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Sample records for higher albumin levels

  1. Albumin and pre-albumin levels do not reflect the nutritional status of female adolescents with restrictive eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huysentruyt, Koen; De Schepper, Jean; Vanbesien, Jesse; Vandenplas, Yvan

    2016-04-01

    Albumin and pre-albumin are frequently used as nutritional markers in clinical practice. We examined whether serum albumin and pre-albumin were predicted by body mass index (BMI), hydration and/or inflammation in female adolescents with a recently diagnosed restrictive eating disorder (RED). This was a retrospective study of female adolescents with RED from 2002 to 2011. Low albumin and pre-albumin levels were defined as nutritional status in adolescents with RED. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Serum Albumin Levels and Economic Status in Japanese Older Adults.

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    Asami Ota

    Full Text Available Low serum albumin levels are associated with aging and medical conditions such as cancer, liver dysfunction, inflammation, and malnutrition and might be an independent predictor of long-term mortality in healthy older populations. We tested the hypothesis that economic status is associated with serum albumin levels and explained by nutritional and health status in Japanese older adults.We performed a cross-sectional analysis using data from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation study (JAGES. The study participants were 6528 functionally independent residents (3189 men and 3339 women aged ≥65 years living in four municipalities in Aichi prefecture. We used household income as an indicator of economic status. Multiple linear regression was used to compare serum albumin levels in relation to household income, which was classified as low, middle, and high. Additionally, mediation by nutritional and health-related factors was analyzed in multivariable models.With the middle-income group as reference, participants with low incomes had a significantly lower serum albumin level, even after adjustment for sex, age, residential area, education, marital status, and household structure. The estimated mean difference was -0.17 g/L (95% confidence interval, -0.33 to -0.01 g/L. The relation between serum albumin level and low income became statistically insignificant when "body mass index", "consumption of meat or fish", "self-rated health", "presence of medical conditions", "hyperlipidemia", or "respiratory disease "was included in the model.Serum albumin levels were lower in Japanese older adults with low economic status. The decrease in albumin levels appears to be mediated by nutrition and health-related factors with low household incomes. Future studies are needed to reveal the existence of other pathways.

  3. The correlation between albumin levels with 30 days mortality in community acquired pneumonia patients

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    Damayanti, N.; Abidin, A.; Keliat, E. N.

    2018-03-01

    The assessment of level severity ofCommunity-Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) patient at the early admission to the hospital is critical because it will determine the severity of the disease and the subsequent management of the plan. Albumin can be used as a biomarker to assess the severity of CAP. To identify the correlation between albumin level at early admission in hospital with 30-day mortality in patients with CAP. It was a cohort study. We had examined of 50 CAP subject with theCURB-65 score (Confusion, Urea, Respiratory rate, Blood pressure, Age >65years), albumin, sputum culture at the early admission at Emergency Room (ER). Then, albumin levels associated with 30-day mortality was assessed using Chi-Square test. Analysis with chi-square test found a significant correlation between albumin level with 30-day mortality (p=0.001) and Relative Risk was 2.376 (95% CI 1.515-3.723). It means that patients with CAP who has severe hypoalbuminemia have a higher risk ofdying in 30 days with 2,376 times more significant than patients with mild to moderate hypoalbuminemia. In conclusion, albumin levels at early admission in the hospital correlate with 30-day mortality in CAP patients.

  4. Higher-level Innovization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandaru, Sunith; Tutum, Cem Celal; Deb, Kalyanmoy

    2011-01-01

    we introduce the higher-level innovization task through an application of a manufacturing process simulation for the Friction Stir Welding (FSW) process where commonalities among two different Pareto-optimal fronts are analyzed. Multiple design rules are simultaneously deciphered from each front...

  5. Ischemia-modified albumin levels in cerebrovascular accidents.

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    Gunduz, Abdulkadir; Turedi, Suleyman; Mentese, Ahmet; Altunayoglu, Vildan; Turan, Ibrahim; Karahan, Suleyman Caner; Topbas, Murat; Aydin, Murat; Eraydin, Ismet; Akcan, Buket

    2008-10-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that ischemia-modified albumin (IMA) is a useful marker for the diagnosis of ischemic events. It was also recently demonstrated that IMA levels increase in the acute phase of cerebrovascular diseases. Yet the data regarding IMA levels in various types of cerebrovascular events are insufficient. The aim of this study was to evaluate IMA levels in various types of cerebrovascular events such as ischemic stroke, subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), and intracranial hemorrhage. This case-controlled study consisted of 106 consecutive patients, 43 with brain infarction (BI), 11 with brain hemorrhage (ICH), 52 with SAH, and a 43-member control group. We investigated whether there was a statistical correlation between these 3 groups and the control group. The relations among the 3 groups were also examined. Comparisons among groups were done with analysis of variance. Mean serum IMA levels were 0.280 +/- 0.045 absorbance units (ABSU) for BI patients, 0.259 +/- 0.053 ABSU for ICH patients, 0.243 +/- 0.061 ABSU for SAH patients, and 0.172 +/- 0.045 ABSU for the control group.There was a statistically significant difference between the mean IMA levels of BI, ICH, and SAH patients and the mean control patient IMA levels (P b .0001). Ischemia-modified albumin levels are high in cerebrovascular diseases. Ischemia-modified albumin measurement can also be used to distinguish SAH from BI during the acute phase of cerebrovascular event in the emergency department.

  6. The effects of maternal total protein, albumin and hemoglobin levels on birth weight

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    Berna Haliloglu

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present study was designed to investigate the influence of third trimester maternal total protein, albumin, hemoglobin levels on birth weight.\tMATERIAL-METHOD: Between January 2005 and July 2005, 750 pregnant women applied for delivery at Zeynep Kamil Women’s and Children Education and Research Hospital at 37-40 week’s gestation were examined. Maternal total protein, albumin and hemoglobin levels were measured. Data included maternal age, gravidity, parity, gestational age, birth weight, gender, presence of iron supplementation and its duration.\tRESULTS: The birth weight was significantly higher in anemic and hypoproteinemic groups compared those with normal levels. After adjusting for counfounding factors, significance of both findings lost. The cases received iron supplementation had infants with higher birth weight, however, it was not statistically significant (p: 0.055. A significant positive relation was observed between birth weight and maternal age, gravidity, parity and gestational age. No relation found between maternal total protein, albumin, hemoglobin levels and birth weight.\tCONCLUSION: The last trimester maternal total protein, albumin, hemoglobin levels seem not to be a determining factor on infant's birth weight.

  7. Teaching at higher levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    Undergraduate physics programmes for the 21st century were under discussion at a recent event held in Arlington, USA, open to two or three members of the physics faculties of universities from across the whole country. The conference was organized by the American Association of Physics Teachers with co-sponsorship from the American Institute of Physics, the American Physical Society and Project Kaleidoscope. Among the various aims were to learn about physics departments that have successfully revitalized their undergraduate physics programmes with innovative introductory physics courses and multi-track majors programmes. Engineers and life scientists were to be asked directly how physics programmes can better serve their students, and business leaders would be speaking on how physics departments can help to prepare their students for the diverse careers that they will eventually follow. It was planned to highlight ways that departments could fulfil their responsibilities towards trainee teachers, to identify the resources needed for revitalizing a department's programme, and to develop guidelines and recommendations for a funding programme to support collaborative efforts among physics departments for carrying out the enhancements required. More details about the conference can be found on the AAPT website (see http://www.aapt.org/programs/rupc.html). Meanwhile the UK's Higher Education Funding Council has proposed a two-pronged approach to the promotion of high quality teaching and learning, as well as widening participation in higher education from 1999-2000. A total of £60m should be available to support these initiatives by the year 2001-2002. As part of this scheme the Council will invite bids from institutions to support individual academics in enhancing learning and teaching, as well as in recognition of individual excellence. As with research grants, such awards would enable staff to pursue activities such as the development of teaching materials

  8. Clinical significance of changes of serum APN, plasma VEGF, Hcy and urine albumin levels in patients with DM2 nephrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yuejin; Zhang Xinfang; Hu Ying

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Explore type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) and complicating with kidney disease patients homocysteine (Hcy), adiponectin (APN), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and urine albumin change relations. Methods: A normal controls and no complications of diabetes groups, combined with nephropathy. A comparison were measured of serum APN, plasma VEGF, Hcy and urine albumin level among. Results: Two groups of patients with diabetes fasting blood glucose level were no significant difference. Also there is no difference of BUN and Cr in three groups urine albumin in diabetic-nephropathy albumin increased significantly (P<0.01), than without complications group. Three groups of Hcy concentrations were significantly higher than that of normal control group (P<0.01), serum APN, plasma VEGF level obviously lower than normal control group, which increased in patients with nephropathy increased or reduced more apparently no complications group also have obvious difference (P<0.01). Conclusion: In patients with diabetes in two groups, plasma Hcy and urine albumin were significantly higher APN, and VEGF decreased significantly. In patients with nephropathy manifested more apparently, but renal damage did not enter decompensated period, clinically necessary for people with diabetes testing serum APN, plasma VEGF, Hcy and urine Albumin level, promptly intervention to prevent or relieve the further development of diabetes. (authors)

  9. Higher Levels of Albuminuria within the Normal Range Predict Incident Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Forman, John P.; Fisher, Naomi D.L.; Schopick, Emily L.; Curhan, Gary C.

    2008-01-01

    Higher levels of albumin excretion within the normal range are associated with cardiovascular disease in high-risk individuals. Whether incremental increases in urinary albumin excretion, even within the normal range, are associated with the development of hypertension in low-risk individuals is unknown. This study included 1065 postmenopausal women from the first Nurses’ Health Study and 1114 premenopausal women from the second Nurses’ Health Study who had an albumin/creatinine ratio

  10. Worse Neurological State During Acute Ischemic Stroke is Associated with a Decrease in Serum Albumin Levels.

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    Bielewicz, Joanna; Kurzepa, Jacek; Czekajska-Chehab, Elżbieta; Kamieniak, Piotr; Daniluk, Beata; Bartosik-Psujek, Halina; Rejdak, Konrad

    2016-04-01

    High serum albumin levels during ischemic stroke (IS) decrease the risk of a poor outcome. This study aimed to determine whether serum albumin levels within the first days after IS correlate with radiological and biochemical markers of brain tissue damage. Fifty-six IS patients were enrolled into the study. Neurological examinations were based on the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale. Serum albumin levels and S100BB were evaluated using commercially available ELISA kits. The albumin decrease index (ADI) was calculated as the difference between serum albumin levels measured on days 1 and 10 of IS. All parameters were estimated on the 1st, 3rd, 5th, and 10th days of IS, and the volume of ischemic focus was measured on the 10th day. Mean serum albumin levels were decreased during acute IS. There were correlations between the ADI and mean S100BB serum levels (r = 0.36, p albumin levels during the acute phase of IS corresponds to a worse neurological state as a result of a large ischemic focus with intense catabolic processes.

  11. Albumin levels and cause-specific mortality in community-dwelling older adults.

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    Wu, Chen-Yi; Hu, Hsiao-Yun; Huang, Nicole; Chou, Yi-Chang; Li, Chung-Pin; Chou, Yiing-Jenq

    2018-04-09

    To investigate the association between serum albumin levels and cause-specific mortality among community-dwelling older adults. This cohort study was based on data obtained from the government-sponsored Annual Geriatric Health Examination Program for the older adults in Taipei City between 2006 and 2010. The study sample consisted of 77,531 community-dwelling Taipei citizens (≥65 years old). Mortality was determined by matching the participants' medical records with national death files. Serum albumin levels were categorized into dwelling older adults had a mean albumin level of 4.3 g/dL, which significantly reduced by age. Compared to albumin levels ≥4.4 g/dL, mildly low albumin levels (4.2-4.3 g/dL) were associated with an increased mortality risk (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.16, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05-1.28 for all-cause mortality), and albumin levels dwelling older adults, and mortality risk increased as the albumin level decreased. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Serum total protein, albumin and globulin levels in Trypanosoma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of orally administered Scoparia dulcis on Trypanosoma brucei-induced changes in serum total protein, albumin and globulin were investigated in rabbits over a period of twenty eight days. Results obtained show that infection resulted in hyperproteinaemia, hyperglobulinaemia and hypoalbuminaemia. However ...

  13. Effect of Exogenous Albumin on the Incidence of Postoperative Acute Kidney Injury in Patients Undergoing Off-pump Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery with a Preoperative Albumin Level of Less Than 4.0 g/dl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Ho; Kim, Wook-Jong; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Chin, Ji-Hyun; Choi, Dae-Kee; Sim, Ji-Yeon; Choo, Suk-Jung; Chung, Cheol-Hyun; Lee, Jae-Won; Choi, In-Cheol

    2016-05-01

    Hypoalbuminemia may increase the risk of acute kidney injury (AKI). The authors investigated whether the immediate preoperative administration of 20% albumin solution affects the incidence of AKI after off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery. In this prospective, single-center, randomized, parallel-arm double-blind trial, 220 patients with preoperative serum albumin levels less than 4.0 g/dl were administered 100, 200, or 300 ml of 20% human albumin according to the preoperative serum albumin level (3.5 to 3.9, 3.0 to 3.4, or less than 3.0 g/dl, respectively) or with an equal volume of saline before surgery. The primary outcome measure was AKI incidence after surgery. Postoperative AKI was defined by maximal AKI Network criteria based on creatinine changes. Patient characteristics and perioperative data except urine output during surgery were similar between the two groups studied, the albumin group and the control group. Urine output (median [interquartile range]) during surgery was higher in the albumin group (550 ml [315 to 980]) than in the control group (370 ml [230 to 670]; P = 0.006). The incidence of postoperative AKI in the albumin group was lower than that in the control group (14 [13.7%] vs. 26 [25.7%]; P = 0.048). There were no significant between-group differences in severe AKI, including renal replacement therapy, 30-day mortality, and other clinical outcomes. There were no significant adverse events. Administration of 20% exogenous albumin immediately before surgery increases urine output during surgery and reduces the risk of AKI after off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery in patients with a preoperative serum albumin level of less than 4.0 g/dl.

  14. The Roche Immunoturbidimetric Albumin Method on Cobas c 501 Gives Higher Values Than the Abbott and Roche BCP Methods When Analyzing Patient Plasma Samples.

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    Helmersson-Karlqvist, Johanna; Flodin, Mats; Havelka, Aleksandra Mandic; Xu, Xiao Yan; Larsson, Anders

    2016-09-01

    Serum/plasma albumin is an important and widely used laboratory marker and it is important that we measure albumin correctly without bias. We had indications that the immunoturbidimetric method on Cobas c 501 and the bromocresol purple (BCP) method on Architect 16000 differed, so we decided to study these methods more closely. A total of 1,951 patient requests with albumin measured with both the Architect BCP and Cobas immunoturbidimetric methods were extracted from the laboratory system. A comparison with fresh plasma samples was also performed that included immunoturbidimetric and BCP methods on Cobas c 501 and analysis of the international protein calibrator ERM-DA470k/IFCC. The median difference between the Abbott BCP and Roche immunoturbidimetric methods was 3.3 g/l and the Roche method overestimated ERM-DA470k/IFCC by 2.2 g/l. The Roche immunoturbidimetric method gave higher values than the Roche BCP method: y = 1.111x - 0.739, R² = 0.971. The Roche immunoturbidimetric albumin method gives clearly higher values than the Abbott and Roche BCP methods when analyzing fresh patient samples. The differences between the two methods were similar at normal and low albumin levels. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Changes of plasma levels of homocysteine (Hcy) and urinary albumin contents in patients with type 2 diabetes complicated with nephropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Lili

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of plasma levels of homocysteine (Hcy) and urinary albumin contents in patients with type 2 diabetes complicated with nephropathy. Methods: Plasma Hcy (with fluorescence immunoassay) fasting glucose, BUN, Cr (with biochemistry) levels and urinary albumin contents (with RIA) were determined in 36 DM2 patients without nephropathy, 30 DM2 patients with nephropathy and 30 controls. Results: The fasting blood glucose levels in the 2 groups of diabetic patients were not much different. Again, the BUN and Cr levels in the 3 groups of patients were about the same. The plasma Hcy levels in the group of patients with diabetic nephropathy were significantly higher than those in both controls and DM2 patients without nephropathy (all P<0.01). Conclusion: Hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for nephropathy in DM2 patients. (authors)

  16. Bilirubin-albumin binding, bilirubin/albumin ratios, and free bilirubin levels : Where do we stand?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulzebos, Christian V.; Dijk, Peter H.

    2014-01-01

    Treatment for unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia is predominantly based on one parameter, i.e., total serum bilirubin (TSB) levels. Yet, overt kernicterus has been reported in preterm infants at relatively low TSB levels, and it has been repeatedly shown that free unconjugated bilirubin (freeUCB)

  17. A discussion of serum albumin level in advanced-stage hepatocellular carcinoma: a medical oncologist's perspective.

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    Tanriverdi, Ozgur

    2014-11-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common primary malignant tumor of the liver, and it is particularly prevalent in East and Southeast Asia. With surgical and/or local interventional treatment methods, survival rates for early-stage hepatocellular cancers have increased. However, it is not yet clear which staging systems are more applicable in hepatocellular carcinoma. Serum albumin level is already being used as a criterion in most staging systems. Albumin is an important serum protein in human bodily functions, but only 5 % of the daily amount needed is synthesized by the liver. The serum albumin level is affected by multifactorial situations, including capillary permeability, drugs, liver insufficiency, inflammation and/or infections, dehydration or overhydration, protein loosing disorders, and decreased nutrition intake in anorexia-malnutrition syndrome and cancer cachexia. Because of this complex situation, serum albumin level may affect many staging systems for hepatocellular carcinoma by leading to false-negative results. In this paper, the statuses of current staging systems are reviewed, and possible negative events regarding the serum albumin levels found in these staging systems are discussed.

  18. Total oxidant status, total antioxidant capacity and ischemia modified albumin levels in children with celiac disease.

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    Sayar, Ersin; Özdem, Sebahat; Uzun, Gülbahar; İşlek, Ali; Yılmaz, Aygen; Artan, Reha

    2015-01-01

    In our study, we aimed to investigate ischemia modified albumin (IMA) as an oxidative stress marker, as well as other oxidant and antioxidant markers that have not been evaluated in children with celiac disease. A total of 37 pediatric patients who were diagnosed with celiac disease (CD) and 29 healthy children were enrolled in this prospective study. We evaluated the IMA, total oxidant status, total antioxidant capacity, sulfhydryl, and advanced oxidation protein products in all of the subjects. We also compared the levels at the time of the diagnosis, and following a gluten-free diet (GFD) in the children with CD. While the IMA and the other oxidant marker levels were significantly higher in the patient group compared to the control group, the antioxidant marker levels were found to be significantly lower in the patient group, compared to the control group. We also determined that the tissue transglutaminase IgA showed a highly positive correlation, and that the IMA showed a moderately positive correlation with the Marsh-Oberhuber histopathological stage. Additionally, the IMA and other oxidant marker levels were significantly lower, while the antioxidant marker levels were significantly higher after the GFD, compared to the pre-diet period. We detected that oxidative stress played a role in the pathogenesis of CD, and that this could be evaluated using oxidative stress markers, which would regress after the GFD. We also detected that IMA is a marker that shows a correlation with the histopathological stage, and may be used in the diagnosis.

  19. Cord Blood Ischemia-Modified Albumin Levels in Normal and Intrauterine Growth Restricted Pregnancies

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    Nicoletta Iacovidou

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Ischemia-modified albumin (IMA is a sensitive biomarker of cardiac ischemia. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR may imply fetal hypoxia, resulting in blood flow centralization in favour of vital organs (brain, heart, adrenals—‘‘brain sparing effect’’. Based on the latter, we hypothesized that cord blood IMA levels should not differ between IUGR and appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA full-term pregnancies. IMA was measured in blood samples from doubly-clamped umbilical cords of 110 AGA and 57 asymmetric IUGR pregnancies. No significant differences in IMA levels were documented between AGA and IUGR groups. IMA levels were elevated in cases of elective cesarean section (P = .035, and offspring of multigravidas (P = .021. In conclusion, ‘‘brain sparing effect’’ is possibly responsible for the lack of differences in cord blood IMA levels at term, between IUGR and AGA groups. Furthermore, higher oxidative stress could account for the elevated IMA levels in cases of elective cesarean section, and offspring of multigravidas.

  20. Relationship between ionized calcium and serum albumin level in children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome

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    Viiola Irene Winata

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Nephrotic syndrome (NS patients frequently have abnormalities in calcium metabolism that manifest as hypocalcemia and reduced intestinal absorption of calcium. Hypocalcemia is initially attributed to hypoalbuminemia but it may also relate to a low level of ionized calcium. The ionized calcium level depends on the severity and duration of proteinuria. Objective To assess the rel ationship between ionized calcium and serum albumin level in idiopathic NS children. Methods An analytical study with cross-sectional design was applied to NS and healthy children between 1-14 years old in the Child Health Department of Hasan Sadikin Hospital, Bandung from December 2009 to April 2010. Ionized calcium was examined by Ca2 + analyzer AVL 980 with ion-selective electrodes (ISE methods. Results A total of34 subjects were recruited, consist of 17 NS and 17 healthy children. The mean ionized calcium and serum albumin level in NS children was 4.56 (SD 0.23 mg/dLand 1.45 (SD 0.24 g/dL, respectively. Statistical difference between ionized calcium level in NS and in healthy children was significant (P<0.05. Pearson correlation test between ionized calcium and serum albumin was significant (P<0.05 with correlation coefficient (r 0.53. We found the following equation to estimate ionized calcium (y based on the serum albumin level (x: y=3.84+0.49x. Conclusion There is a moderately positive linear relationship between ionized calcium and serum albumin level in NS children.

  1. Combination of Reduced Levels of Serum Albumin and Αlpha-2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is global disease affecting about one third of the world's population with its attendant mortality and morbidity. Acute phase proteins have been used in monitoring the progression of infections but not in relation to PTB in this environment. The levels of total protein, albumin, α-2-macroglobulin, ...

  2. Influence of Erythropoietin Dose and Albumin Level on the Plasma Brain Natriuretic Peptide in Hemodialysis Patients

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    Alsuwaida Abdulkareem

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP levels increase in patients with congestive heart failure. Theoretically, BNP levels can be helpful in the determination of the "dry weight" of hemodialysis patients. To evaluate the effect of hemodialysis on the plasma concentration of BNP and to determine the factors that affect BNP levels during hemodialysis in patients with chronic renal failure, we studied five stable patients with chronic renal failure. A total of 15 blood samples were obtained for BNP levels at 24, 48 and 72 hours after the last hemodialysis session. The plasma BNP levels did not change significantly either with ultrafiltration volume or with time since last dialysis. However, the BNP levels correlated positively with the erythropoietin (EPO dose (r=0.98, P< 0.001 and negatively with the serum albumin levels (r = 0.94, P=0.02. Univariate analysis showed that the EPO dose (P=0.001 and the albumin level (P=0.02 were significant predictors of BNP level. Adjusted multivariate analysis showed significant interaction between the EPO dose and the albumin level (P=0.01, P=0.03 respectively. In conclusion: the plasma BNP levels were not significantly influenced by ultrafiltration volume or time since last dialysis. However, the BNP levels may be a useful prognostic parameter for assessing the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in hemodialysis patients.

  3. Study of the levels of beta hydroxy butyrate, glucose, protein and albumin in Holstein cows with subclinical ketosis

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    B Amouoghli Tabrizi

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to comparatively evaluate the levels of beta hydroxy butyrate (BHB, glucose, protein and albumin in serum of healthy Holstein cows and those with subclinical ketosis. In this survey, blood samples were collected at two stages from cows selected at 7 dairy farms in Shahriar province of Tehran. Five to 7 ml of blood were taken from the coccygeal vein of 100 cows during the last week of pregnancy when the animals were dry and once again 2 months after parturition from the same cows, their sera separated and the amounts of BHB, glucose, protein and albumin determined by enzymatic techniques and commercially available kits. With the cut point of BHB at 1.2, 1.4 and 1.7 mmol/lit, the percentage of cows affected with subclinical ketosis were 18, 14 and 4 percent, respectively. Mean levels of BHB in ketotic cows was significantly higher than healthy cows before and after parturition while mean levels of glucose, protein and albumin was significantly lower during the same periods (P

  4. Higher levels of albuminuria within the normal range predict incident hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, John P; Fisher, Naomi D L; Schopick, Emily L; Curhan, Gary C

    2008-10-01

    Higher levels of albumin excretion within the normal range are associated with cardiovascular disease in high-risk individuals. Whether incremental increases in urinary albumin excretion, even within the normal range, are associated with the development of hypertension in low-risk individuals is unknown. This study included 1065 postmenopausal women from the first Nurses' Health Study and 1114 premenopausal women from the second Nurses' Health Study who had an albumin/creatinine ratio who did not have diabetes or hypertension. Among the older women, 271 incident cases of hypertension occurred during 4 yr of follow-up, and among the younger women, 296 incident cases of hypertension occurred during 8 yr of follow-up. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine prospectively the association between the albumin/creatinine ratio and incident hypertension after adjustment for age, body mass index, estimated GFR, baseline BP, physical activity, smoking, and family history of hypertension. Participants who had an albumin/creatinine ratio in the highest quartile (4.34 to 24.17 mg/g for older women and 3.68 to 23.84 mg/g for younger women) were more likely to develop hypertension than those who had an albumin/creatinine ratio in the lowest quartile (hazard ratio 1.76 [95% confidence interval 1.21 to 2.56] and hazard ratio 1.35 [95% confidence interval 0.97 to 1.91] for older and younger women, respectively). Higher albumin/creatinine ratios, even within the normal range, are independently associated with increased risk for development of hypertension among women without diabetes. The definition of normal albumin excretion should be reevaluated.

  5. Serum albumin level predicts initial intravenous immunoglobulin treatment failure in Kawasaki disease.

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    Kuo, Ho-Chang; Liang, Chi-Di; Wang, Chih-Lu; Yu, Hong-Ren; Hwang, Kao-Pin; Yang, Kuender D

    2010-10-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is a systemic vasculitis primarily affecting children who are initial IVIG treatment. This study was conducted to investigate the risk factors for initial IVIG treatment failure in KD. Children who met KD diagnosis criteria and were admitted for IVIG treatment were retrospectively enrolled for analysis. Patients were divided into IVIG-responsive and IVIG-resistant groups. Initial laboratory data before IVIG treatment were collected for analysis. A total of 131 patients were enrolled during the study period. At 48 h after completion of initial IVIG treatment, 20 patients (15.3%) had an elevated body temperature. Univariate analysis showed that patients who had initial findings of high neutrophil count, abnormal liver function, low serum albumin level (≤2.9 g/dL) and pericardial effusion were at risk for IVIG treatment failure. Multivariate analysis with a logistic regression procedure showed that serum albumin level was considered the independent predicting factor of IVIG resistance in patients with KD (p = 0.006, OR = 40, 95% CI: 52.8-562). There was no significant correlation between age, gender, fever duration before IVIG treatment, haemoglobin level, total leucocyte and platelet counts, C-reactive protein level, or sterile pyuria and initial IVIG treatment failure. The specificity and sensitivity for prediction of IVIG treatment failure in this study were 96% and 34%, respectively. Pre-IVIG treatment serum albumin levels are a useful predictor of IVIG resistance in patients with KD. © 2010 The Author(s)/Journal Compilation © 2010 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  6. Ischemia-modified albumin levels in the prediction of acute critical neurological findings in carbon monoxide poisoning

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    Murat Daş

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine whether serum ischemia-modified albumin (IMA levels in patients with carbon monoxide (CO poisoning were higher compared with a control group of healthy volunteers. In addition, the study sought to determine if there was a correlation between serum IMA levels and carboxyhemoglobin (COHB levels and other critical neurological findings (CNFs. In this prospective study, the IMA levels of 100 patients with CO poisoning and 50 control individuals were compared. In addition, the IMA and COHB levels were analyzed according to absence or presence CNFs in patients with CO poisoning. The levels of IMA (mg/dL on admittance, and during the 1st hour and 3rd hour, in patients with CO poisoning (49.90 ± 35.43, 30.21 ± 14.81, and 21.87 ± 6.03 were significantly higher, compared with the control individuals (17.30 ± 2.88. The levels of IMA in the 6th hour were not higher compared with control individuals. The levels of IMA on admittance, and during the 1st hour, 3rd hour, and 6th hour, and COHB (% levels in patients who had CNFs were higher compared with IMA levels and COHB levels in patients who had no CNFs (p < 0.001. However, when the multivariate model was created, it was observed that IMA level on admittance was a poor indicator for prediction of CNFs (odds ratio = 1.05; 95% confidence interval, 1.01–1.08. We therefore concluded that serum IMA levels could be helpful in the diagnosis of CO poisoning. However, we believe that IMA levels cannot be used to predict which patients will develop CNFs due to CO poisoning.

  7. Glycated albumin is set lower in relation to plasma glucose levels in patients with Cushing's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Tetsuhiro; Otsuki, Michio; Tamada, Daisuke; Tabuchi, Yukiko; Mukai, Kosuke; Morita, Shinya; Kasayama, Soji; Shimomura, Iichiro; Koga, Masafumi

    2013-09-23

    Glycated albumin (GA) is an indicator of glycemic control, which has some specific characters in comparison with HbA1c. Since glucocorticoids (GC) promote protein catabolism including serum albumin, GC excess state would influence GA levels. We therefore investigated GA levels in patients with Cushing's syndrome. We studied 16 patients with Cushing's syndrome (8 patients had diabetes mellitus and the remaining 8 patients were non-diabetic). Thirty-two patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and 32 non-diabetic subjects matched for age, sex and BMI were used as controls. In the patients with Cushing's syndrome, GA was significantly correlated with HbA1c, but the regression line shifted downwards as compared with the controls. The GA/HbA1c ratio in the patients with Cushing's syndrome was also significantly lower than the controls. HbA1c in the non-diabetic patients with Cushing's syndrome was not different from the non-diabetic controls, whereas GA was significantly lower. In 7 patients with Cushing's syndrome who performed self-monitoring of blood glucose, the measured HbA1c was matched with HbA1c estimated from mean blood glucose, whereas the measured GA was significantly lower than the estimated GA. We clarified that GA is set lower in relation to plasma glucose levels in patients with Cushing's syndrome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Diagnostic performance of initial serum albumin level for predicting in-hospital mortality among aspiration pneumonia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyosun; Jo, Sion; Lee, Jae Baek; Jin, Youngho; Jeong, Taeoh; Yoon, Jaechol; Lee, Jeong Moon; Park, Boyoung

    2018-01-01

    The predictive value of serum albumin in adult aspiration pneumonia patients remains unknown. Using data collected during a 3-year retrospective cohort of hospitalized adult patients with aspiration pneumonia, we evaluated the predictive value of serum albumin level at ED presentation for in-hospital mortality. 248 Patients were enrolled; of these, 51 cases died (20.6%). The mean serum albumin level was 3.4±0.7g/dL and serum albumin levels were significantly lower in the non-survivor group than in the survivor group (3.0±0.6g/dL vs. 3.5±0.6g/dL). In the multivariable logistic regression model, albumin was associated with in-hospital mortality significantly (adjusted odds ratio 0.30, 95% confidential interval (CI) 0.16-0.57). The area under the receiver operating characteristics (AUROC) for in-hospital survival was 0.72 (95% CI 0.64-0.80). The Youden index was 3.2g/dL and corresponding sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, positive and negative likelihood ratio were 68.6%, 66.5%, 34.7%, 89.1%, 2.05 and 0.47, respectively. High sensitivity (98.0%) was shown at albumin level of 4.0g/dL and high specificity (94.9%) was shown at level of 2.5g/dL. Initial serum albumin levels were independently associated with in-hospital mortality among adult patients hospitalized with aspiration pneumonia and demonstrated fair discriminative performance in the prediction of in-hospital mortality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The impact of serum adropin and ischemia modified albumin levels based on BMI in PCOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inal, Zeynep Ozturk; Erdem, Sami; Gederet, Yavuz; Duran, Cevdet; Kucukaydin, Zehra; Kurku, Huseyin; Sakarya, Derya Kilic

    2018-02-21

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and body mass index (BMI) on serum adropin and ischemia modified albumin (IMA) levels. This prospective cross-sectional study was performed with a total of 120 women [group1; non-PCOS = 60 (BMI PCOS = 60 (BMI PCOS and non-PCOS patients in the lean and overweight groups (pPCOS group were lower than in the lean non-PCOS group (pPCOS group than in the overweight non-PCOS group (pPCOS group than in the non-PCOS group in both the lean and overweight groups (pPCOS group, IMA levels increased. Further studies are needed to determine the effects of adropin and IMA in women with PCOS and to use a new marker to monitorize treatment outcomes.

  10. Albumin and multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeVine, Steven M

    2016-04-12

    Leakage of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a common pathological feature in multiple sclerosis (MS). Following a breach of the BBB, albumin, the most abundant protein in plasma, gains access to CNS tissue where it is exposed to an inflammatory milieu and tissue damage, e.g., demyelination. Once in the CNS, albumin can participate in protective mechanisms. For example, due to its high concentration and molecular properties, albumin becomes a target for oxidation and nitration reactions. Furthermore, albumin binds metals and heme thereby limiting their ability to produce reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species. Albumin also has the potential to worsen disease. Similar to pathogenic processes that occur during epilepsy, extravasated albumin could induce the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and affect the ability of astrocytes to maintain potassium homeostasis thereby possibly making neurons more vulnerable to glutamate exicitotoxicity, which is thought to be a pathogenic mechanism in MS. The albumin quotient, albumin in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)/albumin in serum, is used as a measure of blood-CSF barrier dysfunction in MS, but it may be inaccurate since albumin levels in the CSF can be influenced by multiple factors including: 1) albumin becomes proteolytically cleaved during disease, 2) extravasated albumin is taken up by macrophages, microglia, and astrocytes, and 3) the location of BBB damage affects the entry of extravasated albumin into ventricular CSF. A discussion of the roles that albumin performs during MS is put forth.

  11. Can Serum Albumin Level and Total Lymphocyte Count be Surrogates for Malnutrition to Predict Wound Complications After Total Knee Arthroplasty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey, Vivek M; Song, Young Dong; Whang, Ji Sup; Kang, Yeon Gwi; Kim, Tae Kyun

    2016-06-01

    Although the serum albumin level and total lymphocyte count (TLC) have been reported as valid and reliable markers for defining malnutrition, their cutoff levels and predictive values for wound complications in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA) remain questionable. A total of 3169 TKAs performed between April 2003 and December 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. We determined the prevalence of malnutrition on applying different definitions, with various cutoff values of serum albumin and TLC and analyzed the variations in outcome. The differences between groups with and without malnutrition in terms of functional outcome and complications were determined using Student's t test and analysis of variance. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify the independent risk factors. Among all the patients (N = 3169), the serum albumin level and TLC varied widely, with means of 4.1 g/dL and 2189 cells/mm(3), respectively. The prevalence of malnutrition (21%) as per the conventional definition (serum albumin level malnutrition was defined as serum albumin malnutrition for predicting wound complications after TKA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Quantitative determination of albumin in microlitre amounts of rat serum: With a short note on serum albumin levels in ageing rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw-Israel, F.R. de; Arp-Neefjes, J.M.; Hollander, C.F.

    1967-01-01

    A simple dye binding method for determining rat serum albumin, which employs the anionic dye 2-(4′-hydroxybenzneeazo) benzoic acid (HBABA) is described. Albumin in 5μ1 of serum is determined colorimetrically. Purified rat albumin is used as a primary standard and rat serum as a reference sample.

  13. A meta-analysis of the association of serum ischaemia-modified albumin levels with human hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Varikasuvu Seshadri; Bukke, Suman; Mahato, Khageshwar; Kumar, Vinod; Reddy, Netala Vasudeva; Munikumar, Manne; Vodelu, Bramahanapally

    2017-02-28

    Serum levels of ischaemia-modified albumin (IMA) have been studied as a novel and simple measure of oxidative stress (OXS) in different thyroid pathologies. However, results of available studies in the literature were not consistent. This meta-analysis was attempted to quantify the overall effect size for serum IMA levels in human hypothyroidism (HT) and hyperthyroidism (HYT) and to study its associations with the thyroid profile. Databases of PubMed/Medline, EMBASE, Google Scholar, Web of Science and Science Direct were searched for articles. Data on serum IMA levels in HT, HYT patients and euthyroid controls were extracted to compute standardized mean differences (SMD) by the random-effects model. The associations between IMA and thyroid profile were computed by the meta-analysis of correlation coefficients. IMA levels in HT patients (SMD=1.12; Z=2.76; P=0.006) and HYT patients (SMD=1.64; Z=2.57; P=0.01) were significantly higher than in euthyroid controls and the thyroid treatment showed a favourble effect on serum IMA levels. There were strong and significant correlations between IMA and hormonal status in HT and HYT groups. This meta-analysis showing increased IMA level in both HT and HYT patients and its association with thyroid profile suggests that serum IMA could be used as a simple measure of increased OXS in thyroid dysfunction. © 2017 The Author(s).

  14. Effects of Serum Albumin, Calcium Levels, Cancer Stage and Performance Status on Weight Loss in Parathyroid Hormone-Related Peptide Positive or Negative Patients with Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Yeon Lee

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundA recent animal study showed that parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP is associated with cancer cachexia by promoting adipose tissue browning, and we previously demonstrated that PTHrP predicts weight loss (WL in patients with cancer. In this study, we investigated whether prediction of WL by PTHrP is influenced by clinical factors such as serum albumin, corrected calcium levels, cancer stage, and performance status (PS.MethodsA cohort of 219 patients with cancer whose PTHrP level was measured was enrolled and followed for body weight (BW changes. Subjects were divided into two groups by serum albumin (cutoff value, 3.7 g/dL, corrected calcium (cutoff value, 10.5 mg/dL, cancer stage (stage 1 to 3 or 4, or PS (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group 0 to 1 or 2 to 4, respectively. Clinically significant WL was defined as either percent of BW change (% BW <−5% or % BW <−2% plus body mass index (BMI <20 kg/m2.ResultsAfter a median follow-up of 327 days, 74 patients (33.8% experienced clinically significant WL. A positive PTHrP level was associated with a 2-fold increased risk of WL after adjusting for age, baseline BMI, serum albumin, corrected calcium level, cancer stage, and PS. The effect of PTHrP on WL remained significant in patients with low serum albumin, stage 4 cancer, and good PS. Regardless of calcium level, the effect of PTHrP on WL was maintained, although there was an additive effect of higher calcium and PTHrP levels.ConclusionEarly recognition of patients with advanced cancer who are PTHrP positive with hypercalcemia or hypoalbuminemia is needed for their clinical management.

  15. HbA1c and Glycated Albumin Levels Are High in Gastrectomized Subjects with Iron-Deficiency Anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inada, Shinya; Koga, Masafumi

    2017-01-01

    We report that glycated albumin (GA) is higher relative to HbA1c in non-diabetic, gastrectomized subjects without anemia, and thus is a sign of oxyhyperglycemia. It is known that gastrectomized subjects are prone to iron-deficiency anemia (IDA), and that the HbA1c levels of subjects with IDA are falsely high. In the present study, the HbA1c and GA levels of gastrectomized subjects with IDA were compared with gastrectomized subjects without anemia. Seven non-diabetic gastrectomized subjects with IDA were enrolled in the present study. Twenty-eight non-diabetic gastrectomized subjects without anemia matched with the subjects with IDA in terms of age, gender, and body mass index were used as the controls. Although there were no significant differences in fasting plasma glucose and OGTT 2-hour plasma glucose (2-h PG) between the two groups, the HbA1c and GA levels in gastrectomized subjects with IDA were significantly higher than the controls. For all of the gastrectomized subjects (n=35), ferritin exhibited a significant negative correlation with HbA1c and GA, and a significant positive correlation with 2-h PG. In addition, the HbA1c and GA levels exhibited a significant negative correlation with the mean corpuscular hemoglobin and hemoglobin. The HbA1c and GA levels in gastrectomized subjects with IDA were significantly higher than those in controls. The high GA levels are attributed to a tendency in which patients with total gastrectomy, who are prone to IDA, are susceptible to postprandial hyperglycemia and reactive hypoglycemia, which in turn leads to large fluctuations in plasma glucose. © 2017 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  16. Serum ischemia modified albumin level and its relationship with the thiol/disulfide balance in placenta percreta patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyanikoglu, Hacer; Sak, Muhammet Erdal; Tatli, Faik; Hilali, Nese Gul; Sak, Sibel; Incebiyik, Adnan; Barut, Mert Ulas; Erel, Ozcan; Gonel, Ataman

    2018-06-08

    The pathogenesis of placenta percreta (PP) is not very well known. This study was designed to analyse the oxidative stress (OS), the thiol/disulphide balance, and ischaemia-modified albumin (IMA) the women with PP. The study included 38 pregnant women with PP and 40 similarly aged healthy pregnant women in their third trimester of gestation. We measured the IMA, native and total thiols, and disulphide concentrations in the maternal sera of all of the participating women. The IMA levels were higher and the native and total thiols were lower in the PP group than in the control group. However, there was no statistical significance with respect to the thiol/disulphide balance between the two groups. The results of this study suggest that an increase in the ischaemia and OS and a decrease in the antioxidant status may contribute to the pathogenesis of PP. Impact statement What is already known on this subject? Placenta percreta (PP) is a serious complication of pregnancy. Although there are several studies investigating the pathophysiological mechanism of PP, whether the pathology results from a lack of decidua or from the over-invasiveness of trophoblasts remains controversial. The pathology of PP is poorly understood. What do the results of this study add? This prospective study has shown an increased ischaemia modified albumin (IMA) and a decreased antioxidant capacity in the patients with placenta percreta. The results from 38 women with PP suggest that the serum concentrations of IMA and the oxidative stress parameters may be able to predict PP in cases of uncertainty. What are the implications of these findings for clinical practice and/or further research? The implication of these findings shed light on understanding the pathogenesis of PP for further research.

  17. Bovine serum albumin-GABA-His-Pro-NH2: an immunogen for production of higher affinity antisera for TRH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youngblood, W.W.; Moray, L.J.; Busby, W.H.; Kizer, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    Coupling the synthesize hapten, GABA-His-Pro-NH 2 to bovine serum albumin at a molar ratio of 18 : 1 by means of water-soluble carbodiimide produced an immunogen which stimulated the rapid production in New Zealand white rabbits of antisera with an affinity (2.42+-0.3x10 9 l/mol) for TRH, some 8-fold higher than that of antisera (0.33+-0.03x10 9 l/mol) raised by immunization with a conjugate produced by the currently accepted bis-diazotized-benzidine bridging technique. These higher affinity antibodies when used in a standard TRH radioimmunoassay permitted the detection of less than 1/pg of TRH per assay tube and showed an extremely low affinity for the two major metabolites of TRH, p-Glu-His-Pro-COOH and His-Pro diketopiperazine (4.84x10 4 and 4.0x10 4 l/mol, respectively). Application of this newer radioimmunoassay to the measurement of TRH in brain tissue yielded measurements of TRH content similar to those determined by current RIA methods. Chromatography of whole crude brain extracts revealed one major immunoreactive peak corresponding to authentic TRH. It is concluded that immunization of rabbits with this hapten rapidly produces antisera with a high affinity for TRH suitable for the development of a very sensitive TRH radioimmunoassay. (Auth.)

  18. Cerebrospinal fluid and serum levels of interleukin-8 in patients with multiple sclerosis and its correlation with Q-albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matejčíková, Z; Mareš, J; Sládková, V; Svrčinová, T; Vysloužilová, J; Zapletalová, J; Kaňovský, P

    2017-05-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory-demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Autoimmune inflammation is common in the early stages of MS and is followed by neurodegenerative processes. The result of these changes is axon and myelin breakdown. The paraclinical examination methods are an important part of the diagnostic process. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and the cervical spinal cord and an examination of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are common paraclinical examinations. An increasing number of studies deal with CSF and serum levels of biomarkers and their role in MS. We hypothesized that the level of interleukin-8 (IL-8) could be different in MS patients than in controls. These differences may be related to damage of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). BBB damage is quantified by the quotient of albumin (Q-alb). CSF and serum levels of IL-8 were assessed in 102 patients with newly diagnosed MS meeting McDonald's revised diagnostic criteria and in 102 subjects as a control group. We then correlated these results with Q-alb. Levels of IL-8 in CSF were significantly higher in MS patients than in controls (Mann-Whitney U test, p<0.0001). Serum levels of IL-8 were significantly lower in MS patients than in controls (Mann-Whitney U test, p=0.018). Spearman's correlation analysis proved a significant correlation between levels of IL-8 and Q-alb. As the etiology of MS is only partially known, research dealing with biomarkers in MS should continue. Better knowledge of etiology can provide a new perspective, especially for treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Secretory IgA, albumin level, and bone density as markers of biostimulatory effects of laser radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucerova, Hana; Dostalova, Tatjana; Himmlova, Lucia; Bartova, Jirina; Mazanek, Jiri

    1998-12-01

    The aim of contribution is to evaluate the effects of low- level laser radiation on healing process after human molars extraction in lower jaw using frequency 5 Hz, 292 Hz and 9000 Hz. Changes in bone density and monitoring of secretory IgA and albumin levels in saliva were used as a marker of biostimulatory effect. Bone density after extraction and 6 month after surgical treatment was examined using the dental digital radiography. Bone healing was followed by osseointegration of bone structure in extraction wound. Changes of bone density, secretory IgA and albumin levels were compared in groups of patients with laser therapy and control group without laser therapy. Differences in levels of the saliva markers (sIgA and albumin) were found to be significant comparing irradiated and non-irradiated groups, as well as comparing groups irradiated by various modulatory frequencies. Density of alveolar bone (histogram) was examined on five slices acquired from every RVG image. Histograms were evaluated with computer program for microscopic image analysis. Differences of density were verified in area of the whole slice. There were no significant differences found between the bone density in irradiated and non irradiated groups perhaps due to our used therapeutical diagram.

  20. The level of Ischemic Modified Albumin (IMA) as risk marker for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Recent literature reports show large interest in ischemic modified albumin (IMA) biochemical marker for detection of myocardial injury. Special attention is focused in estimation of IMA test for the diagnosis and evaluation of myocardial ischemia as well as others acute coronary syndrome in emergency patients.

  1. Extraction and characterization of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) albumin and globulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L H; Hung, T V; Bennett, L

    2008-06-01

    Albumin and globulin fractions of 1 Desi and 2 Kabuli varieties of chickpeas (Cicer arietinum) were extracted with water and salt solutions (K(2)SO(4) and NaCl). The extractable yields and particularly the albumin-globulin ratio varied greatly with the extraction medium and chickpea variety. Depending on the procedure employed, albumin could be extracted as a major fraction of chickpea proteins. Higher levels of essential amino acids and sulfur containing amino acids were found in albumins than in globulins of all chickpeas investigated. The common structural characteristics of both Kabuli and Desi chickpea albumins and globulins were clearly identified by densitometric profiles of their sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel patterns. Albumins contained subunits with higher molecular weights than those of globulins. The in vitro digestibility of the chickpea proteins by papain, pepsin, chymotrypsin, and trypsin indicated that globulins were more susceptible to proteolytic hydrolysis.

  2. Assay of picogram level isocarbophos residue on tangerines and oranges with luminol-albumin chemiluminescence system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Donghua; Song, Zhenghua; Lv, Hairu

    2012-12-15

    A sensitive flow injection-chemiluminescence (FI-CL) method for the determination of isocarbophos (ICP) residue on tangerines and oranges was proposed. It was found that the CL intensity from luminol-albumin CL reaction could be obviously quenched in the presence of ICP and the decrease in CL intensity was proportional to the logarithm of ICP concentrations ranging from 1.0 to 1000 pmol L(-1), giving the limit of detection of 0.3 pmol L(-1) (3σ). The proposed procedure was successfully applied to the determination of ICP residue on tangerines and oranges with recoveries varying from 92.0 to 111.0% and RSDs less than 5.0%. The possible CL mechanism of luminol-albumin-ICP reaction was discussed, and ICP to albumin's binding constant (K(D)=1.00 × 10(6) L mol(-1)) and the number of binding sites (n=1.00) were given by the homemade FI-CL model. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Plasma level of endothelin, 6-keto-PGF1α and urine albumin in essential hypertension with diabetes mellitus and their significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao Datong

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the damage of blood vessel endothelium and kidney function in patients with essential hypertension plus diabetes mellitus. Methods: Plasma levels of endothelin (Et) and 6-keto-PGF 1α (6-K-PGF 1α ) as well as urine albumin content were measured by radio immunoassay in 75 patients with essential hypertension (EH), among them 34 were complicated with DM, 35 controls were included in this experiment. Results: The plasma level of ET, 6-K-PGF 1α and urine Alb content were significantly higher in the patients than those in the controls (P 1α were also higher but of no statistic significance. Conclusion: The results suggest that the EH patients with DM were complicated with more serous damage in kidney function

  4. Clinical diagnostic value of determination of serum lschemia modified albumin, homocysteine and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels in patients with acute coronary syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Weiqun; Jiang Donglin; Lu Weigu

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical diagnostic value of determination of serum ischemia modified albumin (IMA), homocysteine (Hcy) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Methods: Serum IMA (with albumin-cobalt binding assay), Hcy (with ELISA) and hs-CRP (with RIA) levels were determined in 73 patients with ACS within 3 hours after onset of chest pain and 40 controls. Results: The sensitivity of IMA was 87.67%, the specificity was 100%. The area under curve of ROC was 0.985 (95% confidence interval 0.969 ∼ 1.001). All the figures were higher than those of Hcy and hs-CRP. Combined determination of IMA, Hcy and hs-CRP, would increass the sensitivity to 97.26%. Conclusion: IMA is one of the earliest sensitive indicators for clinical diagnosis of early myocardial ischemia in patients with ACS. Combined determination of IMA, Hcy and hs-CRP would be even more sensitive. (authors)

  5. Higher level WZW sectors from free fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeckenhauer, J.

    1996-02-01

    We introduce a gauge group of internal symmetries of an ambient algebra as a new tool for investigating the superselection structure of WZW theories and the representation theory of the corresponding affine Lie algebras. The relevant ambient algebra arises from the description of these conformal field theories in terms of free fermions. As an illustration we analyze in detail the so(N) WZW theories at level two. In this case there is actually a homorphism from the representation ring of the gauge group to the WZW fusion ring, even though the level-two observable algebra is smaller than the gauge invariant subalgebra of the field algebra. (orig.)

  6. Transendothelial albumin flux: evidence against active transport of albumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siflinger-Birnboim, A.; Del Vecchio, P.J.; Cooper, J.A.; Malik, A.B.

    1986-01-01

    The authors studied whether albumin is actively transported across cultured pulmonary endothelium by comparing the transendothelial flux of 125 I-albumin from the luminal-to-abluminal side to the flux from the abluminal-to-luminal side. Bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells were grown to confluence on gelatinized polycarbonated filters separating abluminal from luminal compartments. Each compartment had an albumin concentration of 1 g/100 ml to equalize oncotic pressure gradients. The effect of hydrostatic pressure was eliminated by maintaining an equal level of fluid in both compartments. The transendothelial flux of albumin across the monolayer was measured by placing 125 I-albumin tracer either on the luminal or the abluminal side. Equal fluxes of 125 I-albumin from luminal-to-abluminal side and from abluminal-to-luminal side were observed. The results indicate that the pulmonary endothelium behaves symmetrically for albumin, indicating the absence of active transport of albumin

  7. Temporal Variation and Association of Aflatoxin B₁ Albumin-Adduct Levels with Socio-Economic and Food Consumption Factors in HIV Positive Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolly, Pauline E; Akinyemiju, Tomi F; Jha, Megha; Aban, Inmaculada; Gonzalez-Falero, Andrea; Joseph, Dnika

    2015-11-30

    The association between aflatoxin exposure and alteration in immune responses observed in humans suggest that aflatoxin could suppress the immune system and work synergistically with HIV to increase disease severity and progression to AIDS. No longitudinal study has been conducted to assess exposure to aflatoxin (AF) among HIV positive individuals. We examined temporal variation in AFB₁ albumin adducts (AF-ALB) in HIV positive Ghanaians, and assessed the association with socioeconomic and food consumption factors. We collected socioeconomic and food consumption data for 307 HIV positive antiretroviral naive adults and examined AF-ALB levels at recruitment (baseline) and at six (follow-up 1) and 12 (follow-up 2) months post-recruitment, by age, gender, socioeconomic status (SES) and food consumption patterns. Generalized linear models were used to examine the influence of socioeconomic and food consumption factors on changes in AF-ALB levels over the study period, adjusting for other covariates. AF-ALB levels (pg/mg albumin) were lower at baseline (mean AF-ALB: 14.9, SD: 15.9), higher at six months (mean AF-ALB: 23.3, SD: 26.6), and lower at 12 months (mean AF-ALB: 15.3, SD: 15.4). Participants with the lowest SES had the highest AF-ALB levels at baseline and follow up-2 compared with those with higher SES. Participants who bought less than 20% of their food and who stored maize for less than two months had lower AF-ALB levels. In the adjusted models, there was a statistically significant association between follow up time and season (dry or rainy season) on AF-ALB levels over time (p = 0.04). Asymptomatic HIV-positive Ghanaians had high plasma AF-ALB levels that varied according to season, socioeconomic status, and food consumption patterns. Steps need to be taken to ensure the safety and security of the food supply for the population, but in particular for the most vulnerable groups such as HIV positive people.

  8. Temporal Variation and Association of Aflatoxin B1 Albumin-Adduct Levels with Socio-Economic and Food Consumption Factors in HIV Positive Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline E. Jolly

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The association between aflatoxin exposure and alteration in immune responses observed in humans suggest that aflatoxin could suppress the immune system and work synergistically with HIV to increase disease severity and progression to AIDS. No longitudinal study has been conducted to assess exposure to aflatoxin (AF among HIV positive individuals. We examined temporal variation in AFB1 albumin adducts (AF-ALB in HIV positive Ghanaians, and assessed the association with socioeconomic and food consumption factors. We collected socioeconomic and food consumption data for 307 HIV positive antiretroviral naive adults and examined AF-ALB levels at recruitment (baseline and at six (follow-up 1 and 12 (follow-up 2 months post-recruitment, by age, gender, socioeconomic status (SES and food consumption patterns. Generalized linear models were used to examine the influence of socioeconomic and food consumption factors on changes in AF-ALB levels over the study period, adjusting for other covariates. AF-ALB levels (pg/mg albumin were lower at baseline (mean AF-ALB: 14.9, SD: 15.9, higher at six months (mean AF-ALB: 23.3, SD: 26.6, and lower at 12 months (mean AF-ALB: 15.3, SD: 15.4. Participants with the lowest SES had the highest AF-ALB levels at baseline and follow up-2 compared with those with higher SES. Participants who bought less than 20% of their food and who stored maize for less than two months had lower AF-ALB levels. In the adjusted models, there was a statistically significant association between follow up time and season (dry or rainy season on AF-ALB levels over time (p = 0.04. Asymptomatic HIV-positive Ghanaians had high plasma AF-ALB levels that varied according to season, socioeconomic status, and food consumption patterns. Steps need to be taken to ensure the safety and security of the food supply for the population, but in particular for the most vulnerable groups such as HIV positive people.

  9. Clinical significance of preoperative serum albumin level for prognosis in surgically resected patients with non-small cell lung cancer: Comparative study of normal lung, emphysema, and pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Kentaro; Hamanaka, Kazutoshi; Koizumi, Tomonobu; Kitaguchi, Yoshiaki; Terada, Yukihiro; Nakamura, Daisuke; Kumeda, Hirotaka; Agatsuma, Hiroyuki; Hyogotani, Akira; Kawakami, Satoshi; Yoshizawa, Akihiko; Asaka, Shiho; Ito, Ken-Ichi

    2017-09-01

    This study was performed to clarify whether preoperative serum albumin level is related to the prognosis of non-small cell lung cancer patients undergoing surgical resection, and the relationships between serum albumin level and clinicopathological characteristics of lung cancer patients with emphysema or pulmonary fibrosis. We retrospectively evaluated 556 patients that underwent surgical resection for non-small cell lung cancer. The correlation between preoperative serum albumin level and survival was evaluated. Patients were divided into three groups according to the findings on chest high-resolution computed tomography (normal lung, emphysema, and pulmonary fibrosis), and the relationships between serum albumin level and clinicopathological characteristics, including prognosis, were evaluated. The cut-off value of serum albumin level was set at 4.2g/dL. Patients with low albumin levels (albumin emphysema group (n=48) and pulmonary fibrosis group (n=45) were significantly lower than that in the normal lung group (n=463) (p=0.009 and pulmonary fibrosis groups, but not in the emphysema group. Preoperative serum albumin level was an important prognostic factor for overall survival and recurrence-free survival in patients with resected non-small cell lung cancer. Divided into normal lung, emphysema, and pulmonary fibrosis groups, serum albumin level showed no influence only in patients in the emphysema group. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Rice (Oryza sativa japonica) Albumin Suppresses the Elevation of Blood Glucose and Plasma Insulin Levels after Oral Glucose Loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ina, Shigenobu; Ninomiya, Kazumi; Mogi, Takashi; Hase, Ayumu; Ando, Toshiki; Matsukaze, Narumi; Ogihara, Jun; Akao, Makoto; Kumagai, Hitoshi; Kumagai, Hitomi

    2016-06-22

    The suppressive effect of rice albumin (RA) of 16 kDa on elevation of blood glucose level after oral loading of starch or glucose and its possible mechanism were examined. RA suppressed the increase in blood glucose levels in both the oral starch tolerance test and the oral glucose tolerance test. The blood glucose concentrations 15 min after the oral administration of starch were 144 ± 6 mg/dL for control group and 127 ± 4 mg/dL for RA 200 mg/kg BW group, while those after the oral administration of glucose were 157 ± 7 mg/dL for control group and 137 ± 4 mg/dL for RA 200 mg/kg BW group. However, in the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test, no significant differences in blood glucose level were observed between RA and the control groups, indicating that RA suppresses the glucose absorption from the small intestine. However, RA did not inhibit the activity of mammalian α-amylase. RA was hydrolyzed to an indigestible high-molecular-weight peptide (HMP) of 14 kDa and low-molecular-weight peptides by pepsin and pancreatin. Furthermore, RA suppressed the glucose diffusion rate through a semipermeable membrane like dietary fibers in vitro. Therefore, the indigestible HMP may adsorb glucose and suppress its absorption from the small intestine.

  11. Relationship between trajectories of serum albumin levels and technique failure according to diabetic status in peritoneal dialysis patients: A joint modeling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehri Khoshhali

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: In peritoneal dialysis, technique failure is an important metric to be considered. This study was performed in order to identify the relationship between trajectories of serum albumin levels and peritoneal dialysis technique failure on end-stage renal disease patients according to diabetic status. Furthermore, this study was performed to reveal predictors of serum albumin and technique failure simultaneously. Methods: This retrospective cohort study included 300 (189 non-diabetic and 111 diabetic end-stage renal disease patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis treated in Al-Zahra Hospital, Isfahan, Iran, from May 2005 to March 2015. Bayesian joint modeling was carried out in order to determine the relationship between trajectories of serum albumin levels and peritoneal dialysis technique failure in the patients according to diabetic status. Death from all causes was considered as a competing risk. Results: Using joint modeling approach, a relationship between trajectories of serum albumin with hazard of transfer to hemodialysis was estimated as −0.720 (95% confidence interval [CI], −0.971 to −0.472 for diabetic and −0.784 (95% CI, −0.963 to −0.587 for non-diabetic patients. From our findings it was showed that predictors of low serum albumin over time were time on peritoneal dialysis for diabetic patients and increase in age and time on peritoneal dialysis, history of previous hemodialysis, and lower body mass index in non-diabetic patients. Conclusion: The results of current study showed that controlling serum albumin over time in non-diabetic and diabetic patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis treatment can decrease risk of adverse outcomes during the peritoneal dialysis period.

  12. Fructosamine and Hemoglobin A1c Correlations in HIV-Infected Adults in Routine Clinical Care: Impact of Anemia and Albumin Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Duran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fructosamine is an alternative method to hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c for determining average glycemia. However, its use has not been extensively evaluated in persons living with HIV (PLWH. We examined the relationship between HbA1c and fructosamine values, specifically focusing on anemia (which can affect HbA1c and albumin as a marker of liver disease. We included 345 PLWH from two sites. We examined Spearman rank correlations between fructosamine and HbA1c and performed linear test for trends to compare fructosamine and HbA1c correlations by hemoglobin and albumin quartiles. We examined discrepant individuals with values elevated only on one test. We found a correlation of 0.70 between fructosamine and HbA1c levels. Trend tests for correlations between fructosamine and HbA1c were significant for both albumin (p=0.05 and hemoglobin (p=0.01 with the lowest correlations in the lowest hemoglobin quartile. We identified participants with unremarkable HbA1c values but elevated fructosamine values. These discrepant individuals had lower mean hemoglobin levels than those elevated by both tests. We demonstrated a large correlation between HbA1c and fructosamine across a range of hemoglobin and albumin levels. There were discrepant cases particularly among those with lower hemoglobin levels. Future studies are needed to clarify the use of fructosamine for diabetes management in PWLH.

  13. Thyroid albumin originates from blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vijlder, J. J.; Veenboer, G. J.; van Dijk, J. E.

    1992-01-01

    Iodoalbumin has been found in the goiter of Dutch goats with a thyroglobulin synthesis defect. Immunohistochemical studies showed that in the goiter the percentage of follicles containing albumin was higher than that in normal thyroid glands. In the albumin-containing follicles of normal and

  14. Impact of preoperative levels of hemoglobin and albumin on the survival of pancreatic carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Tovar, J; Martín-Pérez, E; Fernández-Contreras, M E; Reguero-Callejas, M E; Gamallo-Amat, C

    2010-11-01

    Pancreatic cancer presents the worst survival rates of all neoplasms. Surgical resection is the only potentially curative treatment, but is associated with high complication rates and outcome is bad even in those resected cases. Therefore, candidates amenable for resection must be carefully selected. Identification of prognostic factors preoperatively may help to improve the treatment of these patients, focusing on individually management based on the expected response. We perform a retrospective study of 59 patients with histological diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma between 1999 and 2003, looking for possible prognostic factors. We analyze 59 patients, 32 males and 27 females with a mean age of 63.8 years. All the patients were operated, performing palliative surgery in 32% and tumoral resection in 68%, including pancreaticoduodenectomies in 51% and distal pancreatectomy in 17%. Median global survival was 14 months (Range 1-110).We observed that preoperative levels of hemoglobin under 12 g/dl (p = 0.0006) and serum albumina under 2.8 g/dl (p = 0.021) are associated with worse survival. Preoperative levels of hemoglobin and serum albumina may be prognostic indicators in pancreatic cancer.

  15. Effects of Higher and Lower Level Writing-To-Learn Assignments on Higher and Lower Level Examination Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevid, Jeffrey S.; Ambrose, Michael A.; Pyun, Yea Seul

    2017-01-01

    Our study examined whether brief writing-to-learn assignments linked to lower and higher levels in Bloom's taxonomy affected performance differentially on examination performance in assessing these skill levels. Using a quasi-random design, 91 undergraduate students in an introductory psychology class completed eight lower level and eight higher…

  16. Stability of therapeutic albumin solutions used for molecular adsorbent recirculating system-based liver dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bruyn, Tom; Meijers, Björn; Evenepoel, Pieter; Laub, Ruth; Willems, Ludo; Augustijns, Patrick; Annaert, Pieter

    2012-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests beneficial effects of albumin dialysis-based liver support in patients suffering from acute-on-chronic liver failure. Molecular adsorbent recirculating system (MARS) is a nonbiological liver support device, based on the exchange of albumin-bound toxins between the patient's blood and a 20% human serum albumin solution in a secondary circuit. Bound toxins are continuously removed from the circulating albumin by exposure to activated charcoal and an ion-exchange resin. The aim of the present in vitro study was to determine the impact of exposure to charcoal and resin on the ligand binding properties of albumins, containing various levels of stabilizers and obtained from different suppliers (Baxter, CAF-DCF [Red Cross], and Sigma-Aldrich). Albumin binding properties were assessed by measuring equilibrium binding properties of warfarin, diazepam, and salicylate before and after incubation (for up to 7 h) with adsorbing materials; albumin-associated esterase-like activities were also determined. Notable changes in albumin binding upon incubation with adsorbing materials were only observed when using warfarin as a ligand. Affinity of warfarin for the Baxter and Sigma albumins showed a pronounced decrease (higher K(d) ) after the 1-7-h exposure to charcoal or resin. In the absence of adsorbing materials, similar effects were found, indicating that incubation time per se affects albumin binding properties. Following exposure to resin, Baxter albumin binding capacity (B(max)) increased about twofold. For albumin obtained from CAF-DCF, binding affinity and capacity for warfarin were constant under all conditions tested. Esterase-like activities associated with these albumins were either maintained or enhanced (up to 2.5-fold in case of Sigma albumin) following 7-h incubations with adsorbing materials. Our data suggest limited direct influence of the presence of stabilizers in therapeutic albumin solutions on baseline binding properties of human

  17. The impact of the treatment method on intradialytic intercurrences and serum levels of hemoglobin, calcium and albumin of the person with chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOAQUIM CARREIRA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introdution: The high prevalence of chronic kidney disease has led to the development of renal function replacement techniques as a treatment for individuals with the disease. Hemodialysis (HD is the most commonly used method for the treatment of patients with the disease. Even if it has improved a lot, the intercurrences during dialysis continue to be a reality. The literature is not consensual when it relates the modalities of treatment and the benefits and harms associated with them. If on the one hand there is evidence that hemodiafiltration (HDF has fewer implications for patients than hemodialysis, others do not show significant differences when comparing the two treatment modalities. Methods: A prospective, comparative, quasi-experimental study was developed over a period of 8 months to determine if there were differences in the number of intercurrences and serum levels of calcium, albumin and hemoglobin observed in each treatment modality, HD versus HDF. Results and discussion: The data obtained show that there are no statistically significant differences in the number of intercurrences and serum levels of calcium, albumin and hemoglobin observed in each treatment modality. Conclusions: It was not possible to determine which of the treatment modalities is associated with major/minor intradialytic intercurrences or serum levels of hemoglobin, calcium and albumin.

  18. Cellular specificity of the blood-CSF barrier for albumin transfer across the choroid plexus epithelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shane A Liddelow

    Full Text Available To maintain the precise internal milieu of the mammalian central nervous system, well-controlled transfer of molecules from periphery into brain is required. Recently the soluble and cell-surface albumin-binding glycoprotein SPARC (secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine has been implicated in albumin transport into developing brain, however the exact mechanism remains unknown. We postulate that SPARC is a docking site for albumin, mediating its uptake and transfer by choroid plexus epithelial cells from blood into cerebrospinal fluid (CSF. We used in vivo physiological measurements of transfer of endogenous (mouse and exogenous (human albumins, in situ Proximity Ligation Assay (in situ PLA, and qRT-PCR experiments to examine the cellular mechanism mediating protein transfer across the blood-CSF interface. We report that at all developmental stages mouse albumin and SPARC gave positive signals with in situ PLAs in plasma, CSF and within individual plexus cells suggesting a possible molecular interaction. In contrast, in situ PLA experiments in brain sections from mice injected with human albumin showed positive signals for human albumin in the vascular compartment that were only rarely identifiable within choroid plexus cells and only at older ages. Concentrations of both endogenous mouse albumin and exogenous (intraperitoneally injected human albumin were estimated in plasma and CSF and expressed as CSF/plasma concentration ratios. Human albumin was not transferred through the mouse blood-CSF barrier to the same extent as endogenous mouse albumin, confirming results from in situ PLA. During postnatal development Sparc gene expression was higher in early postnatal ages than in the adult and changed in response to altered levels of albumin in blood plasma in a differential and developmentally regulated manner. Here we propose a possible cellular route and mechanism by which albumin is transferred from blood into CSF across a sub

  19. Seeking a Higher Level of Arts Integration across the Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotiropoulou-Zormpala, Marina

    2016-01-01

    To seek a higher level of arts integration across the education curriculum, I investigated designs of teaching through arts activities that would motivate educators to adopt the spirit of "aesthetic teaching." Two different designs were tested, with the second as a continuation of the first. Each ascribes a different educational role to…

  20. Radio frequency plasma nitriding of aluminium at higher power levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gredelj, Sabina; Kumar, Sunil; Gerson, Andrea R.; Cavallaro, Giuseppe P.

    2006-01-01

    Nitriding of aluminium 2011 using a radio frequency plasma at higher power levels (500 and 700 W) and lower substrate temperature (500 deg. C) resulted in higher AlN/Al 2 O 3 ratios than obtained at 100 W and 575 deg. C. AlN/Al 2 O 3 ratios derived from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis (and corroborated by heavy ion elastic recoil time of flight spectrometry) for treatments preformed at 100 (575 deg. C), 500 (500 deg. C) and 700 W (500 deg. C) were 1.0, 1.5 and 3.3, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that plasma nitrided surfaces obtained at higher power levels exhibited much finer nodular morphology than obtained at 100 W

  1. Albumin and its application in drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep, Darrell

    2015-05-01

    Rapid clearance of drugs from the body results in short therapeutic half-life and is an integral property of many protein and peptide-based drugs. To maintain the desired therapeutic effect patients are required to administer higher doses more frequently, which is inconvenient and risks undesirable side effects. Drug delivery technologies aim to minimise the number of administrations and dose-related toxicity while maximising therapeutic efficacy. This review describes albumin's inherent biochemical and biophysical properties, which make it an attractive drug delivery platform and the developmental status of drugs that are associated, conjugated or genetically fused with albumin. Albumin interacts with a number of cell surface receptors including gp18, gp30, gp60, FcRn, cubilin and megalin. The importance of albumin's interaction with the FcRn receptor, the basis for albumin's long circulatory half-life, is described, as are engineered albumins with improved pharmacokinetics. Albumin naturally accumulates at tumours and sites of inflammation, a characteristic which can be augmented by the addition of targeting ligands. The development of albumin drug conjugates which reply upon this property is described. Albumin's inherent biochemical and biophysical properties make it an ideal drug delivery platform. Recent advances in our understanding of albumin physiology and the improvement in albumin-based therapies strongly suggest that albumin-based therapies have a significant advantage over alternative technologies in terms of half-life, stability, versatility, safety and ease of manufacture. Given the importance of the albumin:FcRn interaction, the interpretation of the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles of albumin-based therapeutics with disturbed albumin:FcRn interaction may have to be reassessed. The FcRn receptor has additional functionality, especially in relation to immunology, antigen presentation and delivery of proteins across mucosal membranes

  2. Urine Albumin and Albumin/ Creatinine Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it used? The urine albumin test or albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) is used to screen people with chronic conditions, such as diabetes and high blood pressure ( hypertension ) that put them at an ...

  3. Lymphatic albumin clearance from psoriatic skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staberg, B.; Klemp, P.; Aasted, M.; Worm, A.M.; Lund, P.

    1983-01-01

    In nine patients with untreated psoriasis vulgaris, human serum albumin labelled with 125 I or 131 I was injected intradermally in symmetrically located involved and uninvolved skin. The activity of the depots was followed by external detection, and the arrival of labelled albumin in plasma was monitored. In involved psoriatic skin the local mean half-time (T1/2) for tracer disappearance was 20.8 +/- 8.2 (S.D.) hr and in clinically normal skin, 29.1 +/- 9.6 (S.D.) hr. The difference was significant (p less than 0.002). Accordingly, the tracer from involved skin reached higher plasma levels than the tracer from uninvolved skin. However, under slight lymphatic stasis the appearance rate of radiolabelled albumin in plasma from both tissues was minimal during 1 to 2 hours after the injection, indicating that a local direct transvascular drainage of plasma albumin from the interstitium of diseased and normal skin was negligible. We conclude that the previously demonstrated increased extravasation of plasma proteins in involved psoriatic skin is compensated by an increased lymphatic drainage of plasma proteins, and not by an increased local transvascular return

  4. Serum Albumin Predicts Long-Term Neurological Outcomes After Acute Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Bobo; Jutzeler, Catherine R; Cragg, Jacquelyn J; Grassner, Lukas; Schwab, Jan M; Casha, Steve; Geisler, Fred; Kramer, John L K

    2018-01-01

    There is a need to identify reliable biomarkers of spinal cord injury recovery for clinical practice and clinical trials. Our objective was to correlate serum albumin levels with spinal cord injury neurological outcomes. We performed a secondary analysis of patients with traumatic spinal cord injury (n = 591) participating in the Sygen clinical trial. Serum albumin concentrations were obtained as part of routine blood chemistry analysis, at trial entry (24-72 hours), 1, 2, and 4 weeks after injury. The primary outcomes were "marked recovery" and lower extremity motor scores, derived from the International Standards for the Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury. Data were analyzed with multivariable logistic and linear regression to adjust for potential confounders. Serum albumin was significantly associated with spinal cord injury neurological outcomes. Higher serum albumin concentrations at 1, 2, and 4 weeks were associated with higher 52-week lower extremity motor score. Similarly, the odds of achieving "marked neurological recovery" was greater for individuals with higher serum albumin concentrations. The association between serum albumin concentrations and neurological outcomes was independent of initial injury severity, treatment with GM-1, and polytrauma. In spinal cord injury, serum albumin is an independent marker of long-term neurological outcomes. Serum albumin could serve as a feasible biomarker for prognosis at the time of injury and stratification in clinical trials.

  5. Higher fuel prices are associated with lower air pollution levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Adrian G; Knibbs, Luke D

    2014-05-01

    Air pollution is a persistent problem in urban areas, and traffic emissions are a major cause of poor air quality. Policies to curb pollution levels often involve raising the price of using private vehicles, for example, congestion charges. We were interested in whether higher fuel prices were associated with decreased air pollution levels. We examined an association between diesel and petrol prices and four traffic-related pollutants in Brisbane from 2010 to 2013. We used a regression model and examined pollution levels up to 16 days after the price change. Higher diesel prices were associated with statistically significant short-term reductions in carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides. Changes in petrol prices had no impact on air pollution. Raising diesel taxes in Australia could be justified as a public health measure. As raising taxes is politically unpopular, an alternative political approach would be to remove schemes that put a downward pressure on fuel prices, such as industry subsidies and shopping vouchers that give fuel discounts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Franck--Hertz experiment with higher excitation level measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, F.H.

    1987-01-01

    The measurement of the higher levels of 6 3 P 2 and 6 1 P 1 of the mercury atom in the Franck--Hertz experiment has been introduced into the junior and senior laboratory course by using a homemade tetrode Franck--Hertz tube. The main structure of the tube is described. The optimum operating conditions are in the temperature range between 130 and 150 0 C and the collector currents are of the order of 10 -9 A. The additional observations of the famous Franck--Hertz experiment in the laboratory course will give the students more familiarity with the quantum behavior of atoms

  7. Higher-level gait disorders: an open frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutt, John G

    2013-09-15

    The term higher-level gait disorders (HLGD) defines a category of balance and gait disorders that are not explained by deficits in strength, tone, sensation, or coordination. HLGD are characterized by various combinations of disequilibrium and impaired locomotion. A plethora of new imaging techniques are beginning to determine the neural circuits that are the basis of these disorders. Although a variety of neurodegenerative and other pathologies can produce HLGD, the most common cause appears to be microvascular disease that causes white-matter lesions and thereby disrupts balance/locomotor circuits. © 2013 Movement Disorder Society.

  8. A higher-level MRP supertree of placental mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bininda-Emonds Olaf RP

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The higher-level phylogeny of placental mammals has long been a phylogenetic Gordian knot, with disagreement about both the precise contents of, and relationships between, the extant orders. A recent MRP supertree that favoured 'outdated' hypotheses (notably, monophyly of both Artiodactyla and Lipotyphla has been heavily criticised for including low-quality and redundant data. We apply a stringent data selection protocol designed to minimise these problems to a much-expanded data set of morphological, molecular and combined source trees, to produce a supertree that includes every family of extant placental mammals. Results The supertree is well-resolved and supports both polyphyly of Lipotyphla and paraphyly of Artiodactyla with respect to Cetacea. The existence of four 'superorders' – Afrotheria, Xenarthra, Laurasiatheria and Euarchontoglires – is also supported. The topology is highly congruent with recent (molecular phylogenetic analyses of placental mammals, but is considerably more comprehensive, being the first phylogeny to include all 113 extant families without making a priori assumptions of suprafamilial monophyly. Subsidiary analyses reveal that the data selection protocol played a key role in the major changes relative to a previously published higher-level supertree of placentals. Conclusion The supertree should provide a useful framework for hypothesis testing in phylogenetic comparative biology, and supports the idea that biogeography has played a crucial role in the evolution of placental mammals. Our results demonstrate the importance of minimising poor and redundant data when constructing supertrees.

  9. Higher Level Visual Cortex Represents Retinotopic, Not Spatiotopic, Object Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanwisher, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    The crux of vision is to identify objects and determine their locations in the environment. Although initial visual representations are necessarily retinotopic (eye centered), interaction with the real world requires spatiotopic (absolute) location information. We asked whether higher level human visual cortex—important for stable object recognition and action—contains information about retinotopic and/or spatiotopic object position. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging multivariate pattern analysis techniques, we found information about both object category and object location in each of the ventral, dorsal, and early visual regions tested, replicating previous reports. By manipulating fixation position and stimulus position, we then tested whether these location representations were retinotopic or spatiotopic. Crucially, all location information was purely retinotopic. This pattern persisted when location information was irrelevant to the task, and even when spatiotopic (not retinotopic) stimulus position was explicitly emphasized. We also conducted a “searchlight” analysis across our entire scanned volume to explore additional cortex but again found predominantly retinotopic representations. The lack of explicit spatiotopic representations suggests that spatiotopic object position may instead be computed indirectly and continually reconstructed with each eye movement. Thus, despite our subjective impression that visual information is spatiotopic, even in higher level visual cortex, object location continues to be represented in retinotopic coordinates. PMID:22190434

  10. Glycated albumin: from biochemistry and laboratory medicine to clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dozio, Elena; Di Gaetano, Nicola; Findeisen, Peter; Corsi Romanelli, Massimiliano Marco

    2017-03-01

    This review summarizes current knowledge about glycated albumin. We review the changes induced by glycation on the properties of albumin, the pathological implications of high glycated albumin levels, glycated albumin quantification methods, and the use of glycated albumin as a complementary biomarker for diabetes mellitus diagnosis and monitoring and for dealing with long-term complications. The advantages and limits of this biomarker in different clinical settings are also discussed.

  11. Posttranslational nitro-glycative modifications of albumin in Alzheimer's disease: implications in cytotoxicity and amyloid-β peptide aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Fernández, Eva; Tajes, Marta; Palomer, Ernest; Ill-Raga, Gerard; Bosch-Morató, Mònica; Guivernau, Biuse; Román-Dégano, Irene; Eraso-Pichot, Abel; Alcolea, Daniel; Fortea, Juan; Nuñez, Laura; Paez, Antonio; Alameda, Francesc; Fernández-Busquets, Xavier; Lleó, Alberto; Elosúa, Roberto; Boada, Mercé; Valverde, Miguel A; Muñoz, Francisco J

    2014-01-01

    Glycation and nitrotyrosination are pathological posttranslational modifications that make proteins prone to losing their physiological properties. Since both modifications are increased in Alzheimer's disease (AD) due to amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) accumulation, we have studied their effect on albumin, the most abundant protein in cerebrospinal fluid and blood. Brain and plasmatic levels of glycated and nitrated albumin were significantly higher in AD patients than in controls. In vitro turbidometry and electron microscopy analyses demonstrated that glycation and nitrotyrosination promote changes in albumin structure and biochemical properties. Glycated albumin was more resistant to proteolysis and less uptake by hepatoma cells occurred. Glycated albumin also reduced the osmolarity expected for a solution containing native albumin. Both glycation and nitrotyrosination turned albumin cytotoxic in a cell type-dependent manner for cerebral and vascular cells. Finally, of particular relevance to AD, these modified albumins were significantly less effective in avoiding Aβ aggregation than native albumin. In summary, nitrotyrosination and especially glycation alter albumin structural and biochemical properties, and these modifications might contribute for the progression of AD.

  12. Investigation of the effect of plasma albumin levels on regorafenib-induced hepatotoxicity using a validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Yi Yun; Tan, Yeong Lan; Ho, Han Kiat

    2017-09-01

    Regorafenib is an oral multikinase inhibitor indicated for metastatic colorectal cancer and gastrointestinal stromal tumour. Due to its extensive plasma protein binding and low calculated hepatic extraction ratio, the hepatotoxicity observed with usage of the drug may be related to its plasma exposure. To investigate the highly dynamic free:bound drug concentration for regorafenib in the plasma, a bioanalytical liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric assay was developed and validated in human plasma. The concentration range of the assay was 2-1000ng/mL. Sample preparation was via protein precipitation using acetonitrile with sorafenib as the internal standard. The supernatant was injected into an ultra-performance liquid chromatographic system coupled to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. The analytes were separated on an AQUITY UPLC BEH C 18 column (120Å, 1.7μm, 2.1mm×50mm) and eluted with a gradient elution system. The ions were detected in multiple reaction monitoring mode. The linearity, lower limit of quantification, intra-day and inter-day precision and accuracy conformed to FDA guidelines. The validated method was successfully applied to determine the effect of albumin levels in plasma on the extent of protein binding of regorafenib. The results indicated that physiologically-relevant levels of albumin were found to have no significant effect on the extent of protein binding of regorafenib, hence imposing minimal effect on drug disposition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Extension of TFTR operations to higher toroidal field levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woolley, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    For the past year, TFTR has sometimes operated at extended toroidal field (TF) levels. The extension to 5.6 Tesla (79 kA) was crucial for TFTR's November 1994 10.7 MW DT fusion power record. The extension to 6.0 Tesla (85 kA) was commissioned on 9 September 1995. There are several reasons that one could expect the TF coils to survive the higher stresses that develop at higher fields. They were designed to operate at 5.2 Tesla with a vertical field of 0.5 Tesla, whereas the actual vertical field needed for the plasma does not exceed 0.35 Tesla. Their design specification explicitly required they survive some pulses at 6.0 Tesla. TF coil mechanical analysis computer models available during coil design were crude, leading to conservative design. And design analyses also had to consider worst-case misoperations that TFTR's real time Coil Protection Calculators (CPCs) now positively prevent from occurring

  14. Higher order corrections to energy levels of muonic atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinker, G.A. Jr.; Steffen, R.M.

    1975-08-01

    In order to facilitate the analysis of muonic x-ray spectra, the results of numerical computations of all higher order quantum electrodynamical corrections to the energy levels of muonic atoms are presented in tabular and graphical form. These corrections include the vacuum polarization corrections caused by emission and reabsorption of virtual electron pairs to all orders, including ''double-bubble'' and ''cracked-egg'' diagrams. An estimate of the Delbruecke scattering-type correction is presented. The Lamb-shift (second- and fourth-order vertex) corrections have been calculated including the correction for the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon. The relativistic nuclear motion (or recoil) correction as well as the correction caused by the screening of the atomic electrons is presented in graphs. For the sake of completeness a graph of the nuclear polarization as computed on the basis of Chen's approach has been included. All calculations were made with a two-parameter Fermi distribution of the nuclear charge density. 7 figures, 23 references

  15. Toward raising the higher level of radiological nursing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusama, Tomoko; Ban, Nobuhiko; Ono, Koji

    2013-01-01

    The role and purpose of nursing in the radiological field are discussed with essentials of radiological nursing for raising its higher level and needed fundamental education. The discussion is from the thought that, at Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident (Mar. 2011), general medical staff including nurses are rather insufficient of radiological knowledge like the exposure, radiation effect and risk. In the medical radiological field, nurses are expected to play roles of arranging the circumstance for patient's ease like explanation about health effect/risk, appropriate nursing of them after radiological diagnosis, radiation protection of nurses themselves, and of environment. At such an emergency as the Accident, care for the acutely exposed victims, their decontamination and responding to patient's concern are necessary. At the later phase, also needed are nursing of victims undergoing health management done by authorities and of radiological workers concerned as well as the third item above. Therefore, fundamentals of radiological knowledge such as physics, exposure, health effects, protection, contamination, legal rules and risk communication are required in the education of nurses. Otherwise, this education can be conducted as a part of safety security and physical assessment. The Accident also gives us the importance of radiological risk communication with its victims. (T.T.)

  16. Modification of booming level for higher correlation with booming sensation; Booming level no koseidoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatano, S; Hashimoto, T [Seikei University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    In our previous study, we proposed a objective measure, i.e., Booming Level for quantifying booming sensation caused by car interior noise. In this paper, Booming Level was modified with its weighting function and within the process of calculation 1/3 octave band level was modified for the best match with subjective result. These modifications were conducted through a subjective experiment rating booming sensation with sounds having much lower frequency contents below 63Hz. With this modified Booming Level, we have obtained higher correlation for rating booming sensation with sounds having prominent low frequency components. 1 ref., 10 figs.

  17. Identifying and Fostering Higher Levels of Geometric Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škrbec, Maja; Cadež, Tatjana Hodnik

    2015-01-01

    Pierre M. Van Hiele created five levels of geometric thinking. We decided to identify the level of geometric thinking in the students in Slovenia, aged 9 to 11 years. The majority of students (60.7%) are at the transition between the zero (visual) level and the first (descriptive) level of geometric thinking. Nearly a third (31.7%) of students is…

  18. Serum albumin levels in burn people are associated to the total body surface burned and the length of hospital stay but not to the initiation of the oral/enteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Guisado, Joaquín; de Haro-Padilla, Jesús M; Rioja, Luis F; Derosier, Leo C; de la Torre, Jorge I

    2013-01-01

    Serum albumin levels have been used to evaluate the severity of the burns and the nutrition protein status in burn people, specifically in the response of the burn patient to the nutrition. Although it hasn't been proven if all these associations are fully funded. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the relationship of serum albumin levels at 3-7 days after the burn injury, with the total body surface area burned (TBSA), the length of hospital stay (LHS) and the initiation of the oral/enteral nutrition (IOEN). It was carried out with the health records of patients that accomplished the inclusion criteria and were admitted to the burn units at the University Hospital of Reina Sofia (Córdoba, Spain) and UAB Hospital at Birmingham (Alabama, USA) over a 10 years period, between January 2000 and December 2009. We studied the statistical association of serum albumin levels with the TBSA, LHS and IOEN by ANOVA one way test. The confidence interval chosen for statistical differences was 95%. Duncan's test was used to determine the number of statistically significantly groups. Were expressed as mean±standard deviation. We found serum albumin levels association with TBSA and LHS, with greater to lesser serum albumin levels found associated to lesser to greater TBSA and LHS. We didn't find statistical association with IOEN. We conclude that serum albumin levels aren't a nutritional marker in burn people although they could be used as a simple clinical tool to identify the severity of the burn wounds represented by the total body surface area burned and the lenght of hospital stay.

  19. Proximal Tubules Have the Capacity to Regulate Uptake of Albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Mark C; Campos-Bilderback, Silvia B; Chowdhury, Mahboob; Flores, Brittany; Lai, Xianyin; Myslinski, Jered; Pandit, Sweekar; Sandoval, Ruben M; Wean, Sarah E; Wei, Yuan; Satlin, Lisa M; Wiggins, Roger C; Witzmann, Frank A; Molitoris, Bruce A

    2016-02-01

    Evidence from multiple studies supports the concept that both glomerular filtration and proximal tubule (PT) reclamation affect urinary albumin excretion rate. To better understand these roles of glomerular filtration and PT uptake, we investigated these processes in two distinct animal models. In a rat model of acute exogenous albumin overload, we quantified glomerular sieving coefficients (GSC) and PT uptake of Texas Red-labeled rat serum albumin using two-photon intravital microscopy. No change in GSC was observed, but a significant decrease in PT albumin uptake was quantified. In a second model, loss of endogenous albumin was induced in rats by podocyte-specific transgenic expression of diphtheria toxin receptor. In these albumin-deficient rats, exposure to diphtheria toxin induced an increase in albumin GSC and albumin filtration, resulting in increased exposure of the PTs to endogenous albumin. In this case, PT albumin reabsorption was markedly increased. Analysis of known albumin receptors and assessment of cortical protein expression in the albumin overload model, conducted to identify potential proteins and pathways affected by acute protein overload, revealed changes in the expression levels of calreticulin, disabled homolog 2, NRF2, angiopoietin-2, and proteins involved in ATP synthesis. Taken together, these results suggest that a regulated PT cell albumin uptake system can respond rapidly to different physiologic conditions to minimize alterations in serum albumin level. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  20. Urinary albumin and interleukin-8 levels are not good indicators of ongoing vesicoureteral reflux in children who have no active urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badeli, Hamidreza; khoshnevis, Termeh; Hassanzadeh Rad, Afagh; Sadeghi, Mehrdad

    2013-01-01

    Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is a risk factor for kidney scarring, hypertension and declining renal function. Standard diagnostic methods are invasive and can cause exposure to radiation and urinary tract infections (UTIs). We aimed to investigate urine albumin and interleukin-8 levels as markers of ongoing VUR and renal damage in children without UTIs. Random urine samples were collected from 51 children, including 16 children with VUR (group A), 17 children with resolved VUR (group B) and 18 normal children (group C). The diagnosis of VUR or resolved VUR was confirmed by voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) or direct radionuclide cystography (DRNC). All children had normal kidney function and had no evidence of UTI in the preceding three months. Random urine specimens were assayed for albumin (Alb), creatinine (Cr) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) and mean values were compared by one way ANOVA. In groups A and B, the mean age at first UTI was 31.7 ± 2.4 and 27 ± 2.0 months respectively. In group A, the mean duration between VUR diagnosis and study entrance was 30 ± 9.1 months. In group B, the mean duration between VUR diagnosis and recovery was 19.9 ± 1.3 months. Overall, 76.4% of affected children had bilateral VUR and 41.2% had severe VUR. There were no significant differences in urinary Alb, IL-8, Alb/Cr and IL-8/Cr between the three groups. The current study does not support the hypothesis that microalbuminuria or urinary IL-8 are good indicators of ongoing VUR and renal injury in children.

  1. Repression of the albumin gene in Novikoff hepatoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capetanaki, Y.G.; Flytzanis, C.N.; Alonso, A.

    1982-01-01

    Novikoff hepatoma cells have lost their capacity to synthesize albumin. As a first approach to study the mechanisms underlying this event, in vitro translation in a reticulocyte system was performed using total polyadenylated mRNA from rat liver and Novikoff hepatoma cells. Immunoprecipitation of the in vitro translation products with albumin-specific antibody revealed a total lack of albumin synthesis in Novikoff hepatoma, suggesting the absence of functional albumin mRNA in these cells. Titration experiments using as probe albumin cDNA cloned in pBR322 plasmid demonstrated the absence of albumin-specific sequences in both polysomal and nuclear polyadenylated and total RNA from Novikoff cells. This albumin recombinant plasmid was obtained by screening a rat liver cDNA library with albumin [/sup 32/P]cDNA reverse transcribed from immuno-precipitated mRNA. The presence of an albumin-specific gene insert was documented with translation assays as well as by restriction mapping. Repression of the albumin gene at the transcriptional level was further demonstrated by RNA blotting experiments using the cloned albumin cDNA probe. Genomic DNA blots using the cloned albumin cDNA as probe did not reveal any large-scale deletions, insertions, or rearrangements in the albumin gene, suggesting that the processes involved in the suppression of albumin mRNA synthesis do not involve extensive genomic rearrangements

  2. Albumin-based drug delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Maja Thim; Kuhlmann, Matthias; Hvam, Michael Lykke

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of a drug is dependent on accumulation at the site of action at therapeutic levels, however, challenges such as rapid renal clearance, degradation or non-specific accumulation requires drug delivery enabling technologies. Albumin is a natural transport protein with multiple ligand...... binding sites, cellular receptor engagement, and a long circulatory half-life due to interaction with the recycling neonatal Fc receptor. Exploitation of these properties promotes albumin as an attractive candidate for half-life extension and targeted intracellular delivery of drugs attached by covalent...... conjugation, genetic fusions, association or ligand-mediated association. This review will give an overview of albumin-based products with focus on the natural biological properties and molecular interactions that can be harnessed for the design of a next-generation drug delivery platform....

  3. 'Twisted' strings and higher level Kac-Moody representations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, Z.; Palla, L.

    1989-01-01

    Using an orbifold-like construction the twisted sector of a closed string moving on GxG (with G simply laced) is determined. A level-two G current operating there is constructed explicitly. The decomposition of the twisted sector into products between appropriate conformal and level-two G representations is given if 2 rank G-2 dim G/(2+g)<1. (orig.)

  4. EFFECTS OF HIGHER LEVELS OF CHROMIUM AND COPPER ON SOME HAEMATOLOGICAL PARAMETERS AND SERUM PROTEINS IN BROILERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tariq Javed, F, Ahmad. N, Z, Rafique1 and M, Bashir

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of higher levels of chromium alone and in combination with copper were investigated in broiler chicks divided into seven equal groups viz. A, B, C, D, E, F and G. Group G served as control receiving no treatment. Groups A, B and F received chromium chloride at the rate of 2 g/kg and nicotinic acid 150 mg/kg feed while C, D and F received chromium chloride 8 g/kg and nicotinic acid 150mg/kg. Broilers of groups A and C received copper sulfate at the rate of 200 mg/kg while groups Band D 400 mg/kg feed. Haematological parameters studied revealed non-significant difference between treatment groups and control in haemoglobin concentration and total erythrocyte counts. However, only at 4th week, lower PCV was observed in birds fed higher levels of chromium chloride alone. Increase in TLC was observed in birds fed low chromium alone or' with low levels of copper. Results of serum proteins including total protein, albumin and globulin during first three weeks showed significantly or relatively lower values in treatment groups than control. Serum globulins generally revealed non-significant difference between treatment groups and control.

  5. A facile route to glycated albumin detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohli, Nadra; Meilhac, Olivier; Rondeau, Philippe; Gueffrache, Syrine; Mora, Laurence; Abdelghani, Adnane

    2018-07-01

    In this paper we propose an easy way to detect the glycated form of human serum albumin which is biomarker for several diseases such as diabetes and Alzheimer. The detection platform is a label free impedimetric immunosensor, in which we used a monoclonal human serum albumin antibody as a bioreceptor and electrochemical impedance as a transducing method. The antibody was deposited onto a gold surface by simple physisorption technique. Bovine serum albumin was used as a blocking agent for non-specific binding interactions. Cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were used for the characterization of each layer. Human serum albumin was glycated at different levels with several concentrations of glucose ranging from 0 mM to 500 mM representing physiological, pathological (diabetic albumin) and suprapathological concentration of glucose. Through the calibration curves, we could clearly distinguish between two different areas related to physiological and pathological albumin glycation levels. The immunosensor displayed a linear range from 7.49% to 15.79% of glycated albumin to total albumin with a good sensitivity. Surface plasmon resonance imaging was also used to characterize the developed immunosensor. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Academic literacy of South African higher education level students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kate H

    Specifically, measuring vocabulary size, i.e. how many words a student knows ... The focus of this module is on basic research skills, critical thinking, finding and ..... (x) Make meaning (e.g. of an academic text) beyond the level of the sentence. ..... 25. 30. Total 275 28.05. 2.72 .16. 9. 30. 2000- word. 2. 38. 28.50. 1.62 .26. 24.

  7. Albumin modification and fragmentation in renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donadio, Carlo; Tognotti, Danika; Donadio, Elena

    2012-02-18

    Albumin is the most important antioxidant substance in plasma and performs many physiological functions. Furthermore, albumin is the major carrier of endogenous molecules and exogenous ligands. This paper reviews the importance of post-translational modifications of albumin and fragments thereof in patients with renal disease. First, current views and controversies on renal handling of proteins, mainly albumin, will be discussed. Post-translational modifications, namely the fragmentation of albumin found with proteomic techniques in nephrotic patients, diabetics, and ESRD patients will be presented and discussed. It is reasonable to hypothesize that proteolytic fragmentation of serum albumin is due to a higher susceptibility to proteases, induced by oxidative stress. The clinical relevance of the fragmentation of albumin has not yet been established. These modifications could affect some physiological functions of albumin and have a patho-physiological role in uremic syndrome. Proteomic analysis of serum allows the identification of over-expressed proteins and can detect post-translational modifications of serum proteins, hitherto hidden, using standard laboratory techniques. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Profile of total protein, albumin, globulin and albumin globulin ratio in bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Zahidah Irfan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Determination of serum total protein concentration and main fractions (albumin and globulin can be used as an important diagnostic tool in clinical biochemistry. Several factors can affect the concentration of total protein, albumin, globulin and albumin globulin ratio (A/G. The aim of this study is to obtain serum protein profiles, albumin, globulin and A/G ratio based on breed, age and BCS (body condition score. Blood samples from 160 bulls were collected. Blood chemistry were analyzed by photometer principle using a commercial kit. There were significant (P<0.001 breed variation on total protein, albumin, globulin and albumin globulin ratio. Significant age differences were observed on total protein and albumin concentration (P<0.001, while globulin concentration and A/G ratio were also significant (P<0.05. Amongs groups of BCS, significant difference was verified only in the albumin concentration (P<0.05. The concentration of total proteins, albumins and globulins in the serum of the bulls are higher than standard values for cattle, while A/G ratio is lower.

  9. Reversal of hepatorenal syndrome type 1 with terlipressin plus albumin vs. placebo plus albumin in a pooled analysis of the OT-0401 and REVERSE randomised clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyal, A J; Boyer, T D; Frederick, R T; Wong, F; Rossaro, L; Araya, V; Vargas, H E; Reddy, K R; Pappas, S C; Teuber, P; Escalante, S; Jamil, K

    2017-06-01

    The goal of hepatorenal syndrome type 1 (HRS-1) treatment is to improve renal function. Terlipressin, a synthetic vasopressin analogue, is a systemic vasoconstrictor used for the treatment of HRS-1, where it is available. To compare the efficacy of terlipressin plus albumin vs. placebo plus albumin in patients with HRS-1. Pooled patient-level data from two large phase 3, randomised, placebo-controlled studies were analysed for HRS reversal [serum creatinine (SCr) value ≤133 μmol/L], 90-day survival, need for renal replacement therapy and predictors of HRS reversal. Patients received intravenous terlipressin 1-2 mg every 6 hours plus albumin or placebo plus albumin up to 14 days. The pooled analysis comprised 308 patients (terlipressin: n = 153; placebo: n = 155). HRS reversal was significantly more frequent with terlipressin vs. placebo (27% vs. 14%; P = 0.004). Terlipressin was associated with a more significant improvement in renal function from baseline until end of treatment, with a mean between-group difference in SCr concentration of -53.0 μmol/L (P albumin resulted in a significantly higher rate of HRS reversal vs. albumin alone in patients with HRS-1. Terlipressin treatment is associated with improved renal function. (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: OT-0401, NCT00089570; REVERSE, NCT01143246). © 2017 The Authors. Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Change of direction ability test differentiates higher level and lower level soccer referees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Los, Arcos A; Grande, I; Casajús, JA

    2016-01-01

    This report examines the agility and level of acceleration capacity of Spanish soccer referees and investigates the possible differences between field referees of different categories. The speed test consisted of 3 maximum acceleration stretches of 15 metres. The change of direction ability (CODA) test used in this study was a modification of the Modified Agility Test (MAT). The study included a sample of 41 Spanish soccer field referees from the Navarre Committee of Soccer Referees divided into two groups: i) the higher level group (G1, n = 20): 2ndA, 2ndB and 3rd division referees from the Spanish National Soccer League (28.43 ± 1.39 years); and ii) the lower level group (G2, n = 21): Navarre Provincial League soccer referees (29.54 ± 1.87 years). Significant differences were found with respect to the CODA between G1 (5.72 ± 0.13 s) and G2 (6.06 ± 0.30 s), while no differences were encountered between groups in acceleration ability. No significant correlations were obtained in G1 between agility and the capacity to accelerate. Significant correlations were found between sprint and agility times in the G2 and in the total group. The results of this study showed that agility can be used as a discriminating factor for differentiating between national and regional field referees; however, no observable differences were found over the 5 and 15 m sprint tests. PMID:27274111

  11. Distribution pattern of urine albumin creatinine ratio and the prevalence of high-normal levels in untreated asymptomatic non-diabetic hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmaru, Natsuki; Nakatsu, Takaaki; Izumi, Reishi; Mashima, Keiichi; Toki, Misako; Kobayashi, Asako; Ogawa, Hiroko; Hirohata, Satoshi; Ikeda, Satoru; Kusachi, Shozo

    2011-01-01

    Even high-normal albuminuria is reportedly associated with cardiovascular events. We determined the urine albumin creatinine ratio (UACR) in spot urine samples and analyzed the UACR distribution and the prevalence of high-normal levels. The UACR was determined using immunoturbidimetry in 332 untreated asymptomatic non-diabetic Japanese patients with hypertension and in 69 control subjects. The microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria levels were defined as a UCAR ≥30 and creatinine and a UCAR ≥300 µg/mg·creatinine, respectively. The distribution patterns showed a highly skewed distribution for the lower levels, and a common logarithmic transformation produced a close fit to a Gaussian distribution with median, 25th and 75th percentile values of 22.6, 13.5 and 48.2 µg/mg·creatinine, respectively. When a high-normal UACR was set at >20 to creatinine, 19.9% (66/332) of the hypertensive patients exhibited a high-normal UACR. Microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria were observed in 36.1% (120/336) and 2.1% (7/332) of the patients, respectively. UACR was significantly correlated with the systolic and diastolic blood pressures and the pulse pressure. A stepwise multivariate analysis revealed that these pressures as well as age were independent factors that increased UACR. The UACR distribution exhibited a highly skewed pattern, with approximately 60% of untreated, non-diabetic hypertensive patients exhibiting a high-normal or larger UACR. Both hypertension and age are independent risk factors that increase the UACR. The present study indicated that a considerable percentage of patients require anti-hypertensive drugs with antiproteinuric effects at the start of treatment.

  12. Higher transcription levels in ascorbic acid biosynthetic and recycling genes were associated with higher ascorbic acid accumulation in blueberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fenghong; Wang, Lei; Gu, Liang; Zhao, Wei; Su, Hongyan; Cheng, Xianhao

    2015-12-01

    In our preliminary study, the ripe fruits of two highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) cultivars, cv 'Berkeley' and cv 'Bluecrop', were found to contain different levels of ascorbic acid. However, factors responsible for these differences are still unknown. In the present study, ascorbic acid content in fruits was compared with expression profiles of ascorbic acid biosynthetic and recycling genes between 'Bluecrop' and 'Berkeley' cultivars. The results indicated that the l-galactose pathway was the predominant route of ascorbic acid biosynthesis in blueberry fruits. Moreover, higher expression levels of the ascorbic acid biosynthetic genes GME, GGP, and GLDH, as well as the recycling genes MDHAR and DHAR, were associated with higher ascorbic acid content in 'Bluecrop' compared with 'Berkeley', which indicated that a higher efficiency ascorbic acid biosynthesis and regeneration was likely to be responsible for the higher ascorbic acid accumulation in 'Bluecrop'. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Radioimmunoassay for urinary albumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, J.; Floyd, M.; Cannon, D.C.; Kahan, B.

    1978-01-01

    We describe a rapid, sensitive, and precise radioimmunoassay for urinary albumin (U/sub alb/). Aliquots of diluted urine were incubated at room temperature for 1 h with 125 I-labelled albumin and a rabbit antiserum monospecifid for human albumin. Phase separation was effected by the double-antibody technique. The dose-response curve was linear in the range of 15.6 to 10,000 ng, equivalent to 4 to 3000 mg/liter of urine. The limit of sensitivity was 16 ng of albumin. The coefficient of assay variation was 4.8%, both at 44 mg/liter and at 1304 mg/liter. A displacement curve obtained with a serially diluted urine sample of high albumin concentration was completely superimposable with the curve for which human albumin was used as a standard. In 26 normal individuals the range for U/sub alb/ was 2.2 to 12.6 mg/24 h, and for albumin clearance (C/sub alb/), 1.8 x 10 -5 --19.6 x 10 -5 ml/min. After renal homografts in 25 patients, U/sub alb/ ranged from 16.9 to 9928 mg/24 h, and C/sub alb/ from 2.7 x 10 -4 to 1.7 x 10 -1 ml/min. Both increased U/sub alb/ and C/sub alb/ correlated well with the severity of renal homograft rejection

  14. Glycated hemoglobin A1c level is associated with high urinary albumin/creatinine ratio in non-diabetic adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seok Hui; Park, Jong Won; Do, Jun Young; Cho, Kyu Hyang

    2016-09-01

    Regarding the association between glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels and microvascular complications, high HbA1c level in participants without diabetes mellitus (DM) may be associated with a high urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR). Twelve thousand seven hundred and seventy four participants without DM were included in this study. The participants were divided into three groups according to HbA1c levels: a Low group (High group (>6.0%). A high UACR was defined as UACR ≥3.9 mg/g for men and UACR ≥7.5 mg/g for women. The proportions of participants with a high UACR in the Low, Middle, and High groups were 22.4%, 27.9%, and 38.1%, respectively. Both univariate and multivariate analyses showed that logUACR was greatest in the High group compared to the other groups. For participants without metabolic syndrome (MetS), the proportions of participants with high UACR and logUACR values were greatest in the High group compared to the other groups. For participants with MetS, no differences were found for proportions of participants with high UACR and logUACR values in the Low, Middle, and High groups. Non-DM participants with relatively high HbA1c levels should be closely monitored for UACR, especially if participants do not have MetS. KEY MESSAGES HbA1c level was positively associated with the proportion of participants with a high UACR and logUACR in participants without DM. For participants without MetS, the proportion of participants with a high UACR was greater in the High group than in the other groups and logUACR was greatest in the High group compared to the other groups. For participants with MetS, there were significant associations between HbA1c and the proportion of participants with a high UACR as a categorical variable or logUACR as a continuous variable, but the statistical significance of this finding was weak. No differences were found for proportions of participants with high UACR and logUACR values in the Low, Middle, and High groups.

  15. Presence of albumin mRNA precursors in nuclei of analbuminemic rat liver lacking cytoplasmic albumin mRNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Esumi, H; Takahashi, Y; Sekiya, T; Sato, S; Nagase, S; Sugimura, T

    1982-01-01

    Analbuminemic rats, which lack serum albumin, were previously found to have no albumin mRNA in the cytoplasm of the liver. In the present study, the existence of nuclear albumin mRNA precursors in the liver of analbuminemic rats was examined by RNA X cDNA hybridization kinetics. Albumin mRNA precursors were present in the nuclei of analbuminemic rat liver at almost normal levels, despite the absence of albumin mRNA from the cytoplasm. Nuclear RNA of analbuminemic rat liver was subjected to el...

  16. Serum albumin: accuracy and clinical use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infusino, Ilenia; Panteghini, Mauro

    2013-04-18

    Albumin is the major plasma protein and its determination is used for the prognostic assessment of several diseases. Clinical guidelines call for monitoring of serum albumin with specific target cut-offs that are independent of the assay used. This requires accurate and equivalent results among different commercially available methods (i.e., result standardization) through a consistent definition and application of a reference measurement system. This should be associated with the definition of measurement uncertainty goals based on medical relevance of serum albumin to make results reliable for patient management. In this paper, we show that, in the current situation, if one applies analytical goals for serum albumin measurement derived from its biologic variation, the uncertainty budget derived from each step of the albumin traceability chain is probably too high to fulfil established quality levels for albumin measurement and to guarantee the accuracy needed for clinical usefulness of the test. The situation is further worsened if non-specific colorimetric methods are used for albumin measurement as they represent an additional random source of uncertainty. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Affinity extraction of emerging contaminants from water based on bovine serum albumin as a binding agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papastavros, Efthimia; Remmers, Rachael A; Snow, Daniel D; Cassada, David A; Hage, David S

    2018-03-01

    Affinity sorbents using bovine serum albumin as a binding agent were developed and tested for the extraction of environmental contaminants from water. Computer simulations based on a countercurrent distribution model were also used to study the behavior of these sorbents. Several model drugs, pesticides, and hormones of interest as emerging contaminants were considered in this work, with carbamazepine being used as a representative analyte when coupling the albumin column on-line with liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. The albumin column was found to be capable of extracting carbamazepine from aqueous solutions that contained trace levels of this analyte. Further studies of the bovine serum albumin sorbent indicated that it had higher retention under aqueous conditions than a traditional C 18 support for most of the tested emerging contaminants. Potential advantages of using these protein-based sorbents included the low cost of bovine serum albumin and its ability to bind to a relatively wide range of drugs and related compounds. It was also shown how simulations could be used to describe the elution behavior of the model compounds on the bovine serum albumin sorbents as an aid in optimizing the retention and selectivity of these supports for use with liquid chromatography or methods such as liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. The Role of Ischemia Modified Albumin as a Biomarker in Patients with Chronic Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prashanth Ashok; Subramanian, Kavitha

    2016-03-01

    Chronic Liver Disease (CLD) is characterised by gradual destruction of liver tissue over time. Ischemia Modified Albumin (IMA) is an upcoming biomarker shown to be elevated in conditions associated with ischemia and oxidative stress. Albumin levels are greatly reduced in patients with CLD and studying its alterations will provide essential information regarding the molecular changes occurring to it. The study aims to estimate IMA and IMA/Albumin ratio in patients with CLD and to correlate it with parameters assessing liver function and the Model for End Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score. The study consisted of 43 CLD patients as test subjects and 28 apparently healthy individuals as controls. Multiple parameters assessing liver function like albumin, bilirubin, aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), Gamma Glutamyl Transpeptidase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Prothrombin Time (PT) INR and creatinine were estimated and the MELD score calculated. Serum IMA expressed as Absorbance Units (ABSU) was estimated using the Albumin Cobalt Binding test (ABT). Student's t-test and correlation coefficient was used for statistical analysis. Serum IMA was significantly higher in CLD patients (0.5320 ± 0.1677) as compared to the control group (0.3203 ± 0.1257) with a p-value of CLD compared to control group (0.0714 ± 0.0283) with a p-value of CLD could indicate a qualitative change and not merely a quantitative reduction of albumin. IMA can serve as a biomarker to assess the disease severity and prognosis of CLD patients.

  19. An empirical study on educational investment for all levels of higher education in China

    OpenAIRE

    YANG Juan; David MAYSTON

    2009-01-01

    With the expanding of higher education in China from 1999, more and more youngsters are able to invest in higher education, resulting a high unemployment rate for higher education graduates and more and more graduates employed in non-graduate position, while the analysis upon risk and return to each level of high education is absent due to the limitation of dataset. The paper employs college students sample survey to research the determinants of all levels of higher education beginning wages,...

  20. Predictors of Placement in Lower Level versus Higher Level High School Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archbald, Doug; Farley-Ripple, Elizabeth N.

    2012-01-01

    Educators and researchers have long been interested in determinants of access to honors level and college prep courses in high school. Factors influencing access to upper level mathematics courses are particularly important because of the hierarchical and sequential nature of this subject and because students who finish high school with only lower…

  1. Prevention of reperfusion lung injury by lidocaine in isolated rat lung ventilated with higher oxygen levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das K

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lidocaine, an antiarrhythmic drug has been shown to be effective against post-ischaemic reperfusion injury in heart. However, its effect on pulmonary reperfusion injury has not been investigated. AIMS: We investigated the effects of lidocaine on a postischaemic reperfused rat lung model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Lungs were isolated and perfused at constant flow with Krebs-Henseilet buffer containing 4% bovine serum albumin, and ventilated with 95% oxygen mixed with 5% CO2. Lungs were subjected to ischaemia by stopping perfusion for 60 minutes followed by reperfusion for 10 minutes. Ischaemia was induced in normothermic conditions. RESULTS: Postischaemic reperfusion caused significant (p < 0.0001 higher wet-to-dry lung weight ratio, pulmonary arterial pressure and peak airway pressure compared to control lungs. Lidocaine, at a dose of 5mg/Kg b.w. was found to significantly (p < 0.0001 attenuate the increase in the wet-to-dry lung weight ratio, pulmonary arterial pressure and peak airway pressure observed in post-ischaemic lungs. CONCLUSION: Lidocaine is effective in preventing post-ischaemic reperfusion injury in isolated, perfused rat lung.

  2. Length of hospitalization is associated with selected biomarkers (albumin and lymphocytes) and with co-morbidities: study on 4000 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontiroli, Antonio E; Loreggian, Lara; Rovati, Marco P L; De Patto, Elena; Folini, Laura; Raveglia, Federico; De Simone, Matilde; Baisi, Alessandro; Cioffi, Ugo

    2017-01-01

    Low albumin levels and low lymphocyte counts are intra hospital conditions that exert a negative influence on prognosis, healing and length of hospitalization. The study aimed to analyze the correlation between low blood levels of albumin, low lymphocytes, and length of stay. The secondary aim was to identify other co-morbidities associated with prolonged hospital stay. Retrospective pilot study was conducted by analyzing anamnestic and biochemical data, related to 4038 patients admitted to ten wards of Hospital San Paolo (Milan), collected from July 1 st 2012 to December 31 st 2012. A statistical analysis was carried out using the Correlation method, Multivariate Analysis and Regression. Lymphocyte count and co-morbidities were evaluated in the whole cohort, albumin levels in 1437 patients. In the whole sample, low albumin levels and low lymphocyte counts were directly correlated to longer hospitalizations. The stratification of the results by department and diagnosis suggests that there is a higher correlation in certain subpopulations, and albumin shows a greater correlation with length of stay than lymphocytes. Also advanced age, high platelets, type of diagnosis, male gender and emergency admission led to longer hospitalizations. A routine check of albumin, lymphocytes and a spectrum of significant variables can provide precious information which can eventually lead to a shorter hospital stay. Knowledge of the general health status of a patient and the possibility to estimate his/her length of hospital stay are essential information for Clinical Governance, and for the improvement of internal services of hospitals on a large scale.

  3. Smartphone based point-of-care detector of urine albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cmiel, Vratislav; Svoboda, Ondrej; Koscova, Pavlina; Provaznik, Ivo

    2016-03-01

    Albumin plays an important role in human body. Its changed level in urine may indicate serious kidney disorders. We present a new point-of-care solution for sensitive detection of urine albumin - the miniature optical adapter for iPhone with in-built optical filters and a sample slot. The adapter exploits smart-phone flash to generate excitation light and camera to measure the level of emitted light. Albumin Blue 580 is used as albumin reagent. The proposed light-weight adapter can be produced at low cost using a 3D printer. Thus, the miniaturized detector is easy to use out of lab.

  4. Albumin adsorption onto surfaces of urine collection and analysis containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Mary K; Caudill, Samuel P; Koch, David D; Ritchie, James; Hortin, Glen; Eckfeldt, John H; Sandberg, Sverre; Williams, Desmond; Myers, Gary; Miller, W Greg

    2014-04-20

    Adsorption of albumin onto urine collection and analysis containers may cause falsely low concentrations. We added (125)I-labeled human serum albumin to urine and to phosphate buffered solutions, incubated them with 22 plastic container materials and measured adsorption by liquid scintillation counting. Adsorption of urine albumin (UA) at 5-6 mg/l was containers, and to instrument sample cups and showed <1% change in concentration at 5 mg/l and <0.5% change at 20 mg/l or higher concentrations. Adsorption of albumin from phosphate buffered solutions (2-28%) was larger than that from urine. Albumin adsorption differed among urine samples and plastic materials, but the total influence of adsorption was <1% for all materials and urine samples tested. Adsorption of albumin from phosphate buffered solutions was larger than that from urine and could be a limitation for preparations used as calibrators. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Distribution and degradation of albumin in extensive skin disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worm, Anne-Marie; Taaning, E; Rossing, N

    1981-01-01

    The distribution and degradation of albumin were determined in twelve patients with extensive skin disease and in ten control subjects by measuring the metabolic turnover and transcapillary escape of 132 I-labelled albumin. The ratio of intravascular to total mass of albumin was normal. Thus...... the observed hypoalbuminaemia and the low intravascular mass reflect a reduced mass of total body albumin. The rate of synthesis was normal, but the transcapillary escape rate reflecting the microvascular leakiness to macromolecules, and the fractional disappearance rate were significantly higher...

  6. A tripartite approach identifies the major sunflower seed albumins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasena, Achala S; Franke, Bastian; Rosengren, Johan; Mylne, Joshua S

    2016-03-01

    We have used a combination of genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic approaches to identify the napin-type albumin genes in sunflower and define their contributions to the seed albumin pool. Seed protein content is determined by the expression of what are typically large gene families. A major class of seed storage proteins is the napin-type, water soluble albumins. In this work we provide a comprehensive analysis of the napin-type albumin content of the common sunflower (Helianthus annuus) by analyzing a draft genome, a transcriptome and performing a proteomic analysis of the seed albumin fraction. We show that although sunflower contains at least 26 genes for napin-type albumins, only 15 of these are present at the mRNA level. We found protein evidence for 11 of these but the albumin content of mature seeds is dominated by the encoded products of just three genes. So despite high genetic redundancy for albumins, only a small sub-set of this gene family contributes to total seed albumin content. The three genes identified as producing the majority of sunflower seed albumin are potential future candidates for manipulation through genetics and breeding.

  7. Egyptian greenhouse cultivation at a higher level with Dutch Technology ; Annual Report 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elings, A.; Helm, van der F.P.M.; Blok, C.; Meijer, R.J.M.; Lahiani, Y.; Janmaat, A.; Zaki, M.; Hassan, H.

    2014-01-01

    The project ‘Egyptian greenhouse cultivation at a higher level with Dutch technology’ is co-funded under the Top Sector Programme Horticulture and Starting Materials. The project wants to realizes through the use of Dutch technology a higher level of sustainability of Egyptian protected cultivation,

  8. Albumin supplementation for hypoalbuminemia following burns: unnecessary and costly!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melinyshyn, Alex; Callum, Jeannie; Jeschke, Marc C; Cartotto, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Following fluid resuscitation, patients with major burns frequently develop prolonged hypoalbuminemia. It is not known whether this should be corrected by albumin supplementation. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are any benefits associated with albumin supplementation to correct hypoalbuminemia in burned adults. We conducted a retrospective comparison of patients with burns ≥ 20% TBSA admitted to an adult regional American Burn Association-verified burn center, from May 1, 2009, to September 30, 2010, where we did not routinely supplement albumin (control group), with patients admitted from October 1, 2010, to May 30, 2011, where we had instituted a protocol in which 5% human albumin was provided to maintain serum albumin levels >20 g/L (albumin group). Comparisons were made from postburn (PB) day 2 to day 30 inclusive. There were no significant differences between control (n = 26) and albumin (n = 17) in age (48 ± 15 vs 45 ± 21 years; P = .56), burn size (33 ± 13 vs 34 ± 13 %TBSA; P = .831), or full thickness burn size (19 ± 19 vs 23 ± 19 %TBSA; P = .581). Inhalation injury was significantly more frequent in the albumin group than in controls (71% vs 31%; P = .01). The groups did not differ significantly in need for admission escharotomy, admission Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score, number of surgical procedures/first 30 days, or 24 and 48 hours fluid resuscitation volume requirements. The overall mean daily serum albumin level from PB day 2 to 30 in the albumin group (26.9 ± 3.0 g/L) was significantly greater than in controls (21.9 ± 4.4 g/L; P patient per day). We conclude that routine supplementation of 5% human albumin to maintain a serum albumin level ≥ 20 g/L in burn patients is expensive and provides no benefit.

  9. The Effect of Lactate, Albumin, C-reactive Protein, PaO2/FiO2 and Glucose Levels of Trauma Patients at the Time of Administration to Intensive Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eren Yılmaz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Blood analyses are preferred in the observation of cases requiring intensive care unit (ICU following a trauma. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of albumin, C-reactive protein (CRP, PaO2/FiO2 and glucose levels of trauma patients at time of admission with mortality. Material and Method: The patients who were admitted into ICU following a trauma between the years of 2010 and 2012 were retrospectively evaluated. 200 trauma cases were included in the study. Their demographic data, APACHE II scores, Glasgow Coma Scales (GCS, and arterial blood gas in the lactate and PaO2/FiO2 ratio, CRP, glucose and albumin levels in the first collected arterial blood gas, as well as, the presence of thoracic, cardiac, renal, abdominal and head trauma, length of ICU stay and mortality were recorded. Results: Of the patients included in the study 84% were male, with an average age of 38.3 and an average APACHE II score of 16.6. 64% suffered from head trauma and the average GCS was calculated to be 11.2. The patients were observed in the ICU for an average of 18.7 days and the rate of mortality was 33.5%. GCS, PaO2/FiO2, age and elevated lactate levels increased mortality as independent risk factors. Conclusion: It has been concluded that parameters like age and the first GCS, lactate, glucose, albumin and PaO2/FiO2 at time of acceptance into the ICU were found to be related with mortality.

  10. Urinary albumin in space missions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cirillo, Massimo; De Santo, Natale G; Heer, Martina

    2002-01-01

    Proteinuria was hypothesized for space mission but research data are missing. Urinary albumin, as index of proteinuria, was analyzed in frozen urine samples collected by astronauts during space missions onboard MIR station and on ground (control). Urinary albumin was measured by a double antibody...... radioimmunoassay. On average, 24h urinary albumin was 27.4% lower in space than on ground; the difference was statistically significant. Low urinary albumin excretion could be another effect of exposure to weightlessness (microgravity)....

  11. Secretory IgA, albumin, and bone-density level changes as markers of biostimulatory effects from laser radiation on the healing process after extraction of human molars on the lower jaw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucerova, Hana; Dostalova, Tatjana; Himmlova, Lucia; Bartova, Jirina; Mazanek, Jiri

    1999-05-01

    The aim of study was to evaluate the effect of low-level laser radiation on the healing process after human lower molar extraction. Frequencies of 5 Hz, 292 Hz and 9000 Hz were used in this experiment. Monitoring the secretory IgA and albumin levels in saliva and changes in bone density were used as a marker of biostimulatory effect. Bone density after extraction and six month after surgical treatment was examined using the dental digital radiography. Wound closure was followed by healing of bone structure in extraction site. Changes of secretory IgA, albumin levels and bone density were compared in groups of patients with laser treatment and control group without any laser therapy. Differences in levels of the saliva markers were found to be significant comparing irradiated and non-irradiated groups, as well as comparing groups irradiated by various modulatory frequencies. Density of alveolar bone was examined on five slices acquired from every digital radiography image. Histogram were evaluated wit a computer program for microscopic image analysis. Density differences were verified in area of the whole slice. There were no significant differences found between bone density in irradiated and non irradiated groups perhaps due to our used therapeutical diagram.

  12. Polymerized soluble venom--human serum albumin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, R.; Suszko, I.M.; Grammer, L.C.

    1985-03-01

    Extensive previous studies have demonstrated that attempts to produce polymers of Hymenoptera venoms for human immunotherapy resulted in insoluble precipitates that could be injected with safety but with very limited immunogenicity in allergic patients. We now report soluble polymers prepared by conjugating bee venom with human serum albumin with glutaraldehyde. The bee venom-albumin polymer (BVAP) preparation was fractionated on Sephacryl S-300 to have a molecular weight range higher than catalase. /sup 125/I-labeled bee venom phospholipase A was almost completely incorporated into BVAP. Rabbit antibody responses to bee venom and bee venom phospholipase A were induced by BVAP. Human antisera against bee venom were absorbed by BVAP. No new antigenic determinants on BVAP were present as evidenced by absorption of antisera against BVAP by bee venom and albumin. BVAP has potential immunotherapeutic value in patients with anaphylactic sensitivity to bee venom.

  13. Polymerized soluble venom--human serum albumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, R.; Suszko, I.M.; Grammer, L.C.

    1985-01-01

    Extensive previous studies have demonstrated that attempts to produce polymers of Hymenoptera venoms for human immunotherapy resulted in insoluble precipitates that could be injected with safety but with very limited immunogenicity in allergic patients. We now report soluble polymers prepared by conjugating bee venom with human serum albumin with glutaraldehyde. The bee venom-albumin polymer (BVAP) preparation was fractionated on Sephacryl S-300 to have a molecular weight range higher than catalase. 125 I-labeled bee venom phospholipase A was almost completely incorporated into BVAP. Rabbit antibody responses to bee venom and bee venom phospholipase A were induced by BVAP. Human antisera against bee venom were absorbed by BVAP. No new antigenic determinants on BVAP were present as evidenced by absorption of antisera against BVAP by bee venom and albumin. BVAP has potential immunotherapeutic value in patients with anaphylactic sensitivity to bee venom

  14. Assessing the Need for Higher Levels of Care Among Problem Gambling Outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledgerwood, David M; Arfken, Cynthia L

    2017-12-01

    Most treatment for gambling disorder is provided on an outpatient basis. Only a small number of jurisdictions in North America provide higher levels of gambling treatment, such as residential or intensive outpatient (IOP) care, despite the potential need for these services. Further, there appear to be few guidelines for determining appropriate level of gambling treatment. The aim of the present study was to assess the appropriateness of higher levels of problem gambling care among clients receiving outpatient treatment. Problem gamblers and their therapists independently completed questionnaires that assessed the need and desire for residential and IOP treatment. About 42% of problem gambling outpatients noted that they would be "probably" or "definitely" willing to attend residential treatment, and about half indicated they would be equally likely to attend IOP. Therapists recommended about a third of their clients as appropriate for higher levels of care. For both client and therapist assessments, there was a significant association between desire or recommendation for level of treatment and severity of gambling and co-occurring problems. Further, therapist recommendations for level of care were significantly associated with client willingness to attend higher levels of treatment. Our data reveal the potential need for higher levels of care for problem gambling, as evaluated by clients and their therapists. Policy implications for the funding of residential and IOP treatment are discussed.

  15. Higher Levels of Psychopathy Predict Poorer Motor Control: Implications for Understanding the Psychopathy Construct

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Michael D.; Bresin, Konrad

    2014-01-01

    A review of the literature suggests that higher levels of psychopathy may be linked to less effective behavioral control. However, several commentators have urged caution in making statements of this type in the absence of direct evidence. In two studies (total N = 142), moment-to-moment accuracy in a motor control task was examined as a function of dimensional variations in psychopathy in an undergraduate population. As hypothesized, motor control was distinctively worse at higher levels of ...

  16. Multi-domain, higher order level set scheme for 3D image segmentation on the GPU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Ojaswa; Zhang, Qin; Anton, François

    2010-01-01

    to evaluate level set surfaces that are $C^2$ continuous, but are slow due to high computational burden. In this paper, we provide a higher order GPU based solver for fast and efficient segmentation of large volumetric images. We also extend the higher order method to multi-domain segmentation. Our streaming...

  17. Perceived Effectiveness of Professional Development Programs of Teachers at Higher Education Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Sufiana Khatoon; Nasim, Uzma; Tabassum, Farkhanda

    2015-01-01

    The major purpose of the study was to assess the perceived effectiveness of professional development programs of teachers at higher educational level. The objectives of the study were: "to assess university level teachers'" opinion about effectiveness of professional development training with reference to quality teaching, to measure…

  18. Immunologic relationships of human serum albumin, macroaggregated albumin, and albumin microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stang, P.C.; Roelands, J.F.; Cohen, P.

    1975-01-01

    Antigenic relationships of NSA (normal serum albumin), MAA (macroaggregated albumin), and HAM (human albumin microspheres) were determined in vivo in guinea pigs and in vitro in gel diffusion plates. Results showed that HAM could sensitize but seldom elicit anaphylaxis when used to challenge guinea pigs. In contrast, NSA and MAA were strong sensitizing antigens and inducers of anaphylaxis. The relative inability of HAM to induce anaphylaxis suggests that during production of the microspheres from soluble albumin, antigenic determinants of albumin may be altered or masked. Consequently, these determinants may be less available to react with antibody at the tissue sites

  19. Student's Perceived Level and Teachers' Teaching Strategies of Higher Order Thinking Skills: A Study on Higher Educational Institutions in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Divya; Dungsungnoen, Aj Pattaradanai

    2016-01-01

    Higher order thinking skills (HOTS) has portrayed immense industry demand and the major goal of educational institution in imparting education is to inculcate higher order thinking skills. This compiles and mandate the institutions and instructor to develop the higher order thinking skills among students in order to prepare them for effective…

  20. PRE-SERVICE MATHEMATICS TEACHERS’ CONCEPTION OF HIGHER-ORDER THINKING LEVEL IN BLOOM'S TAXONOMY

    OpenAIRE

    Damianus D Samo

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore pre-service mathematics teachers' conception of higher-order thinking in Bloom's Taxonomy, to explore pre-service mathematics teachers' ability in categorizing six cognitive levels of Bloom's Taxonomy as lower-order thinking and higher-order thinking, and pre-service mathematics teachers' ability in identifying some questionable items as lower-order and higher-order thinking. The higher-order thinking is the type of non-algorithm thinking which include ...

  1. Albumin-binding of diclofenac and the effect of a site II inhibitor in the aqueous humor of cataract patients with the instillation of diclofenac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaki, Takashi; Ozaki, Mineo; Takamura, Norito; Ogata, Kenji; Tokunaga, Jin; Setoguchi, Nao; Arimori, Kazuhiko

    2014-05-01

    Diclofenac instillation has been used widely in cataract surgery to prevent postoperative inflammation. Since diclofenac binds strongly to albumin in the circulation, it does not have a sufficient effect on patients in whom diclofenac binds strongly to albumin in the aqueous humor. A decrease in diclofenac binding and an increase in free diclofenac levels are necessary in these patients. The binding of diclofenac to albumin was investigated in the aqueous humor. In a diclofenac binding assay with albumin in the aqueous humor of individual patients, diclofenac was extracted from aliquots of the aqueous humor, and its total levels were measured using ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC). Free diclofenac levels were measured using ultrafiltration and UHPLC. The albumin-binding fraction of diclofenac was 0.8 or higher in the aqueous humor of some patients. Ibuprofen significantly inhibited diclofenac binding to site II of albumin in mimic aqueous humor, but not in pooled aqueous humor. This difference may have been due to the weak binding of diclofenac to site II in the pooled aqueous humor. Flurbiprofen was used instead of diclofenac. Flurbiprofen has been shown to bind more strongly than diclofenac to the same site of albumin. Thus, the inhibitory effect of ibuprofen on the binding of flurbiprofen to albumin was investigated in pooled aqueous humor. The results indicated that ibuprofen significantly inhibited the flurbiprofen binding. An effective diclofenac administration method may be established for clinical application by the instillation of an appropriate inhibitor of binding to the albumin site II. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Association of nutritional status and serum albumin levels with development of toxicity in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer treated with paclitaxel-cisplatin chemotherapy: a prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrieta, Oscar; Michel Ortega, Rosa M; Villanueva-Rodríguez, Geraldine; Serna-Thomé, Maria G; Flores-Estrada, Diana; Diaz-Romero, Consuelo; Rodríguez, Cindy M; Martínez, Luis; Sánchez-Lara, Karla

    2010-01-01

    A frequent manifestation of advanced NSCLC is malnutrition, even though there are many studies which relate it with a poor survival, its relation with toxicity has not yet been consistently reported. The aim of this study was to associate malnutrition and albumin serum levels with the occurrence of chemotherapy-induced toxicity in cisplatin plus paclitaxel chemotherapy-treated NSCLC. We prospectively evaluated 100 stage IV NSCLC patients treated with paclitaxel (175 mg/m 2 ) and cisplatin (80 mg/m 2 ). Malnutrition was assessed using SGA prior treatment. Neutrophil Lymphocyte Ratio (NLR) and the Platelet Lymphocyte Ratio (PLR) were used to determine the presence of systemic inflammatory response (SIR) and were related to the development of toxicity. Toxicity was graded according to NCI CTCAE version 3.0 after two chemotherapy cycles. Median age was 58 ± 10 years, 51% of patients were malnourished, 50% had albumin ≤3.0 mg/mL. NLR ≥ 5 was associated with basal hypoalbuminemia (mean ranks, 55.7 vs. 39 p = 0.006), ECOG = 2 (47.2 vs. 55.4 p = 0.026) and PLR ≥ 150 were significantly related with a basal body mass index ≤20 (56.6 vs. 43.5; p = 0.02) and hypoalbuminemia (58.9 vs. 41.3; p = 0.02). Main toxicities observed after 2 cycles of chemotherapy were alopecia (84%), nausea (49%), neuropathy (46%), anemia (33%), lymphopenia (31%), and leukopenia (30%). Patients malnourished and with hypoalbuminemia developed more chemotherapy-induced toxicity overall when compared with those without malnutrition (31 vs 22; p = 0.02) and normal albumin (mean ranks, 62 vs 43; p = 0.002), respectively. Hypoalbuminemia was associated with anemia (56 vs 47; p = 0.05), fatigue (58 vs 46; p = 0.01), and appetite loss (57.1 vs 46.7; p = 0.004) compared with normal albumin. PLR ≥ 150 was related with the development of toxicity grade III/IV (59.27 vs. 47.03 p = 0.008) and anemia (37.9 vs 53.8 p = 0.004). SIR parameters were associated with malnutrition, weight loss and

  3. Association of nutritional status and serum albumin levels with development of toxicity in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer treated with paclitaxel-cisplatin chemotherapy: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez Luis

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A frequent manifestation of advanced NSCLC is malnutrition, even though there are many studies which relate it with a poor survival, its relation with toxicity has not yet been consistently reported. The aim of this study was to associate malnutrition and albumin serum levels with the occurrence of chemotherapy-induced toxicity in cisplatin plus paclitaxel chemotherapy-treated NSCLC. Methods We prospectively evaluated 100 stage IV NSCLC patients treated with paclitaxel (175 mg/m2 and cisplatin (80 mg/m2. Malnutrition was assessed using SGA prior treatment. Neutrophil Lymphocyte Ratio (NLR and the Platelet Lymphocyte Ratio (PLR were used to determine the presence of systemic inflammatory response (SIR and were related to the development of toxicity. Toxicity was graded according to NCI CTCAE version 3.0 after two chemotherapy cycles. Results Median age was 58 ± 10 years, 51% of patients were malnourished, 50% had albumin ≤3.0 mg/mL. NLR ≥ 5 was associated with basal hypoalbuminemia (mean ranks, 55.7 vs. 39 p = 0.006, ECOG = 2 (47.2 vs. 55.4 p = 0.026 and PLR ≥ 150 were significantly related with a basal body mass index ≤20 (56.6 vs. 43.5; p = 0.02 and hypoalbuminemia (58.9 vs. 41.3; p = 0.02. Main toxicities observed after 2 cycles of chemotherapy were alopecia (84%, nausea (49%, neuropathy (46%, anemia (33%, lymphopenia (31%, and leukopenia (30%. Patients malnourished and with hypoalbuminemia developed more chemotherapy-induced toxicity overall when compared with those without malnutrition (31 vs 22; p = 0.02 and normal albumin (mean ranks, 62 vs 43; p = 0.002, respectively. Hypoalbuminemia was associated with anemia (56 vs 47; p = 0.05, fatigue (58 vs 46; p = 0.01, and appetite loss (57.1 vs 46.7; p = 0.004 compared with normal albumin. PLR ≥ 150 was related with the development of toxicity grade III/IV (59.27 vs. 47.03 p = 0.008 and anemia (37.9 vs 53.8 p = 0.004. Conclusion SIR parameters were associated with

  4. Intake of Lutein-Rich Vegetables Is Associated with Higher Levels of Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Crichton

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Levels of physical inactivity, a major contributor to burden of disease, are high in many countries. Some preliminary research suggests that circulating lutein concentrations are associated with high levels of physical activity (PA. We aimed to assess whether the intake of lutein-containing foods, including vegetables and eggs, is associated with levels of PA in two studies conducted in different countries. Dietary data and PA data collected from participants in two cross-sectional studies: the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study (MSLS, conducted in Central New York, USA (n = 972, and the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg Study (ORISCAV-LUX (n = 1331 were analyzed. Higher intakes of lutein containing foods, including green leafy vegetables, were associated with higher levels of PA in both study sites. Increasing the consumption of lutein-rich foods may have the potential to impact positively on levels of PA. This needs to be further explored in randomized controlled trials.

  5. Longitudinal Associations among Renal Urea Clearance-Corrected Normalized Protein Catabolic Rate, Serum Albumin, and Mortality in Patients on Hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriguchi, Rieko; Obi, Yoshitsugu; Streja, Elani; Tortorici, Amanda R; Rhee, Connie M; Soohoo, Melissa; Kim, Taehee; Kovesdy, Csaba P; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2017-07-07

    There are inconsistent reports on the association of dietary protein intake with serum albumin and outcomes among patients on hemodialysis. Using a new normalized protein catabolic rate (nPCR) variable accounting for residual renal urea clearance, we hypothesized that higher baseline nPCR and rise in nPCR would be associated with higher serum albumin and better survival among incident hemodialysis patients. Among 36,757 incident hemodialysis patients in a large United States dialysis organization, we examined baseline and change in renal urea clearance-corrected nPCR as a protein intake surrogate and modeled their associations with serum albumin and mortality over 5 years (1/2007-12/2011). Median nPCRs with and without accounting for renal urea clearance at baseline were 0.94 and 0.78 g/kg per day, respectively (median within-patient difference, 0.14 [interquartile range, 0.07-0.23] g/kg per day). During a median follow-up period of 1.4 years, 8481 deaths were observed. Baseline renal urea clearance-corrected nPCR was associated with higher serum albumin and lower mortality in the fully adjusted model ( P trend urea clearance-corrected nPCR during the first 6 months was also associated with attaining high serum albumin (≥3.8 g/dl) and lower mortality ( P trend urea clearance, higher levels of renal urea clearance-corrected nPCR consistently showed lower mortality risk. Among incident hemodialysis patients, higher dietary protein intake represented by nPCR and its changes over time appear to be associated with increased serum albumin levels and greater survival. nPCR may be underestimated when not accounting for renal urea clearance. Compared with the conventional nPCR, renal urea clearance-corrected nPCR may be a better marker of mortality. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  6. Storytelling in the digital world: achieving higher-level learning objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Melissa R

    2012-01-01

    Nursing students are not passive media consumers but instead live in a technology ecosystem where digital is the language they speak. To prepare the next generation of nurses, educators must incorporate multiple technologies to improve higher-order learning. The author discusses the evolution and use of storytelling as part of the digital world and how digital stories can be aligned with Bloom's Taxonomy so that students achieve higher-level learning objectives.

  7. Consequences of moral Kohlberg´s moral development levels in higher education

    OpenAIRE

    Bordignon, Nelso Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Introduction. This article presents the results of a research work about the implications of Kohlberg´s moral development level in higher education. Objective. To identify the state of moral development among higher education teachers, departing from the orientation they give to their lives and to those of their students, and from what they think and say they do for their students´ moral education.With the results, an analysis is done in order to establish the impli...

  8. Trophic assimilation efficiency markedly increases at higher trophic levels in four-level host-parasitoid food chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Dirk; Moser, Andrea; Newton, Jason; van Veen, F J Frank

    2016-03-16

    Trophic assimilation efficiency (conversion of resource biomass into consumer biomass) is thought to be a limiting factor for food chain length in natural communities. In host-parasitoid systems, which account for the majority of terrestrial consumer interactions, a high trophic assimilation efficiency may be expected at higher trophic levels because of the close match of resource composition of host tissue and the consumer's resource requirements, which would allow for longer food chains. We measured efficiency of biomass transfer along an aphid-primary-secondary-tertiary parasitoid food chain and used stable isotope analysis to confirm trophic levels. We show high efficiency in biomass transfer along the food chain. From the third to the fourth trophic level, the proportion of host biomass transferred was 45%, 65% and 73%, respectively, for three secondary parasitoid species. For two parasitoid species that can act at the fourth and fifth trophic levels, we show markedly increased trophic assimilation efficiencies at the higher trophic level, which increased from 45 to 63% and 73 to 93%, respectively. In common with other food chains, δ(15)N increased with trophic level, with trophic discrimination factors (Δ(15)N) 1.34 and 1.49‰ from primary parasitoids to endoparasitic and ectoparasitic secondary parasitoids, respectively, and 0.78‰ from secondary to tertiary parasitoids. Owing to the extraordinarily high efficiency of hyperparasitoids, cryptic higher trophic levels may exist in host-parasitoid communities, which could alter our understanding of the dynamics and drivers of community structure of these important systems. © 2016 The Authors.

  9. Factors associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms among international university students in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Romeo B; Maria, Madelene Sta; Estanislao, Susana; Rodriguez, Cristina

    2013-11-01

    Over the years, the number of international university students has been increasing in the Philippines. Depression tends to be common among this demographic sector, because of the varying challenges and expectations associated with studying abroad. Depression can be prevented if its symptoms, particularly those at higher levels, are identified and addressed early and effectively. This survey examined the social and demographic factors that are significantly associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms. One hundred twenty-six international university students were interviewed using the University Students Depression Inventory. Of the 13 factors analyzed, 3 were found with statistically significant associations with more intense levels of depressive symptoms. These factors were: level of satisfaction with one's financial condition, level of closeness with parents, and level of closeness with peers. In identifying international students with greater risk for depression, characteristics related to their financial condition and primary group relationships can be considered. There is a need to carry out more studies to confirm this initial evidence. The findings can help guide further discourse, research and program to benefit international students with higher levels of depressive symptoms.

  10. Obese with higher FNDC5/Irisin levels have a better metabolic profile, lower lipopolysaccharide levels and type 2 diabetes risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfante, Ivan Luiz Padilha; Chacon-Mikahil, Mara Patricia Traina; Brunelli, Diego Trevisan; Gáspari, Arthur Fernandes; Duft, Renata Garbellini; Oliveira, Alexandre Gabarra; Araujo, Tiago Gomes; Saad, Mario Jose Abdalla; Cavaglieri, Cláudia Regina

    2017-12-01

    Thus, the aim of this study was to compare if higher or smaller fibronectin type 3 domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5)/irisin levels are associated with inflammatory and metabolic markers, caloric/macronutrient intake, physical fitness and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) risk in obese middle-aged men, and also to correlate all variables analyzed with FNDC5/irisin. On the basis of a cluster study, middle-aged obese men (IMC: 31.01 ± 1.64 kg/m2) were divided into groups of higher and smaller levels of FNDC5/irisin. The levels of leptin, resistin, adiponectin, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), interleukin 6 and 10 (IL6, IL10), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), glucose, insulin, glycated hemoglobin, insulin resistance and sensibility, lipid profile, risk of T2DM development, body composition, rest energy expenditure, caloric/macronutrient intake and physical fitness were measured. The higher FNDC5/ irisin group presented improved insulin sensibility (homeostasis model assessment - sensibility (HOMA-S) (p = 0.01) and QUICKI index (p risk of T2DM development (p = 0.02), tendency to decrease serum resistin (p = 0.08) and significant lower LPS levels (p = 0.02). Inverse correlations between FNDC5/irisin and body weight (r -0.46, p = 0.04), neck circumference (r -0.51, p = 0.02), free fat mass (r -0.49, p = 0.02), triglycerides (r -0.43, p = 0.05) and risk of developing T2DM (r -0.61, p = 0.04) were observed. These results suggest that higher FNDC5/irisin levels in obese middle-aged men are related to a better metabolic profile and lower risk of T2DM development and serum LPS, a potential inducer of insulin resistance.

  11. Cerebrospinal fluid cortisol levels are higher in patients with delirium versus controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White Timothy O

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High plasma cortisol levels can cause acute cognitive and neuropsychiatric dysfunction, and have been linked with delirium. CSF cortisol levels more closely reflect brain exposure to cortisol, but there are no studies of CSF cortisol levels in delirium. In this pilot study we acquired CSF specimens at the onset of spinal anaesthesia in patients undergoing hip fracture surgery, and compared CSF and plasma cortisol levels in delirium cases versus controls. Findings Delirium assessments were performed the evening before or on the morning of operation with a standard battery comprising cognitive tests, mental status assessments and the Confusion Assessment Method. CSF and plasma samples were obtained at the onset of the operation and cortisol levels measured. Twenty patients (15 female, 5 male aged 62 - 93 years were studied. Seven patients were diagnosed with delirium. The mean ages of cases (81.4 (SD 7.2 and controls (80.5 (SD 8.7 were not significantly different (p = 0.88. The median (interquartile range CSF cortisol levels were significantly higher in cases (63.9 (40.4-102.1 nmol/L than controls (31.4 (21.7-43.3 nmol/L; Mann-Whitney U, p = 0.029. The median (interquartile range of plasma cortisol was also significantly higher in cases (968.8 (886.2-1394.4 nmol/L, than controls (809.4 (544.0-986.4 nmol/L; Mann Whitney U, p = 0.036. Conclusions These findings support an association between higher CSF cortisol levels and delirium. This extends previous findings linking higher plasma cortisol and delirium, and suggests that more definitive studies of the relationship between cortisol levels and delirium are now required.

  12. Multisensory Stimulation to Improve Low- and Higher-Level Sensory Deficits after Stroke: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Tinga, Angelica Maria; Visser-Meily, Johanna Maria Augusta; van der Smagt, Maarten Jeroen; Van der Stigchel, Stefan; van Ee, Raymond; Nijboer, Tanja Cornelia Wilhelmina

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to integrate and assess evidence for the effectiveness of multisensory stimulation (i.e., stimulating at least two of the following sensory systems: visual, auditory, and somatosensory) as a possible rehabilitation method after stroke. Evidence was considered with a focus on low-level, perceptual (visual, auditory and somatosensory deficits), as well as higher-level, cognitive, sensory deficits. We referred to the electronic databases Scopus and PubMed to...

  13. Electret filter collects more exhaled albumin than glass condenser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Ziru; Liu, Hongying; Li, Wang; Xie, Dandan; Cheng, Ke; Pi, Xitian

    2018-01-01

    Abstract In recent years, noninvasive diagnosis based on biomarkers in exhaled breath has been extensively studied. The procedure of biomarker collection is a key step. However, the traditional condenser method has low efficacy in collecting nonvolatile compounds especially the protein biomarkers in breath. To solve this deficiency, here we propose an electret filter method. Exhaled breath of 6 volunteers was collected with a glass condenser and an electret filter. The amount of albumin was analyzed. Furthermore, the difference of exhaled albumin between smokers and nonsmokers was evaluated. The electret filter method collected more albumin than the glass condenser method at the same breath volume level (P albumin than nonsmokers were also observed (P albumin than nonsmokers. PMID:29384875

  14. Higher Plasma Myostatin Levels in Cor Pulmonale Secondary to Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Chun-Rong; Chen, Miao; Zhang, Jian-Heng; Lin, Zhi-Ya; Chen, Rong-Chang

    2016-01-01

    To analyze plasma myostatin levels and investigate their relationship with right ventricular (RV) function in patients with cor pulmonale secondary to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The study recruited 81 patients with advanced COPD and 40 age-matched controls. The patients were divided into two groups: those with cor pulmonale and those without. Echocardiography was used to evaluate RV function and morphology, and the value of tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) less than 16 mm was considered RV dysfunction. Plasma myostatin levels were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels were analyzed as a comparison of myostatin. The data detected cor pulmonale in 39/81 patients, with the mean value of TAPSE of 14.3 mm. Plasma myostatin levels (ng/mL) were significantly higher in patients with cor pulmonale (16.68 ± 2.95) than in those without (13.56 ± 3.09), and much higher than in controls (8.79±2.79), with each pmyostatin levels were significantly correlated with the values of TAPSE and RV myocardium performance index among the COPD patients, and that BNP levels were significantly correlated only with systolic pulmonary arterial pressure, with each pmyostatin levels are increased in COPD patients who have cor pulmonale. Stronger correlations of plasma myostatin levels with echocardiographic indexes of the right heart suggest that myostatin might be superior to BNP in the early diagnosis of cor pulmonale in COPD.

  15. Does peer learning or higher levels of e-learning improve learning abilities?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worm, Bjarne Skjødt; Jensen, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    The fast development of e-learning and social forums demands us to update our understanding of e-learning and peer learning. We aimed to investigate if higher, pre-defined levels of e-learning or social interaction in web forums improved students' learning ability....

  16. Systemic Glucose Level Changes with a Carbohydrate-Restricted and Higher Protein Diet Combined with Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Rodney G.; Lanning, Beth A.; Doyle, Eva I.; Slonaker, Becky; Johnston, Holly M.; Scanes, Georgene

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The authors' purpose in this study was to compare the effects of macronutrient intake on systemic glucose levels in previously sedentary participants who followed 1 of 4 diets that were either higher protein or high carbohydrate, while initiating an exercise program. Participants and Methods: The authors randomly assigned 94 sedentary…

  17. Wellbeing in the Welfare State: level not higher, distribution not more equitable

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2000-01-01

    textabstract'Wellbeing' and 'welfare' are often bracketed together, in particular wellbeing and state-welfare. The level of wellbeing is believed to be higher in welfare states, and its distribution more equitable. This theory is tested in a comparative study of 40 nations 1980-1990. The size of

  18. Students' Commitment, Engagement and Locus of Control as Predictor of Academic Achievement at Higher Education Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwar, Muhammad; Ashrafi, Ghulam Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze Students' Commitment, Engagement and Locus of Control as predictors of Academic Achievement at Higher Education Level. We used analytical model and conclusive research approach to conduct study and survey method for data collection. We selected 369 students using multistage sampling technique from three…

  19. Investigating Student Choices in Performing Higher-Level Comprehension Tasks Using TED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Francesca; Marenzi, Ivana

    2016-01-01

    The current paper describes a first experiment in the use of TED talks and open tagging exercises to train higher-level comprehension skills, and of automatic logging of the student's actions to investigate the student choices while performing analytical tasks. The experiment took advantage of an interactive learning platform--LearnWeb--that…

  20. Implementing CLT at Higher Secondary Level in Bangladesh: A Review of Change Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Shidur

    2015-01-01

    CLT (Communicative Language Teaching) was substituted for GTM (Grammar Translation Method) at higher secondary level in Bangladesh in 2001. This replacement of ELT method was a significant change in the English curriculum. This study aimed to determine that the mismanagement of the change is a prime cause of not getting expected CLT outcomes at…

  1. Higher-level processes in the formation and application of associations during action understanding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heil, L.; Pelt, S. van; Kwisthout, J.H.P.; Rooij, I.J.E.I. van; Bekkering, H.

    2014-01-01

    The associative account described in the target article provides a viable explanation for the origin of mirror neurons. We argue here that if mirror neurons develop purely by associative learning, then they cannot by themselves explain intentional action understanding. Higher-level processes seem to

  2. Elevated serum creatinine and low albumin are associated with poor outcomes in patients with liposarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panotopoulos, Joannis; Posch, Florian; Funovics, Philipp T; Willegger, Madeleine; Scharrer, Anke; Lamm, Wolfgang; Brodowicz, Thomas; Windhager, Reinhard; Ay, Cihan

    2016-03-01

    Low serum albumin levels and impaired kidney function have been associated with decreased survival in patients with a variety of cancer types. In a retrospective cohort study, we analyzed 84 patients with liposarcoma treated at from May 1994 to October 2011. Uni- and multivariable Cox proportional hazard models and competing risk analyses were performed to evaluate the association between putative biomarkers with disease-specific and overall survival. The median age of the study population was 51.7 (range 19.6-83.8) years. In multivariable analysis adjusted for AJCC tumor stage, serum creatinine was highly associated with disease-specific survival (Subdistribution Hazard ratio (SHR) per 1 mg/dl increase = 2.94; 95%CI 1.39-6.23; p = 0.005). High albumin was associated with improved overall and disease-specific survival (Hazard Ratio (HR) per 10 units increase = 0.50; 95%CI 0.26-0.95; p = 0.033 and SHR = 0.64; 95%CI 0.42-1.00; p = 0.049). The serum albumin-creatinine-ratio emerged to be associated with both overall and disease-specific survival after adjusting for AJCC tumor stage (HR = 0.95; 95%CI 0.92-0.99; p = 0.011 and SHR = 0.96; 95%CI 0.93-0.99; p = 0.08). Our study provides evidence for a tumor-stage-independent association between higher creatinine and lower albumin with worse disease-specific survival. Low albumin and a high albumin-creatinine-ratio independently predict poor overall survival. Our work identified novel prognostic biomarkers for prognosis of patients with liposarcoma. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Concurrent immunomodulator therapy is associated with higher adalimumab trough levels during scheduled maintenance therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Ashley; Dodd, Susanna; Fisher, Gareth; Skouras, Thomas; Subramanian, Sreedhar

    2017-02-01

    Combination therapy with infliximab and immunomodulators is superior to monotherapy, resulting in better outcomes and higher trough levels of infliximab. The role of concurrent immunomodulatory therapy on adalimumab trough levels has not been adequately investigated. We evaluated the impact of concomitant immunomodulation on adalimumab trough levels in patients on scheduled maintenance therapy. We conducted a prospective observational, cross-sectional study of all inflammatory bowel disease patients on maintenance therapy who had adalimumab trough levels measured between January 2013 and January 2016. Drug level and anti-drug antibody measurements were performed on sera using a solid phase assay. Pairwise comparison of means was used to compare trough levels in patients with and without concomitant immune modulator therapy. In total, 79 patients were included. Twenty-three patients (29.1%) were on weekly dosing whereas 56 (70.9%) were on alternate weeks. Median adalimumab trough levels were comparable in patients with and without clinical remission (6.8 μg/ml (IQR 5.6-8.1) versus 6.7 μg/ml (IQR 3.9-8.1), respectively. Patients with an elevated faecal calprotectin >250 μg/g had lower adalimumab trough levels (median 6.7, IQR 3.9-8) compared to patients with faecal calprotectin <250 μg/g (median 7.7, IQR 6.1-8.1) though this did not achieve statistical significance (p = .062). Median adalimumab trough levels among patients on concurrent immunomodulators was 7.2 μg/ml (IQR 5.7-8.1) compared to those not on concurrent immunomodulator, 6.1 μg/ml (IQR 2.7-7.7, p = .0297). Adalimumab trough levels were significantly higher in patients on concurrent immunomodulators during maintenance therapy. There was a trend towards a lower adalimumab trough level in patients with elevated calprotectin.

  4. Prognostic Impact of Neutrophil/Lymphocyte Ratio, Platelet Count, CRP, and Albumin Levels in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Patients Treated with FOLFIRI-Bevacizumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artaç, Mehmet; Uysal, Mükremin; Karaağaç, Mustafa; Korkmaz, Levent; Er, Zehra; Güler, Tunç; Börüban, Melih Cem; Bozcuk, Hakan

    2017-06-01

    Metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) is a lethal disease and fluorouracil-leucovorin-irinotecan (FOLFIRI) plus bevacizumab (bev) is a standard approach. Hence, there is a strong need for identifying new prognostic factors to show the efficacy of FOLFIRI-bev. This is a retrospective study including patients (n = 90) with mCRC from two centers in Turkey. Neutrophil/lymphocyte (N/L) ratio, platelet count, albumin, and C-reactive protein (CRP) were recorded before FOLFIRI-bev therapy. The efficacy of these factors on progression-free survival (PFS) was analyzed with Kaplan Meier and Cox regression analysis. And the cutoff value of N/L ratio was analyzed with ROC analysis. The median age was 56 years (range 21-80). Forty-seven percent of patients with N/L ratio >2.5 showed progressive disease versus 43 % in patients with N/L ratio ratio >2.5 versus 13.5 months for the patients with N/L ratio analysis, high baseline neutrophil count, LDH, N/L ratio, and CRP were all significantly associated with poor prognosis. At multivariate Cox regression analysis, CRP was confirmed to be a better independent prognostic factor. CRP variable was divided into above the upper limit of normal (ULN) and normal value. The median PFSs of the patients with normal and above ULN were 11.3 versus 5.8 months, respectively (p = 0.022). CRP and N/L ratio are potential predictors for advanced mCRC treated with FOLFIRI-bev.

  5. Late Holocene higher sea level and its radiocarbon dates in Okierabu-jima, Ryukyus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koba, Motoharu; Omoto, Kunio; Takahashi, Tatsuo.

    1980-01-01

    Okierabu-jima of the Ryukyu Islands, which is a poly-terraced Pleistocene raised coral reef island, doesn't have a Holocene raised coral reef, but coastal erosional features showing higher sea levels in Holocene. The authors obtained some data indicating the period of one of the Holocene higher sea levels. All radiocarbon dates concerning Okierabu-jima's Holocene sea-level changes are plotted on the date-height coordinates. The paleo sea level between 5000 and 2000 y. B. P. lies above the broken line drawn from 6 m below to 2.18 m above the present sea level. The period of the highest sea level in Holocene seems to be about 3000 to 2000 y. B. P. in this island. Its height is presumably 2.4 m a. s. l. derived on an average from heights of stacks and coastal benches in the almost all coasts of the island (Koba, 1974). Beach rocks were already formed at the landward extremity of the reef flat corresponding to the almost present sea level about 1300 y. B. P. (author)

  6. BMI mediates the association between low educational level and higher blood pressure during pregnancy in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jwa, Seung Chik; Fujiwara, Takeo; Hata, Akira; Arata, Naoko; Sago, Haruhiko; Ohya, Yukihiro

    2013-04-25

    Research investigating the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and blood pressure (BP) during pregnancy is limited and its underlying pathway is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the mediators of the association between educational level as an indicator of the SES and BP in early and mid-pregnancy among Japanese women. Nine hundred and twenty-three pregnant women in whom BP was measured before 16 weeks and at 20 weeks of gestation were enrolled in this study. Maternal educational levels were categorized into three groups: high (university or higher), mid (junior college), and low (junior high school, high school, or vocational training school). The low educational group had higher systolic (low vs. high, difference = 2.39 mmHg, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.59 to 4.19) and diastolic BP levels (low vs. high, difference = 0.74 mmHg, 95% CI: -0.52 to 1.99) in early pregnancy. However, the same associations were not found after adjustment for pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI). BP reduction was observed in mid-pregnancy in all three educational groups and there was no association between educational level and pregnancy-induced hypertension. In Japanese women, the low educational group showed higher BP during pregnancy than the mid or high educational groups. Pre-pregnancy BMI mediates the association between educational level and BP.

  7. Transgenic tobacco plants having a higher level of methionine are more sensitive to oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacham, Yael; Matityahu, Ifat; Amir, Rachel

    2017-07-01

    Methionine is an essential amino acid the low level of which limits the nutritional quality of plants. We formerly produced transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants overexpressing CYSTATHIONE γ-SYNTHASE (CGS) (FA plants), methionine's main regulatory enzyme. These plants accumulate significantly higher levels of methionine compared with wild-type (WT) plants. The aim of this study was to gain more knowledge about the effect of higher methionine content on the metabolic profile of vegetative tissue and on the morphological and physiological phenotypes. FA plants exhibit slightly reduced growth, and metabolic profiling analysis shows that they have higher contents of stress-related metabolites. Despite this, FA plants were more sensitive to short- and long-term oxidative stresses. In addition, compared with WT plants and transgenic plants expressing an empty vector, the primary metabolic profile of FA was altered less during oxidative stress. Based on morphological and metabolic phenotypes, we strongly proposed that FA plants having higher levels of methionine suffer from stress under non-stress conditions. This might be one of the reasons for their lesser ability to cope with oxidative stress when it appeared. The observation that their metabolic profiling is much less responsive to stress compared with control plants indicates that the delta changes in metabolite contents between non-stress and stress conditions is important for enabling the plants to cope with stress conditions. © 2017 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  8. Factors identified with higher levels of career satisfaction of physicians in Andalusia, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Nicolás Peña-Sánchez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The satisfaction of physicians is a world-wide issue linked with the quality of health services; their satisfaction needs to be studied from a multi-dimensional perspective, considering lower- and higher-order needs. The objectives of this study were to: i measure the career satisfaction of physicians; ii identify differences in the dimensions of career satisfaction; and iii test factors that affect higher- and lower-order needs of satisfaction among physicians working in Andalusian hospitals (Spain. Forty-one percent of 299 eligible physicians participated in a study conducted in six selected hospitals. Physicians reported higher professional, inherent, and performance satisfaction than personal satisfaction. Foreign physicians reported higher levels of personal and performance satisfaction than local physicians, and those who received non-monetary incentives had higher professional and performance satisfaction. In conclusion, physicians in the selected Andalusian hospitals reported low levels of personal satisfaction. Non-monetary incentives were more relevant to influence their career satisfaction. Further investigations are recommended to study differences in the career satisfaction between foreign and local physicians.

  9. Object Categorization in Finer Levels Relies More on Higher Spatial Frequencies and Takes Longer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashtiani, Matin N; Kheradpisheh, Saeed R; Masquelier, Timothée; Ganjtabesh, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    advantage of the superordinate (resp. basic) level to basic (resp. subordinate) level is mainly due to the computational constraints (the visual system processes higher spatial frequencies more slowly, and categorization in finer levels depends more on these higher spatial frequencies).

  10. Higher plasma level of STIM1, OPG are correlated with stent restenosis after PCI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haibin; Jiang, Zhian; Liu, Xiangdong; Yang, Zhihui

    2015-01-01

    Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI) is one of the most effective treatments for Coronary Heart Disease (CHD), but the high rate of In Stent Restenosis (ISR) has plagued clinicians after PCI. We aim to investigate the correlation of plasma Stromal Interaction Molecular 1 (STIM1) and Osteoprotegerin (OPG) level with stent restenosis after PCI. A total of 100 consecutive patients with Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) received PCI procedure were recruited. Coronary angiography was performed 8 months after their PCI. Then patients were divided into 2 groups: observation group was composed by patients who existing postoperative stenosis after intervention; Control group was composed by patients with no postoperative stenosis. The plasma levels of STIM, OPG in all patients were tested before and after intervention. Pearson correlation and multiple linear regression analysis were performed to analysis the correlation between STIM, OPG level and postoperative stenosis. 35 cases were divided into observation group and other 65 were divided into control group. The plasma levels of STIM, OPG have no statistical difference before their PCI procedure, but we observed higher level of High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP) existed in observation group. We observed higher level of plasma STIM, OPG in observation group when compared with control group after PCI procedure (P PCI, which could provide useful information for the restenosis control after PCI.

  11. Electron-positron annihilation into hadrons at the higher-loop levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nesterenko, A.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Dubna (Russian Federation)

    2017-12-15

    The strong corrections to the R-ratio of electron-positron annihilation into hadrons are studied at the higher-loop levels. Specifically, the derivation of a general form of the commonly employed approximate expression for the R-ratio (which constitutes its truncated re-expansion at high energies) is delineated, the appearance of the pertinent π{sup 2}-terms is expounded, and their basic features are examined. It is demonstrated that the validity range of such approximation is strictly limited to √(s)/Λ > exp(π/2) ≅ 4.81 and that it converges rather slowly when the energy scale approaches this value. The spectral function required for the proper calculation of the R-ratio is explicitly derived and its properties at the higher-loop levels are studied. The developed method of calculation of the spectral function enables one to obtain the explicit expression for the latter at an arbitrary loop level. By making use of the derived spectral function the proper expression for the R-ratio is calculated up to the five-loop level and its properties are examined. It is shown that the loop convergence of the proper expression for the R-ratio is better than that of its commonly employed approximation. The impact of the omitted higher-order π{sup 2}-terms on the latter is also discussed. (orig.)

  12. Higher Plasma Myostatin Levels in Cor Pulmonale Secondary to Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Rong Ju

    Full Text Available To analyze plasma myostatin levels and investigate their relationship with right ventricular (RV function in patients with cor pulmonale secondary to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD.The study recruited 81 patients with advanced COPD and 40 age-matched controls. The patients were divided into two groups: those with cor pulmonale and those without. Echocardiography was used to evaluate RV function and morphology, and the value of tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE less than 16 mm was considered RV dysfunction. Plasma myostatin levels were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP levels were analyzed as a comparison of myostatin.The data detected cor pulmonale in 39/81 patients, with the mean value of TAPSE of 14.3 mm. Plasma myostatin levels (ng/mL were significantly higher in patients with cor pulmonale (16.68 ± 2.95 than in those without (13.56 ± 3.09, and much higher than in controls (8.79±2.79, with each p<0.01. Significant differences were also found in plasma BNP levels among the three groups (p<0.05. Multivariate regression analysis suggested that myostatin levels were significantly correlated with the values of TAPSE and RV myocardium performance index among the COPD patients, and that BNP levels were significantly correlated only with systolic pulmonary arterial pressure, with each p<0.05.Plasma myostatin levels are increased in COPD patients who have cor pulmonale. Stronger correlations of plasma myostatin levels with echocardiographic indexes of the right heart suggest that myostatin might be superior to BNP in the early diagnosis of cor pulmonale in COPD.

  13. Multisensory Stimulation to Improve Low- and Higher-Level Sensory Deficits after Stroke: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinga, Angelica Maria; Visser-Meily, Johanna Maria Augusta; van der Smagt, Maarten Jeroen; Van der Stigchel, Stefan; van Ee, Raymond; Nijboer, Tanja Cornelia Wilhelmina

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to integrate and assess evidence for the effectiveness of multisensory stimulation (i.e., stimulating at least two of the following sensory systems: visual, auditory, and somatosensory) as a possible rehabilitation method after stroke. Evidence was considered with a focus on low-level, perceptual (visual, auditory and somatosensory deficits), as well as higher-level, cognitive, sensory deficits. We referred to the electronic databases Scopus and PubMed to search for articles that were published before May 2015. Studies were included which evaluated the effects of multisensory stimulation on patients with low- or higher-level sensory deficits caused by stroke. Twenty-one studies were included in this review and the quality of these studies was assessed (based on eight elements: randomization, inclusion of control patient group, blinding of participants, blinding of researchers, follow-up, group size, reporting effect sizes, and reporting time post-stroke). Twenty of the twenty-one included studies demonstrate beneficial effects on low- and/or higher-level sensory deficits after stroke. Notwithstanding these beneficial effects, the quality of the studies is insufficient for valid conclusion that multisensory stimulation can be successfully applied as an effective intervention. A valuable and necessary next step would be to set up well-designed randomized controlled trials to examine the effectiveness of multisensory stimulation as an intervention for low- and/or higher-level sensory deficits after stroke. Finally, we consider the potential mechanisms of multisensory stimulation for rehabilitation to guide this future research.

  14. Genes with stable DNA methylation levels show higher evolutionary conservation than genes with fluctuant DNA methylation levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruijie; Lv, Wenhua; Luan, Meiwei; Zheng, Jiajia; Shi, Miao; Zhu, Hongjie; Li, Jin; Lv, Hongchao; Zhang, Mingming; Shang, Zhenwei; Duan, Lian; Jiang, Yongshuai

    2015-11-24

    Different human genes often exhibit different degrees of stability in their DNA methylation levels between tissues, samples or cell types. This may be related to the evolution of human genome. Thus, we compared the evolutionary conservation between two types of genes: genes with stable DNA methylation levels (SM genes) and genes with fluctuant DNA methylation levels (FM genes). For long-term evolutionary characteristics between species, we compared the percentage of the orthologous genes, evolutionary rate dn/ds and protein sequence identity. We found that the SM genes had greater percentages of the orthologous genes, lower dn/ds, and higher protein sequence identities in all the 21 species. These results indicated that the SM genes were more evolutionarily conserved than the FM genes. For short-term evolutionary characteristics among human populations, we compared the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) density, and the linkage disequilibrium (LD) degree in HapMap populations and 1000 genomes project populations. We observed that the SM genes had lower SNP densities, and higher degrees of LD in all the 11 HapMap populations and 13 1000 genomes project populations. These results mean that the SM genes had more stable chromosome genetic structures, and were more conserved than the FM genes.

  15. DETERMINATION OF SERUM ALBUMIN WITH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The reaction of tribromoarsenazo(TB-ASA) with serum albumin in the presence of emulgent OP was studied by spectrophotometry. In a Britton-Robinson buffer solution at pH 2.9, tribromoarsenazo and bovine serum albumin can immediately form a red compound in the presence of emulgent OP with a maximum absorption ...

  16. A New Application for Albumin Dialysis in Extracorporeal Organ Support: Characterization of a Putative Interaction Between Human Albumin and Proinflammatory Cytokines IL-6 and TNFα.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfensig, Claudia; Dominik, Adrian; Borufka, Luise; Hinz, Michael; Stange, Jan; Eggert, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Albumin dialysis in extracorporeal organ support is often performed in the treatment of liver failure as it facilitates the removal of toxic components from the blood. Here, we describe a possible effect of albumin dialysis on proinflammatory cytokine levels in vitro. Initially, albumin samples were incubated with different amounts of cytokines and analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Analysis of interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) levels indicated that increased concentrations of albumin reduce the measureable amount of the respective cytokines. This led to the hypothesis that the used proinflammatory cytokines may interact with albumin. Size exclusion chromatography of albumin spiked with cytokines was carried out using high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. The corresponding fractions were evaluated by immunoblotting. We detected albumin and cytokines in the same fractions indicating an interaction of the small-sized cytokines IL-6 and TNFα with the larger-sized albumin. Finally, a two-compartment albumin dialysis in vitro model was used to analyze the effect of albumin on proinflammatory cytokines in the recirculation circuit during 6-h treatment. These in vitro albumin dialysis experiments indicated a significant decrease of IL-6, but not of TNFα, when albumin was added to the dialysate solution. Taken together, we were able to show a putative in vitro interaction of human albumin with the proinflammatory cytokine IL-6, but with less evidence for TNFα, and demonstrated an additional application for albumin dialysis in liver support therapy where IL-6 removal might be indicated. Copyright © 2015 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Higher Serum Levels of Free ĸ plus λ Immunoglobulin Light Chains Ameliorate Survival of Hemodialysis Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thilo, Florian; Caspari, Christina; Scholze, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aims: Impaired immune function is common in patients with chronic renal failure. Now, we determined whether serum levels of free immunoglobulin light chains predict mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease stage 5 on hemodialysis. Methods: We performed a prospective cohort study...... of 160 hemodialysis patients with a median follow-up of 15 months (interquartile range, 3-44 months). Serum levels of free κ and λ immunoglobulin light chains were measured at the start of the study. The primary end point was mortality from any cause. Results: In survivors, median serum levels of free κ...... plus λ immunoglobulin light chains were significantly higher compared with nonsurvivors (p light chains above the median compared with patients with serum levels below the median of 210 mg...

  18. β-endorphins Plasma Level is Higher in Lean Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiałka, M; Milewicz, T; Spałkowska, M; Krzyczkowska-Sendrakowska, M; Wasyl, B; Pełka, A; Krzysiek, J

    2016-01-01

    The evaluation the β-endorphin plasma levels in lean women with polycystic ovary syndrome as well as in women without this disorder. The associations between β-endorphins and other laboratory parameters were also investigated. 31 women lean, defined as women with normal range body mass index, 15 with polycystic ovary syndrome and 16 without this disorder were included to the study. In all the patients the level of β-endorphins was measured. Also the diagnostic laboratory profile including hormone assessment was made in all patients. There were significant differences in β-endorphin levels between the 2 groups. The β-endorphin level was higher in the polycystic ovary syndrome group compared to the healthy controls (15.5±4.37 pg/ml vs. 6.9±2.47 pg/ml, ppolycystic ovary syndrome group. Increase in β-endorphin level of 1 pg/ml was associated with an increase of cortisol at 8 am level of 1.134 µg/dl and decrease of sex hormone binding globuline of 0.948 nmol/l in polycystic ovary syndrome group. Our study showed that the levels of β-endorphins were significantly higher in lean patients with polycystic ovary syndrome than in lean controls. Moreover, β-endorphins levels were found to be correlated with other hormonal parameters. In this respect, β-endorphins may play a role in polycystic ovary syndrome pathophysiology. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Higher TSH Levels Within the Normal Range Are Associated With Unexplained Infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orouji Jokar, Tahereh; Fourman, Lindsay T; Lee, Hang; Mentzinger, Katherine; Fazeli, Pouneh K

    2018-02-01

    Unexplained infertility (UI), defined as the inability to conceive after 12 months of unprotected intercourse with no diagnosed cause, affects 10% to 30% of infertile couples. An improved understanding of the mechanisms underlying UI could lead to less invasive and less costly treatment strategies. Abnormalities in thyroid function and hyperprolactinemia are well-known causes of infertility, but whether thyrotropin (TSH) and prolactin levels within the normal range are associated with UI is unknown. To compare TSH and prolactin levels in women with UI and women with a normal fertility evaluation except for an azoospermic or severely oligospermic male partner. Cross-sectional study including women evaluated at a large academic health system between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2012 with normal TSH (levels within the normal range of the assay and ≤5 mIU/L) and normal prolactin levels (≤20 ng/mL) and either UI (n = 187) or no other cause of infertility other than an azoospermic or severely oligospermic partner (n = 52). TSH and prolactin. Women with UI had significantly higher TSH levels than controls [UI: TSH 1.95 mIU/L, interquartile range: (1.54, 2.61); severe male factor: TSH 1.66 mIU/L, interquartile range: (1.25, 2.17); P = 0.003]. This finding remained significant after we controlled for age, body mass index, and smoking status. Nearly twice as many women with UI (26.9%) had a TSH ≥2.5 mIU/L compared with controls (13.5%; P < 0.05). Prolactin levels did not differ between the groups. Women with UI have higher TSH levels compared with a control population. More studies are necessary to determine whether treatment of high-normal TSH levels decreases time to conception in couples with UI. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  20. Higher glucose levels associated with lower memory and reduced hippocampal microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerti, Lucia; Witte, A Veronica; Winkler, Angela; Grittner, Ulrike; Rujescu, Dan; Flöel, Agnes

    2013-11-12

    For this cross-sectional study, we aimed to elucidate whether higher glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and glucose levels exert a negative impact on memory performance and hippocampal volume and microstructure in a cohort of healthy, older, nondiabetic individuals without dementia. In 141 individuals (72 women, mean age 63.1 years ± 6.9 SD), memory was tested using the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test. Peripheral levels of fasting HbA1c, glucose, and insulin and 3-tesla MRI scans were acquired to assess hippocampal volume and microstructure, as indicated by gray matter barrier density. Linear regression and simple mediation models were calculated to examine associations among memory, glucose metabolism, and hippocampal parameters. Lower HbA1c and glucose levels were significantly associated with better scores in delayed recall, learning ability, and memory consolidation. In multiple regression models, HbA1c remained strongly associated with memory performance. Moreover, mediation analyses indicated that beneficial effects of lower HbA1c on memory are in part mediated by hippocampal volume and microstructure. Our results indicate that even in the absence of manifest type 2 diabetes mellitus or impaired glucose tolerance, chronically higher blood glucose levels exert a negative influence on cognition, possibly mediated by structural changes in learning-relevant brain areas. Therefore, strategies aimed at lowering glucose levels even in the normal range may beneficially influence cognition in the older population, a hypothesis to be examined in future interventional trials.

  1. Higher-level fusion for military operations based on abductive inference: proof of principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantaleev, Aleksandar V.; Josephson, John

    2006-04-01

    The ability of contemporary military commanders to estimate and understand complicated situations already suffers from information overload, and the situation can only grow worse. We describe a prototype application that uses abductive inferencing to fuse information from multiple sensors to evaluate the evidence for higher-level hypotheses that are close to the levels of abstraction needed for decision making (approximately JDL levels 2 and 3). Abductive inference (abduction, inference to the best explanation) is a pattern of reasoning that occurs naturally in diverse settings such as medical diagnosis, criminal investigations, scientific theory formation, and military intelligence analysis. Because abduction is part of common-sense reasoning, implementations of it can produce reasoning traces that are very human understandable. Automated abductive inferencing can be deployed to augment human reasoning, taking advantage of computation to process large amounts of information, and to bypass limits to human attention and short-term memory. We illustrate the workings of the prototype system by describing an example of its use for small-unit military operations in an urban setting. Knowledge was encoded as it might be captured prior to engagement from a standard military decision making process (MDMP) and analysis of commander's priority intelligence requirements (PIR). The system is able to reasonably estimate the evidence for higher-level hypotheses based on information from multiple sensors. Its inference processes can be examined closely to verify correctness. Decision makers can override conclusions at any level and changes will propagate appropriately.

  2. Why do French civil-law countries have higher levels of financial efficiency?

    OpenAIRE

    Asongu Simplice

    2011-01-01

    The dominance of English common-law countries in prospects for financial development in the legal-origins debate has been debunked by recent findings. Using exchange rate regimes and economic/monetary integration oriented hypotheses, this paper proposes an “inflation uncertainty theory” in providing theoretical justification and empirical validity as to why French civil-law countries have higher levels of financial allocation efficiency. Inflation uncertainty, typical of floating exchange rat...

  3. Do higher levels of education and skills in an area benefit wider society?

    OpenAIRE

    Winters, John V.

    2015-01-01

    Formal schooling increases earnings and provides other individual benefits. However, societal benefits of education may exceed individual benefits. Research finds that increased average education levels in an area are correlated with higher earnings, even for locals with relatively little education. Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) graduates appear to have especially strong external effects, due to their role in stimulating innovation and economic growth. Several strat...

  4. Visual Acuity does not Moderate Effect Sizes of Higher-Level Cognitive Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, James R.; Bennett, Ilana J.; Allen, Philip A.; Madden, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Declining visual capacities in older adults have been posited as a driving force behind adult age differences in higher-order cognitive functions (e.g., the “common cause” hypothesis of Lindenberger & Baltes, 1994). McGowan, Patterson and Jordan (2013) also found that a surprisingly large number of published cognitive aging studies failed to include adequate measures of visual acuity. However, a recent meta-analysis of three studies (LaFleur & Salthouse, 2014) failed to find evidence that visual acuity moderated or mediated age differences in higher-level cognitive processes. In order to provide a more extensive test of whether visual acuity moderates age differences in higher-level cognitive processes, we conducted a more extensive meta-analysis of topic. Methods Using results from 456 studies, we calculated effect sizes for the main effect of age across four cognitive domains (attention, executive function, memory, and perception/language) separately for five levels of visual acuity criteria (no criteria, undisclosed criteria, self-reported acuity, 20/80-20/31, and 20/30 or better). Results As expected, age had a significant effect on each cognitive domain. However, these age effects did not further differ as a function of visual acuity criteria. Conclusion The current meta-analytic, cross-sectional results suggest that visual acuity is not significantly related to age group differences in higher-level cognitive performance—thereby replicating LaFleur and Salthouse (2014). Further efforts are needed to determine whether other measures of visual functioning (e.g. contrast sensitivity, luminance) affect age differences in cognitive functioning. PMID:27070044

  5. Higher cortisol levels at diurnal trough predict greater attentional bias towards threat in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakamata, Yuko; Izawa, Shuhei; Sato, Eisuke; Komi, Shotaro; Murayama, Norio; Moriguchi, Yoshiya; Hanakawa, Takashi; Inoue, Yusuke; Tagaya, Hirokuni

    2013-11-01

    Attentional bias (AB), selective information processing towards threat, can exacerbate anxiety and depression. Despite growing interest, physiological determinants of AB are yet to be understood. We examined whether stress hormone cortisol and its diurnal variation pattern contribute to AB. Eighty-seven healthy young adults underwent assessments for AB, anxious personality traits, depressive symptoms, and attentional function. Salivary cortisol was collected at three time points daily (at awakening, 30 min after awakening, and bedtime) for 2 consecutive days. We performed: (1) multiple regression analysis to examine the relationships between AB and the other measures and (2) analysis of variance (ANOVA) between groups with different cortisol variation patterns for the other measures. Multiple regression analysis revealed that higher cortisol levels at bedtime (pattention and cortisol measurement at three time points daily. We showed that higher cortisol levels at bedtime and blunted cortisol variation are associated with greater AB. Individuals who have higher cortisol levels at diurnal trough might be at risk of clinical anxiety or depression but could also derive more benefits from the attentional-bias-modification program. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Gender in higher level education and professional training in water supply and sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borba, M

    1997-01-01

    While more women are participating in training and decision-making in the local-level drinking water and sanitation sectors, this is not occurring at higher levels because of the gender imbalance that remains in higher-level sector education and professional training programs. This imbalance is characterized by gender-biased science curricula and by a lack of female role models. Even in developing countries where female enrollment outstrips that of men in higher education, women commonly prepare for careers in areas that are less valued than sanitary engineering. This imbalance ignores the fact that women can perform technical and managerial skills as competently as men. A similar male-dominated pattern emerges in professional training courses offered by development agencies, especially courses that focus on management issues. Low female school attendance begins when girls must forego primary school attendance to help their mothers in domestic chores, such as fetching water. Inadequate sanitation facilities for girls at schools also pose impediments. Efforts to improve this situation include 1) a promotional brochure developed by the Botswana Ministry of Education to raise awareness of the importance of men's and women's work as technicians and engineers in the water and sanitation sector among secondary school students; 2) creation of free schools and universities in Oman, where the numbers of women in previously male-dominated jobs are increasing; and 3) promotion of female education at the Asian Institute of Technology.

  7. Serum Albumin Predicts Survival and Postoperative Course Following Surgery for Geriatric Hip Fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohl, Daniel D; Shen, Mary R; Hannon, Charles P; Fillingham, Yale A; Darrith, Brian; Della Valle, Craig J

    2017-12-20

    Serum albumin level is the most well-established serum marker of malnutrition, with a serum albumin concentration malnutrition. The purpose of this study was to test if serum albumin level is associated with death, specific postoperative complications (e.g., pneumonia), length of hospital stay, and readmission following a surgical procedure for geriatric hip fracture. A retrospective cohort study of geriatric patients (≥65 years of age) undergoing a hip fracture surgical procedure as part of the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program was conducted. Outcomes were compared between patients with and without hypoalbuminemia. All comparisons were adjusted for baseline and procedural differences between populations, and patients with missing serum albumin concentration were included in analyses using a missing data indicator. There were 29,377 geriatric patients undergoing a hip fracture surgical procedure who met inclusion criteria; of these patients, 17,651 (60.1%) had serum albumin available for analysis. The prevalence of hypoalbuminemia was 45.9%. Following adjustment for baseline and procedural characteristics, the risk of death was inversely associated with serum albumin concentration as a continuous variable (adjusted relative risk, 0.59 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.53 to 0.65]; p patients with normal albumin concentration, patients with hypoalbuminemia had higher rates of death (9.94% compared with 5.53% [adjusted relative risk, 1.52 (95% CI, 1.37 to 1.70); p patients with hypoalbuminemia at 5.67 ± 4.68 days compared with those without hypoalbuminemia at 4.99 ± 3.95 days; the adjusted difference was 0.50 day (95% CI, 0.38 to 0.63 day; p patients with hypoalbuminemia (10.91%) and those without hypoalbuminemia (9.03%); the adjusted relative risk was 1.10 (95% CI, 1.00 to 1.21). Hypoalbuminemia is a powerful independent risk factor for mortality following a surgical procedure for geriatric hip fracture. These data suggest

  8. Site-selective conjugation of an anticoagulant aptamer to recombinant albumins and maintenance of neonatal Fc receptor binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmøkel, Julie; Voldum, Anders; Tsakiridou, Georgia; Kuhlmann, Matthias; Cameron, Jason; Sørensen, Esben S.; Wengel, Jesper; Howard, Kenneth A.

    2017-05-01

    Aptamers are an attractive molecular medicine that offers high target specificity. Nucleic acid-based aptamers, however, are prone to nuclease degradation and rapid renal excretion that require blood circulatory half-life extension enabling technologies. The long circulatory half-life, predominately facilitated by engagement with the cellular recycling neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn), and ligand transport properties of albumin promote it as an attractive candidate to improve the pharmacokinetic profile of aptamers. This study investigates the effect of Cys34 site-selective covalent attachment of a factor IXa anticoagulant aptamer on aptamer functionality and human FcRn (hFcRn) engagement using recombinant human albumin (rHA) of either a wild type (WT) or an engineered human FcRn high binding variant (HB). Albumin-aptamer conjugates, connected covalently through a heterobifunctional succinimidyl 4-(N-maleimidomethyl)cyclohexane-1-carboxylate linker, were successfully prepared and purified by high performance liquid chromatography as confirmed by gel electrophoresis band-shift analysis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight. Minimal reduction (∼25%) in activity of WT-linked aptamer to that of aptamer alone was found using an anticoagulant activity assay measuring temporal levels of activated partial thrombin. Covalent albumin-aptamer conjugation, however, substantially compromized binding to hFcRn, to 10% affinity of that of non-conjugated WT, determined by biolayer interferometry. Binding could be rescued by aptamer conjugation to recombinant albumin engineered for higher FcRn affinity (HB) that exhibited an 8-fold affinity compared to WT alone. This work describes a novel albumin-based aptamer delivery system whose hFcRn binding can be increased using a HB engineered albumin.

  9. Digital Immigrants and Digital Natives: Learning Business Informatics at Higher Educational Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suša Dalia

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The term digital natives refer to those born since the 1980s and have been growing up surrounded by technology. On the other hand, digital immigrants are born before 1980s and learned how to use technology later in life. Objectives: Goal of the paper is to explore attitudes of digital native students on the course of Business Informatics at higher educational institutions (HEIs, and to compare them with attitudes of digital immigrants. Methods/Approach: The survey was conducted in 2014 using the sample of first-year Business Informatics students from the Faculty of Economics and Business in Zagreb, Croatia. Results were compared with a research conducted in 1998. Results: In comparison to an earlier research, digital natives perceive their level of competency in the subject of Business Informatics before teaching practices much higher compared to digital immigrants. However, there is still an increase in digital native students’ level of competency in the subject before and after teaching practices. Conclusions: The research confirms a shift from digital immigrants to digital natives who show high level of interest for Business Informatics course topics and find its utility very high. However, constant improvement of delivering knowledge is needed in order to keep these high levels.

  10. Urinary albumin excretion. An independent predictor of ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch-Johnsen, K; Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Strandgaard, S

    1999-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies suggest that an increased urinary albumin excretion rate is associated with cardiovascular disease, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. The purpose of this study was to analyze prospectively whether the urinary albumin-to -creatinine (A/C) ratio can independently predict...... ischemic heart disease (IHD) in a population-based cohort. In 1983, urinary albumin and creatinine levels were measured, along with the conventional atherosclerotic risk factors, in 2085 consecutive participants without IHD, renal disease, urinary tract infection, or diabetes mellitus. The participants...

  11. Gender difference of alanine aminotransferase elevation may be associated with higher hemoglobin levels among male adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Chih-Cheng Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To explore the gender difference of ALT elevation and its association with high hemoglobin levels. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 3547 adolescents (2005 females, mean age of 16.5?.3 years who were negative for hepatitis B surface antigen received health checkups in 2006. Body mass index (BMI, levels of hemoglobin, ALT and cholesterol were measured. ALT >42 U/L was defined as elevated ALT. Elevated ALT levels were detected in 112 of the 3547 participants (3.3%, more prevalent in males than in females (5.4% vs. 1.4%, p11 g/dl in females or >13.5 g/dl in males, but the cumulative cases of elevated ALT increased more quickly in males. Proportion of elevated ALT increased as either the BMI or hemoglobin level rise, more apparent in male adolescents. Logistic regression modeling showed odds ratio (95% confidence interval were 24.7 (15.0-40.6 for BMI ≥27 kg/m(2; 5.5 (2.9-10.4 for BMI 24-27 kg/m(2; 2.7 (1.3-5.5 for Q5 (top 20th percentile hemoglobin level; and 2.6 (1.6-4.1 for male gender. Further separately fitting the logistic models for two genders, the significance of Q5 hemoglobin level only appeared in the males. CONCLUSIONS: High hemoglobin level is a significant risk factor of ALT elevation after control hepatitis B, obesity and gender. Males have greater risk of abnormal liver function which may be associated with higher hemoglobin levels.

  12. Serum Albumin Is Independently Associated with Persistent Organ Failure in Acute Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wandong Hong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims. To investigate the association between serum albumin levels within 24 hrs of patient admission and the development of persistent organ failure in acute pancreatitis. Methods. A total of 700 patients with acute pancreatitis were enrolled. Multivariate logistic regression and subgroup analysis determined whether decreased albumin was independently associated with persistent organ failure and mortality. The diagnostic performance of serum albumin was evaluated by the area under Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curves. Results. As levels of serum albumin decrease, the risk of persistent organ failure significantly increases (Ptrend<0.001. The incidence of organ failure was 3.5%, 10.6%, and 41.6% in patients with normal albumin and mild and severe hypoalbuminaemia, respectively. Decreased albumin levels were also proportionally associated with prolonged hospital stay (Ptrend<0.001 and the risk of death (Ptrend<0.001. Multivariate analysis suggested that biliary etiology, chronic concomitant diseases, hematocrit, blood urea nitrogen, and the serum albumin level were independently associated with persistent organ failure. Blood urea nitrogen and the serum albumin level were also independently associated with mortality. The area under ROC curves of albumin for predicting organ failure and mortality were 0.78 and 0.87, respectively. Conclusion. A low serum albumin is independently associated with an increased risk of developing of persistent organ failure and death in acute pancreatitis. It may also be useful for the prediction of the severity of acute pancreatitis.

  13. Higher levels of circulating chemerin in both lean and obese patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ademoglu, E; Berberoglu, Z; Carlioglu, A; Dellal, F; Gorar, S; Alphan, Z; Uysal, S; Karakurt, F

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this paper was to compare serum chemerin levels in nonobese and overweight/obese patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) with lean controls. Seventy women with newly diagnosed or untreated PCOS and 38 age-matched nonobese healthy controls were enrolled in the present study. Participants with PCOS were categorized as nonobese (Body Mass Index [BMI] PCOS group than in nonobese PCOS women but did not reach statistical significance. Nonobese healthy controls had significantly lower chemerin levels than two PCOS groups (Pwomen with PCOS than in other two groups. Also, these two parameters were higher in lean patients with PCOS than in healthy controls (PPCOS women but also in nonobese PCOS women. The physiological significance of elevated serum chemerin in PCOS remains unclear.

  14. Evaluation of higher order statistics parameters for multi channel sEMG using different force levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Ganesh R; Kumar, Dinesh K

    2011-01-01

    The electromyograpy (EMG) signal provides information about the performance of muscles and nerves. The shape of the muscle signal and motor unit action potential (MUAP) varies due to the movement of the position of the electrode or due to changes in contraction level. This research deals with evaluating the non-Gaussianity in Surface Electromyogram signal (sEMG) using higher order statistics (HOS) parameters. To achieve this, experiments were conducted for four different finger and wrist actions at different levels of Maximum Voluntary Contractions (MVCs). Our experimental analysis shows that at constant force and for non-fatiguing contractions, probability density functions (PDF) of sEMG signals were non-Gaussian. For lesser MVCs (below 30% of MVC) PDF measures tends to be Gaussian process. The above measures were verified by computing the Kurtosis values for different MVCs.

  15. Hijab and Depression: Does the Islamic Practice of Veiling Predict Higher Levels of Depressive Symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, David R; Husain, Altaf; Zidan, Tarek

    2017-07-01

    Hijab or veiling is commonly practiced by Muslim women but remains controversial in the broader secular society. Some Western feminists argue that veiling is an oppressive behavior that negatively affects women by, for example, engendering depression. This article tests this hypothesis with a national sample of American Muslim women (N = 194). The results of the regression analysis did not support the hypothesis. Indeed, women who veiled more frequently reported lower, rather than higher, levels of depressive symptoms. In other words, wearing the hijab appears to be a protective factor in the area of depression. Given the prevalence of depression among women, the results have important implications for practice with Muslim women at both the micro and the macro levels. © 2017 National Association of Social Workers.

  16. Organic foods contain higher levels of certain nutrients, lower levels of pesticides, and may provide health benefits for the consumer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crinnion, Walter J

    2010-04-01

    The multi-billion dollar organic food industry is fueled by consumer perception that organic food is healthier (greater nutritional value and fewer toxic chemicals). Studies of the nutrient content in organic foods vary in results due to differences in the ground cover and maturity of the organic farming operation. Nutrient content also varies from farmer to farmer and year to year. However, reviews of multiple studies show that organic varieties do provide significantly greater levels of vitamin C, iron, magnesium, and phosphorus than non-organic varieties of the same foods. While being higher in these nutrients, they are also significantly lower in nitrates and pesticide residues. In addition, with the exception of wheat, oats, and wine, organic foods typically provide greater levels of a number of important antioxidant phytochemicals (anthocyanins, flavonoids, and carotenoids). Although in vitro studies of organic fruits and vegetables consistently demonstrate that organic foods have greater antioxidant activity, are more potent suppressors of the mutagenic action of toxic compounds, and inhibit the proliferation of certain cancer cell lines, in vivo studies of antioxidant activity in humans have failed to demonstrate additional benefit. Clear health benefits from consuming organic dairy products have been demonstrated in regard to allergic dermatitis.

  17. The antioxidant level of Alaska's wild berries: high, higher and highest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxie Rodgers Dinstel

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background . In the last few years, antioxidants have become the stars of the nutritional world. Antioxidants are important in terms of their ability to protect against oxidative cell damage that can lead to conditions, such as Alzheimer's disease, cancer and heart disease – conditions also linked with chronic inflammation. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of Alaska's wild berries may have the potential to help prevent these diseases. Objective . To discover the antioxidant levels of Alaska wild berries and the ways these antioxidant levels translate when preservation methods are applied to the berry. Design . This research centred on both the raw berries and products made from the berries. In the first year, a variety of wild berries were tested to discover their oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC in the raw berries. The second level of the research project processed 4 different berries – blueberries, lingonberries, salmonberries, highbush cranberries – into 8 or 9 products made from these berries. The products were tested for both ORAC as well as specific antioxidants. Results . The Alaska wild berries collected and tested in the first experiment ranged from 3 to 5 times higher in ORAC value than cultivated berries from the lower 48 states. For instance, cultivated blueberries have an ORAC scale of 30. Alaska wild dwarf blueberries measure 85. This is also higher than lower 48 wild blueberries, which had a score of 61. All of the Alaskan berries tested have a level of antioxidant considered nutritionally valuable, ranging from 19 for watermelon berries to 206 for lingonberries on the ORAC scale. With the processed products made from 4 Alaska wild berries, one of the unexpected outcomes of the research was that the berries continued to have levels of antioxidants considered high, despite the effects of commonly used heat-processing techniques. When berries were dehydrated, per gram ORAC values increased. Conclusion

  18. Higher Dialysate Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 Levels Are Associated with Peritoneal Membrane Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yeoungjee; Johnson, David W.; Vesey, David A.; Hawley, Carmel M.; Pascoe, Elaine M.; Clarke, Margaret; Topley, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    ♦ Background: Peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients develop progressive and cumulative peritoneal injury with longer time spent on PD. The present study aimed to a) describe the trend of peritoneal injury biomarkers, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), in incident PD patients, b) to explore the capacity of dialysate MMP-2 to predict peritoneal solute transport rate (PSTR) and peritonitis, and c) to evaluate the influence of neutral pH, low glucose degradation product (GDP) PD solution on these outcomes. ♦ Methods: The study included 178 participants from the balANZ trial who had at least 1 stored dialysate sample. Changes in PSTR and peritonitis were primary outcome measures, and the utility of MMP-2 in predicting these outcomes was analyzed using multilevel linear regression and multilevel Poisson regression, respectively. ♦ Results: Significant linear increases in dialysate MMP-2 and TIMP-1 concentrations were observed (p < 0.001), but neither was affected by the type of PD solutions received (MMP-2: p = 0.07; TIMP-1: p = 0.63). An increase in PSTR from baseline was associated with higher levels of MMP-2 (p = 0.02), and the use of standard solutions over longer PD duration (p = 0.001). The risk of peritonitis was independently predicted by higher dialysate MMP-2 levels (incidence rate ratio [IRR] per ng/mL 1.01, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.005 – 1.02, p = 0.002) and use of standard solutions (Biocompatible solution: IRR 0.45, 95% CI 0.24 – 0.85, p = 0.01). ♦ Conclusion: Dialysate MMP-2 and TIMP-1 concentrations increased with longer PD duration. Higher MMP-2 levels were associated with faster PSTR and future peritonitis risk. Administration of biocompatible solutions exerted no significant effect on dialysate levels of MMP-2 or TIMP-1, but did counteract the increase in PSTR and the risk of peritonitis associated with the use of standard PD solutions. This is the first longitudinal study to examine

  19. The Neuromuscular Qualities of Higher- and Lower-Level Mixed-Martial-Arts Competitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Lachlan P; Beckman, Emma M; Kelly, Vincent G; Haff, G Gregory

    2017-05-01

    To determine whether the maximal strength, impulse, and power characteristics of competitive mixed-martial-arts (MMA) athletes differ according to competition level. Twenty-nine male semiprofessional and amateur MMA competitors were stratified into either higher-level (HL) or lower-level (LL) performers on the basis of competition grade and success. The 1-repetition-maximum (1RM) squat was used to assess lower-body dynamic strength, and a spectrum of impulse, power, force, and velocity variables were evaluated during an incremental-load jump squat. In addition, participants performed an isometric midthigh pull (IMTP) and 1RM bench press to determine whole-body isometric force and upper-body dynamic strength capabilities, respectively. All force and power variables were expressed relative to body mass (BM). The HL competitors produced significantly superior values across a multitude of measures. These included 1RM squat strength (1.84 ± 0.23 vs 1.56 ± 0.24 kg BM; P = .003), in addition to performance in the incremental-load jump squat that revealed greater peak power (P = .005-.002), force (P = .002-.004), and velocity (P = .002-.03) at each load. Higher measures of impulse (P = .01-.04) were noted in a number of conditions. Average power (P = .002-.02) and velocity (P = .01-.04) at all loads in addition to a series of rate-dependent measures were also superior in the HL group (P = .005-.02). The HL competitors' 1RM bench-press values approached significantly greater levels (P = .056) than the LL group's, but IMTP performance did not differ between groups. Maximal lower-body neuromuscular capabilities are key attributes distinguishing HL from LL MMA competitors. This information can be used to inform evidenced-based training and performance-monitoring practices.

  20. Higher Alu methylation levels in catch-up growth in twenty-year-old offsprings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittipan Rerkasem

    Full Text Available Alu elements and long interspersed element-1 (LINE-1 or L1 are two major human intersperse repetitive sequences. Lower Alu methylation, but not LINE-1, has been observed in blood cells of people in old age, and in menopausal women having lower bone mass and osteoporosis. Nevertheless, Alu methylation levels also vary among young individuals. Here, we explored phenotypes at birth that are associated with Alu methylation levels in young people. In 2010, 249 twenty-years-old volunteers whose mothers had participated in a study association between birth weight (BW and nutrition during pregnancy in 1990, were invited to take part in our present study. In this study, the LINE-1 and Alu methylation levels and patterns were measured in peripheral mononuclear cells and correlated with various nutritional parameters during intrauterine and postnatal period of offspring. This included the amount of maternal intake during pregnancy, the mother's weight gain during pregnancy, birth weight, birth length, and the rate of weight gain in the first year of life. Catch-up growth (CUG was defined when weight during the first year was >0.67 of the standard score, according to WHO data. No association with LINE-1 methylation was identified. The mean level of Alu methylation in the CUG group was significantly higher than those non-CUG (39.61% and 33.66 % respectively, P < 0.0001. The positive correlation between the history of CUG in the first year and higher Alu methylation indicates the role of Alu methylation, not only in aging cells, but also in the human growth process. Moreover, here is the first study that demonstrated the association between a phenotype during the newborn period and intersperse repetitive sequences methylation during young adulthood.

  1. Studies on albumin-131I exchange by means of the whole body radiometry in healthy individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondarenko, N.I.; Kalashnikov, B.V.; Kaplan, M.A.; Bolovin, L.M.

    1979-01-01

    The whole body radiometry method was used to elaborate a technique of processing experimental data with subsequent calculation of the turnover indices of human serum albumin labelled by 131 I. The studies on albumin metabolism in 36 healthy men showed that in the albumin synthesis synthesis rate equal to 1455 g a day, the albumin level in the extravascular space exceeded by 2.96 times (357.1 g) that of the total albumin (120.8 g) in the plasma. About half of the plasma albumin comes from the plasma to the extravascular space daily. The turnover indices calculated by the technique applied are comparable with the data presented by other investigators. The elaborated technique is sufficiently simple and informative, makes it possible to study albumin metabolism (without taking blood samples and collecting urine) in healthy persons, and what is of special importance, in various pathological conditions

  2. Lower serotonin level and higher rate of fibromyalgia syndrome with advancing pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atasever, Melahat; Namlı Kalem, Muberra; Sönmez, Çiğdem; Seval, Mehmet Murat; Yüce, Tuncay; Sahin Aker, Seda; Koç, Acar; Genc, Hakan

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the relationship between changes in serotonin levels during pregnancy and fibromyalgia syndrome (FS) and the relationships between FS and the physical/psychological state, biochemical and hormonal parameters, which may be related to the musculoskeletal system. This study is a prospective case-control study conducted with 277 pregnant women at the obstetric unit of Ankara University Faculty of Medicine, in the period between January and June 2015. FS was determined based on the presence or absence of the 2010 ACR diagnostic criteria and all the volunteers were asked to answer the questionnaires as Fibromyalgia Impact Criteria (FIQ), Widespread Pain Index (WPI), Symptom Severity Scale (SS), Beck Depression Inventory and Visual Analog Scale (VAS). Biochemical and hormonal markers (glucose, TSH, T4, Ca (calcium), P (phosphate), PTH (parathyroid hormone) and serotonin levels) relating to muscle and bone metabolism were measured. In the presence of fibromyalgia, the physical and psychological parameters are negatively affected (p serotonin levels may contribute to the development of fibromyalgia but this was not statistically significant. The Beck Depression Inventory scale statistically showed that increasing scores also increase the risk of fibromyalgia (p serotonin levels in women with FS are lower than the control group and that serotonin levels reduce as pregnancy progresses. Anxiety and depression in pregnant women with FS are higher than the control group. The presence of depression increases the likelihood of developing FS at a statistically significant level. Serotonin impairment also increases the chance of developing FS, but this correlation has not been shown to be statistically significant.

  3. Evaluation of environmental education at higher secondary level in the model schools of Islamabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahir, F.; Ahmad, U.

    2000-01-01

    Environmental education (EE) has emerged as a new dimension in the dimensional sphere. It is a process aimed at the developing world's population, which should be well aware and concerned about the total environment and its associated problems and which should have knowledge, attitudes, skills, motivation and commitment to work, individually and collectively, towards the solution of current problems and the prevention of new ones. Evaluation is a process that provides feedback for the improvement of any project. The present study has been designed to investigate the current performance of EE at higher secondary level. Data were collected from Biology teachers and F. Sc. students of Islamabad Model Colleges, through separate questionnaires. The information collected from teachers was regarding their qualifications and involvement, institutional provisions and their opinion about EE. Students were evaluated on the basis of EE. The results showed that Biology is the only subject that contains a considerable content of EE at higher secondary level. In these institutions, although there is no deficiency of competent teaching staff, A/V aids and other physical facilities , the teacher's involvement and utility of teaching aids is not up to the mark, Book/magazines relevant to EE are not available in most of the institutions. Although students have enough knowledge and awareness about environmental issues, there is a need to produce appropriate skills and attitudes for making them 'environment-friendly'. (author)

  4. Management competencies in higher education: Perceived job importance in relation to level of training required

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid L. Potgieter

    2010-11-01

    Research purpose: The aim of this article is to determine the relationship between a specific set of HOD managerial competencies identified as being important for the job and the level of training required in terms of these competencies. Motivation for the study: Research has provided evidence that HODs are often ill-prepared for their managerial role, which requires the development of specific management competencies to enable them to fulfil their roles effectively. Research design, approach and method: A non-experimental quantitative survey design approach was followed and correlational data analyses were performed. A cross-sectional sample of 41 HODs of 22 departments from various faculties of a higher education institution in Gauteng participated in this study. The Management Competency Inventory (MCI of Visser (2009 was applied as a measure. Main findings: The Pearson product-moment analysis indicated that there is a significant relationship between the competencies indicated as being important for the job and the level of training required. Practical/Managerial implications: Training needs of HODs should be formally assessed and the depth of training required in terms of the identified management competencies should be considered in the design of training programmes. Contributions/Value-add: The information obtained in this study may potentially serve as a foundation for the development of an HOD training programme in the South African higher education environment.

  5. The effect of ionizing radiations on rat serum albumin on in vivo and in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portakal, S.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of ionizing radiations on rat serum albumin was studied on in vivo and in vitro. Male rats (rattus norvegicus) were exposed to 225 roentgen wholebody X-irradiation on in vivo experiments. Time-course effects of irradiation on albumin level examined at immediately, 2.5 hours and 3 days after irradiation. Albumin level decreased above control level 2.5 hours after irradiation and rised within 3 days reaching control level. Pre-albumin/albumin ratio enhanced after x-irradiation. Aqueous solutions (0.5 percent) of rat serum albumin was exposed to various doses (0.2, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.9 Mrad) of 60 Co gamma irradiation on in vitro experiments. Results showed that electrophoretic mobility of serum albumin decreased after gamma irradiation. No significant change in albumin UV absorption spectrum was observed at 0.2, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.9 Mrad doses. Albumin becomes progressively less soluble in water as the radiation doses is increased. Radiation induced transformation into insoluble albumin agregates and scission products. (author)

  6. Stress Coping Levels and Mental States of Police Vocational School of Higher Education Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu Yildirim

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY AIM: This study was planned and carried out with the objective of determining stress coping levels and mental state of students attending Police Vocational Schools of Higher Education, in addition to factors effecting these. MATERIAL and METHOD: This desciptive and cross-sectional study consisted of 300 male students enrolled in the 2005-2006 academic year, at Police Vocational School of Higher Education, located in central Erzincan, Turkey. In this study, instead of random sampling, 281 (93.7% students who were present at the school at the time of the study and accepted to partipate in it were included. Data for this study was collected using a desciptive form created by the researchers, Rosenbaum’s Learned Resourcefulness Scale (RLRS and The Symptom Check List-90-R (SCL-90-R. During the data analysis, frequency distributions, Mann-Whitney U, Kruskal-Wallis and analysis of variance (one-way ANOVA were used; and for analysis of independent groups, t-test was used. RESULTS: Among the students, it was determined that 54.8% were 1. grade, 90.7% had their parents living together, 43.5% had a father and 60.5% had a mother who graduated from elementary school, fathers of 23.5% of students were retired, 93.6% of them had mothers who were home makers. In addition, it was found out that 78.6% of students chose their profession willingly, the average family income of 71.5% of students were at medium levels, 82.9% always believed in themselves and 63.3% of students did not smoke. Based on the results obtained, it was observed that second grade students, those with mothers who are highly educated and those who trusted themselved all the time had significantly high stress coping levels; students who chose their own profession, believed in themselves and did not smoke had significantly low levels of mental symptom indications. CONCLUSION: In this study, the students were determined to posess averge levels of stress coping skills and they were found

  7. Aluminium and nickel in human albumin solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Bente; Sandberg, E

    1989-01-01

    Five different brands of commercially available human albumin solutions for infusion were analysed for their aluminium and nickel contents by atomic absorption spectrometry. The aluminium concentrations ranged from 12 micrograms/l to 1109 micrograms/l and the nickel concentrations ranged from 17...... micrograms/l to 77 micrograms/l. Examination of the aluminium and nickel contents of the constituents for the production of one brand showed too low levels to explain the final contamination of the product. By following the aluminium and nickel concentrations of the same brand during the production...... of a batch of albumin solution, filtration was shown to contribute to contamination, although the largest increase in aluminium as well as nickel concentrations appeared during the bulk concentrating process. To avoid health risks to certain patients, regulations should be established requiring aluminium...

  8. Lower prevalence but similar fitness in a parasitic fungus at higher radiation levels near Chernobyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguileta, Gabriela; Badouin, Helene; Hood, Michael E; Møller, Anders P; Le Prieur, Stephanie; Snirc, Alodie; Siguenza, Sophie; Mousseau, Timothy A; Shykoff, Jacqui A; Cuomo, Christina A; Giraud, Tatiana

    2016-07-01

    Nuclear disasters at Chernobyl and Fukushima provide examples of effects of acute ionizing radiation on mutations that can affect the fitness and distribution of species. Here, we investigated the prevalence of Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae, a pollinator-transmitted fungal pathogen of plants causing anther-smut disease in Chernobyl, its viability, fertility and karyotype variation, and the accumulation of nonsynonymous mutations in its genome. We collected diseased flowers of Silene latifolia from locations ranging by more than two orders of magnitude in background radiation, from 0.05 to 21.03 μGy/h. Disease prevalence decreased significantly with increasing radiation level, possibly due to lower pollinator abundance and altered pollinator behaviour. Viability and fertility, measured as the budding rate of haploid sporidia following meiosis from the diploid teliospores, did not vary with increasing radiation levels and neither did karyotype overall structure and level of chromosomal size heterozygosity. We sequenced the genomes of twelve samples from Chernobyl and of four samples collected from uncontaminated areas and analysed alignments of 6068 predicted genes, corresponding to 1.04 × 10(7)  base pairs. We found no dose-dependent differences in substitution rates (neither dN, dS, nor dN/dS). Thus, we found no significant evidence of increased deleterious mutation rates at higher levels of background radiation in this plant pathogen. We even found lower levels of nonsynonymous substitution rates in contaminated areas compared to control regions, suggesting that purifying selection was stronger in contaminated than uncontaminated areas. We briefly discuss the possibilities for a mechanistic basis of radio resistance in this nonmelanized fungus. © 2016 The Authors. Molecular Ecology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Comparison and relationship of thyroid hormones, IL-6, IL-10 and albumin as mortality predictors in case-mix critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quispe E, Álvaro; Li, Xiang-Min; Yi, Hong

    2016-05-01

    To compare the ability of thyroid hormones, IL-6, IL-10, and albumin to predict mortality, and to assess their relationship in case-mix acute critically ill patients. APACHE II scores and serum thyroid hormones (FT3, FT4, and TSH), IL-6, IL-10, and albumin were obtained at EICU admission for 79 cases of mix acute critically ill patients without previous history of thyroid disease. Patients were followed for 28 days with patient's death as the primary outcome. All mean values were compared, correlations assessed with Pearson' test, and mortality prediction assessed by multivariate logistic regression and ROC. Non survivors were older, with higher APACHE II score (p=0.000), IL-6 (p<0.05), IL-10 (p=0.000) levels, and lower albumin (p=0.000) levels compared to survivors at 28 days. IL-6 and IL-10 had significant negative correlation with albumin (p=0.001) and FT3 (p ⩽ 0.05) respectively, while low albumin had a direct correlation with FT3 (p<0.05). In the mortality prediction assessment, IL-10, albumin and APACHE II were independent morality predictors and showed to have a good (0.70-0.79) AUC-ROC (p<0.05). Despite that the entire cohort showed low FT3 serum levels (p=0.000), there was not statistical difference between survivors and non-survivors; neither showed any significance as mortality predictor. IL-6 and IL-10 are correlated with Low FT3 and hypoalbuminemia. Thyroid hormones assessed at EICU admission did not have any predictive value in our study. And finally, high levels of IL-6 and IL-10 in conjunction with albumin could improve our ability to evaluate disease's severity and predict mortality in the critically ill patients. When use in combination with APACHE II scores, our model showed improved mortality prediction. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Albumin synthesis in protein energy malnutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duggan, C.; Hardy, S.; Kleinman, R.E.; Harvard Medical School, Children's Hospital, Boston, MA; Lembcke, J.; Young, V.R.

    1996-01-01

    Assessment of protein nutritional status during re-feeding children with protein energy malnutrition (PEM) can be difficult. We hypothesized that the fractional synthesis rate (FSR) of albumin, as measured by stable isotope technology, would serve as an objective measure of changes in protein status, and that increased amounts of dietary protein (15% of calories vs 10%) would lead to higher FSR. Eight (5 M, 3 F) Peruvian children (mean age 15.5 months) with PEM (mean wt/ht Z score = -2.47) were studied twice during the first week of admission by the flooding dose technique. An intravenous dose of 13 C-leucine (57 mg/kg, 99 atom%) was given and serial blood samples were drawn in intervals up to 90 minutes in order to measure isotopic enrichment of serum albumin. Mean FSR for the day one infusion was 6.11% (range 3.07 - 15.37%) (n = 8). Mean FSR for the follow-up infusion was 7.67% (range 3.63 - 12.37%) (n = 5), and FSR was no different between the two dietary groups. FSR on day one was inversely related to age (r = -0.62), and one patient with Shigella dysentery had the highest FSR (15.9%). We conclude that FSR of albumin can be measured successfully in children with PEM using the flooding dose technique, and that assessment of albumin FSR holds promise to help determine protein requirements and status during recovery from PEM. (author). 14 refs, 6 figs, 3 tabs

  11. Albumin synthesis in protein energy malnutrition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duggan, C; Hardy, S; Kleinman, R E [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); [Harvard Medical School, Children` s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States). Combined Program in Pediatric GI and Nutrition; Lembcke, J [Av. La Universidad S/N - La Molina, Lima (Peru). Inst. de Investigacion Nutricional; Young, V R [Massachussetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States). Lab. of Human Nutrition

    1997-12-31

    Assessment of protein nutritional status during re-feeding children with protein energy malnutrition (PEM) can be difficult. We hypothesized that the fractional synthesis rate (FSR) of albumin, as measured by stable isotope technology, would serve as an objective measure of changes in protein status, and that increased amounts of dietary protein (15% of calories vs 10%) would lead to higher FSR. Eight (5 M, 3 F) Peruvian children (mean age 15.5 months) with PEM (mean wt/ht Z score = -2.47) were studied twice during the first week of admission by the flooding dose technique. An intravenous dose of {sup 13}C-leucine (57 mg/kg, 99 atom%) was given and serial blood samples were drawn in intervals up to 90 minutes in order to measure isotopic enrichment of serum albumin. Mean FSR for the day one infusion was 6.11% (range 3.07 - 15.37%) (n = 8). Mean FSR for the follow-up infusion was 7.67% (range 3.63 - 12.37%) (n = 5), and FSR was no different between the two dietary groups. FSR on day one was inversely related to age (r = -0.62), and one patient with Shigella dysentery had the highest FSR (15.9%). We conclude that FSR of albumin can be measured successfully in children with PEM using the flooding dose technique, and that assessment of albumin FSR holds promise to help determine protein requirements and status during recovery from PEM. (author). 14 refs, 6 figs, 3 tabs.

  12. Prognostic implications of ischemia modified albumin in known cases of86 elderly hypertensive South Asian aged 56-64 years - a hospital based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kumar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study associated ischemia modified albumin in hypertensive participants and to compare the results with normotensive healthy controls. Methods: A total of 86 hypertensive patients and 86 age-sex matched normotensive healthy volunteers were selected for this study. The study was conducted for a period of 3 years from September 2007 to August 2010. Biochemical parameters and other parameters such as smoking habits, systolic and diastolic blood pressure and family history were recorded. Lipid profile, ischemia modified albumin, malondialdehyde and conjugated diene were measured by standard methods and results were compared between patients and controls. Results: Total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol were significantly higher (P<0.001 in hypertensive subjects when compared to normotensive control. Also, significant differences were seen in high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels between both groups (P<0.001 . The index of lipid per oxidation comprising both malondialdehyde and conjugated dienes were significantly higher in hypertensive compared to normotensive controls. Ischemia modified albumin levels were significantly increased among hypertensive compared to normotensive controls (P<0.001. Conclusions: Hypertensive patients have increased oxidative stress and are accompanied with rise in ischemia modified albumin. Ischemia modified albumin could be incorporated as a diagnostic test parameter in hypertensive to avoid the future acute coronary complications.

  13. Noosphere: Does the Internet Provide an Evolutionary Leap to a Higher Level of Collective Intelligence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Milivojević

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The neologism noosphere signifies global human consciousness. According to T. de Chardin, it is the third stage in the development of the earth, after the geosphere and the biosphere. As well as the emergence of life has fundamentally changed the geosphere, the emergence of human consciousness has fundamentally changed the biosphere. De Chardin envisioned the “planetarization” of mankind, which is equivalent to the current globalization by information technology. From an anthropological point of view, internet is not a technology or media as others: it has the potential to revolutionize the current civilizational paradigm. With the advent of the internet the idea of the noosphere has been reactualized and related to the concept of collective intelligence. The article questions the hypothesis of an evolutionary leap in a greater collective intelligence or higher level of collective consciousness presenting pros and cons.

  14. Leveraging People-Related Maturity Issues for Achieving Higher Maturity and Capability Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buglione, Luigi

    During the past 20 years Maturity Models (MM) become a buzzword in the ICT world. Since the initial Crosby's idea in 1979, plenty of models have been created in the Software & Systems Engineering domains, addressing various perspectives. By analyzing the content of the Process Reference Models (PRM) in many of them, it can be noticed that people-related issues have little weight in the appraisals of the capabilities of organizations while in practice they are considered as significant contributors in traditional process and organizational performance appraisals, as stressed instead in well-known Performance Management models such as MBQA, EFQM and BSC. This paper proposes some ways for leveraging people-related maturity issues merging HR practices from several types of maturity models into the organizational Business Process Model (BPM) in order to achieve higher organizational maturity and capability levels.

  15. Fusion methodologies in crisis management higher level fusion and decision making

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This book emphasizes a contemporary view on the role of higher level fusion in designing crisis management systems. It provides the formal foundations, architecture, and implementation strategies required for building dynamic current and future situational pictures. It goes on to discuss the state-of-the-art computational approaches to designing such processes and their inherent challenges. This book integrates recent advances in decision theory with those in fusion methodology to define an end-to-end framework for decision support in crisis management. The text discusses modern fusion and decision support methods for dealing with heterogeneous and often unreliable, low fidelity, contradictory, and redundant data and information, as well as rare, unknown, unconventional or even unimaginable critical situations. The book also examines the role of context in situation management, cognitive aspects of decision making and situation management, approaches to domain representation, visualization, as well as the rol...

  16. Level of physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness and nutritional status of higher education institution servers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Vidal Andreato

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the level of physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness and nutritional status of Brazilian higher education institution servers. Method: 134 public servants (80 men and 54 women were evaluated to estimate body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, waist/hip ratio (WHR, aerobic fitness and blood pressure at rest. Results: most of the servers were classified as insufficiently active (62%. BMI results show a high prevalence of obesity (39% mild and 33% moderate. WC showed a prevalence of high (30% and very high risk (27%, and WHR showed a prevalence of high (28% or very high risk (12%. The ergometric test showed that 41% of the servers presented very poor (17% or poor (24% aerobic fitness and 23%, regular aerobic fitness. Considering blood pressure, 15% of the servers presented blood pressure considered as borderline and 30% considered as hypertension. No associations were found between physical condition (active or inactive with WC (χ2 = 3.4, p = 0.179, WHR (χ2 = 7.0, p = 0.073, aerobic fitness (χ2 = 4.3, p = 0.368 and blood pressure (χ2 = 2.9, p = 0.734. Although no association was observed between physical activity and BMI (χ2 = 7.6, p = 0.062, significance values (p < 0.07 suggested an association trend, with worse ratings for the sedentary group. Closing remarks: among higher education institution servers, there is high prevalence of physical inactivity, obesity and risk factors, and the majority of the sample had aerobic fitness below recommended levels.

  17. Analysis of Plasma Albumin, Vitamin D, and Apolipoproteins A and B as Predictive Coronary Risk Biomarkers in the REGICOR Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Oliva, Gabriel; Zamora, Alberto; Ramos, Rafel; Subirana, Isaac; Grau, María; Dégano, Irene R; Muñoz, Daniel; Fitó, Montserrat; Elosua, Roberto; Marrugat, Jaume

    2018-05-12

    New biomarkers could improve the predictive capacity of classic risk functions. The aims of this study were to determine the association between circulating levels of apolipoprotein A1 (apoA1), apolipoprotein B (apoB), albumin, and 25-OH-vitamin D and coronary events and to analyze whether these biomarkers improve the predictive capacity of the Framingham-REGICOR risk function. A case-cohort study was designed. From an initial cohort of 5404 individuals aged 35 to 74 years with a 5-year follow-up, all the participants who had a coronary event (n = 117) and a random group of the cohort (subcohort; n = 667) were selected. Finally, 105 cases and 651 individuals representative of the cohort with an available biological sample were included. The events of interest were angina, fatal and nonfatal myocardial infarction and coronary deaths. Case participants were older, had a higher proportion of men and cardiovascular risk factors, and showed higher levels of apoB and lower levels of apoA1, apoA1/apoB ratio, 25-OH-vitamin D and albumin than the subcohort. In multivariate analyses, plasma albumin concentration was the only biomarker independently associated with coronary events (HR, 0.73; P = .002). The inclusion of albumin in the risk function properly reclassified a significant proportion of individuals, especially in the intermediate risk group (net reclassification improvement, 32.3; P = .048). Plasma albumin levels are inversely associated with coronary risk and improve the predictive capacity of classic risk functions. Copyright © 2018 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Coastal climate is associated with elevated solar irradiance and higher 25(OH)D level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherrie, M P C; Wheeler, B W; White, M P; Sarran, C E; Osborne, N J

    2015-04-01

    There is evidence that populations living close to the coast have improved health and wellbeing. Coastal environments are linked to promotion of physical activity through provision of safe, opportune, aesthetic and accessible spaces for recreation. Exposure to coastal environments may also reduce stress and induce positive mood. We hypothesised that coastal climate may influence the vitamin D status of residents and thus partly explain benefits to health. Ecological and cross-sectional analyses were designed to elucidate the connection between coastal residence and vitamin D status. We divided residential data, from developed land use areas and the Lower Super Output Areas or Data Zones (Scotland) of the 1958 Birth Cohort participants, into the following coastal bands: 50 km. This relationship was modified by latitude with settlements at a lower latitude exhibiting a greater effect. Individuals living closer to the coast in England had higher vitamin D levels than those inland, particularly in autumn. Geographic location may influence biochemistry and health outcomes due to environmental factors. This can provide benefits in terms of vitamin D status but may also pose a risk due to higher skin cancer risk. We provide further evidence in support of the claim that coastal environments can provide opportunities for health and wellbeing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Plant species richness sustains higher trophic levels of soil nematode communities after consecutive environmental perturbations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesarz, Simone; Ciobanu, Marcel; Wright, Alexandra J; Ebeling, Anne; Vogel, Anja; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Eisenhauer, Nico

    2017-07-01

    The magnitude and frequency of extreme weather events are predicted to increase in the future due to ongoing climate change. In particular, floods and droughts resulting from climate change are thought to alter the ecosystem functions and stability. However, knowledge of the effects of these weather events on soil fauna is scarce, although they are key towards functioning of terrestrial ecosystems. Plant species richness has been shown to affect the stability of ecosystem functions and food webs. Here, we used the occurrence of a natural flood in a biodiversity grassland experiment that was followed by a simulated summer drought experiment, to investigate the interactive effects of plant species richness, a natural flood, and a subsequent summer drought on nematode communities. Three and five months after the natural flooding, effects of flooding severity were still detectable in the belowground system. We found that flooding severity decreased soil nematode food-web structure (loss of K-strategists) and the abundance of plant feeding nematodes. However, high plant species richness maintained higher diversity and abundance of higher trophic levels compared to monocultures throughout the flood. The subsequent summer drought seemed to be of lower importance but reversed negative flooding effects in some cases. This probably occurred because the studied grassland system is well adapted to drought, or because drought conditions alleviated the negative impact of long-term soil waterlogging. Using soil nematodes as indicator taxa, this study suggests that high plant species richness can maintain soil food web complexity after consecutive environmental perturbations.

  20. A higher level language data acquisition system (III) - the user data acquisition program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finn, J.M.; Gulbranson, R.L.; Huang, T.L.

    1983-01-01

    The nuclear physics group at the University of Illinois has implemented a data acquisition system using modified versions of the Concurrent Pascal and Sequential Pascal languages. The user, a physicist, develops a data acquisition ''operating system'', written in these higher level languages, which is tailored to the planned experiment. The user must include only those system functions which are essential to the task, thus improving efficiency. The user program is constructed from simple modules, mainly consisting of Concurrent Pascal PROCESSes, MONITORs, and CLASSes together with appropriate data type definitions. Entire programs can be put together using ''cut and paste'' techniques. Planned enhancements include the automating of this process. Systems written for the Perkin-Elmer 3220 using this approach can easily exceed 2 kHz data rates for event by event handling; 20 kHz data rates have been achieved by the addition of buffers in the interrupt handling software. These rates have been achieved without the use of special-purpose hardware such as micro-programmed branch drivers. With the addition of such devices even higher data rates should be possible

  1. Coping with Higher Sea Levels and Increased Coastal Flooding in New York City. Chapter 13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gornitz, Vivien; Horton, Radley; Bader, Daniel A.; Orton, Philip; Rosenzweig, Cynthia

    2017-01-01

    The 837 km New York City shoreline is lined by significant economic assets and dense population vulnerable to sea level rise and coastal flooding. After Hurricane Sandy in 2012, New York City developed a comprehensive plan to mitigate future climate risks, drawing upon the scientific expertise of the New York City Panel on Climate Change (NPCC), a special advisory group comprised of university and private-sector experts. This paper highlights current NPCC findings regarding sea level rise and coastal flooding, with some of the City's ongoing and planned responses. Twentieth century sea level rise in New York City (2.8 cm/decade) exceeded the global average (1.7 cm/decade), underscoring the enhanced regional risk to coastal hazards. NPCC (2015) projects future sea level rise at the Battery of 28 - 53 cm by the 2050s and 46 - 99 cm by the 2080s, relative to 2000 - 2004 (mid-range, 25th - 75th percentile). High-end SLR estimates (90th percentile) reach 76 cm by the 2050s, and 1.9 m by 2100. Combining these projections with updated FEMA flood return period curves, assuming static flood dynamics and storm behavior, flood heights for the 100-year storm (excluding waves) attain 3.9-4.5 m (mid-range), relative to the NAVD88 tidal datum, and 4.9 m (high end) by the 2080s, up from 3.4 m in the 2000s. Flood heights with a 1% annual chance of occurrence in the 2000s increase to 2.0 - 5.4% (mid-range) and 12.7% per year (high-end), by the 2080s. Guided by NPCC (2013, 2015) findings, New York City has embarked on a suite of initiatives to strengthen coastal defenses, employing various approaches tailored to specific neighborhood needs. NPCC continues its collaboration with the city to investigate vulnerability to extreme climate events, including heat waves, inland floods and coastal storms. Current research entails higher-resolution neighborhood-level coastal flood mapping, changes in storm characteristics, surge height interactions with sea level rise, and stronger engagement

  2. Does foreign direct investment cause higher levels of productivity or do higher levels of productivity attract foreign direct investment? A study in transforming brazilian industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nádia Campos Pereira

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8077.2013v15n35p82   With this research, it was aimed to investigate the factors that determine the investment decision of foreign investors in the Brazilian industry. Evidence shows that foreign investors are attracted not only by more productive and best performing sectors, but depending on the adopted strategy, they may choose investment projects in sectors that have lower performance levels which offer the potential for growth and the and improvement of efficiency levels and capacity. Granger causality test indicated that not only foreign investment gives more productivity gains, but also this productivity induces more foreign investment inputs. Foreign investors are also attracted by those sectors, which use their assets in an inefficient way in order to generate profits. These sectors may be attractive to foreign investors that want to invest in a more aggressive growth policy in order to get advantages on the availability of inefficiently used assets. These sectors may be also attractive targets to investors who seek to compete directly in relatively less competitive sectors.

  3. Overgeneral autobiographical memory predicts higher prospective levels of depressive symptoms and intrusions in borderline patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Broeck, Kris; Pieters, Guido; Claes, Laurence; Berens, Ann; Raes, Filip

    2016-11-01

    Overgeneral memory (OGM), the tendency to retrieve categories of events from autobiographical memory instead of single events, is found to be a reliable predictor for future mood disturbances and post-traumatic symptom severity. Patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) often report co-morbid episodes of major depressive disorder (MDD) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Therefore, we investigated whether OGM would predict depression severity and (post-traumatic) stress symptoms in BPD patients. At admission (N = 54) and at six-month follow-up (N ≥ 31), BPD patients completed the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Disorders, the Assessment of DSM-IV Personality Disorders, the Autobiographical Memory Test, the Beck Depression Inventory-2nd edition (BDI-II), and the Impact of Event Scale. OGM at baseline predicted (a) higher levels of depressive symptoms at follow-up and (b) more intrusions related to a stressful event over and above baseline levels of borderline symptoms, depressive symptoms, and intrusions, respectively. No association was found between memory specificity and event-related avoidance at follow-up. Despite previous findings suggesting that OGM in BPD is less robust than in MDD and PTSD, our results suggest that memory specificity in BPD patients may have some relevance for the course of depressive and stress symptomatology in BPD.

  4. Albumin Overload and PINK1/Parkin Signaling-Related Mitophagy in Renal Tubular Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jin; Xie, Qi; Song, Shuling; Miao, Yuyang; Zhang, Qiang

    2018-03-01

    BACKGROUND Albumin, as a major urinary protein component, is a risk factor for chronic kidney disease progression. Mitochondrial dysfunction is one of the main causes of albumin-induced proximal tubule cells injury. Mitophagy is considered as a pivotal protective mechanism for the elimination of dysfunctional mitochondria. The objective of this research was to determine whether albumin overload-induced mitochondrial dysfunction can activate PINK1/Parkin-mediated mitophagy in renal tubular epithelial cells (TECs). MATERIAL AND METHODS Immunofluorescence assay and Western blot assay were used to detect the effects of albumin overload on autophagy marker protein LC3. Transmission electron microscopy and Western blot assay were used to investigate the role of albumin in mitochondrial injury. Western blot assay and co-localization of acidic lysosomes and mitochondria assay were employed to detect the activation of mitophagy induced by albumin. Finally, we explored the role of PINK1/Parkin signaling in albumin-induced mitophagy by inhibiting mitophagy by knockdown of PARK2 (Parkin) level. RESULTS Immunofluorescence and Western blot results showed that the expression level of LC3-II increased, and the maximum increase point was observed after 8 h of albumin treatment. Transmission electron microscopy results demonstrated that albumin overload-induced mitochondrial injury and quantity of autophagosomes increased. Additionally, expression of PINK1 and cytosolic cytochrome C increased and mitochondria cytochrome C decreased in the albumin group. The co-localization of acidic lysosomes and mitochondria demonstrated that the number of albumin overload-induced mitophagy-positive dots increased. The transient transfection of PARK2 siRNA result showed knockdown of the expression level of PARK2 can inhibit mitophagy induced by albumin. CONCLUSIONS In conclusion, our study suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction activates the PINK1/Parkin signaling and mitophagy in renal tubular

  5. Relationship Between Serum Adiponectin and Urinary Albumin Excretion Rate in Patients with Diabetes Nephropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Yongqiang; Yu Hui; Wang Zuobing

    2010-01-01

    To explore the relationship between the levels of serum adiponectin and urinary albumin excretion rate in patients with type 2 diabetes nephropathy, the serum levels of adiponectin and the levels of urinary albumin excretion rate in diabetes patients before and after treatment with pioglitazone were tested by ELISA and automatic biochemical analyzer respectively. The results showed that the serum levels of adiponectin in DM and DN group were lower than that of normal controls(P<0.01), but they gradually increased with progression (P<0.01). The serum adiponectin level was positively correlated with urinary albumin excretion rate (r= 0.284, P<0.05). The urinary albumin level decreased (P<0.01) and the serum levels of adiponectin increased after treatment with pioglitazone in DN group. The serum levels of adiponectin and urinary albumin excretion rate may play important role in the indication of treatment of diabetes. (authors)

  6. Albumin and Neutrophil Combined Prognostic Grade as a New Prognostic Factor in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Results from a Large Consecutive Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifeng Sun

    Full Text Available It has been reported nutritional status and systemic inflammation were associated with the outcome of patients with malignancies. However, the prognostic value of combination of them was really scarce, especially in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. In order to find a more simple and efficient predictor, we hypothesized that pretreatment albumin and neutrophil combined prognostic grade (ANPG could offer an improved prognostic ability in NSCLC patients.We collected pretreatment albumin and neutrophil, clinicopathological, treatment and follow-up data of 1033 consecutive NSCLC patients treated between 2006 and 2011 in this retrospective study. The ANPG was calculated according to pretreatment albumin and neutrophil levels dichotomized by the optimal cut-off values, the quartile values and the clinical reference values. Kaplan-Meier (K-M curves and Cox proportional regression were used for survival analyses. All the data was analyzed by SPSS 20.0.According to optimal cut-off values and quartile values, significant differences were found in different pretreatment albumin, neutrophil levels and ANPG from the K-M curve (all p<0.05. Univariate analyses and multivariate analyses disclosed ANPG was a more sensitive independent predictor for both overall survival (OS and progression free survival (PFS than either albumin level or neutrophil level (HRs were higher for ANPG. As for clinical reference values, no significant difference of pretreatment albumin levels was found in K-M curve and univariate analyses. All three indexes lost their significance in multivariate analyses.Higher ANPG predicts worse OS and PFS in NSCLC patients independently, and it is more sensitive than hypoalbuminaemia and neutrophilia. It might be used as a reliable, convenient and more sensitive predictor to assist the identification of patients with poor prognosis and be a hierarchical factor in the future NSCLC clinical trials.

  7. Why is mean sea level along the Indian coast higher in the Bay of Bengal than in the Arabian Sea?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shankar, D.; Shetye, S.R.

    Levelling observations conducted during the Great Trigonometrical Survey of India (1858-1909) and subsequent observations showed that mean sea level along the coast of India is higher in the Bay of Bengal than in the Arabian Sea, the difference...

  8. The albumin of the brown trout (Salmo trutta) is a glycoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, V J; Brennan, S O; Chambers, G K; George, P M

    1998-07-28

    The albumin from an Atlantic salmonid, the brown trout (Salmo trutta), is 1730 Da higher in molecular mass than the albumin from a Pacific salmonid, the chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), at 65230 Da. Digestion with neuraminidase revealed that purified brown trout albumin contained sialic acid while chinook salmon albumin did not. Concanavalin A-sepharose affinity chromatography was used to purify a glycopeptide from a total tryptic digest of brown trout albumin. The mass of this glycopeptide (3815 Da) was determined by mass spectrometry, and the sequence largely confirmed by N-terminal sequencing. The identified sequence of IAHCCNQSYSM-, contains an Asn-Gln-Ser glycosylation site and is identical to residues 475-485 derived from the cDNA of the albumin from the Atlantic salmon, the closest relative of the brown trout. Glycosylation of albumin is very unusual, and has not been identified in either reptilian or mammalian albumins. The finding of a glycoalbumin in salmonids, ancient members of the teleost fish subclass, coupled with evidence of albumin glycosylation in the oldest vertebrates, agnathans, as well as amphibians, suggests that albumin was originally a glycoprotein, but lost this modification sometime between the divergence of amphibians and reptiles.

  9. An albumin-fixed membrane for the removal of protein-bound toxins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge Dongtao; Wu Dewang; Shi Wei; Ma Yuanyuan; Tian Xiangdong; Liang Pengfei; Zhang Qiqing

    2006-01-01

    Established methods for kidney dialysis do not work for liver failure because kidney dialysis removes only water-soluble toxins, while the liver normally removes albumin-bound toxins. In the present study, a polysulfone dialysis membrane with a -OH reactive group was prepared by hydrolyzing the chloromethylated polysulfone membrane, and the bovine serum albumin molecules were fixed into the membrane with 1,1'-carbonyldiimidazole activation. The content of albumin of the albumin-fixed membrane was 121.3 mg (g membrane) -1 . The albumin-fixed dialysis membranes were used to remove protein-bound toxins, bilirubin, from the bilirubin-albumin solution. The transfer rate of bilirubin of the albumin-fixed membrane was obviously higher compared to the normal dialysis membrane. The clearance of bilirubin with the albumin-fixed membrane was 49.8%. The albumin-fixed membrane can easily be regenerated by the bovine serum albumin and NaOH solution. Regeneration of the membrane suggested good mechanical and chemical stability, as well as good clearance of bilirubin. In addition, the effects of membrane thickness and bilirubin initial concentration on the removal of bilirubin were discussed

  10. Process-oriented guided inquiry learning strategy enhances students' higher level thinking skills in a pharmaceutical sciences course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltis, Robert; Verlinden, Nathan; Kruger, Nicholas; Carroll, Ailey; Trumbo, Tiffany

    2015-02-17

    To determine if the process-oriented guided inquiry learning (POGIL) teaching strategy improves student performance and engages higher-level thinking skills of first-year pharmacy students in an Introduction to Pharmaceutical Sciences course. Overall examination scores and scores on questions categorized as requiring either higher-level or lower-level thinking skills were compared in the same course taught over 3 years using traditional lecture methods vs the POGIL strategy. Student perceptions of the latter teaching strategy were also evaluated. Overall mean examination scores increased significantly when POGIL was implemented. Performance on questions requiring higher-level thinking skills was significantly higher, whereas performance on questions requiring lower-level thinking skills was unchanged when the POGIL strategy was used. Student feedback on use of this teaching strategy was positive. The use of the POGIL strategy increased student overall performance on examinations, improved higher-level thinking skills, and provided an interactive class setting.

  11. Predictive value of C-reactive protein/albumin ratio in acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Mustafa; Ates, Ihsan; Akpinar, Muhammed Yener; Yuksel, Mahmut; Kuzu, Ufuk Baris; Kacar, Sabite; Coskun, Orhan; Kayacetin, Ertugrul

    2017-08-15

    Serum C-reactive protein (CRP) increases and albumin decreases in patients with inflammation and infection. However, their role in patients with acute pancreatitis is not clear. The present study was to investigate the predictive significance of the CRP/albumin ratio for the prognosis and mortality in acute pancreatitis patients. This study was performed retrospectively with 192 acute pancreatitis patients between January 2002 and June 2015. Ranson scores, Atlanta classification and CRP/albumin ratios of the patients were calculated. The CRP/albumin ratio was higher in deceased patients compared to survivors. The CRP/albumin ratio was positively correlated with Ranson score and Atlanta classification in particular and with important prognostic markers such as hospitalization time, CRP and erythrocyte sedimentation rate. In addition to the CRP/albumin ratio, necrotizing pancreatitis type, moderately severe and severe Atlanta classification, and total Ranson score were independent risk factors of mortality. It was found that an increase of 1 unit in the CRP/albumin ratio resulted in an increase of 1.52 times in mortality risk. A prediction value about CRP/albumin ratio >16.28 was found to be a significant marker in predicting mortality with 92.1% sensitivity and 58.0% specificity. It was seen that Ranson and Atlanta classification were higher in patients with CRP/albumin ratio >16.28 compared with those with CRP/albumin ratio ≤16.28. Patients with CRP/albumin ratio >16.28 had a 19.3 times higher chance of death. The CRP/albumin ratio is a novel but promising, easy-to-measure, repeatable, non-invasive inflammation-based prognostic score in acute pancreatitis. Copyright © 2017 The Editorial Board of Hepatobiliary & Pancreatic Diseases International. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Ambulatory blood pressure and urinary albumin excretion in clinically healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Peter Vilhelm; Jensen, J S; Borch-Johnsen, K

    1998-01-01

    UAER. Because 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure is a superior predictor of hypertensive target organ involvement, we aimed to investigate blood pressure profile in clinically healthy subjects with elevated UAER. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was performed with a portable recorder in 27 subjects...... loss of albumin could not be solely related to the higher blood pressure. In conclusion, apparently healthy subjects with elevated UAER had slightly but significantly higher 24-hour systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels in addition to increased blood pressure loads but normal circadian variation...

  13. Higher Bilirubin Levels of Healthy Living Liver Donors Are Associated With Lower Posttransplant Hepatocellular Carcinoma Recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sangbin; Yang, Ju Dong; Sinn, Dong Hyun; Ko, Justin Sangwook; Kim, Jong Man; Shin, Jun Chul; Son, Hee Jeong; Gwak, Mi Sook; Joh, Jae-Won; Kim, Gaab Soo

    2016-09-01

    Serum bilirubin level, which may reflect the host defense against increased oxidative stress, is inversely associated with the risk of cancer development. In liver transplantation, the intrinsic bilirubin metabolism of donor liver is subsequently translated into recipient. Thus, we hypothesized that liver transplantation conducted with living donors with higher serum bilirubin reduces hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) recurrence. Two hundred fifty recipients who underwent liver transplantation for treating HCC within the Milan criteria were included in the study. The association between donor preoperative total bilirubin concentration and the risk of HCC recurrence was analyzed using the Fine and Gray regression model with posttransplant death as a competing risk event with adjustment for tumor biology including α-fetoprotein, histological differentiation, and microvascular invasion. All donors were confirmed to have no underlying hepatobiliary diseases or hematological disorders. Donor preoperative total bilirubin concentration was 0.7 mg/dL in median and ranged from 0.2 to 2.7 mg/dL. Thirty-five (14.0%) recipients developed HCC recurrence. Multivariable analysis demonstrated that donor preoperative total bilirubin concentration was inversely associated with the recurrence risk (hazard ratio, 0.22; 95% confidence interval, 0.07-0.72; P = 0.013). The highest (≥1.0 mg/dL) versus lowest (≤0.6 mg/dL) tertile of donor preoperative total bilirubin showed a significant reduction of the recurrence risk (hazard ratio, 0.28; 95% confidence interval, 0.11-0.70; P = 0.006). Hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence risk decreases in relation to the increase in total serum bilirubin level of healthy living donors without underlying hepatobiliary or hematological disorders. Further validation of bilirubin as a potent anticancer substance against HCC is warranted.

  14. Determination of albumin in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid by flow-injection fluorometry using chromazurol S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Takaji; Saito, Yoshihiro; Chikuma, Masahiko; Saito, Yutaka; Nagai, Sonoko

    2008-03-01

    A highly sensitive flow injection fluorometry for the determination of albumin was developed and applied to the determination of albumin in human bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF). This method is based on binding of chromazurol S (CAS) to albumin. The calibration curve was linear in the range of 5-200 microg/ml of albumin. A highly linear correlation (r=0.986) was observed between the albumin level in BALF samples (n=25) determined by the proposed method and by a conventional fluorometric method using CAS (CAS manual method). The IgG interference was lower in the CAS flow injection method than in the CAS manual method. The albumin level in BALF collected from healthy volunteers (n=10) was 58.5+/-13.1 microg/ml. The albumin levels in BALF samples obtained from patients with sarcoidosis and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis were increased. This finding shows that the determination of albumin levels in BALF samples is useful for investigating lung diseases and that CAS flow injection method is promising in the determination of trace albumin in BALF samples, because it is sensitive and precise.

  15. The Fulfilment Level of Turkic Republics Higher Education Students' Academic and Social Expectations in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirgül ENTERİEVA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the fulfilment level of students who come from Turkic Republics to study in Turkey, regarding their academic and social expectations. The qualita-tive research technique and phenomenological design were used in the study. Data of this research was collected via a semistructured interview form consisting 11 openended questions and probes, which were developed by the researchers. A total of 39 undergraduate and postgraduate students from Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan participated in the present study. This study indicated that, while expecting satisfactory accommodation the students also anticipated having quality education enabling them for better employment opportunities upon graduation. Some of the students thought that graduate studies in Turkey would be a bridge to Europe. However, it has been found out that students have several academical, social and educational support service problems. According to findings it can be recommended to improve internationalization in higher education, student-centered environment and current educational and training content, organization of orientation programs, submission of international student office and guidance and consultancy services and enhancing the education support services and dormitory facilities.

  16. The Relationship Between Higher Education Students’ Consumption Values and Levels of Their Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necati CEMALOĞLU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the relationships between the as consumers of education of higher education students’ consumption values and levels of their satisfaction. The population of this study is consist of 421 students who are studying at Akdeniz University, Faculty of Science, Biology in the academic year 2012-2013. Sample of this study is 156 students who selected by simple random sampling method. Descriptive statistics, Pearson-Product Moment correlation coefficient and multiple regression analysis were performed to analyze the data. According to the results of study, that students have consumption values in dimension of conditional value, functional value-the image and functional value-the experiential; relatively they have low consumptions values in dimension of functional value-the usefulness of a degree, epistemic value, social value have emerged. Besides the students’ are partly satisfied services offered by university; a positive and significant relationship between students’ perceptions of consumer value and satisfaction was found out

  17. Higher levels of multiple paternities increase seedling survival in the long-lived tree Eucalyptus gracilis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin F Breed

    Full Text Available Studying associations between mating system parameters and fitness in natural populations of trees advances our understanding of how local environments affect seed quality, and thereby helps to predict when inbreeding or multiple paternities should impact on fitness. Indeed, for species that demonstrate inbreeding avoidance, multiple paternities (i.e. the number of male parents per half-sib family should still vary and regulate fitness more than inbreeding--named here as the 'constrained inbreeding hypothesis'. We test this hypothesis in Eucalyptus gracilis, a predominantly insect-pollinated tree. Fifty-eight open-pollinated progeny arrays were collected from trees in three populations. Progeny were planted in a reciprocal transplant trial. Fitness was measured by family establishment rates. We genotyped all trees and their progeny at eight microsatellite loci. Planting site had a strong effect on fitness, but seed provenance and seed provenance × planting site did not. Populations had comparable mating system parameters and were generally outcrossed, experienced low biparental inbreeding and high levels of multiple paternity. As predicted, seed families that had more multiple paternities also had higher fitness, and no fitness-inbreeding correlations were detected. Demonstrating that fitness was most affected by multiple paternities rather than inbreeding, we provide evidence supporting the constrained inbreeding hypothesis; i.e. that multiple paternity may impact on fitness over and above that of inbreeding, particularly for preferentially outcrossing trees at life stages beyond seed development.

  18. Multiple-Choice Exams: An Obstacle for Higher-Level Thinking in Introductory Science Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanger-Hall, Kathrin F.

    2012-01-01

    Learning science requires higher-level (critical) thinking skills that need to be practiced in science classes. This study tested the effect of exam format on critical-thinking skills. Multiple-choice (MC) testing is common in introductory science courses, and students in these classes tend to associate memorization with MC questions and may not see the need to modify their study strategies for critical thinking, because the MC exam format has not changed. To test the effect of exam format, I used two sections of an introductory biology class. One section was assessed with exams in the traditional MC format, the other section was assessed with both MC and constructed-response (CR) questions. The mixed exam format was correlated with significantly more cognitively active study behaviors and a significantly better performance on the cumulative final exam (after accounting for grade point average and gender). There was also less gender-bias in the CR answers. This suggests that the MC-only exam format indeed hinders critical thinking in introductory science classes. Introducing CR questions encouraged students to learn more and to be better critical thinkers and reduced gender bias. However, student resistance increased as students adjusted their perceptions of their own critical-thinking abilities. PMID:22949426

  19. Comparison of Enzymatic and Ultrasonic Extraction of Albumin from Defatted Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo Seed Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gia Loi Tu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, ultrasound- and enzyme-assisted extractions of albumin (water-soluble protein group from defatted pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo seed powder were compared. Both advanced extraction techniques strongly increased the albumin yield in comparison with conventional extraction. The extraction rate was two times faster in the ultrasonic extraction than in the enzymatic extraction. However, the maximum albumin yield was 16 % higher when using enzymatic extraction. Functional properties of the pumpkin seed albumin concentrates obtained using the enzymatic, ultrasonic and conventional methods were then evaluated. Use of hydrolase for degradation of cell wall of the plant material did not change the functional properties of the albumin concentrate in comparison with the conventional extraction. The ultrasonic extraction enhanced water-holding, oil-holding and emulsifying capacities of the pumpkin seed albumin concentrate, but slightly reduced the foaming capacity, and emulsion and foam stability.

  20. Higher levels of spontaneous breathing reduce lung injury in experimental moderate acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Nadja C; Güldner, Andreas; Beda, Alessandro; Rentzsch, Ines; Uhlig, Christopher; Dittrich, Susanne; Spieth, Peter M; Wiedemann, Bärbel; Kasper, Michael; Koch, Thea; Richter, Torsten; Rocco, Patricia R; Pelosi, Paolo; de Abreu, Marcelo Gama

    2014-11-01

    pressure/airway pressure release ventilation more than 60%. In this model of moderate acute respiratory distress syndrome in pigs, biphasic positive airway pressure/airway pressure release ventilation with levels of spontaneous breath higher than usually seen in clinical practice, that is, more than 30% of total minute ventilation, reduced lung injury with improved respiratory function, as compared with protective controlled mechanical ventilation.

  1. Amadori albumin in diabetic nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Km. Neelofar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonenzymatic glycation of macromolecules in diabetes mellitus (DM is accelerated due to persistent hyperglycemia. Reducing sugar such as glucose reacts non enzymatically with free €- amino groups of proteins through series of reactions forming Schiff bases. These bases are converted into Amadori product and further into AGEs. Non enzymatic glycation has the potential to alter the biological, structural and functional properties of macromolecules both in vitro and in vivo. Studies have suggested that amadori as well as AGEs are involved in the micro-macro vascular complications in DM, but most studies have focused on the role of AGEs in vascular complications of diabetes. Recently putative AGE-induced patho-physiology has shifted attention from the possible role of amadori-modified proteins, the predominant form of the glycated proteins in the development of the diabetic complications. Human serum albumin (HSA, the most abundant protein in circulation contains 59 lysine and 23 arginine residues that could, in theory be involved in glycation. Albumin has dual nature, first as a marker of intermediate glycation and second as a causative agent of the damage of tissues. Among the blood proteins, hemoglobin and albumin are the most common proteins that are glycated. HSA with a shorter half life than RBC, appears to be an alternative marker of glycemic control as it can indicate blood glucose status over a short period (2-3 weeks and being unaffected by RBCs life span and variant haemoglobin, anemia etc which however, affect HbA1c. On the other hand, Amadori albumin may accumulate in the body tissues of the diabetic patients and participate in secondary complications. Amadori-albumin has potential role in diabetic glomerulosclerosis due to long term hyperglycaemia and plays an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. This review is an approach to compile both the nature of glycated albumin as a damaging agent of tissues and as an

  2. Intracochlear Position of Cochlear Implants Determined Using CT Scanning versus Fitting Levels: Higher Threshold Levels at Basal Turn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Beek, Feddo B; Briaire, Jeroen J; van der Marel, Kim S; Verbist, Berit M; Frijns, Johan H M

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the effects of the intracochlear position of cochlear implants on the clinical fitting levels were analyzed. A total of 130 adult subjects who used a CII/HiRes 90K cochlear implant with a HiFocus 1/1J electrode were included in the study. The insertion angle and the distance to the modiolus of each electrode contact were determined using high-resolution CT scanning. The threshold levels (T-levels) and maximum comfort levels (M-levels) at 1 year of follow-up were determined. The degree of speech perception of the subjects was evaluated during routine clinical follow-up. The depths of insertion of all the electrode contacts were determined. The distance to the modiolus was significantly smaller at the basal and apical cochlear parts compared with that at the middle of the cochlea (p basal end of the cochlea (3.4 dB). Additionally, the M-levels, which were fitted in our clinic using a standard profile, also increased toward the basal end, although with a lower amplitude (1.3 dB). Accordingly, the dynamic range decreased toward the basal end (2.1 dB). No correlation was found between the distance to the modiolus and the T-level or the M-level. Furthermore, the correlation between the insertion depth and stimulation levels was not affected by the duration of deafness, age at implantation or the time since implantation. Additionally, the T-levels showed a significant correlation with the speech perception scores (p stimulation levels of the cochlear implants were affected by the intracochlear position of the electrode contacts, which were determined using postoperative CT scanning. Interestingly, these levels depended on the insertion depth, whereas the distance to the modiolus did not affect the stimulation levels. The T-levels increased toward the basal end of the cochlea. The level profiles were independent of the overall stimulation levels and were not affected by the biographical data of the patients, such as the duration of deafness, age at

  3. Raman Spectroscopy Provides a Powerful Diagnostic Tool for Accurate Determination of Albumin Glycation

    OpenAIRE

    Dingari, Narahara Chari; Kang, Jeon Woong; Dasari, Ramachandra R.; Barman, Ishan; Horowitz, Gary Leigh

    2012-01-01

    We present the first demonstration of glycated albumin detection and quantification using Raman spectroscopy without the addition of reagents. Glycated albumin is an important marker for monitoring the long-term glycemic history of diabetics, especially as its concentrations, in contrast to glycated hemoglobin levels, are unaffected by changes in erythrocyte life times. Clinically, glycated albumin concentrations show a strong correlation with the development of serious diabetes complications...

  4. Higher measured than modeled ozone production at increased NOx levels in the Colorado Front Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. C. Baier

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Chemical models must correctly calculate the ozone formation rate, P(O3, to accurately predict ozone levels and to test mitigation strategies. However, air quality models can have large uncertainties in P(O3 calculations, which can create uncertainties in ozone forecasts, especially during the summertime when P(O3 is high. One way to test mechanisms is to compare modeled P(O3 to direct measurements. During summer 2014, the Measurement of Ozone Production Sensor (MOPS directly measured net P(O3 in Golden, CO, approximately 25 km west of Denver along the Colorado Front Range. Net P(O3 was compared to rates calculated by a photochemical box model that was constrained by measurements of other chemical species and that used a lumped chemical mechanism and a more explicit one. Median observed P(O3 was up to a factor of 2 higher than that modeled during early morning hours when nitric oxide (NO levels were high and was similar to modeled P(O3 for the rest of the day. While all interferences and offsets in this new method are not fully understood, simulations of these possible uncertainties cannot explain the observed P(O3 behavior. Modeled and measured P(O3 and peroxy radical (HO2 and RO2 discrepancies observed here are similar to those presented in prior studies. While a missing atmospheric organic peroxy radical source from volatile organic compounds co-emitted with NO could be one plausible solution to the P(O3 discrepancy, such a source has not been identified and does not fully explain the peroxy radical model–data mismatch. If the MOPS accurately depicts atmospheric P(O3, then these results would imply that P(O3 in Golden, CO, would be NOx-sensitive for more of the day than what is calculated by models, extending the NOx-sensitive P(O3 regime from the afternoon further into the morning. These results could affect ozone reduction strategies for the region surrounding Golden and possibly other areas that do not comply with national ozone

  5. The higher level of complexity of K-Ras4B activation at the membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hyunbum; Banerjee, Avik; Chavan, Tanmay S.; Lu, Shaoyong; Zhang, Jian; Gaponenko, Vadim; Nussinov, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Is nucleotide exchange sufficient to activate K-Ras4B? To signal, oncogenic rat sarcoma (Ras) anchors in the membrane and recruits effectors by exposing its effector lobe. With the use of NMR and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we observed that in solution, farnesylated guanosine 5′-diphosphate (GDP)-bound K-Ras4B is predominantly autoinhibited by its hypervariable region (HVR), whereas the GTP-bound state favors an activated, HVR-released state. On the anionic membrane, the catalytic domain adopts multiple orientations, including parallel (∼180°) and perpendicular (∼90°) alignments of the allosteric helices, with respect to the membrane surface direction. In the autoinhibited state, the HVR is sandwiched between the effector lobe and the membrane; in the active state, with membrane-anchored farnesyl and unrestrained HVR, the catalytic domain fluctuates reinlessly, exposing its effector-binding site. Dimerization and clustering can reduce the fluctuations. This achieves preorganized, productive conformations. Notably, we also observe HVR-autoinhibited K-Ras4B-GTP states, with GDP-bound-like orientations of the helices. Thus, we propose that the GDP/GTP exchange may not be sufficient for activation; instead, our results suggest that the GDP/GTP exchange, HVR sequestration, farnesyl insertion, and orientation/localization of the catalytic domain at the membrane conjointly determine the active or inactive state of K-Ras4B. Importantly, K-Ras4B-GTP can exist in active and inactive states; on its own, GTP binding may not compel K-Ras4B activation.—Jang, H., Banerjee, A., Chavan, T. S, Lu, S., Zhang, J., Gaponenko, V., Nussinov, R. The higher level of complexity of K-Ras4B activation at the membrane. PMID:26718888

  6. The higher level of complexity of K-Ras4B activation at the membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hyunbum; Banerjee, Avik; Chavan, Tanmay S; Lu, Shaoyong; Zhang, Jian; Gaponenko, Vadim; Nussinov, Ruth

    2016-04-01

    Is nucleotide exchange sufficient to activate K-Ras4B? To signal, oncogenic rat sarcoma (Ras) anchors in the membrane and recruits effectors by exposing its effector lobe. With the use of NMR and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we observed that in solution, farnesylated guanosine 5'-diphosphate (GDP)-bound K-Ras4B is predominantly autoinhibited by its hypervariable region (HVR), whereas the GTP-bound state favors an activated, HVR-released state. On the anionic membrane, the catalytic domain adopts multiple orientations, including parallel (∼180°) and perpendicular (∼90°) alignments of the allosteric helices, with respect to the membrane surface direction. In the autoinhibited state, the HVR is sandwiched between the effector lobe and the membrane; in the active state, with membrane-anchored farnesyl and unrestrained HVR, the catalytic domain fluctuates reinlessly, exposing its effector-binding site. Dimerization and clustering can reduce the fluctuations. This achieves preorganized, productive conformations. Notably, we also observe HVR-autoinhibited K-Ras4B-GTP states, with GDP-bound-like orientations of the helices. Thus, we propose that the GDP/GTP exchange may not be sufficient for activation; instead, our results suggest that the GDP/GTP exchange, HVR sequestration, farnesyl insertion, and orientation/localization of the catalytic domain at the membrane conjointly determine the active or inactive state of K-Ras4B. Importantly, K-Ras4B-GTP can exist in active and inactive states; on its own, GTP binding may not compel K-Ras4B activation.-Jang, H., Banerjee, A., Chavan, T. S, Lu, S., Zhang, J., Gaponenko, V., Nussinov, R. The higher level of complexity of K-Ras4B activation at the membrane. © FASEB.

  7. Albumin metabolism in health and disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirsch, R E; Saunders, S J; Brock, J F [Cape Town Univ. (South Africa). Dept. of Medicine

    1979-11-24

    Studies performed at the University of Cape Town on the metabolism of albumin have been reviewed. The control of albumin metabolism in protein energy malnutrition, in acute exposure to alcohol and after partial hepatectomy in the rat is discussed.

  8. Albumin metabolism in health and disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirsch, R.E.; Saunders, S.J.; Brock, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    Studies performed at the University of Cape Town on the metabolism of albumin have been reviewed. The control of albumin metabolism in protein energy malnutrition, in acute exposure to alcohol and after partial hepatectomy in the rat is discussed

  9. Lack of plasma albumin impairs intravascular lipolysis and explains the associated free fatty acids deficiency and hypertriglyceridemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Helena CF

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abnormalities in lipid metabolism and transport are hallmarks in analbuminemic Nagase rats (NAR and humans. Triglyceridemia is nearly 3- to 5-fold higher in female NAR than in control Sprague-Dawley rats (SDR. Also, NAR present with a severe plasma free fatty acid (FFA deficit. There are conflicting results regarding the mechanisms underlying NAR hypertriglyceridemia. Objective We aimed at investigating whether liver lipogenesis and triglyceride secretion rates into the plasma contribute to the hypertriglyceridemia in NAR. We also studied whether heparin or albumin administration would release the hypothesized lipolysis inhibition in NAR. Methods The incorporation of tritiated water into lipids and the linear accumulation rate of plasma triglycerides after Triton WR1339 injection were the measures of liver lipogenesis and triglyceride secretion rates. Results Lipogenesis (596 ± 40 vs. 929 ± 124 μmol 3H2O/g/h and triglyceride (4.25 ± 1.00 vs. 7.04 ± 1.68 mg/dL/min secretion rates were slower (P ≤ 0.05 in fasted NAR than in control SDR. The injection of either heparin or albumin elicited an increase in NAR plasma FFA levels over time. FFA levels reached control levels 90 min after the albumin administration, increasing from 0.36 ± 0.05 to 1.34 ± 0.16 mEq/L (P ≤ 0.05. These results indicate that the lack of plasma albumin inhibits intravascular lipolysis and causes the FFA deficit observed in NAR. Conclusion NAR hepatic triglyceride synthesis and output do not contribute to NAR hypertriglyceridemia. We propose that the lack of albumin diminishes intravascular lipolysis which reduces the plasma triglyceride removal rate and explain both NAR hypertriglyceridemia and FFA deficiency.

  10. Albumin receptor effect may be due to a surface-induced conformational change in albumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, R.G.; Burrington, C.M.

    1989-01-01

    To determine whether equilibrium binding between albumin and hepatocytes involves a cell surface receptor for albumin, we incubated freshly isolated rat hepatocytes with 125 I-albumin and determined the amount of albumin associated with the cells as a function of the total albumin concentration. The resulting two-phase binding curve showed the rat albumin-hepatocyte interaction to consist of a saturable binding interaction with a dissociation constant of 1.1 microM and 2 X 10(6) sites/cell in addition to a weak, nonsaturable binding interaction. However, the saturable binding of albumin to hepatocytes did not appear to result from the presence of an albumin receptor on the cell surface; the interaction was the same for different species of albumin, for chemically modified albumins, and for fragments of albumin representing mutually exclusive domains of the molecule. The saturable binding was, instead, found to involve a subpopulation of albumin with an enhanced affinity for the cell surface. We show that this subpopulation of albumin is generated upon contact with either solid surfaces or cell surfaces and can be transferred from one surface to another. We propose that the two-phase Scatchard binding curve and the ''albumin receptor effect'' reflect two populations of albumin that bind to the cell surface with different affinities rather than one population of albumin that binds to two classes of binding sites

  11. Serum Magnesium Levels in Preterm Infants Are Higher Than Adult Levels: A Systematic Literature Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Rigo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium (Mg is an essential mineral in the body, impacting the synthesis of biomacromolecules, bone matrix development, energy production, as well as heart, nerve, and muscle function. Although the importance of Mg is evident, reference values for serum Mg (sMg in pediatric patients (more specifically, in neonates are not well established. This systematic literature review and meta-analysis (using 47 eligible studies aims to quantify normal and tolerable ranges of sMg concentrations during the neonatal period and to highlight the factors influencing Mg levels and the importance of regulating sMg levels during pregnancy and birth. In newborns without Mg supplementation during pregnancy, magnesium levels at birth (0.76 (95% CI: 0.52, 0.99 mmol/L were similar to that of mothers during pregnancy (0.74 (95% CI: 0.43, 1.04 mmol/L, but increased during the first week of life (0.91 (95% CI: 0.55, 1.26 mmol/L before returning to adult levels. This pattern was also seen in newborns with Mg supplementation during pregnancy, where the average was 1.29 (95% CI: 0.50, 2.08 mmol/L at birth and 1.44 (95% CI: 0.61, 2.27 mmol/L during the first week of life. Factors influencing these levels include prenatal Mg supplementation, gestational age, birth weight, renal maturity/function, and postnatal Mg intake. Elevated Mg levels (>2.5 mmol/L have been associated with an increased risk of mortality, admission into intensive care, hypotonia, hypotension, and respiratory depression but sMg concentrations up to 2.0 mmol/L appear to be well tolerated in neonates, requiring adequate survey and minimal intervention.

  12. Post-Traumatic Hypoxia Is Associated with Prolonged Cerebral Cytokine Production, Higher Serum Biomarker Levels, and Poor Outcome in Patients with Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Edwin B.; Satgunaseelan, Laveniya; Paul, Eldho; Bye, Nicole; Nguyen, Phuong; Agyapomaa, Doreen; Kossmann, Thomas; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey V.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Secondary hypoxia is a known contributor to adverse outcomes in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Based on the evidence that hypoxia and TBI in isolation induce neuroinflammation, we investigated whether TBI combined with hypoxia enhances cerebral cytokine production. We also explored whether increased concentrations of injury biomarkers discriminate between hypoxic (Hx) and normoxic (Nx) patients, correlate to worse outcome, and depend on blood–brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction. Forty-two TBI patients with Glasgow Coma Scale ≤8 were recruited. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum were collected over 6 days. Patients were divided into Hx (n=22) and Nx (n=20) groups. Eight cytokines were measured in the CSF; albumin, S100, myelin basic protein (MBP) and neuronal specific enolase (NSE) were quantified in serum. CSF/serum albumin quotient was calculated for BBB function. Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended (GOSE) was assessed at 6 months post-TBI. Production of granulocye macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) was higher, and profiles of GM-CSF, interferon (IFN)-γ and, to a lesser extent, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), were prolonged in the CSF of Hx but not Nx patients at 4–5 days post-TBI. Interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-6, and IL-10 increased similarly in both Hx and Nx groups. S100, MBP, and NSE were significantly higher in Hx patients with unfavorable outcome. Among these three biomarkers, S100 showed the strongest correlations to GOSE after TBI-Hx. Elevated CSF/serum albumin quotients lasted for 5 days post-TBI and displayed similar profiles in Hx and Nx patients. We demonstrate for the first time that post-TBI hypoxia is associated with prolonged neuroinflammation, amplified extravasation of biomarkers, and poor outcome. S100 and MBP could be implemented to track the occurrence of post-TBI hypoxia, and prompt adequate treatment. PMID:24279428

  13. 21 CFR 640.80 - Albumin (Human).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Albumin (Human). 640.80 Section 640.80 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Albumin (Human) § 640.80 Albumin (Human). (a) Proper...

  14. New levels of Ta II with energies higher than 72,000 cm−1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uddin, Zaheer; Windholz, Laurentius

    2014-01-01

    We studied the hyperfine structure of Tantalum lines appearing in a high-resolution Fourier transform spectrum. Hundreds of lines of Ta in this spectrum are still unclassified; most of them, especially in the UV region, belong to Ta II. When investigating such lines we found 14 new levels of Ta II. These new levels are the highest-lying known Ta II levels and do not belong to the already known configurations. - Highlights: • We report the discovery of 14 even energy levels of the first ion of Tantalum (Ta II). • Their energy ranges from 72,000 to 81,000 cm −1 . • For comparison, up to now only even levels between 0 and 44,000 cm −1 were known. • These levels belong to up to now unknown electron configurations. • With help of these levels, approximately 100 spectral lines of Ta II can be classified

  15. Intracochlear Position of Cochlear Implants Determined Using CT Scanning versus Fitting Levels: Higher Threshold Levels at Basal Turn

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, F.B. van der; Briaire, J.J.; Marel, K.S. van der; Verbist, B.M.; Frijns, J.H.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In this study, the effects of the intracochlear position of cochlear implants on the clinical fitting levels were analyzed. DESIGN: A total of 130 adult subjects who used a CII/HiRes 90K cochlear implant with a HiFocus 1/1J electrode were included in the study. The insertion angle and

  16. Albumin Dialysis for Liver Failure: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsipotis, Evangelos; Shuja, Asim; Jaber, Bertrand L

    2015-09-01

    Albumin dialysis is the best-studied extracorporeal nonbiologic liver support system as a bridge or destination therapy for patients with liver failure awaiting liver transplantation or recovery of liver function. We performed a systematic review to examine the efficacy and safety of 3 albumin dialysis systems (molecular adsorbent recirculating system [MARS], fractionated plasma separation, adsorption and hemodialysis [Prometheus system], and single-pass albumin dialysis) in randomized trials for supportive treatment of liver failure. PubMed, Ovid, EMBASE, Cochrane's Library, and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched. Two authors independently screened citations and extracted data on patient characteristics, quality of reports, efficacy, and safety end points. Ten trials (7 of MARS and 3 of Prometheus) were identified (620 patients). By meta-analysis, albumin dialysis achieved a net decrease in serum total bilirubin level relative to standard medical therapy of 8.0 mg/dL (95% confidence interval [CI], -10.6 to -5.4) but not in serum ammonia or bile acids. Albumin dialysis achieved an improvement in hepatic encephalopathy relative to standard medical therapy with a risk ratio of 1.55 (95% CI, 1.16-2.08) but had no effect survival with a risk ratio of 0.95 (95% CI, 0.84-1.07). Because of inconsistency in the reporting of adverse events, the safety analysis was limited but did not demonstrate major safety concerns. Use of albumin dialysis as supportive treatment for liver failure is successful at removing albumin-bound molecules, such as bilirubin and at improving hepatic encephalopathy. Additional experience is required to guide its optimal use and address safety concerns. Copyright © 2015 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Species Differences in the Binding of Sodium 4-Phenylbutyrate to Serum Albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Keishi; Enokida, Taisuke; Taguchi, Kazuaki; Miyamura, Shigeyuki; Kawai, Akito; Miyamoto, Shuichi; Maruyama, Toru; Seo, Hakaru; Otagiri, Masaki

    2017-09-01

    Sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (PB) is clinically used as a drug for treating urea cycle disorders. Recent research has shown that PB also has other pharmacologic activities, suggesting that it has the potential for use as a drug for treating other disorders. In the process of drug development, preclinical testing using experimental animals is necessary to verify the efficacy and safety of PB. Although the binding of PB to human albumin has been studied, our knowledge of its binding to albumin from the other animal species is extremely limited. To address this issue, we characterized the binding of PB to albumin from several species (human, bovine, rabbit, and rat). The results indicated that PB interacts with 1 high-affinity site of albumin from these species, which corresponds to site II of human albumin. The affinities of PB to human and bovine albumins were higher than those to rabbit and rat albumin, and that to rabbit albumin was the lowest. Binding and molecular docking studies using structurally related compounds of PB suggested that species differences in the affinity are attributed to differences in the structural feature of the PB-binding sites on albumins (e.g., charge distribution, hydrophobicity, shape, or size). Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Low doses of terlipressin and albumin in the type I hepatorenal syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Pulvirenti

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Hepatorenal syndrome is a pre-renal like dysfunction that generally onsets in cirrhotic patients presenting ascites. MATERIALS AND METHODS We investigated the improvement of renal function in subjects with hepatorenal syndrome after terlipressin administration and the survival times after this treatment. 30 patients affected by cirrhosis, with diagnosis of type I hepatorenal syndrome were treated with intravenous terlipressin plus albumin (group A or with albumin alone (group B. Liver function, renal function, sodium plasma level and plasma renin activity were monitored. RESULTS Patients of group A showed a significant improvement (p < 0.001 of renal function valued by creatinine rate compared with the results obtained in group B. The probability of survival was higher in the group A (p < 0.0001. CONCLUSIONS Our results seem to confirm that the administration of terlipressin plus albumin improves renal function in patients with cirrhosis and type I hepatorenal syndrome and that a reversal of hepatorenal syndrome is strongly associated with an improved survival.

  19. Evaluating the Level of Degree Programmes in Higher Education: Conceptual Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rexwinkel, Trudy; Haenen, Jacques; Pilot, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Evaluating the level of degree programmes became crucial with the Bologna Agreement in 1999 when European ministers agreed to implement common bachelor's and master's degree programmes and a common system of quality assurance. The European Quality Assurance system demands evaluation of the degree programme level based on valid and reliable…

  20. Evaluating the level of degree programmes in higher education: The case of nursing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rexwinkel, G.B.; Haenen, J.P.P.; Pilot, A.

    2013-01-01

    The European Quality Assurance system demands that the degree programme level is represented in terms of quantitative outcomes to be valid and reliable. To meet this need the Educational Level Evaluator (ELE) was devised. This conceptually designed procedure with instrumentation aiming to evaluate

  1. Albumin stimulates renal tubular inflammation through an HSP70-TLR4 axis in mice with early diabetic nephropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jheng, Huei-Fen; Tsai, Pei-Jane; Chuang, Yi-Lun; Shen, Yi-Ting; Tai, Ting-An; Chen, Wen-Chung; Chou, Chuan-Kai; Ho, Li-Chun; Tang, Ming-Jer; Lai, Kuei-Tai A.; Sung, Junne-Ming; Tsai, Yau-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Increased urinary albumin excretion is not simply an aftermath of glomerular injury, but is also involved in the progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Whereas Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are incriminated in the renal inflammation of DN, whether and how albumin is involved in the TLR-related renal inflammatory response remains to be clarified. Here, we showed that both TLR2 and TLR4, one of their putative endogenous ligands [heat shock protein 70 (HSP70)] and nuclear factor-κB promoter activity were markedly elevated in the kidneys of diabetic mice. A deficiency of TLR4 but not of TLR2 alleviated albuminuria, tubulointerstitial fibrosis and inflammation induced by diabetes. The protection against renal injury in diabetic Tlr4−/− mice was associated with reduced tubular injuries and preserved cubilin levels, rather than amelioration of glomerular lesions. In vitro studies revealed that albumin, a stronger inducer than high glucose (HG), induced the release of HSP70 from proximal tubular cells. HSP70 blockade ameliorated albumin-induced inflammatory mediators. HSP70 triggered the production of inflammatory mediators in a TLR4-dependent manner. Moreover, HSP70 inhibition in vivo ameliorated diabetes-induced albuminuria, inflammatory response and tubular injury. Finally, we found that individuals with DN had higher levels of TLR4 and HSP70 in the dilated tubules than non-diabetic controls. Thus, activation of the HSP70-TLR4 axis, stimulated at least in part by albumin, in the tubular cell is a newly identified mechanism associated with induction of tubulointerstitial inflammation and aggravation of pre-existing microalbuminuria in the progression of DN. PMID:26398934

  2. Covalent binding of organophosphorothioates to albumin: A new perspective for OP-pesticide biomonitoring?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, D.; Hulst, A.G.; Zuylen, A. van; Rijssel, E. van; Schans, M.J. van der

    2009-01-01

    We here report on the covalent binding of various organophosphorothioate (OPT) pesticides to albumin at in vitro exposure levels that did not give rise to butyrylcholinesterase inhibition. Adduct formation occurred at the Tyr-411 residue of albumin, as was firmly corroborated by LC-tandem MS

  3. Higher level of NT-proCNP in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasiuk, Ryszard; Lipowski, Dariusz; Szlufik, Stanislaw; Peplinska, Krystyna; Mikaszewska-Sokolewicz, Malgorzata

    2016-02-12

    Aminoterminal pro-C type natriuretic peptide (NT-proCNP) as an active form of CNP, has been recently proven to be a potential marker of sepsis and to be linked to inflammatory diseases. So far, there are no studies describing the level of NT-proCNP in meningitis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of NT-proCNP in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in patients with meningitis and to compare it with the serum level of CRP and procalcitonin (PCT) in this group of patients. The results were compared to serum levels of CRP, PCT and CSF levels of cytosis, protein and lactate. NT-proCNP levels were statistically significant between the control group and the meningitis groups (p=0.02; R=0.3). We also noted a correlation between the level of NT-proCNP in the CSF of all of the study groups (controls and meningitis patients) and the CSF levels of cytosis (p0.05; R=0.11). These results suggest that NT-proCNP could be a potential marker of meningitis, but it cannot be used to distinguish between the types of meningitis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Internal and External Influences on Program-Level Curriculum Development in Higher Education Fashion Merchandising Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Janice E.

    2010-01-01

    In an ever changing global economy, higher education experiences accountability issues in educating the workforce. Graduates require the knowledge and skills necessary to succeed in the global workplace. For graduates to have the opportunity to attain this understanding and expertise, it is critical to identify what influences curriculum…

  5. Tensions in Higher Education Leadership: Towards a Multi-Level Model of Leadership Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolden, Richard; Petrov, Georgy; Gosling, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    UK higher education is undergoing a period of significant change that generates a series of tensions and difficulties for universities and university leaders. This paper explores these tensions through analysis of findings from a study comprising 152 semi-structured face-to-face interviews in 12 UK universities. Building on from theories of…

  6. Positive Attitude toward Healthy Eating Predicts Higher Diet Quality at All Cost Levels of Supermarkets☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Anju; Monsivais, Pablo; Cook, Andrea J.; Drewnowski, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Shopping at low-cost supermarkets has been associated with higher obesity rates. This study examined whether attitudes toward healthy eating are independently associated with diet quality among shoppers at low-cost, medium-cost, and high-cost supermarkets. Data on socioeconomic status (SES), attitudes toward healthy eating, and supermarket choice were collected using a telephone survey of a representative sample of adult residents of King County, WA. Dietary intake data were based on a food frequency questionnaire. Thirteen supermarket chains were stratified into three categories: low, medium, and high cost, based on a market basket of 100 commonly eaten foods. Diet-quality measures were energy density, mean adequacy ratio, and total servings of fruits and vegetables. The analytical sample consisted of 963 adults. Multivariable regressions with robust standard error examined relations between diet quality, supermarket type, attitudes, and SES. Shopping at higher-cost supermarkets was associated with higher-quality diets. These associations persisted after adjusting for SES, but were eliminated after taking attitudinal measures into account. Supermarket shoppers with positive attitudes toward healthy eating had equally higher-quality diets, even if they shopped at low-, medium-, or high-cost supermarkets, independent of SES and other covariates. These findings imply that shopping at low-cost supermarkets does not prevent consumers from having high-quality diets, as long as they attach importance to good nutrition. Promoting nutrition-education strategies among supermarkets, particularly those catering to low-income groups, can help to improve diet quality. PMID:23916974

  7. Lowering the Cost Barrier to Higher Education for Undocumented Students: A Promising University-Level Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangasamy, Andrew; Horan, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Undocumented students, many of Hispanic origin, face among the strictest cost barriers to higher education in the United States. Lack of legal status excludes them from most state and all federal financial aid programs. Furthermore, most states require them to pay out-of-state tuition rates at publicly supported institutions. In a new direction,…

  8. Higher prevalence of depressive symptoms in middle-aged men with low serum cholesterol levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.H.A. Steegmans; A.W. Hoes (Arno); A.A.A. Bak (Annette); E. van der Does (Emiel); D.E. Grobbee (Diederick)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: Investigators from several studies have reported a positive relationship between low cholesterol levels and death due to violent causes (eg, suicide and accidents), possibly mediated by depressive symptoms, aggression or hostility, or

  9. Diabetes mellitus type 2 is associated with higher levels of myeloperoxidase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersma, Jacobijne J.; Meuwese, Marijn C.; van Miert, Joram N. I.; Kastelein, Arnoud; Tijssen, Jan G. P.; Piek, Jan J.; Trip, Mieke D.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus type 2 is linked to augmented endothelial dysfunction and accelerated atherosclerosis. Myeloperoxidase plays an important role in the initiation, progression, and the complications of atherosclerosis. We investigated whether myeloperoxidase levels are increased in

  10. Higher levels of depression are associated with reduced global bias in visual processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fockert, Jan W; Cooper, Andrew

    2014-04-01

    Negative moods have been associated with a tendency to prioritise local details in visual processing. The current study investigated the relation between depression and visual processing using the Navon task, a standard task of local and global processing. In the Navon task, global stimuli are presented that are made up of many local parts, and the participants are instructed to report the identity of either a global or a local target shape. Participants with a low self-reported level of depression showed evidence of the expected global processing bias, and were significantly faster at responding to the global, compared with the local level. By contrast, no such difference was observed in participants with high levels of depression. The reduction of the global bias associated with high levels of depression was only observed in the overall speed of responses to global (versus local) targets, and not in the level of interference produced by the global (versus local) distractors. These results are in line with recent findings of a dissociation between local/global processing bias and interference from local/global distractors, and support the claim that depression is associated with a reduction in the tendency to prioritise global-level processing.

  11. Mind the Gap: An Initial Analysis of the Transition of a Second Level Curriculum Reform to Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendergast, Mark; Faulkner, Fiona; Breen, Cormac; Carr, Michael

    2017-01-01

    This article details an initial analysis of the transition of a second level curriculum reform to higher education in Ireland. The reform entitled 'Project Maths' involved changes to what second level students learn in mathematics, how they learn it, and how they are assessed. Changes were rolled out nationally on a phased basis in September 2010.…

  12. Understanding the Relative Contributions of Lower-Level Word Processes, Higher-Level Processes, and Working Memory to Reading Comprehension Performance in Proficient Adult Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Brenda

    2012-01-01

    Although a considerable amount of evidence has been amassed regarding the contributions of lower-level word processes, higher-level processes, and working memory to reading comprehension, little is known about the relationships among these sources of individual differences or their relative contributions to reading comprehension performance. This…

  13. Albumin-based drug delivery: harnessing nature to cure disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Maja Thim; Kuhlmann, Matthias; Hvam, Michael Lykke; Howard, Kenneth A

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of a drug is dependent on accumulation at the site of action at therapeutic levels, however, challenges such as rapid renal clearance, degradation or non-specific accumulation requires drug delivery enabling technologies. Albumin is a natural transport protein with multiple ligand binding sites, cellular receptor engagement, and a long circulatory half-life due to interaction with the recycling neonatal Fc receptor. Exploitation of these properties promotes albumin as an attractive candidate for half-life extension and targeted intracellular delivery of drugs attached by covalent conjugation, genetic fusions, association or ligand-mediated association. This review will give an overview of albumin-based products with focus on the natural biological properties and molecular interactions that can be harnessed for the design of a next-generation drug delivery platform.

  14. Positive attitude toward healthy eating predicts higher diet quality at all cost levels of supermarkets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Anju; Monsivais, Pablo; Cook, Andrea J; Drewnowski, Adam

    2014-02-01

    Shopping at low-cost supermarkets has been associated with higher obesity rates. This study examined whether attitudes toward healthy eating are independently associated with diet quality among shoppers at low-cost, medium-cost, and high-cost supermarkets. Data on socioeconomic status (SES), attitudes toward healthy eating, and supermarket choice were collected using a telephone survey of a representative sample of adult residents of King County, WA. Dietary intake data were based on a food frequency questionnaire. Thirteen supermarket chains were stratified into three categories: low, medium, and high cost, based on a market basket of 100 commonly eaten foods. Diet-quality measures were energy density, mean adequacy ratio, and total servings of fruits and vegetables. The analytical sample consisted of 963 adults. Multivariable regressions with robust standard error examined relations between diet quality, supermarket type, attitudes, and SES. Shopping at higher-cost supermarkets was associated with higher-quality diets. These associations persisted after adjusting for SES, but were eliminated after taking attitudinal measures into account. Supermarket shoppers with positive attitudes toward healthy eating had equally higher-quality diets, even if they shopped at low-, medium-, or high-cost supermarkets, independent of SES and other covariates. These findings imply that shopping at low-cost supermarkets does not prevent consumers from having high-quality diets, as long as they attach importance to good nutrition. Promoting nutrition-education strategies among supermarkets, particularly those catering to low-income groups, can help to improve diet quality. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Digital Immigrants and Digital Natives: Learning Business Informatics at Higher Educational Level

    OpenAIRE

    Suša, Dalia

    2014-01-01

    Background: The term digital natives refer to those born since the 1980s and have been growing up surrounded by technology. On the other hand, digital immigrants are born before 1980s and learned how to use technology later in life. Objectives: Goal of the paper is to explore attitudes of digital native students on the course of Business Informatics at higher educational institutions (HEIs), and to compare them with attitudes of digital immigrants. Methods/Approach: The survey was conducted i...

  16. Process-Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning Strategy Enhances Students’ Higher Level Thinking Skills in a Pharmaceutical Sciences Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlinden, Nathan; Kruger, Nicholas; Carroll, Ailey; Trumbo, Tiffany

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To determine if the process-oriented guided inquiry learning (POGIL) teaching strategy improves student performance and engages higher-level thinking skills of first-year pharmacy students in an Introduction to Pharmaceutical Sciences course. Design. Overall examination scores and scores on questions categorized as requiring either higher-level or lower-level thinking skills were compared in the same course taught over 3 years using traditional lecture methods vs the POGIL strategy. Student perceptions of the latter teaching strategy were also evaluated. Assessment. Overall mean examination scores increased significantly when POGIL was implemented. Performance on questions requiring higher-level thinking skills was significantly higher, whereas performance on questions requiring lower-level thinking skills was unchanged when the POGIL strategy was used. Student feedback on use of this teaching strategy was positive. Conclusion. The use of the POGIL strategy increased student overall performance on examinations, improved higher-level thinking skills, and provided an interactive class setting. PMID:25741027

  17. Phase transitions between lower and higher level management learning in times of crisis: an experimental study based on synergetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liening, Andreas; Strunk, Guido; Mittelstadt, Ewald

    2013-10-01

    Much has been written about the differences between single- and double-loop learning, or more general between lower level and higher level learning. Especially in times of a fundamental crisis, a transition between lower and higher level learning would be an appropriate reaction to a challenge coming entirely out of the dark. However, so far there is no quantitative method to monitor such a transition. Therefore we introduce theory and methods of synergetics and present results from an experimental study based on the simulation of a crisis within a business simulation game. Hypothesized critical fluctuations - as a marker for so-called phase transitions - have been assessed with permutation entropy. Results show evidence for a phase transition during the crisis, which can be interpreted as a transition between lower and higher level learning.

  18. Glycation alters ligand binding, enzymatic, and pharmacological properties of human albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraka-Vidot, Jennifer; Planesse, Cynthia; Meilhac, Olivier; Militello, Valeria; van den Elsen, Jean; Bourdon, Emmanuel; Rondeau, Philippe

    2015-05-19

    Albumin, the major circulating protein in blood plasma, can be subjected to an increased level of glycation in a diabetic context. Albumin exerts crucial pharmacological activities through its drug binding capacity, i.e., ketoprofen, and via its esterase-like activity, allowing the conversion of prodrugs into active drugs. In this study, the impact of the glucose-mediated glycation on the pharmacological and biochemical properties of human albumin was investigated. Aggregation product levels and the redox state were quantified to assess the impact of glycation-mediated changes on the structural properties of albumin. Glucose-mediated changes in ketoprofen binding properties and esterase-like activity were evaluated using fluorescence spectroscopy and p-nitrophenyl acetate hydrolysis assays, respectively. With the exception of oxidative parameters, significant dose-dependent alterations in biochemical and functional properties of in vitro glycated albumin were observed. We also found that the dose-dependent increase in levels of glycation and protein aggregation and average molecular mass changes correlated with a gradual decrease in the affinity of albumin for ketoprofen and its esterase-like property. In parallel, significant alterations in both pharmacological properties were also evidenced in albumin purified from diabetic patients. Partial least-squares regression analyses established a significant correlation between glycation-mediated changes in biochemical and pharmacological properties of albumin, highlighting the important role for glycation in the variability of the drug response in a diabetic situation.

  19. Higher Serum Uric Acid Levels in Multiple Sclerosis Patients After Longterm Interferon Beta Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toncev Gordana

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Interferon beta is a safe and efficacious treatment for relapsing multiple sclerosis (MS. However, there is some evidence that uric acid, a scavenger of peroxynitrite, is involved in MS pathology and that increasing serum uric acid levels might have beneficial therapeutic effects. The aim of this study is to investigate serum uric acid levels in MS patients before and after long-term interferon beta treatment. Blood samples from 101 MS patients (53 receiving interferon beta 1a treatment and 48 receiving interferon beta 1b treatment; 28 male and 73 female; mean age at treatment onset 32,4±7,3 years; mean duration of disease at treatment onset 5,1±3,2 years; mean EDSS 2±1,3 before and after interferon beta treatment (mean treatment duration 3±2 years were analysed. Serum uric acid levels were measured using a quantitative enzymatic assay (Elitech Diagnostic, Sees, France. MS patients had significantly increased serum uric acid levels after treatment compared with those at the beginning of treatment (272,31±78,21 μmol/l vs. 210,17±53,65 μmol/l; p=0,019, Wilcoxon Mann-Whitney U-test. We did not find significant differences in serum uric acid levels between the interferon beta 1a and interferon beta 1b groups (p=0.98. These results indicate that one of the beneficial effects of interferon beta in MS might be based on the elevation of serum uric acid levels as a natural scavenger of peroxynitrite.

  20. Caveolae-Mediated Endocytosis Is Critical for Albumin Cellular Uptake and Response to Albumin-Bound Chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Moumita; Ben-Josef, Edgar; Robb, Ryan; Vedaie, Marall; Seum, Star; Thirumoorthy, Krishnan; Palanichamy, Kamalakannan; Harbrecht, Matthew; Chakravarti, Arnab; Williams, Terence M

    2017-11-01

    Nab-paclitaxel, a nanoparticle conjugate of paclitaxel to human albumin, exhibits efficacy in pancreatic cancer, non-small cell lung cancer and breast cancer. However, there is a lack of predictive biomarkers to identify patients who might benefit most from its administration. This study addresses this gap in knowledge by identifying that caveolin-1 (Cav-1) is a candidate mechanism-based biomarker. Caveolae are small membrane invaginations important for transendothelial albumin uptake. Cav-1, the principal structural component of caveolae, is overexpressed in the cancers noted above that respond to nab-paclitaxel. Thus, we hypothesized that Cav-1 may be critical for albumin uptake in tumors and perhaps determine their response to this drug. Cav-1 protein levels correlated positively with nab-paclitaxel sensitivity. RNAi-mediated attenuation of Cav-1 expression reduced uptake of albumin and nab-paclitaxel in cancer cells and rendered them resistant to nab-paclitaxel-induced apoptosis. Conversely, Cav-1 overexpression enhanced sensitivity to nab-paclitaxel. Selection for cellular resistance to nab-paclitaxel in cell culture correlated with a loss of Cav-1 expression. In mouse xenograft models, cancer cells, where Cav-1 was attenuated, exhibited resistance to the antitumor effects of nab-paclitaxel therapy. Overall, our findings suggest Cav-1 as a predictive biomarker for the response to nab-paclitaxel and other albumin-based cancer therapeutic drugs. Cancer Res; 77(21); 5925-37. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  1. Higher levels of state depression in masculine than in feminine nations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arrindell, W.A.; Steptoe, A.; Wardle, J.

    Studies using identical measures have identified different levels of depression in different countries or cultures. Until now, however, explanations for such differences, other than methodological ones, have not been empirically addressed. It was hypothesized and found that soft or feminine nations

  2. The Effects of Higher Education/Military Service on Achievement Levels of Police Academy Cadets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Thomas Allen

    This study compared levels of achievement of three groups of Houston (Texas) police academy cadets: those with no military service but with 60 or more college credit hours, those with military service and 0 hours of college credit, and those with military service and 1 to 59 hours of college credit. Prior to 1991, police cadets in Houston were…

  3. The relation between otoacoustic emissions and the broadening of the auditory filter for higher levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, A. R.; Dreschler, W. A.

    1998-01-01

    The active behaviour of outer hair cells (OHCs) is often used to explain two phenomena, namely otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) and the level dependence of auditory filters. Correlations between these two phenomena may contribute to the evidence of these hypotheses. In this study auditory filters were

  4. Higher circulating levels of IGF-1 are associated with longer leukocyte telomere length in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbieri, Michelangela; Paolisso, Giuseppe; Kimura, Masayuki

    2009-01-01

    Mutations that inhibit the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) extend the lifespan of worms, flies and mice. However, it appears that relatively low circulating levels of IGF-1 in humans are associated with aging-related diseases and diminished longevity. As leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is os...

  5. Socioeconomic Status, Higher-Level Mathematics Courses, Absenteeism, and Student Mobility as Indicators of Work Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folds, Lea D.; Tanner, C. Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the relations among socioeconomic status, highest-level mathematics course, absenteeism, student mobility and measures of work readiness of high school seniors in Georgia. Study participants were 476 high school seniors in one Georgia county. The full regression model explained 27.5% of the variance in…

  6. Evaluating the level of degree programmes in higher education: Conceptual design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rexwinkel, G.B.; Haenen, J.P.P.; Pilot, A.

    2013-01-01

    Evaluating the level of degree programmes became crucial with the Bologna Agreement in 1999 when European ministers agreed to implement common bachelor’s and master’s degree programmes and a common system of quality assurance. The European Quality Assurance system demands evaluation of the degree

  7. Two-photon excitation of higher sodium levels and population transfer in a flame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dijk, C.A. van.

    1978-01-01

    Studies of the higher excited states of alkali atoms in the inelastic collisional interaction between excited alkali atoms and flame particles have been made. The emphasis is on an exploration of the possibilities that a flame, in combination with a laser, offers for such studies, rather than on obtaining detailed information concerning collisional transitions. Sodium atoms in a H 2 -O 2 -Ar flame at atmospheric pressure and a temperature of 1800 K were chosen as the system to be investigated. (C.F.)

  8. Associations between Depressive State and Impaired Higher-Level Functional Capacity in the Elderly with Long-Term Care Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Soshiro; Hayashi, Chisato; Sugiura, Keiko; Hayakawa, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Depressive state has been reported to be significantly associated with higher-level functional capacity among community-dwelling elderly. However, few studies have investigated the associations among people with long-term care requirements. We aimed to investigate the associations between depressive state and higher-level functional capacity and obtain marginal odds ratios using propensity score analyses in people with long-term care requirements. We conducted a cross-sectional study based on participants aged ≥ 65 years (n = 545) who were community dwelling and used outpatient care services for long-term preventive care. We measured higher-level functional capacity, depressive state, and possible confounders. Then, we estimated the marginal odds ratios (i.e., the change in odds of impaired higher-level functional capacity if all versus no participants were exposed to depressive state) by logistic models using generalized linear models with the inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) for propensity score and design-based standard errors. Depressive state was used as the exposure variable and higher-level functional capacity as the outcome variable. The all absolute standardized differences after the IPTW using the propensity scores were functional capacity.

  9. Lower Squalene Epoxidase and Higher Scavenger Receptor Class B Type 1 Protein Levels Are Involved in Reduced Serum Cholesterol Levels in Stroke-Prone Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michihara, Akihiro; Mido, Mayuko; Matsuoka, Hiroshi; Mizutani, Yurika

    2015-01-01

    A lower serum cholesterol level was recently shown to be one of the causes of stroke in an epidemiological study. Spontaneously hypertensive rats stroke-prone (SHRSP) have lower serum cholesterol levels than normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY). To elucidate the mechanisms responsible for the lower serum cholesterol levels in SHRSP, we determined whether the amounts of cholesterol biosynthetic enzymes or the receptor and transporter involved in cholesterol uptake and efflux in the liver were altered in SHRSP. When the mRNA levels of seven cholesterol biosynthetic enzymes were measured using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase and squalene epoxidase (SQE) levels in the liver of SHRSP were significantly lower than those in WKY. SQE protein levels were significantly reduced in tissues other than the brain of SHRSP. No significant differences were observed in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor (uptake of serum LDL-cholesterol) or ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (efflux of cholesterol from the liver/formation of high-density lipoprotein (HDL)) protein levels in the liver and testis between SHRSP and WKY, whereas scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SRB1: uptake of serum HDL-cholesterol) protein levels were higher in the livers of SHRSP. These results indicated that the lower protein levels of SQE and higher protein levels of SRB1 in the liver were involved in the reduced serum cholesterol levels in SHRSP.

  10. The Fulfilment Level of Turkic Republics Higher Education Students' Academic and Social Expectations in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Mirgül ENTERİEVA; Ferudun SEZGİN

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the fulfilment level of students who come from Turkic Republics to study in Turkey, regarding their academic and social expectations. The qualita-tive research technique and phenomenological design were used in the study. Data of this research was collected via a semistructured interview form consisting 11 openended questions and probes, which were developed by the researchers. A total of 39 undergraduate and postgraduate students from Azerbaijan, Kazakhs...

  11. Taking Advertising Literacy to a Higher Level: An Exploratory Multilevel Analysis of Children's Advertising Literacy

    OpenAIRE

    De Pauw, Pieter; Cauberghe, Veroline; Hudders, Liselot

    2017-01-01

    As few studies focus on how children’s coping with advertising is affected by their environment, the present study uses multilevel analysis to explore the role of both primary (i.e. parents) and secondary socializing agents (i.e. classmates, teachers) in children’s advertising literacy. The results show that children’s cognitive advertising literacy and attitudes toward advertising are to a large extent determined by class-level processes. Their moral advertising literacy is a more individual...

  12. Renal albumin absorption in physiology and pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birn, H; Christensen, E I

    2006-02-01

    Albumin is the most abundant plasmaprotein serving multiple functions as a carrier of metabolites, hormones, vitamins, and drugs, as an acid/base buffer, as antioxidant and by supporting the oncotic pressure and volume of the blood. The presence of albumin in urine is considered to be the result of the balance between glomerular filtration and tubular reabsorption. Albuminuria has been accepted as an independent risk factor and a marker for renal as well as cardiovascular disease, and during the past decade, evidence has suggested that albumin itself may cause progression of renal disease. Thus, the reduction of proteinuria and, in particular, albuminuria has become a target in itself to prevent deterioration of renal function. Studies have shown albumin and its ligands to induce expression of inflammatory and fibrogenic mediators, and it has been hypothesized that increased filtration of albumin causes excessive tubular reabsorption, resulting in inflammation and fibrosis, resulting in the loss of renal function. In addition, it is known that tubular dysfunction in itself may cause albuminuria owing to decreased reabsorption of filtered albumin, and, recently, it has been suggested that significant amounts of albumin fragments are excreted in the urine as a result of tubular degradation. Thus, although both tubular and glomerular dysfunction influences renal handling of albumin, it appears that tubular reabsorption plays a central role in mediating the effects of albumin on renal function. The present paper will review the mechanisms for tubular albumin uptake and the possible implications for the development of renal disease.

  13. The effect of yeast β-glucan on the amount of albumin, globulin, urea and total protein of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ali kargarirezapour

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Glucans derived from yeast cell wall are promising alternatives to antibiotics, as they have been shown to improve growth performance and stimulate the immune system of immature broilers. In this study we evaluated the effect of different levels of yeast beta-glucan (YBG on some blood parametrs of broiler chickens. In a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design (the first factor: YBG levels: 0, 0.04 and 0.08% of basal diet and sex as a second factor 144 day old chicks (72 male and 72 female were selected and allocated to different treatments (three replicates of each treatment. The overall experimental period was 34 days. At the end of study, two birds from each pen were randomly selected as a sample. The level of albumin, globulin, urea and total protein was measured on blood samples. Statistical analysis of the results showed that the YBG had no significant effect on albumin, globulin, urea and total protein level. But the amount of plasma albumin and total protein in female chicks was significantly higher than male chicks (p

  14. Podocytes Degrade Endocytosed Albumin Primarily in Lysosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, John M.; Okamura, Kayo; Wakashin, Hidefumi; McFann, Kim; Dobrinskikh, Evgenia; Kopp, Jeffrey B.; Blaine, Judith

    2014-01-01

    Albuminuria is a strong, independent predictor of chronic kidney disease progression. We hypothesize that podocyte processing of albumin via the lysosome may be an important determinant of podocyte injury and loss. A human urine derived podocyte-like epithelial cell (HUPEC) line was used for in vitro experiments. Albumin uptake was quantified by Western blot after loading HUPECs with fluorescein-labeled (FITC) albumin. Co-localization of albumin with lysosomes was determined by confocal microscopy. Albumin degradation was measured by quantifying FITC-albumin abundance in HUPEC lysates by Western blot. Degradation experiments were repeated using HUPECs treated with chloroquine, a lysosome inhibitor, or MG-132, a proteasome inhibitor. Lysosome activity was measured by fluorescence recovery after photo bleaching (FRAP). Cytokine production was measured by ELISA. Cell death was determined by trypan blue staining. In vivo, staining with lysosome-associated membrane protein-1 (LAMP-1) was performed on tissue from a Denys-Drash trangenic mouse model of nephrotic syndrome. HUPECs endocytosed albumin, which co-localized with lysosomes. Choloroquine, but not MG-132, inhibited albumin degradation, indicating that degradation occurs in lysosomes. Cathepsin B activity, measured by FRAP, significantly decreased in HUPECs exposed to albumin (12.5% of activity in controls) and chloroquine (12.8%), and declined further with exposure to albumin plus chloroquine (8.2%, palbumin and chloroquine alone, and these effects were potentiated by exposure to albumin plus chloroquine. Compared to wild-type mice, glomerular staining of LAMP-1 was significantly increased in Denys-Drash mice and appeared to be most prominent in podocytes. These data suggest lysosomes are involved in the processing of endocytosed albumin in podocytes, and lysosomal dysfunction may contribute to podocyte injury and glomerulosclerosis in albuminuric diseases. Modifiers of lysosomal activity may have therapeutic

  15. Higher levels of serum lycopene are associated with reduced mortality in individuals with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Guang-Ming; Meza, Jane L; Soliman, Ghada A; Islam, K M Monirul; Watanabe-Galloway, Shinobu

    2016-05-01

    Metabolic syndrome increases the risk of mortality. Increased oxidative stress and inflammation may play an important role in the high mortality of individuals with metabolic syndrome. Previous studies have suggested that lycopene intake might be related to the reduced oxidative stress and decreased inflammation. Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we examined the hypothesis that lycopene is associated with mortality among individuals with metabolic syndrome. A total of 2499 participants 20 years and older with metabolic syndrome were divided into 3 groups based on their serum concentration of lycopene using the tertile rank method. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from years 2001 to 2006 was linked to the mortality file for mortality follow-up data through December 31, 2011, to determine the mortality rate and hazard ratios (HR) for the 3 serum lycopene concentration groups. The mean survival time was significantly higher in the group with the highest serum lycopene concentration (120.6 months; 95% confidence interval [CI], 118.8-122.3) and the medium group (116.3 months; 95% CI, 115.2-117.4), compared with the group with lowest serum lycopene concentration (107.4 months; 95% CI, 106.5-108.3). After adjusting for possible confounding factors, participants in the highest (HR, 0.61; P = .0113) and in the second highest (HR, 0.67; P = .0497) serum lycopene concentration groups showed significantly lower HRs of mortality when compared with participants in the lower serum lycopene concentration. The data suggest that higher serum lycopene concentration has a significant association with the reduced risk of mortality among individuals with metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Dynamics of albumin in plasma and ascitic fluid in patients with cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik; Siemssen, O; Krintel, J J

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: To determine dynamics of albumin in plasma and ascitic fluid of patients with cirrhosis. METHODS: Forty-seven patients were classified in four groups: I--patients without fluid retention; II--patients with ascites not resistant to subsequent diuretic treatment; III......--recompensated patients during diuretic treatment; and IV--patients with diuretic-resistant ascites. Transvascular and transperitoneal albumin transports were quantified by 131I-/125I-labelled human albumin. RESULTS: TER(P) (i.e. the fraction of intravascular albumin (IVM) passing from plasma into the interstitial space...... per hour) was increased in all groups. In group IV patients the transport rate of albumin from plasma into the ascitic fluid (TER(PA)) was significantly higher than the transport rate from the ascitic fluid back into the plasma: TER(AP) (0.45 vs. 0.26% IVM/h, P

  17. An experimental study on MRI signal intensity of albumin solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, In Oak; Chang, Kee Hyun; Han, Moon Hee; Song, Chi Sung; Yeon, Kyung Mo

    1990-01-01

    about 5-15 g/dl concentration and about 15-25 g/dl corresponded to cortical gray matter and periventricular white matter, respectively. On proton density-weighted images, the signal intensities of CSF, cortical gray matter and white matter were all similar and corresponded to albumin concentrations of 0 to 2.5-5.0 g/dl and above 30-35 g/dl concentration. The solution ranging from 5-7.5 g/dl to 25-30 g/dl concentration showed higher signal intensities than brain parenchyma. On T2-weighted images, the signal intensities of the solutions of 0 to 25-30 g/dl concentration appeared identical to that of CSF, and those of higher concentration were similar to those of brain parenchyma. 5. Any difference in signal intensity between 2.0T and 0.5T could not be recognized by visual comparison, although the signal intensities with 0.5T were generally slightly higher on T1-weighted images and slightly lower in proton density-and T2-weighted images. In conclusion, since albumin solution shows variable MR signal intensities, depending on its concentration, and especially shows low signal intensity at the concentration above about 35 g/dl on T1-weighted image, even pure proteinaceous cysts are supposed to have ver variable signal intensities in clinical MR images

  18. Contributions of the Higher Vibrational Levels of Nitric Oxide to the Radiative Cooling of the Thermosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataramani, K.; Yonker, J. D.; Bailey, S. M.

    2014-12-01

    The 5.3μm emission from the vibrational levels of nitric oxide (NO) and the 15μm emission from CO2 are known to be the dominant sources of cooling in the thermosphere above 100 km. The 5.3μm emission is primarily produced by the radiative de-excitation of NO from its first vibrational level, which in turn is mainly populated by the collisions of NO with atomic oxygen. However, the reaction of atomic nitrogen (N(4S) and N(2D)) with O2 yields vibrationally excited NO with v>1, resulting in a radiative cascade which produces more than one 5.3μm photon per vibrationally excited NO molecule. This chemiluminescence is approximately 20% in magnitude of the emission produced by thermal collisions. These additional sources of the 5.3μm emission are introduced into a one dimensional photochemical model and the Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (TIE-GCM) to assess their variability with latitude and solar activity, and to also understand their effect on the thermospheric energy budget. The results from the models are compared with data from the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) experiment on-board the Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) satellite, which has been making measurements of the infrared radiative response of the mesosphere and thermosphere to solar inputs since 2002.

  19. Unconscious fearful priming followed by a psychosocial stress test results in higher cortisol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänsel, Alexander; von Känel, Roland

    2013-10-01

    Human perception of stress includes an automatic pathway that processes subliminal presented stimuli below the threshold of conscious awareness. Subliminal stimuli can therefore activate the physiologic stress system. Unconscious emotional signals were shown to significantly moderate reactions and responses to subsequent stimuli, an effect called 'priming'. We hypothesized that subliminal presentation of a fearful signal during the Stroop task compared with an emotionally neutral one will prime stress reactivity in a subsequently applied psychosocial stress task, thereby yielding a significant increase in salivary cortisol. Half of 36 participants were repeatedly presented either a fearful face or a neutral one. After this, all underwent a psychosocial stress task. The fearful group showed a significant increase in cortisol levels (p = 0.022). This change was not affected by sex, age and body mass index, and it also did not change when taking resting cortisol levels into account. Post-hoc analyses showed that the increase in cortisol in the fearful group started immediately after the psychosocial stress test. Hence, subliminal exposure to a fearful signal in combination with the Stroop and followed by a psychosocial stress test leads to an increase in stress reactivity. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. External supports improve knee performance in anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed individuals with higher kinesiophobia levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harput, Gulcan; Ulusoy, Burak; Ozer, Hamza; Baltaci, Gul; Richards, Jim

    2016-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of knee brace (KB) and kinesiotaping (KT) on functional performance and self-reported function in individuals six months post-ACLR who desired to return to their pre-injury activity levels but felt unable to do so due to kinesiophobia. This was a cross-sectional study involving 30 individuals six months post-ACLR with Tampa Kinesiophobia Scores >37. Individuals were tested under three conditions: no intervention, KB and KT in a randomized order. Isokinetic concentric quadriceps and hamstring strength tests, one leg hop test, star excursion balance test and global rating scale were assessed under the three conditions. The involved side showed that KT and KB significantly increased the hop distance (P=0.01, P=0.04) and improved balance (P=0.01, P=0.04), respectively, but only KB was found to increase the quadriceps and hamstring peak torques compared to no intervention (P<0.05). Individuals reported having better knee function with KB when compared to no intervention (P<0.001) and KT (P=0.03). Both KB and KT have positive effects in individuals post-ACLR which may assist in reducing kinesiophobia when returning to their pre-injury activity levels, with the KB appearing to offer the participants better knee function compared to KT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Stimulation of albumin gene transcription by insulin in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, C.E.; Kalinyak, J.E.; Hutson, S.M.; Jefferson, L.S.

    1987-01-01

    The first goal of the work reported here was to prepare single-stranded DNA sequences for use in studies on the regulation of albumin gene expression. A double-stranded rat albumin cDNA clone was subcloned into the bacteriophage vector M13mp7. Single-stranded recombinant clones were screened for albumin sequences containing either the mRNA strand or the complementary strand. Two clones were selected that contained the 1200 nucleotide long 3' end of the albumin sequence. DNA from the clone containing the mRNA strand was used as a template for DNA polymerase I to prepare a radiolabeled, single-stranded cDNA to albumin mRNA. This radiolabeled cDNA probe was used to quantitate the relative abundance of albumin mRNA in samples of total cellular RNA. DNA from the clone containing the complementary strand was used to measure relative rates of albumin gene transcription in isolated nuclei. The second goal was to use the single-stranded DNA probes to investigate the mechanism of the insulin-mediated stimulation of albumin synthesis in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes. Addition of insulin to hepatocytes maintained in a chemically defined, serum-free medium for 40 h in the absence of any hormones resulted in a specific 1.5- to 2.5-fold stimulation of albumin gene transcription that was maximal at 3 h and was maintained above control values for at least 24 h. The rate of albumin gene transcription in nuclei isolated from livers of diabetic rats was reduced to 50% of the value recorded in control nuclei. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that insulin regulates synthesis of albumin at the level of gene transcription

  2. Functional and rheological properties of amaranth albumins extracted from two Mexican varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Sánchez, C; González-Castañeda, J; de León-Rodríguez, A; Barba de la Rosa, A P

    2004-01-01

    The functional and rheological properties of amaranth albumins isolates extracted from two new Mexican varieties were determined. Functional properties tested were protein solubility, foaming, water and oil absorption capacities, emulsifying activity, and emulsion stability. The maximum solubility values for both amaranth albumins were found above pH 6 and values were compared to the solubility of egg albumins. Albumins from amaranth showed excellent foaming capacity and foaming stability at pH 5, suggesting that this protein could be used as whipping agents as egg albumins, also the water and oil absorption capacities reached their maximum values at acidic pH, suggesting that amaranth albumins could be appropriate in preparation of acidic foods. The rheological test based on farinograms and alveograms showed that wheat flour supplemented with 1% amaranth albumins improves the dough properties due to higher mixing stability and the bread had better crumb characteristics. In addition of the known high nutritional values of amaranth albumins, our results indicate the high potential for use of these proteins as an ingredient in food preparations.

  3. Correlation between serum albumin, prealbumin and ventilator dependence in patients with COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Miao Wu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the correlation between the serum albumin, prealbumin and ventilator dependence in patients with COPD. Methods: Serum albumin and prealbumin of 44 COPD patients using breathing machine>48 h were tested at admission, 1 week, 2 weeks treatment. According to the existence of ventilator dependence, divided the patients into the ventilator dependence group and the ventilator independence group, compare the albumin, prealbumin average of two groups, evaluate the correlation between the serum albumin, prealbumin and ventilator dependence in patients with COPD. Results: Albumin levels reduced in both groups after 1 week treatment, but there was no statistically significant difference. Albumin levels reduced in both groups after 2 weeks treatment, but more significantly in the ventilator dependence group, the difference had statistical significance. Prealbumin levels in the ventilator independence group after 1 week treatment didn’t reduced, but reduced in the ventilator dependence group, the difference was statistically significant. Prealbumin levels reduced in both groups after 2 weeks treatment, but more significant in the ventilator dependence group, the difference had statistical significance. Conclusion: Serum albumin and prealbumin levels were correlation with the ventilator dependence in patients with COPD. But prealbumin can more sensitively and more early predict the ventilator dependence in patients with COPD suffered from malnutrition.

  4. Higher Fasting Plasma Glucose Levels, within the Normal Range, are Associated with Decreased Processing Speed in High Functioning Young Elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Raizes, Meytal; Elkana, Odelia; Franko, Motty; Springer, Ramit Ravona; Segev, Shlomo; Beeri, Michal Schnaider

    2016-01-01

    We explored the association of plasma glucose levels within the normal range with processing speed in high functioning young elderly, free of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A sample of 41 participants (mean age = 64.7, SD = 10; glucose 94.5 mg/dL, SD = 9.3), were examined with a computerized cognitive battery. Hierarchical linear regression analysis showed that higher plasma glucose levels, albeit within the normal range (

  5. Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors lower hemoglobin and hematocrit only in renal transplant recipients with initially higher levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikolasevic, I; Zaputovic, L; Zibar, L; Begic, I; Zutelija, M; Klanac, A; Majurec, I; Simundic, T; Minazek, M; Orlic, L

    2016-04-01

    We have analyzed the effects of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors on evolution of hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (Htc) levels as well as on the evaluation of kidney graft function in stable renal transplant recipients (RTRs) in respect with initially higher or lower Hb and Htc values. The study group comprised of 270 RTRs with stable graft function. Besides other prescribed antihypertensive therapy, 169 of them have been taking RAAS inhibitors. We wanted to analyze the effect of the use of RAAS inhibitors on Hb and Htc in patients with initially higher or lower Hb/Htc values. For this analysis, only RTRs that were taking RAAS inhibitors were stratified into two groups: one with higher Hb and Htc (initial Hb≥150g/L and Htc≥45%) and another one with lower Hb and Htc (initial Hb<150g/L and Htc<45%) values. Thirty-four RTRs with initially higher Hb and 41 RTRs with initially higher Htc had a statistically significant decrease in Hb (p=0.006) and Htc (p<0.0001) levels after 12-months of follow-up. In the group of patients with initially lower Hb (135 RTRs) and Htc (128 RTRs) there was a significant increase in Hb (p=0.0001) and Htc (p=0.004) levels through the observed period. The use of RAAS inhibitors has been associated with a trend of slowing renal insufficiency in RTRs (p=0.03). RAAS inhibitors lower Hb and Htc only in RTRs with initially higher levels. In patients with initially lower Hb and Htc levels, the use of these drugs is followed by beneficial impact on erythropoiesis and kidney graft function. Copyright © 2015 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Factors in the development of higher levels of reading literacy: Argumentation skills in educational practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branković Marija

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The highest levels of reading literacy, as defined within PISA study, include the ability to use various cognitive skills, with argumentative skills being one of the most important among them. In the present study our goal was to reveal some of the factors that influence the development of argumentative skills in Serbian schools. We investigated the extent to which argumentative skills are required in PISA reading literacy tasks, as well as the specific difficulties our students have faced on these tasks, through an analysis of student performance. We also conducted an analysis of the educational practice - by doing in-depth interviews with teachers and content analysis of students' textbooks. The results revealed that: 1 Argumentations skills are an important requirement within PISA tasks; 2 Serbian students are mostly successful at basic tasks of recognizing arguments or providing arguments for the given position; they face difficulties answering the tasks which require precise formulation of relevant arguments as well as those demanding meta-cognitive skills (e.g. recognizing persuasive strategies in the given text. Their performance is particularly poor on tasks requiring the combination of information from different sources or information presented in different formats (text, tables, or graphs; 3 There is a significant gap between the requirements for argumentation skills our students usually encounter and PISA reading literacy tasks. In this paper we discuss some of the difficulties and obstacles to encouraging the development of argumentative thinking.

  7. Leptin Levels Are Higher in Whole Compared to Skim Human Milk, Supporting a Cellular Contribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugananthan, Sambavi; Lai, Ching Tat; Gridneva, Zoya; Mark, Peter J; Geddes, Donna T; Kakulas, Foteini

    2016-11-08

    Human milk (HM) contains a plethora of metabolic hormones, including leptin, which is thought to participate in the regulation of the appetite of the developing infant. Leptin in HM is derived from a combination of de novo mammary synthesis and transfer from the maternal serum. Moreover, leptin is partially lipophilic and is also present in HM cells. However, leptin has predominately been measured in skim HM, which contains neither fat nor cells. We optimised an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for leptin measurement in both whole and skim HM and compared leptin levels between both HM preparations collected from 61 lactating mothers. Whole HM leptin ranged from 0.2 to 1.47 ng/mL, whilst skim HM leptin ranged from 0.19 to 0.9 ng/mL. Whole HM contained, on average, 0.24 ± 0.01 ng/mL more leptin than skim HM ( p < 0.0001, n = 287). No association was found between whole HM leptin and fat content ( p = 0.17, n = 287), supporting a cellular contribution to HM leptin. No difference was found between pre- and post-feed samples (whole HM: p = 0.29, skim HM: p = 0.89). These findings highlight the importance of optimising HM leptin measurement and assaying it in whole HM to accurately examine the amount of leptin received by the infant during breastfeeding.

  8. The effects of higher hemoglobin levels on mortality and hospitalization in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofsthun, Norma; Labrecque, John; Lacson, Eduardo; Keen, Marcia; Lazarus, J Michael

    2003-05-01

    The introduction of recombinant human erythropoietin for the treatment of anemia of chronic renal failure provided the opportunity to correct anemia in this patient population. The optimal target hemoglobin for patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) remains controversial. A large database of hemodialysis patients was analyzed to determine whether increasing hemoglobin level above the current Kidney Dialysis Outcomes Quality Initiative (K/DOQI) recommendations was associated with increased risk of mortality and hospitalization. A longitudinal study of hemodialysis patients in Fresenius Medical Care-North America facilities was performed. Selection was restricted to patients in the census for 6 consecutive months from July 1, 1998 through June 30, 2000. Patient mean hemoglobin and other covariates measured during the initial 6 months were related to survival, number of hospitalizations, and length of stay over the subsequent 6 months of follow-up. Patients with hemoglobin /=13 g/dL had an adjusted length of stay of 9.6 days compared to 10.9 days for those with 11 12 g/dL.

  9. Leptin Levels Are Higher in Whole Compared to Skim Human Milk, Supporting a Cellular Contribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sambavi Kugananthan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Human milk (HM contains a plethora of metabolic hormones, including leptin, which is thought to participate in the regulation of the appetite of the developing infant. Leptin in HM is derived from a combination of de novo mammary synthesis and transfer from the maternal serum. Moreover, leptin is partially lipophilic and is also present in HM cells. However, leptin has predominately been measured in skim HM, which contains neither fat nor cells. We optimised an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for leptin measurement in both whole and skim HM and compared leptin levels between both HM preparations collected from 61 lactating mothers. Whole HM leptin ranged from 0.2 to 1.47 ng/mL, whilst skim HM leptin ranged from 0.19 to 0.9 ng/mL. Whole HM contained, on average, 0.24 ± 0.01 ng/mL more leptin than skim HM (p < 0.0001, n = 287. No association was found between whole HM leptin and fat content (p = 0.17, n = 287, supporting a cellular contribution to HM leptin. No difference was found between pre- and post-feed samples (whole HM: p = 0.29, skim HM: p = 0.89. These findings highlight the importance of optimising HM leptin measurement and assaying it in whole HM to accurately examine the amount of leptin received by the infant during breastfeeding.

  10. Virtual reality laparoscopy: which potential trainee starts with a higher proficiency level?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschold, M; Schröder, M; Kauff, D W; Gorbauch, T; Herzer, M; Lang, H; Kneist, W

    2011-09-01

    Minimally invasive surgery requires technical skills distinct from those used in conventional surgery. The aim of this prospective study was to identify personal characteristics that may predict the attainable proficiency level of first-time virtual reality laparoscopy (VRL) trainees. Two hundred and seventy-nine consecutive undergraduate medical students without experience attended a standardized VRL training. Performance data of an abstract and a procedural task were correlated with possible predictive factors providing potential competence in VRL. Median global score requirement status was 86.7% (interquartile range (IQR) 75-93) for the abstract task and 74.4% (IQR 67-88) for the procedural task. Unadjusted analysis showed significant increase in the global score in both tasks for trainees who had a gaming console at home and frequently used it as well as for trainees who felt self-confident to assist in a laparoscopic operation. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified frequency of video gaming (often/frequently vs. rarely/not at all, odds ratio: abstract model 2.1 (95% confidence interval 1.2; 3.6), P = 0.009; virtual reality operation procedure 2.4 (95% confidence interval 1.3; 4.2), P = 0.003) as a predictive factor for VRL performance. Frequency of video gaming is associated with quality of first-time VRL performance. Video game experience may be used as trainee selection criteria for tailored concepts of VRL training programs.

  11. Podocytes degrade endocytosed albumin primarily in lysosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, John M; Okamura, Kayo; Wakashin, Hidefumi; McFann, Kim; Dobrinskikh, Evgenia; Kopp, Jeffrey B; Blaine, Judith

    2014-01-01

    Albuminuria is a strong, independent predictor of chronic kidney disease progression. We hypothesize that podocyte processing of albumin via the lysosome may be an important determinant of podocyte injury and loss. A human urine derived podocyte-like epithelial cell (HUPEC) line was used for in vitro experiments. Albumin uptake was quantified by Western blot after loading HUPECs with fluorescein-labeled (FITC) albumin. Co-localization of albumin with lysosomes was determined by confocal microscopy. Albumin degradation was measured by quantifying FITC-albumin abundance in HUPEC lysates by Western blot. Degradation experiments were repeated using HUPECs treated with chloroquine, a lysosome inhibitor, or MG-132, a proteasome inhibitor. Lysosome activity was measured by fluorescence recovery after photo bleaching (FRAP). Cytokine production was measured by ELISA. Cell death was determined by trypan blue staining. In vivo, staining with lysosome-associated membrane protein-1 (LAMP-1) was performed on tissue from a Denys-Drash trangenic mouse model of nephrotic syndrome. HUPECs endocytosed albumin, which co-localized with lysosomes. Choloroquine, but not MG-132, inhibited albumin degradation, indicating that degradation occurs in lysosomes. Cathepsin B activity, measured by FRAP, significantly decreased in HUPECs exposed to albumin (12.5% of activity in controls) and chloroquine (12.8%), and declined further with exposure to albumin plus chloroquine (8.2%, plysosomes are involved in the processing of endocytosed albumin in podocytes, and lysosomal dysfunction may contribute to podocyte injury and glomerulosclerosis in albuminuric diseases. Modifiers of lysosomal activity may have therapeutic potential in slowing the progression of glomerulosclerosis by enhancing the ability of podocytes to process and degrade albumin.

  12. Science education through open and distance learning at Higher Education level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrita NIGAM

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The changes faced by the society in the past few decades brought revolution in all areas. The job requirements have undergone change tremendously. The emergence of e-culture, e-education, e-governance, e-training, e-work sites and so on questioned the capacity of conventional face to face education in catering to all and relevance of existing job related skills to a great extent in the emerging global society. Today, every one has to update his/her educational and/or professional skills and competencies to cope up with the emerging work challenges. This is more so in the field of science and technology. At the same time, it is impossible to cater to educational and training opportunities to one and all those who aspire for it through the conventional set up. The distance and open learning (ODL seems to be one of the viable alternatives. Today, the success and viability of ODL is accepted globally. Coulter (1989, through a study demonstrated that ODL is a cost-effective medium in providing educational opportunities. Similarly Holmberg (1981 also mentioned ODL as a systematic teaching-learning medium by using variety of medium for imparting learning. The present study is an attempt to study the experiences of the open science learners of IGNOU on different aspect of the science higher education. Here a questionnaire was used to collect the data and responses from 81 students enrolled for B. Sc. from IGNOU were collected. The findings of the study reported that society has undergone drastic changes in the last few decades. The revolution led due to Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs have widely affected all aspects of society. The emerging jobs require entirely new skills and competencies i.e., employment in BPOs or switching over to e-governance, e-Banking and e- based sectors. Even e-learning has made numerous expectations from teachers and other personnel. The use of ICTs in almost every field needs adequately trained

  13. Ischaemia-modified albumin: a marker of bacterial infection in hospitalized patients with cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannone, Ferdinando A; Domenicali, Marco; Baldassarre, Maurizio; Bartoletti, Michele; Naldi, Marina; Laggetta, Maristella; Bertucci, Carlo; Colecchia, Antonio; Viale, Pierluigi; Bernardi, Mauro; Caraceni, Paolo

    2015-11-01

    Patients with cirrhosis present structural changes of human serum albumin (HSA) affecting non-oncotic functions. Ischaemia-modified albumin (IMA), which reflects the capacity to bind cobalt, has been associated to patient mortality during acute-on-chronic liver failure. This study aimed to assess whether circulating IMA is elevated in advanced cirrhosis and its relationship with severity of cirrhosis and specific complications. A total of 127 cirrhotic patients hospitalized for an acute complication of the disease and 44 healthy controls were enrolled. Plasma IMA and IMA to albumin ratio (IMAr) were measured with a cobalt-binding assay. HSA isoforms carrying post-transcriptional molecular changes were assessed with HPLC-ESI-MS. The effect of endotoxemia on IMA was evaluated in rats with CCl4 -cirrhosis. IMA/IMAr is significantly higher in cirrhotic patients than in controls, but no correlations were found with prognostic scores. IMA did not correlate with the altered HSA isoforms. Ascites, renal impairment and hepatic encephalopathy did not influence IMA/IMAr levels. In contrast, IMA/IMAr is significantly higher in infected than non-infected patients. ROC curves showed that IMA/IMAr had similar discriminating performances for bacterial infection as C-reactive protein (CRP). Moreover, CRP and IMA were independently associated with bacterial infection. Consistently, endotoxin injection significantly increased IMA in cirrhotic, but not in healthy rats. IMA is elevated in patients with advanced cirrhosis. The IMA level does not correlate with disease severity scores, but it is specifically associated to bacterial infection, showing a discriminating performance similar to CRP. Further investigations to assess IMA as a novel diagnostic test for bacterial infection are advocated. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Congruence and diversity of butterfly-host plant associations at higher taxonomic levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José R Ferrer-Paris

    Full Text Available We aggregated data on butterfly-host plant associations from existing sources in order to address the following questions: (1 is there a general correlation between host diversity and butterfly species richness?, (2 has the evolution of host plant use followed consistent patterns across butterfly lineages?, (3 what is the common ancestral host plant for all butterfly lineages? The compilation included 44,148 records from 5,152 butterfly species (28.6% of worldwide species of Papilionoidea and 1,193 genera (66.3%. The overwhelming majority of butterflies use angiosperms as host plants. Fabales is used by most species (1,007 spp. from all seven butterfly families and most subfamilies, Poales is the second most frequently used order, but is mostly restricted to two species-rich subfamilies: Hesperiinae (56.5% of all Hesperiidae, and Satyrinae (42.6% of all Nymphalidae. We found a significant and strong correlation between host plant diversity and butterfly species richness. A global test for congruence (Parafit test was sensitive to uncertainty in the butterfly cladogram, and suggests a mixed system with congruent associations between Papilionidae and magnoliids, Hesperiidae and monocots, and the remaining subfamilies with the eudicots (fabids and malvids, but also numerous random associations. The congruent associations are also recovered as the most probable ancestral states in each node using maximum likelihood methods. The shift from basal groups to eudicots appears to be more likely than the other way around, with the only exception being a Satyrine-clade within the Nymphalidae that feed on monocots. Our analysis contributes to the visualization of the complex pattern of interactions at superfamily level and provides a context to discuss the timing of changes in host plant utilization that might have promoted diversification in some butterfly lineages.

  15. Congruence and diversity of butterfly-host plant associations at higher taxonomic levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer-Paris, José R; Sánchez-Mercado, Ada; Viloria, Ángel L; Donaldson, John

    2013-01-01

    We aggregated data on butterfly-host plant associations from existing sources in order to address the following questions: (1) is there a general correlation between host diversity and butterfly species richness?, (2) has the evolution of host plant use followed consistent patterns across butterfly lineages?, (3) what is the common ancestral host plant for all butterfly lineages? The compilation included 44,148 records from 5,152 butterfly species (28.6% of worldwide species of Papilionoidea) and 1,193 genera (66.3%). The overwhelming majority of butterflies use angiosperms as host plants. Fabales is used by most species (1,007 spp.) from all seven butterfly families and most subfamilies, Poales is the second most frequently used order, but is mostly restricted to two species-rich subfamilies: Hesperiinae (56.5% of all Hesperiidae), and Satyrinae (42.6% of all Nymphalidae). We found a significant and strong correlation between host plant diversity and butterfly species richness. A global test for congruence (Parafit test) was sensitive to uncertainty in the butterfly cladogram, and suggests a mixed system with congruent associations between Papilionidae and magnoliids, Hesperiidae and monocots, and the remaining subfamilies with the eudicots (fabids and malvids), but also numerous random associations. The congruent associations are also recovered as the most probable ancestral states in each node using maximum likelihood methods. The shift from basal groups to eudicots appears to be more likely than the other way around, with the only exception being a Satyrine-clade within the Nymphalidae that feed on monocots. Our analysis contributes to the visualization of the complex pattern of interactions at superfamily level and provides a context to discuss the timing of changes in host plant utilization that might have promoted diversification in some butterfly lineages.

  16. Recombinant albumin monolayers on latex particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofińska, Kamila; Adamczyk, Zbigniew; Kujda, Marta; Nattich-Rak, Małgorzata

    2014-01-14

    The adsorption of recombinant human serum albumin (rHSA) on negatively charged polystyrene latex micro-particles was studied at pH 3.5 and the NaCl concentration range of 10(-3) to 0.15 M. The electrophoretic mobility of latex monotonically increased with the albumin concentration in the suspension. The coverage of adsorbed albumin was quantitatively determined using the depletion method, where the residual protein concentration was determined by electrokinetic measurements and AFM imaging. It was shown that albumin adsorption was irreversible. Its maximum coverage on latex varied between 0.7 mg m(-2) for 10(-3) M NaCl to 1.3 mg m(-2) for 0.15 M NaCl. The latter value matches the maximum coverage previously determined for human serum albumin on mica using the streaming potential method. The increase in the maximum coverage was interpreted in terms of reduced electrostatic repulsion among adsorbed molecules. These facts confirm that albumin adsorption at pH 3.5 is governed by electrostatic interactions and proceeds analogously to colloid particle deposition. The stability of albumin monolayers was measured in additional experiments where changes in the latex electrophoretic mobility and the concentration of free albumin in solutions were monitored over prolonged time periods. Based on these experimental data, a robust procedure of preparing albumin monolayers on latex particles of well-controlled coverage and molecule distribution was proposed.

  17. Explaining participation differentials in Dutch higher education: The impact of subjective success probabilities on level choice and field choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolsma, J.; Need, A.; Jong, U. de

    2010-01-01

    In this article we examine whether subjective estimates of success probabilities explain the effect of social origin, sex, and ethnicity on students' choices between different school tracks in Dutch higher education. The educational options analysed differ in level (i.e. university versus

  18. Changing conditions require a higher level of entrepreneurship by farmers: use of an interactive strategic management tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beldman, A.C.G.; Lakner, D.; Smit, A.B.

    2013-01-01

    Changing conditions require a higher level of entrepreneurship by farmers. The method of interactive strategic management (ISM) has been developed to support farmers in developing strategic skills. The method is based on three principles: (1) emphasis is on the entrepreneur; (2) interaction with the

  19. Modelling in Action. Scaffolding High School Students to Higher Levels of Autonomy: The School's Elevator and the Inverse Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmolejo Rivas, Eugenia

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we focus our discussion on the strategy we follow to scaffold high school students to successfully build models of a real-life system. Our aim is for students to gradually achieve a higher level of autonomy and to use and further develop their mathematical knowledge. We present work students did when we asked them to build a model…

  20. Critical Sociological Thinking and Higher-Level Thinking: A Study of Sociologists' Teaching Goals and Assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Danielle; Otto, Kristin

    2018-01-01

    We argue that the literature on critical thinking in sociology has conflated two different skill sets: critical sociological thinking and higher-level thinking. To begin to examine how sociologists weigh and cultivate these skill sets, we interviewed 20 sociology instructors and conducted a content analysis of 26 assignments. We found that while…

  1. Higher levels of masculine gender role stress in masculine than in feminine nations. A thirteen-nations study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arrindell, W.A.; van Well, S.; Kolk, A.M.; Barelds, D.P.H.; Oei, T.P.S.; Lau, P.Y.

    2013-01-01

    It was hypothesized that societies that put greater emphasis on men being rigidly committed to culturally accepted models of masculinity (nations with high Hofstede MASculinity scores) would report higher mean national levels of masculine gender role stress (MGRS) than societies that emphasize such

  2. Higher Levels of Masculine Gender Role Stress in Masculine than in Feminine Nations : A Thirteen-Nations Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arrindell, W. A.; van Well, Sonja; Kolk, Annemarie M.; Barelds, Dick P. H.; Oei, Tian P. S.; Lau, Pui Yi

    It was hypothesized that societies that put greater emphasis on men being rigidly committed to culturally accepted models of masculinity (nations with high Hofstede MASculinity scores) would report higher mean national levels of masculine gender role stress (MGRS) than societies that emphasize such

  3. Workforce Diversity in Higher Education: Career Support Factors Influencing Ascendancy of African American Women to Senior-Level Positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstone, Tondelaya K.

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this study was how knowledge of the barriers to advancement for African American women (AAW) and key career support factors (KCSFs) influence the career advancement of African American women (AAW) to senior-level positions in higher education. The research method for this study consisted of the triangulation of evidence from multiple…

  4. Higher Reported Levels of Depression, Stress, and Anxiety Are Associated with Increased Endorsement of ADHD Symptoms by Postsecondary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Allyson G.; Alexander, Sandra J.; Armstrong, Irene T.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which postsecondary students endorse symptoms of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and whether experienced level of stress, depression, or anxiety are associated with higher reporting of ADHD symptoms. Students attending a combined health and counseling service completed the Conners Adult ADHD Rating…

  5. Parental Level of Education: Associations with Psychological Well-Being, Academic Achievement and Reasons for Pursuing Higher Education in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlechter, Melissa; Milevsky, Avidan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to determine the interconnection between parental level of education, psychological well-being, academic achievement and reasons for pursuing higher education in adolescents. Participants included 439 college freshmen from a mid-size state university in the northeastern USA. A survey, including indices of…

  6. A large-scale, higher-level, molecular phylogenetic study of the insect order Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher-level relationships within the Lepidoptera, and particularly within the species-rich subclade Ditrysia, are generally not well understood, although recent studies have yielded progress. 483 taxa spanning 115 of 124 families were sampled for 19 protein-coding nuclear genes. Their aligned nucle...

  7. Explaining participation differentials in Dutch higher education : the impact of subjective success probabilities on level choice and field choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolsma, J.; Need, A.; Jong, U. de

    2010-01-01

    In this article we examine whether subjective estimates of success probabilities explain the effect of social origin, sex, and ethnicity on students’ choices between different school tracks in Dutch higher education. The educational options analysed differ in level (i.e. university versus

  8. Dengue-Immune Humans Have Higher Levels of Complement-Independent Enhancing Antibody than Complement-Dependent Neutralizing Antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Atsushi; Konishi, Eiji

    2017-09-25

    Dengue is the most important arboviral disease worldwide. We previously reported that most inhabitants of dengue-endemic countries who are naturally immune to the disease have infection-enhancing antibodies whose in vitro activity does not decrease in the presence of complement (complement-independent enhancing antibodies, or CiEAb). Here, we compared levels of CiEAb and complement-dependent neutralizing antibodies (CdNAb) in dengue-immune humans. A typical antibody dose-response pattern obtained in our assay system to measure the balance between neutralizing and enhancing antibodies showed both neutralizing and enhancing activities depending on serum dilution factor. The addition of complement to the assay system increased the activity of neutralizing antibodies at lower dilutions, indicating the presence of CdNAb. In contrast, similar dose-response curves were obtained with and without complement at higher dilutions, indicating higher levels of CiEAb than CdNAb. For experimental support for the higher CiEAb levels, a cocktail of mouse monoclonal antibodies against dengue virus type 1 was prepared. The antibody dose-response curves obtained in this assay, with or without complement, were similar to those obtained with human serum samples when a high proportion of D1-V-3H12 (an antibody exhibiting only enhancing activity and thus a model for CiEAb) was used in the cocktail. This study revealed higher-level induction of CiEAb than CdNAb in humans naturally infected with dengue viruses.

  9. Cross-Age Mentoring to Support A-Level Pupils' Transition into Higher Education and Undergraduate Students' Employability

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Alana I.

    2014-01-01

    Two challenges identified for psychology higher education are supporting entry students' transition, and supporting graduates' transition into employment. The evaluation of the first phase of a cross-age mentoring action research project targeting these issues is presented; eight psychology undergraduates mentored 20 A-level psychology pupils in…

  10. Reading Comprehension, Working Memory and Higher-Level Language Skills in Children with SLI and/or Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Anita M.-Y.; Ho, Connie S.-H.; Au, Terry K.-F.; McBride, Catherine; Ng, Ashley K.-H.; Yip, Lesley P.-W.; Lam, Catherine C.-C.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined (1) whether working memory and higher-level languages skills--inferencing and comprehension monitoring--accounted for individual differences among Chinese children in Chinese reading comprehension, after controlling for age, Chinese word reading and oral language skills, and (2) whether children with specific language…

  11. Higher serum levels of rheumatoid factor and anti-nuclear antibodies in helicobacter pylori-infected peptic ulcer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarzadeh, Abdollah; Nemati, Maryam; Rezayati, Mohammad Taghi; Nabizadeh, Mansooreh; Ebrahimi, Medhi

    2013-07-01

    H. pylori infection has been associated with some autoimmune disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the serum concentrations of rheumatoid factor and anti-nuclear antibodies in H. pylori-infected peptic ulcer patients, H. pylori-infected asymptomatic carriers and a healthy control group. A Total of 100 H. pylori-infected peptic ulcer patients, 65 asymptomatic carriers and 30 healthy H. pylori-negative subjects (as a control group) were enrolled into study. Serum samples of participants tested for the levels of rheumatoid factor and anti-nuclear antibodies by use of ELISA. The mean serum levels of rheumatoid factor and anti-nuclear antibodies in peptic ulcer group was significantly higher in comparison to the control group (ppeptic ulcer patients and asymptomatic carriers groups regarding the mean serum levels of rheumatoid factor and anti-nuclear antibodies. The mean serum levels of rheumatoid factor in men with peptic ulcer was significantly higher compared to the group of healthy men (ppeptic ulcer patients or asymptomatic carriers groups, the mean serum levels of rheumatoid factor was higher than that in healthy women, but the differences were not statistically significant. Also, no significant differences were observed between men and women with peptic ulcer, asymptomatic carriers control groups based on the serum levels of anti-nuclear antibodies. The results showed higher serum levels of rheumatoid factor and anti-nuclear antibodies in H. pylori-infected patients with peptic ulcer disease which represent the H. pylori-related immune disturbance in these patients. Additional follow-up studies are necessary to clarify the clinical significance of these autoantibodies in patients with H. pylori infection.

  12. Species dependence of [64Cu]Cu-Bis(thiosemicarbazone) radiopharmaceutical binding to serum albumins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basken, Nathan E.; Mathias, Carla J.; Lipka, Alexander E.; Green, Mark A.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Interactions of three copper(II) bis(thiosemicarbazone) positron emission tomography radiopharmaceuticals with human serum albumin, and the serum albumins of four additional mammalian species, were evaluated. Methods: 64 Cu-labeled diacetyl bis(N 4 -methylthiosemicarbazonato)copper(II) (Cu-ATSM), pyruvaldehyde bis(N 4 -methylthiosemicarbazonato)copper(II) (Cu-PTSM) and ethylglyoxal bis(thiosemicarbazonato)copper(II) (Cu-ETS) were synthesized and their binding to human, canine, rat, baboon and porcine serum albumins quantified by ultrafiltration. Protein binding was also measured for each tracer in human, porcine, rat and mouse serum. Results: The interaction of these neutral, lipophilic copper chelates with serum albumin is highly compound- and species-dependent. Cu-PTSM and Cu-ATSM exhibit particularly high affinity for human serum albumin (HSA), while the albumin binding of Cu-ETS is relatively insensitive to species. At HSA concentrations of 40 mg/ml, '% free' (non-albumin-bound) levels of radiopharmaceutical were 4.0±0.1%, 5.3±0.2% and 38.6±0.8% for Cu-PTSM, Cu-ATSM and Cu-ETS, respectively. Conclusions: Species-dependent variations in radiopharmaceutical binding to serum albumin may need to be considered when using animal models to predict the distribution and kinetics of these compounds in humans

  13. Prevention of hemodynamic and vascular albumin filtration changes in diabetic rats by aldose reductase inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilton, R.G.; Chang, K.; Pugliese, G.; Eades, D.M.; Province, M.A.; Sherman, W.R.; Kilo, C.; Williamson, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    This study investigated hemodynamic changes in diabetic rats and their relationship to changes in vascular albumin permeation and increased metabolism of glucose to sorbitol. The effects of 6 wk of streptozocin-induced diabetes and three structurally different inhibitors of aldose reductase were examined on (1) regional blood flow (assessed with 15-microns 85Sr-labeled microspheres) and vascular permeation by 125I-labeled bovine serum albumin (BSA) and (2) glomerular filtration rate (assessed by plasma clearance of 57Co-labeled EDTA) and urinary albumin excretion (determined by radial immunodiffusion assay). In diabetic rats, blood flow was significantly increased in ocular tissues (anterior uvea, posterior uvea, retina, and optic nerve), sciatic nerve, kidney, new granulation tissue, cecum, and brain. 125I-BSA permeation was increased in all of these tissues except brain. Glomerular filtration rate and 24-h urinary albumin excretion were increased 2- and 29-fold, respectively, in diabetic rats. All three aldose reductase inhibitors completely prevented or markedly reduced these hemodynamic and vascular filtration changes and increases in tissue sorbitol levels in the anterior uvea, posterior uvea, retina, sciatic nerve, and granulation tissue. These observations indicate that early diabetes-induced hemodynamic changes and increased vascular albumin permeation and urinary albumin excretion are aldose reductase-linked phenomena. Discordant effects of aldose reductase inhibitors on blood flow and vascular albumin permeation in some tissues suggest that increased vascular albumin permeation is not entirely attributable to hemodynamic change

  14. Species dependence of [{sup 64}Cu]Cu-Bis(thiosemicarbazone) radiopharmaceutical binding to serum albumins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basken, Nathan E. [Division of Nuclear Pharmacy, Department of Industrial and Physical Pharmacy, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)], E-mail: nbasken@purdue.edu; Mathias, Carla J. [Division of Nuclear Pharmacy, Department of Industrial and Physical Pharmacy, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Lipka, Alexander E. [Department of Statistics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Green, Mark A. [Division of Nuclear Pharmacy, Department of Industrial and Physical Pharmacy, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)], E-mail: magreen@purdue.edu

    2008-04-15

    Introduction: Interactions of three copper(II) bis(thiosemicarbazone) positron emission tomography radiopharmaceuticals with human serum albumin, and the serum albumins of four additional mammalian species, were evaluated. Methods: {sup 64}Cu-labeled diacetyl bis(N{sup 4}-methylthiosemicarbazonato)copper(II) (Cu-ATSM), pyruvaldehyde bis(N{sup 4}-methylthiosemicarbazonato)copper(II) (Cu-PTSM) and ethylglyoxal bis(thiosemicarbazonato)copper(II) (Cu-ETS) were synthesized and their binding to human, canine, rat, baboon and porcine serum albumins quantified by ultrafiltration. Protein binding was also measured for each tracer in human, porcine, rat and mouse serum. Results: The interaction of these neutral, lipophilic copper chelates with serum albumin is highly compound- and species-dependent. Cu-PTSM and Cu-ATSM exhibit particularly high affinity for human serum albumin (HSA), while the albumin binding of Cu-ETS is relatively insensitive to species. At HSA concentrations of 40 mg/ml, '% free' (non-albumin-bound) levels of radiopharmaceutical were 4.0{+-}0.1%, 5.3{+-}0.2% and 38.6{+-}0.8% for Cu-PTSM, Cu-ATSM and Cu-ETS, respectively. Conclusions: Species-dependent variations in radiopharmaceutical binding to serum albumin may need to be considered when using animal models to predict the distribution and kinetics of these compounds in humans.

  15. Higher Fasting Plasma Glucose Levels, within the Normal Range, are Associated with Decreased Processing Speed in High Functioning Young Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raizes, Meytal; Elkana, Odelia; Franko, Motty; Ravona Springer, Ramit; Segev, Shlomo; Beeri, Michal Schnaider

    2016-01-01

    We explored the association of plasma glucose levels within the normal range with processing speed in high functioning young elderly, free of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A sample of 41 participants (mean age = 64.7, SD = 10; glucose 94.5 mg/dL, SD = 9.3), were examined with a computerized cognitive battery. Hierarchical linear regression analysis showed that higher plasma glucose levels, albeit within the normal range (levels may have an impact on cognitive function.

  16. 21 CFR 862.1035 - Albumin test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Albumin test system. 862.1035 Section 862.1035....1035 Albumin test system. (a) Identification. An albumin test system is a device intended to measure the albumin concentration in serum and plasma. Albumin measurements are used in the diagnosis and...

  17. The effect of modifiable healthy practices on higher-level functional capacity decline among Japanese community dwellers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rei Otsuka

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to clarify the effects of the accumulation of 8 modifiable practices related to health, including smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activity, sleeping hours, body mass index, dietary diversity, ikigai (life worth living, and health checkup status, on higher-level functional capacity decline among Japanese community dwellers. Data were derived from the National Institute for Longevity Sciences - Longitudinal Study of Aging. Subjects comprised 1269 men and women aged 40 to 79 years at baseline (1997–2000 who participated in a follow-up postal survey (2013. Higher-level functional capacity was measured using the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence (total score and 3 subscales: instrumental self-maintenance, intellectual activity, and social role. The odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence interval (CI for a decline in higher-level functional capacity in the follow-up study according to the total number of healthy practices were analyzed using the lowest category as a reference. Multivariate adjusted ORs (95% CIs for the total score of higher-level functional capacity, which declined according to the total number of healthy practices (0–4, 5–6, 7–8 groups were 1.00 (reference, 0.63 (0.44–0.92, and 0.54 (0.31–0.94. For the score of social role decline, multivariate adjusted ORs (95% CIs were 1.00 (reference, 0.62 (0.40–0.97, and 0.46 (0.23–0.90, respectively (P for trend = 0.04. Having more modifiable healthy practices, especially in social roles, may protect against a decline in higher-level functional capacity among middle-aged and elderly community dwellers in Japan.

  18. The effect of modifiable healthy practices on higher-level functional capacity decline among Japanese community dwellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Rei; Nishita, Yukiko; Tange, Chikako; Tomida, Makiko; Kato, Yuki; Nakamoto, Mariko; Ando, Fujiko; Shimokata, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Takao

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to clarify the effects of the accumulation of 8 modifiable practices related to health, including smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activity, sleeping hours, body mass index, dietary diversity, ikigai (life worth living), and health checkup status, on higher-level functional capacity decline among Japanese community dwellers. Data were derived from the National Institute for Longevity Sciences - Longitudinal Study of Aging. Subjects comprised 1269 men and women aged 40 to 79 years at baseline (1997-2000) who participated in a follow-up postal survey (2013). Higher-level functional capacity was measured using the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence (total score and 3 subscales: instrumental self-maintenance, intellectual activity, and social role). The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for a decline in higher-level functional capacity in the follow-up study according to the total number of healthy practices were analyzed using the lowest category as a reference. Multivariate adjusted ORs (95% CIs) for the total score of higher-level functional capacity, which declined according to the total number of healthy practices (0-4, 5-6, 7-8 groups) were 1.00 (reference), 0.63 (0.44-0.92), and 0.54 (0.31-0.94). For the score of social role decline, multivariate adjusted ORs (95% CIs) were 1.00 (reference), 0.62 (0.40-0.97), and 0.46 (0.23-0.90), respectively (P for trend = 0.04). Having more modifiable healthy practices, especially in social roles, may protect against a decline in higher-level functional capacity among middle-aged and elderly community dwellers in Japan.

  19. Health status among long-term breast cancer survivors suffering from higher levels of fatigue: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Salvago, Francisco; Galiano-Castillo, Noelia; Arroyo-Morales, Manuel; Cruz-Fernández, Mayra; Lozano-Lozano, Mario; Cantarero-Villanueva, Irene

    2018-05-05

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the health status of long-term breast cancer survivors (LTBCS) suffering from higher levels of fatigue, to highlight their needs, and to establish the key points of intervention support programs. A cross-sectional observational study was conducted at the Sport and Health Joint University Institute (iMUDS) between September 2016 and July 2017 with 80 LTBCS that were classified into non-fatigued (≤ 3.9) or fatigued (≥ 4) according to the Piper Fatigue Scale (PFS) total score. The instruments used were the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Core 30 and its breast cancer (BC) module, the Visual Analog Scale (VAS), the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), the Scale for Mood Assessment (EVEA), the International Fitness Scale (IFIS), and the Charlson Comorbidity Index. The analysis revealed that 41.2% of LTBCS were considered moderately fatigued and showed significantly higher levels for the categories of "nausea and vomiting" (P = .005), "pain," "dyspnea" and "insomnia" (P < .001), "appetite loss" (P = .002), "financial difficulties" (P = .010), "systemic therapy side effects" (P < .001), "breast symptoms" and "arm symptoms" (P = .002), and "upset by hair loss" (P = .016). In addition, LTBCS presented significantly higher levels of pain in the affected and non-affected arm, "sadness-depression." "anxiety," "anger/hostility" (All: P < .001), and lower general physical fitness (P < .001). The rest of the variables did not show significant differences. LTBCS suffering from higher levels of fatigue had lower QoL, higher level of pain, worse mood state, and lower physical fitness.

  20. Higher weight, lower education: a longitudinal association between adolescents' body mass index and their subsequent educational achievement level?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Junilla K; Kleinjan, Marloes; Engels, Rutger C M E; Fisher, Jennifer O; Hermans, Roel C J

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between adolescents' body mass index (BMI) z-scores and their subsequent level of schooling, extending previous longitudinal research by using objectively measured weight and height data. A longitudinal study with 3 study waves (1-year intervals) involving 1248 Dutch adolescents (49% girls; mean age = 13.7 years) at schools providing different educational levels was used to determine adolescents who moved and did not move to a lower educational level in the first year, or in the second year, and to examine whether this movement could be predicted by BMI z-scores (zBMI), after controlling for a large range of potential confounding factors. A total of 1164 Dutch adolescents continued in the same level of education, whereas 84 adolescents moved to a lower educational level (43 moved in the first and 41 in the second year). A higher zBMI significantly increased the risk of a general transition to a lower educational level, and of a transition in the first year, but not in the second year, after controlling for potential demographic, behavioral, and psychological confounds. Findings suggest that a higher zBMI during adolescence immediately lowers educational achievement level during general secondary education. © 2014, American School Health Association.

  1. Serum albumin coating of demineralized bone matrix results in stronger new bone formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváthy, Dénes B; Vácz, Gabriella; Szabó, Tamás; Szigyártó, Imola C; Toró, Ildikó; Vámos, Boglárka; Hornyák, István; Renner, Károly; Klára, Tamás; Szabó, Bence T; Dobó-Nagy, Csaba; Doros, Attila; Lacza, Zsombor

    2016-01-01

    Blood serum fractions are hotly debated adjuvants in bone replacement therapies. In the present experiment, we coated demineralized bone matrices (DBM) with serum albumin and investigated stem cell attachment in vitro and bone formation in a rat calvaria defect model. In the in vitro experiments, we observed that significantly more cells adhere to the serum albumin coated DBMs at every time point. In vivo bone formation with albumin coated and uncoated DBM was monitored biweekly by computed tomography until 11 weeks postoperatively while empty defects served as controls. By the seventh week, the bone defect in the albumin group was almost completely closed (remaining defect 3.0 ± 2.3%), while uncoated DBM and unfilled control groups still had significant defects (uncoated: 40.2 ± 9.1%, control: 52.4 ± 8.9%). Higher density values were also observed in the albumin coated DBM group. In addition, the serum albumin enhanced group showed significantly higher volume of newly formed bone in the microCT analysis and produced significantly higher breaking force and stiffness compared to the uncoated grafts (peak breaking force: uncoated: 15.7 ± 4 N, albumin 46.1 ± 11 N). In conclusion, this investigation shows that implanting serum albumin coated DBM significantly reduces healing period in nonhealing defects and results in mechanically stronger bone. These results also support the idea that serum albumin coating provides a convenient milieu for stem cell function, and a much improved bone grafting success can be achieved without the use of exogenous stem cells. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Comparison of Enzymatic and Ultrasonic Extraction of Albumin from Defatted Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo)
Seed Powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Gia Loi; Bui, Thi Hoang Nga; Tran, Thi Thu Tra; Ton, Nu Minh Nguyet; Man Le, Van Viet

    2015-12-01

    In this study, ultrasound- and enzyme-assisted extractions of albumin (water-soluble protein group) from defatted pumpkin ( Cucurbita pepo ) seed powder were compared. Both advanced extraction techniques strongly increased the albumin yield in comparison with conventional extraction. The extraction rate was two times faster in the ultrasonic extraction than in the enzymatic extraction. However, the maximum albumin yield was 16% higher when using enzymatic extraction. Functional properties of the pumpkin seed albumin concentrates obtained using the enzymatic, ultrasonic and conventional methods were then evaluated. Use of hydrolase for degradation of cell wall of the plant material did not change the functional properties of the albumin concentrate in comparison with the conventional extraction. The ultrasonic extraction enhanced water-holding, oil-holding and emulsifying capacities of the pumpkin seed albumin concentrate, but slightly reduced the foaming capacity, and emulsion and foam stability.

  3. Human Albumin Improves Long-Term Behavioral Sequelae After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Through Neurovascular Remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yi; Liu, Wenhua; Zhang, Xiaohao; Wang, Liumin; Xu, Lili; Xiong, Yunyun; Yang, Lian; Sang, Hongfei; Ye, Ruidong; Liu, Xinfeng

    2015-10-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage results in significant long-lasting neurologic sequelae. Here, we investigated whether human albumin improves long-term outcomes in experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage and whether neurovascular remodeling is involved in the protection of albumin. Laboratory investigation. Hospital research laboratory. Male Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats underwent subarachnoid hemorrhage by endovascular perforation. Albumin of either 0.63 or 1.25 g/kg was injected IV immediately after the surgery. Modified Garcia test, beam-walking test, novel object recognition, and Morris water maze were employed to determine the behavioral deficits. The effects of albumin on early neurovascular dysfunction and chronic synaptic plasticity were also studied. Both doses of albumin significantly improved the sensorimotor scores (F = 31.277; p = 0.001) and cognitive performance (F = 7.982; p = 0.001 in novel object recognition test; and F = 3.431; p = 0.026 in the latency analysis of Morris water maze test) for at least 40 days after subarachnoid hemorrhage. There were remarkable microvasculature hypoperfusion, intracranial pressure rise, early vasoconstriction, neural apoptosis, and degeneration in subarachnoid hemorrhage rats, with albumin significantly attenuating such neurovascular dysfunction. Furthermore, albumin markedly prevented blood-brain barrier disruption, as indicated by less blood-brain barrier leakage, preserved blood-brain barrier-related proteins, and dampened gelatinase activities. The expressions of key synaptic elements were up-regulated with albumin supplementation in both acute and chronic phases. Accordingly, a higher dendritic spine density was observed in the prefrontal and hippocampal areas of albumin-treated subarachnoid hemorrhage animals. Albumin at low-to-moderate doses markedly improves long-term neurobehavioral sequelae after subarachnoid hemorrhage, which may involve an integrated process of neurovascular remodeling.

  4. Increased visfatin levels are associated with higher disease activity in anti-Jo-1-positive myositis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulejová, Hana; Kryštůfková, Olga; Mann, Heřman; Klein, Martin; Pavlíčková, Klára; Zámečník, Josef; Vencovský, Jiří; Šenolt, Ladislav

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate serum levels of visfatin in anti-Jo-1-positive myositis patients, its expression in muscle tissue and to investigate potential relationships between visfatin, B-cell activating factor of the TNF family (BAFF), disease activity and anti-Jo-1 autoantibody levels. Serum levels of visfatin and BAFF were measured in 38 anti-Jo-1 positive myositis patients and 35 healthy subjects. Disease activity was evaluated by myositis disease activity assessment tool (MYOACT) using visual analogue scales (VAS) and by serum muscle enzymes. Visfatin expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in muscle tissue of myositis patients (n=10) and compared with non-inflammatory control muscle tissue samples from patients with myasthenia gravis (n=5). Serum visfatin and BAFF levels were significantly higher in myositis patients compared to healthy subjects and were associated with clinical muscle activity assessed by VAS. Only serum BAFF levels, but not visfatin levels, positively correlated with muscle enzyme concentrations and anti-Jo1 antibody levels. There was a positive correlation between visfatin and BAFF serum levels in myositis patients but a negative correlation was observed in healthy subjects. Visfatin expression was up-regulated in endomysial and perimysial inflammatory infiltrates of muscle tissue from myositis patients. Up-regulation of visfatin in myositis muscle tissue and an association between increased visfatin levels and muscle disease activity evaluated by MYOACT in anti-Jo-1 positive myositis patients could support possible role of visfatin in the pathogenesis of myositis.

  5. Does peer learning or higher levels of e-learning improve learning abilities? A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worm, Bjarne Skjødt; Jensen, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims The fast development of e-learning and social forums demands us to update our understanding of e-learning and peer learning. We aimed to investigate if higher, pre-defined levels of e-learning or social interaction in web forums improved students' learning ability. Methods One hundred and twenty Danish medical students were randomized to six groups all with 20 students (eCases level 1, eCases level 2, eCases level 2+, eTextbook level 1, eTextbook level 2, and eTextbook level 2+). All students participated in a pre-test, Group 1 participated in an interactive case-based e-learning program, while Group 2 was presented with textbook material electronically. The 2+ groups were able to discuss the material between themselves in a web forum. The subject was head injury and associated treatment and observation guidelines in the emergency room. Following the e-learning, all students completed a post-test. Pre- and post-tests both consisted of 25 questions randomly chosen from a pool of 50 different questions. Results All students concluded the study with comparable pre-test results. Students at Level 2 (in both groups) improved statistically significant compared to students at level 1 (p>0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between level 2 and level 2+. However, level 2+ was associated with statistically significant greater student's satisfaction than the rest of the students (p>0.05). Conclusions This study applies a new way of comparing different types of e-learning using a pre-defined level division and the possibility of peer learning. Our findings show that higher levels of e-learning does in fact provide better results when compared with the same type of e-learning at lower levels. While social interaction in web forums increase student satisfaction, learning ability does not seem to change. Both findings are relevant when designing new e-learning materials.

  6. Does peer learning or higher levels of e-learning improve learning abilities? A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjarne Skjødt Worm

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims : The fast development of e-learning and social forums demands us to update our understanding of e-learning and peer learning. We aimed to investigate if higher, pre-defined levels of e-learning or social interaction in web forums improved students’ learning ability. Methods : One hundred and twenty Danish medical students were randomized to six groups all with 20 students (eCases level 1, eCases level 2, eCases level 2+, eTextbook level 1, eTextbook level 2, and eTextbook level 2+. All students participated in a pre-test, Group 1 participated in an interactive case-based e-learning program, while Group 2 was presented with textbook material electronically. The 2+ groups were able to discuss the material between themselves in a web forum. The subject was head injury and associated treatment and observation guidelines in the emergency room. Following the e-learning, all students completed a post-test. Pre- and post-tests both consisted of 25 questions randomly chosen from a pool of 50 different questions. Results : All students concluded the study with comparable pre-test results. Students at Level 2 (in both groups improved statistically significant compared to students at level 1 (p>0.05. There was no statistically significant difference between level 2 and level 2+. However, level 2+ was associated with statistically significant greater student's satisfaction than the rest of the students (p>0.05. Conclusions : This study applies a new way of comparing different types of e-learning using a pre-defined level division and the possibility of peer learning. Our findings show that higher levels of e-learning does in fact provide better results when compared with the same type of e-learning at lower levels. While social interaction in web forums increase student satisfaction, learning ability does not seem to change. Both findings are relevant when designing new e-learning materials.

  7. Does peer learning or higher levels of e-learning improve learning abilities? A randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worm, Bjarne Skjødt; Jensen, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims The fast development of e-learning and social forums demands us to update our understanding of e-learning and peer learning. We aimed to investigate if higher, pre-defined levels of e-learning or social interaction in web forums improved students’ learning ability. Methods One hundred and twenty Danish medical students were randomized to six groups all with 20 students (eCases level 1, eCases level 2, eCases level 2+, eTextbook level 1, eTextbook level 2, and eTextbook level 2+). All students participated in a pre-test, Group 1 participated in an interactive case-based e-learning program, while Group 2 was presented with textbook material electronically. The 2+ groups were able to discuss the material between themselves in a web forum. The subject was head injury and associated treatment and observation guidelines in the emergency room. Following the e-learning, all students completed a post-test. Pre- and post-tests both consisted of 25 questions randomly chosen from a pool of 50 different questions. Results All students concluded the study with comparable pre-test results. Students at Level 2 (in both groups) improved statistically significant compared to students at level 1 (p>0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between level 2 and level 2+. However, level 2+ was associated with statistically significant greater student's satisfaction than the rest of the students (p>0.05). Conclusions This study applies a new way of comparing different types of e-learning using a pre-defined level division and the possibility of peer learning. Our findings show that higher levels of e-learning does in fact provide better results when compared with the same type of e-learning at lower levels. While social interaction in web forums increase student satisfaction, learning ability does not seem to change. Both findings are relevant when designing new e-learning materials. PMID:24229729

  8. Pakistanis living in Oslo have lower serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels but higher serum ionized calcium levels compared with ethnic Norwegians. The Oslo Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holvik, Kristin; Meyer, Haakon E; Søgaard, Anne Johanne; Haug, Egil; Falch, Jan A

    2007-01-01

    Background Persons of Pakistani origin living in Oslo have a much higher prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and secondary hyperparathyroidism but similar bone mineral density compared with ethnic Norwegians. Our objective was to investigate whether Pakistani immigrants living in Oslo have an altered vitamin D metabolism by means of compensatory higher serum levels of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (s-1,25(OH)2D) compared with ethnic Norwegians; and whether serum levels of ionized calcium (s-Ca2+) differ between Pakistanis and Norwegians. Methods In a cross-sectional, population-based study venous serum samples were drawn from 94 Pakistani men and 67 Pakistani women aged 30–60 years, and 290 Norwegian men and 270 Norwegian women aged 45–60 years; in total 721 subjects. Results Pakistanis had lower s-1,25(OH)2D compared with Norwegians (p Oslo with low vitamin D status and secondary hyperparathyroidism have lower s-1,25(OH)2D compared with ethnic Norwegians. However, the Pakistanis have higher s-Ca2+. The cause of the higher s-Ca2+ in Pakistanis in spite of their higher iPTH remains unclear. PMID:17945003

  9. Different Levels in Orexin Concentrations and Risk Factors Associated with Higher Orexin Levels: Comparison between Detoxified Opiate and Methamphetamine Addicts in 5 Chinese Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoran Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to explore the degree of orexin levels in Chinese opiate and methamphetamine addicts and the differences between them. The cross-sectional study was conducted among detoxified drug addicts from Mandatory Detoxification Center (MDC in five Chinese cities. Orexin levels were assayed with radioimmunoassay (RIA. Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskal-Wallis test were used to detect differences across groups, and logistic regression was used to explore the association between orexin levels and characteristics of demographic and drug abuse. Between November 2009 and January 2011, 285 opiates addicts, 112 methamphetamine addicts, and 79 healthy controls were enrolled. At drug withdrawal period, both opiate and methamphetamine addicts had lower median orexin levels than controls, and median orexin levels in opiate addicts were higher than those in methamphetamine addicts (all above P<0.05. Adjusted odds of the above median concentration of orexin were higher for injection than “chasing the dragon” (AOR = 3.1, 95% CI = 1.2–7.9. No significant factors associated with orexin levels of methamphetamine addicts were found. Development of intervention method on orexin system by different administration routes especially for injected opiate addicts at detoxification phase may be significant and was welcome.

  10. Evaluation of measures of urinary albumin excretion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gansevoort, Ronald T.; Brinkman, Jacoline; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; De Jong, Paul E.; de Zeeuw, Dick

    2006-01-01

    Albuminuria has recently drawn much attention as a valuable risk marker for cardiovascular and renal disease progression. Albuminuria can be measured and expressed in several ways: 1) in a spot morning urine sample as urinary albumin concentration (mg/liter) or albumin:creatinine ratio (mg/mmol) and

  11. Fibrinogen adsorption on blocked surface of albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, Maria; Hou, Xiaolin

    2011-05-01

    We have investigated the adsorption of albumin and fibrinogen onto PET (polyethylene terephthalate) and glass surfaces and how pre-adsorption of albumin onto these surfaces can affect the adsorption of later added fibrinogen. For materials and devices being exposed to blood, adsorption of fibrinogen is often a non-wanted event, since fibrinogen is part of the clotting cascade and unspecific adsorption of fibrinogen can have an influence on the activation of platelets. Albumin is often used as blocking agent for avoiding unspecific protein adsorption onto surfaces in devices designed to handle biological samples, including protein solutions. It is based on the assumption that proteins adsorbs as a monolayer on surfaces and that proteins do not adsorb on top of each other. By labelling albumin and fibrinogen with two different radioactive iodine isotopes that emit gamma radiation with different energies, the adsorption of both albumin and fibrinogen has been monitored simultaneously on the same sample. Information about topography and coverage of adsorbed protein layers has been obtained using AFM (Atomic Force Microscopy) analysis in liquid. Our studies show that albumin adsorbs in a multilayer fashion on PET and that fibrinogen adsorbs on top of albumin when albumin is pre-adsorbed on the surfaces. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Inhibition of macrophage oxidative stress prevents the reduction of ABCA-1 transporter induced by advanced glycated albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Pinto, Raphael; Castilho, Gabriela; Paim, Bruno Alves; Machado-Lima, Adriana; Inada, Natalia M; Nakandakare, Edna Regina; Vercesi, Aníbal Eugênio; Passarelli, Marisa

    2012-05-01

    We investigated the role of aminoguanidine and benfotiamine on the inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in macrophages induced by advanced glycated albumin (AGE-albumin) and its relationship with cell cholesterol homeostasis, emphasizing the expression of the ATP binding cassette transporter A-1 (ABCA-1). AGE-albumin was made by incubating fatty acid-free albumin with 10 mM glycolaldehyde. ROS production and ABCA-1 protein level were determined by flow cytometry in J774 macrophages treated along time with control (C) or AGE-albumin alone or in the presence of aminoguanidine or benfotiamine. Mitochondrial function was evaluated by oxygraphy. Compared to C-albumin, AGE-albumin increased ROS production in macrophages, which was ascribed to the activities of NADPH oxidase and of the mitochondrial system. Mitochondrial respiratory chain activity was reduced in cells incubated with AGE-albumin. ROS generation along time was associated with the reduction in macrophage ABCA-1 protein level. Aminoguanidine prevented ROS elevation and restored the ABCA-1 content in macrophages; on the other hand, benfotiamine that promoted a lesser reduction in ROS generation was not able to restore ABCA-1 levels. Inhibition of oxidative stress induced by AGE-albumin prevents disturbances in reverse cholesterol transport by curbing the reduction of ABCA-1 elicited by advanced glycation in macrophages and therefore may contribute to the prevention of atherosclerosis in diabetes mellitus.

  13. Adult age differences in prospective memory in the laboratory: are they related to higher stress levels in the elderly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihle, Andreas; Kliegel, Matthias; Hering, Alexandra; Ballhausen, Nicola; Lagner, Prune; Benusch, Julia; Cichon, Anja; Zergiebel, Annekathrin; Oris, Michel; Schnitzspahn, Katharina M

    2014-01-01

    To explain age deficits found in laboratory-based prospective memory (PM) tasks, it has recently been suggested that the testing situation per se may be more stressful for older adults, thereby impairing their performance. To test this assumption, subjective and physiological stress levels were assessed at several times during the experiment in 33 younger and 29 older adults. In addition, half of participants were randomized in a condition where they completed a relaxation intervention before performing a time-based PM task. Results confirmed the age deficit in laboratory PM. Subjective and physiological stress levels showed no age difference and no detrimental association with PM. The intervention successfully reduced stress levels in both age groups but had no effect on PM or the age deficit. In conclusion, data suggest that age deficits usually observed in laboratory PM may not be due to higher stress levels in the older adults.

  14. [Application of Ischemia Modified Albumin for Acute Ischemic Heart Disease in Forensic Science].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, P; Zhu, Z L; Zhu, N; Yu, H; Yue, Q; Wang, X L; Feng, C M; Wang, C L; Zhang, G H

    2017-10-01

    To explore the application value and forensic significance of ischemia modified albumin (IMA) in pericardial fluid to diagnose sudden cardiac death. IMA level in pericardial fluid was detected in acute ischemic heart disease group ( n =36), acute myocardial infarction group ( n =6), cardiomyopathy group ( n =4) and control group ( n =15) by albumin cobalt binding method. The levels of IMA were compared among these groups. The best cut-off IMA value was estimated and the sensitivity and specificity of acute myocardial ischemia group was distinguished from control group by receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve. The IMA level in acute ischemic heart disease group was significantly higher than that of control group ( P 0.05). The cut-off value for the identification of acute myocardial ischemia which obtained by ROC analysis was 40.65 U/mL. And the sensitivity and specificity for distinguishing acute ischemia cardiac disease was 60.0% and 80.5%, respectively. The IMA value in pericardial fluid can be a reference marker for the diagnosis of acute myocardial ischemia, which also can provide objective basis for the forensic identification of sudden cardiac death. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Forensic Medicine

  15. Pressure pain threshold and β-endorphins plasma level are higher in lean polycystic ovary syndrome women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiałka, Marta; Milewicz, Tomasz; Mrozińska, Sandra; Rogatko, Iwona; Sztefko, Krystyna; Majewska, Renata

    2017-12-01

    Despite some evidence that indicates that the evolution of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is related to the activity of the endogenous opioid system, and that concentration of plasma β-endorphin levels can increase pain threshold, there are no studies which evaluate pressure pain threshold in the PCOS women population. In 48 lean women with PCOS and 38 lean women without this disorder plasma β-endorphins and PPT were measured. The β-endorphins level was higher in the PCOS group compared to the controls (15.28±2.49 pg/mL vs. 6.33±1.71 pg/mL, PPCOS group PPTs measured on deltoid and trapezius muscles were higher compared to the controls (9.33±1.3 kg/cm² vs. 5.19±0.57 kg/cm², PPCOS group. Increase in β-endorphin level of 1 pg/mL was associated with increase of PPT value on deltoid muscle of 0.23 kg/cm² (R=0.632, P=0.011) and of 0.18 kg/cm² on trapezius muscle (R=0.588, P=0.037). There were no correlations between testosterone level and PPT in PCOS group. β-endorphin serum level as well as PPT are higher in lean PCOS group than in controls. We found correlations between β-endorphin levels and PPT in the PCOS group. It may suggest the role of endogenous opioids in the pathogenesis of PCOS and also that the increases in circulating plasma β-endorphins concentration can increases PPT in this group.

  16. In Vitro Effect of Lysozyme on Albumin Deposition to Hydrogel Contact Lens Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaei Omali, Negar; Subbaraman, Lakshman N; Heynen, Miriam; Fadli, Zohra; Coles-Brennan, Chantal; Jones, Lyndon W

    2017-11-01

    Albumin deposition on contact lenses could be detrimental to contact lens (CL) wear because this may increase the risk of bacterial binding and reduce comfort. Lysozyme deposition on selected lens materials would reduce albumin deposition on lenses. This study aims to determine if lysozyme deposition on CLs could act as a barrier against subsequent albumin adsorption, using an in vitro model. Six hydrogel CL materials (etafilcon A, polymacon, nelfilcon A, omafilcon A, ocufilcon B, and nesofilcon A) were evaluated. Four CLs of each type were soaked in lysozyme solution for 16 hours at 37°C. Lysozyme-coated lenses were then placed in vials with 1.5 mL of artificial tear solution containing I-labeled albumin for 16 hours at 37°C with shaking. Four uncoated lenses of each type were used as controls. Lenses soaked in radiolabeled albumin were rinsed in a phosphate-buffered saline solution, and radioactive counts were measured directly on lenses using a gamma counter. Albumin uptake on lenses was measured using a calibration curve by plotting radioactive counts versus protein concentration. Results are reported as mean ± SD. Lysozyme-coated etafilcon A lenses exhibited lower levels of deposited albumin than uncoated etafilcon A lenses (58 ± 12 vs. 84 ± 5 ng/lens; P albumin adsorption between control (uncoated) and lysozyme-coated polymacon (105 ± 10 vs. 110 ± 34 ng/lens), nelfilcon A (51 ± 7 vs. 42 ± 20 ng/lens), omafilcon A (90 ± 20 vs. 80 ± 38 ng/lens), ocufilcon B (87 ± 20 vs. 115 ± 50 ng/lens), and nesofilcon A (170 ± 29 vs. 161 ± 10 ng/lens) lens materials (P > .05). Uncoated nesofilcon A lenses deposited the highest amount of albumin when compared with other uncoated lenses (P albumin, which may potentially be beneficial to CL wearers.

  17. Adrenocortical Production Is Associated with Higher Levels of Luteinizing Hormone in Nonobese Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Tock

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Insulin resistance (IR and ovarian and adrenal hyperandrogenism are a common finding in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS. The aim of the present study was to access possible differences in insulin resistance, gonadotropins, and androgens production in obese and nonobese PCOS women. Study Design. We studied 37 PCOS women (16 nonobese and 21 obese and 18 nonobese controls. Fasting glucose, insulin, androgens, and gonadotropins levels were determined. Salivary cortisol was measured basal and in the morning after dexamethasone (DEX 0.25 mg. Results. Nonobese PCOS women showed higher basal salivary cortisol and serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and luteinizing hormone (LH levels than controls and obese PCOS. These hormones levels did not differ between the obese and control groups. After DEX administration no differences were found between the three groups. In PCOS women, salivary cortisol levels showed negative correlation with BMI (r=-0.52; P=0.001 and insulin (r=-0.47; P=0.003 and positive correlation with LH (r=0.40; P=0.016. Conclusion. Our results show an increased adrenocortical production in nonobese PCOS women, not related to IR and associated with a normal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal suppression. Higher LH levels might be involved in this event.

  18. A higher level of education amplifies the inverse association between income and disability in the Spanish elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abellán, Antonio; Rodríguez-Laso, Ángel; Pujol, Rogelio; Barrios, Laura

    2015-12-01

    This paper aims to estimate if the education level modifies the association of income with disability prevalence in the elderly. Education can have a confounding effect on income or interact with it as a health determinant. It is important to analyze the relationship between socio-economic status and disability in older people, because it helps to better understand health inequalities and organize appropriate social policies. The study is based on the Survey on Disability, Personal Autonomy and Dependency Situations (Spanish National Statistics Institute). Binary logistic regression models are adjusted (bivariate, adjusted for gender and age, with all variables and with the interaction between income and education levels). A bad adjustment of the model is detected and a scobit link is added, which helps to differentiate disabled and non-disabled individuals better. People with difficulty in carrying out activities of daily living are much older, frequently women and with low education and income levels. The significant interaction between education level and income means that the odds of being disabled is 43% less in people of high income compared with people of low income if they are well educated, while it is only 21%, among those with low education. A higher education level amplifies significantly the inverse association between income and disability in the Spanish elderly, what suggests that those with higher education will profit more than those with lower education from universal economic benefits policies aimed at the disabled, increasing health inequalities between groups.

  19. Analyzing of the self reported ICT literacy level of Slovakian and Serbian Students in the higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiss Gabor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The students generally use technology for communication in the European Union and outside of the Union. First of all we have to see in this research the ICT knowledge level of the students in the higher education to make decision about the application and retraining methods. It is important to know can we find any difference in ICT literacy between the Slovakian and the Serbian students to see how long is the way to finish the ICT revolution in these countries. On the other hand is it important to see which topic need more attention from the teachers in the high school to give a good knowledge for the student before they go in the higher education. We measured the ICT literacy level with a tool consisting of 15 items (Likert scaled. The data analysis was performed with SPSS software using descriptive statistics and Mann-Whitney test.

  20. Fucoidan cytotoxicity against human breast cancer T47D cell line increases with higher level of sulfate ester group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saepudin, Endang; Alfita Qosthalani, Fildzah; Sinurat, Ellya

    2018-01-01

    The anticancer activity of different sulfate ester group content in different molecular weight was examined. The anticancer activity was achieved in vitro on human breast cancer T47D cell line. Fucoidan with lower molecular weight (5.79 kDa) tends to have lower sulfate ester group content (8.69%) and resulted in higher IC50 value (184.22 μg/mL). While fucoidan with higher molecular weight (785.12 kDa) tends to have higher sulfate level (18.63%) and achieved lower IC50 value (75.69 μg/mL). The result showed that in order to maintain fucoidan cytotoxic activity against human breast cancer T47D cell line, the sulfate content should be remain high. Keywords: fucoidan, sulfate ester group, human breast cancer

  1. Fibrinogen adsorption on blocked surface of albumin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmberg, Maria; Hou, Xiaolin

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated the adsorption of albumin and fibrinogen onto PET (polyethylene terephthalate) and glass surfaces and how pre-adsorption of albumin onto these surfaces can affect the adsorption of later added fibrinogen. For materials and devices being exposed to blood, adsorption...... of fibrinogen is often a non-wanted event, since fibrinogen is part of the clotting cascade and unspecific adsorption of fibrinogen can have an influence on the activation of platelets. Albumin is often used as blocking agent for avoiding unspecific protein adsorption onto surfaces in devices designed to handle...... energies, the adsorption of both albumin and fibrinogen has been monitored simultaneously on the same sample. Information about topography and coverage of adsorbed protein layers has been obtained using AFM (Atomic Force Microscopy) analysis in liquid. Our studies show that albumin adsorbs in a multilayer...

  2. Development of ELISA kit for rat albumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Zhigang; Han Shiquan; Liu Yibing; Xu Wenge; Jia Juanjuan

    2009-01-01

    The Anti-rat albumin serum was prepared by immunized the sheep with rat albumin. A ELISA method was established for rat albumin. The measurement range of the assay was 1-50 mg/L, sensitivity of the assay was 0.42 mg/L, recovery rate was 85.0%-106.0%. Intra-and inter-assay variation coefficients were <8.9% and <12.8% respectively. The correlation coefficients between measured and expected values were 0.999 after serial dilution of the urine samples with high concentrations of rat albumin. A good correlation was observed between the ELISA and RIA methods, and the kit for rat albumin might provide a convenience in exploitation of renal drugs and experimental injury of the kidney. (authors)

  3. Association between sarcopenia and higher-level functional capacity in daily living in community-dwelling elderly subjects in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimoto, Yoshimi; Watanabe, Misuzu; Sun, Wei; Sugiura, Yumiko; Tsuda, Yuko; Kimura, Motoshi; Hayashida, Itsushi; Kusabiraki, Toshiyuki; Kono, Koichi

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the association between sarcopenia, defined by muscle mass, muscle strength, and physical performance, and higher-level functional capacity in community-dwelling Japanese elderly people. Subjects were 1158 elderly, community-dwelling Japanese people aged 65 or older. We used bioelectrical impedance analysis to measure muscle mass, grip strength to measure muscle strength, and usual walking speed to measure physical performance. Sarcopenia was characterized by low muscle mass, plus low muscle strength or low physical performance. Subjects without low muscle mass, low muscle strength, and low physical performance were classified as "normal." Examination of higher-level functional capacity was performed using the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence (TMIG-IC). The TMIG-IC is a 13-item questionnaire completed by the subject; it contains five questions on self-maintenance and four questions each on intellectual activity and social role. Sarcopenia was identified in 11.3% and 10.7% of men and women, respectively. The percentage of disability for instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) was 39.0% in men with sarcopenia and 30.6% in women with sarcopenia. After adjustment for age, in men, sarcopenia was significantly associated with IADL disability compared with intermediate and normal subjects. In women, sarcopenia was significantly associated with every subscale of the TMIG-IC disability compared with intermediate and normal subjects. This study revealed that sarcopenia, defined by muscle mass, muscle strength, and physical performance, had a significant association with disability in higher-level functional capacity in elderly Japanese subjects. Interventions to prevent sarcopenia may prevent higher-level functional disability among elderly people. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cross-age mentoring to support A-level pupils’ transition into Higher Education and undergraduate students’ employability

    OpenAIRE

    James, Alana I.

    2014-01-01

    Two challenges identified for psychology higher education are supporting entry students’ transition, and supporting graduates’ transition into employment. The evaluation of the first phase of a cross-age mentoring action research project targeting these issues is presented; eight psychology undergraduates mentored 20 A-level psychology pupils in two schools. Mentors showed significant increases in two of nine psychological literacies, in self-efficacy but not self-esteem, were highly satisfie...

  5. Identification of tissue sites for increased albumin degradation in sarcoma-bearing mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, C.; Iresjoe, B.M.L.; Lundholm, K.

    1991-01-01

    Plasma albumin concentration declines in both experimental and clinical cancer. Previous investigations have demonstrated that this is partly explained by increased breakdown of albumin. The present study has identified the tissue sites for increased albumin degradation in a nonmetastasizing sarcoma mouse (C57/BL6J) model. Results have been compared to nontumor-bearing animals either freely fed or food restricted (pair-weighed) so that their body composition was similar to tumor-bearing animals. Tumor-bearing mice had increased albumin degradation (0.13 +/- 0.02 mg/hr/g bw) compared to both freely fed (0.09 +/- 0.007) and pair-weighed control animals (0.05 +/- 0.008). Radioactivity from circulating [3H]raffine aldehyde labeled albumin appeared with maximum peak values in lysosomes isolated from both tumor and nontumor tissues at 48 hr following iv injection. The intralysosomal accumulation of radioactivity was two- to threefold higher in tumor tissue compared to liver tissue, although the specific activity of protease(s) for albumin degradation measured in vitro was not higher in tumor tissue (30.4 +/- 3.6 mg/hr/g tissue) compared to normal liver tissue (36.9 +/- 1.7). Accounting for the entire tumor the proteolytic capacity for albumin breakdown was however much larger in the tumor (161.6 +/- 32.6 mg/organ) compared to both normal liver (37.5 +/- 2.3) and tumor-host liver (56.4 +/- 2.8). Pepstatin inhibited 78 +/- 6% of the proteolytic activity in the tumor measured by 125I-labeled undenatured mouse albumin as the substrate. Leupeptin inhibited 49 +/- 6%. There was a significantly decreased breakdown of albumin in both skeletal muscles and the gastrointestinal tract from tumor-bearing animals

  6. A gross anatomy flipped classroom effects performance, retention, and higher-level thinking in lower performing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Leslie J

    2018-01-22

    A flipped classroom is a growing pedagogy in higher education. Many research studies on the flipped classroom have focused on student outcomes, with the results being positive or inconclusive. A few studies have analyzed confounding variables, such as student's previous achievement, or the impact of a flipped classroom on long-term retention and knowledge transfer. In the present study, students in a Doctor of Physical Therapy program in a traditional style lecture of gross anatomy (n = 105) were compared to similar students in a flipped classroom (n = 112). Overall, students in the flipped anatomy classroom had an increase in semester average grades (P = 0.01) and performance on higher-level analytical questions (P flipped anatomy classroom performing at a higher level in kinesiology (P flipped anatomy class, outperformed their traditional anatomy class counterparts in anatomy semester grades (P flipped classroom may benefit lower performing student's knowledge acquisition and transfer to a greater degree than higher performing students. Future studies should explore the underlying reasons for improvement in lower performing students. Anat Sci Educ. © 2018 American Association of Anatomists. © 2018 American Association of Anatomists.

  7. Association between the extent of urinary albumin excretion and glycaemic variability indices measured by continuous glucose monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, S-M; Kim, T-H; Oh, S; Baek, J; Joung, J Y; Park, S-M; Cho, Y Y; Sohn, S Y; Hur, K Y; Lee, M-S; Lee, M-K; Kim, J H

    2015-02-01

    The contribution of glycaemic variability to the microvascular complication of diabetes has not been established. We examined whether there is an independent association between indices of glycaemic variability in continuous glucose monitoring and extent of albuminuria. A total of 173 patients with Type 2 diabetes (without insulin therapy, n = 96; with insulin therapy, n = 77) who had unexplained large fluctuations in blood glucose values underwent three-day continuous glucose monitoring. We used a multinomial logistic regression model to determine whether the indices of glycaemic variability independently affected the odds of having a spot urine albumin/creatinine ratio of 30-299 mg/g and ≥ 300 mg/g. Higher standard deviation (P = 0.002), mean of daily differences (P = 0.023) and mean amplitude of glycaemic excursion (P = 0.043) significantly increased the odds of having a urine albumin/creatinine ratio of ≥ 300 mg/g. In multivariable analysis, only higher standard deviation, but not mean amplitude of glycaemic excursion and mean of daily differences, independently increased the odds of having a urine albumin/creatinine ratio of ≥ 300 mg/g (P = 0.025). Coefficient of variation (sd/mean) was not associated with the odds of having a urine albumin/creatinine ratio of 30-299 or ≥ 300 mg/g. The independent association between standard deviation and the extent of albuminuria was lost when the measures were normalized by mean glucose level. At least in terms of relative measures of glycaemic variability, we failed to demonstrate an independent association between glycaemic variability and albuminuria extent in patients with inadequately controlled Type 2 diabetes. © 2014 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2014 Diabetes UK.

  8. Preparation of albumin radioimmunoassay kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Suoshu; Wang Yanzhen; Wang Zhenshan

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents the preparation of Albumin (Alb) radioimmunoassay kit and its preliminary clinical application. The kit is mainly applied to the measurement of Alb concentration in human urine, adopting second antibody-PEG method. The measurement range is (1-50 μg/ml). The curve obtained with a serially diluted urine sample of high Alb concentration was a straight line. Recovery, detectability, intra- and inter-batch variation coefficients were 95.7%-103.6%, 0.1 μg/ml, 5.8% and 6.4% respectively. The kit was tried out clinically for measuring Alb in urine samples in about 1200 normal individuals and 600 various patients of related renal diseases. The preliminary clinical results show that Alb RIA is conducive to the early diagnosis of kidney function abnormalities

  9. In-gel detection of esterase-like albumin activity: Characterization of esterase-free sera albumin and its putative role as non-invasive biomarker of hepatic fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Areeba Ahmad

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Albumin is a globular and un-glycosylated multifunctional plasma protein and thus correlated with several human diseases. Owing to esterase contamination, albumin levels are usually misleading. In this study, we propose methodical accuracy for albumin estimation taking healthy and fibrotic rats. Liver fibrosis in rats was generated by N′-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA (10 mg/kg body weight within three weeks followed by its confirmation through H&E and immunohistochemical staining for α-SMA expression. Animal sera were screened by native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (native-PAGE (7.5%. In-gel esterase-like albumin activity was detected using α- and β-naphthyl acetate (5.58 × 10−3 mM; pH 7.5 as substrate. Sera albumin was purified from unstained PA gel-slices through electroelution. Subsequent to conformation of albumin purity by its molecular weight determination using SDS–PAGE (10% and peptide mass fingerprinting by MALDI-TOF-MS, samples were treated with different concentrations of urea. Urea-treated albumins were screened for esterase activity, conformational change and, albumin levels by immunoblotting. Our results demonstrate that esterase-like albumin activity in rat sera albumin is located in domain-III. The esterase-like activity remains detectable up to 4 M urea, which diminishes with increasing urea concentrations. Further, immunoblotting of urea-treated albumin samples displays a significant decline in purified protein bands, indicating hypoalbuminemia during hepatic fibrosis in rats. In conclusion, the present approach of albumin separation and estimation is of potential interest and may be recommended for diagnostic purposes.

  10. Buoyancy-activated cell sorting using targeted biotinylated albumin microbubbles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ren Liou

    Full Text Available Cell analysis often requires the isolation of certain cell types. Various isolation methods have been applied to cell sorting, including fluorescence-activated cell sorting and magnetic-activated cell sorting. However, these conventional approaches involve exerting mechanical forces on the cells, thus risking cell damage. In this study we applied a novel isolation method called buoyancy-activated cell sorting, which involves using biotinylated albumin microbubbles (biotin-MBs conjugated with antibodies (i.e., targeted biotin-MBs. Albumin MBs are widely used as contrast agents in ultrasound imaging due to their good biocompatibility and stability. For conjugating antibodies, biotin is conjugated onto the albumin MB shell via covalent bonds and the biotinylated antibodies are conjugated using an avidin-biotin system. The albumin microbubbles had a mean diameter of 2 μm with a polydispersity index of 0.16. For cell separation, the MDA-MB-231 cells are incubated with the targeted biotin-MBs conjugated with anti-CD44 for 10 min, centrifuged at 10 g for 1 min, and then allowed 1 hour at 4 °C for separation. The results indicate that targeted biotin-MBs conjugated with anti-CD44 antibodies can be used to separate MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells; more than 90% of the cells were collected in the MB layer when the ratio of the MBs to cells was higher than 70:1. Furthermore, we found that the separating efficiency was higher for targeted biotin-MBs than for targeted avidin-incorporated albumin MBs (avidin-MBs, which is the most common way to make targeted albumin MBs. We also demonstrated that the recovery rate of targeted biotin-MBs was up to 88% and the sorting purity was higher than 84% for a a heterogenous cell population containing MDA-MB-231 cells (CD44(+ and MDA-MB-453 cells (CD44-, which are classified as basal-like breast cancer cells and luminal breast cancer cells, respectively. Knowing that the CD44(+ is a commonly used cancer

  11. Remission of depression following electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is associated with higher levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Thiago Fernando Vasconcelos; Fleck, Marcelo Pio de Almeida; da Rocha, Neusa Sica

    2016-03-01

    Research on the association between electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and increased brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels has produced conflicting result. There have been few studies which have evaluated BDNF levels in clinical contexts where there was remission following treatment. The objective of this study was to investigate whether remission of depression following ECT is associated with changes in BDNF levels. Adult inpatients in a psychiatric unit were invited to participate in this naturalistic study. Diagnoses were made using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) and symptoms were evaluated at admission and discharge using the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HDRS-17). Thirty-one patients who received a diagnosis of depression and were subjected to ECT were included retrospectively. Clinical remission was defined as a score of less than eight on the HDRS-17 at discharge. Serum BDNF levels were measured in blood samples collected at admission and discharge with a commercial kit used in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. Subjects HDRS-17 scores improved following ECT (t = 13.29; p = 0.00). A generalized estimating equation (GEE) model revealed a remission × time interaction with BDNF levels as a dependent variable in a Wald chi-square test [Wald χ(2) = 5.98; p = 0.01]. A post hoc Bonferroni test revealed that non-remitters had lower BDNF levels at admission than remitters (p = 0.03), but there was no difference at discharge (p = 0.16). ECT remitters had higher serum BDNF levels at admission and the level did not vary during treatment. ECT non-remitters had lower serum BDNF levels at admission, but levels increased during treatment and were similar to those of ECT remitters at discharge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The association between parity, infant gender, higher level of paternal education and preterm birth in Pakistan: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaikh Kiran

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High rates of antenatal depression and preterm birth have been reported in Pakistan. Self reported maternal stress and depression have been associated with preterm birth; however findings are inconsistent. Cortisol is a biological marker of stress and depression, and its measurement may assist in understanding the influence of self reported maternal stress and depression on preterm birth. Methods In a prospective cohort study pregnant women between 28 to 30 weeks of gestation from the Aga Khan Hospital for Women and Children completed the A-Z Stress Scale and the Centre for Epidemiology Studies Depression Scale to assess stress and depression respectively, and had a blood cortisol level drawn. Women were followed up after delivery to determine birth outcomes. Correlation coefficients and Wilcoxon rank sum test was used to assess relationship between preterm birth, stress, depression and cortisol. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the key factors predictive of preterm birth. Results 132 pregnant women participated of whom 125 pregnant women had both questionnaire and cortisol level data and an additional seven had questionnaire data only. Almost 20% of pregnant women (19·7%, 95% CI 13·3-27·5 experienced a high level of stress and nearly twice as many (40·9%, 95% CI 32·4-49·8% experienced depressive symptoms. The median of cortisol level was 27·40 ug/dl (IQR 22·5-34·2. The preterm birth rate was 11·4% (95% CI 6·5-18. There was no relationship between cortisol values and stress scale or depression. There was a significant positive relationship between maternal depression and stress. Preterm birth was associated with higher parity, past delivery of a male infant, and higher levels of paternal education. Insufficient numbers of preterm births were available to warrant the development of a multivariable logistic regression model. Conclusions Preterm birth was associated with higher parity, past delivery

  13. The association between parity, infant gender, higher level of paternal education and preterm birth in Pakistan: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Kiran; Premji, Shahirose S; Rose, Marianne S; Kazi, Ambreen; Khowaja, Shaneela; Tough, Suzanne

    2011-11-02

    High rates of antenatal depression and preterm birth have been reported in Pakistan. Self reported maternal stress and depression have been associated with preterm birth; however findings are inconsistent. Cortisol is a biological marker of stress and depression, and its measurement may assist in understanding the influence of self reported maternal stress and depression on preterm birth. In a prospective cohort study pregnant women between 28 to 30 weeks of gestation from the Aga Khan Hospital for Women and Children completed the A-Z Stress Scale and the Centre for Epidemiology Studies Depression Scale to assess stress and depression respectively, and had a blood cortisol level drawn. Women were followed up after delivery to determine birth outcomes. Correlation coefficients and Wilcoxon rank sum test was used to assess relationship between preterm birth, stress, depression and cortisol. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the key factors predictive of preterm birth. 132 pregnant women participated of whom 125 pregnant women had both questionnaire and cortisol level data and an additional seven had questionnaire data only. Almost 20% of pregnant women (19·7%, 95% CI 13·3-27·5) experienced a high level of stress and nearly twice as many (40·9%, 95% CI 32·4-49·8%) experienced depressive symptoms. The median of cortisol level was 27·40 ug/dl (IQR 22·5-34·2). The preterm birth rate was 11·4% (95% CI 6·5-18). There was no relationship between cortisol values and stress scale or depression. There was a significant positive relationship between maternal depression and stress. Preterm birth was associated with higher parity, past delivery of a male infant, and higher levels of paternal education. Insufficient numbers of preterm births were available to warrant the development of a multivariable logistic regression model. Preterm birth was associated with higher parity, past delivery of a male infant, and higher levels of paternal education. There

  14. The relationship of nitric oxide synthesis capacity, oxidative stress, and albumin-to-creatinine ratio in black and white men: the SABPA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mels, Catharina M C; Huisman, Hugo W; Smith, Wayne; Schutte, Rudolph; Schwedhelm, Edzard; Atzler, Dorothee; Böger, Rainer H; Ware, Lisa J; Schutte, Aletta E

    2016-02-01

    Inadequate substrate availability and increased nitric oxide synthase inhibitor levels attenuate nitric oxide (NO) synthesis, whereas increased vascular oxidative stress may lead to inactivation of NO. We compared markers of NO synthesis capacity and oxidative stress in a bi-ethnic male population. Inter-relationships of ambulatory blood pressure and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio with NO synthesis capacity and oxidative stress markers were investigated. NO synthesis capacity markers (L-arginine, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA)) and oxidative stress markers (serum peroxides, total glutathione, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase) were measured. Black men displayed higher blood pressure and albumin-to-creatinine ratio (all p creatinine ratio. In white men, albumin-to-creatinine ratio was positively associated with ADMA (R (2) = 0.18; β = 0.39; p creatinine ratio displayed a favorable NO synthesis capacity. This may be counteracted by increased inactivation of NO, although it was not linked to vascular or renal phenotypes. In white men, reduced NO synthesis capacity may lower NO bio-availability, thereby influencing the albumin-to-creatinine ratio.

  15. Effect of the conditions of isolation on the physicochemical properties of human serum albumin in the norm and with pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, A. I.; Zhbankov, R. G.; Korolenko, E. A.; Korolik, E. V.; Meleshchenko, L. A.; Sarnatskaya, V. V.; Nikolaev, V. G.; Nikolaichik, V. V.; Yushko, L. A.

    1997-01-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry and IR spectrosocopy were used to investigate the effect of the procedure of isolation of human serum albumin on its physicochemical characteristics. It is shown that fractionation of blood plasma with ethylene glycol followed by ion exchange chromatography can be used to obtain albumin of normal donors that is similar to the albumin in the nonfractionated plasma according to melting thermograms. Endotherms of human serum albumin samples that were obtained by affinity chromatography and preparative electrophoresis are bimodal, unlike the monophasic for albumin obtained by polyethylene glycol precipitation. These changes result from a higher content of nonetherified fatty acids in the albumin samples obtained by affinity chromatography and from modification of the secondary protein structure in the samples obtained by electrophoresis. Analysis of melting thermograms of serum albumin from patients with uremia, chronic hepatitis, and peritonitis shows that fractionation of blood with polyethylene glycol preserves the thermodynamic characteristics of the various pathological serum albumins to the greatest extent. The present results demonstrate the advantage of polyethylene glycol fractionation for isolation of native preparations of normal and “pathological” human serum albumin.

  16. Molecular responses during cadmium-induced stress in Daphnia magna: Integration of differential gene expression with higher-level effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soetaert, Anneleen [Department of Biology, Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)]. E-mail: anneleen.soetaert@ua.ac.be; Vandenbrouck, Tine [Department of Biology, Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Ven, Karlijn van der [Department of Biology, Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Maras, Marleen [Department of Biology, Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Remortel, Piet van [Department of Mathematics and Informatics, Intelligent Systems Laboratory, University of Antwerp, Middelheimlaan 1, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Blust, Ronny [Department of Biology, Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Coen, Wim M. de [Department of Biology, Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2007-07-20

    DNA microarrays offer great potential in revealing insight into mechanistic toxicity of contaminants. The aim of the present study was (i) to gain insight in concentration- and time-dependent cadmium-induced molecular responses by using a customized Daphnia magna microarray, and (ii) to compare the gene expression profiles with effects at higher levels of biological organization (e.g. total energy budget and growth). Daphnids were exposed to three cadmium concentrations (nominal value of 10, 50, 100 {mu}g/l) for two time intervals (48 and 96 h). In general, dynamic expression patterns were obtained with a clear increase of gene expression changes at higher concentrations and longer exposure duration. Microarray analysis revealed cadmium affected molecular pathways associated with processes such as digestion, oxygen transport, cuticula metabolism and embryo development. These effects were compared with higher-level effects (energy budgets and growth). For instance, next to reduced energy budgets due to a decline in lipid, carbohydrate and protein content, we found an up-regulated expression of genes related to digestive processes (e.g. {alpha}-esterase, cellulase, {alpha}-amylase). Furthermore, cadmium affected the expression of genes coding for proteins involved in molecular pathways associated with immune response, stress response, cell adhesion, visual perception and signal transduction in the present study.

  17. Ischemia-modified albumin use as a prognostic factor in coronary bypass surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanko Muhip

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various types of markers have been used so far in order to reveal myocardial perfusion defect. However, these markers usually appear in the necrosis phase or in the late stage. Having been the focus of various investigations recently, ischemia-modified albumin (IMA is helpful in establishing diagnosis in the early stages of ischemia, before necrosis develops. Methods and Results 30 patients that underwent only coronary bypass surgery due to ischemic heart disease within a specific period of time have been included in the study. IMA levels were studied in the preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative periods. The albumin cobalt binding assay was used for IMA determination. Hemodynamic parameters (atrial fibrillation, the need for inotropic support, ventricular arrhythmia of the patients in the postoperative stage were evaluated. Intraoperative measurement values (mean ± SD of IMA (0.67677 ± 0.09985 were statistically significantly higher than those in the preoperative (0.81516 ± 0.08894 and postoperative (0.70477 ± 0.07523 measurements. Considering atrial fibrillation and need for inotropics, a parallelism was detected with the levels of IMA. Conclusions IMA is an early-rising marker of cardiac ischemia and enables providing a direction for the treatment at early phases.

  18. Urine Albumin-Creatinine Ratio Versus Albumin Excretion for Albuminuria Staging: A Prospective Longitudinal Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vart, Priya; Scheven, Lieneke; Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo J; de Jong, Paul E; de Zeeuw, Dick; Gansevoort, Ron T

    2016-01-01

    New guidelines advocate the use of albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) in a urine sample instead of 24-hour urinary albumin excretion (UAE) for staging albuminuria. Concern has been expressed that this may result in misclassification for reasons including interindividual differences in urinary creatinine excretion. Prospective longitudinal cohort study. We examined 7,623 participants of the PREVEND and RENAAL studies for reclassified when using ACR instead of 24-hour UAE, the characteristics of reclassified participants, and their outcomes. Albuminuria was categorized into 3 ACR and UAE categories: 300mg/g or mg/24 h, respectively. Baseline ACR and 24-hour UAE. Cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality and all-cause mortality. When using ACR in the early morning void instead of 24-hour UAE, 88% of participants were classified in corresponding albuminuria categories. 307 (4.0%) participants were reclassified to a higher, and 603 (7.9%), to a lower category. Participants who were reclassified to a higher ACR category in general had a worse CV risk profile compared with nonreclassified participants, whereas the reverse was true for participants reclassified to a lower ACR category. Similarly, Cox proportional hazards regression analyses showed that reclassification to a higher ACR category was associated with a tendency for increased risk for CV morbidity and mortality and all-cause mortality, whereas reclassification to a lower ACR category was associated with a tendency for lower risk. Net reclassification improvement, adjusted for age, sex, and duration of follow-up, was 0.107 (P=0.002) for CV events and 0.089 (Phigh agreement between early morning void ACR and 24-hour UAE categories. Reclassification is therefore limited, but when present, is generally indicative of the presence of CV risk factors and prognosis. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Albumin for End-Stage Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Albumin has been widely used in patients with cirrhosis in an attempt to improve circulatory and renal functions. The benefits of albumin infusions in preventing the deterioration in renal function associated with large-volume paracentesis, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, and established hepatorenal syndrome in conjunction with a vasoconstrictor are well established. While some of these indications are supported by the results of randomized studies, others are based only on clinical experience and have not been proved in prospective studies. The paucity of well-designed trials, the high cost of albumin, the lack of a clear-cut survival benefit, and fear of transmitting unknown infections make the use of albumin controversial. The recent development of the molecular adsorbent recirculating system, an albumin dialysis, is an example of the capacity of albumin to act by mechanisms other than its oncotic effect. Efforts should be made to define the indications for albumin use, the dose required, and predictors of response, so that patients gain the maximum benefit from its administration. PMID:22403494

  20. Serum uric acid concentration is associated with early changes of glomerular filtration rate in patients with diabetes type 1 without increased albumin excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaleniak, Sebastian; Korzeniewska-Dyl, Irmina; Moczulski, Dariusz

    2014-10-01

    The early loss of renal function in patients with type 1 diabetes may begin before proteinuria. Only 30% of patients with diabetes manifest overt proteinuria. According to the previous studies, increased urinary albumin excretion, which is considered a classic marker of progression of diabetic kidney disease, can regress to normal urine albumin excretion. The current studies conducted in patients with type 1 diabetes without increased urine albumin excretion showed that the uric acid concentration was an independent factor for the development of diabetic kidney disease. The aim of study was to assess the impact of uric acid concentration and to identify risk factors of the early glomerular filtration loss in patients with type 1 diabetes and normal urinary albumin excretion. 147 patients (61 women and 86 men) with type 1 diabetes without increased urine albumin excretion were analysed. GFR (gromerular filtration rate) was estimated based on the serum cystatin C concentration. Centile charts were used to determine the variation of uric acid concentration depending on GFR and gender. The mean value of the filtration rate for the study group was 117 ml/min/m2. The uric acid level above 90th percentile in relation to GFR was diagnosed in 8.2% of women and 0% of men, between 90th and 50th percentile in 44.3 % of women and 5.8% of men and below 50th percentile in 47.5% of women and 94.2% of men. Contrary to men in women higher serum acid concentration was strongly associated with higher glomerular filtration rate. Hyperfiltraion was diagnosed in 15 of women and 19 of men. The high normal uric acid concentration in women with type 1 diabetes might play a crucial role in development of hyperfiltration.

  1. Radiolabeling Of Albumin Particles With Yttrium-90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Thi Thu; Nguyen Thi Khanh Giang; Bui Van Cuong, Vo Thi Cam Hoa

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the process of the radiolabeling of microaggregated albumin particles with radionuclide Yttrium-90 using the directed method. The albumin microsphere kit was prepared in sodium phosphate buffer. The original solution includes 2 mg albumin particle and 0.5 mg stannous chloride dihydrate. The albumin particles size was ranged from 5 ?m to 30 ?m. The mixture was washed three times with phosphate buffer saline, pH 7.2 by centrifugation and suspended in 0.5 M sodium acetate buffer, pH 6. Yttrium - 90 in 1.0 M acetic acid was collected from 90 Sr/ 90 Y generator. The labeling of the particles with Y-90 (185 MBq) was performed at pH 5.5 in acetate buffer with agitating for 60 min at room temperature. The labeled albumin suspensions were centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 15 min. Labeling yields was calculated using centrifugation, filtration and compared with paper chromatography, which is developed in the Tris Acetic EDTA. In this system, the unbound of Y-90 migrates to an R f of 0.9-1.0 and the radiolabeled albumin particles remains at the point of origin (R f = 0). The size of 90 Y-albumin particles was compared with the albumin particles in the original solution to be sure that they did not change during the labeling treatment. The radiolabeling yields were more than 80%. The labeled compound was dialysis in phosphate buffer. The radiochemical purity was 98%. The 90 Y- albumin is an ideal radiopharmaceutical for potential use in malignant cancer treatment as brachytherapy. (author)

  2. Cellular energy allocation in zebra mussels exposed along a pollution gradient: linking cellular effects to higher levels of biological organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolders, R.; Bervoets, L.; Coen, W. de; Blust, R.

    2004-01-01

    Organisms exposed to suboptimal environments incur a cost of dealing with stress in terms of metabolic resources. The total amount of energy available for maintenance, growth and reproduction, based on the biochemical analysis of the energy budget, may provide a sensitive measure of stress in an organism. While the concept is clear, linking cellular or biochemical responses to the individual and population or community level remains difficult. The aim of this study was to validate, under field conditions, using cellular energy budgets [i.e. changes in glycogen-, lipid- and protein-content and mitochondrial electron transport system (ETS)] as an ecologically relevant measurement of stress by comparing these responses to physiological and organismal endpoints. Therefore, a 28-day in situ bioassay with zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) was performed in an effluent-dominated stream. Five locations were selected along the pollution gradient and compared with a nearby (reference) site. Cellular Energy Allocation (CEA) served as a biomarker of cellular energetics, while Scope for Growth (SFG) indicated effects on a physiological level and Tissue Condition Index and wet tissue weight/dry tissue weight ratio were used as endpoints of organismal effects. Results indicated that energy budgets at a cellular level of biological organization provided the fastest and most sensitive response and energy budgets are a relevant currency to extrapolate cellular effects to higher levels of biological organization within the exposed mussels. - Exposure of zebra mussels along a pollution gradient has adverse effects on the cellular energy allocation, and results can be linked with higher levels of biological organization

  3. Cellular energy allocation in zebra mussels exposed along a pollution gradient: linking cellular effects to higher levels of biological organization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smolders, R.; Bervoets, L.; Coen, W. de; Blust, R

    2004-05-01

    Organisms exposed to suboptimal environments incur a cost of dealing with stress in terms of metabolic resources. The total amount of energy available for maintenance, growth and reproduction, based on the biochemical analysis of the energy budget, may provide a sensitive measure of stress in an organism. While the concept is clear, linking cellular or biochemical responses to the individual and population or community level remains difficult. The aim of this study was to validate, under field conditions, using cellular energy budgets [i.e. changes in glycogen-, lipid- and protein-content and mitochondrial electron transport system (ETS)] as an ecologically relevant measurement of stress by comparing these responses to physiological and organismal endpoints. Therefore, a 28-day in situ bioassay with zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) was performed in an effluent-dominated stream. Five locations were selected along the pollution gradient and compared with a nearby (reference) site. Cellular Energy Allocation (CEA) served as a biomarker of cellular energetics, while Scope for Growth (SFG) indicated effects on a physiological level and Tissue Condition Index and wet tissue weight/dry tissue weight ratio were used as endpoints of organismal effects. Results indicated that energy budgets at a cellular level of biological organization provided the fastest and most sensitive response and energy budgets are a relevant currency to extrapolate cellular effects to higher levels of biological organization within the exposed mussels. - Exposure of zebra mussels along a pollution gradient has adverse effects on the cellular energy allocation, and results can be linked with higher levels of biological organization.

  4. Higher levels of cardiovascular fitness are associated with better executive function and prefrontal oxygenation in younger and older women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier eDupuy

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Many studies have suggested that physical exercise training improves cognition and more selectively executive functions. There is a growing interest to clarify the neurophysiological mechanisms that underlie this effect. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the neurophysiological changes in cerebral oxygenation associated with physical fitness level and executive functions. Method: In this study, 22 younger and 36 older women underwent a maximal graded continuous test (i.e., O2max in order to classifyassign them into a fitness group (higher vs. lower fit. All participants completed neuropsychological paper and pencil testing and a computerized Stroop task (which contained executive and non-executive conditions in which the change in pPrefrontal cortex oxygenation change was evaluated in all participants with a near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS. system during a computerized Stroop task (which contains executive and non-executive conditions. Results: Our findings revealed a Fitness x Condition interaction (p < .05 such that higher fit women scored better on measures of executive functions than lower fit women. In comparison to lower fit women, higher fit women had faster reaction times in the switching (executiveExecutive condition of the computerized Stroop task. No significant effect was observed ion the non-executive condition of the test and no interactions were found with age. In measures of cerebral oxygenation (ΔHbT and ΔHbO2, we found a main effect of fitness on cerebral oxygenation during the Stroop task such that only high fit women demonstrated a significant increase in the right inferior frontal gyrus. Discussion/Conclusion:Higher fit individuals who demonstrate better cardiorespiratory functions (as measured by O2max show faster reaction times and greater cerebral oxygenation in the right inferior frontal gyrus than women with lower fitness levels. The lack of interaction with age, suggests that good

  5. Drug binding properties of neonatal albumin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, R; Honoré, B

    1989-01-01

    Neonatal and adult albumin was isolated by gel chromatography on Sephacryl S-300, from adult and umbilical cord serum, respectively. Binding of monoacetyl-diamino-diphenyl sulfone, warfarin, sulfamethizole, and diazepam was studied by means of equilibrium dialysis and the binding data were analyzed...... by the method of several acceptable fitted curves. It was found that the binding affinity to neonatal albumin is less than to adult albumin for monoacetyl-diamino-diphenyl sulfone and warfarin. Sulfamethizole binding to the neonatal protein is similarly reduced when more than one molecule of the drug is bound...

  6. Transport of 125I-albumin across normal and deendothelialized rabbit thoracic aorta in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, C.A.; Colton, C.K.; Smith, K.A.; Stemerman, M.B.; Lees, R.S.

    1984-01-01

    Transmural concentration profiles of 125 I-albumin in vivo were measured across the normal and balloon catheter-deendothelialized rabbit descending thoracic aorta as a function of time following intravenous injection. A tracer was injected 5 or 60 minutes after deendothelialization, and the animals were sacrificed after circulation times of 10, 30 or 60 minutes. The aorta was immediately excised and frozen flat between glass slides. Samples were serially sectioned parallel to the intimal surface in a refrigerated microtome, washed with trichloroacetic acid (TCA), and counted. Relative tissue concentration profiles of TCA-precipitable radioactivity from the media of control animals showed entry from both luminal and adventitial sides, as previously found with conscious normal rabbits, but spatial gradients at both luminal and medial-adventitial borders were less steep. Relative concentration levels in ballooned animals were 10- to 40-fold higher than in controls, and the profiles were flatter. Uptake rates at equivalent circulation times were greater in experiments initiated 60 minutes, as compared with 5 minutes, after deendothelialization, suggesting that progressive medial edema may have occurred following balloon injury. These results show that the intact endothelium is the dominant mass transfer resistance for 125 I-albumin transport across the aortic wall. The data also suggest that the incomplete monolayer of platelets adherent to the subendothelium after balloon deendothelialization is not a substantial resistance to transport, as compared to that of the media, and that convection plays a more important role than diffusion for 125 I-albumin transport across the deendothelialized aortic wall

  7. Association between urinary albumin excretion and intraocular pressure in type 2 diabetic patients without renal impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin A Choi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To assess the relationship between urinary albumin excretion and intraocular pressure (IOP in type 2 diabetes patients without renal impairment. METHODS: We explored the effects of albuminuria on high IOP in 402 non-glaucomatous type 2 diabetes without renal impairment who participated in the 2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between log-transformed albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR tertiles and an IOP of ≥ 18 mmHg after adjusting for age, gender, hypertension, body mass index, triglycerides, area of residence, and education level. RESULTS: Subjects with a high IOP ≥ 18 mmHg were more likely to be current smokers (P = 0.038, heavy drinkers (P = 0.006, and to have high systolic blood pressure (P = 0.016, triglycerides (P = 0.008, and a higher log-transformed ACR (P = 0.022.In multivariate regression analysis, ACR tertile was associated with the prevalence of high IOP significantly (P = 0.022. The associations between ACR tertiles and high IOP were significant in overweight patients and those with abdominal obesity (P = 0.003 and 0.003, respectively. In contrast, there were no associations in the subgroup of patients who were not overweight and those without abdominal obesity (P = 0.291 and 0.561, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Urinary albumin excretion is associated with high IOP in the type 2 diabetes population without renal insufficiency. The effect of the albuminuria on IOP was evident in a subgroup of patients with components of metabolic syndrome.

  8. Early Identification of the Patient with Endotheliopathy of Trauma by Arrival Serum Albumin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez, Erika Gonzalez; Cardenas, Jessica C; Lopez, Ernesto

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Traumatic endotheliopathy (EoT) is associated with glycocalyx breakdown and capillary leak resulting in the extravasation of proteins. We hypothesized that lower serum albumin levels are associated with EoT, poor outcomes, and can be used for early EoT screening in trauma patients. MET...... with leakage of albumin from the intravascular compartment, which reemphasizes that arrival albumin may be a novel and timely approach to the identification of patients needing endothelial rescue therapy.......OBJECTIVE: Traumatic endotheliopathy (EoT) is associated with glycocalyx breakdown and capillary leak resulting in the extravasation of proteins. We hypothesized that lower serum albumin levels are associated with EoT, poor outcomes, and can be used for early EoT screening in trauma patients....... METHODS: We enrolled severely injured trauma patients with serum albumin levels available on admission. Syndecan-1 and soluble thrombomodulin were quantified from plasma by ELISA. Demographic and clinical data were obtained. We evaluated the association of serum albumin and EoT+ (syndecan-1 level ≥40 ng...

  9. Albumin Suppresses Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Proliferation and the Cell Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunsuke Nojiri

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Many investigations have revealed that a low recurrence rate of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is associated with high serum albumin levels in patients; therefore, high levels of serum albumin are a major indicator of a favorable prognosis. However, the mechanism inhibiting the proliferation of HCC has not yet been elucidated, so we investigated the effect of serum albumin on HCC cell proliferation. Hep3B was cultured in MEM with no serum or containing 5 g/dL human albumin. As control samples, Prionex was added to generate the same osmotic pressure as albumin. After 24-h incubation, the expressions of α-fetoprotein (AFP, p53, p21, and p57 were evaluated with real-time PCR using total RNA extracted from the liver. Protein expressions and the phosphorylation of Rb (retinoblastoma were determined by Western blot analysis using total protein extracted from the liver. For flow cytometric analysis of the cell cycle, FACS analysis was performed. The percentages of cell cycle distribution were evaluated by PI staining, and all samples were analyzed employing FACScalibur (BD with appropriate software (ModFit LT; BD. The cell proliferation assay was performed by counting cells with using a Scepter handy automated cell counter (Millipore. The mRNA levels of AFP relative to Alb(−: Alb(−, Alb(+, and Prionex, were 1, 0.7 ± 0.2 (p < 0.001 for Alb(−, and 1 ± 0.3, respectively. The mRNA levels of p21 were 1, 1.58 ± 0.4 (p = 0.007 for Alb(− and p = 0.004 for Prionex, and 0.8 ± 0.2, respectively. The mRNA levels of p57 were 1, 4.4 ± 1.4 (p = 0.002 for Alb(− and Prionex, and 1.0 ± 0.1, respectively. The protein expression levels of Rb were similar in all culture media. The phosphorylation of P807/811 and P780 of Rb protein was reduced in Alb(+. More cells in the G0/G1 phase and fewer cells in S and G2/M phases were obtained in Alb(+ than in Alb(− (G0/G1: 60.9%, 67.7%, 61.5%; G2/M: 16.5%, 13.1%, 15.6%; S: 22.6%, 19.2%, 23.0%, Alb(−, Alb

  10. THE FEEDING AND PHYSICAL GROWTH OF THE SCHOOL CHILDREN WITH THE HIGHER LEVEL OF THE BONE TISSUE MINERALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.Yu. Vishnevetskaya

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes feeding organization and quality for the children aged between 10 and 16 with the higher level of the bone tissue mineralization. The authors noted down the radical excess of the ration calorie content together with the excess of the protein and especially fat components. The researchers revealed the reduced content of the main vitamins, which contributes to the increase of the bone tissue mineralization levels among children and change in their morphofunctional status with the obesity development. in the given situation, it is necessary to speak of the ration correction according to the main components and distribution of its daily calorie content, as well as the ration supplements by introducing missing vitamins, which the polyvitaminic complexes may prove to be a good alternative to.Key words: children, bone tissue mineralization, food ration, vitamins.

  11. Effects of soybean resistance on variability in life history traits of the higher trophic level parasitoid Meteorus pulchricornis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X; Li, B; Xing, G; Meng, L

    2017-02-01

    To extrapolate the influence of plant cultivars varying in resistance levels to hosts on parasitoid life history traits, we estimated variation in parasitoid developmental and reproductive performances as a function of resistance in soybean cultivars, which were randomly chosen from a line of resistant genotypes. Our study showed that the parasitoid Meteorus pulchricornis varied widely in offspring survival and lifetime fecundity, but varied slightly in development time and adult body size, in response to the soybean cultivars that varied in resistance to the host Spodoptera litura. Furthermore, the variability in survival and lifetime fecundity was different between attacking the 2nd and the 4th instar host larvae, varying more in survival but less in lifetime fecundity when attacking the 4th than 2nd instar larvae. Our study provides further evidence supporting that plant resistance to herbivorous hosts have variable effects on different life history traits of higher trophic level parasitoids.

  12. Heart transplant centers with multidisciplinary team show a higher level of chronic illness management - Findings from the International BRIGHT Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cajita, Maan Isabella; Baumgartner, Eva; Berben, Lut; Denhaerynck, Kris; Helmy, Remon; Schönfeld, Sandra; Berger, Gabriele; Vetter, Christine; Dobbels, Fabienne; Russell, Cynthia L; De Geest, Sabina

    The objectives of this study were to: (1) explore the proportion of HTx centers that have a multidisciplinary team and (2) assess the relationship between multidisciplinarity and the level of chronic illness management (CIM). The International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation (ISHLT) recommends a multidisciplinary approach in heart transplant (HTx) follow-up care but little is known regarding the proportion of HTx centers that meet this recommendation and the impact on patient care. HTx centers with a multidisciplinary team may offer higher levels of CIM, a care model that has the potential to improve outcomes after HTx. We conducted a secondary analysis of the BRIGHT study, a cross-sectional study in 11 countries. Multidisciplinarity in the 36 HTx centers was assessed through HTx director reports and was defined as having a team that was composed of physician(s), nurse(s), and another healthcare professional (either a social worker, psychiatrist, psychologist, pharmacist, dietician, physical therapist, or occupational therapist). CIM was assessed with the Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care (PACIC). Multiple linear regression assessed the relationship between multidisciplinarity and the level of CIM. Twenty-nine (80.6%) of the HTx centers had a multidisciplinary team. Furthermore, multidisciplinarity was significantly associated with higher levels of CIM (β = 5.2, P = 0.042). Majority of the HTx centers follows the ISHLT recommendation for a multidisciplinary approach. Multidisciplinarity was associated with CIM and point toward a structural factor that needs to be in place for moving toward CIM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A DSC study of zinc binding to bovine serum albumin (BSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANJA OSTOJIC

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The thermal denaturation of bovine serum albumin (BSA is a kinetically and thermodynamically controlled process. The effects of zinc binding to bovine serum albumin (BSA, followed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, were investigated in this work, with the purpose of obtaining a better understanding of the albumin/zinc interaction. From the DSC curves, the thermodynamic parameters of protein denaturation were obtained, i.e., the temperature of thermal transition maximum (Tm, calorimetric enthalpy (DHcal, van't Hoff enthalpy (DHvH, the number of binding sites (I, II, the binding constants for each binding site (KbI, KbII and the average number of ligands bound per mole of native protein XN. The thermodynamic data of protein unfolding showed that zinc binding to bovine serum albumin increases the stability of the protein (higher values of DHcal and the different ratio DHcal/DHvH indicates the perturbation of the protein during thermal denaturation.

  14. Human Albumin Fragments Nanoparticles as PTX Carrier for Improved Anti-cancer Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Ge

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available For enhanced anti-cancer performance, human serum albumin fragments (HSAFs nanoparticles (NPs were developed as paclitaxel (PTX carrier in this paper. Human albumins were broken into fragments via degradation and crosslinked by genipin to form HSAF NPs for better biocompatibility, improved PTX drug loading and sustained drug release. Compared with crosslinked human serum albumin NPs, the HSAF-NPs showed relative smaller particle size, higher drug loading, and improved sustained release. Cellular and animal results both indicated that the PTX encapsulated HSAF-NPs have shown good anti-cancer performance. And the anticancer results confirmed that NPs with fast cellular internalization showed better tumor inhibition. These findings will not only provide a safe and robust drug delivery NP platform for cancer therapy, but also offer fundamental information for the optimal design of albumin based NPs.

  15. Is low serum albumin associated with postoperative complications in patients undergoing oesophagectomy for oesophageal malignancies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Sean L; De Silva, Ramesh P; Dhital, Kumud; Gett, Rohan M

    2015-01-01

    A best evidence topic was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was: in patients undergoing oesophagectomy for oesophageal malignancy, is low serum albumin associated with postoperative complications? Altogether, 87 papers were found using the reported search, of which 16 demonstrated the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes and results of these papers are tabulated. This paper includes 2 level 2 papers, 12 level 3 papers and 2 level 4 papers. All the papers compared either all or some of the following postoperative complications: mortality, morbidity, anastomotic leak, respiratory and non-respiratory complications, and length of hospital stay. Eleven of the 16 papers found an association between low serum albumin and postoperative complications. Of these, one study showed that low serum albumin combined with low fibrinogen levels (FA score) was predictive of postoperative recurrence of oesophageal cancer. Another study showed that when combined with white cell count and C-reactive protein (CRP, NUn score), serum albumin had a high diagnostic accuracy for major complications after postoperative day 3. The largest study compared the in-hospital mortality in 7227 patients who underwent oesophageal surgery for malignancy. The percentage of in-hospital mortality was associated with low serum albumin (35.0 g/l, 21.0 vs 11.3%, P papers found no significant association between low serum albumin and postoperative complications. Of these papers, one showed that low serum albumin was not an independent risk factor, while four others found no association between low serum albumin with respiratory complications, anastomotic leak and postoperative mortality. Instead, these studies found other factors responsible for postoperative complications such as: CRP, smoking, disease duration, malnutrition and low T-cell levels. Taken together

  16. STATE LEVEL MECHANISMS FOR LEARNING FROM WHISTLEBLOWING CASES AT INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION IN THE UNITED STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R. Schmidt

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available State level mechanisms for soliciting, validating, and learning from whistleblower claims of fraud, theft, or misconduct against public colleges and universities are explored in four US states: California, Massachusetts, Michigan, and Ohio. Sequential public information requests were used to understand the methods that were used in each state, the types of claims that each state experienced, and to understand their processes for learning from such claims. The types of claims, breadth of scope that the claims span, and disposition of the claims is used to characterize each state’s approach and compare and contrast results with other states in the sample. There was a wide variation in responses and approaches used in each state. Varying from no information solicited or maintained (Michigan to full histories that include case level detail (Ohio, excellent multi-year case tracking and reporting (California to the voluminous tracking of every property loss or damage in every institution (Massachusetts. An organic rubric is developed and used to compare and contrast the responses and service level provided by each of the states. Although anonymous whistleblower claims are essential to the governance and administration of higher education, state level mechanisms vary widely in their approaches to administering this process and ensuring better future outcomes. Establishing a standard based upon best practices would ensure that institutions are making the best use of all information available to them to improve their immunity from employee fraud and theft and misconduct.

  17. Higher direct bilirubin levels during mid-pregnancy are associated with lower risk of gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chaoqun; Zhong, Chunrong; Zhou, Xuezhen; Chen, Renjuan; Wu, Jiangyue; Wang, Weiye; Li, Xiating; Ding, Huisi; Guo, Yanfang; Gao, Qin; Hu, Xingwen; Xiong, Guoping; Yang, Xuefeng; Hao, Liping; Xiao, Mei; Yang, Nianhong

    2017-01-01

    Bilirubin concentrations have been recently reported to be negatively associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus. We examined the association between bilirubin concentrations and gestational diabetes mellitus. In a prospective cohort study, 2969 pregnant women were recruited prior to 16 weeks of gestation and were followed up until delivery. The value of bilirubin was tested and oral glucose tolerance test was conducted to screen gestational diabetes mellitus. The relationship between serum bilirubin concentration and gestational weeks was studied by two-piecewise linear regression. A subsample of 1135 participants with serum bilirubin test during 16-18 weeks gestation was conducted to research the association between serum bilirubin levels and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus by logistic regression. Gestational diabetes mellitus developed in 8.5 % of the participants (223 of 2969). Two-piecewise linear regression analyses demonstrated that the levels of bilirubin decreased with gestational week up to the turning point 23 and after that point, levels of bilirubin were increased slightly. In multiple logistic regression analysis, the relative risk of developing gestational diabetes mellitus was lower in the highest tertile of direct bilirubin than that in the lowest tertile (RR 0.60; 95 % CI, 0.35-0.89). The results suggested that women with higher serum direct bilirubin levels during the second trimester of pregnancy have lower risk for development of gestational diabetes mellitus.

  18. Cellular energy allocation in zebra mussels exposed along a pollution gradient: linking cellular effects to higher levels of biological organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolders, R; Bervoets, L; De Coen, W; Blust, R

    2004-05-01

    Organisms exposed to suboptimal environments incur a cost of dealing with stress in terms of metabolic resources. The total amount of energy available for maintenance, growth and reproduction, based on the biochemical analysis of the energy budget, may provide a sensitive measure of stress in an organism. While the concept is clear, linking cellular or biochemical responses to the individual and population or community level remains difficult. The aim of this study was to validate, under field conditions, using cellular energy budgets [i.e. changes in glycogen-, lipid- and protein-content and mitochondrial electron transport system (ETS)] as an ecologically relevant measurement of stress by comparing these responses to physiological and organismal endpoints. Therefore, a 28-day in situ bioassay with zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) was performed in an effluent-dominated stream. Five locations were selected along the pollution gradient and compared with a nearby (reference) site. Cellular Energy Allocation (CEA) served as a biomarker of cellular energetics, while Scope for Growth (SFG) indicated effects on a physiological level and Tissue Condition Index and wet tissue weight/dry tissue weight ratio were used as endpoints of organismal effects. Results indicated that energy budgets at a cellular level of biological organization provided the fastest and most sensitive response and energy budgets are a relevant currency to extrapolate cellular effects to higher levels of biological organization within the exposed mussels.

  19. Individuals with autism have higher 8-Iso-PGF2α levels than controls, but no correlation with quantitative assay of Paraoxonase 1 serum levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop, Bianca; Niculae, Alexandru-Ștefan; Pop, Tudor Lucian; Răchișan, Andreea Liana

    2017-12-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) represents a very large set of neurodevelopmental issues with diverse clinical outcomes. Various hypotheses have been put forth for the etiology of autism spectrum disorder, including issues pertaining to oxidative stress. In this study, we conducted measurements of serum 8-Iso-Prostaglanding F2 α (8-iso-PGF2α, which is the results of non-enzimatically mediated polyunsaturated fatty acid oxidation) in a population of individuals with autism and a control group of age and sex matched controls. A quantitative assay of Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) was conducted. Data regarding comorbidities, structural MRI scans, medication, intelligence quotient (IQ) and Childhood Autism Rating Scale scores (CARS) were also included in our study. Our results show that patients diagnosed with autism have higher levels of 8-iso-PGF2α than their neurotypical counterparts. Levels of this particular metabolite, however, do not correlate with quantitative serum levels of Paraoxonase 1, which has been shown to be altered in individuals with autism. Neither 8-iso-PGF2α nor quantitative levels of PON1 provide any meaningful correlation with clinical or neuroimaging data in this study group. Future research should focus on providing data regarding PON 1 phenotype, in addition to standard quantitative measurements, in relation to 8-iso-PGF2α as well as other clinical and structural brain findings.

  20. Persistent human Borna disease virus infection modifies the acetylome of human oligodendroglia cells towards higher energy and transporter levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xia [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Forensic Medicine, Institute of Forensic Science, Ministry of Justice, Shanghai 200063 (China); Liu, Siwen [Institute of Neuroscience and the Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Bode, Liv [Institute of Neuroscience and the Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Liu, Chengyu [Institute of Neuroscience and the Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Zhang, Liang [Institute of Neuroscience and the Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Wang, Xiao [Institute of Neuroscience and the Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Li, Dan [Department of Pathology, Faculty of Basic Medicine, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Lei, Yang [Department of Internal Medicine, University-Town Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Peng, Xiaojun [Jingjie PTM BioLab (Hangzhou) Co. Ltd, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Cheng, Zhongyi [Advanced Institute of Translational Medicine, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); and others

    2015-11-15

    Background: Borna disease virus (BDV) is a neurotropic RNA virus persistently infecting mammalian hosts including humans. Lysine acetylation (Kac) is a key protein post-translational modification (PTM). The unexpectedly broad regulatory scope of Kac let us to profile the entire acetylome upon BDV infection. Methods: The acetylome was profiled through stable isotope labeling for cell culture (SILAC)-based quantitative proteomics. The quantifiable proteome was annotated using bioinformatics. Results: We identified and quantified 791 Kac sites in 473 Kac proteins in human BDV Hu-H1-infected and non-infected oligodendroglial (OL) cells. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that BDV infection alters the acetylation of metabolic proteins, membrane-associated proteins and transmembrane transporter activity, and affects the acetylation of several lysine acetyltransferases (KAT). Conclusions: Upon BDV persistence the OL acetylome is manipulated towards higher energy and transporter levels necessary for shuttling BDV proteins to and from nuclear replication sites. - Highlights: • We used SILAC-based proteomics to analyze the acetylome of BDV infected OL cells. • We quantified 791Kac sites in 473 proteins. • Bioinformatic analysis revealed altered acetylation of metabolic proteins et al. • BDV manipulates the OL acetylome towards higher energy and transporter levels. • BDV infection is associated with enriched phosphate-associated metabolic processes.

  1. The motivation paradox: higher psychosocial problem levels in severely mentally ill patients are associated with less motivation for treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Cornelis L; Jochems, E; Kortrijk, H E

    2014-04-01

    Lack of motivation for treatment makes a subgroup of patients with severe mental illness (SMI) difficult to engage in psychiatric treatment. Such difficult-to-engage patients may also be the most in need of treatment. We hypothesized that the level of psychosocial problems would be inversely related to motivation for treatment. Cross-sectional study in two independent samples. The first sample (n = 294) included SMI patients who participated in a randomized controlled trial and were assessed using the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales (HoNOS) and self-rated and clinician-rated motivation-for-treatment scales. The second sample (n = 1,170) included SMI patients who were treated in Assertive Outreach Teams and were routinely assessed with the HoNOS and a motivation-for-treatment scale. In both samples, patients also self-rated their quality of life. In both samples, patients with HoNOS scores of 16 and higher had lower motivation scores on all motivation scales than patients with lower HoNOS scores, and also a lower quality of life. A motivation paradox seems inherent to this association between higher psychosocial problems levels, less motivation for treatment, and lower quality of life. Such a paradox has clinical relevance, as it may provide an ethical basis for outreach services which aim to engage marginally motivated SMI patients with severe psychosocial problems into mental health care.

  2. Persistent human Borna disease virus infection modifies the acetylome of human oligodendroglia cells towards higher energy and transporter levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xia; Liu, Siwen; Bode, Liv; Liu, Chengyu; Zhang, Liang; Wang, Xiao; Li, Dan; Lei, Yang; Peng, Xiaojun; Cheng, Zhongyi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Borna disease virus (BDV) is a neurotropic RNA virus persistently infecting mammalian hosts including humans. Lysine acetylation (Kac) is a key protein post-translational modification (PTM). The unexpectedly broad regulatory scope of Kac let us to profile the entire acetylome upon BDV infection. Methods: The acetylome was profiled through stable isotope labeling for cell culture (SILAC)-based quantitative proteomics. The quantifiable proteome was annotated using bioinformatics. Results: We identified and quantified 791 Kac sites in 473 Kac proteins in human BDV Hu-H1-infected and non-infected oligodendroglial (OL) cells. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that BDV infection alters the acetylation of metabolic proteins, membrane-associated proteins and transmembrane transporter activity, and affects the acetylation of several lysine acetyltransferases (KAT). Conclusions: Upon BDV persistence the OL acetylome is manipulated towards higher energy and transporter levels necessary for shuttling BDV proteins to and from nuclear replication sites. - Highlights: • We used SILAC-based proteomics to analyze the acetylome of BDV infected OL cells. • We quantified 791Kac sites in 473 proteins. • Bioinformatic analysis revealed altered acetylation of metabolic proteins et al. • BDV manipulates the OL acetylome towards higher energy and transporter levels. • BDV infection is associated with enriched phosphate-associated metabolic processes.

  3. GHG reduction potential of changes in consumption patterns and higher quality levels: Evidence from Swiss household consumption survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girod, Bastien, E-mail: bastien.girod@env.ethz.c [ETH Zurich, Institute for Environmental Decisions, Natural and Social Science Interface, Universitaetstrasse 22, CHN J72.1, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Haan, Peter de [ETH Zurich, Institute for Environmental Decisions, Natural and Social Science Interface, Universitaetstrasse 22, CHN J72.1, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2009-12-15

    An effective consumer-oriented climate policy requires knowing the GHG reduction potential of sustainable consumption. The aim of this study is to draw lessons from differences in consumption between households with high and low GHG emissions. We evaluate a survey of 14,500 households and use a method that allows measuring changes in price level of consumption. Comparing the 10% of households with the highest GHG emissions per capita with the lowest 10% - controlling for differences in expenditure level and household structure - we find a range 5-17 tons of CO{sub 2}-equivalent per capita and year. The observed differences stem mainly from heating, electricity use, car use, and travel by aircraft. Consumption patterns with low GHG emissions are characterized by less spending on mobility, but more on leisure and quality oriented consumption (leading to higher prices per unit). Further characteristics are: a higher share of organic food, low meat consumption and fewer detached single family houses. Our findings imply that a significant reduction in GHG emissions would be possible by adopting real-world consumption patterns observable in society. The twin challenge is to shift consumption towards more climate friendly patterns, and to prevent any trend towards high emitting consumption patterns.

  4. GHG reduction potential of changes in consumption patterns and higher quality levels. Evidence from Swiss household consumption survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girod, Bastien; De Haan, Peter [ETH Zurich, Institute for Environmental Decisions, Natural and Social Science Interface, Universitaetstrasse 22, CHN J72.1, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2009-12-15

    An effective consumer-oriented climate policy requires knowing the GHG reduction potential of sustainable consumption. The aim of this study is to draw lessons from differences in consumption between households with high and low GHG emissions. We evaluate a survey of 14,500 households and use a method that allows measuring changes in price level of consumption. Comparing the 10% of households with the highest GHG emissions per capita with the lowest 10% - controlling for differences in expenditure level and household structure - we find a range 5-17 tons of CO{sub 2}-equivalent per capita and year. The observed differences stem mainly from heating, electricity use, car use, and travel by aircraft. Consumption patterns with low GHG emissions are characterized by less spending on mobility, but more on leisure and quality oriented consumption (leading to higher prices per unit). Further characteristics are: a higher share of organic food, low meat consumption and fewer detached single family houses. Our findings imply that a significant reduction in GHG emissions would be possible by adopting real-world consumption patterns observable in society. The twin challenge is to shift consumption towards more climate friendly patterns, and to prevent any trend towards high emitting consumption patterns. (author)

  5. GHG reduction potential of changes in consumption patterns and higher quality levels: Evidence from Swiss household consumption survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girod, Bastien; Haan, Peter de

    2009-01-01

    An effective consumer-oriented climate policy requires knowing the GHG reduction potential of sustainable consumption. The aim of this study is to draw lessons from differences in consumption between households with high and low GHG emissions. We evaluate a survey of 14,500 households and use a method that allows measuring changes in price level of consumption. Comparing the 10% of households with the highest GHG emissions per capita with the lowest 10% - controlling for differences in expenditure level and household structure - we find a range 5-17 tons of CO 2 -equivalent per capita and year. The observed differences stem mainly from heating, electricity use, car use, and travel by aircraft. Consumption patterns with low GHG emissions are characterized by less spending on mobility, but more on leisure and quality oriented consumption (leading to higher prices per unit). Further characteristics are: a higher share of organic food, low meat consumption and fewer detached single family houses. Our findings imply that a significant reduction in GHG emissions would be possible by adopting real-world consumption patterns observable in society. The twin challenge is to shift consumption towards more climate friendly patterns, and to prevent any trend towards high emitting consumption patterns.

  6. Physical activity level in people with age related white matter changes correlates to better motor performance, lower comorbidity and higher cognitive level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, Anna F; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Bronge, Lena; Olsson, Elisabeth; Amberla, Kaarina; Baezner, Hansjoerg; Crisby, Milita

    2017-07-12

    Physical activity plays a pivotal role in the development of disability and may modify the negative effect of vascular risk factors on progression of both cardio and cerebrovascular disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity level in people with age-related white matter changes as identified on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in relation to motor performance, cognition and perceived health. Data came from the first year follow up of one participating centers of the LADIS study. Fifty one subjects were first enrolled in the study. Complete first year follow up data was available for 41 subjects. Information on comorbidity, physical activity level, physical function, cognition, level of white matter changes and perceived health was collected. Physical activity level was classified with a yes or no question and with the Frenchay Activities Index (FAI). Only 36% of the subjects in this study were physically active according to the yes/no question. 27.5% of the subjects were active according to the FAI score which evaluates the everyday activities. Being active discriminated subjects with better physical function. Subjects active according to the FAI score had a higher cognitive level (p ≤ 0.01), lower comorbidity (p = 0.02) and performed better on all motor function tasks as assessed by walking speed (p ≤ 0.01) and the Short Physical Performance battery (SPPB) (p ≤ 0.01). Being physically active seems to be a long term protective factor. In our study, the majority of subjects with Age Related White Mattter Changes (ARWMC) with no or mild Instrumental Activity of Daily Living (IADL) disability did not attain recommended level of activity at first year follow up. Whether or not increasing physical activity may slow down cognitive decline and lessen development of disability in physically inactive subjects with manifest ARWC remains to be studied. not applicable.

  7. Higher TNF-α, IGF-1 and leptin levels are found in tasters than non-tasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui eWang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Taste perception is controlled by taste cells that are present in the tongue and produce and secrete various metabolic hormones. Recent studies have demonstrated that taste receptors in tongue, gut and the pancreas are associated with local hormone secretion. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is a link between taste sensitivity and levels of circulating metabolic hormones in human and whether taste sensitivity is potentially related to peripheral metabolic regulation. 31 subjects were recruited and separated into tasters and non-tasters based on their phenol thiocarbamide (PTC bitter taste test results. Fasting plasma and saliva were collected and levels of hormones and cytokines were assayed. We observed significant differences in both hormone levels and hormone-body mass index (BMI correlation between tasters and non-tasters. Tasters had higher plasma levels of leptin (p=0.05, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α (p=0.04, and Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 (p=0.03. There was also a trend towards increased IGF-1 levels in the saliva of tasters (p=0.06. We found a positive correlation between plasma levels of glucose and BMI (R=0.4999, p=0.04 exclusively in non-tasters, not in tasters. In contrast, plasma C-peptide levels were found to be positively correlated to BMI (R=0.5563, p=0.03 in tasters. Saliva TNF-α levels were negatively correlated with BMI in tasters (R= -0.5908, p=0.03. Our findings demonstrate that there are differences in circulating levels of leptin, TNF-α and IGF-1 between tasters and non-tasters. These findings indicate that in addition to regulate eating behaviours, taste perception could also affect energy metabolism by controlling hormone secretion. People with different taste sensitivity may respond differently to the nutrient stimulation. Further work investigating the link between taste perception and peripheral metabolic control could potentially lead to the development of novel therapies for obese

  8. Albumin synthesis in protein energy malnutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duggan, C.; Hardy, S.; Kleinman, R.E.; Lembcke, J.; Young, V.E.

    1994-01-01

    The dietary treatment of protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) has been designed on an empirical basis, with outcomes for successful management including body weight gain and resolution of apathy. We propose using the measurements of protein synthesis as a more objective measure of renourishment. We will therefore randomize a group of malnourished children (weigh-for-height Z score 13 C-leucine and serial measurements of 13 C-enrichment of albumin. Isotope infusions will be performed on days one and three, following a standard three hour fast. Since albumin synthesis is reduced under the influence of cytokines which mediate the inflammatory response, results will be stratified according to the presence or absence of clinically apparent infections. We hypothesize that the provision of added dietary protein will optimize albumin synthesis rates in PEM as well as attenuate the reduction in albumin synthesis seen in the presence of infections. (author). 20 refs

  9. Paclitaxel Albumin-stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains brief information about paclitaxel albumin-stabilized nanoparticle formulation and a collection of links to more information about the use of this drug, research results, and ongoing clinical trials.

  10. A REVIEW OF THE PRACTICE OF WORK-BASED LEARNING (WBL AT HIGHER EDUCATION LEVEL IN THE UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Talbot

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to review the practice of work-based learning (WBL, based on the experience of higher education institutions in the United Kingdom.Methods. The methods of system and comparative analysis, synthesis and generalization are used.Results. The background and development of WBL is given; the importance and value of this form of education in the modern, rapidly changing society is shown. The main characteristics are selected and basic aspects of WBL programs profitable different from traditional university programs are designated: relevance to real production processes; student centricity; flexibility of content which is built proceeding from interests of an employer and a student; high extent of integration of various disciplines and fields of knowledge; recognition of the prior certified and independent training; optimization of time expenditure; possibility of the choice of the place of training, its sequence, schedule of control actions, and other advantages. Options of a program implementation of WBL, complexity of their implementation and methods of their overcoming are described. A few critical remarks concerning WBL programs are also presented.Scientific novelty. For the first time the analytical review of WBL practice at a higher education level, which is widespread in English-speaking countries over the last 25 years, is presented in the Russian scientific literature in education.Practical significance. The materials provided in the article can be useful to heads and teachers of institutions of higher education; methodologists of structures of vocational preparation and advanced training of personnel of high technology productions; the employers heading large-scale industries and interested in upgrading of employees’ educational level.

  11. Preparation and characterization of microspheres of albumin-heparin conjugates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwon, Glen S.; Bae, You Han; Kim, Sung Wan; Cremers, Harry; Cremers, H.F.M.; Feijen, Jan

    1991-01-01

    Albumin-heparin microspheres have been prepared as a new drug carrier. A soluble albumin-heparin conjugate was synthesized by forming amide bonds between human serum albumin and heparin. After purification the albumin-heparin conjugate was crosslinked in a water-in-oil emulsion to form

  12. Low serum albumin and total lymphocyte count as predictors of 30 day hospital readmission in patients 65 years of age or older

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Robinson

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Hospital readmission within 30 days of discharge is a target for health care cost savings through the medicare Value Based Purchasing initiative. Because of this focus, hospitals and health systems are investing considerable resources into the identification of patients at risk of hospital readmission and designing interventions to reduce the rate of hospital readmission. Malnutrition is a known risk factor for hospital readmission.Materials and Methods. All medical patients 65 years of age or older discharged from Memorial Medical Center from January 1, 2012 to March 31, 2012 who had a determination of serum albumin level and total lymphocyte count on hospital admission were studied retrospectively. Admission serum albumin levels and total lymphocyte counts were used to classify the nutritional status of all patients in the study. Patients with a serum albumin less than 3.5 grams/dL and/or a TLC less than 1,500 cells per mm3 were classified as having protein energy malnutrition. The primary outcome investigated in this study was hospital readmission for any reason within 30 days of discharge.Results. The study population included 1,683 hospital discharges with an average age of 79 years. The majority of the patients were female (55.9% and had a DRG weight of 1.22 (0.68. 219 patients (13% were readmitted within 30 days of hospital discharge. Protein energy malnutrition was common in this population. Low albumin was found in 973 (58% patients and a low TLC was found in 1,152 (68% patients. Low albumin and low TLC was found in 709 (42% of patients. Kaplan–Meier analysis shows any laboratory evidence of PEM is a significant (p < 0.001 predictor of hospital readmission. Low serum albumin (p < 0.001 and TLC (p = 0.018 show similar trends. Cox proportional-hazards regression analysis showed low serum albumin (Hazard Ratio 3.27, 95% CI [2.30–4.63] and higher DRG weight (Hazard Ratio 1.19, 95% CI [1.03–1.38] to be significant

  13. Initial plasma disappearance and tissue uptake of 131I-albumin in normal rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bent-Hansen, L.

    1991-01-01

    The simultaneous plasma disappearance curves of 131I-albumin and 125I-fibrinogen were recorded in normal rabbits for 1 hr. Using fibrinogen as a plasma reference, the disappearance curves of albumin were shown to contain two separate phases of efflux: one fast from zero to 10 min. comprising 8% of the total tracer; and one slow appearing in the interval of 10 to 60 min. containing another 9% of the tracer. Total albumin escape was analyzed to yield an initial slope of 0.024 ± 0.004 min-1, corresponding to a wholebody unidirectional albumin clearance (Cl(0)) of 0.090 ± 0.009 ml(min*100 g)-1. The distribution of efflux was assessed by biopsy uptakes using the same tracers in spleen, kidney, heart, lung, liver, intestine, skin, muscle, and brain. The disappearance curve generally reflects a biphasic pattern of uptake in peripheral tissue, predominantly by muscle and lung. The rapid phase has contributions from the fast near equilibration of liver, and intestine and skin are significant codeterminants of the slow phase. Due to their low body masses highly perfused organs such as kidney, spleen, and heart have little influence on the plasma disappearance. In accordance, the Cl(0) determined for the wholebody was higher than initial clearances found in skin (0.053 ml(min*100 g)-1) and muscle (0.054 ml(min*100 g)-1), but much lower than those found in the highly perfused organs. The initial (unidirectional) rates of peripheral albumin transfer demonstrated, ranged from 10 to 30 times higher than estimates of lymphatic return, suggesting that transcapillary albumin exchange is mediated by high-rate bidirectional diffusion. The rapid decrease of net albumin exchange rates suggests a second, highly significant barrier located within the interstitial matrix, which restricts plasma escape and reduces plasma to lymph albumin transport

  14. Relationship between urine albumin and endothelin in children with anaphylactoid purpura

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Yongqiang; Chen Nianfa

    2009-01-01

    To study the function of urine albumin and endothelin (ET-1) in the occurrence and progress of ansphylactoid purura (HSP) and anaphylaxis purura nephritis (HSPN) in children, the serum level of ET-1 and urine albumin excretion rate in 29 children with HSP and 21 normal controls was detected by RIA and salicylic acid nephelometry respectively. The results showed that the content of urine albumin in 24 hours in HSP group has no significant difference compared with that of control group (P>0.05) , but the corresponding content in HSPN group has significant difference compared with that of control and HSP group (P<0.01). The serum ET-1 in HSP group has significant difference compared with control group (P<0.05), and the corresponding content in HSPN group has significant difference compared with control group and HSP group (P<0.01, P<0.05). The levels of urine albumin of 24 hours and serum ET-1 in HSPN group after treatment were decreased obviously compared with those before treatment (P<0.01). The content of urine albumin of 24 hours was positively correlated with serum levels of ET-1. The ET-1 participated the formation of HSP and HSPN, and was related to the occurrence and progress of urine albumin. (authors)

  15. Is serum albumin an independent predictor of post chemotherapy febrile neutropenia?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, L.; Zahid, N.A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the association between serum albumin and risk of post chemotherapy febrile neutropenia. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of oncology, Liaquat National Hospital, from 1st Jan 2015 to 31st Dec 2016. Material and Method: One hundred and sixty-six biopsy proven cancer patients with Eastern cooperative oncology group (ECOG) performance status <2 and without significant co-morbidities received first cycle of chemotherapy during two years study period. Different chemotherapies with moderate to severe risk of FN were used. Patient's pre-treatment serum albumin was measured and patients followed for occurrence of FN. Association between serum albumin and post chemotherapy FN was analyzed. Results: Data of 166 patients was available for final analysis. Post chemotherapy FN was observed in 19.9% (33/166) patients. Pre-chemotherapy serum albumin level was <3.5 mg/dl in (35/166) 21.1% of patients, out of which (15/35) 42.9% developed FN. Serum albumin (p=0.0005) was highly significantly associated with a risk of FN. On analysis of other factors age, gender, body surface area (BSA) and pre-chemotherapy hemoglobin level were not significantly associated with a risk of FN while body mass index (p=0.0005) was found to be associated with risk of FN. Conclusion: Pre-chemotherapy serum albumin levels were found to be statistically significant predictor of postchemotherapy febrile neutropenia.

  16. Does Prison Crowding Predict Higher Rates of Substance Use Related Parole Violations? A Recurrent Events Multi-Level Survival Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Ruderman

    Full Text Available This administrative data-linkage cohort study examines the association between prison crowding and the rate of post-release parole violations in a random sample of prisoners released with parole conditions in California, for an observation period of two years (January 2003 through December 2004.Crowding overextends prison resources needed to adequately protect inmates and provide drug rehabilitation services. Violence and lack of access to treatment are known risk factors for drug use and substance use disorders. These and other psychosocial effects of crowding may lead to higher rates of recidivism in California parolees.Rates of parole violation for parolees exposed to high and medium levels of prison crowding were compared to parolees with low prison crowding exposure. Hazard ratios (HRs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were estimated using a Cox model for recurrent events. Our dataset included 13070 parolees in California, combining individual level parolee data with aggregate level crowding data for multilevel analysis.Comparing parolees exposed to high crowding with those exposed to low crowding, the effect sizes from greatest to least were absconding violations (HR 3.56 95% CI: 3.05-4.17, drug violations (HR 2.44 95% CI: 2.00-2.98, non-violent violations (HR 2.14 95% CI: 1.73-2.64, violent and serious violations (HR 1.88 95% CI: 1.45-2.43, and technical violations (HR 1.86 95% CI: 1.37-2.53.Prison crowding predicted higher rates of parole violations after release from prison. The effect was magnitude-dependent and particularly strong for drug charges. Further research into whether adverse prison experiences, such as crowding, are associated with recidivism and drug use in particular may be warranted.

  17. Does Prison Crowding Predict Higher Rates of Substance Use Related Parole Violations? A Recurrent Events Multi-Level Survival Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruderman, Michael A; Wilson, Deirdra F; Reid, Savanna

    2015-01-01

    This administrative data-linkage cohort study examines the association between prison crowding and the rate of post-release parole violations in a random sample of prisoners released with parole conditions in California, for an observation period of two years (January 2003 through December 2004). Crowding overextends prison resources needed to adequately protect inmates and provide drug rehabilitation services. Violence and lack of access to treatment are known risk factors for drug use and substance use disorders. These and other psychosocial effects of crowding may lead to higher rates of recidivism in California parolees. Rates of parole violation for parolees exposed to high and medium levels of prison crowding were compared to parolees with low prison crowding exposure. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using a Cox model for recurrent events. Our dataset included 13070 parolees in California, combining individual level parolee data with aggregate level crowding data for multilevel analysis. Comparing parolees exposed to high crowding with those exposed to low crowding, the effect sizes from greatest to least were absconding violations (HR 3.56 95% CI: 3.05-4.17), drug violations (HR 2.44 95% CI: 2.00-2.98), non-violent violations (HR 2.14 95% CI: 1.73-2.64), violent and serious violations (HR 1.88 95% CI: 1.45-2.43), and technical violations (HR 1.86 95% CI: 1.37-2.53). Prison crowding predicted higher rates of parole violations after release from prison. The effect was magnitude-dependent and particularly strong for drug charges. Further research into whether adverse prison experiences, such as crowding, are associated with recidivism and drug use in particular may be warranted.

  18. Does Prison Crowding Predict Higher Rates of Substance Use Related Parole Violations? A Recurrent Events Multi-Level Survival Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruderman, Michael A.; Wilson, Deirdra F.; Reid, Savanna

    2015-01-01

    Objective This administrative data-linkage cohort study examines the association between prison crowding and the rate of post-release parole violations in a random sample of prisoners released with parole conditions in California, for an observation period of two years (January 2003 through December 2004). Background Crowding overextends prison resources needed to adequately protect inmates and provide drug rehabilitation services. Violence and lack of access to treatment are known risk factors for drug use and substance use disorders. These and other psychosocial effects of crowding may lead to higher rates of recidivism in California parolees. Methods Rates of parole violation for parolees exposed to high and medium levels of prison crowding were compared to parolees with low prison crowding exposure. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using a Cox model for recurrent events. Our dataset included 13070 parolees in California, combining individual level parolee data with aggregate level crowding data for multilevel analysis. Results Comparing parolees exposed to high crowding with those exposed to low crowding, the effect sizes from greatest to least were absconding violations (HR 3.56 95% CI: 3.05–4.17), drug violations (HR 2.44 95% CI: 2.00–2.98), non-violent violations (HR 2.14 95% CI: 1.73–2.64), violent and serious violations (HR 1.88 95% CI: 1.45–2.43), and technical violations (HR 1.86 95% CI: 1.37–2.53). Conclusions Prison crowding predicted higher rates of parole violations after release from prison. The effect was magnitude-dependent and particularly strong for drug charges. Further research into whether adverse prison experiences, such as crowding, are associated with recidivism and drug use in particular may be warranted. PMID:26492490

  19. Digital Clubbing Is Associated with Higher Serum KL-6 Levels and Lower Pulmonary Function in Patients with Interstitial Lung Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazushige Shiraishi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Although digital clubbing is a common presentation in patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD, little has been reported regarding its role in assessing patients with ILD. This study evaluated patients with ILD for the presence of clubbing and investigated its association with clinical data. Methods. We evaluated patients with ILD who visited the teaching hospital at which the study was conducted, between October 2014 and January 2015. Clubbing, evaluated using a Vernier caliper for individual patients, was defined as a phalangeal depth ratio > 1. We examined the association of clubbing with clinical data. Results. Of 102 patients with ILD, we identified 17 (16.7% with clubbing. The partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood was lower (65.2 ± 5.9 mmHg versus 80.2 ± 3.1 mmHg; p=0.03, serum Krebs von den Lugen-6 (KL-6 levels were higher (1495.0 ± 277.4 U/mL versus 839.1 ± 70.2 U/mL; p=0.001, and the percent predicted diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide was lower (50.0 ± 6.0 versus 73.5 ± 3.1; p=0.002 in these patients with clubbing. Conclusions. Patients with clubbing had lower oxygen levels, higher serum KL-6 levels, and lower pulmonary function than those without clubbing.

  20. Raman microspectroscopy of nanodiamond-induced structural changes in albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svetlakova, Anastasiya S; Brandt, Nikolay N; Priezzhev, Alexander V; Chikishev, Andrey Yu

    2015-04-01

    Nanodiamonds (NDs) are promising agents for theranostic applications due to reported low toxicity and high biocompatibility, which is still being extensively tested on cellular, tissue, and organism levels. It is presumed that for experimental and future clinical applications, NDs will be administered into the organism via the blood circulation system. In this regard, the interaction of NDs with blood components needs to be thoroughly studied. We studied the interaction of carboxylated NDs (cNDs) with albumin, one of the major proteins of blood plasma. After 2-h long in vitro incubation in an aqueous solution of the protein, 100-nm cNDs were dried and the dry samples were studied with the aid of Raman microspectroscopy. The spectroscopic data indicate significant conformational changes that can be due to cND–protein interaction. A possible decrease in the functional activity of albumin related to the conformational changes must be taken into account in the in vivo applications.

  1. Raman microspectroscopy of nanodiamond-induced structural changes in albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svetlakova, Anastasiya S.; Brandt, Nikolay N.; Priezzhev, Alexander V.; Chikishev, Andrey Yu.

    2015-04-01

    Nanodiamonds (NDs) are promising agents for theranostic applications due to reported low toxicity and high biocompatibility, which is still being extensively tested on cellular, tissue, and organism levels. It is presumed that for experimental and future clinical applications, NDs will be administered into the organism via the blood circulation system. In this regard, the interaction of NDs with blood components needs to be thoroughly studied. We studied the interaction of carboxylated NDs (cNDs) with albumin, one of the major proteins of blood plasma. After 2-h long in vitro incubation in an aqueous solution of the protein, 100-nm cNDs were dried and the dry samples were studied with the aid of Raman microspectroscopy. The spectroscopic data indicate significant conformational changes that can be due to cND-protein interaction. A possible decrease in the functional activity of albumin related to the conformational changes must be taken into account in the in vivo applications.

  2. Low urinary albumin excretion in astronauts during space missions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cirillo, Massimo; De Santo, Natale G; Heer, Martina

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Physiological changes occur in man during space missions also at the renal level. Proteinuria was hypothesized for space missions but research data are missing. METHODS: Urinary albumin, as an index of proteinuria, and other variables were analyzed in 4 astronauts during space missions...... onboard the MIR station and on the ground (control). Mission duration before first urine collection in the four astronauts was 4, 26, 26, and 106 days, respectively. On the ground, data were collected 2 months before mission in two astronauts, 6 months after in the other astronauts. A total of twenty......-two 24-hour urine collections were obtained in space (n per astronaut = 1-14) and on the ground (n per astronaut = 2-12). Urinary albumin was measured by radioimmunoassay. For each astronaut, mean of data in space and on the ground was defined as individual average. RESULTS: The individual averages of 24...

  3. The -29G/A FSH receptor gene polymorphism is associated with higher FSH and LH levels in normozoospermic men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburino, L; La Vignera, S; Tomaselli, V; Condorelli, R A; Cannarella, R; Mongioì, L M; Calogero, A E

    2017-10-01

    The functional role of the FSHR promoter -29G/A polymorphism (rs1394205) in men is not clear. Some studies failed to find a relationship between the FSHR -29G/A and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels and did not associate the SNP with male infertility. Only one study showed that the FSHR -29 SNP modulates serum FSH levels in Baltic young male cohort. Because the SNP -29G/A has to be shown to have a strong effect on in vitro transcription activity of the FSHR promoter and the activation of FSHR is necessary for a normal FSH function, this study was undertaken to assess whether the FSHR -29G/A SNP modulates the gonadal endocrine function in men. A total of 200 men with alteration of conventional sperm parameters or normozoospermia (according to the parameters WHO 2010), were genotyped by TaqMan Assay. Hormone levels were measured by immunoassay, and sperm analysis was performed according to the World Health Organization criteria. A significant gradient of increasing FSH levels across the FSHR -29G/A genotypes was observed (p men (n = 110), those with FSHR -29A-allele carriers (GA + AA and AA) had higher serum FSH (p men with the GG genotype. The carrier status of rs1394205 genotypes did not affect the other endocrine parameters neither in men with altered sperm parameters nor in normozoospermic men. The FSHR -29G/A polymorphism modulates FSH and, for the first time, LH serum levels and BMI in normozoospermic men. These findings underline the importance to pay close attention to the studies of genetic variations associated with clinical-endocrine parameters.

  4. Higher plasma motilin levels in obese patients decrease after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery and regulate hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deloose, E; Janssen, P; Lannoo, M; Van der Schueren, B; Depoortere, I; Tack, J

    2016-07-01

    Motilin-induced phase III contractions of the migrating motor complex (MMC) signal hunger in healthy volunteers. The current aim was to study the role of motilin as a hunger-inducing factor in obese patients and to evaluate the effect of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery on plasma motilin levels and hunger scores. Motilin and ghrelin plasma levels were determined during a complete MMC cycle in controls and obese patients selected for RYGB before, 6 months and 1 year after surgery. 20 min after the end of the second phase III, obese patients received an intravenous infusion of 40 mg erythromycin. Hunger was scored every 5 min. Hedonic hunger was assessed in obese patients with the Power of Food Scale questionnaire. Obesity caused a switch in the origin of phase III from antrum to duodenum. Obese patients had significantly higher motilin levels compared with controls during the MMC but tended to lack the motilin peak prior to phase III necessary to trigger hunger. Hunger scores during phase III were significantly lower in obese patients, but could be restored to control levels through the administration of a low dose of the motilin agonist, erythromycin. After RYGB surgery motilin, but not ghrelin, levels decreased in parallel with hedonic hunger scores. Motilin may be an important regulator involved in the pathogenesis of obesity. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  5. The Relationship between Multiplication Fact Speed-Recall and Fluency and Higher Level Mathematics Learning with Eighth Grade Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Steven James

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative study investigated relationships between higher level mathematics learning and multiplication fact fluency, multiplication fact speed-recall, and reading grade equivalency of eighth grade students in Algebra I and Pre-Algebra. Higher level mathematics learning was indicated by an average score of 80% or higher on first and second…

  6. 50 Hz hippocampal stimulation in refractory epilepsy: Higher level of basal glutamate predicts greater release of glutamate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavus, Idil; Widi, Gabriel A; Duckrow, Robert B; Zaveri, Hitten; Kennard, Jeremy T; Krystal, John; Spencer, Dennis D

    2016-02-01

    The effect of electrical stimulation on brain glutamate release in humans is unknown. Glutamate is elevated at baseline in the epileptogenic hippocampus of patients with refractory epilepsy, and increases during spontaneous seizures. We examined the effect of 50 Hz stimulation on glutamate release and its relationship to interictal levels in the hippocampus of patients with epilepsy. In addition, we measured basal and stimulated glutamate levels in a subset of these patients where stimulation elicited a seizure. Subjects (n = 10) were patients with medically refractory epilepsy who were undergoing intracranial electroencephalography (EEG) evaluation in an epilepsy monitoring unit. Electrical stimulation (50 Hz) was delivered through implanted hippocampal electrodes (n = 11), and microdialysate samples were collected every 2 min. Basal glutamate, changes in glutamate efflux with stimulation, and the relationships between peak stimulation-associated glutamate concentrations, basal zero-flow levels, and stimulated seizures were examined. Stimulation of epileptic hippocampi in patients with refractory epilepsy caused increases in glutamate efflux (p = 0.005, n = 10), and 4 of ten patients experienced brief stimulated seizures. Stimulation-induced increases in glutamate were not observed during the evoked seizures, but rather were related to the elevation in interictal basal glutamate (R(2) = 0.81, p = 0.001). The evoked-seizure group had lower basal glutamate levels than the no-seizure group (p = 0.04), with no stimulation-induced change in glutamate efflux (p = 0.47, n = 4). Conversely, increased glutamate was observed following stimulation in the no-seizure group (p = 0.005, n = 7). Subjects with an atrophic hippocampus had higher basal glutamate levels (p = 0.03, n = 7) and higher stimulation-induced glutamate efflux. Electrical stimulation of the epileptic hippocampus either increased extracellular glutamate efflux or induced seizures. The magnitude of stimulated

  7. FERMENTED SOYBEAN CAKE AND ALBUMIN FORMULA AS NUTRITIONAL SUPPORT PREVENTS PROTEIN ENERGY MALNUTRITION AND AKI IN STROKE PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanny Djaya

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is the leading cause of death in every hospital in Indonesia. The death rate of newly formed or recurrent stroke is estimated around 750.000 case every year nation wide, 200.000 of which are recurrent stroke. Stroke patients have higher risk to develop another stroke attack. In 5 years time, the recurrence of stroke attack is estimated around 30–43%. In many cases, elderly stroke patients who were admitted to the hospital with recurrent stroke attack also suffer from anorexia which leads to hypoalbuminemia, hyponatremia, hypokalemia and impaired renal function marked by a rise in ureum level with or without elevation in blood creatinin levels. This study uses pre and post nutrition intervention method. Hospital’s fermented soybean cake and albumin blend formula was given through nasogastric tube. The amount of calorie was adjusted according to basal needs x 1,3 and consisted of carbohydrate, protein 1 gram/kg BB (albumin : fermented soybean cake=3:1 and 25% fat. This formula was given to 11 stroke patients who had been admitted to Atma Jaya Hospital for at least 10 days and met the inclusion & exclusion criteria, such as did not receive parenteral blood and albumin transfusion without history of renal failure. All the patients’ intake and fluid balance were monitored. The average albumin level of these patients was ±3,1 mg/dL(pre intervention. After receiving nutrition (NGT and fluid (parenteral nutrition intervention, the result is as follows: There was an average of±5 mg increase in Natrium level during day 3–5 of hospital stay. There was an average of±0,3 mg increase in Kalium level during day 2–3 of hospital stay. There was an average of ±15 mg reduction of Ureum level during day 5–7 of hospital stay When there was inadequate calorie intake, protein from muscle might be broken down marked by a rise in blood ureum level with or without an increase in creatinin level. In this condition, electrolyte level, such as

  8. Is low serum albumin associated with postoperative complications in patients undergoing cardiac surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karas, Pamela L; Goh, Sean L; Dhital, Kumud

    2015-12-01

    A best evidence topic was written according to a structured protocol. The clinical question investigated was: is low serum albumin associated with postoperative complications in patients undergoing cardiac surgery? There were 62 papers retrieved using the reported search strategy. Of these, 12 publications embodied the best evidence to answer this clinical question. The authors, journal, date and country of the publication, patient group investigated, study design, relevant outcomes and results of these papers were tabulated. This paper includes a total of 12 589 patients, and of the papers reviewed, 4 were level 3 and 8 level 4. Each of the publications reviewed and compared either all or some of the following postoperative complications: mortality, postoperative bleeding requiring reoperation, prolonged hospital stay and ventilatory support, infection, liver dysfunction, delirium and acute kidney injury (AKI). Of the studies that examined postoperative mortality, all except for three established a significant multivariate association with low preoperative albumin level. Some scepticism is required in accepting other results that were only present in univariate analysis. While three studies examined multiple levels of serum albumin, most dichotomized the serum albumin levels into normal and abnormal groups. This led to differing classifications of hypoalbuminaemia, ranging from less than 2.5 to 4.0 g/dl. The available evidence, however, suggests that low preoperative serum albumin level in patients undergoing cardiac surgery is associated with the following: (i) increased risk of mortality after surgery and (ii) greater incidence of postoperative morbidity. While the evidence supports the use of preoperative albumin in assessing post-cardiac surgery complications, a specific level of albumin considered to be abnormal cannot be concluded from this review. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio

  9. Albumin-induced apoptosis of glomerular parietal epithelial cells is modulated by extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohse, Takamoto; Krofft, Ron D.; Wu, Jimmy S.; Eddy, Allison A.; Pippin, Jeffrey W.; Shankland, Stuart J.

    2012-01-01

    Background. The biological role(s) of glomerular parietal epithelial cells (PECs) is not fully understood in health or disease. Given its location, PECs are constantly exposed to low levels of filtered albumin, which is increased in nephrotic states. We tested the hypothesis that PECs internalize albumin and increased uptake results in apoptosis. Methods. Confocal microscopy of immunofluorescent staining and immunohistochemistry were used to demonstrate albumin internalization in PECs and to quantitate albumin uptake in normal mice and rats as well as experimental models of membranous nephropathy, minimal change disease/focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and protein overload nephropathy. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis was performed on immortalized cultured PECs exposed to fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled albumin in the presence of an endosomal inhibitor or vehicle. Apoptosis was measured by Hoechst staining in cultured PECs exposed to bovine serum albumin. Levels of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (p-ERK1/2) were restored by retroviral infection of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MEK) 1/2 and reduced by U0126 in PECs exposed to high albumin levels in culture and apoptosis measured by Hoechst staining. Results. PECs internalized albumin normally, and this was markedly increased in all of the experimental disease models (P PECs also internalize FITC-labeled albumin, which was reduced by endosomal inhibition. A consequence of increased albumin internalization was PEC apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. Candidate signaling pathways underlying these events were examined. Data showed markedly reduced levels of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) in PECs exposed to high albumin levels in nephropathy and in culture. A role for ERK1/2 in limiting albumin-induced apoptosis was shown by restoring p-ERK1/2 by retroviral infection, which reduced apoptosis in cultured PECs, while a forced

  10. The impact of change in albumin assay on reference intervals, prevalence of 'hypoalbuminaemia' and albumin prescriptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley-Grant, Deon; Herbert, Mike; Cornes, Michael P; Barlow, Ian M; Ford, Clare; Gama, Rousseau

    2016-01-01

    We studied the impact on reference intervals, classification of patients with hypoalbuminaemia and albumin infusion prescriptions on changing from a bromocresol green (BCG) to a bromocresol purple (BCP) serum albumin assay. Passing-Bablok regression analysis and Bland-Altman plot were used to compare Abbott BCP and Roche BCG methods. Linear regression analysis was used to compare in-house and an external laboratory Abbott BCP serum albumin results. Reference intervals for Abbott BCP serum albumin were derived in two different laboratories using pathology data from adult patients in primary care. Prescriptions for 20% albumin infusions were compared one year before and one year after changing the albumin method. Abbott BCP assay had a negative bias of approximately 6 g/L compared with Roche BCG method.There was good agreement (y = 1.04 x - 1.03; R(2 )= 0.9933) between in-house and external laboratory Abbott BCP results. Reference intervals for the serum albumin Abbott BCP assay were 31-45 g/L, different to those recommended by Pathology Harmony and the manufacturers (35-50 g/L). Following the change in method there was a large increase in the number of patients classified as hypoalbuminaemic using Pathology Harmony references intervals (32%) but not when retrospectively compared to locally derived reference intervals (16%) compared with the previous year (12%). The method change was associated with a 44.6% increase in albumin prescriptions. This equated to an annual increase in expenditure of £35,234. We suggest that serum albumin reference intervals be method specific to prevent misclassification of albumin status in patients. Change in albumin methodology may have significant impact on hospital resources. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Higher levels of ethyl paraben and butyl paraben in rat amniotic fluid than in maternal plasma after subcutaneous administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Hanne; Taxvig, Camilla; Hass, Ulla

    2008-01-01

    to obtain more knowledge about the distribution of ethyl paraben and butyl paraben in pregnant rats and pups after perinatal exposure, the presented study was designed. The data show response and distribution of ethyl paraben and butyl paraben in maternal rat plasma, pools of amniotic fluids, placenta......, whole-body fetuses, and in fetal liver after dosing of dams with 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day from gestational day 7 to 21. After cesarean section of dams, the fluids and tissues were collected, deconjugated, and purified by solid-phase extraction, and ethyl paraben and butyl paraben...... were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Markedly higher levels of ethyl paraben compared to butyl paraben were found in all fluids and tissues. Both ethyl paraben and butyl paraben in maternal plasma, livers, and whole-body tissues from fetus seemed to be saturated after dosing...

  12. Application of photoactivation in the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals. Pt. 3. Human serum albumin labelled with technetium (99mTc)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarek, P.; Kleisner, I.; Konopkova, M.; Komarkova, I.

    1997-01-01

    Human serum albumin was photoactivated with UV light at 254 nm and labelled with technetium ( 99m Tc) by reducing pertechnetate ( 99m Tc) with stannous chloride. Radiochemical purity was determined by using paper chromatography, columns and electrophoresis. The biodistribution of labelled albumin in rats was assessed by activity counting in isolated organs 15 and 60 minutes after administration. Photoactivation increases the number of free SH groups, which affect favourably the labelling efficiency. Irradiated albumin exhibits a higher labelling efficiency (99%) than non-irradiated albumin (96%). The structural changes depend on the UV radiation dose, concentration of irradiated substances, and metal ion content (Sn 2+ ). The results obtained suggest that the elimination from blood of albumin whose structure has been altered by photoactivation can be accelerated, thereby creating favourable conditions for its application in the diagnosis of inflammatory diseases. (author)

  13. The levels of liver enzymes and atypical lymphocytes are higher in youth patients with infectious mononucleosis than in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Li, Jun; Ren, Yuan-Yuan; Zhao, Hong

    2013-12-01

    Infectious mononucleosis (IM) is the clinical presentation of primary infection with Epstein-Barr virus. Although the literature contains a massive amount of information on IM, most of this is related specifically to only children or adults separately. In order to distinguish any differences between preschool children and youth patients, we retrospectively analyzed their demographic and clinical features. Records of patients hospitalized from December 2001 to September 2011 with a diagnosis of IM were retrieved from Peking University First Hospital, which is a tertiary teaching hospital in Beijing. The demographic data and clinical characteristics were collected. IM was diagnosed in 287 patients during this 10-year period, with incidence peaks among preschool children (≤7 years old, 130/287, 45.3%) and youth patients (>15 and <24 years old, 101/287, 35.2%). Although the complaints at admission did not differ between these two patient groups, the incidence of clinical signs (tonsillopharyngitis, lymphadenopathy, hepatomegaly, and edema of the eyelids) was much higher in preschool children. The incidence of liver lesion and percentage of atypical lymphocytes were significantly higher in the youth group (P<0.001), and the average hospital stay was longer in this group. Pneumonia was the most common complication, and there was no case of mortality. The incidence of IM peaks among preschool children and youth patients in Beijing, China. The levels of liver enzymes and atypical lymphocytes increase with age.

  14. The levels of liver enzymes and atypical lymphocytes are higher in youth patients with infectious mononucleosis than in preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/AimsInfectious mononucleosis (IM is the clinical presentation of primary infection with Epstein-Barr virus. Although the literature contains a massive amount of information on IM, most of this is related specifically to only children or adults separately. In order to distinguish any differences between preschool children and youth patients, we retrospectively analyzed their demographic and clinical features.MethodsRecords of patients hospitalized from December 2001 to September 2011 with a diagnosis of IM were retrieved from Peking University First Hospital, which is a tertiary teaching hospital in Beijing. The demographic data and clinical characteristics were collected.ResultsIM was diagnosed in 287 patients during this 10-year period, with incidence peaks among preschool children (≤7 years old, 130/287, 45.3% and youth patients (>15 and <24 years old, 101/287, 35.2%. Although the complaints at admission did not differ between these two patient groups, the incidence of clinical signs (tonsillopharyngitis, lymphadenopathy, hepatomegaly, and edema of the eyelids was much higher in preschool children. The incidence of liver lesion and percentage of atypical lymphocytes were significantly higher in the youth group (P<0.001, and the average hospital stay was longer in this group. Pneumonia was the most common complication, and there was no case of mortality.ConclusionsThe incidence of IM peaks among preschool children and youth patients in Beijing, China. The levels of liver enzymes and atypical lymphocytes increase with age.

  15. Raman spectroscopy provides a powerful diagnostic tool for accurate determination of albumin glycation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingari, Narahara Chari; Horowitz, Gary L; Kang, Jeon Woong; Dasari, Ramachandra R; Barman, Ishan

    2012-01-01

    We present the first demonstration of glycated albumin detection and quantification using Raman spectroscopy without the addition of reagents. Glycated albumin is an important marker for monitoring the long-term glycemic history of diabetics, especially as its concentrations, in contrast to glycated hemoglobin levels, are unaffected by changes in erythrocyte life times. Clinically, glycated albumin concentrations show a strong correlation with the development of serious diabetes complications including nephropathy and retinopathy. In this article, we propose and evaluate the efficacy of Raman spectroscopy for determination of this important analyte. By utilizing the pre-concentration obtained through drop-coating deposition, we show that glycation of albumin leads to subtle, but consistent, changes in vibrational features, which with the help of multivariate classification techniques can be used to discriminate glycated albumin from the unglycated variant with 100% accuracy. Moreover, we demonstrate that the calibration model developed on the glycated albumin spectral dataset shows high predictive power, even at substantially lower concentrations than those typically encountered in clinical practice. In fact, the limit of detection for glycated albumin measurements is calculated to be approximately four times lower than its minimum physiological concentration. Importantly, in relation to the existing detection methods for glycated albumin, the proposed method is also completely reagent-free, requires barely any sample preparation and has the potential for simultaneous determination of glycated hemoglobin levels as well. Given these key advantages, we believe that the proposed approach can provide a uniquely powerful tool for quantification of glycation status of proteins in biopharmaceutical development as well as for glycemic marker determination in routine clinical diagnostics in the future.

  16. Raman Spectroscopy Provides a Powerful Diagnostic Tool for Accurate Determination of Albumin Glycation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingari, Narahara Chari; Horowitz, Gary L.; Kang, Jeon Woong; Dasari, Ramachandra R.; Barman, Ishan

    2012-01-01

    We present the first demonstration of glycated albumin detection and quantification using Raman spectroscopy without the addition of reagents. Glycated albumin is an important marker for monitoring the long-term glycemic history of diabetics, especially as its concentrations, in contrast to glycated hemoglobin levels, are unaffected by changes in erythrocyte life times. Clinically, glycated albumin concentrations show a strong correlation with the development of serious diabetes complications including nephropathy and retinopathy. In this article, we propose and evaluate the efficacy of Raman spectroscopy for determination of this important analyte. By utilizing the pre-concentration obtained through drop-coating deposition, we show that glycation of albumin leads to subtle, but consistent, changes in vibrational features, which with the help of multivariate classification techniques can be used to discriminate glycated albumin from the unglycated variant with 100% accuracy. Moreover, we demonstrate that the calibration model developed on the glycated albumin spectral dataset shows high predictive power, even at substantially lower concentrations than those typically encountered in clinical practice. In fact, the limit of detection for glycated albumin measurements is calculated to be approximately four times lower than its minimum physiological concentration. Importantly, in relation to the existing detection methods for glycated albumin, the proposed method is also completely reagent-free, requires barely any sample preparation and has the potential for simultaneous determination of glycated hemoglobin levels as well. Given these key advantages, we believe that the proposed approach can provide a uniquely powerful tool for quantification of glycation status of proteins in biopharmaceutical development as well as for glycemic marker determination in routine clinical diagnostics in the future. PMID:22393405

  17. Increase in serum albumin concentration is associated with prediabetes development and progression to overt diabetes independently of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Ji Eun; Lee, Seung-Eun; Lee, You-Bin; Jee, Jae Hwan; Bae, Ji Cheol; Jin, Sang-Man; Hur, Kyu Yeon; Lee, Moon-Kyu; Kim, Jae Hyeon

    2017-01-01

    Serum albumin concentration is associated with both type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome (MetS). We sought to investigate whether baseline serum albumin and change in serum albumin could be independent risk factors for prediabetes in subjects without MetS. We further examined the effect of serum albumin on progression to overt diabetes in subjects who developed prediabetes. Among 10,792 participants without diabetes and MetS who consecutively underwent yearly health check-ups over six years, 9,807 subjects without incident MetS were enrolled in this longitudinal retrospective study. The risk of developing prediabetes (impared fasting glucose or hemoglobin A1c) was analyzed according to baseline and percent change in serum albumin concentration using Cox regression analysis. Serial changes in serum albumin concentration were measured from baseline to one year before prediabetes diagnosis, and then from the time of prediabetes diagnosis to progression to overt diabetes or final follow-up. A total of 4,398 incident cases of prediabetes developed during 35,807 person-years (median 3.8 years). The hazard ratio for incident prediabetes decreased as percent change in serum albumin concentration (quartiles and per 1%) increased in a crude and fully adjusted model. However, baseline serum albumin concentration itself was not associated with prediabetic risk. Serum albumin levels kept increasing until the end of follow-up in prediabetic subjects who returned to normal glycemic status, whereas these measures did not change in prediabetic subjects who developed type 2 diabetes. Serum albumin concentration measured at the end of follow-up was the highest in the regression group, compared to the stationary (p = 0.014) or progression groups (p = 0.009). Increase in serum albumin concentration might protect against early glycemic deterioration and progression to type 2 diabetes even in subjects without MetS.

  18. Effects of N-acetylcysteine and terbutaline treatment on hemodynamics and regional albumin extravasation in porcine septic shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groeneveld, A.B.; den Hollander, W.; Straub, J.; Nauta, J.J.; Thijs, L.G.

    1990-01-01

    We studied the therapeutic effects of continuously infused N-acetylcysteine, an O2 radical scavenger (N, n = 6), and terbutaline, a beta 2-agonist (T, n = 6), versus dextrose (controls C, N = 6) on hemodynamics and regional albumin extravasation in porcine septic shock. After instrumentation, injection of 99mTc-labeled red blood cells, and baseline measurements, pigs received a 90 min infusion of 11 +/- 9 X 10(8).kg-1 live Escherichia coli bacteria. Thereafter, therapy was started, and 131I human serum albumin was injected. Images were obtained hourly using a gamma camera and a computer until 5 hours after baseline. Regions of interest were drawn in the 99mTc images, yielding regional 131I/99mTc radioactivity ratios, with blood samples as reference. From these ratios, an albumin leak index, a rate constant of transvascular albumin transport, was calculated. Control pigs developed pulmonary hypertension, arterial hypotension, hemoconcentration, and lactic acidemia. In spite of tachycardia and unchanged filling pressures, cardiac output fell. In arterial blood, white cell count, PO2, albumin level, and colloid osmotic pressure fell. The albumin leak index (X10(-3).min-1) measured 1.56 +/- 0.59 over the lungs and 2.87 +/- 1.19 over the abdomen in C, confirming previously found increased albumin flux in both lung and abdomen, the latter exceeding the former. Neither N nor T significantly affected hemodynamic and biochemical changes. The drugs neither decreased the regional albumin leak index nor attenuated the formation of albumin-rich ascites found at autopsy. However, the lung albumin index obtained at autopsy was significantly reduced with N (P less than .01 vs. C), at similar gravimetrically determined extravascular lung water (EVLW). EVLW positively correlated with pulmonary albumin extravasation in C and T but not in N

  19. Topological approach to quantum Hall effects and its important applications: higher Landau levels, graphene and its bilayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacak, Janusz; Łydżba, Patrycja; Jacak, Lucjan

    2017-05-01

    In this paper the topological approach to quantum Hall effects is carefully described. Commensurability conditions together with proposed generators of a system braid group are employed to establish the fractional quantum Hall effect hierarchies of conventional semiconductors, monolayer and bilayer graphene structures. Obtained filling factors are compared with experimental data and a very good agreement is achieved. Preliminary constructions of ground-state wave functions in the lowest Landau level are put forward. Furthermore, this work explains why pyramids of fillings from higher bands are not counterparts of the well-known composite-fermion hierarchy - it provides with the cause for an intriguing robustness of ν = 7/3 , 8/3 and 5/2 states (also in graphene). The argumentation why paired states can be developed in two-subband systems (wide quantum wells) only when the Fermi energy lies in the first Landau level is specified. Finally, the paper also clarifies how an additional surface in bilayer systems contributes to an observation of the fractional quantum Hall effect near half-filling, ν = 1/2 .

  20. The role of albumin conformation in the binding of diazepam to human serum albumin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilting, J.; Hart, B.J. 't; Gier, J.J. de

    2006-01-01

    The effect of hydrogen, chloride and calcium ions on the binding of diazepare to human serum albumin has been studied by circular dichroism and equilibrium dialysis. In all cases the molar ellipticity of the diazepam-albumin complex increases with pH over the pH range 5 to 9. Under these

  1. Elementary physical education: A focus on fitness activities and smaller class sizes are associated with higher levels of physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandy Kirkham-King

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Optimizing physical activity during physical education is necessary for children to achieve daily physical activity recommendations. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship among various contextual factors with accelerometer measured physical activity during elementary physical education. Data were collected during 2015–2016 from 281 students (1st–5th grade, 137 males, 144 females from a private school located in a metropolitan area of Utah in the U.S. Students wore accelerometers for 12 consecutive weeks at an accelerometer wear frequency of 3days per week during physical education. A multi-level general linear mixed effects model was employed to examine the relationship among various physical education contextual factors and percent of wear time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (%MVPA, accounting for clustering of observations within students and the clustering of students within classrooms. Explored contextual factors included grade level, lesson context, sex, and class size. Main effects and interactions among the factors were explored in the multi-level models. A two-way interaction of lesson context and class size on %MVPA was shown to be statistically significant. The greatest differences were found to be between fitness lessons using small class sizes compared to motor skill lessons using larger class sizes (β=14.8%, 95% C.I. 5.7%–23.9% p<0.001. Lessons that included a focus on fitness activities with class sizes that were <25 students associated with significantly higher %MVPA during elementary physical education. Keywords: Exercise, Physical education and training, Adolescents

  2. LDPC coding for QKD at higher photon flux levels based on spatial entanglement of twin beams in PDC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daneshgaran, Fred; Mondin, Marina; Bari, Inam

    2014-01-01

    Twin beams generated by Parametric Down Conversion (PDC) exhibit quantum correlations that has been effectively used as a tool for many applications including calibration of single photon detectors. By now, detection of multi-mode spatial correlations is a mature field and in principle, only depends on the transmission and detection efficiency of the devices and the channel. In [2, 4, 5], the authors utilized their know-how on almost perfect selection of modes of pairwise correlated entangled beams and the optimization of the noise reduction to below the shot-noise level, for absolute calibration of Charge Coupled Device (CCD) cameras. The same basic principle is currently being considered by the same authors for possible use in Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) [3, 1]. The main advantage in such an approach would be the ability to work with much higher photon fluxes than that of a single photon regime that is theoretically required for discrete variable QKD applications (in practice, very weak laser pulses with mean photon count below one are used).The natural setup of quantization of CCD detection area and subsequent measurement of the correlation statistic needed to detect the presence of the eavesdropper Eve, leads to a QKD channel model that is a Discrete Memoryless Channel (DMC) with a number of inputs and outputs that can be more than two (i.e., the channel is a multi-level DMC). This paper investigates the use of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes for information reconciliation on the effective parallel channels associated with the multi-level DMC. The performance of such codes are shown to be close to the theoretical limits.

  3. Human isolates of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium from Taiwan displayed significantly higher levels of antimicrobial resistance than those from Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torpdahl, Mia; Lauderdale, Tsai-Ling; Liang, Shiu-Yun; Li, Ishien; Wei, Sung-Hsi; Chiou, Chien-Shun

    2013-02-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is a major zoonotic pathogen with a high prevalence of antimicrobial resistance. This pathogen can disseminate across borders and spread far distances via the food trade and international travel. In this study, we compared the genotypes and antimicrobial resistance of 378 S. Typhimurium isolates collected in Taiwan and Denmark between 2009 and 2010. Genotyping revealed that many S. Typhimurium strains were concurrently circulating in Taiwan, Denmark and other countries in 2009 and 2010. When compared to the isolates collected from Denmark, the isolates from Taiwan displayed a significantly higher level of resistance to 11 of the 12 tested antimicrobials. Seven genetic clusters (A-G) were designated for the isolates. A high percentage of the isolates in genetic clusters C, F and G were multidrug-resistant. Of the isolates in cluster C, 79.2% were ASSuT-resistant, characterized by resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline. In cluster F, 84.1% of the isolates were ACSSuT-resistant (resistant to ASSuT and chloramphenicol). Cluster G was unique to Taiwan and characterized in most isolates by the absence of three VNTRs (ST20, ST30 and STTR6) as well as a variety of multidrug resistance profiles. This cluster exhibited very high to extremely high levels of resistance to several first-line drugs, and among the seven clusters, it displayed the highest levels of resistance to cefotaxime and ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin and gentamicin. The high prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in S. Typhimurium from Taiwan highlights the necessity to strictly regulate the use of antimicrobials in the agriculture and human health care sectors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Albumin Redhill (-1 Arg, 320 Ala → Thr): A glycoprotein variant of human serum albumin whose precursor has an aberrant signal peptidase cleavage site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennan, S.O.; Myles, T.; Peach, R.J.; George, P.M.; Donaldson, D.

    1990-01-01

    Albumin Redhill is an electrophoretically slow genetic variant of human serum albumin that does not bind 63 Ni 2+ and has a molecular mass 2.5 kDa higher than normal albumin. Its inability to bind Ni 2+ was explained by the finding of an additional residue of Arg at position -1. This did not explain the molecular basis of the genetic variation or the increase in apparent molecular mass. Fractionation of tryptic digests on concanavalin A-Sepharose followed by peptide mapping of the bound and unbound fractions and sequence analysis of the glycopeptides identified a mutation of 320 Ala → Thr. This introduces as Asn-Tyr-Thr oligosaccharide attachment sequence centered on Asn-318 and explains the increase in molecular mass. This, however, did not satisfactorily explain the presence of the additional Arg residue at position -1. DNA sequencing of polymerase chain reaction-amplified genomic DNA encoding the prepro sequence of albumin indicated an additional mutation of -2 Arg → Cys. The authors propose that the new Phe-Cys-Arg sequence in the propeptide is an aberrant signal peptidase cleavage site and that the signal peptidase cleaves the propeptide of albumin Redhill in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum before it reaches the Golgi vesicles, the site of the diarginyl-specific proalbumin convertase

  5. A large-scale, higher-level, molecular phylogenetic study of the insect order Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome C Regier

    Full Text Available Higher-level relationships within the Lepidoptera, and particularly within the species-rich subclade Ditrysia, are generally not well understood, although recent studies have yielded progress. We present the most comprehensive molecular analysis of lepidopteran phylogeny to date, focusing on relationships among superfamilies.483 taxa spanning 115 of 124 families were sampled for 19 protein-coding nuclear genes, from which maximum likelihood tree estimates and bootstrap percentages were obtained using GARLI. Assessment of heuristic search effectiveness showed that better trees and higher bootstrap percentages probably remain to be discovered even after 1000 or more search replicates, but further search proved impractical even with grid computing. Other analyses explored the effects of sampling nonsynonymous change only versus partitioned and unpartitioned total nucleotide change; deletion of rogue taxa; and compositional heterogeneity. Relationships among the non-ditrysian lineages previously inferred from morphology were largely confirmed, plus some new ones, with strong support. Robust support was also found for divergences among non-apoditrysian lineages of Ditrysia, but only rarely so within Apoditrysia. Paraphyly for Tineoidea is strongly supported by analysis of nonsynonymous-only signal; conflicting, strong support for tineoid monophyly when synonymous signal was added back is shown to result from compositional heterogeneity.Support for among-superfamily relationships outside the Apoditrysia is now generally strong. Comparable support is mostly lacking within Apoditrysia, but dramatically increased bootstrap percentages for some nodes after rogue taxon removal, and concordance with other evidence, strongly suggest that our picture of apoditrysian phylogeny is approximately correct. This study highlights the challenge of finding optimal topologies when analyzing hundreds of taxa. It also shows that some nodes get strong support only when

  6. Albumin synthesis in protein energy malnutrition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duggan, C; Hardy, S; Kleinman, R E [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Lembcke, J [Instituto de Investigacion Nutricional, La Molina, Lima (Peru); Young, V E [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Lab. of Human Nutrition

    1994-12-31

    The dietary treatment of protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) has been designed on an empirical basis, with outcomes for successful management including body weight gain and resolution of apathy. We propose using the measurements of protein synthesis as a more objective measure of renourishment. We will therefore randomize a group of malnourished children (weigh-for-height Z score <-2.0) to receive either a standard (10% of calories as protein) or increased (15%) amount of dietary protein early in their recovery phase. We will calculate albumin synthesis rates via the flooding dose technique, using {sup 13}C-leucine and serial measurements of {sup 13}C-enrichment of albumin. Isotope infusions will be performed on days one and three, following a standard three hour fast. Since albumin synthesis is reduced under the influence of cytokines which mediate the inflammatory response, results will be stratified according to the presence or absence of clinically apparent infections. We hypothesize that the provision of added dietary protein will optimize albumin synthesis rates in PEM as well as attenuate the reduction in albumin synthesis seen in the presence of infections. (author). 20 refs.

  7. Octanoate in Human Albumin Preparations Is Detrimental to Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Way-Wua Wong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell therapies hold great promise as the next major advance in medical treatment. To enable safe, effective ex vivo culture whilst maintaining cell phenotype, growth media constituents must be carefully controlled. We have used a chemically defined mesenchymal stromal cell culture medium to investigate the influence of different preparations of human serum albumin. We examined two aspects of cell culture, growth rate as measured by population doubling time and colony forming ability which is a representative measure of the stemness of the cell population. Albumin preparations showed comparative differences in both of these criteria. Analysis of the albumin bound fatty acids also showed differences depending on the manufacturing procedure used. We demonstrated that octanoate, an additive used to stabilize albumin during pasteurization, slows growth and lowers colony forming ability during ex vivo culture. Further to this we also found the level of Na+/K+ ATPase, a membrane bound cation pump inhibited by octanoate, is increased in cells exposed to this compound. We conclude that the inclusion of human serum albumin in ex vivo growth media requires careful consideration of not only the source of albumin, but also the associated molecular cargo, for optimal cell growth and behavior.

  8. Albumin, in the Presence of Calcium, Elicits a Massive Increase in Extracellular Bordetella Adenylate Cyclase Toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonyar, Laura A; Gray, Mary C; Christianson, Gregory J; Mehrad, Borna; Hewlett, Erik L

    2017-06-01

    Pertussis (whooping cough), caused by Bordetella pertussis , is resurging in the United States and worldwide. Adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT) is a critical factor in establishing infection with B. pertussis and acts by specifically inhibiting the response of myeloid leukocytes to the pathogen. We report here that serum components, as discovered during growth in fetal bovine serum (FBS), elicit a robust increase in the amount of ACT, and ≥90% of this ACT is localized to the supernatant, unlike growth without FBS, in which ≥90% is associated with the bacterium. We have found that albumin, in the presence of physiological concentrations of calcium, acts specifically to enhance the amount of ACT and its localization to the supernatant. Respiratory secretions, which contain albumin, promote an increase in amount and localization of active ACT that is comparable to that elicited by serum and albumin. The response to albumin is not mediated through regulation of ACT at the transcriptional level or activation of the Bvg two-component system. As further illustration of the specificity of this phenomenon, serum collected from mice that lack albumin does not stimulate an increase in ACT. These data, demonstrating that albumin and calcium act synergistically in the host environment to increase production and release of ACT, strongly suggest that this phenomenon reflects a novel host-pathogen interaction that is central to infection with B. pertussis and other Bordetella species. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  9. LOCALIZATION OF POLYSOME-BOUND ALBUMIN AND SERINE DEHYDRATASE IN RAT LIVER CELL FRACTIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikehara, Yukio; Pitot, Henry C.

    1973-01-01

    The polysomes involved in albumin and serine dehydratase synthesis were identified and localized by the binding to rat liver polysomes of anti-rat serum albumin and anti-serine dehydratase [125I]Fab dimer and monomer. Techniques were developed for the isolation of undegraded free and membrane-bound polysomes and for the preparation of [125I]Fab monomers and dimers from the IgG obtained from the antisera to the two proteins, rat serum albumin and serine dehydratase. The distribution of anti-rat serum albumin [125I]Fab dimer in the polysome profile is in accordance with the size of polysomes that are expected to be synthesizing albumin. By direct precipitation, it has been demonstrated that nascent chains isolated from the membrane-bound polysomes by puromycin were precipitated by anti-rat serum albumin-IgG at a level of 5–6 times those released from free polysomes. Anti-rat serum albumin-[125I]Fab dimer reacted with membrane-bound polysomes almost exclusively compared to the binding of nonimmune, control [125I]Fab dimer; a significant degree of binding of anti-rat serum albumin-[125I]Fab to free polysomes was also obtained. The [125I]Fab dimer made from normal control rabbit serum does not react with polysomes from liver at all and this preparation will not interact with polysomes extracted from tissues that do not synthesize rat serum albumin. Both anti-serine dehydratase-[125I]Fab monomer and dimer react with free and bound polysomes from livers of animals fed a chow diet or those fed a high 90% protein diet and given glucagon. In the latter instance, however, it is clear that the majority of the binding occurs to the bound polysomes. Furthermore, the specificity of this reaction may be further shown by the use of kidney polysomes that do not normally synthesize serine dehydratase. When these latter polysomes are isolated, even after the addition of crude and purified serine dehydratase, no reaction with anti-serine dehydratase-Fab fragments could be

  10. Testes mass, but not sperm length, increases with higher levels of polyandry in an ancient sex model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E Vrech

    Full Text Available There is strong evidence that polyandrous taxa have evolved relatively larger testes than monogamous relatives. Sperm size may either increase or decrease across species with the risk or intensity of sperm competition. Scorpions represent an ancient direct mode with spermatophore-mediated sperm transfer and are particularly well suited for studies in sperm competition. This work aims to analyze for the first time the variables affecting testes mass, ejaculate volume and sperm length, according with their levels of polyandry, in species belonging to the Neotropical family Bothriuridae. Variables influencing testes mass and sperm length were obtained by model selection analysis using corrected Akaike Information Criterion. Testes mass varied greatly among the seven species analyzed, ranging from 1.6 ± 1.1 mg in Timogenes dorbignyi to 16.3 ± 4.5 mg in Brachistosternus pentheri with an average of 8.4 ± 5.0 mg in all the species. The relationship between testes mass and body mass was not significant. Body allocation in testes mass, taken as Gonadosomatic Index, was high in Bothriurus cordubensis and Brachistosternus ferrugineus and low in Timogenes species. The best-fitting model for testes mass considered only polyandry as predictor with a positive influence. Model selection showed that body mass influenced sperm length negatively but after correcting for body mass, none of the variables analyzed explained sperm length. Both body mass and testes mass influenced spermatophore volume positively. There was a strong phylogenetic effect on the model containing testes mass. As predicted by the sperm competition theory and according to what happens in other arthropods, testes mass increased in species with higher levels of sperm competition, and influenced positively spermatophore volume, but data was not conclusive for sperm length.

  11. A constitutive damage specific DNA-binding protein is synthesized at higher levels in UV-irradiated primate cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirschfeld, S.; Levine, A.S.; Ozato, K.; Protic, M.

    1990-01-01

    Using a DNA band shift assay, we have identified a DNA-binding protein complex in primate cells which is present constitutively and has a high affinity for UV-irradiated, double-stranded DNA. Cells pretreated with UV light, mitomycin C, or aphidicolin have higher levels of this damage-specific DNA-binding protein complex, suggesting that the signal for induction can either be damage to the DNA or interference with cellular DNA replication. Physiochemical modifications of the DNA and competition analysis with defined substrates suggest that the most probable target site for the damage-specific DNA-binding protein complex is a 6-4'-(pyrimidine-2'-one)-pyrimidine dimer: specific binding could not be detected with probes which contain -TT- cyclobutane dimers, and damage-specific DNA binding did not decrease after photoreactivation of UV-irradiated DNA. This damage-specific DNA-binding protein complex is the first such inducible protein complex identified in primate cells. Cells from patients with the sun-sensitive cancer-prone disease, xeroderma pigmentosum (group E), are lacking both the constitutive and the induced damage-specific DNA-binding activities. These findings suggest a possible role for this DNA-binding protein complex in lesion recognition and DNA repair of UV-light-induced photoproducts

  12. Albumin-bound fatty acids but not albumin itself alter redox balance in tubular epithelial cells and induce a peroxide-mediated redox-sensitive apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggiero, Christine; Elks, Carrie M.; Kruger, Claudia; Cleland, Ellen; Addison, Kaity; Noland, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    Albuminuria is associated with metabolic syndrome and diabetes. It correlates with the progression of chronic kidney disease, particularly with tubular atrophy. The fatty acid load on albumin significantly increases in obesity, presenting a proinflammatory environment to the proximal tubules. However, little is known about changes in the redox milieu during fatty acid overload and how redox-sensitive mechanisms mediate cell death. Here, we show that albumin with fatty acid impurities or conjugated with palmitate but not albumin itself compromised mitochondrial and cell viability, membrane potential and respiration. Fatty acid overload led to a redox imbalance which deactivated the antioxidant protein peroxiredoxin 2 and caused a peroxide-mediated apoptosis through the redox-sensitive pJNK/caspase-3 pathway. Transfection of tubular cells with peroxiredoxin 2 was protective and mitigated apoptosis. Mitochondrial fatty acid entry and ceramide synthesis modulators suggested that mitochondrial β oxidation but not ceramide synthesis may modulate lipotoxic effects on tubular cell survival. These results suggest that albumin overloaded with fatty acids but not albumin itself changes the redox environment in the tubules, inducing a peroxide-mediated redox-sensitive apoptosis. Thus, mitigating circulating fatty acid levels may be an important factor in both preserving redox balance and preventing tubular cell damage in proteinuric diseases. PMID:24500687

  13. Low antioxidant status of serum bilirubin, uric acid, albumin and creatinine in patients with myasthenia gravis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dehao; Su, Zhongqian; Wu, Shengjie; Bi, Yong; Li, Xiang; Li, Jia; Lou, Kangliang; Zhang, Hongyu; Zhang, Xu

    2016-12-01

    Oxidative stress and low antioxidant status play a major role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune condition targeting the neuromuscular junction, and its antioxidant status is still controversial. Our study aimed to investigate the correlation between the clinical characteristics of MG and the serum antioxidant status of bilirubin (Tbil, Dbil and Ibil), uric acid, albumin and creatinine. We measured serum antioxidant molecule levels of bilirubin (Tbil, Dbil and Ibil), uric acid, albumin and creatinine in 380 individuals, including 166 MG and 214 healthy controls. We found that MG patients had significantly lower serum levels of bilirubin (Tbil, Dbil and Ibil), uric acid, albumin and creatinine than healthy controls, whether male or female. Moreover, it was also shown in our study that uric acid, albumin and creatinine levels in patients with MG were correlated with disease activity and classifications performed by the Myasthenia Gravis Foundation of America. Our findings demonstrated that serum levels of bilirubin (Tbil, Dbil and Ibil), uric acid, albumin and creatinine were reduced in patients with MG. This suggested an active oxidative process in MG patients who had low antioxidant status.

  14. Serum albumin and the haloperidol pharmacokinectics. A study using a computational model

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Morais e Coura, Carla Patrícia; Paulino, Erica Tex; Cortez, Celia Martins; da Silva Fragoso, Viviane Muniz

    2016-12-01

    Here we are studying the binding of haloperidol with human and bovine sera albumins applying a computational model, based on spectrofluorimetry, statistical and mathematical knowledge. Haloperidol is one of the oldest antipsychotic drug in use for therapy of patients with acute and chronic schizophrenia. It was found that the fluorescence of HSA was quenched in 18.0 (± 0.2)% and for BSA it was 24.0 (± 0.9)%, for a ratio of 1/1000 of haloperidol/albumin. Results suggested that the primary binding site is located in the subdomain IB. Quenching constants of the albumin fluorescence by haloperidol were in the order of 107, approximately 100-fold higher than that found for risperidone, and about 1000-fold higher than that estimated for chlorpromazine and sulpiride.

  15. Changes in cardiac output and incidence of volume overload in cirrhotics receiving 20% albumin infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shasthry, Saggere M; Kumar, Manoj; Khumuckham, Jelen S; Sarin, Shiv Kumar

    2017-08-01

    Patients with cirrhosis are prone to develop volume over load, have increased capillary permeability and latent or overt cardiomyopathy. Whether albumin infusion causes volume overload in cirrhotics has not been adequately studied. Ninety nine consecutive cirrhotic patients receiving 1gm per kg albumin infusion were evaluated for development of volume overload. Clinical, echocardiographic and haemodynamic changes were closely monitored during and after albumin infusion. Thirty (30.30%) patients developed volume overload. Patients with higher BMI (P=.003), lower CTP (P=.01) and MELD (P=.034) were more often associated with the development of volume overload. Though baseline diastolic dysfunction was present in 82.8% of the patients, it did not influence the development of volume overload or changes in the cardiac output. The cardiac output increased significantly after albumin infusion (4.9±1.554 L/min to 5.86±1.85 L/min, Palbumin infusion develop volume overload, specially, those with higher BMI and lower severity of liver disease. Cardiac output increases after albumin infusion, and, baseline diastolic dysfunction has little effect on the development of volume overload or changes in cardiac output. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. The intermediates take it all: asymptotics of higher criticism statistics and a powerful alternative based on equal local levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gontscharuk, Veronika; Landwehr, Sandra; Finner, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    The higher criticism (HC) statistic, which can be seen as a normalized version of the famous Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistic, has a long history, dating back to the mid seventies. Originally, HC statistics were used in connection with goodness of fit (GOF) tests but they recently gained some attention in the context of testing the global null hypothesis in high dimensional data. The continuing interest for HC seems to be inspired by a series of nice asymptotic properties related to this statistic. For example, unlike Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests, GOF tests based on the HC statistic are known to be asymptotically sensitive in the moderate tails, hence it is favorably applied for detecting the presence of signals in sparse mixture models. However, some questions around the asymptotic behavior of the HC statistic are still open. We focus on two of them, namely, why a specific intermediate range is crucial for GOF tests based on the HC statistic and why the convergence of the HC distribution to the limiting one is extremely slow. Moreover, the inconsistency in the asymptotic and finite behavior of the HC statistic prompts us to provide a new HC test that has better finite properties than the original HC test while showing the same asymptotics. This test is motivated by the asymptotic behavior of the so-called local levels related to the original HC test. By means of numerical calculations and simulations we show that the new HC test is typically more powerful than the original HC test in normal mixture models. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Higher Levels of Serum Zonulin May Rather Be Associated with Increased Risk of Obesity and Hyperlipidemia, Than with Gastrointestinal Symptoms or Disease Manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlsson, Bodil; Orho-Melander, Marju; Nilsson, Peter M

    2017-03-08

    Zonulin is considered a biomarker of increased intestinal permeability, and elevated levels have been found in celiac disease. The primary aim of this study was to examine the association between serum zonulin levels and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, and secondarily, between zonulin levels and anthropometric and metabolic factors. The offspring ( n = 363) of the participants of the Malmö Diet and Cancer cardiovascular cohort (MDC-CV) were invited to an anthropometric and clinical examination, where fasting plasma glucose levels were measured. Questionnaires about lifestyle factors and medical history were completed along with the Visual Analog Scale for Irritable Bowel Syndrome (VAS-IBS). Zonulin levels were measured in serum by ELISA. Neither GI symptoms nor GI diseases had any influence on zonulin levels. Higher zonulin levels were associated with higher waist circumference ( p = 0.003), diastolic blood pressure ( p = 0.003), and glucose levels ( p = 0.036). Higher zonulin levels were associated with increased risk of overweight ( p zonulin levels among individuals reporting GI symptoms or GI diseases, but higher zonulin levels are associated with higher waist circumference, diastolic blood pressure, fasting glucose, and increased risk of metabolic diseases.

  18. Higher Levels of Serum Zonulin May Rather Be Associated with Increased Risk of Obesity and Hyperlipidemia, Than with Gastrointestinal Symptoms or Disease Manifestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodil Ohlsson

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Zonulin is considered a biomarker of increased intestinal permeability, and elevated levels have been found in celiac disease. The primary aim of this study was to examine the association between serum zonulin levels and gastrointestinal (GI symptoms, and secondarily, between zonulin levels and anthropometric and metabolic factors. The offspring (n = 363 of the participants of the Malmö Diet and Cancer cardiovascular cohort (MDC-CV were invited to an anthropometric and clinical examination, where fasting plasma glucose levels were measured. Questionnaires about lifestyle factors and medical history were completed along with the Visual Analog Scale for Irritable Bowel Syndrome (VAS-IBS. Zonulin levels were measured in serum by ELISA. Neither GI symptoms nor GI diseases had any influence on zonulin levels. Higher zonulin levels were associated with higher waist circumference (p = 0.003, diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.003, and glucose levels (p = 0.036. Higher zonulin levels were associated with increased risk of overweight (p < 0.001, obesity (p = 0.047, and hyperlipidemia (p = 0.048. We cannot detect altered zonulin levels among individuals reporting GI symptoms or GI diseases, but higher zonulin levels are associated with higher waist circumference, diastolic blood pressure, fasting glucose, and increased risk of metabolic diseases.

  19. Improved anticancer effects of albumin-bound paclitaxel nanoparticle via augmentation of EPR effect and albumin-protein interactions using S-nitrosated human serum albumin dimer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Ryo; Ishima, Yu; Chuang, Victor T G; Nakamura, Hideaki; Fang, Jun; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Taro; Okuhira, Keiichiro; Ishida, Tatsuhiro; Maeda, Hiroshi; Otagiri, Masaki; Maruyama, Toru

    2017-09-01

    In the latest trend of anticancer chemotherapy research, there were many macromolecular anticancer drugs developed based on enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect, such as albumin bound paclitaxel nanoparticle (nab- PTX, also called Abraxane ® ). However, cancers with low vascular permeability posed a challenge for these EPR based therapeutic systems. Augmenting the intrinsic EPR effect with an intrinsic vascular modulator such as nitric oxide (NO) could be a promising strategy. S-nitrosated human serum albumin dimer (SNO-HSA Dimer) shown promising activity previously was evaluated for the synergistic effect when used as a pretreatment agent in nab-PTX therapy against various tumor models. In the high vascular permeability C26 murine colon cancer subcutaneous inoculation model, SNO-HSA Dimer enhanced tumor selectivity of nab-PTX, and attenuated myelosuppression. SNO-HSA Dimer also augmented the tumor growth inhibition of nab-PTX in low vascular permeability B16 murine melanoma subcutaneous inoculation model. Furthermore, nab-PTX therapy combined with SNO-HSA Dimer showed higher antitumor activity and improved survival rate of SUIT2 human pancreatic cancer orthotopic model. In conclusion, SNO-HSA Dimer could enhance the therapeutic effect of nab-PTX even in low vascular permeability or intractable pancreatic cancers. The possible underlying mechanisms of action of SNO-HSA Dimer were discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Interaction of amphiphilic drugs with human and bovine serum albumins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abbul Bashar; Khan, Javed Masood; Ali, Mohd Sajid; Khan, Rizwan Hasan; Kabir-Ud-Din

    2012-11-01

    To know the interaction of amphiphilic drugs nortriptyline hydrochloride (NOT) and promazine hydrochloride (PMZ) with serum albumins (i.e., human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA)), techniques of UV-visible, fluorescence, and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopies are used. The binding affinity is more in case of PMZ with both the serum albumins. The quenching rate constant (k(q)) values suggest a static quenching process for all the drug-serum albumin interactions. The UV-visible results show that the change in protein conformation of PMZ-serum albumin interactions are more prominent as compared to NOT-serum albumin interactions. The CD results also explain the conformational changes in the serum albumins on binding with the drugs. The increment in %α-helical structure is slightly more for drug-BSA complexes as compared to drug-HSA complexes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. DEGRADATION AND INTRAHEPATIC COMPATIBILITY OF ALBUMIN-HEPARIN CONJUGATE MICROSPHERES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    CREMERS, HFM; WOLF, RFE; BLAAUW, EH; SCHAKENRAAD, JM; LAM, KH; NIEUWENHUIS, P; VERRIJK, R; KWON, G; BAE, YH; KIM, SW; FEIJEN, J

    The in vitro degradation properties of glutaraldehyde cross-linked albumin and albumin-heparin conjugate microspheres (AMS and AHCMS respectively) were evaluated using light microscopy, turbidity measurements and heparin release determinations, showing that the microspheres are degraded by

  2. Bidirectional peritoneal transport of albumin in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joffe, P; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1995-01-01

    The present study was undertaken in order to assess bidirectional peritoneal kinetics of albumin after simultaneous i.v. and i.p. injection of radioiodinated albumin tracers (125I-RISA and 131I-RISA) in eight clinically stable uraemic patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis...... (CAPD). The plasma volume, intravascular albumin mass (IVM), and overall extravasation rate of albumin were not significantly different from that found in healthy controls. Albumin flux from the plasma into the peritoneal cavity was 3.71 +/- 0.82 (SD) mumol/h, which was only 3% of the overall...... extravasation rate (137 +/- 52 mumol/h). Albumin flux from the peritoneal cavity into the plasma was substantially lower (0.22 +/- 0.07 mumol/h, P peritoneal accumulation of the albumin from plasma over 4 h was 14 +/- 3.2 mumol, which was significantly lower than the intraperitoneal albumin...

  3. Portfolio Practices in Higher Education in Norway in an International Perspective: Macro-, Meso- and Micro-Level Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dysthe, Olga; Engelsen, Knut Steinar

    2011-01-01

    The point of departure for this article is the "chameleon" aspect of portfolios and the diversity of portfolio models and practices in higher education on the international arena today. Our aim is to investigate the contextual character of this diversity by using Norwegian higher education as an example and to show how macro-level…

  4. Interaction of Citrinin with Human Serum Albumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklós Poór

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Citrinin (CIT is a mycotoxin produced by several Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Monascus species. CIT occurs worldwide in different foods and drinks and causes health problems for humans and animals. Human serum albumin (HSA is the most abundant plasma protein in human circulation. Albumin forms stable complexes with many drugs and xenobiotics; therefore, HSA commonly plays important role in the pharmacokinetics or toxicokinetics of numerous compounds. However, the interaction of CIT with HSA is poorly characterized yet. In this study, the complex formation of CIT with HSA was investigated using fluorescence spectroscopy and ultrafiltration techniques. For the deeper understanding of the interaction, thermodynamic, and molecular modeling studies were performed as well. Our results suggest that CIT forms stable complex with HSA (logK ~ 5.3 and its primary binding site is located in subdomain IIA (Sudlow’s Site I. In vitro cell experiments also recommend that CIT-HSA interaction may have biological relevance. Finally, the complex formations of CIT with bovine, porcine, and rat serum albumin were investigated, in order to test the potential species differences of CIT-albumin interactions.

  5. Aggregation and fibrillation of bovine serum albumin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, NK; Jespersen, SK; Thomassen, LV

    2007-01-01

    The all-alpha helix multi-domain protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) aggregates at elevated temperatures. Here we show that these thermal aggregates have amyloid properties. They bind the fibril-specific dyes Thioflavin T and Congo Red, show elongated although somewhat worm-like morphology...

  6. Effect of glucagon on cyclic AMP, albumin metabolism and incorporation of 14C-leucine into proteins in isolated parenchymal rat liver cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dich, J; Gluud, C N

    1976-01-01

    wet wt. This is about the rate found in the perfused liver, Glucagon (10(-8-10(-6) M) inhibited albumin secretion and the incorporation of 14C-leucine into albumin, into total proteins in the medium and into total proteins in the cell suspension. The effect of glucagon on albumin secretion...... is compatible with an effect on the rate of synthesis. A positive correlation existed between the maximal level of cyclic AMP after glucagon administration and the inhibition of both albumin secretion and the incorporation of 149leucine....

  7. 99mTc-albumin can replace 125I-albumin to determine plasma volume repeatedly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonfils, Peter K; Damgaard, Morten; Stokholm, Knud H

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Plasma volume assessment may be of importance in several disorders. The purpose of the present study was to compare the reliability of plasma volume measurements by technetium-labeled human serum albumin ((99m)Tc-HSA) with a simultaneously performed plasma volume determination...... with iodine-labeled human serum albumin ((125)I-HSA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 15 healthy volunteers, simultaneous plasma volume measurements with (99m)Tc-HSA and (125)I-HSA were performed after ½ hour in the supine position. Blood samples were obtained 10, 15, 20, and 30 minutes after the injection...... for accurate retropolation from the plasma counts to time zero to correct for leakage of the isotopes from the circulation. RESULTS: The mean difference (bias) between plasma volume measured with (125)I-albumin and (99m)Tc-albumin was 8 ml (0.1 ml/kg) with limits of agreement (bias ±1.96 SD) ranging from -181...

  8. Preparing Future Leaders in Higher Education: Excellence Practices from Staff to Mid-Level Management Role Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Erica Sherese

    2016-01-01

    Mid-level leadership is key to a functioning university and it is important that mid-level leaders feel they have the tools and resources they need in order to succeed. To be successful in a new mid-level leadership position, entering supervisors must clearly communicate a strong sense of vision, values, and principles to their staff and establish…

  9. An interaction of the functionalized closo-borates with albumins: The protein fluorescence quenching and calorimetry study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Losytskyy, Mykhaylo Yu.; Kovalska, Vladyslava B.; Varzatskii, Oleg A.; Kuperman, Marina V.; Potocki, Slawomir; Gumienna-Kontecka, Elzbieta; Zhdanov, Andrey P.; Yarmoluk, Sergiy M.; Voloshin, Yan Z.; Zhizhin, Konstantin Yu.; Kuznetsov, Nikolai T.; Elskaya, Anna V.

    2016-01-01

    An interaction of the boron clusters closo-borates K 2 [B 10 H 10 ], K 2 [B 12 H 12 ] and their functionalized derivatives with serum proteins human (HSA) and bovine (BSA) albumins and immonoglobulin IgG as well as globular proteins β-lactoglobulin and lysozyme was characterized. The steady state and time resolved protein fluorescence quenching studies point on the binding of the closo-borate arylamine derivatives to serum albumins and discrimination of other proteins. The mechanism of the albumin fluorescence quenching by the closo-borate arylamine derivatives was proposed. The complex formation between albumin and the closo-borate molecules has been confirmed by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). The compound (K 2 [B 10 H 10 ]) and its arylamine derivative both interact with HSA, have close values of K a (1.4 and 1.2×10 3 M −1 respectively) and Gibbs energy (−17.9 and −17.5 kJ/mol respectively). However, the arylamine derivative forms complex with the higher guest/host binding ratio (4:1) comparing to the parent closo-borate (2:1). - Highlights: • Complex formation between boron clusters closo-borates and albumins was confirmed. • Functional substituent of closo-borate strongly affects its complex with albumins. • Binding of arylamine closo-borates essentially quench the albumin fluorescence. • Mechanism of tryptophan emission quenching by arylamine closo-borates was proposed.

  10. Effects of non-enzymatic glycation in human serum albumin. Spectroscopic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szkudlarek, A.; Sułkowska, A.; Maciążek-Jurczyk, M.; Chudzik, M.; Równicka-Zubik, J.

    2016-01-01

    Human serum albumin (HSA), transporting protein, is exposed during its life to numerous factors that cause its functions become impaired. One of the basic factors - glycation of HSA - occurs in diabetes and may affect HSA-drug binding. Accumulation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) leads to diseases e.g. diabetic and non-diabetic cardiovascular diseases, Alzheimer disease, renal disfunction and in normal aging. The aim of the present work was to estimate how non-enzymatic glycation of human serum albumin altered its tertiary structure using fluorescence technique. We compared glycated human serum albumin by glucose (gHSAGLC) with HSA glycated by fructose (gHSAFRC). We focused on presenting the differences between gHSAFRC and nonglycated (HSA) albumin used acrylamide (Ac), potassium iodide (KI) and 2-(p-toluidino)naphthalene-6-sulfonic acid (TNS). Changes of the microenvironment around the tryptophan residue (Trp-214) of non-glycated and glycated proteins was investigated by the red-edge excitation shift method. Effect of glycation on ligand binding was examined by the binding of phenylbutazone (PHB) and ketoprofen (KP), which a primary high affinity binding site in serum albumin is subdomain IIA and IIIA, respectively. At an excitation and an emission wavelength of λex 335 nm and λem 420 nm, respectively the increase of fluorescence intensity and the blue-shift of maximum fluorescence was observed. It indicates that the glycation products decreases the polarity microenvironment around the fluorophores. Analysis of red-edge excitation shift method showed that the red-shift for gHSAFRC is higher than for HSA. Non-enzymatic glycation also caused, that the Trp residue of gHSAFRC becomes less accessible for the negatively charged quencher (I-), KSV value is smaller for gHSAFRC than for HSA. TNS fluorescent measurement demonstrated the decrease of hydrophobicity in the glycated albumin. KSV constants for gHSA-PHB systems are higher than for the unmodified serum

  11. 21 CFR 866.5040 - Albumin immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Albumin immunological test system. 866.5040... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5040 Albumin immunological test system. (a) Identification. An albumin immunological test system is a device that consists of...

  12. Composition comprising radioactive labeled-fibrinogen and albumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlton, J.C.; Gravett, D.L.

    1976-01-01

    The stability of fibrinogen is improved by mixing it with albumin, preferably at least 5 parts by weight of albumin per part by weight of fibrinogen. By this invention, iodinated ( 125 I) human fibrinogen can be stabilized with human serum albumin for use in the diagnosis of thrombi

  13. Adaptation of Kirkpatrick's Four Level Model of Training Criteria to Assessment of Learning Outcomes and Program Evaluation in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praslova, Ludmila

    2010-01-01

    Assessment of educational effectiveness provides vitally important feedback to Institutions of Higher Education. It also provides important information to external stakeholders, such as prospective students, parents, governmental and local regulatory entities, professional and regional accrediting organizations, and representatives of the…

  14. Electron-impact excitation cross sections of the higher argon 3p5np (n=5,6,7) levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, Tobin; Boffard, John B.; Lin, Chun C.

    2003-01-01

    We have measured the electron-impact excitation cross sections for argon into the ten levels of 3p 5 5p configuration, as well as numerous levels of the 3p 5 6p and 3p 5 7p configurations. Fluorescence from the decay of the excited atoms to the levels of 3p 5 4s configuration was used to determine the optical-emission cross sections. These results were combined with transition probabilities to find apparent cross sections into the 3p 5 5p and 3p 5 6p levels. These new cross sections of the Ar(3p 5 np) levels along with the available Ne(2p 5 3p), Kr(4p 5 5p), and Xe(5p 5 6p) data help provide a global view of the excitation behaviors of the np 5 n ' p levels of the rare-gas series

  15. Pemberian kombinasi probiotik dan zinc terhadap perubahan kadar hemoglobin, albumin, dan indeks massa tubuh pada pasien tuberkulosis paru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meika Rahmawati Arifah

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: TB patients are generally the most productive age group and suffer from chronic energy deficiency. Therefore, patients with TB requires a combination of chemotherapy and supplementary feeding as probiotics and zinc to boost the immune response and nutritional status. Objective: To analyze the effect of a combined of probiotics and zinc on the changes of hemoglobin, albumin level, and BMI. Method: This study is a quasi-experimental, randomized design with pre-post test control group involving 52 respondents. They were divided into two groups. The treatment group was given a combination of 1 capsule of probiotics (2 billion probiotics and zinc 20 mg per day for 28 days. The analysis is paired t-test, independent t-test, Mann-Whitney, Pearson, Spearman, Covariance. Results: There was an increase in hemoglobin (p=0.01, albumin (p=0.01 and BMI (p=0.01. There is no difference between the two groups in the levels of hemoglobin parameter (p=0.21 and BMI (p=0.12, whereas there is a difference parameter albumin levels (p=0.01. The effectiveness of interventions is 4% for hemoglobin levels, 16% to albumin, and 1% for IMT. Conclusion: Probiotics and zinc for 28 days in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis may increase levels of hemoglobin, albumin, and BMI, but there is no significant difference in the changes of BMI. The most powerful influence of intervention effectiveness is on albumin.

  16. CSF/serum albumin ratio in dementias: a cross-sectional study on 1861 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skillbäck, Tobias; Delsing, Louise; Synnergren, Jane; Mattsson, Niklas; Janelidze, Shorena; Nägga, Katarina; Kilander, Lena; Hicks, Ryan; Wimo, Anders; Winblad, Bengt; Hansson, Oskar; Blennow, Kaj; Eriksdotter, Maria; Zetterberg, Henrik

    2017-11-01

    A connection between dementias and blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction has been suggested, but previous studies have yielded conflicting results. We examined cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)/serum albumin ratio in a large cohort of patients diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease (AD, early onset [EAD, n = 130], late onset AD [LAD, n = 666]), vascular dementia (VaD, n = 255), mixed AD and VaD (MIX, n = 362), Lewy body dementia (DLB, n = 50), frontotemporal dementia (FTD, n = 56), Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD, n = 23), other dementias (other, n = 48), and dementia not otherwise specified (NOS, n = 271). We compared CSF/serum albumin ratio to 2 healthy control groups (n = 292, n = 20), between dementia diagnoses, and tested biomarker associations. Patients in DLB, LAD, VaD, MIX, other, and NOS groups had higher CSF/serum albumin ratio than controls. CSF/serum albumin ratio correlated with CSF neurofilament light in LAD, MIX, VaD, and other groups but not with AD biomarkers. Our data show that BBB leakage is common in dementias. The lack of association between CSF/serum albumin ratio and AD biomarkers suggests that BBB dysfunction is not inherent to AD but might represent concomitant cerebrovascular pathology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of albumin/glutaraldehyde glue on healing of colonic anastomosis in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despoudi, Kalliopi; Mantzoros, Ioannis; Ioannidis, Orestis; Cheva, Aggeliki; Antoniou, Nikolaos; Konstantaras, Dimitrios; Symeonidis, Savvas; Pramateftakis, Manousos George; Kotidis, Efstathios; Angelopoulos, Stamatis; Tsalis, Konstantinos

    2017-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the effect of local surgical adhesive glue (albumin/glutaraldehyde-Bioglue) on the healing of colonic anastomoses in rats. METHODS Forty Albino-Wistar male rats were randomly divided into two groups, with two subgroups of ten animals each. In the control group, an end-to-end colonic anastomosis was performed after segmental resection. In the Bioglue group, the anastomosis was protected with extraluminar application of adhesive glue containing albumin and glutaraldehyde. Half of the rats were sacrificed on the fourth and the rest on the eighth postoperative day. Anastomoses were resected and macroscopically examined. Bursting pressures were calculated and histological features were graded. Other parameters of healing, such as hydroxyproline and collagenase concentrations, were evaluated. The experimental data were summarized and computed from the results of a one-way ANOVA. Fisher’s exact test was applied to compare percentages. RESULTS Bursting pressures, adhesion formation, inflammatory cell infiltration, and collagen deposition were significantly higher on the fourth postoperative day in the albumin/glutaraldehyde group than in the control group. Furthermore, albumin/glutaraldehyde significantly increased adhesion formation, inflammatory cell infiltration, neoangiogenesis, and collagen deposition on the eighth postoperative day. There was no difference in fibroblast activity or hydroxyproline and collagenase concentrations. CONCLUSION Albumin/glutaraldehyde, when applied on colonic anastomoses, promotes their healing in rats. Therefore, the application of protective local agents in colonic anastomoses leads to better outcomes. PMID:28883693

  18. Coupling of albumin flux to volume flow in skin and muscles of anesthetized rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renkin, E.M.; Gustafson-Sgro, M.; Sibley, L.

    1988-01-01

    Bovine serum albumin (BSA) labeled with 131 I or 125 I was injected intravenously in pentobarbital sodium-anesthetized rats, and tracer clearances into leg skin and muscles were measured over 30, 60, and 120 min. BSA labeled with the alternate tracer was used as vascular volume reference. Two minutes before injection of the tracer, a ligature was tied around one femoral vein to occlude outflow partially and raise capillary pressure in that leg. The unoccluded leg served as control. Skin and muscles of the occluded leg had variably and substantially higher water contents (delta W) than paired control tissues and slightly but consistently increased albumin clearances (CA). The delta CA/delta W, equivalent to the albumin concentration of capillary filtrate relative to plasma determined by linear regression, were as follows: leg skin 0.004 (95% confidence limits -0.001 to +0.009), muscle biceps femoris 0.005 (0.001-0.010), muscle gastrocnemius 0.011 (0.004-0.019), muscle tibialis anterior 0.016 (0.012-0.021). All these values are significantly less than 0.10, which corresponds to a reflection coefficient for serum albumin (sigma A) of 0.90. Convective coupling of albumin flux to volume flux in skin and muscles of intact, anesthetized rats is low, with sigma AS in the range 0.98 to greater than 0.99

  19. Measurement of urinary albumin excretion rate (AER) in normal and diabetic subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giampetro, O.; Clerico, A.; Cruschelli, L.; Miccoli, R.; Dipalma, L.; Navalesi, R.

    1987-01-01

    The chemico-clinical characteristics of two commercial RIA kits for the measurement of urinary albumin excretion in normal and diabetic subjects were compared. The chief difference between the two methods concerns the bound/free separation of the antigen, since one employs the second antybody plus PEG (Sclavo Kit), while the other uses the solid phase [antiserum bound to sepharose (Pharmacia kit)]. The two RIA methods have demonstrated a similar degree of sensitivity, feasibility and cost. The precision of the two RIAs was also similar, although the Sclavo kit has shown a better precision for lower albumin concentrations and the Pharmacia kit for higher values. In diabetic patients, elevated urinary albumin concentrations (>60 mg/L) have been found more frequently than low values (<5 mg/L); hence the Pharmacia kit seems to be preferable, because it less frequently needs dilution of urinary sample for measuring with a better precision supranormal urinary albumin values. A significant bias (about 15%) was found between the two RIAs. Bias between different albumin RIA methods could partially explain the differences of normal values previously reported in the literature

  20. Higher Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kunle Amuwo: Higher Education Transformation: A Paradigm Shilt in South Africa? ... ty of such skills, especially at the middle management levels within the higher ... istics and virtues of differentiation and diversity. .... may be forced to close shop for lack of capacity to attract ..... necessarily lead to racial and gender equity,.

  1. Albumin induces upregulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in astrocytes via MAPK and reactive oxygen species-dependent pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranaivo Hantamalala

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Astrocytes are an integral component of the blood–brain barrier (BBB which may be compromised by ischemic or traumatic brain injury. In response to trauma, astrocytes increase expression of the endopeptidase matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-9. Compromise of the BBB leads to the infiltration of fluid and blood-derived proteins including albumin into the brain parenchyma. Albumin has been previously shown to activate astrocytes and induce the production of inflammatory mediators. The effect of albumin on MMP-9 activation in astrocytes is not known. We investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the production of MMP-9 by albumin in astrocytes. Methods Primary enriched astrocyte cultures were used to investigate the effects of exposure to albumin on the release of MMP-9. MMP-9 expression was analyzed by zymography. The involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK, reactive oxygen species (ROS and the TGF-β receptor-dependent pathways were investigated using pharmacological inhibitors. The production of ROS was observed by dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate fluorescence. The level of the MMP-9 inhibitor tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP-1 produced by astrocytes was measured by ELISA. Results We found that albumin induces a time-dependent release of MMP-9 via the activation of p38 MAPK and extracellular signal regulated kinase, but not Jun kinase. Albumin-induced MMP-9 production also involves ROS production upstream of the MAPK pathways. However, albumin-induced increase in MMP-9 is independent of the TGF-β receptor, previously described as a receptor for albumin. Albumin also induces an increase in TIMP-1 via an undetermined mechanism. Conclusions These results link albumin (acting through ROS and the p38 MAPK to the activation of MMP-9 in astrocytes. Numerous studies identify a role for MMP-9 in the mechanisms of compromise of the BBB, epileptogenesis, or synaptic remodeling after ischemia or

  2. Evaluation of the role of ischemia modified albumin as a new ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mohamed Samy Gad

    2015-03-06

    Mar 6, 2015 ... Abstract Objective: To evaluate the role of the detection of ischemia ... Results: IMA was significantly higher in the patient group than in the control group. ... Stroke can be classified into two major categories: ischemic ... changes during ischemia compared to albumin from other .... Test result variable(s): IMA;.

  3. Assessment of natural radioactivity levels in waters from the higher Ribeira Valley to the southern Sao Paulo state coastal plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesus, Sueli Carvalho de

    2010-01-01

    fundamental information on the interaction of sediments, groundwater and estuarine waters. In this project, the distribution of natural Ra isotopes was studied in ix surface, groundwater and estuarine water samples collected from dry and wet seasons (2009 - 2010) campaigns performed in Ribeira Valley, Southern Sao Paulo State. The inventory allowed the application of Ra isotopes as tracers of fluvial and groundwater discharges to the Cananeia-Iguape estuarine complex. The exchange of groundwater/surface water in Ribeira do Iguape River basin and related fluxes of several constituents for the Cananeia-Iguape estuarine complex mass balance is still not very well known. The results obtained in this research work evidenced that there is a prevalence of 228 Ra isotope in all the set of samples analyzed. However, the activity concentrations of Ra isotopes determined from Higher Ribeira Valley through the Southern Coastal Plain of Sao Paulo are representative of natural background levels, showing low or minimal human intervention. In the set of samples collected along Ribeira do Iguape River, Cananeia and Iguape outlets, the higher concentrations of Ra were observed in bottom waters, indicating the diffusion of 228 Ra from sediments recently deposited as a potential source of the increased concentrations of this isotope when compared with others. The activity concentrations of the short-lived Ra isotopes were negligible, lower than the limit of the detection. Fluxes of Ra for Cananeia outlet are strongly influenced by tidal oscillations, which modulate the increase and decrease of Ra concentrations in response of the respective increase and decrease of waters salinity. In Iguape outlet and in hydrochemical stations performed along Ribeira do Iguape River it was observed a linear relationship between the amount of suspended matter and the increase of 228 Ra activity concentration. When we evaluate qualitatively the differences in behavior of both long-lived Ra isotopes, the

  4. Development of radiochemical method of analysis of binding of tritium labeled drotaverine hydrochloride with human blood serum albumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, A.A.; Djuraeva, G.T.; Shukurov, B.V.; Mavlyanov, I.R.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The albumin, being a basic functional linkage of numerous endogenous and exogenous substances is the most important protein of blood plasma. At the diseases connected to liver disfunction, collected in blood metabolite reduce connecting ability of albumino. The aim of the present research was a development of radiochemical method of determination of ability of albumin to bind the tritium labeled preparation drotaverine hydrochloride (no - spa). We had developed a micromethod of definition of connecting ability of albumin, allowing to analyse 20 mkl of blood serum. The method consists in incubation of tritium labeled drotaverine hydrochloride with blood serum in vitro, the following fractionation of serum proteins by gel - filtration on a microcolumn with Sephadex G-25, and direct measurement of the radioactivity connected to fraction of proteins of blood serum. The method has been tested on a series of blood serum of control group of healthy people and on a series of blood serum of patients with hepatitis B. We received quantitative characteristics of binding of drotaverine hydrochloride with albumin of patients with hepatitis B. It was preliminary established that binding ability of serum albumin of children with various forms of acute virus hepatitis tends to decrease in comparison with group of the control. Advantage of the developed radiochemical method is high precision and the high sensitivity of detection of infringement of binding ability of albumin. Application of tritium labeled drotaverine hydrochloride allows to measure directly levels of binding of a preparation with albumin

  5. Investigation of ionizing radiation effect on albumin aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sizikov, A.M.; Adeeva, L.N.; Ogryzkova, I.F.

    1986-01-01

    Gamma radiation effect on 0.1-0.5%-albumin aqueous solutions has been investigated; variations of viscosity and optical density of solutions at pH medium different values and completeness of protein separation owing to radiation coagulation have been determined. It is shown that due to radiation coagulation it is possible to quantitatively separate albumin from irradiated aqueous solutions. The albumin coagulation is caused by OH radicals the action of which on albumin macromolecules results in destruction of intramolecular bonds and albumin conformation transformations

  6. Hierarchy of higher-level physical functions: a longitudinal investigation on a nationally representative population of community-dwelling middle-aged and elderly persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chih-Jung; Wang, Ching-Yi; Tang, Pei-Fang; Lee, Meng-Chih; Lin, Hui-Sheng; Chen, Hui-Ya

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the hierarchy of higher-level physical functions to infer disability level (mild, moderate or severe) is essential for the precise targeting of preventive interventions and has been examined previously in a cross-sectional study. Based on longitudinal data, this study evaluated the hierarchy of higher-level physical functions. Data from a cohort of 2729 community-dwelling persons aged over 50 with no initial disability were drawn from the "Survey of Health and Living Status of the Elderly in Taiwan" from 1996 through 2007. The three-level hierarchy of eight chosen activities was examined by the median ages to disability onset with survival analyses and by Cox regressions, which examined the effects of sex and age on the development of this hierarchy. The progression of incident disability was as follows: mild level-running, carrying weight, and squatting; moderate level-climbing stairs, walking, and standing; and severe level-grasping and raising arms up. Women and older persons were at greater risk of developing more severe levels of disability. Another Cox regression with one index activity from each hierarchical level revealed similar results. The three-level hierarchy of higher-level physical functions has been validated longitudinally, suggesting rich research and clinical implications.

  7. [Determination of cytomegalovirus IgG synthesis by the albumin correction in the aqueous humor of posner-schlossmann syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X L; Wang, Z J; Tang, L; Cao, W W; Sun, X H

    2017-02-11

    Objective: To evaluate the usefulness of albumin correction in determination of cytomegalovirus IgG in the aqueous humor of Posner-Schlossman syndrome (PSS) patients. Methods: Cases series studies. Forty-two patients (26 men and 16 women) who were diagnosed as PSS were enrolled from Oct. 2009 to Oct. 2015 at the Eye and ENT Hospital. During the same period, 20 patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and 30 patients with bacterial endophthalmitis or retinal necrosis were enrolled as negative control group and inflammatory disease control group, respectively. Aqueous humor and serum samples were assayed to detect CMV IgG by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and albumin by scattering immunonephelometry. CMV DNA in aqueous humor was assayed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The ratio which was calculated as the (aqueous humor CMV IgG/serum CMV IgG)/(aqueous humor concentration of albumin/serum albumin concentration) over 0.6 was considered as intraocular antibody formation. Performance of differentiating control eyes from eyes with CMV-positive PSS was evaluated by the receiver operating characteristic curve. The ANOVA test, Mann-Whitney test and Chi-square test were performed to compare the differences among groups. Results: The detectable rate of CMV IgG antibody in the aqueous humor was 76.2%, 100.0% and 10.0% in PSS, inflammatory disease control and POAG groups, respectively. The levels of CMV IgG antibody in the PSS groups were significantly higher than that of POAG groups ( Z= 4.23, Palbumin was 71.4%, 3.3% and 0.0%.The corrected positive rate in PSS groups was significantly higher than that of the inflammatory disease control and POAG groups (χ(2)=30.38, Palbumin could effectively improve aqueous antibody specificity in PSS patients. Furthermore, CMV IgG antibody ratio combined with PCR could improve the sensitivity of CMV detection. All of which help clarify the CMV infection in PSS in CMV DNA negative eyes. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2017, 53

  8. Circulating cortisol levels after exogenous cortisol administration are higher in women using hormonal contraceptives: data from two preliminary studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffey, Allison E; Wirth, Michelle M; Hoks, Roxanne M; Jahn, Allison L; Abercrombie, Heather C

    2014-07-01

    Exogenous cortisol administration has been used to test the influence of glucocorticoids on a variety of outcomes, including memory and affect. Careful control of factors known to influence cortisol and other endogenous hormone levels is central to the success of this research. While the use of hormonal birth control (HBC) is known to exert many physiological effects, including decreasing the salivary cortisol response to stress, it is unknown how HBC influences circulating cortisol levels after exogenous cortisol administration. To determine those effects, we examined the role of HBC on participants' cortisol levels after receiving synthetic cortisol (hydrocortisone) in two separate studies. In Study 1, 24 healthy women taking HBC and 26 healthy men were administered a 0.1 mg/kg body weight intravenous dose of hydrocortisone, and plasma cortisol levels were measured over 3 h. In Study 2, 61 participants (34 women; 16 were on HBC) received a 15 mg hydrocortisone pill, and salivary cortisol levels were measured over 6 h. Taken together, results from these studies suggest that HBC use is associated with a greater cortisol increase following cortisol administration. These data have important methodological implications: (1) when given a controlled dose of hydrocortisone, cortisol levels may increase more dramatically in women taking HBC versus women not on HBC or men; and (2) in studies manipulating cortisol levels, women on hormonal contraceptives should be investigated as a separate group.

  9. "Monkey in a Cage": The Complicated Loyalties of Mid-Level Academic Women Working in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vongalis-Macrow, Athena

    2012-01-01

    Loyalty raises a dilemma for women's career progression and leadership because it signals confidence in the organisation, despite the ongoing constraints that organisations present for women and their leadership aspirations. The research investigates women's loyalty in the context of higher education. Focussing on a select group of mid-level…

  10. Serum albumin predicts survival in patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waghray, Abhijeet; Sobotka, Anastasia; Marrero, Carlos Romero; Estfan, Bassam; Aucejo, Federico; Narayanan Menon, K V

    2017-02-01

    Hilar cholangiocarcinoma is a devastating malignancy with incidence varying by geography and other risk factors. Rapid progression of disease and delays in diagnosis restrict the number of patients eligible for curative therapy. The objective of this study was to determine prognostic factors of overall survival in all patients presenting with hilar cholangiocarcinoma. All adult patients with histologically confirmed hilar cholangiocarcinoma from 2003 to 2013 were evaluated for predictors of survival using demographic factors, laboratory data, symptoms and radiological characteristics at presentation. A total of 116 patients were identified to have pathological diagnosis of hilar cholangiocarcinoma and were included in the analysis. Patients with a serum albumin level >3.0 g/dL (P 3.0 g/dL was identified as an independent predictor of overall survival (hazard ratio 0.31; 95% confidence interval 0.14-0.70) with a survival benefit of 44 weeks. This study was the largest analysis to date of prognostic factors in patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma. A serum albumin level >3.0 g/dL conferred an independent survival advantage with a significantly greater length of survival. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press and Sixth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University.

  11. Effect of Processing Delay and Storage Conditions on Urine Albumin-to-Creatinine Ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrington, William; Illingworth, Nicola; Staplin, Natalie; Kumar, Aishwarya; Storey, Ben; Hrusecka, Renata; Judge, Parminder; Mahmood, Maria; Parish, Sarah; Landray, Martin; Haynes, Richard; Baigent, Colin; Hill, Michael; Clark, Sarah

    2016-10-07

    Because there is substantial biologic intraindividual variation in albumin excretion, randomized trials of albuminuria-reducing therapies may need multiple urine samples to estimate daily urinary albumin excretion. Mailing spot urine samples could offer a convenient and cost-effective method to collect multiple samples, but urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio stability in samples stored at ambient temperatures for several days is unknown. Patients with kidney disease provided fresh urine samples in two tubes (with and without boric acid preservative). Reference aliquots from each participant were analyzed immediately, whereas remaining aliquots were subject to different handling/storage conditions before analysis, including delayed processing for up to 7 days at three different storage temperatures (4°C, 18°C, and 30°C), multiple freeze-thaw cycles, and long-term frozen storage at -80°C, -40°C, and -20°C. We calculated the mean percentage change in urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio for each condition, and we considered samples stable if the 95% confidence interval was within a ±5% threshold. Ninety-three patients provided samples with detectable albuminuria in the reference aliquot. Median (interquartile range) urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio was 87 (20-499) mg/g. The inclusion of preservative had minimal effect on fresh urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio measurements but reduced the changes in albumin and creatinine in samples subject to processing delay and storage conditions. The urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio was stable for 7 days in samples containing preservative at 4°C and 18°C and 2 days when stored at 30°C. It was also stable in samples with preservative after three freeze-thaw cycles and in frozen storage for 6 months at -80°C or -40°C but not at -20°C. Mailed urine samples collected with preservative and received within 7 days if ambient temperature is ≤18°C, or within 2 days if the temperature is higher but does not exceed 30°C, are

  12. Effect of Processing Delay and Storage Conditions on Urine Albumin-to-Creatinine Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illingworth, Nicola; Staplin, Natalie; Kumar, Aishwarya; Storey, Ben; Hrusecka, Renata; Judge, Parminder; Mahmood, Maria; Parish, Sarah; Landray, Martin; Haynes, Richard; Baigent, Colin; Hill, Michael; Clark, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    ambient temperature is ≤18°C, or within 2 days if the temperature is higher but does not exceed 30°C, are suitable for the measurement of urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio in randomized trials. Preserved samples frozen to −40°C or −80°C for 6 months before analysis also seem suitable. PMID:27654930

  13. Detecting microalbuminuria by urinary albumin/creatinine concentration ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J S; Clausen, P; Borch-Johnsen, K

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Microalbuminuria, i.e. a subclinical increase of the albumin excretion rate in urine, may be a novel atherosclerotic risk factor. This study aimed to test whether microalbuminuria can be identified by measurement of urinary albumin concentration or urinary albumin/creatinine concentra......BACKGROUND: Microalbuminuria, i.e. a subclinical increase of the albumin excretion rate in urine, may be a novel atherosclerotic risk factor. This study aimed to test whether microalbuminuria can be identified by measurement of urinary albumin concentration or urinary albumin/creatinine...... not included. Urinary albumin (Ualb) and creatinine (Ucreat) concentrations were measured in an overnight collected sample by enzyme-linked immunosorbent and colorimetric assays, respectively. Urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) and urinary albumin/creatinine concentration ratio (Ualb/Ucreat) were calculated......, and 73%, 97%, and 73% for Ualb/Ucreat, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: It is concluded that measurement of the albumin/creatinine concentration ratio is a specific and quite sensitive alternative to measurement of the urinary albumin excretion rate in timed collections, when screening for microalbuminuria....

  14. Dynamic modulation of platelet aggregation, albumin and nonesterified fatty acids during physical exercise in Thoroughbred horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfuso, F; Giannetto, C; Giudice, E; Fazio, F; Piccione, G

    2016-02-01

    The effect of exercise on platelet aggregation, albumin and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) values and the correlation among these parameters were evaluated in ten clinically healthy and regularly trained Thoroughbred horses. All horses were subjected to two simulated races. Blood samples were collected by jugular venipuncture before and after the first simulated race (T0PRE and T0POST), every 7 days at rest condition for a month (T1R-T2R-T3R), and before and after the second simulated race (T4PRE and T4POST) in order to assess platelet aggregation, albumin and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) levels. One-way analysis of variance showed a significant effect of exercise (P<0.01) on platelet aggregation, albumin and NEFAs values. A negative correlation between platelet aggregation and albumin or NEFAs values, and a positive correlation between albumin and NEFAs values, were found both at T0POST and T4POST (P<0.05). These findings are likely related to dynamic physiological adaptations to exercise that allow re-establishment of the homeostatic equilibrium of the organism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Aging-associated oxidized albumin promotes cellular senescence and endothelial damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luna C

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Carlos Luna,1,* Matilde Alique,2,* Estefanía Navalmoral,2 Maria-Victoria Noci,3 Lourdes Bohorquez-Magro,2 Julia Carracedo,1 Rafael Ramírez2 1Nephrology Unit, Instituto Maimónides de Investigación Biomédica de Córdoba (IMIBIC, Reina Sofía University Hospital, Córdoba, Spain; 2Department of Systems Biology, Physiology Unit, Universidad de Alcalá, Madrid, Spain; 3Anesthesia Unit, Reina sofía University Hospital, Córdoba, Spain*These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Increased levels of oxidized proteins with aging have been considered a cardiovascular risk factor. However, it is unclear whether oxidized albumin, which is the most abundant serum protein, induces endothelial damage. The results of this study indicated that with aging processes, the levels of oxidized proteins as well as endothelial microparticles release increased, a novel marker of endothelial damage. Among these, oxidized albumin seems to play a principal role. Through in vitro studies, endothelial cells cultured with oxidized albumin exhibited an increment of endothelial damage markers such as adhesion molecules and apoptosis levels. In addition, albumin oxidation increased the amount of endothelial microparticles that were released. Moreover, endothelial cells with increased oxidative stress undergo senescence. In addition, endothelial cells cultured with oxidized albumin shown a reduction in endothelial cell migration measured by wound healing. As a result, we provide the first evidence that oxidized albumin induces endothelial injury which then contributes to the increase of cardiovascular disease in the elderly subjects.Keywords: elderly, oxidative stress, microparticles, vascular damage

  16. Contributions to the study of albumins from thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Netto, M.

    1975-01-01

    72 human thyroid were analysed from which 27 corresponded to normal tissue, 30 to nodular goiters(21 'cold' nodules and 9 'hot' nodules), 10 to adenocarcinomas, 3 to ganglionar metastasis of thyroidal adenocarcinoma and 2 to Hashimoto's thyroiditis. The concentration of total albumin and serumalbumin were determined in these tissues thus permitting the estimation of thyralbumin concentration. The results obtained showed a significantly higher concentration of thyralbumin as compared to serumalbumin in all tissue samples. A significant correlation between the content of blood in the thyroid extracts and its concentration of thyralbumin was also found. The hypothesis that thyralbumin was produced in the gland was therefore accepted. Furthermore, the thyralbumin content of abnormal tissues was always higher than that found in normal thyroids [pt

  17. Albumin grafting on polymer surfaces by gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamath, K.R.; Park, K.; DeMeo, D.

    1993-01-01

    Polymeric biomaterial surfaces were modified by albumin grafting to improve their blood compatibility. Albumin molecules were functionalized by introduction of double bonds. The functionalized albumin was covalently attached to polypropylene fibers, polycarbonate, and poly(vinyl chloride) by gamma-irradiation. ESCA and ATR/FTIR analysis of the control and grafted surfaces was conducted. Albumin grafting efficiency was found to be dependent on the gamma-irradiation time and the concentration of albumin as indicated by platelet adhesion studies. The grafted albumin molecules were not displaced when exposed to blood for prolonged time period. Finally, PLEXUS oxygenators grafted with albumin using this approach showed a significant reduction in platelet adhesion when compared to control

  18. Fatty acid and drug binding to a low-affinity component of human serum albumin, purified by affinity chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorum, H; Pedersen, A O; Honoré, B

    1992-01-01

    Binding equilibria for decanoate to a defatted, commercially available human serum albumin preparation were investigated by dialysis exchange rate determinations. The binding isotherm could not be fitted by the general binding equation. It was necessary to assume that the preparation was a mixture...... of two albumin components about 40% of the albumin having high affinity and about 60% having low affinity. By affinity chromatography we succeeded in purifying the low-affinity component from the mixture. The high-affinity component, however, could not be isolated. We further analyzed the fatty acid...... and drug binding abilities of the low-affinity component. The fatty acids decanoate, laurate, myristate and palmitate were bound with higher affinity to the mixture than to the low-affinity component. Diazepam was bound with nearly the same affinity to the low-affinity component as to the albumin mixture...

  19. Fluorescent holograms with albumin-acrylamide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordóñez-Padilla, M. J.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.

    2014-02-01

    We describe fluorescent holograms were made with photosensitive films of albumin (protein) quail, used as modified matrices. Albumin is mixed with acrylamide and eosin Y. Therefore, prepare a photosensitive emulsion and solid hydrated with the ability to phase transmission holograms and volume (VPH). Eosin Y is a fluorescent agent that acts as a photo-sensitizing dye which stimulates the polymerization of acrylamide. To record the interference pattern produced by two waves superimposed on the modified matrix, we use a He-Cd laser. To reconstruct the diffraction pattern is observed with He- Ne laser, λ = 632.8nm, the material is self-developing properties. Measure the diffraction efficiency of the diffracted orders (η[-1, +1]) as a function of exposure energy. We work with various thicknesses and measure the variation of the refractive index using the coupled wave theory of Kogelnik, the holographic gratings meet Bragg condition.

  20. DIFFERENT LEVEL OF LEARNED-HELPLESSNESS AMONG HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS WITH LOWER GRADE AND HIGHER GRADE IN SALATIGA INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berta Esti Ari Prasetya

    2013-06-01

    consisted of 190 of higher grade students and 127 of lower grade students. Mann-Whitney U was used to analyse the data, considering that the data were not normally distributed. This test result showed that there was a significant difference between high school students with higher grade and lower grade (the Mann-Whitney U coefficient of 10,644, with z value of -1795, p <0.05 (p = 0036, 1-tailed, with students of lower grade tend to be more prone to experience learned-helplessness. Additional results from their subjective perception on their achievement were also discussed and so were the implications of the study.