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Sample records for higher age male

  1. A higher score on the Aging Males' Symptoms scale is associated with insulin resistance in middle-aged men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamanoue, Nobuya; Tanabe, Makito; Tanaka, Tomoko; Akehi, Yuko; Murakami, Junji; Nomiyama, Takashi; Yanase, Toshihiko

    2017-05-30

    An age-associated androgen decrease and its pathological conditions are defined as late-onset hypogonadism (LOH). Among the various symptoms associated with LOH, a visceral fat increase is strongly associated with relatively low levels of testosterone. However, few studies have investigated the relationship between the Aging Males' Symptoms (AMS) scores and metabolic abnormalities. Thus, we aimed to clarify this relationship by investigating the relationship between AMS scores and various markers in blood. During routine health examinations in 241 middle-aged males (52.7±7.5 years of age, mean±SD), 150 males (62.2%) displayed higher AMS values than normal. No statistical association was observed between total AMS scores and any testosterone value. All mental, physical and sexual AMS subscales were significantly positively correlated with insulin levels and HOMA-IR. Only sexual subscale scores were significantly inversely associated with free or bioavailable testosterone level. Males with insulin resistance (HOMA-IR≥2.5) demonstrated significantly higher AMS scores than those with normal insulin sensitivity (HOMA-IRinsulin and HOMA-IR values. Interestingly, univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that HOMA-IR≥2.5 was a significant predictor for detection of moderately severe AMS values (AMS≥37), whereas AMS≥37 was not a predictor of metabolic syndrome by International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criterion. In conclusion, almost 60% of healthy male subjects displayed abnormal AMS scores. AMS values were not associated with testosterone values but rather were related to insulin resistance, particularly in subjects with moderately severe AMS values. Insulin resistance-related general unwellness might be reflected by AMS values.

  2. The aging male project

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    Farid Saad

    2001-06-01

    alpha estradiol have been synthesized some of which show selectivity for the central nervous system. CNS effects have been demonstrated in female and male animals. Cardiovascular protection by estrogens has been shown in animal and human studies. Atherosclerotic plaque size was reduced after estrogen injections in cholesterol-fed rabbits. Phytoestrogen-fed monkeys had lower total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol and higher HDL cholesterol. Apart from atherosclerotic lesions, coronary artery vascular reactivity was improved. Some of these experimental findings were confirmed in human studies in postmenopausal women with and without estrogen treatment. Whether all of the described estrogenic effects can be seen in men remains to be investigated. (Med J Indones 2001; 10: 127-33Keywords : aging, andropause, testosterone, estrogens

  3. Expensive Egos: Narcissistic Males Have Higher Cortisol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhard, David A.; Konrath, Sara H.; Lopez, William D.; Cameron, Heather G.

    2012-01-01

    Background Narcissism is characterized by grandiosity, low empathy, and entitlement. There has been limited research regarding the hormonal correlates of narcissism, despite the potential health implications. This study examined the role of participant narcissism and sex on basal cortisol concentrations in an undergraduate population. Methods and Findings Participants were 106 undergraduate students (79 females, 27 males, mean age 20.1 years) from one Midwestern and one Southwestern American university. Narcissism was assessed using the Narcissistic Personality Inventory, and basal cortisol concentrations were collected from saliva samples in a laboratory setting. Regression analyses examined the effect of narcissism and sex on cortisol (log). There were no sex differences in basal cortisol, F(1,97) = .20, p = .65, and narcissism scores, F(1,97) = .00, p = .99. Stepwise linear regression models of sex and narcissism and their interaction predicting cortisol concentrations showed no main effects when including covariates, but a significant interaction, β = .27, p = .04. Narcissism was not related to cortisol in females, but significantly predicted cortisol in males. Examining the effect of unhealthy versus healthy narcissism on cortisol found that unhealthy narcissism was marginally related to cortisol in females, β = .27, p = .06, but significantly predicted higher basal cortisol in males, β = .72, p = .01, even when controlling for potential confounds. No relationship was found between sex, narcissism, or their interaction on self-reported stress. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the HPA axis is chronically activated in males with unhealthy narcissism. This constant activation of the HPA axis may have important health implications. PMID:22292062

  4. Expensive egos: narcissistic males have higher cortisol.

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    David A Reinhard

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Narcissism is characterized by grandiosity, low empathy, and entitlement. There has been limited research regarding the hormonal correlates of narcissism, despite the potential health implications. This study examined the role of participant narcissism and sex on basal cortisol concentrations in an undergraduate population. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Participants were 106 undergraduate students (79 females, 27 males, mean age 20.1 years from one Midwestern and one Southwestern American university. Narcissism was assessed using the Narcissistic Personality Inventory, and basal cortisol concentrations were collected from saliva samples in a laboratory setting. Regression analyses examined the effect of narcissism and sex on cortisol (log. There were no sex differences in basal cortisol, F(1,97 = .20, p = .65, and narcissism scores, F(1,97 = .00, p = .99. Stepwise linear regression models of sex and narcissism and their interaction predicting cortisol concentrations showed no main effects when including covariates, but a significant interaction, β = .27, p = .04. Narcissism was not related to cortisol in females, but significantly predicted cortisol in males. Examining the effect of unhealthy versus healthy narcissism on cortisol found that unhealthy narcissism was marginally related to cortisol in females, β = .27, p = .06, but significantly predicted higher basal cortisol in males, β = .72, p = .01, even when controlling for potential confounds. No relationship was found between sex, narcissism, or their interaction on self-reported stress. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that the HPA axis is chronically activated in males with unhealthy narcissism. This constant activation of the HPA axis may have important health implications.

  5. Androgens and the ageing male

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Anders; Skakkebaek, Niels E

    2002-01-01

    with severe primary or secondary hypogonadism. Thus, androgen substitution therapy is warranted in men with true hypogonadism at all ages. Symptoms experienced by otherwise healthy ageing males are non-specific and vague, although some may be similar to symptoms of hypogonadism. Therefore, the term...... 'andropause' has been suggested. However, testosterone levels show no or only modest variation with age in men; with large prospective studies suggesting a maximal decline of total testosterone of 1.6% per year. Thus, in contrast to the sudden arrest of gonadal activity in females around menopause, men do...

  6. Is higher risk sex common among male or female youths?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berhan, Yifru; Berhan, Asres

    2015-01-01

    There are several studies that showed the high prevalence of high-risk sexual behaviors among youths, but little is known how significant the proportion of higher risk sex is when the male and female youths are compared. A meta-analysis was done using 26 countries' Demographic and Health Survey data from and outside Africa to make comparisons of higher risk sex among the most vulnerable group of male and female youths. Random effects analytic model was applied and the pooled odds ratios were determined using Mantel-Haenszel statistical method. In this meta-analysis, 19,148 male and 65,094 female youths who reported to have sexual intercourse in a 12-month period were included. The overall OR demonstrated that higher risk sex was ten times more prevalent in male youths than in female youths. The practice of higher risk sex by male youths aged 15-19 years was more than 27-fold higher than that of their female counterparts. Similarly, male youths in urban areas, belonged to a family with middle to highest wealth index, and educated to secondary and above were more than ninefold, eightfold and sixfold at risk of practicing higher risk sex than their female counterparts, respectively. In conclusion, this meta-analysis demonstrated that the practice of risky sexual intercourse by male youths was incomparably higher than female youths. Future risky sex protective interventions should be tailored to secondary and above educated male youths in urban areas.

  7. Mechanisms of male sterility in higher plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohta, Yasuo [Tsukuba Univ., Sakura, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1982-03-01

    The mechanisms causing male sterility in higher plants were classified into two major categories: genetic and non-genetic. The former was further divided into six classes: 1) Anomality in spindle mechanism during meiosis, 2) chromosomal anomality such as haploidy, polyploidy, aneuploidy, chromosome some deficiency, inversion and reciprocal translocation, 3) presence of male sterile genes, 4) cytoplasmic abnormality, 5) the combination of some specific cytoplasm with particular genes, and 6) infections of microorganisms or viruses. Each mechanism was briefly explained, and the methods for the maintenance of parent lines for heterosis breeding and hybrid seed production were described. The non-genetic male sterility was classified into four types, which are caused by 1) low or high temperature, 2) water deficiency, 3) application of chemicals, and 4) radiation, with a brief explanation given for each of them.

  8. Mechanisms of male sterility in higher plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, Yasuo

    1982-01-01

    The mechanisms causing male sterility in higher plants were classified into two major categories: genetic and non-genetic. The former was further divided into six classes: 1) Anomality in spindle mechanism during meiosis, 2) chromosomal anomality such as haploidy, polyploidy, aneuploidy, chromosome some deficiency, inversion and reciprocal translocation, 3) presence of male sterile genes, 4) cytoplasmic abnormality, 5) the combination of some specific cytoplasm with particular genes, and 6) infections of microorganisms or viruses. Each mechanism was briefly explained, and the methods for the maintenance of parent lines for heterosis breeding and hybrid seed production were described. The non-genetic male sterility was classified into four types, which are caused by 1) low or high temperature, 2) water deficiency, 3) application of chemicals, and 4) radiation, with a brief explanation given for each of them. (Kaihara, S.)

  9. Androgens and the ageing male

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Anders; Skakkebaek, Niels E

    2002-01-01

    Hypogonadal men share a variety of signs and symptoms such as decreased muscle mass, osteopoenia, increased fat mass, fatigue, decreased libido and cognitive dysfunctions. Controlled trials have demonstrated favourable effects of androgen substitution therapy on these signs and symptoms in men...... 'andropause' has been suggested. However, testosterone levels show no or only modest variation with age in men; with large prospective studies suggesting a maximal decline of total testosterone of 1.6% per year. Thus, in contrast to the sudden arrest of gonadal activity in females around menopause, men do...... not have an andropause. As large placebo-controlled studies of androgen treatment in elderly males are lacking, proper risk assessment of adverse effects such as prostate cancer following testosterone treatment in elderly males is completely lacking. In the future, testosterone therapy may prove beneficial...

  10. Aging changes in the male reproductive system

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    ... ency/article/004017.htm Aging changes in the male reproductive system To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Aging changes in the male reproductive system may include changes in testicular tissue, sperm production, ...

  11. Age-dependent male mating investment in Drosophila pseudoobscura.

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    Sumit Dhole

    Full Text Available Male mating investment can strongly influence fitness gained from a mating. Yet, male mating investment often changes with age. Life history theory predicts that mating investment should increase with age, and males should become less discriminatory about their mate as they age. Understanding age-dependent changes in male behavior and their effects on fitness is important for understanding how selection acts in age-structured populations. Although the independent effects of male or female age have been studied in many species, how these interact to influence male mating investment and fitness is less well understood. We mated Drosophila pseudoobscura males of five different age classes (4-, 8-, 11-, 15-, 19-day old to either young (4-day or old (11-day females, and measured copulation duration and early post-mating fecundity. Along with their independent effects, we found a strong interaction between the effects of male and female ages on male mating investment and fitness from individual matings. Male mating investment increased with male age, but this increase was more prominent in matings with young females. Male D. pseudoobscura made smaller investments when mating with old females. The level of such discrimination based on female age, however, also changed with male age. Intermediate aged males were most discriminatory, while the youngest and the oldest males did not discriminate between females of different ages. We also found that larger male mating investments resulted in higher fitness payoffs. Our results show that male and female ages interact to form a complex pattern of age-specific male mating investment and fitness.

  12. Rock Sparrow Song Reflects Male Age and Reproductive Success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nemeth, Erwin; Kempenaers, Bart; Matessi, Giuliano

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of mating signals is closely linked to sexual selection. Acoustic ornaments are often used as secondary sexual traits that signal the quality of the signaller. Here we show that song performance reflects age and reproductive success in the rock sparrow (Petronia petronia...... nests. Older males could be distinguished from yearlings by singing at lower rate and higher amplitudes. Our findings suggest that song rate may be used as a signal of age and together with song pitch as a signal of reproductive success in this species. Alternatively, younger and less successful males...... success. Males with higher breeding success sang at a lower rate and with a higher maximum frequency. We found also that older males gained more extra-pair young and had a higher overall breeding success, although they also differed almost significantly by having a higher loss of paternity in their own...

  13. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Factors That Influence Black Males to Attend Institutions of Higher Education

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    Etheridge, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative, narrative study was to explore the intrinsic and extrinsic factors that motivated Black males to attend institutions of higher education. The Self-determination theory and the Integrated Model for Educational Choice formed the theoretical framework for this study. Eight Black males who were between the ages of 18…

  14. [Influence of aging on male sexual health].

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    Seisen, T; Rouprêt, M; Costa, P; Giuliano, F

    2012-06-01

    With the increase in life expectancy, men's sexual health has become a major concern for elderly couples. Erectile dysfunction (ED) is responsible for a 50 % decrease of sexually active men between 60 and 85. The aim of this study was to identify objective elements to evaluate the influence of age on male sexual health. Data on the effects of aging on men's sexual health have been explored in Medline and Embase using the MeSH keywords: prostate; sexuality and erectile dysfunction; aging. The articles were selected based on their methodology, relevance, date and language of publication. ED concerns 64 % of 70 years old patients and up to 77.5 % after 75 years. The screening of this pathology is based on standardized diagnostic tools. The most used of them remains the "International Index of Erectile function" which, in its simplified version with 5 items (IIEF-5 or SHIM), presents at the cutoff score of 21, a sensitivity of 98 %, a specificity of 88 % and a kappa index of 0.82. The ED is often responsible for a decrease in the quality of life for 60 % of elderly couples wishing to pursue sexual activity. Some diagnostic tools, such as the "Self-Esteem And Relationship" (SEAR) questionnaire or the "Sexual Experience Questionnaire" (SEX-Q) assess individual and couple satisfaction. Physiological aging seems to favor erection disorders by the development of an Androgen Deficiency of the Aging Male (ADAM) but pathological aging appears to be primarily responsible. Cardiovascular or neurological diseases and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are, with the polymedication, modifiable risk factors of ED to systematically screen in elderly subjects. Many diagnostic tools allow to detect ED and assess the impact on the quality of life of elderly men. The fundamental element of the management of ED is the research of modifiable risk factors including cardiovascular. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of age on male fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitzmann, Michael

    2013-08-01

    Later parenting is considered by many to have advantages, parents-to-be may feel themselves more stable to rear children. In addition, many men start a second family later in life. Thus, paternal age becomes an emerging issue. Aging affects male fertility by a scope of factors, which are not fully understood to date. Generally, the amount of produced sperm cells as well as their motility decreases with age, as testicular histological architecture deteriorates. Decreased fecundity and an increased risk for disturbed pregnancies occur with advancing paternal age. Some rare autosomal dominant pathologies are clearly related to paternal age. Altered patterns of epigenetics/gene expression in aging sperm seem to affect a range of neurocognitive disorders and also metabolic dyshomeostasis across generations. Such effects refer to men older than 40 years and may have impact on socio-economic issues. Nevertheless, councelling of older men seeking paternity should be patient-oriented and weigh statistical probabilities against the right for individual life-planning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Sexual function of the ageing male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona, Giovanni; Rastrelli, Giulia; Maseroli, Elisa; Forti, Gianni; Maggi, Mario

    2013-08-01

    With the progressive increase in the proportion of older people, there is an increasing interest in characterizing the modifications of sexual health and the effect of its perturbations as a function of the aging process. The aim of this review is to summarize the available evidence regarding the age-dependent modifications of male sexual function and their interaction with general health and age-dependent modification of endocrine function. Elderly patients are often affected by multiple organic diseases which can interfere with sexual function. Despite this evidence, several studies have indicated that, with advancing age, normal erections are not an absolute prerequisite to remain sexually active. Good physical health, the availability of a partner, and a regular and stable pattern of sexual activity earlier in life predict the maintenance of sexual activity in old age. Conversely, there are no convincing data that hormonal changes, associated with aging, have a primary role in underlying changes in sexual function in healthy aging men. Nonetheless, sexual dysfunctions especially in elderly people are poor investigated. Asking about sexual health remains difficult or embarrassing for many primary care physicians. In addition, many patients find it difficult to raise sexual issues with their doctor. This situation often results in sexual issues not being adequately addressed thus resulting in depression, social withdrawal and delayed diagnosis of underlying medical conditions often resulting in forthcoming cardiovascular events. Education and permission from a health care professional may help to alter such misconceptions. Information from physicians regarding normal age-related changes in sexuality and encouragement, together with advice on how to continue meaningful sexual relations, may play a key role in altering such negative attitudes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Study success in higher education: male versus female students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolster, Renze; Kaiser, Franciscus

    2015-01-01

    Study success is an important topic for countries concerned with the effectiveness of their higher education system. A closer look at study success outcomes suggests there are noticeable differences between male and female students: in terms of enrolment, study choices, drop‐out rates, retention

  18. Aging and sex hormones in males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaroli, Maria Chiara

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Several large cohort studies have disclosed the trajectories of sex steroids changes overtime in men and their clinical significance. In men the slow, physiological decline of serum testosterone (T) with advancing age overlaps with the clinical condition of overt, pathological hypogonadism. In addition, the increasing number of comorbidities, together with the high prevalence of chronic diseases, all further contribute to the decrease of serum T concentrations in the aging male. For all these reasons both the diagnosis of late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) in men and the decision about starting or not T replacement treatment remain challenging. At present, the biochemical finding of T deficiency alone is not sufficient for diagnosing hypogonadism in older men. Coupling hypogonadal symptoms with documented low serum T represents the best strategy to refine the diagnosis of hypogonadism in older men and to avoid unnecessary treatments. PMID:27831823

  19. The effect of age on encounters between male crab spiders

    OpenAIRE

    Helen H. Hu; Douglass H. Morse

    2004-01-01

    In males that compete aggressively for females, size and age may determine which males obtain access to these females. In the present study, we use the crab spider, Misumena vatia, a species with males that do not grow after becoming sexually mature adults, to test the hypothesis that age affects the success of males competing for access to females. M. vatia is an excellent species to test this hypothesis because it is possible to disentangle age from size, characters that typically vary toge...

  20. Relation of cigarette smoking in males of different ages to sex hormone binding globulin and testosterone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Nabarawy, F.S.

    2002-01-01

    The relationship of cigarette smoking, age, total testosterone free testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were examined by solid phase radioimmunoassay in 90 randomly chosen healthy males of different ages. The serum levels of these hormones were investigated for smokers compared with non-smokers, of the same ages in 3 groups (adolescent males, middle aged males, and old aged males). Results indicated that cigarette smokers showed increased serum levels of testosterone (60.0% higher, P> 0.05), free testosterone (51.0 higher, P > 0.005) in young adolescent males group, testosterone (27.8% higher, P > 0.001), free testosterone (21.3% higher, P > 0.001) in middle aged males group, and testosterone (21.0% higher, P > 0.001), free testosterone (16.8% higher, P > 0.4) in old ages males group. SHBG was calculated as a mean of free and total testosterone in each group. smokers showed higher mean values of SHBG than non-smokers. Age was positively associated with serum SHBG, it was found that SHBG increased by 17.2% from the youngest (> 18 years) to the oldest age (> 65 years)

  1. Androgen deficiency in the aging male and chronic prostatitis: clinical and diagnostic comparative analysis

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    Spirin Р.V.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The research goal is to study probability, period of development and characteristics of a clinical course of chronic prostatitis against the background of androgen deficiency in the aging male. Materials and methods: The Aging Male Symptoms (AMS rating scale has been applied for androgen deficiency evaluation and the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS — for chronic prostatitis evaluation. 57 men with chronic prostatitis in combination with androgen deficiency in the aging male have been examined. Results: It has been concluded that the development of chronic prostatitis against the background of androgen deficiency in the aging male occurs in a shorter time period and about 1.5 times more frequently compared to androgen deficiency in the aging male at the background of chronic prostatitis. The analysis of time periods between the onset of chronic prostatitis symptoms against the background of androgen deficiency in the aging male and androgen deficiency in the aging male symptoms against the background of chronic prostatitis showed that androgen deficiency in the aging male symptoms have been revealed 1-2 years earlier than the onset of chronic prostatitis. The development of androgen deficiency in the aging male against the background of chronic prostatitis has showed a backward tendency. Signs of chronic prostatitis have been more frequently occurred in a period of four-five years earlier the androgen deficiency in the aging male development. Conclusion: The risk of development of chronic prostatitis against the background of androgen deficiency in the aging male during the next two years is actually four times higher in comparison with the development of androgen deficiency in the aging male against the background of chronic prostatitis. According to the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS, patients with chronic prostatitis in combination with androgen deficiency in the aging male showed higher degree of severity than

  2. Higher Ground : Stevie Wonder och New Age

    OpenAIRE

    Nyman, Jonas

    2005-01-01

    Syftet med min uppsats är att jämföra religiösa företeelser från tre av Stevie Wonders album med New Age för att på så sätt uttröna om Stevie Wonders texter påverkats av New Age- föreställningar. Jag hittar både skillnader och likheter när jag jämför det religiösa budskapet i Stevie Wonders texter med New Age. De New Age- företeelser som går att hitta i texterna är få i förhållande till New Age i sin helhet och det är svårt att avgöra vilka influenser som kommer ifrån Stevie Wonder, New Age ...

  3. Relative Age Affects Marathon Performance in Male and Female Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Connick, Mark J.; Beckman, Emma M.; Tweedy, Sean M.

    2015-01-01

    Marathon runners are ranked in 5-year age groups. However the extent to which 5-year groupings facilitates equitable competition has not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of relative age in male and female marathon running. Marathon finishing times for the top ten male (aged 20-69 years) and female athletes (aged 20-64 years) were obtained from the 2013 New York and Chicago marathons. Intra-class and inter-class validity were evaluated by comparing performances ...

  4. Aging in the Male Face: Intrinsic and Extrinsic Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keaney, Terrence C

    2016-07-01

    Gender is one of the most significant factors that influence facial anatomy and behavior, both key factors in the aging process. To review male facial anatomy, physiology, and behavior and how it contributes to sexual dimorphism in facial aging. A MEDLINE search was performed for publications on gender differences in facial anatomy, aging, cutaneous physiology, and behavior. There are differences in both intrinsic and extrinsic aging factors in men. Men have a thicker epidermis and dermis with more active cutaneous appendages including hair growth. Male skin has a reduced antioxidant capacity and increased ultraviolet-induced immunosuppression. The male face is larger and has a unique square shape with less subcutaneous soft tissue, especially at the medial cheek. Men are also more prone to smoking and exhibiting poor sun-protective behavior. The differences in intrinsic and extrinsic aging factors contribute to poor facial aging in men. Men develop more severe rhytides in a unique pattern, show increased periocular aging changes, and are more prone to hair loss. This review provides insight into the factors contributing to accelerated male facial aging. Understanding gender differences in aging will help physicians tailor cosmetic treatments for men and minimize extrinsic aging factors.

  5. Age patterns of smoking initiation among Kuwait university male students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugathan, T N; Moody, P M; Bustan, M A; Elgerges, N S

    1998-12-01

    The present study is a detailed evaluation of age at smoking initiation among university male students in Kuwait based on a random sample of 664 students selected from all students during 1993. The Acturial Life Table analysis revealed that almost one tenth of the students initiated cigarette smoking between ages 16 and 17 with the rate of initiation increasing rapidly thereafter and reaching 30% by age 20 and almost 50% by the time they celebrate their 24th birthday. The most important environmental risk factor positively associated for smoking initiation was observed to be the history of smoking among siblings with a relative risk of 1.4. Compared to students of medicine and engineering, the students of other faculties revealed a higher risk in smoking initiation with an RR = 1.77 for sciences and commerce and 1.61 for other faculties (arts, law, education and Islamic studies). The analysis revealed a rising generation trend in cigarette smoking. There is a need for reduction of this trend among young adults in Kuwait and throughout other countries in the region.

  6. D-galactose-induced animal model of male reproductive aging

    OpenAIRE

    Sulistyoningrum, Evy

    2017-01-01

    Aging is a complex biological process involving molecular, cellular and organic changes. Aging process is not merely caused by chronological age but it can be accelerated by environmental factors contributes to oxidative stress. Aging in male reproductive system is characterized by many conditions such as terticular atrophy, decreases testicular function of spermatogenesis, decreased testicular function of testosteron production which can lead to a serious clinical condition, infertility. Man...

  7. Neuronal Function in Male Sprague Dawley Rats During Normal Ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idowu, A J; Olatunji-Bello, I I; Olagunju, J A

    2017-03-06

    During normal ageing, there are physiological changes especially in high energy demanding tissues including the brain and skeletal muscles. Ageing may disrupt homeostasis and allow tissue vulnerability to disease. To establish an appropriate animal model which is readily available and will be useful to test therapeutic strategies during normal ageing, we applied behavioral approaches to study age-related changes in memory and motor function as a basis for neuronal function in ageing in male Sprague Dawley rats. 3 months, n=5; 6 months, n=5 and 18 months, n=5 male Sprague Dawley Rats were tested using the Novel Object Recognition Task (NORT) and the Elevated plus Maze (EPM) Test. Data was analyzed by ANOVA and the Newman-Keuls post hoc test. The results showed an age-related gradual decline in exploratory behavior and locomotor activity with increasing age in 3 months, 6 months and 18 months old rats, although the values were not statistically significant, but grooming activity significantly increased with increasing age. Importantly, we established a novel finding that the minimum distance from the novel object was statistically significant between 3 months and 18 months old rats and this may be an index for age-related memory impairment in the NORT. Altogether, we conclude that the male Sprague Dawley rat show age-related changes in neuronal function and may be a useful model for carrying out investigations into the mechanisms involved in normal ageing.

  8. Gender difference of alanine aminotransferase elevation may be associated with higher hemoglobin levels among male adolescents.

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    Solomon Chih-Cheng Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To explore the gender difference of ALT elevation and its association with high hemoglobin levels. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 3547 adolescents (2005 females, mean age of 16.5?.3 years who were negative for hepatitis B surface antigen received health checkups in 2006. Body mass index (BMI, levels of hemoglobin, ALT and cholesterol were measured. ALT >42 U/L was defined as elevated ALT. Elevated ALT levels were detected in 112 of the 3547 participants (3.3%, more prevalent in males than in females (5.4% vs. 1.4%, p11 g/dl in females or >13.5 g/dl in males, but the cumulative cases of elevated ALT increased more quickly in males. Proportion of elevated ALT increased as either the BMI or hemoglobin level rise, more apparent in male adolescents. Logistic regression modeling showed odds ratio (95% confidence interval were 24.7 (15.0-40.6 for BMI ≥27 kg/m(2; 5.5 (2.9-10.4 for BMI 24-27 kg/m(2; 2.7 (1.3-5.5 for Q5 (top 20th percentile hemoglobin level; and 2.6 (1.6-4.1 for male gender. Further separately fitting the logistic models for two genders, the significance of Q5 hemoglobin level only appeared in the males. CONCLUSIONS: High hemoglobin level is a significant risk factor of ALT elevation after control hepatitis B, obesity and gender. Males have greater risk of abnormal liver function which may be associated with higher hemoglobin levels.

  9. The relative age effect in the Spanish elite male handball

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    Carlos Sánchéz Rodríguez

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The birth in different quarters of the year involved differences regarding maturational development in handball players, which may influence the selection, development and consolidation in the elite in handball. This study sought to investigate the relative age effect in elite male handball players in Spain. To do this, data of birth and specific position of 586 players were analyzed, who participe in the League ASOBAL in seasons between 2003-04 and 2008-09. Comparisons and differences were studied by 2 tests and Z.Analysis of results revealed a higher percentage of players born in the first quarter, significant differences were confirmed in spanish players. Specifically, the highest percentages of players born in the first months of the year were the specific positions of the first offensive line and the goalkeeper.In conclusion, the results seem to confirm a relative effect of age on the players analyzed. The nationality and specific positions have a significant relationship with this.Keys words:  RAE, professional, birth date, detection, selection, talent.

  10. Androgen deficiency and dry eye syndrome in the aging male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azcarate, Patrick M; Venincasa, Vincent D; Feuer, William; Stanczyk, Frank; Schally, Andrew V; Galor, Anat

    2014-07-03

    To evaluate the relationship between androgen levels and subjective and objective measures of dry eye syndrome (DES). A total of 263 male patients from the Miami Veterans Affairs Medical Center eye clinic aged ≥50 were recruited for this prospective cross-sectional study. Patients completed Dry Eye Questionnaire 5, underwent tear film evaluation, and had serum androgen levels measured. The correlations between androgen levels, DES composite scores, DES symptoms, and global, lipid, and aqueous tear film parameters were evaluated. Two hundred sixty-three patients with a mean age of 69 (50-95) were examined. There was no linear association between composite DES scores (generated using latent class analysis) and androgen levels. However, eyes with high DES scores (0.95-1.0) had higher levels of sex hormone-binding globulin (P = 0.03) and lower levels of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) (P = 0.02), androstenedione (A) (P = 0.02), and androstane-3α,17β-diol glucuronide (P = 0.03) compared to eyes with intermediate (0.05-0.95) or low (0-0.05) scores. There were no strong correlations between tear film measures and androgen levels. Regarding global parameters, a weak inverse correlation was found between corneal staining and A (r = -0.17, P = 0.009). For lipid parameters, a weak correlation existed between tear breakup time (TBUT) and A (r = 0.15, P = 0.02). When considering aqueous and lipid deficiency independently, the association between TBUT and A existed only with aqueous tear deficiency (r = 0.66, P = 0.002). Regarding aqueous parameters, a weak correlation existed between Schirmer test and DHEAS (r = 0.13, P = 0.047) and A (r = 0.21, P = 0.001). There was a weak correlation between higher levels of androstenedione and healthier global, lipid, and aqueous tear film parameters. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  11. Higher Education and Happiness in the Age of Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Kyu

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses relations between happiness and higher education in the age of information, focusing on the need for the university to pursue happiness. Three questions are addressed. First, why should higher education pursue happiness? Second, what are the shapes and characteristics of higher education in the information age? Third, what…

  12. Study on the relationship between bone metabolism indexes and osteoporosis in aged males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Nanping; Yang Daoli; Zhao Yutang; Peng Liyi; Liu Guixiang

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the characteristics and significance of the changes of bone metabolism indexes related to the occurrence of osteoporosis in aged males. Methods: Serum interleukin 1β(IL-1β), insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II), parathyroid hormone (PTH-M) and 25-OH-D were measured by radio-immunoassay in 58 aged males with osteoporosis and 37 cases with bone mass loss. Bone density was measured in these subjects and all the indexes were compared with those in young and middle-aged and aged healthy controls. Results: IL-1β and PTH-M levels in aged males with osteoporosis or bone mass loss were higher than those in healthy controls (P < 0.01), while IGF-II and 25-OH-D were lower than in normal controls, especially in osteoporosis group (P < 0.01). With the age increasing and the deterioration of the disorder, bone density in the two groups of patients were significantly lower than those in young and middle-aged controls (P < 0.01). Aged males with osteoporosis had a significantly lower bone density than patients with bone mass loss. Conclusion: Cytokines and disturbance of bone metabolism indexes are the main factors that lead to osteoporosis characterized by more bone absorption and less bone formation in aged males

  13. Effects of aging on the male reproductive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunes, Sezgin; Hekim, Gulgez Neslihan Taskurt; Arslan, Mehmet Alper; Asci, Ramazan

    2016-04-01

    The study aims to discuss the effects of aging on the male reproductive system. A systematic review was performed using PubMed from 1980 to 2014. Aging is a natural process comprising of irreversible changes due to a myriad of endogenous and environmental factors at the level of all organs and systems. In modern life, as more couples choose to postpone having a child due to various socioeconomic reasons, research for understanding the effects of aging on the reproductive system has gained an increased importance. Paternal aging also causes genetic and epigenetic changes in spermatozoa, which impair male reproductive functions through their adverse effects on sperm quality and count as, well as, on sexual organs and the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Hormone production, spermatogenesis, and testes undergo changes as a man ages. These small changes lead to decrease in both the quality and quantity of spermatozoa. The offspring of older fathers show high prevalence of genetic abnormalities, childhood cancers, and several neuropsychiatric disorders. In addition, the latest advances in assisted reproductive techniques give older men a chance to have a child even with poor semen parameters. Further studies should investigate the onset of gonadal senesce and its effects on aging men.

  14. Canine length in wild male baboons: maturation, aging and social dominance rank.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Galbany

    Full Text Available Canines represent an essential component of the dentition for any heterodont mammal. In primates, like many other mammals, canines are frequently used as weapons. Hence, tooth size and wear may have significant implications for fighting ability, and consequently for social dominance rank, reproductive success, and fitness. We evaluated sources of variance in canine growth and length in a well-studied wild primate population because of the potential importance of canines for male reproductive success in many primates. Specifically, we measured maxillary canine length in 80 wild male baboons (aged 5.04-20.45 years from the Amboseli ecosystem in southern Kenya, and examined its relationship with maturation, age, and social dominance rank. In our analysis of maturation, we compared food-enhanced baboons (those that fed part time at a refuse pit associated with a tourist lodge with wild-feeding males, and found that food-enhanced males achieved long canines earlier than wild-feeding males. Among adult males, canine length decreased with age because of tooth wear. We found some evidence that, after controlling for age, longer canines were associated with higher adult dominance rank (accounting for 9% of the variance in rank, but only among relatively high-ranking males. This result supports the idea that social rank, and thus reproductive success and fitness, may depend in part on fighting ability mediated by canine size.

  15. The diagnosis of Androgenic Deficiency of the Aging Male and the paths of male sexual desire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Tramontano

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the diagnosis of Androgenic Deficiency of the Aging Male (ADAM and the controversies and disputes over it, based on the re-medicalization of sexuality. The analysis is based on interviews with urologists and endocrinologists, and the different approaches of these two medical specialties elucidate divergent conceptions of body and sexuality present in the biomedical knowledge, and the struggle for hegemony in the scientific field. By comparing the meanings attributed to ADAM and to another male sexual dysfunction, the Erectile Dysfunction (ED, we intend to reflect about the difficulties inherent in the biological reduction of sexuality and the reiteration of gender norms in the medical discourse concerning the male body and sexuality.

  16. Intrauterine growth restriction programs an accelerated age-related increase in cardiovascular risk in male offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasinger, John Henry; Intapad, Suttira; Backstrom, Miles A.; Carter, Anthony J.

    2016-01-01

    Placental insufficiency programs an increase in blood pressure associated with a twofold increase in serum testosterone in male growth-restricted offspring at 4 mo of age. Population studies indicate that the inverse relationship between birth weight and blood pressure is amplified with age. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that intrauterine growth restriction programs an age-related increase in blood pressure in male offspring. Growth-restricted offspring retained a significantly higher blood pressure at 12 but not at 18 mo of age compared with age-matched controls. Blood pressure was significantly increased in control offspring at 18 mo of age relative to control counterparts at 12 mo; however, blood pressure was not increased in growth-restricted at 18 mo relative to growth-restricted counterparts at 12 mo. Serum testosterone levels were not elevated in growth-restricted offspring relative to control at 12 mo of age. Thus, male growth-restricted offspring no longer exhibited a positive association between blood pressure and testosterone at 12 mo of age. Unlike hypertension in male growth-restricted offspring at 4 mo of age, inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system with enalapril (250 mg/l for 2 wk) did not abolish the difference in blood pressure in growth-restricted offspring relative to control counterparts at 12 mo of age. Therefore, these data suggest that intrauterine growth restriction programs an accelerated age-related increase in blood pressure in growth-restricted offspring. Furthermore, this study suggests that the etiology of increased blood pressure in male growth-restricted offspring at 12 mo of age differs from that at 4 mo of age. PMID:27147668

  17. Ageing male and testosterone: Current status and treatment guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S S Vasan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Because the decline in androgens is generally gradual and not a complete deficiency, clinical significance of this decline is still unclear, and there is controversy as to whether a specific syndrome of androgen deficiency or ′andropause′ exists. The term andropause or androgen deficiency in aging males (ADAM underwent revisions to, partial androgen deficiency in aging male (PADAM, late onset hypogonadism (LOH and now symptomatic late onset hypogonadism (SLOH, signifying, the evolving nature of this phenomenon. Since this happens at a time of life, when many men have associated comorbities, it′s difficult to assess the exact impact of androgen decline, due to which, the issues surrounding androgen replacement therapy in men with symptomatic late-onset hypogonadism have been marred in controversy. Although with age, a decline in testosterone levels will occur in virtually all men, there is no way of predicting, who, will experience andropausal symptoms of sufficient severity and also long-term safety data on testosterone administration in this setting, is lacking. This article will focus on the controversies and practices of androgen replacement.

  18. Postnatal early overnutrition causes long-term renal decline in aging male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Hyung Eun; Yoo, Kee Hwan; Bae, In Sun; Hong, Young Sook; Lee, Joo Won

    2014-02-01

    We evaluated the influence of postnatal early overnutrition on renal pathophysiological changes in aging rats. Three or 10 male pups per mother were assigned to either the small litter (SL) or normal litter (control) groups, respectively, during the first 21 d of life. The effects of early postnatal overnutrition were determined at 12 mo. SL rats weighed more than controls between 4 d and 6 mo of age (P renal cortex were higher in SL rats (P aging SL rats (P aging kidney and can lead to systolic hypertension with reduced intrarenal renin activity.

  19. Young males have a higher risk of developing schizophrenia: a Danish register study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Anne; Waltoft, Berit Lindum; Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker

    2007-01-01

    of schizophrenia in people aged up to 71 years.Method. Two cohorts were established by linking data from the Danish Civil Registration System (DCRS) with data from the Danish Psychiatric Central Register (DPCR), which covers all incident cases of schizophrenia from 15 to 71 years. We estimated the gender- and age......Background. Gender differences are commonly reported in schizophrenia research, especially with regard to age at onset. Few studies have reported the age- and gender-specific incidence of schizophrenia in people aged up to 71 years, and no studies have reported the cumulative incidence......-specific incidence rates of schizophrenia for people aged up to 71 years. We also estimated the cumulative incidences.Results. The incidence rates for males significantly exceeded those for females in the age range from 17 to 40 years. By their 72nd birthday, 1.59% of males and 1.17% of females had developed...

  20. Young males have a higher risk of developing schizophrenia: a Danish register study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Anne; Waltoft, Berit Lindum; Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker

    2007-01-01

    -specific incidence rates of schizophrenia for people aged up to 71 years. We also estimated the cumulative incidences.Results. The incidence rates for males significantly exceeded those for females in the age range from 17 to 40 years. By their 72nd birthday, 1.59% of males and 1.17% of females had developed......Background. Gender differences are commonly reported in schizophrenia research, especially with regard to age at onset. Few studies have reported the age- and gender-specific incidence of schizophrenia in people aged up to 71 years, and no studies have reported the cumulative incidence...... of schizophrenia in people aged up to 71 years.Method. Two cohorts were established by linking data from the Danish Civil Registration System (DCRS) with data from the Danish Psychiatric Central Register (DPCR), which covers all incident cases of schizophrenia from 15 to 71 years. We estimated the gender- and age...

  1. Testosterone for the aging male; current evidence and recommended practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger D Stanworth

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Roger D Stanworth, T Hugh JonesCentre of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Barnsley Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Barnsley, South Yorkshire, United Kingdom; Academic Unit of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, South Yorkshire, United KingdomAbstract: An international consensus document was recently published and provides guidance on the diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of late-onset hypogonadism (LOH in men. The diagnosis of LOH requires biochemical and clinical components. Controversy in defining the clinical syndrome continues due to the high prevalence of hypogonadal symptoms in the aging male population and the non-specific nature of these symptoms. Further controversy surrounds setting a lower limit of normal testosterone, the limitations of the commonly available total testosterone result in assessing some patients and the unavailability of reliable measures of bioavailable or free testosterone for general clinical use. As with any clinical intervention testosterone treatment should be judged on a balance of risk versus benefit. The traditional benefits of testosterone on sexual function, mood, strength and quality of life remain the primary goals of treatment but possible beneficial effects on other parameters such as bone density, obesity, insulin resistance and angina are emerging and will be reviewed. Potential concerns regarding the effects of testosterone on prostate disease, aggression and polycythaemia will also be addressed. The options available for treatment have increased in recent years with the availability of a number of testosterone preparations which can reliably produce physiological serum concentrations.Keywords: review, testosterone, male, aging

  2. Peer influence on speeding behaviour among male drivers aged 18 and 28.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Mette; Haustein, Sonja

    2014-03-01

    Despite extensive research, preventive efforts and general improvements in road safety levels, the accident risk of young male drivers remains increased. Based on a standardized survey of a random sample of 2018 male drivers at the age of 18 and 28, this study looked into attitudes and behaviours related to traffic violations of male drivers. More specifically, the role of peer influence on speeding was examined in both age groups. In regression analyses it could be shown that the descriptive subjective norm, i.e., the perception of friends' speeding, was the most important predictor of speeding in both age groups. Other significant factors were: negative attitude towards speed limits, injunctive subjective norm, and the perceived risk of having an accident when speeding. In the older age group it was more common to drive faster than allowed and their speeding was largely in line with the perceived level of their friends' speeding. In the younger age group a higher discrepancy between own and friends' speeding was found indicating that young male drivers are socialized into increased speeding behaviour based on peer pressure. By contrast for the 28-year-olds peer pressure mainly seems to maintain or justify individual speeding behaviour. It is suggested that preventive measures should take these different influences of peer pressure into account by using a peer-based approach for the 18-year-olds and a more individual approach for the 28-year-olds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The impact of Wolbachia, male age and mating history on cytoplasmic incompatibility and sperm transfer in Drosophila simulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awrahman, Z A; Champion de Crespigny, F; Wedell, N

    2014-01-01

    Most insects harbour a variety of maternally inherited endosymbionts, the most widespread being Wolbachia pipientis that commonly induce cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) and reduced hatching success in crosses between infected males and uninfected females. High temperature and increasing male age are known to reduce the level of CI in a variety of insects. In Drosophila simulans, infected males have been shown to mate at a higher rate than uninfected males. By examining the impact of mating rate independent of age, this study investigates whether a high mating rate confers an advantage to infected males through restoring their compatibility with uninfected females over and above the effect of age. The impact of Wolbachia infection, male mating rate and age on the number of sperm transferred to females during copulation and how it relates to CI expression was also assessed. As predicted, we found that reproductive compatibility was restored faster in males that mate at higher rate than that of low mating and virgin males, and that the effect of mating history was over and above the effect of male age. Nonvirgin infected males transferred fewer sperm than uninfected males during copulation, and mating at a high rate resulted in the transfer of fewer sperm per mating irrespective of infection status. These results indicate that the advantage to infected males of mating at a high rate is through restoration of reproductive compatibility with uninfected females, whereas uninfected males appear to trade off the number of sperm transferred per mating with female encounter rate and success in sperm competition. This study highlights the importance Wolbachia may play in sexual selection by affecting male reproductive strategies. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2013 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  4. Hypogonadism in aged hospitalized male patients: prevalence and clinical outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, P; Prado, F; Macías, M C; Guerrero, M T; Muñoz, A; Ridruejo, E; Tajada, P; García-Arévalo, C; Díez, J J

    2014-02-01

    Male hypogonadism is common in the elderly and has been associated with increased risk of mortality. Our objective has been to assess the prevalence of primary and central hypogonadism in elderly male patients admitted to the hospital because of acute illness. We also evaluated the relationships between gonadal dysfunction and in-hospital mortality. 150 patients, aged ≥65 years, admitted during 2010 and 2011 in our geriatric unit, were studied. Serum concentrations total, bioavailable and free testosterone, as well as of follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone were quantified in every patient. Hypogonadism was defined by the presence of serum testosterone levels lower than 200 ng/dl. Hypogonadism was found in 80 patients (53.3 %). Serum gonadotropin concentrations were elevated in 43.7 % of these patients, whereas 41.3 % of hypogonadic patients showed normal and 15 % low gonadotropin concentrations. Respiratory tract infection and congestive heart failure were the main causes of hospitalization in hypogonadal men, whereas acute cerebrovascular disease was the main reason for admission in eugonadal patients. Of the 13 patients who died during hospitalization, 12 were hypogonadic. Patients who died showed significantly lower serum levels of total, free and bioavailable testosterone than those found in patients who survived. Our results show that about half of patients admitted for acute illness have hypogonadism, mainly of non-hypergonadotropic type. Gonadal hypofunction is significantly related with in-hospital mortality. A low value of serum testosterone may be a predictor for mortality in elderly male patients.

  5. Alternative male mating behaviour in the two-spotted spider mite: dependence on age and density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sato, Y.; Sabelis, M.W.; Egas, M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights • We investigated alternative male mating behaviour in the two-spotted spider mite. • We found no differences between genetic lines of fighting and sneaking behaviour. • The proportion of sneaker males changed with male density and with male age. • In competition with old males, young

  6. The effect of age at photostimulation of male broiler breeders on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Male broiler breeders were photostimulated at different ages (56, 77, 98, 119, 147 ... the period of growth prior to achieving sexual maturity to observe their response to ... However, males reached sexual maturity at an earlier age than females, ...

  7. Differences in energy expenditures and growth dilution explain higher PCB concentrations in male summer flounder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Jensen, Olaf P.; Rediske, Richard R.; O'Keefe, James P.; Vastano, Anthony R.; Pothoven, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    Comparison of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations between the sexes of mature fish may reveal important behavioral and physiological differences between the sexes. We determined whole-fish PCB concentrations in 23 female summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus and 27 male summer flounder from New Jersey coastal waters. To investigate the potential for differences in diet or habitat utilization between the sexes, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were also determined. In 5 of the 23 female summer flounder, PCB concentrations in the somatic tissue and ovaries were determined. In addition, we used bioenergetics modeling to assess the contribution of the growth dilution effect to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. Whole-fish PCB concentrations for females and males averaged 87 and 124 ng/g, respectively; thus males were 43% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios did not significantly differ between the sexes, suggesting that diet composition and habitat utilization did not vary between the sexes. Based on PCB determinations in the somatic tissue and ovaries, we predicted that PCB concentration of females would increase by 0.6%, on average, immediately after spawning due to release of eggs. Thus, the change in PCB concentration due to release of eggs did not explain the higher PCB concentrations observed in males. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect could account for males being 19% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Thus, the bulk of the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes was not explained by growth dilution. We concluded that a higher rate of energy expenditure in males, stemming from greater activity and a greater resting metabolic rate, was most likely the primary driver for the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes.

  8. Differences in Energy Expenditures and Growth Dilution Explain Higher PCB Concentrations in Male Summer Flounder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles P Madenjian

    Full Text Available Comparison of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB concentrations between the sexes of mature fish may reveal important behavioral and physiological differences between the sexes. We determined whole-fish PCB concentrations in 23 female summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus and 27 male summer flounder from New Jersey coastal waters. To investigate the potential for differences in diet or habitat utilization between the sexes, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were also determined. In 5 of the 23 female summer flounder, PCB concentrations in the somatic tissue and ovaries were determined. In addition, we used bioenergetics modeling to assess the contribution of the growth dilution effect to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. Whole-fish PCB concentrations for females and males averaged 87 and 124 ng/g, respectively; thus males were 43% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios did not significantly differ between the sexes, suggesting that diet composition and habitat utilization did not vary between the sexes. Based on PCB determinations in the somatic tissue and ovaries, we predicted that PCB concentration of females would increase by 0.6%, on average, immediately after spawning due to release of eggs. Thus, the change in PCB concentration due to release of eggs did not explain the higher PCB concentrations observed in males. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect could account for males being 19% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Thus, the bulk of the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes was not explained by growth dilution. We concluded that a higher rate of energy expenditure in males, stemming from greater activity and a greater resting metabolic rate, was most likely the primary driver for the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes.

  9. Peer influence on speeding behaviour among male drivers aged 18 and 28

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Mette; Haustein, Sonja

    2014-01-01

    related to traffic violations of male drivers. More specifically, the role of peer influence on speeding was examined in both age groups. In regression analyses it could be shown that the descriptive subjective norm, i.e. the perception of friends’ speeding, was the most important predictor of speeding...... to maintain or justify individual speeding behaviour. It is suggested that preventive measures should take these different influences of peer pressure into account by using a peer-based approach for the 18-year-olds and a more individual approach for the 28-year-olds....... with the perceived level of their friends’ speeding. In the younger age group a higher discrepancy between own and friends’ speeding was found indicating that young male drivers are socialized into increased speeding behaviour based on peer pressure. By contrast for the 28-year-olds peer pressure mainly seems...

  10. A reliable morphological method to assess the age of male Anopheles gambiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huho, B.J.; Ng'habi, K.R.; Killeen, G.F.; Nkwengulila, G.; Knols, B.G.J.; Ferguson, H.M.

    2006-01-01

    Background - Release of genetically-modified (GM) or sterile male mosquitoes for malaria control is hampered by inability to assess the age and mating history of free-living male Anopheles. Methods - Age and mating-related changes in the reproductive system of male Anopheles gambiae were quantified

  11. Disposal rate in different age groups of Karan Fries (Crossbred) males in organized herd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panmei, Achun; Gupta, A K; Shivahre, P R; Bhakat, M; Singh, K Mahesh

    2015-02-01

    The present study was carried out to analyze the disposal rate in different age groups of Karan Fries (KF) males in National Dairy Research Institute herd. Records on 1740 KF crossbred bulls born during the period 1997-2012 were collected with an objective to ascertain the effect of genetic and non-genetic (Period of birth and season of birth) factors on the disposal pattern of KF males. The percent of animals disposed from the herd due to mortality and culling was calculated by proportion using descriptive statistics. The data were subjected to Chi-square test to test the difference due to different factors. Overall disposal rate for the different age groups of 0-1 m, 1-2 m, 2-3 m, 3-6 m, 6-18 m, 18 m-3 year and 3-5 year were calculated as 17.9, 16.3, 14.2, 25.8, 49.0, 37.6 and 51.65%, respectively. In the age groups, 3-6 m, 6-18 m and 3-5 year, effect of periods of birth were found to be statistically significant (page group except in 3-5 year age group. Differences in overall disposal rate due to genetic group were statistically significant (page groups. Overview of the results indicated that higher overall disposal rate in age group of 1 month was due to mortality while, in the age groups of >1 month, culling was the primary cause.

  12. Monoamine levels in the nucleus accumbens correlate with male sexual behavior in middle-aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Houng-Wei; Shui, Hao-Ai; Liu, Hang-Shen; Tai, Mei-Yun; Tsai, Yuan-Feen

    2006-02-01

    The correlation between monoamine levels in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and male sexual behavior was studied in middle-aged rats. Male rats (18-19months) were assigned to three groups: (1) Group MIE consisted of rats showing mounts, intromissions, and ejaculations; (2) Group MI was composed of rats showing mounts and intromissions, but no ejaculation; and (3) Group NC were non-copulators showing no sexual behavior. Young adult rats (4-5months), displaying complete copulatory behavior, were used as the control group. Levels of dopamine (DA), serotonin, and norepinephrine and their metabolites in the NAcc were measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. No difference was seen in DA levels between MIE rats and young controls, whereas DA levels in NC rats were significantly lower than those in both MIE and MI rats. Serotonin levels in NC rats were significantly higher than those in MIE and MI rats. Conversely, norepinephrine levels in NC rats were lower than those in MIE rats. These results suggest that monoamine levels in the NAcc correlate with sexual performance in male rats and that changes in NAcc monoamine levels might affect male sexual behavior in middle-aged rats.

  13. Changes in androgen receptor, estrogen receptor alpha, and sexual behavior with aging and testosterone in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Di; Gore, Andrea C

    2010-07-01

    Reproductive aging in males is characterized by a diminution in sexual behavior beginning in middle age. We investigated the relationships among testosterone, androgen receptor (AR) and estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) cell numbers in the hypothalamus, and their relationship to sexual performance in male rats. Young (3months) and middle-aged (12months) rats were given sexual behavior tests, then castrated and implanted with vehicle or testosterone capsules. Rats were tested again for sexual behavior. Numbers of AR and ERalpha immunoreactive cells were counted in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus and the medial preoptic nucleus, and serum hormones were measured. Middle-aged intact rats had significant impairments of all sexual behavior measures compared to young males. After castration and testosterone implantation, sexual behaviors in middle-aged males were largely comparable to those in the young males. In the hypothalamus, AR cell density was significantly (5-fold) higher, and ERalpha cell density significantly (6-fold) lower, in testosterone- than vehicle-treated males, with no age differences. Thus, restoration of serum testosterone to comparable levels in young and middle-aged rats resulted in similar preoptic AR and ERalpha cell density concomitant with a reinstatement of most behaviors. These data suggest that age-related differences in sexual behavior cannot be due to absolute levels of testosterone, and further, the middle-aged brain retains the capacity to respond to exogenous testosterone with changes in hypothalamic AR and ERalpha expression. Our finding that testosterone replacement in aging males has profound effects on hypothalamic receptors and behavior has potential medical implications for the treatment of age-related hypogonadism in men. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Mating choice of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae): influence of male ageing on mating success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Neto, Alberto M. da; Dias, Vanessa S.; Joachim-Bravo, Iara S.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of male ageing on male pheromone release and mating success of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). The effects of male ageing on mating were evaluated on fi ve and 21 d-old males by assessing their mating success (males chosen by a female for copulation) and the amount of males releasing the sex pheromone. The mating success was evaluated by using several ratios of young to older males by increasing the number of older males:young males from 1:1 to 5:1. The mating success of the 1:1 ratio was also evaluated in fi eld cages. The evaluation of the mating success (in the 1:1 ratio) showed a clear preference of the females for young males. Sex pheromone emission was much more common on young than older males. Even in cases were older males were more abundant (ratios 2:1 and 3:1), females still chose the young males. However, females could not distinguish young from older males in ratios of 4:1 or 5:1. Our data indicate that the ageing of C. capitata males has a considerable negative effect on their reproductive success, especially if they are found in a proportion any lower than 3:1. (author)

  15. Age-dependent male mating tactics in a spider mite-A life-history perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yukie; Rühr, Peter T; Schmitz, Helmut; Egas, Martijn; Blanke, Alexander

    2016-10-01

    Males often fight with rival males for access to females. However, some males display nonfighting tactics such as sneaking, satellite behavior, or female mimicking. When these mating tactics comprise a conditional strategy, they are often thought to be explained by resource holding potential (RHP), that is, nonfighting tactics are displayed by less competitive males who are more likely to lose a fight. The alternative mating tactics, however, can also be explained by life-history theory, which predicts that young males avoid fighting, regardless of their RHP, if it pays off to wait for future reproduction. Here, we test whether the sneaking tactic displayed by young males of the two-spotted spider mite can be explained by life-history theory. We tested whether young sneaker males survive longer than young fighter males after a bout of mild or strong competition with old fighter males. We also investigated whether old males have a more protective outer skin-a possible proxy for RHP-by measuring cuticle hardness and elasticity using nanoindentation. We found that young sneaker males survived longer than young fighter males after mild male competition. This difference was not found after strong male competition, which suggests that induction of sneaking tactic is affected by male density. Hardness and elasticity of the skin did not vary with male age. Given that earlier work could also not detect morphometric differences between fighter and sneaker males, we conclude that there is no apparent increase in RHP with age in the mite and age-dependent male mating tactics in the mite can be explained only by life-history theory. Because it is likely that fighting incurs a survival cost, age-dependent alternative mating tactics may be explained by life-history theory in many species when reproduction of old males is a significant factor in fitness.

  16. Females with a mutation in a nuclear-encoded mitochondrial protein pay a higher cost of survival than do males in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, Richard G; Ballard, J William O

    2011-07-01

    Males and females age at different rates in a variety of species, but the mechanisms underlying the difference is not understood. In this study, we investigated sex-specific costs of a naturally occurring mildly deleterious deletion (DTrp85, DVal86) in cytochrome c oxidase subunit 7A (cox7A) in Drosophila simulans. We observed that females and males homozygous for the mutation had 30% and 26% reduced Cox activity, respectively, compared with wild type. Furthermore, 4-day-old females had 34%-42% greater physical activity than males. Greater physical activity in mutant females was correlated with a 19% lower 50% survival compared with wild-type females. Mutant and wild-type males had equal survival. These data suggest that females paid a higher cost of the mutation than did males. The data demonstrate linking population genetics and structural modeling to experimental manipulations that lead to functional predictions of mitochondrial bioenergetics and organism aging.

  17. Effect of Age and Caponization on Blood Parameters and Bone Development of Male Native Chickens in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Yung Lin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out to determine the effect of age and caponization on the development blood and bone characteristics development in male country chickens in Taiwan. A total of two hundred 8-wk-old LRI native chicken cockerels, Taishi meat No.13 from LRI-COA, were used as experimental animals. Cockerels were surgically caponized at 8 wks of age. Twelve birds in each group were bled and dressed from 8 wks to 35 wks of age at 1 to 5 wk intervals. The results indicated that the plasma testosterone concentration was significantly (p<0.05 lower in capons after 12 wks of age (caponized treatment after 4 wks than that of the intact males. The relative tibia weight, bone breaking strength, cortical thickness, bone ash, bone calcium, bone phosphorus and bone magnesium contents were significantly (p<0.05 higher in intact males, while capons had higher (p<0.05 plasma ionized calcium, inorganic phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase concentration. The plasma testosterone concentration, relative tibia weight, tibia length, breaking strength, cortical thickness, bone ash, calcium, and phosphorus contents of intact males chickens increased significantly (p<0.05 with the advance of age. In addition, the relative tibia weight of capons peaked at 18 wks of age, and declined at 35 wks of age. The bone ash, calcium and phosphorus content increased most after 14 wks of age in male native chickens in Taiwan. Also, tibia length and cortical thickness peaked at 22 wks of age. However, the peak of bone strength was found at 26 wks of age. These findings support the assertion that androgens can directly influence bone composition fluxes in male chickens. Caponization caused a significant increase in bone loss at 4 wks post treatment, which reflected bone cell damage, and demonstrated reductions in the relative tibia weight, breaking strength, cortical thickness, bone ash, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium contents, and increases in plasma ionized calcium

  18. A reliable morphological method to assess the age of male Anopheles gambiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Killeen Gerry F

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Release of genetically-modified (GM or sterile male mosquitoes for malaria control is hampered by inability to assess the age and mating history of free-living male Anopheles. Methods Age and mating-related changes in the reproductive system of male Anopheles gambiae were quantified and used to fit predictive statistical models. These models, based on numbers of spermatocysts, relative size of sperm reservoir and presence/absence of a clear area around the accessory gland, were evaluated using an independent sample of mosquitoes whose status was blinded during the experiment. Results The number of spermatocysts in male testes decreased with age, and the relative size of their sperm reservoir increased. The presence of a clear area around accessory glands was also linked to age and mating status. A quantitative model was able to categorize males from the blind trial into age groups of young (≤ 4 days and old (> 4 days with an overall efficiency of 89%. Using the parameters of this model, a simple table was compiled that can be used to predict male age. In contrast, mating history could not be reliably assessed as virgins could not be distinguished from mated males. Conclusion Simple assessment of a few morphological traits which are easily collected in the field allows accurate age-grading of male An. gambiae. This simple, yet robust, model enables evaluation of demographic patterns and mortality in wild and released males in populations targeted by GM or sterile male-based control programmes.

  19. Physical state of the second mature age men working as teachers of higher educational establishments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Penzie

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available It is presented characteristic of physical state of the second mature age men working as teachers of higher educational establishments. The experiment involved 46 teachers - men second mature age.The investigation shows that the studied people have most data of cardiovascular and respiratory system of a low level. It indicates the necessity of improvement of body’s functional systems and increasing a hypoxia tolerance level. Planning of selection of physical education means in the sphere of preventive and sanitary classes with male – teachers of higher educational establishments is substantiated. It is marked that in the system prophylactic health-improvement employments it is necessary to utillize individual approach for men with the high, middle and low level of physical preparedness. The necessity of account of motivational priorities, decisions of the personal aims and tasks, specifics of pedagogical activity, is marked, selection of facilities which have a high health effect.

  20. Road traffic offending, stress, age, and accident history among male and female drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, F; Corbett, C

    1996-05-01

    This paper draws on data gathered during a larger study of driving behaviour to explore possible connections between stress, offending against the traffic laws, and accident rates, and gives particular attention to comparisons between male and female drivers. Data were gathered from 422 drivers by a postal questionnaire, and further measures of stress were obtained during semi-structured interviews with a specially selected subset of 66 of them. Analyses of variance investigated links between offending rates, accident history, and up to seven measures of stress, taking age and gender into account. In the results accident history, although positively related to offending, played little part in links involving stress variables. The principal findings were that (a) stress, both on and off the road, was positively associated with offending among both male and female drivers, and (b) although females overall offended less than males, females experienced more stress than males whatever their level of offending. One possible interpretation of these results is suggested by the feminist literature, which could account for both the higher levels of stress and lower levels of offending found among women drivers. However, there is unlikely to be a clear-cut gender divide in offending-stress relationships, and some small groups of female drivers in the study behaved like male ones. It is suggested that people's driving reflects their lifestyles, and that women drivers' patterns of offending and stress will resemble those of male drivers to the extent that their lives and concerns are similar to men's. It is concluded that this position warrants further research.

  1. Age, gender and deterrability: Are younger male drivers more likely to discount the future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, James; Kaye, Sherrie-Anne; Truelove, Verity; Davey, Jeremy

    2017-07-01

    Utilizing the Classical Deterrence theory and Stafford and Warr's (1993) reconceptualized model of deterrence, the current study examined whether age, gender, and discounting the future tendencies influence perceptions of being apprehended for speeding offences. Licensed motorists (N=700; 57% female) in Queensland (Australia) were recruited to complete a self-report questionnaire that measured perceptual deterrence, speeding related behaviors and discounting the future tendencies. Data were analyzed utilizing descriptive, bivariate and multivariate regressions. Significant (albeit weak) positive correlations were found between age and perceptions of apprehension certainty. Males were significantly more likely to report higher incidences of speeding (including while avoiding detection) compared to females. In contrast, females were more likely to perceive high levels of apprehension certainty and consider impending penalties to be more severe. At a multivariate level, discounting the future tendencies (in addition to being male, reporting lower levels of perceptual severity and swiftness, and more instances of punishment avoidance) were predictive of lower perceptual certainty levels. This study is one of the first to reveal that being male and having a tendency to discount the consequences of the future may directly influence drivers' perceptual deterrence levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. PPL2ab neurons restore sexual responses in aged Drosophila males through dopamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Shu-Yun; Wu, Chia-Lin; Hsieh, Min-Yen; Lin, Chen-Ta; Wen, Rong-Kun; Chen, Lien-Cheng; Chen, Yu-Hui; Yu, Yhu-Wei; Wang, Horng-Dar; Su, Yi-Ju; Lin, Chun-Ju; Yang, Cian-Yi; Guan, Hsien-Yu; Wang, Pei-Yu; Lan, Tsuo-Hung; Fu, Tsai-Feng

    2015-06-30

    Male sexual desire typically declines with ageing. However, our understanding of the neurobiological basis for this phenomenon is limited by our knowledge of the brain circuitry and neuronal pathways controlling male sexual desire. A number of studies across species suggest that dopamine (DA) affects sexual desire. Here we use genetic tools and behavioural assays to identify a novel subset of DA neurons that regulate age-associated male courtship activity in Drosophila. We find that increasing DA levels in a subset of cells in the PPL2ab neuronal cluster is necessary and sufficient for increased sustained courtship in both young and aged male flies. Our results indicate that preventing the age-related decline in DA levels in PPL2ab neurons alleviates diminished courtship behaviours in male Drosophila. These results may provide the foundation for deciphering the circuitry involved in sexual motivation in the male Drosophila brain.

  3. The Relative Age Effect and Physical Fitness Characteristics in German Male Tennis Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Ulbricht, Jaime Fernandez-Fernandez, Alberto Mendez-Villanueva, Alexander Ferrauti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the study were to test: 1 whether the relative age effect (RAE was prevalent in young (U12-U18 German male tennis players; 2 the potential influence of age and/or skill level on RAE and 3 whether maturity, anthropometric and fitness measures vary according to birth date distribution in elite youth tennis players. For the present study the following male populations were analysed: Overall German population (n = 3.216.811, all players affiliated to the German Tennis Federation (DTB (n = 120.851, players with DTB official ranking (n = 7165, regional (n = 381 and national (n = 57 squads (11-17 years old, as well as the top 50 German senior players were analyzed. RAEs were more prevalent at higher competitive levels with more players born in the first quarter of the year compared with the reference population for ranked (29.6%, regional (38.1% and national (42.1% players. No systematic differences were found in any of the maturity, anthropometric and fitness characteristics of the regional squad players born across different quarters. RAEs are present in the DTB competitive system and it was more pronounced at higher competitive levels. Compared with early born, late born players who were selected into elite squads did not differ in maturation, anthropometric and fitness characteristics.

  4. Working memory in middle-aged males: Age-related brain activation changes and cognitive fatigue effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, Elissa; Evers, Elisabeth; De Groot, Renate; Backes, Walter; Veltman, Dick; Jolles, Jelle

    2017-01-01

    We examined the effects of aging and cognitive fatigue on working memory (WM) related brain activation using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Age-related differences were investigated in 13 young and 16 middle-aged male school teachers. Cognitive fatigue was induced by sustained performance on

  5. Age Discrimination in the US Higher Education and Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaev, Boris; Pavlova, Nataliia

    2016-01-01

    The need to ensure equal rights to different age groups without discrimination in our country necessitates the study of international experience. One of the traditional and at the same time, urgent problems in the USA is the problem of age equality and the overcoming of discriminatory theory and practice. The goal of the study is to analyze the…

  6. Male aging symptoms: the positive influence of moderate and total physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa de Carvalho Souza Vieira

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2016v18n4p460   The aim of the research was to analyze the association of physical activity (PA intensity and duration with male aging symptoms. This is a cross-sectional study of probabilistic sample involving 416 men from two cities in southern Brazil. Data collection used a questionnaire divided into six parts: sample characteristics; anthropometric measurements; economic level by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE; International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ short-version; Behavioral Risk Factors Surveillance System Questionnaire (BRFSS and Male Aging Symptoms Scale (AMS. The sample was divided into two groups: with and without male aging symptoms, making use of descriptive and inferential statistics. The presence of male aging symptoms was identified in 61.6% of men, especially somatic and psychological symptoms. Most were considered sufficiently active (60.1%, highlighting men without male aging symptoms (p = 0.026, with a possible effect of moderate and total PA on low-intensity symptoms (p = 0.027; p = 0.015. This study identified relationships between PA duration and intensity and intensity of male aging symptoms. PA practice with specific intensity and duration is suggested in order to obtain health benefits related to male aging symptoms.

  7. Morphology and ornamentation in male frigatebirds: variation with age-class and mating status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Vinni; Dabelsteen, Torben; Osorio, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    of white in the plumage identifies three age classes of nonjuvenile male. Here we investigate how morphological and secondary sexual traits correlate with age class and mating status. Even though several age class-related differences in morphology and visual appearance can be identified, the only features...... with age class, reflecting an increase in gular pouch size. This implies that females prefer older or possibly more experienced or viable males. Drumming cadence speed and stability might reflect male stamina. Apart from the acoustic differences with mating status, there is a nonsignificant tendency...... for back-feather iridescence to be of shorter reflectance wavelength spectra in mated than in unmated males, which, when combined with acoustic variables, improves prediction of age class and mating status....

  8. The effect of age of sensory meat quality of males of laying hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alžbeta Jarošová

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the sensory quality of carcass of layer males ISA Brown. The males were fattened to 90 and 132 days. In both ages samples of breast and thigh were used for the sensory evaluation.The birds were provided by a private producer. There were 20 birds in each experimental group. Both the groups were housed on deep litter and fed a commercial broiler diet. The first group was slaughtered at 90 days of age at a processing plant, the second group continued fattening till 132 days at the Department of Animal Breeding. At 132 days, the birds were slaughtered at the in-house abattoir.The sensory evaluation was carried out at the sensory laboratory at the Department of Food Tech­no­lo­gy at MZLU in Brno. The sensory evaluation was carried out by the trained staff of the Department. Samples were evaluated by the sensory profile method with description of edge points.The higher age had highly significant (p < 0.01 effect on tenderness of the breast muscle (meat from the older birds was assessed as tougher. The age had significant effect (p < 0.05 also on the colour of thigh muscle (the meat of the older birds was assessed as darker. Thus, the evaluators concluded the shorter fattening period as more favourable.However, as for carcass weight, weight of carcass parts and processing at an automatic slaughtering line, the longer fattening period (132 days seems to be more convenient. It is also necessary to take into account increased cost and marketing possibilities for such products.

  9. The Religious and Spiritual Experiences of Undergraduate Gay Males Attending a Religiously Affiliated Institution of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Melvin D., III

    2013-01-01

    This doctoral thesis studied the religious and spiritual experiences of undergraduate gay males at a Protestant affiliated higher education institution and how undergraduate gay males made sense of their personal journeys. Data was collected from four participants and analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Five themes emerged…

  10. The Jesuit Imaginary: Higher Education in a Secular Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, Daniel Scott

    2012-01-01

    The philosopher Charles Taylor argues in "A Secular Age" (2007) that people who live in secular cultures are losing the capacity to experience genuine "fullness." Described by Taylor as a philosophical-anthropological conception of human flourishing that corresponds with existential senses of meaning and purpose, fullness is…

  11. Transforming Higher Education in the Information Age: Presidents Respond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslin, Richard D.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    College presidents respond to an article by Richard Nolan challenging college and university presidents and chancellors to transform their campuses for survival and competitive advantage in the information age. Respondents include Richard D. Breslin, David M. Clarke, Joseph Cronin, Thomas Ehrlich, Donald N. Langenberg, Harold McAninch, and Donald…

  12. Male chimpanzees' grooming rates vary by female age, parity, and fertility status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proctor, Darby P; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steve

    2011-01-01

    , should show little or no preference when choosing mating partners (e.g. should mate indiscriminately). To determine if the preferences indicated by copulations appear in other contexts as well as how they interact, we examined how male chimpanzees' grooming patterns varied amongst females. We found...... that males' preferences were based on interactions among females' fertility status, age, and parity. First, grooming increased with increasing female parity. We further found an effect of the estrous cycle on grooming; when females were at the lowest point of their cycle, males preferentially groomed parous...... females at peak reproductive age, but during maximal tumescence, males preferred the oldest multiparous females. Nulliparous females received relatively little grooming regardless of age or fertility. Thus, male chimpanzees apparently chose grooming partners based on both female's experience and fertility...

  13. Higher levels of intrinsic motivation are related to higher levels of class performance for male but not female students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortright, Ronald N; Lujan, Heidi L; Blumberg, Amanda J; Cox, Julie H; DiCarlo, Stephen E

    2013-09-01

    Our students are naturally curious, with powerful intrinsic motives to understand their world. Accordingly, we, as teachers, must capitalize on this inherently active and curious nature so that learning becomes a lifelong activity where students take initiative for learning, are skilled in learning, and want to learn new things. Achieving this goal requires an understanding of student attitudes, beliefs, characteristics, and motivations. To achieve this goal, we administered the intrinsic motivation inventory (IMI) to assess our students' interest and enjoyment, perceived choice, and perceived competence while taking our undergraduate exercise physiology class (46 students; 20 female students and 26 male students). The interest and enjoyment subscale is considered the self-reported measure of intrinsic motivation. The perceived choice and perceived competence concepts are theorized to be positive predictors of both self-reported and behavioral measures of intrinsic motivation. Our results documented a significant increase in course grade with an increase in survey score for the interest and enjoyment subscale of the IMI when female and male students were combined. Specifically, each increase in survey score for the interest and enjoyment subscale of the IMI was associated with a significant (P students. These results have implications for both classroom practice and educational reform policies.

  14. The relevance of age and nutritional status on the mating competitiveness of medfly males (Diptera: Teprhitidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alzira Kelly Passos Roriz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Results of previous investigations trying to ascertain which physiological factors are more important to the mating success of medfly males are controversial. In part, this controversy owes to the fact that each factor was evaluated by an independent study using different experimental designs and populations. In the present study we compare the roles of age and nutritional status (immature and adult phases on the mating competitiveness of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824 males. Three parameters were used to evaluate the male mating success: calling behavior (pheromone emission, lek participation and copulation (ability to be chosen by a female. Females gave preference to the males that were given a high protein diet in the larval phase. By contrast, females did not give preference to males that had been well-nourished in the adult phase only. The other parameters evaluated followed the same pattern: young males and males that had been fed a high protein diet during their immature phase had a greater participation in leks and called more often than older males and males that had been fed a diet poor in protein during their larval phase. Therefore, we conclude that the mating success of C. capitata males is determined both by age and nourishment during the immature stage.

  15. The adaption growth of the heart in the higher age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kranz, D.; Kunde, D.; Fuhrmann, I.

    1976-01-01

    There was examined the influence of the age on the development of a compensatory hypertrophy of the heart in 4 to 16 month old masculin Wistar-rats autoradiographically. The valuation took place at various times after stenosing of the aorta and application of 3 H-thymidine separatly on both ventricular walls by counting of the nuclei of the marked muscle- and connective tissue cells of the heart and their mitosis. The 3 H-thymidine and mitotic index were calculated for the connective tissue cells and body and heart weight were determined. (author)

  16. Low External Workloads Are Related to Higher Injury Risk in Professional Male Basketball Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni Caparrós, Martí Casals, Álvaro Solana, Javier Peña

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The primary purpose of this study was to identify potential risk factors for sports injuries in professional basketball. An observational retrospective cohort study involving a male professional basketball team, using game tracking data was conducted during three consecutive seasons. Thirty-three professional basketball players took part in this study. A total of 29 time-loss injuries were recorded during regular season games, accounting for 244 total missed games with a mean of 16.26 ± 15.21 per player and season. The tracking data included the following variables: minutes played, physiological load, physiological intensity, mechanical load, mechanical intensity, distance covered, walking maximal speed, maximal speed, sprinting maximal speed, maximal speed, average offensive speed, average defensive speed, level one acceleration, level two acceleration, level three acceleration, level four acceleration, level one deceleration, level two deceleration, level three deceleration, level four deceleration, player efficiency rating and usage percentage. The influence of demographic characteristics, tracking data and performance factors on the risk of injury was investigated using multivariate analysis with their incidence rate ratios (IRRs. Athletes with less or equal than 3 decelerations per game (IRR, 4.36; 95% CI, 1.78-10.6 and those running less or equal than 1.3 miles per game (lower workload (IRR, 6.42 ; 95% CI, 2.52-16.3 had a higher risk of injury during games (p < 0.01 in both cases. Therefore, unloaded players have a higher risk of injury. Adequate management of training loads might be a relevant factor to reduce the likelihood of injury according to individual profiles.

  17. Muscular Strength Is Associated with Higher Intraocular Pressure in Physically Active Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Jesús; Jiménez, Raimundo; García-Ramos, Amador; Cárdenas, David

    2018-02-01

    The positive association between intraocular pressure (IOP) and relative maximum force may have relevance for exercise recommendations when IOP is a concern. The relationship between exercise and IOP has been approached in several studies. However, the influence of muscle function on IOP remains underexplored. This study aimed to determine the relationship between the maximal mechanical capabilities of muscles to generate force, velocity, and power with IOP. Sixty-five physically active males participated in this cross-sectional study. Baseline IOP measures were obtained by rebound tonometry, and participants performed an incremental loading test in the ballistic bench press. Baseline IOP showed a strong positive correlation with relative maximum force (r65 = 0.85, P .05). There is a positive association between greater upper-body power and strength with higher baseline IOP, which might have important implications in the management of ocular health and especially in individuals constantly involved in resistance training programs (e.g., military personnel, weightlifters). The possible protective effect of high fitness level on the acute IOP response to strength exercise needs to be addressed in future studies.

  18. Relation of hypertension with body mass index and age in male and female population of Peshawar, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humayun, A.; Shah, A.S.; Sultana, R.

    2009-01-01

    Hypertension, a condition developed as a result of high blood pressure is strongly correlated with body mass index (BMI). Obesity was noted to be a single best predictor of hypertension incidence, and was regarded as a major controllable contributor to hypertension. Overweight and obesity is conveniently determined from BMI. Present study was conducted in Khyber Medical College (KMC) Peshawar to investigate the relation of hypertension with BMI and age. The objective of the present investigation is to establish a relationship between hypertension and BMI in male and female population of Peshawar with consideration of age. Methods: This study was conducted at KMC, Peshawar during 2008-2009. A total of 1006 adult male and female volunteers were the subject of present research and were categorised in terms of their ages. BMI was determined from weight and height; the subjects were grouped as normal, overweight and obese. Hypertension was determined from the measure of blood pressure. Results: The results show a consistence relation between BMI and hypertension within age groups in both male and females. The figures exhibited a relation of age with BMI and hypertension in both males and females subjects. Conclusion: The results showed a higher trend of hypertension with increasing BMI. In young females it was noted that with a shift from normal BMI the incidence of hypertension was very high. (author)

  19. Male chimpanzees' grooming rates vary by female age, parity, and fertility status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Darby P; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steven J; Brosnan, Sarah F

    2011-10-01

    Copulation preferences in our closest living relative, the chimpanzee, suggest that males prefer older females who have had previous offspring. However, this finding is counter to some behavioral models, which predict that chimpanzee males, as promiscuous breeders with minimal costs to mating, should show little or no preference when choosing mating partners (e.g. should mate indiscriminately). To determine if the preferences indicated by copulations appear in other contexts as well as how they interact, we examined how male chimpanzees' grooming patterns varied amongst females. We found that males' preferences were based on interactions among females' fertility status, age, and parity. First, grooming increased with increasing female parity. We further found an effect of the estrous cycle on grooming; when females were at the lowest point of their cycle, males preferentially groomed parous females at peak reproductive age, but during maximal tumescence, males preferred the oldest multiparous females. Nulliparous females received relatively little grooming regardless of age or fertility. Thus, male chimpanzees apparently chose grooming partners based on both female's experience and fertility, possibly indicating a two-pronged social investment strategy. Male selectivity seems to have evolved to effectively distribute costly social resources in a pattern which may increase their overall reproductive success. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. The origins of mental toughness – prosocial behavior and low internalizing and externalizing problems at age 5 predict higher mental toughness scores at age 14

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dena Sadeghi Bahmani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The concept of mental toughness has gained increasing importance among groups other than elite athletes by virtue of its psychological importance and explanatory power for a broad range of health-related behaviors. However, no study has focused so far on the psychological origins of mental toughness. Therefore, the aims of the present study were: to explore, to what extent the psychological profiles of preschoolers aged five were associated with both 1 mental toughness scores and 2 sleep disturbances at age 14, and 3 to explore possible gender differences.Method: Nine years after their first assessment at age five (preschoolers, a total of 77 adolescents (mean age: 14.35 years; SD = 1.22; 42% females took part in this follow-up study. At baseline, both parents and teachers completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ, covering internalizing and externalizing problems, hyperactivity, negative peer relationships, and prosocial behavior. At follow-up, participants completed a booklet of questionnaires covering socio-demographic data, mental toughness, and sleep disturbances.Results: Higher prosocial behavior, lower negative peer relationships, and lower internalizing and externalizing problems at age five, as rated by parents and teachers, were associated with self-reported higher mental toughness and lower sleep disturbances at age 14. At age 14, and relative to males, females had lower MT scores and reported more sleep disturbances.Results: Higher prosocial behavior, lower negative peer relationships, and lower internalizing and externalizing problems at age five, as rated by parents and teachers, predicted self-reported higher mental toughness and lower sleep disturbances at age 14. At age 14, and relative to males, females had lower MT scores and reported more sleep disturbance.Conclusions: The pattern of results suggests that mental toughness traits during adolescence may have their origins in the pre-school years.

  1. Excess mortality among male unskilled and semi-skilled workers. A negative slope with age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, E; Jeune, B

    1983-01-01

    Mortality for male unskilled and semi-skilled workers in Denmark, Norway, and England and Wales is 40-50%--about the average for all men with equivalent economic status in the younger age groups, but declines towards the average at pensionable age. The negative slope of the graph for relative...

  2. "Man-some": A Review of Male Facial Aging and Beauty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keaney, Terrence Colin

    2017-06-01

    Gender plays a significant role in determining facial anatomy and behavior, both of which are key factors in the aging process. Understanding the pattern of male facial aging is critical when planning aesthetic treatments on men. Men develop more severe rhytides in a unique pattern, show increased periocular aging changes, and are more prone to hair loss. What also needs to be considered when planning a treatment is what makes men beautiful or "man-some". Male beauty strikes a balance between masculine and feminine facial features. A hypermasculine face can have negative associations. Men also exhibit different cosmetic concerns. Men tend to focus on three areas of the face - hairline, periocular area, and jawline. A comprehensive understanding of the male patient including anatomy, facial aging, cosmetic concerns, and beauty are needed for successful cosmetic outcomes. J Drugs Dermatol. 2017;16(6 Suppl):s91-93..

  3. Serum ferritin level is higher in male adolescents with obesity: results from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeon Jin Jeon

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available PurposePrevious reports show an association between high serum ferritin levels and metabolic syndrome (MS in adults. In adolescents, little information is available with obesity and serum ferritin levels.MethodsThis is a cross-sectional study. Data were obtained from the 5th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (K-NHANES conducted during 2010 by the Korean Ministry of Health and Welfare. A total of 849 subjects aged 10-18 years participated in the 2010 survey. A body mass index (BMI ≥95th percentile for age and sex or a BMI ≥25 was used to diagnose as obesity.ResultsThe weighted prevalence of obesity was 13.4% (62/462 in male and 8.5% (33/387 in female. We observed significantly higher serum ferritin in male than in female (mean±standard error [SE], 50.5±2.3 µU/L vs. 30.6±1.3 µU/L; P<0.0001. In male, serum ferritin is positively correlated with age (P<0.0001. White blood cell (WBC count, serum fasting blood sugar, triglyceride (TG, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, insulin, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and ferritin levels were higher and high-density lipoprotein (HDL were lower in the obesity than in the normal group. In female adolescents, WBC count, TG, insulin, and HOMA-IR were higher and HDL were lower in the obesity than in the normal group. In male, serum ferritin levels showed positive association with obesity (β=21.196, P=0.016.ConclusionSerum ferritin levels appear to be associated with obesity in Korean male adolescents.

  4. Higher body mass index is associated with greater severity of alopecia in men with male-pattern androgenetic alopecia in Taiwan: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao-Chun; Hsieh, Fu-Nien; Lin, Li-Yu; Hsu, Chao-Kai; Sheu, Hamm-Ming; Chen, WenChieh

    2014-02-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for multiple health problems, but its association with androgenetic alopecia (AGA) remains controversial. We sought to determine the association between body mass index (BMI) and alopecia severity in men with AGA and early-onset AGA. A cross-sectional study was conducted. The medical charts and photographs of men with a clinical diagnosis of AGA were reviewed. In all, 189 men were enrolled with a mean age of 30.8 years. In male-pattern AGA (n = 142), men with severe alopecia (grade V-VII) had higher BMI than those with mild to moderate alopecia (grade I-IV) (25.1 vs 22.8 kg/m(2), P = .01). After multivariate adjustments, the risk for severe alopecia was higher in the overweight or obese (BMI ≥24 kg/m(2)) subjects with male-pattern AGA (odds ratio 3.52, P < .01). In early-onset male-pattern AGA (n = 46), the risk for having severe alopecia was also higher in the overweight or obese subjects (odds ratio 4.97, P = .03). Parameters used to evaluate obesity were limited because of the retrospective nature of the study. Higher BMI was significantly associated with greater severity of hair loss in men with male-pattern AGA, especially in those with early-onset AGA. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Age-graded risks for commercial sexual exploitation of male and female youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Joan A; Piquero, Alex R

    2014-06-01

    Emerging evidence indicates male youth are affected by commercial sexual exploitation (CSE). However, most studies investigating risk markers influencing age of onset of CSE have focused on vulnerabilities of girls and women. Using a sample of 1,354 serious youthful offenders (of whom approximately 8% of males and females reported being paid for sex), the current study assessed whether risks associated with age of onset of CSE for girls and young women operated similarly in boys and young men. Findings showed that African American male youth were at heightened risk for CSE, while female youth of all races/ethnicities were at similar risk. For all youth, maternal substance use and earlier age of first sex were associated with early age of onset of CSE. For male youth, experiencing rape and substance use dependency were associated with early age of onset. Psychotic symptoms, likely experienced as social alienation, were associated with both early and late age of onset. For all youth, lower educational attainment was associated with CSE beginning in later adolescence or young adulthood. In addition, substance use dependency was linked to late age of onset for female youth. Implications of the study findings for theory development and application to CSE are noted.

  6. Condom Use at Last Sexual Intercourse and Its Correlates among Males and Females Aged 15–49 Years in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bimala Sharma

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the prevalence and correlates of condom use at last sexual intercourse among people aged 15–49 years in Nepal. Secondary data analysis was performed using the Nepal Demographic and Health Survey 2011. The study was restricted to the respondents who reported ever having had sexual intercourse; 9843 females and 3017 males were included. Condom use was assessed by asking if respondents used condoms in their most recent sexual intercourse. Chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed using Complex Sample Analysis Procedure to adjust for sample weight and multistage sampling design. Overall, 7.6% of total, and 16.3% of males and 6.2% of females reported using condoms in their last sexual intercourse. Living in Far-Western region, age and wealth quintile were positively associated with condom use in both males and females. Being unmarried was the most important predictor of condom use among males. Higher education was associated with increased likelihood of condom use in females. However, mobility, having multiple sexual partners, and HIV knowledge were not significant correlates of condom use in both sexes. A big difference was observed in the variance accounted for males and females; indicating use of condoms is poorly predicted by the variables included in the study among females. Condom use was more associated with sociodemographic factors than with sexual behavior and HIV knowledge.

  7. Androgen and glucocorticoid production in the male killer whale (Orcinus orca): influence of age, maturity, and environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, J K; Steinman, K J; Fetter, G A; Robeck, T R

    2017-01-01

    Circulating concentrations of testosterone and its precursor androstenedione, as well as dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and the adrenal hormones cortisol and corticosterone were measured at monthly intervals in 14 male killer whales (Orcinus orca) aged 0.8-38 years. Analyses were performed for examination of the relationships of age, sexual maturation status (STATUS), season, and environmental temperature (monthly air ambient temperature, A-TEMP) with hormone production using a mixed effects linear regression model with animal ID as the random variable. Hormone profiles, derived from enzyme immunoassay procedures validated herein, established that simultaneous up-regulation of androstenedione and testosterone production occurs at puberty, when males are aged 8-12 years. Androgen (testosterone and androstenedione) production in pubertal and adult males was influenced by season, with highest (p effect of STATUS and season on DHEA production was also documented, with higher (p reproductive and adrenocortical function in healthy male killer whales and provide baseline profiles of hormone production for use in the species' health assessment and conservation. © 2016 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  8. Age-related and Individual Variation in Male Piezodorus hybneri (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae Pheromones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Endo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Males of the Piezodorus hybneri stink bug produce a pheromone comprising β-sesquiphellandrene (Sesq, (R-15-hexadecanolide (R15, and methyl (Z-8-hexadecenoate (Z8. We collected airborne volatiles from individual P. hybneri males and analyzed them by GC-MS. Daily analysis from 1 to 16 days after adult emergence showed that pheromone emission started around 3 to 6 days after adult emergence and peaked (~1 μg/male/day on day 11. The proportion of Sesq tended to increase with age to about 80% on days 12 to 16. On the other hand, the proportion of R15 tended to decrease with age. The proportion of Z8 reached a maximum of about 34% on day 9 but otherwise remained below 20%. The total amount of pheromone emitted by individual males varied considerably: three males emitted more than 10 μg, whereas another three males emitted little or no pheromone and failed to survive by the end of the experiment. These results suggest that the amount of P. hybneri pheromone and its blend ratio could be affected by the male’s physical conditions, such as vitality and age.

  9. Age differences in body image responses to idealized male figures in music television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulgrew, Kate E; Cragg, Dinusha Nc

    2017-05-01

    Little is known about how middle-aged and older men are affected by idealized depictions of male singers in music television. A total of 116 males completed pre- and post-test measures of body satisfaction, mood, and social comparison and viewed 5 minutes of clips containing scenery, muscular- or average-looking singers. Negative effects were restricted to young men who viewed the muscular clips. The younger men also reported more comparison while viewing the muscular and average-looking singers compared to the middle-aged and older men. These findings suggest that younger (but not middle-aged or older) men are particularly susceptible to idealized depictions of the male appearance.

  10. Male scarcity is associated with higher prevalence of premature gestation and low birth weight births across the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Daniel J; Clark, Jillian; Vanas, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Modern adverse birth outcomes may partially result from mechanisms evolved to evaluate environmental conditions and regulate maternal investment trade-offs. Male scarcity in a population is associated with a cluster of characteristics related to higher mating effort and lower paternal investment. We predicted that modern populations with male scarcity would have shorter gestational times and lower birth weights on average. We compared US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention county-aggregated year 2000 birth records with US Decennial Census data. We combined these data in a path model with the degree of male scarcity and known socio-economic predictors of birth outcomes as exogenous predictors of prematurity and low birth weight, with single mother households as a proportion of families with children as a mediator (N = 450). Male scarcity was directly associated with higher rates of low birth weight. Male scarcity made significant indirect predictions of rates of prematurity and low birth weight, as mediated by the proportion of families headed by single mothers. Aggregate socio-economic status also indirectly predicted birth outcomes, as mediated by the proportion of families headed by single mothers, whereas the proportion African American retained both direct and indirect predictions of adverse birth outcomes. Male scarcity influences life history tradeoffs, with consequences for important social and public health issues such as adverse birth outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Age of partners at first intercourse among Danish males and females

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wielandt, H; Boldsen, J; Jeune, B

    1989-01-01

    In 1984-1985 a representative sample of 286 Danish women (response rate = 75.3%) and 336 Danish men (response rate = 77.8%), ages 16-20 years, was interviewed about their first sexual intercourse. A cumulative frequency function was constructed and the median age at sexual debut was estimated at 16.......8 years for both male and female. Generally the age difference between the partners at first intercourse was only a few years. However, the young women almost never reported their first sexual partner as younger than themselves. A cross-check was made of the information given by two homogeneous subsamples...... of the 47 young women and 80 young men who had their first sexual intercourse with a partner who was also a debutant. Self-reported age among the males differed significantly from the age of the first sexual partner as stated by the females in these subsamples. Therefore, there is bias in the reporting...

  12. A Comparative Study of Factors Influencing Male and Female Lecturers' Job Satisfaction in Ghanaian Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, Patricia Mawusi; Acquah, Sakina; Antwi, Theresa; Adzifome, Nixon Saba

    2015-01-01

    The study sought to compare factors influencing male and female lecturers' job satisfaction. Cross-sectional survey designs employing both quantitative and qualitative approaches were adopted for the study. Simple random sampling was used to select 163 lecturers from the four oldest public universities in Ghana. Celep's (2000) Organisational…

  13. Testosterone supplementation, glucocorticoid milieu and bone homeostasis in the ageing male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajdžanović, Vladimir Z; Filipović, Branko R; Šošić Jurjević, Branka T; Milošević, Verica Lj

    2017-08-01

    Male ageing is entwined with a continuous fall in free testosterone levels, which contributes to the pathogenesis of bone loss. Glucocorticoid excess, either dependent on the ageing process or iatrogenically induced, was found to additionally impair the bone structure and metabolism. Cautious testosterone supplementation in this respect may positively affect the glucocorticoid milieu and bone homeostasis, while testosterone-induced changes in the glucocorticoid output could serve as a determinant of bone-related therapeutic outcome. Namely, bone mineral content/density, the parameters of trabecular bone structure as well as bone strength are enhanced, serum calcitonin levels tend to increase, while serum osteocalcin, serum parathyroid hormone and urinary calcium decrease, all upon testosterone administration to the ageing male. In parallel, testosterone application decreases glucocorticoid secretion in the animal models of male ageing, while clinical data in this field are still inconsistent. Importantly, a physiological link exists between testosterone-induced changes in glucocorticoid levels and the tendency of bone status improvement in the ageing male. We believe that the assessment of circulating adrenocorticotropic hormone concentrations together with glucocorticoid levels, reflecting the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis feedback loop operativeness during testosterone supplementation, represents a well-balanced bone-related therapeutic update. © 2017 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  14. Is Greulich–Pyle age estimation applicable for determining maturation in male Africans?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan G. Morri

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal age estimation as a means of assessing development and skeletal maturation in children and adolescents is of great importance for clinical and forensic purposes. The skeletal age of a test population is estimated by comparison with established standards, the most common standards being those in the Radiographic atlas of skeletal development of the hand and wristpublished by Greulich and Pyle in 1959. These standards are based on the assumption that skeletal maturity in male individuals is attained by the chronological age of 19 years. Although they have been widely tested, the applicability of these standards to contemporary populations has yet to be tested on a population of African biological origin living in South Africa. We therefore estimated the skeletal age of 131 male Africans aged between 13 and 21 years, using the Greulich–Pyle method which we applied to pre-existing hand–wrist radiographs. Estimated skeletal age was compared to the known chronological age for each radiograph. Skeletal age was on average approximately 6 months younger than chronological age. The Greulich–Pyle method underestimated skeletal age for approximately 74%of the sample and overestimated skeletal age for 26%of the sample. Skeletal maturity as characterised by complete epiphyseal fusion occurred approximately 2.1 years later than Greulich and Pyle’s estimate of 19 years. Thus skeletal maturation was still in progress in a large proportion of the 20- and 21-year-old individuals in our study. The Greulich–Pyle method showed high precision but low accuracy and was therefore not directly applicable to African male individuals. Formulation of skeletal age estimation standards specific to South African populations is therefore recommended.

  15. The Salience of Gender during the Transition to Higher Education: Male Students' Accounts of Performed and Authentic Identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warin, Jo; Dempster, Steve

    2007-01-01

    This article looks at the transition to higher education made by a group of male undergraduates. The data were collected though one-to-one interviews with 24 students, who were asked questions designed to elicit data about their positioning in relation to hegemonic masculinities. The evidence presented here supports the view that gender operates…

  16. Female medical students are estimated to have a higher risk for developing eating disorders than male medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissing, Agnete Skovlund; Bak, Nanna Hasle; Pedersen, Laura Erna Toftegaard; Petersson, Birgit H

    2011-01-01

    Studies show that university students are at risk for eating disorders. However, risk behaviour has not been studied among Danish medical students, nor have the gender differences in risk behaviour been described in a Danish context. All first-year medical students (n = 979) received a questionnaire related to body perception, exercise habits, eating habits, height and weight in the fall of 2006 and 2007. The response rate was 57% (n = 561). The gender distribution of the study population was 71.8% females and 28.2% males and the average age was 21.5 years. More males (89.8%) than females (73.1%) were satisfied with their body and more females (34.8%) than males (10.9%) felt too fat. More females (42.7%) than males (19.9%) felt guilty when eating unhealthy food. 2.3% (all females) claimed to feel anxiety when they were about to eat. More males (48.4%) than females (28.6%) stated that they could not keep themselves from exercising. 13.5% of the underweight females (body mass index eating disorders than male students. Future research in this area should address the causes of such behaviour.

  17. Brain activation by visual erotic stimuli in healthy middle aged males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S W; Sohn, D W; Cho, Y-H; Yang, W S; Lee, K-U; Juh, R; Ahn, K-J; Chung, Y-A; Han, S-I; Lee, K H; Lee, C U; Chae, J-H

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to identify brain centers, whose activity changes are related to erotic visual stimuli in healthy, heterosexual, middle aged males. Ten heterosexual, right-handed males with normal sexual function were entered into the present study (mean age 52 years, range 46-55). All potential subjects were screened over 1 h interview, and were encouraged to fill out questionnaires including the Brief Male Sexual Function Inventory. All subjects with a history of sexual arousal disorder or erectile dysfunction were excluded. We performed functional brain magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in male volunteers when an alternatively combined erotic and nonerotic film was played for 14 min and 9 s. The major areas of activation associated with sexual arousal to visual stimuli were occipitotemporal area, anterior cingulate gyrus, insula, orbitofrontal cortex, caudate nucleus. However, hypothalamus and thalamus were not activated. We suggest that the nonactivation of hypothalamus and thalamus in middle aged males may be responsible for the lesser physiological arousal in response to the erotic visual stimuli.

  18. Age dynamics of radiosensitivity of offsprings of irradiated and nonirradiated Drosophila males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gol'zberg, K.L.; Vorobtsova, I.E.

    1978-01-01

    The average life span of the first generation of descendants of irradiated (F 1 I) and nonirradiated (F 1 C) Drosophila males has been investigated after a single and fractionated exposures at early age. The data obtained are in agreement with the assumption that an aggregate amount of radiation-induced mutations obtained from the exposed parent is responsible for the premature ageing of F 1 I descendants

  19. Is Greulich–Pyle age estimation applicable for determining maturation in male Africans?

    OpenAIRE

    Alan G. Morri; Kundisai A. Dembetembe

    2012-01-01

    Skeletal age estimation as a means of assessing development and skeletal maturation in children and adolescents is of great importance for clinical and forensic purposes. The skeletal age of a test population is estimated by comparison with established standards, the most common standards being those in the Radiographic atlas of skeletal development of the hand and wristpublished by Greulich and Pyle in 1959. These standards are based on the assumption that skeletal maturity in male individua...

  20. Age- and tactic-related paternity success in male African elephants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Barner; Okello, J. B. A.; Wittemyer, G.

    2008-01-01

    on age- and tactic-specific paternity success in male African elephants are the first from a free-ranging population and demonstrate that paternity success increases dramatically with age, with the small number of older bulls in the competitive state of musth being the most successful sires. However......, nonmusth males sired 20% of genotyped calves, and 60% of mature bulls (>20 years old) were estimated to have sired offspring during the 5-year study period. The 3 most successful males sired less than 20% of the genotyped offspring. Hence, contrary to prediction from behavior and life-history traits......, reproduction was not heavily skewed compared with many other mammalian systems with a similar breeding system. Nevertheless, these results indicate that trophy hunting and ivory poaching, both of which target older bulls, may have substantial behavioral and genetic effects on elephant populations. In addition...

  1. Effect of castration age on weight and size of some muscles in Piemontese male cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Biagini

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Effect of pre- and post-pubertal castration on muscle weight and measurements has been studied in 3 groups of Piemontese male cattle (EC - early castrated, LC - late castrated, IM - intact reared in the same environmental conditions and slaughtered at about 18 month of age, at about 550 kg of l.w., and at the same commercial fattening degree. At side commercial dissection all separated muscles or meat cuts were weighted, and on the most regular ones (regular roll, shoulder clod – “copertina”, blade filet, strip loin, tenderloin, and eye round linear measures were recorded and then some conformation ratios (weight/length, length/width, and length/circumference were calculated. Data were analysed by GLM ANCOVA procedure, correcting data on side weight to avoid bias due to differences in carcass weight. Differences were found in meat weight, heavier in IM than in LC and EC (P<0.05, and fat weight, heavier in LC and EC than IM (P<0.01. Only the blade filet weight/length and length/circumference ratios were higher in EC than LC and IM (P<0.05 and in IM than EC (P<0.05 respectively, showing the poor effect of sexual neutralisation on weight and size of the considered muscles.

  2. The Changes of Muscle Strength and Functional Activities During Aging in Male and Female Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Jung Cheng

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: We noted that the muscle strength and functional activities were decreased earlier in female than male individuals. The decrease of functional activities during the aging process seems to be earlier than the decrease of muscle strength. It is important to implement functional activities training in addition to strengthening exercise to maintain functional levels of the geriatric population.

  3. Correlates of Condom Use among Male and Female aged 18-24 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Correlates of Condom Use among Male and Female aged 18-24 Years in ... used in the analysis for this paper only includes sexually active youth (18-24 years). ... in past 12 months, having had two or more sexual partners in the past year and ...

  4. Higher variability in the number of sexual partners in males can contribute to a higher prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases in females

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, Rodrigo Gouveia; Pedersen, Anders Gorm

    2009-01-01

    , and on the probability of disease transmission. We note that in addition to humans, the variance phenomenon described here is likely to play a role for sexually transmitted diseases in other species also. We also show, again by examining published, empirical data, that the female to male prevalence ratio increases...... of sexually transmitted diseases: compared to the situation where the genders have identical sex partner distributions, men will reach a lower equilibrium value, while women will stay at the same level (meaning that female prevalence becomes higher than male). We carefully analyse model behaviour and derive...... with the overall prevalence of a sexually transmitted disease (i.e., the more widespread the disease, the more women are affected). We suggest that this pattern may be caused by the effect described above in highly prevalent sexually transmitted diseases, while its impact in low-prevalence epidemics is surpassed...

  5. Early birds are sexy: male age, dawn song and extrapair paternity in blue tits, Cyanistes (formerly Parus) caeruleus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poesel, Angelika; Kunc, H.P.; Foerster, K.

    2006-01-01

    Sexual selection theory predicts that signals reflecting the relative quality of individuals should be used in mate choice. Females could base their choice of copulation partners on male secondary sexual traits that honestly signal male age, as predicted by the age-based indicator mechanism....... Studies have shown that female blue tits prefer older males and that aspects of dawn song reflect male quality, but it remains unknown whether dawn song characteristics correlate with male age. We compared dawn song characteristics of second-year (SY) and older (ASY) male blue tits (cross......-sectional analysis), and tested for age-related changes within individuals (longitudinal analysis) and differential overwinter survival of SY males. We further investigated the relation between dawn song and paternity gain and loss. We found that ASY male blue tits began to sing earlier relative to sunrise than did...

  6. Form of the male and female corpus callosum internal organization at the mature age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Юрий Петрович Костиленко

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to study the special features of the male and female corpus callosum internal organization at the mature age.Materials and methods: the total preparations of the male and female corpus callosum (10 preparation of each sex at 45–60 years old were used as the material. The given preparations were used to get from it the plate cuts in the two mutually perpendicular planes with 2 mm. thick. Then the received tissue plates of the corpus callosum underwent plastination in the epoxy. Then the preparations were extracted from the non-polymerized epoxy and placed on the polyethylene film that was covered with the other film of the same size. Further this stratified block was placed amid the two glasses of the equal size that shrunk together by placing the small load on it. After the complete polymerization the received epoxy plates with the corpus callosum tissue contained in it underwent the gentle grinding and the accurate polish and as the result was obtained the surface denudation of its tissue structures that were colored with the 1 % solution of blue methylene for 1% borax solution.Results of research: at the study of the corpus callosum plastinated cuts in saggital plane was revealed that the transverse platen-form elevations of its higher surface are the cord-form tenias standing out from within and going through the corpus callosum. At its studying in the transverse cut was established that in adults can be separated two types of corpus callosum by its density: the dense one and disperse one.At the large increases of the binocular loupe (microscope MBS-9 can be seen the gaps between the adjacent commissural cords. Within it can be detected the blood vessels. On the transverse cut of commissural cords in its depth are revealed the thinnest streaks which totality consists of the two alternate dark and light lines that form the layered striation. Among the series of the light lines are visible the interlayer that separate the whole depth of

  7. Variations of insulin resistance and associated hormone levels in elderly and middle-aged male persons and their clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuo Liankun; Yan Daochun; Chen Xiumei; Liu Peng; Zhang Aihua

    2005-01-01

    To study the relationship between age and insulin resistance and the variation of associated hormones in elderly and middle-aged males, blood levels of LH, FSH, T, SHBG, TSH, INS were determined by RIA, FBG by GPO, IR by HOMA in 268 healthy male persons aged 41 to 60 years and in 80 normal control male persions of 35 to 40 years old. The results showed that levels of IR, LH, FSH, SHBG were increasing and T, TSH were decreasing along with the increase of age except for TSH. Therefore, analyzing these changes could evaluate the conditions of elderly and middle-aged males. (authors)

  8. Evaluation and treatment of erectile dysfunction in the aging male: a mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albersen, Maarten; Orabi, Hazem; Lue, Tom F

    2012-01-01

    Before the 20th century, individuals often did not live beyond the reproductive years, and sexuality of the elderly was not an issue. However, in the current era it is known that as life expectancy improves, both men and women are seeking to preserve their sexuality into old age. While the appreciation of sexuality persists with aging, a decline in sexual activity is typically seen with, and can be attributed to both general health problems as well as specific sexual dysfunctions. Erectile dysfunction is the most frequently diagnosed sexual dysfunction in the older male population. This mini-review provides an overview of contemporary literature concerning epidemiology, pathophysiology, assessment and treatment of erectile dysfunction in the aging male. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Empathic Accuracy in Male Adolescents with Conduct Disorder and Higher versus Lower Levels of Callous-Unemotional Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Key, N; Brown, T; Fairchild, G

    2017-10-01

    Adolescents with disruptive behavior disorders are reported to show deficits in empathy and emotion recognition. However, prior studies have mainly used questionnaires to measure empathy or experimental paradigms that are lacking in ecological validity. We used an empathic accuracy (EA) task to study EA, emotion recognition, and affective empathy in 77 male adolescents aged 13-18 years: 37 with Conduct Disorder (CD) and 40 typically-developing controls. The CD sample was divided into higher callous-emotional traits (CD/CU+) and lower callous-unemotional traits (CD/CU-) subgroups using a median split. Participants watched films of actors recalling happy, sad, surprised, angry, disgusted or fearful autobiographical experiences and provided continuous ratings of emotional intensity (assessing EA), as well as naming the emotion (recognition) and reporting the emotion they experienced themselves (affective empathy). The CD and typically-developing groups did not significantly differ in EA and there were also no differences between the CD/CU+ and CD/CU- subgroups. Participants with CD were significantly less accurate than controls in recognizing sadness, fear, and disgust, all ps sadness, fear, and disgust relative to controls, all ps < 0.010, rs ≥ 0.33, whereas the CD/CU+ and CD/CU- subgroups did not differ in affective empathy. These results extend prior research by demonstrating affective empathy and emotion recognition deficits in adolescents with CD using a more ecologically-valid task, and challenge the view that affective empathy deficits are specific to CD/CU+.

  10. Is Sex with Older Male Partners Associated with Higher Sexual Risk Behavior Among Young Black MSM?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Nicholas; Mena, Leandro A; Geter, Angelica; Crosby, Richard A

    2017-08-01

    Participants at a sexual health clinic completed a survey with questions regarding sexual risk behavior and partner characteristics. Of 585 participants eligible for analysis, 124 reported generally having older male partners. These participants were significantly more likely to be HIV-infected (p < 0.001), have four or more sex partners as a "bottom" (p = 0.04), have concurrent partners (p = 0.01), and have partners suspected of having an sexually transmitted infection (p = 0.05) than participants without older partners. With analysis restricted to HIV- individuals, risk behaviors did not differ significantly between the groups. HIV- individuals with older partners may be at increased risk of HIV infection due to increased HIV prevalence among older sexual partners and not due to increased risk behaviors with these partners.

  11. The relationship between age and brain response to visual erotic stimuli in healthy heterosexual males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Y; Jeong, B; Kim, J-W; Choi, J

    2010-01-01

    The various changes of sexuality, including decreased sexual desire and erectile dysfunction, are also accompanied with aging. To understand the effect of aging on sexuality, we explored the relationship between age and the visual erotic stimulation-related brain response in sexually active male subjects. Twelve healthy, heterosexual male subjects (age 22-47 years) were recorded the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signals of their brain activation elicited by passive viewing erotic (ERO), happy-faced (HA) couple, food and nature pictures. Mixed effect analysis and correlation analysis were performed to investigate the relationship between the age and the change of brain activity elicited by erotic stimuli. Our results showed age was positively correlated with the activation of right occipital fusiform gyrus and amygdala, and negatively correlated with the activation of right insula and inferior frontal gyrus. These findings suggest age might be related with functional decline in brain regions being involved in both interoceptive sensation and prefrontal modulation while it is related with the incremental activity of the brain region for early processing of visual emotional stimuli in sexually healthy men.

  12. Modeling the Impact of Uganda's Safe Male Circumcision Program: Implications for Age and Regional Targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kripke, Katharine; Vazzano, Andrea; Kirungi, William; Musinguzi, Joshua; Opio, Alex; Ssempebwa, Rhobbinah; Nakawunde, Susan; Kyobutungi, Sheila; Akao, Juliet N; Magala, Fred; Mwidu, George; Castor, Delivette; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Uganda aims to provide safe male circumcision (SMC) to 80% of men ages 15-49 by 2016. To date, only 2 million men have received SMC of the 4.2 million men required. In response to age and regional trends in SMC uptake, the country sought to re-examine its targets with respect to age and subnational region, to assess the program's progress, and to refine the implementation approach. The Decision Makers' Program Planning Tool, Version 2.0 (DMPPT 2.0), was used in conjunction with incidence projections from the Spectrum/AIDS Impact Module (AIM) to conduct this analysis. Population, births, deaths, and HIV incidence and prevalence were used to populate the model. Baseline male circumcision prevalence was derived from the 2011 AIDS Indicator Survey. Uganda can achieve the most immediate impact on HIV incidence by circumcising men ages 20-34. This group will also require the fewest circumcisions for each HIV infection averted. Focusing on men ages 10-19 will offer the greatest impact over a 15-year period, while focusing on men ages 15-34 offers the most cost-effective strategy over the same period. A regional analysis showed little variation in cost-effectiveness of scaling up SMC across eight regions. Scale-up is cost-saving in all regions. There is geographic variability in program progress, highlighting two regions with low baseline rates of circumcision where additional efforts will be needed. Focusing SMC efforts on specific age groups and regions may help to accelerate Uganda's SMC program progress. Policy makers in Uganda have already used model outputs in planning efforts, proposing males ages 10-34 as a priority group for SMC in the 2014 application to the Global Fund's new funding model. As scale-up continues, the country should also consider a greater effort to expand SMC in regions with low MC prevalence.

  13. Modeling the Impact of Uganda's Safe Male Circumcision Program: Implications for Age and Regional Targeting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine Kripke

    Full Text Available Uganda aims to provide safe male circumcision (SMC to 80% of men ages 15-49 by 2016. To date, only 2 million men have received SMC of the 4.2 million men required. In response to age and regional trends in SMC uptake, the country sought to re-examine its targets with respect to age and subnational region, to assess the program's progress, and to refine the implementation approach.The Decision Makers' Program Planning Tool, Version 2.0 (DMPPT 2.0, was used in conjunction with incidence projections from the Spectrum/AIDS Impact Module (AIM to conduct this analysis. Population, births, deaths, and HIV incidence and prevalence were used to populate the model. Baseline male circumcision prevalence was derived from the 2011 AIDS Indicator Survey. Uganda can achieve the most immediate impact on HIV incidence by circumcising men ages 20-34. This group will also require the fewest circumcisions for each HIV infection averted. Focusing on men ages 10-19 will offer the greatest impact over a 15-year period, while focusing on men ages 15-34 offers the most cost-effective strategy over the same period. A regional analysis showed little variation in cost-effectiveness of scaling up SMC across eight regions. Scale-up is cost-saving in all regions. There is geographic variability in program progress, highlighting two regions with low baseline rates of circumcision where additional efforts will be needed.Focusing SMC efforts on specific age groups and regions may help to accelerate Uganda's SMC program progress. Policy makers in Uganda have already used model outputs in planning efforts, proposing males ages 10-34 as a priority group for SMC in the 2014 application to the Global Fund's new funding model. As scale-up continues, the country should also consider a greater effort to expand SMC in regions with low MC prevalence.

  14. Dream content of Canadian males from adolescence to old age: An exploration of ontogenetic patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Allyson; Lafrenière, Alexandre; De Koninck, Joseph

    2017-03-01

    The present study was a first look at the ontogenetic pattern of dream content across the lifespan for men. The participants included 50 Canadian men in each of 5 age groups, from adolescence to old age including 12-17, 18-24, 25-39, 40-64, and 65-85. The last age group included 31 participants, totaling 231 males. One dream per participant was scored by two independent judges using content analysis. Trend analysis was used to determine the lifespan-developmental pattern of the dream content categories. Results demonstrated a predominance of aggressive dream imagery in the adolescent age group in line with social-developmental research. These patterns of dream imagery reflect the waking developmental patterns as proposed by social theories and recognized features of aging. Limitations and suggestions for future research, including the examining of the developmental pattern of gender differences across the lifespan, are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Gene expression changes in male accessory glands during ageing are accompanied by reproductive decline in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppik, Mareike; Fricke, Claudia

    2017-12-01

    Senescence is accompanied by loss of reproductive functions. Here, we studied reproductive ageing in Drosophila melanogaster males and asked whether the expected decline in male reproductive success is due to diminished functionality of the male accessory gland (AG). The male AG produces the majority of seminal fluid proteins (SFPs) transferred to the female at mating. SFPs induce female postmating changes and are key to male reproductive success. We measured age-dependent gene expression changes for five representative SFP genes in males from four different age groups ranging from 1 to 6 weeks after eclosion. Simultaneously, we also measured male reproductive success in postmating traits mediated by transfer of these five SFPs. We found a decreased in male SFP gene expression with advancing age and an accompanying decline in male postmating success. Hence, male reproductive senescence is associated with a decline in functionality of the male AG. While overall individual SFP genes decreased in expression, our results point towards the idea that the composition of an ejaculate might change with male age as the rate of change was variable for those five genes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Age-Related Increase in Electromyography Burst Activity in Males and Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Theou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid advancement of electromyography (EMG technology facilitates measurement of muscle activity outside the laboratory during daily life. The purpose of this study was to determine whether bursts in EMG recorded over a typical 8-hour day differed between young and old males and females. Muscle activity was recorded from biceps brachii, triceps brachii, vastus lateralis, and biceps femoris of 16 young and 15 old adults using portable surface EMG. Old muscles were active 16–27% of the time compared to 5–9% in young muscles. The number of bursts was greater in old than young adults and in females compared to males. Burst percentage and mean amplitude were greater in the flexor muscles compared with the extensor muscles. The greater burst activity in old adults coupled with the unique activity patterns across muscles in males and females provides further understanding of how changes in neuromuscular activity effects age-related functional decline between the sexes.

  17. Responses of female rock lizards to multiple scent marks of males: effects of male age, male density and scent over-marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, José; López, Pilar

    2013-03-01

    Scent-marked substrates may inform conspecifics on the characteristics of territorial males. Scent-marks of male Carpetan rock lizards (Iberolacerta cyreni) affect space use of females, which by selecting an area may increase the probability of mating with the male that has scent-marked that area. However, males do not hold exclusive territories, and scent-marks of different individual males are often together. This may provide complex information from multiple sources on the social structure. Here, we examined female preference in response to scent marks of various males and combinations in a laboratory experiment. Females preferred areas scent-marked by territorial old males against those scent-marked by young satellite-sneaker males. This reflected the known preference of females for mating with old males. In a second experiment, females preferred areas scent-marked by two males to areas of similar size marked by a single male. This may increase the probability of obtaining multiple copulations with different males, which may favour sperm competition and cryptic female choice, or may be a way to avoid infertile males. Finally, when we experimentally over-marked the scent-marks of an old male with scent-marks of a young male, females did not avoid, nor prefer, the over-marked area, suggesting that the quality of the old male may override the presence of a satellite male. We suggest that, irrespective of the causes underlying why a female selects a scent-marked area, this strategy may affect her reproductive success, which may have the same evolutionary consequences that "direct" mate choice decisions of other animals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Associations between age, body size and nephron number with individual glomerular volumes in urban West African males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Bridgette J; Diouf, Boucar; Hughson, Michael D; Hoy, Wendy E; Bertram, John F

    2009-05-01

    Glomerulomegaly has been associated with an increased risk of renal disease. Few reports have investigated the heterogeneity of glomerular size within kidneys and associated risk factors. This study measured the individual glomerular volume (IGV) of 720 non-sclerotic glomeruli in kidneys of adult West African males, and investigated associations of IGV with age, total glomerular (nephron) number and body surface area (BSA). IGVs were determined in the kidneys of 24 Senegalese males from two age groups (12 subjects aged 20- 30 years and 12 subjects aged 50-70 years). Subjects were randomly chosen at autopsies performed at Le Dantec Hospital in Dakar. Volumes of 30 glomeruli per subject were determined using the disector/Cavalieri stereological method. IGVs ranged from 1.31 x 10(6) microm3 to 12.40 x 10(6) microm3 (a 9.4-fold variation). IGV varied up to 5.3-fold within single kidneys. The trimmed range of IGV within subjects (10th to 90th percentile of IGV) was directly correlated with median glomerular size. The mean and standard deviation (SD) of IGV did not differ significantly between age groups or between subjects with higher (> or =1.78 m2) and lower BSA (IGV was significantly and directly correlated with BSA. Kidneys with less than 1 million nephrons had significantly larger mean IGV than kidneys with more than 1 million nephrons, and the trimmed range of IGVs within subjects was inversely correlated with total glomerular number. There was a considerable variation in IGV within kidneys of Senegalese males at autopsy. The heterogeneity of IGV was increased in association with low nephron number and increased BSA, with more pronounced effects in older subjects.

  19. Age-dependent variation in the terminal investment threshold in male crickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffield, Kristin R; Hampton, Kylie J; Houslay, Thomas M; Hunt, John; Rapkin, James; Sakaluk, Scott K; Sadd, Ben M

    2018-03-01

    The terminal investment hypothesis proposes that decreased expectation of future reproduction (e.g., arising from a threat to survival) should precipitate increased investment in current reproduction. The level at which a cue of decreased survival is sufficient to trigger terminal investment (i.e., the terminal investment threshold) may vary according to other factors that influence expectation for future reproduction. We test whether the terminal investment threshold varies with age in male crickets, using heat-killed bacteria to simulate an immune-inducing infection. We measured calling effort (a behavior essential for mating) and hemolymph antimicrobial activity in young and old males across a gradient of increasing infection cue intensity. There was a significant interaction between the infection cue and age in their effect on calling effort, confirming the existence of a dynamic terminal investment threshold: young males reduced effort at all infection levels, whereas old males increased effort at the highest levels relative to naïve individuals. A lack of a corresponding decrease in antibacterial activity suggests that altered reproductive effort is not traded against investment in this component of immunity. Collectively, these results support the existence of a dynamic terminal investment threshold, perhaps accounting for some of the conflicting evidence in support of terminal investment. © 2018 The Author(s). Evolution © 2018 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  20. Physiological responding to stress in middle-aged males enriched for longevity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Steffy W M; van Heemst, Diana; van der Grond, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    Individuals enriched for familial longevity display a lower prevalence of age-related diseases, such as cardiovascular- and metabolic diseases. Since these diseases are associated with stress and increased cortisol levels, one of the underlying mechanisms that may contribute to healthy longevity...... might be a more adaptive response to stress. To investigate this, male middle-aged offspring from long-lived families (n = 31) and male non-offspring (with no familial history of longevity) (n = 26) were randomly allocated to the Trier Social Stress Test or a control condition in an experimental design......-offspring and showed a trend towards lower heart rate. Offspring from long-lived families might thus be less stressed prior to potentially stressful events and consequently show overall lower levels in physiological responses. Although attenuated physiological responding cannot be ruled out, lower starting points...

  1. Middle age has a significant impact on gene expression during skin wound healing in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanai, Hagai; Lumenta, David Benjamin; Vierlinger, Klemens; Hofner, Manuela; Kitzinger, Hugo-Benito; Kamolz, Lars-Peter; Nöhammer, Christa; Chilosi, Marco; Fraifeld, Vadim E

    2016-08-01

    The vast majority of research on the impact of age on skin wound healing (WH) compares old animals to young ones. The middle age is often ignored in biogerontological research despite the fact that many functions that decline in an age-dependent manner have starting points in mid-life. With this in mind, we examined gene expression patterns during skin WH in late middle-aged versus young adult male mice, using the head and back punch models. The rationale behind this study was that the impact of age would first be detectable at the transcriptional level. We pinpointed several pathways which were over-activated in the middle-aged mice, both in the intact skin and during WH. Among them were various metabolic, immune-inflammatory and growth-promoting pathways. These transcriptional changes were much more pronounced in the head than in the back. In summary, the middle age has a significant impact on gene expression in intact and healing skin. It seems that the head punch model is more sensitive to the effect of age than the back model, and we suggest that it should be more widely applied in aging research on wound healing.

  2. Influence of age of child on differences in life satisfaction of males and females

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamura, Eiji; Andrés, Antonio R.

    2015-01-01

    Using individual-level data for China, Korea, and Japan for 2006, this research examines how life satisfaction for married males and females in East Asian countries is influenced by the age of their children. Our results show (1) the life satisfaction of females who have a child younger than 12 years old is lower than that of females with no children. (2) The greater the marginal effect of child’s age on the life satisfaction, the more developed a nation’s economic condition.

  3. Long live the liver: immunohistochemical and stereological study of hepatocytes, liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, Kupffer cells and hepatic stellate cells of male and female rats throughout ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos, Ricardo; Correia-Gomes, Carla

    2016-12-01

    Male/female differences in enzyme activity and gene expression in the liver are known to be attenuated with ageing. Nevertheless, the effect of ageing on liver structure and quantitative cell morphology remains unknown. Male and female Wistar rats aged 2, 6, 12 and 18 months were examined by means of stereological techniques and immunohistochemical tagging of hepatocytes (HEP), liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSEC), Kupffer cells (KC) and hepatic stellate cells (HSC) in order to assess the total number and number per gram of these cells throughout life. The mean cell volume of HEP and HSC, the lobular position and the collagen content of the liver were also evaluated with stereological techniques. The number per gram of HSC was similar for both genders and was maintained throughout ageing. The mean volume of HSC was also conserved but differences in the cell body and lobular location were observed. Statistically significant gender differences in HEP were noted in young rats (females had smaller and more binucleated HEP) but were attenuated with ageing. The same occurred for KC and LSEC, since the higher number per gram in young females disappeared in older animals. Liver collagen increased with ageing but only in males. Thus, the numbers of these four cell types are related throughout ageing, with well-defined cell ratios. The shape and lobular position of HSC change with ageing in both males and females. Gender dimorphism in HEP, KC and LSEC of young rat liver disappears with ageing.

  4. The age of Male Karpaty Mts. granitoid rocks determined by Rb-Sr isochrone method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badgasaryan, G.P.; Gukasyan, R.Kh.; Veselsky, J.

    1982-01-01

    The results are presented of nuclear geochronological datings of Male Karpaty Mts. granitoids by Rb-Sr isochrone method. Using the method the age of Bratislava massif granitoids was established to be 347+-4 mil. y. at ( 87 Sr/ 86 Sr)=0.7076+-0.0013 and the age of Modra massif granitoids to be 324+-18 mil. y. at ( 87 Sr/ 86 Sr)=0.7075+-0.00032 (2σ). The relative agreement of age of both massifs as well as the agreement of the primary ratio ( 87 Sr/ 86 Sr) 0 not only testifies to their continuity in age but also in genesis. The same relations also confirm the genetic dependence of pegmatites and leucocratic granitoids on fundamental types of granitoids building up the Bratislava and Modra massifs. (author)

  5. Peak muscle mass in young men and sarcopenia in the ageing male

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Frost Munk; Nielsen, T L; Brixen, K

    2015-01-01

    of sarcopenia in men. INTRODUCTION: The ageing population increases the prevalence of sarcopenia. Estimation of normative data on muscle mass in young men during the peak of anabolic hormones is necessary for the diagnosis of sarcopenia in ageing males. The purposes of this study were to provide population......The prevalence of sarcopenia increases with age. The diagnosis of sarcopenia relies in part on normative data on muscle mass, but these data are lacking. This study provides population-based reference data on muscle mass in young men, and these results may be used clinically for the diagnosis......-based reference data on lean body mass (LBM) in young men during the time of peak levels of GH/IGF-1 and testosterone and further to apply the reference data on a population-based sample of men aged 60-74 years to estimate the prevalence of sarcopenia. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional, population-based single...

  6. Higher body mass, older age and higher monounsaturated fatty acids intake reflect better quantitative ultrasound parameters in Inuit preschoolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessy El Hayek

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Investigate the effects of selected factors associated with quantitative ultrasound parameters among Inuit preschoolers living in Arctic communities (56° 32′–72° 40′N. Materials and methods. Children were selected randomly in summer and early fall (n=296. Dietary intake was assessed through the administration of a 24-h dietary recall (24-h recall and a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. Anthropometry was measured using standardized procedures. Plasma 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OHD and parathyroid hormone (PTH were measured using a chemiluminescent assay (Liaison, Diasorin. Quantitative ultrasound parameters were measured using Sahara Sonometer, (Hologic Inc.. Results. Children divided by speed of sound (SoS and broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA quartiles were not different for age (years, sex (M/F, calcium (mg/d and vitamin D intake (µg/d and plasma 25(OHD concentration (nmol/L. However, children in the highest BUA and SoS quartile had higher body mass index (BMI compared to those in quartile 1. Using multivariate linear regression, higher BMI, older age and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA intake were predictors of BUA while only BMI was a predictor of SoS. Conclusions. Further investigation assessing intakes of traditional foods (TF and nutrients affecting bone parameters along with assessment of vitamin D status of Inuit children across seasons is required.

  7. Diversity of bacterial communities on the facial skin of different age-group Thai males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilantho, Alisa; Deekaew, Pamornya; Srisuttiyakorn, Chutika; Tongsima, Sissades; Somboonna, Naraporn

    2017-01-01

    Skin microbiome varies from person to person due to a combination of various factors, including age, biogeography, sex, cosmetics and genetics. Many skin disorders appear to be related to the resident microflora, yet databases of facial skin microbiome of many biogeographies, including Thai, are limited. Metagenomics derived B-RISA and 16S rRNA gene sequencing was utilized to identify the culture-independent bacterial diversity on Thai male faces (cheek and forehead areas). Skin samples were categorized (grouped) into (i) normal ( teenage.hea ) and (ii) acne-prone ( teenage.acn ) young adults, and normal (iii) middle-aged ( middle.hea ) and (iv) elderly ( elderly.hea ) adults. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing was successful as the sequencing depth had an estimated >98% genus coverage of the true community. The major diversity was found between the young and elderly adults in both cheek and forehead areas, followed by that between normal and acne young adults. Detection of representative characteristics indicated that bacteria from the order Rhizobiales, genera Sphingomonas and Pseudoalteromonas , distinguished the elderly.hea microbiota, along the clinical features of wrinkles and pores. Prediction of the metabolic potential revealed reduced metabolic pathways involved in replication and repair, nucleotide metabolism and genetic translation in the elderly.hea compared with that in the teenage.hea . For young adults, some unique compositions such as abundance of Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis , with a minor diversity between normal and acne skins, were detected. The metabolic potentials of the acne vs. normal young adults showed that teenage.acn was low in many cellular processes (e.g., cell motility and environmental adaptation), but high in carbohydrate metabolism, which could support acne growth. Moreover, comparison with the age-matched males from the US (Boulder, Colorado) to gain insight into the diversity across national biogeography

  8. Non-Poisson Dichotomous Noise: Higher-Order Correlation Functions and Aging

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Allegrini, Paolo; Grigolini, Paolo; Palatella, Luigi; West, Bruce J

    2004-01-01

    .... The transition of psi(tau) from the exponential to the nonexponential condition yields the breakdown of the usual factorization condition of higher-order correlation functions, as well as the birth of aging effects...

  9. Male Eating Disorder Symptom Patterns and Health Correlates From 13 to 26 Years of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzo, Jerel P.; Horton, Nicholas J.; Sonneville, Kendrin R.; Swanson, Sonja; Crosby, Ross D.; Micali, Nadia; Eddy, Kamryn T.; Field, Alison E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Research on the manifestations and health correlates of eating disorder symptoms among males is lacking. This study identified patterns of appearance concerns and eating disorder behaviors from adolescence through young adulthood and their health correlates. Method Participants were 7,067 males from the prospective Growing Up Today Study. Surveys from 1999–2007 (spanning ages 13–26 years) provided repeated measures data on: muscularity and leanness concerns; eating disorder behaviors (purging, overeating, binge eating, use of muscle-building products); and health correlates (obesity, non-marijuana drug use, binge drinking, and depressive symptoms). Results Latent class analyses of observations at ages 13–15, 16–18, 19–22, and 23–26 identified one large Asymptomatic class and four symptomatic patterns: Body Image Disturbance (high appearance concerns, low eating disorder behaviors; 1.0%–6.0% per age period); Binge Eating/Purging (binge eating and purging, use of muscle-building products, low appearance concerns; 0.1%–2.5%); Mostly Asymptomatic (low levels of muscularity concern, product use, and overeating; 3.5%–5.0%); and Muscularity Concerns (high muscularity concerns and use of products; 0.6%–1.0%). The Body Image Disturbance class was associated with high estimated prevalence of depressive symptoms. Males in the Binge Eating/Purging and Muscularity Concerns classes had high prevalence of binge drinking and drug use. Despite exhibiting modestly greater appearance concerns and eating disorder behaviors than the Asymptomatic class, being in the Mostly Asymptomatic class was prospectively associated with adverse health outcomes. Conclusion Results underscore the importance of measuring concerns about leanness, muscularity, and use of muscle-building products when assessing eating disorder presentations among males in research and clinical settings. PMID:27453083

  10. Maternal effects on male weaponry: female dung beetles produce major sons with longer horns when they perceive higher population density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buzatto Bruno A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal effects are environmental influences on the phenotype of one individual that are due to the expression of genes in its mother, and are expected to evolve whenever females are better capable of assessing the environmental conditions that their offspring will experience than the offspring themselves. In the dung beetle Onthophagus taurus, conditional male dimorphism is associated with alternative reproductive tactics: majors fight and guard females whereas minors sneak copulations. Furthermore, variation in dung beetle population density has different fitness consequences for each male morph, and theory predicts that higher population density might select for a higher frequency of minors and/or greater expenditure on weaponry in majors. Because adult dung beetles provide offspring with all the nutritional resources for their development, maternal effects strongly influence male phenotype. Results Here we tested whether female O. taurus are capable of perceiving population density, and responding by changing the phenotype of their offspring. We found that mothers who were reared with other conspecifics in their pre-mating period produced major offspring that had longer horns across a wider range of body sizes than the major offspring of females that were reared in isolation in their pre-mating period. Moreover, our results indicate that this maternal effect on male weaponry does not operate through the amount of dung provided by females to their offspring, but is rather transmitted through egg or brood mass composition. Finally, although theory predicts that females experiencing higher density might produce more minor males, we found no support for this, rather the best fitting models were equivocal as to whether fewer or the same proportions of minors were produced. Conclusions Our study describes a new type of maternal effect in dung beetles, which probably allows females to respond to population density adaptively

  11. Factors Associated with Overweight and Obesity among Kuwaiti Elementary Male School Children Aged 6–10 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulwahab Naser Al-Isa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Childhood obesity is becoming a global epidemic which may result in increased morbidity and mortality during young adulthood. Objectives. To identify factors associated with overweight and that of obesity among Kuwaiti elementary male school children aged 6–10 years. Methods. Weights and heights of 662 students at a randomly selected school were collected to obtain body mass index (BMI. Results. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among the students were 20.2% and 16.8%, respectively. There were a variety of factors associated with overweight and obesity; however, having one or more obese brother, an unemployed father, or a high (>11 number of persons living at home was significantly associated with higher risk of overweight and obesity. Increased age and school level as well as having a chronic disease were associated with the risk of overweight. Conclusion. Health education programs for families should be implemented to help control overweight and obesity in Kuwaiti children.

  12. A Content Analysis of Testosterone Websites: Sex, Muscle, and Male Age-Related Thematic Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Nicholas; Vuong, Jimmy; Gray, Peter B

    2018-03-01

    Male testosterone supplementation is a large and growing industry. How is testosterone marketed to male consumers online? The present exploratory study entailed a content coding analysis of the home pages of 49 websites focused on testosterone supplementation for men in the United States. Four hypotheses concerning anticipated age-related differences in content coding were also tested: more frequent longevity content toward older men, and more frequent social dominance/physical formidability, muscle, and sex content toward younger men. Codes were created based on inductive observations and drawing upon the medical, life history, and human behavioral endocrinology literatures. Approximately half ( n = 24) of websites were oriented toward younger men (estimated audience of men 40 years of age or younger) and half ( n = 25) toward older men (estimated audience over 40 years of age). Results indicated that the most frequent content codes concerned online sales (e.g., product and purchasing information). Apart from sales information, the most frequent codes concerned, in order, muscle, sex/sexual functioning, low T, energy, fat, strength, aging, and well-being, with all four hypotheses also supported. These findings are interpreted in the light of medical, evolutionary life history, and human behavioral endocrinology approaches.

  13. Pavlov's Position on Old Age within the Framework of the Theory of Higher Nervous Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windholz, George

    1995-01-01

    In later life, I. P. Pavlov incorporated his findings on aging into his theory of higher nervous activity. Some of the major findings showed that salivary conditioning and stimulus differentiation were difficult to establish in old dogs, but that conditioned reflexes established earlier in life persisted into old age. Pavlov hypothesized that…

  14. Will ageing lead to a higher real exchange rate for the Netherlands?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ewijk, C.; Volkerink, M.

    2012-01-01

    Long term projections for the Netherlands indicate that demand for nontradables—e.g. health care services—will increase relative to supply due to population ageing. If this leads to higher future real exchanges rates this will erode the return of the savings currently made to prepare for ageing.

  15. Will ageing lead to a higher real exchange rate for the Netherlands?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ewijk, C.; Volkerink, M.

    2011-01-01

    Long-term projections for the Netherlands indicate that demand for nontradables - e.g. health care services - will increase relative to supply due to population ageing. If this leads to higher future real exchanges rates this will erode the return of the savings currently made to prepare for ageing.

  16. Androgen-mediated development of irradiation-induced thyroid tumors in rats: dependence on animal age during interval of androgen replacement in castrated males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, C.; Oslapas, R.; Nayyar, R.; Paloyan, E.

    1986-01-01

    When male Long-Evans rats at age 8 weeks were radiation treated (40 microCi Na131I), thyroid follicular adenomas and carcinomas were observed at age 24 months with a high incidence of 94%. Castration of males prior to irradiation significantly reduced this tumor incidence to 60%. When testosterone (T) was replaced in castrated, irradiated male rats, differentially increased incidences of thyroid tumors occurred. Immediate (age 2-6 mo) or early (age 6-12 mo) T replacement at approximate physiologic levels led to thyroid follicular tumor incidences of 100 and 82%, respectively, whereas intermediate (12-18 mo) or late (18-24 mo) T treatment led to only 70 and 73% incidences, respectively. Continuous T replacement (2-24 mo) in castrated irradiated male rats raised thyroid tumor incidence to 100%. Since elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) is a reported requisite for development of radiation-associated thyroid tumors, the effects of T on serum TSH levels were examined. Mean serum TSH values in all irradiated animal groups were significantly elevated above age-matched nonirradiated animals at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Serum TSH levels were higher in continuous T-replaced irradiated castrates than in intact, irradiated males, whereas such intact male TSH levels were greater than those for irradiated castrates without T treatment. Interval T replacement in castrated male rats was associated with increased serum TSH levels during the treatment interval and with lowered TSH levels after discontinuation of T treatment, particularly in irradiated rats. However, when irradiated, castrated males received late T replacement (age 18-24 mo), there was no elevation of TSH at the end of the treatment interval. An indirect effect of T via early stimulation of TSH may be partly responsible for the high incidence of irradiation-induced thyroid tumors in rats

  17. THE EFFECT OF IN VITRO SEMEN STORAGE TEMPERATURE AND AGE OF MALES ON SPERMATOZOA MOTILITY PARAMETERS OF TURKEYS SEMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Paluch

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This work was to evaluate the effect of in vitro storage temperature and age of males on turkey spermatozoa motility. For this purpose samples were collected from British United Turkeys (BUT Big 6 line and semen quality was assessed by using Computer Assisted Semen Analyzer (CASA system. After 60 minutes of storage spermatozoa motility, progressive motility and amplitude of lateral head displacement decreased significantly both in 4° and 41°C regardless of birds age. However the lowest values of all parameters were noted after storage in thermostat. Spermatozoa motility after 0 and 60 minutes in 4°C was higher in samples collected from turkeys of 35 – 42 weeks of age (60.94% and 53.33% respectively. Whereas the value of that parameter in semen stored in 41°C was lower in that age group. The same tendency was found in progressive motility. The results showed that higher temperature of in vitro storage (even that similar to animal body temperature, in this case 41ºC has more negative effect on spermatozoa motility parameters than lower temperature.

  18. GROSS MORPHOLOGY AND ENCEPHALIZATION QUOTIENT OF BRAIN IN MALE AND FEMALE VANARAJA CHICKENS AT DIFFERENT AGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuldeep Kumar Panigrahy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available One hundred fifty day-old sexed Vanaraja chicks (75 male + 75 female were taken as experimental birds. Dissection of cranium was performed carefully and study of gross morphology of brain was undertaken at different ages in male and female birds. The brain in situ appeared like a ‘spade’ symbol in playing card but it appeared rather wider and globular in both sexes. The cerebrum varied from pear to oval or even globular in shape in both sexes. On dorsal view, the cerebral hemispheres appeared moderately convex and smooth surfaced. On ventral surface, ill-developed olfactory lobes were observed anteriorly on either side of the median fissure in both male and female Vanaraja birds. The hippocampus was located transversely to the posterior one third parts of both cerebral hemispheres. Duncan’s EQ ranged from 5.801 ± 0.514 (T3-Male to 5.944 ± 0.451 (T1-Female on 21st day. There was significant decrease (p<0.05 in EQ from Day 21 to 42 across all the groups. On 84th day, the range of EQ was 1.346 ± 0.115 (T3-Male to 1.444 ± 0.114 (T1-Female. In case of Cuvier’s EQ, on 21st day the value ranged from 35.079 ± 0.288 (T2-Male to 36.531 ± 0.312 (T3-Female. There was significant reduction (p<0.05 in Cuvier’s EQ value from Trial-I (21st day to Trial-II (42nd day. Again, a significant decrease in EQ value was evident from Trial-III (63rd Day to Trial-IV (84th Day. On 84th day, the EQ ranged from 15.607 ± 0.123 (T3-Male to 16.038c ± 0.125 (T2-Male. Duncan’s formula had very high correlation coefficient with brain length (0.915. There was also very high degree correlation between brain weight and body weight (0.963. Brain weight and neuronal size are also highly correlated (0.902. Neuronal size and brain volume are also having a high correlation (0.902. The EQ values had medium correlation with neuronal size (0.701 for Cuvier’s Formula and 0.713 for Duncan’s formula. Duncan’s and Cuvier’s value had a very high degree of correlation

  19. [Age-related aspects of male rats sexual behavior with different senescence rates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amstislavskaia, T G; Gladkikh, D V; Belousova, I I; Maslova, L N; Kolosova, N G

    2010-01-01

    Social and sexual behavior of males Wistar and senescence-accelerated OXYS rats was studied. The experimental model excluding direct interaction between partners showed that the exploratory activity decreased with aging in rats of both strains, but social motivation didn't change. No interstrain differences in intensity of sexual motivation in the presence of an inaccessible receptive female were observed in 4-month rats. The level of sexual motivation of 12-month Wistar rats didn't differ from that of 4-month animals. However, in 12-month OXYS males, sexual motivation was decreased as compared to both 4- and 12-month Wistar rats. The same regularities were found under conditions of direct interaction with a partner. Behavioral changes in 12-month OXYS rats were considered as genetically determinate abnormality at the initial stage of sexual behavior, i.e., sexual motivation. The results suggest the accelerated senescence of the reproductive system of OXYS rats.

  20. Short and fast vs long and slow: age changes courtship in male orb-web spiders ( Argiope keyserlingi)

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hanlon, James C.; Wignall, Anne E.; Herberstein, Marie E.

    2018-02-01

    Male reproductive performance can vary with condition, age and future reproductive opportunities. Web-building spiders are ideal models to examine the effects of senescence on fitness-related behaviours due to strong selection on male courtship to reduce pre-copulatory sexual cannibalism. Argiope keyserlingi spiders generate courtship vibrations, or `shudders', that reduce female aggression. We found that male A. keyserlingi courtship slowed with chronological age. Older males took longer to travel across the courtship thread, and overall number of shudders increased. Males retained some ability to modulate courtship quality (shudder duration and number of rocks within each shudder) in response to female quality. A change in courtship performance over time, despite strong selection for repeatability, indicates that ageing in male A. keyserlingi may have direct impacts on reproductive performance.

  1. The effect of skin surface topography and skin colouration cues on perception of male facial age, health and attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, B; Matts, P J; Brauckmann, C; Gundlach, S

    2018-04-01

    Previous studies investigating the effects of skin surface topography and colouration cues on the perception of female faces reported a differential weighting for the perception of skin topography and colour evenness, where topography was a stronger visual cue for the perception of age, whereas skin colour evenness was a stronger visual cue for the perception of health. We extend these findings in a study of the effect of skin surface topography and colour evenness cues on the perceptions of facial age, health and attractiveness in males. Facial images of six men (aged 40 to 70 years), selected for co-expression of lines/wrinkles and discolouration, were manipulated digitally to create eight stimuli, namely, separate removal of these two features (a) on the forehead, (b) in the periorbital area, (c) on the cheeks and (d) across the entire face. Omnibus (within-face) pairwise combinations, including the original (unmodified) face, were presented to a total of 240 male and female judges, who selected the face they considered younger, healthier and more attractive. Significant effects were detected for facial image choice, in response to skin feature manipulation. The combined removal of skin surface topography resulted in younger age perception compared with that seen with the removal of skin colouration cues, whereas the opposite pattern was found for health preference. No difference was detected for the perception of attractiveness. These perceptual effects were seen particularly on the forehead and cheeks. Removing skin topography cues (but not discolouration) in the periorbital area resulted in higher preferences for all three attributes. Skin surface topography and colouration cues affect the perception of age, health and attractiveness in men's faces. The combined removal of these features on the forehead, cheeks and in the periorbital area results in the most positive assessments. © 2018 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  2. Effects of Forest Bathing on Cardiovascular and Metabolic Parameters in Middle-Aged Males

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Qing; Kobayashi, Maiko; Kumeda, Shigeyoshi; Ochiai, Toshiya; Miura, Takashi; Kagawa, Takahide; Imai, Michiko; Wang, Zhiyu; Otsuka, Toshiaki; Kawada, Tomoyuki

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effects of a forest bathing on cardiovascular and metabolic parameters. Nineteen middle-aged male subjects were selected after they provided informed consent. These subjects took day trips to a forest park in Agematsu, Nagano Prefecture, and to an urban area of Nagano Prefecture as control in August 2015. On both trips, they walked 2.6 km for 80 min each in the morning and afternoon on Saturdays. Blood and urine were sampled before and after each trip...

  3. [Age changes of immunological, morphological and biochemical indices of male reproductive system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boĭko, O V; Akhmineeva, A Kh; Gudinskaia, N I; Boĭko, V I; Kozak, D M

    2014-01-01

    The article analyzes the dependence of bactericidal activity of sperm--natural resistance factors controlling the survival of bacteria in the urogenital tract, on the age of men. These data are compared with the results of the standard (on the recommendations of the WHO) spermogram, reflecting reproductive health. Due to the fact that one of the main etiological agents of infectious disease groups in the male reproductive system in adulthood are Staphylococcus spp., we consider the level of bactericidal activity of sperm in resident and transient carriage of S. aureus and S. epidermidis.

  4. Cross-sectional relationships of exercise and age to adiposity in60,617 male runners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Paul T.; Pate, Russell R.

    2004-06-01

    The objective of this report is to assess in men whether exercise affects the estimated age-related increase in adiposity, and contrariwise, whether age affects the estimated exercise-related decrease in adiposity. Cross-sectional analyses of 64,911 male runners who provided data on their body mass index (97.6 percent), waist (91.1 percent), hip (47.1 percent), and chest circumferences (77.9 percent). Between 18 to 55 years old, the decline in BMI with weekly distance run (slope+-SE) was significantly greater in men 25-55 years old (slope+-:-0.036+-0.001 kg/m2 per km/wk) than in younger men (-0.020+-0.002 kg/m 2 per km/wk). Declines in waist circumference with running distance were also significantly greater in older than younger men (P<10-9 for trend),i.e., the slopes decreased progressively from -0.035+-0.004 cm per km/wk in 18-25 year old men to -0.097+-0.003 cm per km/wk in 50-55 year old men. Increases in BMI with age were greater for men who ran under 16km/wk than for longer distance runners. Waist circumference increased with age at all running levels, but the increase appeared to diminish by running further (0.259+-0.015 cm per year if running<8 km/wk and 0.154+-0.003 cm per year for>16 km/wk). In men over 50 years old, BMI declined -0.038+-0.001 kg/m2 per km/wk run when adjusted for age and declined -0.054+-0.003 kg/m2 (increased 0.021+-0.007 cm) per year of age when adjusted for running distance. Their waist circumference declined-0.096+-0.002 cm per km/wk run when adjusted for age and increased 0.021+-0.007 cm per year of age when adjusted for running distance. These cross-sectional data suggest that age and vigorous exercise interact with each other in affecting mens adiposity, and support the proposition that vigorous physical activity must increase with age to prevent middle-age weight gain. We estimate that a man who ran 16 km/wk at age 25 would need to increase their weekly running distance by 65.7 km/wk by age 50 in order to maintain his same waist

  5. Hypogonadism in the Aging Male Diagnosis, Potential Benefits, and Risks of Testosterone Replacement Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanth N. Surampudi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypogonadism in older men is a syndrome characterized by low serum testosterone levels and clinical symptoms often seen in hypogonadal men of younger age. These symptoms include decreased libido, erectile dysfunction, decreased vitality, decreased muscle mass, increased adiposity, depressed mood, osteopenia, and osteoporosis. Hypogonadism is a common disorder in aging men with a significant percentage of men over 60 years of age having serum testosterone levels below the lower limits of young male adults. There are a variety of testosterone formulations available for treatment of hypogonadism. Data from many small studies indicate that testosterone therapy offers several potential benefits to older hypogonadal men. A large multicenter NIH supported double blind, placebo controlled study is ongoing, and this study should greatly enhance the information available on efficacy and side effects of treatment. While safety data is available across many age groups, there are still unresolved concerns associated with testosterone therapy. We have reviewed the diagnostic methods as well as benefits and risks of testosterone replacement therapy for hypogonadism in aging men.

  6. Hypogonadism in the Aging Male Diagnosis, Potential Benefits, and Risks of Testosterone Replacement Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surampudi, Prasanth N.; Wang, Christina; Swerdloff, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Hypogonadism in older men is a syndrome characterized by low serum testosterone levels and clinical symptoms often seen in hypogonadal men of younger age. These symptoms include decreased libido, erectile dysfunction, decreased vitality, decreased muscle mass, increased adiposity, depressed mood, osteopenia, and osteoporosis. Hypogonadism is a common disorder in aging men with a significant percentage of men over 60 years of age having serum testosterone levels below the lower limits of young male adults. There are a variety of testosterone formulations available for treatment of hypogonadism. Data from many small studies indicate that testosterone therapy offers several potential benefits to older hypogonadal men. A large multicenter NIH supported double blind, placebo controlled study is ongoing, and this study should greatly enhance the information available on efficacy and side effects of treatment. While safety data is available across many age groups, there are still unresolved concerns associated with testosterone therapy. We have reviewed the diagnostic methods as well as benefits and risks of testosterone replacement therapy for hypogonadism in aging men. PMID:22505891

  7. Metabolic Profiling Reveals Effects of Age, Sexual Development and Neutering in Plasma of Young Male Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaway, David; Gilham, Matthew S; Colyer, Alison; Jönsson, Thomas J; Swanson, Kelly S; Morris, Penelope J

    2016-01-01

    Neutering is a significant risk factor for obesity in cats. The mechanisms that promote neuter-associated weight gain are not well understood but following neutering, acute changes in energy expenditure and energy consumption have been observed. Metabolic profiling (GC-MS and UHPLC-MS-MS) was used in a longitudinal study to identify changes associated with age, sexual development and neutering in male cats fed a nutritionally-complete dry diet to maintain an ideal body condition score. At eight time points, between 19 and 52 weeks of age, fasted blood samples were taken from kittens neutered at either 19 weeks of age (Early Neuter (EN), n = 8) or at 31 weeks of age (Conventional Neuter (CN), n = 7). Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to compare plasma metabolites (n = 370) from EN and CN cats. Age was the primary driver of variance in the plasma metabolome, including a developmental change independent of neuter group between 19 and 21 weeks in lysolipids and fatty acid amides. Changes associated with sexual development and its subsequent loss were also observed, with differences at some time points observed between EN and CN cats for 45 metabolites (FDR pcats was the most significantly altered pathway, increasing during sexual development and decreasing acutely following neutering. Felinine is a testosterone-regulated, felid-specific glutathione derivative secreted in urine. Alterations in tryptophan, histidine and tocopherol metabolism observed in peripubertal cats may be to support physiological functions of glutathione following diversion of S-amino acids for urinary felinine secretion.

  8. Age-related and 224Ra-induced abnormalities in the teeth of male mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphreys, E.R.; Stones, V.A.

    1985-01-01

    A high incidence of incisor abnormalities was found in aged control and aged 224 Ra-treated male CBA mice. Visual examination of the abnormalities in both controls and treated mice revealed extreme shortening of the upper incisors and hypoplastic, grooved or undulating enamel. The administration of 865 or 1730 nCi of 224 Ra hastened the onset of incisor abnormalities although no specific feature was attributable solely to radium toxicity. Radiography and histology revealed corrugated incisors, obliteration of the pulp cavity, extension and disorganized growth of incisors basally, secondary incisors, open pulp and fractures within the alveoli. There was a statistically-significant reduction in the number of molars present in animals given 432, 865 or 1730 nCi 224 Ra. (author)

  9. Analysis of two-dimensional elemental maps in adult and middle-aged female and male Wistar rats by X-ray microfluorescence with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa, R.F.; Anjos, M.J.; Jesus, E.F.O. de; Lopes, R.T.; Oliveira, L.F. de; Carmo, M.G.T. do; Rocha, M.S.; Martinez, A.M.B.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: There are few methods available to measure the spatial (two (three)-dimensional) elemental distribution in animal brain. X-Ray Microfluorescence with Synchrotron Radiation is a multielemental mapping technique, which was used in this work to determine the two-dimensional maps of phosphorous (P), chlorine (Cl), potassium (K), iron (Fe), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) in coronal sections of adult (60 days old) and middle aged (20 months old) female (n = 4) and male (n = 4) Wistar rats. The measurements were carried out at the XRF beam line at the Synchrotron Light National Laboratory (Campinas, Brazil). A two-dimensional scanning was performed in order to study the tendency of elemental concentration variation and the elemental distribution. The acquisition time for each pixel was 10 s/step and the step size was 300 μm/step in both directions. It was observed that P levels decreased with advancing age in female rats, but, on the other hand, these levels increased with advancing age in male rats. K, Fe and Cu levels increased in female and male middle-aged rats in the same ways as P and Cl levels (only in male animals). In addition to this, Fe levels were higher in females rats than males ones. However, in relation to P and K distributions, they were homogeneous in the entire brain section, independently of the gender and age. Cl distribution was more pronounced in cortical areas, hippocampus and thalamus for all the animals studied, except for the middle-aged female rats. Fe distribution was more conspicuous in the thalamus, hypothalamus and cortical area. Moreover, Zn distributions are in good concern with the results reported by the literature, being more intense in the hippocampus. Our results showed that an increase of Fe, Cu and Zn with aging can be related to the development of some neurodegenerative disorders, since the literature reports an increase of these elements in Parkinson disease, Alzheimer disease and Wilson Disease. Therefore, we can see that

  10. An Inverse Relative Age Effect in Male Alpine Skiers at the Absolute Top Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerke, Øyvind; Pedersen, Arve Vorland; Aune, Tore K; Lorås, Håvard

    2017-01-01

    The Relative Age Effect (RAE) can be described as the advantage of being born early after a certain cut-off date within a group of selection. The effect has been found across a wide range of sports and is particularly evident in pre-elite sports and team sports with a high selection pressure. At the absolute top level in team elite sports, the advantage of being relatively older has been reported to disappear, and even reverse, so that the relatively younger athletes are advantaged. In order to further examine such a reversal of the RAE, we investigated the performance of the overall top 50 skiers each year in the alpine World Cup, over a period of 20 years, among men ( N = 234) and women ( N = 235). The data indicated that the relatively younger male athletes at the absolute top level had accumulated, on average, more World Cup points compared to the relatively older skiers. No such effect was observed among the female skiers. This finding suggest the existence of a reversed relative age effect in male elite alpine skiing.

  11. An Inverse Relative Age Effect in Male Alpine Skiers at the Absolute Top Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øyvind Bjerke

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Relative Age Effect (RAE can be described as the advantage of being born early after a certain cut-off date within a group of selection. The effect has been found across a wide range of sports and is particularly evident in pre-elite sports and team sports with a high selection pressure. At the absolute top level in team elite sports, the advantage of being relatively older has been reported to disappear, and even reverse, so that the relatively younger athletes are advantaged. In order to further examine such a reversal of the RAE, we investigated the performance of the overall top 50 skiers each year in the alpine World Cup, over a period of 20 years, among men (N = 234 and women (N = 235. The data indicated that the relatively younger male athletes at the absolute top level had accumulated, on average, more World Cup points compared to the relatively older skiers. No such effect was observed among the female skiers. This finding suggest the existence of a reversed relative age effect in male elite alpine skiing.

  12. Natural course of hypogonadism diagnosed during hospitalization in aged male patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, P; Prado, F; Muñoz, A; Guerrero, M T; Macías, M C; Ridruejo, E; Tajada, P; García-Arévalo, C; Díez, J J

    2015-04-01

    Our aim was to assess short-term natural course of hypogonadism diagnosed during hospitalization for acute disease in aged male patients after discharge. A group of 43 hypogonadal males, aged 86.7±5.7 year, was studied. Serum concentrations of testosterone (T) and gonadotropins (follicle-stimulating hormone, FSH, and luteinizing hormone, LH) were measured in every patient both at admission and one month after discharge. Mean serum T at entry was 115.4±48.0 ng/dl. Hypogonadism was hyper-, hypo-, and normogonadotropic in 20 (46.5%), 20 (46.5%), and 3 (7.0%) patients, respectively. One month after discharge serum T concentrations increased significantly (230.9±135.6 ng/dl, phypogonadism (n=16, 32.7%; 82.8±51.6 ng/dl, phypogonadism discovered during hospitalization spontaneously normalize their serum T concentrations one month after discharge. Serum gonadotropin concentrations also increased after discharge. Serum T levels at admission was an independent predictor for the normalization of serum T concentrations.

  13. Gestational diabetes mellitus results in a higher prevalence of small for gestational age babies

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Avalos, G

    2011-09-01

    Background and aims: Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) is associated with increased foetal and maternal morbidity and mortality. Previous studies have shown that babies of diabetic mothers are more likely to be large for gestational age (LGA). This retrospective study aimed to assess whether the converse may also be true, that there may also a higher rate of small for gestational age (SGA) amongst babies of mothers with GDM.\\r\

  14. Effects of velvet antler polypeptide on sexual behavior and testosterone synthesis in aging male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Zhi-Jun; Tang, Hong-Feng; Tuo, Ying; Xing, Wei-Jie; Ji, Su-Yun; Gao, Yong; Deng, Chun-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Twenty-four-month-old male C57BL/6 mice with low serum testosterone levels were used as a late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) animal model for examining the effects of velvet antler polypeptide (VAP) on sexual function and testosterone synthesis. These mice received VAP for 5 consecutive weeks by daily gavage at doses of 100, 200, or 300 mg kg-1 body weight per day (n = 10 mice per dose). Control animals (n = 10) received the same weight-based volume of vehicle. Sexual behavior and testosterone levels in serum and interstitial tissue of testis were measured after the last administration of VAP. Furthermore, to investigate the mechanisms of how VAP affects sexual behavior and testosterone synthesis in vivo, the expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), cytochrome P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) in Leydig cells was also measured by immunofluorescence staining and quantitative real-time PCR. As a result, VAP produced a significant improvement in the sexual function of these aging male mice. Serum testosterone level and intratesticular testosterone (ITT) concentration also increased in the VAP-treated groups. The expression of StAR, P450scc, and 3β-HSD was also found to be enhanced in the VAP-treated groups compared with the control group. Our results suggested that VAP was effective in improving sexual function in aging male mice. The effect of velvet antler on sexual function was due to the increased expression of several rate-limiting enzymes of testosterone synthesis (StAR, P450scc, and 3β-HSD) and the following promotion of testosterone synthesis in vivo.

  15. Sociocultural Factors of Survival of Males and Females in Economically Active Age: a Regional Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniya Khasanovna Tukhtarova

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The period, when a person starts and completes his or her professional carrier and labour participation, in general, coincides with the age when the self-preservation behaviour develops. It is a time when a person aims for a healthy and safe lifestyle. During this period, an individual assumes the main standards, values of the self-preservation behaviour inherent in an ethnic, social and cultural macro-environment. To research the sociocultural factors of survival, we applied econometric modelling to demographic processes using the discrete and probabilistic indicators of the mortality tables of male and female in economically active age. The econometric model included the elements of spatiotemporal characteristics of territories. These characteristics are interrelated with the indicators of survival probability and the indicator of average life expectancy in the regions of Russia. We choose the major sociocultural factors by the correlation ratio of indicators and their sensitivity. The econometric analysis has revealed a high degree of sensitivity of a territorial variation of demographic and sociocultural factors in the regions of Russia, including a gender aspect. The most significant socio-economic factors, which determine the self-preservation behaviour of males, are the following: 1 the size of Gross Regional Product per capita; 2 quality of health infrastructure; 3 fixed investments; 4 population with monetary income under the subsistence minimum (share coefficient of income differentials. The female have the same hierarchy of socio-economic factors, except for the sensitivity of variables to the regional differentiation of signs. The household poverty factor has little significance for the women and it is the main difference between male and female. The built model has shown the predictive importance in the assessment of the above-mentioned factors in short and medium-term prospects.

  16. Convergence in male and female life expectancy: Direction, age pattern, and causes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Seligman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The cornerstone of mortality- and life-expectancy forecasting in developed nations, the Lee-Carter model relies on assumptions of there being a dominant singular value that captures most of the variance within a matrix of age-specific mortality rates over time and that the time trend captured by this lead singular value is constant. We revisit the model's predictive ability and trends in mortality decline among developed nations since the end of the Cold War. Objective: To understand the predictive power of the Lee-Carter model with mortality trends since 1990. Methods: Mortality data were obtained from the Human Mortality Database. Forecasts were made using R with random walk forecasts using the package forecast. Results: While Lee-Carter forecasts of life expectancy for combined sexes were accurate, sex-specific forecasts tended to somewhat overestimate for females and significantly underestimate for males. Further investigation of the trend for males shows that the first singular value continues to capture the majority of the variation in mortality since 1990, with progress along this dimension moving at a constant rate. Conclusions: Lee-Carter forecasts have significantly underestimated gains inmale life expectancy without major changes to the model's assumptions. We believe this represents more rapid progress in tackling male mortality in the G7 countries without major changes to the age pattern of these gains. Curiously, this has not affected combined-sex forecasts, potentially being offset by slight overestimation of female mortality progress. Contribution: We show that the Lee-Carter model has made inaccurate forecasts of mortality rates unrelated to violations of its underlying assumptions.

  17. Diversity of bacterial communities on the facial skin of different age-group Thai males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisa Wilantho

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Skin microbiome varies from person to person due to a combination of various factors, including age, biogeography, sex, cosmetics and genetics. Many skin disorders appear to be related to the resident microflora, yet databases of facial skin microbiome of many biogeographies, including Thai, are limited. Methods Metagenomics derived B-RISA and 16S rRNA gene sequencing was utilized to identify the culture-independent bacterial diversity on Thai male faces (cheek and forehead areas. Skin samples were categorized (grouped into (i normal (teenage.hea and (ii acne-prone (teenage.acn young adults, and normal (iii middle-aged (middle.hea and (iv elderly (elderly.hea adults. Results The 16S rRNA gene sequencing was successful as the sequencing depth had an estimated >98% genus coverage of the true community. The major diversity was found between the young and elderly adults in both cheek and forehead areas, followed by that between normal and acne young adults. Detection of representative characteristics indicated that bacteria from the order Rhizobiales, genera Sphingomonas and Pseudoalteromonas, distinguished the elderly.hea microbiota, along the clinical features of wrinkles and pores. Prediction of the metabolic potential revealed reduced metabolic pathways involved in replication and repair, nucleotide metabolism and genetic translation in the elderly.hea compared with that in the teenage.hea. For young adults, some unique compositions such as abundance of Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis, with a minor diversity between normal and acne skins, were detected. The metabolic potentials of the acne vs. normal young adults showed that teenage.acn was low in many cellular processes (e.g., cell motility and environmental adaptation, but high in carbohydrate metabolism, which could support acne growth. Moreover, comparison with the age-matched males from the US (Boulder, Colorado to gain insight into the diversity across

  18. Age-Related Changes in Children's Hedonic Response to Male Body Odor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Richard J.; Repacholi, Betty M.

    2003-01-01

    Examined children's and adolescents' ability to identify male sweat and other odors and their rating of odors for liking. Found that only female adolescents could identify and disliked male sweat. When cued about odor identity, both male and female adolescents disliked male sweat more than children. Concluded that dislike for male sweat odor may…

  19. Meta-analysis of paternal age and schizophrenia risk in male versus female offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Brian; Messias, Erick; Miettunen, Jouko; Alaräisänen, Antti; Järvelin, Marjo-Riita; Koponen, Hannu; Räsänen, Pirkko; Isohanni, Matti; Kirkpatrick, Brian

    2011-09-01

    Advanced paternal age (APA) is a reported risk factor for schizophrenia in the offspring. We performed a meta-analysis of this association, considering the effect of gender and study design. We identified articles by searching Pub Med, PsychInfo, ISI, and EMBASE, and the reference lists of identified studies. Previously unpublished data from the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort (NFBC 1966) study were also included. There were 6 cohort studies and 6 case-control studies that met the inclusion criteria. In both study designs, there was a significant increase in risk of schizophrenia in the offspring of older fathers (≥30) compared to a reference paternal age of 25-29, with no gender differences. The relative risk (RR) in the oldest fathers (≥50) was 1.66 [95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.46-1.89, P APA (≥30) and younger paternal age (<25) increase the risk of schizophrenia; younger paternal age may be associated with an increased risk in males but not females. This risk factor increases the risk of schizophrenia as much as any single candidate gene of risk. The mechanism of these associations is not known and may differ for older and younger fathers.

  20. Age-Related Decrease in Stress Responsiveness and Proactive Coping in Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hee-Jin; Song, Minah; Kim, Young Ki; Bae, Jae Ryong; Cha, Seung-Yun; Bae, Ji Young; Kim, Yeongmin; You, Minsu; Lee, Younpyo; Shim, Jieun; Maeng, Sungho

    2018-01-01

    Coping is a strategic approach to dealing with stressful situations. Those who use proactive coping strategies tend to accept changes and act before changes are expected. In contrast, those who use reactive coping are less flexible and more likely to act in response to changes. However, little research has assessed how coping style changes with age. This study investigated age-related changes in coping strategies and stress responsiveness and the influence of age on the processing of conditioned fear memory in 2-, 12- and 23-month-old male mice. Coping strategy was measured by comparing the escape latency in an active avoidance test and by comparing responses to a shock prod. The results showed that proactivity in coping response gradually decreased with age. Stress responsiveness, measured by stress-induced concentration of corticosterone, was also highest in 2-month-old mice and decreased with age. Consolidation of fear memory was highest in 12-month-old mice and was negatively correlated with the degree of stress responsiveness and proactivity in coping. Fear extinction did not differ among age groups and was not correlated with stress responsiveness or the proactivity of coping. However, the maintenance of extinct fear memory, which was best in 2-month-old mice and worst in 12-month-old mice, was negatively correlated with stress responsiveness but not with coping style. Age-dependent changes in the expression of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and its regulatory co-chaperones, which are accepted mechanisms for stress hormone stimulation, were measured in the hippocampus. The expression of GR was increased at 12 months compared to other age groups. There were no differences in Hsp70 and BAG1 expression by age. These results can be summarized as follows: (1) stress responsiveness and proactivity in coping decreased with age class; (2) consolidation of fear memory was negatively correlated with both stress responsiveness and proactivity; however, maintenance of

  1. Aging differentially affects male and female neural stem cell neurogenic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Waldron

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Jay Waldron1, Althea McCourty1, Laurent Lecanu1,21The Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Canada; 2Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, CanadaPurpose: Neural stem cell transplantation as a brain repair strategy is a very promising technology. However, despite many attempts, the clinical success remains very deceiving. Despite clear evidence that sexual dimorphism rules many aspects of human biology, the occurrence of a sex difference in neural stem cell biology is largely understudied. Herein, we propose to determine whether gender is a dimension that drives the fate of neural stem cells through aging. Should it occur, we believe that neural stem cell sexual dimorphism and its variation during aging should be taken into account to refine clinical approaches of brain repair strategies.Methods: Neural stem cells were isolated from the subventricular zone of three- and 20-month-old male and female Long-Evans rats. Expression of the estrogen receptors, ERα and ERβ, progesterone receptor, androgen receptor, and glucocorticoid receptor was analyzed and quantified by Western blotting on undifferentiated neural stem cells. A second set of neural stem cells was treated with retinoic acid to trigger differentiation, and the expression of neuronal, astroglial, and oligodendroglial markers was determined using Western blotting.Conclusion: We provided in vitro evidence that the fate of neural stem cells is affected by sex and aging. Indeed, young male neural stem cells mainly expressed markers of neuronal and oligodendroglial fate, whereas young female neural stem cells underwent differentiation towards an astroglial phenotype. Aging resulted in a lessened capacity to express neuron and astrocyte markers. Undifferentiated neural stem cells displayed sexual dimorphism in the expression of steroid receptors, in particular ERα and ERβ, and the expression level of several steroid receptors increased

  2. The total workload of male and female white collar workers as related to age, occupational level, and number of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, U; Mårdberg, B; Frankenhaeuser, M

    1994-12-01

    A questionnaire assessing various aspects of paid as well as unpaid forms of productive activity was mailed to stratified samples of male and female white collar workers, approximately matched for educational and occupational level. Data from 501 men and 679 women employed full time revealed traditional gender differences in terms of main responsibility for household duties, child care etc. In keeping with this, women reported higher levels of work overload, stress and conflict than men, which increased significantly with the number of children at home. The various stress indices reached a peak between the ages of 35 and 39. Men reported more autonomy in their paid work whereas women reported more control at home. Men and women at the upper managerial levels reported more control over their total work situation and less conflict between demands.

  3. The Effects of Vocal Register Use and Age on the Perceived Vocal Health of Male Elementary Music Teachers

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    Fisher, Ryan A.; Scott, Julie K.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of vocal register use and age on the perceived vocal health of male elementary music teachers. Participants (N = 160) consisted of male elementary music teachers from two neighboring states in the south-central region of the United States. Participants responded to various demographic questions…

  4. Argyrophil cell density in the oxyntic mucosa is higher in female than in male morbidly obese patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maksud, F.A.N.; Kakehasi, A.M.; Barbosa, A.J.A.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a multifactorial disorder often associated with many important diseases such as diabetes, hypertension and other metabolic syndrome conditions. Argyrophil cells represent almost the total population of endocrine cells of the human gastric mucosa and some reports have described changes of specific types of these cells in patients with obesity and metabolic syndrome. The present study was designed to evaluate the global population of argyrophil cells of the gastric mucosa of morbidly obese and dyspeptic non-obese patients. Gastric biopsies of antropyloric and oxyntic mucosa were obtained from 50 morbidly obese patients (BMI >40) and 50 non-obese patients (17 dyspeptic overweight and 33 lean individuals) and processed for histology and Grimelius staining for argyrophil cell demonstration. Argyrophil cell density in the oxyntic mucosa of morbidly obese patients was higher in female (238.68 ± 83.71 cells/mm 2 ) than in male patients (179.31 ± 85.96 cells/mm 2 ) and also higher in female (214.20 ± 50.38 cells/mm 2 ) than in male (141.90 ± 61.22 cells/mm 2 ) morbidly obese patients with metabolic syndrome (P = 0.01 and P = 0.02, respectively). In antropyloric mucosa, the main difference in argyrophil cell density was observed between female morbidly obese patients with (167.00 ± 69.30 cells/mm 2 ) and without (234.00 ± 69.54 cells/mm 2 ) metabolic syndrome (P = 0.001). In conclusion, the present results show that the number of gastric argyrophil cells could be under gender influence in patients with morbid obesity. In addition, gastric argyrophil cells seem to behave differently among female morbidly obese patients with and without metabolic syndrome

  5. Argyrophil cell density in the oxyntic mucosa is higher in female than in male morbidly obese patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maksud, F.A.N. [Laboratório de Patologia Digestiva e Neuroendócrina, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil); Kakehasi, A.M. [Laboratório de Patologia Digestiva e Neuroendócrina, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Barbosa, A.J.A. [Laboratório de Patologia Digestiva e Neuroendócrina, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Instituto Alfa de Gastroenterologia, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-04-05

    Obesity is a multifactorial disorder often associated with many important diseases such as diabetes, hypertension and other metabolic syndrome conditions. Argyrophil cells represent almost the total population of endocrine cells of the human gastric mucosa and some reports have described changes of specific types of these cells in patients with obesity and metabolic syndrome. The present study was designed to evaluate the global population of argyrophil cells of the gastric mucosa of morbidly obese and dyspeptic non-obese patients. Gastric biopsies of antropyloric and oxyntic mucosa were obtained from 50 morbidly obese patients (BMI >40) and 50 non-obese patients (17 dyspeptic overweight and 33 lean individuals) and processed for histology and Grimelius staining for argyrophil cell demonstration. Argyrophil cell density in the oxyntic mucosa of morbidly obese patients was higher in female (238.68 ± 83.71 cells/mm{sup 2}) than in male patients (179.31 ± 85.96 cells/mm{sup 2}) and also higher in female (214.20 ± 50.38 cells/mm{sup 2}) than in male (141.90 ± 61.22 cells/mm{sup 2}) morbidly obese patients with metabolic syndrome (P = 0.01 and P = 0.02, respectively). In antropyloric mucosa, the main difference in argyrophil cell density was observed between female morbidly obese patients with (167.00 ± 69.30 cells/mm{sup 2}) and without (234.00 ± 69.54 cells/mm{sup 2}) metabolic syndrome (P = 0.001). In conclusion, the present results show that the number of gastric argyrophil cells could be under gender influence in patients with morbid obesity. In addition, gastric argyrophil cells seem to behave differently among female morbidly obese patients with and without metabolic syndrome.

  6. Life styles related to coronary artery disease in Saudi Males older than 12 years of age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Turki, Yousef Abdullah

    2007-01-01

    The present study highlighted life styles related to coronary artery disease risk factors among patients attending a primary care clinic at King Khalid University Hospital, in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. We conducted a cross-sectional study at a primary care clinic at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, during the period from 18/4/2006 to 13/6/2006. All adult male patients older than 12 years of age who attended one consultant primary care clinic were included in the study. All patients were interviewed by one consultant in family medicine during the study period. The patients were asked about dietary habits, physical activity and type of exercise, and smoking habits. Weight and height was taken for all patients by the nurse in the clinic and body mass index (BMI) were calculated for all patients. The total number of participants was 246 patients. The data were analyzed using the Statistical Package of Social Science (SPSS) version 11.5. A p value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Of the 246 male adult patients, 45.4% always consumed vegetables and fruits in their diet, 21.5% exercised on a daily basis, 51.2% exercised sometimes and 26% did not exercise at all. The type of exercise practiced by active participants was walking (76.5%) and sports (22.9%). Sports included football, basketball, swimming and other sports club activity. Only 20.7% of the participants had an ideal body weight (BMI =30). 8.9% of the participants were current smokers. Overweight and obesity is a common health problem among male adult patients attending a primary care setting. Improved dietary habits (consumption of vegetables and fruits and minimization of fat and suits) encouraging exercise and walking and helping current smokers to quit smoking are essential steps towards improving life styles in the community. It is an important health plan priority to concentrate on improving life styles in the Saudi community, to prevent cardiovascular risk

  7. Elder Abuse and Neglect Content in Higher Education Programs on Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Karen F.

    This study sought to: (1) investigate the degree to which course content on elder abuse and neglect is a part of higher education curriculums in aging; (2) determine which specific elder abuse and neglect course content is included in required and elective coursework; and (3) describe the attitudes of instructors toward including elder abuse and…

  8. Correlation of catecholamine levels in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and reduced sexual behavior in middle-aged male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Joyce C; Tsai, Houng-Wei; Yeh, Kuei-Ying; Tai, Mei-Yun; Tsai, Yuan-Feen

    2008-07-01

    The correlation between dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) levels in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) and male sexual behavior was examined in middle-aged rats. Male rats (18-19 months) were divided into: (a) Group MIE, consisting of rats showing mounts, intromissions, and ejaculations; (b) Group MI, composed of rats showing mounts and intromissions, but no ejaculation; and (c) Group NC, consisting of noncopulators. Young adult rats (4-5 months) displaying complete copulatory behavior were used as the control. Tissue levels of DA, NE, and DA metabolites in the BNST were measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography. DA, but not NE, levels in MIE rats were significantly lower than those in young controls. DA and NE levels in MIE rats were significantly higher than those in NC rats. These results suggest that DA and NE in the BNST might play an important role in the control of male sexual behavior in middle-aged rats.

  9. Effect of castration age on slaughtering performance of Piemontese male cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Lazzaroni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Calves castration represents an old and traditional practice to obtain animal work force, but for technical, economic and social reasons in the last half of the 20th century it was left. The recent renewal of Piemontese steers rearing in the breed’s native diffusion area, for quality meat production (Biagini et al., 2001, has been spurred also for the interest in local typical dishes. Traditionally, in Piedmont calves were castrated before puberty (about 6 month of age, but now also later (12-14 month of age to benefit by the bull higher growing rate.

  10. Association of High Vitamin D Status with Low Circulating Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Independent of Thyroid Hormone Levels in Middle-Aged and Elderly Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingqing Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. A recent study has reported that high circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] is associated with low circulating thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH levels, but only in younger individuals. The goal of the present study was to explore the relationship between vitamin D status and circulating TSH levels with thyroid autoimmunity and thyroid hormone levels taken into consideration in a population-based health survey of middle-aged and elderly individuals. Methods. A total of 1,424 Chinese adults, aged 41–78 years, were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Serum levels of 25(OHD, TSH, thyroid hormones, and thyroid autoantibodies were measured. Results. The prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency was 94.29% in males and 97.22% in females, and the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was 55.61% in males and 69.64% in females. Vitamin D status was not associated with positive thyroid autoantibodies after controlling for age, gender, body mass index, and smoking status. Higher 25(OHD levels were associated with lower TSH levels after controlling for age, FT4 and FT3 levels, thyroid volume, the presence of thyroid nodule(s, and smoking status in males. Conclusion. High vitamin D status in middle-aged and elderly males was associated with low circulating TSH levels independent of thyroid hormone levels.

  11. Aging, not menopause, is associated with higher prevalence of hyperuricemia among older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Eswar; Bennett, Mihoko; Chen, Linjun

    2014-11-01

    This work aims to study the associations, if any, of hyperuricemia, gout, and menopause status in the US population. Using multiyear data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we performed unmatched comparisons and one to three age-matched comparisons of women aged 20 to 70 years with and without hyperuricemia (serum urate ≥6 mg/dL). Analyses were performed using survey-weighted multiple logistic regression and conditional logistic regression, respectively. Overall, there were 1,477 women with hyperuricemia. Age and serum urate were significantly correlated. In unmatched analyses (n = 9,573 controls), postmenopausal women were older, were heavier, and had higher prevalence of renal impairment, hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia. In multivariable regression, after accounting for age, body mass index, glomerular filtration rate, and diuretic use, menopause was associated with hyperuricemia (odds ratio, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.05-1.76; P = 0.002). In corresponding multivariable regression using age-matched data (n = 4,431 controls), the odds ratio for menopause was 0.94 (95% CI, 0.83-1.06). Current use of hormone therapy was not associated with prevalent hyperuricemia in both unmatched and matched analyses. Age is a better statistical explanation for the higher prevalence of hyperuricemia among older women than menopause status.

  12. Mating competitiveness and the effect of X-rays and aging on males of Tetranychus urticae (Acarina, Tetranychidae) in relation to genetic control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldmann, A.M.

    1977-01-01

    Males of Tetranychus urticae Koch were irradiated with X-ray doses of 4, 8, 24 and 32 krad (which were applied to 0-1 day-old adult virgin males) and tested in mating competition with one-day-old non-irradiated males. A non-significant excess of parental females were mated to the unirradiated males. This consistent trend in favour of females, mated with unirradiated males was highly significant, when the results of all the experiments were bulked. This indicated that radiation impaired the mating competitiveness of males of T. urticae. Aging of irradiated males resulted in a significant decrease of male-mating competitiveness at least within 2 days after irradiation. When 24 krad X-rays irradiated males were tested in mating competition at different ages, with unirradiated males of equal age, it was demonstrated that the reduction in mating competitiveness of aging irradiated males is caused by accelerated aging due to the irradiation treatment

  13. Rooster semen cryopreservation: effect of pedigree line and male age on postthaw sperm function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, J A; Bongalhardo, D C; Pelaéz, J; Saxena, S; Settar, P; O'Sullivan, N P; Fulton, J E

    2010-05-01

    The fertility rates of cryopreserved poultry semen are highly variable and not reliable for use in preservation of commercial genetic stocks. Our objective was to evaluate the cryosurvival of semen from 8 pedigreed layer lines at 2 different ages: the onset and end of commercial production. Semen from 160 roosters (20/line) was frozen individually with 11% glycerol at 6 and 12 mo of age. Glycerol was removed from thawed semen by Accudenz gradient centrifugation. The viability of thawed sperm from each male was determined using fluorescent live-dead staining and flow cytometry; sperm velocity parameters were measured using computerized motion analysis. The fertilizing ability of thawed sperm was evaluated in vitro by assessing hydrolysis of the inner perivitelline membrane. The postthaw function of sperm from the elite lines varied widely, despite the fact that fresh semen from all of these lines typically yielded high fertility rates. The percentage of thawed sperm with intact plasma membranes ranged from 27.8 + or - 2.1 to 49.6 + or - 1.9 and varied among lines and between age groups. Thawed sperm from 2 lines consistently demonstrated the highest and lowest motility parameters, whereas the velocity parameters of the remaining 6 lines varied widely. The mean number of hydrolysis points per square millimeter of inner perivitelline membrane ranged from 12.5 + or - 4.1 (line 2) to 103.3 + or - 30.2 (line 6). Age effects were observed for 4 out of 8 lines; however, improved postthaw sperm function at 12 mo of age was not consistent for all 3 assays. These results demonstrate variability among pedigreed lines in withstanding glycerol-based semen cryopreservation and provide a model for delineating genotypic and phenotypic factors affecting sperm cryosurvival.

  14. Structural equation modeling identifies markers of damage and function in the aging male Fischer 344 rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunz-Borgmann, Elizabeth A; Nichols, LaNita A; Wiedmeyer, Charles E; Spagnoli, Sean; Trzeciakowski, Jerome P; Parrish, Alan R

    2016-06-01

    The male Fischer 344 rat is an established model to study progressive renal dysfunction that is similar, but not identical, to chronic kidney disease (CKD) in humans. These studies were designed to assess age-dependent alterations in renal structure and function at late-life timepoints, 16-24 months. Elevations in BUN and plasma creatinine were not significant until 24 months, however, elevations in the more sensitive markers of function, plasma cystatin C and proteinuria, were detectable at 16 and 18 months, respectively. Interestingly, cystatin C levels were not corrected by caloric restriction. Urinary Kim-1, a marker of CKD, was elevated as early as 16 months. Klotho gene expression was significantly decreased at 24 months, but not at earlier timepoints. Alterations in renal structure, glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis, were noted at 16 months, with little change from 18 to 24 months. Tubulointerstitial inflammation was increased at 16 months, and remained similar from 18 to 24 months. A SEM (structural equation modeling) model of age-related renal dysfunction suggests that proteinuria is a marker of renal damage, while urinary Kim-1 is a marker of both damage and function. Taken together, these results demonstrate that age-dependent nephropathy begins as early as 16 months and progresses rapidly over the next 8 months. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Age-dependent trade-offs between immunity and male, but not female, reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Kathryn B; van Lieshout, Emile; Jones, Therésa M; Simmons, Leigh W

    2013-01-01

    Immune function is costly and must be traded off against other life-history traits, such as gamete production. Studies of immune trade-offs typically focus on adult individuals, yet the juvenile stage can be a highly protracted period when reproductive resources are acquired and immune challenges are ubiquitous. Trade-offs during development are likely to be important, yet no studies have considered changes in adult responses to immune challenges imposed at different stages of juvenile development. By manipulating the timing of a bacterial immune challenge to the larvae of the cotton bollworm moth, we examined potential trade-offs between investment into immunity at different stages of juvenile development (early or late) and subsequent adult reproductive investment into sperm or egg production. Our data reveal an age-dependent trade-off between juvenile immune function and adult male reproductive investment. Activation of the immune response during late development resulted in a reduced allocation of resources to eupyrene (fertilizing) sperm production. Immune activation from the injection procedure itself (irrespective of whether individuals were injected with an immune elicitor or a control solution) also caused reproductive trade-offs; males injected early in development produced fewer apyrene (nonfertilizing) sperm. Contrary to many other studies, our study demonstrates these immune trade-offs under ad libitum nutritional conditions. No trade-offs were observed between female immune activation and adult reproductive investment. We suggest the differences in trade-offs observed between male sperm types and the absence of reproductive trade-offs in females may be the result of ontogenetic differences in gamete production in this species. Our data reveal developmental windows when trade-offs between immune function and gametic investment are made, and highlight the importance of considering multiple developmental periods when making inferences regarding the

  16. With age a lower individual breathing reserve is associated with a higher maximal heart rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtscher, Martin; Gatterer, Hannes; Faulhaber, Martin; Burtscher, Johannes

    2018-01-01

    Maximal heart rate (HRmax) is linearly declining with increasing age. Regular exercise training is supposed to partly prevent this decline, whereas sex and habitual physical activity do not. High exercise capacity is associated with a high cardiac output (HR x stroke volume) and high ventilatory requirements. Due to the close cardiorespiratory coupling, we hypothesized that the individual ventilatory response to maximal exercise might be associated with the age-related HRmax. Retrospective analyses have been conducted on the results of 129 consecutively performed routine cardiopulmonary exercise tests. The study sample comprised healthy subjects of both sexes of a broad range of age (20-86 years). Maximal values of power output, minute ventilation, oxygen uptake and heart rate were assessed by the use of incremental cycle spiroergometry. Linear multivariate regression analysis revealed that in addition to age the individual breathing reserve at maximal exercise was independently predictive for HRmax. A lower breathing reserve due to a high ventilatory demand and/or a low ventilatory capacity, which is more pronounced at a higher age, was associated with higher HRmax. Age explained the observed variance in HRmax by 72% and was improved to 83% when the variable "breathing reserve" was entered. The presented findings indicate an independent association between the breathing reserve at maximal exercise and maximal heart rate, i.e. a low individual breathing reserve is associated with a higher age-related HRmax. A deeper understanding of this association has to be investigated in a more physiological scenario. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of castration age on weight and size of some bones in Piemontese male cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Lazzaroni

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Effect of pre- and post-pubertal castration on bone weight and measurements has been studied in 3 groups of Piemontese male cattle (EC - early castrated, LC - late castrated, IM - intact reared in the same environmental conditions and slaughtered at about 18 month of age, at about 550 kg of l.w., and at the same commercial fattening degree. At side commercial dissection all separated bones were weighted, and on the main ones (scapula, humerus, radius, femur, and tibia linear measures were recorded and then some conformation ratios were calculated (weight/length, length/width, and length/circumference. Data were analysed by GLM ANCOVA procedure, correcting data on side weight to avoid bias due to differences in carcass weight. No differences were found in side bone weight (23.58 ± 2.61 kg, so as in single bone weight, measures and ratios.

  18. Age Differences in Perceptions of and Motivations for Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision Among Adolescents in South Africa, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Eshan U; Kaufman, Michelle R; Dam, Kim H; Van Lith, Lynn M; Hatzold, Karin; Marcell, Arik V; Mavhu, Webster; Kahabuka, Catherine; Mahlasela, Lusanda; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel; Seifert Ahanda, Kim; Ncube, Getrude; Lija, Gissenge; Bonnecwe, Collen; Tobian, Aaron A R

    2018-04-03

    The World Health Organization (WHO) and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) have set a Fast-Track goal to achieve 90% coverage of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) among boys and men aged 10-29 years in priority settings by 2021. We aimed to identify age-specific facilitators of VMMC uptake among adolescents. Younger (aged 10-14 years; n = 967) and older (aged 15-19 years; n = 559) male adolescents completed structured interviews about perceptions of and motivations for VMMC before receiving VMMC counseling at 14 service provision sites across South Africa, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe. Adjusted prevalence ratios (aPRs) were estimated using multivariable modified Poisson regression models with generalized estimating equations and robust standard errors. The majority of adolescents reported a strong desire for VMMC. Compared with older adolescents, younger adolescents were less likely to cite protection against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or other sexually transmitted infections (aPR, 0.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], .66-.91) and hygienic reasons (aPR, 0.55; 95% CI, .39-.77) as their motivation to undergo VMMC but were more likely to report being motivated by advice from others (aPR, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.54-2.29). Although most adolescents believed that undergoing VMMC was a normative behavior, younger adolescents were less likely to perceive higher descriptive norms (aPR, 0.79; .71-.89), injunctive norms (aPR, 0.86; 95% CI, .73-1.00), or anticipated stigma for being uncircumcised (aPR, 0.79; 95% CI, .68-.90). Younger adolescents were also less likely than older adolescents to correctly cite that VMMC offers men and boys partial HIV protection (aPR, 0.73; 95% CI, .65-.82). Irrespective of age, adolescents' main concern about undergoing VMMC was pain (aPR, 0.95; 95% CI, .87-1.04). Among younger adolescents, fear of pain was negatively associated with desire for VMMC (aPR, 0.89; 95% CI, .83-.96). Age-specific strategies are important to

  19. Modified forelimb grip strength test detects aging-associated physiological decline in skeletal muscle function in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshita, Hikari; Yamamoto, Koichi; Nozato, Satoko; Inagaki, Tadakatsu; Tsuchimochi, Hirotsugu; Shirai, Mikiyasu; Yamamoto, Ryohei; Imaizumi, Yuki; Hongyo, Kazuhiro; Yokoyama, Serina; Takeda, Masao; Oguro, Ryosuke; Takami, Yoichi; Itoh, Norihisa; Takeya, Yasushi; Sugimoto, Ken; Fukada, So-Ichiro; Rakugi, Hiromi

    2017-02-08

    The conventional forelimb grip strength test is a widely used method to assess skeletal muscle function in rodents; in this study, we modified this method to improve its variability and consistency. The modified test had lower variability among trials and days than the conventional test in young C57BL6 mice, especially by improving the variabilities in male. The modified test was more sensitive than the conventional test to detect a difference in motor function between female and male mice, or between young and old male mice. When the modified test was performed on male mice during the aging process, reduction of grip strength manifested between 18 and 24 months of age at the group level and at the individual level. The modified test was similar to the conventional test in detecting skeletal muscle dysfunction in young male dystrophic mice. Thus, the modified forelimb grip strength test, with its improved validity and reliability may be an ideal substitute for the conventional method.

  20. A Comparison of Load-Velocity and Load-Power Relationships Between Well-Trained Young and Middle-Aged Males During Three Popular Resistance Exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, John F T; Lamb, Kevin L; Twist, Craig

    2018-05-01

    Fernandes, JFT, Lamb, KL, and Twist, C. A comparison of load-velocity and load-power relationships between well-trained young and middle-aged males during 3 popular resistance exercises. J Strength Cond Res 32(5): 1440-1447, 2018-This study examined the load-velocity and load-power relationships among 20 young (age 21.0 ± 1.6 years) and 20 middle-aged (age 42.6 ± 6.7 years) resistance-trained males. Participants performed 3 repetitions of bench press, squat, and bent-over-row across a range of loads corresponding to 20-80% of 1 repetition maximum (1RM). Analysis revealed effects (p velocity for all 3 exercises, and interaction effects on power for squat and bent-over-row (p bench press and bent-over-row, the young group produced higher barbell velocities, with the magnitude of the differences decreasing as load increased (ES; effect size 0.0-1.7 and 1.0-2.0, respectively). Squat velocity was higher in the young group than the middle-aged group (ES 1.0-1.7) across all loads, as was power for each exercise (ES 1.0-2.3). For all 3 exercises, both velocity and 1RM were correlated with optimal power in the middle-aged group (r = 0.613-0.825, p velocities at low external loads and power outputs as high as the young males across a range of external resistances. Moreover, the strong correlations between 1RM and velocity with optimal power suggest that middle-aged males would benefit from training methods which maximize these adaptations.

  1. Key health promotion factors among male members of staff at a higher educational institution: A cross-sectional postal survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reid Garth

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Men's lifestyles are generally less healthy than women's. This study identifies associations between health-related behaviour in different groups of men working in a Higher Education (HE institution. In addition, men were asked whether they regarded their health-related behaviours as a concern. This article highlights smoking, consumption of alcohol and physical activity as most common men's health-related lifestyle behaviours. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted among all male staff employed by a Higher Education institute in Scotland using a postal self-completed questionnaire. A total of 1,335 questionnaires were distributed and 501 were returned completed (38% return rate. The data were analysed using SPSS 13.0 for Windows. Results Less than 10% currently smoked and almost 44% of these smokers were light smokers. Marital status, job title, consumption of alcohol and physical activity level were the major factors associated with smoking behaviour. Men in manual jobs were far more likely to smoke. Nearly all (90% consumed alcohol, and almost 37% had more than recommended eight units of alcohol per day at least once a week and 16% had more than 21 units weekly. Younger men reported higher amount of units of alcohol on their heaviest day and per week. Approximately 80% were physically active, but less than 40% met the current Government guidelines for moderate physical activity. Most men wanted to increase their activity level. Conclusion There are areas of health-related behaviour, which should be addressed in populations of this kind. Needs assessment could indicate which public health interventions would be most appropriately aimed at this target group. However, the low response rate calls for some caution in interpreting our findings.

  2. [Lower urinary tract symptoms and male sexual dysfunction: the multinational survey of the aging.male (MSAM-7)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosen, R.; Altwein, J.; Boyle, P.; Kirby, R.S.; Lukacs, B.; Meuleman, E.J.H.; O'Leary, M.; Puppo, P.; Chris, R.; Giuliano, F.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), which are often caused by benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH), and sexual dysfunction are common in older men, with an overall prevalence of > 50% in men aged > 50 years. Men with LUTS have been reported to experience sexual dysfunction, including

  3. Lower urinary tract symptoms and male sexual dysfunction: the multinational survey of the aging male (MSAM-7).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosen, R.; Altwein, J.; Boyle, P.; Kirby, R.S.; Lukacs, B.; Meuleman, E.J.H.; O'Leary, M.; Puppo, P.; Robertson, C.; Giuliano, F.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), which are often caused by benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH), and sexual dysfunction are common in older men, with an overall prevalence of >50% in men aged > or =50 years. Men with LUTS have been reported to experience sexual dysfunction, including

  4. In Iranian female and male adolescents, romantic love is related to hypomania and low depressive symptoms, but also to higher state anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajoghli, Hafez; Joshaghani, Narges; Gerber, Markus; Mohammadi, Mohammad-Reza; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2013-06-01

    Experiencing romantic love is important in individual development. Little is known about romantic love among adolescents in non-Western countries. The aim of the present study was to explore romantic love among Iranian male and female adolescents. A total of 201 adolescents (mean age: 17.73 years) took part in the study; of these, 81 indicated they were experiencing romantic love at the time of survey, and 120 indicated they were not in love. Participants answered questionnaires related to affective states (hypomania, depressive symptoms, state and trait anxiety) and exercise, and completed a sleep log for seven consecutive nights. Compared to controls, participants in love displayed favourable hypomania scores, fewer depressive symptoms and increased concentration during the day. However, participants in love also had higher state anxiety scores. Moreover, hypomanic-like stages increased with duration of relationship in female, but not in male participants. The pattern of results suggests a favourable association between being currently in love and emotional and cognitive processes. Sleep, however, seemed unrelated to this specific state.

  5. Superimposition of postnatal calorie restriction protects the aging male intrauterine growth- restricted offspring from metabolic maladaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yun; Thamotharan, Shanthie; Garg, Meena; Shin, Bo-Chul; Devaskar, Sherin U

    2012-09-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) results in dysregulated glucose homeostasis and adiposity in the adult. We hypothesized that with aging, these perturbations will wane, and superimposition of postnatal growth restriction (PNGR) on IUGR [intrauterine and postnatal growth restriction (IPGR)] will reverse the residual IUGR phenotype. We therefore undertook hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, energy balance, and physical activity studies during fed, fasted, and refed states, in light and dark cycles, on postweaned chow diet-fed more than 17-month aging male IUGR, PNGR, and IPGR vs. control (CON) rat offspring. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp revealed similar whole-body insulin sensitivity and physical activity in the nonobese IUGR vs. CON, despite reduced heat production and energy expenditure. Compared with CON and IUGR, IPGR mimicking PNGR was lean and growth restricted with increased physical activity, O(2) consumption (VO(2)), energy intake, and expenditure. Although insulin sensitivity was no different in IPGR and PNGR, skeletal muscle insulin-induced glucose uptake was enhanced. This presentation proved protective against the chronologically earlier (5.5 months) development of obesity and dysregulated energy homeostasis after 19 wk on a postweaned high-fat diet. This protective role of PNGR on the metabolic IUGR phenotype needs future fine tuning aimed at minimizing unintended consequences.

  6. Modeling Impact and Cost-Effectiveness of Increased Efforts to Attract Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision Clients Ages 20-29 in Zimbabwe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine Kripke

    Full Text Available Zimbabwe aims to increase circumcision coverage to 80% among 13- to 29-year-olds. However, implementation data suggest that high coverage among men ages 20 and older may not be achievable without efforts specifically targeted to these men, incurring additional costs per circumcision. Scale-up scenarios were created based on trends in implementation data in Zimbabwe, and the cost-effectiveness of increasing efforts to recruit clients ages 20-29 was examined.Zimbabwe voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC program data were used to project trends in male circumcision coverage by age into the future. The projection informed a base scenario in which, by 2018, the country achieves 80% circumcision coverage among males ages 10-19 and lower levels of coverage among men above age 20. The Zimbabwe DMPPT 2.0 model was used to project costs and impacts, assuming a US$109 VMMC unit cost in the base scenario and a 3% discount rate. Two other scenarios assumed that the program could increase coverage among clients ages 20-29 with a corresponding increase in unit cost for these age groups.When circumcision coverage among men ages 20-29 is increased compared with a base scenario reflecting current implementation trends, fewer VMMCs are required to avert one infection. If more than 50% additional effort (reflected as multiplying the unit cost by >1.5 is required to double the increase in coverage among this age group compared with the base scenario, the cost per HIV infection averted is higher than in the base scenario.Although increased investment in recruiting VMMC clients ages 20-29 may lead to greater overall impact if recruitment efforts are successful, it may also lead to lower cost-effectiveness, depending on the cost of increasing recruitment. Programs should measure the relationship between increased effort and increased ability to attract this age group.

  7. Out of the Closet and into the Trenches: Gay Male Baby Boomers, Aging, and HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Dana; Bartlam, Bernadette; Smith, Ruth D.

    2012-01-01

    Regardless of HIV status, all gay male Baby Boomers are aging in a context strongly shaped by HIV/AIDS. For this subcohort within the Baby Boom generation, the disproportionately high volume of AIDS deaths among gay men aged 25-44 years at the epidemic's peak (1987-1996) created a cohort effect, decimating their social networks and shaping their…

  8. Age-dependent male mating tactics in a spider mite — A life-history perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sato, Y.; Rühr, P.T.; Schmitz, H.; Egas, M.; Blanke, A.

    2016-01-01

    Males often fight with rival males for access to females. However, some males display nonfighting tactics such as sneaking, satellite behavior, or female mimicking. When these mating tactics comprise a conditional strategy, they are often thought to be explained by resource holding potential (RHP),

  9. Higher cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness in males could not be attributed to physical activity, sports practice or sedentary behavior in young people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Henrique Constantino Coledam

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to analyze if the association between sex with cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness is independent of physical activity, sports practice and sedentary behavior in young people. A cross-sectional study involving 729 participants aged 10 to 17 years. Physical activity, sports practice and sedentary behavior were assessed through a questionnaire. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured using 20m shuttle run test and were analyzed: VO2max, number of laps and health-related criteria. Muscular fitness was assessed with 90o push-up test and number of repetition and health-related criteria was analyzed. Multiple linear regression was used to estimate β coeficients and Poisson regression estimated prevalence ratios (PR. Male sex was associated to higher cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max β = 9.04 to 9.77, Laps PR=1.67 to 1.80, health-related criteria PR=2.03 to 2.09 and the same occurred with muscular fitness (repetitions PR=2.81 to 3.01, health-related criteria PR=1.91 to 2.09. Similarly, the stratification of the sample according to physical activity, sports practice and sedentary behavior did not change the associations between sex with cardiorespiratory (VO2max β=8.07 to 10.00, Laps PR=1.49 to 1.85, health-related criteria PR=1.64 to 2.27 and muscular fitness (repetitions PR=2.24 to 3.22, health-related criteria PR=1.76 to 2.06. These data suggest that higher cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness in males could not be attributed to physical activity, sports practice or sedentary behavior in young people.

  10. A validation of the first genome-wide association study of calcaneus ultrasound parameters in the European Male Ageing Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Thang S

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs have been associated with broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA and speed of sound (SOS as measured by quantitative ultrasound (QUS at the calcaneus in the Framingham 100K genome-wide association study (GWAS but have not been validated in independent studies. The aim of this analysis was to determine if these SNPs are associated with QUS measurements assessed in a large independent population of European middle-aged and elderly men. The association between these SNPs and bone mineral density (BMD measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA was also tested. Methods Men aged 40-79 years (N = 2960 were recruited from population registers in seven European centres for participation in an observational study of male ageing, the European Male Ageing Study (EMAS. QUS at the calcaneus was measured in all subjects and blood was taken for genetic analysis. Lumbar spine (LS, femoral neck (FN and total hip (TH BMD were measured by DXA in a subsample of 620 men in two centres. SNPs associated with BUA or SOS in the Framingham study with p -4 were selected and genotyped using SEQUENOM technology. Linear regression was used to test for the association between SNPs and standardised (SD bone outcomes under an additive genetic model adjusting for centre. The same direction of effect and p Results Thirty-four of 38 selected SNPs were successfully genotyped in 2377 men. Suggestive evidence of replication was observed for a single SNP, rs3754032, which was associated with a higher SOS (β(SD = 0.07, p = 0.032 but not BUA (β(SD = 0.02, p = 0.505 and is located in the 3'UTR of WDR77 (WD repeat domain 77 also known as androgen receptor cofactor p44. A single SNP, rs238358, was associated with BMD at the LS (β(SD = -0.22, p = 0.014, FN (β(SD = -0.31,p = 0.001 and TH (β(SD = -0.36, p = 0.002 in a locus previously associated with LS BMD in large-scale GWAS, incorporating AKAP11 and RANKL

  11. The effects of male age on sperm analysis by motile sperm organelle morphology examination (MSOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Liliane FI

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to investigate the influence of age on sperm quality, as analysed by motile sperm organelle morphology examination (MSOME. Methods Semen samples were collected from 975 men undergoing evaluation or treatment for infertility. Sperm cells were evaluated at 8400× magnification using an inverted microscope equipped with Nomarski (differential interference contrast optics. Two forms of spermatozoa were considered: normal spermatozoa and spermatozoa with large nuclear vacuoles (LNV, defined as vacuoles occupying > 50% of the sperm nuclear area. At least 200 spermatozoa per sample were evaluated, and the percentages of normal and LNV spermatozoa were determined. The subjects were divided into three groups according to age: Group I, less than or equal to 35 years; Group II, 36-40 years; and Group III, greater than or equal to 41 years. Results There was no difference in the percentages of normal sperm between the two younger (I and II groups (P >0.05. The percentage of normal sperm in the older group (III was significantly lower than that in the younger (I and II groups (P P >0.05. The percentage of LNV spermatozoa was significantly higher in the older group (III than in the younger (I and II groups (P P P Conclusion The results demonstrated a consistent decline in semen quality, as reflected by morphological evaluation by MSOME, with increased age. Considering the relationship between nuclear vacuoles and DNA damage, these age-related changes predict that increased paternal age should be associated with unsuccessful or abnormal pregnancy as a consequence of fertilisation with damaged spermatozoa. Given that sperm nuclear vacuoles can be evaluated more precisely at high magnification, these results support the routine use of MSOME for ICSI as a criterion for semen analysis.

  12. Alfalfa weevil male: effect of γ-radiation and weevil age on mating competitiveness and sperm transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollam, J.D.; Hower, A.A. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Virgin male Hypera postica (Gyllenhal) were irradiated at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 weeks of age. Alfalfa weevils from each age group were subjected to γ-radiation doses of 0, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 krads. Mating competitiveness was reduced by the 5 to 6 krad doses in all age groups except those 4 weeks old. Weevils irradiated at 1 week of age showed a reduction in competitiveness at doses above 2 krad. Radiation dose and age at irradiation had little noticeable effect on sperm transfer

  13. Physical and physiological characteristics in male team handball players by playing position - Does age matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaidis, P T; Ingebrigtsen, J; Póvoas, S C; Moss, S; Torres-Luque, G

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the variation in physical and physiological characteristics according to playing position in adolescent and adult male team handball (TH) players. Adolescent (N.=57, aged 14.9±1.4 yr) and adult (N.=39, 26.6±5.7 yr) players were examined for anthropometric characteristics, somatotype and body composition, and performed the physical working capacity test, a force-velocity test, the Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT), sit-and-reach test, handgrip strength test, squat jump (SJ), countermovement vertical jump without (CMJ) and with arm-swing, and a 30-s Bosco test. Eccentric utilization ratio (EUR) was calculated as the ratio CMJ to SJ. In adult players, there were significant differences between wings and the other positions with regard to anthropometric and body composition parameters (body mass, -17.9% to -13.2%; height, -5.3% to -4.3%; and fat-free mass, -13.7% to -9.9%) and anaerobic power assessed by WAnT (peak power, -20.5% to -15.2%; and mean power, -20% to -14.8%); however, these characteristics did not differ significantly in adolescents, in which the only statistically significant difference was found between goalkeepers and the other positions in EUR (+8.1%). Therefore, the differences in physical and physiological characteristics between playing positions are age-dependent. As adult players in this study were taken from players competing in the top Greek league, findings could serve as a base for talent identification and development for future studies. Moreover, knowledge about positional differences might enhance the ability to make tailored position-specific training programs among adult and adolescent players in the future.

  14. The pituitary-testicular axis in microgravity: analogies with the aging male syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strollo, F; Boitani, C; Basciani, S; Pecorelli, L; Palumbo, D; Borgia, L; Masini, M A; Morè, M; Strollo, G; Spera, G; Uva, B M; Riondino, G

    2005-01-01

    Extraterrestrial exploration has gone on for decades before reversible testicular failure was shown to be a consequence of space flight in humans and animals at the end of the XXth century. This phenomenon was initially thought to depend on the psycho-physical stress expected to derive from a decidedly unusual environment, but the lack of consistent data concerning cortisol increase and/or gonadotrophin suppression pointed to the possibility of a primary defect. This was indirectly confirmed by the observation that a continuum of testicular androgen secretion potential exists from microgravity to centrifuge-derived hypergravity. Further experiments using tissue slices and suspended cells confirmed a direct inhibitory effect of microgravity upon testicular androgen production. A parallel deterioration of major physiological parameters, such as bone density, muscle mass/force, red blood cell mass, hydration and cardiopulmonary performance, has been repeatedly described during space missions, which, luckily enough, fully recover within days to weeks after landing, the time lag depending on single organ/system adaptation rates. According to the Authors of the present review, when taking together all reported changes occurring in space, a picture emerges closely resembling the so-called aging male syndrome, which is currently the object of daily screening and clinical care in their endocrine unit, so that microgravity may become a tool for better understanding subtle mechanisms of testicular senescence.

  15. Effects of Forest Bathing on Cardiovascular and Metabolic Parameters in Middle-Aged Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated the effects of a forest bathing on cardiovascular and metabolic parameters. Nineteen middle-aged male subjects were selected after they provided informed consent. These subjects took day trips to a forest park in Agematsu, Nagano Prefecture, and to an urban area of Nagano Prefecture as control in August 2015. On both trips, they walked 2.6 km for 80 min each in the morning and afternoon on Saturdays. Blood and urine were sampled before and after each trip. Cardiovascular and metabolic parameters were measured. Blood pressure and pulse rate were measured during the trips. The Japanese version of the profile of mood states (POMS test was conducted before, during, and after the trips. Ambient temperature and humidity were monitored during the trips. The forest bathing program significantly reduced pulse rate and significantly increased the score for vigor and decreased the scores for depression, fatigue, anxiety, and confusion. Urinary adrenaline after forest bathing showed a tendency toward decrease. Urinary dopamine after forest bathing was significantly lower than that after urban area walking, suggesting the relaxing effect of the forest bathing. Serum adiponectin after the forest bathing was significantly greater than that after urban area walking.

  16. Voluntary and forced exercise influence the survival and body composition of ageing male rats differently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narath, E; Skalicky, M; Viidik, A

    2001-11-01

    The importance of maintaining physical fitness by engaging in exercise in a life-long perspective as well as the avoidance of obesity has been emphasised in recent years by epidemiological studies on human populations as well as studies on laboratory rodents. In laboratory studies, voluntary running in wheels and forced training in a treadmill have been used with beneficial results. Restriction of the food intake of sedentary laboratory rodents can be regarded either as life prolongation or prevention of life shortening by obesity. We compared the effects of these interventions on male Sprague-Dawley rats from the age of 5 to 23 months in the following groups: (1) RW=voluntary running in wheels; (2) PW=fed to pair weight with RW animals; (3) TM=forced training in a treadmill; and (4) S1=sedentary with ad libitum access to food. Each group consisted of 32 animals, all housed individually in cages. Two RW animals died, five died in each of the PW and S1 groups and 10 in the TM group (pmuch they run.

  17. Atypical presentation of a middle age male with severe hypertriglyceridaemia: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albahrani Ali I

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe hypertriglyceridaemia (HTG is uncommon but most prevalent in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and excess ethanol intake. Case presentation We describe a case of a middle age male (53 y presenting to the emergency room with acute atypical central chest pain and severe HTG in the absence of evidence of overt ischaemic heart disease (IHD. Admission ECG and EET (exercise tolerance test were negative for reversible ischaemic changes. His admission glucose was 12.2 mmol/l, triglycerides (TG were 103 mmol/l, total cholesterol 37 mmol/l. Cardiac Troponin T could not be measured on three occasions but CK MB mass was normal at 3 μg/l. The patient was started on Bezafibrate 400 mg OD, Simvastatin 20 mg nocte, Omacor (Omega-3 fish oil 1 gm bd and Metformin 500 mg tds. Four weeks after admission, lipid and liver profiles showed remarkable improvement, TG 2.9 mmol/l, Tchol 6.3 mmol/l and HDLc 1.5 mmol/l, ALAT and GGT were normal. Conclusion A case report of severe hypertriglyceridaemia with atypical presentation demonstrate the role of combined lipid modifying agents in lowering triglycerides and cholesterol as well as improving liver enzymes.

  18. The influence of relative age on success and dropout in male soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helsen, Werner F; Starkes, Janet L; Van Winckel, Jan

    1998-01-01

    The consistent asymmetry in the birth-date distribution of senior professional soccer players has led us to investigate whether similar asymmetries emerge throughout youth categories in soccer. Birth dates were considered for professional players, national youth teams, youth players transferred to top teams, and regular youth league players. Kolmogorov Smirnov tests assessed differences between observed and expected birth-date distributions. Regression analyses examined the relationship between month of birth and number of participants at various levels of play in soccer. Results indicated that youth players born from August to October (the early part of the selection year), beginning in the 6-8 year age group, are more likely to be identified as talented and to be exposed to higher levels of coaching. Eventually, these players are more likely to be transferred to top teams, to play for national teams, and to become involved professionally. In comparison, players born late in the selection year tended to dropout as early as 12 years of age. Recommendations suggest a review of the 24-month age band and current methods for talent detection and selection. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 10:791-798, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Copyright © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) ameliorates age-related deficits in water maze performance, especially in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kougias, Daniel G; Hankosky, Emily R; Gulley, Joshua M; Juraska, Janice M

    2017-03-01

    Beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) is commonly supplemented to maintain muscle in elderly and clinical populations and has potential as a nootropic. Previously, we have shown that in both male and female rats, long-term HMB supplementation prevents age-related dendritic shrinkage within the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and improves cognitive flexibility and working memory performance that are both age- and sex-specific. In this study, we further explore the cognitive effects by assessing visuospatial learning and memory with the Morris water maze. Female rats were ovariectomized at 11months of age to model human menopause. At 12months of age, male and female rats received relatively short- or long-term (1- or 7-month) dietary HMB (450mg/kg/dose) supplementation twice a day prior to testing. Spatial reference learning and memory was assessed across four days in the water maze with four trials daily and a probe trial on the last day. Consistent with previous work, there were age-related deficits in water maze performance in both sexes. However, these deficits were ameliorated in HMB-treated males during training and in both sexes during probe trial performance. Thus, HMB supplementation prevented the age-related decrement in water maze performance, especially in male rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [Shift Work among Men and Women on the Threshold to Higher Working Age - Working Conditions and Health Status].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leser, C; Tisch, A; Tophoven, S

    2016-11-01

    Background: The number of older employees in shift and night work has increased significantly in recent years. Furthermore, the proportion of women in shift and night work has increased markedly. This is due to the aging workforce and the expansion of shift work in the tertiary sector. Previous research shows that shift work is often associated with health risks. Against this background, the aim of the present study is to examine the situation of working men and women on the threshold to higher working age with regard to the relationship between shift work and physical health. Methods: We employed data from the study "lidA - leben in der Arbeit" German Cohort Study on Work, Age and Health, a survey of the German baby boom cohorts born in 1959 and 1965 (n=5 637). Linear regression models are used to study the effect of shift work - with and without night work - and of further work exposures on the baby boomers' physical health status. The models control for sleep and health-related behaviour and are stratified by gender. Among women, also the scope of work was taken into account. Results: The results show that male shift workers are burdened by their on average lower occupational status and by physical exposure; female shift workers additionally suffer from high personal effort and low rewards and female part-time shift workers also from overcommitment. Conclusion: Working conditions of shift workers are strongly characterised by work stress. In order to preserve aging shift workers' work ability, some organisational measures seem necessary. In this context, occupational safety and health management as well as opportunities for recovery and encouraging leadership should be considered. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Polymorphic variants of neurotransmitter receptor genes may affect sexual function in aging males: data from the HALS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jóźków, Paweł; Słowińska-Lisowska, Małgorzata; Łaczmański, Łukasz; Mędraś, Marek

    2013-01-01

    Human behavior is influenced by a number of brain neurotransmitters. Central dopamine, serotonin and melanocortin systems have special importance for male sexual function. We searched for associations between male aging symptoms and polymorphic sites of serotonin (5-HTR1B), melanocortin (MC4R) and dopamine (DRD2, DRD4) receptors. In a population-based sample, genotyping of 5-HTR1B (polymorphism: G861C), MC4R (polymorphisms: C-2745T, Val103Ile), DRD2 (polymorphism: C313T) and DRD4 (polymorphism: 48-bp VNTR) was performed in 387 healthy men. The Aging Males' Symptoms (AMS) scale was used to evaluate specific ailments of aging men. We analyzed answers to questions from the AMS scale. Five points of the questionnaire addressed sexual symptoms of the aging male: feeling of passing one's peak, decrease in beard growth, decrease in ability/frequency to perform sexually, decrease in the number of morning erections, and decrease in sexual desire/libido (lacking pleasure in sex, lacking desire for sexual intercourse). Relations between reported symptoms and variants of the polymorphic sites of the studied genes were assessed. After adjusting for confounding factors (education, arterial hypertension, physical activity, weight, waist circumference) an association between the sexual dimension of AMS and genetic variants of 5-HTR1B G861C (p = 0.04) was observed. Variability of neurotransmitter receptor genes may be associated with sexual symptoms of aging in men. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Relative Age Effect in Swedish Male and Female Tennis Players Born in 1998–2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Göran Gerdin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The relative age effect (RAE has been extensively debated and researched in both popular media and academic discourse. This study examined RAE in Swedish tennis players born in 1998–2001. The study was conducted in 2015–2016 and includes all ranked Swedish tennis players (n = 1835 registered in the Swedish Tennis Association database from the year 2014. The results show that when the birth dates of the corresponding Swedish population and all the ranked players are compared, they show a moderate RAE; however, the higher up they are in the ranking system, the greater the RAE becomes. Top 10 players display an average of 64.1% being born in the first half of the year. Some gender differences were also found, with a greater proportion of both higher and lower ranked females being born in the first half of the year. In our discussion of the findings we raise several issues that need to be addressed to provide more equal opportunities for all junior players regardless of birth date. Resolving ongoing problems associated with RAE in competitive sports such as tennis is important both in term of prolonged participation in the sport and increased performance. Suggestions made in this article include recognising RAE when designing the format of competitions/tournaments, not using official rankings until the juniors get older, addressing RAE in a “gender sensitive” way, and conducting further in-depth studies in which RAE is understood/examined as being associated with environmental factors. Although these findings show the RAE effect in Swedish tennis players, thus pointing at the need for further consideration in terms of ranking and selection procedures to ensure equal opportunities for player development, the study also concludes by reasserting an emphasis on a holistic approach to player development in which coaches focus on the developmentally appropriate needs and potential of each individual player regardless of their biological age.

  3. “Work is Staying Alive": Aging and Sense of Work for Teachers of Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejane Prevot Nascimento

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the face of changes in the demographic profile of Brazilian population with the increase in the number of elderly people, the subject population aging has been extensively studied by areas of Human and Health Sciences. There is still a big gap regarding to these studies in the area of administration. The goal of this article is to understand the meaning of work for elderly professor of higher education. In order to support the study, theories are redeemed about the centrality of work, aging and meaning of work, retirement and on teaching. The research is qualitative and data were collected through field research. The corpus of interviewees was composed of 16 teachers. The interviews were analyzed in depth by the method of content analysis. It could be perceived that the work for the interviewees is something very important, that retirement is unwanted and feared and that teachers feel prejudice at work because of their age. In existing gender relations in the workplace, showed the existence of prejudice is not declared by the men against the women work.

  4. Age at Immigration and Substance Use and Problems Among Males and Females at the U.S.-Mexico Border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherpitel, Cheryl J; Li, Libo; Borges, Guilherme; Zemore, Sarah

    2017-11-01

    Although substance use and problems among Mexican Americans are associated with both immigration to the United States and living at the U.S.-Mexico border, little is known about relationships between age at immigration and substance use by gender within the border context. The purpose of this study was to analyze the association of age at immigration with heavy alcohol use, alcohol use disorders (AUD), and drug use among Mexicans Americans living both on and off the U.S.-Mexico border. Household surveys were conducted, using area probability sampling of 2,336 Mexican Americans (1,185 female), ages 18-65, living at the Texas-Mexico border in the metropolitan areas of Laredo and McAllen/Brownsville, and in the nonborder location of San Antonio. Females immigrating before age 12 were less likely to report heavy alcohol use (odds ratio [OR] = 0.309), and those immigrating before age 21 were less likely to report any drug use during the last year compared with their U.S.-born counterparts (OR = 0.473; OR = 0.386, respectively). Males immigrating after age 20 were less likely to report heavy alcohol use (OR = 0.478), and those immigrating between ages 12 and 20 were less likely to report AUD (OR = 0.479) and drug use (OR = 0.255) compared with their U.S.-born counterparts. Early age at immigration (before age 12) was significantly associated with drug use for males living on the border compared with those living off the border. Findings suggest that among females, immigrating before age 12 (vs. being born in the United States) is protective against heavy alcohol and drug use, but among males, immigrating before age 12 results in similarly heavy patterns of use as their U.S.-born counterparts, partially supporting previous findings that early immigration is particularly risky in relation to substance use and AUD.

  5. Keep on cruising: Changes in lifestyle and driving style among male drivers between the age of 18 and 23

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Mette; Haustein, Sonja

    2013-01-01

    Despite recent improvements in general road safety levels, young male drivers in most western countries continue to be overrepresented in road traffic accidents. Lifestyle related motivational factors are a key element in the young male driver problem. Based on 379 posted questionnaires completed...... showed a similar life style at the age of 23. The study confirmed the importance of lifestyle related motivational factors for driving behaviour among young drivers. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.......Despite recent improvements in general road safety levels, young male drivers in most western countries continue to be overrepresented in road traffic accidents. Lifestyle related motivational factors are a key element in the young male driver problem. Based on 379 posted questionnaires completed...

  6. Age, sex, and telomere dynamics in a long-lived seabird with male-biased parental care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca C Young

    Full Text Available The examination of telomere dynamics is a recent technique in ecology for assessing physiological state and age-related traits from individuals of unknown age. Telomeres shorten with age in most species and are expected to reflect physiological state, reproductive investment, and chronological age. Loss of telomere length is used as an indicator of biological aging, as this detrimental deterioration is associated with lowered survival. Lifespan dimorphism and more rapid senescence in the larger, shorter-lived sex are predicted in species with sexual size dimorphism, however, little is known about the effects of behavioral dimorphism on senescence and life history traits in species with sexual monomorphism. Here we compare telomere dynamics of thick-billed murres (Urialomvia, a species with male-biased parental care, in two ways: 1 cross-sectionally in birds of known-age (0-28 years from one colony and 2 longitudinally in birds from four colonies. Telomere dynamics are compared using three measures: the telomere restriction fragment (TRF, a lower window of TRF (TOE, and qPCR. All showed age-related shortening of telomeres, but the TRF measure also indicated that adult female murres have shorter telomere length than adult males, consistent with sex-specific patterns of ageing. Adult males had longer telomeres than adult females on all colonies examined, but chick telomere length did not differ by sex. Additionally, inter-annual telomere changes may be related to environmental conditions; birds from a potentially low quality colony lost telomeres, while those at more hospitable colonies maintained telomere length. We conclude that sex-specific patterns of telomere loss exist in the sexually monomorphic thick-billed murre but are likely to occur between fledging and recruitment. Longer telomeres in males may be related to their homogamous sex chromosomes (ZZ or to selection for longer life in the care-giving sex. Environmental conditions appeared to

  7. Proficiency Assessment of Male Volleyball Teams of the 13-15-Year Age Group at Estonian Championships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, Meelis; Stamm, Raini; Koskel, Sade

    2008-01-01

    Study aim: Assessment of feasibility of using own computer software "Game" at competitions. Material and methods: The data were collected during Estonian championships in 2006 for male volleyball teams of the 13-15-years age group (n = 8). In all games, the performance of both teams was recorded in parallel with two computers. A total of…

  8. The effect of caffeine on working memory load-­related brain activation in middle-­aged males

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, Elissa; De Groot, Renate; Evers, Lisbeth; Snel, Jan; Veerman, Enno; Ligtenberg, Antoon; Jolles, Jelle; Veltman, Dick

    2012-01-01

    Klaassen, E. B., De Groot, R. H. M., Evers, E. A. T., Snel, J., Veerman, E. C. I., Ligtenberg, A. J. M., Jolles, J., & Veltman, D. J. (2013). The effect of caffeine on working memory load-related brain activation in middle-aged male. Neuropharmacology, 64, 160-167.

  9. Modeling Developmental Changes in Functional Capacities and Soccer-Specific Skills in Male Players Aged 11-17 Years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valente-dos-Santos, Joao; Coelho-e-Silva, Manuel J.; Simoes, Filipe; Figueiredo, Antonio J.; Leite, Neiva; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Malina, Robert M.; Sherar, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates the contributions of age. growth, skeletal maturation, playing position and training to longitudinal changes in functional and skill performance in male youth soccer. Players were annually followed over 5 years (n = 83, 4.4 measurements per player). Composite scores for

  10. Male circumcision at different ages in Rwanda: a cost-effectiveness study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Binagwaho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is strong evidence showing that male circumcision (MC reduces HIV infection and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs. In Rwanda, where adult HIV prevalence is 3%, MC is not a traditional practice. The Rwanda National AIDS Commission modelled cost and effects of MC at different ages to inform policy and programmatic decisions in relation to introducing MC. This study was necessary because the MC debate in Southern Africa has focused primarily on MC for adults. Further, this is the first time, to our knowledge, that a cost-effectiveness study on MC has been carried out in a country where HIV prevalence is below 5%. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A cost-effectiveness model was developed and applied to three hypothetical cohorts in Rwanda: newborns, adolescents, and adult men. Effectiveness was defined as the number of HIV infections averted, and was calculated as the product of the number of people susceptible to HIV infection in the cohort, the HIV incidence rate at different ages, and the protective effect of MC; discounted back to the year of circumcision and summed over the life expectancy of the circumcised person. Direct costs were based on interviews with experienced health care providers to determine inputs involved in the procedure (from consumables to staff time and related prices. Other costs included training, patient counselling, treatment of adverse events, and promotion campaigns, and they were adjusted for the averted lifetime cost of health care (antiretroviral therapy [ART], opportunistic infection [OI], laboratory tests. One-way sensitivity analysis was performed by varying the main inputs of the model, and thresholds were calculated at which each intervention is no longer cost-saving and at which an intervention costs more than one gross domestic product (GDP per capita per life-year gained. RESULTS: Neonatal MC is less expensive than adolescent and adult MC (US$15 instead of US$59 per procedure and is cost

  11. Paternal age at birth and the risk of obesity in young adulthood: a register-based birth cohort study of Norwegian males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Willy; Sundet, Jon M; Tambs, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between paternal age at birth and the risk of obesity in young adulthood. Data from the medical birth register of Norway were linked with register data from the Norwegian National Conscript Service and the national statistics agency, Statistics Norway. This study used the data on 346,609 registered males who were born at term in single birth without physical anomalies during 1967-1984 and who were examined at the time of the mandatory military conscription (age 18-20 years). The relationship between paternal age at birth and the occurrence of obesity (body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30.0 kg/m(2) ) at conscription was examined using a multinomial logistic regression analysis with BMI birth but did not increase (P = 0.52) with maternal age at birth. Men born when their fathers were 50 years or older had a 55% (95% confidence interval (CI): 14%, 110%) higher relative risk of obesity than men born when their fathers were younger than 20 years of age, after adjustment for age at conscription, birth order, birth year, maternal age at birth, the mother's total number of children, and maternal and paternal education levels. The risk of obesity in young Norwegian men increases with advancing paternal age at birth but does not increase with advancing maternal age at birth. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Male Eating Disorder Symptom Patterns and Health Correlates From 13 to 26 Years of Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calzo, J.P. (Jerel P.); Horton, N.J. (Nicholas J.); Sonneville, K.R. (Kendrin R.); S.A. Swanson (Sonja); Crosby, R.D. (Ross D.); N. Micali (Nadia); Eddy, K.T. (Kamryn T.); Field, A.E. (Alison E.)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractObjective Research on the manifestations and health correlates of eating disorder symptoms among males is lacking. This study identified patterns of appearance concerns and eating disorder behaviors from adolescence through young adulthood and their health correlates. Method Participants

  13. SIDE TO SIDE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN DOMINANT AND NON-DOMINANT ARM'S BONE DENSITY AND ISOMETRIC HANDGRIP STRENGTH IN MALES AND FEMALES AGED 40-65 YEARS OLD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasniqi, Ermira; Koni, Mynyr; Kabashi, Antigona; Bahtiri, Abedin; Gjeli, Selda; Boshnjaku, Arben

    2016-10-01

    This observational, cross-sectional study, investigates and compares the differences of BMD, T-score, Z-score and isometric strength between dominant (D) versus non-dominant (ND) arms of 162 subjects aged 40-65 in a developing, low income country (Kosova). Bone Mineral Density (BMD), T-score and Z-score at distal forearm regions of both arms (measured by DXA scan), together with the Handgrip Isometric Strength (HIS) (by handgrip) were evaluated in a total subjects (53 Males and 109 Females). Additionally, General Healthcare Status Questionnaire together with self-administrated International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) were filled. Significant differences (p0.05) were observed in Males BMD comparing to significantly higher results (p0.05) in males. When comparing the total subject's BMD, T-score, Z-score and Handgrip based on the PA levels (1 to 3 according to IPAQ scoring) no significant differences (p>0.05) were found between PA1, as well as PA3 whereas significantly differences (p<0.05) were found in D arms of PA2 level. The study analyses side-to-side differences in bone density and muscular force between D and ND arms amongst a population which is frequently exposed to diagnostic screenings for age related osteomuscular conditions (aged 40-60), and demonstrates that these differences should be in consideration amongst clinicians, but not in the way it is done right now.

  14. Season- and age-related reproductive changes based on fecal androgen concentrations in male koalas, Phascolarctos cinereus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusuda, Satoshi; Hashikawa, Hisashi; Takeda, Masato; Ito, Hideki; Goto, Atsushi; Oguchi, Jun; Doi, Osamu

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of the present study were to clarify age- and season- related androgen patterns, and to compare the reproductive physiology between Japanese captive koala populations and Australian populations. To measure fecal androgens, feces were collected from male koalas (4.2 to 13.8 years of age) kept in Japanese zoos. Fecal androgens were extracted with methanol from the lyophilized samples and determined by enzyme immunoassay using 4-androstene-3,17-dione antibody. Fecal androgen concentration in male koalas increased after sexual maturation and remained relatively high until old age. In the survey with the Japanese zoo studbook of koalas, copulation (conception) month showed a pyramid shape with a peak in March to June (60.7%) in koalas born and reared in Japanese zoos and from July to April with the highest concentration in September to January (69.7%) in Australian institutes. Japanese zoo koala populations have a characteristic physiological cycle adapted to Japan's seasonal changes. The suitable month of year for copulation or conception in Japan is diametrically opposed to that in Australia. Mean fecal androgen concentrations by month in the males born and reared in Japan indicated annual changes with the highest concentration in May and the lowest value in November. Fecal androgen analysis may be a noninvasive alternative tool to monitor circulating testosterone and may be helpful in understanding reproductive activity and physiology in male koalas.

  15. Influence of age of child on differences in life satisfaction of males and females: Comparative study among East Asian countries.

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamura, Eiji

    2012-01-01

    Using individual-level data for China, Korea, and Japan for 2006, this research examines how the age of children influences life satisfaction for males and females in East Asian countries. Our results show that the life satisfaction of males is barely affected by a child of the relationship, whereas the life satisfaction of females with a young child is lower than that of females who do not have a child. This result holds for countries at different development stages. There is also a gender d...

  16. Modeling the Impact of Uganda’s Safe Male Circumcision Program: Implications for Age and Regional Targeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kripke, Katharine; Vazzano, Andrea; Kirungi, William; Musinguzi, Joshua; Opio, Alex; Ssempebwa, Rhobbinah; Nakawunde, Susan; Kyobutungi, Sheila; Akao, Juliet N.; Magala, Fred; Mwidu, George; Castor, Delivette

    2016-01-01

    Background Uganda aims to provide safe male circumcision (SMC) to 80% of men ages 15–49 by 2016. To date, only 2 million men have received SMC of the 4.2 million men required. In response to age and regional trends in SMC uptake, the country sought to re-examine its targets with respect to age and subnational region, to assess the program’s progress, and to refine the implementation approach. Methods and Findings The Decision Makers’ Program Planning Tool, Version 2.0 (DMPPT 2.0), was used in conjunction with incidence projections from the Spectrum/AIDS Impact Module (AIM) to conduct this analysis. Population, births, deaths, and HIV incidence and prevalence were used to populate the model. Baseline male circumcision prevalence was derived from the 2011 AIDS Indicator Survey. Uganda can achieve the most immediate impact on HIV incidence by circumcising men ages 20–34. This group will also require the fewest circumcisions for each HIV infection averted. Focusing on men ages 10–19 will offer the greatest impact over a 15-year period, while focusing on men ages 15–34 offers the most cost-effective strategy over the same period. A regional analysis showed little variation in cost-effectiveness of scaling up SMC across eight regions. Scale-up is cost-saving in all regions. There is geographic variability in program progress, highlighting two regions with low baseline rates of circumcision where additional efforts will be needed. Conclusion Focusing SMC efforts on specific age groups and regions may help to accelerate Uganda’s SMC program progress. Policy makers in Uganda have already used model outputs in planning efforts, proposing males ages 10–34 as a priority group for SMC in the 2014 application to the Global Fund’s new funding model. As scale-up continues, the country should also consider a greater effort to expand SMC in regions with low MC prevalence. PMID:27410234

  17. Knowledge, Attitude and Behavior Toword Periodontal Health Among Males and Females Students Aged (16-18 Years in Erbil City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahida Rassul Hussein

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: periodontal disease conceder as a malty inflammatory disease may be a source of systemic inflammation because oral health is important for appearance and sense of well-being overall health. So cleaning the mouth by brushing and flossing to prevent gum disease is important. The current study was conducted to clarify the knowledge, attitude, and behavior in relation to periodontal health status among male and female students in Erbil city.   Materials and Methods: a questionnaire of periodontal health of knowledge, attitudes, and behavior was allocated on 480 (240 males and 240 females school students ran- domly, aged 16–18 year, in Erbil city. Data were collected by means of 23 close-ended questionnaires.   Results: 85% of male and 90% of female knew that brushing prevents gingivitis. 55.4% of the male student, 62.1 of female student thought that using dental floss prevent periodontal disease. While (26.7% of male and 22.1% of female would visit a dentist in case of gum pain. (81.3% of male and 97.5 of female thought that regular visits to the dentist necessary (p≤0.0004. Males reported 25% of twice a day tooth brushing while female reported 42.9% of twice a day tooth brushing (p≤0.025.   Toothbrush and toothpaste were still the most commonly used oral hygiene aids among male (74.6% and female (91.7% students (p≤0.0015 used tooth brush and tooth paste commonly as oral hygiene aids.   Conclusions: present study shows that our students have positive knowledge, attitude and negative behavior to word periodontal health.  

  18. Females With a Mutation in a Nuclear-Encoded Mitochondrial Protein Pay a Higher Cost of Survival Than Do Males in Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    Melvin, Richard G.; Ballard, J. William O.

    2011-01-01

    Males and females age at different rates in a variety of species, but the mechanisms underlying the difference is not understood. In this study, we investigated sex-specific costs of a naturally occurring mildly deleterious deletion (DTrp85, DVal86) in cytochrome c oxidase subunit 7A (cox7A) in Drosophila simulans. We observed that females and males homozygous for the mutation had 30% and 26% reduced Cox activity, respectively, compared with wild type. Furthermore, 4-day-old females had 34%–4...

  19. Relationship Between the Relative Age Effect and Lengths of Professional Careers in Male Japanese Baseball Players: a Retrospective Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Hiroki

    2017-12-01

    The mechanisms underlying the relative age effect in sport events have been investigated for more than two decades. The present study focused on the relationship between the relative age effect and lengths of professional careers among professional male Japanese baseball players. The birth dates of players and lengths of professional careers were collected from an official publication, and data were divided into four quarters (Q1: April-June; Q2: July-September; Q3: October-December; Q4: January-March of the following year) grouped by 3 years. Based on the data for Q4, the expected numbers for the lengths of professional careers were calculated for Q1, Q2, and Q3. The number of players with professional careers of more than 19 years was significantly smaller in Q4 than in Q1, Q2, and Q3. The relative age effect among professional male Japanese baseball players was associated with the lengths of professional careers. Relative age appears to be a very important factor for the development of expertise among male Japanese baseball players and involves long-term disadvantages after becoming professional players.

  20. Age-related differences in working hours among male and female GPs: an SMS-based time use study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hassel, Daniël; van der Velden, Lud; de Bakker, Dinny; Batenburg, Ronald

    2017-12-19

    In several countries, the number of hours worked by general practitioners (GPs) has decreased, raising concern about current and impending workforce shortages. This shorter working week has been ascribed both to the feminisation of the workforce and to a younger generation of GPs who prefer more flexible working arrangements. There is, however, limited insight into how the impact of these determinants interact. We investigated the relative importance of differences in GPs' working hours in relation to gender, age, and employment position. An analysis was performed on real-time monitoring data collected by sending SMS text messages to 1051 Dutch GPs, who participated during a 1-week time use study. We used descriptive statistics, independent sample t-tests, and one-way ANOVA analysis to compare the working time of different GP groups. A path analysis was conducted to examine the difference in working time by gender, age, employment position, and their combinations. Female GPs worked significantly fewer hours than their male peers. GPs in their 50s worked the highest number of hours, followed by GPs age 60 and older. GPs younger than 40 worked the lowest number of hours. This relationship between working hours and age was not significantly different for women and men. As shown by path analysis, female GPs consistently worked fewer hours than their male counterparts, regardless of their age and employment position. The relationship between age and working hours was largely influenced by gender and employment position. The variation in working hours among GPs can be explained by the combination of gender, age, and employment position. Gender appears to be the most important predictor as the largest part of the variation in working hours is explained by a direct effect of this variable. It has previously been reported that the difference in working hours between male and female GPs had decreased over time. However, our findings suggest that gender remains a critical

  1. Age Differences in the Association of Social Support and Mental Health in Male U.S. Veterans: Results From the National Health and Resilience in Veterans Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Melissa R; Monin, Joan K; Mota, Natalie; Pietrzak, Robert H

    2016-04-01

    To examine the associations between multiple aspects of social support-perceived support, structural support, and community integration-and mental health difficulties in younger and older male veterans. Drawing from Socioemotional Selectivity Theory (SST), we hypothesized that greater support would be more strongly negatively related to mental health difficulties in older than younger veterans. Cross-sectional Web survey of younger and older male veterans recruited from a contemporary, nationally representative sample of veterans residing in the United States. Data were drawn from the National Health and Resilience in Veterans Study. Participants were 290 younger male veterans (mean age: 37.0 years, SD: 6.9, range: 21-46) and 326 older male veterans (mean age: 81.7 years, SD: 3.2, range: 78-96). Participants completed measures of sociodemographic and military characteristics, perceived and structural social support, community integration, and mental health difficulties. In contrast to SST, higher perceived support was associated with fewer mental health difficulties in younger but not older veterans. In line with SST, community integration was associated with fewer mental health difficulties in older but not younger veterans. Structural support was not associated with mental health difficulties in either group. Results of this study provide mixed support for SST and suggest that different aspects of social support may help promote the mental health of younger and older male U.S. veterans. Promotion of community engagement may help promote mental health in older veterans, whereas promotion of functional social support may help promote mental health in younger veterans. Copyright © 2016 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. All rights reserved.

  2. STUTERING WITH MALE CHILDREN IN REGARD TO FEMALE ONES AT THE AGE OF SIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna STEPANOVSKA

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available This work presents opinions and data in regard to shuttering as a syndrome of speech, psychological, philosophical and sociological manifestations. The sublimated results, quantitatively presented refer to conclusion that stuttering is more frequent with male than with female children.

  3. Working Long Hours is Associated with Higher Prevalence of Diabetes in Urban Male Chinese Workers: The Rosai Karoshi Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayama, Jun; Li, Jue; Munakata, Masanori

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the relationship between number of weekly working hours and the prevalence of diabetes in the urban Chinese population. Data regarding anthropometric measurements, fasting blood glucose level and number of hours worked per week were collected from 2228 workers in Shanghai, China (Mage  = 44 years; 64% men). Participants were divided into three groups according to the number of hours worked per week (worked ≥55 h per week compared with those who worked working long hours could be a risk factor for diabetes in Chinese male workers. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. The effect of caffeine on working memory load-related brain activation in middle-aged males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaassen, Elissa B; de Groot, Renate H M; Evers, Elisabeth A T; Snel, Jan; Veerman, Enno C I; Ligtenberg, Antoon J M; Jolles, Jelle; Veltman, Dick J

    2013-01-01

    Caffeine is commonly consumed in an effort to enhance cognitive performance. However, little is known about the usefulness of caffeine with regard to memory enhancement, with previous studies showing inconsistent effects on memory performance. We aimed to determine the effect of caffeine on working memory (WM) load-related activation during encoding, maintenance and retrieval phases of a WM maintenance task using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). 20 healthy, male, habitual caffeine consumers aged 40-61 years were administered 100 mg of caffeine in a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover design. Participants were scanned in a non-withdrawn state following a workday during which caffeinated products were consumed according to individual normal use (range = 145-595 mg). Acute caffeine administration was associated with increased load-related activation compared to placebo in the left and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during WM encoding, but decreased load-related activation in the left thalamus during WM maintenance. These findings are indicative of an effect of caffeine on the fronto-parietal network involved in the top-down cognitive control of WM processes during encoding and an effect on the prefrontal cortico-thalamic loop involved in the interaction between arousal and the top-down control of attention during maintenance. Therefore, the effects of caffeine on WM may be attributed to both a direct effect of caffeine on WM processes, as well as an indirect effect on WM via arousal modulation. Behavioural and fMRI results were more consistent with a detrimental effect of caffeine on WM at higher levels of WM load, than caffeine-related WM enhancement. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Cognitive Enhancers'. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Hypogonadism in the Aging Male Diagnosis, Potential Benefits, and Risks of Testosterone Replacement Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Prasanth N. Surampudi; Christina Wang; Ronald Swerdloff

    2012-01-01

    Hypogonadism in older men is a syndrome characterized by low serum testosterone levels and clinical symptoms often seen in hypogonadal men of younger age. These symptoms include decreased libido, erectile dysfunction, decreased vitality, decreased muscle mass, increased adiposity, depressed mood, osteopenia, and osteoporosis. Hypogonadism is a common disorder in aging men with a significant percentage of men over 60 years of age having serum testosterone levels below the lower limits of young...

  6. Effects of age on marathon finishing time among male amateur runners in Stockholm Marathon 1979–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niklas Lehto

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: These outcomes indicate that the effect of age on performance in endurance running events is clearly measurable, quantifiable, and possible to describe. At the same time the findings indicate that other factors, such as training, affect the performance more. A comparison with the elite showed peak performance at the same age, but the rates of change in performance with age, improvement as well as degradation, was found to be higher among the elite.

  7. Forecasting the timing of peak mandibular growth in males by using skeletal age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, W Stuart; Baumrind, Sheldon; Popovich, Frank; Jorgensen, Gertrud

    2007-03-01

    It is generally believed that the orthodontic treatment of a patient with a Class II malocclusion and a small mandible is enhanced by good growth at puberty, so that the timing of peak mandibular growth at puberty becomes of interest. To test the belief that skeletal age, whether early, average, or late, can be used to predict the timing of maximum growth of the mandible, whether early, average, or late, the predictive relationship between skeletal age and peak mandibular growth velocity (PMdV) at puberty was evaluated in 94 boys by using their longitudinal records from 4 to 18 years of age. Skeletal age was determined for each subject at ages 9 through 14 by using the method of Greulich and Pyle. At age 9, the Greulich and Pyle measurements predicted that 30 of the 94 subjects would have delayed PMdV equal to or exceeding 1 SD (of the mean age for PMdV), and 10 would have advanced PMdV equal to or exceeding 1 SD. When the actual age of PMdV was determined retrospectively from plots of annual mandibular growth increments, it was found that only 4 of the 30 in the delayed group had actually experienced delays in PMdV, and only 2 of the 10 in the advanced group had experienced accelerated PMdV. Skeletal age is not a reliable predictor of the timing of PMdV.

  8. Effects of aquatic balance training and detraining on neuromuscular performance and balance in healthy middle aged male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Abbasi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Since disorders in neuromuscular performance and imbalance are the main cause of fallingamong the middle aged, their aspects including rehabilitation of balance are the main concern theresearchers attend to them. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of eight weeks aquaticbalance training (ABT and detraining on neuromuscular performance and balance in healthy middle agedmale.Materials and Methods: Thirty adult male subjects were randomized into two groups of ABT and control(n=15 per group. Berg balance scale, Timed Up and Go and 5-Chair stand tests, as they are indicators ofbalance and neuromuscular performance in older subjects, were taken as pretest and post-test and after four,six, and eight weeks of detraining as well. The ABT consisted of the sessions that lasted one hour, threetimes a week, for eight weeks.Results: Results showed that neuromuscular performance and balance improved significantly in ABTgroup (P 0.05.Conclusion: ABT can affect neuromuscular performance and balance in healthy middle aged male, andreduce the probability of falling among them. Moreover, the effects of these training are persistent afterdetraining periods. Hence, ABT can be recommended as an effective neuromuscular and balance training inhealthy middle aged male

  9. Effect of Age and Caponization on Blood Parameters and Bone Development of Male Native Chickens in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Cheng-Yung; Hsu, Jenn-Chung; Wan, Tien-Chun

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was carried out to determine the effect of age and caponization on the development blood and bone characteristics development in male country chickens in Taiwan. A total of two hundred 8-wk-old LRI native chicken cockerels, Taishi meat No.13 from LRI-COA, were used as experimental animals. Cockerels were surgically caponized at 8 wks of age. Twelve birds in each group were bled and dressed from 8 wks to 35 wks of age at 1 to 5 wk intervals. The results indicated that the plasma testosterone concentration was significantly (pTaiwan. Also, tibia length and cortical thickness peaked at 22 wks of age. However, the peak of bone strength was found at 26 wks of age. These findings support the assertion that androgens can directly influence bone composition fluxes in male chickens. Caponization caused a significant increase in bone loss at 4 wks post treatment, which reflected bone cell damage, and demonstrated reductions in the relative tibia weight, breaking strength, cortical thickness, bone ash, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium contents, and increases in plasma ionized calcium, inorganic phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase concentration. PMID:25049655

  10. Examining the relationship between relative age, competition level, and dropout rates in male youth ice-hockey players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemez, S; Baker, J; Horton, S; Wattie, N; Weir, P

    2014-12-01

    The relative age effect suggests that athletes born in the first two quartiles of a given selection year experience a selection advantage and therefore a greater opportunity for success. We describe two studies examining the relationship between relative age, competition level, and dropout rates of Ontario Minor Hockey Association male ice-hockey players from ages 10 to 15 years (n = 14 325). In Study 1, dropout was highest among players born in quartiles three and four [χ(2) (3) = 16.32, P < 0.05; w = 0.06], while Study 2 found dropped out players to have less movement between competition levels compared to retained players. This study confirms a relationship between relative age and dropout from ice-hockey and adds further depth to our understanding of this persistent phenomenon. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Influences of obstructive sleep apnea on blood pressure variability might not be limited only nocturnally in middle-aged hypertensive males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Liang; Heizhati, Mulalibieke; Yao, Xiaoguang; Wang, Yingchun; Abulikemu, Suofeiya; Zhang, Delian; Zhou, Ling; Hong, Jing; Li, Nanfang

    2018-05-01

    In this cross-sectional study, we analyzed the potential association between sleep measures and blood pressure variability. Ninety-three middle-aged hypertensive males, who underwent polysomnography and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, were enrolled. Blood pressure variability was assessed by blood pressure standard deviation. Obstructive sleep apnea (apnea hypopnea index ≥ 15) was diagnosed in 52 (55.91%) patients. Mean body mass index and age were 27.77 ± 3.11 kg/m 2 and 44.05 ± 8.07 years, respectively. Hypertensive males with obstructive sleep apnea showed significantly higher 24-h, diurnal, and nocturnal diastolic blood pressure variability, compared to those without obstructive sleep apnea. While total cohort was further divided into two groups using the median of oxygen desaturation index, another indicator for severity of OSA, significant differences were also observed in 24-h, diurnal, and nocturnal diastolic blood pressure variability between two groups with higher and lower oxygen desaturation index. While subjects were also divided into two groups via the mean of sleep stage 1, hypertensive males with sleep stage 1 ≥ 8.1% showed significantly higher diurnal diastolic blood pressure variability than those with sleep stage 1 blood pressure variability; oxygen desaturation index of 3% with 24-h diastolic, diurnal, and nocturnal diastolic blood pressure; and sleep stage 1 was with 24-h and with diurnal diastolic blood pressure variability in all study subjects. Effects of obstructive sleep apnea on blood pressure variability may not be limited nocturnally.

  12. Brain SERT Expression of Male Rats Is Reduced by Aging and Increased by Testosterone Restitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Jaime Herrera-Pérez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In preclinical and clinical studies aging has been associated with a deteriorated response to antidepressant treatment. We hypothesize that such impairment is explained by an age-related decrease in brain serotonin transporter (SERT expression associated with low testosterone (T levels. The objectives of this study were to establish (1 if brain SERT expression is reduced by aging and (2 if the SERT expression in middle-aged rats is increased by T-restitution. Intact young rats (3–5 months and gonad-intact middle-aged rats with or without T-restitution were used. The identification of the brain SERT expression was done by immunofluorescence in prefrontal cortex, lateral septum, hippocampus, and raphe nuclei. An age-dependent reduction of SERT expression was observed in all brain regions examined, while T-restitution recovered the SERT expression only in the dorsal raphe of middle-aged rats. This last action seems relevant since dorsal raphe plays an important role in the antidepressant action of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. All data suggest that this mechanism accounts for the T-replacement usefulness to improve the response to antidepressants in the aged population.

  13. The impact of age-class and social context on fecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels in free-ranging male giraffes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, T E; Bennett, N C; Burroughs, R; Ganswindt, A

    2018-01-01

    One of the primary sources of perceived stress is the social environment of an animal and the interactions with conspecifics. An essential component of the response to a stressor is the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis, which results amongst others in a temporal increase in circulating glucocorticoid (GC) levels. Giraffes occur in a highly flexible fission-fusion social system and group compositions can change on a daily basis, with bulls establishing an age-related dominance hierarchy and showing a roaming strategy in the search for fertile females. The aim of this study was to non-invasively monitor the influence of different group compositions (mixed sex groups vs. all-male groups) on GC concentrations in free ranging giraffe bulls of different age classes. We collected fecal samples from free-ranging giraffe bulls for 12months in a South African Private Game Reserve to examine age- and social context-related patterns of fecal GC metabolite (fGCM) concentrations. We found that fGCM levels in giraffe bulls are age-class dependent, as well asassociated with changes in the social environment. Independently of the social setting, bulls of the youngest age class exhibited the highest fGCM levels compared to bulls of the other two older age-classes, with differences most pronounced when the bulls are associated in all-male groups. In contrast, an almost reversed picture appears when looking at the fGCM levels of sexually active individuals in mixed sex groups, where highest levels were found for the bulls in the oldest age-class, and the lowest for the bulls in the youngest age-class. The study stresses the importance to taking factors such asage-related status and social settings into account, when interpreting fGCM levels in free ranging giraffes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Skeletal muscles of aged male mice fail to adapt following contractile activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilaki, A; Iwanejko, L M; McArdle, F; Broome, C S; Jackson, M J; McArdle, A

    2003-04-01

    Skeletal muscle adapts rapidly following exercise by the increased production of heat-shock proteins (HSPs). The aim of this study was to examine the ability of muscle from adult and aged mice to produce HSPs following non-damaging exercise. Adult and aged B6XSJL mice were anaesthetized and their hind limbs were subjected to isometric contractions. At different time points, muscles were analysed for HSP production by Western and Northern blotting and by electrophoretic mobility-shift assay. HSP protein and mRNA levels in muscles from adult mice increased significantly following exercise. This was not evident in muscles of aged mice. In contrast, binding of the transcription factor heat-shock factor 1 (HSF1) was not grossly altered in muscles of aged mice compared with adult mice. The data suggest that the inability of muscles of aged mice to produce HSPs appears to be due to alterations during gene transcription.

  15. How Family Support and Internet Self-Efficacy Influence the Effects of E-Learning among Higher Aged Adults--Analyses of Gender and Age Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Regina Ju-chun

    2010-01-01

    Gender and age differences in the effects of e-learning, including students' satisfaction and Internet self-efficacy, have been supported in prior research. What is less understood is how these differences are shaped, especially for higher aged adults. This article examines the utility of family support (tangible and emotional) and Internet…

  16. Resilient protein co-expression network in male orbitofrontal cortex layer 2/3 during human aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabba, Mohan; Scifo, Enzo; Kapadia, Fenika; Nikolova, Yuliya S; Ma, Tianzhou; Mechawar, Naguib; Tseng, George C; Sibille, Etienne

    2017-10-01

    The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is vulnerable to normal and pathologic aging. Currently, layer resolution large-scale proteomic studies describing "normal" age-related alterations at OFC are not available. Here, we performed a large-scale exploratory high-throughput mass spectrometry-based protein analysis on OFC layer 2/3 from 15 "young" (15-43 years) and 18 "old" (62-88 years) human male subjects. We detected 4193 proteins and identified 127 differentially expressed (DE) proteins (p-value ≤0.05; effect size >20%), including 65 up- and 62 downregulated proteins (e.g., GFAP, CALB1). Using a previously described categorization of biological aging based on somatic tissues, that is, peripheral "hallmarks of aging," and considering overlap in protein function, we show the highest representation of altered cell-cell communication (54%), deregulated nutrient sensing (39%), and loss of proteostasis (35%) in the set of OFC layer 2/3 DE proteins. DE proteins also showed a significant association with several neurologic disorders; for example, Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. Notably, despite age-related changes in individual protein levels, protein co-expression modules were remarkably conserved across age groups, suggesting robust functional homeostasis. Collectively, these results provide biological insight into aging and associated homeostatic mechanisms that maintain normal brain function with advancing age. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Toluene effects on the motor activity of adolescent, young-adult, middle-age and senescent male Brown Norway rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPhail, R C; Farmer, J D; Jarema, K A

    2012-01-01

    Life stage is an important risk factor for toxicity. Children and aging adults, for example, are more susceptible to certain chemicals than are young adults. In comparison to children, relatively little is known about susceptibility in older adults. Additionally, few studies have compared toxicant susceptibility across a broad range of life stages. Results are presented for behavioral evaluations of male Brown Norway rats obtained as adolescents (1 month), or young (4 months), middle-age (12 months) and senescent (24 months) adults. Motor activity was evaluated in photocell devices during 30-min sessions. Age-related baseline characteristics and sensitivity to toluene (0, 300, 650, or 1000mg/kg, p.o.) were determined. In Experiment 1, young-adult, middle-age and senescent rats were treated with corn-oil vehicle before five weekly test sessions. Baselines of horizontal and vertical activity decreased with age, but each age-group's averages remained stable across weeks of testing. Baseline activity of older rats was more variable than that of the young adults; older rats were also more variable individually from week to week. Toluene (1000mg/kg) increased horizontal activity proportionately more in senescent rats (ca. 300% of control) than in middle-age or young-adult rats (ca.145-175% of control). Experiment 2 established toluene dose-effect functions in individual adolescent, young-adult, middle-age and senescent rats; each rat received all treatments, counterbalanced across four weekly sessions. Toluene produced dose-related increases in horizontal activity that increased proportionately with age. Experiment 3 replicated the effects of toluene (1000mg/kg) in Experiment 1, showing that toluene-induced increases in horizontal activity were greatest in the oldest rats. Collectively, the results show that aging increased susceptibility to toluene and also increased variability in toluene response. Given the rapid growth of the aged population, further research is

  18. Effects of prolonged agmatine treatment in aged male Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushaidhi, M; Zhang, H; Liu, P

    2013-03-27

    Increasing evidence suggests that altered arginine metabolism contributes to cognitive decline during ageing. Agmatine, decarboxylated arginine, has a variety of pharmacological effects, including the modulation of behavioural function. A recent study demonstrated the beneficial effects of short-term agmatine treatment in aged rats. The present study investigated how intraperitoneal administration of agmatine (40mg/kg, once daily) over 4-6weeks affected behavioural function and neurochemistry in aged Sprague-Dawley rats. Aged rats treated with saline displayed significantly reduced exploratory activity in the open field, impaired spatial learning and memory in the water maze and object recognition memory relative to young rats. Prolonged agmatine treatment improved animals' performance in the reversal test of the water maze and object recognition memory test, and significantly suppressed age-related elevation in nitric oxide synthase activity in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. However, this prolonged supplementation was unable to improve exploratory activity and spatial reference learning and memory in aged rats. These findings further demonstrate that exogenous agmatine selectively improves behavioural function in aged rats. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Relationship of cytokines and bone metabolic markers to osteoporosis in aged males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Nanping; Hu Chengjin; Li Jinhua; Chen Yingjian; Wang Ruishan; Yin Qiuxia

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To observe the relationship of cytokines and bone metabolic markers to osteoporosis in aged men. Methods: Serum interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-6, IL-10, bone glaprotein (BGP), testosterone (T), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), Ca and bone density of aged men with osteoporosis or bone mass loss were assessed and compared with those of middle-aged and aged healthy men. Results: The levels of serum IL-4 and IL-6 increased with severity of osteoporosis and the differences were significant compared with normal controls (P<0.05, P<0.01). The levels of IL-10, BGP, AKP and T decreased at different degrees and also had significant differences compared with normal controls (P<0.05). Bone density of aged men with osteoporosis and bone mass loss was lower than that of middle-aged healthy men (P<0.01), and bone density of aged men with osteoporosis was apparently lower than that of men with bone mass loss (P<0.05). Conclusions: From bone mass loss to osteoporosis, the deteriorating process presents as bone absorption increasing and osteogenesis decreasing. IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10 and other bone metabolic markers may play a role in diagnosis of osteoporosis

  20. Exposing Whiteness in Higher Education: White Male College Students Minimizing Racism, Claiming Victimization, and Recreating White Supremacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Nolan León

    2014-01-01

    This research critically examines racial views and experiences of 12 white men in a single higher education institution via semi-structured interviews. Participants tended to utilize individualized definitions of racism and experience high levels of racial segregation in both their pre-college and college environments. This corresponded to…

  1. Development and Validation of an Older Occupant Finite Element Model of a Mid-Sized Male for Investigation of Age-related Injury Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoell, Samantha L; Weaver, Ashley A; Urban, Jillian E; Jones, Derek A; Stitzel, Joel D; Hwang, Eunjoo; Reed, Matthew P; Rupp, Jonathan D; Hu, Jingwen

    2015-11-01

    The aging population is a growing concern as the increased fragility and frailty of the elderly results in an elevated incidence of injury as well as an increased risk of mortality and morbidity. To assess elderly injury risk, age-specific computational models can be developed to directly calculate biomechanical metrics for injury. The first objective was to develop an older occupant Global Human Body Models Consortium (GHBMC) average male model (M50) representative of a 65 year old (YO) and to perform regional validation tests to investigate predicted fractures and injury severity with age. Development of the GHBMC M50 65 YO model involved implementing geometric, cortical thickness, and material property changes with age. Regional validation tests included a chest impact, a lateral impact, a shoulder impact, a thoracoabdominal impact, an abdominal bar impact, a pelvic impact, and a lateral sled test. The second objective was to investigate age-related injury risks by performing a frontal US NCAP simulation test with the GHBMC M50 65 YO and the GHBMC M50 v4.2 models. Simulation results were compared to the GHBMC M50 v4.2 to evaluate the effect of age on occupant response and risk for head injury, neck injury, thoracic injury, and lower extremity injury. Overall, the GHBMC M50 65 YO model predicted higher probabilities of AIS 3+ injury for the head and thorax.

  2. Dentition and Life History of a 16-year-old Known-age Free-living Male Lion Panthera leo (Linnaeus, 1758 from the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.J. Whyte

    1988-10-01

    Full Text Available Wear in the dentition of a known-age, free-living, 16-year-old male lion is described and compared to existing age-determination techniques. Aspects of his life history are described as they are in some contrast to what is known of male lions' life history strategies.

  3. Prediction of mortality at age 40 in Danish males at high and low risk for alcoholism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knop, Joachim; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Nickel, E.J.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This prospective high-risk study examined the influence of father's alcoholism and other archival-generated measures on premature death. METHOD: Sons of alcoholic fathers (n = 223) and sons of non-alcoholic fathers (n = 106) have been studied from birth to age 40. Archival predictors...... of premature death included father's alcoholism, childhood developmental data, and diagnostic information obtained from the Psychiatric Register and alcoholism clinics. RESULTS: By age 40, 21 of the 329 subjects had died (6.4%), a rate that is more than two times greater than expected. Sons of alcoholic...... fathers were not more likely to die by age 40. Premature death was associated with physical immaturity at 1-year of age and psychiatric/alcoholism treatment. No significant interactions were found between risk and archival measures. CONCLUSION: Genetic vulnerability did not independently predict death...

  4. Evaluation and treatment of erectile dysfunction in the aging male: a mini-review

    OpenAIRE

    Albersen, Maarten; Orabi, Hazem; Lue, Tom F

    2012-01-01

    Before the 20th century, individuals often did not live beyond the reproductive years, and sexuality of the elderly was not an issue. However, in the current era it is known that as life expectancy improves, both men and women are seeking to preserve their sexuality into old age. While the appreciation of sexuality persists with aging, a decline in sexual activity is typically seen with, and can be attributed to both general health problems as well as specific sexual dysfunctions. Erectile dy...

  5. Increased subsequent risk of erectile dysfunction among middle and old age males with chronic osteomyelitis: a nationwide population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H-Y; Chao, C-H; Lin, C-L; Tseng, C-H; Kao, C-H

    2016-07-01

    Chronic inflammation may cause endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis, resulting in subsequent erectile dysfunction (ED). We examined the relationship between chronic osteomyelitis, which is a chronic inflammatory disease, and ED. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using data from the National Health Insurance Research Database. After excluding patients <40 years of age, 677 male patients newly diagnosed with chronic osteomyelitis (COM) from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2011 were identified for the study. The non-osteomyelitis comparison cohort consisted of 2706 male participants. The incidence of ED was 2.66-fold higher in the COM cohort than in the non-osteomyelitis cohort (4.01 vs 1.51 per 10 000 person-years). After adjusting for age and comorbidities of coronary heart disease, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, depression, stroke, diabetes, peripheral vascular disease, chronic kidney disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma, the patients with COM had a 2.82-fold risk of ED (95% confidence interval=1.44-5.56). The incidence of ED increased with that of comorbidities in both cohorts. The highest hazard ratio was in patients between 40 and 59 years of age who had COM. Our data showed, for the first time, that COM is a possible risk factor for the development of ED.

  6. Effect of long-term caloric restriction on brain monoamines in aging male and female Fischer 344 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolta, M G; Holson, R; Duffy, P; Hart, R W

    1989-05-01

    The present study examines the changes in central monoamines and their metabolites in aged male and female rats after long-term caloric restriction. Fischer 344 rats of both sexes (n = 5-10/group) were maintained on one of two dietary regimens: ad libitum NIH 31 diet or 60% by weight of the ad lib. intake (restricted), supplemented with vitamins and minerals. Animals received these diets from the age of 14 weeks until killed at 22.25 months of age. Caudate nucleus (CN), hypothalamus (HYPO), olfactory bulb (OB) and nucleus accumbens (NA) were assayed for content of norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA) and its metabolites (dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, DOPAC, and homovanillic acid, HVA) and serotonin (5-HT) and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) using HPLC/EC. Relative to the ad lib. group, restricted rats of both sex showed significant decreases in NE content in CN, HYPO and OB. DA and 5-HT content were decreased significantly in the CN and HYPO. No significant changes were found in the levels of DA metabolites in all brain regions studied. While the 5-HIAA level was significantly reduced in the HYPO and NA of the female restricted rats, it was increased several-fold in the OB of the male restricted animals. These preliminary results suggest that long-term caloric restriction alters brain monoamine concentrations, an effect which may in turn modify the normal rate of aging.

  7. Subthreshold Depressive Symptoms have a Negative Impact on Cognitive Functioning in Middle-Aged and Older Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevik, Erlend J; Eikeland, Rune A; Lundervold, Astri J

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive aging is associated with a decline on measures of fluid intelligence (gF), whereas crystallized intelligence (gC) tends to remain stable. In the present study we asked if depressive symptoms might contribute to explain the decline on gF in a sample of healthy middle-aged and older adults. The Norwegian sample included 83 females and 42 males (M = 60, SD = 7.9 years). gF was calculated from factor-analysis, including tests of matrix reasoning (WASI), memory function (CVLT-II), processing speed and executive function (CDT; CWIT). gC was derived from a Vocabulary subtest (WASI). Depressive symptoms were assessed by self-reports on Beck's Depression Index (BDI) and ranged from 0 to 21 (M = 6, SD = 4.5). Increased age was correlated with a decline on gF (r = -0.436, p  age and sex in the first step, showed that symptoms of depression significantly contributed to explain decline on gF, F(3, 124) = 16.653, p < 0.001, R? = 0.292, ΔR? = 0.054. The results showed that symptoms of depression were negatively correlated with cognitive functioning in males even when the symptom-level was below clinical threshold. This indicates that minimal symptoms of depression in older men are clinically relevant to address.

  8. Anthropometric and body composition indicators of males and females between ages 20 and 39,9 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cândido Simões Pires Neto

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze anthropometric and body composition variables of males and females aged 20-40 years. The sample was made up of 4 groups: G1, n=70; G3, n=70, males and females aged 20-29,9yo respectively; G2, males=20 and G4, females = 19 aged 30-39,9yo. Subjects were evaluated for height (H, cm, weight (W, kg, skinfolds (SKF, mm, percent fat (%fat and Lean Body Mass (LBM, kg. Body density was estimated according to equations by Petroski (1995 and %fat according to Siri (1961. Descriptive statistics, independent t test and single-sample t test were used for data analysis. Signifi cant differences were found for males on SS and TR SKF, density, %fat and FM between age groups, and for females at calf SKF, and %fat. Signifi cant differences were observed between indicators/mean values from other published reports when compared to this study’s results. In conclusion, males were shown to have much larger variability in all analyzed variables that their female counterparts. RESUMO O objetivo deste foi investigar indicadores antropométricos e da composição corporal de homens e mulheres entre 20 e 39,9 anos de idade. A amostra foi dividida em 4 grupos, sendo G1 (n=70 e G3 (n=70, homens e mulheres de 20 a 29,9 anos, respectivamente; e, G2 (homens, n=20 e G4 (mulheres, n=19, entre 30 e 39,9 anos de idade, sendo analisados nas variáveis estatura (EST, cm, massa corporal (MC, kg e dobras cutâneas (DC, mm. Para estimativa da densidade corporal (D, foi utilizada a equação proposta por Petroski (1995. O cálculo da gordura relativa (%G, foi estimado através da equação de Siri (1961. Usou-se a estatística descritiva, teste “t” para grupos independentes e teste “t” para uma amostra. Foram observadas diferenças signifi cativas entre DC subescapular, tricipital, %G e massa de gordura entre G1 e G2; e entre G3 e G4 em DC de panturrilha medial e %G. Observou-se diferenças signifi cativas entre indicadores/valores m

  9. Subthreshold depressive symptoms have a negative impact on cognitive functioning in middle-aged and older males.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlend Joramo Brevik

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cognitive aging is associated with a decline on measures of fluid intelligence (gF, whereas crystallized intelligence (gC tends to remain stable. In the present study we asked if depressive symptoms might contribute to explain the decline on gF in a sample of healthy, middle-aged and older adults. Method. The Norwegian sample included 83 females and 42 males (M = 60, SD = 7.9 yrs. gF was calculated from factor-analysis, including tests of matrix reasoning (WASI, memory function (California Verbal Learning Test, processing speed and executive function (Cued Discrimination Task; Color-Word Interference Test. gC was derived from a Vocabulary subtest (WASI. Depressive symptoms were assessed by self-reports on Beck’s Depression Index (BDI and ranged from 0 to 21 (M = 6, SD = 4.5. Results. Increased age was correlated with a decline on gF (r=-.436, p<.001, but not gC (r=-.103, p=ns.. The BDI score in the whole sample was correlated with gF (r=-.313, p<.001. A more detailed analysis showed that the BDI score correlated with measures of both gF and gC in males. The correlations were non-significant for females on all measures, with the exception of a measure of processing speed/executive function. A regression analysis including age and sex in the first step, showed that symptoms of depression significantly contributed to explain decline on gF, F(3,124=16.653, p < .001, R² = .292, ∆R² = .054. Discussion. The results showed that symptoms of depression have a negative impact on cognitive functioning in males even when the symptom-level was below clinical threshold. This indicates that minimal symptoms of depression in older men are clinically relevant to address.

  10. Early Menarche is Associated With Preference for Masculine Male Faces and Younger Preferred Age to Have a First Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlota Batres

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available One developmental factor that is associated with variation in reproductive strategy is pubertal timing. For instance, women who experience earlier menarche have their first pregnancy earlier and prefer more masculinized male voices. Early menarche may also lead to preferences for masculine faces, but no study has shown such a link. We therefore investigated the relationships between pubertal timing, reproductive plans, sexual attitudes and behaviors, and masculinity preferences in nulliparous women aged 18–30 from the United Kingdom (N = 10,793. We found that women who experienced earlier menarche reported a younger preferred age to have a first child and showed stronger masculinity preferences. This provides evidence that women experiencing early menarche not only have children earlier but notably plan to have children earlier. Additionally, our findings provide evidence that age of menarche influences partner selection, which is instrumental for the implementation of reproductive strategies.

  11. Girls may have lower levels of maternal measles antibodies and higher risk of subclinical measles infection before the age of measles vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Cesario; Bale, Carlitos; Garly, May-Lill; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Lisse, Ida M; Andersen, Andreas; Eriksson, Mia; Benn, Christine S; Whittle, Hilton; Aaby, Peter

    2009-08-20

    Previous studies have suggested that girls may have lower maternal measles antibody levels than boys. Girls might therefore be more likely to contract measles infection before the normal age of measles vaccination at 9 months of age. In connection with a clinical trial of different measles vaccination strategies, we collected pre-measles vaccination blood samples at 4.5 months of age from two subgroups of children. Samples from these children were used to assess possible differences in maternal antibody levels for boys and girls. At 9 months of age another subgroup of children was sampled before the normal measles vaccination; these samples were used to assess the frequency of subclinical measles infection among boys and girls. We determined measles-specific antibody levels for 812 children at 4.5 months of age and for 896 children at 9 months of age. At 4.5 months of age girls were less likely to have protective maternal antibody levels, the male-female ratio for protective antibody level being 1.23 (1.00-1.51). Among children sampled at 9 months of age, girls were more likely to have protective levels, the female-male ratio for having protective antibody levels being 1.65 (0.98-2.78) (p=0.054) and the geometric mean titre was significantly higher for girls (p=0.007). Children who lived in houses with known measles cases were more likely to have protective levels at 9 months of age even though they had not reported measles infection. Since we had excluded children with known measles infection, girls may have been more likely to have had subclinical measles infection. Combining clinical and possible subclinical measles infection, girls tended to be more likely than boys to contract measles infection before 9 months of age, the RR being 1.36 (0.97-1.90). Girls lost maternal measles antibodies more rapidly than boys and well before 9 months of age. They may be more likely to contract subclinical measles infection before the current age of measles vaccination.

  12. Low vitamin D and the risk of developing chronic widespread pain: results from the European male ageing study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Paul S; Pye, Stephen R; Beth, John Mc; Lee, David M; Tajar, Abdelouahid; Bartfai, Gyorgy; Boonen, Steven; Bouillon, Roger; Casanueva, Felipe; Finn, Joseph D; Forti, Gianni; Giwercman, Aleksander; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo T; Kula, Krzysztof; Pendleton, Neil; Punab, Margus; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Wu, Frederick C; O'Neill, Terence W

    2016-01-16

    The association between low levels of vitamin D and the occurrence of chronic widespread pain (CWP) remains unclear. The aim of our analysis was to determine the relationship between low vitamin D levels and the risk of developing CWP in a population sample of middle age and elderly men. Three thousand three hundred sixty nine men aged 40-79 were recruited from 8 European centres for a longitudinal study of male ageing, the European Male Ageing Study. At baseline participants underwent assessment of lifestyle, health factors, physical characteristics and gave a fasting blood sample. The occurrence of pain was assessed at baseline and follow up (a mean of 4.3 years later) by shading painful sites on a body manikin. The presence of CWP was determined using the ACR criteria for fibromyalgia. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-(OH) D) was assessed by radioimmunoassay. Logistic regression was used to determine the relationship between baseline vitamin D levels and the new occurrence of CWP. Two thousand three hundred thirteen men, mean age 58.8 years (SD = 10.6), had complete pain and vitamin data available and contributed to this analysis. 151 (6.5%) developed new CWP at follow up and 577 (24.9%) were pain free at both time points, the comparator group. After adjustment for age and centre, physical performance and number of comorbidities, compared to those in upper quintile of 25-(OH) D ( ≥36.3 ng/mL), those in the lowest quintile (BMI (OR = 1.67; 95% CI = 0.93-3.02) or depression (OR = 1.77; 95% CI = 0.98-3.21), however rendered the association non-significant. Low vitamin D is linked with the new occurrence of CWP, although this may be explained by underlying adverse health factors, particularly obesity and depression.

  13. Catch-up growth assessment in long-term physically neglected and emotionally abused preschool age male children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliván, Gonzalo

    2003-01-01

    To assess the catch-up growth of long-term physically neglected and emotionally abused preschool male children who have entered foster residential care and remained 1 year after initial placement. Longitudinal study over a 7-year period (1994-2001). So that a child was eligible for the study, three selection criteria were included: (1) aged between 24 and 48 months at the time of entry into residential facility, (2) having suffered both long-term (more than 6 months) physically neglected and emotionally abused, and (3) having stayed in foster care for 1 year after initial placement. Weight, height, and head circumference were established upon entry and re-assessed 1 year after initial placement, calculating the annual growth velocity. Results were compared with normal regional longitudinal standards of reference (Z score). Student's t test was used to assess statistically significant differences. During the study period, 87 children aged between 24 and 48 months (54 male/33 female) were admitted to residential facility after having suffered both long-term physical neglect and emotional abuse. Nevertheless, only 20 children (23% of the total admissions) met the third selection criteria (having remained 1 year after initial placement). Of these children, all were males and at placement they were between the ages of 30 and 42 months, with an average age of 36 months (1.9 SD). At placement, the analyzed parameters were below the normal standards, showing a statistically significant difference for height (Z score = -1.29; p = .008) and weight (Z score = -.75; p = .038). The annual growth velocity for all parameters was above the normal standards showing a statistically significant difference for height (Z score = +1.43; p = .009). One year after initial placement, the significant differences for height (Z score = -.68; p = .102) and weight (Z score = -.31; p = .435) with respect to the normal standards disappeared, though still remained below, showing a significant

  14. The Effects of Dietary Macronutrient Balance on Skin Structure in Aging Male and Female Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Aisling C.; Ruohonen, Kari; Raubenheimer, David; Ballard, J. William O.; Le Couteur, David G.; Nicholls, Caroline; Li, Zhe; Maitz, Peter K. M.; Wang, Yiwei; Simpson, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition influences skin structure; however, a systematic investigation into how energy and macronutrients (protein, carbohydrate and fat) affects the skin has yet to be conducted. We evaluated the associations between macronutrients, energy intake and skin structure in mice fed 25 experimental diets and a control diet for 15 months using the Geometric Framework, a novel method of nutritional analysis. Skin structure was associated with the ratio of dietary macronutrients eaten, not energy intake, and the nature of the effect differed between the sexes. In males, skin structure was primarily associated with protein intake, whereas in females carbohydrate intake was the primary correlate. In both sexes, the dermis and subcutaneous fat thicknesses were inversely proportional. Subcutaneous fat thickness varied positively with fat intake, due to enlarged adipocytes rather than increased adipocyte number. We therefore demonstrated clear interactions between skin structure and macronutrient intakes, with the associations being sex-specific and dependent on dietary macronutrient balance. PMID:27832138

  15. Male sexual behavior and catecholamine levels in the medial preoptic area and arcuate nucleus in middle-aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Joyce C; Tsai, Houng-Wei; Yeh, Kuei-Ying; Tai, Mei-Yun; Tsai, Yuan-Feen

    2007-12-12

    The correlation between male sexual behavior and catecholamine levels in the medial preoptic area (MPOA) and arcuate nucleus (ARN) was studied in middle-aged rats. Male rats (18-19 months) were assigned to three groups: (1) Group MIE, consisting of rats showing mounts, intromissions, and ejaculations; (2) Group MI, consisting of rats showing mounts and intromissions, but no ejaculation; and (3) Group NC, consisting of non-copulators showing no sexual behavior. Young adult rats (4-5 months) displaying complete copulatory behavior were used as the control group. Dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) tissue levels in the MPOA and ARN were measured by high pressure liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. There were no differences between MIE rats and young controls in DA or NE tissue levels in these two brain areas. Furthermore, no differences were found between the MI and NC groups in DA or NE tissue levels in either the MPOA or ARN. DA tissue levels in the MPOA and ARN in the MI and NC groups were significantly lower than those in the MIE group. NE tissue levels in the MPOA of the NC group were significantly lower than those in the MIE group, but no differences in NE tissue levels in the ARN were seen between the four groups. These results suggest that, in male rats, complete male sexual performance is related to tissue levels of DA, but not of NE, in the MPOA and/or ARN. Furthermore, ejaculatory behavior might be associated with critical DA tissue levels in the MPOA and/or ARN in middle-aged rats.

  16. Suicidal behaviour in Indigenous compared to non-Indigenous males in urban and regional Australia: Prevalence data suggest disparities increase across age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Gregory; Pirkis, Jane; Arabena, Kerry; Currier, Dianne; Spittal, Matthew J; Jorm, Anthony F

    2017-12-01

    We compare the prevalence of suicidal thoughts and attempts between Indigenous and non-Indigenous males in urban and regional Australia, and examine the extent to which any disparity between Indigenous and non-Indigenous males varies across age groups. We used data from the baseline wave of The Australian Longitudinal Study on Male Health (Ten to Men), a large-scale cohort study of Australian males aged 10-55 years residing in urban and regional areas. Indigenous identification was determined through participants self-reporting as Aboriginal, Torres Strait Islander or both. The survey collected data on suicidal thoughts in the preceding 2 weeks and lifetime suicide attempts. A total of 432 participants (2.7%) identified as Indigenous and 15,425 as non-Indigenous (97.3%). Indigenous males were twice as likely as non-Indigenous males to report recent suicidal thoughts (17.6% vs 9.4%; odds ratio = 2.1, p age groups, but a significant gap emerged among men aged 30-39 years and was largest among men aged 40-55 years. Similarly, the prevalence of lifetime suicide attempts did not differ between Indigenous and non-Indigenous males in the 14- to 17-years age group, but a disparity emerged in the 18- to 24-years age group and was even larger among males aged 25 years and older. Our paper presents unique data on suicidal thoughts and attempts among a broad age range of Indigenous and non-Indigenous males. The disparity in the prevalence of suicidal thoughts increased across age groups, which is in contrast to the large disparity between the Indigenous and non-Indigenous suicide rates in younger age groups.

  17. Relative age effect and the re-selection of Danish male handball players for national teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wrang, Christian Meedom; Rossing, Niels Nygaard; Lilholt, Rasmus Mølgaard

    2018-01-01

    The relationship between date of birth and expertise in various sports is well established, and known as the relative age effect (RAE). However, new results in e.g. Canadian Hockey (Gibbs et al., 2012) and British cricket and rugby (McCarthy & Collins, 2014; McCarthy, Collins, & Court, 2015) have...

  18. Age of Onset and Sexual Orientation in Transsexual Males and Females

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieder, T.O.; Herff, M.; Cerwenka, S.; Preuss, W.F.; Cohen-Kettenis, P.T.; De Cuypere, G.; Haraldsen, I.R.H.; Richter-Appelt, H.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. With regard to transsexual developments, onset age (OA) appears to be the starting point of different psychosexual pathways. Aim. To explore differences between transsexual adults with an early vs. late OA. Methods. Data were collected within the European Network for the Investigation

  19. Effect of castration at 10 months of age on growth physiology and behavior of male feral beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Rodríguez, Javier; Albertí, Pere; Ripoll, Guillermo; Blasco, Isabel; Sanz, Albina

    2017-07-01

    This study compared the growth performance, plasma testosterone and cortisol levels around castration at 10 months of age, and plasma insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I concentration and flight speed, in intact bulls and steers from 10 to 21 months of age in a feral Spanish breed. Fourteen bulls (366.5 ± 48.5 kg live weight) were assigned at random to one of two treatments: surgically castrated (steers) or intact (bulls), and submitted to an identical fattening period. Steers reared until heavy live weights (21 months of age) grew slowly and had lower plasma IGF-I concentrations than intact bulls. These differences were mainly highlighted the month after surgery (11 months of age) and the last part of the fattening period (from 19 to 21 months of age). After surgical castration (11 and 12 months of age), steers showed a tendency to display greater flight speed values than intact bulls but baseline plasma cortisol concentration did not differ between groups at this time. At the end, steers and bulls reached nearly similar temperament, as flight speed did not differ between them. The results confirm the role of IGF-I as a key anabolic hormone in male beef cattle and thus it may reflect growth differences due to altered sex steroids production. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  20. Exercise capacity and all-cause mortality in male veterans with hypertension aged ≥70 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faselis, Charles; Doumas, Michael; Pittaras, Andreas; Narayan, Puneet; Myers, Jonathan; Tsimploulis, Apostolos; Kokkinos, Peter

    2014-07-01

    Aging, even in otherwise healthy subjects, is associated with declines in muscle mass, strength, and aerobic capacity. Older individuals respond favorably to exercise, suggesting that physical inactivity plays an important role in age-related functional decline. Conversely, physical activity and improved exercise capacity are associated with lower mortality risk in hypertensive individuals. However, the effect of exercise capacity in older hypertensive individuals has not been investigated extensively. A total of 2153 men with hypertension, aged ≥70 years (mean, 75 ± 4) from the Washington, DC, and Palo Alto Veterans Affairs Medical Centers, underwent routine exercise tolerance testing. Peak workload was estimated in metabolic equivalents (METs). Fitness categories were established based on peak METs achieved, adjusted for age: very-low-fit, 2.0 to 4.0 METs (n=386); low-fit, 4.1 to 6.0 METs (n=1058); moderate-fit, 6.1 to 8.0 METs (n=495); high-fit >8.0 METs (n=214). Cox proportional hazard models were applied after adjusting for age, body mass index, race, cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular medications, and risk factors. All-cause mortality was quantified during a mean follow-up period of 9.0 ± 5.5 years. There were a total of 1039 deaths or 51.2 deaths per 1000 person-years of follow-up. Mortality risk was 11% lower (hazard ratio, 0.89; 95% confidence interval, 0.86-0.93; Pexercise capacity. When compared with those achieving ≤4.0 METs, mortality risk was 18% lower (hazard ratio, 0.82; 95% confidence interval, 0.70-0.95; P=0.011) for the low-fit, 36% for the moderate-fit (hazard ratio, 0.64; 95% confidence interval, 0.52-0.78; Pexercise capacity is associated with lower mortality risk in elderly men with hypertension. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention: New Mathematical Models for Strategic Demand Creation Prioritizing Subpopulations by Age and Geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankins, Catherine; Warren, Mitchell; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Over 11 million voluntary medical male circumcisions (VMMC) have been performed of the projected 20.3 million needed to reach 80% adult male circumcision prevalence in priority sub-Saharan African countries. Striking numbers of adolescent males, outside the 15-49-year-old age target, have been accessing VMMC services. What are the implications of overall progress in scale-up to date? Can mathematical modeling provide further insights on how to efficiently reach the male circumcision coverage levels needed to create and sustain further reductions in HIV incidence to make AIDS no longer a public health threat by 2030? Considering ease of implementation and cultural acceptability, decision makers may also value the estimates that mathematical models can generate of immediacy of impact, cost-effectiveness, and magnitude of impact resulting from different policy choices. This supplement presents the results of mathematical modeling using the Decision Makers' Program Planning Tool Version 2.0 (DMPPT 2.0), the Actuarial Society of South Africa (ASSA2008) model, and the age structured mathematical (ASM) model. These models are helping countries examine the potential effects on program impact and cost-effectiveness of prioritizing specific subpopulations for VMMC services, for example, by client age, HIV-positive status, risk group, and geographical location. The modeling also examines long-term sustainability strategies, such as adolescent and/or early infant male circumcision, to preserve VMMC coverage gains achieved during rapid scale-up. The 2016-2021 UNAIDS strategy target for VMMC is an additional 27 million VMMC in high HIV-prevalence settings by 2020, as part of access to integrated sexual and reproductive health services for men. To achieve further scale-up, a combination of evidence, analysis, and impact estimates can usefully guide strategic planning and funding of VMMC services and related demand-creation strategies in priority countries. Mid-course corrections

  2. Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention: New Mathematical Models for Strategic Demand Creation Prioritizing Subpopulations by Age and Geography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Hankins

    Full Text Available Over 11 million voluntary medical male circumcisions (VMMC have been performed of the projected 20.3 million needed to reach 80% adult male circumcision prevalence in priority sub-Saharan African countries. Striking numbers of adolescent males, outside the 15-49-year-old age target, have been accessing VMMC services. What are the implications of overall progress in scale-up to date? Can mathematical modeling provide further insights on how to efficiently reach the male circumcision coverage levels needed to create and sustain further reductions in HIV incidence to make AIDS no longer a public health threat by 2030? Considering ease of implementation and cultural acceptability, decision makers may also value the estimates that mathematical models can generate of immediacy of impact, cost-effectiveness, and magnitude of impact resulting from different policy choices. This supplement presents the results of mathematical modeling using the Decision Makers' Program Planning Tool Version 2.0 (DMPPT 2.0, the Actuarial Society of South Africa (ASSA2008 model, and the age structured mathematical (ASM model. These models are helping countries examine the potential effects on program impact and cost-effectiveness of prioritizing specific subpopulations for VMMC services, for example, by client age, HIV-positive status, risk group, and geographical location. The modeling also examines long-term sustainability strategies, such as adolescent and/or early infant male circumcision, to preserve VMMC coverage gains achieved during rapid scale-up. The 2016-2021 UNAIDS strategy target for VMMC is an additional 27 million VMMC in high HIV-prevalence settings by 2020, as part of access to integrated sexual and reproductive health services for men. To achieve further scale-up, a combination of evidence, analysis, and impact estimates can usefully guide strategic planning and funding of VMMC services and related demand-creation strategies in priority countries. Mid

  3. Vitex agnus-castus essential oil affects thyroid C cells and bone metabolism in middle-aged male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelić Jasmina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ageing in men is accompanied by an increased occurrence of osteoporosis, but traditional hormonal replacement therapy elevates the risk of developing endocrine cancer. Vitex agnus-castus L. (Vac essential oil is commonly used as an alternative therapy for ageing symptoms in both men and women. It is known that calcitonin (CT, thyroid C cell hormone, inhibits bone resorption. The purpose of this experimental study was to investigate the influence of Vac essential oil administration on the immunohistomorphometric features of thyroid C cells and bone metabolism in 16-month-old male Wistar rats. The first group of animals (n=8 was treated subcutaneously (s.c. with 60 mg/kg of Vac essential oil once a day for 3 weeks. Control animals (n=8 received sterile olive oil s.c. by the same schedule. After Vac treatment significant increases (p<0.05 were found in the volume of C cells (by 10% and serum CT level (by 27% compared with the controls. Serum osteocalcin (OC and calcium (Ca2+ levels were 31% and 8% lower (p<0.05 respectively, in comparison with the control group. These are the first experimental results suggesting that Vac essential oil stimulates thyroid C cells activity and decreases bone turnover in middle-aged male rats. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173009

  4. Pathological Outcomes in Kidney and Brain in Male Fischer Rats Given Dietary Ochratoxin A, Commencing at One Year of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantle, Peter G.; Nolan, Christopher C.

    2010-01-01

    Malignant renal carcinoma, manifest in morbid ageing rats, is the striking component of an otherwise silent response after about nine months of exposure to ochratoxin A in the first year of life (daily intake ~100-250 µg/kg body weight). Reasons for the long latency are unclear, as is whether there would be a similar carcinogenic response if toxin exposure started at one year of age. Therefore, 24 male Fischer rats were given 100 µg ochratoxin A as a daily dietary contaminant for 35 weeks from age 50 weeks. Plasma ochratoxin A concentration reached a maximum value of ~8 µg/mL within one month of starting the toxin regimen. No renal carcinomas occurred. Four renal adenomas, two of which were only microscopic, were found among the six rats surviving for 110 weeks. The findings raise new questions about a difference between young adults and mature adults in sensitivity of male rats to the ochratoxin A-induced DNA damage necessary for renal carcinogenesis. A pilot histological study of perfuse-fixed brains of the toxin-treated rats showed no gross abnormalities, correlating with the consistent absence of behavioral or neurological disorders from chronic ochratoxin A exposure regimens in the range 100-250 µg/kg/day during the second half of life. Reasoned questioning concerning ochratoxin A as a neurotoxic mycotoxin is made. PMID:22069628

  5. Pathological Outcomes in Kidney and Brain in Male Fischer Rats Given Dietary Ochratoxin A, Commencing at One Year of Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter G. Mantle

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Malignant renal carcinoma, manifest in morbid ageing rats, is the striking component of an otherwise silent response after about nine months of exposure to ochratoxin A in the first year of life (daily intake ~100–250 µg/kg body weight. Reasons for the long latency are unclear, as is whether there would be a similar carcinogenic response if toxin exposure started at one year of age. Therefore, 24 male Fischer rats were given 100 µg ochratoxin A as a daily dietary contaminant for 35 weeks from age 50 weeks. Plasma ochratoxin A concentration reached a maximum value of ~8 µg/mL within one month of starting the toxin regimen. No renal carcinomas occurred. Four renal adenomas, two of which were only microscopic, were found among the six rats surviving for 110 weeks. The findings raise new questions about a difference between young adults and mature adults in sensitivity of male rats to the ochratoxin A-induced DNA damage necessary for renal carcinogenesis. A pilot histological study of perfuse-fixed brains of the toxin-treated rats showed no gross abnormalities, correlating with the consistent absence of behavioral or neurological disorders from chronic ochratoxin A exposure regimens in the range 100–250 µg/kg/day during the second half of life. Reasoned questioning concerning ochratoxin A as a neurotoxic mycotoxin is made.

  6. Is Older Age Associated with Higher Self- and Other-Rated ASD Characteristics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lever, Anne G; Geurts, Hilde M

    2018-06-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) characteristics seem to abate over time, but whether this protracts until late adulthood is largely unknown. We cross-sectionally investigated self- and other-reported ASD characteristics of adults with (ASD: N max-self  = 237, N max-other  = 130) and without ASD (COM: N max-self  = 198, N max-other  = 148) aged 19-79 years. Within the ASD group, self-reported ASD characteristics, and sensory sensitivities were highest in middle adulthood, while age was not associated to empathy. Sex differences were also found. However, age-and sex-related differences were not revealed by others and self- and other-report were poorly concordant. These results show that ASD characteristics in adulthood are differently perceived across age, sex, and informants and suggest that it is important to repeatedly assess self-reported ASD characteristics during adulthood.

  7. Comparing calculated free testosterone with total testosterone for screening and diagnosing late-onset hypogonadism in aged males: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhangshun; Liu, Jie; Shi, Xiaohong; Wang, Lihong; Yang, Yan; Tao, Minfang; Fu, Qiang

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study is to compare calculated free testosterone (cFT) and total testosterone (T) in predicting late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) in middle-aged and elderly males. We surveyed a random sample of 608 males between the ages of 45 and 87 years from Shanghai, China. The Aging Male Symptoms (AMS) questionnaire and the Androgen Deficiency in Aging Male (ADAM) questionnaire were completed by the subjects. Testosterone (T), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), albumin, and other blood biochemical indexes were measured in 332 males. The corresponding cFT was obtained using the Vermeulen formula and the correlations between T and cFT were analyzed by SPSS statistical software. Among the 332 males who underwent biochemical evaluation, 289 males (87.0%) was positively screened by the ADAM questionnaire and 232 males (69.9%) by the AMS questionnaire. As suggested by linear regression, cFT exhibited a negative correlation with age in both ADAM+ and AMS+ group, whereas T did not appear to have significant correlation with age. Besides, there were statistically significant differences in cFT (Pmales. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Childhood ADHD and conduct disorder as independent predictors of male alcohol dependence at age 40

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knop, Joachim; Penick, Elizabeth C; Nickel, Elizabeth J

    2009-01-01

    of alcohol misuse was examined. Method: Subjects were selected from a Danish birth cohort (9,125), which included 223 sons of alcoholic fathers (high risk) and 106 matched sons of nonalcoholic fathers (low risk). These subjects have been studied systematically over the past 40 years. They were evaluated...... in their teens (n = 238), later as adults at age 30 (n = 241), and more recently at age 40 (n = 202). At 19-year/20-year follow-ups, an ADHD scale was derived from teacher ratings and a CD scale was derived from a social worker interview. At 30-year and 40-year follow-ups, a psychiatrist used structured...... interviews and criteria from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition, Revised, to quantify lifetime alcoholism severity and to diagnose alcohol-use disorder. Of the original subjects, 110 had complete data for the two childhood measures and the adult alcoholism outcomes...

  9. Age-Related Physical Changes Interfere With Judgments of Male Sexual Orientation From Faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tskhay, Konstantin O; Krendl, Anne C; Rule, Nicholas O

    2016-09-01

    Although studies have shown that sexual orientation can be judged from faces, this research has not considered how age-related differences in perceivers or targets affect such judgments. In the current work, we evaluated whether accuracy differed among young adults (YA) and older adults (OA) for young and old men's faces by recruiting a sample of YA and OA in the lab, a community sample of sexual minority men, and a sample of online participants. We found that OA and YA judged sexual orientation with similar accuracy. Perceptions of gender atypicality mediated the difference in judging older and younger targets' sexual orientation. Although participants used positive affect to correctly discern sexual orientation regardless of target age, perceptions of masculinity were valid only for judgments of YA. © 2016 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  10. Counseling Received by Adolescents Undergoing Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision: Moving Toward Age-Equitable Comprehensive Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevention Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Michelle R; Patel, Eshan U; Dam, Kim H; Packman, Zoe R; Van Lith, Lynn M; Hatzold, Karin; Marcell, Arik V; Mavhu, Webster; Kahabuka, Catherine; Mahlasela, Lusanda; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel; Seifert Ahanda, Kim; Ncube, Getrude; Lija, Gissenge; Bonnecwe, Collen; Tobian, Aaron A R

    2018-04-03

    The minimum package of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) services, as defined by the World Health Organization, includes human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing, HIV prevention counseling, screening/treatment for sexually transmitted infections, condom promotion, and the VMMC procedure. The current study aimed to assess whether adolescents received these key elements. Quantitative surveys were conducted among male adolescents aged 10-19 years (n = 1293) seeking VMMC in South Africa, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe. We used a summative index score of 8 self-reported binary items to measure receipt of important elements of the World Health Organization-recommended HIV minimum package and the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief VMMC recommendations. Counseling sessions were observed for a subset of adolescents (n = 44). To evaluate factors associated with counseling content, we used Poisson regression models with generalized estimating equations and robust variance estimation. Although counseling included VMMC benefits, little attention was paid to risks, including how to identify complications, what to do if they arise, and why avoiding sex and masturbation could prevent complications. Overall, older adolescents (aged 15-19 years) reported receiving more items in the recommended minimum package than younger adolescents (aged 10-14 years; adjusted β, 0.17; 95% confidence interval [CI], .12-.21; P benefits or uptake of HIV testing. These self-reported findings were confirmed during counseling observations. Moving toward age-equitable HIV prevention services during adolescent VMMC likely requires standardizing counseling content, as there are significant age differences in HIV prevention content received by adolescents.

  11. Age-Related Variation in Male Youth Athletes' Countermovement Jump After Plyometric Training: A Meta-Analysis of Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Jason J; Sandercock, Gavin R H; Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Meylan, César M P; Collison, Jay A; Parry, Dave A

    2017-02-01

    Moran, J, Sandercock, GRH, Ramírez-Campillo, R, Meylan, CMP, Collison, J, and Parry, DA. Age-related variation in male youth athletes' countermovement jump after plyometric training: A meta-analysis of controlled trials. J Strength Cond Res 31(2): 552-565, 2017-Recent debate on the trainability of youths has focused on the existence of periods of accelerated adaptation to training. Accordingly, the purpose of this meta-analysis was to identify the age- and maturation-related pattern of adaptive responses to plyometric training in youth athletes. Thirty effect sizes were calculated from the data of 21 sources with studies qualifying based on the following criteria: (a) healthy male athletes who were engaged in organized sport; (b) groups of participants with a mean age between 10 and 18 years; and (c) plyometric-training intervention duration between 4 and 16 weeks. Standardized mean differences showed plyometric training to be moderately effective in increasing countermovement jump (CMJ) height (Effect size = 0.73 95% confidence interval: 0.47-0.99) across PRE-, MID-, and POST-peak height velocity groups. Adaptive responses were of greater magnitude between the mean ages of 10 and 12.99 years (PRE) (ES = 0.91 95% confidence interval: 0.47-1.36) and 16 and 18 years (POST) (ES = 1.02 [0.52-1.53]). The magnitude of adaptation to plyometric training between the mean ages of 13 and 15.99 years (MID) was lower (ES = 0.47 [0.16-0.77]), despite greater training exposure. Power performance as measured by CMJ may be mediated by biological maturation. Coaches could manipulate training volume and modality during periods of lowered response to maximize performance.

  12. Differences in female and male development of the human cerebral cortex from birth to age 16

    OpenAIRE

    Hanlon, Harriet Wehner

    1994-01-01

    This study compares the development of the human cerebral cortex of 224 girls and 284 boys in a series of cross-sectional analyses as measured by EEG coherence on normal children's brains (longisectional design). Correlations of these EEG readings taken from all brain regions between a mean age of 6 months and 16 years yield measures of synaptic communication. Time series of these measures reflect the changing growth patterns across the 16 years. Time series of mean EE...

  13. Morphological, Physiological and Skating Performance Profiles of Male Age-Group Elite Ice Hockey Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allisse, Maxime; Sercia, Pierre; Comtois, Alain-Steve; Leone, Mario

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the evolution of morphological, physiological and skating performance profiles of elite age-group ice hockey players based on repeated measures spread over one season. In addition, the results of fitness tests and training programs performed in off-ice conditions and their relationship with skating performance were analyzed. Eighteen high level age-group ice hockey players (13.1 ± 0.6 years) were assessed off and on-ice at the beginning and at the end of the hockey season. A third evaluation was also conducted at the beginning of the following hockey season. The players were taller, heavier, and showed bone breadths and muscle girths above the reference population of the same age. Muscular variables improved significantly during and between the two hockey seasons (p skating performance tests exhibited significant enhancements during the hockey season, but not during the off-season where some degradation was observed. Finally, weak observed variances (generally skating performance tests indicated important gaps, both in the choice of the off-ice assessment tools as well as in training methods conventionally used. The reflection on the best way to assess and train hockey players certainly deserves to be continued.

  14. Morphological, Physiological and Skating Performance Profiles of Male Age-Group Elite Ice Hockey Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allisse Maxime

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to describe the evolution of morphological, physiological and skating performance profiles of elite age-group ice hockey players based on repeated measures spread over one season. In addition, the results of fitness tests and training programs performed in off-ice conditions and their relationship with skating performance were analyzed. Eighteen high level age-group ice hockey players (13.1 ± 0.6 years were assessed off and on-ice at the beginning and at the end of the hockey season. A third evaluation was also conducted at the beginning of the following hockey season. The players were taller, heavier, and showed bone breadths and muscle girths above the reference population of the same age. Muscular variables improved significantly during and between the two hockey seasons (p < 0.05. However, maximal aerobic power improved only during the off-season. All skating performance tests exhibited significant enhancements during the hockey season, but not during the off-season where some degradation was observed. Finally, weak observed variances (generally <20% of the explained variance between physiological variables measured off-ice and on-ice skating performance tests indicated important gaps, both in the choice of the off-ice assessment tools as well as in training methods conventionally used. The reflection on the best way to assess and train hockey players certainly deserves to be continued.

  15. The hepatic transcriptome of young suckling and aging intrauterine growth restricted male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freije, William A; Thamotharan, Shanthie; Lee, Regina; Shin, Bo-Chul; Devaskar, Sherin U

    2015-04-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction leads to the development of adult onset obesity/metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, stroke, dyslipidemia, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease/steatohepatitis. Continued postnatal growth restriction has been shown to ameliorate many of these sequelae. To further our understanding of the mechanism of how intrauterine and early postnatal growth affects adult health we have employed Affymetrix microarray-based expression profiling to characterize hepatic gene expression of male offspring in a rat model of maternal nutrient restriction in early and late life. At day 21 of life (p21) combined intrauterine and postnatal calorie restriction treatment led to expression changes in circadian, metabolic, and insulin-like growth factor genes as part of a larger transcriptional response that encompasses 144 genes. Independent and controlled experiments at p21 confirm the early life circadian, metabolic, and growth factor perturbations. In contrast to the p21 transcriptional response, at day 450 of life (d450) only seven genes, largely uncharacterized, were differentially expressed. This lack of a transcriptional response identifies non-transcriptional mechanisms mediating the adult sequelae of intrauterine growth restriction. Independent experiments at d450 identify a circadian defect as well as validate expression changes to four of the genes identified by the microarray screen which have a novel association with growth restriction. Emerging from this rich dataset is a portrait of how the liver responds to growth restriction through circadian dysregulation, energy/substrate management, and growth factor modulation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Specific absorbed fractions of energy at various ages from internal photon sources: 7, Adult male

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristy, M.; Eckerman, K.F.

    1987-04-01

    Specific absorbed fractions (PHI's) in various organs of the body (target organs) from sources of monoenergetic photons in various other organs (source organs) are tabulated. In this volume PHI-values are tabulated for an adult male (70-kg Reference Man). These PHI-values can be used in calculating the photon component of the dose-equivalent rate in a given target organ from a given radionuclide that is present in a given source organ. The International Commission on Radiological Protection recognizes that the endosteal, or bone surface, cells are the tissue at risk for bone cancer. We have applied the dosimetry methods developed for beta-emitting radionuclides deposited in bone to follow the transport of secondary electrons that were freed by photon interactions through the microscopic structure of the skeleton. With these methods we can estimate PHI in the endosteal cells and can better estimate PHI in the active marrow; the latter is overestimated with other methods at photon energies below 200 keV. 12 refs., 2 tabs

  17. Adult age differences in prospective memory in the laboratory: are they related to higher stress levels in the elderly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihle, Andreas; Kliegel, Matthias; Hering, Alexandra; Ballhausen, Nicola; Lagner, Prune; Benusch, Julia; Cichon, Anja; Zergiebel, Annekathrin; Oris, Michel; Schnitzspahn, Katharina M

    2014-01-01

    To explain age deficits found in laboratory-based prospective memory (PM) tasks, it has recently been suggested that the testing situation per se may be more stressful for older adults, thereby impairing their performance. To test this assumption, subjective and physiological stress levels were assessed at several times during the experiment in 33 younger and 29 older adults. In addition, half of participants were randomized in a condition where they completed a relaxation intervention before performing a time-based PM task. Results confirmed the age deficit in laboratory PM. Subjective and physiological stress levels showed no age difference and no detrimental association with PM. The intervention successfully reduced stress levels in both age groups but had no effect on PM or the age deficit. In conclusion, data suggest that age deficits usually observed in laboratory PM may not be due to higher stress levels in the older adults.

  18. Body dissatisfaction and the wish for different silhouette is associated with higher adiposity and fat intake in female ballet dancers than male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Camila Lacerda; De Oliveira, Erick Prado; De Sousa, Maysa Vieira; Pimentel, Gustavo D

    2016-01-01

    It is known that behavioral disorders and altered food intake are linked to ballet dancers. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the body composition, dietetic profile, self-perceived body image and social desirability in professional ballet dancers. This study was conducted from April to October 2010 in athletes screened for nutritional evaluation. Anthropometric, dietary, social desirability and self-perceived body image evaluation were performed to attend the aim of study. We found that ballet dancers are highly trained and eutrophic, although female dancers had higher adiposity and fat intake than male dancers. In addition, it was observed low consumption of calcium, dietary fiber, potassium, magnesium and vitamin A. Moreover, 30% of male ballet dancers have a strong desire for social acceptance. When the body image was evaluated by Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ), was reported that 40% of the ballet female dancers have of moderate to severe alteration in body image and 20% of male dancers had slight alteration. Furthermore, the Drawings and Silhouettes Scale showed that 80% of male dancers wish to have a smaller or larger silhouette than the current self-perceived and 60% of the female dancers would like to have a silhouette lower than the self-perceive as current. Collectively, our results shown that most of the dancers were eutrophic, but female athletes have higher adiposity and present strong desire for a different shape of current. Furthermore, was found increased fat intake in female group; however, deficiencies in consumption of dietary fiber, calcium, potassium, magnesium and vitamin A were found in both gender.

  19. The effects of sleep duration on the incidence of cardiovascular events among middle-aged male workers in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamazaki, Yuko; Morikawa, Yuko; Nakamura, Koshi; Sakurai, Masaru; Miura, Katsuyuki; Ishizaki, Masao; Kido, Teruhiko; Naruse, Yuchi; Suwazono, Yasushi; Nakagawa, Hideaki

    2011-09-01

    Although previous epidemiological studies have investigated the relationship between sleep duration and various cardiovascular events, the results have been inconsistent. Accordingly, we conducted a follow-up survey to investigate the relationship between sleep duration and cardiovascular events among male workers, accounting for occupational factors that might confound the true relationship. A total of 2282 male employees aged 35-54 years based in a factory in Japan were followed for 14 years. The risk of cardiovascular events was compared among 4 groups stratified based on sleep duration at baseline (hours). Cardiovascular events included stroke, coronary events and sudden cardiac death. The hazard ratios for events were calculated using a Cox proportional hazards model, with the 7-7.9-hour group serving as a reference. The model was adjusted for potential confounders including traditional cardiovascular risk factors and working characteristics. During 14 years of follow-up, 64 cardiovascular events were recorded including 30 strokes, 27 coronary events and 7 sudden cardiac deaths. After adjustment for possible confounders, the hazard ratios for cardiovascular and coronary events in the hour group were 3.49 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.30-9.40] and 4.95 (95% CI 1.31-18.73), respectively. There was no significant increment in the risk of stroke for any sleep duration groups. Short sleep duration (hours) was a significant risk factor for coronary events in a Japanese male working population.

  20. The nuclear catastrophe of Chernobyl as experienced by 168 male and female probands of various age groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janke, W.; Hueppe, M.

    1987-01-01

    A collective of 168 persons aged 18 to 59 were studied to assess the impact of the Chernobyl reactor accident on how they experience, and react to, incidents. Four groups were made up of 42 persons each (male/female; 18-39-year-olds/40-59-year-olds). As variables, the instantaneous psychic condition as a reaction to the accident, and strategies to cope with stress were studied by psychometric methods. Furthermore a questionnaire on attitudes and behaviour, specially drawn up for the study, was used, whose reliability was confirmed by analyses of the individual items. The Chernobyl nuclear accident, it is found, was felt to be a grave incident and led to a number of reactions in the attitudes and views of people. The very different response of the age and sex groups is considered to be the result of the highest significance. (orig./MG) [de

  1. Sentencing Male Sex Offenders Under the Age of 14: A Law Reform Advocacy Journey in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Wai-Ching Irene; Cheung, Monit; Ma, Anny Kit-Ying

    2015-01-01

    The common law presumption that a boy under the age of 14 is incapable of sexual intercourse has provoked controversial debates in Hong Kong. This article describes a 6-step advocacy journey to examine how community efforts have helped modify this law so that juvenile male sexual offenders under the age of 14 who have committed the crime of having sexual intercourse with underage females can be sentenced to receive appropriate treatment. Seven court cases provided by the magistrates' courts in Hong Kong were used in this advocacy effort for the removal of the presumption in July 2012. Although this effort has yet to reveal signs of effectiveness, it represents greater public awareness about providing rehabilitation appropriate for juvenile sex offenders through a formal sentence. Restorative justice, as opposed to retributive or punitive justice, places an emphasis on rehabilitation of the offender and restoration of victims to a place of wholeness.

  2. Studies on the age of puberty of male camels (Camelus dromedaries) in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Rahim, S E

    1997-07-01

    Aspects of sexual development and attainment of sexual and breeding maturity were studied in two groups of Najdi camels (Mojaheem and Wadah), maintained in stalls under good nutritional conditions. Body weight, testes diameter and degree of penile freedom were recorded weekly. Sexual maturity was assessed by the examination of semen collected by an artificial vagina. Puberty was defined as the stage when the animal was able to produce viable sperms. Mating, followed by strong jerks and ejaculation of mature sperms, was taken to indicate onset of breeding maturity. Mojaheem camels reached sexual maturity at a significantly younger age and heavier weight (164 weeks and 360 kg) than Wadah camels (182 weeks and 336.5 kg) (P penis from preputial adhesions occurred at an average age of 138.6 weeks in both breeds. At the point of sexual maturity, the mean percentage of live spermatozoa was 65.1 +/- 5.2 while percentage of abnormal sperms was 17.6 +/- 2.2; total motility was 40 +/- 16% and progressive motility (48 +/- 2.2% (semen pH range 7.8-8.2). The percentage of live sperm was 65 +/- 1.5 (normal sperms 82 +/- 4). It is suggested that the encouragement of rapid growth during the pubertal period in camels managed under good nutritional and environmental conditions could assist early sexual development and breeding maturity.

  3. Students' Age Difference of Confidence in Using Technology for Learning in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Hon Keung; Cheng, Alison Lai Fong

    2012-01-01

    Some past studies find that older students have more confidence in using technology for learning than younger students but some other studies find the opposite result. However, it is found that there are a few researches studying on the age difference in the perception of using technology for learning in Hong Kong. Therefore, the aim of the study…

  4. Life styles related to coronary artery disease in Saudi males older than 12 years of age life styles related to coronary artery disease in Saudi males older than 12 years of age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlTurki, Yousef Abdullah

    2007-01-01

    The present study highlighted life styles related to coronary artery disease risk factors among patients attending a primary care clinic at King Khalid University Hospital, in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study at a primary care clinic at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, during the period from 18/4/2006 to 13/6/2006. All adult male patients older than 12 years of age who attended one consultant primary care clinic were included in the study. All patients were interviewed by one consultant in family medicine during the study period. The patients were asked about dietary habits, physical activity and type of exercise, and smoking habits. Weight and height was taken for all patients by the nurse in the clinic and body mass index (BMI) was calculated for all patients. The total numbers of participants were 246 patients. The data were analyzed using the Statistical Package of Social Science (SPSS) version 11.5. A p value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Of the 246 male adult patients, 45.4% always consumed vegetables and fruits in their diet, 21.5% exercised on a daily bases, 51.2% exercised sometimes, and 26% did not exercise at all. The type of exercise practiced by active participants was walking (76.5%) and sports (22.9%). Sports included football, basketball, swimming, and other sport club activity. Only 20.7% of the participants had an ideal body weight (BMI<25), 37.4% were overweight (BMI 25 to <30), while 37.7% of the participants were obese (BMI ? 30). 8.9% of the participants were current smokers. Conclusion and recommendation: Overweight and obesity is a common health problem among male adult patients attending a primary care setting. Improved dietary habits (consumption of vegetables and fruits, and minimization of fat and sweets), encouraging exercise and walking, and helping current smokers to quit smoking are essential steps towards improving life styles in the

  5. Physiological and psychological effects of forest therapy on middle-aged males with high-normal blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, Hiroko; Ikei, Harumi; Song, Chorong; Kobayashi, Maiko; Takamatsu, Ako; Miura, Takashi; Kagawa, Takahide; Li, Qing; Kumeda, Shigeyoshi; Imai, Michiko; Miyazaki, Yoshifumi

    2015-02-25

    Time spent walking and relaxing in a forest environment ("forest bathing" or "forest therapy") has well demonstrated anti-stress effects in healthy adults, but benefits for ill or at-risk populations have not been reported. The present study assessed the physiological and psychological effects of forest therapy (relaxation and stress management activity in the forest) on middle-aged males with high-normal blood pressure. Blood pressure and several physiological and psychological indices of stress were measured the day before and approximately 2 h following forest therapy. Both pre- and post-treatment measures were conducted at the same time of day to avoid circadian influences. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP), urinary adrenaline, and serum cortisol were all significantly lower than baseline following forest therapy (ptherapy. These results highlight that forest is a promising treatment strategy to reduce blood pressure into the optimal range and possibly prevent progression to clinical hypertension in middle-aged males with high-normal blood pressure.

  6. Physiological and Psychological Effects of Forest Therapy on Middle-Aged Males with High-Normal Blood Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko Ochiai

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Time spent walking and relaxing in a forest environment (“forest bathing” or “forest therapy” has well demonstrated anti-stress effects in healthy adults, but benefits for ill or at-risk populations have not been reported. The present study assessed the physiological and psychological effects of forest therapy (relaxation and stress management activity in the forest on middle-aged males with high-normal blood pressure. Blood pressure and several physiological and psychological indices of stress were measured the day before and approximately 2 h following forest therapy. Both pre- and post-treatment measures were conducted at the same time of day to avoid circadian influences. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP, urinary adrenaline, and serum cortisol were all significantly lower than baseline following forest therapy (p < 0.05. Subjects reported feeling significantly more “relaxed” and “natural” according to the Semantic Differential (SD method. Profile of Mood State (POMS negative mood subscale scores for “tension-anxiety,” “confusion,” and “anger-hostility,” as well as the Total Mood Disturbance (TMD score were significantly lower following forest therapy. These results highlight that forest is a promising treatment strategy to reduce blood pressure into the optimal range and possibly prevent progression to clinical hypertension in middle-aged males with high-normal blood pressure.

  7. High Aneuploidy Rates Observed in Embryos Derived from Donated Oocytes are Related to Male Aging and High Percentages of Sperm DNA Fragmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier García-Ferreyra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Capsule Male aging effects on aneuploidy rates in embryos. Objective Paternal age is associated with decreasing sperm quality; however, it is unknown if it influences chromosomal abnormalities in embryos. The objective of this study is to evaluate if the aneuploidy rates in embryos are affected by advanced paternal age. Methods A total of 286 embryos, obtained from 32 in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles with donated oocytes in conjunction with preimplantation genetic diagnosis, were allocated according to paternal age in three groups: Group A: ≤39 years (n = 44 embryos; Group B: 40-49 years (n = 154 embryos; and Group C: ≥50 years (n = 88 embryos. Fertilization rates, embryo quality at day 3, blastocyst development, and aneuploidy embryo rates were then compared. Results There was no difference in the seminal parameters (volume, concentration, and motility in the studied groups. Fertilization rate, percentages of zygotes underwent cleavage, and good quality embryos on day 3 were similar between the three evaluated groups. The group of men ≥50 years had significantly more sperm with damaged DNA, low blastocyst development rate, and higher aneuploidy rates in embryos compared to the other two evaluated groups ( P 50 years old.

  8. Student Learning in the Information Age. American Council on Education Series on Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breivik, Patricia Senn

    This book discusses resource-based learning in higher education. One premise of resource-based learning is that as students become able to select their own learning materials from information resources, they become active, independent learners, while professors become learning facilitators in cooperation with librarians and other information…

  9. K/Ar hornblende ages from the higher Himalaya: implications for India-Asia collision and Himalayan metamorphosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorkhabi, R.B.; Stump, A.K.; Jain, A.K.; Manickavasagam, R.M.; Nishimura Susumu

    1993-01-01

    Two amphibolite samples from the Higher Himalayan Crystalline (HHC) belt from the Suru Valley, Zanskar, have yielded Eocene K/Ar hornblende cooling ages between 40 and 45 Ma, thus indicating much older peak metamorphic conditions in northern parts of the Indian Plate. These ages are in conformity with almost identical ages from metamorphic complexes across the Nanga Parbat syntaxis in Pakistan and reveal a 65 to 70-Ma collision phase of the Indian indentor in the NW-Himalaya. (author). 21 refs., 2 figs

  10. RE-LEARNING HIGHER EDUCATION IN THE AGE OF CONVERGENCE: Example of Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loreta ULVYDIENĖ,

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available “Man is the only being who needs education,” and that "Man can only become man by education" (see footnotes 1 ABSTRACT Since May of 1999, 46 European countries have been engaged in reconstructing their higher education systems to bring about a greater degree of “convergence,” i.e. a move toward common reference points and operating procedures to create a European Higher Education Area. Education has always played an important role in the development of Lithuania, with long and strong traditions as a country with highly educated scientists and cutting-edge research in various fields. In April 2009, the Seimas passed a new Law on Science and Studies, which provides for a major reform of higher education. In recent years there has been an increasing focus on the role universities play in the economy and impact they make in promoting innovation and raising international competitiveness. But until recently there has been a prescriptive view of university-business interactions with a narrow focus on technology transfer. Although technology transfer may be important, it is also necessary to focus on the more diverse and varied impacts of business-university knowledge exchange relations. Thus, I discuss changes in higher education that were implemented in Lithuania during the period of 1992-2012, i. e. Student baskets, notorious optimization of university network in Lithuania, the development of Lithuanian science valleys, etc. In my survey I rely upon an IHEP (Institute for Higher Education Policy expert Cliff Adelman’s idea that the Bologna Process is an analogue to the macroeconomic theory of convergence, the ways in which nations move from different stages of development to a more-or-less common platform of performance. Macroeconomic historians have demonstrated time-and-again: nations that learn from other nations grow; those that do not learn do not. Ultimately, I arrive at a conclusion that reforms are essential and indispensable but

  11. The Analysis of Certain Differences in Motor Skills of Sedentary Male Children in the 9-14 Age Group Based on the Biological Maturity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayraktar, Isik; Yaman, Nigar; Zorba, Erdal; Yaman, Metin; Günay, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study consists of the analysis of certain differences in motor skills of male children who are sedentary and in the age group of 9-14, in relation to the biological maturity. 522 sedentary male children from various parts of Turkey participated in this study. Body height and body weight measurements were taken from the participants…

  12. Special Issue: Intellectual Property in the Information Age: Knowledge as Commodity and its Legal Implications for Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jeffrey C., Ed.; Baez, Benjamin, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This monograph examines in great detail two kinds of intellectual property: copyrights and patents. Though the authors recognize the significance of trademarks and trade secrets, they focus primarily on copyrights and patents in this monograph because they represent the most significant issues in higher education in the information age.…

  13. Cross-Age Mentoring to Support A-Level Pupils' Transition into Higher Education and Undergraduate Students' Employability

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Alana I.

    2014-01-01

    Two challenges identified for psychology higher education are supporting entry students' transition, and supporting graduates' transition into employment. The evaluation of the first phase of a cross-age mentoring action research project targeting these issues is presented; eight psychology undergraduates mentored 20 A-level psychology pupils in…

  14. Higher Birthweight and Maternal Pre-pregnancy BMI Persist with Obesity Association at Age 9 in High Risk Latino Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjaer, Thora Wesenberg; Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel; Medrano, Rosalinda; Elwan, Deena; Mehta, Kala; Christensen, Vibeke Brix; Wojcicki, Janet M

    2018-02-03

    Childhood obesity is increasing especially in Latinos and early intervention is essential to prevent later obesity complications. Latino children (n = 201) recruited at two San Francisco hospitals were assessed at birth including infant anthropometrics and feeding practices and followed to age 9 with annual anthropometric assessments. We evaluated the relationship between perinatal risk factors and obesity at age 9 and chronic obesity (obesity at both 5 and 9 years). Higher birthweight [odds ratio (OR) 2.48, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-5.81] and maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) (OR 1.09, 95% CI 1.00-1.18) were associated with increased risk for obesity at 9 years. Higher maternal pre-pregnancy BMI (OR 1.10, 95% CI 1.01-1.20) was associated with chronic obesity. Additionally, prenatal depression symptoms were protective (OR 0.33, 95% CI 0.11-0.94) against chronic obesity. We found no association between maternal age and education, exclusive breastfeeding at 4-6 weeks, rapid infant weight gain, and obesity or chronic obesity. Perinatal risk factors for obesity including higher birthweight and maternal pre-pregnancy BMI persisted until age 9, whereas, other variables significant at age 5 in our cohort and other populations including exclusive breastfeeding and rapid infant weight gain were no longer associated with increased risk.

  15. Impact of weight change after quitting cigarettes on all-cause and cause-specific mortality in middle-aged male smokers: national health screening cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Kyuwoong Kim; Seulggie Choi; Mi Hee Cho; Ji Hye Jun; Jooyoung Chang; Sung Min Kim; Kiheon Lee; Sang Min Park

    2018-01-01

    Background We aimed to investigate the association between weight change after smoking cessation and the risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality among middle-aged male smokers. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study using the National Health Insurance Service National Health Screening Cohort (NHIS-HealS) database. Male Participants (n=102,403) without critical conditions aged between 40 and 79 at baseline who underwent biennial health examination ...

  16. Vitamin E supplementation and pneumonia risk in males who initiated smoking at an early age: effect modification by body weight and dietary vitamin C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaprio Jaakko

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We had found a 14% higher incidence of pneumonia with vitamin E supplementation in a subgroup of the Alpha-Tocopherol Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC Study cohort: participants who had initiated smoking by the age of 20 years. In this study, we explored the modification of vitamin E effect by body weight, because the same dose could lead to a greater effect in participants with low body weight. Methods The ATBC Study recruited males aged 50–69 years who smoked at least 5 cigarettes per day at the baseline; it was conducted in southwestern Finland in 1985–1993. The current study was restricted to 21,657 ATBC Study participants who initiated smoking by the age of 20 years; the median follow-up time was 6.0 years. The hospital-diagnosed pneumonia cases were retrieved from the national hospital discharge register (701 cases. Results Vitamin E supplementation had no effect on the risk of pneumonia in participants with body weight in a range from 70 to 89 kg (n = 12,495, risk ratio (RR = 0.99 (95% CI: 0.81 to 1.22. Vitamin E increased the risk of pneumonia in participants with body weight less than 60 kg (n = 1054, RR = 1.61 (1.03 to 2.53, and in participants with body weight over 100 kg (n = 1328, RR = 2.34 (1.07 to 5.08. The harm of vitamin E supplementation was restricted to participants with dietary vitamin C intake above the median. Conclusion Vitamin E supplementation may cause harmful effects on health in certain groups of male smokers. The dose of vitamin E used in the ATBC Study, 50 mg/day, is substantially smaller than conventional vitamin E doses that are considered safe. Our findings should increase caution towards taking vitamin E supplements. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00342992.

  17. Effects of paternal phenotype and environmental variability on age and size at maturity in a male dimorphic mite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallegange, Isabel M.

    2011-04-01

    Investigating how the environment affects age and size at maturity of individuals is crucial to understanding how changes in the environment affect population dynamics through the biology of a species. Paternal phenotype, maternal, and offspring environment may crucially influence these traits, but to my knowledge, their combined effects have not yet been tested. Here, I found that in bulb mites ( Rhizoglyphus robini), maternal nutrition, offspring nutrition, and paternal phenotype (males are fighters, able to kill other mites, or benign scramblers) interactively affected offspring age and size at maturity. The largest effect occurred when both maternal and offspring nutrition was poor: in that case offspring from fighter sires required a significantly longer development time than offspring from scrambler sires. Investigating parental effects on the relationship between age and size at maturity revealed no paternal effects, and only for females was its shape influenced by maternal nutrition. Overall, this reaction norm was nonlinear. These non-genetic intergenerational effects may play a complex, yet unexplored role in influencing population fluctuations—possibly explaining why results from field studies often do not match theoretical predictions on maternal effects on population dynamics.

  18. Universities in change managing higher education institutions in the age of globalization

    CERN Document Server

    Ebersberger, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    Universities find themselves in dynamic change. They are confronted with growing expectations from their stakeholders, increasing international competition, and new technological challenges.  Featuring insights and in-depth case studies from leading researchers and university decision makers from around the world, this book argues that institutions of higher education, in order to be successful, have to actively reflect on circumstances, visions, and strategies to master the future.    Drawing from their experiences across a diverse array of institutions in Europe, Asia, and the Americas, the authors explore the pressures on today’s universities and the opportunities for excelling in the contest for resources.  They discuss operational issues, such as strategic management, IT governance, leadership development, and entrepreneurial culture, and broader concerns, such as the roles and responsibilities of universities in promoting technology transfer and economic and social development.  The result is a ...

  19. Ecological validity and reliability of an age-adapted endurance field test in young male soccer players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castagna, Carlo; Krustrup, Peter; D'Ottavio, Stefano

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability and the association with relevant match activities (ecological validity) of an age-adapted field test for intermittent high-intensity endurance known as Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 children test (YYIR1C) in young male soccer players......-intensity metabolic power (r=0.46) distances. Match total distance was largely associated with YYIR1C (r=0.30). The results of this study showed that YYIR1C may be considered a valid and reliable field test for assessing intermittent high-intensity endurance in young male soccer players. Due to the relevance...... performance showed an excellent relative (ICC=0.94) and a good absolute reliability (TEM as %CV=5.1%). Very large and significant associations were found between YYIR1C performance and match high-intensity activity (r=0.53). Large correlations were found between YYIR1C and match sprinting (r=0.42) and high...

  20. The Mortality Penalty of Incarceration: Evidence from a Population-based Case-control Study of Working-age Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pridemore, William Alex

    2014-06-01

    There is a growing body of research on the effects of incarceration on health, though there are few studies in the sociological literature of the association between incarceration and premature mortality. This study examined the risk of male premature mortality associated with incarceration. Data came from the Izhevsk (Russia) Family Study, a large-scale population-based case-control design. Cases (n = 1,750) were male deaths aged 25 to 54 in Izhevsk between October 2003 and October 2005. Controls (n = 1,750) were selected at random from a city population register. The key independent variable was lifetime prevalence of incarceration. I used logistic regression to estimate mortality odds ratios, controlling for age, hazardous drinking, smoking status, marital status, and education. Seventeen percent of cases and 5 percent of controls had been incarcerated. Men who had been incarcerated were more than twice as likely as those who had not to experience premature mortality (odds ratio = 2.2, 95 percent confidence interval: 1.6-3.0). Relative to cases with no prior incarceration, cases who had been incarcerated were more likely to die from infectious diseases, respiratory diseases, non-alcohol-related accidental poisonings, and homicide. Taken together with other recent research, these results from a rigorous case-control design reveal not only that incarceration has durable effects on illness, but that its consequences extend to a greater risk of early death. I draw on the sociology of health literature on exposure, stress, and social integration to speculate about the reasons for this mortality penalty of incarceration. © American Sociological Association 2014.

  1. Antioxidant and Hypolipidaemic Effect of Raw Green Snap (Phaseolus vulgaris) on Aged Male Rats Exposed to gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abed EI-Gawad, E.I.; Aiad, S.K.

    2008-01-01

    This Study was established to assess the effect of supplemental dietary raw green snap (Phaseolus vulgaris) for three months to overcome gamma-irradiation induced alterations on some oxidant/ antioxidant parameters (Fe 3+ , Cu 2+ , total iron, ferritin, transferrin and ceruloplasmin) and the hyper lipidemic state (triglycerides, cholesterol, high- and low density lipoprotein (HDL-c and LDL-c) in aged male rats. Raw green snap is an indigenous plant used in Unani and Ayurvedic medicine in India. The study also aimed to estimate the effect of dietary raw green snap on general health through the follow up of body weight and mortality during the course of supplementation. Thirty-two aged male rats (24 months, 370-375 g) were divided equally into four groups. 1- Control group, the animals fed on a balanced diet for 3 months. 2- Supplemented group, the animals balanced diet was supplemented with raw green snap (70 g / kg body wt/ day) for 3 months. 3- Irradiated group, the animals fed on a balanced diet for 3 months were then exposed to whole body y-radiation at a dose level of 4 Gy. 4-Supplemented-irradiated group, the animals' balanced diet was supplemented with raw green snap (70 g/ kg/ day) for three months and then exposed to whole body gamma irradiation at a dose level of 4 Gy. The blood samples were taken from orbital venous plexuses after 48 h of stopping green snap supplementation (supplemented group) or after irradiation (irradiated and supplemented gamma-irradiated groups). The results obtained showed reduction in the body wt in green snap supplemented group which increased gradually concomitant with occurrence of animal mortality on week 7 reaching II) maximal values (-32.79 and 33.33 %) respectively, on week 12 of supplementation. Also, the supplemented group showed non significant changes in tested parameters although the level of total iron and triglycerides recorded noticeable changes as compared with controls

  2. Age related neuromuscular changes in sEMG of m. Tibialis Anterior using higher order statistics (Gaussianity & linearity test).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, Ariba; Arjunan, Sridhar P; Kumar, Dinesh K

    2016-08-01

    Age-associated changes in the surface electromyogram (sEMG) of Tibialis Anterior (TA) muscle can be attributable to neuromuscular alterations that precede strength loss. We have used our sEMG model of the Tibialis Anterior to interpret the age-related changes and compared with the experimental sEMG. Eighteen young (20-30 years) and 18 older (60-85 years) performed isometric dorsiflexion at 6 different percentage levels of maximum voluntary contractions (MVC), and their sEMG from the TA muscle was recorded. Six different age-related changes in the neuromuscular system were simulated using the sEMG model at the same MVCs as the experiment. The maximal power of the spectrum, Gaussianity and Linearity Test Statistics were computed from the simulated and experimental sEMG. A correlation analysis at α=0.05 was performed between the simulated and experimental age-related change in the sEMG features. The results show the loss in motor units was distinguished by the Gaussianity and Linearity test statistics; while the maximal power of the PSD distinguished between the muscular factors. The simulated condition of 40% loss of motor units with halved the number of fast fibers best correlated with the age-related change observed in the experimental sEMG higher order statistical features. The simulated aging condition found by this study corresponds with the moderate motor unit remodelling and negligible strength loss reported in literature for the cohorts aged 60-70 years.

  3. The joint impact of habitual exercise and glycemic control on the incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in middle-aged and older males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michishita, Ryoma; Matsuda, Takuro; Kawakami, Shotaro; Tanaka, Satoshi; Kiyonaga, Akira; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Morito, Natsumi; Higaki, Yasuki

    2017-11-06

    This retrospective study evaluated the influence of the joint impact of habitual exercise and glycemic control on the incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) during a 6-year follow-up period in middle-aged and older males. The study population included 303 males without a history of cardiovascular disease, stroke, renal dysfunction, or dialysis treatment. Their lifestyle behaviors regarding exercise and physical activity were evaluated using a standardized self-administered questionnaire. The participants were divided into four categories according to the performance or non-performance of habitual exercise and the presence or absence of hyperglycemia. After 6 years, 32 subjects (10.6%) developed CKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate exercise and hyperglycemic subjects (log-rank test: p exercise (HR = 2.82, 95% confidence of interval (CI) = 1.07-7.36, p = 0.034) and that in hyperglycemic subjects who did not perform habitual exercise (HR = 5.89, 95% CI = 1.87-16.63, p = 0.003) were significantly higher in comparison to the subjects with a NGT who performed habitual exercise. These results suggest that the habitual exercise and good glycemic control and their combination were associated with the incidence of CKD.

  4. Daily Socs1 rhythms alter with aging differentially in peripheral clocks in male Wistar rats: therapeutic effects of melatonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinod, Ch; Jagota, Anita

    2017-06-01

    Suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in synchronization with the peripheral clocks regulates the temporal oscillations leading to overt rhythms. Aging leads to attenuation of such circadian regulation, accompanied by increased inflammatory mediators prevalently the cytokines. Suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) family of proteins such as SOCS 1, 3 and cytokine-inducible SH2-containing protein (CIS) negatively regulate the cytokine signaling pathway. The role of SOCS1 in aging and circadian system is obscure. We therefore studied the daily rhythms of rSocs1 mRNA expression at Zeitgeber time (ZT) -0, 6, 12 and 18 in peripheral clocks such as liver, kidney, intestine and heart of 3, 12 and 24 months (m) old male Wistar rats. Interestingly the peripheral clocks studied displayed a rhythmic rSocs1 gene expression in 3 months. In 12 months group, 12 h phase advance in liver and 12 h phase delay in kidney and heart was observed with abolition of rhythms in intestine. Aging (24 months group) resulted in a phase advance by 6 h in liver and heart with abolition of rhythms in intestine in 24 months group. Kidney was also significantly affected upon aging with significant decrease in the rSocs1 levels and abolition of rhythms. The decrease in melatonin levels with aging is associated with decreased immunity and increased oxidative stress. The exogenous administration of melatonin has been linked to play a role in re-synchronization of circadian rhythms, reducing oxidative stress and enhancing immune properties. We therefore had studied the effect of exogenous melatonin upon age induced changes in daily rSocs1 gene expression patterns. Melatonin treatment partially restored the rhythms and daily pulse (ratio of maximum:minimum levels) in liver and intestine in 12 months group. Melatonin administration resulted in a significant increase in mean 24 h rSocs1 expression in intestine and heart of 24 months group compared to that of 3 months. The melatonin administration

  5. The gender gap in risk factor control: Effects of age and education on the control of cardiovascular risk factors in male and female coronary patients. The EUROASPIRE IV study by the European Society of Cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Smedt, Delphine; De Bacquer, Dirk; De Sutter, Johan; Dallongeville, Jean; Gevaert, Sofie; De Backer, Guy; Bruthans, Jan; Kotseva, Kornelia; Reiner, Željko; Tokgözoğlu, Lale; Clays, Els

    2016-04-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate gender related differences in the management and risk factor control of patients with coronary heart disease (CHD), taking into account their age and educational level. Analyses are based on the EUROASPIRE IV (EUROpean Action on Secondary and Primary Prevention through Intervention to Reduce Events) survey. Males and females between 18 and 80years of age, hospitalized for a first or recurrent coronary event were included in the study. Data were available for 7998 patients of which 75.6% were males. Overall, females had a worse risk factor profile compared to males and were more likely to have 3 or more risk factors (29.5% vs. 34.9%; p<0.001) across all age groups. A significant gender by education interaction (p<0.05) and gender by age interaction effect (p<0.05) was found. Furthermore, males were more likely to have a LDL-cholesterol on target (OR=1.50[1.28-1.76]), a HbA1c on target (OR=1.33[1.07-1.64]), to be non-obese (OR=1.45[1.30-1.62]) and perform adequate physical activity (OR=1.71[1.46-2.00]). In contrast males were less likely to be non-smokers (OR=0.71[0.60-0.83]). Furthermore, males were less likely to have made a dietary change (OR=0.78[0.64-0.95]) or a smoking cessation attempt (OR=0.70[0.50-0.96]) and more likely to have received smoking cessation advice if they were smokers (OR=1.52[1.10-2.09]). Whereas gender differences in CHD treatment are limited, substantial differences were found regarding target achievement. The largest gender difference was seen in less educated and elderly patients. The gender gap declined with decreasing age and higher education. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  6. Impact of specific training and competition on myocardial structure and function in different age ranges of male handball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrebi, Brahim; Tkatchuk, Vladimir; Hlila, Nawel; Mouelhi, Emna; Belhani, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Handball activity involves cardiac changes and demands a mixture of both eccentric and concentric remodeling within the heart. This study seeks to explore heart performance and cardiac remodeling likely to define cardiac parameters which influence specific performance in male handball players across different age ranges. Forty three players, with a regular training and competitive background in handball separated into three groups aged on average 11.78 ± 0.41 for youth players aka "schools", "elite juniors" 15.99 ± 0.81 and "elite adults" 24.46 ± 2.63 years, underwent echocardiography and ECG examinations. Incremental ergocycle and specific field (SFT) tests have also been conducted. With age and regular training and competition, myocardial remodeling in different age ranges exhibit significant differences in dilatation's parameters between "schools" and "juniors" players, such as the end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD) and the end-systolic diameter of the left ventricle (LVESD), the root of aorta (Ao) and left atrial (LA), while significant increase is observed between "juniors" and "adults" players in the interventricular septum (IVS), the posterior wall thicknesses (PWT) and LV mass index. ECG changes are also noted but NS differences were observed in studied parameters. For incremental maximal test, players demonstrate a significant increase in duration and total work between "schools" and "juniors" and, in total work only, between "juniors" and "seniors". The SFT shows improvement in performance which ranged between 26.17 ± 1.83 sec to 31.23 ± 2.34 sec respectively from "seniors" to "schools". The cross-sectional approach used to compare groups with prior hypothesis that there would be differences in exercise performance and cardiac parameters depending on duration of prior handball practice, leads to point out the early cardiac remodeling within the heart as adaptive change. Prevalence of cardiac chamber dilation with less hypertrophy remodeling was found

  7. Representation of pheromones, interspecific signals, and plant odors in higher olfactory centers; mapping physiologically identified antennal-lobe projection neurons in the male heliothine moth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Cheng eZhao

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the primary olfactory centre of the moth brain, for example, a few enlarged glomeruli situated dorsally, at the entrance of the antennal nerve, are devoted to information about female-produced substances whereas a set of more numerous ordinary glomeruli receives input about general odorants. Heliothine moths are particularly suitable for studying central chemosensory mechanisms not only because of their anatomically separated systems for plant odours and pheromones but also due to their use of female-produced substances in communication across the species. Thus, the male-specific system of heliothine moths includes two sub arrangements, one ensuring attraction and mating behavior by carrying information about pheromones released by conspecifics, and the other reproductive isolation via signal information emitted from heterospecifics. Based on previous tracing experiments, a general chemotopic organization of the male-specific glomeruli has been demonstrated in a number of heliothine species. As compared to the well explored organization of the moth antennal lobe, demonstrating a non-overlapping representation of the biologically relevant stimuli, less is known about the neural arrangement residing at the following synaptic level, i.e. the mushroom body calyces and the lateral horn. In the study presented here, we have labelled physiologically characterized antennal-lobe projection neurons in males of the two heliothine species, Heliothis virescens and Helicoverpa assulta, for the purpose of mapping their target regions in the protocerebrum. In order to compare the representation of plant odours, pheromones, and interspecific signals in the higher brain regions of each species, we have created standard brain atlases and registered three-dimensional models of distinct uniglomerular projection neuron types into the relevant atlas.

  8. BENEFITS AND RISKS OF HORMONE REPLACEMENT ON THE DISTURBANCE ANDROGENIC MALE AGEING: A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Simão Rodrigues Filho

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aging man is accompanied by a progressive decline in testosterone production. This slow decrease causes a series of signs and symptoms can often interfere with the quality of man life. The purpose of this article is to review the current issues about the possible risks and benefits of androgen replacement therapy, discussing the clinical studies published on the subject. This is a review of scientific articles, and the identification and analysis of the articles were made through a search in the PUBMED database and SCIELO the period July to October 2013 This set of changes from affecting the musculoskeletal system to damage the scope psychobehavioral called Androgen Dysfunction Male Aging, which affects over 20% of men over 60 years worldwide. It was found in this work that replacement with androgens exerts beneficial effects on the ystem and psycho-behavioral, reflecting improved quality of life. In the other hand, the potential risks refer to the cardiovascular effects of metabolism and worsening of prostate cancer. Although knowledge about the potential risks and benefits of hormone replacement in men has evolved, there is still much that needs to be determined.

  9. The andropause and memory loss: is there a link between androgen decline and dementia in the aging male?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robert S. Tan; Shou-Jin Pu

    2001-01-01

    Studies demonstrate a decline in androgens with age and this results in the andropause. The objective of this paper is to review the literature on hormonal changes that occur in the aging males and determine if there are associations between decreased testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and decreased cognitive function. Trials of androgen replacement and its impact on cognitive function will also be analyzed. Method of analysis will be by a thorough search of articles on MEDLINE, the Intemet and major abstract databases. Results of the author's own research in 302 men of the association of memory loss as a symptom in the andropause will be presented. In addition, the authors open trial of testosterone replacement in hypogonadic men with Alzheimer's disease will also be presented. The results of the author's trial will be compared with other investigators. High endogenous testosterone level predicted better performance on visual spatial tests in several studies, but not in all studies. Likewise, testosterone replacement in hypogonadic patients improved cognitive functions in some but not all studies. Testosterone has also been shown to improve cognitive function in eugonadal men. Several studies have shown that declines in DHEA may contribute to Alzheimer's disease and the results of double blind studies with DHEA replacement and its effect on cognition will also be presented. In summary, there is still no consensus that androgen replacement is beneficial in cognitive decline but this option may prove promising in some patients.

  10. Weight change after 20 years of age and the incidence of dyslipidemia: a cohort study of Japanese male workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogabe, N; Sawada, S S; Lee, I-M; Kawakami, R; Ishikawa-Takata, K; Nakata, Y; Mitomi, M; Noguchi, J; Tsukamoto, K; Miyachi, M; Blair, S N

    2016-06-01

    While heavier weight is known to increase the incidence of dyslipidemia, limited data are available on the relationship between weight gain and its development. A total of 2647 males were categorized into the following four groups according to the difference between their self-reported weight at 20 years of age and their measured weight in 1994-95: a loss of ≥5% (decrease), loss of dyslipidemia were determined using logistic regression models. A total of 1342 participants developed dyslipidemia during the follow-up period. The 'increase' and 'sizable increase' groups had odds ratios for the incidence of dyslipidemia of 1.97 (95% CI, 1.59-2.45) and 2.68 (2.15-3.34), respectively, demonstrating that there was a significant dose-response association between weight gain since 20 years of age and the incidence of dyslipidemia (P dyslipidemia could be prevented by avoiding weight gain in adulthood. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Cross-age mentoring to support A-level pupils’ transition into Higher Education and undergraduate students’ employability

    OpenAIRE

    James, Alana I.

    2014-01-01

    Two challenges identified for psychology higher education are supporting entry students’ transition, and supporting graduates’ transition into employment. The evaluation of the first phase of a cross-age mentoring action research project targeting these issues is presented; eight psychology undergraduates mentored 20 A-level psychology pupils in two schools. Mentors showed significant increases in two of nine psychological literacies, in self-efficacy but not self-esteem, were highly satisfie...

  12. Criminal offending among males and females between ages 15 and 30 in a population-based nationwide 1981 birth cohort: results from the FinnCrime Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elonheimo, Henrik; Gyllenberg, David; Huttunen, Jukka; Ristkari, Terja; Sillanmäki, Lauri; Sourander, André

    2014-12-01

    We describe the epidemiology of crime between ages 15 and 30 in a population-based sample. We received police register data for 5405 males and females, representing the children born in Finland in 1981. We classified crimes into drug, violent, property, traffic, drunk driving, and sexual crimes, excluding minor traffic offenses. Of males, 60% and of females, 25% were registered for offending. For males, prevalence peaked in late adolescence, while for females, there was no peak age. Offending frequency remained stable for male offenders but was lower among adolescent female offenders. All crime types overlapped each other. Crime accumulated: 1% committed 34% of male and 56% of female offenses. In conclusion, the adolescent peak in offending reflects peaking prevalence among males, not females, nor frequency of offending among offenders. The crime problem is focused on two key groups: late adolescent males and the few males and females in whom crime concentrates. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Abstinence environment contributes to age differences in reinstatement of cocaine seeking between adolescent and adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chen; Frantz, Kyle J

    2017-07-01

    Extinction responding and cue-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking after 60-days of forced abstinence are attenuated in male rats that self-administered cocaine during adolescence, compared with adults. Given that environmental enrichment during abstinence decreases reinstatement among adults, a possible explanation for attenuated reinstatement among adolescents is that standard pair-housing in prior studies creates a more stimulating environment for younger rats. Therefore, we tested whether standard pair-housing is necessary for the attenuated reinstatement among adolescents by determining whether an impoverished environment during abstinence would increase reinstatement among adolescents, up to adult levels. Conversely, we also tested whether environmental enrichment could further decrease reinstatement among adolescents, and whether we could replicate effects of environmental enrichment to decrease reinstatement among adults down to adolescent levels (positive controls). Adolescent and adult male Wistar rats self-administered cocaine intravenously for 12days (fixed ratio 1; 0.36mg/kg per infusion; 2h sessions). Rats were then moved into enriched (grouped, large cages, novel toys), standard (pair-housed, shoebox cages), or impoverished (isolated, hanging cages) housing conditions. After 60days, extinction and cue-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking were tested, followed by drug-primed reinstatement (0, 5, 10mg/kg cocaine, i.p.). Consistent with previous results, extinction and cue-induced reinstatement were attenuated in adolescent-onset groups compared with adults; this age difference also extended to drug-primed reinstatement. In support of the present hypothesis, an impoverished environment during abstinence increased reinstatement among adolescents to levels that were not different from adult standard-housing levels. These data suggest that abstinence environment influences the enduring effects of cocaine among adolescents as well as adults

  14. Ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion in male sprague-dawley rats: impact of age and stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Rachel I; Varlinskaya, Elena I; Spear, Linda P

    2010-12-01

    Age-specific characteristics may contribute to the elevation in ethanol intake commonly reported among adolescents compared to adults. This study was designed to examine age-related differences in sensitivity to ethanol's aversive properties using a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) procedure with sucrose serving as the conditioned stimulus (CS). Given that ontogenetic differences in responsiveness to stressors have been previously reported, the role of stressor exposure on the development of CTA was also assessed. Experiment 1 examined the influence of 5 days of prior restraint stress exposure on the expression of CTA in a 2-bottle test following 1 pairing of a sucrose solution with ethanol. In Experiment 2, the effects of 7 days of social isolation on the development of CTA were observed using a 1-bottle test following multiple sucrose-ethanol pairings. This study revealed age-related differences in the development of ethanol-induced CTA. In Experiment 1, adolescents required a higher dose of ethanol than adults to demonstrate an aversion. In Experiment 2, adolescents required not only a higher ethanol dose but also more pairings of ethanol with the sucrose CS. No effects of prior stressor exposure were observed in either experiment. Together, these experiments demonstrate an adolescent-specific insensitivity to the aversive properties of ethanol that elicit CTA, a pattern not influenced by repeated restraint stress or housing in social isolation. This age-related insensitivity to the dysphoric effects of ethanol is consistent with other work from our laboratory, adding further to the evidence that adolescent rats are less susceptible to negative consequences of ethanol that may serve as cues to curb consumption. Copyright © 2010 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  15. Fatal drink-driving accidents of young adult and middle-aged males--a risky driving style or risky lifestyle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laapotti, Sirkku; Keskinen, Esko

    2008-01-01

    A range of situational and lifestyle-related factors in drink-driving fatal accidents were studied involving young adult and middle-aged male drivers in Finland. Fatal drink-driving accidents were compared to fatal accidents in which the driver had been sober. The study included all 18-to 59-year-old male drivers' fatal car and van accidents investigated by the Road Accident Investigation Teams in Finland between 2000 and 2002 (n = 366 accidents). The variables describing the situation included the time of the accident, the road condition, the speed, possession of a valid licence, seat-belt usage, and the presence of passengers. The study found that among young adult males most of the studied situational factors bore no relation to the state of the driver (sober or drink driver). Only the time of day, seat-belt, usage, and possession of a valid licence were related to the state of the driver. Among middle-aged male drivers, drink-driving and sober driving accidents differed more clearly. Further, when the social situation in the car was examined, it was found that accidents of sober and drink drivers differed from each other within the group of middle-aged drivers but not within the group of young adult drivers. Heavy alcohol usage was found to characterize the lifestyle of the studied middle-aged drink drivers. It was concluded that for young adult males drink-driving was a part of a more general risky driving style. Among middle-aged males drink-driving was more related to a risky lifestyle with drinking problems. Possible countermeasures are discussed with regard to drink-driving among young adult and middle-aged males.

  16. Higher Risk of Homicide Among Pregnant and Postpartum Females Aged 10-29 Years in Illinois, 2002-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Abigail R; Rosenberg, Deborah; Geller, Stacie E

    2016-09-01

    To examine whether being pregnant or postpartum was associated with excess risk for homicide among females in Illinois and to describe the association between pregnancy status and homicide by race, ethnicity, and age group. This is a retrospective, multicohort, ecologic study of females of reproductive age in Illinois between 2002 and 2011 using Illinois Department of Public Health maternal mortality data and vital records data. We compared pregnancy-associated homicides with live births using χ tests. Among maternal deaths in the state, we calculated mortality rates per 100,000 live births for homicide and other violent causes and the leading direct obstetric causes. We calculated aggregate, pregnancy-associated, and nonpregnancy associated homicide rates stratified by race or ethnicity and age group. There were 636 pregnancy-associated deaths in Illinois from 2002 to 2011. Of these, 82 (13%) were the result of homicide (5.0 [95% confidence interval (CI) 4.0-6.2]/100,000 live births). There were 931 homicides among females of reproductive age not associated with pregnancy (2.88 [95% CI 2.70-3.07]/100,000 population). More than half of the homicides were women aged 20-29 years (n=53 [64.6%]), non-Hispanic black women (n=43 [52.4%]), women residing in Cook County (n=47 [57.3%]), and unmarried women (n=57 [69.5%]). Pregnant and postpartum females aged 10-29 years were at twice the risk of homicide compared with their nonpregnant or postpartum counterparts (relative risk 2.20 [95% CI 1.70-2.85]). Non-Hispanic black and Hispanic females experienced higher rates of homicide than non-Hispanic white females irrespective of pregnancy or age. Although all violence against women must be addressed, we recommend that state maternal mortality review committees, in addition to reviewing deaths resulting from obstetric and clinical causes, should conduct in-depth reviews of pregnancy-associated homicides and other violent deaths.

  17. Decomposing variation in male reproductive success: age-specific variances and covariances through extra-pair and within-pair reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebigre, Christophe; Arcese, Peter; Reid, Jane M

    2013-07-01

    Age-specific variances and covariances in reproductive success shape the total variance in lifetime reproductive success (LRS), age-specific opportunities for selection, and population demographic variance and effective size. Age-specific (co)variances in reproductive success achieved through different reproductive routes must therefore be quantified to predict population, phenotypic and evolutionary dynamics in age-structured populations. While numerous studies have quantified age-specific variation in mean reproductive success, age-specific variances and covariances in reproductive success, and the contributions of different reproductive routes to these (co)variances, have not been comprehensively quantified in natural populations. We applied 'additive' and 'independent' methods of variance decomposition to complete data describing apparent (social) and realised (genetic) age-specific reproductive success across 11 cohorts of socially monogamous but genetically polygynandrous song sparrows (Melospiza melodia). We thereby quantified age-specific (co)variances in male within-pair and extra-pair reproductive success (WPRS and EPRS) and the contributions of these (co)variances to the total variances in age-specific reproductive success and LRS. 'Additive' decomposition showed that within-age and among-age (co)variances in WPRS across males aged 2-4 years contributed most to the total variance in LRS. Age-specific (co)variances in EPRS contributed relatively little. However, extra-pair reproduction altered age-specific variances in reproductive success relative to the social mating system, and hence altered the relative contributions of age-specific reproductive success to the total variance in LRS. 'Independent' decomposition showed that the (co)variances in age-specific WPRS, EPRS and total reproductive success, and the resulting opportunities for selection, varied substantially across males that survived to each age. Furthermore, extra-pair reproduction increased

  18. Synaptic adaptations to chronic ethanol intake in male rhesus monkey dorsal striatum depend on age of drinking onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuzon Carlson, Verginia C; Grant, Kathleen A; Lovinger, David M

    2018-03-15

    One in 12 adults suffer with alcohol use disorder (AUD). Studies suggest the younger the age in which alcohol consumption begins the higher the probability of being diagnosed with AUD. Binge/excessive alcohol drinking involves a transition from flexible to inflexible behavior likely involving the dorsal striatum (caudate and putamen nuclei). A major focus of this study was to examine the effect of age of drinking onset on subsequent chronic, voluntary ethanol intake and dorsal striatal circuitry. Data from rhesus monkeys (n = 45) that started drinking as adolescents, young adults or mature adults confirms an age-related risk for heavy drinking. Striatal neuroadaptations were examined using whole-cell patch clamp electrophysiology to record AMPA receptor-mediated miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs) and GABA A receptor-mediated miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs) from medium-sized spiny projection neurons located in the caudate or putamen nuclei. In controls, greater GABAergic transmission (mIPSC frequency and amplitude) was observed in the putamen compared to the caudate. With advancing age, in the absence of ethanol, an increase in mIPSC frequency concomitant with changes in mIPSC amplitude was observed in both regions. Chronic ethanol drinking decreased mIPSC frequency in the putamen regardless of age of onset. In the caudate, an ethanol drinking-induced increase in mIPSC frequency was only observed in monkeys that began drinking as young adults. Glutamatergic transmission did not differ between the dorsal striatal subregions in controls. With chronic ethanol drinking there was a decrease in the postsynaptic characteristics of rise time and area of mEPSCs in the putamen but an increase in mEPSC frequency in the caudate. Together, the observed changes in striatal physiology indicate a combined disinhibition due to youth and ethanol leading to abnormally strong activation of the putamen that could contribute to the increased risk

  19. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy, a Rapid Method for Predicting the Age of Male and Female Wild-Type and Wolbachia Infected Aedes aegypti.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maggy T Sikulu-Lord

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Estimating the age distribution of mosquito populations is crucial for assessing their capacity to transmit disease and for evaluating the efficacy of available vector control programs. This study reports on the capacity of the near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS technique to rapidly predict the ages of the principal dengue and Zika vector, Aedes aegypti. The age of wild-type males and females, and males and females infected with wMel and wMelPop strains of Wolbachia pipientis were characterized using this method. Calibrations were developed using spectra collected from their heads and thoraces using partial least squares (PLS regression. A highly significant correlation was found between the true and predicted ages of mosquitoes. The coefficients of determination for wild-type females and males across all age groups were R2 = 0.84 and 0.78, respectively. The coefficients of determination for the age of wMel and wMelPop infected females were 0.71 and 0.80, respectively (P< 0.001 in both instances. The age of wild-type female Ae. aegypti could be identified as < or ≥ 8 days old with an accuracy of 91% (N = 501, whereas female Ae. aegypti infected with wMel and wMelPop were differentiated into the two age groups with an accuracy of 83% (N = 284 and 78% (N = 229, respectively. Our results also indicate NIRS can distinguish between young and old male wild-type, wMel and wMelPop infected Ae. aegypti with accuracies of 87% (N = 253, 83% (N = 277 and 78% (N = 234, respectively. We have demonstrated the potential of NIRS as a predictor of the age of female and male wild-type and Wolbachia infected Ae. aegypti mosquitoes under laboratory conditions. After field validation, the tool has the potential to offer a cheap and rapid alternative for surveillance of dengue and Zika vector control programs.

  20. Impact of specific training and competition on myocardial structure and function in different age ranges of male handball players.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brahim Agrebi

    Full Text Available Handball activity involves cardiac changes and demands a mixture of both eccentric and concentric remodeling within the heart. This study seeks to explore heart performance and cardiac remodeling likely to define cardiac parameters which influence specific performance in male handball players across different age ranges. Forty three players, with a regular training and competitive background in handball separated into three groups aged on average 11.78 ± 0.41 for youth players aka "schools", "elite juniors" 15.99 ± 0.81 and "elite adults" 24.46 ± 2.63 years, underwent echocardiography and ECG examinations. Incremental ergocycle and specific field (SFT tests have also been conducted. With age and regular training and competition, myocardial remodeling in different age ranges exhibit significant differences in dilatation's parameters between "schools" and "juniors" players, such as the end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD and the end-systolic diameter of the left ventricle (LVESD, the root of aorta (Ao and left atrial (LA, while significant increase is observed between "juniors" and "adults" players in the interventricular septum (IVS, the posterior wall thicknesses (PWT and LV mass index. ECG changes are also noted but NS differences were observed in studied parameters. For incremental maximal test, players demonstrate a significant increase in duration and total work between "schools" and "juniors" and, in total work only, between "juniors" and "seniors". The SFT shows improvement in performance which ranged between 26.17 ± 1.83 sec to 31.23 ± 2.34 sec respectively from "seniors" to "schools". The cross-sectional approach used to compare groups with prior hypothesis that there would be differences in exercise performance and cardiac parameters depending on duration of prior handball practice, leads to point out the early cardiac remodeling within the heart as adaptive change. Prevalence of cardiac chamber dilation with less hypertrophy remodeling

  1. Impact of specific training and competition on myocardial structure and function in different age ranges of male handball players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrebi, Brahim; Tkatchuk, Vladimir; Hlila, Nawel; Mouelhi, Emna; Belhani, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Handball activity involves cardiac changes and demands a mixture of both eccentric and concentric remodeling within the heart. This study seeks to explore heart performance and cardiac remodeling likely to define cardiac parameters which influence specific performance in male handball players across different age ranges. Forty three players, with a regular training and competitive background in handball separated into three groups aged on average 11.78±0.41 for youth players aka “schools”, “elite juniors” 15.99±0.81 and “elite adults” 24.46±2.63 years, underwent echocardiography and ECG examinations. Incremental ergocycle and specific field (SFT) tests have also been conducted. With age and regular training and competition, myocardial remodeling in different age ranges exhibit significant differences in dilatation’s parameters between “schools” and “juniors” players, such as the end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD) and the end-systolic diameter of the left ventricle (LVESD), the root of aorta (Ao) and left atrial (LA), while significant increase is observed between “juniors” and “adults” players in the interventricular septum (IVS), the posterior wall thicknesses (PWT) and LV mass index. ECG changes are also noted but NS differences were observed in studied parameters. For incremental maximal test, players demonstrate a significant increase in duration and total work between “schools” and “juniors” and, in total work only, between “juniors” and “seniors”. The SFT shows improvement in performance which ranged between 26.17±1.83 sec to 31.23±2.34 sec respectively from “seniors” to “schools”. The cross-sectional approach used to compare groups with prior hypothesis that there would be differences in exercise performance and cardiac parameters depending on duration of prior handball practice, leads to point out the early cardiac remodeling within the heart as adaptive change. Prevalence of cardiac chamber dilation

  2. Influence of age of child on differences in life satisfaction of males and females: A comparative study among East Asian countries

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamura, Eiji; Rodriguez Andres, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Using individual-level data for China,South Korea, and Japan for2006, this research examines how life satisfaction for married males and femalesin East Asian countries isinfluenced bythe age of theirchildren. Our results show that the life satisfaction of males is barely affected by a child of the relationship, whereas the life satisfaction of females with a young child is lower than that of females who do not have a child. This result holds for countries at different development stages. Ther...

  3. Fetal life malnutrition was not reflected in the relative abundances of adiponectin and leptin mRNAs in adipose tissue in male mink kits at 9.5 weeks of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiesen, Connie Frank; Tauson, Anne-Helene

    2016-01-01

    Background: Malnutrition in fetal life and during suckling have in some animal studies resulted in adaptive changes related to the fat and glucose metabolism, which in the long term might predispose the offspring for metabolic disorders such as obesity later in life. The objective was to study...... the effect of fetal life malnutrition in male mink on the gene expression of leptin and adiponectin in different adipose tissue sites. Results: Thirty-two male mink, strict carnivore species, exposed to low (FL) or adequate (FA) protein provision the last 16.3 ± 1.8 days of fetal life and randomly assigned.......5 weeks of age. Relative abundances of leptin and adiponectin mRNAs were different between adipose tissue sites and were significantly higher in subcutaneous than in perirenal and mesenteric tissues. Conclusion:Fetal life protein malnutrition in male mink, did not result in adaptive changes in the gene...

  4. The rate of nonallelic homologous recombination in males is highly variable, correlated between monozygotic twins and independent of age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline A L MacArthur

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Nonallelic homologous recombination (NAHR between highly similar duplicated sequences generates chromosomal deletions, duplications and inversions, which can cause diverse genetic disorders. Little is known about interindividual variation in NAHR rates and the factors that influence this. We estimated the rate of deletion at the CMT1A-REP NAHR hotspot in sperm DNA from 34 male donors, including 16 monozygotic (MZ co-twins (8 twin pairs aged 24 to 67 years old. The average NAHR rate was 3.5 × 10(-5 with a seven-fold variation across individuals. Despite good statistical power to detect even a subtle correlation, we observed no relationship between age of unrelated individuals and the rate of NAHR in their sperm, likely reflecting the meiotic-specific origin of these events. We then estimated the heritability of deletion rate by calculating the intraclass correlation (ICC within MZ co-twins, revealing a significant correlation between MZ co-twins (ICC = 0.784, p = 0.0039, with MZ co-twins being significantly more correlated than unrelated pairs. We showed that this heritability cannot be explained by variation in PRDM9, a known regulator of NAHR, or variation within the NAHR hotspot itself. We also did not detect any correlation between Body Mass Index (BMI, smoking status or alcohol intake and rate of NAHR. Our results suggest that other, as yet unidentified, genetic or environmental factors play a significant role in the regulation of NAHR and are responsible for the extensive variation in the population for the probability of fathering a child with a genomic disorder resulting from a pathogenic deletion.

  5. Effects of Ad libitum Low-Carbohydrate High-Fat Dieting in Middle-Age Male Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heatherly, Alexander J; Killen, Lauren G; Smith, Ashton F; Waldman, Hunter S; Seltmann, Christie L; Hollingsworth, Angela; O'Neal, Eric K

    2018-03-01

    This study examined the effects of a 3-wk ad libitum, low-carbohydrate (fat (~70% of calories) (LCHF) diet on markers of endurance performance in middle-age, recreationally competitive male runners. All subjects (n = 8) after their normal high-carbohydrate (HC) diet had anthropometric measures assessed and completed five 10-min running bouts at multiple individual race paces in the heat while physiological variables, metabolic variables, and perceptual responses were recorded. After 20 min of rest, participants completed a 5-km time trial on a road course. Subjects then consumed an LCHF diet for 3 wk and returned for repeat testing. Body mass and seven-site skinfold thickness sum decreased by approximately 2.5 kg (P vs 37.3°C ± 0.2°C) in the HC diet but did not differ at any other time with LCHF diet. Heart rate and perceptual measures did not display any consistent differences between treatments excluding thirst sensation for LCHF diet. RER and carbohydrate oxidation declined significantly, whereas fat oxidation increased after LCHF diet for every pace (P fat oxidation from LCHF diet potentially negate expected performance decrement from reduced carbohydrate use late in exercise for nonelite runners. An acute decrease in training capacity is expected; however, if performance improvement is not exhibited after 3 wk, diet cessation is suggested for negative responders.

  6. Effects of 6 weeks oral administration of Phyllanthus acidus leaf water extract on the vascular functions of middle-aged male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chongsa, Watchara; Kanokwiroon, Kanyanatt; Jansakul, Chaweewan

    2015-12-24

    Leaves of Phyllanthus acidus (PA) have been used in Thai traditional medicine for the treatment of hypertension. We have previously shown that chronic treatment of a PA water extract to middle-aged male rats caused a lowering of the body and serum lipids, two of the parameters that are implicated in cardiovascular disease. To investigate if chronic treatment of middle-aged male rats with a PA water extract affected the perivascular (aortic) adipose tissue (PVAT) and/or their vascular functions Fresh leaves of PA were extracted with water and orally gavaged to the middle-aged male rats for 6 weeks. Vascular functions were studied in vitro using isolated thoracic aorta with and without PVAT, and mesenteric rings in Krebs Heinseleit solution with results recorded with a Polygraph or a Myograph system. The amount of blood vessel eNOS and CSE (cystathionine-γ-lyase) expression was measured by Western blotting. PA treatment caused a lower maximal contractile response to phenylephrine (Phe) of the endothelium-intact aortic ring than that of the control group. This effect was abolished by N(G)-nitro-l-arginine (l-NA) or by denudation of the endothelium. dl-propargylglycine (PAG, H2S inhibitor) and TEA (Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel blocker), but not glybenclamide (ATP-activated K(+) channel blocker), caused a similar increase in the baseline of the endothelium-intact aortic ring in the presence of l-NA in both the PA-treated and control aortic rings. This effect sequentially resulted in a greater contractile response of the aortic rings of both groups to Phe. Glybenclamide also caused a similar increase in the maximal contraction of the endothelium-intact blood vessels with l-NA to both groups. PAG, TEA or glybenclamide did not modify the phenylephrine C-R curves for either group of the PVAT-endothelium-intact aortic rings preincubated with l-NA. The CSE levels of the thoracic aorta and at the PVAT were not different between the PA-treated and the control group

  7. The ageing males' symptoms scale for Chinese men: reliability,validation and applicability of the Chinese version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, X-b; Guan, H-t; Li, H-g; Zhou, Y; Xiong, C-l

    2014-11-01

    In this study, the ageing males' symptoms (AMS) scale was translated into Chinese following methodological recommendations for linguistic and cultural adaptation. This study aimed to confirm the reliability, validation and applicability of the simplified Chinese version of the scale (CN-AMS) in older Chinese men, a free health screening for men older than 40 years was conducted. All participants completed a health questionnaire, which consisted of personal health information, AMS scale, the generic quality of life (QoL) instrument SF36 and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). The fasting blood samples of participants were collected on the day of completing the health questionnaire. Serum total testosterone (TT), albumin and sex hormone-binding globulin levels were measured and the level of free testosterone was calculated (calculated free testosterone, CFT). A total of 244 men (mean age: 52 ± 7.3 years, range: 40-79 years) were involved in the investigation and provided informed consent before their participation. The reliability of CN-AMS was analysed as internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha was 0.91) as well as a 4-week-interval test-retest stability (Pearson's correlation was 0.83) and found to be good. The validation of CN-AMS was analysed as the internal structure analysis (Pearson's correlation between total score and each item score r = 0.48-0.75), total-domain-correlation (among the three domains r = 0.47-0.68, p < 0.01; domains with the total score r = 0.81-0.88, p < 0.01), and cross-validation with other scales (with SF36 r = -0.59, p < 0.01; with BDI r = 0.50, p < 0.01). Androgen deficiency (AD) was defined as the presence of three sexual symptoms (decreased frequency of morning erections, sexual thoughts and erectile dysfunction) in combination with TT < 11 nmol/L and CFT < 220 pmol/L, and the sensitivity and specificity for CN-AMS was 68.8 and 6.8% respectively. The CN-AMS had sufficient sensitivity in

  8. Effects of raw milk and starter feed on intake and body composition of Holstein × Gyr male calves up to 64 days of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, A L; Marcondes, M I; Detmann, E; Machado, F S; Valadares Filho, S C; Trece, A S; Dijkstra, J

    2015-04-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of supplying different levels of raw milk, alone or in combination, with access to a starter feed, on the intake, digestibility, daily gain, N balance, and body composition of Holstein × Gyr crossbred suckling calves until 64 d of age. Thirty-nine male calves aged 4 d with an average initial live weight of 36 ± 1.0 kg were used. Five calves were defined as a reference group and slaughtered at 4 d of age to estimate the initial body composition of the animals. The other calves were distributed according to a completely randomized design in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement consisting of 3 levels of milk (2, 4, or 8 L/d) and 2 levels of starter feed (presence or absence in diet). At 15 and 45 d of age, 4 animals from each treatment were subjected to digestibility trials with total collection of feces and urine and sampling of feeds. At 64 d of age, all animals were slaughtered and their body tissues were sampled for analyses. Total dry matter and nutrient intake increased linearly and starter intake decreased linearly in response to the supply of increasing amounts of milk. The digestibility coefficient of organic matter was not affected by the inclusion of starter feed and increased linearly as milk supply was elevated. Daily gain was greater at increased milk supply levels and also greater when starter was supplied, without any interaction between milk supply level and the presence or absence of starter. Fecal N excretion and N retention were higher in the animals fed starter feed. Fecal N excretion was not affected by milk levels, whereas N retention was affected. Body protein and ash contents decreased linearly according to increased milk allowance. In contrast, fat body content increased linearly according to milk supply. The presence of starter feed in the diet was responsible for the increased body fat content, but had no effect on protein or ash content. In conclusion, weight gain and N retention in calves up to 64 d of

  9. Male gender preference, female gender disadvantage as risk factors for psychological morbidity in Pakistani women of childbearing age - a life course perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medhin Girmay

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Pakistan, preference for boys over girls is deeply culturally embedded. From birth, many women experience gendered disadvantages; less access to scarce resources, poorer health care, higher child mortality, limited education, less employment outside of the home and circumscribed autonomy. The prevalence of psychological morbidity is exceptionally high among women. We hypothesise that, among women of childbearing age, gender disadvantage is an independent risk factor for psychological morbidity Methods A cross-sectional catchment area survey of 525 women aged 18 to 35 years living in Islamabad and Rawalpindi. The effect of gender disadvantage was assessed as a latent variable using structural equation modelling. Indicators were parental gender preference, low parental care, parental overprotection, limited education, early age at marriage, marital dissatisfaction and low autonomy. Psychological morbidity was assessed using the 20 item Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ. Results Gender disadvantage was independently predictive of psychological morbidity. Among married women, socio-economic status did not predict psychological morbidity, and the effect of education was mediated through gender disadvantage rather than socioeconomic status (SES. The women's own preference for a male child was strongly predicted by their perceptions of having been disadvantaged by their gender in their families of origin. Conclusions The high prevalence of psychological morbidity among women in Pakistan is concerning given recently reported strong associations with low birth weight and infant stunting. Social action, public policies and legislation are indicated to reduce culturally embedded preferences. Neglect of these fundamentals will entrench consequent inequities including gender bias in access to education, a key millennium development goal.

  10. Male sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, Terrie B

    2010-05-01

    It should be recognized that sexuality in the aging male is of such import that a complete sexual history must be performed. By taking a complete sexual history, facts can be obtained that will allow for appropriate focus relating to a holistic evaluation and will enable us to dispel antiquated sexual myths pertaining to the aging male. If initiated by the history taker, questions concerning sexuality may be discussed more comfortably by the patient. Erectile dysfunction, male sexual response cycle, testosterone, sexually transmitted diseases, human immunodeficiency virus, long-term illness, along with religion and culture are explored in this article with the aim of improving one's knowledge base, self reflection, and awareness of the importance of male sexuality. A complete understanding and appreciation of the aging male's medical history, surgical history, social history, and emotional history as well as his sexual, cultural, and religious concepts will allow the health care provider to better analyze information, and to recommend and provide appropriate advice and treatment to the aging male patient. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Higher visceral fat is associated with lower cerebral N-acetyl-aspartate ratios in middle-aged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Sonya; Birdsill, Alex C; Steward, Kayla; Pasha, Evan; Kruzliak, Peter; Tanaka, Hirofumi; Haley, Andreana P

    2017-06-01

    Excessive adipose tissue, particularly with a central distribution, consists of visceral fat, which is metabolically active and could impinge upon central nervous system functioning. The aim of the current study was to examine levels of visceral adiposity in relation to key cerebral metabolite ratios localized in the occipitoparietal grey matter. Seventy-three adults, aged between 40 and 60 years, underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging and single voxel 1 H Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy ( 1 H MRS). Visceral fat was assessed using Dual Energy X Ray Absorptiometry (DXA). Individuals with higher visceral fat mass and volume had significantly lower ratios of N-acetyl-aspartate to total creatine (phosphocreatine + creatine, PCr + Cr) (NAA/PCr + Cr) (β = -0.29, p = 0.03, β = -0.28, p = 0.04). They also had significantly higher ratios of myo-inositol to total creatine (mI/PCr + Cr ) (β = 0.36, p = 0.01, β = 0.36, p = 0.01). Visceral fat mass and volume were not significantly related to ratios of glutamate to total creatine (Glu/PCr + Cr). While future studies are necessary, these results indicate central adiposity is associated with metabolic changes that could impinge upon the central nervous system in middle age.

  12. Heavy Smoking Is Associated With Lower Age at First Episode of Acute Pancreatitis and a Higher Risk of Recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munigala, Satish; Conwell, Darwin L; Gelrud, Andres; Agarwal, Banke

    2015-08-01

    There is limited data on cigarette smoking and the risk of acute pancreatitis (AP). We evaluated the influence of cigarette smoking on AP risk and clinical presentation in a large cohort of Veteran's Administration (VA) patients. Retrospective study of VA patients from 1998 to 2007. Exclusion criteria included (1) history of chronic pancreatitis (n = 3222) or gallstones (n = 14,574) and (2) age younger than 15 years (n = 270). A 2-year washout period was used to exclude patients with pre-existing recurrent AP. The study included 484,624 patients. From 2001 to 2007, a total of 6799 (1.4%) patients had AP. Alcohol (risk ratio, 4.20) and smoking (risk ratio, 1.78) were independent significant risk factors of AP on multiple regression analysis. Smoking increased the risk of AP in both nonalcoholics (0.57% vs 1.1%) and alcoholics (2.6% vs 4.1%). Smoking was associated with younger mean age at first episode of AP and higher likelihood of recurrent AP (≥4 episodes) in both nonalcoholics and alcoholics. The interval between recurrent episodes was not altered by alcohol or smoking. In a large cohort of VA patients, smoking is an independent risk factor for AP and augmented the effect of alcohol on the risk, age of onset, and recurrence of AP.

  13. Effect of Rice Bran Oil on the Lipid Profile of Mild-Moderate Hypercholesterolemic Male Aged 19-55 year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Diah Erlinawati

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Adult individuals in Indonesia showed changes in diet and lack of physical activity, therefore increasing the risk of hypercholesterolemia and obesity. One of nutritional therapy for hypercholesterolemia is rice bran oil, which contains active substances that works synergistically in controlling lipid profile. The substances are gamma-orzanol, phytosterols, and vitamin E isomers (tocotrienol and tocopherol. Methods: A clinical trial was conducted for 4 weeks in City Hall of Jakarta on 20 males, age 19–55 years old, with mild-moderate hypercholesterolemia, to assess lipid profile improvement of the supplementation of rice bran oil 45 ml/days compared to 15 ml/days without changing eating patterns. Results: After 4 weeks of intervention, there was significant difference in total cholesterol level between both groups (p = 0.049. In the group that received 45 ml/days of rice bran oil, total cholesterol level decreased 14%, and in the group of 15 ml/days total cholesterol level decreased 7.8%. The reduction of LDL and triglycerides and the increase of HDL were not significantly different between both groups (p >0,05. There was no significant changes of body weight in both groups. Conclusion: This study showed that consumption of  45 ml/days rice bran oil led to better improvements in lipid profiles compare to 15 ml/days. It has been demonstrated that gamma oryzanol and plant sterols in rice bran oil have the capability to remove cholesterol from bile salt micelles, thus decreasing cholesterol absorption in intestine.

  14. Effects of aging and gender on micro-rheology of blood in 3 to 18 months old male and female Wistar (Crl:WI) rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyi, Viktoria; Peto, Katalin; Deak, Adam; Tanczos, Bence; Nemeth, Norbert

    2018-01-01

    Age- and gender-related alterations of hemorheological parameters have not been completely elucidated to date. Experiments on older animals may give valuable information on this issue. However, the majority of rheological studies have been performed in young rodents. We aimed to investigate the influence of aging and gender on hemorheological parameters in rats. Coeval male (n=10) and female (n=10) Wistar (Crl:WI) rats were followed-up over 15 months. Blood samples were obtained from the lateral tail vein at 3, 4, 5, 9, 12, 15 and 18 months of age. Hematological parameters, red blood cell deformability (elongation under shear), osmotic gradient deformability and erythrocyte aggregation were tested. Body weight and the estrus cycle (in females) were also examined. Erythrocyte aggregation showed age- and gender-related variations. Red blood cell deformability was greater in females and gradually decreased over the 15-month period in both genders. Erythrocyte aggregation was greater in male rats at most ages, but did not show consistent changes with age. The micro-rheological parameters showed age-related alterations with gender differences. The effect of the estrous cycle cannot be excluded in female rats. The results provide reference data for studies of aging in rats and of the mechanism related to age and gender differences in hemorheology.

  15. Effects of raw milk and starter feed on intake and body composition of Holstein x Gyr male calves up to 64 days of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, A.L.; Marcondes, M.I.; Detmann, E.; Machado, F.S.; Valadares Filho, S.C.; Trece, A.S.; Dijkstra, J.

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of supplying different levels of raw milk, alone or in combination, with access to a starter feed, on the intake, digestibility, daily gain, N balance, and body composition of Holstein × Gyr crossbred suckling calves until 64 d of age. Thirty-nine male calves

  16. Why is young maternal age at first childbirth a risk factor for persistent delinquency in their male offspring? Examining the role of family and parenting factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vugt, Eveline; Loeber, Rolf; Pardini, Dustin

    2016-12-01

    Children born to mothers who were younger than average at their first childbirth are at increased risk for future persistent delinquent behaviour, but explanations for this remain unclear. Our aim was to identify possible family and parenting variables that may help explain this relationship. We hypothesised that parental stress, large number of children in the home, low socioeconomic status (including neighbourhood problems) and poor parenting would account for the link between early first motherhood and their offspring's delinquency. Four hundred and sixty-two boys were selected from the Pittsburgh Youth Study, a longitudinal study of a random sample of school boys in Pittsburgh, initially assessed half-yearly and then annually from 7 to 19 years of age, using self-reporting and other reporting methods. Indirect effect models were used to test relationships between variables. Higher levels of parental stress, poorer parent-child communication and caring for a larger number of children all mediated the relationship between maternal youth and persistent delinquency by their boys, but only explained about 20% of it. At least partial explanations of the relationship between a mother's age at first childbirth and persistent delinquency in her male offspring suggest that future research should test whether early interventions with younger mothers to decrease their sense of stress in parenting and improve their capacity for communication with their child(ren) may help to prevent persistent delinquency in their boys. Programmes designed to help young women make more informed and planned decisions about their pregnancies should also be evaluated. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Newborns of mothers with intellectual disability have a higher risk of perinatal death and being small for gestational age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höglund, Berit; Lindgren, Peter; Larsson, Margareta

    2012-12-01

    To study mode of birth, perinatal health and death in children born to mothers with intellectual disability (ID) in Sweden. Population-based register study. National registers; the National Patient Register linked to the Medical Birth Register. Children of first-time mothers with ID (n = 326; classified in the International Classification of Diseases 8-10) were identified and compared with 340 624 children of first-time mothers without ID or any other psychiatric diagnosis between 1999 and 2007. Population-based data were extracted from the National Patient Register and the Medical Birth Register. Mode of birth, preterm birth, small for gestational age, Apgar score, stillbirth and perinatal death. Children born to mothers with ID were more often stillborn (1.2 vs. 0.3%) or died perinatally (1.8 vs. 0.4%) than children born to mothers without ID. They had a higher proportion of cesarean section birth (24.5 vs. 17.7%) and preterm birth (12.2 vs. 6.1%), were small for gestational age (8.4 vs. 3.1%) and had lower Apgar scores (mothers without ID. Logistic regression adjusted for maternal characteristics confirmed an increased risk of small for gestational age (odds ratio 2.25), stillbirth (odds ratio 4.53) and perinatal death (odds ratio 4.25) in children born to mothers with ID. Unborn and newborn children of mothers with ID should be considered a risk group, and their mothers may need better individual-based care and support. © 2012 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica© 2012 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  18. Infrequent breakfast consumption is associated with higher body adiposity and abdominal obesity in Malaysian school-aged adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Nurul-Fadhilah

    Full Text Available Unhealthy dietary pattern increases the risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in growing children and adolescents. However, the way the habitual pattern of breakfast consumption influences body composition and risk of obesity in adolescents is not well defined. Thus, the aim of the present study was to assess any associations between breakfast consumption practices and body composition profiles in 236 apparently healthy adolescents aged 12 to 19 years. A self-administered questionnaire on dietary behaviour and lifestyle practices and a dietary food frequency questionnaire were used. Body composition and adiposity indices were determined using standard anthropometric measurement protocols and dual energy χ-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Mean age of the participants was 15.3±1.9 years. The majority of participants (71.2% fell in the normal body mass index (BMI ranges. Breakfast consumption patterns showed that only half of the participants (50% were consuming breakfast daily. Gender-specific multivariate analyses (ANCOVA showed that in both boys and girls, those eating breakfast at least 5 times a week had significantly lower body weight, body mass index (BMI, BMI z-scores, waist circumference, body fat mass and percent body fat (%BF compared to infrequent breakfast eaters, after adjustment for age, household income, pubertal status, eating-out and snacking practices, daily energy intakes, and daily physical activity levels. The present findings indicate that infrequent breakfast consumption is associated with higher body adiposity and abdominal obesity. Therefore, daily breakfast consumption with healthy food choices should be encouraged in growing children and adolescents to prevent adiposity during these critical years of growth.

  19. SIDE TO SIDE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN DOMINANT AND NON-DOMINANT ARM’S BONE DENSITY AND ISOMETRIC HANDGRIP STRENGTH IN MALES AND FEMALES AGED 40-65 YEARS OLD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasniqi, Ermira; Koni, Mynyr; Kabashi, Antigona; Bahtiri, Abedin; Gjeli, Selda; Boshnjaku, Arben

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This observational, cross-sectional study, investigates and compares the differences of BMD, T-score, Z-score and isometric strength between dominant (D) versus non-dominant (ND) arms of 162 subjects aged 40-65 in a developing, low income country (Kosova). Material and Methods: Bone Mineral Density (BMD), T-score and Z-score at distal forearm regions of both arms (measured by DXA scan), together with the Handgrip Isometric Strength (HIS) (by handgrip) were evaluated in a total subjects (53 Males and 109 Females). Additionally, General Healthcare Status Questionnaire together with self-administrated International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) were filled. Results: Significant differences (p0.05) were observed in Males BMD comparing to significantly higher results (p0.05) in males. When comparing the total subject’s BMD, T-score, Z-score and Handgrip based on the PA levels (1 to 3 according to IPAQ scoring) no significant differences (p>0.05) were found between PA1, as well as PA3 whereas significantly differences (p<0.05) were found in D arms of PA2 level. Conclusion: The study analyses side-to-side differences in bone density and muscular force between D and ND arms amongst a population which is frequently exposed to diagnostic screenings for age related osteomuscular conditions (aged 40-60), and demonstrates that these differences should be in consideration amongst clinicians, but not in the way it is done right now. PMID:27999479

  20. Mating choice of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae): influence of male ageing on mating success; Escolha de parceiro para acasalamento em Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann)(Diptera: Tephritidae): influencia do envelhecimento dos machos no sucesso de copula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Neto, Alberto M. da; Dias, Vanessa S.; Joachim-Bravo, Iara S. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Biologia Geral], e-mail: bio.alberto@gmail.com, e-mail: vanessasidias@hotmail.com, e-mail: ibravo@ufba.br

    2009-09-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of male ageing on male pheromone release and mating success of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). The effects of male ageing on mating were evaluated on fi ve and 21 d-old males by assessing their mating success (males chosen by a female for copulation) and the amount of males releasing the sex pheromone. The mating success was evaluated by using several ratios of young to older males by increasing the number of older males:young males from 1:1 to 5:1. The mating success of the 1:1 ratio was also evaluated in fi eld cages. The evaluation of the mating success (in the 1:1 ratio) showed a clear preference of the females for young males. Sex pheromone emission was much more common on young than older males. Even in cases were older males were more abundant (ratios 2:1 and 3:1), females still chose the young males. However, females could not distinguish young from older males in ratios of 4:1 or 5:1. Our data indicate that the ageing of C. capitata males has a considerable negative effect on their reproductive success, especially if they are found in a proportion any lower than 3:1. (author)

  1. Influence of age of child on differences in life satisfaction of males and females: A comparative study among East Asian countries

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamura, Eiji

    2012-01-01

    Using individual-level data for China, Korea, and Japan for 2006, this research examines how life satisfaction for married males and females in East Asian countries is influenced by the age of their children. Our results show that the life satisfaction of males is barely affected by a child of the relationship, whereas the life satisfaction of females with a young child is lower than that of females who do not have a child. This result holds for countries at different development stages. Ther...

  2. Livestock ownership is associated with higher odds of anaemia among preschool-aged children, but not women of reproductive age in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Andrew D; Colecraft, Esi K; Awuah, Raphael B; Boatemaa, Sandra; Lambrecht, Nathalie J; Adjorlolo, Leonard Kofi; Wilson, Mark L

    2018-04-02

    Livestock ownership may influence anaemia through complex and possibly contradictory mechanisms. In this study, we aimed to determine the association of household livestock ownership with anaemia among women aged 15-49 years and children aged 6-59 months in Ghana and to examine the contribution of animal source foods (ASFs) to consumption patterns as a potential mechanism mediating this association. We analysed data on 4,441 women and 2,735 children from the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey and 16,772 households from the Ghana Living Standards Survey Round 6. Haemoglobin measurements were used to define anaemia (non-pregnant women: <120 g/L; children: <110 g/L). Child- and household-level ASF consumption data were collected from 24-hour food group intake and food consumption and expenditure surveys, respectively. In multiple logistic regression models, household livestock ownership was associated with anaemia among children (OR, 95% CI: 1.5 [1.1, 2.0]), but not women (1.0 [0.83, 1.2]). Household ownership of chickens was associated with higher odds of anaemia among children (1.6 [1.2, 2.2]), but ownership of other animal species was not associated with anaemia among women or children. In path analyses, we observed no evidence of mediation of the association of household livestock ownership with child anaemia by ASF consumption. Ownership of livestock likely has limited importance for consumption of ASFs among young children in Ghana and may in fact place children at an increased risk of anaemia. Further research is needed to elucidate if and how pathogen exposure associated with livestock rearing may underlie this increased risk of anaemia. © 2018 The Authors. Maternal and Child Nutrition Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Association of Sarcopenic Obesity with Higher Serum High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein Levels in Chinese Older Males--A Community-Based Study (Taichung Community Health Study-Elderly, TCHS-E.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan-Wei Yang

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity and sarcopenia is high among the elderly. The simultaneous occurrence of these two disorders results in sarcopenic obesity. Research suggests that inflammation has an important role in the pathogenesis of obesity and sarcopenia. This study explores the impact of sarcopenic obesity on inflammatory markers, including interleukin-6 (IL-6, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α. This study is a community-based cross-sectional study. The study sample consisted of 844 community-dwelling people aged 65 years and older (448 men and 396 women. Sarcopenia was characterized by low muscle mass (skeletal muscle index < 6.87 and 5.46 kg/m2 for men and women, respectively, and obesity was characterized by excess body fat (body fat percentage greater than the 60th percentile of the study sample by sex [27.82% in men and 37.61% in women]. Older individuals identified with sarcopenic obesity were those who had both sarcopenia and obesity. Inflammatory markers such as IL-6, hs-CRP, and TNF-α were measured. The prevalence rates of obesity only, sarcopenia only, and sarcopenic obesity were 32.94%, 11.85%, and 7.23%, respectively. No difference was observed in the serum levels of IL-6 and TNF-α among the four groups of combined sarcopenia and obesity status. After multivariate adjustment, the serum hs-CRP levels in the obesity only and in the sarcopenic obesity groups were 0.14 and 0.16 mg/dL among males, respectively, which were significantly higher than that in the normal group (P=0.012 and 0.036. Our results provide evidence that obesity and sarcopenic obesity are associated with increased levels of serum hs-CRP among males.

  4. The association between sports participation and athletic identity with eating pathology among college-aged males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, K; Economos, C; Lerner, R M; Becker, A E; Sacheck, J

    2011-06-01

    The current study examined associations among sports participation (SP), athletic identity (AI), weight status, and eating pathology, and whether these relations differed by gender. Data come from male and female first-year college students who participated in the Tufts Longitudinal Health Study (TLHS) between 1999-2007 (N=712). Relations among SP, AI, actual and perceived weight statuses, Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI) subscale scores, and indices of body shape concern and restrictive eating were examined with hierarchical ordinary least squares (OLS) regression. Associations between SP and eating pathology among females were moderated by perceived weight status. By contrast, relations between males' EDI subscales scores and SP were moderated by ethnicity, as well as by actual weight status. Our findings support that sports participation alone neither promotes nor protects against eating pathology among males and females.

  5. Long-term feeding of hydroalcoholic extract powder of Lepidium meyenii (maca) enhances the steroidogenic ability of Leydig cells to alleviate its decline with ageing in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, K; Ohta, Y; Kawate, N; Takahashi, M; Inaba, T; Hatoya, S; Morii, H; Takahashi, K; Ito, M; Tamada, H

    2018-02-01

    This study examined whether feeding hydroalcoholic extract of Lepidium meyenii (maca) to 8-week-old (sexually maturing) or 18-week-old (mature) male rats for more than a half year affects serum testosterone concentration and testosterone production by Leydig cells cultured with hCG, 22R-hydroxycholesterol or pregnenolone. Testosterone concentration was determined in the serum samples obtained before and 6, 12, 18 and 24 weeks after the feeding, and it was significantly increased only at the 6 weeks in the group fed with the maca extract to maturing rats when it was compared with controls. Testosterone production by Leydig cells significantly increased when cultured with hCG by feeding the maca extract to maturing rats for 27 weeks (35 weeks of age) and when cultured with 22R-hydroxycholesterol by feeding it to mature rats for 30 weeks (48 weeks of age). Overall testosterone production by cultured Leydig cells decreased to about a half from 35 to 48 weeks of age. These results suggest that feeding the maca extract for a long time to male rats may enhance the steroidogenic ability of Leydig cells to alleviate its decline with ageing, whereas it may cause only a transient increase in blood testosterone concentration in sexually maturing male rats. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. 3α-androstanediol, but not testosterone, attenuates age-related decrements in cognitive, anxiety, and depressive behavior of male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl A Frye

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Some hippocampally-influenced affective and/or cognitive processes decline with aging. The role of androgens in this process is of interest. Testosterone (T is aromatized to estrogen, and reduced to dihydrotestosterone (DHT, which is converted to 5α-androstane, 3α, 17α-diol (3α-diol. To determine the extent to which some age-related decline in hippocampally-influenced behaviors may be due to androgens, we examined the effects of variation in androgen levels due to age, gonadectomy, and androgen replacement on cognitive (inhibitory avoidance, Morris water maze and affective (defensive freezing, forced swim behavior among young (4-months, middle-aged (13-months, and aged (24-months male rats. Plasma and hippocampal levels of androgens were determined. In experiment 1, comparisons were made between 4-, 13-, and 24-month old rats that were intact or gonadectomized (GDX and administered a T-filled or empty silastic capsule. There was age-related decline in performance of the inhibitory avoidance, water maze, defensive freezing, and forced swim tasks, and hippocampal 3α-diol levels. Chronic, long-term (1-4 weeks T-replacement reversed the effects of GDX in 4- and 13-month old, but not 24-month old, rats in the inhibitory avoidance task. Experiments 2 and 3 assessed whether acute subcutaneous T or 3α-diol, respectively, could reverse age-associated decline in performance. 3α-diol, but not T, compared to vehicle, improved performance in the inhibitory avoidance, water maze, forced swim, and defensive freezing tasks, irrespective of age. Thus, age is associated with a decrease in 3α-diol production and 3α-diol administration reinstates cognitive and affective performance of aged male rats.

  7. Affective Responses to Acute Exercise in Elderly Impaired Males: The Moderating Effects of Self-Efficacy and Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuley, Edward; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examined relationships between perceptions of personal efficacy and affective responsibility to acute exercise in elderly male inpatients and outpatients at a Veterans Administration Medical Center. A significant change in feelings of fatigue was revealed over time but exercise effects on affect were shown to be moderated by perceptions of…

  8. Assessment of selenium and zinc status in Korean middle-aged male patients with coronary heart disease using neutron activation analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ok Hee; Kim, Bo Ha; Moon, Jong Hwa; Chung, Yong Sam

    2005-01-01

    The presented study aimed to evaluate the selenium and zinc status of Korean middle -aged male patients with CHD. The serum concentration of zinc and selenium was measured by Neutron activation analysis method. The mean serum selenium and zinc concentrations of patients were 94.9 μg/l and 826.4 μg/l, respectively compared to the 97.8μg/l, 891.6 μg/l of control group, showing no any difference in selenium status, but showed significant difference for zinc status of middle -aged men. The deficiency of zinc in control group was 9.8%, but that was 31.3% in patient group. Conclusively, this study indicated that zinc status, which is associated with inflammatory reaction, is low in Korean male patients with CHD

  9. X-linked retinoschisis: RS1 mutation severity and age affect the ERG phenotype in a cohort of 68 affected male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Kristen; Cukras, Catherine; Turriff, Amy; Sergeev, Yuri; Vitale, Susan; Bush, Ronald A; Sieving, Paul A

    2011-11-29

    To assess the effect of age and RS1 mutation on the phenotype of X-linked retinoschisis (XLRS) subjects using the clinical electroretinogram (ERG) in a cross-sectional analysis. Sixty-eight XLRS males 4.5 to 55 years of age underwent genotyping, and the retinoschisis (RS1) mutations were classified as less severe (27 subjects) or more severe (41 subjects) based on the putative impact on the protein. ERG parameters of retinal function were analyzed by putative mutation severity with age as a continuous variable. The a-wave amplitude remained greater than the lower limit of normal (mean, -2 SD) for 72% of XLRS males and correlated with neither age nor mutation class. However, b-wave and b/a-ratio amplitudes were significantly lower in the more severe than in the less severe mutation groups and in older than in younger subjects. Subjects up to 10 years of age with more severe RS1 mutations had significantly greater b-wave amplitudes and faster a-wave trough implicit times than older subjects in this group. RS1 mutation putative severity and age both had significant effects on retinal function in XLRS only in the severe mutation group, as judged by ERG analysis of the b-wave amplitude and the b/a-ratio, whereas the a-wave amplitude remained normal in most. A new observation was that increasing age (limited to those aged 55 and younger) caused a significant delay in XLRS b-wave onset (i.e., a-wave implicit time), even for those who retained considerable b-wave amplitudes. The delayed b-wave onset suggested that dysfunction of the photoreceptor synapse or of bipolar cells increases with age of XLRS subjects.

  10. Differences and Similarities between Female Students and Male Students That Succeed within Higher Technical Education: Profiles Emerge through the Use of Cluster Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engström, Susanne

    2018-01-01

    This study focuses on female and male students who succeed in engineering programmes in Sweden, and why they have success. Data were collected through a questionnaire sent to all engineering students in Sweden registered for their seventh semester during year 2012 and about 30% of the students in the cohort responded on several questions. The…

  11. Impact of titanium dioxide on androgen receptors, seminal vesicles and thyroid hormones of male rats: possible protective trial with aged garlic extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Zeid, E H; Alam, R T M; Abd El-Hameed, N E

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ), a widely produced and consumed pigment in various food products, on the post-natal development of male albino rat seminal vesicle and thyroid hormones, as well as to evaluate the ameliorative effect of aged garlic extract (AGE) on TiO 2 -induced alterations. Forty male rat pups (3 weeks old) were divided into four equal groups. The 1st group received distilled water orally (control group), 2nd group was given 2 ml kg -1 AGE, 3rd group was administered TiO 2 (5 g kg -1 BW) day after day for 65 days, and the 4th group administered AGE 6 hr prior to TiO 2 gavage. TiO 2 -exposed rats showed nonsignificant changes in the serum testosterone, TSH, T 3 and T 4 , while serum glucose showed a significant decrease. Androgen receptor (AR) mRNA expression was significantly down-regulated and weak signal of AR immune labelling. Histopathologically, the epithelium cell lining of seminal vesicles showed focal areas of necrosis and fibrous tissue with the prominent fibrous stroma of the atrophied glands. Meanwhile, AGE supplementation ameliorated the deleterious effects of TiO 2 intoxication through protecting the tissues from oxidative stress caused by TiO 2 . In summary, oral administration of TiO 2 resulted in abnormal developmental events in male rat seminal vesicle and AGE able to reduce TiO 2 toxicity. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. No Relative Age Effect in the Birth Dates of Award-Winning Athletes in Male Professional Team Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Paul R.; Williams, A. Mark

    2011-01-01

    Athletes born early within an annual youth age-group selection year are probably more likely to be selected for sports teams and talent development programs than those born later in that year. Overrepresentation of these relatively older athletes in youth and adult sport is known as the relative age effect (RAE). RAEs were found in these popular…

  13. AGE-INDEPENDENT, GREY-MATTER-LOCALIZED, BRAIN ENHANCED OXIDATIVE STRESS IN MALE FISCHER 344 RATS,1,2

    Science.gov (United States)

    While studies showed that aging is accompanied by increased exposure of the brain to oxidative stress, others have not detected any age-correlated differences in levels of markers of oxidative stress. Use of conventional markers of oxidative damage in vivo, which may be formed ex...

  14. Influence of spinal sagittal alignment, body balance, muscle strength, and physical ability on falling of middle-aged and elderly males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imagama, Shiro; Ito, Zenya; Wakao, Norimitsu; Seki, Taisuke; Hirano, Kenichi; Muramoto, Akio; Sakai, Yoshihito; Matsuyama, Yukihiro; Hamajima, Nobuyuki; Ishiguro, Naoki; Hasegawa, Yukiharu

    2013-06-01

    Risk factors for falling in elderly people remain uncertain, and the effects of spinal factors and physical ability on body balance and falling have not been examined. The objective of this study was to investigate how factors such as spinal sagittal alignment, spinal range of motion, body balance, muscle strength, and gait speed influence falling in the prospective cohort study. The subjects were 100 males who underwent a basic health checkup. Balance, SpinalMouse(®) data, grip strength, back muscle strength, 10-m gait time, lumbar lateral standing radiographs, body mass index, and fall history over the previous year were examined. Platform measurements of balance included the distance of movement of the center of pressure (COP) per second (LNG/TIME), the envelopment area traced by movement of the COP (E AREA), and the LNG/E AREA ratio. The thoracic/lumbar angle ratio (T/L ratio) and sagittal vertical axis (SVA) were used as an index of sagittal balance. LNG/TIME and E AREA showed significant positive correlations with age, T/L ratio, SVA, and 10-m gait time; and significant negative correlations with lumbar lordosis angle, sacral inclination angle, grip strength and back muscle strength. Multiple regression analysis showed significant differences for LNG/TIME and E AREA with T/L ratio, SVA, lumbar lordosis angle and sacral inclination angle (R (2) = 0.399). Twelve subjects (12 %) had experienced a fall over the past year. Age, T/L ratio, SVA, lumbar lordosis angle, sacral inclination angle, grip strength, back muscle strength, 10-m gait time, height of the intervertebral disc, osteophyte formation in radiographs and LNG/E AREA differed significantly between fallers and non-fallers. The group with SVA > 40 mm (n = 18) had a significant higher number of subjects with a single fall (6 single fallers/18: p = 0.0075) and with multiple falls (4 multiple fallers/18: p = 0.0095). Good spinal sagittal alignment, muscle strength and 10-m gait speed improve body balance

  15. Assessment of association of smoking with bone mineral density (BMD) and fragility fractures in a cohort of pakistani males ages <= 50 years and postmenopausal females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhlaq, U.; Ayaz, S.B.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The study aimed to determine the association between smoking, bone mineral density (BMD), and fragility fractures in a cohort of Pakistani males aged > 50 years and postmenopausal females. Methodology: This was a cross-sectional survey carried out at Armed Forces Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine (AFIRM), Rawalpindi from Jan 2010 to Jan 2011. Through non-probability purposive sampling, we included male patients of age > 50 years and postmenopausal women. All subjects were submitted to dual energy X-Ray absorptiometery at lumbar spine (L2 > L4) and at both femoral by Hologic Discovery-A machine . The lowest BMD was noted and expressed in the form of T-score.Using SPSS V 20, descriptive statistics were calculated for the various variables. Independent samples t-test was used to determine the significance of difference between mean T-score in between smokers and non-smokers. Association between smoking and the risk of fracture was carried out using Fisher exact test. A p-value < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Out of a total of 328 patients, 142 (43.3%) were male (mean age 64 ± 8, range: 50 - 82 years) and 186 (56.7%) were female (mean age 61 ± 8, range: 43 - 92 years). Sixteen (8.6%) females and 52 (36.6%) males were smokers. In males, the mean T-score was -1.6 ± 1.3 in non-smokers and -1.9 ± 1.2 in smokers (p=0.17). Two of the non-smokers and nine of the smokers had a fracture. (p=0.002). In females, the mean T-score was -2.9 ± 1.9 in smokers and -2.3 ± 1.4 in non-smokers (p=0.23). Twelve of the non-smokers and 15 smokers had a fracture. (p<0.001) Conclusion: Smoking was significantly associated with increased percentage of fragility fractures but not with a reduction in BMD in our sample of postmenopausal women and men of age > 50 years. (author)

  16. Male students’ perceptions about gender imbalances in a speech-language pathology and audiology training programme of a South African institution of higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra du Plessis

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The professions of speech-language pathology and audiology (SLPA are characterised by occupational gender segregation. Reasons given by men are a lack of awareness of SLPA; a perception of poor salaries; a perception of poor working conditions; a stereotype that the profession is a female occupation; and a perception that working with children is feminine.   Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe the perceptions of male students in a specific SLPA training programme regarding gender imbalances. The objectives were to describe the influences of gender on the career orientation of students, the factors shaping students’ career choices and the experiences of students during their undergraduate training.   Method: This study followed a quantitative descriptive survey design. Thirty-one conveniently sampled male SLPA students, across different years of study, completed a self-administered questionnaire.   Results: Participants indicated that they did not believe in the gendered nature of occupations and that SLPA are not ‘female only’ professions. They (65% recorded that they considered salary and career prospects for choosing a career, and 74% specified that they chose SLPA because of a desire to help people. The perception of male students regarding their training appears to be positive as participants are comfortable with the clinical (71% and learning (77% activities. However, barriers were reported and some lecture information may be more obvious or applicable to female students. A need was identified to address the issue of working alone with paediatric clients and pertains to the societal awareness regarding sexual harassment of children, which may impact spontaneity in engagements.   Conclusion: The recruitment of male students should be prioritised to better reflect the client population served by the professions. Recommendations include career counselling in rural schools, recruitment campaigns to

  17. Tracking the sources of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in birds: Foraging in waste management facilities results in higher DecaBDE exposure in males

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gentes, Marie-Line, E-mail: gentes.marie_line@courrier.uqam.ca [Centre de recherche en toxicologie de l’environnement (TOXEN), Département des sciences biologiques, Université du Québec à Montréal, P.O. Box 8888, Station Centre-ville, Montreal, QC, Canada H3C 3P8 (Canada); Mazerolle, Marc J., E-mail: Marc.Mazerolle@uqat.ca [Centre for Forest Research, Université du Québec en Abitibi-Témiscamingue, 445 boulevard de l’Université, Rouyn-Noranda, QC, Canada J9X 5E9 (Canada); Giroux, Jean-François, E-mail: giroux.jean-francois@uqam.ca [Groupe de recherche en écologie comportementale et animale, Département des sciences biologiques, Université du Québec à Montréal, P.O. Box 8888, Station Centre-ville, Montreal, QC, Canada H3C 3P8 (Canada); Patenaude-Monette, Martin [Groupe de recherche en écologie comportementale et animale, Département des sciences biologiques, Université du Québec à Montréal, P.O. Box 8888, Station Centre-ville, Montreal, QC, Canada H3C 3P8 (Canada); and others

    2015-04-15

    Differences in feeding ecology are now recognized as major determinants of inter-individual variations in contaminant profiles of free-ranging animals, but exceedingly little attention has been devoted to the role of habitat use. Marked inter-individual variations and high levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) (e.g., DecaBDE) have previously been documented in ring-billed gulls (Larus delawarensis) breeding in a colony near Montreal (QC, Canada). However, the environmental sources of these compounds, and thus the reasons causing these large inter-individual variations remain unidentified. In the present study, we used GPS-based telemetry (±5 to 10 m precision) to track ring-billed gulls from this colony to reconstruct their movements at the landscape level. We related habitat use of individual gulls (n=76) to plasma concentrations (ng/g ww) and relative contributions (percentages) to Σ{sub 38}PBDEs of major congeners in the internationally restricted PentaBDE and current-use DecaBDE mixtures. Male gulls that visited waste management facilities (WMFs; i.e., landfills, wastewater treatment plants and related facilities; 25% of all GPS-tracked males) exhibited greater DecaBDE (concentrations and percentages) and lower PentaBDE (percentages) relative to those that did not. In contrast, no such relationships were found in females. Moreover, in males, DecaBDE (concentrations and percentages) increased with percentages of time spent in WMFs (i.e., ~5% of total foraging time), while PentaBDE (percentages) decreased. No relationships between percentages of time spent in other habitats (i.e., urban areas, agriculture fields, and St. Lawrence River) were found in either sex. These findings suggest that animals breeding in the vicinity of WMFs as well as mobile species that only use these sites for short stopovers to forage, could be at risk of enhanced DecaBDE exposure. - Highlights: • The study was conducted on breeding gulls with high levels of flame

  18. Prenatal exposure to dexamethasone in the mouse alters cardiac growth patterns and increases pulse pressure in aged male offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee O'Sullivan

    Full Text Available Exposure to synthetic glucocorticoids during development can result in later cardiovascular and renal disease in sheep and rats. Although prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is associated with impaired renal development, less is known about effects on the developing heart. This study aimed to examine the effects of a short-term exposure to dexamethasone (60 hours from embryonic day 12.5 on the developing mouse heart, and cardiovascular function in adult male offspring. Dexamethasone (DEX exposed fetuses were growth restricted compared to saline treated controls (SAL at E14.5, but there was no difference between groups at E17.5. Heart weights of the DEX fetuses also tended to be smaller at E14.5, but not different at E17.5. Cardiac AT1aR, Bax, and IGF-1 mRNA expression was significantly increased by DEX compared to SAL at E17.5. In 12-month-old offspring DEX exposure caused an increase in basal blood pressure of ~3 mmHg. In addition, DEX exposed mice had a widened pulse pressure compared to SAL. DEX exposed males at 12 months had an approximate 25% reduction in nephron number compared to SAL, but no difference in cardiomyocyte number. Exposure to DEX in utero appears to adversely impact on nephrogenesis and heart growth but is not associated with a cardiomyocyte deficit in male mice in adulthood, possibly due to compensatory growth of the myocardium following the initial insult. However, the widened pulse pressure may be indicative of altered vascular compliance.

  19. Comparison of onset age and pattern of male adolescent smoking in two different socioeconomic districts of Tehran, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Rezaei; Saharnaz Nedjat; Banafsheh Golestan; Reza Majdzadeh

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: One of the main strategies to prevent smoking is delaying onset of smoking in adolescents. Thus, identifying the age of smoking and smoking pattern in adolescents gives important knowledge for planning the intervention programs on smoking. Methods: Students aged 13-15 years old living in the Northern and the Southern Tehran were selected through two separate snowball samplings. In each area six smokers were considered as the seeds and were asked to introduce a smoker friend. The s...

  20. Vitex agnus-castus essential oil affects thyroid C cells and bone metabolism in middle-aged male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Pantelić Jasmina; Filipović B.; Šošić-Jurjević Branka; Ajdžanović V.; Trifunović Svetlana; Medigović Ivana; Milošević Verica

    2013-01-01

    Ageing in men is accompanied by an increased occurrence of osteoporosis, but traditional hormonal replacement therapy elevates the risk of developing endocrine cancer. Vitex agnus-castus L. (Vac) essential oil is commonly used as an alternative therapy for ageing symptoms in both men and women. It is known that calcitonin (CT), thyroid C cell hormone, inhibits bone resorption. The purpose of this experimental study was to investigate the influence of Vac es...

  1. Middle age onset short-term intermittent fasting dietary restriction prevents brain function impairments in male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rumani; Manchanda, Shaffi; Kaur, Taranjeet; Kumar, Sushil; Lakhanpal, Dinesh; Lakhman, Sukhwinder S; Kaur, Gurcharan

    2015-12-01

    Intermittent fasting dietary restriction (IF-DR) is recently reported to be an effective intervention to retard age associated disease load and to promote healthy aging. Since sustaining long term caloric restriction regimen is not practically feasible in humans, so use of alternate approach such as late onset short term IF-DR regimen which is reported to trigger similar biological pathways is gaining scientific interest. The current study was designed to investigate the effect of IF-DR regimen implemented for 12 weeks in middle age rats on their motor coordination skills and protein and DNA damage in different brain regions. Further, the effect of IF-DR regimen was also studied on expression of energy regulators, cell survival pathways and synaptic plasticity marker proteins. Our data demonstrate that there was an improvement in motor coordination and learning response with decline in protein oxidative damage and recovery in expression of energy regulating neuropeptides. We further observed significant downregulation in nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and cytochrome c (Cyt c) levels and moderate upregulation of mortalin and synaptophysin expression. The present data may provide an insight on how a modest level of short term IF-DR, imposed in middle age, can slow down or prevent the age-associated impairment of brain functions and promote healthy aging by involving multiple regulatory pathways aimed at maintaining energy homeostasis.

  2. Association between higher levels of sexual function, activity, and satisfaction and self-rated successful aging in older postmenopausal women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Wesley K.; Charo, Lindsey; Vahia, Ipsit V.; Depp, Colin; Allison, Matthew; Jeste, Dilip V.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To determine if measures of successful-aging are associated with sexual activity, satisfaction, and function in older post-menopausal women. Design Cross-sectional study using self-report surveys; analyses include chi-square and t-tests and multiple linear regression analyses. Setting Community-dwelling older post-menopausal women in the greater San Diego Region. Participants 1,235 community-dwelling women aged 60-89 years participating at the San Diego site of the Women's Health Initiative. Measurements Demographics and self-report measures of sexual activity, function, and satisfaction and successful aging. Results Sexual activity and functioning (desire, arousal, vaginal tightness, use of lubricants, and ability to climax) were negatively associated with age, as were physical and mental health. In contrast, sexual satisfaction and self-rated successful aging and quality of life remained unchanged across age groups. Successful aging measures were positively associated with sexual measures, especially self-rated quality of life and sexual satisfaction. Conclusions Self-rated successful aging, quality of life, and sexual satisfaction appear to be stable in the face of declines in physical health, some cognitive abilities, and sexual activity and function and are positively associated with each other across ages 60-89 years. PMID:21797827

  3. Risk Factors and Types of Urinary Incontinence among Middle-Aged and Older Male and Female Primary Care Patients in Kaunas Region of Lithuania: Cross Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aniuliene, Rosita; Aniulis, Povilas; Steibliene, Vesta

    2016-03-05

    The aims of the study were to evaluate the incidences, types of urinary incontinence (UI) and its risk factors among middle-aged and older (> 40 years) men and women visiting a general practitioner (GP). This is a descriptive and cross-sectional comparative study using a questionnaire-based survey included 172 male and female patients who consecutively visited a primary care center in Kaunas region of Lithuania. All 86 women (100%) and 65 men (75.58%) had symptoms of UI (P urinary incontinence (SUI) and 60% of men urge urinary incontinence (UUI) (P risk factors for women with SUI were: age below 60 years (odds ratio [OR] = 2.89, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.89-4.43; P pregnancies. The UUI was associated with age over 60 years (OR in men = 2.93, 95% CI: 1.15-7.51; P = .022, in women OR = 8.76, 95% CI: 2.37-32.33; P 40 years visiting GP and affected more women of the same age range. SUI was more prevalent among women, while more men had UUI. Age below 60, being married, pregnancy and delivery history, concomitant illnesses were significant risk factors for women' SUI and older age and menopause for UUI. The only risk factor for men' UUI was age over 60 years.

  4. Higher muscle content of perilipin 5 and endothelial lipase protein in trained than untrained middle-aged men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigelsø Hansen, Andreas; Prats, C; Ploug, T

    2016-01-01

    A high VO(2)max in middle-age is related to high metabolic flexibility and lowered risk of metabolic diseases. However, the influence of a high VO(2)max induced by years of regular training in middle-age on protein expression related to muscle metabolism is not well studied. This study measures k...

  5. Age-specific association between percent body fat and pulmonary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study describes the association between percent body fat and pulmonary function among apparently normal twenty male children tidal volume aged 4 years and twenty male children aged 10 years in Ogbomoso. The mean functional residual capacity of the lung in male children aged 10 years was significantly higher ...

  6. Influence of age, strain and season on circadian periodicity of pituitary, gonadal and adrenal hormones in the serum of male laboratory rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, C C; Döhler, K D; Geerlings, H; von zur Mühlen, A

    1983-01-01

    The influence of age, strain and season on the circadian pattern of serum levels of LH, FSH, prolactin androgens and corticosterone was studied in five groups of male laboratory rats. Significant 24-hour periodicity was observed for serum levels of corticosterone in all five groups, for androgen levels in four, for prolactin levels in three, for LH levels in two and for FSH levels in one group of rats. There were significant influences of age, strain and season on the temporal patterns and/or on 24-hour mean serum hormone levels. The results indicate that some of the disagreements on existence or nonexistence of circadian rhythms and on rhythm patterns in serum hormone levels may be explained by the fact that animals of different ages or strains had been used or that experiments were performed at different times of the year.

  7. A new human male diploid cell strain, TIG-7: its age-related changes and comparison with a matched female TIG-1 cell strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, K; Kaji, K; Kondo, H; Matsuo, M; Shibata, Y; Tasaki, Y; Utakoji, T; Ooka, H

    1991-01-01

    A new human diploid cell strain, TIG-7, which has the male karyotype, was established and characterized. Isozyme and histocompatibility typing of the cell strain was performed. The average in vitro life span of the cells is 73 population doublings. Changes in cell volume, doubling time, saturation density, the efficiency of cell attachment, plating efficiency, and relative DNA content were examined during in vitro cellular aging. Hydrocortisone slightly prolongs the life span of the cell strain when the hormone is administered to the cultures during middle passages. The age-related changes in the parameters of TIG-7 are not appreciably different from those of the previously established TIG-1 cell strain. These results show that this cell strain is useful for research on cellular aging; further profit is anticipated from research using a combination of these two sexually different cell strains.

  8. Decision Making under Ambiguity and Objective Risk in Higher Age - A Review on Cognitive and Emotional Contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebherr, Magnus; Schiebener, Johannes; Averbeck, Heike; Brand, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    The ability of decision making plays a highly relevant role in our survival, but is adversely affected during the process of aging. The present review aims to provide a better understanding of age-related differences in decision making and the role of cognitive and emotional factors in this context. We reviewed the literature about age-effects on decision-making performance, focusing on decision making under ambiguous and objective risk. In decisions under ambiguous risks, as measured by the Iowa Gambling Task, decisions are based on the experiences with consequences. In this case, many articles have attributed age-related impairments in decision making to changes in emotional and somatic reward- and punishment processing. In decisions under objective risks, as measured for example by the Game of Dice Task, decisions can be based on explicit information about risks and consequences. In this case, age-related changes have been attributed mainly to a cognitive decline, particularly impaired executive functions. However, recent findings challenge these conclusions. The present review summarizes neuropsychological and neurophysiological findings of age-related differences in decision making under ambiguous and objective risk. In this context, the relevance of learning, but also of cognitive and emotional contributors - responsible for age-related differences in decision making - are additionally pointed out.

  9. Decision Making under Ambiguity and Objective Risk in Higher Age – A Review on Cognitive and Emotional Contributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Liebherr

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The ability of decision making plays a highly relevant role in our survival, but is adversely affected during the process of aging. The present review aims to provide a better understanding of age-related differences in decision making and the role of cognitive and emotional factors in this context. We reviewed the literature about age-effects on decision-making performance, focusing on decision making under ambiguous and objective risk. In decisions under ambiguous risks, as measured by the Iowa Gambling Task, decisions are based on the experiences with consequences. In this case, many articles have attributed age-related impairments in decision making to changes in emotional and somatic reward- and punishment processing. In decisions under objective risks, as measured for example by the Game of Dice Task, decisions can be based on explicit information about risks and consequences. In this case, age-related changes have been attributed mainly to a cognitive decline, particularly impaired executive functions. However, recent findings challenge these conclusions. The present review summarizes neuropsychological and neurophysiological findings of age-related differences in decision making under ambiguous and objective risk. In this context, the relevance of learning, but also of cognitive and emotional contributors – responsible for age-related differences in decision making – are additionally pointed out.

  10. Decision Making under Ambiguity and Objective Risk in Higher Age – A Review on Cognitive and Emotional Contributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebherr, Magnus; Schiebener, Johannes; Averbeck, Heike; Brand, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    The ability of decision making plays a highly relevant role in our survival, but is adversely affected during the process of aging. The present review aims to provide a better understanding of age-related differences in decision making and the role of cognitive and emotional factors in this context. We reviewed the literature about age-effects on decision-making performance, focusing on decision making under ambiguous and objective risk. In decisions under ambiguous risks, as measured by the Iowa Gambling Task, decisions are based on the experiences with consequences. In this case, many articles have attributed age-related impairments in decision making to changes in emotional and somatic reward- and punishment processing. In decisions under objective risks, as measured for example by the Game of Dice Task, decisions can be based on explicit information about risks and consequences. In this case, age-related changes have been attributed mainly to a cognitive decline, particularly impaired executive functions. However, recent findings challenge these conclusions. The present review summarizes neuropsychological and neurophysiological findings of age-related differences in decision making under ambiguous and objective risk. In this context, the relevance of learning, but also of cognitive and emotional contributors – responsible for age-related differences in decision making – are additionally pointed out. PMID:29270145

  11. Age-specific survival of male Golden-cheeked Warblers on the Fort Hood Military Reservation, Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Duarte

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Population models are essential components of large-scale conservation and management plans for the federally endangered Golden-cheeked Warbler (Setophaga chrysoparia; hereafter GCWA. However, existing models are based on vital rate estimates calculated using relatively small data sets that are now more than a decade old. We estimated more current, precise adult and juvenile apparent survival (Φ probabilities and their associated variances for male GCWAs. In addition to providing estimates for use in population modeling, we tested hypotheses about spatial and temporal variation in Φ. We assessed whether a linear trend in Φ or a change in the overall mean Φ corresponded to an observed increase in GCWA abundance during 1992-2000 and if Φ varied among study plots. To accomplish these objectives, we analyzed long-term GCWA capture-resight data from 1992 through 2011, collected across seven study plots on the Fort Hood Military Reservation using a Cormack-Jolly-Seber model structure within program MARK. We also estimated Φ process and sampling variances using a variance-components approach. Our results did not provide evidence of site-specific variation in adult Φ on the installation. Because of a lack of data, we could not assess whether juvenile Φ varied spatially. We did not detect a strong temporal association between GCWA abundance and Φ. Mean estimates of Φ for adult and juvenile male GCWAs for all years analyzed were 0.47 with a process variance of 0.0120 and a sampling variance of 0.0113 and 0.28 with a process variance of 0.0076 and a sampling variance of 0.0149, respectively. Although juvenile Φ did not differ greatly from previous estimates, our adult Φ estimate suggests previous GCWA population models were overly optimistic with respect to adult survival. These updated Φ probabilities and their associated variances will be incorporated into new population models to assist with GCWA conservation decision making.

  12. Age-specific survival of male golden-cheeked warblers on the Fort Hood Military Reservation, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Adam; Hines, James E.; Nichols, James D.; Hatfield, Jeffrey S.; Weckerly, Floyd W.

    2014-01-01

    Population models are essential components of large-scale conservation and management plans for the federally endangered Golden-cheeked Warbler (Setophaga chrysoparia; hereafter GCWA). However, existing models are based on vital rate estimates calculated using relatively small data sets that are now more than a decade old. We estimated more current, precise adult and juvenile apparent survival (Φ) probabilities and their associated variances for male GCWAs. In addition to providing estimates for use in population modeling, we tested hypotheses about spatial and temporal variation in Φ. We assessed whether a linear trend in Φ or a change in the overall mean Φ corresponded to an observed increase in GCWA abundance during 1992-2000 and if Φ varied among study plots. To accomplish these objectives, we analyzed long-term GCWA capture-resight data from 1992 through 2011, collected across seven study plots on the Fort Hood Military Reservation using a Cormack-Jolly-Seber model structure within program MARK. We also estimated Φ process and sampling variances using a variance-components approach. Our results did not provide evidence of site-specific variation in adult Φ on the installation. Because of a lack of data, we could not assess whether juvenile Φ varied spatially. We did not detect a strong temporal association between GCWA abundance and Φ. Mean estimates of Φ for adult and juvenile male GCWAs for all years analyzed were 0.47 with a process variance of 0.0120 and a sampling variance of 0.0113 and 0.28 with a process variance of 0.0076 and a sampling variance of 0.0149, respectively. Although juvenile Φ did not differ greatly from previous estimates, our adult Φ estimate suggests previous GCWA population models were overly optimistic with respect to adult survival. These updated Φ probabilities and their associated variances will be incorporated into new population models to assist with GCWA conservation decision making.

  13. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and obesity in US males and females, age 8–15 years: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001–2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, H.C. Michelle; Curtin, Carol; Anderson, Sarah E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate how associations between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and obesity differ by gender and medication use in a nationally representative sample of US youth in which height and weight were measured. Methods Youth age 8–15 (n=3,050) studied in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001–2004. Obesity defined as ≥95th percentile of US BMI-for-age reference. ADHD determined by asking parents if child had been diagnosed and using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children IV. Gender-stratified multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate odds of obesity for youth with ADHD (medicated and unmedicated) relative to youth without ADHD. Results Males with ADHD who were medicated had lower odds of obesity compared to males without ADHD (adjusted OR = 0.42, 95% CI = 0.23 – 0.78). Unmedicated males with ADHD were as likely as males without ADHD to be obese (adjusted OR = 1.02, 95% CI = 0.43 – 2.42). The odds of obesity for females taking medication for ADHD did not differ statistically from those of females without ADHD (adjusted OR = 1.21, 95% CI = 0.52 – 2.81). Females with ADHD not taking medication had odds of obesity 1.54 times those of females without ADHD; however, the 95% CI (0.79–2.98) was wide and not statistically significant at α = 0.05. Conclusions Associations between ADHD and obesity are influenced by treatment of ADHD with medication and may differ by gender. Youth with ADHD who are not treated with medication are as or more likely than youth without ADHD to be obese. PMID:23325553

  14. Testofen, a specialised Trigonella foenum-graecum seed extract reduces age-related symptoms of androgen decrease, increases testosterone levels and improves sexual function in healthy aging males in a double-blind randomised clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Amanda; Steels, Elizabeth; Inder, Warrick J; Abraham, Suzanne; Vitetta, Luis

    2016-06-01

    This study examined the effect of Testofen, a specialised Trigonella foenum-graecum seed extract on the symptoms of possible androgen deficiency, sexual function and serum androgen concentrations in healthy aging males. This was a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial involving 120 healthy men aged between 43 and 70 years of age. The active treatment was standardised Trigonella foenum-graecum seed extract at a dose of 600 mg/day for 12 weeks. The primary outcome measure was the change in the Aging Male Symptom questionnaire (AMS), a measure of possible androgen deficiency symptoms; secondary outcome measures were sexual function and serum testosterone. There was a significant decrease in AMS score over time and between the active and placebo groups. Sexual function improved, including number of morning erections and frequency of sexual activity. Both total serum testosterone and free testosterone increased compared to placebo after 12 weeks of active treatment. Trigonella foenum-graecum seed extract is a safe and effective treatment for reducing symptoms of possible androgen deficiency, improves sexual function and increases serum testosterone in healthy middle-aged and older men.

  15. Possible selves and identity in relation to career development: evidence from Chilean male middle-aged managers' career narratives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nazar, Gabriela; van der Heijden, Beatrice

    2014-01-01

    Social and economic conditions, as well as the dynamism of the Chilean labour market, place new demands on middle-aged workers who have to explore both internal and external opportunities to develop successful careers. We assumed that possible self and identity in future states are core organizing

  16. Career identity and its impact upon self-perceived employability among Chilean male middle-aged managers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nazar, G.; van der Heijden, Beatrice

    2012-01-01

    Economic growth and social development in Chile require a skilled workforce able to adapt to a highly dynamic labour market all of which place new demands for middle-aged workers who have to explore labour markets opportunities to develop and maintain their employability. This research addresses

  17. Individual- and area-level effects on mortality risk in Germany, both East and West, among male Germans aged 65+

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kibele, E.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study investigates whether mortality inequalities based on individual- and area-level deprivation exist at older ages in Germany, and whether there are differences between eastern and western Germany. Methods Data on population and death counts according to the individual-level

  18. Toluene effects on the motor activity of adolescent, young-adult, middle-age and senescent male Brown Norway rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Life stage is an important risk factor for toxicity. Children and aging adults, for example, are more susceptible to certain chemicals than are young adults. In comparison to children, relatively little is known about susceptibility in older adults. Additionally, few studies have...

  19. Faster, higher, stronger, older: Relative age effects are most influential during the youngest age grade of track and field athletics in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Philip E; Hayes, Philip R; Nevill, Alan

    2018-03-07

    The relative age effect (RAE) is a common phenomenon in youth sport, whereby children born early in the selection year are more likely to experience success and to sustain participation. There is a lack of research investigating variables which influence RAEs within track and field athletics. Such information is vital to guide policies in relation to competition structure, youth development squads and coach education. A database of competition results was analysed to determine the extent to which RAEs were present in track and field athletics in the United Kingdom. Subsequent analyses examined whether age, sex, event and skill level influenced the RAE. Examination of 77,571 records revealed that RAEs were widespread, but most pronounced during Under 13 (U13) competitions; that is, during athletes' first exposure to formal track and field competition. Sex, event and skill level further influenced the existence and magnitude of RAEs at different age grades. Relative age is a key influencing factor within track and field athletics, especially at the youngest age category. Consequently, national governing bodies need to consider what administrative and stakeholder initiatives are necessary to minimise the effects of RAEs on young athletes' early experiences of competition.

  20. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and obesity in US males and females, age 8-15 years: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, H C M; Curtin, C; Anderson, S E

    2013-12-01

    Youth with ADHD may be at increased risk for obesity. Medications used to treat ADHD can affect weight. Few studies have investigated possible gender differences in associations between ADHD and obesity. Nationally representative of US youth aged 8-15 years. Height and weight were measured, and ADHD assessed by structured diagnostic interview and parent report. Associations between ADHD and obesity are reported for males and females to enable gender comparisons. To investigate how associations between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obesity differ by gender and medication use in a nationally representative sample of US youth in which height and weight were measured. Youth age 8-15 (n = 3050) studied in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2004. Obesity was defined as ≥95th percentile of US body mass index-for-age reference. ADHD was determined by asking parents if child had been diagnosed and using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children IV. Gender-stratified multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate odds of obesity for youth with ADHD (medicated and unmedicated) relative to youth without ADHD. Males with ADHD who were medicated had lower odds of obesity compared to males without ADHD (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 0.42, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.23-0.78). Unmedicated males with ADHD were as likely as males without ADHD to be obese (adjusted OR = 1.02, 95% CI = 0.43-2.42). The odds of obesity for females taking medication for ADHD did not differ statistically from those of females without ADHD (adjusted OR = 1.21, 95% CI = 0.52-2.81). Females with ADHD not taking medication had odds of obesity 1.54 times those of females without ADHD; however, the 95% CI (0.79-2.98) was wide and not statistically significant at α = 0.05. Associations between ADHD and obesity are influenced by treatment of ADHD with medication and may differ by gender. Youth with ADHD who are not

  1. [FEATURES OF CONSTITUTIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF YOUNG MALES AGED OF 17-20 YEARS, NATIVES OF THE BAIKAL REGION WITH REGARD TO THEIR FUNCTIONAL GROUPS OF HEALTH].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolokoltsev, M M

    2016-01-01

    The study of somatotypes of the constitution is an important point in planning of the improvements of measures among the population in various regions of Russia. The purpose of the work was to reveal features of age dynamics of somatotypes of the constitution in students of youthful age of the Baikal Region by means of somatotyping according to scheme by Nikityuk B. A. and Kozlova A.I (1990) with taking into account their functional group of health. There were examined 1286 Slavic young males, natives of the Irkutsk region, aged of 17-20 years, from them, according to data of the medical examination 996 were referred to the 1st (main) and 290--to the 2nd (preparatory) functional group of health for physical exercises. There were established significant differences in somatotypes of the constitution in young men of the 1st and 2nd functional groups of health. In both functional groups there is noted a significant amount of young males with transitional somatotypes that testifies to incompleteness of growth processes of their organism. The obtained results of a somatotyping are used in the educational process for a training individualization on physical culture of students of IRGTU, and also in construction of independent physical--improving programs.

  2. To determine whether first-degree male relatives of women with polycystic ovary syndrome are at higher risk of developing cardiovascular disease and type II diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, A; Vimplis, S; Sharma, A; Eid, N; Atiomo, W

    2007-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether first-degree male relatives of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) were at increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes mellitus (type II DM). In a cross-sectional study, 60 women with PCOS and 112 controls were given a questionnaire. The prevalence of heart disease, stroke, diabetes and associated risk factors among fathers and brothers of women with PCOS and controls, were measured. The percentage of women with PCOS with at least one brother with a risk factor for CVD was 47.5%, around twice that seen in control women (24.71%). The prevalence of heart disease, stroke and diabetes were similar in brothers of women with PCOS and controls. In conclusion, brothers of women with PCOS may be at increased risk of CVD. They form an easily identified group, which can be targeted for primary prevention.

  3. Age-related changes in the percentage of oleate in adipose tissue of male and female Fischer rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorling, E.B.; Hansen, Harald S.

    1995-01-01

    . Oestrogen injections twice a week to the castrated rats increased their oleate percentage within the same period to 23.4 ± 0.3%, partly reflecting the increase observed in the female rats. Stearic acid showed similar but less pronounced changes. The ratio oleic acid/stearic acid was constantly higher...

  4. Ayam Pedaging Jantan yang Dipelihara di Dataran Tinggi Sulawesi Selatan Produktivitasnya Lebih Tinggi (HIGHER PRODUCTIVITY PERFORMANCE OF MALE BROILERS REARED IN THE HIGHLANDOF SOUTH SULAWESI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahri Syamsuryadi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Study to determine the correlation between husbandry environment and sex to the performance, hematological characteristics, and meat quality of broilers have been conducted. Two hundred and eighty eight female and male Cobb broilers, were kept in cage where eight broilers with the same sex in each pen. A completely randomized experimental design with a 3x2 factorial arrangement (three different altitudes x two sexes with three replicates was applied. The three different altitudes included 50 m, 300 m, and 500 m above sea level, respectively. The results showed that differences in maintenance altitude and sex significantly influenced (P0.01 the animal srectal temperature, feed conversion, and meat chemical and organoleptic. It is concluded that better productivity can be achieved when male broilers are reared in a high altitude environment. ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji hubungan lingkungan pemeliharaan dan jenis kelamin ayam pedaging terhadap performans, karakteristik hematologi, dan kualitas daging. Sebanyak 288 ekor ayam pedaging strain Cobb, berjenis kelamin jantan dan betina, dipelihara dalam petak kandang dan tiap petak diisi delapan ekor ayam dengan jenis kelamin yang sama. Penelitian disusun berdasarkan Randangan Acak Lengkap (RAL pola faktorial (3x2 dengan tiga ulangan. Faktor pertama ialah ketinggian tempat pemeliharaan dengan tiga kategori yaitu: ketinggian (50 mdpl, ketinggian (300 mdpl, dan ketinggian (500 mdpl sedangkan faktor kedua ialah jenis kelamin jantan dan betina. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan perbedaan ketinggian tempat pemeliharaan dan jenis kelamin nyata memengaruhi (P0.01 suhu rektal, konversi pakan, kimia daging dan organoleptik. Hasil penelitian ini menyimpulkan performans yang lebih baik dapat dicapai apabila ayam pedaging dipelihara pada dataran tinggi dengan jenis kelamin jantan.

  5. Old age and male sex are associated with increased risk of asymptomatic erosive esophagitis: analysis of data from local health examinations by the Korean National Health Insurance Corporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jae Hee; Kim, Hee Man; Ko, Geun Jun; Woo, Myoung Lyeol; Moon, Chang Mo; Kim, Yu Jin; Han, Ki Jun; Song, Si Young; Cho, Hyeon Geun

    2011-06-01

    Silent gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is often detected during routine screening esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD). However, the risk factors and clinical implications of silent GERD remain unclear. In the present study, we investigated the risk factors for asymptomatic erosive esophagitis by analyzing the local area health examination data. The Korean National Health Insurance Corporation provides a bi-annual health examination performed by qualified local hospitals for the early detection of cancer in medical insurance holders over 40 years of age. Participants who completed self-reported questionnaires on health, followed by EGD at the Myongji Hospital (Goyang, Korea), were enrolled in this study. The data of a total of 5301 participants who underwent EGD between January 2005 and December 2008 were analyzed. The prevalence of erosive esophagitis was 6%. In the multivariate analysis, erosive esophagitis was strongly associated with an age greater than 60 years (odds ratio [OR]: 0.7, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.6-1.0), male sex (OR: 2.3, 95% CI: 1.7-3.0), hiatus hernia (OR: 2.9, 95% CI: 2.1-4.0), duodenal ulcer (OR: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.1-2.5), hypertension (OR: 1.5, 95% CI: 1.2-2.0), and smoking (OR: 1.4, 95% CI: 1.0-1.8). Of the 320 participants with erosive esophagitis, 145 (45.3%) were asymptomatic participants, and those who were more frequently greater than 60 years (OR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.1-3.1) and male (OR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.1-3.2). Asymptomatic erosive esophagitis in adults older than 40 years is strongly associated with old age (≥ 60 years) and male sex compared with symptomatic erosive esophagitis. © 2011 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  6. Comparison of onset age and pattern of male adolescent smoking in two different socioeconomic districts of tehran, iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Fatemeh; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Golestan, Banafsheh; Majdzadeh, Reza

    2011-10-01

    One of the main strategies to prevent smoking is delaying onset of smoking in adolescents. Thus, identifying the age of smoking and smoking pattern in adolescents gives important knowledge for planning the intervention programs on smoking. Students aged 13-15 years old living in the Northern and the Southern Tehran were selected through two separate snowball samplings. In each area six smokers were considered as the seeds and were asked to introduce a smoker friend. The sampling continued until one hundred study subjects were recruited in each area. Although in the area with wealthier socioeconomic status the age at which smoking started was one year more, the number of days of smoking, number of consumed cigarettes, not willingness to quit smoking, ease of access to cigarettes, mother and siblings smoking were more frequent. In contrast, seeing anti-smoking advertisements, father smoking, teachers smoking and education about the adverse effects of smoking were lower than the area with poorer socioeconomic status. The community level interventions such as not selling cigarettes to juniors, quit smoking help and support, and education of families must be revised. The role of families, through the supervision and control over their children, and parents' avoidance of smoking should be emphasized.

  7. Aging and stem cell therapy: AMPK as an applicable pharmacological target for rejuvenation of aged stem cells and achieving higher efficacy in stem cell therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorraminejad-Shirazi, Mohammadhossein; Farahmandnia, Mohammad; Kardeh, Bahareh; Estedlal, Alireza; Kardeh, Sina; Monabati, Ahmad

    2017-10-19

    In recent years, tissue regeneration has become a promising field for developing stem cell-based transplantation therapies for human patients. Adult stem cells are affected by the same aging mechanisms that involve somatic cells. One of the mechanisms involved in cellular aging is hyperactivation of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and disruption of 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Aging of stem cells results in their impaired regenerative capacity and depletion of stem cell pools in adult tissue, which results in lower efficacy of stem cell therapy. By utilizing an effective therapeutic intervention for aged stem cells, stem cell therapy can become more promising for future application. mTORC1 inhibition is a practical approach to preserve the stem cell pool. In this article, we review the dynamic interaction between sirtuin (silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog) 1, AMPK, and mTORC1. We propose that using AMPK activators such as 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide, A769662, metformin, and oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD + ) are practical ways to be employed for achieving better optimized results in stem cell-based transplantation therapies. Copyright © 2017 King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Centre. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Empirical evaluation of grouping of lower urinary tract symptoms: principal component analysis of Tampere Ageing Male Urological Study data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöyhönen, Antti; Häkkinen, Jukka T; Koskimäki, Juha; Hakama, Matti; Tammela, Teuvo L J; Auvinen, Anssi

    2013-03-01

    WHAT'S KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT? AND WHAT DOES THE STUDY ADD?: The ICS has divided LUTS into three groups: storage, voiding and post-micturition symptoms. The classification is based on anatomical, physiological and urodynamic considerations of a theoretical nature. We used principal component analysis (PCA) to determine the inter-correlations of various LUTS, which is a novel approach to research and can strengthen existing knowledge of the phenomenology of LUTS. After we had completed our analyses, another study was published that used a similar approach and results were very similar to those of the present study. We evaluated the constellation of LUTS using PCA of the data from a population-based study that included >4000 men. In our analysis, three components emerged from the 12 LUTS: voiding, storage and incontinence components. Our results indicated that incontinence may be separate from the other storage symptoms and post-micturition symptoms should perhaps be regarded as voiding symptoms. To determine how lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) relate to each other and assess if the classification proposed by the International Continence Society (ICS) is consistent with empirical findings. The information on urinary symptoms for this population-based study was collected using a self-administered postal questionnaire in 2004. The questionnaire was sent to 7470 men, aged 30-80 years, from Pirkanmaa County (Finland), of whom 4384 (58.7%) returned the questionnaire. The Danish Prostatic Symptom Score-1 questionnaire was used to evaluate urinary symptoms. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to evaluate the inter-correlations among various urinary symptoms. The PCA produced a grouping of 12 LUTS into three categories consisting of voiding, storage and incontinence symptoms. Post-micturition symptoms were related to voiding symptoms, but incontinence symptoms were separate from storage symptoms. In the analyses by age group, similar categorization was found at

  9. Discordance of Global Assessments by Patient and Physician Is Higher in Female than in Male Patients Regardless of the Physician's Sex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindström Egholm, Cecilie; Krogh, Niels Steen; Pincus, Theodore

    2015-01-01

    in female patients with high scores on functional disability, pain, and fatigue across the 3 diseases, whereas it was independent of the physician's sex. CONCLUSION: In this study on Danish patients with RA, axSpA, and PsA, the PtGA was > 20 mm higher than the PGA in about half of the encounters, and more...

  10. The evaluation of role of NMDA receptor and spinal microglia on age dependent differences of neuropathic pain in SNL model in male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain zeinali

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Induced neuropathic pain following nerve injury has behavioral signs such as allodynia and hyperalgesia. There are reports about the age dependent differences in severity and incidence and even therapeutic response of this pain. In this study, we have tried to evaluate behavioral differences of this pain in an induced neuropathic model in different ages, according to important role of N-methyl, D-aspartate (NMDA receptor and spinal microglia on induction and maintenance of pain. Material and methods: Male rats were grouped in young (5-6 week and mature (10-11 week. Under general anesthesia, the spinal nerve ligation (SNL surgery was operated on right leg. The effect of different doses of dextromethorphan (NMDA blocker and minocycline (microglia inhibitor on 5th day after surgery was evaluated and compared in two age-groups. Results: In this study, both Minocycline and dextromethorphan diminished neuropathic pain in a dose dependent manner in these two ages. Minocycline in contrast to dextromethorphan was more effective in young rats. The co-administration of ineffective doses of minocycline and dextromethorphan could be effective. Conclusion: Microglia and NMDA receptor function in neuropathic pain is different in different ages and the role of microglia is more evident. On the other hand the inhibition of both microglia and NMDA receptor can be considered for lowering neuropathic pain.

  11. Age of peak performance in elite male and female Ironman triathletes competing in Ironman Switzerland, a qualifier for the Ironman world championship, Ironman Hawaii, from 1995 to 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rüst CA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Christoph Alexander Rüst,1 Beat Knechtle,1,2 Patrizia Knechtle,2 Thomas Rosemann,1 Romuald Lepers31Institute of General Practice and for Health Services Research, University of Zurich, 2Gesundheitszentrum St Gallen, St Gallen, Switzerland; 3INSERM U1093, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Burgundy, Dijon, FranceBackground: The age of peak performance in elite endurance athletes has been investigated for elite marathoners, but not for elite Ironman triathletes. The aim of this study was to analyze the age of peak performance in swimming (3.8 km, cycling (180 km, running (42 km, and overall race time for elite female and male Ironman triathletes competing in Ironman Switzerland, a qualifier for the Ironman world championship, known as the Ironman Hawaii.Methods: The age of the annual top ten overall swimmers, cyclists, runners, and annual overall finishers for both male and female elite triathletes and their corresponding split and overall race times at the Ironman Switzerland were analyzed between 1995 and 2011.Results: The mean age of the elite Ironman triathletes was 33 ± 3 years for men and 34 ± 4 years for women. For women, the age of peak performance was not significantly different between the three disciplines (P > 0.05, while for men, the best swimmers (29 ± 3 years were significantly (P < 0.05 younger than the best runners (35 ± 5 years. During the study period, the age of peak performance remained unchanged for men at 31 ± 3 years (P > 0.05, but increased for women from 30 ± 4 years in 1995 to 36 ± 5 years in 2011 (P < 0.01.Conclusion: Although both women and men improved their overall race times during the 1995–2011 period, the age of peak performance was similar between women and men in the three disciplines and in overall race time. Future studies need to examine the change in age of peak performance across years in the Ironman Hawaii world championship event.Keywords: gender difference, swimming, cycling, running

  12. Baseline PSA in a Spanish male population aged 40-49 years anticipates detection of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo, J C; Viñas, M A; Gimbernat, H; Fata, F Ramón de; Granados, R; Luján, M

    2015-12-01

    We researched the usefulness of optimizing prostate cancer (PC) screening in our community using baseline PSA readings in men between 40-49 years of age. A retrospective study was performed that analyzed baseline PSA in the fifth decade of life and its ability to predict the development of PC in a population of Madrid (Spain). An ROC curve was created and a cutoff was proposed. We compared the evolution of PSA from baseline in patients with consecutive readings using the Friedman test. We established baseline PSA ranges with different risks of developing cancer and assessed the diagnostic utility of the annual PSA velocity (PSAV) in this population. Some 4,304 men aged 40-49 years underwent opportunistic screening over the course of 17 years, with at least one serum PSA reading (6,001 readings) and a mean follow-up of 57.1±36.8 months. Of these, 768 underwent biopsy of some organ, and 104 underwent prostate biopsy. Fourteen patients (.33%) were diagnosed with prostate cancer. The median baseline PSA was .74 (.01-58.5) ng/mL for patients without PC and 4.21 (.76-47.4) ng/mL for those with PC. The median time from the reading to diagnosis was 26.8 (1.5-143.8) months. The optimal cutoff for detecting PC was 1.9ng/mL (sensitivity, 92.86%; specificity, 92.54%; PPV, 3.9%; NPV, 99.97%), and the area under the curve was 92.8%. In terms of the repeated reading, the evolution of the PSA showed no statistically significant differences between the patients without cancer (p=.56) and those with cancer (P=.64). However, a PSAV value >.3ng/mL/year revealed high specificity for detecting cancer in this population. A baseline PSA level ≥1.9ng/mL in Spanish men aged 40-49 years predicted the development of PC. This value could therefore be of use for opportunistic screening at an early age. An appropriate follow-up adapted to the risk of this population needs to be defined, but an annual PSAV ≥.3ng/mL/year appears of use for reaching an early diagnosis. Copyright © 2015 AEU

  13. Influence of Physical Exercise and Food Restriction on the Biomechanical Properties of the Femur of Ageing Male Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus; Skalicky, Monika; Viidik, Andrus

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Voluntary running in wheels as well as food reduction increase the life spans of rats. Disparate parameters such as the collagen biomarker of ageing and the development of kidney pathologies are decreased by voluntary exercise. There are few reports on the influence of physical exercise...... were used: baseline (BL), voluntarily running in wheels (RW), food restriction to attain pair weight with RW animals (PW), forced running in treadmills (TM), and sedentary controls (SE). The biomechanical properties of femoral neck, diaphysis, and distal metaphysis were measured. RESULTS: While...

  14. REHABILITATION OF A SURGICALLY REPAIRED RUPTURE OF THE DISTAL BICEPS TENDON IN AN ACTIVE MIDDLE AGED MALE: A CASE REPORT

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    Sayers, Stephen P.; LaFontaine, Tom; Scheussler, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Background: Complete rupture of the distal tendon of the biceps brachii is relatively rare and there is little information to guide therapists in rehabilitation after this injury. The purposes of this case report are to review the rehabilitation concepts used for treating such an injury, and discuss how to modify exercises during rehabilitation based on patient progression while adhering to physician recommended guidelines and standard treatment protocols. Case Presentation: The patient was an active 38‐year old male experienced in weight‐training. He presented with a surgically repaired right distal biceps tendon following an accident on a trampoline adapted with a bungee suspension harness. The intervention focused on restoring range of motion and strengthening of the supporting muscles of the upper extremity without placing undue stress on the biceps brachii. Outcomes: The patient was able to progress from a moderate restriction in ROM to full AROM two weeks ahead of the physician's post‐operative orders and initiate a re‐strengthening protocol by the eighth week of rehabilitation. At the eighth post‐operative week the patient reported no deficits in functional abilities throughout his normal daily activities with his affected upper extremity. Discussion: The results of this case report strengthen current knowledge regarding physical therapy treatment for a distal biceps tendon repair while at the same time providing new insights for future protocol considerations in active individuals. Most current protocols do not advocate aggressive stretching, AROM, or strengthening of a surgically repaired biceps tendon early in the rehabilitation process due to the fear of a re‐rupture. In the opinion of the authors, if full AROM can be achieved before the 6th week of rehabilitation, initiating a slow transition into light strengthening of the biceps brachii may be possible. Level of evidence: 4‐Single Case report PMID:23316429

  15. Time, Money, Leisure and Guilt--The Gendered Challenges of Higher Education for Mature-Age Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Cathy; O'Shea, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Two qualitative research projects examined the impact of university study on two cohorts of mature-age students at a regional university in Australia. All the students interviewed had entered university via non-traditional pathways and had faced significant hurdles in gaining university entrance and continuing with their studies. The influence of…

  16. Testosterone replacement alters the cell size in visceral fat but not in subcutaneous fat in hypogonadal aged male rats as a late-onset hypogonadism animal model

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    Abdelhamed A

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Amr Abdelhamed,1,2 Shin-ichi Hisasue,1 Masato Shirai,3 Kazuhito Matsushita,1 Yoshiaki Wakumoto,1 Akira Tsujimura,1 Taiji Tsukamoto,4 Shigeo Horie1 1Department of Urology, Juntendo University, Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Andrology, Sohag University, Graduate School of Medicine, Sohag, Egypt; 3Department of Urology, Juntendo University Urayasu Hospital, Urayasu, Japan; 4Department of Urology, School of Medicine, Sapporo Medical University, Sapporo, Japan Background: Patients with late-onset hypogonadism (LOH benefit from testosterone replacement by improvement in the parameters of the metabolic syndrome, but fat cell morphology in these patients is still unclear. This study aims to determine the effect of testosterone replacement on the morphology of fat cells in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue and on erectile function in hypogonadal aged male rats as a model of LOH. Methods: Ten male Sprague-Dawley rats aged 20–22 months were randomly allocated to two groups, ie, aged male controls (control group, n=5 and aged males treated with testosterone replacement therapy (TRT group, n=5. Testosterone enanthate 25 mg was injected subcutaneously every 2 weeks for 6 weeks. At 6 weeks, the intracavernous pressure (ICP and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP ratio was assessed. Visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue specimens were collected and analyzed using Image-J software. Results: Body weight at 2, 4, and 6 weeks after TRT was 800.0±35.4 g, 767.5±46.3 g, and 780±40.4 g, respectively (not statistically significant. The ICP/MAP ratio was 0.341±0.015 in the TRT group and 0.274±0.049 in the control group (not statistically significant. The median subcutaneous fat cell size was 4.85×103 (range 0.85–12.53×103 µm2 in the control group and 4.93×103 (range 6.42–19.7×103 µm2 in the TRT group (not statistically significant. In contrast, median visceral fat cell size was significantly

  17. Are urge incontinence and aging risk factors of erectile dysfunction in patients with male lower urinary tract symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Toshiyasu; Earle, Carolyn; Imao, Tetsuya; Takemae, Katsuro

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have indicated that erectile dysfunction (ED) patients also suffer from lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). We investigated a group of men with LUTS and assessed their sexual function with the aim of being able to predict ED risk factors and introduce ED treatments earlier for this patient group. International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), Overactive Bladder Symptoms Score (OABSS) and Sexual Health Inventory for Men (SHIM) score were obtained from 236 men with LUTS at their first out-patients visit. Clinical parameters such as body mass index, prostate volume, residual urine volume and prostate specific antigen were also evaluated. The relationship between the SHIM score and other clinical data was analyzed. According to the SHIM score, ED in men with LUTS was severe 15%, moderate 19%, moderate to mild 28%, mild 17%, normal 7% and data was incomplete in 14%. Based on the results of a multivariate analysis, aging (p urinary incontinence was a risk factor for severe and moderate ED (p = 0.005). Aging and OAB (notably urinary urge incontinence) are risk factors for severe and moderate ED in men with LUTS.

  18. A selective androgen receptor modulator with minimal prostate hypertrophic activity restores lean body mass in aged orchidectomized male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, George; Sbriscia, Tifanie; Linton, Olivia; Lai, Muh-Tsann; Haynes-Johnson, Donna; Bhattacharjee, Sheela; Ng, Raymond; Sui, Zhihua; Lundeen, Scott

    2008-06-01

    Androgens are required for the maintenance of normal sexual activity in adulthood and for enhancing muscle growth and lean body mass in adolescents and adults. Androgen receptor (AR) ligands with tissue selectivity (selective androgen receptor modulators, or SARMs) have potential for treating muscle wasting, hypogonadism of aging, osteoporosis, female sexual dysfunction, and other indications. JNJ-37654032 is a nonsteroidal AR ligand with mixed agonist and antagonist activity in androgen-responsive cell-based assays. It is an orally active SARM with muscle selectivity in orchidectomized rat models. It stimulated growth of the levator ani muscle with ED(50) 0.8 mg/kg, stimulating maximal growth at a dose of 3mg/kg. In contrast, it stimulated ventral prostate growth to 21% of its full size at 3mg/kg. At the same time, JNJ-37654032 reduced prostate weight in intact rats by 47% at 3mg/kg, while having no inhibitory effect on muscle. Using magnetic resonance imaging to monitor body composition, JNJ-37654032 restored about 20% of the lean body mass lost following orchidectomy in aged rats. JNJ-37654032 reduced follicle-stimulating hormone levels in orchidectomized rats and reduced testis size in intact rats. JNJ-37654032 is a potent prostate-sparing SARM with the potential for clinical benefit in muscle-wasting diseases.

  19. Inevitable Relative Age Effects in Different Stages of the Selection Process among Male and Female Youth Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pål Lagestad

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The relative age effect (RAE in the selection of young soccer players is a well-known phenomenon. The purpose of this study was to examine the relative age effect existing despite strategies that have been implemented to avoid its presence in the selection process. We also aimed to investigate the RAE during the three different selection stages for B13, B14 (boys, and G13, G14 (girls, and gender differences in the RAE. This was achieved by collecting data from everyone who played soccer in Troendelag, and data that would illuminate the RAE during the three stages of selection for the regional teams of the 2015/2016 season. Mann–Whitney U-tests and Chi-square tests were used as statistical methods. The main finding of this study is that, despite the intention to reduce RAE in the selection process according to the criterion that at least 40% of the players should be born in the second half of the year, both the early-born boys and girls are more likely to be selected. The results also show that the RAE occurs gradually, and the longer the players are in the selection process the more prominent it is. This study highlights the importance of being aware of the RAE when selecting young players.

  20. Dehydroepiandrosterone increases the number and dendrite maturation of doublecortin cells in the dentate gyrus of middle age male Wistar rats exposed to chronic mild stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Pérez, J J; Martínez-Mota, L; Jiménez-Rubio, G; Ortiz-López, L; Cabrera-Muñoz, E A; Galindo-Sevilla, N; Zambrano, E; Hernández-Luis, F; Ramírez-Rodríguez, G B; Flores-Ramos, M

    2017-03-15

    Aging increases the vulnerability to stress and risk of developing depression. These changes have been related to a reduction of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) levels, an adrenal steroid with anti-stress effects. Also, adult hippocampal neurogenesis decreases during aging and its alteration or impaired is related to the development of depression. Besides, it has been hypothesized that DHEA increases the formation of new neurons. However, it is unknown whether treatment with DHEA in aging may stimulate the dendrite maturation of newborn neurons and reversing depressive-like signs evoked by chronic stress exposure. Here aged male rats (14 months old) were subjected to a scheme of chronic mild stress (CMS) during six weeks, received a treatment with DHEA from the third week of CMS. Changes in body weight and sucrose preference (SP) were measured once a week. DHEA levels were measured in serum, identification of doublecortin-(DCX)-, BrdU- and BrdU/NeuN-labeled cells was done in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. CMS produced a gradual reduction in the body weight, but no changes in the SP were observed. Treatment enhanced levels of DHEA, but lack of recovery on body weight of stressed rats. Aging reduced the number of DCX-, BrdU- and BrdU/NeuN- cells but DHEA just significantly increased the number of DCX-cells in rats under CMS and controls, reaching levels of young non-stressed rats (used here as a reference of an optimal status of health). In rats under CMS, DHEA facilitated dendritic maturation of immature new neurons. Our results reveal that DHEA improves neural plasticity even in conditions of CMS in middle age rats. Thus, this hormone reverted the decrement of DCX-cells caused during normal aging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparative analysis of the 1-mile run test evaluation formulae: assessment of aerobic capacity in male law enforcement officers aged 20-23 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayihan, Gürhan; Özkan, Ali; Köklü, Yusuf; Eyuboğlu, Ender; Akça, Firat; Koz, Mitat; Ersöz, Gülfem

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare values of aerobic performance in the 1-mile run test (1-MRT) using different formulae. Aerobic capacities of 351 male volunteers working for the Turkish National Police within the age range of 20-23 years were evaluated by the 1-MRT and the 20-metre shuttle run (20-MST). VO2max values were estimated by the prediction equations developed by George et al. (1993), Cureton et al. (1995) and Kline et al. (1987) for the 1-MRT and by Leger and Lambert (1982) for the 20-MST. The difference between the results of the different formulae was significant (p = 0.000). The correlation coefficient between the estimated VO2max using Cureton's equation, George's equation, Kline's equation and the 20-MST were 0.691 (p compares the use of 3 different formulae to estimate VO2max from 1-mile run/walk performance in male law enforcement officers aged 20-23 years for the first time and reports the most accurate formula to use when evaluating aerobic capacities of large numbers of healthy individuals.

  2. PRIMARY PREVENTION OF MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION IN MIDDLE-AGED MALES (15-YEAR FOLLOW-UP: CLINICAL AND ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF THE PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Kalinina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To estimate incidence rate of first myocardial infarction (MI with different outcomes and factors, it is influenced by, depending on the intensity of preventive measures in a population of middle-aged men during 15-year follow-up; to evaluate economic efficiency of primary medical prevention.Material and methods. Two populations of middle-aged men with a total of 6656 males (3488 men the group of active prevention and 3168 the group of comparison were followed up over 15 years.Results. The group of active prevention revealed 22.1% reduced MI incidence rate during 5-year follow-up as compared to the second group, fatal MI incidence rate was 42.4% lower, p<0.05. Mortality rate in new cases of MI was 35.8% in the group of active prevention and 48.5% at routine treatment (p<0.05. The group of active prevention continued to have 17.9% reduced MI incidence rate during the 10-year follow-up as compared to the group of routine management (p>0.05, while patients with clinical signs of ischemic heart disease (IHD and no history of previous MI kept significant distinctions in first MI incidence rate (41% less in the first group, p<0.05. First MI incidence for the 10-year period was the least at risk factors (RF absence and twice higher even at single RF presence. Combination of RF caused 4-5 fold increase in risk for MI. Life status of 81.3% of the enrolled men (5410 of 6656 followed over 15 years was received along with the monitoring of prognosis.Such indices as “life years saved” (LYS and “quality-adjusted life years saved” (QALYS for 1000 persons in the active prevention group were 53 and 51 years, respectively during the 5-year follow-up, 147 and 143 years – during the 10-year follow-up. In the long-term actual expenses for 1 LYS were 3.4-fold less than annual gross domestic product (GDP value, at that charges for primary prevention – 4-fold less, which has been for the first time demonstrated using factual data and not mathematic

  3. High nutrition risk is associated with higher risk of dysphagia in advanced age adults newly admitted to hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popman, Amy; Richter, Marilize; Allen, Jacqueline; Wham, Carol

    2018-02-01

    To establish the prevalence of nutrition risk and associated risk factors among adults of advanced age newly admitted to hospital. A cross-sectional study was undertaken in adults aged over 85 years admitted to one of two hospital wards in Auckland within the previous 5 days. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to establish participant's socio-demographic and health characteristics. Markers of body composition and muscle strength were collected. Nutrition risk was assessed using the Mini Nutritional Assessment-Short Form (MNA-SF), dysphagia risk using the 10-Item Eating Assessment Tool (EAT-10) and level of cognition using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment. A total of 88 participants with a mean age of 90.0 ± 3.7 years completed the assessments. A third (28.4%) of the participants were categorised by the MNA-SF as malnourished and 43.2% were classified at risk of malnutrition. A third (29.5%) were at risk of dysphagia as assessed by EAT-10. Malnourished participants were more likely to be at risk of dysphagia (P = 0.015). The MNA-SF score was positively correlated with body mass index (r = 0.484, P strength (r = 0.250, P = 0.026) and negatively correlated with risk of dysphagia (r = -0.383, P strength and negatively correlated with dysphagia risk. Findings highlight the importance of screening for dysphagia risk, especially in those identified to be malnourished or at nutrition risk. © 2017 Dietitians Association of Australia.

  4. [Efficacy and safety of hormonal therapy with androgens (androgel) in men with erectile dysfunction, partial androgen deficiency of aging male and cardiovascular diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinchenko, S Iu; Vorslov, L O; Aglamazian, N L; Morgunov, L Iu

    2007-01-01

    Partial androgen deficiency of aging male (PADAM) manifests with sexual dysfunction and is associated with many diseases, primarily, cardiovascular. After the age of 30-40 a testosterone level falls 1-2% a year. The number of men with testosterone deficiency grows from 8% in 40-60-year-olds to 85% at the age over 80 years. Low testosterone correlates with such risk factors of cardiovascular diseases as dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis, low fibrinolysis, insulin resistance and abdominal obesity. Correction of androgenic deficiency can be conducted with the drug androgel which represents a new system of transdermal testosterone delivery. In contrast to vasoactive drugs, androgel affects pathogenetic mechanisms of erectile dysfunction and thus attenuates factors of cardiovascular risk. Androgel is used externally and is more effective than intramuscular and oral analogues. Also, the drug improves lipid spectrum. By activating lipolysis, testosterone reduces the amount of visceral fat thus lowering insulin resistance. A vasodilating effect of androgel positively influences cardiovascular system and penile vessels. The drug acts fast, is effective and safe. Therefore, it can be recommended for correction of erectile dysfunction in patients with old age androgen deficiency and concurrent cardiovascular diseases.

  5. Decline of seminal parameters in middle-aged males is associated with lower urinary tract symptoms, prostate enlargement and bladder outlet obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristo Ausmees

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose We aimed to compare the associations between semen quality, associated reproductive indicators and the main prostate-related parameters in middle-aged men. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective study on 422 middle-aged men who underwent the screening for prostate health. Their reproductive function, semen quality and prostate-related pathologies were investigated. Results Significant associations between semen quality and prostate-related parameters could be seen. Total sperm count and sperm density decreased along with the increase of the I-PSS score and total prostate volume. Also, the related lower urinary tract characteristics showed a negative correlation with main semen parameters for all investigated subjects. No significant differences in age, testicular size, and hormonal parameters were found between the subjects with or without lower urinary tract symptoms and prostate enlargement. Conclusions Our study suggests that altered seminal parameters in middle-aged men are associated with LUTS, prostate enlargement and/or bladder outlet obstruction. Although the assessments of prostate and lower urinary tract symptoms may not replace the semen parameters evaluating the male reproductive status, there is a need for further and more detailed investigations about the pathways behind these associations as well as possible related conditions.

  6. Comparison of male and female foot shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Gangming; Houston, Vern L; Mussman, Martin; Garbarini, Maryanne; Beattie, Aaron C; Thongpop, Chaiya

    2009-01-01

    Morphological and geometric differences between male and female feet can be the decisive factor of whether well-fitting, functional, and comfortable footwear is available for both men and women. Optical scans, plaster wrap casts, and a set of manual measurements from the right feet of 51 female participants, aged 20 to 59 years (32 +/- 10.2 years), and 39 male participants, aged 22 to 71 years (47.1 +/- 12.1 years), were taken to determine which parameters were the most significant in characterizing pedal geometry and which had the largest difference between male and female feet. Analysis showed that the heel-to-ball length (ball length) of the male participants' feet (181.5 mm) was significantly longer, on average, than that of the female participants' feet (165.0 mm). The width of the male paticipants' feet at the ball, instep, and heel regions, as well as the ball circumference, normalized by the ball length, were all significantly larger on average, than the female test participants' feet. However, toe region, instep, and medial and lateral malleoli heights were larger, on average, for the female participants than for the male. The results show that female feet differ in size and shape from male feet and are not algebraically scaled, smaller versions of male feet, as is often assumed. The study shows that the average male participants' feet are longer than that of the female participants' feet, while the female feet are relatively narrower but higher than those of the male participants.

  7. Daily chronomics of proteomic profile in aging and rotenone-induced Parkinson's disease model in male Wistar rat and its modulation by melatonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagota, Anita; Mattam, Ushodaya

    2017-08-01

    Aging is associated with changes in several basic parameters of circadian timing system (CTS) in mammals leading to circadian dysfunction. We had reported earlier that upon aging and in rotenone induced Parkinson's disease (RIPD) rat model there were significant alterations in the core clock genes expression levels and daily pulses. To identify biomarkers of aging and PD chronomics of proteomic day-night profiles in suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), pineal and substantia nigra (SN) in 3 month (m), 12, 24 m and RIPD rat model were studied at two time points i.e. Zeitgeber Time (ZT)-6 (mid-day) and ZT-18 (mid-night). Proteome analysis was done by using two dimensional (2-D) electrophoresis and the spots showing robust day-night variations were identified by using MALDI TOF/TOF analysis. In 3 m rats the number of proteins showing day-night variations were relatively more than 12, 24 m and RIPD rat model in SCN and SN. But in pineal there was increase in number of protein spots showing day-night variations in 24 m. Mass spectroscopy of the protein spots showing robust day night variation in aging and RIPD rats were identified. As melatonin, a multitasking molecule, an endogenous synchronizer of rhythm, an antioxidant and an antiaging drug, declines with aging, the effects of melatonin administration on differential alterations in chronomics of 2-D protein profiles in aging and RIPD male Wistar rats were studied. We report here that the melatonin could be playing an important role in modulating the chronomics of 2-D protein profiles. Additionally, various proteins were identified for the first time in this study showing significant day night variation in SCN, pineal and SN may prove useful towards targeting novel treatments for circadian dysfunction, good health and longevity.

  8. Are the determinants of vertebral endplate changes and severe disc degeneration in the lumbar spine the same? A magnetic resonance imaging study in middle-aged male workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korpelainen Raija

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Modic changes are bone marrow lesions visible in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, and they are assumed to be associated with symptomatic intervertebral disc disease, especially changes located at L5-S1. Only limited information exists about the determinants of Modic changes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the determinants of vertebral endplate (Modic changes, and whether they are similar for Modic changes and severe disc degeneration focusing on L5-S1 level. Methods 228 middle-aged male workers (159 train engineers and 69 sedentary factory workers from northern Finland underwent sagittal T1- and T2-weighted MRI. Modic changes and disc degeneration were analyzed from the scans. The participants responded to a questionnaire including items of occupational history and lifestyle factors. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the associations between selected determinants (age, lifetime exercise, weight-related factors, fat percentage, smoking, alcohol use, lifetime whole-body vibration and Modic type I and II changes, and severe disc degeneration (= grade V on Pfirrmann's classification. Results The prevalences of the Modic changes and severe disc degeneration were similar in the occupational groups. Age was significantly associated with all degenerative changes. In the age-adjusted analyses, only weight-related determinants (BMI, waist circumference were associated with type II changes. Exposure to whole-body vibration, besides age, was the only significant determinant for severe disc degeneration. In the multivariate model, BMI was associated with type II changes at L5-S1 (OR 2.75 per one SD = 3 unit increment in BMI, and vibration exposure with severe disc degeneration at L5-S1 (OR 1.08 per one SD = 11-year increment in vibration exposure. Conclusion Besides age, weight-related factors seem important in the pathogenesis of Modic changes, whereas whole-body vibration was the only significant determinant

  9. The relationship between career mobility and occupational expertise. A retrospective study among higher-level Dutch professionals in three age groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, Beatrice

    2003-01-01

    The present study investigates the relationship between two career-related variables and occupational expertise of higher-level employees from large working organisations in three different age groups. The factors in question are: total number of jobs that have been performed; and the average period

  10. Prostatitis and male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshahrani, Saad; McGill, John; Agarwal, Ashok

    2013-11-01

    The prostate gland plays an important role in male reproduction. Inflammation of the prostate gland (prostatitis) is a common health problem affecting many young and middle aged men. Prostatitis is considered a correctable cause of male infertility, but the pathophysiology and appropriate treatment options of prostatitis in male infertility remain unclear. This literature review will focus on current data regarding prostatitis and its impact on male infertility. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Dietary HMB and β-alanine co-supplementation does not improve in situ muscle function in sedentary, aged male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ, David W; Acksel, Cara; Boyd, Iva M; Maynard, John; McCorkle, Katherine W; Edens, Neile K; Garvey, Sean M

    2015-12-01

    This study evaluated the effects of dietary β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) combined with β-alanine (β-Ala) in sedentary, aged male rats. It has been suggested that dietary HMB or β-Ala supplementation may mitigate age-related declines in muscle strength and fatigue resistance. A total of 20 aged Sprague-Dawley rats were studied. At age 20 months, 10 rats were administered a control, purified diet and 10 rats were administered a purified diet supplemented with both HMB and β-Ala (HMB+β-Ala) for 8 weeks (approximately equivalent to 3 and 2.4 g per day human dose). We measured medial gastrocnemius (MG) size, force, fatigability, and myosin composition. We also evaluated an array of protein markers related to muscle mitochondria, protein synthesis and breakdown, and autophagy. HMB+β-Ala had no significant effects on body weight, MG mass, force or fatigability, myosin composition, or muscle quality. Compared with control rats, those fed HMB+β-Ala exhibited a reduced (41%, P = 0.039) expression of muscle RING-finger protein 1 (MURF1), a common marker of protein degradation. Muscle from rats fed HMB+β-Ala also exhibited a 45% reduction (P = 0.023) in p70s6K phosphorylation following fatiguing stimulation. These data suggest that HMB+β-Ala at the dose studied may reduce muscle protein breakdown by reducing MURF1 expression, but has minimal effects on muscle function in this model of uncomplicated aging. They do not, however, rule out potential benefits of HMB+β-Ala co-supplementation at other doses or durations of supplementation in combination with exercise or in situations where extreme muscle protein breakdown and loss of mass occur (e.g., bedrest, cachexia, failure-to-thrive).

  12. Higher bioavailability of isoflavones after a single ingestion of a soya-based supplement than a soya-based food in young healthy males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergne, Sébastien; Bennetau-Pelissero, Catherine; Lamothe, Valérie; Chantre, Philippe; Potier, Mylène; Asselineau, Julien; Perez, Paul; Durand, Marlène; Moore, Nicholas; Sauvant, Patrick

    2008-02-01

    Soya isoflavones, genistein and daidzein, are the focus of numerous studies investigating their potential effects on health and results remain controversial. Bioavailability is clearly a crucial factor influencing their bioefficacy and could explain these discrepancies. This study aimed at assessing: (1) the isoflavone content of sixty-nine European soya-derivative products sold on the French market; (2) the bioavailability of isoflavones comparing supplement with food. Twelve healthy volunteers were recruited in a randomized two-way crossover trial and received 35 mg isoflavones equivalent aglycone either through supplements or through cheese, both containing different patterns of isoflavone conjugates and different daidzein:genistein ratios. A specific ELISA method was used to assess the plasma and urinary concentrations of isoflavones and thus the pharmacokinetic parameters, which were then normalized to mg of each isoflavone ingested. Results showed that the normalized Cmax of daidzein (P = 0.002) and similarly the normalized AUC0 --> infinity and Cmax of genistein (P = 0.002) from soya-based capsules were higher than that from soya-based cheese. In conclusion, this work completes studies on isoflavone bioavailability and presents new data regarding isoflavone concentrations in soya-derivative products. Assuming that isoflavone conjugation patterns do not influence isoflavone bioavailability, this study shows that isoflavones contained in capsules are more bioavailable than those contained in soya-based cheese. Although the supplement is more bioavailable, the relative importance of this is difficult to interpret as there is little evidence that supplements are biologically active in human subjects to date and further studies will be necessary for this specific supplement to prove its efficacy.

  13. A case report of a completely displaced stress fracture of the femoral shaft in a middle-aged male athlete - A precursor of things to come?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Peter; Elsoe, Rasmus; Rathleff, Michael S

    2016-05-01

    Displaced stress fractures of the femoral shaft are very uncommon. The proportion of middle-aged and older age groups participating in long-distance running, triathlon and other high intensity sports is increasing. As a consequence stress fracture of the femoral shaft may be on the rise in the future. The patient was 43 years old male caucasian triathlete. The authors met the patient after he was admitted with a displaced femoral shaft fracture. The fracture occurred during running at the national championship in ½ Ironman. The patient reported that his symptoms had gradually developed over the last month before the fracture with pain localized anterior to the thigh. The patient interpreted the symptoms as local muscle damage. A clinical examination was conducted by a physiotherapist and the symptoms were interpreted as a simple muscle injury in the quadriceps. When presented with a patient with non-traumatic, diffuse anterior thigh pain in an individual of this age, who is participating in high-level endurance running; clinicians should consider the possibility that the cause of the symptoms may be a femoral shaft stress fracture. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Increased Snacking and Eating Occasions Are Associated with Higher Energy Intake among Mexican Children Aged 2-13 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taillie, Lindsey Smith; Afeiche, Myriam C; Eldridge, Alison L; Popkin, Barry M

    2015-11-01

    Little is known about the dietary behaviors of Mexican children with regard to frequency, amount, and quality of foods consumed at eating occasions and their impact on total daily energy intake. The objectives were to 1) describe foods consumed across eating occasions and 2) examine whether the number or type of total eating occasions was associated with increased total daily energy intake and differed between 2- to 5-y-old and 6- to 13-y-old Mexican children. A nationally representative sample of 5031 children from the 2012 ENSANUT (Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición) was used to examine the percentage of meals and snacks consumed, mean energy intake from meals and snacks, and the top food groups contributing to meals and snacks. Multivariate linear regression was used to examine the association between meals, snacks, and total eating occasions with daily energy intake for 2- to 5-y-old and 6- to 13-y-old children. Eating patterns were similar across age groups (per capita mean intake of 3 meals and 1.4-1.6 snacks/d). Each additional snack was associated with greater increases in mean daily energy for older children (+191-289 kcal/d; P < 0.01) relative to younger children (+102-130 kcal/d; P < 0.01). Likewise, each additional eating occasion was associated with greater increases in mean daily energy for older children (+323 kcal/d; P < 0.01) relative to younger children (+166-261 kcal/d; P < 0.01). In both younger and older children, snacking was prevalent (75% and 68%, respectively). Top food contributors to snacks included fruit, salty snacks, candy, sweetened breads, and cookies. Among older children, whole milk as a snack was partially replaced with soda and sweetened fruit drinks. Snacks represent an area for potential improvement in the diets of Mexican children, especially among those aged 6 to 13 y, for whom each additional snack or eating occasion was linked to even greater increases in total daily energy intake. © 2015 American Society for

  15. Increased Age, but Not Parity Predisposes to Higher Bacteriuria Burdens Due to Streptococcus Urinary Tract Infection and Influences Bladder Cytokine Responses, Which Develop Independent of Tissue Bacterial Loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Matthew J; Carey, Alison J; Leclercq, Sophie Y; Tan, Chee K; Ulett, Glen C

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae causes urinary tract infection (UTI) in pregnant adults, non-pregnant adults, immune-compromised individuals and the elderly. The pathogenesis of S. agalactiae UTI in distinct patient populations is poorly understood. In this study, we used murine models of UTI incorporating young mice, aged and dam mice to show that uropathogenic S. agalactiae causes bacteriuria at significantly higher levels in aged mice compared to young mice and this occurs coincident with equivalent levels of bladder tissue colonisation at 24 h post-infection (p.i.). In addition, aged mice exhibited significantly higher bacteriuria burdens at 48 h compared to young mice, confirming a divergent pattern of bacterial colonization in the urinary tract of aged and young mice. Multiparous mice, in contrast, exhibited significantly lower urinary titres of S. agalactiae compared to age-matched nulliparous mice suggesting that parity enhances the ability of the host to control S. agalactiae bacteriuria. Additionally, we show that both age and parity alter the expression levels of several key regulatory and pro-inflammatory cytokines, which are known to be important the immune response to UTI, including Interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-12(p40), and Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 (MCP-1). Finally, we demonstrate that other cytokines, including IL-17 are induced significantly in the S. agalactiae-infected bladder regardless of age and parity status. Collectively, these findings show that the host environment plays an important role in influencing the severity of S. agalactiae UTI; infection dynamics, particularly in the context of bacteriuria, depend on age and parity, which also affect the nature of innate immune responses to infection.

  16. Pilot Study on the Effect of Botanical Medicine (Tribulus terrestris) on Serum Testosterone Level and Erectile Function in Aging Males With Partial Androgen Deficiency (PADAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roaiah, Mohamed Farid; El Khayat, Yasser Ibrahim; GamalEl Din, Sameh Fayek; Abd El Salam, Mohamed Ahmed

    2016-05-18

    This study was conducted on 30 consecutive male patients presenting to Kasr-Al Ainy Andrology outpatient clinic complaining of manifestations of partial androgen deficiency in aging males (PADAM). In this study (750 mg/day) of Tribulus terrestris in 3 divided doses, each of 250 mg, as an endogenous testosterone enhancer had been tried for a duration of 3 months and the evaluation of its effect had been monitored for each patient concerning its effect on serum testosterone (total and free) and luteinizing hormone (LH), as well as its impact on erectile function, which was evaluated by the International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5) questionnaire for those patients. Results showed a statistically significant difference in the level of testosterone (total and free) and IIEF-5, but no statistically significant difference in the level of LH before and after treatment. Also, the study showed statistically significant correlation between testosterone (total and free) and IIEF-5, but no statistically significant correlation between the level of LH and the IIEF-5 before and after treatment.

  17. Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... adults? How can you reduce anesthesia risks in older patients? Age Age may bring wisdom but it also brings ... Ask your physician to conduct a pre-surgery cognitive test — an assessment of your mental function. The physician can use the results as a ...

  18. Emotional Support, Depressive Symptoms, and Age-Related Alterations in Male Body Composition: Cross-Sectional Findings from the Men's Health 40+ Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Walther

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available More depressive symptoms and low emotional support have been related to worse body composition. Body composition significantly deteriorates in aging men. Therefore, we aimed to examine whether high emotional support and low depressive symptoms are associated with better body composition and a decelerated age-related deterioration of body composition in aging men. A cross-sectional analysis including 269 self-reporting healthy men aged between 40 and 75 years living in the German-speaking part of Switzerland was conducted. Participants completed questionnaires on emotional support and depressive symptoms. The depression screening instrument was used to form a group with low (N = 225 and moderate (N = 44 depressive symptoms. Body mass index (BMI and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR were measured, and cell proportion (CP, fat mass (FM, and water balance (WB were obtained using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Age-related associations emerged for WHR, CP, FM, and WB, but not for BMI. Emotional support was negatively associated with BMI, WHR, and WB, and only trend-wise with CP and FM. Group comparisons revealed that more depressive symptoms were associated with lower levels of CP and higher levels of WB. Both emotional support and depressive symptoms were significant moderators of the association between age and specific measures of body composition such as CP, FM, and WB. However, after correction for multiple testing for moderation analyses only the moderation effects of depressive symptoms on the association between age and WB and CP remained significant. Low depressive symptoms were associated with a better body composition as well as a decelerated decline in body composition and the role of emotional support acting as a buffer against age-related deterioration of body composition merits further investigation.

  19. Aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Hideo; Kodama, Kazunori; Yamada, Michiko

    1991-01-01

    The hypothesis that exposure to ionizing radiation accelerates the aging process has been actively investigated at ABCC-RERF since 1958, when longitudinal cohort studies of the Adult Health Study (AHS) and the Life Span Study (LSS) were initiated. In their 1975 overall review of aging studies related to the atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors, Finch and Beebe concluded that while most studies had shown no correlation between aging and radiation exposure, they had not involved the large numbers of subjects required to provide strong evidence for or against the hypothesis. Extending LSS mortality data up to 1978 did not alter the earlier conclusion that any observed life-shortening was associated primarily with cancer induction rather than with any nonspecific cause. The results of aging studies conducted during the intervening 15 years using data from the same populations are reviewed in the present paper. Using clinical, epidemiological, and laboratory techniques, a broad spectrum of aging parameters have been studied, such as postmortem morphological changes, tests of functional capacity, physical tests and measurements, laboratory tests, tissue changes, and morbidity. With respect to the aging process, the overall results have not been consistent and are generally thought to show no relation to radiation exposure. Although some preliminary results suggest a possible radiation-induced increase in atherosclerotic diseases and acceleration of aging in the T-cell-related immune system, further study is necessary to confirm these findings. In the future, applying the latest gerontological study techniques to data collected from subjects exposed 45 years ago to A-bomb radiation at relatively young ages will present a new body of data relevant to the study of late radiation effects. (author) 103 refs

  20. Effectiveness of a web- and mobile phone-based intervention to promote physical activity and healthy eating in middle-aged males: randomized controlled trial of the ManUp study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Mitch; Vandelanotte, Corneel; Kolt, Gregory S; Rosenkranz, Richard R; Caperchione, Cristina M; George, Emma S; Ding, Hang; Hooker, Cindy; Karunanithi, Mohan; Maeder, Anthony J; Noakes, Manny; Tague, Rhys; Taylor, Pennie; Viljoen, Pierre; Mummery, W Kerry

    2014-06-12

    % CI 1.17-2.22) and 9 months (exp(β)=1.55, 95% CI 1.14-2.10; exp(β)=1.51, 95% CI 1.15-2.00). Overall dietary behaviors improved at 3 months (exp(β)=1.07, 95% CI 1.03-1.11) and 9 months (exp(β)=1.10, 95% CI 1.05-1.13). The proportion of participants in both groups eating higher-fiber bread and low-fat milk increased at 3 months (exp(β)=2.25, 95% CI 1.29-3.92; exp(β)=1.65, 95% CI 1.07-2.55). Participants in the IT-based arm were less likely to report that 30 minutes of physical activity per day improves health (exp(β)=0.48, 95% CI 0.26-0.90) and more likely to report that vigorous intensity physical activity 3 times per week is essential (exp(β)=1.70, 95% CI 1.02-2.82). The average number of log-ins to the IT platform at 3 and 9 months was 6.99 (SE 0.86) and 9.22 (SE 1.47), respectively. The average number of self-monitoring entries at 3 and 9 months was 16.69 (SE 2.38) and 22.51 (SE 3.79), respectively. The ManUp intervention was effective in improving physical activity and dietary behaviors in middle-aged males with no significant differences between IT- and print-based delivery modes. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12611000081910; https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?ACTRN=12611000081910 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6QHIWad63).

  1. Chronic administration of thiamine pyrophosphate decreases age-related histological atrophic testicular changes and improves sexual behavior in male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Montiel, H L; Vásquez López, C M; González-Loyola, J G; Vega-Anaya, G C; Villagrán-Herrera, M E; Gallegos-Corona, M A; Saldaña, C; Ramos Gómez, M; García Horshman, P; García Solís, P; Solís-S, J C; Robles-Osorio, M L; Ávila Morales, J; Varela-Echavarría, A; Paredes Guerrero, R

    2014-06-01

    Aging is a multifactorial universal process and constitutes the most important risk factor for chronic-degenerative diseases. Although it is a natural process, pathological aging arises when these changes occur quickly and the body is not able to adapt. This is often associated with the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), inflammation, and a decrease in the endogenous antioxidant systems, constituting a physiopathological state commonly found in chronic-degenerative diseases. At the testicular level, aging is associated with tissue atrophy, decreased steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis, and sexual behavior disorders. This situation, in addition to the elevated generation of ROS in the testicular steroidogenesis, provides a critical cellular environment causing oxidative damage at diverse cellular levels. To assess the effects of a reduction in the levels of ROS, thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) was chronically administered in senile Wistar rats. TPP causes an activation of intermediate metabolism routes, enhancing cellular respiration and decreasing the generation of ROS. Our results show an overall decrease of atrophic histological changes linked to aging, with higher levels of serum testosterone, sexual activity, and an increase in the levels of endogenous antioxidant enzymes in TPP-treated animals. These results suggest that TPP chronic administration decreases the progression of age-related atrophic changes by improving the intermediate metabolism, and by increasing the levels of antioxidant enzymes.

  2. Aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, S.C.; Beebe, G.W.

    1975-01-01

    The hypothesis that ionizing radiation accelerates natural aging has been under investigation at the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission since 1959. Postmortem observations of morphologic and chemical changes, tests of functional capacity, physical tests and measurements, clinical laboratory tests, tissue changes, morbidity, and mortality have all been examined by ABCC investigators interested in this hypothesis. These studies have been beset with conceptual difficulties centered on the definition and measurement of aging. An empirical approach early led to the calculation of an index of physiologic age as a linear combination of age-related tests of various organ systems. Most studies have been negative but have not involved the large numbers that might be required to provide strong evidence for or against the hypothesis. Mortality, however, has been examined on the basis of a large sample and over the period 1950-1972 had provided no support for the hypothesis of radiation-accelerated aging. Ionizing radiation dose, of course shorten human life, but its life-shortening effect appears to be the result of specific radiation-induced disease, especially neoplasms. The hypothesis is now much less attractive than it was 10-20 years ago but still has some value in stimulating research on aging. The experience of the A-bomb survivors provides an unusual opportunity for a definitive test of the hypothesis. (auth.)

  3. Women Are Diagnosed with Type 2 Diabetes at Higher Body Mass Indices and Older Ages than Men: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Kyoung Kwon

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundMany epidemiologic studies have shown that women with type 2 diabetes have an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease compared with men with diabetes. The aim of this study is to elucidate whether disparities of adiposity, age and insulin resistance (IR at the time of diabetes diagnosis exist between women and men in the adult Korean population.MethodsData from The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, performed in Korea from 2007 to 2010, were used. In the survey, anthropometric data and blood samples were obtained during a fasting state. IR and β-cell function were calculated using the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR and HOMA-β, respectvely.ResultsThe mean age of diabetes diagnosis was 58.5 years in women and was 55.1 years in men (P=0.015. The mean body mass index (BMI of newly diagnosed diabetes subjects was 26.1 kg/m2 in women and 25.0 kg/m2 in men (P=0.001. The BMI was inversely related to age in both genders, and the higher BMI in women than men was consistent throughout all age groups divided by decade. The HOMA-IR in women with diabetes is higher than in men with diabetes (7.25±0.77 vs. 5.20±0.32; P=0.012.ConclusionKorean adult women are diagnosed with type 2 diabetes at higher BMI and older age than men and are more insulin-resistant at the time of diabetes diagnosis. This may help explain why women with diabetes have an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease after the diagnosis of diabetes, compared to men.

  4. Older age, higher perceived disability and depressive symptoms predict the amount and severity of work-related difficulties in persons with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raggi, Alberto; Giovannetti, Ambra Mara; Schiavolin, Silvia; Brambilla, Laura; Brenna, Greta; Confalonieri, Paolo Agostino; Cortese, Francesca; Frangiamore, Rita; Leonardi, Matilde; Mantegazza, Renato Emilio; Moscatelli, Marco; Ponzio, Michela; Torri Clerici, Valentina; Zaratin, Paola; De Torres, Laura

    2018-04-16

    This cross-sectional study aims to identify the predictors of work-related difficulties in a sample of employed persons with multiple sclerosis as addressed with the Multiple Sclerosis Questionnaire for Job Difficulties. Hierarchical linear regression analysis was conducted to identify predictors of work difficulties: predictors included demographic variables (age, formal education), disease duration and severity, perceived disability and psychological variables (cognitive dysfunction, depression and anxiety). The targets were the questionnaire's overall score and its six subscales. A total of 177 participants (108 females, aged 21-63) were recruited. Age, perceived disability and depression were direct and significant predictors of the questionnaire total score, and the final model explained 43.7% of its variation. The models built on the questionnaire's subscales show that perceived disability and depression were direct and significant predictors of most of its subscales. Our results show that, among patients with multiple sclerosis, those who were older, with higher perceived disability and higher depression symptoms have more and more severe work-related difficulties. The Multiple Sclerosis Questionnaire for Job Difficulties can be fruitfully exploited to plan tailored actions to limit the likelihood of near-future job loss in persons of working age with multiple sclerosis. Implications for rehabilitation Difficulties with work are common among people with multiple sclerosis and are usually addressed in terms of unemployment or job loss. The Multiple Sclerosis Questionnaire for Job Difficulties is a disease-specific questionnaire developed to address the amount and severity of work-related difficulties. We found that work-related difficulties were associated to older age, higher perceived disability and depressive symptoms. Mental health issues and perceived disability should be consistently included in future research targeting work-related difficulties.

  5. Hierarchy of higher-level physical functions: a longitudinal investigation on a nationally representative population of community-dwelling middle-aged and elderly persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chih-Jung; Wang, Ching-Yi; Tang, Pei-Fang; Lee, Meng-Chih; Lin, Hui-Sheng; Chen, Hui-Ya

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the hierarchy of higher-level physical functions to infer disability level (mild, moderate or severe) is essential for the precise targeting of preventive interventions and has been examined previously in a cross-sectional study. Based on longitudinal data, this study evaluated the hierarchy of higher-level physical functions. Data from a cohort of 2729 community-dwelling persons aged over 50 with no initial disability were drawn from the "Survey of Health and Living Status of the Elderly in Taiwan" from 1996 through 2007. The three-level hierarchy of eight chosen activities was examined by the median ages to disability onset with survival analyses and by Cox regressions, which examined the effects of sex and age on the development of this hierarchy. The progression of incident disability was as follows: mild level-running, carrying weight, and squatting; moderate level-climbing stairs, walking, and standing; and severe level-grasping and raising arms up. Women and older persons were at greater risk of developing more severe levels of disability. Another Cox regression with one index activity from each hierarchical level revealed similar results. The three-level hierarchy of higher-level physical functions has been validated longitudinally, suggesting rich research and clinical implications.

  6. Lower Serum DHEAS levels are associated with a higher degree of physical disability and depressive symptoms in middle-aged to older African American women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haren, Matthew T.; Malmstrom, Theodore K.; Banks, William A.; Patrick, Ping; Miller, Douglas K.; Morley, John E.

    2007-01-01

    Background Changes in androgen levels and associations with chronic disease, physical and neuropsychological function and disability in women over the middle to later years of life are not well understood and have not been extensively studied in African-American women. Aims The present cross-sectional analysis reports such levels and associations in community dwelling, African American women aged 49 – 65 years from St. Louis, Missouri. Methods A home-based physical examination and a health status questionnaire were administered to randomly sampled women. Body composition (DEXA), lower limb and hand-grip muscle strength, physical and neuropsychological function and disability levels were assessed. Blood was drawn and assayed for total testosterone (T), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEAS), oestradiol (E2), adiponectin, leptin, triglycerides, glucose, C-reactive protein (CRP) and cytokine receptors (sIL2r, sIL6r, sTNFr1 & sTNFr2). Multiple linear regression modelling was used to identify the best predictors of testosterone, DHEAS and Free Androgen Index (T/SHBG). Results Seventy-four percent of women were menopausal and a quarter of these were taking oestrogen therapy. DHEAS and E2 declined between the ages of 49 and 65 years, whereas total T, SHBG and FAI remained stable. Total T and DHEAS levels were strongly correlated. In this population sample there were no independent associations of either total T or FAI with indicators of functional limitations, disability or clinically relevant depressive symptoms. Unlike total T and FAI, lower DHEAS levels was independently associated with both higher IADL scores (indicating a higher degree of physical disability) and higher CESD scores (indicating a higher degree of clinically relevant depressive symptoms). Conclusion There is an age-related decline in serum DHEAS in African-American women. Lower DHEAS levels appear to be associated with a higher degree of physical disability and

  7. Higher serum cholesterol is associated with intensified age-related neural network decoupling and cognitive decline in early- to mid-life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielberg, Jeffrey M; Sadeh, Naomi; Leritz, Elizabeth C; McGlinchey, Regina E; Milberg, William P; Hayes, Jasmeet P; Salat, David H

    2017-06-01

    Mounting evidence indicates that serum cholesterol and other risk factors for cardiovascular disease intensify normative trajectories of age-related cognitive decline. However, the neural mechanisms by which this occurs remain largely unknown. To understand the impact of cholesterol on brain networks, we applied graph theory to resting-state fMRI in a large sample of early- to mid-life Veterans (N = 206, Mean age  = 32). A network emerged (centered on the banks of the superior temporal sulcus) that evidenced age-related decoupling (i.e., decreased network connectivity with age), but only in participants with clinically-elevated total cholesterol (≥180 mg/dL). Crucially, decoupling in this network corresponded to greater day-to-day disability and mediated age-related declines in psychomotor speed. Finally, examination of network organization revealed a pattern of age-related dedifferentiation for the banks of the superior temporal sulcus, again present only with higher cholesterol. More specifically, age was related to decreasing within-module communication (indexed by Within-Module Degree Z-Score) and increasing between-module communication (indexed by Participation Coefficient), but only in participants with clinically-elevated cholesterol. Follow-up analyses indicated that all findings were driven by low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels, rather than high-density lipoprotein (HDL) or triglycerides, which is interesting as LDL levels have been linked to increased risk for cardiovascular disease, whereas HDL levels appear inversely related to such disease. These findings provide novel insight into the deleterious effects of cholesterol on brain health and suggest that cholesterol accelerates the impact of age on neural trajectories by disrupting connectivity in circuits implicated in integrative processes and behavioral control. Hum Brain Mapp 38:3249-3261, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Radiologic findings of male breast cancer: two cases report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Soo Young; Kim, Sook Hyun; Bae, Sang Hoon; Ahn, Hye Kyung [Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-09-15

    Male breast cancer is very rare, with the incidence of 0.15-1% of all breast cancers and less than 1% of all cancers in men. The prognosis of male breast cancer is poorer than that of female because the median age of detection of the disease is in more late stage. It usually involves higher axillary lymph nodes. We report two case of male breast cancer to describe characteristic mammographic and ultrasonographic findings and to compare with the findings of gynaecomastia.

  9. Association of socio-economic and demographic factors with physical activity of males and females aged 20–69 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Biernat

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available [b]Objective[/b]. To assess the physical activity of working residents of Warsaw aged 20–69 years, as well as to identify the socio-demographic factors associated with their levels of physical activity. [b]Materials and method[/b]. The study involved 2,544 working residents of Warsaw aged 20–69 years. The short version of the IPAQ was applied and four physical activity levels (insufficient, sufficient, augmented, high were distinguished. The relationships between physical activity and gender, age, BMI, education, economic and martial status as well as participation in recreation were determined. [b]Results[/b]. High levels of physical activity were reached by 8% of respondents, 22% achieved augmented level, 32% were sufficiently and 32% insufficiently active. Out of 2544 studied subjects, 6% declared complete sedentariness. Females were, as compared to males, more frequently (p<0.05 insufficiently active (35.9 vs. 31.9%. In obese and overweight subjects insufficient physical activity predominated (42.9 and 36.2%, respectively and was significantly more frequent than in subjects with normal BMI (31.0%. Moreover, the subjects living in partner relationships were significantly (p<0.05 more frequently insufficiently active than those staying single (36.3 vs. 30.3%. Respondents who declared regular participation in leisure activities were less frequently insufficiently active (20.0% and more frequently met the criteria of sufficient (37.6%, augmented (28.0% or high (14.4% level of physical activity. No significant effects were found with respect to education of respondents. [b]Conclusions[/b]. Prophylactic schedules associated with the improvement of physical activity level should be addressed particularly to females, people taking up recreation occasionally or to those not involved in recreation at all, living in partner relationships, youngest (21–30 years, in obese and overweight and in the lowest economic category.

  10. Age and haplotype variations within FADS1 interact and associate with alterations in fatty acid composition in human male cortical brain tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Freemantle

    Full Text Available Fatty acids (FA play an integral role in brain function and alterations have been implicated in a variety of complex neurological disorders. Several recent genomic studies have highlighted genetic variability in the fatty acid desaturase (FADS1/2/3 gene cluster as an important contributor to FA alterations in serum lipids as well as measures of FA desaturase index estimated by ratios of relevant FAs. The contribution to alterations of FAs within the brain by local synthesis is still a matter of debate. Thus, the impact of genetic variants in FADS genes on gene expression and brain FA levels is an important avenue to investigate.Analyses were performed on brain tissue from prefrontal cortex Brodmann area 47 (BA47 of 61 male subjects of French Canadian ancestry ranging in age from young adulthood to middle age (18-58 years old, with the exception of one teenager (15 years old. Haplotype tagging SNPs were selected using the publicly available HapMap genotyping dataset in conjunction with Haploview. DNA sequencing was performed by the Sanger method and gene expression was measured by quantitative real-time PCR. FAs in brain tissue were analysed by gas chromatography. Variants in the FADS1 gene region were sequenced and analyzed for their influence on both FADS gene expression and FAs in brain tissue.Our results suggest an association of the minor haplotype with alteration in estimated fatty acid desaturase activity. Analysis of the impact of DNA variants on expression and alternative transcripts of FADS1 and FADS2, however, showed no differences. Furthermore, there was a significant interaction between haplotype and age on certain brain FA levels.This study suggests that genetic variability in the FADS genes cluster, previously shown to be implicated in alterations in peripheral FA levels, may also affect FA composition in brain tissue, but not likely by local synthesis.

  11. Do Factors Associated Self-rated Good Health and Their Influences Differ between Males and Females across Different Age Groups in Korean and Australia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyo Young; Short, Stephanie Doris

    2017-02-01

    This was a comparative study between Australia and Korea that investigated whether and to what extent factors related to self-rated good health (SRGH) differ by gender among age groups. This study was a secondary analysis of data that were collected in nationally representative, cross-sectional, and population-based surveys. We analyzed Australian and Korean participants > 20 years of age using 2011 data from the Australian National Nutritional Physical Activity Survey (n = 9,276) and the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (n = 5,915). Analyses were based on multiple logistic regression after controlling for covariates. Factors associated with SRGH and the extent of their influence differed by gender among age groups within each nation. Australian SRGH was associated with more factors than Korean SRGH, except in participants > 65 years old. Many differences among adults aged 20-44 years were observed, particularly with regard to the influence of socioeconomic factors. Living with a spouse only influenced SRGH in men 20-44 years old in both countries, negatively for Korean men and positively for Australian men. In this same age group, SRGH was positively influenced by employment and attainment of a higher education level in Australian men but not among Korean men; among women, income, but not education, affected SRGH in Korea, whereas in Australia, women were more influenced by education than by income. Lack of chronic disease had a strong influence on SRGH in both countries and was influential in all Australians and Koreans except those ≥ 65 years old. Broad features of society should be considered when discussing health and differences in associated factors and their influences. For focused public health interventions of population groups, it is also necessary to consider gender and age groups within social environments.

  12. Differential effects of age on circulating and splenic leukocyte populations in C57BL/6 and BALB/c male mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipov Nikolay M

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite several reports on age-related phenotypic changes of the immune system's cells, studies that use a multipoint age comparison between the specific and innate immune cell populations of prototypical Th1- and Th2-type polarized mouse strains are still lacking. Results Using a multipoint age comparison approach, cells from the two major immune system compartments, peripheral blood and spleen, and flow cytometry analysis, we found several principal differences in T cell and professional antigen presenting cell (APC populations originating from a prototypical T helper (Th 1 mouse strain, C57BL/6, and a prototypical Th2 strain, BALB/c. For example, regardless of age, there were strain differences in both peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC and spleens in the proportion of CD4+ (higher in the BALB/c strain, CD8+ T cells and CD11b+/CD11c+ APC (greater in C57BL/6 mice. Other differences were present only in PBMC (MHC class II + and CD19+ were greater in C57BL/6 mice or differences were evident in the spleens but not in circulation (CD3+ T cells were greater in C57BL/6 mice. There were populations of cells that increased with age in PBMC and spleens of both strains (MHC class II+, decreased in the periphery and spleens of both strains (CD11b+ or did not change in the PBMC and spleens of both strains (CD8+. We also found strain and age differences in the distribution of naïve and memory/activated splenic T cells, e.g., BALB/c mice had more memory/activated and less naive CD8+ and CD4+ T cells and the C57BL/6 mice. Conclusion Our data provide important information on the principal differences, within the context of age, in T cell and professional APC populations between the prototypical Th1 mouse strain C57BL/6 and the prototypical Th2 strain BALB/c. Although the age-related changes that occur may be rather subtle, they may be very relevant in conditions of disease and stress. Importantly, our data indicate that age and

  13. Protein Supplementation to Augment the Effects of High Intensity Resistance Training in Untrained Middle-Aged Males: The Randomized Controlled PUSH Trial

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    Andreas Wittke

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High intensity (resistance exercise training (HIT defined as a “single set resistance exercise to muscular failure” is an efficient exercise method that allows people with low time budgets to realize an adequate training stimulus. Although there is an ongoing discussion, recent meta-analysis suggests the significant superiority of multiple set (MST methods for body composition and strength parameters. The aim of this study is to determine whether additional protein supplementation may increase the effect of a HIT-protocol on body composition and strength to an equal MST-level. One hundred and twenty untrained males 30–50 years old were randomly allocated to three groups: (a HIT, (b HIT and protein supplementation (HIT&P, and (c waiting-control (CG and (after cross-over high volume/high-intensity-training (HVHIT. HIT was defined as “single set to failure protocol” while HVHIT consistently applied two equal sets. Protein supplementation provided an overall intake of 1.5–1.7 g/kg/d/body mass. Primary study endpoint was lean body mass (LBM. LBM significantly improved in all exercise groups (p≤0.043; however only HIT&P and HVHIT differ significantly from control (p≤0.002. HIT diverges significantly from HIT&P (p=0.017 and nonsignificantly from HVHIT (p=0.059, while no differences were observed for HIT&P versus HVHIT (p=0.691. In conclusion, moderate to high protein supplementation significantly increases the effects of a HIT-protocol on LBM in middle-aged untrained males.

  14. Higher effort-reward imbalance and lower job control predict exit from the labour market at the age of 61 years or younger: evidence from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

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    Hintsa, T; Kouvonen, A; McCann, M; Jokela, M; Elovainio, M; Demakakos, P

    2015-06-01

    We examined whether higher effort-reward imbalance (ERI) and lower job control are associated with exit from the labour market. There were 1263 participants aged 50-74 years from the English Longitudinal Study on Ageing with data on working status and work-related psychosocial factors at baseline (wave 2; 2004-2005), and working status at follow-up (wave 5; 2010-2011). Psychosocial factors at work were assessed using a short validated version of ERI and job control. An allostatic load index was formed using 13 biological parameters. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Exit from the labour market was defined as not working in the labour market when 61 years old or younger in 2010-2011. Higher ERI OR=1.62 (95% CI 1.01 to 2.61, p=0.048) predicted exit from the labour market independent of age, sex, education, occupational class, allostatic load and depression. Job control OR=0.60 (95% CI 0.42 to 0.85, p=0.004) was associated with exit from the labour market independent of age, sex, education, occupation and depression. The association of higher effort OR=1.32 (95% CI 1.01 to 1.73, p=0.045) with exit from the labour market was independent of age, sex and depression but attenuated to non-significance when additionally controlling for socioeconomic measures. Reward was not related to exit from the labour market. Stressful work conditions can be a risk for exiting the labour market before the age of 61 years. Neither socioeconomic position nor allostatic load and depressive symptoms seem to explain this association. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. Higher effort–reward imbalance and lower job control predict exit from the labour market at the age of 61 years or younger: evidence from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintsa, T; Kouvonen, A; McCann, M; Jokela, M; Elovainio, M; Demakakos, P

    2015-01-01

    Background We examined whether higher effort–reward imbalance (ERI) and lower job control are associated with exit from the labour market. Methods There were 1263 participants aged 50–74 years from the English Longitudinal Study on Ageing with data on working status and work-related psychosocial factors at baseline (wave 2; 2004–2005), and working status at follow-up (wave 5; 2010–2011). Psychosocial factors at work were assessed using a short validated version of ERI and job control. An allostatic load index was formed using 13 biological parameters. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Exit from the labour market was defined as not working in the labour market when 61 years old or younger in 2010–2011. Results Higher ERI OR=1.62 (95% CI 1.01 to 2.61, p=0.048) predicted exit from the labour market independent of age, sex, education, occupational class, allostatic load and depression. Job control OR=0.60 (95% CI 0.42 to 0.85, p=0.004) was associated with exit from the labour market independent of age, sex, education, occupation and depression. The association of higher effort OR=1.32 (95% CI 1.01 to 1.73, p=0.045) with exit from the labour market was independent of age, sex and depression but attenuated to non-significance when additionally controlling for socioeconomic measures. Reward was not related to exit from the labour market. Conclusions Stressful work conditions can be a risk for exiting the labour market before the age of 61 years. Neither socioeconomic position nor allostatic load and depressive symptoms seem to explain this association. PMID:25631860

  16. Hallmarks of Alzheimer disease are evolving relentlessly in Metropolitan Mexico City infants, children and young adults. APOE4 carriers have higher suicide risk and higher odds of reaching NFT stage V at ≤ 40 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Gónzalez-Maciel, Angélica; Reynoso-Robles, Rafael; Delgado-Chávez, Ricardo; Mukherjee, Partha S; Kulesza, Randy J; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Ávila-Ramírez, José; Villarreal-Ríos, Rodolfo

    2018-07-01

    Exposures to fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) and ozone (O 3 ) above USEPA standards are associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk. Metropolitan Mexico City (MMC) residents have life time exposures to PM 2.5 and O 3 above USEPA standards. We investigated AD intra and extracellular protein aggregates and ultrastructural neurovascular pathology in 203 MMC residents age 25.36 ± 9.23 y. Immunohistochemical methods were used to identify AT8 hyperphosphorilated tau (Htau) and 4G8 (amyloid β 17-24). Primary outcomes: staging of Htau and amyloid, per decade and cumulative PM 2.5 (CPM 2.5 ) above standard. Apolipoprotein E allele 4 (APOE4), age and cause of death were secondary outcomes. Subcortical pretangle stage b was identified in an 11month old baby. Cortical tau pre-tangles, neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) Stages I-II, amyloid phases 1-2, Htau in substantia nigrae, auditory, oculomotor, trigeminal and autonomic systems were identified by the 2nd decade. Progression to NFT stages III-V was present in 24.8% of 30-40 y old subjects. APOE4 carriers have 4.92 times higher suicide odds (p = 0.0006), and 23.6 times higher odds of NFT V (p < 0.0001) v APOE4 non-carriers having similar CPM 2.5 exposure and age. Age (p = 0.0062) and CPM 2.5 (p = 0.0178) were significant for developing NFT V. Combustion-derived nanoparticles were associated with early and progressive damage to the neurovascular unit. Alzheimer's disease starting in the brainstem of young children and affecting 99.5% of young urbanites is a serious health crisis. Air pollution control should be prioritised. Childhood relentless Htau makes a fundamental target for neuroprotective interventions and the first two decades are critical. We recommend the concept of preclinical AD be revised and emphasize the need to define paediatric environmental, nutritional, metabolic and genetic risk factor interactions of paramount importance to prevent AD. AD evolving from childhood is threating the

  17. Dietary Patterns in Relation to Cardiovascular Disease Incidence and Risk Markers in a Middle-Aged British Male Population: Data from the Caerphilly Prospective Study

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    Elly Mertens

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary behaviour is an important modifiable factor in cardiovascular disease (CVD prevention. The study aimed to identify dietary patterns (DPs and explore their association with CVD incidence and risk markers. A follow-up of 1838 middle-aged men, aged 47–67 years recruited into the Caerphilly Prospective Cohort Study at phase 2 (1984–1988 was undertaken. Principal component analysis identified three DPs at baseline, which explained 24.8% of the total variance of food intake. DP1, characterised by higher intakes of white bread, butter, lard, chips and sugar-sweetened beverages and lower intake of wholegrain bread, was associated with higher CVD (HR 1.35: 95% CI: 1.10, 1.67 and stroke (HR 1.77; 95% CI: 1.18, 2.63 incidence. DP3, characterised by higher intakes of sweet puddings and biscuits, wholegrain breakfast cereals and dairy (excluding cheese and butter and lower alcohol intake, was associated with lower CVD (HR 0.76; 95% CI: 0.62, 0.93, coronary heart disease (HR: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.52, 0.90 and stroke (HR: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.47, 0.99 incidence and a beneficial CVD profile at baseline, while DP1 with an unfavourable profile, showed no clear associations after 12 years follow-up. Dietary pattern 2 (DP2, characterised by higher intake of pulses, fish, poultry, processed/red meat, rice, pasta and vegetables, was not associated with the aforementioned outcomes. These data may provide insight for development of public health initiatives focussing on feasible changes in dietary habits.

  18. A Western Diet Pattern Is Associated with Higher Concentrations of Blood and Bone Lead among Middle-Aged and Elderly Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Ding, Ning; Tucker, Katherine L; Weisskopf, Marc G; Sparrow, David; Hu, Howard; Park, Sung Kyun

    2017-07-01

    Background: Little is known about the effects of overall dietary pattern on lead concentration. Objective: We examined the association of overall dietary patterns, derived from a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire, with bone and blood lead concentrations. Methods: These longitudinal analyses included mostly non-Hispanic white, middle-aged-to-elderly men from the Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study. Long-term lead exposures were measured as tibia and patella lead concentrations by using K-shell-X-ray fluorescence. Short-term lead exposures were measured as blood lead concentrations by using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy. Dietary pattern scores were derived by using factor analysis. Linear mixed-effects models were utilized to predict blood lead concentrations among 983 men, aged 44-92 y at baseline, with a total of 3273 observations (during 1987-2008). We constructed linear regression models to determine the relations between dietary patterns and bone lead concentrations among 649 participants with an age range of 49-93 y. Results: Two major dietary patterns were identified: a prudent dietary pattern, characterized by high intakes of fruit, legumes, vegetables, whole grains, poultry, and seafood; and a Western dietary pattern, characterized by high intakes of processed meat, red meat, refined grains, high-fat dairy products, French fries, butter, and eggs. After adjusting for age, smoking status, body mass index, total energy intake, education, occupation, neighborhood-based education and income level, men in the highest tertile of the Western pattern score (compared with the lowest) had 0.91 μg/dL (95% CI: 0.41, 1.42 μg/dL) higher blood lead, 5.96 μg/g (95% CI: 1.76, 10.16 μg/g) higher patella lead, and 3.83 μg/g (95% CI: 0.97, 6.70 μg/g) higher tibia lead. No significant association was detected with the prudent dietary pattern in the adjusted model. Conclusions: These findings suggest that the Western diet is associated with

  19. A reliability generalization meta-analysis of coefficient alpha and test-retest coefficient for the aging males' symptoms (AMS) scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chin-Pang; Chiu, Yu-Wen; Chu, Chun-Lin; Chen, Yu; Jiang, Kun-Hao; Chen, Jiun-Liang; Chen, Ching-Yen

    2016-12-01

    The aging males' symptoms (AMS) scale is an instrument used to determine the health-related quality of life in adult and elderly men. The purpose of this study was to synthesize internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) and test-retest reliability for the AMS scale and its three subscales. Of the 123 studies reviewed, 12 provided alpha coefficients which were then used in the meta-analyses of internal consistency. Seven of the 12 included studies provided test-retest coefficients, and these were used in the meta-analyses of test-retest reliability. The AMS scale had excellent internal consistency [α = 0.89 (95% CI 0.88-0.90)]; the mean alpha estimates across the AMS subscales ranged from 0.79 to 0.82. The AMS scale also had good test-retest reliability [r = 0.85 (95% CI 0.82-0.88]; the test-retest reliability coefficients of the AMS subscales ranged from 0.76 to 0.83. There was significant heterogeneity among the included studies. The AMS scale and the three subscales had fairly good internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Future psychometric studies of the AMS scale should report important characteristics of the participants, details of item scores, and test-retest reliability.

  20. Effect of six weeks of endurance exercise and following detraining on serum brain derived neurotrophic factor and memory performance in middle aged males with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaei, P; Azali Alamdari, K; Soltani Tehrani, B; Damirchi, A

    2013-08-01

    Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and physical inactivity contribute to the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Aerobic training has been reported to improve MetS, however less attention has been directed toward the role of training and detraining on cognitive function in MetS. Twenty one healthy middle-aged males and 21 with MetS were distributed into four groups: MetS exercise (ME), MetS control (MC), Healthy exercise (HE) and healthy control (HC). Both ME and HE, followed a 6-week aerobic training program (3 sessions/week). Digit Span memory test and blood sampling were conducted pre training, post training and also following a six weeks detraining. Data were analyzed using spearman, pearson and repeated measure ANOVA tests. Baseline serum BDNF level was positively correlated with waist circumference (r=0.383, P=0.012) and showed significant elevation in MetS compared with healthy subjects (1101.66±61.34 vs. 903.72±46.57 pg/mL, P=0.014). After aerobic exercise BDNF level significantly increased in HE, but decreased in ME group (P=0.001). Both short and mid term memory significantly increased (PExercise induced cognitive improvement might be mediated via BDNF-linked mechanisms in healthy people. However, the health status of individuals should be considered.

  1. Prenatal Dexamethasone and Postnatal High-Fat Diet Decrease Interferon Gamma Production through an Age-Dependent Histone Modification in Male Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hong-Ren; Tain, You-Lin; Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Tiao, Mao-Meng; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Kuo, Ho-Chang; Hung, Pi-Lien; Hsieh, Kai-Sheng; Huang, Li-Tung

    2016-01-01

    Overexposure to prenatal glucocorticoid (GC) disturbs hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis-associated neuroendocrine metabolism and susceptibility to metabolic syndrome. A high-fat (HF) diet is a major environmental factor that can cause metabolic syndrome. We aimed to investigate whether prenatal GC plus a postnatal HF diet could alter immune programming in rat offspring. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were given intraperitoneal injections of dexamethasone or saline at 14–21 days of gestation. Male offspring were then divided into four groups: vehicle, prenatal dexamethasone exposure, postnatal HF diet (VHF), and prenatal dexamethasone exposure plus a postnatal HF diet (DHF). The rats were sacrificed and adaptive immune function was evaluated. Compared to the vehicle, the DHF group had lower interferon gamma (IFN-γ) production by splenocytes at postnatal day 120. Decreases in H3K9 acetylation and H3K36me3 levels at the IFN-γ promoter correlated with decreased IFN-γ production. The impaired IFN-γ production and aberrant site-specific histone modification at the IFN-γ promoter by prenatal dexamethasone treatment plus a postnatal HF diet resulted in resilience at postnatal day 180. Prenatal dexamethasone and a postnatal HF diet decreased IFN-γ production through a site-specific and an age-dependent histone modification. These findings suggest a mechanism by which prenatal exposure to GC and a postnatal environment exert effects on fetal immunity programming. PMID:27669212

  2. Prenatal Dexamethasone and Postnatal High-Fat Diet Decrease Interferon Gamma Production through an Age-Dependent Histone Modification in Male Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Ren Yu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Overexposure to prenatal glucocorticoid (GC disturbs hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis-associated neuroendocrine metabolism and susceptibility to metabolic syndrome. A high-fat (HF diet is a major environmental factor that can cause metabolic syndrome. We aimed to investigate whether prenatal GC plus a postnatal HF diet could alter immune programming in rat offspring. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were given intraperitoneal injections of dexamethasone or saline at 14–21 days of gestation. Male offspring were then divided into four groups: vehicle, prenatal dexamethasone exposure, postnatal HF diet (VHF, and prenatal dexamethasone exposure plus a postnatal HF diet (DHF. The rats were sacrificed and adaptive immune function was evaluated. Compared to the vehicle, the DHF group had lower interferon gamma (IFN-γ production by splenocytes at postnatal day 120. Decreases in H3K9 acetylation and H3K36me3 levels at the IFN-γ promoter correlated with decreased IFN-γ production. The impaired IFN-γ production and aberrant site-specific histone modification at the IFN-γ promoter by prenatal dexamethasone treatment plus a postnatal HF diet resulted in resilience at postnatal day 180. Prenatal dexamethasone and a postnatal HF diet decreased IFN-γ production through a site-specific and an age-dependent histone modification. These findings suggest a mechanism by which prenatal exposure to GC and a postnatal environment exert effects on fetal immunity programming.

  3. A potential relationship between skin hydration and stamp-type microneedle intradermal hyaluronic acid injection in middle-aged male face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seok, Joon; Hong, Ji Yeon; Choi, Sun Young; Park, Kui Young; Kim, Beom Joon

    2016-12-01

    There is an increasing interest in skin rejuvenation using hyaluronic acid (HA) fillers beyond the improvement of deep wrinkles and volume deficiencies, which have been primary research foci in the past. We conducted a pilot study using a sample of six middle-aged male subjects. Using an automatic intradermal injector with 0.020 mL of material contained in each injection point with a total of 100 points, 2 mL of non-cross-HA filler was injected into the entire face at every treatment session. We administered injections of HA for a total of three sessions per subject at 2-week intervals and evaluated the results using a corneometer, TEWL, cutometer, measures of patient satisfaction, and the global aesthetic improvement scale (GAIS). Corneometer values increased steadily at each measurement, while the average value of TEWL increased in comparison with baseline after each application of the procedure. However, values returned to readings similar to those at 4 weeks after complete termination of the procedures. Cutometer values differed between the baseline and after procedures. All patients were assessed as "very much improved" or "much improved" according to GAIS, and all were pleased with the outcomes of treatment in terms of the enhancement of moisture, elasticity, and brightness. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. The effect of liquid losses in trainings during competition period on some biochemical values of u18 male judokas ( age 15-17

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    Nuri Muhammet Çelik

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of liquid losses occurring in training sessions during the competition period on some biochemical values of the male Judokas competing in the U18 category. Methods:  The values of the 17 male athletes, who were included in the national team at least once, were checked in our study which compares the values of athletes before the competition and immediately after the competition. Urine Density, Urine pH, BUN, Creatine and Potassium values from the biochemistry values were measured besides the age, height and weight of the athletes participating in the study. Results: As a result of the measurements made; it was found that the kg pre-test averages of the participant athletes were 67,82 ±17,87, post-test averages were 64,88±16,89, Urine Density pre-test averages were 1.017,94 ±7,08, post-test averages were 1.025±8,48, Urine pH pre-test averages were 6,15±0,70, post-test averages were 5,82±0,50, BUN pre-test averages were 15,65±3,14, post-test averages were 24,35±3,60, Creatine pre-test averages were 0,48±0,20, post-test averages were 0,93±0,41,  K Potassium pre-test averages were 4,16±0,35,  post-test averages were 4,95 ±0,64. As a result of the statistical analysis, although there was no significant difference in urine pH pre-test and post-test values, statistically significant difference was found between pre-test and post-test values in other selected parameters (p <0,05. Conclusions: As a result; it is thought that in our country in which the adjustment of the weight class is made unconsciously and unplanned, this will lead to the health problems of the athletes in many ways, especially in the later ages. Particularly in the professional sense, the health problems, which athletes who enter weight competitions and who enter at least 10 international competitions in the Olympic sense for the Judo branch a year can experience in the later ages as a result

  5. Effects of over-the-counter jaw-repositioning mouth guards on dynamic balance, flexibility, agility, strength, and power in college-aged male athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golem, Devon L; Arent, Shawn M

    2015-02-01

    Improvements in muscular power and anaerobic performance have resulted from the use of jaw-repositioning mouth guards designed with advanced dental techniques. The high cost of such techniques has dissuaded the widespread use. Recently, more affordable, over-the-counter (OTC) jaw-repositioning mouth guards have become available. The primary objective of this study was to examine the effects of 2 OTC jaw-repositioning mouth guards on muscular power and strength performance in college-aged male athletes. It was hypothesized that similar to previous observations with advanced dentistry-designed mouth guards, OTC jaw-repositioning mouth guards would impart positive effects on muscular power but not have any effect on muscular strength. Secondary objectives of this study included the examination of the effects of 2 OTC jaw-repositioning mouth guards on other variables related to athletic performance. Male collegiate athletes (N = 20) participated in 4 separate testing sessions that consisted of assessment of muscular power, dynamic balance, flexibility, agility, and muscular strength. The 4 conditions, 1 per testing session, were assigned in a randomized order and consisted of a no-mouth guard control (CON), a placebo mouth guard, a self-adapted jaw-repositioning mouth guard (SA), and a custom-fitted jaw-repositioning mouth guard (CF). No significant differences were observed between conditions in muscular power (p = 0.78), dynamic balance (p = 0.99), agility (p = 0.22), or muscular strength (p = 0.47). The CF had significantly lower hip flexion than the CON (p = 0.014) and had significantly greater lumbar spine lateral flexion compared with the SA condition (p = 0.054). However, these flexibility differences lack practical relevance as the effect sizes remain very small (ES = -0.27 and -0.14, respectively). In conclusion, the jaw-repositioning technique used in the design of these OTC mouth guards did not affect performance. It is important to note that negative

  6. Higher association of coronary artery calcification with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease than with abdominal obesity in middle-aged Korean men: the Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

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    Lee, Min-Kyung; Park, Hye-Jeong; Jeon, Won Seon; Park, Se Eun; Park, Cheol-Young; Lee, Won-Young; Oh, Ki-Won; Park, Sung-Woo; Rhee, Eun-Jung

    2015-07-15

    It is uncertain whether non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) or abdominal obesity is more associated with atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to determine whether NAFLD or abdominal obesity is more strongly associated with subclinical atherosclerosis represented by coronary artery calcification (CAC). A total of 21,335 male participants in a health screening program (mean age 41 years) were enrolled. Ultrasonographic measurements of fatty liver and multi-detector computed tomography were performed to determine the coronary artery calcium score (CACS). The presence of CAC was defined as CACS > 0. Subjects were divided into four groups according to the presence or absence of NAFLD and/or abdominal obesity as assessed by waist-hip ratio (WHR) > 0.9. The presence of CAC was detected in 2,385 subjects (11.2%). The proportion of subjects with CAC was highest in the abdominal obesity only group (23.2%). After adjustment for age, diabetes history, hypertension, cigarette smoking, and physical inactivity, the odds ratio (OR) for CAC was the highest in the group with both abnormalities [1.465 (1.324-1.623)]. The NAFLD only group showed significantly increased OR for CAC compared to that in the abdominal obesity only group [1.286 (1.151-1.436) vs. 1.076 (0.939-1.233)]. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is more closely associated with CAC than abdominal obesity as assessed by the WHR. NAFLD could be considered an independent determinant of subclinical atherosclerosis as assessed by CAC.

  7. Role of age, sex, and obesity in the higher prevalence of arthritis among lower socioeconomic groups: a population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busija, Lucy; Hollingsworth, Bruce; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Osborne, Richard H

    2007-05-15

    To compare the prevalence of arthritis among population groups based on demographic, socioeconomic, and body mass index (BMI) characteristics; to investigate the combined influence of these factors on arthritis; and to assess the relationship between self-reported health and psychological distress and arthritis. Data from the Victorian Population Health Survey (n = 7,500) were used in the study. Psychological distress was assessed using the Kessler Psychological Distress scale, and self-reported health was assessed by a single item. Multiple logistic regression was used to investigate the combined influence of demographic and socioeconomic factors and BMI on arthritis. Overall, 23% of Victorian adults (20% men and 26% women) reported having arthritis. The presence of arthritis was associated with high psychological distress (odds ratio [OR] 1.2; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.1-1.4) and poor self-reported health (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.7-2.1). Increased prevalence of arthritis was found in older age groups, lower education and income groups, and in people who were overweight or obese. Women had higher risk of arthritis, even after adjustment for age, residence, education, occupation, income, and BMI. Age and BMI independently predicted arthritis for men and women. For men, higher risk of arthritis was also associated with lower income. Arthritis is a highly prevalent condition associated with poor health and high psychological distress. Prevalence of arthritis is disproportionately high among women and individuals from lower socioeconomic backgrounds. As the prevalence of arthritis is predicted to increase, careful consideration of causal factors, and setting priorities for resource allocation for the treatment and prevention of arthritis are required.

  8. Life history in male mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx): physical development, dominance rank, and group association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setchell, Joanna M; Wickings, E Jean; Knapp, Leslie A

    2006-12-01

    We assess life history from birth to death in male mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) living in a semifree-ranging colony in Gabon, using data collected for 82 males that attained at least the age of puberty, including 33 that reached adulthood and 25 that died, yielding data for their entire lifespan. We describe patterns of mortality and injuries, dominance rank, group association, growth and stature, and secondary sexual character expression across the male lifespan. We examine relationships among these variables and investigate potential influences on male life history, including differences in the social environment (maternal rank and group demography) and early development, with the aim of identifying characteristics of successful males. Sons of higher-ranking females were more likely to survive to adulthood than sons of low-ranking females. Adolescent males varied consistently in the rate at which they developed, and this variation was related to a male's own dominance rank. Males with fewer peers and sons of higher-ranking and heavier mothers also matured faster. However, maternal variables were not significantly related to dominance rank during adolescence, the age at which males attained adult dominance rank, or whether a male became alpha male. Among adult males, behavior and morphological development were related to a male's own dominance rank, and sons of high-ranking females were larger than sons of low-ranking females. Alpha males were always the most social, and the most brightly colored males, but were not necessarily the largest males present. Finally, alpha male tenure was related to group demography, with larger numbers of rival adult males and maturing adolescent males reducing the time a male spent as alpha male. Tenure did not appear to be related to characteristics of the alpha male himself. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Higher Serum Direct Bilirubin Levels Were Associated with a Lower Risk of Incident Chronic Kidney Disease in Middle Aged Korean Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Seungho; Chang, Yoosoo; Zhang, Yiyi; Woo, Hee-Yeon; Kwon, Min-Jung; Park, Hyosoon; Lee, Kyu-Beck; Son, Hee Jung; Cho, Juhee; Guallar, Eliseo

    2014-01-01

    Background The association between serum bilirubin levels and incident chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the general population is unknown. We aimed to examine the association between serum bilirubin concentration (total, direct, and indirect) and the risk of incident CKD. Methods and Findings Longitudinal cohort study of 12,823 Korean male workers 30 to 59 years old without CKD or proteinuria at baseline participating in medical health checkup program in a large worksite. Study participants were followed for incident CKD from 2002 through 2011. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was estimated by using the CKD-EPI equation. CKD was defined as eGFR bilirubin were 0.93 (95% CI 0.67–1.28), 0.88 (0.60–1.27) and 0.60 (0.42–0.88), respectively. In multivariable models, the adjusted hazard ratio for CKD comparing the highest to the lowest quartile of serum direct bilirubin levels was 0.60 (95% CI 0.41–0.87; P trend = 0.01). Neither serum total nor indirect bilirubin levels were significantly associated with the incidence of CKD. Conclusions Higher serum direct bilirubin levels were significantly associated with a lower risk of developing CKD, even adjusting for a variety of cardiometabolic parameters. Further research is needed to elucidate the mechanisms underlying this association and to establish the role of serum direct bilirubin as a marker for CKD risk. PMID:24586219

  10. Functional morphology of pituitary -thyroid and -adrenocortical axes in middle-aged male rats treated with Vitex agnus castus essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šošić-Jurjević, Branka; Ajdžanović, Vladimir; Filipović, Branko; Trifunović, Svetlana; Jarić, Ivana; Ristić, Nataša; Milošević, Verica

    2016-09-01

    We previously reported that Vitex agnus-castus L. essential oil (VACEO), when administered to middle-aged males, exerts a bone-protective effect, induces silencing of locomotor activities and decreases pituitary prolactin immunopositivity. To further assess the putative endocrine effects of VACEO, we examined the pituitary-thyroid and -adrenocortical axes in our model. Sixteen-month-old Wistar rats were subcutaneously administered 60mg/kg of VACEO dissolved in sterile olive oil, while the control group received the same amount of vehicle alone for three weeks. Pituitaries, thyroids and adrenals were analyzed by qualitative and quantitative histological approaches. Concentration of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), total thyroxine and triiodothyronine (TH), adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), corticosterone in serum and in adrenal tissue were measured. In VACEO-treated rats, the relative volume density of pituitary thyrotrophs increased (p<0.001), while intensity of cytoplasmic TSHβ immunostaining decreased (p<0.001), consistent with elevated TSH in serum (p<0.01). The thyroid tissue was characterized by a micro-follicular structure, increased relative volume of follicular epithelium (p<0.05), decreased volume of luminal colloid (p<0.001) and increased basolateral expression of sodium-iodide symporter-immunopositivity (p<0.05). Serum TH also increased (p<0.01). The relative volume density of pituitary corticotrophs decreased (p<0.05), compatible with decline in circulating ACTH (p<0.05). Neither tissue nor serum corticosterone levels were affected by VACEO treatment. In conclusion, the observed changes in TSH and ACTH strongly indicate central endocrine effects of prolonged VACEO treatment. In this respect, production of ACTH decreased without impact on corticosterone production. Increase in serum concentration of both TH and TSH are not compatible with a negative feedback loop and suggest a major change in set-point regulation of the hypothalamic

  11. Marijuana Use, Recent Marijuana Initiation, and Progression to Marijuana Use Disorder Among Young Male and Female Adolescents Aged 12-14 Living in US Households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie L Forman-Hoffman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Marijuana initiation during adolescence, and early adolescence in particular, is associated with adverse health consequences. Our study used 2005-2014 data from the annual, cross-sectional National Survey on Drug Use and Health to study the prevalence and correlates of marijuana initiation, use, and marijuana use disorder (MUD; abuse or dependence among 12- to 14-year olds living in civilian US households (n = 84 954. Examined correlates included age, sex, race/ethnicity, poverty status, metropolitan status, year of survey, depression, tobacco use, alcohol use, and fighting at school. Sex differences in the correlates of lifetime use and past year marijuana initiation were tested via interaction. Lifetime prevalence of marijuana use was 5.5%; 3.2% reported past year initiation. About 1 in 6 (16.8% past year initiates progressed to MUD within 12 months of first use. Although men had higher prevalence of lifetime use than women, past year initiation did not differ by sex. On examining the sex*race/ethnicity interaction effects, findings determined that non-Hispanic black and Hispanic men had higher prevalence estimates of ever using marijuana and incidence of past year initiation as compared with non-Hispanic white men; these race/ethnicity differences were not found among women. Identifying correlates of initiation and progression to MUD among young adolescents is critical to improve prevention and treatment program targets.

  12. Long sleep duration and afternoon napping are associated with higher risk of incident diabetes in middle-aged and older Chinese: the Dongfeng-Tongji cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xu; Liu, Bing; Wang, Jing; Pan, An; Li, Yaru; Hu, Hua; Li, Xiulou; Yang, Kun; Yuan, Jing; Yao, Ping; Miao, Xiaoping; Wei, Sheng; Wang, Youjie; Liang, Yuan; Zhang, Xiaomin; Guo, Huan; Yang, Handong; Hu, Frank B; Wu, Tangchun; He, Meian

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the independent and combined effects of sleep duration and afternoon napping on the risk of incident diabetes among a cohort of middle-aged and older Chinese adults. Information of sleep and napping was obtained by questionnaires during face-to-face interviews. We categorized sleep duration into napping was divided into no napping (0 min) (reference), 1-30 min, 31-60 min, 61-90 min, and > 90 min. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used. Compared with referential sleeping group, subjects sleeping ≥10 h had a 42% higher risk of developing diabetes. The HR was 1.28 for napping > 90 min when compared with no napping. These associations were more pronounced in individuals without hypertension. Combined effects of long sleep duration and afternoon napping were further identified. Individuals with both sleep duration ≥ 10 h and napping > 60 min had a 72% higher risk of incident diabetes than those with sleeping 7∼napping 0 min (all above p napping were independently and jointly associated with higher risk of incident diabetes. Key messages Sleep duration was associated with diabetes, but whether it is a real cause of incident diabetes especially in Chinese still remains to be elucidated. The association of afternoon napping and diabetes was not consistent and definite, we clarified this association in a large prospective study. Long sleep duration and afternoon napping were independently and jointly associated with higher risk of incident diabetes.

  13. [Relationship between fruit and vegetable gardening and health-related factors: male community gardeners aged 50-74 years living in a suburban area of Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machida, Daisuke; Yoshida, Tohru

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The aims of the study were as follows: 1) to investigate the relationship between community fruit and vegetable (FV) gardening and perceived changes in health-related factors by utilizing community gardens and 2) to determine the relationship of community FV gardening and other types of gardening on health-related factors among men aged 50-74 years living in a suburban area of Japan.Methods In this cross-sectional study, we targeted men aged 50-74 years living in a city in Gunma Prefecture. A survey solicited demographic characteristics, FV gardening information, and health-related factors [BMI, self-rated health status, FV intake, physical activity (PA), and perceived neighborhood social cohesion (PNSC)]. The participants were divided into three groups: community gardeners, other types of gardeners, and non-gardeners. Items related to community gardening and perceived changes in health-related factors were presented only to community gardeners. The relationship between community gardening and perceived changes in health-related factors were analyzed by computing correlation coefficients. The relationships between FV gardening and specific health-related factors were analyzed by logistic regression modeling.Results Significant positive correlations were observed between community FV gardening (the frequency of community gardening, the product of community gardening time and frequency of community gardening) and perceived changes in health-related factors (frequency of FV intake, amount of FV intake, and PA). The logistic regression models showed that 1) the number of participants with ≥23 METs h/week of PA was significantly greater among community gardeners than among non-gardeners; 2) the number of participants whose frequency of total vegetable intake, total vegetable intake (excluding juice), and total FV intake (excluding juice) was ≥5 times/day was significantly greater among other types of gardeners than non-gardeners; 3) participants

  14. Decline in male circumcision in South Korea.

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    Kim, DaiSik; Koo, Sung-Ae; Pang, Myung-Geol

    2012-12-11

    To investigate the changing circumcision rate in South Korea in the last decade and to propose underlying causes for this change, in the context of the present fluctuating world-wide trends in circumcision. From 2009 to 2011, 3,296 South Korean males (or their parents) aged 0-64 years were asked about their circumcision status, their age at circumcision, and their information level regarding circumcision. We employed non-probability sampling considering the sensitive questions on the study theme. Currently the age-standardized circumcision rate for South Korean males aged 14-29 is found to be 75.8%. In an earlier study performed in 2002, the rate for the same age group was 86.3%. Of particular interest, males aged 14-16 show a circumcision rate of 56.4%, while the same age group 10 years ago displayed a much higher percentage, at 88.4%. In addition, the extraordinarily high circumcision rate of 95.2% found 10 years ago for the 17-19 age group is now reduced to 74.4%. Interestingly, of the circumcised males, the percentage circumcised in the last decade was only 25.2%; i.e., the majority of the currently circumcised males had undergone the operation prior to 2002, indicating that the actual change in the last decade is far greater. Consistent with this conjecture, the 2002 survey showed that the majority of circumcised males (75.7%) had undergone the operation in the decade prior to that point. Focusing on the flagship age group of 14-16, this drop suggests that, considering the population structure of Korean males, approximately one million fewer circumcision operations have been performed in the last decade relative to the case of non-decline. This decline is strongly correlated with the information available through internet, newspapers, lectures, books, and television: within the circumcised population, both the patients and their parents had less prior knowledge regarding circumcision, other than information obtained from person to person by oral communication

  15. Male Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid and adrenal glands. Low testosterone (male hypogonadism) and other hormonal problems have a number of possible underlying causes. Defects of tubules that transport sperm. Many ... syndrome — in which a male is born with two X chromosomes and one ...

  16. Physical activity level in people with age related white matter changes correlates to better motor performance, lower comorbidity and higher cognitive level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, Anna F; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Bronge, Lena; Olsson, Elisabeth; Amberla, Kaarina; Baezner, Hansjoerg; Crisby, Milita

    2017-07-12

    Physical activity plays a pivotal role in the development of disability and may modify the negative effect of vascular risk factors on progression of both cardio and cerebrovascular disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity level in people with age-related white matter changes as identified on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in relation to motor performance, cognition and perceived health. Data came from the first year follow up of one participating centers of the LADIS study. Fifty one subjects were first enrolled in the study. Complete first year follow up data was available for 41 subjects. Information on comorbidity, physical activity level, physical function, cognition, level of white matter changes and perceived health was collected. Physical activity level was classified with a yes or no question and with the Frenchay Activities Index (FAI). Only 36% of the subjects in this study were physically active according to the yes/no question. 27.5% of the subjects were active according to the FAI score which evaluates the everyday activities. Being active discriminated subjects with better physical function. Subjects active according to the FAI score had a higher cognitive level (p ≤ 0.01), lower comorbidity (p = 0.02) and performed better on all motor function tasks as assessed by walking speed (p ≤ 0.01) and the Short Physical Performance battery (SPPB) (p ≤ 0.01). Being physically active seems to be a long term protective factor. In our study, the majority of subjects with Age Related White Mattter Changes (ARWMC) with no or mild Instrumental Activity of Daily Living (IADL) disability did not attain recommended level of activity at first year follow up. Whether or not increasing physical activity may slow down cognitive decline and lessen development of disability in physically inactive subjects with manifest ARWC remains to be studied. not applicable.

  17. Characterization of Activity and Cardiovascular Responses During Surfing in Recreational Male Surfers Between the Ages of 18 and 75 Years Old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaLanne, Christine L; Cannady, Michael S; Moon, Joseph F; Taylor, Danica L; Nessler, Jeff A; Crocker, George H; Newcomer, Sean C

    2017-04-01

    Participation in surfing has evolved to include all age groups. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether activity levels and cardiovascular responses to surfing change with age. Surfing time and heart rate (HR) were measured for the total surfing session and within each activity of surfing (paddling, sitting, wave riding, and miscellaneous). Peak oxygen consumption (VO 2peak ) was also measured during laboratory-based simulated surfboard paddling on a modified swim bench ergometer. VO 2peak decreased with age during simulated paddling (r = -.455, p surfing (p = .837) and time spent within each activity of surfing did not differ with age (n = 160). Mean HR during surfing significantly decreased with age (r = -.231, p = .004). However, surfing HR expressed as a percent of age-predicted maximum increased significantly with age. Therefore, recreational surfers across the age spectrum are achieving intensities and durations that are consistent with guidelines for cardiovascular health.

  18. [Concordance between self-reported weight and height for nutritional assessment in adults aged between 25 and 50 years without higher education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matínez-Torres, Javier; Lee Osorno, Belinda Inés; Mendoza, Leylis; Mariotta, Sharom; López Epiayu, Yandra; Martínez, Yelitza; Jiménez, Nelly

    2014-11-01

    Overweight and obesity are metabolic disorders that have become a public health problem due to the current high prevalence; therefore, it is important to create simple monitoring systems to assess their trends. To determine the correlation between weight, height and body mass index reported by patients and the values measured directly in adults between 25 and 50 years old without higher education. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted with participation of 207 adults between 25 and 50 years old. Each participant was asked weight and height; and body mass index was calculated with these data. Moreover, a qualified person determined the real value of these variables. The coefficient of intra-class correlation between self-reported and measurements was obtained. The body mass index measured for men was 25.8±3.7 kg/m2 and for women 26.0±4.1 kg/m2. Intraclass correlation coefficients were for weight 0.962 (IC95%: 0.950-0.971), height 0.909 (IC95%: 0.882-0.930), and body mass index 0.929 (IC95% 0.907-0.945); the real prevalence of people with a body mass index greater than 25 kg/m2 was 52.1%, whereas the value obtained by self-reported data was 44%. Self-reported weight and height data are useful for obesity assessment in adults aged between 25 and 50 years without higher education at the population level. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  19. Breakfasts Higher in Protein Increase Postprandial Energy Expenditure, Increase Fat Oxidation, and Reduce Hunger in Overweight Children from 8 to 12 Years of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Jamie I; Gray, Michelle; Binns, Ashley

    2015-10-01

    Currently 1 in every 3 children aged 2-19 y is overweight or obese. Breakfast is a key component of a healthy diet and has the potential to affect children's health. The objective of this study was to determine whether consumption of a protein-based breakfast (PRO) increases postprandial energy metabolism and substrate oxidation, reduces hunger, and reduces food intake at lunch compared with a carbohydrate-based breakfast (CHO) in normal weight (NW) vs. overweight/obese (OW) children. A randomized, crossover-design study was conducted in NW (n = 16; 33 ± 1 kg) and OW (n = 13; 46 ± 2 kg) children (10 ± 1 y). Participants were served either a PRO [344 kcal, 21% protein (18 g), 52% carbohydrate, and 27% fat] or CHO [327 kcal, 4% protein (3 g), 67% carbohydrate, and 29% fat]. Energy expenditure (EE), substrate oxidation, appetite, and blood glucose were measured over a 4 h period. Four hour postprandial participants were provided with access to a lunch buffet and food intake was recorded. After breakfast, OW children in the PRO group had higher (P fat oxidation over the 4 h period than did the NW children in the CHO and PRO groups. There was no difference in postprandial EE or carbohydrate oxidation between the CHO and PRO groups over the 4 h period; however, fat oxidation was 16% higher (P children. A PRO increases postprandial EE and fat oxidation, reduces hunger, and increases satiety when compared with a carbohydrate-based breakfast. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  20. Higher Lipoprotein (a Levels Are Associated with Better Pulmonary Function in Community-Dwelling Older People - Data from the Berlin Aging Study II.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaus Buchmann

    Full Text Available Reduced pulmonary function and elevated serum cholesterol levels are recognized risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Currently, there is some controversy concerning relationships between cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, serum triglycerides and lung function. However, most previous studies compared patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD with healthy controls, and only a small number examined this relationship in population-based cohorts. Moreover, lipoprotein a [Lp(a], another lipid parameter independently associated with cardiovascular diseases, appears not to have been addressed at all in studies of lung function at the population level. Here, we determined relationships between lung function and several lipid parameters including Lp(a in 606 older community-dwelling participants (55.1% women, 68±4 years old from the Berlin Aging Study II (BASE-II. We found a significantly lower forced expiration volume in 1 second (FEV1 in men with low Lp(a concentrations (t-test. This finding was further substantiated by linear regression models adjusting for known covariates, showing that these associations are statistically significant in both men and women. According to the highest adjusted model, men and women with Lp(a levels below the 20th percentile had 217.3ml and 124.2ml less FEV1 and 239.0ml and 135.2ml less FVC, respectively, compared to participants with higher Lp(a levels. The adjusted models also suggest that the known strong correlation between pro-inflammatory parameters and lung function has only a marginal impact on the Lp(a-pulmonary function association. Our results do not support the hypothesis that higher Lp(a levels are responsible for the increased CVD risk in people with reduced lung function, at least not in the group of community-dwelling older people studied here.

  1. Higher prevalence of sexual transmitted diseases and correlates of genital warts among heterosexual males attending sexually transmitted infection clinics (MSCs) in Jiangmen, China: implication for the up-taking of STD related service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shujie; Tang, Weiming; Zhu, Zhengjun; Lu, Hekun; Tan, Xueling; Zhang, Baoyuan; Best, John; Yang, Ligang; Zheng, Heping; Jiang, Ning; Yin, Yueping; Yang, Bin; Chen, Xiangsheng

    2015-01-01

    Increasing burden of STDs is one of China's major public health concerns. However, only a limited number of studies have ever investigated the prevalence of these STDs, particular for genital warts and its correlates among heterosexual males attending STD clinics in China. In order to fill this gap, we conducted a cross-sectional study among MSCs in Jiangmen, China, between the years of 2009 and 2010. The eligible participants were recruited from several STD-clinics in public hospitals. We collected demographic information and behaviors of the participants. After HIV and syphilis testing, we further checked whether the participants had genital warts and genital herpes. In addition, urine samples were collected from part of the participants for CT and NG testing. Of the 533 eligible participants, over three-fifths were aged 35 or below, nearly three quarters had no college degree, over three-fifths were residence of Jiangmen. The prevalence of HIV, syphilis, genital warts, genital herpes, CT and NG were 0.19%, 7.50%, 7.32%, 5.25%, 9.73% and 6.19%, respectively. Living with family members (versus living alone), no STD-related service in past year, experiencing STDs related symptoms in past year, and sex with FSWs in last three months were positively associated with genital warts, with adjusted ORs of 5.54 (95% CI 1.94-15.81), 2.26 (95% CI 1.08-4.74), 1.99 (95% CI 1.00-3.99) and 2.01 (95% CI 1.00-4.04), respectively. Our study indicates that the prevalence of STDs among MSCs in Jiangmen was high, which may further spread HIV among MSCs. Targeted interventions that focused on STDs related services uptake should be implemented urgently.

  2. Higher prevalence of sexual transmitted diseases and correlates of genital warts among heterosexual males attending sexually transmitted infection clinics (MSCs in Jiangmen, China: implication for the up-taking of STD related service.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shujie Huang

    Full Text Available Increasing burden of STDs is one of China's major public health concerns. However, only a limited number of studies have ever investigated the prevalence of these STDs, particular for genital warts and its correlates among heterosexual males attending STD clinics in China. In order to fill this gap, we conducted a cross-sectional study among MSCs in Jiangmen, China, between the years of 2009 and 2010.The eligible participants were recruited from several STD-clinics in public hospitals. We collected demographic information and behaviors of the participants. After HIV and syphilis testing, we further checked whether the participants had genital warts and genital herpes. In addition, urine samples were collected from part of the participants for CT and NG testing.Of the 533 eligible participants, over three-fifths were aged 35 or below, nearly three quarters had no college degree, over three-fifths were residence of Jiangmen. The prevalence of HIV, syphilis, genital warts, genital herpes, CT and NG were 0.19%, 7.50%, 7.32%, 5.25%, 9.73% and 6.19%, respectively. Living with family members (versus living alone, no STD-related service in past year, experiencing STDs related symptoms in past year, and sex with FSWs in last three months were positively associated with genital warts, with adjusted ORs of 5.54 (95% CI 1.94-15.81, 2.26 (95% CI 1.08-4.74, 1.99 (95% CI 1.00-3.99 and 2.01 (95% CI 1.00-4.04, respectively.Our study indicates that the prevalence of STDs among MSCs in Jiangmen was high, which may further spread HIV among MSCs. Targeted interventions that focused on STDs related services uptake should be implemented urgently.

  3. Longer Sleep Duration and Midday Napping Are Associated with a Higher Risk of CHD Incidence in Middle-Aged and Older Chinese: the Dongfeng-Tongji Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liangle; Yang, Handong; He, Meian; Pan, An; Li, Xiulou; Min, Xinwen; Zhang, Ce; Xu, Chengwei; Zhu, Xiaoyan; Yuan, Jing; Wei, Sheng; Miao, Xiaoping; Hu, Frank B; Wu, Tangchun; Zhang, Xiaomin

    2016-03-01

    To analyze the independent and combined relations of sleep duration and midday napping with coronary heart diseases (CHD) incidence along with the underlying changes of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among Chinese adults. We included 19,370 individuals aged 62.8 years at baseline from September 2008 to June 2010, and they were followed until October 2013. Cox proportional hazards models and general linear models were used for multivariate longitudinal analyses. Compared with sleeping 7- napping > 90 min compared with 1-30 min. When sleep duration and midday napping were combined, individuals having sleep duration ≥ 10 h and midday napping > 90 min were at a greater risk of CHD than those with sleeping 7- napping 1-30 min: the HR was 1.67 (95% CI = 1.04 to 2.66; P for trend = 0.017). In addition, longer sleep duration ≥ 10 h was significantly associated with increases in triglycerides and waist circumference, and a reduction in HDL-cholesterol; while longer midday napping > 90 min was related to increased waist circumference. Both longer sleep duration and midday napping were independently and jointly associated with a higher risk of CHD incidence, and altered lipid profile and waist circumference may partially explain the relationships. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  4. Estereótipos de gênero e sexismo ambivalente em adolescentes masculinos de 12 a 16 anos Ambivalent sexism and gender stereotyping in male adolescents aged 12 to 16 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Mesquita Filho

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A discriminação e a violência contra o gênero feminino associam-se a representações distorcidas da mulher. Este trabalho tem o objetivo de mensurar a existência de preconceitos nas manifestações dos estereótipos de gênero e sexismo ambivalente, em adolescentes masculinos de 12 a 16 anos. Em um estudo transversal, aplicaram-se três questionários (sociodemográfico, Gender stereotyping, Inventário do Sexismo Ambivalente a 787 estudantes de 11 escolas públicas. Nos resultados, detectou-se a presença de estereótipos de gênero. Houve diferença significante entre alunos de escolas estaduais e municipais e também nos alunos que estudavam em bairros de poder aquisitivo elevado em relação aos demais. O sexismo, também presente, apresentou-se significantemente mais benévolo que hostil. O escore para o componente benévolo variou conforme a escola cursada. O hostil não foi influenciado pelas variáveis estudadas. Os achados corroboram a existência de estereótipos de gênero e sexismo ambivalente nos adolescentes masculinos e a necessidade de desenvolvimento de ações e políticas para sua erradicação.Discrimination and violence against the female gender are associated with distorted representation of women. This paper aims at measuring the existence of prejudice in the manifestations of ambivalent sexism and gender stereotypes in male adolescents aged 12 to 16 years. Three questionnaires (socio-demographic, Gender stereotyping, Ambivalent Sexism Inventory were applied to 787 students of 11 public schools in a cross-sectional study. The results pointed out to the presence of gender stereotypes. There was a significant difference between students of state and city schools and also between those who studied in neighborhoods presenting a higher economic status in comparison to the others. Sexism presented itself significantly more benevolent than hostile. The score to the benevolent component