase in red cell count and concentration and a decrease in red cell volume. The adaptative phenomena observed in the Quechuas are reversible, whereas they persist in the Aymaras when they migrate to the lowlands (450 m).

  1. Cosmic microwave background science at commercial airline altitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeney, Stephen M.; Gudmundsson, Jon E.; Peiris, Hiranya V.; Verde, Licia; Errard, Josquin

    2017-07-01

    Obtaining high-sensitivity measurements of degree-scale cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization is the most direct path to detecting primordial gravitational waves. Robustly recovering any primordial signal from the dominant foreground emission will require high-fidelity observations at multiple frequencies, with excellent control of systematics. We explore the potential for a new platform for CMB observations, the Airlander 10 hybrid air vehicle, to perform this task. We show that the Airlander 10 platform, operating at commercial airline altitudes, is well suited to mapping frequencies above 220 GHz, which are critical for cleaning CMB maps of dust emission. Optimizing the distribution of detectors across frequencies, we forecast the ability of Airlander 10 to clean foregrounds of varying complexity as a function of altitude, demonstrating its complementarity with both existing (Planck) and ongoing (C-BASS) foreground observations. This novel platform could play a key role in defining our ultimate view of the polarized microwave sky.

  2. Increased insulin requirements during exercise at very high altitude in type 1 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Mol, Pieter; de Vries, Suzanna T.; de Koning, Eelco J. P.; Gans, Rijk O. B.; Tack, Cees J.; Bilo, Henk J. G.

    OBJECTIVE-Safe, very high altitude trekking in subjects with type 1 diabetes requires understanding of glucose regulation at high altitude. We investigated insulin requirements, energy expenditure, and glucose levels at very high altitude in relation to acute mountain sickness (AMS) symptoms in

  3. Acute and Chronic Altitude-Induced Cognitive Dysfunction in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimoldi, Stefano F; Rexhaj, Emrush; Duplain, Hervé; Urben, Sébastien; Billieux, Joël; Allemann, Yves; Romero, Catherine; Ayaviri, Alejandro; Salinas, Carlos; Villena, Mercedes; Scherrer, Urs; Sartori, Claudio

    2016-02-01

    To assess whether exposure to high altitude induces cognitive dysfunction in young healthy European children and adolescents during acute, short-term exposure to an altitude of 3450 m and in an age-matched European population permanently living at this altitude. We tested executive function (inhibition, shifting, and working memory), memory (verbal, short-term visuospatial, and verbal episodic memory), and speed processing ability in: (1) 48 healthy nonacclimatized European children and adolescents, 24 hours after arrival at high altitude and 3 months after return to low altitude; (2) 21 matched European subjects permanently living at high altitude; and (3) a matched control group tested twice at low altitude. Short-term hypoxia significantly impaired all but 2 (visuospatial memory and processing speed) of the neuropsychological abilities that were tested. These impairments were even more severe in the children permanently living at high altitude. Three months after return to low altitude, the neuropsychological performances significantly improved and were comparable with those observed in the control group tested only at low altitude. Acute short-term exposure to an altitude at which major tourist destinations are located induces marked executive and memory deficits in healthy children. These deficits are equally marked or more severe in children permanently living at high altitude and are expected to impair their learning abilities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Altitude acclimatization and blood volume: effects of exogenous erythrocyte volume expansion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sawka, M N; Young, Jette Feveile; Rock, P B

    1996-01-01

    blood oxygen content alters erythropoietin responses during altitude acclimatization, and 4) mechanisms responsible for plasma loss at altitude. Sixteen healthy men had a series of hematologic measurements made at sea level, on the first and ninth days of altitude (4,300 m) residence, and after...

  5. VisibleWind: wind profile measurements at low altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkerson, Tom; Bradford, Bill; Marchant, Alan; Apedaile, Tom; Wright, Cordell

    2009-09-01

    VisibleWindTM is developing an inexpensive rapid response system, for accurately characterizing wind shear and small scale wind phenomena in the boundary layer and for prospecting suitable locations for wind power turbines. The ValidWind system can also collect reliable "ground truth" for other remote wind sensors. The system employs small (0.25 m dia.) lightweight balloons and a tracker consisting of an Impulse 200 XL laser rangefinder coupled to a PC for automated data recording. Experiments on balloon trajectories demonstrate that the laser detection of range (+/- 0.5 m), together with measured azimuth and altitude, is an inexpensive, convenient, and capable alternative to other wind tracking methods. The maximum detection range has been increased to 2200 meters using micro-corner-cube retroreflector tape on balloons. Low power LEDs enable nighttime tracking. To avoid large balloon gyrations about the mean trajectory, we use balloons having low ascent rates and subcritical Reynolds numbers. Trajectory points are typically recorded every 4 - 7 seconds. Atmospheric features observed under conditions of inversions or "light and variable winds" include abrupt onsets of shear at altitudes of 100-250 m, velocity changes of order 1-3 m/s within layers of 10-20 m thickness, and veering of the wind direction by 180 degrees or more as altitude increases from 300 to 500 m. We have previously reported comparisons of balloon-based wind profiles with the output of a co-located sodar. Even with the Impulse rangefinder, our system still requires a "man in the loop" to track the balloon. A future system enhancement will automate balloon tracking, so that laser returns are obtained automatically at 1 Hz. While balloon measurements of large-scale, high altitude wind profiles are well known, this novel measurement system provides high-resolution, real-time characterization of the fluctuating local wind fields at the bottom of the boundary layer where wind power turbines and other

  6. Training-dependent cognitive advantage is suppressed at high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Zhang, Gang; You, Hai-Yan; Zheng, Ran; Gao, Yu-Qi

    2012-06-25

    Ascent to high altitude is associated with decreases in cognitive function and work performance as a result of hypoxia. Some workers with special jobs typically undergo intensive mental training because they are expected to be agile, stable and error-free in their job performance. The purpose of this study was to determine the risk to cognitive function acquired from training following hypoxic exposure. The results of WHO neurobehavioral core tests battery (WHO-NCTB) and Raven's standard progressive matrices (RSPM) tests of a group of 54 highly trained military operators were compared with those of 51 non-trained ordinary people and were investigated at sea level and on the fifth day after arrival at high altitudes (3900m). Meanwhile, the plasma levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were examined. The result showed that at sea level, the trained group exhibited significantly better performance on neurobehavioral and RSPM tests. At high altitude, both groups had decreased accuracy in most cognitive tests and took longer to finish them. More importantly, the highly trained subjects showed more substantial declines than the non-trained subjects in visual reaction accuracy, auditory reaction speed, digit symbol scores, ability to report correct dots in a pursuit aiming test and total RSPM scores. This means that the training-dependent cognitive advantages in these areas were suppressed at high altitudes. The above phenomenon maybe associated with decreased BDNF and elevated inflammatory factor during hypoxia, and other mechanisms could not be excluded. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Air Break During Preoxygenation and Risk of Altitude Decompression Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    examination and were representative of the USAF rated aircrew popula- tion. They were not allowed to participate in scuba div- ing, hyperbaric exposures, or...subjects dur- ing the hypobaric exposures and the subjects were not questioned about how they felt during the altitude ex- posures. Each subject was...to consult with the physicians in Hyperbaric Medicine within the same building. Endpoints of the exposures were: 1) comple- tion of the scheduled

  8. Hypoxic Hypoxia at Moderate Altitudes: State of the Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    nature of cognitive appraisal during exercise in environmentally stressful conditions. Psychology of Sport and Exercise. 2: 47-67. Alpern, M...Shukitt-Hale, B. 1993. Effects of altitude on mood, behaviour and cognitive functioning: A review. Sports Medicine. 16(2): 97-125. Balldin, U...exposure to hypoxia in healthy males [Abstract]. Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine. 78(3): 399. Chiles , W. D., Iampietro, P. F. and

  9. Wilderness medicine at high altitude: recent developments in the field

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Neeraj M; Hussain, Sidra; Cooke, Mark; O’Hara, John P; Mellor, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Neeraj M Shah,1 Sidra Hussain,2 Mark Cooke,3 John P O’Hara,3 Adrian Mellor3,4 1Division of Asthma, Allergy and Lung Biology, King’s College London, UK; 2School of Medicine, University College London, London, UK; 3Research Institute for Sport, Physical Activity and Leisure, Leeds Beckett University, Leeds, UK; 4Academic Department of Military Anaesthesia and Critical Care, Royal Centre for Defence Medicine, Birmingham, UK Abstract: Travel to high altitude is increasingly p...

  10. Decompression tables for inside chamber attendants working at altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, James; Thombs, Paul A; Davison, William J; Weaver, Lindell K

    2014-01-01

    Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) multiplace chamber inside attendants (IAs) are at risk for decompression sickness (DCS). Standard decompression tables are formulated for sea-level use, not for use at altitude. At Presbyterian/St. Luke's Medical Center (Denver, Colorado, 5,924 feet above sea level) and Intermountain Medical Center (Murray, Utah, 4,500 feet), the decompression obligation for IAs is managed with U.S. Navy Standard Air Tables corrected for altitude, Bühlmann Tables, and the Nobendem© calculator. IAs also breathe supplemental oxygen while compressed. Presbyterian/St. Luke's (0.83 atmospheres absolute/atm abs) uses gauge pressure, uncorrected for altitude, at 45 feet of sea water (fsw) (2.2 atm abs) for routine wound care HBO2 and 66 fsw (2.8 atm abs) for carbon monoxide/cyanide poisoning. Presbyterian/St. Luke's provides oxygen breathing for the IAs at 2.2 atm abs. At Intermountain (0.86 atm abs), HBO2 is provided at 2.0 atm abs for routine treatments and 3.0 atm abs for carbon monoxide poisoning. Intermountain IAs breathe intermittent 50% nitrogen/50% oxygen at 3.0 atm abs and 100% oxygen at 2.0 atm abs. The chamber profiles include a safety stop. From 1990-2013, Presbyterian/St. Luke's had 26,900 total IA exposures: 25,991 at 45 fsw (2.2 atm abs) and 646 at 66 fsw (2.8 atm abs); there have been four cases of IA DCS. From 2008-2013, Intermountain had 1,847 IA exposures: 1,832 at 2 atm abs and 15 at 3 atm abs, with one case of IA DCS. At both facilities, DCS incidents occurred soon after the chambers were placed into service. Based on these results, chamber inside attendant risk for DCS at increased altitude is low when the inside attendants breathe supplemental oxygen.

  11. Nike Black Brant V high altitude dynamic instability characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montag, W. H.; Walker, L. L., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Flight experience on the Nike Black Brant V has demonstrated the existence of plume induced flow separation over the fins and aft body of the Black Brant V motor. Modelling of the forces associated with this phenomenon as well as analysis of the resultant vehicle coning motion and its effect on the velocity vector heading are presented. A summary of Nike Black Brant V flight experience with high altitude dynamic instability is included.

  12. Increased Cardiometabolic Risk and Worsening Hypoxemia at High Altitude

    OpenAIRE

    Miele, Catherine H.; Schwartz, Alan R.; Gilman, Robert H.; Pham, Luu; Wise, Robert A.; Davila-Roman, Victor G.; Jun, Jonathan C.; Polotsky, Vsevolod Y.; Miranda, J. Jaime; Leon-Velarde, Fabiola; Checkley, William

    2016-01-01

    Miele, Catherine H., Alan R. Schwartz, Robert H. Gilman, Luu Pham, Robert A. Wise, Victor G. Davila-Roman, Jonathan C. Jun, Vsevolod Y. Polotsky, J. Jaime Miranda, Fabiola Leon-Velarde, and William Checkley. Increased cardiometabolic risk and worsening hypoxemia at high altitude. High Alt Med Biol. 17:93���100, 2016.���Metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, diabetes, and dyslipidemia are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. While excessive erythrocytosis is associated...

  13. The yak genome and adaptation to life at high altitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiu, Qiang; Zhang, Guojie; Ma, Tao

    2012-01-01

    . Here, we present the draft genome sequence of a female domestic yak generated using Illumina-based technology at 65-fold coverage. Genomic comparisons between yak and cattle identify an expansion in yak of gene families related to sensory perception and energy metabolism, as well as an enrichment...... important implications for understanding adaptation to high altitude in other animal species and for hypoxia-related diseases in humans....

  14. High-Altitude Platforms — Present Situation and Technology Trends

    OpenAIRE

    d’Oliveira, Flavio Araripe; Melo, Francisco Cristovão Lourenço de; Devezas, Tessaleno Campos

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT High-altitude platforms (HAPs) are aircraft, usually unmanned airships or airplanes positioned above 20 km, in the stratosphere, in order to compose a telecommunications network or perform remote sensing. In the 1990 and 2000 decades, several projects were launched, but very few had continued. In 2014, 2 major Internet companies (Google and Facebook) announced investments in new HAP projects to provide Internet access in regions without communication infrastructure (terrestrial or sa...

  15. Breakfast and Energy Drink Consumption in Secondary School Children: Breakfast Omission, in Isolation or in Combination with Frequent Energy Drink Use, is Associated with Stress, Anxiety, and Depression Cross-Sectionally, but not at Six-Month Follow-Up

    OpenAIRE

    Gareth eRichards; Andrew Paul Smith

    2016-01-01

    A considerable amount of research suggests that breakfast omission and the frequent use of caffeinated energy drinks may be associated with undesirable effects, and particularly so in children and adolescents. The current paper presents cross-sectional and longitudinal data from the Cornish Academies Project to investigate the effects of consuming energy drinks and missing breakfast on stress, anxiety, and depression in a cohort of secondary school children from the South West of England. Que...

  16. Breakfast and Energy Drink Consumption in Secondary School Children: Breakfast Omission, in Isolation or in Combination with Frequent Energy Drink Use, is Associated with Stress, Anxiety, and Depression Cross-Sectionally, but not at 6-Month Follow-Up

    OpenAIRE

    Richards, Gareth; Smith, Andrew P.

    2016-01-01

    A considerable amount of research suggests that breakfast omission and the frequent use of caffeinated energy drinks may be associated with undesirable effects, and particularly so in children and adolescents. The current paper presents cross-sectional and longitudinal data from the Cornish Academies Project to investigate the effects of consuming energy drinks and missing breakfast on stress, anxiety, and depression in a cohort of secondary school children from the South West of England. Que...

  17. The sleep of elite athletes at sea level and high altitude: a comparison of sea-level natives and high-altitude natives (ISA3600)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Gregory D; Schmidt, Walter F; Aughey, Robert J; Bourdon, Pitre C; Soria, Rudy; Claros, Jesus C Jimenez; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Buchheit, Martin; Simpson, Ben M; Hammond, Kristal; Kley, Marlen; Wachsmuth, Nadine; Gore, Christopher J; Sargent, Charli

    2013-01-01

    Background Altitude exposure causes acute sleep disruption in non-athletes, but little is known about its effects in elite athletes. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of altitude on two groups of elite athletes, that is, sea-level natives and high-altitude natives. Methods Sea-level natives were members of the Australian under-17 soccer team (n=14). High-altitude natives were members of a Bolivian under-20 club team (n=12). Teams participated in an 18-day (19 nights) training camp in Bolivia, with 6 nights at near sea level in Santa Cruz (430 m) and 13 nights at high altitude in La Paz (3600 m). Sleep was assessed on every day/night using activity monitors. Results The Australians’ sleep was shorter, and of poorer quality, on the first night at altitude compared with sea level. Sleep quality returned to normal by the end of the first week at altitude, but sleep quantity had still not stabilised at its normal level after 2 weeks. The quantity and quality of sleep obtained by the Bolivians was similar, or greater, on all nights at altitude compared with sea level. The Australians tended to obtain more sleep than the Bolivians at sea level and altitude, but the quality of the Bolivians’ sleep tended to be better than that of the Australians at altitude. Conclusions Exposure to high altitude causes acute and chronic disruption to the sleep of elite athletes who are sea-level natives, but it does not affect the sleep of elite athletes who are high-altitude natives. PMID:24282197

  18. The sleep of elite athletes at sea level and high altitude: a comparison of sea-level natives and high-altitude natives (ISA3600).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Gregory D; Schmidt, Walter F; Aughey, Robert J; Bourdon, Pitre C; Soria, Rudy; Claros, Jesus C Jimenez; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Buchheit, Martin; Simpson, Ben M; Hammond, Kristal; Kley, Marlen; Wachsmuth, Nadine; Gore, Christopher J; Sargent, Charli

    2013-12-01

    Altitude exposure causes acute sleep disruption in non-athletes, but little is known about its effects in elite athletes. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of altitude on two groups of elite athletes, that is, sea-level natives and high-altitude natives. Sea-level natives were members of the Australian under-17 soccer team (n=14). High-altitude natives were members of a Bolivian under-20 club team (n=12). Teams participated in an 18-day (19 nights) training camp in Bolivia, with 6 nights at near sea level in Santa Cruz (430 m) and 13 nights at high altitude in La Paz (3600 m). Sleep was assessed on every day/night using activity monitors. The Australians' sleep was shorter, and of poorer quality, on the first night at altitude compared with sea level. Sleep quality returned to normal by the end of the first week at altitude, but sleep quantity had still not stabilised at its normal level after 2 weeks. The quantity and quality of sleep obtained by the Bolivians was similar, or greater, on all nights at altitude compared with sea level. The Australians tended to obtain more sleep than the Bolivians at sea level and altitude, but the quality of the Bolivians' sleep tended to be better than that of the Australians at altitude. Exposure to high altitude causes acute and chronic disruption to the sleep of elite athletes who are sea-level natives, but it does not affect the sleep of elite athletes who are high-altitude natives.

  19. Space environment monitoring by low-altitude operational satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroehl, H.W.

    1982-01-01

    The primary task of the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) is the acquisition of meteorological data in the visual and infrared spectral regions. The Air Weather Service operates two satellites in low-altitude, sun-synchronous, polar orbits at 850 km altitude, 98.7 deg inclination, 101.5 minute period and dawn-dusk or noon-midnight equatorial crossing times. Special DMSP sensors of interest to the space science community are the precipitating electron spectrometer, the terrestrial noise receiver, and the topside ionosphere plasma monitor. Data from low-altitude, meteorological satellites can be used to build empirical models of precipitating electron characteristics of the auroral zone and polar cap. The Tiros-NOAA satellite program complements the DMSP program. The orbital elements are the same as DMSP's, except for the times of equatorial crossing, and the tilt of the orbital plane. The Tiros-NOAA program meets the civilian community's needs for meteorological data as the DMSP program does for the military

  20. Differentiation of pulmonary embolism from high altitude pulmonary edema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, D.A.; Hashim, R.; Mirza, T.M.; Matloob-ur-Rehman, M.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To differentiate the high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) from pulmonary embolism (PE) by clinical probability model of PE, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate transaminase (AST) and D-dimer assays at high altitude. Subjects and Methods: Consecutive 40 patients evacuated from height > 3000 meters with symptoms of PE or HAPE were included. Clinical pretest probabilities scores of PE, Minutex D-dimer assay (Biopool international) and cardiac enzymes estimation by IFCC approved methods, were used for diagnosis. Mann-Whitney U test was applied by using SPSS and level of significance was taken at (p 500 ng/ml. Plasma D-dimer of 500 ng/ml was considered as cut-off value; 6(66.7%) patients of PE could be diagnosed and 30 (96.7%) cases of HAPE excluded indicating very good negative predictive value. Serum LDH, AST and CK were raised above the reference ranges in 8 (89%), 7 (78%) and 3 (33%) patients of PE as compared to 11 (35%), 6 (19%) and 9 (29%) of HAPE respectively. Conclusion: Clinical assessment in combination with D-dimer assay, LDH and AST can be used for timely differentiation of PE from HAPE at high altitude where diagnostic imaging procedures are not available. (author)

  1. The individual response to training and competition at altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Robert F

    2013-12-01

    Performance in athletic activities that include a significant aerobic component at mild or moderate altitudes shows a large individual variation. Physiologically, a large portion of the negative effect of altitude on exercise performance can be traced to limitations of oxygen diffusion, either at the level of the alveoli or the muscle microvasculature. In the lung, the ability to maintain arterial oxyhaemoglobin saturation (SaO₂) appears to be a primary factor, ultimately influencing oxygen delivery to the periphery. SaO₂ in hypoxia can be defended by increasing ventilatory drive; however, during heavy exercise, many athletes demonstrate limitations to expiratory flow and are unable to increase ventilation in hypoxia. Additionally, increasing ventilatory work in hypoxia may actually be negative for performance, if dyspnoea increases or muscle blood flow is reduced secondary to an increased sympathetic outflow (eg, the muscle metaboreflex response). Taken together, some athletes are clearly more negatively affected during exercise in hypoxia than other athletes. With careful screening, it may be possible to develop a protocol for determining which athletes may be the most negatively affected during competition and/or training at altitude.

  2. Decompression to altitude: assumptions, experimental evidence, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Philip P; Butler, Bruce D

    2009-02-01

    Although differences exist, hypobaric and hyperbaric exposures share common physiological, biochemical, and clinical features, and their comparison may provide further insight into the mechanisms of decompression stress. Although altitude decompression illness (DCI) has been experienced by high-altitude Air Force pilots and is common in ground-based experiments simulating decompression profiles of extravehicular activities (EVAs) or astronauts' space walks, no case has been reported during actual EVAs in the non-weight-bearing microgravity environment of orbital space missions. We are uncertain whether gravity influences decompression outcomes via nitrogen tissue washout or via alterations related to skeletal muscle activity. However, robust experimental evidence demonstrated the role of skeletal muscle exercise, activities, and/or movement in bubble formation and DCI occurrence. Dualism of effects of exercise, positive or negative, on bubble formation and DCI is a striking feature in hypobaric exposure. Therefore, the discussion and the structure of this review are centered on those highlighted unresolved topics about the relationship between muscle activity, decompression, and microgravity. This article also provides, in the context of altitude decompression, an overview of the role of denitrogenation, metabolic gases, gas micronuclei, stabilization of bubbles, biochemical pathways activated by bubbles, nitric oxide, oxygen, anthropometric or physiological variables, Doppler-detectable bubbles, and potential arterialization of bubbles. These findings and uncertainties will produce further physiological challenges to solve in order to line up for the programmed human return to the Moon, the preparation for human exploration of Mars, and the EVAs implementation in a non-zero gravity environment.

  3. Key issues of ultraviolet radiation of OH at high altitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yuhuai; Wan, Tian; Jiang, Jianzheng; Fan, Jing [State Key Laboratory of High Temperature Gasdynamics, Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2014-12-09

    Ultraviolet (UV) emissions radiated by hydroxyl (OH) is one of the fundamental elements in the prediction of radiation signature of high-altitude and high-speed vehicle. In this work, the OH A{sup 2}Σ{sup +}→X{sup 2}Π ultraviolet emission band behind the bow shock is computed under the experimental condition of the second bow-shock ultraviolet flight (BSUV-2). Four related key issues are discussed, namely, the source of hydrogen element in the high-altitude atmosphere, the formation mechanism of OH species, efficient computational algorithm of trace species in rarefied flows, and accurate calculation of OH emission spectra. Firstly, by analyzing the typical atmospheric model, the vertical distributions of the number densities of different species containing hydrogen element are given. According to the different dominating species containing hydrogen element, the atmosphere is divided into three zones, and the formation mechanism of OH species is analyzed in the different zones. The direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method and the Navier-Stokes equations are employed to compute the number densities of the different OH electronically and vibrationally excited states. Different to the previous work, the trace species separation (TSS) algorithm is applied twice in order to accurately calculate the densities of OH species and its excited states. Using a non-equilibrium radiation model, the OH ultraviolet emission spectra and intensity at different altitudes are computed, and good agreement is obtained with the flight measured data.

  4. Approaching Mars-like geochemical conditions in the laboratory: omission of artificial buffers and reductants in a study of biogenic methane production on a smectite clay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chastain, Brendon K; Kral, Timothy A

    2010-11-01

    Methanogens have not been shown to metabolize in conditions exactly analogous to those present in Mars' subsurface. In typical studies of methanogenic metabolism, nutrient-rich buffered media and reducing agents are added to the cultures in an attempt to optimize the environment for methanogen survival and growth. To study methanogens in more Mars-relevant laboratory conditions, efforts should be made to eliminate artificial media, buffers, and reducing agents from investigations of methanogenic metabolism. After preliminary work to compare methanogen viability on montmorillonite clay and JSC Mars-1 regolith simulant, a study was conducted to determine whether biological methanogenesis could occur in non-reduced, non-buffered environments containing only H(2), CO(2), montmorillonite, and the liquid fraction extracted from a montmorillonite/deionized water suspension. Biogenic methane was observed in the microenvironments despite the omission of traditional media, buffers, and reducing agents. Mean headspace methane concentration after 96 days of observation was 10.23% ± 0.64% (% vol ± SEM, n = 4). However, methane production was severely decreased with respect to reduced, buffered microenvironments (Day 28: 31.98% ± 0.19%, n = 3). Analysis of results and comparison to previous work indicate that montmorillonite clay has a strong ability to supply micronutrients necessary for methanogenic metabolism, and the liquid fraction from a montmorillonite/deionized water slurry can successfully be used as an alternative to reduced and buffered nutritive media in Mars-relevant studies of methanogenic metabolism.

  5. Characterization of the key aroma compounds in pink guava (Psidium guajava L.) by means of aroma re-engineering experiments and omission tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhaus, Martin; Sinuco, Diana; Polster, Johannes; Osorio, Coralia; Schieberle, Peter

    2009-04-08

    Seventeen aroma-active volatiles, previously identified with high flavor dilution factors in fresh, pink Colombian guavas (Psidium guajava L.), were quantified by stable isotope dilution assays. On the basis of the quantitative data and odor thresholds in water, odor activity values (OAV; ratio of concentration to odor threshold) were calculated. High OAVs were determined for the green, grassy smelling (Z)-3-hexenal and the grapefruit-like smelling 3-sulfanyl-1-hexanol followed by 3-sulfanylhexyl acetate (black currant-like), hexanal (green, grassy), ethyl butanoate (fruity), acetaldehyde (fresh, pungent), trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal (metallic), 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (caramel, sweet), cinnamyl alcohol (floral), methyl (2S,3S)-2-hydroxy-3-methylpentanoate (fruity), cinnamyl acetate (floral), methional (cooked potato-like), and 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone (seasoning-like). Studies on the time course of odorant formation in guava puree or cubes, respectively, showed that (Z)-3-hexenal was hardly present in the intact fruits, but was formed very quickly during crushing. The aroma of fresh guava fruit cubes, which showed a very balanced aroma profile, was successfully mimicked in a reconstitute consisting of 13 odorants in their naturally occurring concentrations. Omission tests, in which single odorants were omitted from the entire aroma reconstitute, revealed (Z)-3-hexenal, 3-sulfanyl-1-hexanol, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, 3-sulfanylhexyl acetate, hexanal, ethyl butanoate, cinnamyl acetate, and methional as the key aroma compounds of pink guavas.

  6. Breakfast and Energy Drink Consumption in Secondary School Children: Breakfast Omission, in Isolation or in Combination with Frequent Energy Drink Use, is Associated with Stress, Anxiety, and Depression Cross-Sectionally, but not at Six-Month Follow-Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth eRichards

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A considerable amount of research suggests that breakfast omission and the frequent use of caffeinated energy drinks may be associated with undesirable effects, and particularly so in children and adolescents. The current paper presents cross-sectional and longitudinal data from the Cornish Academies Project to investigate the effects of consuming energy drinks and missing breakfast on stress, anxiety, and depression in a cohort of secondary school children from the South West of England. Questionnaires were administered at two time-points (spaced six months apart to collect information relating to diet and lifestyle over the previous six months, demographic and school data were acquired through the School Information Management System, and single-item measures of stress, anxiety, and depression were administered at the second time-point only. Associations between breakfast and energy drink consumption and stress, anxiety, and depression were investigated, and a multivariate approach was taken so that additional variance from diet, demography, and lifestyle could be controlled for statistically. Cross-sectional analyses showed that breakfast omission was consistently associated with negative outcomes, and that this was largely observed for both those who frequently consumed energy drinks and those who did not. However, cross-lag analyses showed that neither breakfast omission or energy drink consumption, alone or in combination, was predictive of stress, anxiety, or depression at six-month follow-up. This suggests that associations between breakfast and mental health may be bi-directional rather than breakfast being the causal factor.

  7. Breakfast and Energy Drink Consumption in Secondary School Children: Breakfast Omission, in Isolation or in Combination with Frequent Energy Drink Use, is Associated with Stress, Anxiety, and Depression Cross-Sectionally, but not at 6-Month Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Gareth; Smith, Andrew P

    2016-01-01

    A considerable amount of research suggests that breakfast omission and the frequent use of caffeinated energy drinks may be associated with undesirable effects, and particularly so in children and adolescents. The current paper presents cross-sectional and longitudinal data from the Cornish Academies Project to investigate the effects of consuming energy drinks and missing breakfast on stress, anxiety, and depression in a cohort of secondary school children from the South West of England. Questionnaires were administered at two time-points (spaced 6 months apart) to collect information relating to diet and lifestyle over the previous 6 months. Demographic and school data were acquired through the School Information Management System, and single-item measures of stress, anxiety, and depression were administered at the second time-point only. Associations between breakfast and energy drink consumption and stress, anxiety, and depression were investigated, and a multivariate approach was taken so that additional variance from diet, demography, and lifestyle could be controlled for statistically. Cross-sectional analyses showed that breakfast omission was consistently associated with negative outcomes, and that this was largely observed for both those who frequently consumed energy drinks and those who did not. However, cross-lag analyses showed that neither breakfast omission or energy drink consumption, alone or in combination, was predictive of stress, anxiety, or depression at 6-month follow-up. This suggests that associations between breakfast and mental health may be bi-directional rather than breakfast being the causal factor.

  8. Definitions and Omissions of Heroism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Jeffrey W.

    2005-01-01

    This article presents comments on "The Heroism of Women and Men" by Selwyn W. Becker and Alice H. Eagly. Their article specifically addressed the "cultural association of heroism with men and masculinity . . . in natural settings." Becker and Eagly evidenced roughly equivalent rates of heroism by women and men in a variety of settings. However,…

  9. Surprises and omissions in toxicology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rašková, H.; Zídek, Zdeněk

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 12, - (2004), S94-S96 ISSN 1210-7778. [Inderdisciplinary Czech-Slovak Toxicological Conference /8./. Praha, 03.09.2004-05.09.2004] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5008914 Keywords : bacterial toxins Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry

  10. More on Sins of Omission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroh, Charles

    1981-01-01

    Commenting on Stanley S. Madeja's article in the October, 1980, issue of this journal, the author argues that the lack of substance and curriculum organization in public school art programs is largely a reflection of the lack of substance in most university- and college-level studio art programs. (Author/SJL)

  11. Preliminary Results of the Determination of Inlet-Pressure Distortion Effects on Compressor Stall and Altitude Operating Limits of the J57-P-1 Turbojet Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallner, L. E.; Lubick, R. J.; Chelko, L. J.

    1955-01-01

    During an investigation of the J57-P-1 turbojet engine in the Lewis altitude wind tunnel, effects of inlet-flow distortion on engine stall characteristics and operating limits were determined. In addition to a uniform inlet-flow profile, the inlet-pressure distortions imposed included two radial, two circumferential, and one combined radial-circumferential profile. Data were obtained over a range of compressor speeds at an altitude of 50,000 and a flight Mach number of 0.8; in addition, the high- and low-speed engine operating limits were investigated up to the maximum operable altitude. The effect of changing the compressor bleed position on the stall and operating limits was determined for one of the inlet distortions. The circumferential distortions lowered the compressor stall pressure ratios; this resulted in less fuel-flow margin between steady-state operation and compressor stall. Consequently, the altitude operating Limits with circumferential distortions were reduced compared with the uniform inlet profile. Radial inlet-pressure distortions increased the pressure ratio required for compressor stall over that obtained with uniform inlet flow; this resulted in higher altitude operating limits. Likewise, the stall-limit fuel flows required with the radial inlet-pressure distortions were considerably higher than those obtained with the uniform inlet-pressure profile. A combined radial-circumferential inlet distortion had effects on the engine similar to the circumferential distortion. Bleeding air between the two compressors eliminated the low-speed stall limit and thus permitted higher altitude operation than was possible without compressor bleed.

  12. Inverse association between altitude and obesity: A prevalence study among Andean and low-altitude adult individuals of Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolcott, Orison O.; Gutierrez, Cesar; Castillo, Oscar A.; Elashoff, Robert M.; Stefanovski, Darko; Bergman, Richard N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the association between altitude and obesity in a nationally representative sample of the Peruvian adult population. Design and Methods This is a cross-sectional analysis of publicly available data from the Food and Nutrition National Center (CENAN, Peru), period 2009-2010. Prevalence ratio of obesity and abdominal obesity was determined as a measure of association. Obesity and abdominal obesity were diagnosed based on direct anthropometric measurements. Results The final dataset consisted of 31,549 individuals ≥20 years old. The prevalence ratio of obesity was as follows: 1.00 between 0–499 m (reference category), 1.00 (95% confidence interval 0.87-1.16) between 500–1,499 m, 0.74 (0.63-0.86) between 1,500–2,999, and 0.54 (0.45-0.64) at ≥3,000 m, adjusting for age, sex, self-reported physical activity, out-migration rate, urbanization, poverty, education, and geographical latitude and longitude. In the same order, the adjusted prevalence ratio of abdominal obesity was 1.00, 1.01 (0.94-1.07), 0.93 (0.87-0.99), and 0.89 (0.82-0.95), respectively. We found an interaction between altitude and sex and between altitude and age (P<0.001, for both interactions) on the association with obesity and abdominal obesity. Conclusions Among Peruvian adult individuals, we found an inverse association between altitude and obesity, adjusting for multiple covariates. This adjusted association varied by sex and age. PMID:26935008

  13. Inverse association between altitude and obesity: A prevalence study among andean and low-altitude adult individuals of Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolcott, Orison O; Gutierrez, Cesar; Castillo, Oscar A; Elashoff, Robert M; Stefanovski, Darko; Bergman, Richard N

    2016-04-01

    To determine the association between altitude and obesity in a nationally representative sample of the Peruvian adult population. This is a cross-sectional analysis of publicly available data from the Food and Nutrition National Center (CENAN, Peru), period 2009-2010. The Prevalence ratio of obesity and abdominal obesity was determined as a measure of association. Obesity and abdominal obesity were diagnosed based on direct anthropometric measurements. The final data set consisted of 31,549 individuals ≥20 years old. The prevalence ratio of obesity was as follows: 1.00 between 0 and 499 m (reference category), 1.00 (95% confidence interval 0.87-1.16) between 500-1,499 m, 0.74 (0.63-0.86) between 1,500-2,999 m, and 0.54 (0.45-0.64) at ≥3,000 m, adjusting for age, sex, self-reported physical activity, out-migration rate, urbanization, poverty, education, and geographical latitude and longitude. In the same order, the adjusted prevalence ratio of abdominal obesity was 1.00, 1.01 (0.94-1.07), 0.93 (0.87-0.99), and 0.89 (0.82-0.95), respectively. We found an interaction between altitude and sex and between altitude and age (P association with obesity and abdominal obesity. Among Peruvian adult individuals, we found an inverse association between altitude and obesity, adjusting for multiple covariates. This adjusted association varied by sex and age. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  14. Electrolyte-carbohydrate beverage prevents water loss in the early stage of high altitude training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagisawa, Kae; Ito, Osamu; Nagai, Satsuki; Onishi, Shohei

    2012-01-01

    To prevent water loss in the early stage of high altitude training, we focused on the effect of electrolyte-carbohydrate beverage (EC). Subjects were 16 male university students who belonged to a ski club. They had ski training at an altitude of 1,800 m. The water (WT) group drank only water, and the EC group drank only an electrolyte-carbohydrate beverage. They arrived at the training site in the late afternoon. The study started at 7 pm on the day of arrival and continued until noon of the 4(th) day. In the first 12 hours, 1 L of beverages were given. On the second and third days, 2.5 L of beverages were given. All subjects ate the same meals. Each morning while in fasting condition, subjects were weighed and blood was withdrawn for various parameters (hemoglobin, hematocrit, sodium, potassium and aldosterone). Urine was collected at 12 hour intervals for a total 60 hours (5 times). The urine volume, gravity, sodium and potassium concentrations were measured. Peripheral oxygen saturation and heart rate were measured during sleep with a pulse oximeter. Liquid intakes in both groups were similar, hence the electrolytes intake was higher in the EC group than in the WT group. The total urine volume was lower in the EC group than in the WT group, respectively (paltitude training may be effective in decreasing urinary output and preventing loss of blood plasma volume.

  15. Characterization and speciation of mercury in mosses and lichens from the high-altitude Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Jun-Juan; Liu, Cheng-Bin; Zhang, Qing-Hua; Fu, Jian-Jie; Yang, Rui-Qiang; Shi, Jian-Bo; Cai, Yong; Jiang, Gui-Bin

    2017-06-01

    The accumulation and species of mercury (Hg) in mosses and lichens collected from high-altitude Tibetan Plateau were studied. The altitudes of the sampling sites spanned from 1983 to 5147 m, and a total of 130 mosses and 52 lichens were analyzed. The total mercury (THg) contents in mosses and lichens were in the ranges of 13.1-273.0 and 20.2-345.9 ng/g, respectively. The average ratios of methylmercury (MeHg) in THg in mosses and lichens were 2.4 % (0.3-11.1 %) and 2.7 % (0.4-9.6 %), respectively, which were higher than those values reported in other regions. The contents of THg in both mosses and lichens were not correlated with the THg in soils (p > 0.05). The lipid contents displayed a significantly positive correlation with concentrations of MeHg in mosses (r = 0.461, p Tibetan Plateau.

  16. Effects of Maternal Valium Administration on Fetal MRI Motion Artifact: A Comparison Study at High Altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Mariana L; Mirsky, David M; Dannull, Kimberly A; Tong, Suhong; Crombleholme, Timothy M

    2017-01-01

    Fetal MRI is performed without sedation. In cases of maternal claustrophobia or when reduction of fetal motion is critical, benzodiazepines may help. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of low-dose benzodiazepine on fetal motion MRI and its effect on maternal oxygen levels at higher elevation. A total of 131 fetal MRI scans performed from March 2012 through December 2013 were studied. Nineteen of the cases were performed following Valium administration. Images were graded with a 5-point Likert scale. Using pulse oximetry, maternal oxygen levels were recorded. Results were analyzed for each category combining 3 readers' interpretations. Using a 2-sample t test model, the average imaging scores were better for the control than the Valium group (p = 0.0139). Maternal oxygen levels at different times and positions were compared using independent 2-sample t test between the Valium and control groups showing no change in O2 saturation, except when controlling for altitude and gestational age (p = 0.0326). Administration of low-dose Valium did not decrease fetal motion on MRI. Valium did not pose any risk of maternal hypoxemia, except when controlling for altitude and gestational age on supine position. Thus, caution should be exercised to prevent the risk of fetal hypoxemia. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Genotyping the High Altitude Mestizo Ecuadorian Population Affected with Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés López-Cortés

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PC is the second most commonly diagnosed type of cancer in males with 1,114,072 new cases in 2015. The MTHFR enzyme acts in the folate metabolism, which is essential in methylation and synthesis of nucleic acids. MTHFR C677T alters homocysteine levels and folate assimilation associated with DNA damage. Androgens play essential roles in prostate growth. The SRD5A2 enzyme metabolizes testosterone and the V89L polymorphism reduces in vivo SRD5A2 activity. The androgen receptor gene codes for a three-domain protein that contains two polymorphic trinucleotide repeats (CAG, GGC. Therefore, it is essential to know how PC risk is associated with clinical features and polymorphisms in high altitude Ecuadorian mestizo populations. We analyzed 480 healthy and 326 affected men from our three retrospective case-control studies. We found significant association between MTHFR C/T (odds ratio [OR] = 2.2; P=0.009, MTHFR C/T+T/T (OR = 2.22; P=0.009, and PC. The SRD5A2 A49T substitution was associated with higher pTNM stage (OR = 2.88; P=0.039 and elevated Gleason grade (OR = 3.15; P=0.004. Additionally, patients with ≤21 CAG repeats have an increased risk of developing PC (OR = 2.99; P<0.001. In conclusion, genotype polymorphism studies are important to characterize genetic variations in high altitude mestizo populations.

  18. Pruning management of Chardonnay grapevines at high altitude in Brazilian southeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania dos Reis Mendonça

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The agronomical responses of Chardonnay, a variety indicated for sparkling wine production, is influenced by the vineyard management and the edaphoclimatic conditions of the region. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of two pruning types (Royat and double Guyot on vegetative and reproductive development of Chardonnay vine growing at high altitude in the Brazilian southeastern region. The experiment was carried out in a commercial vineyard located at 1,280 m of altitude in Divinolândia, São Paulo State, Brazil. The Chardonnay vines (clone 96, grafted onto 1103 Paulsen rootstock and trained in a vertical shoot positioning trellis system, were assessed. Vegetative vigor, bud fruitfulness, production and physicochemical composition of grapes were evaluated during 2014 and 2015 growing seasons. The Royat pruning induced higher vegetative vigor and increased the bud fruitfulness, the cluster number and the productivity of Chardonnay vine when compared to Guyot pruning. Even though the increase on yield was observed, there was no effect of pruning type on grape final quality. Therefore, the choice of pruning method in function of variety genetic characteristics and their interaction with environment can optimize the vineyard profitability. In the Brazilian southeast, the Royat system is the most suitable one to grow Chardonnay for sparkling wines production.

  19. High-altitude diving in river otters: coping with combined hypoxic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crait, Jamie R; Prange, Henry D; Marshall, Noah A; Harlow, Henry J; Cotton, Clark J; Ben-David, Merav

    2012-01-15

    River otters (Lontra canadensis) are highly active, semi-aquatic mammals indigenous to a range of elevations and represent an appropriate model for assessing the physiological responses to diving at altitude. In this study, we performed blood gas analyses and compared blood chemistry of river otters from a high-elevation (2357 m) population at Yellowstone Lake with a sea-level population along the Pacific coast. Comparisons of oxygen dissociation curves (ODC) revealed no significant difference in hemoglobin-oxygen (Hb-O(2)) binding affinity between the two populations - potentially because of demands for tissue oxygenation. Instead, high-elevation otters had greater Hb concentrations (18.7 g dl(-1)) than sea-level otters (15.6 g dl(-1)). Yellowstone otters displayed higher levels of the vasodilator nitric oxide (NO), and half the concentration of the serum protein albumin, possibly to compensate for increased blood viscosity. Despite compensation in several hematological and serological parameters, theoretical aerobic dive limits (ADL) were similar between high-elevation and sea-level otters because of the lower availability of O(2) at altitude. Our results suggest that recent disruptions to the Yellowstone Lake food web could be detrimental to otters because at this high elevation, constraints on diving may limit their ability to switch to prey in a deep-water environment.

  20. Austrian Moderate Altitude Studies (AMAS): benefits of exposure to moderate altitudes (1,500-2,500 m).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schobersberger, Wolfgang; Leichtfried, Veronika; Mueck-Weymann, Michael; Humpeler, Egon

    2010-09-01

    A considerable part of the millions of Alpine tourists suffer from pre-existing diseases (e.g., metabolic syndrome) and high daily stress levels. The main goal of the Austrian Moderate Altitude Study (AMAS) was to investigate (a) the consequences of an active vacation at moderate altitude on the key parameters of the metabolic syndrome (AMAS I) and (b) the effects of a short active vacation on adult progenitor cells, bio-psychological parameters, and heart rate variability (HRV). During the AMAS I pilot study (n = 22; 1,700 m a.s.l.) and AMAS I main study (n = 71; 1,700 m a.s.l. and 200 m a.s.l.), the volunteers simulated 3-week coached hiking vacations. For AMAS II, healthy volunteers (n = 13) participated in a 1-week active holiday at 1,700 m. There were significant improvements of obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance of AMAS I patients after the vacation. In AMAS II participants, we found an increase in circulating endothelial progenitor cells as well as improvements in bio-psychological and HRV parameters. Active vacations at moderate altitude are associated with a variety of positive health effects in persons with metabolic syndrome and in healthy subjects.

  1. Measurement of the energy spectrum of cosmic-ray induced neutrons aboard an ER-2 high-altitude airplane

    CERN Document Server

    Goldhagen, P E; Kniss, T; Reginatto, M; Singleterry, R C; Van Steveninck, W; Wilson, J W

    2002-01-01

    Crews working on present-day jet aircraft are a large occupationally exposed group with a relatively high average effective dose from galactic cosmic radiation. Crews of future high-speed commercial aircraft flying at higher altitudes would be even more exposed. To help reduce the significant uncertainties in calculations of such exposures, the atmospheric ionizing radiation (AIR) project, an international collaboration of 15 laboratories, made simultaneous radiation measurements with 14 instruments on five flights of a NASA ER-2 high-altitude aircraft. The primary AIR instrument was a highly sensitive extended-energy multisphere neutron spectrometer with lead and steel shells placed within the moderators of two of its 14 detectors to enhance response at high energies. Detector responses were calculated for neutrons and charged hadrons at energies up to 100 GeV using MCNPX. Neutron spectra were unfolded from the measured count rates using the new MAXED code. We have measured the cosmic-ray neutron spectrum (t...

  2. Experimental verification of altitude effect over thermal power in an atmospheric burner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amell Arrieta, Andres; Agudelo, John Ramiro; Cortes, Jaime

    1992-01-01

    Colombian national massive gasification plan is carried out in a variety of geographic altitudes ranging from 0 to 2.600 meter. The biggest market is located in the Andinan Region, which is characterized by great urban centres located at high altitudes. Commercial, domestic and industrial applications are characterized by the utilization of appliances using atmospheric burners. The thermal power of these burners is affected by altitude. This paper shows experimental results of thermal power reduction in atmospheric burners due to altitude changes. It was found that thermal power is reduced by 1,5% each 304 meters of altitude

  3. Hemorrhages and hemostasis in guinea-pigs exposed to irradiation at high altitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tartakovskij, V.N.; Daniyarov, S.B.

    1988-01-01

    Hemorrhagic intensity, hemostasis and blood vessel wall resistance to mechanical effects were studied in guinea-pigs exposed to whole-body irradiation (3.0 Gy). The animals were irradiated at low altitude (760 m above sea level) and at high altitude (3200 m above sea level) after 1 and 31 days of adaptation. It was demonstrated that hemorrhagic intensity in both groups of guinea-pigs irradiated at high altitude was significantly reduced in comparison with that at low altitude. The decrease of radiation-induced hemorrhages at high altitude is associated with less severe changes in thrombopoiesis, blood vessel wall and blood coagulation

  4. A variant of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene (NOS3) associated with AMS susceptibility is less common in the Quechua, a high altitude Native population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei; Ha, Alice Y N; Kidd, Kenneth K; Koehle, Michael S; Rupert, Jim L

    2010-01-01

    Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is a vascular enzyme that produces nitric oxide, a transient signaling molecule that by vasodilatation regulates blood flow and pressure. Nitric oxide is believed to play roles in both short-term acclimatization and long-term evolutionary adaptation to environmental hypoxia. Several laboratories, including ours, have shown that variants in NOS3 (the gene encoding eNOS) are overrepresented in individuals with altitude-related illnesses such as high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) and acute mountain sickness (AMS), suggesting that NOS3 genotypes contribute to altitude tolerance. To further test our hypothesis that the G allele at the G894T polymorphism in NOS3 (dbSNP number: rs1799983; protein polymorphism Glu298Asp) is beneficial in hypoxic environments, we compared frequencies of this allele in an altitude-adapted Amerindian population, Quechua of the Andean altiplano, with those in a lowland Amerindian population, Maya of the Yucatan Peninsula. While common in both populations, the G allele was significantly more frequent in the highlanders. Taken together, our data suggest that this variant in NOS3, which has been previously associated with higher levels of nitric oxide, contributes to both acclimatization and adaptation to altitude.

  5. Cane pruning on Chardonnay grapevine in the high-altitude regions of Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filho José Luiz Marcon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High-altitude regions of southern Brazil, located above 900 m above sea level, the cordon training with spur pruning is widely used because of easier application. In these regions, Chardonnay wine grape shows potential to produce quality wines, however, in commercial vineyards, the training system used has not provided productivities that makes economically viable the cultivation of this variety. Given this, the present study aimed to evaluate the effect of different cane-pruning systems on the vegetative, productive and enological potential of Chardonnay grapevines grown in the high-altitude region of Southern Brazil. The experiment was conducted in a commercial Chardonnay vineyard, located in São Joaquim – Santa Catarina State (28o17 ′39”S and 49∘ 55′56” W, to 1230 m a.s.l during 2015 and 2016 vintages. Chardonnay vines (grafted on 1103 Paulsen were planted in 2010, with a 3.0 m (row × 1.0 m (vine spacing. The treatments consisted of different cane-pruning systems: Cordon spur-pruning (control; Sylvoz; Cazenave; Capovolto; single Guyot and double Guyot. Pruning was performed in August of each year when the buds were in the green tip developmental stage. Data was analyzed by Scott Knott test (p < 0.05 following a randomized block design with four replicates, each consisting of 12 vines per plot. We observed higher yield in the Cazenave and double Guyot training system with three and two more tons of grapes than spur-pruning respectively. The bud fertility was higher in plants trained in double Guyot. Vines spur-pruned showed higher relation of leaf area: production, with values above 100 cm2 g−1 grape at 2016 vintage. Commercial maturity of grapes (soluble solids, acidity and polyphenols did not differ among training systems studied. The results suggest that cane-pruning systems could be an alternative to increase production efficiency of Chardonnay in high-altitude region of southern Brazil.

  6. High altitude pulmonary edema and exercise at 4,400 meters on Mount McKinley. Effect of expiratory positive airway pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoene, R B; Roach, R C; Hackett, P H; Harrison, G; Mills, W J

    1985-03-01

    Breathing against positive expiratory pressure has been used to improve gas exchange in many forms of pulmonary edema, and forced expiration against resistance during exercise has been advocated for climbing at high altitude as a method to optimize performance. To evaluate the effect of expiratory positive airway pressure (EPAP) on climbers with high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) and on exercise at high altitude, we studied four climbers with HAPE at rest and 13 healthy climbers during exercise on a bicycle ergometer at 4400 m. We measured minute ventilation (VI, L/min), arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2 percent), end-tidal carbon dioxide (PACO2, mm Hg), respiratory rate (RR), and heart rate (HR) during the last minute of a five minute interval at rest in the climbers with HAPE, and at rest, 300, and 600 kpm/minute workloads on a bicycle ergometer in the healthy subjects. The HAPE subjects demonstrated an increased SaO2 percent, no change in HR or VI, and a decrease in RR on EPAP as compared to control. In normal subjects, SaO2 percent, VI, and heart rate were significantly higher on EPAP 10 cm H2O than 0 cm H2O control (p less than 0.01, 0.01, and 0.05, respectively). The RR and PaCO2 were not significantly different. In summary, EPAP improves gas exchange in HAPE subjects at rest. The EPAP in normal subjects at high altitude resulted in a higher SaO2 percent at the expense of a higher VI and higher HR. These results suggest that the work of breathing is higher and the stroke volume lower on EPAP. The positive pressure mask may be an effective temporizing measure for victims of HAPE who cannot immediately go to a lower altitude.

  7. Peruvian Maca (Lepidium peruvianum) - III: The Effects of Cultivation Altitude on Phytochemical and Genetic Differences in the Four Prime Maca Phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, Henry O; Mscisz, Alina; Baraniak, Marek; Piatkowska, Ewa; Pisulewski, Pawel; Mrozikiewicz, Mieczyslaw; Bobkiewicz-Kozlowska, Teresa

    2017-06-01

    In two trials, dietary and Glucosinolates' characteristics in four Maca phenotypes have been examined with an extension into the determination of DNA sequences. Hypocotyls of the four prime phenotypes of Peruvian Maca - Lepidium peruvianum Chacon, labelled as "Yellow", "Black", "Red" and "Purple" were separated from mixed Maca crops cultivated in four geographically-distant locations in the Peruvian Andes at altitudes between 2,800m and 4,300 m a.s.l. It was found that at higher altitudes where Red and Purple Maca phenotypes were grown, the significantly higher ( P Maca physiological activity, were observed with the Purple phenotype showing the highest Glucosinolates' content at 4,300m a.s.l., followed by the Red-coloured hypocotyls. Black Maca showed a reversal, but also a significant ( P 0.05) and has consistently the lowest Glucosinolates content. Thus, it is reasonable to assume that the altitude at which Red, Purple and Black phenotypes of L. peruvianum are grown, may be responsible for the variation in physiologic functionalities, leading to different than expected specific therapeutic and health benefits induced by Maca phenotypes grown at diverse altitudes. Although promising, insufficiently precise differences in DNA sequences failed to distinguish, without any reasonable doubt, four Maca phenotypes cultivated either in the same or geographically-distant locations, and harvested at different altitudes a.s.l. Further research on DNA sequences is needed, with more primers and larger number of Maca phenotypes, considering biosynthesis of secondary metabolites and adaptation pathways induced by harsh environment at altitudes where Maca is cultivated.

  8. Peruvian Maca (Lepidium peruvianum) – III: The Effects of Cultivation Altitude on Phytochemical and Genetic Differences in the Four Prime Maca Phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, Henry O.; Mscisz, Alina; Baraniak, Marek; Piatkowska, Ewa; Pisulewski, Pawel; Mrozikiewicz, Mieczyslaw; Bobkiewicz-Kozlowska, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    In two trials, dietary and Glucosinolates’ characteristics in four Maca phenotypes have been examined with an extension into the determination of DNA sequences. Hypocotyls of the four prime phenotypes of Peruvian Maca - Lepidium peruvianum Chacon, labelled as “Yellow”, “Black”, “Red” and “Purple” were separated from mixed Maca crops cultivated in four geographically-distant locations in the Peruvian Andes at altitudes between 2,800m and 4,300 m a.s.l. It was found that at higher altitudes where Red and Purple Maca phenotypes were grown, the significantly higher (PMaca physiological activity, were observed with the Purple phenotype showing the highest Glucosinolates’ content at 4,300m a.s.l., followed by the Red-coloured hypocotyls. Black Maca showed a reversal, but also a significant (P0.05) and has consistently the lowest Glucosinolates content. Thus, it is reasonable to assume that the altitude at which Red, Purple and Black phenotypes of L. peruvianum are grown, may be responsible for the variation in physiologic functionalities, leading to different than expected specific therapeutic and health benefits induced by Maca phenotypes grown at diverse altitudes. Although promising, insufficiently precise differences in DNA sequences failed to distinguish, without any reasonable doubt, four Maca phenotypes cultivated either in the same or geographically-distant locations, and harvested at different altitudes a.s.l. Further research on DNA sequences is needed, with more primers and larger number of Maca phenotypes, considering biosynthesis of secondary metabolites and adaptation pathways induced by harsh environment at altitudes where Maca is cultivated. PMID:28824342

  9. The STAR Data Reporting Guidelines for Clinical High Altitude Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodmann Maeder, Monika; Brugger, Hermann; Pun, Matiram; Strapazzon, Giacomo; Dal Cappello, Tomas; Maggiorini, Marco; Hackett, Peter; Bärtsch, Peter; Swenson, Erik R; Zafren, Ken

    2018-03-01

    Brodmann Maeder, Monika, Hermann Brugger, Matiram Pun, Giacomo Strapazzon, Tomas Dal Cappello, Marco Maggiorini, Peter Hackett, Peter Baärtsch, Erik R. Swenson, Ken Zafren (STAR Core Group), and the STAR Delphi Expert Group. The STARdata reporting guidelines for clinical high altitude research. High AltMedBiol. 19:7-14, 2018. The goal of the STAR (STrengthening Altitude Research) initiative was to produce a uniform set of key elements for research and reporting in clinical high-altitude (HA) medicine. The STAR initiative was inspired by research on treatment of cardiac arrest, in which the establishment of the Utstein Style, a uniform data reporting protocol, substantially contributed to improving data reporting and subsequently the quality of scientific evidence. The STAR core group used the Delphi method, in which a group of experts reaches a consensus over multiple rounds using a formal method. We selected experts in the field of clinical HA medicine based on their scientific credentials and identified an initial set of parameters for evaluation by the experts. Of 51 experts in HA research who were identified initially, 21 experts completed both rounds. The experts identified 42 key parameters in 5 categories (setting, individual factors, acute mountain sickness and HA cerebral edema, HA pulmonary edema, and treatment) that were considered essential for research and reporting in clinical HA research. An additional 47 supplemental parameters were identified that should be reported depending on the nature of the research. The STAR initiative, using the Delphi method, identified a set of key parameters essential for research and reporting in clinical HA medicine.

  10. High Altitude Venus Operations Concept Trajectory Design, Modeling and Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugo, Rafael A.; Ozoroski, Thomas A.; Van Norman, John W.; Arney, Dale C.; Dec, John A.; Jones, Christopher A.; Zumwalt, Carlie H.

    2015-01-01

    A trajectory design and analysis that describes aerocapture, entry, descent, and inflation of manned and unmanned High Altitude Venus Operation Concept (HAVOC) lighter-than-air missions is presented. Mission motivation, concept of operations, and notional entry vehicle designs are presented. The initial trajectory design space is analyzed and discussed before investigating specific trajectories that are deemed representative of a feasible Venus mission. Under the project assumptions, while the high-mass crewed mission will require further research into aerodynamic decelerator technology, it was determined that the unmanned robotic mission is feasible using current technology.

  11. Navigation and Positioning System Using High Altitude Platforms Systems (HAPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujii, Toshiaki; Harigae, Masatoshi; Harada, Masashi

    Recently, some countries have begun conducting feasibility studies and R&D projects on High Altitude Platform Systems (HAPS). Japan has been investigating the use of an airship system that will function as a stratospheric platform for applications such as environmental monitoring, communications and broadcasting. If pseudolites were mounted on the airships, their GPS-like signals would be stable augmentations that would improve the accuracy, availability, and integrity of GPS-based positioning systems. Also, the sufficient number of HAPS can function as a positioning system independent of GPS. In this paper, a system design of the HAPS-based positioning system and its positioning error analyses are described.

  12. WCDMA Uplink Interference Assessment from Multiple High Altitude Platform Configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mohammed

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the possibility of multiple high altitude platform (HAP coverage of a common cell area using a wideband code division multiple access (WCDMA system. In particular, we study the uplink system performance of the system. The results show that depending on the traffic demand and the type of service used, there is a possibility of deploying 3–6 HAPs covering the same cell area. The results also show the effect of cell radius on performance and the position of the multiple HAP base stations which give the worst performance.

  13. Performance simulation in high altitude platforms (HAPs) communications systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulloa-Vásquez, Fernando; Delgado-Penin, J. A.

    2002-07-01

    This paper considers the analysis by simulation of a digital narrowband communication system for an scenario which consists of a High-Altitude aeronautical Platform (HAP) and fixed/mobile terrestrial transceivers. The aeronautical channel is modelled considering geometrical (angle of elevation vs. horizontal distance of the terrestrial reflectors) and statistical arguments and under these circumstances a serial concatenated coded digital transmission is analysed for several hypothesis related to radio-electric coverage areas. The results indicate a good feasibility for the communication system proposed and analysed.

  14. WCDMA Uplink Interference Assessment from Multiple High Altitude Platform Configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace D

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We investigate the possibility of multiple high altitude platform (HAP coverage of a common cell area using a wideband code division multiple access (WCDMA system. In particular, we study the uplink system performance of the system. The results show that depending on the traffic demand and the type of service used, there is a possibility of deploying 3–6 HAPs covering the same cell area. The results also show the effect of cell radius on performance and the position of the multiple HAP base stations which give the worst performance.

  15. Human nutrition in cold and high terrestrial altitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, K. K.; Kumar, Ratan

    1992-03-01

    The calorie and nutritional requirements for a man working in an alien hostile environment of cold regions and high altitude are described and compared to those of normal requirements. Carbohydrates, fats and vitamins fulfilling the caloric and nutritional requirements are generally available in adequate amounts except under conditions of appetite loss. However, the proteins and amino acids should be provided in such a way as to meet the altered behavioral and metabolic requirements. Work in extreme cold requires fulfilling enhanced calorie needs. In high mountainous regions, cold combined with hypoxia produced loss of appetite and necessitated designing of special foods.

  16. Attempt to measure the cosmic background radiation at high altitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labeyrie, Jacques; Le Boiteux, Henri

    1959-01-01

    Results are given of the measurement by G.M. tubes of hard component of cosmic background between o and 60 km of altitude, at 43 deg. N latitude, on january 27, 1959 (17 h. GMT). The counting rate starts at 0.3 pulses per second (sea level) reaches a maximum value of 15.6 (18 km) and remains constant at 5.7 above 40 km. Reprint of a paper published in Le Journal de Physique et le Radium, t. 20, p. 573, may 1959

  17. Snow chemistry of high altitude glaciers in the French Alps

    OpenAIRE

    MAUPETIT, FRANÇOIS; DELMAS, ROBERT J.

    2011-01-01

    Snow samples were collected as snowcores in the accumulation zone of four high altitude glaciers (2980–3540 m.a.s.l.) from each of the 4 highest mountain areas of the French Alps, during 3 consecutive years: 1989, 1990 and 1991. Sampling was performed in spring (∼ May), before the onset of late spring–summer percolation. The accumulated snow therefore reflects winter and spring conditions. A complementary sampling of fresh-snow was performed on an event basis, on one of the studied glaciers, ...

  18. Effect of altitude on protein metabolism in Bolivian children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaufrere, B.; Gachon, P.; Boirie, Y.; San Miguel, J.L.; Maubois, J.L.; Coudert, J.

    1994-01-01

    Protein utilization during feeding is difficult to assess by classical tracer methodology, particularly under field conditions. We propose a new approach using the measurement of tracer recovery (expired 13 CO 2 ) after the ingestion of a single oral dose of a 13 C-leucine labelled milk protein. Protein will be obtained by infusing a cow with 13 C-leucine. The difference between the amounts of tracer given and recovered should be an index of protein utilization. Since altitude might influence protein absorption, this non-invasive method will be used in Bolivian children, living either at 3600 m (La Paz) or at sea level. (author). 14 refs

  19. Electromagnetic coupling of high-altitude, nuclear electromagnetic pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    We have used scale models to measure the predicted coupling of electromagnetic fields simulating the effects of high-altitude nuclear electromagnetic pulses (HEMP) on the interior surfaces of electronic components. Predictive tools for exterior coupling are adequate. For interior coupling, however, such tools are in their infancy. Our methodological approach combines analytical, computational, and laboratory techniques in a complementary way to take advantage of their separate strengths. Computer models are a promising tool, as they can be used to treat complex objects with arbitrary shapes, dielectrics, and cables, and multiple apertures. Laboratory tests can expand the domain of investigation even further

  20. High-altitude electromagnetic pulse environment over the lossy ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Yanzhao; Wang Zanji

    2003-01-01

    The electromagnetic field above ground produced by an incident high-altitude electromagnetic pulse plane wave striking the ground plane was described in this paper in terms of the Fresnel reflection coefficients and the numerical FFT. The pulse reflected from the ground plane always cancel the incident field for the horizontal field component, but the reflected field adds to the incident for the vertical field component. The results of several cases for variations in the observation height, angle of incidence and lossy ground electrical parameters were also presented showing different e-field components above the earth

  1. Computations of ideal and real gas high altitude plume flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiereisen, William J.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj

    1988-01-01

    In the present work, complete flow fields around generic space vehicles in supersonic and hypersonic flight regimes are studied numerically. Numerical simulation is performed with a flux-split, time asymptotic viscous flow solver that incorporates a generalized equilibrium chemistry model. Solutions to generic problems at various altitude and flight conditions show the complexity of the flow, the equilibrium chemical dissociation and its effect on the overall flow field. Viscous ideal gas solutions are compared against equilibrium gas solutions to illustrate the effect of equilibrium chemistry. Improved solution accuracy is achieved through adaptive grid refinement.

  2. Moessbauer studies of hemoglobin in high altitude polycythemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiufang; Shen Linming; Chen Songsen; Ao Zhaohui; Liu Yuanyuan; Gao Naifei; Zheng Yuanming; Shong Liangquan

    1990-01-01

    The Moessbauer spectra have been measured in erythrocytes from normal adults and the patients with high altitude polycythemia (HAPC). The results indicated that two subspectra ''a'' and ''b'', corresponding to oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin respectively, were present in all blood samples, and a third subspectrum ''c'' was found to exist in almost all samples from the patients. The parameters of the third subspectra ''c1'' in most samples from the patients were similar to those of carbon monoxyhemoglobin. The components were considered to be the denatured hemoglobin in RBCs (red blood cells). Together with clinical analysis, a possible mechanism of HAPC has been discussed. (orig.)

  3. Mössbauer studies of hemoglobin in high altitude polycythemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiufang, Zhang; Linming, Shen; Songsen, Chen; Yuanyuan, Liu; Naifei, Gao; Yuanming, Zheng; Zhaohui, Ao; Liangquan, Shong

    1990-07-01

    The Mössbauer spectra have been measured in erythrocytes from normal adults and the patients with high altitude polycythemia (HAPC). The results indicated that two subspectra “a” and “b”, corresponding to oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin respectively, were present in all blood samples, and a third subspectrum “c” was found to exist in almost all samples from the patients. The parameters of the third subspectra “cl” in most samples from the patients were similar to those of carbon monoxyhemoglobin. The components were considered to be the denatured hemoglobin in RBCs (red blood cells). Together with clinical analysis, a possible mechanism of HAPC has been discussed.

  4. Cosmic radiation doses at flight level altitudes of airliners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viragh, E.; Petr, I.

    1985-01-01

    Changes are discussed in flux density of cosmic radiation particles with time as are the origin of cosmic radiation, the level of cosmic radiation near the Earth's surface, and the determination of cosmic radiation doses in airliners. Doses and dose rates are given measured on different flight routes. In spite of the fact that the flight duration at an altitude of about 10 km makes for about 80% of the total flight time, the overall radiation burden of the crews at 1000 flight hours a year is roughly double that of the rest of the population. (J.C.)

  5. Source of the low-altitude hiss in the ionosphere

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chen, L.; Santolík, Ondřej; Hájoš, Mychajlo; Zheng, L.; Zhima, Z.; Heelis, R.; Hanzelka, Miroslav; Horne, R. B.; Parrot, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 5 (2017), s. 2060-2069 ISSN 0094-8276 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-07027S; GA MŠk(CZ) LH15304 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP1401 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : ionospheric hiss * low-altitude hiss * plasmaspheric hiss * ray tracing Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 4.253, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2016GL072181/full

  6. Genotype by environment interaction for growth due to altitude in United States Angus cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J L; Bertrand, J K; Misztal, I; Łukaszewicz, M

    2012-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine if sires perform consistently across altitude and to quantify the genetic relationship between growth and survival at differing altitudes. Data from the American Angus Association included weaning weight (WW) adjusted to 205 (n = 77,771) and yearling weight adjusted to 365 (n = 39,450) d of age from 77,771 purebred Angus cattle born in Colorado between 1972 and 2007. Postweaning gain (PWG) was calculated by subtracting adjusted WW from adjusted yearling weight. Altitude was assigned to each record based upon the zip code of each herd in the database. Records for WW and PWG were each split into 2 traits measured at low and high altitude, with the records from medium altitude removed from the data due to inconsistencies between growth performance and apparent culling rate. A binary trait, survival (SV), was defined to account for censored records at yearling for each altitude. It was assumed that, at high altitude, individuals missing a yearling weight either died or required relocation to a lower altitude predominantly due to brisket disease, a condition common at high altitude. Model 1 considered each WW and PWG measured at 2 altitudes as separate traits. Model 2 treated PWG and SV measured as separate traits due to altitude. Models included the effects of weaning contemporary group, age of dam, animal additive genetic effects, and residual. Maternal genetic and maternal permanent environmental effects were included for WW. Heritability estimates for WW in Model 1 were 0.28 and 0.26 and for PWG were 0.26 and 0.19 with greater values in low altitude. Genetic correlations between growth traits measured at different altitude were moderate in magnitude: 0.74 for WW and 0.76 for PWG and indicate possibility of reranking of sires across altitude. Maternal genetic correlation between WW at varying altitude of 0.75 also indicates these may be different traits. In Model 2, heritabilities were 0.14 and 0.27 for PWG and 0.36 and

  7. The Channel Estimation and Modeling in High Altitude Platform Station Wireless Communication Dynamic Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyang Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to analyze the channel estimation performance of near space high altitude platform station (HAPS in wireless communication system, the structure and formation of HAPS are studied in this paper. The traditional Least Squares (LS channel estimation method and Singular Value Decomposition-Linear Minimum Mean-Squared (SVD-LMMS channel estimation method are compared and investigated. A novel channel estimation method and model are proposed. The channel estimation performance of HAPS is studied deeply. The simulation and theoretical analysis results show that the performance of the proposed method is better than the traditional methods. The lower Bit Error Rate (BER and higher Signal Noise Ratio (SNR can be obtained by the proposed method compared with the LS and SVD-LMMS methods.

  8. Percutaneous closure of patent arterial ducts in patients from high altitude: a sub-Saharan experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endale Tefera

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Successful duct closure was achieved in the vast majority of patients, even though the ducts were larger and significant number of them had pulmonary hypertension in this high altitude group. There was a relatively higher incidence of residual shunts and device migration in this series, generally due to the nonavailability of optimal device and surgical support. Long-term follow-up is required before we can draw conclusions with regard to the sustainability of drop in PA pressures. Septal Occluder devices may be a possible alternative for large tubular or window-type ducts with severe pulmonary hypertension, where there may be concerns about the size and stability of duct occluder devices.

  9. Influence of altitude training modality on performance and total haemoglobin mass in elite swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Clare E; Saunders, Philo U; Fowlie, John; Savage, Bernard; Pyne, David B; Anson, Judith M; Wachsmuth, Nadine; Prommer, Nicole; Gore, Christopher J

    2012-09-01

    We compared changes in performance and total haemoglobin mass (tHb) of elite swimmers in the weeks following either Classic or Live High:Train Low (LHTL) altitude training. Twenty-six elite swimmers (15 male, 11 female, 21.4 ± 2.7 years; mean ± SD) were divided into two groups for 3 weeks of either Classic or LHTL altitude training. Swimming performances over 100 or 200 m were assessed before altitude, then 1, 7, 14 and 28 days after returning to sea-level. Total haemoglobin mass was measured twice before altitude, then 1 and 14 days after return to sea-level. Changes in swimming performance in the first week after Classic and LHTL were compared against those of Race Control (n = 11), a group of elite swimmers who did not complete altitude training. In addition, a season-long comparison of swimming performance between altitude and non-altitude groups was undertaken to compare the progression of performances over the course of a competitive season. Regardless of altitude training modality, swimming performances were substantially slower 1 day (Classic 1.4 ± 1.3% and LHTL 1.6 ± 1.6%; mean ± 90% confidence limits) and 7 days (0.9 ± 1.0% and 1.9 ± 1.1%) after altitude compared to Race Control. In both groups, performances 14 and 28 days after altitude were not different from pre-altitude. The season-long comparison indicated that no clear advantage was obtained by swimmers who completed altitude training. Both Classic and LHTL elicited ~4% increases in tHb. Although altitude training induced erythropoeisis, this physiological adaptation did not transfer directly into improved competitive performance in elite swimmers.

  10. Observations of upflowing ionospheric ions in the mid-altitude cusp/cleft region with the Viking satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thelin, B.; Aparicio, B.; Lundin, R.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of positive ions (0.1-10 keV) from the polar-orbiting Viking satellite have been obtained in the cusp/cleft region and have been tabulated in MLT versus invariant latitude plots to get a synoptic picture of the occurrence of upgoing auroral positive ions. A distinction was made between ion distributions with peak fluxes along B (ion beam) and those exhibiting flux maxima that are not field-aligned (conics). Both beams and conics are shown to be common auroral phenomena, whose frequencies of occurrence in MLT, invariant latitude, and altitude were studied. During the period of study (March-June 1986) the ion beams were more frequenty (about a factor of 2) in the dusk sector than in the dawn sector. This effect seemed to increase with magnetic activity but was mostly unchanged with the sign of the interplanetary magnetic field B y component. An investigation was also made of the invariant latitude dependence for beams and conics, where the dawn sector beams have a tendency to be lcoated toward higher invariant latitudes for both positive and negative B y components. The ion beams were observed primarily above 5,000 km with a frequency of occurrence increasing with altitude up to the satellite apogee at about 13,500 km. The ion conics were observed from above 7,000 km to be steadily increasing in altitude

  11. Observations of the altitude of the volcanic plume during the eruption of Eyjafjallajökull, April–May 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Arason

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The eruption of Eyjafjallajökull volcano in 2010 lasted for 39 days, 14 April–23 May. The eruption had two explosive phases separated by a phase with lava formation and reduced explosive activity. The height of the plume was monitored every 5 min with a C-band weather radar located in Keflavík International Airport, 155 km distance from the volcano. Furthermore, several web cameras were mounted with a view of the volcano, and their images saved every five seconds. Time series of the plume-top altitude were constructed from the radar observations and images from a web camera located in the village Hvolsvöllur at 34 km distance from the volcano. This paper presents the independent radar and web camera time series and performs cross validation. The results show good agreement between the time series for the range when both series are available. However, while the radar altitudes are semi-discrete the data availability was much higher than for the web camera, indicating how essential weather radars are as eruption plume monitoring devices. The echo top radar series of the altitude of the volcanic plume are publicly available from the Pangaea Data Publisher (http://dx.doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.760690.

  12. Differences in morphology and sugar content of purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) with potassium treatment at several altitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulistiani, R.; Rosmayati; Siregar, L. A. M.; Harahap, F.

    2018-02-01

    This research was conducted at three locations in low, medium and high plains. This study was aimed to determine the morphological changes and sugar content of sweet potato caused by potassium dose treatment and climate change. Data was analyzed by factorial randomized block design in time series with two factors. The first factor was Altitude: A1 (50 meter above sea level (MASL)), A2 (750 MASL) and A3 (1450 MASL). The second factor was Potassium: K0 (0 kg/ha), K1 (50 kg/ha), K2 (100 kg/ha) and K3 (150 kg/ha). The data of plant morphology change and sugar content was descriptively analized, while agronomic and harvest component data analysis by F test and continued with Duncan Multiple Range Test. The results of morphological observations showed different types of plant growth, which in the lowlands and medium plant growth types spread, twisted, more branches, wider leaf area. However, the plateau of plant growth was relatively dwarf, erect, no twist, huddled and short rods and small leaf area. The tuber weight per plant, number of tuber yield and tuber weight per plot in high altitude were significantly higher than lowland and medium. Similarly, increased altitude will be increased the sugar content significantly.

  13. Aerosol chemistry over a high altitude station at northeastern Himalayas, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit Chatterjee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is an urgent need for an improved understanding of the sources, distributions and properties of atmospheric aerosol in order to control the atmospheric pollution over northeastern Himalayas where rising anthropogenic interferences from rapid urbanization and development is becoming an increasing concern. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: An extensive aerosol sampling program was conducted in Darjeeling (altitude approximately 2200 meter above sea level (masl, latitude 27 degrees 01'N and longitude 88 degrees 15'E, a high altitude station in northeastern Himalayas, during January-December 2005. Samples were collected using a respirable dust sampler and a fine dust sampler simultaneously. Ion chromatograph was used to analyze the water soluble ionic species of aerosol. The average concentrations of fine and coarse mode aerosol were found to be 29.5+/-20.8 microg m(-3 and 19.6+/-11.1 microg m(-3 respectively. Fine mode aerosol dominated during dry seasons and coarse mode aerosol dominated during monsoon. Nitrate existed as NH(4NO(3 in fine mode aerosol during winter and as NaNO(3 in coarse mode aerosol during monsoon. Gas phase photochemical oxidation of SO(2 during premonsoon and aqueous phase oxidation during winter and postmonsoon were the major pathways for the formation of SO(4(2- in the atmosphere. Long range transport of dust aerosol from arid regions of western India was observed during premonsoon. The acidity of fine mode aerosol was higher in dry seasons compared to monsoon whereas the coarse mode acidity was higher in monsoon compared to dry seasons. Biomass burning, vehicular emissions and dust particles were the major types of aerosol from local and continental regions whereas sea salt particles were the major types of aerosol from marine source regions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The year-long data presented in this paper provide substantial improvements to the heretofore poor knowledge regarding aerosol chemistry over

  14. Aerosol chemistry over a high altitude station at northeastern Himalayas, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Abhijit; Adak, Anandamay; Singh, Ajay K; Srivastava, Manoj K; Ghosh, Sanjay K; Tiwari, Suresh; Devara, Panuganti C S; Raha, Sibaji

    2010-06-16

    There is an urgent need for an improved understanding of the sources, distributions and properties of atmospheric aerosol in order to control the atmospheric pollution over northeastern Himalayas where rising anthropogenic interferences from rapid urbanization and development is becoming an increasing concern. An extensive aerosol sampling program was conducted in Darjeeling (altitude approximately 2200 meter above sea level (masl), latitude 27 degrees 01'N and longitude 88 degrees 15'E), a high altitude station in northeastern Himalayas, during January-December 2005. Samples were collected using a respirable dust sampler and a fine dust sampler simultaneously. Ion chromatograph was used to analyze the water soluble ionic species of aerosol. The average concentrations of fine and coarse mode aerosol were found to be 29.5+/-20.8 microg m(-3) and 19.6+/-11.1 microg m(-3) respectively. Fine mode aerosol dominated during dry seasons and coarse mode aerosol dominated during monsoon. Nitrate existed as NH(4)NO(3) in fine mode aerosol during winter and as NaNO(3) in coarse mode aerosol during monsoon. Gas phase photochemical oxidation of SO(2) during premonsoon and aqueous phase oxidation during winter and postmonsoon were the major pathways for the formation of SO(4)(2-) in the atmosphere. Long range transport of dust aerosol from arid regions of western India was observed during premonsoon. The acidity of fine mode aerosol was higher in dry seasons compared to monsoon whereas the coarse mode acidity was higher in monsoon compared to dry seasons. Biomass burning, vehicular emissions and dust particles were the major types of aerosol from local and continental regions whereas sea salt particles were the major types of aerosol from marine source regions. The year-long data presented in this paper provide substantial improvements to the heretofore poor knowledge regarding aerosol chemistry over northeastern Himalayas, and should be useful to policy makers in making control

  15. Perinatal hypoxia increases susceptibility to high-altitude polycythemia and attendant pulmonary vascular dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julian, Colleen Glyde; Gonzales, Marcelino; Rodriguez, Armando; Bellido, Diva; Salmon, Carlos Salinas; Ladenburger, Anne; Reardon, Lindsay; Vargas, Enrique; Moore, Lorna G

    2015-08-15

    Perinatal exposures exert a profound influence on physiological function, including developmental processes vital for efficient pulmonary gas transfer throughout the lifespan. We extend the concept of developmental programming to chronic mountain sickness (CMS), a debilitating syndrome marked by polycythemia, ventilatory impairment, and pulmonary hypertension that affects ∼10% of male high-altitude residents. We hypothesized that adverse perinatal oxygenation caused abnormalities of ventilatory and/or pulmonary vascular function that increased susceptibility to CMS in adulthood. Subjects were 67 male high-altitude (3,600-4,100 m) residents aged 18-25 yr with excessive erythrocytosis (EE, Hb concentration ≥18.3 g/dl), a preclinical form of CMS, and 66 controls identified from a community-based survey (n = 981). EE subjects not only had higher Hb concentrations and erythrocyte counts, but also lower alveolar ventilation, impaired pulmonary diffusion capacity, higher systolic pulmonary artery pressure, lower pulmonary artery acceleration time, and more frequent right ventricular hypertrophy, than controls. Compared with controls, EE subjects were more often born to mothers experiencing hypertensive complications of pregnancy and hypoxia during the perinatal period, with each increasing the risk of developing EE (odds ratio = 5.25, P = 0.05 and odds ratio = 6.44, P = 0.04, respectively) after other factors known to influence EE status were taken into account. Adverse perinatal oxygenation is associated with increased susceptibility to EE accompanied by modest abnormalities of the pulmonary circulation that are independent of increased blood viscosity. The association between perinatal hypoxia and EE may be due to disrupted alveolarization and microvascular development, leading to impaired gas exchange and/or pulmonary hypertension. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Investigation of nucleation events vertical extent: a long term study at two different altitude sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Boulon

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work we present an analysis of the occurrence of nucleation events during more than three years of measurements at two different rural altitude sites, the puy de Dôme research station (1465 m a.s.l. and the Opme station (660 m a.s.l., central France. The collected database is a unique combination of scanning mobility particle sizer (10–400 nm, air ion spectrometers (from 0.8 to 42 nm for NTP-conditions, and, neutral clusters and air ion spectrometers (from 0.8 to 42 nm for NTP-conditions measurements at these two different altitudes nearly located research stations, from February 2007 to June 2010. The seasonality of the frequency of nucleation events was studied at the puy de Dôme station and maximum of events frequency was found during early spring and early autumn. During the measurement period, neither the particle formation rates (J2= 1.382 ± 0.195 s−1 nor the growth rates (GR1.3−20 nm = 6.20 ± 0.12 nm h−1 differ from one site to the other on average. Hovewer, we found that, on 437 sampling days in common to the two sites, the nucleation frequency was higher at the puy de Dôme station (35.9 %, 157 days than at the low elevation station of Opme (20.8 %, 91 days. LIDAR measurements and the evolution of the potential equivalent temperature revealed that the nucleation could be triggered either (i within the whole low tropospheric column at the same time from the planetary boundary layer to the top of the interface layer (29.2 %, 47 events, (ii above the planetary boundary layer upper limit (43.5 %, 70 events, and (iii at low altitude and then transported, conserving dynamic and properties, at high altitude (24.8 %, 40 events. This is the first time that the vertical extent of nucleation can be studied over a long observational period, allowing for a rigorous

  17. ARMAS and NAIRAS Comparisons of Radiation at Aviation Altitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, L. D.

    2015-12-01

    Space Environment Technologies and the Space Weather Center (SWC) at Utah State University are deploying and obtaining effective dose rate radiation data from dosimeters flown on research aircraft. This project is called Automated Radiation Measurements for Aerospace Safety (ARMAS). Through several dozen flights since 2013 the ARMAS project has successfully demonstrated the operation of a micro-dosimeter on commercial aviation altitude aircraft that captures the real-time radiation environment resulting from galactic cosmic rays (GCR's) and solar energetic particles (SEP's). Space weather effects upon the near Earth environment are to dynamic changes in the energy transfer process from the Sun's photons, particles, and fields. The coupling between the solar and galactic high-energy particles, and atmospheric regions can significantly affect human tissue and the aircrafts technology as a result of radiation exposure. We describe and compare the types of radiation we have been measuring with the NAIRAS global climatological model as it relates to human tissue susceptibility and as a source at different altitude regions.

  18. Three plasma metabolite signatures for diagnosing high altitude pulmonary edema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Li; Tan, Guangguo; Liu, Ping; Li, Huijie; Tang, Lulu; Huang, Lan; Ren, Qian

    2015-10-01

    High-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) is a potentially fatal condition, occurring at altitudes greater than 3,000 m and affecting rapidly ascending, non-acclimatized healthy individuals. However, the lack of biomarkers for this disease still constitutes a bottleneck in the clinical diagnosis. Here, ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with Q-TOF mass spectrometry was applied to study plasma metabolite profiling from 57 HAPE and 57 control subjects. 14 differential plasma metabolites responsible for the discrimination between the two groups from discovery set (35 HAPE subjects and 35 healthy controls) were identified. Furthermore, 3 of the 14 metabolites (C8-ceramide, sphingosine and glutamine) were selected as candidate diagnostic biomarkers for HAPE using metabolic pathway impact analysis. The feasibility of using the combination of these three biomarkers for HAPE was evaluated, where the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was 0.981 and 0.942 in the discovery set and the validation set (22 HAPE subjects and 22 healthy controls), respectively. Taken together, these results suggested that this composite plasma metabolite signature may be used in HAPE diagnosis, especially after further investigation and verification with larger samples.

  19. Terminal altitude maximization for Mars entry considering uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Pingyuan; Zhao, Zeduan; Yu, Zhengshi; Dai, Juan

    2018-04-01

    Uncertainties present in the Mars atmospheric entry process may cause state deviations from the nominal designed values, which will lead to unexpected performance degradation if the trajectory is designed merely based on the deterministic dynamic model. In this paper, a linear covariance based entry trajectory optimization method is proposed considering the uncertainties presenting in the initial states and parameters. By extending the elements of the state covariance matrix as augmented states, the statistical behavior of the trajectory is captured to reformulate the performance metrics and path constraints. The optimization problem is solved by the GPOPS-II toolbox in MATLAB environment. Monte Carlo simulations are also conducted to demonstrate the capability of the proposed method. Primary trading performances between the nominal deployment altitude and its dispersion can be observed by modulating the weights on the dispersion penalty, and a compromised result referring to maximizing the 3σ lower bound of the terminal altitude is achieved. The resulting path constraints also show better satisfaction in a disturbed environment compared with the nominal situation.

  20. Productive performance of blackberry cultivars in altitude region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica de Oliveira

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Information on the production performance of blackberry in less colder regions are fundamentals to the expansion of the cultivated area and extension of management practices for cultivars adapted to climate conditions in Brazil. The research was carried out with the aim to evaluate the productive performance of different blackberries cultivars in altitude region of 1,387m with mild temperatures, situate at 18º14’56”S, 43º36’0”W, in Minas Gerais State, Brazil. It was carried during the seasons 2013/2014, 2014/2015 and 2015/2016. The blackberry cultivars evaluated were the following ones ‘Brazos’, ‘Guarani’, ‘Tupy’ and ‘Xavante’. Flowering and harvesting of cultivars were evaluated as well as climatological data of the area in order to relate the number of hours of accumulated cold less than 13°C, 10°C and 7.2°C with production and crop time. To determine the production, the mass of blackberries harvested per plant was measured. Production of blackberry cultivars was extended in altitude region with similar productivity to the other producing regions in Brazil. Productive performance of the cultivars varied according to the accumulation of cold hours with mild temperatures that occurred in cultivation region. ‘Brazos’, ‘Guarani’, ‘Tupy’ and ‘Xavante’ showed good adaptation, being ‘Brazos’ the cultivar most productive.

  1. Radiation doses at high altitudes and during space flights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spurny, F.

    2001-01-01

    There are three main sources of radiation exposure during space flights and at high altitudes--galactic cosmic radiation, solar cosmic radiation and radiation of the earth's radiation belt. Their basic characteristics are presented in the first part of this paper.Man's exposure during space flights is discussed in the second part of the paper. Particular attention is devoted to the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the radiation exposure on near-earth orbits: both theoretical estimation as well as experimental data are presented. Some remarks on radiation protection rules on-board space vehicles are also given.The problems connected with the radiation protection of air crew and passengers of subsonic and supersonic air transport are discussed in the last part of the paper. General characteristics of on-board radiation fields and their variations with flight altitude, geomagnetic parameters of a flight and the solar activity are presented, both based on theoretical estimates and experimental studies. The questions concerning air crew and passenger radiation protection arising after the publication of ICRP 60 recommendation are also discussed. Activities of different institutions relevant to the topic are mentioned; strategies to manage and check this type of radiation exposure are presented and discussed. Examples of results based on the author's personal experience are given, analyzed and discussed. (author)

  2. Os empreendedores de vinhos de altitude do planalto catarinense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nubia Alves de Carvalho Ferreira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse estudo é analisar e classificar os empreendedores de vinhos de altitude do Planalto Catarinense, por meio da utilização da tipologia de Westhead e Wright (1998. Esses autores apontam três tipos - o noviço/iniciante, o serial e o de portfólio. Para tanto, analisa quais são as características empreendedoras utilizadas. Verifica ainda se o fato de possuírem experiência em outros setores colabora para a consolidação dessa nova atividade. Trata-se de uma abordagem qualitativa, sendo a pesquisa do tipo exploratória que se configura como um estudo de caso. Os dados foram coletados por meio de pesquisa a sites, revistas, documentos e pessoas envolvidas no processo de formação e gestão dos empreendimentos em vinhos de altitude e, sobretudo, por meio de entrevistas semiestruturadas com os empreendedores. Os resultados obtidos demonstram a tipologia portfólio, evidenciam as habilidades como a característica preponderante desses empreendedores e confirmam outros trabalhos e cases pesquisados e apresentados na literatura. Ressalva-se a necessidade de novas pesquisas, em maior profundidade e número de entrevistados.

  3. Limb skeletal muscle adaptation in athletes after training at altitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mizuno, M; Juel, C; Bro-Rasmussen, Thomas

    1990-01-01

    Morphological and biochemical characteristics of biopsies obtained from gastrocnemius (GAS) and triceps brachii muscle (TRI), as well as maximal O2 uptake (VO2 max) and O2 deficit, were determined in 10 well-trained cross-country skiers before and after a 2-wk stay (2,100 m above sea level......) and training (2,700 m above sea level) at altitude. On return to sea level, VO2 max was the same as the prealtitude value, whereas an increase in O2 deficit (29%) and in short-term running performance (17%) was observed (P less than 0.05). GAS showed maintained capillary supply but a 10% decrease...... increase in buffer capacity of GAS and short-term running time (P less than 0.05). Thus the present study indicates no effect of 2 wk of altitude training on VO2 max but provides evidence to suggest an improvement in short-term exercise performance, which may be the result of an increase in muscle buffer...

  4. Isothermal pumping analysis for high-altitude tethered balloons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Kirsty A; Hunt, Hugh E M

    2015-06-01

    High-altitude tethered balloons have potential applications in communications, surveillance, meteorological observations and climate engineering. To maintain balloon buoyancy, power fuel cells and perturb atmospheric conditions, fluids could be pumped from ground level to altitude using the tether as a hose. This paper examines the pumping requirements of such a delivery system. Cases considered include delivery of hydrogen, sulfur dioxide (SO2) and powders as fluid-based slurries. Isothermal analysis is used to determine the variation of pressures and velocities along the pipe length. Results show that transport of small quantities of hydrogen to power fuel cells and maintain balloon buoyancy can be achieved at pressures and temperatures that are tolerable in terms of both the pipe strength and the current state of pumping technologies. To avoid solidification, transport of SO2 would require elevated temperatures that cannot be tolerated by the strength fibres in the pipe. While the use of particle-based slurries rather than SO2 for climate engineering can reduce the pipe size significantly, the pumping pressures are close to the maximum bursting pressure of the pipe.

  5. Development and testing of airfoils for high-altitude aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drela, Mark (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    Specific tasks included airfoil design; study of airfoil constraints on pullout maneuver; selection of tail airfoils; examination of wing twist; test section instrumentation and layout; and integrated airfoil/heat-exchanger tests. In the course of designing the airfoil, specifically for the APEX test vehicle, extensive studies were made over the Mach and Reynolds number ranges of interest. It is intended to be representative of airfoils required for lightweight aircraft operating at extreme altitudes, which is the primary research objective of the APEX program. Also considered were thickness, pitching moment, and off-design behavior. The maximum ceiling parameter M(exp 2)C(sub L) value achievable by the Apex-16 airfoil was found to be a strong constraint on the pullout maneuver. The NACA 1410 and 2410 airfoils (inverted) were identified as good candidates for the tail, with predictable behavior at low Reynolds numbers and good tolerance to flap deflections. With regards to wing twist, it was decided that a simple flat wing was a reasonable compromise. The test section instrumentation consisted of surface pressure taps, wake rakes, surface-mounted microphones, and skin-friction gauges. Also, a modest wind tunnel test was performed for an integrated airfoil/heat-exchanger configuration, which is currently on Aurora's 'Theseus' aircraft. Although not directly related to the APEX tests, the aerodynamics or heat exchangers has been identified as a crucial aspect of designing high-altitude aircraft and hence is relevant to the ERAST program.

  6. Reduction of Altitude Diffuser Jet Noise Using Water Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allgood, Daniel C.; Saunders, Grady P.; Langford, Lester A.

    2011-01-01

    A feasibility study on the effects of injecting water into the exhaust plume of an altitude rocket diffuser for the purpose of reducing the far-field acoustic noise has been performed. Water injection design parameters such as axial placement, angle of injection, diameter of injectors, and mass flow rate of water have been systematically varied during the operation of a subscale altitude test facility. The changes in acoustic far-field noise were measured with an array of free-field microphones in order to quantify the effects of the water injection on overall sound pressure level spectra and directivity. The results showed significant reductions in noise levels were possible with optimum conditions corresponding to water injection at or just upstream of the exit plane of the diffuser. Increasing the angle and mass flow rate of water injection also showed improvements in noise reduction. However, a limit on the maximum water flow rate existed as too large of flow rate could result in un-starting the supersonic diffuser.

  7. Oxygen transfer properties and dimensions of red blood cells in high-altitude camelids, dromedary camel and goat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, K; Jürgens, K D; Bartels, H; Piiper, J

    1987-01-01

    To estimate the advantage of the small red blood cells (RBC) of high-altitude camelids for O2 transfer, the kinetics of O2 uptake into and release from the RBC obtained from llama, vicuña and alpaca were investigated at 37 degrees C with a stopped-flow technique. O2 transfer conductance of RBC (G) was estimated from the rate of O2 saturation change and the corresponding O2 pressure difference between medium and hemoglobin. For comparison, O2 kinetics for the RBC of a low-altitude camelid (dromedary camel) and the pygmy goat were determined and previously measured values for human RBC were used. O2 transfer of RBC was found to be strongly influenced by extracellular diffusion, except with O2 release into dithionite solutions of sufficiently high concentration (greater than 30 mM). The G values measured in these 'standard' conditions, Gst (in mmol X min-1 X Torr-1 X (ml RBC)-1) were: high-altitude camelids, 0.58 (averaged for llama, alpaca and vicuña since there were no significant interspecific differences); camel 0.42; goat, 0.42; man, 0.39. The differences can in part be attributed to expected effects of the size and shape of the RBC (volume, surface area, mean thickness), as well as to the intracellular O2 diffusivity which depends on the concentration of cellular hemoglobin. The high Gst of RBC of high-altitude camelids may be considered to enhance O2 transfer in lungs and tissues. But the O2 transfer conductance of blood, theta, equal to Gst multiplied by hematocrit (in mmol X min-1 X Torr-1 X (ml blood)-1), was only slightly higher as compared to other species: 0.20 (llama, alpaca, vicuña), 0.14 (camel), 0.18 (goat), 0.17 (man).

  8. Left ventricular function during acute high-altitude exposure in a large group of healthy young Chinese men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyue Rao

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to observe left ventricular function during acute high-altitude exposure in a large group of healthy young males.A prospective trial was conducted in Szechwan and Tibet from June to August, 2012. By Doppler echocardiography, left ventricular function was examined in 139 healthy young Chinese men at sea level; within 24 hours after arrival in Lhasa, Tibet, at 3700 m; and on day 7 following an ascent to Yangbajing at 4400 m after 7 days of acclimatization at 3700 m. The resting oxygen saturation (SaO2, heart rate (HR and blood pressure (BP were also measured at the above mentioned three time points.Within 24 hours of arrival at 3700 m, the HR, ejection fraction (EF, fractional shortening (FS, stroke volume (SV, cardiac output (CO, and left ventricular (LV Tei index were significantly increased, but the LV end-systolic dimension (ESD, end-systolic volume (ESV, SaO2, E/A ratio, and ejection time (ET were significantly decreased compared to the baseline levels in all subjects. On day 7 at 4400 m, the SV and CO were significantly decreased; the EF and FS Tei were not decreased compared with the values at 3700 m; the HR was further elevated; and the SaO2, ESV, ESD, and ET were further reduced. Additionally, the E/A ratio was significantly increased on day 7 but was still lower than it was at low altitude.Upon acute high-altitude exposure, left ventricular systolic function was elevated with increased stroke volume, but diastolic function was decreased in healthy young males. With higher altitude exposure and prolonged acclimatization, the left ventricular systolic function was preserved with reduced stroke volume and improved diastolic function.

  9. An EPAS1 haplotype is associated with high altitude polycythemia in male Han Chinese at the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Jiang, Chunhua; Luo, Yongjun; Liu, Fuyu; Gao, Yuqi

    2014-12-01

    Hemoglobin concentration at high altitude is considered an important marker of high altitude adaptation, and native Tibetans in the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau show lower hemoglobin concentrations than Han people who have emigrated from plains areas. Genetic studies revealed that EPAS1 plays a key role in high altitude adaptation and is associated with the low hemoglobin concentration in Tibetans. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs13419896, rs4953354, rs1868092) of noncoding regions in EPAS1 exhibited significantly different allele frequencies in the Tibetan and Han populations and were associated with low hemoglobin concentrations in Tibetans. To explore the hereditary basis of high altitude polycythemia (HAPC) and investigate the association between EPAS1 and HAPC in the Han population, these 3 single nucleotide polymorphisms were assessed in 318 male Han Chinese HAPC patients and 316 control subjects. Genotyping was performed by high resolution melting curve analysis. The G-G-G haplotype of rs13419896, rs4953354, and rs1868092 was significantly more frequent in HAPC patients than in control subjects, whereas no differences in the allele or genotype frequencies of the 3 single nucleotide polymorphisms were found between HAPC patients and control subjects. Moreover, genotypes of rs1868092 (AA) and rs4953354 (GG) that were not observed in the Chinese Han in the Beijing population were found at frequencies of 1.6% and 0.9%, respectively, in our study population of HAPC patients and control subjects. Carriers of this EPAS1 haplotype (G-G-G, rs13419896, rs4953354, and rs1868092) may have a higher risk for HAPC. These results may contribute to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of HAPC in the Han population. Copyright © 2014 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. [Association of high altitude-induced hypoxemia to lipid profile and glycemia in men and women living at 4,100m in the Peruvian Central Andes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Gustavo F; Tapia, Vilma

    2013-02-01

    At a same altitude, people with greater hypoxemia would have higher hemoglobin (Hb) levels than less hypoxemic patients. It is not known whether higher hypoxemia levels (as measured by higher Hb values) affect basal glucose and lipid profile at an altitude of 4,100mg (Carhuamayo and Junln). Glucose, lipid, and hemoglobin levels and body mass index (BMI) were assessed in 158 males and 348 females aged 35 to 75 years. Association of lipid and glucose levels with systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) was also assessed. Results were analyzed using Student's t test, Chi-square test, analysis of variance, correlations, and linear multivariate analyses adjusted for age, sex, BMI, smoking, and education. Higher hemoglobin levels were directly associated to higher levels of total cholesterol (P0.05). Levels of total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and blood glucose were directly associated to DBP. In people living at high altitude (4100m), the non-HDL cholesterol fraction and triglycerides are directly associated to hemoglobin value, and increases in them are in turn associated to higher DBP. Copyright © 2012 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Quantifying altitude of human habitation in studies of human health using geographical name server data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Thielke

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Almost all studies examining the effects of altitude on human health have estimated the geographical altitude of defined regions, yet the primary interest lies in where people live, not the land around them. Populations are not homogenously distributed across altitudes. We propose a straightforward and computationally simple method for estimating the average altitude of habitation within the regional units for which health statistics are typically reported (such as counties. The United States Board on Geographical Names database contains records for over 2.7 million places, which can be processed to select places that are associated with human habitation. These points can easily be averaged by region yielding a representative altitude of human habitation within city, county, state regions, or by longitude and latitude zones. We provide an example of using this approach in a study of human health, and compare it with three other previously used methods of estimating altitude for counties.

  12. Risk Stratification for Athletes and Adventurers in High-Altitude Environments: Recommendations for Preparticipation Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Aaron D; McIntosh, Scott E; Nyberg, Andy; Powell, Amy P; Schoene, Robert B; Hackett, Peter

    2015-12-01

    High-altitude athletes and adventurers face a number of environmental and medical risks. Clinicians often advise participants or guiding agencies before or during these experiences. Preparticipation evaluation (PPE) has the potential to reduce risk of high-altitude illnesses in athletes and adventurers. Specific conditions susceptible to high-altitude exacerbation also important to evaluate include cardiovascular and lung diseases. Recommendations by which to counsel individuals before participation in altitude sports and adventures are few and of limited focus. We reviewed the literature, collected expert opinion, and augmented principles of a traditional sport PPE to accommodate the high-altitude wilderness athlete/adventurer. We present our findings with specific recommendations on risk stratification during a PPE for the high-altitude athlete/adventurer. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Autophagy Is a Promoter for Aerobic Exercise Performance during High Altitude Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available High altitude training is one of the effective strategies for improving aerobic exercise performance at sea level via altitude acclimatization, thereby improving oxygen transport and/or utilization. But its underlying molecular mechanisms on physiological functions and exercise performance of athletes are still vague. More recent evidence suggests that the recycling of cellular components by autophagy is an important process of the body involved in the adaptive responses to exercise. Whether high altitude training can activate autophagy or whether high altitude training can improve exercise performance through exercise-induced autophagy is still unclear. In this narrative review article, we will summarize current research advances in the improvement of exercise performance through high altitude training and its reasonable molecular mechanisms associated with autophagy, which will provide a new field to explore the molecular mechanisms of adaptive response to high altitude training.

  14. The Effect of Training at 2100-m Altitude on Running Speed and Session Rating of Perceived Exertion at Different Intensities in Elite Middle-Distance Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Avish P; Saunders, Philo U; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Clark, Brad; Stanley, Jamie; Robertson, Eileen Y; Thompson, Kevin G

    2017-04-01

    To determine the effect of training at 2100-m natural altitude on running speed (RS) during training sessions over a range of intensities relevant to middle-distance running performance. In an observational study, 19 elite middle-distance runners (mean ± SD age 25 ± 5 y, VO 2 max, 71 ± 5 mL · kg -1 · min -1 ) completed either 4-6 wk of sea-level training (CON, n = 7) or a 4- to 5-wk natural altitude-training camp living at 2100 m and training at 1400-2700 m (ALT, n = 12) after a period of sea-level training. Each training session was recorded on a GPS watch, and athletes also provided a score for session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE). Training sessions were grouped according to duration and intensity. RS (km/h) and sRPE from matched training sessions completed at sea level and 2100 m were compared within ALT, with sessions completed at sea level in CON describing normal variation. In ALT, RS was reduced at altitude compared with sea level, with the greatest decrements observed during threshold- and VO 2 max-intensity sessions (5.8% and 3.6%, respectively). Velocity of low-intensity and race-pace sessions completed at a lower altitude (1400 m) and/or with additional recovery was maintained in ALT, though at a significantly greater sRPE (P = .04 and .05, respectively). There was no change in velocity or sRPE at any intensity in CON. RS in elite middle-distance athletes is adversely affected at 2100-m natural altitude, with levels of impairment dependent on the intensity of training. Maintenance of RS at certain intensities while training at altitude can result in a higher perceived exertion.

  15. Altitude training: an up-to-date approach and implementation in practice

    OpenAIRE

    Issurin, Vladimir

    2007-01-01

    This article overviews current comprehension of altitude training, which is quite contradictory: many sources declare that altitude training provides no benefits to sea level performances compared to appropriate conventional training while others consider altitude training to be an efficacious and proven tool to enhance high-performance preparation. This contradiction can be partly explained by the variety of individual training responses, i.e., individual predispositions among some athletes ...

  16. Design study for remotely piloted, high-altitude airplanes powered by microwave energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, C. E. K., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    A design study has been conducted for unmanned, microwave-powered airplanes that must fly with long endurance at high altitude. They are proposed to conduct communications-relay, observation, or various scientific missions above approximately 55,000 feet altitude. The special characteristics of the microwave-power system and high-altitude, low-speed vehicle are reviewed. Examples of both sizing and performance analysis are used to suggest design procedure guidelines.

  17. Analysis of physiology and biochemistry indicators of garrison and field training troops at high altitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu LIU

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the effects of plateau hypoxia environment on the physiology and biochemistry indicators of troops executing different combat mission. Methods Troops included the soldiers in camp (station altitude 4030m and 4600m and those soldiers in field training (altitude 4300m for one month. Blood samples were collected and the physiology and biochemistry indicators were detected including heart rate (HR, blood pressure (BP, oxygen saturation (SpO2 and the concentrations of hemoglobin (Hb, serum total protein (TP, albumin (ALB and globulin (GLB, the ratio of albumin and globulin (A/G, concentrations of total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TG, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, creatine kinase (CK, lactic dehydrogenase (LDH, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT and AST/ALT. Results The HR was significantly higher in soldiers of field training (82.25±14.10 beats/min than in soldiers stationed in camp (74.18±9.02 beats/min, P0.05. The concentration of Hb and the prevalence of plateau polycythemia were significantly higher in soldiers of field training (211.6±17.4g/L and 55.6% than in soldiers stationed in camp (199.3±22.7g/L and 25.7%, P0.05. The concentration of serum LDH was significantly higher and the abnormality rate of LDH was also higher in soldiers of field training (273.70±136.74U/L and 72.7% than in soldiers stationed in camp (205.19±77.94 U/L and 51.1%, P<0.01 and P<0.05. Conclusions The protein nutrition in plateau soldiers is sufficient, but the prevalence of plateau polycythemia, dyslipidemia and the abnormality rate of LDH were higher in soldiers of field training than in soldiers stationed in camp. Regular physical examination should be taken into consideration, early prevention and treatment is also important. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2017.10.13

  18. Relationship of altitude mountain sickness and smoking: a Catalan traveller's cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Mascuñano, Alba; Masuet-Aumatell, Cristina; Morchón-Ramos, Sergio; Ramon, Josep M

    2017-09-24

    The aim of this study is to analyse the relationship between smoking and altitude mountain sickness in a cohort of travellers to 2500 metres above sea level (masl) or higher. Travel Health Clinic at the Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, in Barcelona, Spain. A total of 302 adults seeking medical advice at the travel clinic, between July 2012 and August 2014, before travelling to 2500 masl or above, who agreed to participate in the study and to be contacted after the trip were included. Individuals who met the following criteria were excluded: younger than 18 years old, taking carbonic anhydrase inhibitors for chronic use, undergoing treatment with systemic corticosteroids and taking any medication that might prevent or treat altitude mountain sickness (AMS) prior to or during the trip. The majority of participants were women (n=156, 51.7%). The mean age was 37.7 years (SD 12.3). The studied cohort included 74 smokers (24.5%), 158 (52.3%) non-smokers and 70 (23.2%) ex-smokers. No statistical differences were observed between different sociodemographic characteristics, constitutional symptoms or drug use and smoking status. The main outcome was the development of AMS, which was defined according to the Lake Louise AMS criteria. AMS, according to the Lake Louise score, was significantly lower in smokers; the value was 14.9%, 95% CI (6.8 to 23.0%) in smokers and 29.4%, 95% CI (23.5 to 35.3%) in non-smokers with an adjusted OR of 0.54, 95% CI (0.31 to 0.97) independent of gender, age and maximum altitude reached. These results suggest that smoking could reduce the risk of AMS in non-acclimated individuals. Further studies should be performed in larger cohorts of travellers to confirm these results. Despite the results, smoking must be strongly discouraged because it greatly increases the risk of cardiorespiratory diseases, cancer and other diseases. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights

  19. Design of a high altitude long endurance flying-wing solar-powered unmanned air vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsahlani, A. A.; Johnston, L. J.; Atcliffe, P. A.

    2017-06-01

    The low-Reynolds number environment of high-altitude §ight places severe demands on the aerodynamic design and stability and control of a high altitude, long endurance (HALE) unmanned air vehicle (UAV). The aerodynamic efficiency of a §ying-wing configuration makes it an attractive design option for such an application and is investigated in the present work. The proposed configuration has a high-aspect ratio, swept-wing planform, the wing sweep being necessary to provide an adequate moment arm for outboard longitudinal and lateral control surfaces. A design optimization framework is developed under a MATLAB environment, combining aerodynamic, structural, and stability analysis. Low-order analysis tools are employed to facilitate efficient computations, which is important when there are multiple optimization loops for the various engineering analyses. In particular, a vortex-lattice method is used to compute the wing planform aerodynamics, coupled to a twodimensional (2D) panel method to derive aerofoil sectional characteristics. Integral boundary-layer methods are coupled to the panel method in order to predict §ow separation boundaries during the design iterations. A quasi-analytical method is adapted for application to flyingwing con¦gurations to predict the wing weight and a linear finite-beam element approach is used for structural analysis of the wing-box. Stability is a particular concern in the low-density environment of high-altitude flight for flying-wing aircraft and so provision of adequate directional stability and control power forms part of the optimization process. At present, a modified Genetic Algorithm is used in all of the optimization loops. Each of the low-order engineering analysis tools is validated using higher-order methods to provide con¦dence in the use of these computationally-efficient tools in the present design-optimization framework. This paper includes the results of employing the present optimization tools in the design of a

  20. Percutaneous closure of patent arterial ducts in patients from high altitude: a sub-Saharan experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tefera, Endale; Qureshi, Shakeel A; Bermudez-Cañete, Ramòn; Rubio, Lola

    2015-01-01

    At high altitude, patent arterial ducts tend to be larger and associated with pulmonary hypertension. Patent ductus arteriosus device closure in this background could be challenging. We report our experience with percutaneous closure of patent arterial ducts using a variety of devices in patients residing in a high altitude. This is a retrospective review of the case records of 145 patients (age 9 months-20 years, mean 5.6 ± 3.9 years, and weight 7-54 kg, mean 17.7 ± 9.4) with duct sizes ranging between 2 and 21 mm, (mean, 5.8 ± 2.7) who underwent percutaneous closure of patent arterial ducts. One hundred thirty-six (93.8%) of the patients were from a geographic area of 2100-2800 m above sea level. Successful device closure was achieved in 143 cases. It was difficult to achieve device stability in two patients with expansile ducts. Therefore, they were treated surgically. The devices used were various types of duct occluder devices in 131 patients, while atrial and ventricular septal occluders were used in eight patients. For the group, mean systolic pulmonary artery (PA) pressure decreased from 47.0 ± 16.7 mmHg before occlusion to 29.0 ± 7.4 mmHg after occlusion (P ≤ 0.001)., mean diastolic PA pressure from 25.0 ± 10.9 mmHg to 14.8 ± 6.0 mmHg and the average mean PA pressure decreased from 35.9 ± 13.5 mmHg to 21.1 ± 6.5 mmHg. Complications (4.8%) included device and coil embolization, bleeding, and pulse loss. On follow-up (mean duration of 36.1 ± 12.1 months, range 12-62 months), 137 patients were in functional class 1, 3 had residual shunt, 2 had device migration and one patient had persisting pulse loss. Successful duct closure was achieved in the vast majority of patients, even though the ducts were larger and significant number of them had pulmonary hypertension in this high altitude group. There was a relatively higher incidence of residual shunts and device migration in this series, generally due to the nonavailability of optimal device and

  1. Erythropoietin, 2,3 DPG, oxygen transport capacity, and altitude training in adolescent Alpine skiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Hee Jeong; Kim, Hyo Jeong; Kim, Jin Hae; Ohno, Hideki; Kim, Chang Keun

    2012-01-01

    Rapid growth during adolescence caused by metabolic changes and their metabolic response to anaerobic and aerobic exercise differs considerably from that in adults and this is especially true in the responses to stresses, such as altitude exposure. However, there is little information on the suitability of exercise training at altitude for young athletes. Six male Korean adolescent alpine skiers (13-17 yr), with a skiing career of 3-5 yr, participated in the study. All subjects were exposed to an altitude of 2700 m (8858 ft) for 5 wk and altitude exposure consisted of 6 d/wk of training (4-5 h/d), with living quarters at 2100 m (-6890 ft) (Tignes, France). The 5 wk of ski training at altitude were maintained at the same level (the same number of slalom and giant slalom skiing trials) as at sea level. There was a significant increase in oxygen transport capacity, despite decreased erythropoietin (EPO) production (-31%) after altitude training. Red blood cell (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), and 2,3 DPG concentrations increased significantly during altitude exposure and after return to sea level. Results indicate that applying altitude training in adolescent skiers may improve their endurance performance. However, EPO production during altitude training needs to be evaluated in larger future studies.

  2. Moderate altitude but not additional endurance training increases markers of oxidative stress in exhaled breath condensate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinicke, Ilmar; Boehler, Annette; Rechsteiner, Thomas; Bogdanova, Anna; Jelkmann, Wolfgang; Hofer, Markus; Rawlings, Pablo; Araneda, Oscar F; Behn, Claus; Gassmann, Max; Heinicke, Katja

    2009-07-01

    Oxidative stress occurs at altitude, and physical exertion might enhance this stress. In the present study, we investigated the combined effects of exercise and moderate altitude on redox balance in ten endurance exercising biathletes, and five sedentary volunteers during a 6-week-stay at 2,800 m. As a marker for oxidative stress, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) was analyzed by the biosensor measuring system Ecocheck, and 8-iso prostaglandin F2alpha (8-iso PGF2alpha) was determined by enzyme immunoassay in exhaled breath condensate (EBC). To determine the whole blood antioxidative capacity, we measured reduced glutathione (GSH) enzymatically using Ellman's reagent. Exercising athletes and sedentary volunteers showed increased levels of oxidative markers at moderate altitude, contrary to our expectations; there was no difference between both groups. Therefore, all subjects' data were pooled to examine the oxidative stress response exclusively due to altitude exposure. H(2)O(2) levels increased at altitude and remained elevated for 3 days after returning to sea level (p altitude, but declined immediately after returning to sea level (p altitude resulted in elevated GSH levels (p altitude (p altitude for up to 6 weeks increases markers of oxidative stress in EBC independent of additional endurance training. Notably, this oxidative stress is still detectable 3 days upon return to sea level.

  3. Altitude Acclimatization and Blood Volume: Effects of Exogenous Erythrocyte Volume Expansion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sawka, M

    1996-01-01

    ...: (a) altitude acclimatization effects on erythrocyte volume and plasma volume; (b) if exogenous erythrocyte volume expansion alters subsequent erythrocyte volume and plasma volume adaptations; (c...

  4. Cognitive Changes during Prolonged Stay at High Altitude and Its Correlation with C-Reactive Protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Li Hu

    Full Text Available Hypersensitive C-reaction protein (hsCRP may be a risk factor for cognitive impairment resulting from Alzheimer's disease (AD, stroke, and vascular dementia. This study explored the correlation of peripheral blood hsCRP level with cognitive decline due to high altitude exposure. The study was conducted on 100 male military participants who had never been to high altitude. Cerebral oxygen saturation monitoring, event related potentials (P300, N200 detection, and neurocognitive assessment was performed and total hsCRP, interleukin-6 (IL-6, and homocysteine was estimated at 500 m altitude, 3650 m altitude, 3 day, 1, and 3 month post arriving at the base camp (4400 m, and 1 month after coming back to the 500 m altitude. High altitude increased brain oxygen saturation, prolonged P300 and N200 latencies, injured cognitive functions, and raised plasma hsCRP levels. But they all recovered in varying degrees at 1 and 3 month post arriving at the base camp (4400 m. P300 latencies and hsCRP levels were strongly correlated to cognitive performances. These results suggested that cognitive deterioration occurred during the acute period of exposure to high altitude and may recover probably owning to acclimatization after extended stay at high altitude. Plasma hsCRP is inversely correlated to neurological cognition and it may be a potential biomarker for the prediction of high altitude induced cognitive dysfunction.

  5. A quantitative analysis of TIMS data obtained on the Learjet 23 at various altitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaggi, S.

    1992-01-01

    A series of Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) data acquisition flights were conducted on the NASA Learjet 23 at different altitudes over a test site. The objective was to monitor the performance of the TIMS (its estimation of the brightness temperatures of the ground scene) with increasing altitude. The results do not show any significant correlation between the brightness temperatures and the altitude. The analysis indicates that the estimation of the temperatures is a function of the accuracy of the atmospheric correction used for each altitude.

  6. High-Altitude-Induced alterations in Gut-Immune Axis: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Kunjan; Mishra, K P; Ganju, Lilly; Kumar, Bhuvnesh; Singh, Shashi Bala

    2018-03-04

    High-altitude sojourn above 8000 ft is increasing day by day either for pilgrimage, mountaineering, holidaying or for strategic reasons. In India, soldiers are deployed to these high mountains for their duty or pilgrims visit to the holy places, which are located at very high altitude. A large population also resides permanently in high altitude regions. Every year thousands of pilgrims visit Holy cave of Shri Amarnath ji, which is above 15 000 ft. The poor acclimatization to high altitude may cause alteration in immunity. The low oxygen partial pressure may cause alterations in gut microbiota, which may cause changes in gut immunity. Effect of high altitude on gut-associated mucosal system is new area of research. Many studies have been carried out to understand the physiology and immunology behind the high-altitude-induced gut problems. Few interventions have also been discovered to circumvent the problems caused due to high-altitude conditions. In this review, we have discussed the effects of high-altitude-induced changes in gut immunity particularly peyer's patches, NK cells and inflammatory cytokines, secretary immunoglobulins and gut microbiota. The published articles from PubMed and Google scholar from year 1975 to 2017 on high-altitude hypoxia and gut immunity are cited in this review.

  7. Nutritional Strategies for the Preservation of Fat Free Mass at High Altitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacie L. Wing-Gaia

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to extreme altitude presents many physiological challenges. In addition to impaired physical and cognitive function, energy imbalance invariably occurs resulting in weight loss and body composition changes. Weight loss, and in particular, loss of fat free mass, combined with the inherent risks associated with extreme environments presents potential performance, safety, and health risks for those working, recreating, or conducting military operations at extreme altitude. In this review, contributors to muscle wasting at altitude are highlighted with special emphasis on protein turnover. The article will conclude with nutritional strategies that may potentially attenuate loss of fat free mass during high altitude exposure.

  8. Altitude Performance Characteristics of Tail-pipe Burner with Variable-area Exhaust Nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Emmert T; Thorman, H Carl

    1950-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the NACA Lewis altitude wind tunnel to determine effect of altitude and flight Mach number on performance of tail-pipe burner equipped with variable-area exhaust nozzle and installed on full-scale turbojet engine. At a given flight Mach number, with constant exhaust-gas and turbine-outlet temperatures, increasing altitude lowered the tail-pipe combustion efficiency and raised the specific fuel consumption while the augmented thrust ratio remained approximately constant. At a given altitude, increasing flight Mach number raised the combustion efficiency and augmented thrust ratio and lowered the specific fuel consumption.

  9. Chernobyl radioactivity and high altitude air-particulate monitoring at Islamabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatti, M.S.; Ihsanullah; Shafiq, M.; Perveen, N.; Orfi, S.D.

    1987-11-01

    High altitude sampling of air particulates for radioactivity monitoring was conducted at Islamabad after the CHERNOBYL accident. Smears from aeroplanes flying at varying altitudes were collected and analysed for fresh fission products mainly gamma emitters e.g. Ru-103 and Cs-137 etc. The maximum radioactivity observed was of the order of 15Bq/sample for Ru-103 and 9Bq/sample for Cs-137 respectively. The study was purely qualitative in nature indicated the presence of fresh fission radioactivity at high altitudes over Islamabad. For quantitative measurements at high altitudes sophisticated instrumentation/procedure needs to be adopted. (author)

  10. Global investigation of the Mg atom and ion layers using SCIAMACHY/Envisat observations between 70 and 150 km altitude and WACCM-Mg model results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Langowski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mg and Mg+ concentration fields in the upper mesosphere/lower thermosphere (UMLT region are retrieved from SCIAMACHY/Envisat limb measurements of Mg and Mg+ dayglow emissions using a 2-D tomographic retrieval approach. The time series of monthly mean Mg and Mg+ number density and vertical column density in different latitudinal regions are presented. Data from the limb mesosphere–thermosphere mode of SCIAMACHY/Envisat are used, which cover the 50 to 150 km altitude region with a vertical sampling of ≈3.3 km and latitudes up to 82°. The high latitudes are not observed in the winter months, because there is no dayglow emission during polar night. The measurements were performed every 14 days from mid-2008 until April 2012. Mg profiles show a peak at around 90 km altitude with a density between 750 cm−3 and 1500 cm−3. Mg does not show strong seasonal variation at latitudes below 40°. For higher latitudes the density is lower and only in the Northern Hemisphere a seasonal cycle with a summer minimum is observed. The Mg+ peak occurs 5–15 km above the neutral Mg peak altitude. These ions have a significant seasonal cycle with a summer maximum in both hemispheres at mid and high latitudes. The strongest seasonal variations of Mg+ are observed at latitudes between 20 and 40° and the density at the peak altitude ranges from 500 cm−3 to 4000 cm−3. The peak altitude of the ions shows a latitudinal dependence with a maximum at mid latitudes that is up to 10 km higher than the peak altitude at the equator. The SCIAMACHY measurements are compared to other measurements and WACCM model results. The WACCM results show a significant seasonal variability for Mg with a summer minimum, which is more clearly pronounced than for SCIAMACHY, and globally a higher peak density than the SCIAMACHY results. Although the peak density of both is not in agreement, the vertical column density agrees well, because SCIAMACHY and WACCM profiles have different

  11. Large high altitude air shower observatory (LHAASO) project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Huihai

    2010-01-01

    The Large High Altitude Air Shower Observatory (LHAASO) project focuses mainly on the study of 40 GeV-1 PeV gamma ray astronomy and 10 TeV-1 EeV cosmic ray physics. It consists of a 1 km 2 extensive air shower array with 40 000 m 2 muon detectors, 90,000m 2 water Cerenkov detector array, 5 000 m 2 shower core detector array and an air Cerenkov/fluorescence telescope array. Prototype detectors are designed with some of them already in operation. A prototype array of 1% size of LHAASO will be built at the Yangbajing Cosmic Ray Observatory and used to coincidently measure cosmic rays with the ARGO-YBJ experiment. (authors)

  12. High-altitude wind resources in the Middle East

    KAUST Repository

    Yip, Chak Man Andrew; Gunturu, Udaya; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.

    2017-01-01

    In the Middle East, near-surface wind resources are intermittent. However, high-altitude wind resources are abundant, persistent, and readily available and may provide alternative energy resources in this fossil-fuel-dependent region. Using wind field data from the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications Version 2 (MERRA-2), this study identifies areas favorable to the deployment of airborne wind energy (AWE) systems in the Middle East and computes the optimal heights at which such systems would best operate. AWE potential is estimated using realistic AWE system specifications and assumptions about deployment scenarios and is compared with the near-surface wind generation potential with respect to diurnal and seasonal variability. The results show the potential utility of AWE in areas in the Middle East where the energy demand is high. In particular, Oman and Saudi Arabia have a high level of the potential power generation with low annual variability.

  13. Anthropometric survey of high-altitude Bolivian porters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leatherman, T L; Thomas, R B; Greksa, L P; Haas, J D

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an anthropometric survey of 138 rural Aymaran high-altitude males who were working as porters in La Paz, Bolivia (3700 m). All subjects were measured for stature, weight, upper arm circumference, and triceps skinfolds. The body size and composition of the porters were then compared to an Aymaran rural population from the Bolivian highlands, and urban mestizo labourers from La Paz. The porters were smaller than the urban sample, but appeared to be generally representative of rural Aymaran natives with respect to body size and composition, and nutritional status. It is suggested that towards one extreme of nutritional variability, some degree of undernutrition may be indicated, which should be considered in future studies of adaptation to hypoxia among these Andean highlanders.

  14. Monte Carlo Calculation of the Radiation Field at Aircraft Altitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roesler, Stefan

    2001-08-24

    Energy spectra of secondary cosmic rays are calculated for aircraft altitudes and a discrete set of solar modulation parameters and rigidity cutoff values covering all possible conditions. The calculations are based on the Monte Carlo code FLUKA and on the most recent information on the interstellar cosmic ray flux including a detailed model of solar modulation. Results are compared to a large variety of experimental data obtained on ground and aboard of aircrafts and balloons, such as neutron, proton, and muon spectra and yields of charged particles. Furthermore, particle fluence is converted into ambient dose equivalent and effective dose and the dependence of these quantities on height above sea level, solar modulation, and geographic location is studied. Finally, calculated dose equivalent is compared to results of comprehensive measurements performed aboard of aircrafts.

  15. Helicopter Acoustic Flight Test with Altitude Variation and Maneuvers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Michael E.; Greenwood, Eric; Sim, Ben; Stephenson, James; Smith, Charles D.

    2016-01-01

    A cooperative flight test campaign between NASA and the U.S. Army was performed from September 2014 to February 2015. The purposes of the testing were to: investigate the effects of altitude variation on noise generation, investigate the effects of gross weight variation on noise generation, establish the statistical variability in acoustic flight testing of helicopters, and characterize the effects of transient maneuvers on radiated noise for a medium-lift utility helicopter. This test was performed at three test sites (0, 4000, and 7000 feet above mean sea level) with two aircraft (AS350 SD1 and EH-60L) tested at each site. This report provides an overview of the test, documents the data acquired and describes the formats of the stored data.

  16. High-altitude wind resources in the Middle East

    KAUST Repository

    Yip, Chak Man Andrew

    2017-08-23

    In the Middle East, near-surface wind resources are intermittent. However, high-altitude wind resources are abundant, persistent, and readily available and may provide alternative energy resources in this fossil-fuel-dependent region. Using wind field data from the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications Version 2 (MERRA-2), this study identifies areas favorable to the deployment of airborne wind energy (AWE) systems in the Middle East and computes the optimal heights at which such systems would best operate. AWE potential is estimated using realistic AWE system specifications and assumptions about deployment scenarios and is compared with the near-surface wind generation potential with respect to diurnal and seasonal variability. The results show the potential utility of AWE in areas in the Middle East where the energy demand is high. In particular, Oman and Saudi Arabia have a high level of the potential power generation with low annual variability.

  17. Altitude simulation facility for testing large space motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, U.; Lustig, J.; Cohen, Y.; Malkin, I.

    1993-02-01

    This work describes the design of an altitude simulation facility for testing the AKM motor installed in the 'Ofeq' satellite launcher. The facility, which is controlled by a computer, consists of a diffuser and a single-stage ejector fed with preheated air. The calculations of performance and dimensions of the gas extraction system were conducted according to a one-dimensional analysis. Tests were carried out on a small-scale model of the facility in order to examine the design concept, then the full-scale facility was constructed and operated. There was good agreement among the results obtained from the small-scale facility, from the full-scale facility, and from calculations.

  18. Spatial patterns in Central Asian climate and equilibrium line altitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rupper, Summer; Koppes, Michele

    2010-01-01

    A suite of general circulation model (GCM) simulations and a glacier equilibrium line altitude (ELA) model are compared to reconstructed glacier advances from geomorphic data and used to test the sensitivity of Central Asian glaciers to simulated climate changes at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Results highlight temperature changes as being the most important influence on glacier ELA changes during the LGM. With the exception of the southern Himalaya, for much of Central Asia there is consistency between GCMs for simulated LGM temperature changes, with a mean cooling of 4 0 C. Further research will necessarily need to focus on detailed analysis of the inter-model differences in temperature in the southern Himalaya, and acquiring additional paleoclimate proxies in the region in order to further constrain the GCMs.

  19. Investigating the auroral electrojets with low altitude polar orbiting satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moretto, T.; Olsen, Nils; Ritter, P.

    2002-01-01

    Three geomagnetic satellite missions currently provide high precision magnetic field measurements from low altitude polar orbiting spacecraft. We demonstrate how these data can be used to determine the intensity and location of the horizontal currents that flow in the ionosphere, predominantly...... to another event for which the combined measurements of the three satellites provide a comprehensive view of the current systems. The analysis hereof reveals some surprising results concerning the connection between solar wind driver and the resulting ionospheric currents. Specifically, preconditioning.......8-0.9) is observed between the amplitudes of the derived currents and the commonly used auroral electro-jet indices based on magnetic measurements at ground. This points to the potential of defining an auroral activity index based on the satellite observations, which could be useful for space weather monitoring...

  20. High-Altitude Platforms - Present Situation and Technology Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Araripe D'Oliveira

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available High-altitude platforms (HAPs are aircraft, usually unmanned airships or airplanes positioned above 20 km, in the stratosphere, in order to compose a telecommunications network or perform remote sensing. In the 1990 and 2000 decades, several projects were launched, but very few had continued. In 2014, 2 major Internet companies (Google and Facebook announced investments in new HAP projects to provide Internet access in regions without communication infrastructure (terrestrial or satellite, bringing back attention to the development of HAP. This article aims to survey the history of HAPs, the current state-of-the-art (April 2016, technology trends and challenges. The main focus of this review will be on technologies directly related to the aerial platform, inserted in the aeronautical engineering field of knowledge, not detailing aspects of the telecommunications area.