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Sample records for higher accumulating capacity

  1. Fibres from flax overproducing β-1,3-glucanase show increased accumulation of pectin and phenolics and thus higher antioxidant capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Recently, in order to improve the resistance of flax plants to pathogen infection, transgenic flax that overproduces β-1,3-glucanase was created. β-1,3-glucanase is a PR protein that hydrolyses the β-glucans, which are a major component of the cell wall in many groups of fungi. For this study, we used fourth-generation field-cultivated plants of the Fusarium -resistant transgenic line B14 to evaluate how overexpression of the β-1,3-glucanase gene influences the quantity, quality and composition of flax fibres, which are the main product obtained from flax straw. Results Overproduction of β-1,3-glucanase did not affect the quantity of the fibre obtained from the flax straw and did not significantly alter the essential mechanical characteristics of the retted fibres. However, changes in the contents of the major components of the cell wall (cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin and lignin) were revealed. Overexpression of the β-1,3-glucanase gene resulted in higher cellulose, hemicellulose and pectin contents and a lower lignin content in the fibres. Increases in the uronic acid content in particular fractions (with the exception of the 1 M KOH-soluble fraction of hemicelluloses) and changes in the sugar composition of the cell wall were detected in the fibres of the transgenic flax when compared to the contents for the control plants. The callose content was lower in the fibres of the transgenic flax. Additionally, the analysis of phenolic compound contents in five fractions of the cell wall revealed important changes, which were reflected in the antioxidant potential of these fractions. Conclusion Overexpression of the β-1,3-glucanase gene has a significant influence on the biochemical composition of flax fibres. The constitutive overproduction of β-1,3-glucanase causes a decrease in the callose content, and the resulting excess glucose serves as a substrate for the production of other polysaccharides. The monosaccharide excess redirects the phenolic

  2. Higher education and capacity building in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Higher education has recently been recognised as a key driver for societal growth in the Global South and capacity building of African universities is now widely included in donor policies. The question is; how do capacity-building projects affect African universities, researchers and students? U...... is a valuable resource for researchers and postgraduate students in education, development studies, African studies and human geography, as well as anthropology and history.......? Universities and their scientific knowledges are often seen to have universal qualities; therefore, capacity building may appear straightforward. Higher Education and Capacity Building in Africa contests such universalistic notions. Inspired by ideas about the ‘geography of scientific knowledge’ it explores...

  3. When Higher Working Memory Capacity Hinders Insight

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCaro, Marci S.; Van Stockum, Charles A., Jr.; Wieth, Mareike B.

    2016-01-01

    Higher working memory capacity (WMC) improves performance on a range of cognitive and academic tasks. However, a greater ability to control attention sometimes leads individuals with higher WMC to persist in using complex, attention-demanding approaches that are suboptimal for a given task. We examined whether higher WMC would hinder insight…

  4. [Evaluation of the mercury accumulating capacity of pepper (Capsicum annuum)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Vargas, Híver M; Vidal-Durango, Jhon V; Marrugo-Negrete, José L

    2014-01-01

    To assess the mercury accumulating capacity in contaminated soils from the community of Mina Santa Cruz, in the south of the department of Bolívar, Colombia, of the pepper plant (Capsicum annuum), in order to establish the risk to the health of the consuming population. Samples were taken from tissues (roots, stems, and leaves) of pepper plants grown in two soils contaminated with mercury and a control soil during the first five months of growth to determine total mercury through cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. Total mercury was determined in the samples of pepper plant fruits consumed in Mina Santa Cruz. The mean concentrations of total mercury in the roots were higher than in stems and leaves. Accumulation in tissues was influenced by mercury levels in soil and the growth time of the plants. Mercury concentrations in fruits of pepper plant were lower than tolerable weekly intake provided by WHO. Percent of translocation of mercury to aerial parts of the plant were low in both control and contaminated soils. Despite low levels of mercury in this food, it is necessary to minimize the consumption of food contaminated with this metal.

  5. Higher Education and Capacity Building in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ? Universities and their scientific knowledges are often seen to have universal qualities; therefore, capacity building may appear straightforward. Higher Education and Capacity Building in Africa contests such universalistic notions. Inspired by ideas about the ‘geography of scientific knowledge’ it explores...... what role specific places and relationships have in knowledge production, and analyses how cultural experiences are included and excluded in teaching and research. Thus, the different chapters show how what constitutes legitimate scientific knowledge is negotiated and contested. In doing so...... is a valuable resource for researchers and postgraduate students in education, development studies, African studies and human geography, as well as anthropology and history....

  6. Temperature Impact on the Forage Quality of Two Wheat Cultivars with Contrasting Capacity to Accumulate Sugars

    OpenAIRE

    Máximo Lorenzo; Silvia G. Assuero; Jorge A. Tognetti

    2015-01-01

    Wheat is increasingly used as a dual-purpose crop (for forage and grain production) worldwide. Plants encounter low temperatures in winter, which commonly results in sugar accumulation. High sugar levels might have a positive impact on forage digestibility, but may also lead to an increased risk of bloat. We hypothesized that cultivars with a lower capacity to accumulate sugars when grown under cold conditions may have a lower bloat risk than higher sugar-accumulating genotypes, without showi...

  7. Temperature Impact on the Forage Quality of Two Wheat Cultivars with Contrasting Capacity to Accumulate Sugars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Máximo Lorenzo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Wheat is increasingly used as a dual-purpose crop (for forage and grain production worldwide. Plants encounter low temperatures in winter, which commonly results in sugar accumulation. High sugar levels might have a positive impact on forage digestibility, but may also lead to an increased risk of bloat. We hypothesized that cultivars with a lower capacity to accumulate sugars when grown under cold conditions may have a lower bloat risk than higher sugar-accumulating genotypes, without showing significantly lower forage digestibility. This possibility was studied using two wheat cultivars with contrasting sugar accumulation at low temperature. A series of experiments with contrasting temperatures were performed in controlled-temperature field enclosures (three experiments and growth chambers (two experiments. Plants were grown at either cool (8.1 °C–9.3 °C or warm (15.7 °C–16.5 °C conditions in field enclosures, and at either 5 °C or 25 °C in growth chambers. An additional treatment consisted of transferring plants from cool to warm conditions in the field enclosures and from 5 °C to 25 °C in the growth chambers. The plants in the field enclosure experiments were exposed to higher irradiances (i.e., 30%–100% than those in the growth chambers. Our results show that (i low temperatures led to an increased hemicellulose content, in parallel with sugar accumulation; (ii low temperatures produced negligible changes in in vitro dry matter digestibility while leading to a higher in vitro rumen gas production, especially in the higher sugar-accumulating cultivar; (iii transferring plants from cool to warm conditions led to a sharp decrease in in vitro rumen gas production in both cultivars; and (iv light intensity (in contrast to temperature appeared to have a lower impact on forage quality.

  8. Enrichments of methanotrophic-heterotrophic cultures with high poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) accumulation capacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tingting; Wang, Xiaowei; Zhou, Jiti; Zhang, Yu

    2018-03-01

    Methanotrophic-heterotrophic communities were selectively enriched from sewage sludge to obtain a mixed culture with high levels of poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) accumulation capacity from methane. Methane was used as the carbon source, N 2 as sole nitrogen source, and oxygen and Cu content were varied. Copper proved essential for PHB synthesis. All cultures enriched with Cu could accumulate high content of PHB (43.2%-45.9%), while only small amounts of PHB were accumulated by cultures enriched without Cu (11.9%-17.5%). Batch assays revealed that communities grown with Cu and a higher O 2 content synthesized more PHB, which had a wider optimal CH 4 :O 2 range and produced a high PHB content (48.7%) even though in the presence of N 2 . In all methanotrophic-heterotrophic communities, both methanotrophic and heterotrophic populations showed the ability to accumulate PHB. Although methane was added as the sole carbon source, heterotrophs dominated with abundances between 77.2% and 85.6%. All methanotrophs detected belonged to type II genera, which formed stable communities with heterotrophs of different PHB production capacities. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Higher Capacity, Improved Conductive Matrix VB2/Air Batteries (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-18

    gravimetric capacity five-fold higher than the 2 e− oxidation of the widely used zinc alkaline anode. One challenge to the implementation of VB2/air...VB2 has an intrinsic gravimetric capacity five fold higher than the 2 e− oxidation of the widely used zinc alkaline anode. One challenge to the...to ameliorate this effect through advanced anode configurations with an improved conductive matrix. Materials and Methods Anodes were prepared using

  10. Dilemmas and paradoxes of capacity building in African higher education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lene Møller; Jensen, Stig; Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine

    2015-01-01

    This chapter discusses and reflects on the dilemmas and paradoxes of capacity building in African higher education by drawing on the findings of the case-based chapters in the book. The collection confirms the importance of using geography of knowledge as an approach for understanding how capacity...... building influences and affects African academics, institutions and degree programmes. The chapters also illustrate how reflexivity and positionality can be important tools for highlighting the power relations inherent in capacity building. In this chapter we discuss the three interwoven dilemmas...... neo-imperial effects of internationalisation. We finally argue that capacity building programmes can be a means to assist African universities to ‘find their own feet’ if they are based on long terms partnerships, a close understanding of historical, political and geographical context, and not least...

  11. Root anatomy and element distribution vary between two Salix caprea isolates with different Cd accumulation capacities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaculík, Marek; Konlechner, Cornelia; Langer, Ingrid; Adlassnig, Wolfram; Puschenreiter, Markus; Lux, Alexander; Hauser, Marie-Theres

    2012-01-01

    The understanding of the influence of toxic elements on root anatomy and element distribution is still limited. This study describes anatomical responses, metal accumulation and element distribution of rooted cuttings of Salix caprea after exposure to Cd and/or Zn. Differences in the development of apoplastic barriers and tissue organization in roots between two distinct S. caprea isolates with divergent Cd uptake and accumulation capacities in leaves might reflect an adaptive predisposition based on different natural origins. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) revealed that Cd and Zn interfered with the distribution of elements in a tissue- and isolate-specific manner. Zinc, Ca, Mg, Na and Si were enriched in the peripheral bark, K and S in the phloem and Cd in both vascular tissues. Si levels were lower in the superior Cd translocator. Since the cuttings originated from stocks isolated from polluted and unpolluted sites we probably uncovered different strategies against toxic elements. - Highlights: ► We describe responses in roots of S. caprea exposed to Cd and Zn. ► Apoplastic barrier development varied among isolates from differently polluted sites. ► EDX analyses revealed variations of element distributions in root tissues. ► Si weight% was lower in the isolate with a higher Cd translocation capacity. ► S. caprea isolates possessed different strategies to respond to Cd and Zn. - S. caprea altered element distribution and translocation, apoplastic barrier development and root anatomy upon Cd and/or Zn exposure.

  12. Using Successorship to Build Leadership Capacity in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtek, Diane

    2012-01-01

    Professionals in higher education face many challenges. Chief among them are increasing leadership and organizational effectiveness. A variety of approaches can be used to build competencies to increase leadership that results in organizational effectiveness. For the purposes of this article, leadership is "the capacity to influence others by…

  13. Study of possibility of increasing the catchment's retention capacity by groundwater accumulation increase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranovicova, L.

    2004-01-01

    In this presentation author deals with the possibility of increasing the catechumen's retention capacity by groundwater accumulation increase. This presentation solves possibilities of increasing of the retention capacity of ground waters on the dependence of surface water outflow on upper parts of Podluzianka River (Hron River Basin) and Predmieranka River (Kysuce River basin)

  14. Why study higher education and capacity building in Africa?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine; Madsen, Lene Møller; Jensen, Stig

    2015-01-01

    innovative approach to higher education and capacity building, namely by studying this through ‘geographies of knowledge’. This is an interdisciplinary field that pays attention to the ways scientific knowledge is produced and consumed with a special focus on geography. By using a geographical approach...... for exploring the current and future development of teaching and knowledge production in Africa, we want to explore how scientific knowledge is negotiated and contested in parallel to societal changes in general and capacity building in particular, and thus how scientific knowledge becomes local. Then we...... position the book and its authors before the structure of the book is presented together with a short presentation of the case-based chapters, organised in three parts. These are Part I: Capacity building of African universities – asymmetrical power relations? Part II: Researching and teaching climate...

  15. Comparative polygenic analysis of maximal ethanol accumulation capacity and tolerance to high ethanol levels of cell proliferation in yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago M Pais

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is able to accumulate ≥17% ethanol (v/v by fermentation in the absence of cell proliferation. The genetic basis of this unique capacity is unknown. Up to now, all research has focused on tolerance of yeast cell proliferation to high ethanol levels. Comparison of maximal ethanol accumulation capacity and ethanol tolerance of cell proliferation in 68 yeast strains showed a poor correlation, but higher ethanol tolerance of cell proliferation clearly increased the likelihood of superior maximal ethanol accumulation capacity. We have applied pooled-segregant whole-genome sequence analysis to identify the polygenic basis of these two complex traits using segregants from a cross of a haploid derivative of the sake strain CBS1585 and the lab strain BY. From a total of 301 segregants, 22 superior segregants accumulating ≥17% ethanol in small-scale fermentations and 32 superior segregants growing in the presence of 18% ethanol, were separately pooled and sequenced. Plotting SNP variant frequency against chromosomal position revealed eleven and eight Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs for the two traits, respectively, and showed that the genetic basis of the two traits is partially different. Fine-mapping and Reciprocal Hemizygosity Analysis identified ADE1, URA3, and KIN3, encoding a protein kinase involved in DNA damage repair, as specific causative genes for maximal ethanol accumulation capacity. These genes, as well as the previously identified MKT1 gene, were not linked in this genetic background to tolerance of cell proliferation to high ethanol levels. The superior KIN3 allele contained two SNPs, which are absent in all yeast strains sequenced up to now. This work provides the first insight in the genetic basis of maximal ethanol accumulation capacity in yeast and reveals for the first time the importance of DNA damage repair in yeast ethanol tolerance.

  16. Higher lung accumulation of intravenously injected organic nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maitani Y

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Yoshie Maitani,1 Yuri Nakamura,1 Masao Kon,1 Emi Sanada,1 Kae Sumiyoshi,1 Natsuki Fujine,1 Masumi Asakawa,2 Masaki Kogiso,2 Toshimi Shimizu21Institute of Medicinal Chemistry, Hoshi University, Tokyo, Japan; 2Nanotube Research Center (NTRC, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST, Tsukuba, JapanAbstract: The size and shape of intravenously injected particles can affect their biodistribution and is of importance for the development of particulated drug carrier systems. In this study, organic nanotubes (ONTs with a carboxyl group at the surface, a length of approximately 2 µm and outer diameter of 70–90 nm, were injected intravenously into tumor-bearing mice. To use ONTs as drug carriers, the biodistribution in selected organs of ONTs postinjection was examined using irinotecan, as an entrapped water-soluble marker inside ONTs, and gadolinium-chelated ONT, as an ONT marker, and compared with that of a 3 µm fluorescently labeled spherical microparticle which was similar size to the length of ONTs. It was found that for irinotecan, its active metabolite and gadolinium-chelated ONTs were highly accumulated in the lung, but to a lower level in the liver and spleen. On the other hand, microparticles deposited less in the lung and more highly in the liver. Moreover, histologic examination showed ONTs distributed more in lung tissues in part, whereas microparticles were present in blood vessels postinjection. These preliminary results support the notion of using negatively charged ONTs as intravascular carriers to maximize accumulation in the lung whilst reducing sequestration by the liver and spleen. This finding suggested that ONTs are potential carriers for lung-targeting drug delivery.Keywords: organic nanotube, lung, biodistribution, microparticle, particle shape

  17. Regenerative capacity of old muscle stem cells declines without significant accumulation of DNA damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Cousin

    Full Text Available The performance of adult stem cells is crucial for tissue homeostasis but their regenerative capacity declines with age, leading to failure of multiple organs. In skeletal muscle this failure is manifested by the loss of functional tissue, the accumulation of fibrosis, and reduced satellite cell-mediated myogenesis in response to injury. While recent studies have shown that changes in the composition of the satellite cell niche are at least in part responsible for the impaired function observed with aging, little is known about the effects of aging on the intrinsic properties of satellite cells. For instance, their ability to repair DNA damage and the effects of a potential accumulation of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs on their regenerative performance remain unclear. This work demonstrates that old muscle stem cells display no significant accumulation of DNA DSBs when compared to those of young, as assayed after cell isolation and in tissue sections, either in uninjured muscle or at multiple time points after injury. Additionally, there is no significant difference in the expression of DNA DSB repair proteins or globally assayed DNA damage response genes, suggesting that not only DNA DSBs, but also other types of DNA damage, do not significantly mark aged muscle stem cells. Satellite cells from DNA DSB-repair-deficient SCID mice do have an unsurprisingly higher level of innate DNA DSBs and a weakened recovery from gamma-radiation-induced DNA damage. Interestingly, they are as myogenic in vitro and in vivo as satellite cells from young wild type mice, suggesting that the inefficiency in DNA DSB repair does not directly correlate with the ability to regenerate muscle after injury. Overall, our findings suggest that a DNA DSB-repair deficiency is unlikely to be a key factor in the decline in muscle regeneration observed upon aging.

  18. Capacity building for higher education in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    "Higher education is the modern world's basic education, but many countries are falling further and further behind". This quote from a recent World Bank publication indicates that the role of the universities as a key driver for societal development is now widely recognized and included...... in the donor policies. However, donor projects are not easy to organize in this area, and the role of the western universities in this area is not easy to identify. The paper presents a case study from Mozambique dealing with a World Bank project in Higher Education. The project was focused on qualitative...... in the donor countries in order to merge the interests of the universities, the Ministry of Science/Education and the national/international donor agencies. It is argued that capacity building for higher education in developing countries should be a generally accepted part of the university strategy portfolio...

  19. Erasmus+: Capacity Building in Higher Education. EU Support to Higher Education Institutions around the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongsma, Ard

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this brochure is to introduce those who are new to working with European Union funding, to the philosophy of Erasmus+ "capacity-building in higher education" projects. European Union experience of working on these types of projects will be shared. Examples of existing projects are scattered throughout the text to inspire you…

  20. Threats to the Human Capacity of Regional Higher Education Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny Valentinovich Romanov

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the sphere of science and education in Russia undergoes significant reforms. However, the existing framework guiding the development of the higher education contradict the Strategy of Scientific and Technological Development of Russia. These contradictions concern the conditions for building an integral system of personnel reserve and recruitment, which is necessary for the scientific and technological development of the country. The change of the funding model and the transition to two-tier higher education contribute to the outflow of talented youth to the cities where branded universities are concentrated. It creates threats to the human capacity of regional higher education institutions (both regarding staffing number, and regarding personnel reserve. Decreasing trend in number of students because of the federal budget appropriation and the existing system of per capita funding for regional higher education institutions are the threats for regional higher education. These threats can result in permanent reduction of the number of academic teaching staff and in potential decline in quality of education due to increasing teachers’ workloads. The transition to the two-tier model of university education has changed the approach to evaluating the efficiency of scientific research. The number of publications in the journals, which are indexed in the Web of Science and Scopus, has increased, but the patent activity of the leading higher education institutions has decreased many times. The ratio of number of articles to the number of the granted patents in the leading Russian universities significantly exceeds a similar indicator of the leading foreign universities. It can be regarded as «brain drain». Furthermore, this fact explains why the specific weight of income from the results of intellectual activity in total income in the majority of the Russian universities is close to zero. Regional higher education institutions need

  1. Impaired oxidative capacity due to decreased CPT1b levels as a contributing factor to fat accumulation in obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratner, Cecilia; Madsen, Andreas Nygaard; Kristensen, Line Vildbrad

    2015-01-01

    In order to characterize mechanisms responsible for fat accumulation we used a selectively bred obesity-prone (OP) and obesity-resistant (OR) rat model, where the rats were fed a Western diet for 76 days. Body composition was assessed by MRI scans and as expected the OP rats developed a higher...... likewise had higher RER values indicating that this trait may be a primary and contributing factor to their obese phenotype. When the adult obese rats were exposed to the orexigenic and adipogenic hormone ghrelin, we observed increased RER values in both OP and OR rats, while OR rats were more sensitive...... to ghrelin's orexigenic effects as well as ghrelin-induced attenuation of activity and energy expenditure. Thus, increased fat accumulation characterizing obesity may be caused by impaired oxidative capacity due to decreased carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1b levels in the white adipose tissue, while ghrelin...

  2. Correlating Lithium Hydroxyl Accumulation with Capacity Retention in V2O5 Aerogel Cathodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangoh, Linda W; Huang, Yiqing; Jezorek, Ryan L; Kehoe, Aoife B; Watson, Graeme W; Omenya, Fredrick; Quackenbush, Nicholas F; Chernova, Natasha A; Whittingham, M Stanley; Piper, Louis F J

    2016-05-11

    V2O5 aerogels are capable of reversibly intercalating more than 5 Li(+)/V2O5 but suffer from lifetime issues due to their poor capacity retention upon cycling. We employed a range of material characterization and electrochemical techniques along with atomic pair distribution function, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and density functional theory to determine the origin of the capacity fading in V2O5 aerogel cathodes. In addition to the expected vanadium redox due to intercalation, we observed LiOH species that formed upon discharge and were only partially removed after charging, resulting in an accumulation of electrochemically inactive LiOH over each cycle. Our results indicate that the tightly bound water that is necessary for maintaining the aerogel structure is also inherently responsible for the capacity fade.

  3. Carbon accumulation and storage capacity in mangrove sediments three decades after deforestation within a eutrophic bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, A; Machado, W; Gutiérrez, D; Borges, A C; Patchineelam, S R; Sanders, C J

    2018-01-01

    A dated sediment core from an eutrophic mangrove area presented non-significant differences in carbon accumulation rates before (55.7±10.2gm -2 yr -1 ) and after three decades of deforestation (59.7±7.2gm -2 yr -1 ). Although eutrophication effects appear to compensate the loss of mangrove organic matter input, the results in this work show a threefold lower carbon accumulation than the global averages estimated for mangrove sediments. The effects of increasing eutrophication and enhanced sediment dry bulk density observed after deforestation (~30% higher) did not result in higher carbon stocks. Moreover, the lower TOC:OP (mangrove deforestation losses on carbon accumulation in mangrove ecosystems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Microcystin accumulation and potential effects on antioxidant capacity of leaves and fruits of Capsicum annuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobac, Damjana; Tokodi, Nada; Kiprovski, Biljana; Malenčić, Djordje; Važić, Tamara; Nybom, Sonja; Meriluoto, Jussi; Svirčev, Zorica

    2017-01-01

    Surface water, often used for irrigation purposes, may sometimes be contaminated with blooming cyanobacteria and thereby may contain their potent and harmful toxins. Cyanotoxins adversely affect many terrestrial plants, and accumulate in plant tissues that are subsequently ingested by humans. Studies were undertaken to (1) examine the bioaccumulation of microcystins (MCs) in leaves and fruits of pepper Capsicum annuum and (2) examine the potential effects of MCs on antioxidant capacity of these organs. Plants were irrigated with water containing MCs for a period of 3 mo. Data showed that MCs did not accumulate in leaves; however, in fruits the presence of the MC-LR (0.118 ng/mg dry weight) and dmMC-LR (0.077 ng/mg dry weight) was detected. The concentrations of MC-LR in fruit approached the acceptable guideline values and tolerable daily intake for this toxin. Lipid peroxidation levels and flavonoids content were significantly enhanced in both organs of treated plants, while total phenolic concentrations were not markedly variable between control and treated plants. Significant decrease in 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging capacity was noted for both organs. The levels of superoxide anion in fruits and hydroxyl radical in leaves were markedly reduced. Data suggest that exposure to MCs significantly reduced antioxidant capacity of experimental plants, indicating that MCs affected antioxidant systems in C. annuum.

  5. Higher transcription levels in ascorbic acid biosynthetic and recycling genes were associated with higher ascorbic acid accumulation in blueberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fenghong; Wang, Lei; Gu, Liang; Zhao, Wei; Su, Hongyan; Cheng, Xianhao

    2015-12-01

    In our preliminary study, the ripe fruits of two highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) cultivars, cv 'Berkeley' and cv 'Bluecrop', were found to contain different levels of ascorbic acid. However, factors responsible for these differences are still unknown. In the present study, ascorbic acid content in fruits was compared with expression profiles of ascorbic acid biosynthetic and recycling genes between 'Bluecrop' and 'Berkeley' cultivars. The results indicated that the l-galactose pathway was the predominant route of ascorbic acid biosynthesis in blueberry fruits. Moreover, higher expression levels of the ascorbic acid biosynthetic genes GME, GGP, and GLDH, as well as the recycling genes MDHAR and DHAR, were associated with higher ascorbic acid content in 'Bluecrop' compared with 'Berkeley', which indicated that a higher efficiency ascorbic acid biosynthesis and regeneration was likely to be responsible for the higher ascorbic acid accumulation in 'Bluecrop'. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Changing surface-atmosphere energy exchange and refreezing capacity of the lower accumulation area, West Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charalampidis, C.; van As, D.; Box, J. E.; van den Broeke, M. R.; Colgan, W. T.; Doyle, S. H.; Hubbard, A. L.; MacFerrin, M.; Machguth, H.; Smeets, C. J. P. P.

    2015-11-01

    We present 5 years (2009-2013) of automatic weather station measurements from the lower accumulation area (1840 m a.s.l. - above sea level) of the Greenland ice sheet in the Kangerlussuaq region. Here, the summers of 2010 and 2012 were both exceptionally warm, but only 2012 resulted in a strongly negative surface mass budget (SMB) and surface meltwater run-off. The observed run-off was due to a large ice fraction in the upper 10 m of firn that prevented meltwater from percolating to available pore volume below. Analysis reveals an anomalously low 2012 summer-averaged albedo of 0.71 (typically ~ 0.78), as meltwater was present at the ice sheet surface. Consequently, during the 2012 melt season, the ice sheet surface absorbed 28 % (213 MJ m-2) more solar radiation than the average of all other years. A surface energy balance model is used to evaluate the seasonal and interannual variability of all surface energy fluxes. The model reproduces the observed melt rates as well as the SMB for each season. A sensitivity analysis reveals that 71 % of the additional solar radiation in 2012 was used for melt, corresponding to 36 % (0.64 m) of the 2012 surface lowering. The remaining 64 % (1.14 m) of surface lowering resulted from high atmospheric temperatures, up to a +2.6 °C daily average, indicating that 2012 would have been a negative SMB year at this site even without the melt-albedo feedback. Longer time series of SMB, regional temperature, and remotely sensed albedo (MODIS) show that 2012 was the first strongly negative SMB year, with the lowest albedo, at this elevation on record. The warm conditions of recent years have resulted in enhanced melt and reduction of the refreezing capacity in the lower accumulation area. If high temperatures continue, the current lower accumulation area will turn into a region with superimposed ice in coming years.

  7. Measuring the Contribution of Higher Education to Innovation Capacity in the EU. Final Report: Revised Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    European Commission, 2017

    2017-01-01

    This current study is part of the actions taken aiming to analyse the links between the operations and effects of higher-education institutions on the capacity to innovate in the economies in Europe. Providing insights into the contribution of higher education to the innovative capacity of the EU economies is crucial for policy making and the…

  8. Cd Toxicity and Accumulation in Rice Plants Vary with Soil Nitrogen Status and Their Genotypic Difference can be Partly Attributed to Nitrogen Uptake Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin DU

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Two indica rice genotypes, viz. Milyang 46 and Zhenshan 97B differing in Cd accumulation and tolerance were used as materials in a hydroponic system consisting of four Cd levels (0, 0.1, 1.0 and 5.0 µmol/L and three N levels (23.2, 116.0 and 232.0 mg/L to study the effects of nitrogen status and nitrogen uptake capacity on Cd accumulation and tolerance in rice plants. N-efficient rice genotype, Zhenshan 97B, accumulated less Cd and showed higher Cd tolerance than N-inefficient rice genotype, Milyang 46. There was consistency between nitrogen uptake capacity and Cd tolerance in rice plants. Increase of N level in solution slightly increased Cd concentration in shoots but significantly increased in roots of both genotypes. Compared with the control at low N level, Cd tolerance in both rice genotypes could be significantly enhanced under normal N level, but no significant difference was observed between the Cd tolerances under normal N (116.0 mg/L and high N (232.0 mg/L conditions. The result proved that genotypic differences in Cd accumulation and toxicity could be, at least in part, attributed to N uptake capacity in rice plants.

  9. Higher order capacity statistics of multi-hop transmission systems over Rayleigh fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Yilmaz, Ferkan

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we present an exact analytical expression to evaluate the higher order statistics of the channel capacity for amplify and forward (AF) multihop transmission systems operating over Rayleigh fading channels. Furthermore, we present simple and efficient closed-form expression to the higher order moments of the channel capacity of dual hop transmission system with Rayleigh fading channels. In order to analyze the behavior of the higher order capacity statistics and investigate the usefulness of the mathematical analysis, some selected numerical and simulation results are presented. Our results are found to be in perfect agreement. © 2012 IEEE.

  10. The effect of modifiable healthy practices on higher-level functional capacity decline among Japanese community dwellers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rei Otsuka

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to clarify the effects of the accumulation of 8 modifiable practices related to health, including smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activity, sleeping hours, body mass index, dietary diversity, ikigai (life worth living, and health checkup status, on higher-level functional capacity decline among Japanese community dwellers. Data were derived from the National Institute for Longevity Sciences - Longitudinal Study of Aging. Subjects comprised 1269 men and women aged 40 to 79 years at baseline (1997–2000 who participated in a follow-up postal survey (2013. Higher-level functional capacity was measured using the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence (total score and 3 subscales: instrumental self-maintenance, intellectual activity, and social role. The odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence interval (CI for a decline in higher-level functional capacity in the follow-up study according to the total number of healthy practices were analyzed using the lowest category as a reference. Multivariate adjusted ORs (95% CIs for the total score of higher-level functional capacity, which declined according to the total number of healthy practices (0–4, 5–6, 7–8 groups were 1.00 (reference, 0.63 (0.44–0.92, and 0.54 (0.31–0.94. For the score of social role decline, multivariate adjusted ORs (95% CIs were 1.00 (reference, 0.62 (0.40–0.97, and 0.46 (0.23–0.90, respectively (P for trend = 0.04. Having more modifiable healthy practices, especially in social roles, may protect against a decline in higher-level functional capacity among middle-aged and elderly community dwellers in Japan.

  11. The effect of modifiable healthy practices on higher-level functional capacity decline among Japanese community dwellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Rei; Nishita, Yukiko; Tange, Chikako; Tomida, Makiko; Kato, Yuki; Nakamoto, Mariko; Ando, Fujiko; Shimokata, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Takao

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to clarify the effects of the accumulation of 8 modifiable practices related to health, including smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activity, sleeping hours, body mass index, dietary diversity, ikigai (life worth living), and health checkup status, on higher-level functional capacity decline among Japanese community dwellers. Data were derived from the National Institute for Longevity Sciences - Longitudinal Study of Aging. Subjects comprised 1269 men and women aged 40 to 79 years at baseline (1997-2000) who participated in a follow-up postal survey (2013). Higher-level functional capacity was measured using the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence (total score and 3 subscales: instrumental self-maintenance, intellectual activity, and social role). The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for a decline in higher-level functional capacity in the follow-up study according to the total number of healthy practices were analyzed using the lowest category as a reference. Multivariate adjusted ORs (95% CIs) for the total score of higher-level functional capacity, which declined according to the total number of healthy practices (0-4, 5-6, 7-8 groups) were 1.00 (reference), 0.63 (0.44-0.92), and 0.54 (0.31-0.94). For the score of social role decline, multivariate adjusted ORs (95% CIs) were 1.00 (reference), 0.62 (0.40-0.97), and 0.46 (0.23-0.90), respectively (P for trend = 0.04). Having more modifiable healthy practices, especially in social roles, may protect against a decline in higher-level functional capacity among middle-aged and elderly community dwellers in Japan.

  12. Higher order capacity statistics of multi-hop transmission systems over Rayleigh fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Yilmaz, Ferkan; Tabassum, Hina; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present an exact analytical expression to evaluate the higher order statistics of the channel capacity for amplify and forward (AF) multihop transmission systems operating over Rayleigh fading channels. Furthermore, we present

  13. Higher Self-Control Capacity Predicts Lower Anxiety-Impaired Cognition during Math Examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrams, Alex; Baumeister, Roy F; Englert, Chris

    2016-01-01

    We assumed that self-control capacity, self-efficacy, and self-esteem would enable students to keep attentional control during tests. Therefore, we hypothesized that the three personality traits would be negatively related to anxiety-impaired cognition during math examinations. Secondary school students (N = 158) completed measures of self-control capacity, self-efficacy, and self-esteem at the beginning of the school year. Five months later, anxiety-impaired cognition during math examinations was assessed. Higher self-control capacity, but neither self-efficacy nor self-esteem, predicted lower anxiety-impaired cognition 5 months later, over and above baseline anxiety-impaired cognition. Moreover, self-control capacity was indirectly related to math grades via anxiety-impaired cognition. The findings suggest that improving self-control capacity may enable students to deal with anxiety-related problems during school tests.

  14. Higher Self-Control Capacity Predicts Lower Anxiety-Impaired Cognition During Math Examinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex eBertrams

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We assumed that self-control capacity, self-efficacy, and self-esteem would enable students to keep attentional control during tests. Therefore, we hypothesized that the three personality traits would be negatively related to anxiety-impaired cognition during math examinations. Secondary school students (N = 158 completed measures of self-control capacity, self-efficacy, and self-esteem at the beginning of the school year. Five months later, anxiety-impaired cognition during math examinations was assessed. Higher self-control capacity, but neither self-efficacy nor self-esteem, predicted lower anxiety-impaired cognition five months later, over and above baseline anxiety-impaired cognition. Moreover, self-control capacity was indirectly related to math grades via anxiety-impaired cognition. The findings suggest that improving self-control capacity may enable students to deal with anxiety-related problems during school tests.

  15. Intermittent Theta Burst Stimulation Increases Reward Responsiveness in Individuals with Higher Hedonic Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duprat, Romain; De Raedt, Rudi; Wu, Guo-Rong; Baeken, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) has been documented to influence striatal and orbitofrontal dopaminergic activity implicated in reward processing. However, the exact neuropsychological mechanisms of how DLPFC stimulation may affect the reward system and how trait hedonic capacity may interact with the effects remains to be elucidated. In this sham-controlled study in healthy individuals, we investigated the effects of a single session of neuronavigated intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) on reward responsiveness, as well as the influence of trait hedonic capacity. We used a randomized crossover single session iTBS design with an interval of 1 week. We assessed reward responsiveness using a rewarded probabilistic learning task and measured individual trait hedonic capacity (the ability to experience pleasure) with the temporal experience of pleasure scale questionnaire. As expected, the participants developed a response bias toward the most rewarded stimulus (rich stimulus). Reaction time and accuracy for the rich stimulus were respectively shorter and higher as compared to the less rewarded stimulus (lean stimulus). Active or sham stimulation did not seem to influence the outcome. However, when taking into account individual trait hedonic capacity, we found an early significant increase in the response bias only after active iTBS. The higher the individual's trait hedonic capacity, the more the response bias toward the rich stimulus increased after the active stimulation. When taking into account trait hedonic capacity, one active iTBS session over the left DLPFC improved reward responsiveness in healthy male participants with higher hedonic capacity. This suggests that individual differences in hedonic capacity may influence the effects of iTBS on the reward system.

  16. Capacity of the aquatic fern (Salvinia minima Baker) to accumulate high concentrations of nickel in its tissues, and its effect on plant physiological processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuentes, Ignacio I.; Espadas-Gil, Francisco; Talavera-May, Carlos; Fuentes, Gabriela; Santamaría, Jorge M., E-mail: jorgesm@cicy.mx

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • We document the capacity of an aquatic fern to hyper-accumulate Ni. • Effects of high Ni concentrations uptake on plant performance is documented. • High concentration of Ni in tissues damage photosynthesis. • Damage is related to carboxylation mechanisms than to electron transfer efficiency. • S. minima is a good candidate for remediation of water bodies contaminated with Ni. - Abstract: An experiment was designed to assess the capacity of Salvinia minima Baker to uptake and accumulate nickel in its tissues and to evaluate whether or not this uptake can affect its physiology. Our results suggest that S. minima plants are able to take up high amounts of nickel in its tissues, particularly in roots. In fact, our results support the idea that S. minima might be considered a hyper-accumulator of nickel, as it is able to accumulate 16.3 mg g{sup −1} (whole plant DW basis). Our results also showed a two-steps uptake pattern of nickel, with a fast uptake of nickel at the first 6 to 12 h of being expose to the metal, followed by a slow take up phase until the end of the experiment at 144 h. S. minima thus, may be considered as a fern useful in the phytoremediation of residual water bodies contaminated with this metal. Also from our results, S. minima can tolerate fair concentrations of the metal; however, at concentrations higher than 80 μM Ni (1.5 mg g{sup −1} internal nickel concentration), its physiological performance can be affected. For instance, the integrity of cell membranes was affected as the metal concentration and exposure time increased. The accumulation of high concentrations of internal nickel did also affect photosynthesis, the efficiency of PSII, and the concentration of photosynthetic pigments, although at a lower extent.

  17. Changing surface-atmosphere energy exchange and refreezing capacity of the lower accumulation area, West Greenland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charalampidis, C.; van As, D.; Box, J. E.; van den Broeke, M. R.; Colgan, W. T.; Doyle, S. H.; Hubbard, A. L.; MacFerrin, M.; Machguth, H.; Smeets, C. J. P. P.

    2015-01-01

    We present 5 years (2009–2013) of automatic weather station measurements from the lower accumulation area (1840 m a.s.l. – above sea level) of the Greenland ice sheet in the Kangerlussuaq region. Here, the summers of 2010 and 2012 were both exceptionally warm, but only 2012 resulted in a strongly

  18. A Probabilistic Model of Visual Working Memory: Incorporating Higher Order Regularities into Working Memory Capacity Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Timothy F.; Tenenbaum, Joshua B.

    2013-01-01

    When remembering a real-world scene, people encode both detailed information about specific objects and higher order information like the overall gist of the scene. However, formal models of change detection, like those used to estimate visual working memory capacity, assume observers encode only a simple memory representation that includes no…

  19. Criteria for Determining the Adaptive Capacity of Students of Higher Medical Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M V Yoltukhivskyi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the importance of the adaptive capacity of students of higher medical institutions in the process of their professional training. The criteria for evaluating the adaptive capacity of students depending on their age were determined. The main mechanisms of forming the adaptive capacity at the organism level were found to be: 1 biochemical mechanisms which manifest themselves in the intracellular processes, e.g. the change in enzyme activity or their number; 2 physiological mechanisms, e.g. increased sweating as the body temperature rises; 3 morphofunctional mechanisms, i.e. the features of body structure and functions which are associated with lifestyle; 4 behavioural mechanisms – e.g. the creation of comfortable living conditions, etc.; 5 ontogenetic mechanisms, i.e. the acceleration of individual development or its slowdown contributing to the survival when conditions change.

  20. Study on Space Audit Assessment Criteria for Public Higher Education Institution in Malaysia: Space Capacity Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Hamdan Wan Samsul Zamani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to measure the capacity rate of learning space based on the as-built drawing provided by the institutions or if the as-built drawing is missing, the researcher have to prepare measured drawing as per actual on site. The learning space Capacity Index is developed by analyzing the space design in as-built drawing or measured drawing and the list of learning spaces available at the institution. The Capacity Index is classified according to the level of Usable Floor Area (UFA and Occupancy Load (OL according to learning space design capacity. The classification of Capacity Index is demonstrated through linguistic value and the color-coded key. From the said index, the institution can easily identify whether the existing learning space is currently best used or vice versa and standard space planning compliance in Malaysia Public Higher Education Institutions. The data will assist the management to clarify whether to maximize the use of existing space or to request for new learning space.

  1. MOLECULAR-GENETIC BASIS OF HIGHER PLANTS TOLERANCE TO, AND ACCUMULATION OF, CADMIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga A Kulaeva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd is one of the most wide-ranged and dangerous pollutants for all living organisms, including plants. At present time the intensive studies of mechanisms of Cd accumulation in plant tissues and plant tolerance to its toxic influence are performed. Data about variation of Cd tolerance and accumulation traits in natural populations of hyperaccumulators species as well as important crops were obtained. A series of mutants with changed sensitivity to Cd was obtained. In recent decade several classes of proteins involving in cell responses to Cd ions were revealed. An important role of microRNA in plant adaptation to Cd was recently demonstrated. Studies of molecular-genetic mechanisms of Cd accumulation and plant tolerance to it are theoretical basis for development of phytoremediation technologies of soil contaminated with heavy metals and breeding of crop varieties with decreased Cd accumulation.

  2. Accumulation and recovery capacity of heavy metals in sand mine ponds of the Otamiri River in Owerri, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dike Henry Ogbuagu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the levels, index of accumulation and recovery capacity of heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cu, Ni, Zn, Fe, Mn in sand mine ponds of the Otamiri River in Owerri, Nigeria during the wet season of 2012. Water (WC and sediment samples (SD were collected from six sampling points, with WC 1-WC 3 and SD 1-SD 3 located within a derelict mine pond and WC 4-WC 6 and SD 4-SD 6 located within an actively mined pond. The pH was determined in situ and levels of heavy metals measured with the atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The student’s t-test, index of geoaccumulation (Igeo, accumulation factor (AF and pond recovery capacity (PRC were computed for the ponds. There was significant spatial heterogeneity in mean levels of the heavy metals in sediments (sig. t=0.029 at P Zn (4.932> Cu (4.743 > Mn (4.326 > Pb (3.214 > Ni (2.483 > Cd (1.649, AF was Zn (1.513 > Cd (1.179 > Fe (1.082 > Ni (1.048 > Mn (1.042 > Cu (1.032 > Pb (0.987 and PRC was Zn (33.891 > Cd (15.165 > Fe (7.604 > Ni (4.608 > Mn (4.047 > Cu (3.052 > Pb (-1.373. Active mining led to extreme contamination of the ponds with Fe, strong to extreme contaminations with Cu, Zn and Mn, strong contamination with Pb, moderate to strong contamination with Ni and moderate contamination with Cd. However, Pb showed deficit recovery capacity and this could portend unfavourable ecological consequences on resident biota and raises public health concerns among resource dependants of the river. Strict enforcement of regulations on in-stream sand mining should be applied.

  3. Changing surface-atmosphere energy exchange and refreezing capacity of the lower accumulation area, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charalampidis, C.; Van As, D.; Box, J. E.

    2015-01-01

    We present 5 years (2009-2013) of automatic weather station measurements from the lower accumulation area (1840 m a.s.l.-above sea level) of the Greenland ice sheet in the Kangerlussuaq region. Here, the summers of 2010 and 2012 were both exceptionally warm, but only 2012 resulted in a strongly...... negative surface mass budget (SMB) and surface meltwater run-off. The observed run-off was due to a large ice fraction in the upper 10 m of firn that prevented meltwater from percolating to available pore volume below. Analysis reveals an anomalously low 2012 summer-averaged albedo of 0.71 (typically ∼ 0.......78), as meltwater was present at the ice sheet surface. Consequently, during the 2012 melt season, the ice sheet surface absorbed 28 % (213 MJ m-2) more solar radiation than the average of all other years. A surface energy balance model is used to evaluate the seasonal and interannual variability of all surface...

  4. Zinc distribution and speciation in Arabidopsis halleri x Arabidops is lyrata progenies presenting various zinc accumulation capacities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarret, Geraldine; Willems, Glenda; Isaure, Marie-Pierre; Marcus, Matthew A.; Fakra, Sirine C.; Frerot, Helene; Pairis, Sebastien; Geoffroy, Nicolas; Manceau, Alain; Saumitou-Laprade, Pierre

    2010-04-08

    - The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the chemical form and localization of zinc (Zn) in plant leaves and their Zn accumulationcapacity. - An interspecific cross between Arabidopsis halleri sp. halleri and Arabidopsis lyrata sp. petrea segregating for Zn accumulation was used. Zinc (Zn) speciation and Zn distribution in the leaves of the parent plants and of selected F1 and F2 progenies were investigated by spectroscopic and microscopic techniques and chemical analyses. - A correlation was observed between the proportion of Zn being in octahedral coordination complexed to organic acids and free in solution (Zn?OAs + Znaq) and Zn content in the leaves. This pool varied between 40percent and 80percent of total leaf Zn depending on the plant studied. Elemental mapping of the leaves revealed different Zn partitioning between the veins and the leaf tissue. The vein : tissue fluorescence ratio was negatively correlated with Zn accumulation. - The higher proportion of Zn?OAs + Znaq and the depletion of the veins in the stronger accumulators are attributed to a higher xylem unloading and vacuolar sequestration in the leaf cells. Elemental distributions in the trichomes were also investigated, and results support the role of carboxyl and⁄ or hydroxyl groups as major Zn ligands in these cells.

  5. Higher accumulation of F1-V fusion recombinant protein in plants after induction of protein body formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, M Lucrecia; Topal, Emel; Martin, Federico; Cardineau, Guy A

    2010-01-01

    Improving foreign protein accumulation is crucial for enhancing the commercial success of plant-based production systems since product yields have a major influence on process economics. Cereal grain evolved to store large amounts of proteins in tightly organized aggregates. In maize, gamma-Zein is the major storage protein synthesized by the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and stored in specialized organelles called protein bodies (PB). Zera (gamma-Zein ER-accumulating domain) is the N-terminal proline-rich domain of gamma-zein that is sufficient to induce the assembly of PB formation. Fusion of the Zera domain to proteins of interest results in assembly of dense PB-like, ER-derived organelles, containing high concentration of recombinant protein. Our main goal was to increase recombinant protein accumulation in plants in order to enhance the efficiency of orally-delivered plant-made vaccines. It is well known that oral vaccination requires substantially higher doses than parental formulations. As a part of a project to develop a plant-made plague vaccine, we expressed our model antigen, the Yersinia pestis F1-V antigen fusion protein, with and without a fused Zera domain. We demonstrated that Zera-F1-V protein accumulation was at least 3x higher than F1-V alone when expressed in three different host plant systems: Ncotiana benthamiana, Medicago sativa (alfalfa) and Nicotiana tabacum NT1 cells. We confirmed the feasibility of using Zera technology to induce protein body formation in non-seed tissues. Zera expression and accumulation did not affect plant development and growth. These results confirmed the potential exploitation of Zera technology to substantially increase the accumulation of value-added proteins in plants.

  6. Higher-capacity lithium ion battery chemistries for improved residential energy storage with micro-cogeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darcovich, K.; Henquin, E.R.; Kenney, B.; Davidson, I.J.; Saldanha, N.; Beausoleil-Morrison, I.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Characterized two novel high capacity electrode materials for Li-ion batteries. • A numerical discharge model was run to characterize Li-ion cell behavior. • Engineering model of Li-ion battery pack developed from cell fundamentals. • ESP-r model integrated micro-cogeneration and high capacity Li-ion storage. • Higher capacity batteries shown to improve micro-cogeneration systems. - Abstract: Combined heat and power on a residential scale, also known as micro-cogeneration, is currently gaining traction as an energy savings practice. The configuration of micro-cogeneration systems is highly variable, as local climate, energy supply, energy market and the feasibility of including renewable type components such as wind turbines or photovoltaic panels are all factors. Large-scale lithium ion batteries for electrical storage in this context can provide cost savings, operational flexibility, and reduced stress on the distribution grid as well as a degree of contingency for installations relying upon unsteady renewables. Concurrently, significant advances in component materials used to make lithium ion cells offer performance improvements in terms of power output, energy capacity, robustness and longevity, thereby enhancing their prospective utility in residential micro-cogeneration installations. The present study evaluates annual residential energy use for a typical Canadian home connected to the electrical grid, equipped with a micro-cogeneration system consisting of a Stirling engine for supplying heat and power, coupled with a nominal 2 kW/6 kW h lithium ion battery. Two novel battery cathode chemistries, one a new Li–NCA material, the other a high voltage Ni-doped lithium manganate, are compared in the residential micro-cogeneration context with a system equipped with the presently conventional LiMn 2 O 4 spinel-type battery

  7. Measuring the Contribution of Higher Education to Innovation Capacity in the EU. Executive Summary of the Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    European Commission, 2017

    2017-01-01

    This current study is part of the actions taken aiming to analyse the links between the operations and effects of higher-education institutions on the capacity to innovate in the economies in Europe. Providing insights into the contribution of higher education to the innovative capacity of the EU economies is crucial for policy making and the…

  8. Conditional Health-Related Benefits of Higher Education: An Assessment of Compensatory versus Accumulative Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Bauldry, Shawn

    2014-01-01

    A college degree is associated with a range of health-related benefits, but the effects of higher education are known to vary across different population subgroups. Competing theories have been proposed for whether people from more or less advantaged backgrounds or circumstances will gain greater health-related benefits from a college degree. This study draws on data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) and recently developed models for analyzing heterogeneou...

  9. Conditional health-related benefits of higher education: an assessment of compensatory versus accumulative mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauldry, Shawn

    2014-06-01

    A college degree is associated with a range of health-related benefits, but the effects of higher education are known to vary across different population subgroups. Competing theories have been proposed for whether people from more or less advantaged backgrounds or circumstances will gain greater health-related benefits from a college degree. This study draws on data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) and recently developed models for analyzing heterogeneous treatment effects to examine how the effect of obtaining a college degree on the self-rated health of young adults varies across the likelihood of obtaining a college degree, a summary measure of advantage/disadvantage. Results indicate that a college degree has a greater effect on self-rated health for people from advantaged backgrounds. This finding differs from two recent studies, and possible reasons for the contrasting findings are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Hydraulic conductance as well as nitrogen accumulation plays a role in the higher rate of leaf photosynthesis of the most productive variety of rice in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylaran, Renante D; Adachi, Shunsuke; Ookawa, Taiichiro; Usuda, Hideaki; Hirasawa, Tadashi

    2011-07-01

    An indica variety Takanari is known as one of the most productive rice varieties in Japan and consistently produces 20-30% heavier dry matter during ripening than Japanese commercial varieties in the field. The higher rate of photosynthesis of individual leaves during ripening has been recognized in Takanari. By using pot-grown plants under conditions of minimal mutual shading, it was confirmed that the higher rate of leaf photosynthesis is responsible for the higher dry matter production after heading in Takanari as compared with a japonica variety, Koshihikari. The rate of leaf photosynthesis and shoot dry weight became larger in Takanari after the panicle formation and heading stages, respectively, than in Koshihikari. Roots grew rapidly in the panicle formation stage until heading in Takanari compared with Koshihikari. The higher rate of leaf photosynthesis in Takanari resulted not only from the higher content of leaf nitrogen, which was caused by its elevated capacity for nitrogen accumulation, but also from higher stomatal conductance. When measured under light-saturated conditions, stomatal conductance was already decreased due to the reduction in leaf water potential in Koshihikari even under conditions of a relatively small difference in leaf-air vapour pressure difference. In contrast, the higher stomatal conductance was supported by the maintenance of higher leaf water potential through the higher hydraulic conductance in Takanari with the larger area of root surface. However, no increase in root hydraulic conductivity was expected in Takanari. The larger root surface area of Takanari might be a target trait in future rice breeding for increasing dry matter production.

  11. Associations between Depressive State and Impaired Higher-Level Functional Capacity in the Elderly with Long-Term Care Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Soshiro; Hayashi, Chisato; Sugiura, Keiko; Hayakawa, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Depressive state has been reported to be significantly associated with higher-level functional capacity among community-dwelling elderly. However, few studies have investigated the associations among people with long-term care requirements. We aimed to investigate the associations between depressive state and higher-level functional capacity and obtain marginal odds ratios using propensity score analyses in people with long-term care requirements. We conducted a cross-sectional study based on participants aged ≥ 65 years (n = 545) who were community dwelling and used outpatient care services for long-term preventive care. We measured higher-level functional capacity, depressive state, and possible confounders. Then, we estimated the marginal odds ratios (i.e., the change in odds of impaired higher-level functional capacity if all versus no participants were exposed to depressive state) by logistic models using generalized linear models with the inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) for propensity score and design-based standard errors. Depressive state was used as the exposure variable and higher-level functional capacity as the outcome variable. The all absolute standardized differences after the IPTW using the propensity scores were functional capacity.

  12. Female Leadership Capacity and Effectiveness: A Critical Analysis of the Literature on Higher Education in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alomair, Miznah O.

    2015-01-01

    In light of the progressive changes occurring in Saudi Arabia, developing female leadership capacity and effectiveness in the country's higher education is vital. This literature review examines the scholarship and research on female leadership in higher education in Saudi Arabia, describes the major barriers for female leaders, and provides a…

  13. Higher capacity, lower carbon dioxide emissions. Idle power compensation in HV lines; Mehr Kapazitaet, weniger Kohlendioxid. Blindleistungskompensation bei Hochspannungsleitungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auer, Jan-Hendrik von [Alstom Grid GmbH, Berlin (Germany). Team Leistungselektronik und Kompensationsanlagen

    2012-07-01

    Even today, many HP lines have reached their limits. It is therefore highly urgent to find measures for optimum utilization of the available overhead transmssion capacities, e.g. by idle power compensation. Together with a filter for harmonics reduction, this will ensure higher grid stability and enhance transport capacities while reducing transport losses, thus saving money and reducing CO{sub 2} emissions. (orig./AKB)

  14. ICT Capacity Building: A Critical Discourse Analysis of Rwandan Policies from Higher Education Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byungura, Jean Claude; Hansson, Henrik; Masengesho, Kamuzinzi; Karunaratne, Thashmee

    2016-01-01

    With the development of technology in the 21st Century, education systems attempt to integrate technology-based tools to improve experiences in pedagogy and administration. It is becoming increasingly prominent to build human and ICT infrastructure capacities at universities from policy to implementation level. Using a critical discourse analysis,…

  15. More Is Generally Better: Higher Working Memory Capacity Does Not Impair Perceptual Category Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalish, Michael L.; Newell, Ben R.; Dunn, John C.

    2017-01-01

    It is sometimes supposed that category learning involves competing explicit and procedural systems, with only the former reliant on working memory capacity (WMC). In 2 experiments participants were trained for 3 blocks on both filtering (often said to be learned explicitly) and condensation (often said to be learned procedurally) category…

  16. Immunization Documentation Practices and Vaccine-Preventable Disease Surveillance Capacity among Institutions of Higher Education in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Taryn; Golwalkar, Mugdha

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACTObjective: Complete and accurate documentation of immunization records and surveillance of disease transmission are critical to the public health response to outbreaks of communicable disease in institutions of higher education (IHEs). This study aims to describe immunization documentation practices and disease surveillance capacity among…

  17. Enhancing research capacity across healthcare and higher education sectors: development and evaluation of an integrated model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitworth Anne

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With current policy in healthcare research, in the United Kingdom and internationally, focused on development of research excellence in individuals and teams, building capacity for implementation and translation of research is paramount among the professionals who use that research in daily practice. The judicious use of research outcomes and evaluation of best evidence and practice in healthcare is integrally linked to the research capacity and capabilities of the workforce. In addition to promoting high quality research, mechanisms for actively enhancing research capacity more generally must be in place to address the complexities that both undermine and facilitate this activity. Methods A comprehensive collaborative model for building research capacity in one health professional group, speech and language therapy, was developed in a region within the UK and is presented here. The North East of England and the strong research ethos of this profession in addressing complex interventions offered a fertile context for developing and implementing a model which integrated the healthcare and university sectors. Two key frameworks underpin this model. The first addresses the individual participants’ potential trajectory from research consciousness to research participative to research active. The second embeds a model developed for general practitioners into a broader framework of practice-academic partnership and knowledge and skills exchange, and considers external drivers and impacts on practice and patient outcomes as key elements. Results and discussion The integration of practice and academia has been successful in building a culture of research activity within one healthcare profession in a region in the UK and has resulted, to date, in a series of research related outcomes. Understanding the key components of this partnership and the explicit strategies used has driven the implementation of the model and are discussed

  18. The Challenges of Increasing Capacity and Diversity in Japanese Higher Education through Proactive Recruitment Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwamura, Akira

    2009-01-01

    There has been fierce competition for a shrinking pool of high school graduates in the higher education market in Japan in recent years. Along came former Prime Minister Fukuda's plan for an intake of 300,000 international students by the year 2020. These have placed Japanese institutions of higher education under further pressure to sustain their…

  19. Building capacity in Australian interprofessional health education: perspectives from key health and higher education stakeholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Lynda R; Pockett, Rosalie B; Nisbet, Gillian; Thistlethwaite, Jill E; Dunston, Roger; Lee, Alison; White, Jill F

    2011-05-01

    A substantial literature engaging with the directions and experiences of stakeholders involved in interprofessional health education exists at the international level, yet almost nothing has been published that documents and analyses the Australian experience. Accordingly, this study aimed to scope the experiences of key stakeholders in health and higher education in relation to the development of interprofessional practice capabilities in health graduates in Australia. Twenty-seven semi-structured interviews and two focus groups of key stakeholders involved in the development and delivery of interprofessional health education in Australian higher education were undertaken. Interview data were coded to identify categories that were organised into key themes, according to principles of thematic analysis. Three themes were identified: the need for common ground between health and higher education, constraints and enablers in current practice, and the need for research to establish an evidence base. Five directions for national development were also identified. The study identified a range of interconnected changes that will be required to successfully mainstream interprofessional education within Australia, in particular, the importance of addressing issues of culture change and the need for a nationally coordinated and research informed approach. These findings reiterate those found in the international literature.

  20. Higher water plants in a lake contaminated with radionuclides: composition, distribution, reserves and accumulation of Cs-137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlyutin, A.P.; Babitskij, V.A.

    1996-01-01

    Species composition, specials distribution, seasonal pattern and accumulation of cesium-137 by aquatic plants had been investigated in the small not flowing meso trophic lake (Belarus) during vegetative season of 1993. Macrophyte phytomass storage is equal 10,56 t, and mass of its roots is 4.28 t of dry weight. Cesium-137 stock's in green mass and macrophytes roots are equal to 108.6 and 96.4 MBK respectively. Total accumulation of cesium-137 by macrophyte constituted 5% from its stock in the whole lake water mass

  1. Photonic Integrated Circuits for Cost-Effective, High Port Density, and Higher Capacity Optical Communications Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiappa, Pierangelo

    Bandwidth-hungry services, such as higher speed Internet, voice over IP (VoIP), and IPTV, allow people to exchange and store huge amounts of data among worldwide locations. In the age of global communications, domestic users, companies, and organizations around the world generate new contents making bandwidth needs grow exponentially, along with the need for new services. These bandwidth and connectivity demands represent a concern for operators who require innovative technologies to be ready for scaling. To respond efficiently to these demands, Alcatel-Lucent is fast moving toward photonic integration circuits technologies as the key to address best performances at the lowest "bit per second" cost. This article describes Alcatel-Lucent's contribution in strategic directions or achievements, as well as possible new developments.

  2. Association between sarcopenia and higher-level functional capacity in daily living in community-dwelling elderly subjects in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimoto, Yoshimi; Watanabe, Misuzu; Sun, Wei; Sugiura, Yumiko; Tsuda, Yuko; Kimura, Motoshi; Hayashida, Itsushi; Kusabiraki, Toshiyuki; Kono, Koichi

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the association between sarcopenia, defined by muscle mass, muscle strength, and physical performance, and higher-level functional capacity in community-dwelling Japanese elderly people. Subjects were 1158 elderly, community-dwelling Japanese people aged 65 or older. We used bioelectrical impedance analysis to measure muscle mass, grip strength to measure muscle strength, and usual walking speed to measure physical performance. Sarcopenia was characterized by low muscle mass, plus low muscle strength or low physical performance. Subjects without low muscle mass, low muscle strength, and low physical performance were classified as "normal." Examination of higher-level functional capacity was performed using the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence (TMIG-IC). The TMIG-IC is a 13-item questionnaire completed by the subject; it contains five questions on self-maintenance and four questions each on intellectual activity and social role. Sarcopenia was identified in 11.3% and 10.7% of men and women, respectively. The percentage of disability for instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) was 39.0% in men with sarcopenia and 30.6% in women with sarcopenia. After adjustment for age, in men, sarcopenia was significantly associated with IADL disability compared with intermediate and normal subjects. In women, sarcopenia was significantly associated with every subscale of the TMIG-IC disability compared with intermediate and normal subjects. This study revealed that sarcopenia, defined by muscle mass, muscle strength, and physical performance, had a significant association with disability in higher-level functional capacity in elderly Japanese subjects. Interventions to prevent sarcopenia may prevent higher-level functional disability among elderly people. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. On the computation of the higher-order statistics of the channel capacity over generalized fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Yilmaz, Ferkan

    2012-12-01

    The higher-order statistics (HOS) of the channel capacity μn=E[logn (1+γ end)], where n ∈ N denotes the order of the statistics, has received relatively little attention in the literature, due in part to the intractability of its analysis. In this letter, we propose a novel and unified analysis, which is based on the moment generating function (MGF) technique, to exactly compute the HOS of the channel capacity. More precisely, our mathematical formalism can be readily applied to maximal-ratio-combining (MRC) receivers operating in generalized fading environments. The mathematical formalism is illustrated by some numerical examples focusing on the correlated generalized fading environments. © 2012 IEEE.

  4. On the computation of the higher-order statistics of the channel capacity over generalized fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Yilmaz, Ferkan; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2012-01-01

    The higher-order statistics (HOS) of the channel capacity μn=E[logn (1+γ end)], where n ∈ N denotes the order of the statistics, has received relatively little attention in the literature, due in part to the intractability of its analysis. In this letter, we propose a novel and unified analysis, which is based on the moment generating function (MGF) technique, to exactly compute the HOS of the channel capacity. More precisely, our mathematical formalism can be readily applied to maximal-ratio-combining (MRC) receivers operating in generalized fading environments. The mathematical formalism is illustrated by some numerical examples focusing on the correlated generalized fading environments. © 2012 IEEE.

  5. On the computation of the higher order statistics of the channel capacity for amplify-and-forward multihop transmission

    KAUST Repository

    Yilmaz, Ferkan; Tabassum, Hina; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2014-01-01

    Higher order statistics (HOS) of the channel capacity provide useful information regarding the level of reliability of signal transmission at a particular rate. In this paper, we propose a novel and unified analysis, which is based on the moment-generating function (MGF) approach, to efficiently and accurately compute the HOS of the channel capacity for amplify-and-forward (AF) multihop transmission over generalized fading channels. More precisely, our easy-to-use and tractable mathematical formalism requires only the reciprocal MGFs of the transmission hop signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Numerical and simulation results, which are performed to exemplify the usefulness of the proposed MGF-based analysis, are shown to be in perfect agreement. © 2013 IEEE.

  6. Contemporary and prospective fuel cycles for WWER-440 based on new assemblies with higher uranium capacity and higher average fuel enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagarinskiy, A.A.; Saprykin, V.V.

    2009-01-01

    RRC 'Kurchatov Institute' has performed an extensive cycle of calculations intended to validate the opportunities of improving different fuel cycles for WWER-440 reactors. Works were performed to upgrade and improve WWER-440 fuel cycles on the basis of second-generation fuel assemblies allowing core thermal power to be uprated to 107 108 % of its nominal value (1375 MW), while maintaining the same fuel operation lifetime. Currently intensive work is underway to develop fuel cycles based on second-generation assemblies with higher fuel capacity and average fuel enrichment per assembly increased up to 4.87 % of U-235. Fuel capacity of second-generation assemblies was increased by means of eliminated central apertures of fuel pellets, and pellet diameter extended due to reduced fuel cladding thickness. This paper intends to summarize the results of works performed in the field of WWER-440 fuel cycle modernization, and to present yet unemployed opportunities and prospects of further improvement of WWER-440 neutronic and operating parameters by means of additional optimization of fuel assembly designs and fuel element arrangements applied. (Authors)

  7. Glycine propionyl-L-carnitine produces enhanced anaerobic work capacity with reduced lactate accumulation in resistance trained males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orem Ihsan

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent research has indicated that short term administration of glycine propionyl-L-carnitine (GPLC significantly elevates levels of nitric oxide metabolites at rest and in response to reactive hyperaemia. However, no scientific evidence exists that suggests such supplementation enhances exercise performance in healthy, trained individuals. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of GPLC on the performance of repeated high intensity stationary cycle sprints with limited recovery periods in resistance trained male subjects. Methods In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design, twenty-four male resistance trained subjects (25.2 ± 3.6 years participated in two test sessions separated by one week. Testing was performed 90 minutes following oral ingestion of either 4.5 grams GPLC or 4.5 grams cellulose (PL, in randomized order. The exercise testing protocol consisted of five 10-second Wingate cycle sprints separated by 1-minute active recovery periods. Peak (PP and mean values (MP of sprint power output and percent decrement of power (DEC were determined per bout and standardized relative to body masss. Heart rate (HR and blood lactate (LAC were measured prior to, during and following the five sprint bouts. Results Significant main effects (p Conclusion These findings indicate that short-term oral supplementation of GPLC can enhance peak power production in resistance trained males with significantly less LAC accumulation.

  8. HIGHER SPIRITUAL AND SELF-REGULATIVE CAPACITIES IN ANCIENT KNOWLEDGE SYSTEM - BUDDHISM (APPROACH OF HISTORY OF PSYCHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G V Ozhiganova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of research on higher spiritual and self-regulative capacities in the context of ancient oriental system of knowledge is expressed. The historical and psychological methods of studying ancient knowledge are described. The methods of the history of psychology, proposed by the author, are used: such as the method of revealing scientific knowledge reserves, aimed at restoring and practical mastering the psychological heritage of ancient times, as well as the experimental method, involving the verification of psychological facts, phenomena and laws described in ancient texts, with the help of modern scientific research methods (observation, experiment, statistical data. Meditative practices and philosophical concepts of Buddhism are considered from the standpoint of modern psychology. The ancient Buddhist meditative practices “Contemplation of the mind”, linked to the concept of “mindfulness” is described. It is concluded that the concept of the mind is the key in the Buddhist system of knowledge. The understanding of the mind in the ancient Buddhist doctrine is compared with a modern interpretation of the concept of “mind” in psychological science, as well as its content is revealed due to psychological terms “higher self-regulative capacities” and “moral-value aspect of spiritual capacities”. It is revealed that in the Buddhist system of knowledge there can be seen close links between higher self-regulative capacities and moral-value aspect of spiritual capacities. The results of empirical studies of the ancient meditative practices and their positive impact on self-regulation of the modern people are submitted.

  9. Relationship between anti-oxidant capacity and manganese accumulation in the soft tissues of two freshwater molluscs: Unio pictorum mancus (Lamellibranchia, Unionidae and Viviparus ater (Gastropoda, Prosobranchia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar RAVERA

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Manganese is an element of great importance in the life cycle of plants and animals. For example, it plays an essential role as an activator of various enzymatic systems such as isoenzymes of superoxide dismutase. Freshwater Unionidae concentrate relatively large amounts of manganese in their tissues, but little is known about the physiological role of this metal. The aim of this research is to acquire a better knowledge of the role of manganese in molluscs which accumulate large amounts of this metal and in those with low manganese concentrations. As manganese is one of the metals present in the superoxide molecule, the possible relationship between manganese concentration in the soft tissues of molluscs and the antioxidant capacity of the metal can usefully be tested. To this end two species of molluscs were analysed: Unio pictorum mancus (Lamellibranchia, Unionidae, which is very rich in manganese, and Viviparus ater (Gastropoda, Prosobranchia which has a low manganese content. The adults of both species were analysed for manganese concentration by ICP, and for antioxidant capacity as RAC (Relative Antioxidant Capacity by a superoxide dismutase method. The results clearly demonstrate the active role played by manganese against free radicals and consequently the important role of the metal in protecting Unio against oxidative stress. The low concentration of manganese in Viviparus may be the result of the effective excretion of this metal, as was found for ruthenium.

  10. The influence of biotic and abiotic factors on (137)Cs accumulation in higher fungi after the accident at Chernobyl NPP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarubina, N

    2016-09-01

    Levels of soil contamination with (137)Cs, the belonging of fungi to a certain ecological group, the localization depth of the main part of mycelium in soil are the primary factors influencing the value of (137)Cs specific activity in higher fungi after the accident at Chernobyl NPP. It has been found that the value of (137)Cs specific activity in fungi of one species could vary by more than 10 times during a vegetation period. A correlation between the changes of (137)Cs content in fungi during the vegetation period and the amount of precipitates during various periods preceding the collection of samples has not been determined. An assumption has been proposed stating dependence between peculiarities of mycelium growth during the vegetation period and the changes of (137)Cs specific activity in fungi. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Higher Fusarium Toxin Accumulation in Grain of Winter Triticale Lines Inoculated with Fusarium culmorum as Compared with Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góral, Tomasz; Wiśniewska, Halina; Ochodzki, Piotr; Walentyn-Góral, Dorota

    2016-10-18

    Resistance to Fusarium head blight in 32 winter triticale and 34 winter wheat accessions was evaluated. Triticale and wheat were sown in field experiments in two locations. At the time of flowering, heads were inoculated with three Fusarium culmorum isolates. Fusarium head blight index was scored and after the harvest percentage of Fusarium damaged kernels was assessed. Grain was analysed for type B trichothecenes (deoxynivalenol and derivatives, nivalenol) and zearalenone (ZEN) content. The average Fusarium head blight indexes were 28.0% for wheat and 19.2% for triticale accessions. The percentage of Fusarium damaged kernels was also higher for wheat and came to 55.6%, while for triticale this figure was 40.2%. The average content of deoxynivalenol (DON) for wheat amounted to 11.65 mg/kg and was lower than the result for triticale which was 14.12 mg/kg. The average contents of nivalenol were similar in both cereals: 4.13 mg/kg and 5.19 mg/kg for wheat and triticale respectively. Considerable amounts of DON derivatives in the cereals were also detected. The ZEN content in the grain was 0.60 mg/kg for wheat and 0.66 mg/kg for triticale. Relationships between Fusarium head blight index, Fusarium damaged kernels and mycotoxin contents were statistically significant for wheat and mostly insignificant for triticale. Triticale proved to have less infected heads and kernels than wheat. However, the content of type B trichothecenes was higher in triticale grain than in wheat grain.

  12. Higher Fusarium Toxin Accumulation in Grain of Winter Triticale Lines Inoculated with Fusarium culmorum as Compared with Wheat †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góral, Tomasz; Wiśniewska, Halina; Ochodzki, Piotr; Walentyn-Góral, Dorota

    2016-01-01

    Resistance to Fusarium head blight in 32 winter triticale and 34 winter wheat accessions was evaluated. Triticale and wheat were sown in field experiments in two locations. At the time of flowering, heads were inoculated with three Fusarium culmorum isolates. Fusarium head blight index was scored and after the harvest percentage of Fusarium damaged kernels was assessed. Grain was analysed for type B trichothecenes (deoxynivalenol and derivatives, nivalenol) and zearalenone (ZEN) content. The average Fusarium head blight indexes were 28.0% for wheat and 19.2% for triticale accessions. The percentage of Fusarium damaged kernels was also higher for wheat and came to 55.6%, while for triticale this figure was 40.2%. The average content of deoxynivalenol (DON) for wheat amounted to 11.65 mg/kg and was lower than the result for triticale which was 14.12 mg/kg. The average contents of nivalenol were similar in both cereals: 4.13 mg/kg and 5.19 mg/kg for wheat and triticale respectively. Considerable amounts of DON derivatives in the cereals were also detected. The ZEN content in the grain was 0.60 mg/kg for wheat and 0.66 mg/kg for triticale. Relationships between Fusarium head blight index, Fusarium damaged kernels and mycotoxin contents were statistically significant for wheat and mostly insignificant for triticale. Triticale proved to have less infected heads and kernels than wheat. However, the content of type B trichothecenes was higher in triticale grain than in wheat grain. PMID:27763547

  13. Time-dependent effect of severe hypoxia/reoxygenation on oxidative stress level, antioxidant capacity and p53 accumulation in mitochondria of rat heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Gonchar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The intensity of oxidative stress, protein expression of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 as well as antioxidant enzymes manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx and their regulator p53 were studied in the mitochondria of rat heart. Sessions of repeated hypoxia/reoxygenation ((H/R, 5 cycles of 10 min hypoxia (5.5% O2 in N2 alternated with 10 min normoxia, daily were performed in our study. It was shown that short-term sessions of H/R (during 1-3 days caused a significant increase in the oxidative stress markers (ROS formation and lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial p53 translocation, a decrease in MnSOD­ protein expression/activity and Bcl-2 protein content, but up-regulated GPx. We have demonstrated that prolonged H/R (7-14 days induced myocardial tolerance to fluctuation in oxygen levels that was associa­ted with the reduction in mitochondrial p53 protein content, elevation of mitochondrial Bcl-2 protein level, and increase in antioxidant capacity. A close correlation between the mitochondrial p53 accumulation and ROS formation as well as the activity and protein content of MnSOD and GPx allowed us to assume that p53 took an active part in the regulation of prooxidant/antioxidant balance in mitochondria of rat heart during repeated H/R.

  14. Can liming reduce cadmium (Cd) accumulation in rice (Oryza sativa) in slightly acidic soils? A contradictory dynamic equilibrium between Cd uptake capacity of roots and Cd immobilisation in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongjie; Chen, Jiangmin; Huang, Qina; Tang, Shaoqing; Wang, Jianlong; Hu, Peisong; Shao, Guosheng

    2018-02-01

    Cadmium (Cd) accumulation in rice is strongly controlled by liming, but information on the use of liming to control Cd accumulation in rice grown in slightly acidic soils is inconsistent. Here, pot experiments were carried out to investigate the mechanisms of liming on Cd accumulation in two rice varieties focusing on two aspects: available/exchangeable Cd content in soils that were highly responsive to liming, and Cd uptake and transport capacity in the roots of rice in terms of Cd accumulation-relative gene expression. The results showed that soil availability and exchangeable iron, manganese, zinc and Cd contents decreased with increased liming, and that genes related to Cd uptake (OsNramp5 and OsIRT1) were sharply up-regulated in the roots of the two rice varieties. Thus, iron, manganese, zinc and Cd contents in rice plants increased under low liming applications but decreased in response to high liming applications. However, yield and rice quantities were only slightly affected. These results indicated that Cd accumulation in rice grown in slightly acidic soils presents a contradictory dynamic equilibrium between Cd uptake capacity by roots and soil Cd immobilisation in response to liming. The enhanced Cd uptake capacity under low liming dosages increases risks to human health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Abscisic Acid-Induced H2O2 Accumulation Enhances Antioxidant Capacity in Pumpkin-Grafted Cucumber Leaves under Ca(NO3)2 Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Sheng; Gao, Pan; Li, Lin; Yuan, Yinghui; Sun, Jin; Guo, Shirong

    2016-01-01

    With the aim to clarifying the role of the ABA/H2O2 signaling cascade in the regulating the antioxidant capacity of grafted cucumber plants in response to Ca(NO3)2 stress, we investigated the relationship between ABA-mediated H2O2 production and the activities of antioxidant enzymes in the leaves of pumpkin-grafted cucumber seedlings. The results showed that both ABA and H2O2 were detected in pumpkin-grafted cucumber seedlings in response to Ca(NO3)2 treatment within 0.5 h in the leaves and peaked at 3 and 6 h after Ca(NO3)2 treatment, respectively, compared to the levels under control conditions. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and peroxidase (POD) in pumpkin-grafted cucumber leaves gradually increased over time and peaked at 12 h of Ca(NO3)2 stress. Furthermore, in the leaves of pumpkin-grafted cucumber seedlings, the H2O2 generation, the antioxidant enzyme activities and the expression of SOD, POD and cAPX were strongly blocked by an inhibitor of ABA under Ca(NO3)2 stress, but this effect was eliminated by the addition of exogenous ABA. Moreover, the activities and gene expressions of these antioxidant enzymes in pumpkin-grafted leaves were almost inhibited under Ca(NO3)2 stress by pretreatment with ROS scavengers. These results suggest that the pumpkin grafting-induced ABA accumulation mediated H2O2 generation, resulting in the induction of antioxidant defense systems in leaves exposed to Ca(NO3)2 stress in the ABA/H2O2 signaling pathway. PMID:27746808

  16. Negative plates for dry-charged lead storage batteries. [higher charging capacity when impregnated with tannin solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiedler, V; Malikova, V; Weber, H

    1970-09-15

    Impregnation of negative plates with acid solutions of sulfomethylated tannins was found to improve the charging properties at low temperatures. Methods for synthesizing tannins are described. Charging capacity at 0/sup 0/ was 7.3A. (RWR)

  17. Development of a higher capacity, lower pressure drop steam/water separator with reduced primary-to-secondary spacing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruster, W.P.; Kidwell, J.H.; Eaton, A.M.; Wall, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    The goal of this development effort was to double the steam flow capacity of an existing module steam/water separator design without significantly increasing the pressure drop while simultaneously minimizing the vertical distance (spacing) between the primary and secondary separation stages. The development work included extensive air/water and steam/water testing. The steam/water tests were performed at a common pressure of 300 psia (2.1 MPa) with comparable water and steam flows

  18. The influence of biotic and abiotic factors on "1"3"7Cs accumulation in higher fungi after the accident at Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarubina, N.

    2016-01-01

    Levels of soil contamination with "1"3"7Cs, the belonging of fungi to a certain ecological group, the localization depth of the main part of mycelium in soil are the primary factors influencing the value of "1"3"7Cs specific activity in higher fungi after the accident at Chernobyl NPP. It has been found that the value of "1"3"7Cs specific activity in fungi of one species could vary by more than 10 times during a vegetation period. A correlation between the changes of "1"3"7Cs content in fungi during the vegetation period and the amount of precipitates during various periods preceding the collection of samples has not been determined. An assumption has been proposed stating dependence between peculiarities of mycelium growth during the vegetation period and the changes of "1"3"7Cs specific activity in fungi. - Highlights: • Factors influencing on the "1"3"7Cs accumulation by higher fungi have been studied. • "1"3"7Cs specific activity levels in one species fungi could change to up to 10 times during a vegetation season. • A reliable linear dependence of "1"3"7Cs content in fungi on precipitate quantity has not been determined.

  19. A Generalized National Planning Approach for Admission Capacity in Higher Education: A Nonlinear Integer Goal Programming Model with a Novel Differential Evolution Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Qulity, Said Ali; Mohamed, Ali Wagdy

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a nonlinear integer goal programming model (NIGPM) for solving the general problem of admission capacity planning in a country as a whole. The work aims to satisfy most of the required key objectives of a country related to the enrollment problem for higher education. The system general outlines are developed along with the solution methodology for application to the time horizon in a given plan. The up-to-date data for Saudi Arabia is used as a case study and a novel evolutionary algorithm based on modified differential evolution (DE) algorithm is used to solve the complexity of the NIGPM generated for different goal priorities. The experimental results presented in this paper show their effectiveness in solving the admission capacity for higher education in terms of final solution quality and robustness.

  20. Cooperation, complexity and adaptation: higher education capacity initiatives in international development assistance programmes in sub-Saharan Africa.

    OpenAIRE

    McEvoy, Peter

    2018-01-01

    At a time when global relations are characterised by great complexity, uncertainty and inequality, the role of higher education is crucial for a balanced and coherent development strategy, and achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). This is especially true for countries of sub-Saharan Africa, where there is a critical need to generate knowledge that can be used in the service of social and economic development, human rights and climate change adaptation. The study concern...

  1. TRIXcell+, a new long-term boar semen extender containing whey protein with higher preservation capacity and litter size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.M. van den Berg

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available It was the aim of the present study to test whey as protective protein for the sperm cell in the long-term boar semen preservation medium TRIXcell. Analyses of sperm cell motility using computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA indicated that the whey protein Porex has a similar protective effect as bovine serum albumin (BSA in maintaining viability of stored boar sperm. Boar sperm diluted in TRIXcell+ maintains commercially acceptable motility (>60% for 10 days, while swine sperm diluted in the semen preservation medium Beltsville Thawing Solution (BTS maintains commercially acceptable motility (>60% for 3-5 days for most boars. To test the on-farm fertility performance of TRIXcell+ compared to BTS, inseminations were started on 35 commercial pig production farms in the summer of 2006. During the period of July 2006 until July 2012 for each farm and each calendar year the mean farrowing rate and litter size for semen diluted in TRIXcell+ and stored for 3-5 days was found higher than that of semen stored for 1-2 days in BTS. Based on data gained from a total of 583.749 sows inseminated through the years 2006-2012, the mean farrowing rate for semen diluted in TRIXcell+ and BTS was 90.4 ± 4.0 and 87.9 ± 3.6, respectively, which is not significantly different. Based on the same data, the mean total number of piglets born alive for semen diluted in TRIXcell+ and BTS was 14.2 ± 0.7 and 13.6 ± 0.6, respectively, which is significantly different. We conclude that whey protein can effectively be used in the long-term preservation medium TRIXcell resulting in a higher litter size.

  2. TRIXcell+, a new long-term boar semen extender containing whey protein with higher preservation capacity and litter size

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, B.M.; Reesink, J.; Reesink, W.

    2014-01-01

    It was the aim of the present study to test whey as protective protein for the sperm cell in the long-term boar semen preservation medium TRIXcell. Analyses of sperm cell motility using computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) indicated that the whey protein Porex has a similar protective effect as bovine serum albumin (BSA) in maintaining viability of stored boar sperm. Boar sperm diluted in TRIXcell+ maintains commercially acceptable motility (>60%) for 10 days, while swine sperm diluted in the semen preservation medium Beltsville Thawing Solution (BTS) maintains commercially acceptable motility (>60%) for 3-5 days for most boars. To test the on-farm fertility performance of TRIXcell+ compared to BTS, inseminations were started on 35 commercial pig production farms in the summer of 2006. During the period of July 2006 until July 2012 for each farm and each calendar year the mean farrowing rate and litter size for semen diluted in TRIXcell+ and stored for 3-5 days was found higher than that of semen stored for 1-2 days in BTS. Based on data gained from a total of 583.749 sows inseminated through the years 2006-2012, the mean farrowing rate for semen diluted in TRIXcell+ and BTS was 90.4 ± 4.0 and 87.9 ± 3.6, respectively, which is not significantly different. Based on the same data, the mean total number of piglets born alive for semen diluted in TRIXcell+ and BTS was 14.2 ± 0.7 and 13.6 ± 0.6, respectively, which is significantly different. We conclude that whey protein can effectively be used in the long-term preservation medium TRIXcell resulting in a higher litter size. PMID:26623335

  3. Peer tutors as learning and teaching partners: a cumulative approach to building peer tutoring capacity in higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherran Clarence

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Peer tutors in higher education are frequently given vital teaching and learning work to do, but the training or professional development and support opportunities they are offered vary, and more often than not peer tutors are under-supported. In order to create and sustain teaching and learning environments that are better able to facilitate students’ engagement with knowledge and learning, the role of peer tutors needs to be recognised differently, as that of learning and teaching partners to both lecturers and students. Tutors then need to be offered opportunities for more in-depth professional academic development in order to fully realise this role. This paper explores a tutor development programme within a South African writing centre that aimed at offering tutors such ongoing and cumulative opportunities for learning and growth using a balanced approach, which included scholarly research and practice-based training. Using narrative data tutors provided in reflective written reports, the paper explores the kinds of development in tutors’ thinking and action that are possible when training and development is theoretically informed, coherent, and oriented towards improving practice.

  4. Higher adsorption capacity of Spirulina platensis alga for Cr(VI) ions removal: parameter optimisation, equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunasundari, Elumalai; Senthil Kumar, Ponnusamy

    2017-04-01

    This study discusses about the biosorption of Cr(VI) ion from aqueous solution using ultrasonic assisted Spirulina platensis (UASP). The prepared UASP biosorbent was characterised by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Brunauer-Emmet-Teller, scanning electron spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray and thermogravimetric analyses. The optimum condition for the maximum removal of Cr(VI) ions for an initial concentration of 50 mg/l by UASP was measured as: adsorbent dose of 1 g/l, pH of 3.0, contact time of 30 min and temperature of 303 K. Adsorption isotherm, kinetics and thermodynamic parameters were calculated. Freundlich model provided the best results for the removal of Cr(VI) ions by UASP. The adsorption kinetics of Cr(VI) ions onto UASP showed that the pseudo-first-order model was well in line with the experimental data. In the thermodynamic study, the parameters like Gibb's free energy, enthalpy and entropy changes were evaluated. This result explains that the adsorption of Cr(VI) ions onto the UASP was exothermic and spontaneous in nature. Desorption of the biosorbent was done using different desorbing agents in which NaOH gave the best result. The prepared material showed higher affinity for the removal of Cr(VI) ions and this may be an alternative material to the existing commercial adsorbents.

  5. Irradiation studies of local Streptomyces strains for higher antibiotic producing capacity. Part of a coordinated programme on radiation microbiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kintanar, Q.L.

    1978-06-01

    The 14 mutants produced by sequential exposure to gamma and ultraviolet irradiation were found to belong to different fundamental types of variants differing in morphology, stability, and metabolite spectra from the parent strain. The first hour mutants, M-1 to M-4 could be considered as belonging to the first category of mutants. Metabolites produced were the same as the parent but differ only in quantity. One was a morphological mutant, M-4 which differed from the parent strain in the production of a brown pigment and conidia, and lack of aerial mycelium. It was found to be most stable and capable of producing high antibiotic yield. The rest of the mutants, M-5 to M-14 could be grouped in the second category. The synthesis of one or more metabolites of the parent strain has been lost by mutation. Unexpectedly, a mutant, M-9 instead of synthesizing either oxytetracycline or tetracycline produced chlortetracycline. Coconut water was found inhibitory to the production of antibiotics by the parent strain and the high and low producing mutants. Modifying the medium by incorporating phosphate and adjusting the initial pH to 4.75 raised the antibiotic yield of the 10% coconut water supplemented medium of M-4 more than the control. Higher pH than the optimum shortened the lag phase but reduced the antibiotic yield while a lower initial pH prevented the growth of the organism giving negligible yield. A reduction of pH to pH 4.5 for the initial 48 hours lengthened the lag phase with almost no adverse effect on the yield. The incorporation of large amounts of coconut water aggravated the amino acid imbalance of the medium

  6. Improving the design of higher-capacity railway tank cars for hazardous materials transport: Optimizing the trade-off between weight and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkan, Christopher P.L.

    2008-01-01

    As with many aspects of modern industrial society, decision-makers face trade-offs in considering hazardous materials transportation equipment and practices. Tank cars used for transport of hazardous materials can be made more resistant to damage in accidents through use of a thicker steel tank and other protective features. However, the additional weight of these features reduces the car's capacity and thus its efficiency as a transportation vehicle. In this paper the problem of tank car safety versus weight is developed as a multi-attribute decision problem. North American railroads recently developed specifications for higher capacity tank cars for transportation of hazardous materials including enhanced safety design features. A group of tank car safety design features or 'risk reduction options' (RROs) were analyzed with regard to their effect on the conditional probability of release in an accident, and their incremental effect on tank car weight. All possible combinations of these RROs were then analyzed in terms of the reduced release probability per unit of weight increase and the Pareto optimal set of options identified. This set included the combinations of RROs that provided the greatest improvement in safety with the least amount of additional weight for any desired level of tank car weight increase. The analysis was conducted for both non-insulated and insulated tank cars and used two objective functions, minimization of conditional probability of release, and minimization of expected quantity lost, given that a car was derailed in an accident. Sensitivity analyses of the effect of tank car size and use of different objective functions were conducted and the optimality results were found to be robust. The results of this analysis were used by the Association of American Railroads Tank Car Committee to develop new specifications for higher capacity non-insulated and insulated, non-pressure tank cars resulting in an estimated 32% and 24% respective

  7. Microcomputers with higher processing capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    Loosely-coupled multiprocessor systems comprise a number of modules with specialised functions such as arithmetic processor, bit-slice processors, single-chip peripheral processors, usually provided with local resources (I/O units, memories) and forming an integrated network. The topology of three typical multiprocessor systems are discussed: coupling via I/O modules, common memory and DMA. I/O coupled systems have serial transmission, often in master/slave configuration. Several processors may have a common memory and for fast exchange of data between processors, the DMA coupling is used. Configurations for local networks (star, loop, ring) are surveyed and dictionary of terms (LAN, SDLC, HDLC etc.) is provided.

  8. Doctoral level research and training capacity in the social determinants of health at universities and higher education institutions in India, China, Oman and Vietnam: a survey of needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Farhad; Shet, Arun; Yan, Weirong; Al-Maniri, Abdullah; Atkins, Salla; Lucas, Henry

    2017-09-02

    Research capacity is scarce in low- and middle-income country (LMIC) settings. Social determinants of health research (SDH) is an area in which research capacity is lacking, particularly in Asian countries. SDH research can support health decision-makers, inform policy and thereby improve the overall health and wellbeing of the population. In order to continue building this capacity, we need to know to what extent training exists and how challenges could be addressed from the perspective of students and staff. This paper aims to describe the challenges involved in training scholars to undertake research on the SDH in four Asian countries - China, India, Oman and Vietnam. In-depth interviews were conducted with research scholars, research supervisors and principal investigators (n = 13) at ARCADE partner institutions, which included eight universities and research institutes. In addition, structured questionnaires (n = 70) were used to collect quantitative data relating to the courses available, teaching and supervisory capacity, and related issues for students being trained in research on SDH. Simple descriptive statistics were calculated from the quantitative data and thematic analysis applied to the qualitative data. We identified a general lack of training courses focusing on SDH. Added to this, PhD students studying related areas reported inadequate supervision, with limited time allocated to meetings and poor interpersonal communication. Supervisors cited interpersonal communication problems and student lack of skills to perform high quality research as challenges to research training. Further challenges reported included a lack of research funding to include SDH-related topics. Finally, it was suggested that there was a need for institutions to define clear and appropriate standards regarding admission and supervision of students to higher education programs awarding doctoral degrees. There are gaps in training for research on the SDH at the surveyed

  9. A comparison of methods to estimate anaerobic capacity: Accumulated oxygen deficit and W' during constant and all-out work-rate profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniz-Pumares, Daniel; Pedlar, Charles; Godfrey, Richard; Glaister, Mark

    2017-12-01

    This study investigated (i) whether the accumulated oxygen deficit (AOD) and curvature constant of the power-duration relationship (W') are different during constant work-rate to exhaustion (CWR) and 3-min all-out (3MT) tests and (ii) the relationship between AOD and W' during CWR and 3MT. Twenty-one male cyclists (age: 40 ± 6 years; maximal oxygen uptake [V̇O 2max ]: 58 ± 7 ml · kg -1 · min -1 ) completed preliminary tests to determine the V̇O 2 -power output relationship and V̇O 2max . Subsequently, AOD and W' were determined as the difference between oxygen demand and oxygen uptake and work completed above critical power, respectively, in CWR and 3MT. There were no differences between tests for duration, work, or average power output (P ≥ 0.05). AOD was greater in the CWR test (4.18 ± 0.95 vs. 3.68 ± 0.98 L; P = 0.004), whereas W' was greater in 3MT (9.55 ± 4.00 vs. 11.37 ± 3.84 kJ; P = 0.010). AOD and W' were significantly correlated in both CWR (P W' in CWR and 3MT, between-test differences in the magnitude of AOD and W', suggest that both measures have different underpinning mechanisms.

  10. New inorganic (an)ion exchangers with a higher affinity for arsenate and a competitive removal capacity towards fluoride, bromate, bromide, selenate, selenite, arsenite and borate

    KAUST Repository

    Chubar, Natalia

    2011-12-01

    Highly selective materials and effective technologies are needed to meet the increasingly stronger drinking water standards for targeted ionic species. Inorganic ion exchangers based on individual and mixed-metal hydrous oxides (or mixed adsorbents that contain inorganic ion exchangers in their composition) are adsorptive materials that are capable of lowering the concentrations of anionic contaminants, such as H 2AsO 4 -, H 3AsO 3, F -, Br -, BrO 3 -, HSeO 4 -, HSeO 3 - and H 3BO 3, to 10 μg/L or less. To achieve a higher selectivity towards arsenate, a new ion exchanger based on Mg-Al hydrous oxides was developed by a novel, cost-effective and environmentally friendly synthesis method via a non-traditional (alkoxide-free) sol-gel approach. The exceptional adsorptive capacity of the Mg-Al hydrous oxides towards H 2AsO 4 - (up to 200 mg[As]/gdw) is due to the high affinity of this sorbent towards arsenate (steep equilibrium isotherms) and its fast adsorption kinetics. Because of the mesoporous (as determined by N 2 adsorption and SEM) and layered (as determined by XRD and FTIR) structure of the ion-exchange material as well as the abundance of anion exchange sites (as determined by XPS and potentiometric titration) on its surface the material demonstrated very competitive (or very high) removal capacity towards other targeted anions, including fluoride, bromide, bromate, selenate, selenite, and borate. © 2011 IWA Publishing.

  11. A simple gold nanoparticle-mediated immobilization method to fabricate highly homogeneous DNA microarrays having higher capacities than those prepared by using conventional techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Cheulhee; Mun, Hyo Young; Li, Taihua; Park, Hyun Gyu

    2009-01-01

    A simple, highly efficient immobilization method to fabricate DNA microarrays, that utilizes gold nanoparticles as the mediator, has been developed. The fabrication method begins with electrostatic attachment of amine-modified DNA to gold nanoparticles. The resulting gold-DNA complexes are immobilized on conventional amine or aldehyde functionalized glass slides. By employing gold nanoparticles as the immobilization mediator, implementation of this procedure yields highly homogeneous microarrays that have higher binding capacities than those produced by conventional methods. This outcome is due to the increased three-dimensional immobilization surface provided by the gold nanoparticles as well as the intrinsic effects of gold on emission properties. This novel immobilization strategy gives microarrays that produce more intense hybridization signals for the complementary DNA. Furthermore, the silver enhancement technique, made possible only in the case of immobilized gold nanoparticles on the microarrays, enables simple monitoring of the integrity of the immobilized DNA probe.

  12. Superior integrin activating capacity and higher adhesion to fibrinogen matrix in buffy coat-derived platelet concentrates (PCs) compared to PRP-PCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshkar, Pezhman; Hosseini, Ehteramolsadat; Ghasemzadeh, Mehran

    2018-02-01

    Regardless of different sources, methods or devices which are applied for preparation of therapeutic platelets, these products are generally isolated from whole blood by the sedimentation techniques which are based on PRP or buffy coat (BC) separation. As a general fact, platelet preparation and storage are also associated with some deleterious changes that known as platelet storage lesion (PSL). Although these alternations in platelet functional activity are aggravated during storage, whether technical issues within preparation can affect integrin activation and platelet adhesion to fibrinogen were investigated in this study. PRP- and BC-platelet concentrates (PCs) were subjected to flowcytometry analysis to examine the expression of platelet activation marker, P-selectin as well as active confirmation of the GPIIb/IIIa (α IIb β 3 ) on day 0, 1, 3 and 5 post-storage. Platelet adhesion to fibrinogen matrix was evaluated by fluorescence microscopy. Glucose concentration and LDH activity were also measured by colorimetric methods. The increasing P-selectin expression during storage was in a reverse correlation with PAC-1 binding (r = -0.67; p = .001). PRP-PCs showed the higher level of P-selectin expression than BC-PCs, whereas the levels of PAC-1 binding and platelet adhesion to fibrinogen matrix were significantly lower in PRP-PCs. Higher levels of active confirmation of the GPIIb/IIIa in BC-PCs were also associated with greater concentration of glucose in these products. We demonstrated the superior capacities of integrin activation and adhesion to fibrinogen for BC-PCs compared to those of PRP-PCs. These findings may provide more advantages for BC method of platelet preparation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Plastids and Carotenoid Accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Yuan, Hui; Zeng, Yunliu; Xu, Qiang

    Plastids are ubiquitously present in plants and are the organelles for carotenoid biosynthesis and storage. Based on their morphology and function, plastids are classified into various types, i.e. proplastids, etioplasts, chloroplasts, amyloplasts, and chromoplasts. All plastids, except proplastids, can synthesize carotenoids. However, plastid types have a profound effect on carotenoid accumulation and stability. In this chapter, we discuss carotenoid biosynthesis and regulation in various plastids with a focus on carotenoids in chromoplasts. Plastid transition related to carotenoid biosynthesis and the different capacity of various plastids to sequester carotenoids and the associated effect on carotenoid stability are described in light of carotenoid accumulation in plants.

  14. Higher Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kunle Amuwo: Higher Education Transformation: A Paradigm Shilt in South Africa? ... ty of such skills, especially at the middle management levels within the higher ... istics and virtues of differentiation and diversity. .... may be forced to close shop for lack of capacity to attract ..... necessarily lead to racial and gender equity,.

  15. The impact of tree age on biomass growth and carbon accumulation capacity: A retrospective analysis using tree ring data of three tropical tree species grown in natural forests of Suriname.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhl, Michael; Neupane, Prem R; Lotfiomran, Neda

    2017-01-01

    The world's forests play a pivotal role in the mitigation of global climate change. By photosynthesis they remove CO2 from the atmosphere and store carbon in their biomass. While old trees are generally acknowledged for a long carbon residence time, there is no consensus on their contribution to carbon accumulation due to a lack of long-term individual tree data. Tree ring analyses, which use anatomical differences in the annual formation of wood for dating growth zones, are a retrospective approach that provides growth patterns of individual trees over their entire lifetime. We developed time series of diameter growth and related annual carbon accumulation for 61 trees of the species Cedrela odorata L. (Meliacea), Hymenaea courbaril L. (Fabacea) and Goupia glabra Aubl. (Goupiacea). The trees grew in unmanaged tropical wet-forests of Suriname and reached ages from 84 to 255 years. Most of the trees show positive trends of diameter growth and carbon accumulation over time. For some trees we observed fluctuating growth-periods of lower growth alternate with periods of increased growth. In the last quarter of their lifetime trees accumulate on average between 39 percent (C. odorata) and 50 percent (G. glabra) of their final carbon stock. This suggests that old-growth trees in tropical forests do not only contribute to carbon stocks by long carbon resistance times, but maintain high rates of carbon accumulation at later stages of their life time.

  16. Boron accumulation by Lemna minor L. under salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunguang; Gu, Wancong; Dai, Zheng; Li, Jia; Jiang, Hongru; Zhang, Qian

    2018-06-12

    Excess boron (B) is toxic to aquatic organisms and humans. Boron is often present in water with high salinity. To evaluate the potential of duckweed (Lemna minor L.) for removing B from water under salt stress, we cultured duckweed in water with 2 mg/L of B and sodium chloride (NaCl) concentrations ranging from 0 to 200 mM for 4 days. The results show that with increasing salinity, the capacity of L. minor to accumulate B initially decreased and then increased. L. minor used different mechanisms to accumulate boron at lower and higher levels of salt stress. The growth and chlorophyll synthesis of L. minor were significantly inhibited when the concentration of NaCl reached 100 mM. Our results suggest that L. minor is suitable for the accumulation of B when NaCl salinity is below 100 mM.

  17. Selenium accumulation in plants--phytotechnological applications and ecological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez Barillas, José Rodolfo; Quinn, Colin F; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A H

    2011-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element for many organisms including humans, yet toxic at higher levels. Both Se deficiency and toxicity are problems worldwide. Since plants readily accumulate and volatilize Se, they may be used both as a source of dietary Se and for removing excess Se from the environment. Plant species differ in their capacity to metabolize and accumulate Se, from non-Se accumulators ( 1,000 mg Se/kg DW). Here we review plant mechanisms of Se metabolism in these various plant types. We also summarize results from genetic engineering that have led to enhanced plant Se accumulation, volatilization, and/or tolerance, including field studies. Before using Se-accumulating plants at a large scale we need to evaluate the ecological implications. Research so far indicates that plant Se accumulation significantly affects the plant's ecological interactions below and above ground. Selenium canprotect plants from fungal pathogens and from a variety of invertebrate and vertebrate herbivores, due to both deterrence and toxicity. However, specialist (Se-tolerant herbivores), detritivores and endophytes appear to utilize Se hyperaccumulator plants as a resource. These findings are relevant for managing phytoremediation of Se and similar elements.

  18. [Experimental investigations of 211Am accumulation by macrophytes of the Yenisei River].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolsunovskiĭ, A Ia; Zotina, T A

    2002-01-01

    Experiments were carried out in which 241Am was added to water samples containing macrophytes of the Yenisei River, and the radionuclide absorption rates and concentration factors were determined for the plants. It has been shown that the water moss (Fontinalis antipyretica) has a higher capacity to accumulate 241Am than the Canadian pondweed (Elodea canadensis) does. The laboratory experiments revealed that the capacity of dead biomass of the Canadian pondweed to accumulate 241Am is twice higher than that of living biomass. In contrast, no significant increase in 241Am accumulation by dead biomass of the water moss has been recorded. The transuranic element 241Am was firmly fixed by the plant biomass and was not released into water in the course of long-duration experiments.

  19. Copper accumulation by stickleback nests containing spiggin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, G L L; Martins, C M G; Barber, I

    2016-07-01

    The three-spined stickleback is a ubiquitous fish of marine, brackish and freshwater ecosystems across the Northern hemisphere that presents intermediate sensitivity to copper. Male sticklebacks display a range of elaborate reproductive behaviours that include nest construction. To build the nests, each male binds nesting material together using an endogenous glycoprotein nesting glue, known as 'spiggin'. Spiggin is a cysteine-rich protein and, therefore, potentially binds heavy metals present in the environment. The aim of this study was to investigate the capacity of stickleback nests to accumulate copper from environmental sources. Newly built nests, constructed by male fish from polyester threads in laboratory aquaria, were immersed in copper solutions ranging in concentration from 21.1-626.6 μg Cu L(-1). Bundles of polyester threads from aquaria without male fish were also immersed in the same copper solutions. After immersion, nests presented higher amounts of copper than the thread bundles, indicating a higher capacity of nests to bind this metal. A significant, positive correlation between the concentration of copper in the exposure solution and in the exposed nests was identified, but there was no such relationship for thread bundles. Since both spiggin synthesis and male courtship behaviour are under the control of circulating androgens, we predicted that males with high courtship scores would produce and secrete high levels of the spiggin protein. In the present study, nests built by high courtship score males accumulated more copper than those built by low courtship score males. Considering the potential of spiggin to bind metals, the positive relationship between fish courtship and spiggin secretion seems to explain the higher amount of copper on the nests from the fish showing high behaviour scores. Further work is now needed to determine the consequences of the copper binding potential of spiggin in stickleback nests for the health and survival of

  20. Effect of internal R&D activities to the accumulation of organizational technical knowledge with the mediation role of absorptive capacity to establish the innovation capability of electronic industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purwanggono Bambang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Innovation is a strategy for the electronics industry to create a sustainable competitive advantage, in the midst of a rapidly changing environment with all its complexity. Seven AT program as an effort for PT. Hartono Istana Teknologi (Polytron into enterprise knowledge, will accelerate the innovation process, combined with good organizational technical knowledge management. Organizational technical knowledge will be instrumental in innovation capabilities properly if there is an internal R & D activities that support and absorptive capacity as a mediator. This study reviewed the organizational technical knowledge influence to innovation capability, the influence of R & D activities to organizational technical knowledge, as well as the role of absorptive capacity as a mediator. The study was conducted by distributing questionnaires to 130 employees of PT. Hartono Istana Teknologi. Data processing was conducted using SEM. The results showed that the absorptive capacity mediate the relationship between R & D activities and organizational technical knowledge by 51%, and organizational technical knowledge affect innovation capabilities by 64%.

  1. Solanum nigrum grown in contaminated soil: Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on zinc accumulation and histolocalisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, Ana P.G.C. [Escola Superior de Biotecnologia, Universidade Catolica Portuguesa, Rua Dr. Antonio Bernardino de Almeida, 4200-072 Porto (Portugal)]. E-mail: amarques@mail.esb.ucp.pt; Oliveira, Rui S. [Escola Superior de Biotecnologia, Universidade Catolica Portuguesa, Rua Dr. Antonio Bernardino de Almeida, 4200-072 Porto (Portugal)]. E-mail: rsoliveira@mail.esb.ucp.pt; Samardjieva, Kalina A. [Instituto de Biologia Molecular e Celular, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 823, 4150-180 Porto (Portugal)]. E-mail: kas@ibmc.up.pt; Pissarra, Jose [Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade do Porto, Departamento de Botanica, Rua do Campo Alegre, 1191, 4150-181 Porto (Portugal)]. E-mail: jpissarr@fc.up.pt; Rangel, Antonio O.S.S. [Escola Superior de Biotecnologia, Universidade Catolica Portuguesa, Rua Dr. Antonio Bernardino de Almeida, 4200-072 Porto (Portugal)]. E-mail: arangel@esb.ucp.pt; Castro, Paula M.L. [Escola Superior de Biotecnologia, Universidade Catolica Portuguesa, Rua Dr. Antonio Bernardino de Almeida, 4200-072 Porto (Portugal)]. E-mail: plcastro@esb.ucp.pt

    2007-02-15

    Zn tissue accumulation in Solanum nigrum grown in a non-contaminated and a naturally contaminated Zn matrix and the effect of inoculation with different arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on metal uptake were assessed. S. nigrum grown in the contaminated soil always presented higher Zn accumulation in the tissues, accumulating up to 1622 mg Zn kg{sup -1}. The presence of both Glomus claroideum and Glomus intraradices enhanced the uptake and accumulation of Zn by S. nigrum (up to 83 and 49% higher Zn accumulation, respectively). The main deposits of the metal were found in the intercellular spaces and in the cell walls of the root tissues, as revealed by autometallography, with the inoculation with different AMF species causing no differences in the location of Zn accumulation. These findings indicate that S. nigrum inoculated with selected heavy metal tolerant AMF presents extracting and accumulating capacities, constituting a potentially suitable remediation method for Zn polluted soils. - Zn accumulation by S. nigrum is enhanced by AMF and the metal storage in the tissues at the root level occurs mainly in the cell walls and in the intercellular spaces.

  2. Solanum nigrum grown in contaminated soil: Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on zinc accumulation and histolocalisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, Ana P.G.C.; Oliveira, Rui S.; Samardjieva, Kalina A.; Pissarra, Jose; Rangel, Antonio O.S.S.; Castro, Paula M.L.

    2007-01-01

    Zn tissue accumulation in Solanum nigrum grown in a non-contaminated and a naturally contaminated Zn matrix and the effect of inoculation with different arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on metal uptake were assessed. S. nigrum grown in the contaminated soil always presented higher Zn accumulation in the tissues, accumulating up to 1622 mg Zn kg -1 . The presence of both Glomus claroideum and Glomus intraradices enhanced the uptake and accumulation of Zn by S. nigrum (up to 83 and 49% higher Zn accumulation, respectively). The main deposits of the metal were found in the intercellular spaces and in the cell walls of the root tissues, as revealed by autometallography, with the inoculation with different AMF species causing no differences in the location of Zn accumulation. These findings indicate that S. nigrum inoculated with selected heavy metal tolerant AMF presents extracting and accumulating capacities, constituting a potentially suitable remediation method for Zn polluted soils. - Zn accumulation by S. nigrum is enhanced by AMF and the metal storage in the tissues at the root level occurs mainly in the cell walls and in the intercellular spaces

  3. Radio-capacity of ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kultakhmedov, Yu.; Kultakhmedova-Vyshnyakova, V.

    1997-01-01

    This paper consider a universal approach to ecosystems of different types, based on representation of their radio-capacity. The concept of ecosystem includes reproduction of components (bio-productivity) and conditions such as maintaining of environment quality. Radio-capacity in the case of radionuclide pollution appears in accumulation and redistribution of radionuclides in the ecosystem. As a result the radionuclides are redistributed and buried in soil or lake bottom sediments. Estimation models for the radio-capacity of water and terrestrial ecosystems are represented. The calculations of the radio-capacity factor of water ecosystems are performed, and the high radio-capacity of a freshwater reservoir (F=0.6-0.8) and extremely high radio-capacity of a reservoir cascade (F c =0.99) is shown material from the Dnieper's cascade reservoirs. The methods of radio-capacity estimation of agroecosystems, wood and marine ecosystems are developed. (authors)

  4. Station Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2011-01-01

    the probability of conflicts and the minimum headway times into account. The last method analyzes how optimal platform tracks are used by examining the arrival and departure pattern of the trains. The developed methods can either be used separately to analyze specific characteristics of the capacity of a station......Stations are often limiting the capacity of railway networks. This is due to extra need of tracks when trains stand still, trains turning around, and conflicting train routes. Although stations are often the capacity bottlenecks, most capacity analysis methods focus on open line capacity. Therefore...... for platform tracks and the probability that arriving trains will not get a platform track immediately at arrival. The third method is a scalable method that analyzes the conflicts in the switch zone(s). In its simplest stage, the method just analyzes the track layout while the more advanced stages also take...

  5. Classification of CO2 Geologic Storage: Resource and Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frailey, S.M.; Finley, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    The use of the term capacity to describe possible geologic storage implies a realistic or likely volume of CO2 to be sequestered. Poor data quantity and quality may lead to very high uncertainty in the storage estimate. Use of the term "storage resource" alleviates the implied certainty of the term "storage capacity". This is especially important to non- scientists (e.g. policy makers) because "capacity" is commonly used to describe the very specific and more certain quantities such as volume of a gas tank or a hotel's overnight guest limit. Resource is a term used in the classification of oil and gas accumulations to infer lesser certainty in the commercial production of oil and gas. Likewise for CO2 sequestration, a suspected porous and permeable zone can be classified as a resource, but capacity can only be estimated after a well is drilled into the formation and a relatively higher degree of economic and regulatory certainty is established. Storage capacity estimates are lower risk or higher certainty compared to storage resource estimates. In the oil and gas industry, prospective resource and contingent resource are used for estimates with less data and certainty. Oil and gas reserves are classified as Proved and Unproved, and by analogy, capacity can be classified similarly. The highest degree of certainty for an oil or gas accumulation is Proved, Developed Producing (PDP) Reserves. For CO2 sequestration this could be Proved Developed Injecting (PDI) Capacity. A geologic sequestration storage classification system is developed by analogy to that used by the oil and gas industry. When a CO2 sequestration industry emerges, storage resource and capacity estimates will be considered a company asset and consequently regulated by the Securities and Exchange Commission. Additionally, storage accounting and auditing protocols will be required to confirm projected storage estimates and assignment of credits from actual injection. An example illustrates the use of

  6. Uranium accumulation by aquatic macrophyte, Pistia stratiotes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhainsa, K.C.; D'Souza, S.F.

    2012-01-01

    Uranium accumulation by aquatic macrophyte, Pistia stratiotes from aqueous solution was investigated in laboratory condition. The objective was to evaluate the uranium accumulation potential and adopt the plant in uranium containing medium to improve its uptake capacity. The plant was found to tolerate and grow in the pH range of 3-7. Accumulation of uranium improved with increasing pH and the plant could remove 70% uranium from the medium (20 mg/L) within 24 hours of incubation at pH 5-6. Uptake of uranium on either side of this pH range decreased

  7. Advanced accumulator for PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichimura, Taiki; Chikahata, Hideyuki

    1997-01-01

    Advanced accumulators have been incorporated into the APWR design in order to simplify the safety system configuration and to improve reliability. The advanced accumulators refill the reactor vessel with a large discharge flow rate in a large LOCA, then switch to a small flow rate to continue safety injection for core reflooding. The functions of the conventional accumulator and the low head safety injection pump are integrated into this advanced accumulator. Injection performance tests simulating LOCA conditions and visualization tests for new designs have been carried out. This paper describes the APWR ECCS configuration, the advanced accumulator design and some of the injection performance and visualization test results. It was verified that the flow resistance of the advanced accumulator is independent of the model scale. The similarity law and performance data of the advanced accumulator for applying APWR was established. (author)

  8. Functional components of the bacterial CzcCBA efflux system reduce cadmium uptake and accumulation in transgenic tobacco plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesler, Andrea; DalCorso, Giovanni; Fasani, Elisa; Manara, Anna; Di Sansebastiano, Gian Pietro; Argese, Emanuele; Furini, Antonella

    2017-03-25

    Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic trace element released into the environment by industrial and agricultural practices, threatening the health of plants and contaminating the food/feed chain. Biotechnology can be used to develop plant varieties with a higher capacity for Cd accumulation (for use in phytoremediation programs) or a lower capacity for Cd accumulation (to reduce Cd levels in food and feed). Here we generated transgenic tobacco plants expressing components of the Pseudomonas putida CzcCBA efflux system. Plants were transformed with combinations of the CzcC, CzcB and CzcA genes, and the impact on Cd mobilization was analysed. Plants expressing PpCzcC showed no differences in Cd accumulation, whereas those expressing PpCzcB or PpCzcA accumulated less Cd in the shoots, but more Cd in the roots. Plants expressing both PpCzcB and PpCzcA accumulated less Cd in the shoots and roots compared to controls, whereas plants expressing all three genes showed a significant reduction in Cd levels only in shoots. These results show that components of the CzcCBA system can be expressed in plants and may be useful for developing plants with a reduced capacity to accumulate Cd in the shoots, potentially reducing the toxicity of food/feed crops cultivated in Cd-contaminated soils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Carrying Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroll, Henning; Andersen, Jan; Kjærgård, Bente

    2012-01-01

    A spatial planning act was introduced inIndonesia 1992 and renewed in 2008. It emphasised the planning role of decentralised authorities. The spatial planning act covers both spatial and environmental issues. It defines the concept of carrying capacity and includes definitions of supportive....../cities. Four different sectors (water, food production, waste, and forests) were selected as core areas for decentralised spatial planning. Indicators for SCC and ACC were identified and assessed with regard to relevance and quantifiability. For each of the indicators selected, a legal threshold or guiding...... was introduced inIndonesia 1992 and renewed in 2008. It emphasised the planning role of decentralised authorities. The spatial planning act covers both spatial and environmental issues. It defines the concept of carrying capacity and includes definitions of supportive carrying capacity (SCC) and assimilative...

  10. Cyclobutyl pyrimidine dimer accumulation in relation to UV-B sensitivity in mung bean cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Junmin; Wang Ruibin; Meng Zhaoni

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the experiment is to reveal the relationship between cyclobutyl pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) accumulation and UV-B sensitivity in mung bean cultivars. Two mung bean cultivars (Phaseolus raditus L. cv. Qindou -2 0 and Zhonglü -1 ) were grown in greenhouse with treatment or without treatment of UV-B radiation (0.4 W * m -2 ) for four days. The UV-B-induced CPDs in mung bean DNA were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with specific monoclonal antibody and the relationship between CPDs accumulation and the UV-B sensitivity of mung bean seedlings were discussed. The UV-B-induced inhibition of the biomass and net photosynthetic rate of the primary leaves of cultivar Zhonglü -1 were respectively lower than that of cultivar Qindou -2 0, so that the cultivar Zhonglü -1 was more tolerant to UV-B than the cultivar Qindou -2 0. Meanwhile, the cultivar Zhonglü -1 had lower CPD accumulation and susceptibility to CPD induction, higher photorepair capacity and same dark repair capacity as compared with the cultivar Qindou -2 0. Different UV-B sensitivities between two mung bean cultivars may be mainly caused by the differences in CPD accumulation, which are caused by the different susceptibility to CPD induction and the different photorepair capacities. In addition, the different susceptibility to CPD induction between two mung bean cultivars is related to the different levels of UV-absorbing compounds

  11. OPEC future capacity expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandrea, I.

    2005-01-01

    This conference presentation examined OPEC future capacity expansions including highlights from 2000-2004 from the supply perspective and actions by OPEC; OPEC spare capacity in 2005/2006; medium-term capacity expansion and investments; long-term scenarios, challenges and opportunities; and upstream policies in member countries. Highlights from the supply perspective included worst than expected non-OPEC supply response; non-OPEC supply affected by a number of accidents and strikes; geopolitical tensions; and higher than expected demand for OPEC crude. OPEC's actions included closer relationship with other producers and consumers; capacity expansions in 2004 and 2005/2006; and OPEC kept the market well supplied with crude in 2004. The presentation also provided data using graphical charts on OPEC net capacity additions until 2005/2006; OPEC production versus spare capacity from 2003 to 2005; OPEC production and capacity to 2010; and change in required OPEC production from 2005-2020. Medium term expansion to 2010 includes over 60 projects. Medium-term risks such as project execution, financing, costs, demand, reserves, depletion, integration of Iraq, and geopolitical tensions were also discussed. The presentation concluded that in the long term, large uncertainties remain; the peak of world supply is not imminent; and continued and enhanced cooperation is essential to market stability. tabs., figs

  12. Polychlorinated biphenyls in alfalfa: Accumulation, sorption and speciation in different plant parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Ying; Sun, Xianghui; Zhu, Lingjia; Christie, Peter; Luo, Yongming

    2017-08-03

    The accumulation, chemical speciation and distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were investigated in various parts of alfalfa. Moreover, the adsorption characteristics for PCB 28 by alfalfa and the influencing factors of the adsorption characteristics were studied. There were different degrees of PCB accumulation in alfalfa roots, root nodules and shoots. The decreasing order of the accumulation of PCBs in plant tissues was root nodules > roots > shoots, and the decreasing order of the total PCB contents was roots > shoots > root nodules, indicating that the roots were the main sink for PCB accumulation. There were three modes of PCB speciation in alfalfa roots and root nodules, comprising strong sorption (78%) and weak sorption (19%) on tissue surfaces and absorption within tissues (2%). The adsorption isotherms of PCB 28 indicate that the adsorption capacities of root nodules and shoots were both significantly higher than that of the roots. Both lipids and carbohydrates, and especially lipids, affected the PCB adsorption capacities of the tissues. These results may help in the elucidation of the mechanisms of sorption and accumulation of PCBs in the plants and their main influencing factors and thus contribute to the development of phytoremediation technologies for PCB-contaminated soils.

  13. Microbial accumulation of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wei; Dong Faqin; Dai Qunwei

    2005-01-01

    The mechanism of microbial accumulation of uranium and the effects of some factors (including pH, initial uranium concentration, pretreatment of bacteria, and so on) on microbial accumulation of uranium are discussed briefly. The research direction and application prospect are presented. (authors)

  14. Exerting Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leger, J Michael; Phillips, Carolyn A

    2017-05-01

    Patient safety has been at the forefront of nursing research since the release of the Institute of Medicine's report estimating the number of preventable adverse events in hospital settings; yet no research to date has incorporated the perspectives of bedside nurses using classical grounded theory (CGT) methodology. This CGT study explored the perceptions of bedside registered nurses regarding patient safety in adult acute care hospitals. Data analysis used three techniques unique to CGT-the constant comparative method, coding, and memoing-to explore the values, realities, and beliefs of bedside nurses about patient safety. The analysis resulted in a substantive theory, Exerting Capacity, which explained how bedside nurses balance the demands of keeping their patients safe. Exerting Capacity has implications for health care organization leaders, nursing leaders, and bedside nurses; it also has indications for future research into the concept of patient safety.

  15. Relationship of trehalose accumulation with ethanol fermentation in industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pin-Mei; Zheng, Dao-Qiong; Chi, Xiao-Qin; Li, Ou; Qian, Chao-Dong; Liu, Tian-Zhe; Zhang, Xiao-Yang; Du, Feng-Guang; Sun, Pei-Yong; Qu, Ai-Min; Wu, Xue-Chang

    2014-01-01

    The protective effect and the mechanisms of trehalose accumulation in industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were investigated during ethanol fermentation. The engineered strains with more intercellular trehalose achieved significantly higher fermentation rates and ethanol yields than their wild strain ZS during very high gravity (VHG) fermentation, while their performances were not different during regular fermentation. The VHG fermentation performances of these strains were consistent with their growth capacity under osmotic stress and ethanol stress, the key stress factors during VHG fermentation. These results suggest that trehalose accumulation is more important for VHG fermentation of industrial yeast strains than regular one. The differences in membrane integrity and antioxidative capacity of these strains indicated the possible mechanisms of trehalose as a protectant under VHG condition. Therefore, trehalose metabolic engineering may be a useful strategy for improving the VHG fermentation performance of industrial yeast strains. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. How Accumulated Real Life Stress Experience and Cognitive Speed Interact on Decision-Making Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedel, Eva; Sebold, Miriam; Kuitunen-Paul, Sören; Nebe, Stephan; Veer, Ilya M; Zimmermann, Ulrich S; Schlagenhauf, Florian; Smolka, Michael N; Rapp, Michael; Walter, Henrik; Heinz, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Rationale: Advances in neurocomputational modeling suggest that valuation systems for goal-directed (deliberative) on one side, and habitual (automatic) decision-making on the other side may rely on distinct computational strategies for reinforcement learning, namely model-free vs. model-based learning. As a key theoretical difference, the model-based system strongly demands cognitive functions to plan actions prospectively based on an internal cognitive model of the environment, whereas valuation in the model-free system relies on rather simple learning rules from operant conditioning to retrospectively associate actions with their outcomes and is thus cognitively less demanding. Acute stress reactivity is known to impair model-based but not model-free choice behavior, with higher working memory capacity protecting the model-based system from acute stress. However, it is not clear which impact accumulated real life stress has on model-free and model-based decision systems and how this influence interacts with cognitive abilities. Methods: We used a sequential decision-making task distinguishing relative contributions of both learning strategies to choice behavior, the Social Readjustment Rating Scale questionnaire to assess accumulated real life stress, and the Digit Symbol Substitution Test to test cognitive speed in 95 healthy subjects. Results: Individuals reporting high stress exposure who had low cognitive speed showed reduced model-based but increased model-free behavioral control. In contrast, subjects exposed to accumulated real life stress with high cognitive speed displayed increased model-based performance but reduced model-free control. Conclusion: These findings suggest that accumulated real life stress exposure can enhance reliance on cognitive speed for model-based computations, which may ultimately protect the model-based system from the detrimental influences of accumulated real life stress. The combination of accumulated real life stress exposure

  17. Capacity Building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molloy, Brian; Mallick, Shahid

    2014-01-01

    Outcomes & Recommendations: • Significant increase needed in the nuclear workforce both to replace soon-to-retire current generation and to staff large numbers of new units planned • Key message, was the importance of an integrated approach to workforce development. • IAEA and other International Organisations were asked to continue to work on Knowledge Management, Networks and E&T activities • IAEA requested to conduct Global Survey of HR needs – survey initiated but only 50% of operating countries (30% of capacity) took part, so results inconclusive

  18. Cesium-137 accumulation in higher plants before and after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawidis, T.; Drossos, E.; Papastefanou, C.; Heinrick, G.

    1990-01-01

    Cesium-137 concentrations in plant species of three biotypes of northern Greece, differing in location as well as in vegetation, are reported following the Chernobyl reactor accident. The cesium uptake by plants was due to the foliar deposition rather than the root uptake. The highest level of cesium in plants was found in Ranunculus sardous, a pubescent plant. The 137 Cs concentration was about 22kBq kg -1 d.w. A high level of cesium was also found in Salix alba ( 137 Cs: 19.6 kBq kg -1 d.w.), a deciduous tree showing that hairy leaves or leaves having rough and large surfaces can absorb greater amounts of radioactivity (surface effect). A comparison is also made between the results of measurements of the present study and the results of measurements of some herbarium plants collected one year before the accident as well as the results of measurements of some new plants grown and collected one year after the accident resulting in a natural removal rate of 137 Cs in plants varying from 14 to 130 days

  19. Accumulation by Conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Büscher, Bram; Fletcher, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Following the financial crisis and its aftermath, it is clear that the inherent contradictions of capitalist accumulation have become even more intense and plunged the global economy into unprecedented turmoil and urgency. Governments, business leaders and other elite agents are frantically

  20. Accumulation by Conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Büscher, Bram; Fletcher, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Following the financial crisis and its aftermath, it is clear that the inherent contradictions of capitalist accumulation have become even more intense and plunged the global economy into unprecedented turmoil and urgency. Governments, business leaders and other elite agents are frantically

  1. Creation / accumulation city

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doevendans, C.H.; Schram, A.L.

    2005-01-01

    A distinction between basic archetypes of urban form was made by Bruno Fortier: the accumulation city as opposed to the creation city. These archetypes derive from archaeology - being based on the Roman and the Egyptian city - but are interpreted as morphological paradigms, as a set of assumptions

  2. Selenium accumulation by plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Philip J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Selenium (Se) is an essential mineral element for animals and humans, which they acquire largely from plants. The Se concentration in edible plants is determined by the Se phytoavailability in soils. Selenium is not an essential element for plants, but excessive Se can be toxic. Thus, soil Se phytoavailability determines the ecology of plants. Most plants cannot grow on seleniferous soils. Most plants that grow on seleniferous soils accumulate 100 mg Se kg–1 dry matter. These plants are considered to be Se accumulators. Some species can even accumulate Se concentrations of 1000–15 000 mg Se kg–1 dry matter and are called Se hyperaccumulators. Scope This article provides an overview of Se uptake, translocation and metabolism in plants and highlights the possible genetic basis of differences in these between and within plant species. The review focuses initially on adaptations allowing plants to tolerate large Se concentrations in their tissues and the evolutionary origin of species that hyperaccumulate Se. It then describes the variation in tissue Se concentrations between and within angiosperm species and identifies genes encoding enzymes limiting the rates of incorporation of Se into organic compounds and chromosomal loci that might enable the development of crops with greater Se concentrations in their edible portions. Finally, it discusses transgenic approaches enabling plants to tolerate greater Se concentrations in the rhizosphere and in their tissues. Conclusions The trait of Se hyperaccumulation has evolved several times in separate angiosperm clades. The ability to tolerate large tissue Se concentrations is primarily related to the ability to divert Se away from the accumulation of selenocysteine and selenomethionine, which might be incorporated into non-functional proteins, through the synthesis of less toxic Se metabilites. There is potential to breed or select crops with greater Se concentrations in their edible tissues, which

  3. Accumulation of satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safronov, V.S.; Ruskol, E.L.

    1977-01-01

    Formation and evolution of circumplanetary satellite swarms are investigated. Characteristic times of various processes are estimated. The characteristic time for the accumulation of the bodies in the swarm was several orders of magnitude shorter than that of the planet, i.e. than the time of the replenishment of the material by the swarm (10 8 yr). The model of the accumulation of the swarm is constructed taking into account the increase of its mass due to trapping of heliocentrically moving particles and its decrease due to outfall of the inner part of the swarm onto the growing planet. The accumulation of circumplanetary bodies is also considered. The main features of the evolution of the swarm essentially depend on the size distribution of bodies in the swarm and in the zone of the planet and also on the degree of the concentration of the swarm mass toward the planet. If the sum of the exponents of the inverse power laws of these distributions is less than 7, the model of the transparent swarm developed in this paper should be preferred. When this sum is greater than 7, the model of opaque swarm suggested by A. Harris and W.M. Kaula is better. There is predominant trapping of small particles into the swarm due to their more frequent collisions. Optical thickness of the protoplanetary cloud in radial direction is estimated. It is shown that at the final stage of the planetary accumulation, the cloud was semitransparent in the region of terrestrial planets and volatile substances evaporated at collisions could be swept out from the outer parts of the satellite swarm by the solar wind

  4. Antiproton Accumulator (AA)

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service

    1980-01-01

    The AA in its final stage of construction, before it disappeared from view under concrete shielding. Antiprotons were first injected, stochastically cooled and accumulated in July 1980. From 1981 on, the AA provided antiprotons for collisions with protons, first in the ISR, then in the SPS Collider. From 1983 on, it also sent antiprotons, via the PS, to the Low-Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR). The AA was dismantled in 1997 and shipped to Japan.

  5. Seismic capacity of switchgear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandyopadhyay, K.; Hofmayer, C.; Kassir, M.; Pepper, S.

    1989-01-01

    As part of a component fragility program sponsored by the USNRC, BNL has collected existing information on the seismic capacity of switchgear assemblies from major manufacturers. Existing seismic test data for both low and medium voltage switchgear assemblies have been evaluated and the generic results are presented in this paper. The failure modes are identified and the corresponding generic lower bound capacity levels are established. The test response spectra have been used as a measure of the test vibration input. The results indicate that relays chatter at a very low input level at the base of the switchgear cabinet. This change of state of devices including relays have been observed. Breaker tripping occurs at a higher vibration level. Although the structural failure of internal elements have been noticed, the overall switchgear cabinet structure withstands a high vibration level. 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Selenium accumulation by plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Philip J

    2016-02-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential mineral element for animals and humans, which they acquire largely from plants. The Se concentration in edible plants is determined by the Se phytoavailability in soils. Selenium is not an essential element for plants, but excessive Se can be toxic. Thus, soil Se phytoavailability determines the ecology of plants. Most plants cannot grow on seleniferous soils. Most plants that grow on seleniferous soils accumulate plant species have evolved tolerance to Se, and commonly accumulate tissue Se concentrations >100 mg Se kg(-1) dry matter. These plants are considered to be Se accumulators. Some species can even accumulate Se concentrations of 1000-15 000 mg Se kg(-1 )dry matter and are called Se hyperaccumulators. This article provides an overview of Se uptake, translocation and metabolism in plants and highlights the possible genetic basis of differences in these between and within plant species. The review focuses initially on adaptations allowing plants to tolerate large Se concentrations in their tissues and the evolutionary origin of species that hyperaccumulate Se. It then describes the variation in tissue Se concentrations between and within angiosperm species and identifies genes encoding enzymes limiting the rates of incorporation of Se into organic compounds and chromosomal loci that might enable the development of crops with greater Se concentrations in their edible portions. Finally, it discusses transgenic approaches enabling plants to tolerate greater Se concentrations in the rhizosphere and in their tissues. The trait of Se hyperaccumulation has evolved several times in separate angiosperm clades. The ability to tolerate large tissue Se concentrations is primarily related to the ability to divert Se away from the accumulation of selenocysteine and selenomethionine, which might be incorporated into non-functional proteins, through the synthesis of less toxic Se metabilites. There is potential to breed or select crops

  7. Leadership and Presenteeism among Scientific Staff: The Role of Accumulation of Work and Time Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Carolin; Scheel, Tabea

    2017-01-01

    The present study examines the joint roles of leadership and stressors for presenteeism of scientific staff. Leaders may have an impact on employees' health, both directly through interpersonal interactions and by shaping their working conditions. In the field of science, this impact could be special because of the mentoring relationships between the employees (e.g., PhD students) and their supervisors (e.g., professors). Based on the job demands-resources framework (JD-R), we hypothesized that the pressure to be present at the workplace induced by supervisors (supervisorial pressure) is directly related to employees' presenteeism as well as indirectly via perceptions of time pressure. The conservation of resources theory (COR) states that resource loss resulting from having to deal with job demands weakens the resource pool and therefore the capacity to deal with other job demands. Thus, we hypothesized that accumulation of work moderates the relationship between supervisorial pressure and time pressure, such that the relationship is stronger when accumulation of work is high compared to if accumulation of work is low. Cross-sectional data were obtained from 212 PhD students and postdocs of 30 scientific institutions in Germany. Analysis was performed using the SPSS macro PROCESS (Hayes, 2013). Supervisorial pressure was directly associated with higher presenteeism of employees and indirectly through increased time pressure. Moreover, supervisorial pressure and accumulation of work interacted to predict time pressure, but in an unexpected way. The positive relationship between supervisorial pressure and time pressure is stronger when accumulation is low compared to if accumulation of work is high. It seems possible that job stressors do not accumulate but substitute each other. Threshold models might explain the findings. Moreover, specific patterns of interacting job demands for scientific staff should be considered in absence management.

  8. Leadership and Presenteeism among Scientific Staff: The Role of Accumulation of Work and Time Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin Dietz

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study examines the joint roles of leadership and stressors for presenteeism of scientific staff. Leaders may have an impact on employees' health, both directly through interpersonal interactions and by shaping their working conditions. In the field of science, this impact could be special because of the mentoring relationships between the employees (e.g., PhD students and their supervisors (e.g., professors. Based on the job demands-resources framework (JD-R, we hypothesized that the pressure to be present at the workplace induced by supervisors (supervisorial pressure is directly related to employees' presenteeism as well as indirectly via perceptions of time pressure. The conservation of resources theory (COR states that resource loss resulting from having to deal with job demands weakens the resource pool and therefore the capacity to deal with other job demands. Thus, we hypothesized that accumulation of work moderates the relationship between supervisorial pressure and time pressure, such that the relationship is stronger when accumulation of work is high compared to if accumulation of work is low. Cross-sectional data were obtained from 212 PhD students and postdocs of 30 scientific institutions in Germany. Analysis was performed using the SPSS macro PROCESS (Hayes, 2013. Supervisorial pressure was directly associated with higher presenteeism of employees and indirectly through increased time pressure. Moreover, supervisorial pressure and accumulation of work interacted to predict time pressure, but in an unexpected way. The positive relationship between supervisorial pressure and time pressure is stronger when accumulation is low compared to if accumulation of work is high. It seems possible that job stressors do not accumulate but substitute each other. Threshold models might explain the findings. Moreover, specific patterns of interacting job demands for scientific staff should be considered in absence management.

  9. Leadership and Presenteeism among Scientific Staff: The Role of Accumulation of Work and Time Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Carolin; Scheel, Tabea

    2017-01-01

    The present study examines the joint roles of leadership and stressors for presenteeism of scientific staff. Leaders may have an impact on employees' health, both directly through interpersonal interactions and by shaping their working conditions. In the field of science, this impact could be special because of the mentoring relationships between the employees (e.g., PhD students) and their supervisors (e.g., professors). Based on the job demands-resources framework (JD-R), we hypothesized that the pressure to be present at the workplace induced by supervisors (supervisorial pressure) is directly related to employees' presenteeism as well as indirectly via perceptions of time pressure. The conservation of resources theory (COR) states that resource loss resulting from having to deal with job demands weakens the resource pool and therefore the capacity to deal with other job demands. Thus, we hypothesized that accumulation of work moderates the relationship between supervisorial pressure and time pressure, such that the relationship is stronger when accumulation of work is high compared to if accumulation of work is low. Cross-sectional data were obtained from 212 PhD students and postdocs of 30 scientific institutions in Germany. Analysis was performed using the SPSS macro PROCESS (Hayes, 2013). Supervisorial pressure was directly associated with higher presenteeism of employees and indirectly through increased time pressure. Moreover, supervisorial pressure and accumulation of work interacted to predict time pressure, but in an unexpected way. The positive relationship between supervisorial pressure and time pressure is stronger when accumulation is low compared to if accumulation of work is high. It seems possible that job stressors do not accumulate but substitute each other. Threshold models might explain the findings. Moreover, specific patterns of interacting job demands for scientific staff should be considered in absence management. PMID:29123497

  10. Seasonal Arsenic Accumulation in Stream Sediments at a Groundwater Discharge Zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKay, Allison A.; Gan, Ping; Yu, Ran

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal changes in arsenic and iron accumulation rates were examined in the sediments of a brook that receives groundwater discharges of arsenic and reduced iron. Clean glass bead columns were deployed in sediments for known periods over the annual hydrologic cycle to monitor changes in arsenic...... and iron concentrations in bead coatings. The highest accumulation rates occurred during the dry summer period (July-October) when groundwater discharges were likely greatest at the sample locations. The intermediate flow period (October-March), With higher surface water: levels, was associated with losses...... of arsenic and iron from bead column coatings at. depths below 2-6 cm. Batch incubations indicated iron releases from solids to be induced by biological reduction of iron (oxy)hydroxide solids. Congruent arsenic releases during incubation were limited by the high arsenic sorption capacity (0.536 mg...

  11. Reduced collagen accumulation after major surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, L N; Kallehave, F; Karlsmark, T

    1996-01-01

    .01)). This decline was significantly higher in the six patients who had a postoperative infection (median 3.02 (range -0.06 to 6.14) versus 0.36 (range -1.56 to 12.60) micrograms/cm, P = 0.02). This study shows that major surgery is associated with impairment of subcutaneous collagen accumulation in a test wound...

  12. Phytochelatin and cadmium accumulation in wheat.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolt, J.P.; Sneller, F.E.C.; Bryngelson, T.; Lundborg, T.; Schat, H.

    2003-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a nonessential heavy metal that can be harmful at low concentrations in organisms. Therefore, it is necessary to decrease Cd accumulation in the grains of wheats aimed for human consumption. In response to Cd, higher plants synthesize sulphur-rich peptides, phytochelatins (PCs).

  13. Accumulation of arsenic in Lemna gibba L. (duckweed) in tailing waters of two abandoned uranium mining sites in Saxony, Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mkandawire, Martin; Dudel, E. Gert

    2005-01-01

    Accumulation of arsenic in Lemna gibba L. was investigated in tailing waters of abandoned uranium mine sites, following the hypothesis that arsenic poses contamination risks in post uranium mining in Saxony, Germany. Consequently, macrophytes growing in mine tailing waters accumulate high amounts of arsenic, which might be advantageous for biomonitoring arsenic transfer to higher trophic levels, and for phytoremediation. Water and L. gibba sample collected from pond on tailing dumps of abandoned mine sites at Lengenfeld and Neuensalz-Mechelgruen were analysed for arsenic. Laboratory cultures in nutrient solutions modified with six arsenic and three PO 4 3- concentrations were conducted to gain insight into the arsenic-L. gibba interaction. Arsenic accumulation coefficients in L. gibba were 10 times as much as the background concentrations in both tailing waters and nutrient solutions. Arsenic accumulations in L. gibba increased with arsenic concentration in the milieu but they decreased with phosphorus concentration. Significant reductions in arsenic accumulation in L. gibba were observed with the addition of PO 4 3- at all six arsenic test concentrations in laboratory experiments. Plant samples from laboratory trials had on average twofold higher bioaccumulation coefficients than tailing water at similar arsenic concentrations. This would be attributed to strong interaction among chemical components, and competition among ions in natural aquatic environment. The results of the study indicate that L. gibba can be a preliminary bioindicator for arsenic transfer from substrate to plants and might be used to monitor the transfer of arsenic from lower to higher trophic levels in the abandoned mine sites. There is also the potential of using L. gibba L. for arsenic phytoremediation of mine tailing waters because of its high accumulation capacity as demonstrated in this study. Transfer of arsenic contamination transported by accumulations in L. gibba carried with flowing

  14. Accumulation of arsenic in Lemna gibba L. (duckweed) in tailing waters of two abandoned uranium mining sites in Saxony, Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mkandawire, Martin; Dudel, E. Gert

    2005-01-05

    Accumulation of arsenic in Lemna gibba L. was investigated in tailing waters of abandoned uranium mine sites, following the hypothesis that arsenic poses contamination risks in post uranium mining in Saxony, Germany. Consequently, macrophytes growing in mine tailing waters accumulate high amounts of arsenic, which might be advantageous for biomonitoring arsenic transfer to higher trophic levels, and for phytoremediation. Water and L. gibba sample collected from pond on tailing dumps of abandoned mine sites at Lengenfeld and Neuensalz-Mechelgruen were analysed for arsenic. Laboratory cultures in nutrient solutions modified with six arsenic and three PO{sub 4}{sup 3-} concentrations were conducted to gain insight into the arsenic-L. gibba interaction. Arsenic accumulation coefficients in L. gibba were 10 times as much as the background concentrations in both tailing waters and nutrient solutions. Arsenic accumulations in L. gibba increased with arsenic concentration in the milieu but they decreased with phosphorus concentration. Significant reductions in arsenic accumulation in L. gibba were observed with the addition of PO{sub 4}{sup 3-} at all six arsenic test concentrations in laboratory experiments. Plant samples from laboratory trials had on average twofold higher bioaccumulation coefficients than tailing water at similar arsenic concentrations. This would be attributed to strong interaction among chemical components, and competition among ions in natural aquatic environment. The results of the study indicate that L. gibba can be a preliminary bioindicator for arsenic transfer from substrate to plants and might be used to monitor the transfer of arsenic from lower to higher trophic levels in the abandoned mine sites. There is also the potential of using L. gibba L. for arsenic phytoremediation of mine tailing waters because of its high accumulation capacity as demonstrated in this study. Transfer of arsenic contamination transported by accumulations in L. gibba

  15. Child Benefit Payments and Household Wealth Accumulation

    OpenAIRE

    Melvin Stephens Jr.; Takashi Unayama

    2014-01-01

    Using the life-cycle/permanent income hypothesis, we theoretically and empirically assess the impact of child benefit payments on household wealth accumulation. Consistent with the predictions of the model, we find that higher cumulative benefits received increase current assets, higher future benefit payments lower asset holding, and that these effects systematically vary over the life-cycle. We find different wealth responses to child benefit payments for liquidity constrained and unconstra...

  16. The Antiproton Accumulator (AA)

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    Section 06 - 08*) of the AA where the dispersion (and hence the horizontal beam size) is large. One can distinguish (left to right): A vacuum-tank, two bending magnets (BST06 and BST07 in blue) with a quadrupole (QDN07, in red) in between, another vacuum-tank, a wide quadrupole (QFW08) and a further tank . The tanks are covered with heating tape for bake-out. The tank left of BST06 contained the stack core pickup for stochastic cooling (see 7906193, 7906190, 8005051), the two other tanks served mainly as vacuum chambers in the region where the beam was large. Peter Zettwoch works on BST06. *) see: H. Koziol, Antiproton Accumulator Parameter List, PS/AA/Note 84-2 (1984)

  17. Solids Accumulation Scouting Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duignan, M. R.; Steeper, T. J.; Steimke, J. L.

    2012-09-26

    The objective of Solids Accumulation activities was to perform scaled testing to understand the behavior of remaining solids in a Double Shell Tank (DST), specifically AW-105, at Hanford during multiple fill, mix, and transfer operations. It is important to know if fissionable materials can concentrate when waste is transferred from staging tanks prior to feeding waste treatment plants. Specifically, there is a concern that large, dense particles containing plutonium could accumulate in poorly mixed regions of a blend tank heel for tanks that employ mixing jet pumps. At the request of the DOE Hanford Tank Operations Contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions, the Engineering Development Laboratory of the Savannah River National Laboratory performed a scouting study in a 1/22-scale model of a waste staging tank to investigate this concern and to develop measurement techniques that could be applied in a more extensive study at a larger scale. Simulated waste tank solids: Gibbsite, Zirconia, Sand, and Stainless Steel, with stainless steel particles representing the heavier particles, e.g., plutonium, and supernatant were charged to the test tank and rotating liquid jets were used to mix most of the solids while the simulant was pumped out. Subsequently, the volume and shape of the mounds of residual solids and the spatial concentration profiles for the surrogate for heavier particles were measured. Several techniques were developed and equipment designed to accomplish the measurements needed and they included: 1. Magnetic particle separator to remove simulant stainless steel solids. A device was designed and built to capture these solids, which represent the heavier solids during a waste transfer from a staging tank. 2. Photographic equipment to determine the volume of the solids mounds. The mounds were photographed as they were exposed at different tank waste levels to develop a composite of topographical areas. 3. Laser rangefinders to determine the volume of

  18. Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    & Development (LDRD) National Security Education Center (NSEC) Office of Science Programs Richard P Databases National Security Education Center (NSEC) Center for Nonlinear Studies Engineering Institute Scholarships STEM Education Programs Teachers (K-12) Students (K-12) Higher Education Regional Education

  19. Seasonal arsenic accumulation in stream sediments at a groundwater discharge zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKay, Allison A; Gan, Ping; Yu, Ran; Smets, Barth F

    2014-01-21

    Seasonal changes in arsenic and iron accumulation rates were examined in the sediments of a brook that receives groundwater discharges of arsenic and reduced iron. Clean glass bead columns were deployed in sediments for known periods over the annual hydrologic cycle to monitor changes in arsenic and iron concentrations in bead coatings. The highest accumulation rates occurred during the dry summer period (July-October) when groundwater discharges were likely greatest at the sample locations. The intermediate flow period (October-March), with higher surface water levels, was associated with losses of arsenic and iron from bead column coatings at depths below 2-6 cm. Batch incubations indicated iron releases from solids to be induced by biological reduction of iron (oxy)hydroxide solids. Congruent arsenic releases during incubation were limited by the high arsenic sorption capacity (0.536 mg(As)/mg(Fe)) of unreacted iron oxide solids. The flooded spring (March-June) with high surface water flows showed the lowest arsenic and iron accumulation rates in the sediments. Comparisons of accumulation rates across a shoreline transect were consistent with greater rates at regions exposed above surface water levels for longer times and greater losses at locations submerged below surface water. Iron (oxy)hydroxide solids in the shallowest sediments likely serve as a passive barrier to sorb arsenic released to pore water at depth by biological iron reduction.

  20. Electron Accumulative Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buades, Ana B; Sanchez Arderiu, Víctor; Olid-Britos, David; Viñas, Clara; Sillanpää, Reijo; Haukka, Matti; Fontrodona, Xavier; Paradinas, Markos; Ocal, Carmen; Teixidor, Francesc

    2018-02-28

    With the goal to produce molecules with high electron accepting capacity and low reorganization energy upon gaining one or more electrons, a synthesis procedure leading to the formation of a B-N(aromatic) bond in a cluster has been developed. The research was focused on the development of a molecular structure able to accept and release a specific number of electrons without decomposing or change in its structural arrangement. The synthetic procedure consists of a parallel decomposition reaction to generate a reactive electrophile and a synthesis reaction to generate the B-N(aromatic) bond. This procedure has paved the way to produce the metallacarboranylviologen [M(C 2 B 9 H 11 )(C 2 B 9 H 10 )-NC 5 H 4 -C 5 H 4 N-M'(C 2 B 9 H 11 )(C 2 B 9 H 10 )] (M = M' = Co, Fe and M = Co and M' = Fe) and semi(metallacarboranyl)viologen [3,3'-M(8-(NC 5 H 4 -C 5 H 4 N-1,2-C 2 B 9 H 10 )(1',2'-C 2 B 9 H 11 )] (M = Co, Fe) electron cumulative molecules. These molecules are able to accept up to five electrons and to donate one in single electron steps at accessible potentials and in a reversible way. By targeted synthesis and corresponding electrochemical tests each electron transfer (ET) step has been assigned to specific fragments of the molecules. The molecules have been carefully characterized, and the electronic communication between both metal centers (when this situation applies) has been definitely observed through the coplanarity of both pyridine fragments. The structural characteristics of these molecules imply a low reorganization energy that is a necessary requirement for low energy ET processes. This makes them electronically comparable to fullerenes, but on their side, they have a wide range of possible solvents. The ET from one molecule to another has been clearly demonstrated as well as their self-organizing capacity. We consider that these molecules, thanks to their easy synthesis, ET, self-organizing capacity, wide range of solubility, and easy processability, can

  1. How Accumulated Real Life Stress Experience and Cognitive Speed Interact on Decision-Making Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Friedel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Rationale: Advances in neurocomputational modeling suggest that valuation systems for goal-directed (deliberative on one side, and habitual (automatic decision-making on the other side may rely on distinct computational strategies for reinforcement learning, namely model-free vs. model-based learning. As a key theoretical difference, the model-based system strongly demands cognitive functions to plan actions prospectively based on an internal cognitive model of the environment, whereas valuation in the model-free system relies on rather simple learning rules from operant conditioning to retrospectively associate actions with their outcomes and is thus cognitively less demanding. Acute stress reactivity is known to impair model-based but not model-free choice behavior, with higher working memory capacity protecting the model-based system from acute stress. However, it is not clear which impact accumulated real life stress has on model-free and model-based decision systems and how this influence interacts with cognitive abilities.Methods: We used a sequential decision-making task distinguishing relative contributions of both learning strategies to choice behavior, the Social Readjustment Rating Scale questionnaire to assess accumulated real life stress, and the Digit Symbol Substitution Test to test cognitive speed in 95 healthy subjects.Results: Individuals reporting high stress exposure who had low cognitive speed showed reduced model-based but increased model-free behavioral control. In contrast, subjects exposed to accumulated real life stress with high cognitive speed displayed increased model-based performance but reduced model-free control.Conclusion: These findings suggest that accumulated real life stress exposure can enhance reliance on cognitive speed for model-based computations, which may ultimately protect the model-based system from the detrimental influences of accumulated real life stress. The combination of accumulated real life

  2. Bicarbonate trigger for inducing lipid accumulation in algal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Robert; Peyton, Brent; Cooksey, Keith E.

    2015-08-04

    The present invention provides bicarbonate containing and/or bicarbonate-producing compositions and methods to induce lipid accumulation in an algae growth system, wherein the algae growth system is under light-dark cycling condition. By adding said compositions at a specific growth stage, said methods lead to much higher lipid accumulation and/or significantly reduced total time required for accumulating lipid in the algae growth system.

  3. Examining the peat-accumulating potential of fen vegetation in the context of fed restoration of harvested peatlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graf, M.; Rochefort, L. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Dept. de Phytologie, Peatland Ecology and Research Group

    2009-07-01

    The return of peat-accumulating function is an important long-term goal in peatland restoration. However, researchers do not yet know which vegetation groups increase the ability of ecosystems to accumulate peat in fens. This study assessed the decomposition rates of 3 vegetation species typical to undisturbed fen regions, and 3 species that spontaneously colonize harvested fens. All species were incubated in a harvest fen restoration site as well as at an undisturbed fen in order to compare decomposition rates according to different environmental conditions. The study showed that the average exponential decay coefficient for all species was higher at the harvested fen site. The decay coefficient varied only slightly between undisturbed and harvested fens, despite wide variations in hydrological conditions. Litter type had the most significant impact on decomposition rates. Annual primary production of the species was also measured in order to estimate the peat accumulating capacity of each species. Results showed that Scirpus cyperinus primary annual production rates were 3 times higher than the other studied species. It was concluded that the harvested fen sites have a higher peat-accumulating potential than undisturbed fens. 60 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs.

  4. Photosynthetic rate, dry matter accumulation and yield inter-relationships jn genotypes of rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devendra, R.; Udaya Kumar, M.; Krishna Sastry, K.S.

    1980-01-01

    The relationship between photosynthetic efficiency, dry matter accumulation and yield in five genotypes of paddy derived from a single cross between Jaya X Halubbalu was studied. Photosynthetic efficiency of younger leaves, on the main tiller was higher than in the older leaves. A significant positive correlation between RuDPcase activity and photosynthetic efficiency was observed in these genotypes. Also a similar positive correlation between dry matter production and photosynthetic efficiency during vegetative period but not during post-anthesis period was observed. Genotypes with high photosynthetic efficiency and also the genotypes with high LAD produced higher dry matter. A reduction in LAD or in photosynthetic efficiency during the post-anthesis period and thus a reduction in source capacity which occurred specially in late types resulted in a lesser ratio between productive and total tillers and also higher percent sterility. Differences in yield amongst the genotypes were not significant, since in the late types MR. 333 and MR. 335, the post-anthesis dry matter production was low due to lesser source capacity. But in the early types, though the total dry matter was less, the post-anthesis source capacity was high. The importance of post-anthesis leaf area of photo-synthetic efficiency in productivity in genotypes of rice is highlighted. (author)

  5. Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, Robert M.

    This chapter reports 1982 cases involving aspects of higher education. Interesting cases noted dealt with the federal government's authority to regulate state employees' retirement and raised the questions of whether Title IX covers employment, whether financial aid makes a college a program under Title IX, and whether sex segregated mortality…

  6. The Antiproton Accumulator (AA)

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    A section of the AA where the dispersion (and hence the horizontal beam size) is large. One can distinguish (left to right): A large vacuum-tank, a quadrupole (QDN09*), a bending magnet (BST08), another vacuum-tank, a wide quadrupole (QFW08) and (in the background) a further bending magnet (BST08). The tanks are covered with heating tape for bake-out. The tank left of QDN09 contained the kickers for stochastic pre-cooling (see 790621, 8002234, 8002637X), the other one served mainly as vacuum chamber in the region where the beam was large. Peter Zettwoch works on QFW08. * see: H. Koziol, Antiproton Accumulator Parameter List, PS/AA/Note 84-2 (1984) See under 7911303, 7911597X, 8004261 and 8202324. For photos of the AA in different phases of completion (between 1979 and 1982) see: 7911303, 7911597X, 8004261, 8004608X, 8005563X, 8005565X, 8006716X, 8006722X, 8010939X, 8010941X, 8202324, 8202658X, 8203628X .

  7. Poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) accumulating Bacillus spp. improve the survival, growth and robustness of Penaeus monodon (Fabricius, 1798) postlarvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laranja, Joseph Leopoldo Q; Ludevese-Pascual, Gladys L; Amar, Edgar C; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Bossier, Peter; De Schryver, Peter

    2014-10-10

    Low larval survival resulting from suboptimal culture conditions and luminous vibriosis poses a major problem for the larviculture of penaeid shrimp. In this study, a poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) accumulating mixed bacterial culture (mBC; 48.5% PHB on cell dry weight) and two PHB accumulating bacterial isolates, Bacillus sp. JL47 (54.7% PHB on cell dry weight) and Bacillus sp. JL1 (45.5% PHB on cell dry weight), were obtained from a Philippine shrimp culture pond and investigated for their capacity to improve growth, survival and robustness of Penaeus monodon postlarvae (PL). Shrimp PL1 and shrimp PL30 were provided with the PHB containing bacterial cultures in the feed for 30 days followed by, respectively, a challenge with pathogenic Vibrio campbellii and exposure to a lethal dose of ammonia. Prior to the pathogenic challenge or ammonia stress, growth and survival were higher for shrimp receiving the PHB accumulating bacteria as compared to shrimp receiving diets without bacterial additions. After exposure to the pathogenic challenge the shrimp fed PHB accumulating bacteria showed a higher survival as compared to non-treated shrimp, suggesting an increase in robustness for the shrimp. Similar effects were observed when shrimp PL30 were provided with the PHB accumulating bacterial cultures during a challenge with pathogenic V. campbellii through the water. The survival of shrimp exposed to lethal ammonia stress showed no significant difference between PHB accumulating bacteria-fed shrimp and non-PHB treated shrimp. The data illustrate that bacilli capable of accumulating PHB can provide beneficial effects to P. monodon post-larvae during culture in terms of growth performance, survival and resistance against pathogenic infection and ammonia stress. Further investigations are required to verify the PHB effect of the bacterial cultures on the shrimp. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Batteries and accumulators in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-12-01

    The present report gives an overview of the batteries and accumulators market in France in 2011 based on the data reported through ADEME's Register of Batteries and accumulators. In 2001, the French Environmental Agency, known as ADEME, implemented a follow-up of the batteries and accumulators market, creating the Observatory of batteries and accumulators (B and A). In 2010, ADEME created the National Register of producers of Batteries and Accumulators in the context of the implementation of the order issued on November 18, 2009. This is one of the four enforcement orders for the decree 2009-1139 issued on September 22, 2009, concerning batteries and accumulators put on the market and the disposal of waste batteries and accumulators, and which transposes the EU-Directive 2006/66/CE into French law. This Register follows the former Observatory for batteries and accumulators. This Register aims to record the producers on French territory and to collect the B and A producers and recycling companies' annual reporting: the regulation indeed requires that all B and A producers and recycling companies report annually on the Register the quantities of batteries and accumulators they put on the market, collect and treat. Based on this data analysis, ADEME issues an annual report allowing both the follow-up of the batteries and accumulators market in France and communication regarding the achievement of the collection and recovery objectives set by EU regulation. This booklet presents the situation in France in 2011

  9. The accumulation of metals in lichens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smaranda Mâșu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The capacity to accumulate metal in the lichen communities has been used to identify the level of air pollution due road traffic. Several analyses have been conducted in the study, on tissue from lichens collected from six areas: the park of a town, various sites on the town’s freeway and on a county road segment with moderate traffic. The analyzed lichens were from the Parmelia spp. species which grow naturally on trees found in borderline lanes of motorways. Based on the degree of heavy metal accumulation such as Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe Mn, Pb, Ni and Zn in the Parmelia spp. lichens, a correlation has been made, with the road traffic. According to the metal bioaccumulation degree in lichens tissue, it has been established that the sources such as traffic from the outskirts of cities, from the perimeter of gas stations and of county roads continuously spread products which contain these elements, into the atmosphere. The fast information regarding the quality of the air in the environment allows the use of lichens as organism which can indicate environmental conditions and their modification by accumulating substances.

  10. Accumulation Characteristics of Pb by Zea Mays of Different Genotyoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    QIN Rong-lin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available To determine the characteristics of lead(Pb accumulation by different maize genotypes, two low accumulation genotypes(Quchen 11, Quchen 3 and two high accumulation maize genotypes(Jingfeng 8, Xuyu 1446 were used in a field experiment under Pb stress(2 000 mg·kg-1. The following parameters were measured including the change of plant biomass , Pb contents in different plant parts, total Pb uptake,Pb accumulation and translocation of different maize varieties,soil pH value and available Pb contents in soils. The results showed that: (1Compared with the control, the Pb stress caused a decrease at differnet levels on the biomass of roots, stems, leaves and grains of the four maize genotypes. The plant biomass decreased by 9.65%~20.46%. And the decrease level on the plant biomass of the low accumulation maize genotypes was less than the high accumulation maize genotypes. (2The Pb contents were found highest in the roots(95.39~121.02 mg·kg-1, followed by the leaves(25.56~43.21 mg·kg-1 and stems(14.06~25.41 mg·kg-1, and lest in the grains(2.52~5.38 mg·kg-1. Moreover, the Pb contents in roots were higher of low accumulation maize genotypes than high accumulation maize genotypes. In contrast, the Pb contents in the stems, leaves and grains were less of the low accumulation maize genotypes than the high accumulation maize genotypes. The total Pb accumulation of maize was 4.46~7.94 mg per plant, and which was significant less of the low accumulation maize genotypes than the high accumulation maize genotypes. (3For the four maize genotypes, both the accumulation factor and translocation factor of Pb were less than 1, and were smaller of the low accumulation maize genotypes than the high accumulation maize genotypes. (4The pH values in soils were 6.60~6.82, which were significant higher of the low accumulation maize genotypes than the high accumulation maize genotypes, the available Pb contents in soils were 969.86~1 116.15 mg·kg-1。

  11. Building Organizational Capacity: Strategic Management in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toma, J. Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Every university or college president envisions bold initiatives--big projects intended to change the nature of an institution with significant implications across all sectors. How can leaders and senior managers charged with implementing reforms effectively frame their work and anticipate potential pitfalls? No organization can maximize its…

  12. The accumulation of nickel in human lungs.

    OpenAIRE

    Edelman, D A; Roggli, V L

    1989-01-01

    Using data from published studies, lung concentrations of nickel were compare for persons with and without occupational exposure to nickel. As expected, the concentrations were much higher for persons with occupational exposure. To estimate the effects of nickel-containing tobacco smoke and nickel in the ambient air on the amount of nickel accumulated in lungs over time, a model was derived that took into account various variables related to the deposition of nickel in lungs. The model predic...

  13. Diatom. A potential bio-accumulator of gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, N.; Pal, R.; Ramaswami, A.; Nayak, D.; Lahiri, S.

    2006-01-01

    The bioaccumulation of gold in trace concentration by Nitzschia obtusa and Navicula minima, two members of bacillariophyceae, has been studied. It has been observed that Nitzschia obtusa showed better accumulation of gold in acidic pH in comparison to neutral and basic pH. Maximum accumulation was observed with 1 mg x kg -1 or less gold concentration. However, the accumulation by the living cells was reduced when the matrix concentration was higher. Navicula minima, on the other hand, found to be a better accumulator of gold in wide ranges of pH and substrate concentration of the media. It was also inferred that the gold accumulation by diatom was mainly due to adsorption by biosilica (siliceous frustules of dead diatom cells). Accumulated gold was recovered with conc. HNO 3 . (author)

  14. Bladder-type hydropneumatic accumulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anigas, F.

    1985-01-01

    Hydropneumatic pressure accumulators allow liquids to be stored under pressure, their operating principle being based on the inherent compressibility of elements in a liquid and gaseous state. A wide range of fluids can be covered by means of the appropriate choice of the material for the body and bladder. Their main applications are: energy accumulation, safety reserve, suspension. (author)

  15. Total iron binding capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003489.htm Total iron binding capacity To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total iron binding capacity (TIBC) is a blood test to ...

  16. Seasonal dynamics of Co60 accumulation by Elodea canadensis Rich

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bochenin, V.F.; Chebotina, M.Ya.

    1975-01-01

    The seasonal dynamics of Co 60 accumulation by one of the most widely distributed fresh-water plants, elodea (Elodea canadensis Rich), were studied. Accumulation was shown to vary with the season. A very low coefficient of accumulation (500-700 units) was typical for the summer period (June to August). It increased in the fall, reached its highest values (3500-4000) in mid-winter (January), and dropped sharply in the spring. Radioisotope concentrations in the plant varied similarly. The cumulative capacity of plants for Co 60 may vary by a factor of 6 to 7 during the year. It is suggested that the seasonal changes in Co 60 accumulation may be caused by both differences in the physiological state of the plants at different times of the year, and by seasonal variations in the hydrochemical regime of the water reservoir. Experiments were done to clarify which of these mechanisms is the determining factor. (V.A.P.)

  17. Air capacity for Sydney

    OpenAIRE

    Forsyth, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Like most large cities, Sydney has an airport problem. Demand is increasing faster than supply, and additional capacity will be needed if costly rationing, and delays, are to be avoided. However, compared to many cities, the problems facing Sydney are modest. At the moment, demand is only just exceeding capacity. There is a good chance that the available capacity will be rationed efficiently. Options for expanding capacity are being evaluated well. There may be problems in the future- poor op...

  18. Responsibility and Capacities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    That responsible moral agency presupposes certain mental capacities, constitutes a widely accepted view among theorists. Moreover, it is often assumed that degrees in the development of the relevant capacities co-vary with degrees of responsibility. In this article it is argued that, the move from...... the view that responsibility requires certain mental capacities to the position that degrees of responsibility co-vary with degrees of the development of the mental capacities, is premature....

  19. Kinetic and energetic analysis of lipid accumulation in batch culture of Rhodotorula glutinis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, J.G.; Rhee, J.S.

    1986-01-01

    Kinetic and energetic analyses were made to describe the accumulation of lipid Rhodotorula glutinis more quantitatively. Accumulation of lipid in yeast was controlled by kinetic factors. The energetic efficiency of lipid formation was higher than that of growth. 18 references.

  20. Carbon accumulation in pristine and drained mires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekilae, M.

    2011-07-01

    The carbon accumulation of 73 peat columns from 48 pristine and drained mires was investigated using a total of 367 dates and age-depth models derived from bulk density measurements. Peat columns were collected from mires of varying depth, age, degree of natural state and nutrient conditions in aapa mire and raised bog regions and coastal mires from southern and central Finland and Russian Karelia. Particular attention was paid to the accumulation of carbon over the last 300 years, as this period encompasses the best estimates of the oxic layer (acrotelm) age across the range of sites investigated. In general, drained mires are initially more nutrient-rich than pristine mires. Organic matter decomposes more rapidly at drained sites than at pristine sites, resulting in thinner peat layers and carbon accumulation but a higher dry bulk density and carbon content. The average carbon accumulation was calculated as 24.0 g m-2 yr-1 at pristine sites and 19.4 g m-2 yr-1 at drained sites, while for peat layers younger than 300 years the respective figures were 45.3 and 34.5 g m-2 yr-1 at pristine and drained sites. For the <300-year-old peat layers studied here, the average thickness was 19 cm less and the carbon accumulation rate 10.8 g m-2 yr-1 lower in drained areas than in pristine areas. The amount carbon accumulation of surface peat layers depends upon the mire site type, vegetation and natural state; variations reflect differences in plant communities as well as factors that affect biomass production and decay rates. The highest accumulation rates and thus carbon binding for layers younger than 300 years were measured in the ombrotrophic mire site types (Sphagnum fuscum bog and Sphagnum fuscum pine bog), and the second highest rates in wet, treeless oligotrophic and minerotrophic mire site types. The lowest values of carbon accumulation over the last 300 years were obtained for the most transformed, sparsely forested and forested mire site types, where the water

  1. CDMA systems capacity engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Kiseon

    2004-01-01

    This new hands-on resource tackles capacity planning and engineering issues that are crucial to optimizing wireless communication systems performance. Going beyond the system physical level and investigating CDMA system capacity at the service level, this volume is the single-source for engineering and analyzing systems capacity and resources.

  2. PAYMENT CAPACITY SENSITIVITY FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel BRÎNDESCU – OLARIU

    2014-11-01

    The results of the study facilitate the determination and classification of the main sensitivity factors for the payment capacity at sample level, the establishment of general benchmarks for the payment capacity (as no such benchmarks currently exist in the Romanian literature and the identification of the mechanisms through which the variation of different factors impacts the payment capacity.

  3. Plastic Accumulation in the Mediterranean Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Có zar, André s; Sanz-Martí n, Marina; Martí , Elisa; Gonzá lez-Gordillo, J. Ignacio; Ubeda, Bá rbara; Gá lvez, José Á .; Irigoien, Xabier; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2), as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled), are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by millimeter-sized fragments, but showed a higher proportion of large plastic objects than that present in oceanic gyres, reflecting the closer connection with pollution sources. The accumulation of floating plastic in the Mediterranean Sea (between 1,000 and 3,000 tons) is likely related to the high human pressure together with the hydrodynamics of this semi-enclosed basin, with outflow mainly occurring through a deep water layer. Given the biological richness and concentration of economic activities in the Mediterranean Sea, the affects of plastic pollution on marine and human life are expected to be particularly frequent in this plastic accumulation region.

  4. Plastic accumulation in the Mediterranean sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Cózar

    Full Text Available Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2, as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled, are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by millimeter-sized fragments, but showed a higher proportion of large plastic objects than that present in oceanic gyres, reflecting the closer connection with pollution sources. The accumulation of floating plastic in the Mediterranean Sea (between 1,000 and 3,000 tons is likely related to the high human pressure together with the hydrodynamics of this semi-enclosed basin, with outflow mainly occurring through a deep water layer. Given the biological richness and concentration of economic activities in the Mediterranean Sea, the affects of plastic pollution on marine and human life are expected to be particularly frequent in this plastic accumulation region.

  5. Plastic Accumulation in the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cózar, Andrés; Sanz-Martín, Marina; Martí, Elisa; González-Gordillo, J. Ignacio; Ubeda, Bárbara; Gálvez, José Á.; Irigoien, Xabier; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2), as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled), are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by millimeter-sized fragments, but showed a higher proportion of large plastic objects than that present in oceanic gyres, reflecting the closer connection with pollution sources. The accumulation of floating plastic in the Mediterranean Sea (between 1,000 and 3,000 tons) is likely related to the high human pressure together with the hydrodynamics of this semi-enclosed basin, with outflow mainly occurring through a deep water layer. Given the biological richness and concentration of economic activities in the Mediterranean Sea, the affects of plastic pollution on marine and human life are expected to be particularly frequent in this plastic accumulation region. PMID:25831129

  6. Plastic Accumulation in the Mediterranean Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Cózar, Andrés

    2015-04-01

    Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2), as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled), are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by millimeter-sized fragments, but showed a higher proportion of large plastic objects than that present in oceanic gyres, reflecting the closer connection with pollution sources. The accumulation of floating plastic in the Mediterranean Sea (between 1,000 and 3,000 tons) is likely related to the high human pressure together with the hydrodynamics of this semi-enclosed basin, with outflow mainly occurring through a deep water layer. Given the biological richness and concentration of economic activities in the Mediterranean Sea, the affects of plastic pollution on marine and human life are expected to be particularly frequent in this plastic accumulation region.

  7. Plastic accumulation in the Mediterranean sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cózar, Andrés; Sanz-Martín, Marina; Martí, Elisa; González-Gordillo, J Ignacio; Ubeda, Bárbara; Gálvez, José Á; Irigoien, Xabier; Duarte, Carlos M

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2), as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled), are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by millimeter-sized fragments, but showed a higher proportion of large plastic objects than that present in oceanic gyres, reflecting the closer connection with pollution sources. The accumulation of floating plastic in the Mediterranean Sea (between 1,000 and 3,000 tons) is likely related to the high human pressure together with the hydrodynamics of this semi-enclosed basin, with outflow mainly occurring through a deep water layer. Given the biological richness and concentration of economic activities in the Mediterranean Sea, the affects of plastic pollution on marine and human life are expected to be particularly frequent in this plastic accumulation region.

  8. Antioxidant capacity of eugenol derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María E. Hidalgo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxicity and antioxidant capacity of eugenol derivatives (E2 = 2-Methoxy-4-[1-propenylphenyl]acetate, E3 = 4-Allyl-2-methoxyphenylacetate, E4 = 4-Allyl-2-methoxy-4-nitrophenol, E5 = 5-Allyl-3-nitrobenzene-1,2-diol, E6 = 4-Allyl-2-methoxy-5-nitrophenyl acetate were evaluated in order to determine the influence of the sustituents. E2-E6 were synthesized from eugenol (E1. E1 was extracted from cloves oil, and E2-E6 were obtained through acetylation and nitration reactions. Antioxidant capacity evaluated by DPPH (1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil and ORAC fluorescein demonstrated that E1 and E5 have a higher capacity and the minor toxicity evaluated by red blood cells haemolysis and the Artemia saline test. In accordance with our results, the compound's (E1-E5 use in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and or food industries could be suggested.

  9. Cadmium tolerance and accumulation in cultivars of a high-biomass tropical tree (Averrhoa carambola) and its potential for phytoextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J T; Liao, B; Lan, C Y; Ye, Z H; Baker, A J M; Shu, W S

    2010-01-01

    Averrhoa carambola is a high-biomass tropical tree that has been identified as a Cd accumulator. In the present study, field survey, pot, and hydroponic experiments were conducted to investigate the variation of Cd tolerance and accumulation in cultivars of A. carambola as well as its potential for phytoextraction. In the field survey, it was found that concentrations of Cd in aerial tissues of A. carambola varied greatly among sites and cultivars. The Cd bioconcentration factors (BCFs) and Cd removals by the field-grown A. carambola differed significantly among sites but not among cultivars. Nonetheless, all four carambola cultivars investigated were able to accumulate considerably high concentrations of Cd in their shoots, which indicated that the 4-yr-old carambola stands could remove 0.3 to 51.8% of the total Cd content in the top 20-cm soil layer. When cultured in Cd-spiked soils, the carambola cultivar Hua-Di always showed higher Cd tolerance than the other cultivars; however, this tendency was not confirmed by hydroponic experiment. The Cd BCFs of cultivar Thailand grown in soils with 6 and 12 mg Cd kg(-1) were highest among cultivars, whereas this trend was reversed at 120 mg Cd kg(-1) treatment. Nevertheless, the pot- and hydroponics-grown carambola cultivars generally showed higher capacities to tolerate and accumulate Cd, compared with the control species. The present results indicate that a strong ability to tolerate and accumulate Cd seems to be a trait at the species level in A. carambola, although some degree of variances in both Cd tolerance and accumulation exists among cultivars.

  10. Strain accumulation in quasicrystalline solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nori, F.; Ronchetti, M.; Elser, V.

    1988-01-01

    We study the relaxation of 2D quasicrystalline elastic networks when their constituent bonds are perturbed homogeneously. Whereas ideal, quasiperiodic networks are stable against such perturbations, we find significant accumulations of strain in a class of disordered networks generated by a growth process. The grown networks are characterized by root mean square phason fluctuations which grow linearly with system size. The strain accumulation we observe in these networks also grows linearly with system size. Finally, we find a dependence of strain accumulation on cooling rate

  11. Gypsum accumulation on carbonate stone

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, E.S.; Mossotti, V.G.

    1992-01-01

    The accumulation of gypsum on carbonate stone has been investigated through exposure of fresh samples of limestone and marble at monitored sites, through examination of alteration crusts from old buildings and through laboratory experiments. Several factors contribute to gypsum accumulation on carbonate stone. Marble or limestone that is sheltered from direct washing by rain in an urban environment with elevated pollution levels is likely to accumulate a gypsum crust. Crust development may be enhanced if the stone is porous or has an irregular surface area. Gypsum crusts are a surficial alteration feature; gypsum crystals form at the pore opening-air interface, where evaporation is greatest.

  12. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells accumulate and secrete interferon alpha in lymph nodes of HIV-1 patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Lehmann

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Circulating plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC decline during HIV-1 infection, but at the same time they express markedly higher levels of interferon alpha (IFNalpha, which is associated with HIV-1 disease progression. Here we show an accumulation of pDC in lymph nodes (LN of treatment-naïve HIV-1 patients. This phenomenon was associated with elevated expression of the LN homing marker, CCR7, on pDC in peripheral blood of HIV-1 patients, which conferred increased migratory capacity in response to CCR7 ligands in ex vivo functional assays. LN-homed pDC of HIV-1 patients presented higher CD40 and lower BDCA2 levels, but unchanged CD83 and CD86 expression. In addition, these cells expressed markedly higher amounts of IFNalpha compared to uninfected individuals, and were undergoing faster rates of cell death. These results demonstrate for the first time that in asymptomatic, untreated HIV-1 patients circulating pDC up-regulate CCR7 expression, accumulate in lymph nodes, and express high amounts of IFNalpha before undergoing cell death. Since IFNalpha inhibits cell proliferation and modulates immune responses, chronically high levels of this cytokine in LN of HIV-1 patients may impair differentiation and immune function of bystander CD4(+ T cells, thus playing into the mechanisms of AIDS immunopathogenesis.

  13. The Tolerance and Accumulation of Miscanthus Sacchariflorus (maxim.) Benth., an Energy Plant Species, to Cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Yang, Shiyong; Huang, Yongjie; Zhou, Shoubiao

    2015-01-01

    Miscanthus sacchariflorus (Maxim.) Benth. is a metallophyte suitable for the phytoremediation of mine wastes. The tolerance and accumulation of M. sacchariflorus to cadmium was studied by pot experiments. The results showed that O2·- generation rate, plasma membrane permeability and MDA content of M. sacchariflorus leaves increased with increasing Cd concentrations in soil, but significant effect was only observed when Cd concentrations were ≥50 mg·kg(-1). SOD and POD activities increased initially but decreased later on, whereas CAT activity only increased significantly at higher Cd concentrations, 50-100 mg·kg(-1). The content of photosynthetic pigment and growth of M. sacchariflorus were both not significantly affected when Cd concentration was ≤25 mg·kg(-1). In contrast, both parameters were significantly affected when Cd concentration was ≥50 mg·kg(-1). M. sacchariflorus could accumulate much Cd, but most of the Cd assimilated was retained in the belowground part, suggesting that M. sacchariflorus has poor ability to translocate Cd to the aboveground part. Our results suggested that although M. sacchariflorus was not a hyper-accumulator, it has a strong capacity to tolerate and stabilize the Cd. Therefore, M. sacchariflorus has a certain potential in the phytostabilization of Cd-contaminated soils.

  14. Effect of body size on accumulation and distribution of 125I in the green mussel (Perna Viridis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shunhua; Shi Qiong; Zhao Xiaokui

    1997-10-01

    Effect of body size on accumulation and distribution of 125 I in the green mussel (Perna Viridis), has been studied. The results showed that concentration capacity of every part in smaller mussels was higher than that in larger ones. Concentration factors of 125 I in byssus (about 0.5 x 10 3 ∼1.5 x 10 3 ), the highest in all parts of the mussels, were 30∼200 times as that in soft tissues, 200∼600 times as that in feet, 600∼1000 times as that in shells. Although wet weight of byssus was no more than 1% of whole body's wet weight, the content of 125 I accumulated in it accounted for as high as 75% of total 125 I content. The relationship between concentration factor of 125 I in byssus and whole body's wet weight (or shell length) can be described as a negative power function. (16 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.)

  15. Cesium accumulation by bacterium Thermus sp.TibetanG7: hints for biomineralization of cesiumbearing geyserite in hot springs in Tibet, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The bacterium Thermus sp. TibetanG7, isolated from hot springs in Tibet, China, was examined for the ability to accumulate cesium from solutions. Environmental conditions were simulated and the effects of pH, K+, Na+ and K+-regimes were then studied to determine the possible role of the bacterium in the formation of cesium-bearing geyserite around these hot springs. In despite of the inhibition of K+ and Na+, the bacterium Thermus sp. TibetanG7 revealed noticeable accumulation of cesium from solutions, with maximum accumulations of 53.49 and 40.41 μmol Cesium/g cell dry weight in Na+ and K+ inhibition experiments, respectively. The accumulation of cesium by this microorganism is rapid, with 40%―50% accumulated within the first 5 min. K+-deficient cells showed a much higher capacity of cesium accumulation compared with K+-sufficient cells. It is evident that the bacteria within the genus thermus play a significant role in the cesium assembly. The formation of cesium-bearing geyserite is also considered.

  16. Choice Rules and Accumulator Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a preference accumulation model that can be used to implement a number of different multi-attribute heuristic choice rules, including the lexicographic rule, the majority of confirming dimensions (tallying) rule and the equal weights rule. The proposed model differs from existing accumulators in terms of attribute representation: Leakage and competition, typically applied only to preference accumulation, are also assumed to be involved in processing attribute values. This allows the model to perform a range of sophisticated attribute-wise comparisons, including comparisons that compute relative rank. The ability of a preference accumulation model composed of leaky competitive networks to mimic symbolic models of heuristic choice suggests that these 2 approaches are not incompatible, and that a unitary cognitive model of preferential choice, based on insights from both these approaches, may be feasible. PMID:28670592

  17. Inter-relationships between light and respiration in the control of ascorbic acid synthesis and accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoli, Carlos G; Yu, Jianping; Gómez, Facundo; Fernández, Laura; McIntosh, Lee; Foyer, Christine H

    2006-01-01

    The effects of growth irradiance and respiration on ascorbic acid (AA) synthesis and accumulation were studied in the leaves of wild-type and transformed Arabidopsis thaliana with modified amounts of the mitochondrial alternative oxidase (AOX) protein. Plants were grown under low (LL; 50 micromol photons m(-2) s(-1)), intermediate (IL; 100 micromol photons m(-2) s(-1)), or high (HL; 250 micromol photons m(-2) s(-1)) light. Increasing growth irradiance progressively elevated leaf AA content and hence the values of dark-induced disappearance of leaf AA, which were 11, 55, and 89 nmol AA lost g(-1) fresh weight h(-1), from LL-, IL-, and HL-grown leaves, respectively. When HL leaves were supplied with L-galactone-1,4-lactone (L-GalL; the precursor of AA), they accumulated twice as much AA and had double the maximal L-galactone-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase (L-GalLDH) activities of LL leaves. Growth under HL enhanced dehydroascorbate reductase and monodehydroascorbate reductase activities. Leaf respiration rates were highest in the HL leaves, which also had higher amounts of cytochrome c and cytochrome c oxidase (CCO) activities, as well as enhanced capacity of the AOX and CCO electron transport pathways. Leaves of the AOX-overexpressing lines accumulated more AA than wild-type or antisense leaves, particularly at HL. Intact mitochondria from AOX-overexpressing lines had higher AA synthesis capacities than those from the wild-type or antisense lines even though they had similar L-GalLDH activities. AOX antisense lines had more cytochrome c protein than wild-type or AOX-overexpressing lines. It is concluded that regardless of limitations on L-GalL synthesis by regulation of early steps in the AA synthesis pathway, the regulation of L-GalLDH activity via the interaction of light and respiratory controls is a crucial determinant of the overall ability of leaves to produce and accumulate AA.

  18. Water deficit affects primary metabolism differently in two Lolium multiflorum/Festuca arundinacea introgression forms with a distinct capacity for photosynthesis and membrane regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawid Perlikowski

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how plants respond to drought at different levels of cell metabolism is an important aspect of research on the mechanisms involved in stress tolerance. Furthermore, a dissection of drought tolerance into its crucial components by the use of plant introgression forms facilitates to analyze this trait more deeply. The important components of plant drought tolerance are the capacity for photosynthesis under drought conditions, and the ability of cellular membrane regeneration after stress cessation. Two closely related introgression forms of Lolium multiflorum/Festuca arundinacea, differing in the level of photosynthetic capacity during stress, and in the ability to regenerate their cellular membranes after stress cessation, were used as forage grass models in a primary metabolome profiling and in an evaluation of chloroplast 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase accumulation level and activity, during 11 days of water deficit, followed by 10 days of rehydration. It was revealed here that the introgression form, characterized by the ability to regenerate membranes after rehydration, contained higher amounts of proline, melibiose, galactaric acid, myo-inositol and myo-inositol-1-phosphate involved in osmoprotection and stress signaling under drought. Moreover, during the rehydration period, this form also maintained elevated accumulation levels of most the primary metabolites, analyzed here. The other introgression form, characterized by the higher capacity for photosynthesis, revealed a higher accumulation level and activity of chloroplast aldolase under drought conditions, and higher accumulation levels of most photosynthetic products during control and drought periods. The potential impact of the observed metabolic alterations on cellular membrane recovery after stress cessation, and on a photosynthetic capacity under drought conditions in grasses, are discussed.

  19. Heritability of polyphenols, anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ALL

    They can increase the antioxidant capacity ... cytokines, while increasing the production of anti- inflammatory ...... Evaluation of bitterness and astringency of ... phytochemicals and a higher antioxidant capacity than teas and red wine. J. Agric.

  20. Selenium accumulation and metabolism in algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavon, Michela; Ertani, Andrea; Parrasia, Sofia; Vecchia, Francesca Dalla

    2017-08-01

    Selenium (Se) is an intriguing element because it is metabolically required by a variety of organisms, but it may induce toxicity at high doses. Algae primarily absorb selenium in the form of selenate or selenite using mechanisms similar to those reported in plants. However, while Se is needed by several species of microalgae, the essentiality of this element for plants has not been established yet. The study of Se uptake and accumulation strategies in micro- and macro-algae is of pivotal importance, as they represent potential vectors for Se movement in aquatic environments and Se at high levels may affect their growth causing a reduction in primary production. Some microalgae exhibit the capacity of efficiently converting Se to less harmful volatile compounds as a strategy to cope with Se toxicity. Therefore, they play a crucial role in Se-cycling through the ecosystem. On the other side, micro- or macro-algae enriched in Se may be used in Se biofortification programs aimed to improve Se content in human diet via supplementation of valuable food. Indeed, some organic forms of selenium (selenomethionine and methylselenocysteine) are known to act as anticarcinogenic compounds and exert a broad spectrum of beneficial effects in humans and other mammals. Here, we want to give an overview of the developments in the current understanding of Se uptake, accumulation and metabolism in algae, discussing potential ecotoxicological implications and nutritional aspects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Gold in the hills: patterns of placer gold accumulation under dynamic tectonic and climatic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sam; Upton, Phaedra; Craw, Dave

    2018-01-01

    Formation of placer accumulations in fluvial environments requires 103-106 or even greater times concentration of heavy minerals. For this to occur, regular sediment supply from erosion of adjacent topography is required, the river should remain within a single course for an extended period of time and the material must be reworked such that a high proportion of the sediment is removed while a high proportion of the heavy minerals remains. We use numerical modeling, constrained by observations of circum-Pacific placer gold deposits, to explore processes occurring in evolving river systems in dynamic tectonic environments. A fluvial erosion/transport model is used to determine the mobility of placer gold under variable uplift rate, storm intensity, and rock mass strength conditions. Gold concentration is calculated from hydraulic and bedload grain size conditions. Model results suggest that optimal gold concentration occurs in river channels that frequently approach a threshold between detachment-limited and transport-limited hydraulic conditions. Such a condition enables the accumulation of gold particles within the framework of a residual gravel lag. An increase in transport capacity, which can be triggered by faster uplift rates, more resistant bedrock, or higher intensity storm events, will strip all bedload from the channel. Conversely, a reduction in transport capacity, triggered by a reduction in uplift rate, bedrock resistance, or storm intensity, will lead to a greater accumulation of a majority of sediments and a net decrease in gold concentration. For our model parameter range, the optimal conditions for placer gold concentration are met by 103 times difference in strength between bedrock and fault, uplift rates between 1 and 5 mm a-1, and moderate storm intensities. Fault damage networks are shown to be a critical factor for high Au concentrations and should be a target for exploration.

  2. Capacity planning and management

    OpenAIRE

    Boydell, Briony

    2011-01-01

    After reading this chapter you should be able to: • Define and measure capacity and appreciate the factors that influence it. • Assess the difficulties of matching capacity to demand. • Evaluate and apply the different strategies for matching capacity with demand in the short, medium and long term. • Analyse the impact of constraints and bottlenecks on a process and consider the Theory of Constraints. • Outline the different strategies available for both manufacturing and service operations. ...

  3. Investigation of the gallium-67 citrate hilar accumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suto, Yuji

    1987-01-01

    To study the 67 Ga hilar accumulation, author quantitatively analyzed 67 Ga scintigrams of patients having no chest disease and normal chest roentgenograms. Relationship between hilar accumulation and smoking was quantitatively and experimentally studied. The conclusions were as follows: 1. There was significant relationship between smoking and 67 Ga hilar accumulation but there was no significant relationship between aging and the hilar accumulation. 2. The 67 Ga uptake of the hilar lymph node of smoked rat was higher than that of control group on microautoradiogram. The histological finding of the hilar lymph node of smoked rat was sinus histiocytosis. 3. Activated histiocytosis of hilar lymphatic sinus by some factors including smoking seemed to be responsible for 67 Ga hilar accumulation, of which mechanism was unknown. (author)

  4. Accumulation of Radiocesium in Eleutherococcus sciadophylloides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiura, Y.; Takenaka, C.; Kanasashi, T. [Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, 464-8601, Nagoya City, Aichi Prefecture (Japan); Deguchi, S. [School of Agricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Nagoya City, Aichi Prefecture, 464-8601 (Japan); Matsuda, Y. [Graduate School of Bioresources, Mie University, Tsu City, Mie Prefecture, 514-0102 (Japan); Ozawa, H. [Fukushima Prefectural Forestry Research Centre, Koriyama City Fukushima Prefecture, 963-0112 (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    1. Introduction: After Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, radiocesium ({sup 137}Cs) had deposited on forests in Fukushima Prefecture. In order to comprehend radiocesium circulation in forest ecosystem, it is important to understand about properties of {sup 137}Cs accumulation of each plant species. In addition, {sup 137}Cs accumulator plants would be candidates of phyto-remediation, which is a remediation method using plants to remove pollutants from environment. We aimed to find {sup 137}Cs accumulator plants and to clarify the accumulate mechanisms. 2. Materials and Methods: We collected soil and plant samples at 22 points in Fukushima Prefecture more than once a year from May 2011 to October 2013. Surface (0-5 cm) soils were collected at the same site as the plant sampling. The soil samples were air-dried for 2-3 weeks and then passed through a 2 mm sieve. Foliar samples were washed with tap water to remove soil particles and rinsed with deionized water for {sup 137}Cs and other elements analysis. The samples were dried at 80 deg. C for 48 hr and ground with a mill mixer. {sup 137}Cs activities in soil and plant samples were determined by means of high-purity Ge detector (HPGe). The elements concentrations of the plant samples were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) after wet digestion with HNO{sub 3}. 3. Results and Discussion: As a whole trend, evergreen tree species such as Camellia japonica and Cryptomeria japonica contained {sup 137}Cs at high concentration due to the deposited {sup 137}Cs on old leaves and foliar absorption. The activities in leaves of deciduous tree species were lower than those in evergreen trees. However, we confirmed that a deciduous tree species, Eleutherococcus sciadophylloides, collected in 2012 and 2013 accumulated {sup 137}Cs, whereas that collected in 2011 did not accumulate {sup 137}Cs. The {sup 137}Cs concentration of E. sciadophylloides in 2012 and 2013 were higher than those of

  5. The French capacity mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The French capacity mechanism has been design to ensure security of supply in the context of the energy transition. This energy transition challenges the electricity market design with several features: peak load growth, the development of renewables, demand response,... To ensure security of supply in this context, a capacity mechanism is being implemented in France. It is a market wide capacity obligation on electricity suppliers, based on market principles. Suppliers are responsible for forecasting their obligation, which corresponds to their contribution to winter peak load, and must procure enough capacity certificates to meet their obligations. Capacity certificates are granted to capacities through a certification process, which assesses their contribution to security of supply on the basis of availability commitments. This certification process is technology neutral and performance based, associated with controls and penalties in case of non compliance. Demand Side is fully integrated in the market, either through the reduction of suppliers' capacity obligation or direct participation after certification. In addition to the expected benefits in terms of security of supply, the French capacity market will foster the development of demand response. The participation of foreign capacities will require adaptations which are scheduled in a road-map, and could pave the way for further European integration of energy policies. (authors)

  6. Induced Plant Accumulation of Lithium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Kavanagh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Lithium’s (Li value has grown exponentially since the development of Li-ion batteries. It is usually accessed in one of two ways: hard rock mineral mining or extraction from mineral-rich brines. Both methods are expensive and require a rich source of Li. This paper examines the potential of agro-mining as an environmentally friendly, economically viable process for extracting Li from low grade ore. Agro-mining exploits an ability found in few plant species, to accumulate substantial amounts of metals in the above ground parts of the plant. Phyto-mined metals are then retrieved from the incinerated plants. Although the actual amount of metal collected from a crop may be low, the process has been shown to be profitable. We have investigated the suitability of several plant species including: Brassica napus and Helianthus annuus, as Li-accumulators under controlled conditions. Large plant trials were carried out with/without chelating agents to encourage Li accumulation. The question we sought to answer was, can any of the plant species investigated accumulate Li at levels high enough to justify using them to agro-mine Li. Results show maximum accumulated levels of >4000 mg/kg Li in some species. Our data suggests that agro-mining of Li is a potentially viable process.

  7. Heat Capacity Analysis Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Findikakis, A.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide heat capacity values for the host and surrounding rock layers for the waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The heat capacity representations provided by this analysis are used in unsaturated zone (UZ) flow, transport, and coupled processes numerical modeling activities, and in thermal analyses as part of the design of the repository to support the license application. Among the reports that use the heat capacity values estimated in this report are the ''Multiscale Thermohydrologic Model'' report, the ''Drift Degradation Analysis'' report, the ''Ventilation Model and Analysis Report, the Igneous Intrusion Impacts on Waste Packages and Waste Forms'' report, the ''Dike/Drift Interactions report, the Drift-Scale Coupled Processes (DST and TH Seepage) Models'' report, and the ''In-Drift Natural Convection and Condensation'' report. The specific objective of this study is to determine the rock-grain and rock-mass heat capacities for the geologic stratigraphy identified in the ''Mineralogic Model (MM3.0) Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170031], Table 1-1). This report provides estimates of the heat capacity for all stratigraphic layers except the Paleozoic, for which the mineralogic abundance data required to estimate the heat capacity are not available. The temperature range of interest in this analysis is 25 C to 325 C. This interval is broken into three separate temperature sub-intervals: 25 C to 95 C, 95 C to 114 C, and 114 C to 325 C, which correspond to the preboiling, trans-boiling, and postboiling regimes. Heat capacity is defined as the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of a unit mass of material by one degree (Nimick and Connolly 1991 [DIRS 100690], p. 5). The rock-grain heat capacity is defined as the heat capacity of the rock solids (minerals), and does not include the effect of water that exists in the rock pores. By comparison, the rock-mass heat capacity considers the heat capacity of both solids and pore

  8. Foliar accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in native tree species from the Atlantic Forest (SE-Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Ana Paula L; Rinaldi, Mirian C S; Domingos, Marisa

    2016-02-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are toxic to living organisms. They can accumulate on foliar surfaces due to their affinity with apolar organic compounds, which enables the use of native plant species as sentinels of atmospheric PAH deposition in polluted ecosystems. The present study extends the knowledge about this subject in the tropical region by focusing on the PAH accumulation in the foliage of dominant tree species (Astronium graveolens, Croton floribundus, Piptadenia gonoacantha) in four remnants of Semi-deciduous Atlantic Forest surrounded by diversified sources of PAHs and located in the cities of Campinas, Paulínia, Holambra and Cosmópilis (central-eastern part of São Paulo State, SE-Brazil). Leaves of the tree species were collected in the forest remnants during the wet and dry seasons (2011 to 2013). All samples were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to a fluorescence detector for identification of 14 PAHs. The native tree species showed distinct capacities to accumulate PAHs. All of them accumulated proportionally more light PAHs than heavy PAHs, mainly during the dry period. P. gonoacantha was the most effective accumulator species. Higher accumulations of most of the PAHs occurred during the dry periods. The predominance of moderately (1 ≤ EF forest remnants indicated that vehicular sources were widely distributed in the entire region. The predominance of the moderate to high enrichment of ACE in leaf samples from the forest remnants located in Paulínia, Holambra and Cosmópolis indicated that they were also affected by emissions from petrochemical industries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Apparently normal accumulation in the patellae on bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Katsuhiko; Ikeda, Mitsuru; Tadokoro, Masanori; Yoshida, Kiyo; Kobayashi, Hidetoshi; Ishigaki, Takeo

    1997-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the influences of gender and ages on accumulation in the patellae on scintigram. The subjects were 828 patients who underwent bone scintigraphy during the past one and half years at the Department of Radiology, Nagoya University Hospital. Patients younger than 20 years old and those with abnormality of the patellae were excluded. The degree of accumulation in the patellae was evaluated using the A-P whole body scintigraphy in comparison with accumulation at the diaphysis of the femur and classified to two categories, ''Positive'' (higher accumulation than that of the diaphysis of the femur) and ''Negative'' (equal or lower than that of the diaphysis of the femur). In general, the degree of accumulation was higher in females than in males. In both males and females, the degree of accumulation increased with age. A difference between the two sides in the degree of accumulation in the patellae was observed in 32% of subjects. The results of this study may serve as basic data for the interpretation of bone scintigrams. (author)

  10. Prospects for OPEC capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adelman, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    OPEC capacity is not exogenous, but responds to demand. Price increases have not been caused by capacity shortages. OPEC nations find it hard to set aside even very small portions of their revenues for oil investment, despite its extreme profitability. Foreign investors face high risks. Production sharing makes their after-tax return even more unstable. (author)

  11. Cesium accumulation in native trees from the Brazilian Cerrado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franca, E.J.D.; Miranda, M.V.F.E.S.; Santos, T.O.; Cantinha, R.S.; Fernandes, E.A.D.N.

    2016-01-01

    Even considered not essential for plants, cesium may cycle within forest ecosystems. Taking into account the lack of knowledge on the distribution of this chemical element in Brazilian ecosystems, this work encompasses the unexpected cesium accumulation in native plant leaves from Cerradao, a Brazilian hotspot of world biodiversity. Some trees were Cs accumulators, achieving mass fractions in leaves 700 times higher (up to 12.7 mg kg -1 ) when compared to other Brazilian native tree leaves from the Atlantic Forest. In fact, such trace element accumulation in leaves was not previously noticed for Brazilian ecosystems despite the intra- and inter-species variability observed in Cerrado tree leaves. (author)

  12. THE BIOMINERAL CONCENTRATIONS AND ACCUMULATION IN SOME WILD GROWING EDIBLE SPECIES OF MUSHROOMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Cristina Elekes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Many mushrooms species are known to accumulate metals to a higher level than the plants and are considered as a source of proteins, vitamins – riboflavin, biotin and thiamine, fats, carbohydrates, amino acids and minerals. The trace metals concentrations were established by Inductively Coupled Plasma - Atomic Emission Spectrometry method. The aim of this paper is to determinate the minerals content of some wild growing mushrooms, which may be useful in the phytopharmaceutical biotechnologies in order to obtain important quantities of biominerals accessible for the human body. The results are varying with the analyzed species of mushrooms between 11869.85 and 32088.68 mg/kg for potassium, 240.81 to 716.98 mg/kg for calcium and between 0 to 5350 mg/kg for phosphorus. The highest concentration if potassium was founded in B. griseus species, 32088.68 mg/kg. Only two species, Hygrophorus virgineus and Marasmius oreades show a phosphorus concentration in the fruiting body higher than in soil, indicating the accumulation capacity.

  13. Uncertainty in adaptive capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neil Adger, W.; Vincent, K.

    2005-01-01

    The capacity to adapt is a critical element of the process of adaptation: it is the vector of resources that represent the asset base from which adaptation actions can be made. Adaptive capacity can in theory be identified and measured at various scales, from the individual to the nation. The assessment of uncertainty within such measures comes from the contested knowledge domain and theories surrounding the nature of the determinants of adaptive capacity and the human action of adaptation. While generic adaptive capacity at the national level, for example, is often postulated as being dependent on health, governance and political rights, and literacy, and economic well-being, the determinants of these variables at national levels are not widely understood. We outline the nature of this uncertainty for the major elements of adaptive capacity and illustrate these issues with the example of a social vulnerability index for countries in Africa. (authors)

  14. Arsenic accumulation by edible aquatic macrophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falinski, K A; Yost, R S; Sampaga, E; Peard, J

    2014-01-01

    Edible aquatic macrophytes grown in arsenic (As)-contaminated soil and sediment were investigated to determine the extent of As accumulation and potential risk to humans when consumed. Nasturtium officinale (watercress) and Diplazium esculentum (warabi) are two aquatic macrophytes grown and consumed in Hawaii. Neither has been assessed for potential to accumulate As when grown in As-contaminated soil. Some former sugarcane plantation soils in eastern Hawaii have been shown to have concentrations of total As over 500 mg kg(-1). It was hypothesized that both species will accumulate more As in contaminated soils than in non-contaminated soils. N. officinale and D. esculentum were collected in areas with and without As-contaminated soil and sediment. High soil As concentrations averaged 356 mg kg(-1), while low soil As concentrations were 0.75 mg kg(-1). Average N. officinale and D. esculentum total As concentrations were 0.572 mg kg(-1) and 0.075 mg kg(-1), respectively, corresponding to hazard indices of 0.12 and 0.03 for adults. Unlike previous studies where watercress was grown in As-contaminated water, N. officinale did not show properties of a hyperaccumulator, yet plant concentrations in high As areas were more than double those in low As areas. There was a slight correlation between high total As in sediment and soil and total As concentrations in watercress leaves and stems, resulting in a plant uptake factor of 0.010, an order of magnitude higher than previous studies. D. esculentum did not show signs of accumulating As in the edible fiddleheads. Hawaii is unique in having volcanic ash soils with extremely high sorption characteristics of As and P that limit release into groundwater. This study presents a case where soils and sediments were significantly enriched in total As concentration, but the water As concentration was below detection limits. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Cadmium uptake and speciation changes in the rhizosphere of cadmium accumulator and non-accumulator oilseed rape varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Dechun; XING Jianping; JIAO Weiping; WONG Woonchung

    2009-01-01

    Characteristics of cadmium (Cd) uptake kinetics and distribution of Cd speciation in the rhizosphere for Cd accumulator and non-accumulator oilseed rape varieties were investigated under nutrient solution and rhizobox soil culture conditions.The results showed that the maximal influx (Vmax) for Cd2+ and Km were significantly different for the two oilseed rape varieties.The value of Vmax for Cd accumulator oilseed rape Zhucang Huazi was two-fold greater than that for oilseed rape Chuangyou II-93.The exchangeable Cd concentration in the rhizosphere was significantly lower than in non-rhizospheric soils supplemented with Cd as CdSO4 for both the varieties.Carbonate-bound Cd in the rhizosphere of Cd accumulator oilseed rape was significantly higher than that in the rhizosphere of non-accumulator oilseed rape and non-rhizospheric soil.Cd accumulator oilseed rape had a higher Cd2+ affinity and more ability to uptake insoluble Cd in the soil than the non-accumulator oilseed rape.

  16. Cold acclimation induces distinctive changes in the chromatin state and transcript levels of COR genes in Cannabis sativa varieties with contrasting cold acclimation capacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Boris F; Ali-Benali, Mohamed Ali; Demone, Jordan; Bertrand, Annick; Charron, Jean-Benoit

    2015-11-01

    Little is known about the capacity of Cannabis sativa to cold-acclimate and develop freezing tolerance. This study investigates the cold acclimation (CA) capacity of nine C. sativa varieties and the underlying genetic and epigenetic responses. The varieties were divided into three groups based on their contrasting CA capacities by comparing the survival of non-acclimated and cold-acclimated plants in whole-plant freeze tests. In response to the CA treatment, all varieties accumulated soluble sugars but only the varieties with superior capacity for CA could maintain higher levels throughout the treatment. In addition, the varieties that acclimated most efficiently accumulated higher transcript levels of cold-regulated (COR) genes and genes involved in de novo DNA methylation while displaying locus- and variety-specific changes in the levels of H3K9ac, H3K27me3 and methylcytosine (MeC) during CA. Furthermore, these hardy C. sativa varieties displayed significant increases in MeC levels at COR gene loci when deacclimated, suggesting a role for locus-specific DNA methylation in deacclimation. This study uncovers the molecular mechanisms underlying CA in C. sativa and reveals higher levels of complexity regarding how genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors intertwine. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  17. Contamination status and accumulation features of persistent organochlorines in pet dogs and cats from Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunisue, Tatsuya; Nakanishi, Shigeyuki; Watanabe, Mafumi; Abe, Takao; Nakatsu, Susumu; Kawauchi, Sakio; Sano, Akihiko; Horii, Akira; Kano, Yasumasa; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2005-01-01

    Concentrations of persistent organochlorines (OCs) such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), biphenyls, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and their metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers, hexachlorobenzene, and chlordane compounds were determined in genital organs of pet dogs and cats and pet foods from Japan. Levels of OCs in dogs were relatively lower than those in cats, while residue levels in their diets were almost similar, implying that accumulation and elimination mechanisms of these contaminants are different between dogs and cats. When bioconcentration factors (BCFs) were estimated from concentrations of OCs in dogs, cats, and their diets, BCFs of all the OCs except PCDD/DFs exceeded 1.0 in cats. On the other hand, in all the dogs, BCFs of DDTs were below 1.0, suggesting that dogs do not bioconcentrate DDTs. Furthermore, BCFs of all the OCs except PCDD/DFs in dogs were notably lower than those in cats, suggesting that dogs have higher metabolic and elimination capacity for these contaminants than cats. When residue levels of OCs in livers, adipose tissue, and genital organs of two pet dogs were examined, hepatic sequestration of PCDD/DFs and oxychlordane was observed. - Pet dogs may have higher metabolic and elimination capacity for organochlorines than pet cats

  18. Vedr.: Military capacity building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Josefine Kühnel; Struwe, Lars Bangert

    2013-01-01

    Military capacity building has increasingly become an integral part of Danish defence. Military capacity is a new way of thinking Danish defence and poses a new set of challenges and opportunities for the Danish military and the Political leadership. On the 12th of december, PhD. Candidate Josefine...... Kühnel Larsen and researcher Lars Bangert Struwe of CMS had organized a seminar in collaboration with Royal Danish Defense Colleg and the East African Security Governance Network. The seminar focused on some of the risks involved in Military capacity building and how these risks are dealt with from...

  19. Sucrose accumulation in watermelon fruits: genetic variation and biochemical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yativ, Merav; Harary, Idan; Wolf, Shmuel

    2010-05-15

    Sugar accumulation, the key process determining fruit quality, is controlled by both the translocation of sugars and their metabolism in developing fruits. Sugar composition in watermelon, as in all cucurbit fruits, includes sucrose, fructose and glucose. The proportions of these three sugars are determined primarily by three enzyme families: invertases, sucrose synthases (SuSys) and sucrose phosphate synthases (SPSs). The goal of the present research was to explore the process of sugar metabolism in watermelon fruits. Crosses between the domestic watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) and three wild species provided a wide germplasm to explore genetic variability in sugar composition and metabolism. This survey demonstrated great genetic variability in sugar content and in the proportions of sucrose, glucose and fructose in mature fruits. Genotypes accumulating high and low percentage of sucrose provided an experimental system to study sugar metabolism in developing fruits. Insoluble invertase activity was high and constant throughout fruit development in control lines and in genotypes accumulating low levels of sucrose, while in genotypes accumulating high levels of sucrose, activity declined sharply 4 weeks after pollination. Soluble acid invertase activity was significantly lower in genotypes accumulating high levels of sucrose than in low-sucrose-accumulating genotypes. Conversely, activities of SuSy and SPS were higher in the high-sucrose-accumulating genotypes. The present results establish that, within the genus Citrullus, there are genotypes that accumulate a high percentage of sucrose in the fruit, while others accumulate high percentages of glucose and fructose. The significant negative correlation between insoluble invertase activity and fruit sucrose level suggests that sucrose accumulation is affected by both phloem unloading and sugar metabolism. (c) 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluating Capacity Development

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    She also had the dubious pleasure of checking and correcting the text numerous ... Has your organization received training or other types of support for capacity ...... processors, and consumer groups in its research and development work.

  1. Revisiting Absorptive Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Araújo, Ana Luiza Lara; Ulhøi, John Parm; Lettl, Christopher

    Absorptive capacity has mostly been perceived as a 'passive' outcome of R&D investments. Recently, however, a growing interest into its 'proactive' potentials has emerged. This paper taps into this development and proposes a dynamic model for conceptualizing the determinants of the complementary...... learning processes of absorptive capacity, which comprise combinative and adaptive capabilities. Drawing on survey data (n=169), the study concludes that combinative capabilities primarily enhance transformative and exploratory learning processes, while adaptive capabilities strengthen all three learning...

  2. Surface-atmosphere decoupling limits accumulation at Summit, Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkelhammer, Max; Noone, David C; Steen-Larsen, Hans Christian; Bailey, Adriana; Cox, Christopher J; O'Neill, Michael S; Schneider, David; Steffen, Konrad; White, James W C

    2016-04-01

    Despite rapid melting in the coastal regions of the Greenland Ice Sheet, a significant area (~40%) of the ice sheet rarely experiences surface melting. In these regions, the controls on annual accumulation are poorly constrained owing to surface conditions (for example, surface clouds, blowing snow, and surface inversions), which render moisture flux estimates from myriad approaches (that is, eddy covariance, remote sensing, and direct observations) highly uncertain. Accumulation is partially determined by the temperature dependence of saturation vapor pressure, which influences the maximum humidity of air parcels reaching the ice sheet interior. However, independent proxies for surface temperature and accumulation from ice cores show that the response of accumulation to temperature is variable and not generally consistent with a purely thermodynamic control. Using three years of stable water vapor isotope profiles from a high altitude site on the Greenland Ice Sheet, we show that as the boundary layer becomes increasingly stable, a decoupling between the ice sheet and atmosphere occurs. The limited interaction between the ice sheet surface and free tropospheric air reduces the capacity for surface condensation to achieve the rate set by the humidity of the air parcels reaching interior Greenland. The isolation of the surface also acts to recycle sublimated moisture by recondensing it onto fog particles, which returns the moisture back to the surface through gravitational settling. The observations highlight a unique mechanism by which ice sheet mass is conserved, which has implications for understanding both past and future changes in accumulation rate and the isotopic signal in ice cores from Greenland.

  3. Measuring Social carrying Capacity: An Exploratory Study

    OpenAIRE

    López-Bonilla, Jesús Manuel; López-Bonilla, Luis Miguel

    2007-01-01

    The tourist carrying capacity commands a growing interest given that it is closely linked with sustainable tourist development. The justification of the utility of this concept is given by means of a simple and efficient methodological proposal, by analysing the social carrying capacity. To this end, an empirical application is carried out in the Western Andalusia. In some of the cases analysed, the satisfaction of the tourist is found to decline when the levels of the tourist use are higher ...

  4. Capacity factors and solar job creation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croucher, Matt

    2011-01-01

    We discuss two main job creation statistics often used by solar advocates to support increased solar deployment. Whilst overall solar technologies have a tendency to be labor-intensive, we find that the jobs per gigawatt hour statistic is relatively mis-leading as it has a tendency to reward technologies that have a low capacity factor. Ultimately the lower the capacity factor the more amplified the solar job creation number. - Highlights: → Solar generation is labor intensive. → Jobs per gigawatt hour statistics are often mis-leading. → The lower the capacity factor the higher the jobs per gigawatt. → Reliance on job creation statistics may lead to inefficient deployment.

  5. Capacity factors and solar job creation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croucher, Matt, E-mail: matthew.croucher@asu.edu [Department of Economics, L. William Seidman Research Institute, W.P. Carey School of Business, Arizona State University, P.O. Box 873806, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    We discuss two main job creation statistics often used by solar advocates to support increased solar deployment. Whilst overall solar technologies have a tendency to be labor-intensive, we find that the jobs per gigawatt hour statistic is relatively mis-leading as it has a tendency to reward technologies that have a low capacity factor. Ultimately the lower the capacity factor the more amplified the solar job creation number. - Highlights: > Solar generation is labor intensive. > Jobs per gigawatt hour statistics are often mis-leading. > The lower the capacity factor the higher the jobs per gigawatt. > Reliance on job creation statistics may lead to inefficient deployment.

  6. Corporate taxation and capital accumulation

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Bond; Jing Xing

    2010-01-01

    We present new empirical evidence that aggregate capital accumulation is strongly influenced by the user cost of capital and, in particular, by corporate tax incentives summarised in the tax-adjusted user cost. We use sectoral panel data for the USA, Japan, Australia and ten EU countries over the period 1982-2007. Our panel combines data on capital stocks, value-added and relative prices from the EU KLEMS database with measures of effective corporate tax rates from the Oxford University Centr...

  7. WEALTH TAXATION AND WEALTH ACCUMULATION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Katrine Marie Tofthøj; Jakobsen, Kristian Thor; Kleven, Henrik

    Using administrative wealth records from Denmark, we study the effects of wealth taxes on wealth accumulation. Denmark used to impose one of the world's highest marginal tax rates on wealth, but this tax was drastically reduced and ultimately abolished between 1989 and 1997. Due to the specific d...... on wealth accumulation. Our simulations show that the long-run elasticity of wealth with respect to the net-of-tax return is sizeable at the top of distribution. Our paper provides the type of evidence needed to assess optimal capital taxation.......Using administrative wealth records from Denmark, we study the effects of wealth taxes on wealth accumulation. Denmark used to impose one of the world's highest marginal tax rates on wealth, but this tax was drastically reduced and ultimately abolished between 1989 and 1997. Due to the specific...... design of the wealth tax, these changes provide a compelling quasi-experiment for understanding behavioral responses among the wealthiest segments of the population. We find clear reduced-form effects of wealth taxes in the short and medium run, with larger effects on the very wealthy than...

  8. Mechanisms of intrahepatic triglyceride accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ress, Claudia; Kaser, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic steatosis defined as lipid accumulation in hepatocytes is very frequently found in adults and obese adolescents in the Western World. Etiologically, obesity and associated insulin resistance or excess alcohol intake are the most frequent causes of hepatic steatosis. However, steatosis also often occurs with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and is also found in rare but potentially life-threatening liver diseases of pregnancy. Clinical significance and outcome of hepatic triglyceride accumulation are highly dependent on etiology and histological pattern of steatosis. This review summarizes current concepts of pathophysiology of common causes of hepatic steatosis, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), alcoholic fatty liver disease, chronic HCV infections, drug-induced forms of hepatic steatosis, and acute fatty liver of pregnancy. Regarding the pathophysiology of NAFLD, this work focuses on the close correlation between insulin resistance and hepatic triglyceride accumulation, highlighting the potential harmful effects of systemic insulin resistance on hepatic metabolism of fatty acids on the one side and the role of lipid intermediates on insulin signalling on the other side. Current studies on lipid droplet morphogenesis have identified novel candidate proteins and enzymes in NAFLD. PMID:26819531

  9. Cadmium accumulation in and tolerance of rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties with different rates of radial oxygen loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, M.Y.; Chen, A.K.; Wong, M.H.; Qiu, R.L.; Cheng, H.; Ye, Z.H.

    2011-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) uptake and tolerance were investigated among 20 rice cultivars based on a field experiment (1.2 mg Cd kg -1 in soil) and a soil pot trial (control, 100 mg Cd kg -1 ), and rates of radial oxygen loss (ROL) were measured under a deoxygenated solution. Significant differences were found among the cultivars in: (1) brown rice Cd concentrations (0.11-0.29 mg kg -1 ) in a field soil, (2) grain Cd tolerance (34-113%) and concentrations (2.1-6.5 mg kg -1 ) in a pot trial, and (3) rates of ROL (15-31 mmol O 2 kg -1 root d.w. h -1 ). Target hazard quotients were calculated for the field experiment to assess potential Cd risk. Significant negative relationships were found between rates of ROL and concentrations of Cd in brown rice or straw under field and greenhouse conditions, indicating that rice cultivars with higher rates of ROL had higher capacities for limiting the transfer of Cd to rice and straw. - Highlights: → There are significant differences in brown rice Cd concentrations and rates of ROL among the rice cultivars. → The rates of ROL are significantly correlated with concentrations of Cd in brown rice. → Rice cultivars with higher rates of ROL have higher capacities for limiting the transfer of Cd to rice and straw. - Rice cultivars with high rates of ROL tended to accumulate low Cd in grains.

  10. Cross-border effects of capacity mechanisms in electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elberg, Christina

    2014-01-01

    To ensure security of supply in liberalized electricity markets, different types of capacity mechanisms are currently being debated or have recently been implemented in many European countries. The purpose of this study is to analyze the cross-border effects resulting from different choices on capacity mechanisms in neighboring countries. We consider a model with two connected countries that differ in the regulator's choice on capacity mechanism, namely strategic reserves or capacity payments. In both countries, competitive fi rms invest in generation capacity before selling electricity on the spot market. We characterize market equilibria and find the following main result: While consumers' costs may be the same under both capacity mechanisms in non-connected countries, we show that the different capacity mechanisms in interconnected countries induce redistribution effects. More precisely, we nd that consumers' costs are higher in countries in which reserve capacities are procured than in countries in which capacity payments are used to ensure the targeted reliable level of electricity.

  11. Investigation of interaction between silver oxide electrode and separator hydrated cellulose film in silver-cadmium accumulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molotkova, E.N.; Yarochkina, E.N.

    1975-01-01

    Oxidation-reduction interaction of the oxysilver electrode with hydrocellulose film during storing charged silver-cadmium accumulators. It was demonstrated that accumulator electric characteristics durinq storing are linearly depending on the capacity of this hydrocellulose film to interact with silver oxide: the more silver is absorbed by film the quicker is the decreasing of the electromotive force and capacity of the accumulators. Preservation of the silver electrode capacity in the silver-cadmium accumulators is determined first of all by hydrocellulose separation film properties and especially by film layer adjacent to positive electrode. The more inert film layer is, regarding to silver oxide in the electrolite, the slower is dissolution of the electrode and also decompousing speed of AgO, the longer is the accumulator preservation time

  12. Heat accumulation during sequential cortical bone drilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmisano, Andrew C; Tai, Bruce L; Belmont, Barry; Irwin, Todd A; Shih, Albert; Holmes, James R

    2016-03-01

    Significant research exists regarding heat production during single-hole bone drilling. No published data exist regarding repetitive sequential drilling. This study elucidates the phenomenon of heat accumulation for sequential drilling with both Kirschner wires (K wires) and standard two-flute twist drills. It was hypothesized that cumulative heat would result in a higher temperature with each subsequent drill pass. Nine holes in a 3 × 3 array were drilled sequentially on moistened cadaveric tibia bone kept at body temperature (about 37 °C). Four thermocouples were placed at the center of four adjacent holes and 2 mm below the surface. A battery-driven hand drill guided by a servo-controlled motion system was used. Six samples were drilled with each tool (2.0 mm K wire and 2.0 and 2.5 mm standard drills). K wire drilling increased temperature from 5 °C at the first hole to 20 °C at holes 6 through 9. A similar trend was found in standard drills with less significant increments. The maximum temperatures of both tools increased from drill sizes was found to be insignificant (P > 0.05). In conclusion, heat accumulated during sequential drilling, with size difference being insignificant. K wire produced more heat than its twist-drill counterparts. This study has demonstrated the heat accumulation phenomenon and its significant effect on temperature. Maximizing the drilling field and reducing the number of drill passes may decrease bone injury. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Accumulation of radioactive iron in marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tateda, Yuzuru

    1985-01-01

    The accumulation and excretion of radioactive iron in some marine organisms was investigated by radio-tracer experiments. The concentration factor, biological half-life, distribution in body, and combining form in some organs, are compared and discussed between mollusks and fishes. The results obtained are: 1) The concentration factor of seaweed was higher than those of worm and fish in uptake from seawater. Abalone showed a higher concentration factor than fish. 2) The first component of excretion curve was small in case of a longer period of uptake from seawater. 3) Abalone and octopus showed a higher radioactivity retention than flounder and black-fish. 4) The fish fed labelled seaweed showed a lower radioactivity retention than fish fed labelled worm. 5) The fish fed radioisotopes with prey showed a higher radioactivity retention than fish fed labelled prey. 6) Biological half-lives were longer in abalone and octopus than in fishes. The biological half-lives of radioactive iron in fishes varied according to the uptake modes. 7) The distribution ratio of radioactive iron in organisms were large in the liver and degestive tract. 8) The GFC profile of 59 Fe in some organs of organisms showed combining form of same molecular weight of proteinous matter. (author)

  14. Capacity Maximizing Constellations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsoum, Maged; Jones, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Some non-traditional signal constellations have been proposed for transmission of data over the Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel using such channel-capacity-approaching codes as low-density parity-check (LDPC) or turbo codes. Computational simulations have shown performance gains of more than 1 dB over traditional constellations. These gains could be translated to bandwidth- efficient communications, variously, over longer distances, using less power, or using smaller antennas. The proposed constellations have been used in a bit-interleaved coded modulation system employing state-ofthe-art LDPC codes. In computational simulations, these constellations were shown to afford performance gains over traditional constellations as predicted by the gap between the parallel decoding capacity of the constellations and the Gaussian capacity

  15. Dual capacity reciprocating compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Robert W.

    1984-01-01

    A multi-cylinder compressor 10 particularly useful in connection with northern climate heat pumps and in which different capacities are available in accordance with reversing motor 16 rotation is provided with an eccentric cam 38 on a crank pin 34 under a fraction of the connecting rods, and arranged for rotation upon the crank pin between opposite positions 180.degree. apart so that with cam rotation on the crank pin such that the crank throw is at its normal maximum value all pistons pump at full capacity, and with rotation of the crank shaft in the opposite direction the cam moves to a circumferential position on the crank pin such that the overall crank throw is zero. Pistons 24 whose connecting rods 30 ride on a crank pin 36 without a cam pump their normal rate with either crank rotational direction. Thus a small clearance volume is provided for any piston that moves when in either capacity mode of operation.

  16. Visual attention capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habekost, Thomas; Starrfelt, Randi

    2009-01-01

    Psychophysical studies have identified two distinct limitations of visual attention capacity: processing speed and apprehension span. Using a simple test, these cognitive factors can be analyzed by Bundesen's Theory of Visual Attention (TVA). The method has strong specificity and sensitivity......, and measurements are highly reliable. As the method is theoretically founded, it also has high validity. TVA-based assessment has recently been used to investigate a broad range of neuropsychological and neurological conditions. We present the method, including the experimental paradigm and practical guidelines...... to patient testing, and review existing TVA-based patient studies organized by lesion anatomy. Lesions in three anatomical regions affect visual capacity: The parietal lobes, frontal cortex and basal ganglia, and extrastriate cortex. Visual capacity thus depends on large, bilaterally distributed anatomical...

  17. Phototropin 2 is involved in blue light-induced anthocyanin accumulation in Fragaria x ananassa fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadomura-Ishikawa, Yasuko; Miyawaki, Katsuyuki; Noji, Sumihare; Takahashi, Akira

    2013-11-01

    Anthocyanins are widespread, essential secondary metabolites in higher plants during color development in certain flowers and fruits. In strawberries, anthocyanins are also key contributors to fruit antioxidant capacity and nutritional value. However, the effects of different light qualities on anthocyanin accumulation in strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa, cv. Sachinoka) fruits remain elusive. In the present study, we showed the most efficient increase in anthocyanin content occurred by blue light irradiation. Light sensing at the molecular level was investigated by isolation of two phototropin (FaPHOT1 and FaPHOT2), two cryptochrome (FaCRY1 and FaCRY2), and two phytochrome (FaPHYA and FaPHYB) homologs. Expression analysis revealed only FaPHOT2 transcripts markedly increased depending on fruit developmental stage, and a corresponding increase in anthocyanin content was detected. FaPHOT2 knockdown resulted in decreased anthocyanin content; however, overexpression increased anthocyanin content. These findings suggested blue light induced anthocyanin accumulation, and FaPHOT2 may play a role in sensing blue light, and mediating anthocyanin biosynthesis in strawberry fruits. This is the first report to find a relationship between visible light sensing, and color development in strawberry fruits.

  18. Value for railway capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sameni, Melody Khadem; Preston, John M.

    2012-01-01

    to analyze the efficiency of operators in transforming inputs of allocated capacity of infrastructure and franchise payments into valuable passenger service outputs while avoiding delays. By addressing operational and economic aspects of capacity utilization simultaneously, the paper deviates from existing...... DEA work on the economic efficiency of railways by considering a new combination of input-output that also incorporates quality of service. The constant and variable returns to scale models are applied to the case study of franchised passenger operators in Great Britain. The follow-up Tobit regression...

  19. Accumulation of cobalt by cephalopods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahara, Motokazu

    1981-01-01

    Accumulation of cobalt by cephalopod mollusca was investigated by radiotracer experiments and elemental analysis. In the radiotracer experiments, Octopus vulgaris took up cobalt-60 from seawater fairly well and the concentration of the nuclide in whole body attained about 150 times the level of seawater at 25th day at 20 0 C. Among the tissues and organs measured, branchial heart which is the specific organ of cephalopods showed the highest affinity for the nuclide. The organ accumulated about 50% of the radioactivity in whole body in spite of its little mass as 0.2% of total body weight. On the other hand, more than 90% of the radioactivity taken up from food (soft parts of Gomphina melanaegis labelled with cobalt-60 previously in an aquarium) was accumulated in liver at 3rd day after the single administration and then the radioactivity in the liver seemed to be distributed to other organs and tissues. The characteristic elution profiles of cobalt-60 was observed for each of the organs and tissues in Sephadex gel-filtration experiment. It was confirmed by the gel-filtration that most of cobalt-60 in the branchial heart was combined with the constituents of low molecular weights. The average concentration of stable cobalt in muscle of several species of cephalopods was 5.3 +- 3.0 μg/kg wet and it was almost comparable to the fish muscle. On the basis of soft parts, concentration of the nuclide closed association among bivalve, gastropod and cephalopod except squid that gave lower values than the others. (author)

  20. Evaluation of railway capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex; Kaas, Anders H.; Schittenhelm, Bernd

    2006-01-01

    capacity consumptions. This paper describes the UIC 406 method and how it is expounded in Denmark. The paper describes the importance of choosing the right length of the line sections examined and how line sections with multiple track sections are examined. Furthermore, the possibility of using idle...

  1. Markets and Institutional Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingemann, Jan Holm

    2010-01-01

    Adequate explanations concerning the introduction of production and consumption of organic food in Denmark imply the necessity to engage a certain understanding of markets. Markets should subsequently not be seen as entities nor places but as complex relations between human actors. Further......, the establishment, maintenance and development of markets are depending on the capacity of the actors to enter into continuous and enhancing interplay....

  2. Expression of zinc and cadmium responsive genes in leaves of willow (Salix caprea L.) genotypes with different accumulation characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konlechner, Cornelia; Türktaş, Mine; Langer, Ingrid; Vaculík, Marek; Wenzel, Walter W.; Puschenreiter, Markus; Hauser, Marie-Theres

    2013-01-01

    Salix caprea is well suited for phytoextraction strategies. In a previous survey we showed that genetically distinct S. caprea plants isolated from metal-polluted and unpolluted sites differed in their zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) tolerance and accumulation abilities. To determine the molecular basis of this difference we examined putative homologues of genes involved in heavy metal responses and identified over 200 new candidates with a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) screen. Quantitative expression analyses of 20 genes in leaves revealed that some metallothioneins and cell wall modifying genes were induced irrespective of the genotype's origin and metal uptake capacity while a cysteine biosynthesis gene was expressed constitutively higher in the metallicolous genotype. The third and largest group of genes was only induced in the metallicolous genotype. These data demonstrate that naturally adapted woody non-model species can help to discover potential novel molecular mechanisms for metal accumulation and tolerance. -- Highlights: ► The transcriptional Zn/Cd response of the willow Salix caprea was quantified. ► Two genotypes from a highly contaminated and a control environment were compared. ► In addition to candidate genes an SSH library revealed over 200 metal induced genes. ► Constitutive upregulation and isolate-specific induction of genes were revealed. ► Willows adapt to environmental Zn/Cd contamination on the transcriptional level. -- Expression analyzes reveal different responses to Cd and Zn exposure of S. caprea genotypes with different heavy metal accumulation abilities

  3. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant capacity increase options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, D.E.

    1996-04-01

    Studies are being conducted by the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) Project on ways to increase the waste processing capacity within the current Vitrification Building structural design. The Phase 1 study on remote systems concepts identification and extent of capacity increase was completed. The study concluded that the HWVP capacity could be increased to four times the current capacity with minor design adjustments to the fixed facility design, and the required design changes would not impact the current footprint of the vitrification building. A further increase in production capacity may be achievable but would require some technology development, verification testing, and a more systematic and extensive engineering evaluation. The primary changes included a single advance melter with a higher capacity, new evaporative feed tank, offgas quench collection tank, ejector venturi scrubbers, and additional inner canister closure station,a smear test station, a new close- coupled analytical facility, waste hold capacity of 400,000 gallon, the ability to concentrate out-of-plant HWVP feed to 90 g/L waste oxide concentration, and limited changes to the current base slab construction package

  4. The mechanism of metal nanoparticle formation in plants: limits on accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haverkamp, R. G., E-mail: r.haverkamp@massey.ac.nz; Marshall, A. T. [Massey University, School of Engineering and Advanced Technology (New Zealand)

    2009-08-15

    Metal nanoparticles have many potential technological applications. Biological routes to the synthesis of these particles have been proposed including production by vascular plants, known as phytoextraction. While many studies have looked at metal uptake by plants, particularly with regard to phytoremediation and hyperaccumulation, few have distinguished between metal deposition and metal salt accumulation. This work describes the uptake of AgNO{sub 3}, Na{sub 3}Ag(S{sub 2}O{sub 3}){sub 2}, and Ag(NH{sub 3}){sub 2}NO{sub 3} solutions by hydroponically grown Brassica juncea and the quantitative measurement of the conversion of these salts to silver metal nanoparticles. Using X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) to determine the metal speciation within the plants, combined with atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) for total Ag, the quantity of reduction of Ag{sup I} to Ag{sup 0} is reported. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed Ag particles of 2-35 nm. The factors controlling the amount of silver accumulated are revealed. It is found that there is a limit on the amount of metal nanoparticles that may be deposited, of about 0.35 wt.% Ag on a dry plant basis, and that higher levels of silver are obtained only by the concentration of metal salts within the plant, not by deposition of metal. The limit on metal nanoparticle accumulation, across a range of metals, is proposed to be controlled by the total reducing capacity of the plant for the reduction potential of the metal species and limited to reactions occurring at an electrochemical potential greater than 0 V (verses the standard hydrogen electrode).

  5. Spirometry, Static Lung Volumes, and Diffusing Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz Fragoso, Carlos A; Cain, Hilary C; Casaburi, Richard; Lee, Patty J; Iannone, Lynne; Leo-Summers, Linda S; Van Ness, Peter H

    2017-09-01

    Spirometric Z-scores from the Global Lung Initiative (GLI) rigorously account for age-related changes in lung function and are thus age-appropriate when establishing spirometric impairments, including a restrictive pattern and air-flow obstruction. However, GLI-defined spirometric impairments have not yet been evaluated regarding associations with static lung volumes (total lung capacity [TLC], functional residual capacity [FRC], and residual volume [RV]) and gas exchange (diffusing capacity). We performed a retrospective review of pulmonary function tests in subjects ≥40 y old (mean age 64.6 y), including pre-bronchodilator measures for: spirometry ( n = 2,586), static lung volumes by helium dilution with inspiratory capacity maneuver ( n = 2,586), and hemoglobin-adjusted single-breath diffusing capacity ( n = 2,508). Using multivariable linear regression, adjusted least-squares means (adj LS Means) were calculated for TLC, FRC, RV, and hemoglobin-adjusted single-breath diffusing capacity. The adj LS Means were expressed with and without height-cubed standardization and stratified by GLI-defined spirometry, including normal ( n = 1,251), restrictive pattern ( n = 663), and air-flow obstruction (mild, [ n = 128]; moderate, [ n = 150]; and severe, [ n = 394]). Relative to normal spirometry, restrictive-pattern had lower adj LS Means for TLC, FRC, RV, and hemoglobin-adjusted single-breath diffusing capacity ( P ≤ .001). Conversely, relative to normal spirometry, mild, moderate, and severe air-flow obstruction had higher adj LS Means for FRC and RV ( P < .001). However, only mild and moderate air-flow obstruction had higher adj LS Means for TLC ( P < .001), while only moderate and severe air-flow obstruction had higher adj LS Means for RV/TLC ( P < .001) and lower adj LS Means for hemoglobin-adjusted single-breath diffusing capacity ( P < .001). Notably, TLC (calculated as FRC + inspiratory capacity) was not increased in severe air-flow obstruction ( P ≥ .11

  6. Regeneration limit of classical Shannon capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokina, M. A.; Turitsyn, S. K.

    2014-05-01

    Since Shannon derived the seminal formula for the capacity of the additive linear white Gaussian noise channel, it has commonly been interpreted as the ultimate limit of error-free information transmission rate. However, the capacity above the corresponding linear channel limit can be achieved when noise is suppressed using nonlinear elements; that is, the regenerative function not available in linear systems. Regeneration is a fundamental concept that extends from biology to optical communications. All-optical regeneration of coherent signal has attracted particular attention. Surprisingly, the quantitative impact of regeneration on the Shannon capacity has remained unstudied. Here we propose a new method of designing regenerative transmission systems with capacity that is higher than the corresponding linear channel, and illustrate it by proposing application of the Fourier transform for efficient regeneration of multilevel multidimensional signals. The regenerative Shannon limit—the upper bound of regeneration efficiency—is derived.

  7. Lead Tolerance and Accumulation in White Poplar Cultivated In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branislav Kovačević

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: This paper analyses the lead tolerance and accumulation in white poplar genotypes in vitro, in order to optimize genotype evaluation and other procedures in their implementation in phytoremediation projects and landscaping in areas endangered by lead accumulation. Material and Methods: The lead tolerance and accumulation of five white poplar genotypes after 35 days in vitro cultivation on media supplemented with lead was examined. The following Pb(NO32 concentrations were used: 0, 10-6, 10-5, 10-4 and 10-3 M. Tolerance analysis (described by tolerance indices was based on morphological parameters, biomass accumulation and the content of photosynthetic pigments, while lead accumulation was described by shoot lead accumulation and shoot lead content. Results and Conclusions: The chosen lead concentrations appeared not to be lethal. Moreover, the obtained results showed that the tested lead concentrations had a positive effect on: number of formed roots, shoot moisture content and shoot height. The best differentiation among the examined genotypes was gained by the tolerance index based on the shoot height on 10-4 M Pb(NO32. The shoot lead accumulation and shoot lead content significantly increased on 10-4 and 10-3 M Pb(NO32 media. Thus, the concentration of 10-4 M Pb(NO32 is recommended for further research. Two examined genotypes of horticultural value (LCM and LBM achieved a significantly higher lead shoot content compared to the wide spread genotype “Villafranca” (almost 200% and 125% higher, respectively.

  8. Biota-Sediment Accumulation Factor Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Biota-Sediment Accumulation Factor contains approximately 20,000 biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) from 20 locations (mostly Superfund sites) for...

  9. Charge accumulation in lossy dielectrics: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jørgen Knøster; McAllister, Iain Wilson; Crichton, George C

    1999-01-01

    At present, the phenomenon of charge accumulation in solid dielectrics is under intense experimental study. Using a field theoretical approach, we review the basis for charge accumulation in lossy dielectrics. Thereafter, this macroscopic approach is applied to planar geometries such that the mat......At present, the phenomenon of charge accumulation in solid dielectrics is under intense experimental study. Using a field theoretical approach, we review the basis for charge accumulation in lossy dielectrics. Thereafter, this macroscopic approach is applied to planar geometries...

  10. Appendix D-12A Building 332C Waste Accumulation Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chase, D

    2005-01-01

    This appendix is designed to provide information specific to the Building 332C Waste Accumulation Area (B-332C WAA), a waste storage area. This appendix is not designed to be used as a sole source of information. All general information that is not specific to the B-332C WAA is included in the Contingency Plan for Waste Accumulation Areas, dated July 2004, and should be referenced. The B-332C WAA is located in the southwest quadrant of the LLNL Main Site in Building 332, Room 1330. Hazardous and mixed wastes may be stored at the B-332C WAA for 90 days or less, until transferred to the appropriate Radioactive and Hazardous Waste Management (RHWM) facility or other permitted treatment, storage or disposal facility (TSDF). Radioactive waste may also be stored at the WAA. The design storage capacity of this WAA is 2,200 gallons

  11. Radiocaesium accumulation by different plant species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filiptsova, G.G.

    2000-01-01

    Using the model object influence of mineral nutritions level on radiocaesium accumulation by different plant species has been studied. It was shown the wheat roots accumulation the minimal value on radiocaesium on normal potassium level, the rye roots accumulation maximal level radiocaesium. (authors)

  12. 47 CFR 32.3100 - Accumulated depreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accumulated depreciation. 32.3100 Section 32... Accumulated depreciation. (a) This account shall include the accumulated depreciation associated with the... with depreciation amounts concurrently charged to Account 6561, Depreciation expense—telecommunications...

  13. Nickel-accumulating plant from Western Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Severne, B C; Brooks, R R

    1972-01-01

    A small shrub Hybanthus floribundus (Lindl.) F. Muell. Violaceae growing in Western Australia accumulates nickel and cobalt to a very high degree. Values of up to 23% nickel in leaf ash may represent the highest relative accumulation of a metal on record. The high accumulation of nickel poses interesting problems in plant physiology and plant biochemistry. 9 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  14. Energy Accumulation by Hydrogen Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiřina Čermáková

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic power plants as a renewable energy source have been receiving rapidly growing attention in the Czech Republic and in the other EU countries. This rapid development of photovoltaic sources is having a negative effect on the electricity power system control, because they depend on the weather conditions and provide a variable and unreliable supply of electric power. One way to reduce this effect is by accumulating electricity in hydrogen. The aim of this paper is to introduce hydrogen as a tool for regulating photovoltaic energy in island mode. A configuration has been designed for connecting households with the photovoltaic hybrid system, and a simulation model has been made in order to check the validity of this system. The simulation results provide energy flows and have been used for optimal sizing of real devices. An appropriate system can deliver energy in a stand-alone installation.

  15. Electron-Positron Accumulator (EPA)

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service

    1986-01-01

    After acceleration in the low-current linac LIL-W, the electrons and positrons are accumulated in EPA to obtain a sufficient intensity and a suitable time-structure, before being passed on to the PS for further acceleration to 3.5 GeV. Electrons circulate from right to left, positrons in the other direction. Dipole bending magnets are red, focusing quadrupoles blue, sextupoles for chromaticity-control orange. The vertical tube at the left of the picture belongs to an optical transport system carrying the synchrotron radiation to detectors for beam size measurement. Construction of EPA was completed in spring 1986. LIL-W and EPA were conceived for an energy of 600 MeV, but operation was limited to 500 MeV.

  16. Nickel accumulation by Hybanthus floribundus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Severne, B C

    1974-04-26

    Several ecotypes of Hybanthus floribundus are found across the southern part of Australia. However, the three nickel accumulating ecotypes are restricted to a broad belt in Western Australia. Nickel concentrations in this shrub were observed to decrease southwards (from 8000 to 1000 p.p.m.) as the annual rainfall increased from 7 inches to more than 30 inches. Studies have shown that nickel concentrations increase from the roots through the rootstock, into the stems and reach maximum towards the leaf tips. High nickel concentrations are also seen in seed capsules (1500 p.p.m.), seeds (2000 p.p.m.) and flowers. The maximum nickel concentration recorded is 1.6% (26% nickel in ash) in mature leaf tissue. 16 references, 2 tables.

  17. Neuronal discrimination capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Yingchun; Williams, Peter; Feng Jianfeng; Liu Feng

    2003-01-01

    We explore neuronal mechanisms of discriminating between masked signals. It is found that when the correlation between input signals is zero, the output signals are separable if and only if input signals are separable. With positively (negatively) correlated signals, the output signals are separable (mixed) even when input signals are mixed (separable). Exact values of discrimination capacity are obtained for two most interesting cases: the exactly balanced inhibitory and excitatory input case and the uncorrelated input case. Interestingly, the discrimination capacity obtained in these cases is independent of model parameters, input distribution and is universal. Our results also suggest a functional role of inhibitory inputs and correlated inputs or, more generally, the large variability of efferent spike trains observed in in vivo experiments: the larger the variability of efferent spike trains, the easier it is to discriminate between masked input signals

  18. Neuronal discrimination capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng Yingchun [Department of Mathematics, Hunan Normal University 410081, Changsha (China); COGS, University of Sussex at Brighton, BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Williams, Peter; Feng Jianfeng [COGS, University of Sussex at Brighton, BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Liu Feng [COGS, University of Sussex at Brighton, BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Physics Department, Nanjing University (China)

    2003-12-19

    We explore neuronal mechanisms of discriminating between masked signals. It is found that when the correlation between input signals is zero, the output signals are separable if and only if input signals are separable. With positively (negatively) correlated signals, the output signals are separable (mixed) even when input signals are mixed (separable). Exact values of discrimination capacity are obtained for two most interesting cases: the exactly balanced inhibitory and excitatory input case and the uncorrelated input case. Interestingly, the discrimination capacity obtained in these cases is independent of model parameters, input distribution and is universal. Our results also suggest a functional role of inhibitory inputs and correlated inputs or, more generally, the large variability of efferent spike trains observed in in vivo experiments: the larger the variability of efferent spike trains, the easier it is to discriminate between masked input signals.

  19. PAYMENT CAPACITY SENSITIVITY FACTORS

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel BRÎNDESCU – OLARIU

    2014-01-01

    The current study focuses on the sensitivity of the corporate payment capacity. Through the nature of the subject, the research is based on simulating variations of the forecasted cash-flows of the companies included in the sample. The study employs 391 forecasted yearly cash-flows statements collected from 50 companies from Timis County (Romania), as well as the detailed hypotheses of the forecasts. The results of the study facilitate the determination and classification of the main se...

  20. Options on capacity imbalance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roggen, M.

    2002-01-01

    Since the start of this year, the Dutch energy company Nuon has been using a computer system to formulate real-time responses to national capacity imbalances in the electricity supply market. The work earns Nuon a fixed fee from TenneT (Dutch Transmission System Operator) and ensures a more stable imbalance price for everyone. The key to success has been the decision to start the project from scratch [nl

  1. CSTI High Capacity Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    The SP-100 program was established in 1983 by DOD, DOE, and NASA as a joint program to develop the technology necessary for space nuclear power systems for military and civil application. During FY-86 and 87, the NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology Program was devised to maintain the momentum of promising technology advancement efforts started during Phase 1 of SP-100 and to strengthen, in key areas, the chances for successful development and growth capability of space nuclear reactor power systems for future space applications. In FY-88, the Advanced Technology Program was incorporated into NASA's new Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). The CSTI Program was established to provide the foundation for technology development in automation and robotics, information, propulsion, and power. The CSTI High Capacity Power Program builds on the technology efforts of the SP-100 program, incorporates the previous NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology project, and provides a bridge to NASA Project Pathfinder. The elements of CSTI High Capacity Power development include Conversion Systems, Thermal Management, Power Management, System Diagnostics, and Environmental Interactions. Technology advancement in all areas, including materials, is required to assure the high reliability and 7 to 10 year lifetime demanded for future space nuclear power systems. The overall program will develop and demonstrate the technology base required to provide a wide range of modular power systems as well as allowing mission independence from solar and orbital attitude requirements. Several recent advancements in CSTI High Capacity power development will be discussed

  2. /sup 60/Co accumulation by freshwater plants under natural conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trapeznikov, A V; Trapeznikova, V N [AN SSSR, Sverdlovsk. Inst. Ehkologii Rastenij i Zhivotnykh

    1979-03-01

    In search for effective bioindicators of radioactive contamination of cooler-reservoirs in atomic power plants the accumulation of /sup 60/Co by four species of higher aquatic plants most widely distributed in the Urals was studied, namely by Elodea canadensis, Ceratophyllum demersum, Lemna minor and Potamogeton pectinatus. It is shown that such plants as Ceratophyllum demersum and Elodea canadensis having the accumulation coefficients of /sup 60/Co 33,500 and 21,500, respectively, can be recommended as bioindicators of this radionuclide in reservoirs contaminated with radioactive cobalt.

  3. On 60Co accumulation by freshwater plants under natural conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trapeznikov, A.V.; Trapeznikova, V.N.

    1979-01-01

    In search for effective bioindicators of radioactive contamination of cooler-reservoirs in atomic power plants the accumulation of 60 Co by four species of higher aquatic plants most widely distributed in the Urals was studied, namely by Elodea canadensis, Ceratophyllum demersum, Lemna minor and Potamogeton pectinatus. It is shown that such plants as Ceratophyllum demersum and Elodea canadensis having the accumulation coefficients of 60 Co 33,500 and 21,500, respectively, can be recommended as bioindicators of this radionuclide in reservoirs contaminated with radioactive cobalt

  4. Electrochemical impedance studies of capacity fading of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-06-09

    Jun 9, 2017 ... low cost, and has a theoretical capacity of 978 mAh g. −1. , which is higher than that of ..... Projections of (a) 100 and (b) 110 crystal planes of wurtzite ZnO showing their non-polar nature. Dashed horizontal lines identify .... ernment of India, for financial support through the award of a Ramanna Fellowship to ...

  5. Competence building capacity shortage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doorman, Gerard; Wangensteen, Ivar; Bakken, Bjoern

    2005-02-01

    The objective of the project 'Competence Building Capacity Shortage' has been 'to increase knowledge about central approaches aimed at solving the peaking capacity problem in restructured power systems'. With respect to reserve markets, a model was developed in the project to analyze the relations between reserve requirements and prices in the spot and reserve markets respectively. A mathematical model was also developed and implemented, which also includes the balance market, and has a good ability to predict the relations between these markets under various assumptions. With some further development, this model can be used fore realistic analyses of these markets in a Nordic context. It was also concluded that certain system requirements with respect to frequency and time deviation can be relaxed without adverse effects. However, the requirements to system bias, Frequency Activated Operating Reserves and Frequency Activated Contingency Reserves cannot be relaxed, the latter because they must cover the dimensioning fault in the system. On the other hand, Fast Contingency Reserves can be reduced by removing requirements to national balances. Costs can furthermore be reduced by increasingly adapting a Nordic as opposed to national approach. A model for stepwise power flow was developed in the project, which is especially useful to analyze slow power system dynamics. This is relevant when analysing the effects of reserve requirements. A model for the analysis of the capacity balance in Norway and Sweden was also developed. This model is useful for looking at the future balance under various assumptions regarding e.g. weather conditions, demand growth and the development of the generation system. With respect to the present situation, if there is some price flexibility on the demand side and system operators are able to use reserves from the demand side, the probability for load shedding during the peak load hour is close to zero under the weather conditions after

  6. Radionuclide accumulation peculiarities demonstrated by vegetable varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruk, A.V.; Goncharenko, G.G.; Kilchevsky, A.V.

    2004-01-01

    This study focused on ecological and genetic aspects of radionuclide accumulation demonstrated by a number of vegetable varieties. The researches resulted in determining the cabbage varieties which were characterised by the minimal level of radionuclide accumulation. It was shown that the above varieties manifested the relation between radionuclide accumulation and morphobiological characteristics such as vegetation period duration and yield criteria. The study specified the genotypes with high ecological stability as regards to radionuclide accumulation: 'Beloruskaya 85' cabbage and 'Dokhodny' tomato showed the best response to Cs 137, while 'Beloruskaya 85', 'Rusinovka', 'Amager 611' cabbage varieties and 'Sprint' tomato showed the minimal level of Sr 90 accumulation. (authors)

  7. Guidelines for Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to set conditions for establishing and maintaining areas for the accumulation of hazardous waste at LBL. Areas designed for accumulation of these wastes in quantities greater than 100 kg (220 lb) per month of solid waste or 55 gallons per month of liquid waste are called Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs). Areas designed for accumulation of wastes in smaller amounts are called Satellite Accumulation Areas (SAAs). This document provides guidelines for employee and organizational responsibilities for WAAs; constructing a WAA; storing waste in a WAA; operating and maintaining a WAA, and responding to spills in a WAA. 4 figs

  8. Accumulation of heavy metals in a tropical soil type Oxisol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynaldo, I.M.; Escudey, M.; Utria, E.; Garcia, D.; Cartaya, O.; Morua, A.

    2003-01-01

    In this investigation sewage sludges from Quibu plant, located in City of the Havana, with the objective of evaluating the capacity of accumulation of heavy metals in a tropical soil type Oxisol when in the wheat plants are cultivated (Triticum aestivum L.) , as well as the potential damages in this plants. Rates of 0, 60, 180 and 300 sludges tons/ soil hectare was applied and the plants were growth in recipient of 5 L of capacity. The levels of heavy metals were evaluated before the and after the crop. The extraction one carries out with the mixture HCl:HNO3 and they were determined by spectroscopy inductively coupled to plasma. Presence of Zn, Cu and Pb were detected in sludges and a tendency decrease is observed to heavy metals retention is observed in soil with the increase of the disposition rate together to a differential behavior of the different chemical species

  9. Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Ricinus communis L. from Mn Contaminated Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YI Xin-yu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Xiangbi No. 1 and Zibi No. 7 were planted in the Mn contaminated soils to explore its potential of ecological remediation and ener-gy utilization in the areas of Mn contaminated site. The major nutrient elements and the concentrations of heavy metals(Mn, Pb, Zn, Cu and Cr in different parts(root, branch and leaf and topsoil samples were detected after entering into the period of reproductive growth.The results showed that the average content of Mn was as high as 7 884.96 mg·kg-1,which exceeded 6.5 times of national soil environmental quality standard(level 2.The mean level of Mn in tissues of Xiangbi No. 1 was found to be in the sequence of root>leaf>branch,whereas,the mean level of Mn in different parts of Zibi No. 7 was found to be in the order of leaf>fruit>branchroot respectively. The average concentration of Mn in the leaf reached the peak value(765.43 mg·kg-1,which was higher than Xiangbi No.1 about 79.53%.The leaf/root ratios of Pb, Cu, Cr contents in Zibi No. 7 were higher than those of Xiangbi No. 1 samples.The accumulation and translocation in plants was affect-ed by different heavy metal elements in soils.The results demonstrated that Zibi No. 7 had a better uptake and translocation capacity of Mn,Pb,Cu and Cr, meanwhile,plants of two species had differences in accumulation and translocation ability and were proved to possess good Mn-tolerance ability for remediation of heavy metal contaminated soils.

  10. 1992 Annual Capacity Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The Standard Contract for Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and/or High-Level Radioactive Waste (10 CFR Part 961) requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to issue an Annual Capacity Report (ACR) for planning purposes. This report is the fifth in the series published by DOE. In May 1993, DOE published the 1992 Acceptance Priority Ranking (APR) that established the order in which DOE will allocate projected acceptance capacity. As required by the Standard Contract, the acceptance priority ranking is based on the date the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) was permanently discharged, with the owners of the oldest SNF, on an industry-wide basis, given the highest priority. The 1992 ACR applies the projected waste acceptance rates in Table 2.1 to the 1992 APR, resulting in individual allocations for the owners and generators of the SNF. These allocations are listed in detail in the Appendix, and summarized in Table 3.1. The projected waste acceptance rates for SNF presented in Table 2.1 are nominal and assume a site for a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility will be obtained; the facility will initiate operations in 1998; and the statutory linkages between the MRS facility and the repository set forth in the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended (NWPA), will be modified. During the first ten years following projected commencement of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) operation, the total quantity of SNF that could be accepted is projected to be 8,200 metric tons of uranium (MTU). This is consistent with the storage capacity licensing conditions imposed on an MRS facility by the NWPA. The annual acceptance rates provide an approximation of the system throughput and are subject to change as the program progresses

  11. Quantum reading capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirandola, Stefano; Braunstein, Samuel L; Lupo, Cosmo; Mancini, Stefano; Giovannetti, Vittorio

    2011-01-01

    The readout of a classical memory can be modelled as a problem of quantum channel discrimination, where a decoder retrieves information by distinguishing the different quantum channels encoded in each cell of the memory (Pirandola 2011 Phys. Rev. Lett. 106 090504). In the case of optical memories, such as CDs and DVDs, this discrimination involves lossy bosonic channels and can be remarkably boosted by the use of nonclassical light (quantum reading). Here we generalize these concepts by extending the model of memory from single-cell to multi-cell encoding. In general, information is stored in a block of cells by using a channel-codeword, i.e. a sequence of channels chosen according to a classical code. Correspondingly, the readout of data is realized by a process of ‘parallel’ channel discrimination, where the entire block of cells is probed simultaneously and decoded via an optimal collective measurement. In the limit of a large block we define the quantum reading capacity of the memory, quantifying the maximum number of readable bits per cell. This notion of capacity is nontrivial when we suitably constrain the physical resources of the decoder. For optical memories (encoding bosonic channels), such a constraint is energetic and corresponds to fixing the mean total number of photons per cell. In this case, we are able to prove a separation between the quantum reading capacity and the maximum information rate achievable by classical transmitters, i.e. arbitrary classical mixtures of coherent states. In fact, we can easily construct nonclassical transmitters that are able to outperform any classical transmitter, thus showing that the advantages of quantum reading persist in the optimal multi-cell scenario. (paper)

  12. Capacity at Railway Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2011-01-01

    zone(s) the possible conflicts with other trains (also in the opposite direction) are taken into account leading to more trustworthy results. Although the UIC 406 methodology proposes that the railway network should be divided into line sections when trains turn around and when the train order...... is changed, this paper recommends that the railway lines are not always be divided. In case trains turn around on open (single track) line, the capacity consumption may be too low if a railway line is divided. The same can be the case if only few trains are overtaken at an overtaking station. For dead end...

  13. Carbon accumulation in peatlands of West Siberia over the last 2000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beilman, David W.; MacDonald, Glen M.; Smith, Laurence C.; Reimer, Paula J.

    2009-03-01

    We use a network of cores from 77 peatland sites to determine controls on peat C content and peat C accumulation over the last 2000 years (since 2 ka) across Russia's West Siberian Lowland (WSL), the world's largest wetland region. Our results show a significant influence of fossil plant composition on peat C content, with peats dominated by Sphagnum having a lower C content. Radiocarbon-derived C accumulation since 2 ka at 23 sites is highly variable from site to site, but displays a significant N-S trend of decreasing accumulation at higher latitudes. Northern WSL peatlands show relatively small C accumulation of 7 to 35 kg C m-2 since 2 ka. In contrast, peatlands south of 60°N show larger accumulation of 42 to 88 kg C m-2. Carbon accumulation since 2 ka varies significantly with modern mean annual air temperature, with maximum C accumulation found between -1 and 0°C. Rates of apparent C accumulation since 2 ka show no significant relationship to long-term Holocene averages based on total C accumulation. A GIS-based extrapolation of our site data suggests that a substantial amount (˜40%) of total WSL peat C has accumulated since 2 ka, with much of this accumulation south of 60°N. The large peatlands in the southern WSL may be an important component of the Eurasian terrestrial C sink, and future warming could result in a shift northward in long-term WSL C sequestration.

  14. Deficiency of employability capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelse I.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Young unemployed people have comprised one of the significantly largest groups of the unemployed people in Latvia in recent years. One of the reasons why young people have difficulty integrating into the labour market is the “expectation gap” that exists in the relations between employers and the new generation of workers. Employers focus on capacity-building for employability such individual factors as strength, patience, self-discipline, self-reliance, self-motivation, etc., which having a nature of habit and are developed in a long-term work socialization process, which begins even before the formal education and will continue throughout the life cycle. However, when the socialization is lost, these habits are depreciated faster than they can be restored. Currently a new generation is entering the labour market, which is missing the succession of work socialization. Factors, such as rising unemployment and poverty in the background over the past twenty years in Latvia have created a very unfavourable employability background of “personal circumstances” and “external factors”, which seriously have impaired formation of the skills and attitudes in a real work environment. The study reveals another paradox – the paradox of poverty. Common sense would want to argue that poverty can be overcome by the job. However, the real state of affairs shows that unfavourable coincidence of the individual, personal circumstances and external factors leads to deficit of employability capacity and possibility of marked social and employment deprivation.

  15. Effects of melanin on the accumulation of exopolysaccharides by Aureobasidium pullulans grown on nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Weifa; Campbell, Bradley S; McDougall, Barbara M; Seviour, Robert J

    2008-11-01

    Aureobasidium pullulans produced pullulan and melanin when grown in medium containing low nitrate levels. With high nitrate concentrations, however, this fungus produced a mixture of exopolysaccharides (EPS) without melanin synthesis. At 0.78 g l(-1) N as nitrate, where no melanin synthesis occurred, maximum EPS yields reached 6.92 g l(-1) and then decreased to the final yield of 2.36 g l(-1). Following melanin addition (0.1 g l(-1)), yields reached 7.02 g l(-1) at 48 h and fell to a final yield of 5.21 g l(-1). The EPS produced in high nitrate medium contained both pullulan and (1-->3)-beta-glucan, but only pullulan was produced with melanin-supplementation. With melanin addition a doubling of (1-->3)-beta-glucanase activity was observed in high nitrate medium compared to that without supplementation. On the other hand amylolytic activities disappeared in medium with melanin production or addition. Culture filtrates sustained a higher reducing capacity (RC) when melanin was present. Low RC appeared to reduce (1-->3)-beta-glucanase activity and increase amylolytic activities. Thus, higher RC appears to inhibit production/activity of amylose-degrading enzymes capable of degrading pullulan, and stimulates (1-->3)-beta-glucanase synthesis/activity, leading to a preferential accumulation of pullulan.

  16. A newly found cadmium accumulator-Taraxacum mongolicum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Shuhe; Zhou Qixing; Mathews, Shiny

    2008-01-01

    Identification of hyperaccumulator and accumulator is still key step of phytoextracting-contaminated soils by heavy metals. In a former published experiment, Taraxacum mongolicum showed basic characteristics of hyperaccumulators. In order to confirm if this plant was a Cd-hyperaccumulator, concentration gradient experiment and sample-analyzing experiments were designed and performed. The results showed that Cd enrichment factor and Cd transformation factor of T. mongolicum were all higher than 1 in concentration gradient experiment. The shoot biomasses did not reduced significantly (p -1 Cd spiked into soil. However, Cd concentration in shoot of T. mongolicum was not higher than 100 mg kg -1 the minimum a Cd-hyperaccumulator should have under the conditions of any concentration level of Cd spiked. Thus, T. mongolicum should be a Cd-accumulator. In the sample-analyzing experiments settled in a Pb-Zn mine area and Shenyang wastewater irrigation region, T. mongolicum also showed that Cd-accumulator characteristics. Based on these results, T. mongolicum could be identified as a Cd-accumulator, which may have important implication in plant physiology and gene engineering

  17. Experiments on accumulation of phosphorus in the plants Myosotis palustris, Glyceria maxima and Nasturtium officinale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Prokopchuk

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The problem of availability of quality water is highly relevant today, so the technologies of prediction and prevention of water pollution and purification are very important. Biological methods of cleaning, in paticular cleaning water by the so-called method of biosorption, have been increasingly used in the last decade. This method means the removal of dangerous substances and improvement of water condition by using aquatic organisms, in particular plants. Therefore, in view of the rich experience of research conducted in the biosorption sphere, we decided to predict the effectiveness of this method by using the cumulative ability of higher water plants to absorb phosphorus compounds. For this purpose, we selected water and plant samples (Glyceria maxima (C. Hartm. Holmb., Nasturtium officinale R. Br., Myosotis palustris (L. L. from the river Seret (Ternopil, Ukraine. The plants were placed into sterilized glass jars filled with 3 liters of water from the river Seret (control samples and still tap water with addition of sodium phosphate with phosphorus concentration of 3.5 mg/dm³ (research sample, which were cultured in laboratory conditions for four months. We determined the content of phosphates, permanganate and dichromate oxidation in the water and the total content of phosphorus in the plants. We traced the dynamic of organic substances and the content of phosphates in the water, the accumulation of phosphorus in plants and the rate of accumulation of phosphorus in the plants and in the water. We calculated correlation coefficients to detect the dependence between phosphorus indicators in the aquatic plants and the concentration of phosphate ions in the water. We found that M. palustris had the greatest capacity to accumulate phosphorus and the highest rate of phosphorus accumulation from water, which allows us to consider it the most effective aquatic plant for absorption of elements and decreasing water pollution. We also established

  18. Synthesis on accumulation of putative neurotransmitters by cultured neural crest cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, G.D.; Sietz, P.D.; Rafford, C.E.

    1982-01-01

    The events mediating the differentiation of embryonic neural crest cells into several types of neurons are incompletely understood. In order to probe one aspect of this differentiation, we have examined the capacity of cultured quail trunk neural crest cells to synthesize, from radioactive precursors, and store several putative neurotransmitter compounds. These neural crest cultures develop the capacity to synthesize and accumulate acetylcholine and the catecholamines norepinephrine and dopamine. In contrast, detectable but relatively little synthesis and accumulation of 5-hydroxytryptamine gamma-aminobutyric acid, or octopamine from the appropriate radiolabeled precursors were observed. The capacity for synthesis and accumulation of radiolabeled acetylcholine and catecholamines is very low or absent at 2 days in vitro. Between 3 and 7 days in vitro, there is a marked rise in both catecholamine and acetylcholine accumulation in the cultures. These findings suggest that, under the particular conditions used in these experiments, the development of neurotransmitter biosynthesis in trunk neural crest cells ijs restricted and resembles, at least partially, the pattern observed in vivo. The development of this capacity to synthesize and store radiolabeled acetylcholine and catecholamines from the appropriate radioactive precursors coincides closely with the development of the activities of the synthetic enzymes choline acetyltransferase and dopamine beta-hydroxylase reported by others

  19. Decision scenario analysis for addressing sediment accumulation in Lago Lucchetti, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Bayesian belief network (BBN) was used to characterize the effects of sediment accumulation on water storage capacity of a reservoir (Lago Lucchetti) in southwest Puerto Rico and the potential of different management options to increase reservoir life expectancy. Water and sedi...

  20. ACCUMULATION AND CONSUMPTION IN MICROECONOMIC SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serghey A. Amelkin

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Two main processes are common for an economic system. They are consumption and accumulation. The first one is described by utility function, either cardinal or ordinal one. The mathematical model for accumulation process can be constructed using wealth function introduced within the frame of irreversible microeconomics. Characteristics of utility and wealth functions are compared and a problem of extreme performance of resources exchange process is solved for a case when both the consumption and accumulation exist.

  1. 1990s: High Capacity Backbones

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. 1990s: High Capacity Backbones. Backbone capacities increased from 2.5 Gb/s to 100s of Gb/s during the 1990's. Wavelength division multiplexing with 160 waves of 10 Gb/s was commercially available. Several high-capacity backbones built in the US and Europe.

  2. Competitive Capacity Investment under Uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    X. Li (Xishu); R.A. Zuidwijk (Rob); M.B.M. de Koster (René); R. Dekker (Rommert)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe consider a long-term capacity investment problem in a competitive market under demand uncertainty. Two firms move sequentially in the competition and a firm’s capacity decision interacts with the other firm’s current and future capacity. Throughout the investment race, a firm can

  3. Integrated capacity and inventory decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dellaert, N.P.; Flapper, S.D.P.; Tan, T.; Jeunet, J.; Klatte, D.; Lüthi, H.-J.; Schmedders, K.

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the simultaneous acquisition of capacity and material in a situation with uncertain demand, with non-zero lead-times for the supply of both material and capacity. Although there is a lot of literature on the time-phased acquisition of capacity and material, most of this

  4. Landfill Construction and Capacity Expansion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andre, F.J.; Cerda, E.

    2003-01-01

    We study the optimal capacity and lifetime of landfills taking into account their sequential nature.Such an optimal capacity is characterized by the so-called Optimal Capacity Condition.Particular versions of this condition are obtained for two alternative settings: first, if all the landfills are

  5. Accumulation of metal ions by pectinates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deiana, S.; Deiana, L.; Palma, A.; Premoli, A.; Senette, C.

    2009-04-01

    The knowledge of the mechanisms which regulate the interactions of metal ions with partially methyl esterified linear polymers of α-1,4 linked D-galacturonic acid units (pectinates), well represented in the root inner and outer apoplasm, is of great relevance to understand the processes which control their accumulation at the soil-root interface as well as their mobilization by plant metabolites. Accumulation of a metal by pectinates can be affected by the presence of other metals so that competition or distribution could be expected depending on the similar or different affinity of the metal ions towards the binding sites, mainly represented by the carboxylate groups. In order to better understand the mechanism of accumulation in the apoplasm of several metal ions, the sorption of Cd(II), Zn(II), Cu(II), Pb(II) and Cr(III) by a Ca-polygalacturonate gel, used as model of the soil-root interface, with a degree of esterification of 18% (PGAE1) and 65% (PGAE2) was studied at pH 3.0, 4.0, 5.0 and 6.0 in the presence of CaCl2 2.5 mM.. The results show that sorption increases with increasing both the initial metal concentration and pH. A similar sorption trend was evidenced for Cu(II) and Pb(II) and for Zn(II) and Cd(II), indicating that the mechanism of sorption for these two ionic couples is quite different. As an example, at pH 6.0 and an initial metal concentration equal to 2.0 mM, the amount of Cu(II) and Pb(II) sorbed was about 1.98 mg-1 of PGAE1 while that of Cd(II) and Zn(II) was about 1.2 mg-1. Cr(III) showed a rather different sorption trend and a much higher amount (2.8 mg-1of PGAE1 at pH 6.0) was recorded. The higher affinity of Cr(III) for the polysaccharidic matrix is attributable to the formation of Cr(III) polynuclear species in solution, as shown by the distribution diagrams obtained through the MEDUSA software. On the basis of these findings, the following affinity towards the PGAE1 can be assessed: Cr(III) > Cu(II) ? Pb(II) > Zn (II) ? Cd

  6. Capacity Ten-Seven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-05-04

    The study was initiated to assemble UK solar experts who would define the parameters for the design of solar cell process plant with a capacity of about 10MWp per annum and establish the optimum substrate size, cell configuration and junction structure and show that these characteristics are suited to high volume low cost production. The study focused on proven materials and techniques rather than on innovative materials and processes. Peak production should deliver panels at a cost of less than $1 per peak watt. The study was reported under the headings of fundamental studies, front contact deposition, semiconductor deposition, rear contact deposition, cell isolation and initial design study. Since much of the work is commercially sensitive, not all findings are divulged in the report. The work, which achieved all its targets, was carried out by ICP Solar Technologies UK Ltd under contract to the DTI.

  7. Capacity Analysis of Wireless Mesh Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Gumel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The next generation wireless networks experienced a great development with emergence of wireless mesh networks (WMNs, which can be regarded as a realistic solution that provides wireless broadband access. The limited available bandwidth makes capacity analysis of the network very essential. While the network offers broadband wireless access to community and enterprise users, the problems that limit the network capacity must be addressed to exploit the optimum network performance. The wireless mesh network capacity analysis shows that the throughput of each mesh node degrades in order of l/n with increasing number of nodes (n in a linear topology. The degradation is found to be higher in a fully mesh network as a result of increase in interference and MAC layer contention in the network.

  8. Effect of Hydraulic Accumulator on Pressure Surge of a Hydrostatic Transmission System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ajit; Das, Jayanta; Dasgupta, Kabir; Barnwal, Manish Kumar

    2018-04-01

    Hydraulic power system is generally used in off-road vehicles for power transmission such as Heavy Earth Moving Machineries (HEMM). Their energy efficiency and unsubstantial failure becomes an extensive subject of analysis. Various arrangements in the system are compassed along with the utilization of some appropriate components. Application of a hydraulic accumulator is one among them. Benefits of accumulator is its multi-purpose usages like energy saving and pressure surge damping. This paper deals with the control of pressure surges in the hydraulic system and energy saving from the surges by using accumulator. For this purpose, the simulation of the hydraulic system is done in MATLAB/SimulinkR environment and an external disturbance is introduced to generate the pressure surge. The surge absorptivity of the accumulator is studied for different sizes at different pre-charged conditions of the accumulator. The discharge characteristics of different sized accumulators are also analyzed in this paper. It is observed that the ability to absorb the surge and stabilize the system is high in the smaller capacity accumulator. However the energy delivery time of larger sized accumulator is high.

  9. Immunomodulating capacity of kefir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinderola, Celso G; Duarte, Jairo; Thangavel, Deepa; Perdigón, Gabriela; Farnworth, Edward; Matar, Chantal

    2005-05-01

    Kefir is a fermented milk produced by the action of lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and acetic acid bacteria, trapped in a complex matrix of polysaccharides and proteins. Beyond its inherent high nutritional value as a source of proteins and calcium, kefir has a long tradition of being regarded as good for health in countries where it is a staple in the diet. However, published human or animal feeding trials to substantiate this view are not numerous. The aim of this work was to determine the immunomodulating capacity of kefir on the intestinal mucosal immune response in mice and to demonstrate the importance of dose and cell viability on this response. BALB/c mice were fed with commercial kefir ad libitum (diluted 1/10, 1/50, 1/100 or 1/200) or pasteurized kefir (diluted 1/6, 1/10, 1/50, 1/100) for 2, 5 or 7 consecutive days. At the end of each feeding period, the bacterial translocation assay was performed in the liver. Small intestine structure was studied by haematoxilin-eosin staining and light microscopy. The number of IgA+ and IgG+ cells was also determined. For the functional doses chosen, cytokines (IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma) were determined. Kefir and pasteurized kefir were able to modulate the mucosal immune system in a dose-dependent manner. Kefir was administred 10-times more diluted than pasteurized kefir, but it induced an immunomodulation of similar magnitude, indicating the importance of cell viabilty. The results suggest that a Th1 response was controlled by Th2 cytokines induced by kefir feeding. Pasteurized kefir would induce both Th2 and Th1 responses. This is the first study in vivo regarding the mechanisms involved in the immunomodulating capacity of the oral administration of kefir containing viable or heat-inactivated bacteria at different doses.

  10. Metabolic Memory Phenomenon and Accumulation of Peroxynitrite in Retinal Capillaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renu A. Kowluru

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Diabetic retinopathy resists reversal after good glycemic control (GC is reinitiated, and preexisting damage at the time of intervention is considered as the major factor in determining the outcome of the GC. This study is to investigate the role of peroxynitrite accumulation in the retinal capillaries in the failure of retinopathy to reverse after reestablishment of GC, and to determine the effect of this reversal on the activity of the enzyme responsible for scavenging mitochondrial superoxide, MnSOD. Methods. In streptozotocin-diabetic rats, 6 months of poor glycemic control (PC, glycated hemoglobin, GHb>12.0% was followed by 6 additional months of GC (GHb about 6%. The trypsin-digested retinal microvessels were prepared for immunostaining of nitrotyrosine (a measure of peroxynitrite and for counting the number of acellular capillaries (a measure of histopathology. The retina from the other eye was used to quantify nitrotyrosine concentration, MnSOD activity and the total antioxidant capacity. Results. Reversal of hyperglycemia after 6 months of PC had no significant effect on nitrotyrosine concentration in the retina, on the nitrotyrosine-positive retinal capillary cells and on the number of acellular capillaries; the values were similar in PC-GC and PC groups. In the same rats retinal MnSOD activity remained inhibited and the total antioxidant capacity was subnormal 6 months after cessation of PC. Conclusions. Peroxynitrite accumulation in the retinal microvasculature, the site of histopathology, fails to normalize after reversal of hyperglycemia, and superoxide remains inadequately scavenged. This failure of reversal of peroxynitrite accumulation could be, in part, responsible for the resistance of diabetic retinopathy to reverse after termination of PC.

  11. Ultra-wide-band accumulation of coherent undulator synchrotron radiation in a resonating cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. H. Seo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cavity accumulation of coherent undulator synchrotron radiation emitted by a train of periodic electron bunches is investigated. Phase-matching conditions for accumulation of radiation emitted by successive bunches are analyzed and numerically confirmed. While the coherent emission of a single bunch is optimal at grazing resonance, the accumulated radiation targeted at the upper resonant frequency of the waveguide mode is found to have much broader bandwidth and higher efficiency as the resonance steps away from the grazing condition. Numerical results confirm that stimulated superradiance is responsible for the accumulated radiation.

  12. Light dependence of carboxylation capacity for C3 photosynthesis models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Photosynthesis at high light is often modelled by assuming limitation by the maximum capacity of Rubisco carboxylation at low carbon dioxide concentrations, by electron transport capacity at higher concentrations, and sometimes by triose-phosphate utilization rate at the highest concentrations. Pho...

  13. Rate of ice accumulation during ice storms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feknous, N. [SNC-Lavalin, Montreal, PQ (Canada); Chouinard, L. [McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada); Sabourin, G. [Hydro-Quebec, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    The rate of glaze ice accumulation is the result of a complex process dependent on numerous meteorological and physical factors. The aim of this paper was to estimate the distribution rate of glaze ice accumulation on conductors in southern Quebec for use in the design of mechanical and electrical de-icing devices. The analysis was based on direct observations of ice accumulation collected on passive ice meters. The historical database of Hydro-Quebec, which contains observations at over 140 stations over period of 25 years, was used to compute accumulation rates. Data was processed so that each glaze ice event was numbered in a chronological sequence. Each event consisted of the time series of ice accumulations on each of the 8 cylinders of the ice meters, as well as on 5 of its surfaces. Observed rates were converted to represent the average ice on a 30 mm diameter conductor at 30 m above ground with a span of 300 m. Observations were corrected to account for the water content of the glaze ice as evidenced by the presence of icicles. Results indicated that despite significant spatial variations in the expected severity of ice storms as a function of location, the distribution function for rates of accumulation were fairly similar and could be assumed to be independent of location. It was concluded that the observations from several sites could be combined in order to obtain better estimates of the distribution of hourly rates of ice accumulation. However, the rates were highly variable. For de-icing strategies, it was suggested that average accumulation rates over 12 hour periods were preferable, and that analyses should be performed for other time intervals to account for the variability in ice accumulation rates over time. In addition, accumulation rates did not appear to be highly correlated with average wind speed for maximum hourly accumulation rates. 3 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs.

  14. ISABELLE, accumulators, bunched beams and cosmictrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Month, M.

    1977-01-01

    An elaboration of the ISABELLE concept as the model for a high energy, high luminosity proton-proton facility is given. Its place in the total high energy physics program is discussed. Certain features of the ISABELLE design which have not been consolidated, in particular injection and modes of beam operation, are considered. A new scheme is reviewed, one which could provide quick beam turn-on after construction, one in which there is a high probability of reaching and perhaps even exceeding the design objectives, one which should provide comparatively more flexible and reliable operation for physics, and finally one whose presence opens up a window to a much higher energy region. The new system involves the use of a physically separate current accumulator, allowing, therefore, the optimal utilization of the superconducting structures. The fact that an obvious addition to the complex will permit pp collisions in the 4 TeV center-of-mass energy region, which corresponds to an equivalent lab energy of approximately 10 16 eV, i.e., cosmic ray energies, prompts the added structure to be referred to as the COSMICTRON. The facility operated in the ''new'' manner proposed is considered to be ''the best ISABELLE that can be built.''

  15. What factors influence mitigative capacity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, Harald; Baumert, Kevin; Blanchard, Odile; Burch, Sarah; Robinson, John

    2007-01-01

    This article builds on Yohe's seminal piece on mitigative capacity, which elaborates 'determinants' of mitigative capacity, also reflected in the IPCC's third assessment report. We propose a revised definition, where mitigative capacity is a country's ability to reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions or enhance natural sinks. By 'ability' we mean skills, competencies, fitness, and proficiencies that a country has attained which can contribute to GHG emissions mitigation. A conceptual framework is proposed, linking mitigative capacity to a country's sustainable development path, and grouping the factors influencing mitigative capacity into three main sets: economic factors, institutional ones, and technology. Both quantitative and qualitative analysis of factors is presented, showing how these factors vary across countries. We suggest that it is the interplay between the three economic factors-income, abatement cost and opportunity cost-that shape mitigative capacity. We find that income is an important economic factor influencing mitigative capacity, while abatement cost is important in turning mitigative capacity into actual mitigation. Technology is a critical mitigative capacity, including the ability to absorb existing climate-friendly technologies or to develop innovative ones. Institutional factors that promote mitigative capacity include the effectiveness of government regulation, clear market rules, a skilled work force and public awareness. We briefly investigate such as high abatement cost or lack of political willingness that prevent mitigative capacity from being translated into mitigation

  16. Spatial pattern of heavy metals accumulation risk in urban soils of Beijing and its influencing factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Rui; Wang, Meie; Chen, Weiping; Peng, Chi

    2016-01-01

    Accumulations of heavy metals in urban soils are highly spatial heterogeneity and affected by multiple factors including soil properties, land use and pattern, population and climatic conditions. We studied accumulation risks of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in unban soils of Beijing and their influencing based on the regression tree analysis and a GIS-based overlay model. Result shows that Zinc causes the most extensive soil pollution and Cu result in the most acute soil pollution. The soil's organic carbon content and CEC and population growth are the most significant factors affecting heavy metal accumulation. Other influence factors in land use pattern, urban landscape, and wind speed also contributed, but less pronounced. The soils in areas with higher degree of urbanization and surrounded by intense vehicular traffics have higher accumulation risk of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn. - Highlights: • Zn accumulations were the most extensive and Cu accumulations were the most acute. • Accumulations of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in urban soils were caused by different sets of influence factors. • Soil's organic carbon content and CEC and population growth were the most significant factors. • Accumulation risks were highly related with urbanization level and human activities. - A combined approach of employing geographical information systems and regression tree analyses identify the potential risks of accumulation Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in urban soils according to soil properties, urban land use patterns, urban landscape, demographics, and microclimatic conditions.

  17. Relationship between accumulation of rare earth element in tumor and ionic radius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kataoka, N [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1975-02-01

    The accumulation of rare earth elements in the different organs of Ehrlich's tumor-bearing mice at 48 hours after intraperitoneal administration was measured by a Ge(Li) semiconductor detector. Accumulation of all the rare earth elements was the highest in the pancreas. Accumulation of /sup 152/Eu in the different organs of Ehrlich's tumor-bearing mice was very high. The accumulation of rare earth elements in Ehrlich's tumor was lower than the accumulation of /sup 67/Ga and /sup 46/Sc. The tumor-organ concentration ratio of rare earth elements was remarkably lower than the accumulation of /sup 67/Ga and /sup 46/Sc. However, the accumulation of /sup 152/Eu in Ehrlich's tumor was somewhat higher than that of /sup 67/Ga. The relationship between the accumulation and the carrier content was examined. The lower the carrier content was, the higher was the accumulation in different organs. However, the carrier effect of rare earth on the uptake in different organs elements was slight. The author postulated that the elements in which the ionic radius is similar to that of Mg(0.62 A) or Ca(0.99 A) are abundant in the tumor cell membrane, and they might pass through the tumor cell membrane much more easily than would the other elements. However, the result was negative.

  18. Susceptibility of riparian wetland plants to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudumbi, J B N; Ntwampe, S K O; Muganza, M; Okonkwo, J O

    2014-01-01

    As plants have been shown to accumulate organic compounds from contaminated sediments, there is a potential for long-lasting ecological impact as a result of contaminant accumulation in riparian areas of wetlands, particularly the accumulation of non-biodegradable contaminants such as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). In this study, commonly found riparian wetland plants including reeds, i.e., Xanthium strumarium, Phragmites australis, Schoenoplectus corymbosus, Ruppia maritime; Populus canescens, Polygonum salicifolium, Cyperus congestus; Persicaria amphibian, Ficus carica, Artemisia schmidtiana, Eichhornia crassipes, were studied to determine their susceptibility to PFOA accumulation from PFOA contaminated riparian sediment with a known PFOA concentration, using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). The bioconcentration factor (BCF) indicated that the plants affinity to PFOA accumulation was; E. crassipes, > P. sali-cifolium, > C. congestus, > P. x canescens, > P. amphibian, > F. carica, > A. schmidtiana, > X. strumarium,> P. australis, > R. maritime, > S. corymbosus. The concentration of PFOA in the plants and/or reeds was in the range 11.7 to 38 ng/g, with a BCF range of 0.05 to 0.37. The highest BCF was observed in sediment for which its core water had a high salinity, total organic carbon and a pH which was near neutral. As the studied plants had a higher affinity for PFOA, the resultant effect is that riparian plants such as E. crassipes, X. strumarium, and P. salicifolium, typified by a fibrous rooting system, which grow closer to the water edge, exacerbate the accumulation of PFOA in riparian wetlands.

  19. Regional Antarctic snow accumulation over the past 1000 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. R. Thomas

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Here we present Antarctic snow accumulation variability at the regional scale over the past 1000 years. A total of 79 ice core snow accumulation records were gathered and assigned to seven geographical regions, separating the high-accumulation coastal zones below 2000 m of elevation from the dry central Antarctic Plateau. The regional composites of annual snow accumulation were evaluated against modelled surface mass balance (SMB from RACMO2.3p2 and precipitation from ERA-Interim reanalysis. With the exception of the Weddell Sea coast, the low-elevation composites capture the regional precipitation and SMB variability as defined by the models. The central Antarctic sites lack coherency and either do not represent regional precipitation or indicate the model inability to capture relevant precipitation processes in the cold, dry central plateau. Our results show that SMB for the total Antarctic Ice Sheet (including ice shelves has increased at a rate of 7 ± 0.13 Gt decade−1 since 1800 AD, representing a net reduction in sea level of ∼ 0.02 mm decade−1 since 1800 and ∼ 0.04 mm decade−1 since 1900 AD. The largest contribution is from the Antarctic Peninsula (∼ 75 % where the annual average SMB during the most recent decade (2001–2010 is 123 ± 44 Gt yr−1 higher than the annual average during the first decade of the 19th century. Only four ice core records cover the full 1000 years, and they suggest a decrease in snow accumulation during this period. However, our study emphasizes the importance of low-elevation coastal zones, which have been under-represented in previous investigations of temporal snow accumulation.

  20. Rare Earth and other Chemical Elements Accumulation in Vines of Fogo Island (Cape Verde)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Rosa; Prudêncio, Maria Isabel; Rocha, Fernando; Dias, Maria Isabel; Franco, Dulce

    2017-04-01

    The Fogo Island is the fourth bigger island of the Cape Verde (central Atlantic Ocean). This archipelago is located 570 kilometres off the coast of West Africa, and is characterized by a semi-arid climate. The volcanic soils of the caldera of this island, with an active volcanism during historical times, have been used for viticulture. The study of uptake of chemical elements by vines - absorption and translocation to grapes - grown in soils developed on alkaline pyroclasts is the main goal of this work. The concentrations of 27 chemical elements in bark, leafs and grapes of two vines, as well as in the corresponding soils ( 50). The bioavailable fraction of Cr and As in these soils may be due to the low percentage of iron oxides (particularly in the form of nanoparticles), which play an important role in the retention of these elements. The factors responsible for the phytoavailability of Sb in soils and its uptake by plants it's still poorly known. Although the Sb concentrations in earth's crust are low, higher concentrations of this element in soils may be related with hydrothermal and volcanic processes. Also, the temperature may influence the accumulation of Sb in plants, with an increase of the Sb uptake by plants at higher temperatures, due to an increased desorption rate of Sb from soil particles. Concerning U, its mobility and dispersion in soils is controlled by its oxidation state, its adsorption capacity in clay minerals or iron oxides, and the ability to form more or less soluble complexes. Although U concentrations in these volcanic soils are low, there is a fraction available for absorption and accumulation by grapes. Concerning the rare earth elements (REE), it should be noted that the light REE are not enriched in any part of the vines studied, and only the heavy REE are enriched in grapes (EF = 20-50); this can be explained by the preferential uptake of the heavy REE, after primary minerals breakdown and the formation of more soluble compounds

  1. Role of macrophages in age-related oxidative stress and lipofuscin accumulation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vida, Carmen; de Toda, Irene Martínez; Cruces, Julia; Garrido, Antonio; Gonzalez-Sanchez, Mónica; De la Fuente, Mónica

    2017-08-01

    The age-related changes in the immune functions (immunosenescence) may be mediated by an increase of oxidative stress and damage affecting leukocytes. Although the "oxidation-inflammation" theory of aging proposes that phagocytes are the main immune cells contributing to "oxi-inflamm-aging", this idea has not been corroborated. The aim of this work was to characterize the age-related changes in several parameters of oxidative stress and immune function, as well as in lipofuscin accumulation ("a hallmark of aging"), in both total peritoneal leukocyte population and isolated peritoneal macrophages. Adult, mature, old and long-lived mice (7, 13, 18 and 30 months of age, respectively) were used. The xanthine oxidase (XO) activity-expression, basal levels of superoxide anion and ROS, catalase activity, oxidized (GSSG) and reduced (GSH) glutathione content and lipofuscin levels, as well as both phagocytosis and digestion capacity were evaluated. The results showed an age-related increase of oxidative stress and lipofuscin accumulation in murine peritoneal leukocytes, but especially in macrophages. Macrophages from old mice showed lower antioxidant defenses (catalase activity and GSH levels), higher oxidizing compounds (XO activity/expression and superoxide, ROS and GSSG levels) and lipofuscin levels, together with an impaired macrophage functions, in comparison to adults. In contrast, long-lived mice showed in their peritoneal leukocytes, and especially in macrophages, a well-preserved redox state and maintenance of their immune functions, all which could account for their high longevity. Interestingly, macrophages showed higher XO activity and lipofuscin accumulation than lymphocytes in all the ages analyzed. Our results support that macrophages play a central role in the chronic oxidative stress associated with aging, and the fact that phagocytes are key cells contributing to immunosenescence and "oxi-inflamm-aging". Moreover, the determination of oxidative stress and

  2. Multi-lane Roundabout Capacity Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar Šarić

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Although two-lane roundabouts theoretically exhibit excellent operating performance, in practice, safety problems arise because of inappropriate driving behavior. Turbo roundabouts, which are characterized by a much higher level of safety, are alternatives to classic two-lane roundabouts, but the capacity-related benefits derived from such roundabouts remain an open issue. Accordingly, this study uses an equilibrium traffic flow allocation approach to evaluate multi-lane roundabout capacity based on gap acceptance theory. Capacity levels are calculated and compared for different gap acceptance parameters, including local parameters, and different traffic flow scenarios. It is found that the capacity of minor approaches on turbo roundabouts is always higher than on two-lane roundabouts, but that the main approaches on two-lane roundabouts exhibit better performance in terms of fully equilibrium traffic allocation. This state, however, cannot be achieved for every demand scenario. The results depend strongly on traffic movements and gap acceptance parameters indicating the need for local calibration processes.

  3. Accumulation of pyrethroid compounds in primary cultures of rat cortical neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent studies have demonstrated that lipophilic compounds (e.g. methylmercury, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs)) rapidly accumulate in cells in culture to concentrations much higher than in the surrounding media. Primary cultures of neur...

  4. Capacity building for HIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Gulis PhD

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: To integrate health impact assessment (HIA into existing decision-making processes requires not only methods and procedures but also well-trained experts, aware policy makers and appropriate institutions. Capacity building is the assistance which is provided to entities, which have a need to develop a certain skill or competence, or for general upgrading of performance ability. If a new technique is planned to be introduced there is a need for capacity building with no respect to levels (local, regional, national, international or sectors (health, environment, finance, social care, education, etc.. As such, HIA is a new technique for most of the new Member States and accession countries of the European Union.

    Methods: To equip individuals with the understanding and skills needed to launch a HIA or be aware of the availability of this methodology and to access information, knowledge and training, we focused on the organization of workshops in participating countries. The workshops served also as pilot events to test a “curriculum” for HIA; a set of basic topics and presentations had been developed to be tested during workshops. In spite of classical in-class workshops we aimed to organize e-learning events as a way to over come the “busyness” problem of decision makers.

    Results: Throughout March – October 2006 we organized and ran 7 workshops in Denmark, Turkey, Lithuania, Poland, Bulgaria, Slovak Republic and Hungary. Participants came from the public health sector (141, non-public health decision makers (113 and public health students (100. A concise curriculum was developed and tested during these workshops. Participants developed a basic understanding of HIA, skills to develop and use their own screening tools as well as scoping.Within the workshop in Denmark we tested an online, real-time Internet based training method; participants highly welcomed this

  5. User's manual for the radioactive decay and accumulation code RADAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmon, R.; Loghry, S.L.; Ashline, R.C.

    1995-11-01

    The RADAC computer code calculates radioactive decay and accumulation of decayed products using an algorithm based on the direct use of the Bateman equations and referred to here as the yield factor method. This report explains the yield factor method, gives an overview of the various modules in the RADAC code system, and describes the decay and accumulation code in detail. The RADAC code has capacity for two waste types and can accommodate up to 60 years of annual waste inputs. Decay times as high as 1 million years can be calculated. The user supplies the undecayed composition and radioactivity of the waste placed in storage each year. The code calculates the decayed composition, radioactivity, and thermal power of the accumulated waste at the end of each year and gives the results in terms of grams and curies of individual radionuclides. Calculations can be made for up to 19 waste storage sites in a single run. For each site and each waste type, calculations can be made by 1-year steps up to 60 years, by 10-year steps to 160 years, and by 6 discrete steps to 1 million years. Detailed outputs can be printed for each waste site and each time step by individual radionuclides. Summarized outputs are also available. Excluding data-preparation time, RADAC requires about 2 min to run 19 waste sites with two types of transuranic waste at each site, using a 486 DX computer with a clock speed of 33 MHz. Because RADAC uses a preselected set of decay times and does not make in-reactor calculations, it should not be viewed as a substitute for ORIGEN2. RADAC is intended for use in applications in which accumulations at the decay times provided by the code are sufficient for the user's purposes

  6. Effects of Cycling Versus Running Training on Sprint and Endurance Capacity in Inline Speed Skating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stangier, Carolin; Abel, Thomas; Mierau, Julia; Hollmann, Wildor; Strüder, Heiko K.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of running versus cycling training on sprint and endurance capacity in inline speed skating. Sixteen elite athletes (8 male, 8 female, 24 ± 8 yrs) were randomly assigned into 2 training groups performing either 2 session per week of treadmill running or ergometer cycling in addition to 3 skating specific sessions (technique, plyometrics, parkour) for 8 weeks. Training intensity was determined within non-specific (cycling or running) and effects on specific endurance capacity within a specific incremental exercise test. Before and after the intervention all athletes performed a specific (300m) and one non-specific (30s cycling or 200m running) all-out sprint test according to the group affiliation. To determine the accumulation of blood lactate (BLa) and glucose (BGL) 20 μl arterialized blood was drawn at rest, as well as in 1 min intervals for 10 min after the sprint test. The sport-specific peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) was significantly increased (+17%; p = 0.01) in both groups and highly correlated with the sprint performance (r = -0.71). BLa values decreased significantly (-18%, p = 0.02) after the specific sprint test from pre to post-testing without any group effect. However, BGL values only showed a significant decrease (-2%, p = 0.04) in the running group. The close relationship between aerobic capacity and sprint performance in inline speed skating highlights the positive effects of endurance training. Although both training programs were equally effective in improving endurance and sprint capacities, the metabolic results indicate a faster recovery after high intensity efforts for all athletes, as well as a higher reliance on the fat metabolism for athletes who trained in the running group. Key points In addition to a highly developed aerobic performance inline speed skaters also require a highly trained anaerobic capacity to be effective in the sprint sections such as the mass start, tactical attacks

  7. The positron accumulator ring for the APS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crosbie, E.A.

    1989-01-01

    The Positron Accumulator Ring (PAR) is designed to accumulate and damp positrons from the 450-MeV linac during the 0.5-s cycle time of the injector synchrotron for the APS 7-GeV storage ring. During 0.4 s of each synchrotron cycle, up to 24 linac pulses are injected into the horizontal phase space of the PAR at a 60-Hz rate. Each injected pulse occupies about 1.3 of the circumference of the accumulator ring. After 0.1 s for longitudinal damping, the single accumulated bunch is transferred to one of the 353-MHz buckets of the injector synchrotron RF system. The bunch is accelerated to 7 GeV and transferred to the storage ring, while the PAR accumulates the next bunch of positrons. 2 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  8. The positron accumulator ring for the APS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crosbie, E.A.

    1989-01-01

    The Positron Accumulator Ring (PAR) is designed to accumulate and damp positrons from the 450-MeV linac during the 0.5-s cycle time of the injector synchrotron for the APS 7-GeV storage ring. During 0.4 s of each synchrotron cycle, up to 24 linac pulses are injected into the horizontal phase space of the PAR at a 60-Hz rate. Each injected pulse occupies about 1/3 of the circumference of the accumulator ring. After 0.1 s for longitudinal damping, the single accumulated bunch is transferred to one of the 353-MHz buckets of the injector synchrotron RF system. The bunch is accelerated to 7 GeV and transferred to the storage ring, while the PAR accumulates the next bunch of positrons. 2 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Integrated flexible capacity and inventory management under flexible capacity uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Paç, Mehmet Fazıl

    2006-01-01

    Cataloged from PDF version of article. In a manufacturing environment with volatile demand, inventory management can be coupled with dynamic capacity adjustments for handling the fluctuations more effectively. In this study we consider the integrated management of inventory and flexible capacity management under seasonal stochastic demand and uncertain labor supply. The capacity planning problem is investigated from the workforce planning perspective. We consider a manufactu...

  10. Fish welfare: Fish capacity to experience pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučinić Marijana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Teleost fish possess similar nociceptive processing systems to those found in terrestrial vertebrates. It means that they react to potential painful stimuli in a similar manner as mammals and birds. However, the welfare of fish has been the focus of less research than that of higher vertebrates. Humans may affect the welfare of fish through fisheries, aquaculture and a number of other activities. There is scientific evidence to support the assumption that fish have the capacity to experience pain because they possess functional nociceptors, endogenous opioids and opioid receptors, brain structures involved in pain processing and pathways leading from nociceptors to higher brain structures. Also, it is well documented that some anaesthetics and analgesics may reduce nociceptive responses in fish. Behavioural indicators in fish such as lip-rubbing and rocking behaviours are the best proof that fish react to potential painful stimuli. This paper is an overview of some scientific evidence on fish capacity to experience pain.

  11. Working memory capacity and the spacing effect in cued recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Peter F; Godbole, Namrata R; Holden, Latasha R; Chang, Yoojin

    2018-07-01

    Spacing repetitions typically improves memory (the spacing effect). In three cued recall experiments, we explored the relationship between working memory capacity and the spacing effect. People with higher working memory capacity are more accurate on memory tasks that require retrieval relative to people with lower working memory capacity. The experiments used different retention intervals and lags between repetitions, but were otherwise similar. Working memory capacity and spacing of repetitions both improved memory in most of conditions, but they did not interact, suggesting additive effects. The results are consistent with the ACT-R model's predictions, and with a study-phase recognition process underpinning the spacing effect in cued recall.

  12. Plant and soil carbon accumulation following fire in Mediterranean woodlands in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Jason Philip; Romanyà, Joan; Vallejo, V Ramón

    2010-10-01

    We measured plant and soil carbon (C) storage following canopy-replacing wildfires in woodlands of northeastern Spain that include an understory of shrubs dominated by Quercus coccifera and an overstory of Pinus halepensis trees. Established plant succession models predict rapid shrub recovery in these ecosystems, and we build on this model by contrasting shrub succession with long-term C storage in soils, trees, and the whole ecosystem. We used chronosequence and repeated sampling approaches to detect change over time. Aboveground plant C increased from fire, which is substantially less than the 5,942 ± 487 g C m(-2) (mean ±1 standard error) in unburned sites. As expected, shrubs accumulated C rapidly, but the capacity for C storage in shrubs was 20 years post fire, and accounted for all of the difference in plant C between older burned sites and unburned sites. In contrast, soil C was initially higher in burned sites (~4,500 g C m(-2)) than in unburned sites (3,264 ± 261 g C m(-2)) but burned site C declined to unburned levels within 10 years after fire. Combining these results with prior research suggests two states for C storage. When pine regeneration is successful, ~9,200 g C m(-2) accumulate in woodlands but when tree regeneration fails (due to microclimatic stress or short fire return intervals), ecosystem C storage of ~4,000 g C m(-2) will occur in the resulting shrublands.

  13. Total mercury and methyl-mercury contents and accumulation in polar microbial mats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Antonio; Rochera, Carlos; Hennebelle, Raphaëlle; Ferrari, Christophe; Quesada, Antonio

    2015-03-15

    Although polar regions are considered isolated and pristine areas, the organisms that inhabit these zones are exposed to global pollution. Heavy metals, such as mercury, are global pollutants and can reach almost any location on Earth. Mercury may come from natural, volcanic or geological sources, or result from anthropogenic sources, in particular industrial or mining activities. In this study, we have investigated one of the most prominent biological non-marine communities in both polar regions, microbial mats, in terms of their Hg and methyl-mercury (MeHg) concentrations and accumulation capacities. The main hypotheses posed argued on the importance of different factors, and to test them, we have measured Hg concentrations in microbial mats that were collected from 6 locations in different ecological situations. For this purpose, the direct anthropogenic impacts, volcanic influences, proximity to the seashore, latitudinal gradients and C contents were investigated. Our results show that, other than the direct anthropogenic influence, none of the other hypotheses alone satisfactorily explains the Hg content in microbial mats. In contrast, the MeHg contents were noticeably different between the investigated locations, with a higher proportion of MeHg on the McMurdo Ice Shelf (Antarctica) and a lower proportion on Ward Hunt Island (High Arctic). Furthermore, our results from in situ experiments indicated that the microbial mats from South Shetland Islands could quickly accumulate (48 h) Hg when Hg dissolved salts were supplied. Over short-term periods, these mats do not transform Hg into MeHg under field conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Characterization of accumulated precipitates during subsurface iron removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halem, Doris van; Vet, Weren de; Verberk, Jasper; Amy, Gary; Dijk, Hans van

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Accumulated iron was not found to clog the well or aquifer after 12 years of subsurface iron removal. → 56-100% of accumulated iron hydroxides were found to be crystalline. → Subsurface iron removal favoured certain soil layers, either due to hydraulics or mineralogy. → Other groundwater constituents, such as manganese and arsenic were found to co-accumulate with iron. - Abstract: The principle of subsurface iron removal for drinking water supply is that aerated water is periodically injected into the aquifer through a tube well. On its way into the aquifer, the injected O 2 -rich water oxidizes adsorbed Fe 2+ , creating a subsurface oxidation zone. When groundwater abstraction is resumed, the soluble Fe 2+ is adsorbed and water with reduced Fe concentrations is abstracted for multiple volumes of the injection water. In this article, Fe accumulation deposits in the aquifer near subsurface treatment wells were identified and characterized to assess the sustainability of subsurface iron removal regarding clogging of the aquifer and the potential co-accumulation of other groundwater constituents, such as As. Chemical extraction of soil samples, with Acid-Oxalate and HNO 3 , showed that Fe had accumulated at specific depths near subsurface iron removal wells after 12 years of operation. Whether it was due to preferred flow paths or geochemical mineralogy conditions; subsurface iron removal clearly favoured certain soil layers. The total Fe content increased between 11.5 and 390.8 mmol/kg ds in the affected soil layers, and the accumulated Fe was found to be 56-100% crystalline. These results suggest that precipitated amorphous Fe hydroxides have transformed to Fe hydroxides of higher crystallinity. These crystalline, compact Fe hydroxides have not noticeably clogged the investigated well and/or aquifer between 1996 and 2008. The subsurface iron removal wells even need less frequent rehabilitation, as drawdown increases more slowly than in

  15. Accumulation of strontium 90 and cesium 137 in some hydrobionts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyadzhiev, A.; Keslev, D.; Kerteva, A.; Novakova, E.

    1974-01-01

    Factors responsible for the accumulation of strontium 90 and cesium 137 in some plant organisms, characteristic for fishes in Bulgarian fresh-water reservoirs and in Black Seawater, were examined. The investigated samples were taken during spring, summer and autumn-winter seasons 1967/1968. Each sample burnt to ashes at 450 0 C was examined for strontium 90 and cesium 137 content as well as stable isotopes of calcuim and potassium. Accumulation factors for strontium 90 and cesium 137 were significantly higher in freshwater hydrobionts than in seawater hydrobionts. This could be explained by variations in the concentration of stable isotopes of calcium and potassium from freshwater reservoirs and from seawater. Potassium and calcium concentrations were relatively constant in seawater while in freshwater they were significantly variable. Accumulation factors for these radionuclides increased according to the amount of rain and the altitude above sea level. Strontium 90 was deposited mostly in fins, less in scales and least in the meat of fishes; cesium 137 was mainly deposited in the meat and less in the other parts of fishes. The highest accumulation factors for strontium 90 were determined in fishes and for cesium 137 in plant organisms. The most convenient plant and fish species for tracing radioactive contamination of freshwater reservoirs and in the Black Sea were indicated. (A.B.)

  16. Accumulation of uranium in plant roots absorbed from aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dohi, Terumi; Haga, Nobuhiko; Nakashima, Satoru; Tagai, Tokuhei

    2007-01-01

    In order to study accumulation mechanisms of uranium (U) in terrestrial plants, uptake experiments for U have been carried out by using Indian mustard (Brassica juncea). This plant is edible and known as a heavy metal accumulator, especially for cadmium (Cd). About 30 rootsstocks of Indian mustard grown hydroponically in laboratory dishes were kept in uranyl (UO 2 2+ ) nitrate solutions (initially 0.5 mmol/l) at 25degC for 24, 48 and 72 hours (h). The average U concentrations in leaves increased until 48 h up to about 0.6 mg/g and then decreased slightly. Those in roots showed similar trends, but with much higher maximum U concentrations of about 30 mg/g. Backscattered electron images under SEM of the roots showed that U was accumulated on the cell edges. EPMA elemental mapping indicated that phosphorus (P) distribution had a very strong correlation with that of U. The distribution of sulfur (S) appeared to be somewhat different form these U and P distributions. These results suggest that U can be absorbed into plant roots as uranyl (UO 2 2+ ) and might be fixed at the phospholipid rich cell membranes. This U accumulation mechanism appeared to be different from that for Cd which has a close association with S. (author)

  17. Effects of phosphate and thiosulphate on arsenic accumulation in Brassica juncea plants grown in soil and in hydroponic culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzarossa, Beatrice; Petruzzelli, Gianniantonio; Grifoni, Martina; Rosellini, Irene; Malagoli, Mario; Schiavon, Michela

    2013-04-01

    Arsenic is recognised as a toxic metalloid and a strong pollutant in soils of many countries. Thus, the reclamation of contaminated areas is fundamental in order to protect both human health and agricultural production. This study is focused on the assisted phytoextraction, a technology for reclaiming polluted soils that takes advantage of the capability of some plants to extract inorganic elements from soils with the aid of additive agents. The nutrients phosphorus, as phosphate, and sulphur, as thiosulphate, can compete with the form more oxidised of arsenic, both in soil and plant. This study examined the capability of thiosulphate (Th) and phosphate (Ph) to promote the release of As from soil surfaces in order to improve the phytoavailability and thus the absorption of As by Brassica juncea plants. In the first experiment B. juncea plants were grown on a soil that had been sampled from an industrial area strongly contaminated by As (790 mg As kg-1 soil). The second experiment was carried out in hydroponics where As has been added at a concentration (100 microM) similar to the As available concentration measured in soil. In both trials ammonium thiosulphate (at the concentration of 0.27 M in soil, and 400 microM in hydroponics) and potassium hydrogen phosphate (at the concentration of 0.05 M in soil, and 112 microM in hydroponics) were added. The biomass of B. juncea was determined and the accumulation of P, S and As in root and in the above-ground tissues have been analyzed. Our results showed that thiosulphate and phosphate acted either as nutrients and detoxifying agents, due to the stimulation of plant defensive systems, and influenced either the biomass production and the As accumulation in plant tissues. In the plants grown in soil, As accumulated at higher levels in the above-ground part than in the roots and the addition of Th induced a higher biomass production and a higher total As accumulation (concentration x biomass) in the above-ground tissues

  18. Effects of Cycling Versus Running Training on Sprint and Endurance Capacity in Inline Speed Skating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin Stangier, Thomas Abel, Julia Mierau, Wildor Hollmann, Heiko K. Strüder

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of running versus cycling training on sprint and endurance capacity in inline speed skating. Sixteen elite athletes (8 male, 8 female, 24 ± 8 yrs were randomly assigned into 2 training groups performing either 2 session per week of treadmill running or ergometer cycling in addition to 3 skating specific sessions (technique, plyometrics, parkour for 8 weeks. Training intensity was determined within non-specific (cycling or running and effects on specific endurance capacity within a specific incremental exercise test. Before and after the intervention all athletes performed a specific (300m and one non-specific (30s cycling or 200m running all-out sprint test according to the group affiliation. To determine the accumulation of blood lactate (BLa and glucose (BGL 20 μl arterialized blood was drawn at rest, as well as in 1 min intervals for 10 min after the sprint test. The sport-specific peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak was significantly increased (+17%; p = 0.01 in both groups and highly correlated with the sprint performance (r = -0.71. BLa values decreased significantly (-18%, p = 0.02 after the specific sprint test from pre to post-testing without any group effect. However, BGL values only showed a significant decrease (-2%, p = 0.04 in the running group. The close relationship between aerobic capacity and sprint performance in inline speed skating highlights the positive effects of endurance training. Although both training programs were equally effective in improving endurance and sprint capacities, the metabolic results indicate a faster recovery after high intensity efforts for all athletes, as well as a higher reliance on the fat metabolism for athletes who trained in the running group.

  19. Novel asymptotic results on the high-order statistics of the channel capacity over generalized fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Yilmaz, Ferkan; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2012-01-01

    The exact analysis of the higher-order statistics of the channel capacity (i.e., higher-order ergodic capacity) often leads to complicated expressions involving advanced special functions. In this paper, we provide a generic framework

  20. Available transmission capacity assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Škokljev Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective power system operation requires the analysis of vast amounts of information. Power market activities expose power transmission networks to high-level power transactions that threaten normal, secure operation of the power system. When there are service requests for a specific sink/source pair in a transmission system, the transmission system operator (TSO must allocate the available transfer capacity (ATC. It is common that ATC has a single numerical value. Additionally, the ATC must be calculated for the base case configuration of the system, while generation dispatch and topology remain unchanged during the calculation. Posting ATC on the internet should benefit prospective users by aiding them in formulating their requests. However, a single numerical value of ATC offers little for prospect for analysis, planning, what-if combinations, etc. A symbolic approach to the power flow problem (DC power flow and ATC offers a numerical computation at the very end, whilst the calculation beforehand is performed by using symbols for the general topology of the electrical network. Qualitative analysis of the ATC using only qualitative values, such as increase, decrease or no change, offers some new insights into ATC evaluation, multiple transactions evaluation, value of counter-flows and their impact etc. Symbolic analysis in this paper is performed after the execution of the linear, symbolic DC power flow. As control variables, the mathematical model comprises linear security constraints, ATC, PTDFs and transactions. The aim is to perform an ATC sensitivity study on a five nodes/seven lines transmission network, used for zonal market activities tests. A relatively complicated environment with twenty possible bilateral transactions is observed.

  1. Influence of deposits quantity and air temperature on 137Cs accumulation by the higher mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. E. Zarubina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Researches of the influence of weather conditions (amount of precipitation, air temperature on 137Cs content’s magnitude in fruit bodies of mushrooms: Boletus edulis Bull.: Fr., Suillus luteus (L.: Fr. S.F.Gray, Xerocomus badius (Fr. Kuhn. ex Gilb., Tricholoma flavovirens (Pers.: Fr. Lund., Cantharellus cibarius Fr. at the territory of Chernobyl alienation zone and «southern trace» are performed. Correlation factors, determination factors between specific activity 137Cs at mushrooms and quantity of deposits (mm and the maximum temperature of air (0С are calculated. At calculations the decrease of the content of 137Cs in mushrooms at the expense of disintegration of this isotope has been considered. As a result of researches the authentic dependence of specific activity 137Cs in fruit bodies of the studied kinds of mushrooms from quantity of deposits and from air temperature has not been established.

  2. Influence of deposits quantity and air temperature on 137Cs accumulation by the higher mushrooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarubina, N.E.

    2012-01-01

    Researches of the influence of weather conditions (amount of precipitation, air temperature) on 137 Cs content magnitude in fruit bodies of mushrooms: Boletus edulis Bull.: Fr., Suillus luteus (L.: Fr.) S.F.Gray, Xerocomus badius (Fr.) Kuhn. ex Gilb., Tricholoma flavovirens (Pers.: Fr.) Lund., Cantharellus cibarius Fr. at the territory of Chernobyl alienation zone and 'southern trace are performed. Correlation factors, determination factors between specific activity 137 Cs at mushrooms and quantity of deposits (mm) and the maximum temperature of air ( o C) are calculated. At calculations the decrease of the content of 137 Cs in mushrooms at the expense of disintegration of this isotope has been considered. As a result of researches the authentic dependence of specific activity 137 Cs in fruit bodies of the studied kinds of mushrooms from quantity of deposits and from air temperature has not been established.

  3. Accumulation and effects of metal mixtures in two seaweed species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Tayler A; Bielmyer-Fraser, Gretchen K

    2015-05-01

    Metal pollution, due to various anthropogenic sources, may pose a threat to marine ecosystems. Metals can be introduced into food chains via bioaccumulation in primary producers, and may potentially lead to toxic effects. Macroalgae are used as food by a wide variety of organisms, and are therefore extremely important in aquatic systems. This study investigated the accumulation and effects of metals in two macroalgae species. The green seaweed, Ulva lactuca and the red seaweed, Agardhiella subulata were each concurrently exposed to five metals (Cu, Ni, Pb, Cd, and Zn) and U. lactuca was also exposed to each metal individually for 48 h. Metal accumulation in the seaweed was measured, and various photosynthetic parameters were assessed, using imaging pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry. Increased metal accumulation occurred in both seaweed species after 48 h exposure to metal mixtures and each metal individually. The distribution of metals in both seaweed species changed with increasing metal exposure concentrations, resulting in higher proportions of Cu and Zn in the metal-exposed groups, as compared to respective controls. Further, U. lactuca accumulated higher concentrations of metals when exposed to each metal individually rather than in metal mixtures, suggesting interactions among metals for uptake and/or bioaccumulation. Significant impairment of photosynthetic parameters in U. lactuca was observed after exposure to 100 and 1000 μg/L metal mixtures, as well as 100 μg/L of either Cd or Cu. These results demonstrate metal bioaccumulation and toxic effects in important primary producers, and may have implications for higher trophic levels. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. The water holding capacity of bark in Danish angiosperm trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Hanne Marie Ellegård; Rasmussen, Hanne Nina; Nord-Larsen, Thomas

    The water holding capacity of bark in seven Danish angiosperm trees was examined. The aim of the study was (1) to examine height trends and (2) bark thickness trends in relation to the water holding capacity and (3) to determine interspecific differences. The wet-weight and dry-weight of a total...... number of 427 bark samples were measured. The water holding capacity was calculated as the difference between wet-weight and dry-weight per wet-weight. The water holding capacity increased with elevation in most tree species and contrary to the expectation, thinner bark generally had a higher water...... holding capacity. Differences in the water holding capacity of bark may influence the occurrence and distribution of a wide range of bark-living organisms including the distribution of corticolous lichens....

  5. Aflatoxin Accumulation in a Maize Diallel Cross

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Paul Williams

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxins, produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus, occur naturally in maize. Contamination of maize grain with aflatoxin is a major food and feed safety problem and greatly reduces the value of the grain. Plant resistance is generally considered a highly desirable approach to reduction or elimination of aflatoxin in maize grain. In this investigation, a diallel cross was produced by crossing 10 inbred lines with varying degrees of resistance to aflatoxin accumulation in all possible combinations. Three lines that previously developed and released as sources of resistance to aflatoxin accumulation were included as parents. The 10 parental inbred lines and the 45 single crosses making up the diallel cross were evaluated for aflatoxin accumulation in field tests conducted in 2013 and 2014. Plants were inoculated with an A. flavus spore suspension seven days after silk emergence. Ears were harvested approximately 60 days later and concentration of aflatoxin in the grain determined. Parental inbred lines Mp717, Mp313E, and Mp719 exhibited low levels (3–12 ng/g of aflatoxin accumulation. In the diallel analysis, both general and specific combining ability were significant sources of variation in the inheritance of resistance to aflatoxin accumulation. General combining ability effects for reduced aflatoxin accumulation were greatest for Mp494, Mp719, and Mp717. These lines should be especially useful in breeding for resistance to aflatoxin accumulation. Breeding strategies, such as reciprocal recurrent selection, would be appropriate.

  6. Mercury accumulation in bats near hydroelectric reservoirs in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syaripuddin, Khairunnisa; Kumar, Anjali; Sing, Kong-Wah; Halim, Muhammad-Rasul Abdullah; Nursyereen, Muhammad-Nasir; Wilson, John-James

    2014-09-01

    In large man-made reservoirs such as those resulting from hydroelectric dam construction, bacteria transform the relatively harmless inorganic mercury naturally present in soil and the submerged plant matter into toxic methylmercury. Methylmercury then enters food webs and can accumulate in organisms at higher trophic levels. Bats feeding on insects emerging from aquatic systems can show accumulation of mercury consumed through their insect prey. In this study, we investigated whether the concentration of mercury in the fur of insectivorous bat species was significantly higher than that in the fur of frugivorous bat species, sampled near hydroelectric reservoirs in Peninsular Malaysia. Bats were sampled at Temenggor Lake and Kenyir Lake and fur samples from the most abundant genera of the two feeding guilds-insectivorous (Hipposideros and Rhinolophus) and frugivorous (Cynopterus and Megaerops) were collected for mercury analysis. We found significantly higher concentrations of total mercury in the fur of insectivorous bats. Mercury concentrations also differed significantly between insectivorous bats sampled at the two sites, with bats from Kenyir Lake, the younger reservoir, showing higher mercury concentrations, and between the insectivorous genera, with Hipposideros bats showing higher mercury concentrations. Ten bats (H. cf. larvatus) sampled at Kenyir Lake had mercury concentrations approaching or exceeding 10 mg/kg, which is the threshold at which detrimental effects occur in humans, bats and mice.

  7. Hyperthyroidism evokes myocardial ceramide accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikłosz, Agnieszka; Łukaszuk, Bartłomiej; Chabowski, Adrian; Rogowski, Filip; Kurek, Krzysztof; Żendzian-Piotrowska, Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs) are key regulators of cardiac physiology as well as modulators of different cellular signals including the sphingomyelin/ceramide pathway. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of hyperthyroidism on the metabolism of sphingolipids in the muscle heart. Male Wistar rats were treated for 10 days with triiodothyronine (T3) at a dose of 50µg/100g of body weight. Animals were then anaesthetized and samples of the left ventricle were excised. We have demonstrated that prolonged, in vivo, T3 treatment increased the content of sphinganine (SFA), sphingosine (SFO), ceramide (CER) and sphingomyelin (SM), but decreased the level of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) in cardiac muscle. Accordingly, the changes in sphingolipids content were accompanied by a lesser activity of neutral sphingomyelinase and without significant changes in ceramidases activity. Hyperthyroidism also induced activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) with subsequently increased expression of mitochondrial proteins: cytochrome c oxidase IV (COX IV), β-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (β-HAD), carnityne palmitoyltransferase I (CPT I) and nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC1α). We conclude that prolonged T3 treatment increases sphingolipids metabolism which is reflected by higher concentration of SFA and CER in heart muscle. Furthermore, hyperthyroidism-induced increase in heart sphingomyelin (SM) concentration might be one of the mechanisms underlying maintenance of CER at relatively low level by its conversion to SM together with decreased S1P content. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Capacity competition in electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crampes, Claude; Creti, Anna

    2005-01-01

    The article analyzed a two-stage game where capacity constrained electricity generators first choose how much capacity they make available and then compete in a uniform-rice auction. It is studied how capacity withholding can be used strategically to enforce market power and how uniform auctions in the price game change the results of capacity constrained competition models. The uniform auction procedure gives strong incentives to capacity restriction. At equilibrium, however, power shortage never occurs. Though auctions in electricity markets have already been studied by several economists, yet an important feature of spot trading is the capacity availability decision. In fact, for technical reasons, such as equipment maintenance or failures, the installed capacity may not work at maximum operating level and the spot market rules oblige generators to announce which plants they are willing to use and simultaneously their offer prices. Beside technical reasons, the so-called 'capacity declarations' also offer a strategic instrument for firms: by restricting capacity, operators can benefit from scarcity rents. Assessing whether generators withhold capacity is an intriguing issue for real electricity markets, though proving it is a difficult task. Several theoretical papers show that generators are able to keep wholesale prices high as compared to their generation costs. In our model, a generator is not obliged to declare all installed capacity as available, but decides on the amount of MW of electricity that is available. Hence the available capacity is an endogenous variable while the installed one is exogenous. The distinction between installed capacities and 'available' capacities allows to explain clearly whether generators exert market power by declaring unavailable some production units. Although we find multiple sub game perfect equilibria that cannot be eliminated by Pareto-dominance, all the outcomes are characterized by market price at the highest

  9. Algorithmic complexity of quantum capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskouei, Samad Khabbazi; Mancini, Stefano

    2018-04-01

    We analyze the notion of quantum capacity from the perspective of algorithmic (descriptive) complexity. To this end, we resort to the concept of semi-computability in order to describe quantum states and quantum channel maps. We introduce algorithmic entropies (like algorithmic quantum coherent information) and derive relevant properties for them. Then we show that quantum capacity based on semi-computable concept equals the entropy rate of algorithmic coherent information, which in turn equals the standard quantum capacity. Thanks to this, we finally prove that the quantum capacity, for a given semi-computable channel, is limit computable.

  10. Dementia, Decision Making, and Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darby, R Ryan; Dickerson, Bradford C

    After participating in this activity, learners should be better able to:• Assess the neuropsychological literature on decision making and the medical and legal assessment of capacity in patients with dementia• Identify the limitations of integrating findings from decision-making research into capacity assessments for patients with dementia ABSTRACT: Medical and legal professionals face the challenge of assessing capacity and competency to make medical, legal, and financial decisions in dementia patients with impaired decision making. While such assessments have classically focused on the capacity for complex reasoning and executive functions, research in decision making has revealed that motivational and metacognitive processes are also important. We first briefly review the neuropsychological literature on decision making and on the medical and legal assessment of capacity. Next, we discuss the limitations of integrating findings from decision-making research into capacity assessments, including the group-to-individual inference problem, the unclear role of neuroimaging in capacity assessments, and the lack of capacity measures that integrate important facets of decision making. Finally, we present several case examples where we attempt to demonstrate the potential benefits and important limitations of using decision-making research to aid in capacity determinations.

  11. Integrated capacity and inventory management with capacity acquisition lead times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mincsovics, G.Z.; Tan, T.; Alp, O.

    2009-01-01

    We model a make-to-stock production system that utilizes permanent and contingent capacity to meet non-stationary stochastic demand, where a constant lead time is associated with the acquisition of contingent capacity. We determine the structure of the optimal solution concerning both the

  12. Capacity Measurement with the UIC 406 Capacity Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex; Schittenhelm, Bernd; Kaas, Anders H.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the fast and effective UIC 406 method for calculating capacity consumption on railway lines. It is possible to expound the UIC 406 method in different ways which can lead to different capacity consumptions. Therefore, this article describes how the methodology is expounded...

  13. Locational Prices in Capacity Subscription Market Considering Transmission Limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Babaeinejad Sarookolaee

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on one of the most effective type of capacity markets named Capacity Subscription (CS market which is predicted to be widely used in the upcoming smart grids. Despite variant researches done about the mechanism and structure of capacity markets, their performances have been rarely tested in the presence of network constraints. Considering this deficiency, we tried to propose a new method to determine capacity prices in the network considering the transmission line flow limitations named Local capacity Prices (LP. This method is quite new and has not been tried before in any other similar researches. The philosophy of the proposed method is to determine capacity prices considering each consumer share of total peak demand. The first advantage of LP is that the consumers who benefit from the transmission facilities and are the responsible for transmission congestions, pay higher capacity prices than those whom their needed electricity is prepared locally. The second advantage of LP is that consumers connected to the same bus do not have to pay same capacity price due to their different shares of total peak demand. For more clarification, two other different methods named Branches Flow limit as a Global Limit (BFGL and Locational Capacity Prices (LCP are proposed and compared to the LP method in order to show LP method efficiency. The numerical results obtained from case studies show that the LP method follows more justice market procedure which results in more efficient capacity prices in comparison to BFGL and LCP methods.

  14. Geochemistry Model Validation Report: External Accumulation Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarrabi, K.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this Analysis and Modeling Report (AMR) is to validate the External Accumulation Model that predicts accumulation of fissile materials in fractures and lithophysae in the rock beneath a degrading waste package (WP) in the potential monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. (Lithophysae are voids in the rock having concentric shells of finely crystalline alkali feldspar, quartz, and other materials that were formed due to entrapped gas that later escaped, DOE 1998, p. A-25.) The intended use of this model is to estimate the quantities of external accumulation of fissile material for use in external criticality risk assessments for different types of degrading WPs: U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) codisposed with High Level Waste (HLW) glass, commercial SNF, and Immobilized Plutonium Ceramic (Pu-ceramic) codisposed with HLW glass. The scope of the model validation is to (1) describe the model and the parameters used to develop the model, (2) provide rationale for selection of the parameters by comparisons with measured values, and (3) demonstrate that the parameters chosen are the most conservative selection for external criticality risk calculations. To demonstrate the applicability of the model, a Pu-ceramic WP is used as an example. The model begins with a source term from separately documented EQ6 calculations; where the source term is defined as the composition versus time of the water flowing out of a breached waste package (WP). Next, PHREEQC, is used to simulate the transport and interaction of the source term with the resident water and fractured tuff below the repository. In these simulations the primary mechanism for accumulation is mixing of the high pH, actinide-laden source term with resident water; thus lowering the pH values sufficiently for fissile minerals to become insoluble and precipitate. In the final section of the model, the outputs from PHREEQC, are processed to produce mass of accumulation

  15. Microbial accumulation of uranium, radium, and cesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strandberg, G.W.; Shumate, S.E. II; Parrott, J.R. Jr.; North, S.E.

    1981-05-01

    Diverse microbial species varied considerably in their ability to accumulate uranium, cesium, and radium. Mechanistic differences in uranium uptake by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were indicated. S. serevisiae exhibited a slow (hours) surface accumulation of uranium which was subject to environmental factors, while P. aeruginosa accumulated uranium rapidly (minutes) as dense intracellular deposits and did not appear to be affected by environmental parameters. Metabolism was not required for uranium uptake by either organism. Cesium and radium were concentrated to a considerably lesser extent than uranium by the several species tested

  16. Manganese accumulation in the brain: MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchino, A.; Nomiyama, K.; Takase, Y.; Nakazono, T.; Nojiri, J.; Kudo, S. [Saga Medical School, Department of Radiology, Saga (Japan); Noguchi, T. [Kyushu University, Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2007-09-15

    Manganese (Mn) accumulation in the brain is detected as symmetrical high signal intensity in the globus pallidi on T1-weighted MR images without an abnormal signal on T2-weighted images. In this review, we present several cases of Mn accumulation in the brain due to acquired or congenital diseases of the abdomen including hepatic cirrhosis with a portosystemic shunt, congenital biliary atresia, primary biliary cirrhosis, congenital intrahepatic portosystemic shunt without liver dysfunction, Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome with a diffuse intrahepatic portosystemic shunt, and patent ductus venosus. Other causes of Mn accumulation in the brain are Mn overload from total parenteral nutrition and welding-related Mn intoxication. (orig.)

  17. Heat and cold accumulators in vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauranen, P.; Wikstroem, L. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Advanced Materials, Tampere (Finland)); Heikkinen, J. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Building Services and Indoor Environment, Espoo (Finland)); Laurikko, J.; Elonen, T. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Emission Control, Espoo (Finland)); Seppaelae, A. (Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Applied Thermodynamics, Espoo (Finland)). Email: ari.seppala@tkk.fi

    2009-07-01

    Phase Change Material (PCM) based heat and cold accumulators have been tailored for transport applications including a mail delivery van as well as the cold chains of foodstuff and blood products. The PCMs can store relative large amount of thermal energy in a narrow temperature interval as latent heat of fusion of their melting and crystallization processes. Compact heat and cold accumulators can be designed using PCMs. The aim of the project has been to reduce the exhaust gas and noise emissions and improve the fuel economy of the transport systems and to improve the reliability of the cold chains studied by storing thermal energy in PCM accumulators. (orig.)

  18. Hyperthyroidism Evokes Myocardial Ceramide Accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Mikłosz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thyroid hormones (THs are key regulators of cardiac physiology as well as modulators of different cellular signals including the sphingomyelin/ceramide pathway. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of hyperthyroidism on the metabolism of sphingolipids in the muscle heart. Methods: Male Wistar rats were treated for 10 days with triiodothyronine (T3 at a dose of 50µg/100g of body weight. Animals were then anaesthetized and samples of the left ventricle were excised. Results: We have demonstrated that prolonged, in vivo, T3 treatment increased the content of sphinganine (SFA, sphingosine (SFO, ceramide (CER and sphingomyelin (SM, but decreased the level of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P in cardiac muscle. Accordingly, the changes in sphingolipids content were accompanied by a lesser activity of neutral sphingomyelinase and without significant changes in ceramidases activity. Hyperthyroidism also induced activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK with subsequently increased expression of mitochondrial proteins: cytochrome c oxidase IV (COX IV, β-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (β-HAD, carnityne palmitoyltransferase I (CPT I and nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC1α. Conclusions: We conclude that prolonged T3 treatment increases sphingolipids metabolism which is reflected by higher concentration of SFA and CER in heart muscle. Furthermore, hyperthyroidism-induced increase in heart sphingomyelin (SM concentration might be one of the mechanisms underlying maintenance of CER at relatively low level by its conversion to SM together with decreased S1P content.

  19. Biofiltration of fishpond effluents and accumulation of N-compounds (phycobiliproteins and mycosporine-like amino acids) versus C-compounds (polysaccharides) in Hydropuntia cornea (Rhodophyta)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueroa, Félix L.; Korbee, Nathalie; Abdala, Roberto; Jerez, Celia G.; López-de la Torre, Mayra; Güenaga, Leire; Larrubia, María A.; Gómez-Pinchetti, Juan L.

    2012-01-01

    The biofiltration capacity, biomass-yield and accumulation of N- and C-compounds of Hydropuntia cornea were analyzed. Algae were grown in different conditions for 28 d: outdoor and indoor, with or without fishpond effluents. N-uptake efficiency of these effluents was higher than 95% after 7 d both outdoors and indoors. N-enriched conditions reduced the extent of photoinhibition and increased the maximal quantum yield in H. cornea. The biomass-yield was higher in outdoor grown-algae after 7 d and decreased independently of the treatment after 28 d. N, acid polysaccharide (AP) and mycosporine-like amino acid (MAA)-yields decreased throughout the experiment in all conditions. The highest MAA-yield was observed in fishpond effluent outdoor-grown algae, indicating a positive effect of increased radiation on MAA accumulation. However, APs were higher under N-depleted conditions. The use of MAAs as UV-screening and antioxidants, and the use of AP as immunostimulants are discussed.

  20. Biofiltration of fishpond effluents and accumulation of N-compounds (phycobiliproteins and mycosporine-like amino acids) versus C-compounds (polysaccharides) in Hydropuntia cornea (Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Félix L; Korbee, Nathalie; Abdala, Roberto; Jerez, Celia G; López-de la Torre, Mayra; Güenaga, Leire; Larrubia, María A; Gómez-Pinchetti, Juan L

    2012-02-01

    The biofiltration capacity, biomass-yield and accumulation of N- and C-compounds of Hydropuntia cornea were analyzed. Algae were grown in different conditions for 28 d: outdoor and indoor, with or without fishpond effluents. N-uptake efficiency of these effluents was higher than 95% after 7 d both outdoors and indoors. N-enriched conditions reduced the extent of photoinhibition and increased the maximal quantum yield in H. cornea. The biomass-yield was higher in outdoor grown-algae after 7 d and decreased independently of the treatment after 28 d. N, acid polysaccharide (AP) and mycosporine-like amino acid (MAA)-yields decreased throughout the experiment in all conditions. The highest MAA-yield was observed in fishpond effluent outdoor-grown algae, indicating a positive effect of increased radiation on MAA accumulation. However, APs were higher under N-depleted conditions. The use of MAAs as UV-screening and antioxidants, and the use of AP as immunostimulants are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Regulation of chloroplast number and DNA synthesis in higher plants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullet, J.E.

    1995-11-10

    The long term objective of this research is to understand the process of chloroplast development and its coordination with leaf development in higher plants. This is important because the photosynthetic capacity of plants is directly related to leaf and chloroplast development. This research focuses on obtaining a detailed description of leaf development and the early steps in chloroplast development including activation of plastid DNA synthesis, changes in plastid DNA copy number, activation of chloroplast transcription and increases in plastid number per cell. The grant will also begin analysis of specific biochemical mechanisms by isolation of the plastid DNA polymerase, and identification of genetic mutants which are altered in their accumulation of plastid DNA and plastid number per cell.

  2. Difference in initial dental biofilm accumulation between night and day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dige, Irene; Schlafer, Sebastian; Nyvad, Bente

    2012-12-01

    The study of initial microbial colonization on dental surfaces is a field of intensive research because of the aetiological role of biofilms in oral diseases. Most previous studies of de novo accumulation and composition of dental biofilms in vivo do not differentiate between biofilms formed during day and night. This study hypothesized that there is a diurnal variation in the rate of accumulation of bacteria on solid surfaces in the oral cavity. In situ biofilm from healthy individuals was collected for 12 h during day and night, respectively, subjected to fluorescent in situ hybridization and visualized using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Analysis of the biofilms using stereological methods and digital image analysis revealed a consistent statistically significant difference between both the total number of bacteria and the biovolume in the two 12-h groups (p = 0.012), with the highest accumulation of bacteria during daytime (a factor of 8.8 and 6.1 higher, respectively). Hybridization with probes specific for streptococci and Actinomyces naeslundii indicated a higher proportion of streptococci in biofilms grown during daytime as compared to night-time. No differences could be observed for A. naeslundii. The degree of microbial coverage and the bacterial composition varied considerably between different individuals. The data provide firm evidence that initial biofilm formation decreases during the night, which may reflect differences in the availability of salivary nutrients. This finding is of significant importance when studying population dynamics during experimental dental biofilm formation.

  3. Marked accumulation of valproic acid in embryonic neuroepithelium of the mouse during early organogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dencker, L.; Nau, H.; D'Argy, R.

    1990-01-01

    Valproic acid, an antiepileptic drug, causes neural tube defects in mice and man. 14C-labeled valproic acid (sodium-salt) was administered to pregnant mice on days 8 and 9 of gestation (period of high sensitivity in regard to formation of neural tube defects in this species). Two dose levels of valproic acid (1 and 400 mg/kg) were used; in each case the total radioactivity administered was the same: 400 microCi/kg or 14.7 MBq/kg. Autoradiography combined with computerized densitometry revealed that in low-dose animals most of the radioactivity was confined to maternal liver and kidney, while at high doses more activity was observed in soft tissues and fluids, including amniotic fluid. In the embryo, the neuroepithelium showed the highest concentration, irrespective of dose and survival interval (30 min, 3 h, and 6 h). Upon administration of the high dose, up to five times more radioactivity (approximately 2,000 times more valproic acid) was recovered in embryonic tissues than after the low dose. It is concluded that high doses of VPA saturate the capacities of metabolism, excretion, and protein binding in the maternal organism, resulting in a higher proportion of the dose reaching the embryo, allowing more of the drug to be accumulated by the target organ, the neuroepithelium

  4. Metal accumulation in wild-caught opossum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhart, J Mitchell; Siddiqui, Samreen; Loughry, W J; Bielmyer-Fraser, Gretchen K

    2016-06-01

    The Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) is widespread in the USA, ranging south through Latin America. The ecology of opossums is such that they are in frequent contact with soils, suggesting that they may function as a valuable bioindicator for chemical contamination in terrestrial environments. Surprisingly, there have been virtually no toxicology studies on opossums. Here, we provide the first analysis of metal contaminants in opossum liver tissues. Liver samples were obtained from 471 opossums, collected from 2003 to 2006, at four sites in North Florida and South Georgia, USA, and concentrations of copper, lead, nickel, selenium, and zinc were measured. We found little evidence of age differences in the concentration of any of the metals. However, there were at least some significant differences between years, males and females, and between sites for each metal, although the pattern of these differences was not always consistent across metals. Concentrations of metals in liver tissue were positively correlated with one another, primarily of each metal (except Pb) with zinc. Reference levels of metal contaminants are not available for opossums, but concentrations of Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in our samples were for the most part significantly higher than those reported from liver tissues of nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) collected at the same sites and in the same years. Data from other small mammals studied elsewhere further indicate that metal concentrations in opossums were high, but at this time, it is not possible to determine if these elevated levels generated toxicity. The substantial temporal and spatial variation we found in metal concentrations suggests that determination of baseline levels for opossums may not be straightforward. Nonetheless, this is the first study quantifying metal accumulation in the livers of Didelphis virginiana and, as such, provides an important starting point for future research.

  5. Predicting the distribution of bed material accumulation using river network sediment budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Scott N.; Prosser, Ian P.; Hughes, Andrew O.

    2006-10-01

    Assessing the spatial distribution of bed material accumulation in river networks is important for determining the impacts of erosion on downstream channel form and habitat and for planning erosion and sediment management. A model that constructs spatially distributed budgets of bed material sediment is developed to predict the locations of accumulation following land use change. For each link in the river network, GIS algorithms are used to predict bed material supply from gullies, river banks, and upstream tributaries and to compare total supply with transport capacity. The model is tested in the 29,000 km2 Murrumbidgee River catchment in southeast Australia. It correctly predicts the presence or absence of accumulation in 71% of river links, which is significantly better performance than previous models, which do not account for spatial variability in sediment supply and transport capacity. Representing transient sediment storage is important for predicting smaller accumulations. Bed material accumulation is predicted in 25% of the river network, indicating its importance as an environmental problem in Australia.

  6. Globalisation and Higher Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marginson, Simon; van der Wende, Marijk

    2007-01-01

    Economic and cultural globalisation has ushered in a new era in higher education. Higher education was always more internationally open than most sectors because of its immersion in knowledge, which never showed much respect for juridical boundaries. In global knowledge economies, higher education

  7. Effect of transpiration on plant accumulation and translocation of PPCP/EDCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodgen, Laurel K.; Ueda, Aiko; Wu, Xiaoqin; Parker, David R.; Gan, Jay

    2015-01-01

    The reuse of treated wastewater for agricultural irrigation in arid and hot climates where plant transpiration is high may affect plant accumulation of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) and endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). In this study, carrot, lettuce, and tomato plants were grown in solution containing 16 PPCP/EDCs in either a cool-humid or a warm-dry environment. Leaf bioconcentration factors (BCF) were positively correlated with transpiration for chemical groups of different ionized states (p < 0.05). However, root BCFs were correlated with transpiration only for neutral PPCP/EDCs (p < 0.05). Neutral and cationic PPCP/EDCs showed similar accumulation, while anionic PPCP/EDCs had significantly higher accumulation in roots and significantly lower accumulation in leaves (p < 0.05). Results show that plant transpiration may play a significant role in the uptake and translocation of PPCP/EDCs, which may have a pronounced effect in arid and hot climates where irrigation with treated wastewater is common. - Highlights: • Leaf accumulation of PPCP/EDCs is related on plant transpiration. • Cationic and neutral PPCP/EDCs have similar leaf and root accumulation. • Anionic PPCP/EDCs have greater root accumulation and lesser leaf accumulation. • PPCP/EDCs are extensively metabolized in plant tissue and hydroponic solution. - High plant transpiration in arid and hot areas may lead to increased foliar accumulation of PPCP/EDCs from treated wastewater irrigation

  8. Characterization of accumulated precipitates during subsurface iron removal

    KAUST Repository

    Van Halem, Doris

    2011-01-01

    The principle of subsurface iron removal for drinking water supply is that aerated water is periodically injected into the aquifer through a tube well. On its way into the aquifer, the injected O2-rich water oxidizes adsorbed Fe 2+, creating a subsurface oxidation zone. When groundwater abstraction is resumed, the soluble Fe 2+ is adsorbed and water with reduced Fe concentrations is abstracted for multiple volumes of the injection water. In this article, Fe accumulation deposits in the aquifer near subsurface treatment wells were identified and characterized to assess the sustainability of subsurface iron removal regarding clogging of the aquifer and the potential co-accumulation of other groundwater constituents, such as As. Chemical extraction of soil samples, with Acid-Oxalate and HNO3, showed that Fe had accumulated at specific depths near subsurface iron removal wells after 12 years of operation. Whether it was due to preferred flow paths or geochemical mineralogy conditions; subsurface iron removal clearly favoured certain soil layers. The total Fe content increased between 11.5 and 390.8 mmol/kg ds in the affected soil layers, and the accumulated Fe was found to be 56-100% crystalline. These results suggest that precipitated amorphous Fe hydroxides have transformed to Fe hydroxides of higher crystallinity. These crystalline, compact Fe hydroxides have not noticeably clogged the investigated well and/or aquifer between 1996 and 2008. The subsurface iron removal wells even need less frequent rehabilitation, as drawdown increases more slowly than in normal production wells. Other groundwater constituents, such as Mn, As and Sr were found to co-accumulate with Fe. Acid extraction and ESEM-EDX showed that Ca occurred together with Fe and by X-ray Powder Diffraction it was identified as calcite. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Factors influencing the cardiac MIBG accumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takatsu, Hisato; Fujiwara, Hisayoshi

    1997-01-01

    Following factors possibly influencing the cardiac MIBG accumulation were examined mainly in mice. 1. The specific activity of the MIBG (meta-iodo-benzyl guanidine) on the neuronal and non-neuronal fractions. 2. Motor restriction stress on MIBG accumulation and washout. 3. Loading and restriction of sodium chloride on the accumulation and effect of suppression of renin-angiotensin system. 4. Examinations in Dahl rats. 125I- or 131I-MIBG was intravenously administered to mice at 74 kBq. At 30 min or 4 hr after administration, mice were sacrificed and their left ventricles were dissected out for measurement of radioactivity in a liquid scintillation counter. Salt-sensitive and -resistant Dahl rats were given with 37 MBq of 123I-MIBG and cardiac radioactivity was measured externally for calculation of washout. Factors examined were found highly correlated with the accumulation of MIBG and measurement of its washout was considered useful for evaluating sympathetic activity. (K.H.)

  10. Rock bed heat accumulators. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riaz, M.

    1977-12-01

    The principal objectives of the research program on rock bed heat accumulators (or RBHA) are: (1) to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of storing large amounts of thermal energy (in the tens of MWt range) at high temperature (up to 500/sup 0/C) over extended periods of time (up to 6 months) using native earth or rock materials; (2) to conduct studies to establish the performance characteristics of large rock bed heat accumulators at various power and temperature levels compatible with thermal conversion systems; and (3) to assess the materials and environmental problems associated with the operation of such large heat accumulators. Results of the study indicate that rock bed heat accumulators for seasonal storage are both technically and economically feasible, and hence could be exploited in various applications in which storage plays an essential role such as solar power and total energy systems, district and cogeneration heating systems.

  11. HORMONAL REGULATION OF SELENIUM ACCUMULATION BY PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Golubkina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hormonal regulation is considered to be a unique mechanism controlling growth and development of living organism. The review discusses the correlations between pant hormonal status of non-accumulators and hyper-accumulators of Se with the accumulation levels of this microelement. The phenomenon of stimulation and redistribution of selenium as a result of phytohormone treatment, the peculiarities of phytohormones effect among different species and cultivars, and influence of plant sexualization on selenium accumulation are described in article. Data of hormonal regulation of selenium level for spinach, garlic, perennial onion, Brassica chinenesis and Valeriana officialis are presented in the review.

  12. Root transcripts associated with arsenic accumulation in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rasika M Potdukhe

    2018-02-06

    Feb 6, 2018 ... an option for development of a sustainable phytoremediation process for As mitigation. Accumulation of ... People living in areas contaminated with. As suffer .... RNA was used to enrich mRNA and cDNA library construc- tion.

  13. Accumulation of nickel in transgenic tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidik, Nik Marzuki; Othman, Noor Farhan

    2013-11-01

    The accumulation of heavy metal Ni in the roots and leaves of four T1 transgenic lines of tobacco (T(1)20E, T(1)24C, T(1)18B1 and T(1)20B) expressing eiMT1 from E.indica was assessed. The aim of the study was to investigate the level of Ni accumulation in the leaves and roots of each transgenic lines and to evaluate the eligibility of the plants to be classified as a phytoremediation agent. All of the transgenic lines showed different ability in accumulating different metals and has translocation factor (TF) less than 1 (TFtransgenic lines, transgenic line T(1)24C showed the highest accumulation of Ni (251.9 ± 0.014 mg/kg) and the lowest TF value (TFT(1)24C=0.0875) at 60 ppm Ni.

  14. Nitrate accumulation and leaching potential reduced by coupled water and nitrogen management in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ping; Zhang, Jiabao; Zhu, Anning; Li, Xiaopeng; Ma, Donghao; Xin, Xiuli; Zhang, Congzhi; Wu, Shengjun; Garland, Gina; Pereira, Engil Isadora Pujol

    2018-01-01

    Irrigation and nitrogen (N) fertilization in excess of crop requirements are responsible for substantial nitrate accumulation in the soil profile and contamination of groundwater by nitrate leaching during intensive agricultural production. In this on-farm field trial, we compared 16 different water and N treatments on nitrate accumulation and its distribution in the soil profile (0-180cm), nitrate leaching potential, and groundwater nitrate concentration within a summer-maize (Zea mays L.) and winter-wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) rotation system in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain over five cropping cycles (2006-2010). The results indicated that nitrate remaining in the soil profile after crop harvest and nitrate concentration of soil solutions at two depths (80cm and 180cm) declined with increasing irrigation amounts and increased greatly with increasing N application rates, especially for seasonal N application rates higher than 190kgNha -1 . During the experimental period, continuous torrential rainfall was the main cause for nitrate leaching beyond the root zone (180cm), which could pose potential risks for contamination of groundwater. Nitrate concentration of groundwater varied from 0.2 to 2.9mgL -1 , which was lower than the limit of 10mgL -1 as the maximum safe level for drinking water. In view of the balance between grain production and environmental consequences, seasonal N application rates of 190kgNha -1 and 150kgNha -1 were recommended for winter wheat and summer maize, respectively. Irrigation to the field capacity of 0-40cm and 0-60cm soil depth could be appropriate for maize and wheat, respectively. Therefore, taking grain yields, mineral N accumulation in the soil profile, nitrate leaching potential, and groundwater quality into account, coupled water and N management could provide an opportunity to promote grain production while reducing negative environmental impacts in this region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Influence of Se concentrations and species in hydroponic cultures on Se uptake, translocation and assimilation in non-accumulator ryegrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versini, Antoine; Di Tullo, Pamela; Aubry, Emmanuel; Bueno, Maïté; Thiry, Yves; Pannier, Florence; Castrec-Rouelle, Maryse

    2016-11-01

    The success of biofortification and phytoremediation practices, addressing Se deficiency and Se pollution issues, hinges crucially on the fate of selenium in the plant media in response to uptake, translocation and assimilation processes. We investigate the fate of selenium in root and shoot compartments after 3 and 6 weeks of experiment using a total of 128 plants grown in hydroponic solution supplied with 0.2, 2, 5, 20 and 100 mg L -1 of selenium in the form of selenite, selenate and a mixture of both species. Selenate-treated plants exhibited higher root-to-shoot Se translocation and total Se uptake than selenite-treated plants. Plants took advantage of the selenate mobility and presumably of the storage capacity of leaf vacuoles to circumvent selenium toxicity within the plant. Surprisingly, 28% of selenate was found in shoots of selenite-treated plants, questioning the ability of plants to oxidize selenite into selenate. Selenomethionine and methylated organo-selenium amounted to 30% and 8% respectively in shoots and 35% and 9% in roots of the identified Se, suggesting that selenium metabolization occurred concomitantly in root and shoot plant compartments and demonstrating that non-accumulator plants can synthesize notable quantities of precursor compound for volatilization. The present study demonstrated that non-accumulator plants can develop the same strategies as hyper-accumulator plants to limit selenium toxicity. When both selenate and selenite were supplied together, plants used selenate in a storage pathway and selenite in an assimilation pathway. Plants might thereby benefit from mixed supplies of selenite and selenate by saving enzymes and energy required for selenate reduction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Capacity pricing in a free market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wangensteen, Ivar; Wolfgang, Ove; Doorman, Gerard

    2005-01-01

    This report deals primarily with pricing of reserve capacity, partly on a theoretical basis and partly based on practical experience from the Norwegian market. In the theoretical part we describe a simple model for investigation of equilibrium prices on capacity reserves, spot power and regulating power. This model is based on strong simplifying assumptions. Next a computer model is introduced. That enables more complexity and makes it possible to analyse more realistic scenarios. Finally the report describes experiences from the Norwegian market. The Norwegian System Operator, Statnett, is responsible for the Balancing Market (BM) and Reserves Option Market (ROM), which was introduced a few years ago as a separate market for reserves. Experience with these market instruments are generally good and Statnett is preparing a new version for the winter 2004/2005. The report deals with generation as well as consumer side capacity reserves. One interesting observation is that in Norway the consumer side is providing more capacity reserves than the generators, but the consumers normally bid in a higher BM price than the generators. (author)

  17. Capacity retention in hydrogen storage alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anani, A.; Visintin, A.; Srinivasan, S.; Appleby, A. J.; Reilly, J. J.; Johnson, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    Results of our examination of the properties of several candidate materials for hydrogen storage electrodes and their relation to the decrease in H-storage capacity upon open-circuit storage over time are reported. In some of the alloy samples examined to date, only about 10 percent of the hydrogen capacity was lost upon storage for 20 days, while in others, this number was as high as 30 percent for the same period of time. This loss in capacity is attributed to two separate mechanisms: (1) hydrogen desorbed from the electrode due to pressure differences between the cell and the electrode sample; and (2) chemical and/or electrochemical degradation of the alloy electrode upon exposure to the cell environment. The former process is a direct consequence of the equilibrium dissociation pressure of the hydride alloy phase and the partial pressure of hydrogen in the hydride phase in equilibrium with that in the electrolyte environment, while the latter is related to the stability of the alloy phase in the cell environment. Comparison of the equilibrium gas-phase dissociation pressures of these alloys indicate that reversible loss of hydrogen capacity is higher in alloys with P(eqm) greater than 1 atm than in those with P(eqm) less than 1 atm.

  18. Individual Differences in Zhong-Yong tendency and Processing Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Yun eChang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated how an individual’s Zhong-Yong tendency is related to his/her perceptual processing capacity. In two experiments, participants completed a Zhong-Yong Thinking Style Scale and performed a redundant-target detection task. Processing capacity was assessed with a nonparametric approach (systems factorial technology, SFT and a parametric (linear ballistic accumulator model, LBA approach. Results converged to suggest a positive correlation between Zhong-Yong tendency and processing capacity. High middle-way thinkers had larger processing capacity in multiple-signal processing compared with low middle-way thinkers, indicating that they processed information more efficiently and in an integrated fashion. Zhong-Yong tendency positively correlates with the processing capacity. These findings suggest that the individual differences in processing capacity can account for the reasons why high middle-way thinkers tend to adopt a global and flexible processing strategy to deal with the external world. Furthermore, the influence of culturally dictated thinking style on cognition can be revealed in a perception task.

  19. Plastic Accumulation in the Mediterranean Sea

    OpenAIRE

    C?zar, Andr?s; Sanz-Mart?n, Marina; Mart?, Elisa; Gonz?lez-Gordillo, J. Ignacio; Ubeda, B?rbara; G?lvez, Jos? ?.; Irigoien, Xabier; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2015-01-01

    Copyright: © 2015 Cózar et al. Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2), as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled), are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by ...

  20. Credit Constraints, Political Instability, and Capital Accumulation

    OpenAIRE

    Risto Herrala; Rima Turk-Ariss

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the complex interactions between credit constraints, political instability, and capital accumulation using a novel approach based on Kiyotaki and Moore’s (1997) theoretical framework. Drawing on a unique firm-level data set from Middle-East and North Africa (MENA), empirical findings point to a large and significant effect of credit conditions on capital accumulation and suggest that continued political unrest worsens credit constraints. The results support the view that financ...

  1. Renewable Resources, Capital Accumulation, and Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Wei-Bin Zhang

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a dynamic economic model with physical capital and renewable resources. Different from most of the neoclassical growth models with renewable resources which are based on microeconomic foundation and neglect physical capital accumulation, this study proposes a growth model with dynamics of renewable resources and physical capital accumulation. The model is a synthesis of the neoclassical growth theory and the traditional dynamic models of renewable resources with an alterna...

  2. Installed capacity in New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlton, J.

    2006-01-01

    This presentation discussed capacity issues related to the New York Independent System Operator (NYISO). The NYISO's market volume was approximately $11 billion in 2005, and it was responsible for providing 32,075 MW of electricity at peak load to its users. Regulatory uncertainty is currently discouraging investment in new generating resources. All load serving entities are required to contract for sufficient capacity in order to meet their capacity obligations. Market participants currently determine capacity and energy revenues. The NYISO market allows suppliers to recover variable costs for providing ancillary services, and the economic value of the revenue source governs decisions made in the wholesale electricity market. The installed capacity market was designed as a spot auction deficiency auction. Phased-in demand curves are used to modify the installed capacity market's design. A sloped demand curve mechanism is used to value capacity above the minimum requirement for both reliability and competition. Participation in the day-ahead market enhances competition and exerts downward pressure on energy and ancillary service market prices. It was concluded that the market structures and design features of the installed capacity markets recognize the need for system reliability in addition to encouraging robust competition and recognizing energy price caps and regulatory oversights. tabs., figs

  3. Concrete Operations and Attentional Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Michael; Lindenberger, Ulman

    1989-01-01

    To test predictions regarding the attentional capacity requirements of Piaget's stage of concrete operations, a battery of concrete operational tasks and two measures of attentional capacity were administered to 120 first-, second-, and third-graders. Findings concern class inclusion, transitivity of length and weight, and multiplication of…

  4. Fiscal Capacity Equalisation in Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allers, Maarten A.; Ishemoi, Lewis J.

    2010-01-01

    Fiscal equalisation aims at enabling decentralised governments to supply similar services at similar tax rates. In order to equalise fiscal disparities, differences in both fiscal capacities and in fiscal needs have to be measured. This paper focuses on the measurement of fiscal capacity in a

  5. Relationship between Protein Accumulation Regulation and Yield Formation in Soybean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Lihua; LI Jie; LIU Lijun; ZU Wei

    2006-01-01

    Three different genotypes soybeans were adopted in this experiment under three fertilizer levels.The object of this study was to investigate protein accumulation regulation of soybean cultivars under the condition of different nutrient levels, and their effects on soybean yield and quality, and to provide theoretical evidence for breed, cultivation and agricultural production, also man-powered controllable locations. The concentration of N in the leaves declined after seedling stage, then increased again at stage of early flowering, and started to decrease up to leaf senescence, declined rapidly from seed-filling season to stage of yellow ripeness. The concentration of N in the stems and pod walls declined with growth stage. High seed protein genotypes exhibited higher N assimilating and partitioning during whole growth stages. Pod walls were media of N partitioning. Protein was accumulated mainly during the later period of reproductive growth stage up to harvest, so plant growth after stage of yellow ripeness could not be neglected.

  6. Lack of Glycogenin Causes Glycogen Accumulation and Muscle Function Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testoni, Giorgia; Duran, Jordi; García-Rocha, Mar; Vilaplana, Francisco; Serrano, Antonio L; Sebastián, David; López-Soldado, Iliana; Sullivan, Mitchell A; Slebe, Felipe; Vilaseca, Marta; Muñoz-Cánoves, Pura; Guinovart, Joan J

    2017-07-05

    Glycogenin is considered essential for glycogen synthesis, as it acts as a primer for the initiation of the polysaccharide chain. Against expectations, glycogenin-deficient mice (Gyg KO) accumulate high amounts of glycogen in striated muscle. Furthermore, this glycogen contains no covalently bound protein, thereby demonstrating that a protein primer is not strictly necessary for the synthesis of the polysaccharide in vivo. Strikingly, in spite of the higher glycogen content, Gyg KO mice showed lower resting energy expenditure and less resistance than control animals when subjected to endurance exercise. These observations can be attributed to a switch of oxidative myofibers toward glycolytic metabolism. Mice overexpressing glycogen synthase in the muscle showed similar alterations, thus indicating that this switch is caused by the excess of glycogen. These results may explain the muscular defects of GSD XV patients, who lack glycogenin-1 and show high glycogen accumulation in muscle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Improving the satellite communication efficiency of the accumulative acknowledgement strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Otto Carlos M. B.; de Lima, Heliomar Medeiros

    The performances of two finite buffer error recovery strategies are analyzed. In both strategies the retransmission request decision between selective repeat and continuous retransmission is based on an imminent buffer overflow condition. These are accumulative acknowledgment schemes, but in the second strategy the selective-repeat control frame is uniquely an individual negative acknowledgment. The two strategies take advantage of the availability of a greater buffer capacity, making the most of the selective repeat, postponing the sending of a continuous retransmission request. Numerical results show a better performance very close to the ideal, but it does not integrally conform to the high-level data link control (HDLC) procedures. It is shown that these strategies are well suited for high-speed data transfer in the high-error-rate satellite environment.

  8. Accumulation of radionuclides by lichen symbionts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nifontova, M G; Kulikov, N V [AN SSSR, Sverdlovsk. Inst. Ehkologii Rastenij i Zhivotnykh

    1983-01-01

    The aim of investigation is the quantitative estimation of ability and role of separate symbionts in the accumulation of radionuclides. As investigation volumes, durably cultivated green lichen alga Trebouxia erici and lichen fungi extracted from Cladonia rangiferina, Parmelia caperata and Acarospora fuscata are used. The accumulation of radioactive isotopes with fungi and seaweeds is estimated according to accumulation coefficients (AC) which are the ratio of radiation concentration in plants and agarized medium. Radionuclide content (/sup 90/Sr and /sup 137/Cs) is determined radiometrically. A special series of experiments is done to investigate radionuclide accumulation dependences with lichen seaweed and fungi on light conditions. It is shown that both symbionts of lichen-seaweed and fungus take part in the accumulation of radionuclide from outer medium (atmospheric fall-out and soil). However fungus component constituting the base of structural organization of thallus provides the greater part of radionuclides accumulated by the plant. Along with this the violation of viability of seaweed symbionts particularly in the case of light deficiency brings about the reduction of /sup 137/Cs sorption by seaweeds and tells on the total content of radiocesium in plant thallus.

  9. Capacity Building in Land Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig; Williamson, I

    2004-01-01

    Capacity building increasingly seen as a key component of land administration projects in developing and countries in transition undertaken by the international development banks and individual country development assistance agencies. However, the capacity building concept is often used within...... infrastructures for implementing land policies in a sustainable way. Where a project is established to create land administration infrastructures in developing or transition countries, it is critical that capacity building is a mainstream component, not as an add-on, which is often the case. In fact such projects...... should be dealt with as capacity building projects in themselves.    The article introduces a conceptual analytical framework that provides some guidance when dealing with capacity building for land administration in support of a broader land policy agenda....

  10. Accumulation of catechins in tea in relation to accumulation of mRNA from genes involved in catechin biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eungwanichayapant, P D; Popluechai, S

    2009-02-01

    Catechins are a group of polyphenols found in tea (Camellia sinensis var. sinensis) at high levels. They are beneficial for health. From the study on accumulation of catechins in shoots and mature leaves of a tea cultivar, Oolong No. 17, using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), it was found that the amounts of most catechins in the shoots were higher than those in the mature leaves, with an exception of catechins gallate (CG) that was found in trace amounts in both the shoots and mature leaves. mRNA accumulation of genes involved in catechin synthesis was studied using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The results showed that the mRNA accumulation of the genes were higher in the shoots than in the mature leaves. These genes included genes of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase 1 (PAL1; EC 4.3.1.5), chalcone synthase (CHS; EC 2.3.1.74), dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR; EC 1.1.1.219), leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LCR; EC 1.17.1.3), and flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H; EC 1.14.11.9).

  11. Cadmium accumulation in sunflower plants influenced by arbuscular mycorrhiza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Sara Adrián López; da Silveira, Adriana Parada Dias; Jorge, Renato Atílio; de Abreu, Mônica Ferreira

    2008-01-01

    In order to investigate the cadmium (Cd) accumulation patterns and possible alleviation of Cd stress by mycorrhization, sunflower plants (Helianthus annuus L.) were grown in the presence or absence of Cd (20 micromol L(-1)) and inoculated or not inoculated with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Glomus intraradices. No visual symptoms of Cd phytotoxicity were observed; nevertheless, in non-mycorrhizal plants the presence of Cd decreased plant growth. The addition of Cd had no significant effect on either mycorrhizal colonization or the amount of extra-radical mycelia that was produced by the AMF. Cd accumulated mainly in roots; only 22% of the total Cd absorbed was translocated to the shoots, where it accumulated to an average of 228 mg Cd kg(-1). Although the shoot-to-root ratio of Cd was similar in both the AMF inoculated and non-inoculated plants, the total absorbed Cd was 23% higher in mycorrhizal plants. Cd concentration in AMF extra-radical mycelium was 728 microg g(-1) dry weight. Despite the greater absorption of Cd, mycorrhizal plants showed higher photosynthetic pigment concentrations and shoot P contents. Cd also influenced mineral nutrition, leading to decreased Ca and Cu shoot concentrations; N, Fe and Cu shoot contents; and increased S and K shoot concentrations. Cd induced guaiacol peroxidase activity in roots in both mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants, but this increase was much more accentuated in non-mycorrhizal roots. In conclusion, sunflower plants associated with G. intraradices were less sensitive to Cd stress than non-mycorrhizal plants. Mycorrhizal sunflowers showed enhanced Cd accumulation and some tolerance to excessive Cd concentrations in plant tissues.

  12. The capacity credit of micro-combined heat and power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkes, A.D.; Leach, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    This article is concerned with development of a methodology to determine the capacity credit of micro-combined heat and power (micro-CHP), and application of the method for the UK. Capacity credit is an important parameter in electricity system planning because it measures the amount of conventional generation that would be displaced by an alternative technology. Firstly, a mathematical formulation is presented. Capacity credit is then calculated for three types of micro-CHP units-Stirling engine, internal combustion engine, and fuel cell systems-operating under various control strategies. It is found that low heat-to-power ratio fuel cell technologies achieve the highest capacity credit of approximately 85% for a 1.1 GW penetration when a heat-led control strategy is applied. Higher heat-to-power ratio Stirling engine technology achieves approximately 33% capacity credit for heat-led operation. Low heat-to-power ratio technologies achieve higher capacity credit because they are able to continue operating even when heat demand is relatively low. Capacity credit diminishes as penetration of the technology increases. Overall, the high capacity credit of micro-CHP contributes to the viewpoint that the technology can help meet a number of economic and environmental energy policy aims

  13. Study of Cycling Air-Cooling System with a Cold Accumulator for Micro Gas-Turbine Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochkov, V. F.; Stepanova, T. A.; Katenev, G. M.; Tumanovskii, V. A.; Borisova, P. N.

    2018-05-01

    Using the cycling air-cooling systems of the CTIC type (Combustion Turbine Inlet Cooling) with a cold accumulator in a micro gas-turbine installation (micro-GTI) to preserve its capacity under the seasonal temperature rise of outside air is described. Water ice is used as the body-storage in the accumulators, and ice water (water at 0.5-1.0°C) is used as the body that cools air. The ice water circulates between the accumulator and the air-water heat exchanger. The cold accumulator model with renewable ice resources is considered. The model contains the heat-exchanging tube lattice-evaporator covered with ice. The lattice is cross-flowed with water. The criterion heat exchange equation that describes the process in the cold accumulator under consideration is presented. The calculations of duration of its active operation were performed. The dependence of cold accumulator service life on water circulation rate was evaluated. The adequacy of the design model was confirmed experimentally in the mock-up of the cold accumulator with a refrigerating machine periodically creating a 200 kg ice reserve in the reservoir-storage. The design model makes it possible to determine the weight of ice reserve of the discharged cold accumulator for cooling the cycle air in the operation of a C-30 type micro- GTI produced by the Capstone Company or micro-GTIs of other capacities. Recommendations for increasing the working capacity of cold accumulators of CTIC-systems of a micro-GTI were made.

  14. Study of the heavy metal phytoextraction capacity of two forage species growing in an hydroponic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfranceschi, Barros A; Flocco, C G; Donati, E R

    2009-06-15

    Sorghum and alfalfa are two important forage crops. We studied their capacity for accumulating heavy metals in hydroponic experiments. Cadmium, nickel (as divalent cations) and chromium (trivalent and hexavalent) were added individually to the nutrient solution in a range of concentrations from 1 to 80 mg/l. Cr(III) was complexed with EDTA to increase its bioavailability. In alfalfa the increases in the concentration of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) favoured translocation of the metals to the upper parts of the plants, while with Ni(II) the level of translocated metal remained almost unchanged. In sorghum, both Cr(VI) and Ni(II) produced similar results to those in alfalfa, but increases in the concentrations of Cd(II) and Cr(III) in the solution lead to a higher accumulation of the metal at the root level. The concentrations referred to the dry biomass of alfalfa were 500 mg/kg (aerial parts) and 1500 mg/kg (roots) of Cr(III), simultaneously enhancing plant growth. Sorghum captured 500 and 1100 mg/kg (in aerial parts) and 300 and 2000 mg/kg (in roots) for Ni(II) and Cd(II) respectively, without significant damage to its biomass. The results show that alfalfa and sorghum can not only grow in the presence of high heavy metal concentration but also capture and translocate them to the aerial parts; because of these results special attention should be given to these crop plants for their possible use in phytoremediation of large contaminated areas but especially to avoid the possible introduction of the metals accumulated in aerial parts into the food chain when those plants grow in contaminated areas.

  15. Study of the heavy metal phytoextraction capacity of two forage species growing in an hydroponic environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonfranceschi, Barros A. [Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo en Fermentaciones Industriales (CINDEFI, UNLP-CCT La Plata, CONICET), Facultad de Ciencias Exactas (UNLP), Calle 50 y 115, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Flocco, C.G. [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnologicas (CONICET), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Donati, E.R., E-mail: donati@quimica.unlp.edu.ar [Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo en Fermentaciones Industriales (CINDEFI, UNLP-CCT La Plata, CONICET), Facultad de Ciencias Exactas (UNLP), Calle 50 y 115, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)

    2009-06-15

    Sorghum and alfalfa are two important forage crops. We studied their capacity for accumulating heavy metals in hydroponic experiments. Cadmium, nickel (as divalent cations) and chromium (trivalent and hexavalent) were added individually to the nutrient solution in a range of concentrations from 1 to 80 mg/l. Cr(III) was complexed with EDTA to increase its bioavailability. In alfalfa the increases in the concentration of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) favoured translocation of the metals to the upper parts of the plants, while with Ni(II) the level of translocated metal remained almost unchanged. In sorghum, both Cr(VI) and Ni(II) produced similar results to those in alfalfa, but increases in the concentrations of Cd(II) and Cr(III) in the solution lead to a higher accumulation of the metal at the root level. The concentrations referred to the dry biomass of alfalfa were 500 mg/kg (aerial parts) and 1500 mg/kg (roots) of Cr(III), simultaneously enhancing plant growth. Sorghum captured 500 and 1100 mg/kg (in aerial parts) and 300 and 2000 mg/kg (in roots) for Ni(II) and Cd(II) respectively, without significant damage to its biomass. The results show that alfalfa and sorghum can not only grow in the presence of high heavy metal concentration but also capture and translocate them to the aerial parts; because of these results special attention should be given to these crop plants for their possible use in phytoremediation of large contaminated areas but especially to avoid the possible introduction of the metals accumulated in aerial parts into the food chain when those plants grow in contaminated areas.

  16. Study of the heavy metal phytoextraction capacity of two forage species growing in an hydroponic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonfranceschi, Barros A.; Flocco, C.G.; Donati, E.R.

    2009-01-01

    Sorghum and alfalfa are two important forage crops. We studied their capacity for accumulating heavy metals in hydroponic experiments. Cadmium, nickel (as divalent cations) and chromium (trivalent and hexavalent) were added individually to the nutrient solution in a range of concentrations from 1 to 80 mg/l. Cr(III) was complexed with EDTA to increase its bioavailability. In alfalfa the increases in the concentration of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) favoured translocation of the metals to the upper parts of the plants, while with Ni(II) the level of translocated metal remained almost unchanged. In sorghum, both Cr(VI) and Ni(II) produced similar results to those in alfalfa, but increases in the concentrations of Cd(II) and Cr(III) in the solution lead to a higher accumulation of the metal at the root level. The concentrations referred to the dry biomass of alfalfa were 500 mg/kg (aerial parts) and 1500 mg/kg (roots) of Cr(III), simultaneously enhancing plant growth. Sorghum captured 500 and 1100 mg/kg (in aerial parts) and 300 and 2000 mg/kg (in roots) for Ni(II) and Cd(II) respectively, without significant damage to its biomass. The results show that alfalfa and sorghum can not only grow in the presence of high heavy metal concentration but also capture and translocate them to the aerial parts; because of these results special attention should be given to these crop plants for their possible use in phytoremediation of large contaminated areas but especially to avoid the possible introduction of the metals accumulated in aerial parts into the food chain when those plants grow in contaminated areas.

  17. Modeling snow accumulation and ablation processes in forested environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreadis, Konstantinos M.; Storck, Pascal; Lettenmaier, Dennis P.

    2009-05-01

    The effects of forest canopies on snow accumulation and ablation processes can be very important for the hydrology of midlatitude and high-latitude areas. A mass and energy balance model for snow accumulation and ablation processes in forested environments was developed utilizing extensive measurements of snow interception and release in a maritime mountainous site in Oregon. The model was evaluated using 2 years of weighing lysimeter data and was able to reproduce the snow water equivalent (SWE) evolution throughout winters both beneath the canopy and in the nearby clearing, with correlations to observations ranging from 0.81 to 0.99. Additionally, the model was evaluated using measurements from a Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) field site in Canada to test the robustness of the canopy snow interception algorithm in a much different climate. Simulated SWE was relatively close to the observations for the forested sites, with discrepancies evident in some cases. Although the model formulation appeared robust for both types of climates, sensitivity to parameters such as snow roughness length and maximum interception capacity suggested the magnitude of improvements of SWE simulations that might be achieved by calibration.

  18. Estimation of Bio-Accumulation by a Group Contribution Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belhachem, B.; Canselier, J. P.

    2009-01-01

    The majority of organic pollutants, after their dispersion in water then their ingestion, have a strong tendency to accumulate in greases. That is due to the hydrophobic character of these molecules. To have an idea on the capacity of a substance to accumulate in the alive beings according to their lipidic mass, the modeling of the pollutant behaviour was made by considering its partition coefficient between n-octanol (representing the lipidic mass) and water. Its knowledge represents a very significant information for the petrochemical and the pharmaceutical industries. To dissipate any doubt about confidence concerning the obtained results, it is considered useful to check the effectiveness of UNIFAC method on the monomethylbenzoic acid such as, for example, the 3-methylbenzoic acid whose n-octanol-water partition coefficient is already listed in the literature.The small deviations observed between the n-octanol-water partition coefficients listed in the literature and the one calculated according UNIFAC method encouraged us to apply it in order to predict the n-octanol-water partition coefficient of the dimethylbenzoic acid. (author)

  19. Accumulation of neutral mutations in growing cell colonies with competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorace, Ron; Komarova, Natalia L

    2012-12-07

    Neutral mutations play an important role in many biological processes including cancer initiation and progression, the generation of drug resistance in bacterial and viral diseases as well as cancers, and the development of organs in multicellular organisms. In this paper we study how neutral mutants are accumulated in nonlinearly growing colonies of cells subject to growth constraints such as crowding or lack of resources. We investigate different types of growth control which range from "division-controlled" to "death-controlled" growth (and various mixtures of both). In division-controlled growth, the burden of handling overcrowding lies with the process of cell-divisions, the divisions slow down as the carrying capacity is approached. In death-controlled growth, it is death rate that increases to slow down expansion. We show that division-controlled growth minimizes the number of accumulated mutations, and death-controlled growth corresponds to the maximum number of mutants. We check that these results hold in both deterministic and stochastic settings. We further develop a general (deterministic) theory of neutral mutations and achieve an analytical understanding of the mutant accumulation in colonies of a given size in the absence of back-mutations. The long-term dynamics of mutants in the presence of back-mutations is also addressed. In particular, with equal forward- and back-mutation rates, if division-controlled and a death-controlled types are competing for space and nutrients, cells obeying division-controlled growth will dominate the population. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Nanoscale zero-valent iron assisted phytoremediation of Pb in sediment: Impacts on metal accumulation and antioxidative system of Lolium perenne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Danlian; Qin, Xiang; Peng, Zhiwei; Liu, Yunguo; Gong, Xiaomin; Zeng, Guangming; Huang, Chao; Cheng, Min; Xue, Wenjing; Wang, Xi; Hu, Zhengxun

    2018-05-30

    Lead (Pb) is a highly toxic environmental pollutant, and could result in toxic effects on living organisms. The effects of 0, 100, 200, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg of nZVI on plant growth, Pb accumulation and antioxidative responses of Lolium perenne were investigated. Results showed that the total Pb contents in L. perenne with the treatment of low concentrations of nZVI (100, 200 and 500 mg/kg) were higher than those in the non-nZVI treatments, and the highest Pb accumulation capacity of 1175.40 μg per pot was observed in L. perenne with the treatment of 100 mg/kg nZVI. However, the total Pb contents in L. perenne decreased at high concentrations of nZVI (1000 and 2000 mg/kg). This might be resulted from the decrease of photosynthetic chlorophyll content and the aggravated oxidative stress induced by the high concentration of nZVI, which caused the decrease of plant biomass and metal accumulation capacity in plant. Moreover, the sequential extraction experiments results showed that the lowest acid soluble fraction of Pb in the sediments was found in the treatment with 100 mg/kg of nZVI, indicating that 100 mg/kg was the optimum concentration for nZVI to assist the phytoremediation of Pb-polluted sediment. To conclude, these findings provide a promising method to remediate Pb-polluted sediment by nZVI assisted phytoremediation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Elevated rates of organic carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus accumulation in a highly impacted mangrove wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Christian J.; Eyre, Bradley D.; Santos, Isaac R.; Machado, Wilson; Luiz-Silva, Wanilson; Smoak, Joseph M.; Breithaupt, Joshua L.; Ketterer, Michael E.; Sanders, Luciana; Marotta, Humberto; Silva-Filho, Emmanoel

    2014-04-01

    The effect of nutrient enrichment on mangrove sediment accretion and carbon accumulation rates is poorly understood. Here we quantify sediment accretion through radionuclide tracers to determine organic carbon (OC), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) accumulation rates during the previous 60 years in both a nutrient-enriched and a pristine mangrove forest within the same geomorphological region of southeastern Brazil. The forest receiving high nutrient loads has accumulated OC, TN, and TP at rates that are fourfold, twofold, and eightfold respectively, higher than those from the undisturbed mangrove. Organic carbon and TN stable isotopes (δ13C and δ15N) reflect an increased presence of organic matter (OM) originating with either phytoplankton, benthic algae, or another allochthonous source within the more rapidly accumulated sediments of the impacted mangrove. This suggests that the accumulation rate of OM in eutrophic mangrove systems may be enhanced through the addition of autochthonous and allochthonous nonmangrove material.

  2. Variation in copper and zinc tolerance and accumulation in 12 willow clones: implications for phytoextraction*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei-dong; Wang, Yu-yan; Zhao, Feng-liang; Ding, Zhe-li; Zhang, Xin-cheng; Zhu, Zhi-qiang; Yang, Xiao-e

    2014-01-01

    Willows (Salix spp.) have shown high potential for the phytoextraction of heavy metals. This study compares variations in copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) tolerance and accumulation potential among 12 willow clones grown in a nutrient solution treated with 50 μmol/L of Cu or Zn, respectively. The results showed differences in the tolerance and accumulation of Cu and Zn with respect to different species/clones. The biomass variation among clones in response to Cu or Zn exposure ranged from the stimulation of growth to inhibition, and all of the clones tested showed higher tolerance to Cu than to Zn. The clones exhibited less variation in Cu accumulation but larger variation in Zn accumulation. Based on translocation factors, it was found that most of the Cu was retained in the roots and that Zn was more mobile than Cu for all clones. It is concluded that most willow clones are good accumulators of Zn and Cu. PMID:25183033

  3. Cross-border effects of capacity mechanisms in electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elberg, Christina

    2014-07-15

    To ensure security of supply in liberalized electricity markets, different types of capacity mechanisms are currently being debated or have recently been implemented in many European countries. The purpose of this study is to analyze the cross-border effects resulting from different choices on capacity mechanisms in neighboring countries. We consider a model with two connected countries that differ in the regulator's choice on capacity mechanism, namely strategic reserves or capacity payments. In both countries, competitive fi rms invest in generation capacity before selling electricity on the spot market. We characterize market equilibria and find the following main result: While consumers' costs may be the same under both capacity mechanisms in non-connected countries, we show that the different capacity mechanisms in interconnected countries induce redistribution effects. More precisely, we nd that consumers' costs are higher in countries in which reserve capacities are procured than in countries in which capacity payments are used to ensure the targeted reliable level of electricity.

  4. Interference and memory capacity limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endress, Ansgar D; Szabó, Szilárd

    2017-10-01

    Working memory (WM) is thought to have a fixed and limited capacity. However, the origins of these capacity limitations are debated, and generally attributed to active, attentional processes. Here, we show that the existence of interference among items in memory mathematically guarantees fixed and limited capacity limits under very general conditions, irrespective of any processing assumptions. Assuming that interference (a) increases with the number of interfering items and (b) brings memory performance to chance levels for large numbers of interfering items, capacity limits are a simple function of the relative influence of memorization and interference. In contrast, we show that time-based memory limitations do not lead to fixed memory capacity limitations that are independent of the timing properties of an experiment. We show that interference can mimic both slot-like and continuous resource-like memory limitations, suggesting that these types of memory performance might not be as different as commonly believed. We speculate that slot-like WM limitations might arise from crowding-like phenomena in memory when participants have to retrieve items. Further, based on earlier research on parallel attention and enumeration, we suggest that crowding-like phenomena might be a common reason for the 3 major cognitive capacity limitations. As suggested by Miller (1956) and Cowan (2001), these capacity limitations might arise because of a common reason, even though they likely rely on distinct processes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Studies on transfer and accumulation of 106Ru from seaweed to fish through crustacea, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumo, Yoshiro

    1982-01-01

    This paper deals with transfer and accumulation of 106 Ru in a model of the graizing food chain of marine organisms: the radioactive sea water → seaweed (Chondrus crispus) → crustacea (prawn, Palaemon serratus) → fish (plaice, Pleuronectes platessa). The seaweeds were cultured in the radioactive sea waters A (filtrated and circulated through sandy mud, the radioactive concentration decreased and atteined to constant after addition of 106 Ru), B (not filtrated and circulated, the radioactive concentration decreased and atteined to constant) and C (not filtrated and circulated, the radioactive concentration decreased, but did not attein to constant), respectively, and investigated accumulations of 106 Ru. Thereafter, accumulations of 106 Ru in prawns and plaice by the ingestions of their diets (the seaweeds contaminated with 106 Ru in each water and the meats of prawns accumulated 106 Ru from each diet, respectively), were investigated and compared with those from the radioactive sea waters reported previously. It was shown that 106 Ru would be accumulated by the prawns from the sea water A about 3 times higher than from the contaminated diet in this water, however from the contaminated diets in the waters B and C about 2 times, respectively, higher than from each water. While, accumulations of 106 Ru by the plaice from each diet were negligible in comparison with those from each water. No higher concentrations of 106 Ru were observed in these organisms from lower to higher in the trophic level. (author)

  6. Species- and age-related variation in metal exposure and accumulation of two passerine bird species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berglund, A.M.M., E-mail: asa.berglund@emg.umu.se [Section of Ecology, 20014 University of Turku (Finland); Koivula, M.J.; Eeva, T. [Section of Ecology, 20014 University of Turku (Finland)

    2011-10-15

    We measured the concentration of several elements (arsenic [As], calcium [Ca], cadmium [Cd], copper [Cu], nickel [Ni], lead [Pb], selenium [Se] and zinc [Zn]) in adult and nestling pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) and great tits (Parus major) at different distances to a Cu-Ni smelter in 2009. Feces of nestlings generally failed to correspond with internal element concentrations but reflected the pollution exposure, indicating an increased stress by removal of excess metals. The uptake of Cu and Ni were regulated, but As, Cd, Pb and Se accumulated in liver tissue. Pied flycatchers had generally higher element concentrations than great tits. The higher accumulation of As and Pb in pied flycatcher livers was explained by a more efficient absorption, whereas the higher Cd concentration was primarily due to different intake of food items. Age-related differences occurred between the two species, though both Cd and Se accumulated with age. - Highlights: > We measured metal concentrations in feces and livers of two passerine species. > We examined species- and age-related differences in polluted environments. > Feces was evaluated as a useful non-destructive measure of increased stress. > Generally pied flycatchers accumulated higher concentrations than great tits. > Cadmium and selenium accumulated with age in both species. - Accumulation of metals in liver of two insectivorous passerines reflects inter-specific differences in diet, absorption rate and physiological requirements.

  7. Species- and age-related variation in metal exposure and accumulation of two passerine bird species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berglund, A.M.M.; Koivula, M.J.; Eeva, T.

    2011-01-01

    We measured the concentration of several elements (arsenic [As], calcium [Ca], cadmium [Cd], copper [Cu], nickel [Ni], lead [Pb], selenium [Se] and zinc [Zn]) in adult and nestling pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) and great tits (Parus major) at different distances to a Cu-Ni smelter in 2009. Feces of nestlings generally failed to correspond with internal element concentrations but reflected the pollution exposure, indicating an increased stress by removal of excess metals. The uptake of Cu and Ni were regulated, but As, Cd, Pb and Se accumulated in liver tissue. Pied flycatchers had generally higher element concentrations than great tits. The higher accumulation of As and Pb in pied flycatcher livers was explained by a more efficient absorption, whereas the higher Cd concentration was primarily due to different intake of food items. Age-related differences occurred between the two species, though both Cd and Se accumulated with age. - Highlights: → We measured metal concentrations in feces and livers of two passerine species. → We examined species- and age-related differences in polluted environments. → Feces was evaluated as a useful non-destructive measure of increased stress. → Generally pied flycatchers accumulated higher concentrations than great tits. → Cadmium and selenium accumulated with age in both species. - Accumulation of metals in liver of two insectivorous passerines reflects inter-specific differences in diet, absorption rate and physiological requirements.

  8. Information Technology from Theory to Practice in Higher Education Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Tooraj Sadeghi; Zahra Piroziyan; Mehrdad Ebrahimpur

    2016-01-01

    In the past two decades, developments process of higher education dependence on the increased demand for admission to higher education, development of communication technologies, need for human resource development, rapid technological changes, accumulated knowledge and information and leads to serious challenges and changes in the role of universities and higher education in the new millennium. So dramatic changes of higher education and move it towards the universalization and interpreta...

  9. Large capacity temporary visual memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endress, Ansgar D.; Potter, Mary C.

    2014-01-01

    Visual working memory (WM) capacity is thought to be limited to three or four items. However, many cognitive activities seem to require larger temporary memory stores. Here, we provide evidence for a temporary memory store with much larger capacity than past WM capacity estimates. Further, based on previous WM research, we show that a single factor — proactive interference — is sufficient to bring capacity estimates down to the range of previous WM capacity estimates. Participants saw a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) of 5 to 21 pictures of familiar objects or words presented at rates of 4/s or 8/s, respectively, and thus too fast for strategies such as rehearsal. Recognition memory was tested with a single probe item. When new items were used on all trials, no fixed memory capacities were observed, with estimates of up to 9.1 retained pictures for 21-item lists, and up to 30.0 retained pictures for 100-item lists, and no clear upper bound to how many items could be retained. Further, memory items were not stored in a temporally stable form of memory, but decayed almost completely after a few minutes. In contrast, when, as in most WM experiments, a small set of items was reused across all trials, thus creating proactive interference among items, capacity remained in the range reported in previous WM experiments. These results show that humans have a large-capacity temporary memory store in the absence of proactive interference, and raise the question of whether temporary memory in everyday cognitive processing is severely limited as in WM experiments, or has the much larger capacity found in the present experiments. PMID:23937181

  10. The Investment Capacities of the Ukrainian Economy the EU countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with selected aspects of investment in the context of the enhanced competition at investment markets and the need to increase the investment performance. A review of literary sources shows that investment capacities essentially refer to the economy’s capability to fund processes or phases related with generation of innovation, formation and modernization of fixed assets or intangible assets; development of education, research and information sectors; reproduction, support and creation of national wealth. It is emphasized that formation and realization of investment capacities in the economy can be attributed to processes that have significant effects for economic performance in the long run, especially when the capacities are innovative. The author’s definition of investment capacities of the economy is given, as the capacity to support financially the upward investment trend through accumulating fixed capital and increasing the profit rate from its generation in current and medium-term periods. The existing methodology for assessment of investment capacities at country level is analyzed; recommendations to improve the system of aggregated investment statistics, taking into account the Eurostat methodology, are given. Statistical indicators measuring the investment capacities in EU countries and Ukraine are analyzed. The analysis shows that the investment rate in Ukrainian industrial enterprises was 21.8% in 2014 and 19.6% in 2015, giving an indication of downward investment trend and the shrinking investment capacities of the national economy. Growth in the share of profit in the value added in 2015 by 6.7 percentage points (to 47.3% compared with 2014 is evidence that instead of investing internal resources, enterprises use them to cover financial loses or tend to take them off the national boundaries. Upward investment trend can be recovered by the increased supply of investment projects with low level of investment risk

  11. Capacity-achieving CPM schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Perotti, Alberto; Tarable, Alberto; Benedetto, Sergio; Montorsi, Guido

    2008-01-01

    The pragmatic approach to coded continuous-phase modulation (CPM) is proposed as a capacity-achieving low-complexity alternative to the serially-concatenated CPM (SC-CPM) coding scheme. In this paper, we first perform a selection of the best spectrally-efficient CPM modulations to be embedded into SC-CPM schemes. Then, we consider the pragmatic capacity (a.k.a. BICM capacity) of CPM modulations and optimize it through a careful design of the mapping between input bits and CPM waveforms. The s...

  12. An Exploration into the Municipal Capacity to Finance Capital Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almos T. Tassony

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Municipal governments own and maintain two-thirds of Canada’s stock of public infrastructure. This burden is met by municipalities within the parameters afforded to them by their respective provinces. As a result, municipalities throughout the country rely on three primary revenue streams: issuing debt, financing from dedicated revenue and transfers from higher levels of government. At the same time, strict rules on borrowing, sometimes self-imposed, have left municipalities with considerable unrealized borrowing capacity. Importantly, a shift towards increased borrowing, away from a reliance on intergovernmental grants, would reinforce the linkage between local government spending and accountability and keep spending priorities in order. This paper focuses on infrastructure spending in Alberta and Ontario to illuminate how municipalities in both provinces cope with demands to provide capital- and labour-intensive programs and services. In both provinces, transportation, environmental services and recreation and culture comprise the bulk of infrastructure expenditure. In Ontario, as of 2013, 18 of the largest municipalities held assets valued at $111.8 billion. After accumulated depreciation, those assets are now estimated to be worth $73.8 billion, having lost $38 billion in value since their acquisition — although municipalities’ diligence varies. Mississauga has preserved 82.6 per cent of its assets’ original cost; Thunder Bay has only managed 45.6 per cent. In Alberta, 21 of the largest municipalities held assets valued at $51.7 billion in 2013, although thanks to depreciation, their value is now estimated at $37.8 billion. Again, there is significant variability between municipalities, with Wood Buffalo having preserved 98.6 per cent of its assets’ original value, and Crowsnest Pass with 43.9 per cent. In both provinces, the older the municipality and the weaker its fiscal capacity, the lower the net book value of its capital

  13. The Population Growth and Carrying Capacity in Semarang City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariyanto; Hadi, Sudharto P.; Buchori, Imam

    2018-02-01

    Population growth and development of city activities take some lands to carry them. As a result, land use competition happens among persons, society or sector. Land necessity for settlement, industry, or sector has taken over farm land, therefore farm land has been converted intensively and massively. Chronologically, population growth will cause land necessity increase. Unproductive land, especially farm land will be converted. Furthermore, farm land conversion will cause carrying capacity change. Carrying capacity has certain bio capacity. With the population growth, it will increase resource consumption; on the other side, farm land conversion will decrease carrying capacity. The objective of the study is to know about the influence of population growth towards carrying capacity (bio capacity) in Semarang city. Land consumption per capita is indeed influenced by city population, the higher the population is, the lower the land consumption per capita. With the population growth, it will influence carrying capacity. Carrying capacity here is the ratio of area to population. Analytical descriptive method is applied in the study with all sub-districts in Semarang city as the analysis unit. Population here is sub-district area and population per sub-district in Semarang city. Population growth data period is from 2000 until 2015. Main variables of the study are area per sub-district, population, population growth, carrying capacity. Result of the study shows significant influence of carrying capacity decrease, especially some outskirts in Semarang city. This condition happens because the outskirts in Semarang city tend to have dense population growth. Range of carrying capacity in Semarang city is from 0,007 to 0,117 of 0 to 1. Almost all sub-districts in Semarang city show miserable condition, except Mijen and Tugu. The conclusion of the study is that population will decrease carrying capacity. Therefore, the government should control population growth by paying

  14. MEASUREMENT OF SPECIFIC HEAT CAPACITY OF SALTSTONE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harbour, J.; Williams, V.

    2008-01-01

    55% higher than the previous measurement of specific heat capacity on a reference Saltstone mix in 1997. Values of mixes prepared using Deliquification, Dissolution and Adjustment (DDA), Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) and Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) simulants and premix at 0.60 w/cm ratio were ∼ 1.95 J/g/ o C and were equivalent within experimental error. The simple law of mixtures was used to predict the heat capacities of the Saltstone and the results were in excellent agreement with experimental data. This simple law of mixtures can therefore be used to predict the heat capacities of Saltstone mixes in those cases where measurements have not been made. The time dependence of the heat capacity is important as an input to the modeling of temperature increase in Saltstone vaults. The heat capacity of a mix of MCU and premix at 0.60 w/cm ratio was measured immediately after initial mixing and then periodically up to times greater than 100 days. Within experimental error, the heat capacity did not change with time. Therefore, the modeling is not complicated by requiring a time dependent function for specific heat capacity. The water to cementitious material (w/cm) ratio plays a key role in determining the value of the heat capacity. Both experimental and predictive values for SWPF mixes as function of the w/cm ratio were obtained and presented in this report. Predictions of the maximum temperatures of the Saltstone mixes were made using the heat of hydration data from previous isothermal measurements and the newly measured heat capacities for DDA, MCU and SWPF mixes. The maximum temperature increase ranged from 37 to 48 C for these mixes. The presence of aluminate at 0.33 M produced a temperature increase of 68 C which is close to the adiabatic temperature rise of 74 C observed by Steimke and Fowler in 1997 for a mix containing 0.35 M aluminate. Aluminum dissolution of the sludge will increase the aluminate in the DSS which in turn will

  15. MEASUREMENT OF SPECIFIC HEAT CAPACITY OF SALTSTONE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harbour, J; Vickie Williams, V

    2008-09-29

    {approx} 55% higher than the previous measurement of specific heat capacity on a reference Saltstone mix in 1997. Values of mixes prepared using Deliquification, Dissolution and Adjustment (DDA), Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) and Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) simulants and premix at 0.60 w/cm ratio were {approx} 1.95 J/g/{sup o}C and were equivalent within experimental error. The simple law of mixtures was used to predict the heat capacities of the Saltstone and the results were in excellent agreement with experimental data. This simple law of mixtures can therefore be used to predict the heat capacities of Saltstone mixes in those cases where measurements have not been made. The time dependence of the heat capacity is important as an input to the modeling of temperature increase in Saltstone vaults. The heat capacity of a mix of MCU and premix at 0.60 w/cm ratio was measured immediately after initial mixing and then periodically up to times greater than 100 days. Within experimental error, the heat capacity did not change with time. Therefore, the modeling is not complicated by requiring a time dependent function for specific heat capacity. The water to cementitious material (w/cm) ratio plays a key role in determining the value of the heat capacity. Both experimental and predictive values for SWPF mixes as function of the w/cm ratio were obtained and presented in this report. Predictions of the maximum temperatures of the Saltstone mixes were made using the heat of hydration data from previous isothermal measurements and the newly measured heat capacities for DDA, MCU and SWPF mixes. The maximum temperature increase ranged from 37 to 48 C for these mixes. The presence of aluminate at 0.33 M produced a temperature increase of 68 C which is close to the adiabatic temperature rise of 74 C observed by Steimke and Fowler in 1997 for a mix containing 0.35 M aluminate. Aluminum dissolution of the sludge will increase the aluminate in the DSS which

  16. Nickel accumulation and storage in bradyrhizobium japonicum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier, R.J.; Pihl, T.D.; Stults, L.; Sray, W.

    1990-01-01

    Hydrogenase-depressed (chemolithotrophic growth conditions) and heterotrophically grown cultures of Bradyrhizobium japonicum accumulated nickel about equally over a 3-h period. Both types of cultures accumulated nickel primarily in a form that was not exchangeable with NiCl 2 , and they accumulated much more Ni than would be needed for the Ni-containing hydrogenase. The nickel accumulated by heterotrophically incubated cultures could later be mobilized to allow active hydrogenase synthesis during derepression in the absence of nickel, while cells both grown with Ni and the derepressed without nickel had low hydrogenase activities. The level of activity in cells grown with Ni and then derepressed without nickel was about the same as that in cultures derepressed in the presence of nickel. The Ni accumulated by heterotrophically grown cultures was associated principally with soluble proteins rather than particulate material, and this Ni was not lost upon dialyzing an extract containing the soluble proteins against either Ni-containing or EDTA-containing buffer. However, this Ni was lost upon pronase or low pH treatments. The soluble Ni-binding proteins were partially purified by gel filtration and DEAE chromatography. They were not antigenically related to hydrogenase peptides. Much of the 63 Ni eluted as a single peak of 48 kilodaltons. Experiments involving immunuprecipitation of 63 Ni-containing hydrogenase suggested that the stored source of Ni in heterotrophic cultures that could later be mobilized into hydrogenase resided in the nonexchangeable Ni-containing fraction rather than in loosely bound or ionic forms

  17. Seasonal changes of metal accumulation and distribution in common club rush (Schoenoplectus lacustris) and common reed (Phragmites australis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duman, Fatih; Cicek, Mehmet; Sezen, Goksal

    2007-08-01

    In this study, two aquatic macrophytes Phragmites australis and Schoenoplectus lacustris and corresponding sediment samples were collected every three months from Lake Sapanca (Turkey) and analysed for their heavy-metal contents (Pb, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Zn and Cd). Accumulation factor ratios of plant parts were calculated for all metals, and the two species were compared in terms of accumulation properties. The highest concentrations were measured in the root systems while relatively low concentrations were found in the rhizome and above-ground parts of the plants. The accumulation ratios of root for P. australis were usually higher than the ratios for S. lacustris. While the accumulation ratios of root were higher in winter than in the other seasons for P. australis, for S. lacustris the highest accumulation ratios were found in the autumn. Both plant species were found to be root accumulators of Pb, Cu, Mn, Ni, Zn and Cd.

  18. Higher Education and Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Roger

    2018-01-01

    After climate change, rising economic inequality is the greatest challenge facing the advanced Western societies. Higher education has traditionally been seen as a means to greater equality through its role in promoting social mobility. But with increased marketisation higher education now not only reflects the forces making for greater inequality…

  19. Higher Education in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Policy Institute of California, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Higher education enhances Californians' lives and contributes to the state's economic growth. But population and education trends suggest that California is facing a large shortfall of college graduates. Addressing this short­fall will require strong gains for groups that have been historically under­represented in higher education. Substantial…

  20. Reimagining Christian Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulme, E. Eileen; Groom, David E., Jr.; Heltzel, Joseph M.

    2016-01-01

    The challenges facing higher education continue to mount. The shifting of the U.S. ethnic and racial demographics, the proliferation of advanced digital technologies and data, and the move from traditional degrees to continuous learning platforms have created an unstable environment to which Christian higher education must adapt in order to remain…

  1. Happiness in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwick, Alex; Cannizzaro, Sara

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the higher education literature surrounding happiness and related notions: satisfaction, despair, flourishing and well-being. It finds that there is a real dearth of literature relating to profound happiness in higher education: much of the literature using the terms happiness and satisfaction interchangeably as if one were…

  2. Gender and Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bank, Barbara J., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This comprehensive, encyclopedic review explores gender and its impact on American higher education across historical and cultural contexts. Challenging recent claims that gender inequities in U.S. higher education no longer exist, the contributors--leading experts in the field--reveal the many ways in which gender is embedded in the educational…

  3. Quality of Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zou, Yihuan

    is about constructing a more inclusive understanding of quality in higher education through combining the macro, meso and micro levels, i.e. from the perspectives of national policy, higher education institutions as organizations in society, individual teaching staff and students. It covers both......Quality in higher education was not invented in recent decades – universities have always possessed mechanisms for assuring the quality of their work. The rising concern over quality is closely related to the changes in higher education and its social context. Among others, the most conspicuous...... changes are the massive expansion, diversification and increased cost in higher education, and new mechanisms of accountability initiated by the state. With these changes the traditional internally enacted academic quality-keeping has been given an important external dimension – quality assurance, which...

  4. Improving Publication: Advice for Busy Higher Education Academics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Anita

    2016-01-01

    A major challenge for higher education academics is to research and publish when faced with substantial teaching responsibilities, higher student numbers, and higher output expectations. The focus of this piece is to encourage publication more generally by educators, and to build publication capacity, which academic developers can facilitate. The…

  5. [Evaluation of soil heavy metals accumulation in the fast economy development region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xian-Lan; Zhou, Sheng-Lu; Li, Jiang-Tao; Zhao, Qi-Guo

    2010-06-01

    Evaluation of soil heavy metals accumulation was studied in Kunshan City, a typical region of the fast economy development region in China. 126 soil samples were collected and analyzed, and evaluation indexes of soil heavy metal accumulation, which including total concentration of soil heavy metal index (THMI), soil available heavy metal index (AHMI) and fractionation of soil heavy metal index (FHMI), were established, and the heavy metal accumulation conditions of soil in this region were also discussed. Results showed as follows: the spatial variability of THMI was relative lower, with a mean value of 42.57%, whereas strong variability was found in AHMI and FHMI (especially active fraction of soil heavy metals), with the average value of 82.75% and 77.83%, respectively. Judging by each index reference standard of C Horizon, THMI was low-grade with a mean value of 1.01, while the AHMI and FHMI reached to medium accumulation and serious accumulation, with the average values of 2.46 and 4.32, respectively. The synthetic accumulation index of soil heavy metals (SHMI) was 2.56, reaching to medium grade level and with strong variability. 21.54% land area was in low-grade accumulation and 54.70% land area was in medium grade accumulation, while 23.76% land area was in serious accumulation under SHMI evaluation system. All the accumulation evaluation indexes in livestock breeding zone were the lowest, while the indexes in the smelting and plating zone were the highest, but the indexes difference between two zones were unobvious. There were markedly differences in soil types, which the accumulation indexes in Wushan soil were significantly higher than those in Huangni soil and Qingni soil.

  6. China's Higher Education Expansion and the Task of Economic Revitalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Liu, Jian

    2011-01-01

    This paper centers on the expansion from elite to mass higher education in China and its effects on China's economic development. These effects are twofold, including both the immediate influence of expanded enrollment in higher education on China's economy, and the human capital accumulation for the long term. The paper first provides a…

  7. Screening for new accumulator plants in Andes Range mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bech, Jaume; Roca, Núria

    2016-04-01

    accumulated considerable concentrations of Cu and Zn. The species from the genus Bidens (Asteraceae) were able not only to accumulate high shoot As concentrations (> 1000 μg g-1 in B. cynapiifolia from Peru) but also considerable amounts of Pb (B. humilis from Chile). The highest Cu shoot concentrations were found in Mullinum spinosum (870 μg g-1) and in B. cynapiifolia (620 μg g-1). The shoot accumulation of Zn was highest in Baccharis amdatensis (>1900 μg g-1) and in Rumex crispus (1300 μg g-1) from the Ag mine in Ecuador (Bech et al., 2002). In the Peruvian Andes, B. triplinervia can be considered interesting for phytostabilization, due to its capacity to restrict the accumulation of elevated amounts of Pb and Zn in the shoots.

  8. World nuclear power plant capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    Worldwide, there were 249 power reactors in operation at the end of 1980, with a net electrical capacity of about 142 GW. In Canada the ten reactors in operation had a combined capacity of about 5.5 GW. Another 14 under construction will produce an additional 9.9 GW. Four Canadian reactors were in the world's top ten in terms of capacity factor in 1980, and six were in the top ten in terms of lifetime performance. Data tabulated for the Canadian reactors are: location, power, operator, date of first power. For the rest of the world, a table gives the number of reactors of each type and their capacity. (N.D.H.)

  9. Antagonistic effects of cadmium on lead accumulation in pregnant and non-pregnant mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Euan; Gancarz, Dorota; Rofe, Allan; Kempson, Ivan M.; Weber, John; Juhasz, Albert L.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We investigate the exposure of pregnant and non-pregnant mice to cadmium (Cd) on lead (Pb) contaminated soil. ► We examine the changes in lead accumulation in mice due to the presence of cadmium in soil. ► Lead accumulation is higher in pregnant compared to non-pregnant mice. ► Cadmium decreases lead accumulation in all mice irrespective of status. - Abstract: People are frequently exposed to combinations of contaminants but there is a paucity of data on the effects of mixed contaminants at low doses. This study investigated the influence of cadmium (Cd) on lead (Pb) accumulation in pregnant and non-pregnant mice following exposure to contaminated soil. Exposure to Pb from contaminated soils increased Pb accumulation in both pregnant and non-pregnant mice compared to unexposed control animals (pregnant and non-pregnant). Lead accumulation in the liver and kidneys of exposure pregnant mice (40 ± 15 mg Pb kg −1 ) was significantly higher (P −1 ). The presence of Cd in contaminated soil had a major effect on the Pb and Fe accumulation in the kidneys and liver, respectively. This study shows that Pb uptake is mediated by the presence of Cd in the co-contaminated soil and demonstrates that further research is required to investigate the influence of co-contaminants on human exposure at sub-chronic concentrations.

  10. Effect of minerals on accumulation of Cs by fungus Saccaromyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Sakamoto, Fuminori; Yamasaki, Shinya; Kozai, Naofumi; Shiotsu, Hiroyuki; Utsunomiya, Satoshi; Watanabe, Naoko; Kozaki, Tamotsu

    2015-06-01

    The accumulation of Cs by unicellular fungus of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the presence of minerals has been studied to elucidate the role of microorganisms in the migration of radioactive Cs in the environment. Two different types of experiments were employed: experiments using stable Cs to examine the effect of a carbon source on the accumulation of Cs, and accumulation experiments of radioactive Cs from agar medium containing (137)Cs and zeolite, vermiculite, phlogopite, smectite, mica, or illite as mineral supplements. In the former type of experiments, the Cs-accumulated cells were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDS). In the latter type, the radioactivity in the yeast cells was measured by an autoradiography technique. When a carbon source was present, higher amounts of Cs accumulated in the cells than in the resting condition without a carbon source. Analyses with SEM-EDS showed that no mineral formed on the cell surface. These results indicate that the yeast cells accumulate Cs by adsorption on the cell surface and intracellular accumulation. In the presence of minerals in the agar medium, the radioactivity in the yeast cells was in the order of mica > smectite, illite > vermiculite, phlogopite, zeolite. This order is inversely correlated to the ratio of the concentration of radioactive Cs between the minerals and the medium solution. These results strongly suggest that the yeast accumulates radioactive Cs competitively with minerals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Annual Greenland Accumulation Rates (2009-2012) from Airborne Snow Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Lora S.; Ivanoff, Alvaro; Alexander, Patrick M.; MacGregor, Joseph A.; Fettweis, Xavier; Panzer, Ben; Paden, John D.; Forster, Richard R.; Das, Indrani; McConnell, Joseph R.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary climate warming over the Arctic is accelerating mass loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet through increasing surface melt, emphasizing the need to closely monitor its surface mass balance in order to improve sea-level rise predictions. Snow accumulation is the largest component of the ice sheet's surface mass balance, but in situ observations thereof are inherently sparse and models are difficult to evaluate at large scales. Here, we quantify recent Greenland accumulation rates using ultra-wideband (2-6.5 gigahertz) airborne snow radar data collected as part of NASA's Operation IceBridge between 2009 and 2012. We use a semi-automated method to trace the observed radiostratigraphy and then derive annual net accumulation rates for 2009-2012. The uncertainty in these radar-derived accumulation rates is on average 14 percent. A comparison of the radarderived accumulation rates and contemporaneous ice cores shows that snow radar captures both the annual and longterm mean accumulation rate accurately. A comparison with outputs from a regional climate model (MAR - Modele Atmospherique Regional for Greenland and vicinity) shows that this model matches radar-derived accumulation rates in the ice sheet interior but produces higher values over southeastern Greenland. Our results demonstrate that snow radar can efficiently and accurately map patterns of snow accumulation across an ice sheet and that it is valuable for evaluating the accuracy of surface mass balance models.

  12. Accumulation and phytotoxicity of engineered nanoparticles to Cucurbita pepo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawthorne, Joseph; Musante, Craig; Sinha, Saion K; White, Jason C

    2012-04-01

    The effect of bulk and engineered nanoparticle (NP) Ag, Au, Cu, Si, and C at 250 and 750 mg/L on zucchini biomass, transpiration, and element content was determined. The pH of bulk and NP solutions prior to plant growth frequently differed. Nanoparticle Cu solution pH was significantly higher than bulk Cu, whereas for Ag and C, the NPs had significantly lower pH. Plants were unaffected by Au, regardless of particle size or concentration. NP Ag reduced plant biomass and transpiration by 49-91% compared to equivalent bulk Ag. NP Si at 750 mg/L reduced plant growth and transpiration by 30-51% relative to bulk Si. Bulk and NP Cu were phytotoxic but much of the effect was alleviated by humic acid. The shoot Ag and Cu content did not differ based on particle size or concentration. The accumulation of bulk Au was greater than the NP, but humic acid increased the accumulation of NP and bulk Au by 5.6-fold and 80%, respectively. The uptake of NP Si was 5.6-6.5-fold greater than observed with the bulk element. These findings show that the NPs may have unique phytotoxicity or accumulation patterns and that solution properties can significantly impact particle fate and effects.

  13. Nutrient uptake and biomass accumulation for eleven different field crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. HAKALA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil hemp (Cannabis sativa L., quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., false flax (Camelina sativa (L. Crantz, caraway (Carum carvi L., dyer’s woad (Isatis tinctoria L., nettle (Urtica dioica L., reed canary grass (RCG (Phalaris arundinacea L., buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench, linseed (Linum usitatissimum L., timothy (Phleum pratense L. and barley (Hordeum vulgare L. were grown under uniform conditions in pots containing well fertilised loam soil. Dry matter (DM accumulation was measured repeatedly, and contents of minerals N, P, K, Ca and Mg at maturity. Annual crops accumulated above-ground biomass faster than perennials, while perennials had higher DM accumulation rates below ground. Seeds had high concentrations of N and P, while green biomass had high concentrations of K and Ca. Stems and roots had low concentrations of minerals. Concentrations of K and P were high in quinoa and caraway, and that of P in buckwheat. Hemp and nettle had high Ca concentrations, and quinoa had high Mg concentration. N and P were efficiently harvested with seed, Ca and K with the whole biomass. Perennials could prevent soil erosion and add carbon to the soil in the long term, while annuals compete better with weeds and prevent erosion during early growth. Nutrient balances in a field could be modified and nutrient leaching reduced by careful selection of the crop and management practices.;

  14. Asthma and gender impact accumulation of T cell subtypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peters Stephen P

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The "Th2 hypothesis for asthma" asserts that an increased ratio of Th2:Th1 cytokine production plays an important pathogenic role in asthma. Although widely embraced, the hypothesis has been challenged by various empirical observations and has been described as overly simplistic. We sought to establish whether CD3+CD28-mediated and antigen-independent accumulation of type 1 and type 2 T cells differs significantly between nonasthmatic and asthmatic populations. Methods An ex vivo system was used to characterize the regulation of IFN-γ-producing (type 1 and IL-13-producing (type 2 T cell accumulation in response to CD3+CD28 and IL-2 stimulation by flow cytometry. Results IL-13-producing T cells increased in greater numbers in response to antigen-independent stimulation in peripheral blood lymphocytes from female atopic asthmatic subjects compared with male asthmatics and both male and female atopic non-asthmatic subjects. IFN-γ+ T cells increased in greater numbers in response to either antigen-independent or CD3+CD28-mediated stimulation in peripheral blood lymphocytes from atopic asthmatic subjects compared to non-asthmatic subjects, regardless of gender. Conclusions We demonstrate that T cells from asthmatics are programmed for increased accumulation of both type 2 and type 1 T cells. Gender had a profound effect on the regulation of type 2 T cells, thus providing a mechanism for the higher frequency of adult asthma in females.

  15. Ordinary differential equation for local accumulation time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezhkovskii, Alexander M

    2011-08-21

    Cell differentiation in a developing tissue is controlled by the concentration fields of signaling molecules called morphogens. Formation of these concentration fields can be described by the reaction-diffusion mechanism in which locally produced molecules diffuse through the patterned tissue and are degraded. The formation kinetics at a given point of the patterned tissue can be characterized by the local accumulation time, defined in terms of the local relaxation function. Here, we show that this time satisfies an ordinary differential equation. Using this equation one can straightforwardly determine the local accumulation time, i.e., without preliminary calculation of the relaxation function by solving the partial differential equation, as was done in previous studies. We derive this ordinary differential equation together with the accompanying boundary conditions and demonstrate that the earlier obtained results for the local accumulation time can be recovered by solving this equation. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  16. Selenium accumulation in the cockle Anadara trapezia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolley, Dianne F.; Maher, William A.; Kyd, Jennelle

    2004-01-01

    An extensive study on Se accumulation in a population of Anadara trapezia from a marine lake is reported. The effects of organism mass, gender, reproductive cycle, and season on Se accumulation and tissue distribution were investigated. Analyses showed that gender and reproductive cycle had no significant effect on Se accumulation. A. trapezia showed a strong positive correlation between Se burden and tissue mass. Constant Se concentrations were observed within individual populations but varied spatially with sediment Se concentrations. Se concentrations in tissues decreased from gills > gonad/intestine > mantle > muscle > foot, which remained constant over 12 months, however, significantly lower concentrations were observed in the summer compared to winter. A. trapezia is a good biomonitor for Se, as gender and size do not effect concentration, however, season of collection must be reported if changes in Se bioavailability are to be identified in short term studies, or during intersite comparisons. - Capsule: The marine bivalve Anadara trapezia is a good bioindicator for marine selenium contamination

  17. Building a capacity building manual

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Clinton, DD

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Organizations 2010 Building a capacity building manual Daniel D. Clinton, Jr., P.E., F.NSPE Chair, WFEO Capacity Building Committee Dr Andrew Cleland, FIPENZ, Chief Executive, IPENZ, NZ Eng David Botha, FSAICE, Executive Director, SAICE, SA Dawit... 2010 Tertiary level University curricula Coaches and mentors Facilities EXCeeD Remuneration of Academics Experiential training Outreach to Students Students chapters Young members forum World Federation of Engineering Organizations 2010 Post...

  18. Capacity Markets and Market Stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stauffer, Hoff

    2006-01-01

    The good news is that market stability can be achieved through a combination of longer-term contracts, auctions for far enough in the future to permit new entry, a capacity management system, and a demand curve. The bad news is that if and when stable capacity markets are designed, the markets may seem to be relatively close to where we started - with integrated resource planning. Market ideologues will find this anathema. (author)

  19. Screening of chelating ligands to enhance mercury accumulation from historically mercury-contaminated soils for phytoextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianxu; Xia, Jicheng; Feng, Xinbin

    2017-01-15

    Screening of optimal chelating ligands which not only have high capacities to enhance plant uptake of mercury (Hg) from soil but also can decrease bioavailable Hg concentration in soil is necessary to establish a viable chemically-assisted phytoextraction. Therefore, Brassica juncea was exposed to historically Hg-contaminated soil (total Hg, 90 mg kg -1 ) to investigate the efficiency of seven chelating agents [ammonium thiosulphate, sodium thiosulphate, ammonium sulfate, ammonium chloride, sodium nitrate, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and sodium sulfite] at enhancing Hg phytoextraction; the leaching of bioavailable Hg caused by these chelating agents was also investigated. The Hg concentration in control (treated with double-distilled water) plant tissues was below 1 mg kg -1 . The remarkably higher Hg concentration was found in plants receiving ammonium thiosulphate and sodium sulfite treatments. The bioaccumulation factors and translocation factors of ammonium thiosulphate and sodium sulfite treatments were significantly higher than those of the other treatments. The more efficient uptake of Hg by plants upon treatment with ammonium thiosulphate and sodium sulfite compared to the other treatments might be explained by the formation of special Hg-thiosulphate complexes that could be preferentially taken up by the roots and transported in plant tissues. The application of sulfite significantly increased bioavailable Hg concentration in soil compared with that in initial soil and control soil, whereas ammonium thiosulphate significantly decreased bioavailable Hg concentration. The apparent decrease of bioavailable Hg in ammonium thiosulphate-treated soil compared with that in sodium sulfite-treated soil might be attributable to the unstable Hg-thiosulphate complexes formed between thiosulphate and Hg; they could react to produce less bioavailable Hg in the soil. The results of this study indicate that ammonium thiosulphate may be an optimal chelating

  20. Arabidopsis plastidial folylpolyglutamate synthetase is required for seed reserve accumulation and seedling establishment in darkness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan Meng

    Full Text Available Interactions among metabolic pathways are important in plant biology. At present, not much is known about how folate metabolism affects other metabolic pathways in plants. Here we report a T-DNA insertion mutant (atdfb-3 of the plastidial folylpolyglutamate synthetase gene (AtDFB was defective in seed reserves and skotomorphogenesis. Lower carbon (C and higher nitrogen (N content in the mutant seeds than that of the wild type were indicative of an altered C and N partitioning capacity. Higher levels of organic acids and sugars were detected in the mutant seeds compared with the wild type. Further analysis revealed that atdfb-3 seeds contained less total amino acids and individual Asn and Glu as well as NO3-. These results indicate significant changes in seed storage in the mutant. Defects in hypocotyl elongation were observed in atdfb-3 in darkness under sufficient NO3- conditions, and further enhanced under NO3- limited conditions. The strong expression of AtDFB in cotyledons and hypocotyl during early developmental stage was consistent with the mutant sensitivity to limited NO3- during a narrow developmental window. Exogenous 5-formyl-tetrahydrofolate completely restored the hypocotyl length in atdfb-3 seedlings with NO3- as the sole N source. Further study demonstrated that folate profiling and N metabolism were perturbed in atdfb-3 etiolated seedlings. The activity of enzymes involved in N reduction and assimilation was altered in atdfb-3. Taken together, these results indicate that AtDFB is required for seed reserves, hypocotyl elongation and N metabolism in darkness, providing novel insights into potential associations of folate metabolism with seed reserve accumulation, N metabolism and hypocotyl development in Arabidopsis.

  1. Upgraded cavities for the positron accumulator ring of the APS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Y.W.; Jiang, X.; Mangra, D.

    1997-01-01

    Upgraded versions of cavities for the APS positron accumulator ring (PAR) have been built and are being tested. Two cavities are in the PAR: a fundamental 9.8-MHz cavity and a twelfth harmonic 117.3-MHz cavity. Both cavities have been manufactured for higher voltage operation with improved Q-factors, reliability, and tuning capability. Both cavities employ current-controlled ferrite tuners for control of the resonant frequency. The harmonic cavity can be operated in either a pulsed mode or a CW mode. The rf properties of the cavities are presented

  2. Cadmium translocation and accumulation in developing barley grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Fei; Wu, Feibo; Dong, Jing

    2007-01-01

     Soil cadmium (Cd) contamination has posed a serious problem for safe food production and become a potential agricultural and environmental hazard worldwide. In order to study the transport of Cd into the developing grains, detached ears of two-rowed barley cv. ZAU 3 were cultured in Cd stressed...... of detached spike showed increase Cd accumulation for 5 days, followed by sharp decrease till day 10 and increase again after 12.5 days. Awn-removal and stem-girdling markedly decreased Cd concentration in grains, and sucrose or zinc (Zn) addition to the medium and higher relative humidity (RH) also induced...

  3. Maximizing the optical network capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayvel, Polina; Maher, Robert; Xu, Tianhua; Liga, Gabriele; Shevchenko, Nikita A; Lavery, Domaniç; Alvarado, Alex; Killey, Robert I

    2016-03-06

    Most of the digital data transmitted are carried by optical fibres, forming the great part of the national and international communication infrastructure. The information-carrying capacity of these networks has increased vastly over the past decades through the introduction of wavelength division multiplexing, advanced modulation formats, digital signal processing and improved optical fibre and amplifier technology. These developments sparked the communication revolution and the growth of the Internet, and have created an illusion of infinite capacity being available. But as the volume of data continues to increase, is there a limit to the capacity of an optical fibre communication channel? The optical fibre channel is nonlinear, and the intensity-dependent Kerr nonlinearity limit has been suggested as a fundamental limit to optical fibre capacity. Current research is focused on whether this is the case, and on linear and nonlinear techniques, both optical and electronic, to understand, unlock and maximize the capacity of optical communications in the nonlinear regime. This paper describes some of them and discusses future prospects for success in the quest for capacity. © 2016 The Authors.

  4. On the High Altitude Platform (HAP W-CDMA System Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. de Haro-Ariet

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The performance of a downlink power control model, based on a n-thpower distance law, is evaluated for high altitude platform station(HAPS W-CDMA systems. The downlink capacity using this model iscompared with the uplink capacity. It is shown that the uplink capacityis higher than the downlink capacity.

  5. Higher English for CFE

    CERN Document Server

    Bridges, Ann; Mitchell, John

    2015-01-01

    A brand new edition of the former Higher English: Close Reading , completely revised and updated for the new Higher element (Reading for Understanding, Analysis and Evaluation) - worth 30% of marks in the final exam!. We are working with SQA to secure endorsement for this title. Written by two highly experienced authors this book shows you how to practice for the Reading for Understanding, Analysis and Evaluation section of the new Higher English exam. This book introduces the terms and concepts that lie behind success and offers guidance on the interpretation of questions and targeting answer

  6. Metals and metalloids accumulation by wild plants from a mining zone of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juarez Santillana, L. F.; Lucho Constantino, C. A.; Blasco, J. L.; Beltran Hernandez, R. I.

    2009-01-01

    In extreme environments, as mineralized soils, there are adapted organisms to these abnormal conditions. Plants that inhabit these kinds of soils are called metallophytes, and their capacity to tolerate and/or accumulate metals is important for the cleanup of metal polluted ecosystems. The objective of this study was therefore to identify the species of metallophytes present in the mining zone of Zimapan, Hidalgo. (Author)

  7. Accumulation of fluoride by plants and vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Njenga, L.W.; Kariuki, D.N.

    1994-01-01

    Fluoride in plant and vegetable samples has been determined using ion selective electrode. The analysis was carried out after ashing the sample on an open flame, adding perchloric acid and allowing the hydrogen fluoride to diffuse into sodium hydroxide layer.The results obtained show that kale and pumpkins can accumulate more than ten times their normal values of fluoride while plants were found to accumulate upto 100μg/g fluoride when exposed to highlevels of fluoride in water or soil. (author)

  8. Thermal energy accumulators. A bibliographical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlety, Paul

    1971-01-01

    Energy storage is a challenge, notably for spacecraft, submarines and non-polluting automotive vehicles. After a comparison of mass energies of different principles of energy accumulation (magnetic, electrostatic, solid elasticity, kinetic energy, gaseous elasticity, electro-chemistry, sensitive heat, freezing heat, fuels, radioactivity, nuclear fission or fusion, mass energy), the author discusses the choice of thermal storage, presents the main bodies used for thermal energy accumulation (molten salts such as lithium hydride or lithium salt eutectics, or other compounds such as alumina, paraffins), and gives an overview of the main theoretical problems [fr

  9. A Survey of Pesticide Accumulation in a Specialist Feeder, the Koala (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschner, Caroline; Higgins, Damien P; Krockenberger, Mark B

    2017-09-01

    To maintain profitability in Australia's agricultural and urban landscapes pesticides are used throughout the range of koala habitats. The koala is a specialist feeder, reliant on metabolic enzyme capacities to utilise a toxic diet of eucalypt leaves and is potentially prone to adverse effects when xenobiotic interactions between dietary and anthropogenic xenobiotics occur. The aim of this study was to investigate accumulation of frequently used pesticides in wild koalas in 4 areas of New South Wales and Queensland. Liver samples of 57 deceased koalas were collected from care facilities and analysed using a modified QuEChERS extraction method followed by GCMSMS, HRLCMS and LCMSMS. No accumulation of any of the 166 investigated pesticides was found. Data indicate hepatic accumulation of pesticides in this species is uncommon even with close interactions with intensive land use. Despite the lack of hepatic bioaccumulation, this study cannot exclude a direct effect on hepatocellular metabolic pathways.

  10. Planning for Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Caj-Gunnar

    1984-01-01

    Decision processes for strategic planning for higher education institutions are outlined using these parameters: institutional goals and power structure, organizational climate, leadership attitudes, specific problem type, and problem-solving conditions and alternatives. (MSE)

  11. Advert for higher education

    OpenAIRE

    N.V. Provozin; А.S. Teletov

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses the features advertising higher education institution. The analysis results of marketing research students for their choice of institutions and further study. Principles of the advertising campaign on three levels: the university, the faculty, the separate department.

  12. Capacity factor of wind power realized values vs. estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boccard, Nicolas

    2009-01-01

    For two decades now, the capacity factor of wind power measuring the average energy delivered has been assumed in the 30-35% range of the name plate capacity. Yet, the mean realized value for Europe over the last five years is below 21%; accordingly private cost is two-third higher and the reduction of carbon emissions is 40% less than previously expected. We document this discrepancy and offer rationalizations that emphasize the long term variations of wind speeds, the behavior of the wind power industry, political interference and the mode of finance. We conclude with the consequences of the capacity factor miscalculation and some policy recommendations.

  13. Cognitive Spare Capacity and Speech Communication: A Narrative Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Rudner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background noise can make speech communication tiring and cognitively taxing, especially for individuals with hearing impairment. It is now well established that better working memory capacity is associated with better ability to understand speech under adverse conditions as well as better ability to benefit from the advanced signal processing in modern hearing aids. Recent work has shown that although such processing cannot overcome hearing handicap, it can increase cognitive spare capacity, that is, the ability to engage in higher level processing of speech. This paper surveys recent work on cognitive spare capacity and suggests new avenues of investigation.

  14. Ballistic resistance capacity of carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mylvaganam, Kausala; Zhang, L C

    2007-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes have high strength, light weight and excellent energy absorption capacity and therefore have great potential applications in making antiballistic materials. By examining the ballistic impact and bouncing-back processes on carbon nanotubes, this investigation shows that nanotubes with large radii withstand higher bullet speeds and the ballistic resistance is the highest when the bullet hits the centre of the CNT; the ballistic resistance of CNTs will remain the same on subsequent bullet strikes if the impact is after a small time interval

  15. Reracking to increase spent fuel storage capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-05-01

    Many utilities have already increased their spent fuel pool storage capacity by replacing aluminum racks having storage densities as low as 0.2 MTU/ft 2 with stainless steel racks which can more than double storage densities. Use of boron-stainless steel racks or thin stainless steel cans containing reassembled fuel rods allows even higher fuel storage densities (up to approximately 1.25 MTU/ft 2 ). This report evaluates the economics of smaller storage gains that occur if pools, already converted to high density storage, are further reracked

  16. Implications of metal accumulation mechanisms to phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Abdul R; Schröder, Peter

    2009-03-01

    Trace elements (heavy metals and metalloids) are important environmental pollutants, and many of them are toxic even at very low concentrations. Pollution of the biosphere with trace elements has accelerated dramatically since the Industrial Revolution. Primary sources are the burning of fossil fuels, mining and smelting of metalliferous ores, municipal wastes, agrochemicals, and sewage. In addition, natural mineral deposits containing particularly large quantities of heavy metals are found in many regions. These areas often support characteristic plant species thriving in metal-enriched environments. Whereas many species avoid the uptake of heavy metals from these soils, some of them can accumulate significantly high concentrations of toxic metals, to levels which by far exceed the soil levels. The natural phenomenon of heavy metal tolerance has enhanced the interest of plant ecologists, plant physiologists, and plant biologists to investigate the physiology and genetics of metal tolerance in specialized hyperaccumulator plants such as Arabidopsis halleri and Thlaspi caerulescens. In this review, we describe recent advances in understanding the genetic and molecular basis of metal tolerance in plants with special reference to transcriptomics of heavy metal accumulator plants and the identification of functional genes implied in tolerance and detoxification. Plants are susceptible to heavy metal toxicity and respond to avoid detrimental effects in a variety of different ways. The toxic dose depends on the type of ion, ion concentration, plant species, and stage of plant growth. Tolerance to metals is based on multiple mechanisms such as cell wall binding, active transport of ions into the vacuole, and formation of complexes with organic acids or peptides. One of the most important mechanisms for metal detoxification in plants appears to be chelation of metals by low-molecular-weight proteins such as metallothioneins and peptide ligands, the phytochelatins. For

  17. On higher derivative gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accioly, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    A possible classical route conducting towards a general relativity theory with higher-derivatives starting, in a sense, from first principles, is analysed. A completely causal vacuum solution with the symmetries of the Goedel universe is obtained in the framework of this higher-derivative gravity. This very peculiar and rare result is the first known vcuum solution of the fourth-order gravity theory that is not a solution of the corresponding Einstein's equations.(Author) [pt

  18. Higher Spins & Strings

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    The conjectured relation between higher spin theories on anti de-Sitter (AdS) spaces and weakly coupled conformal field theories is reviewed. I shall then outline the evidence in favour of a concrete duality of this kind, relating a specific higher spin theory on AdS3 to a family of 2d minimal model CFTs. Finally, I shall explain how this relation fits into the framework of the familiar stringy AdS/CFT correspondence.

  19. Evaluation of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose accumulation in the larynx of unilateral vocal fold paralysis cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nimura, Yoshitsugu; Hayashi, Ibuki; Higashikawa, Masahiko; Okamura, Terue; Nakai, Ken; Ichihara, Kengo

    2011-01-01

    Fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) is employed to decide the treatment strategy for malignant tumors clinically. Meanwhile, glucose metabolism is enhanced in the exercise of muscles. Because vocal folds always conduct glucose metabolism by phonation and swallowing, physiological accumulation of FDG may be found in the normal larynx. In this study we examined FDG accumulation in the larynx of patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis established by endoscope. FDG-PET/CT was taken one hour after the FDG administration (early image) and again two hours later (delayed image). All patients had no chance to utter after the FDG administration. In 25 of the 28 patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis, standardized uptake value (SUV) max was higher, by visual inspection, in the normal side of the larynx than in the paralyzed side. None of the 3 patients in whom no accumulation was seen on the non-paralyzed side had malignant disease. In both images, SUV max of the normal side was significantly higher than paralyzed side (p<0.01). In the delayed images, accumulation of FDG was significantly higher than that in the early images (p<0.01). We believe that strong FDG accumulation in the normal side of the larynx of patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis may owe to high glucose metabolism of the vocal muscles from muscle hyperkinesis. We conclude that unilateral accumulation in the larynx suggests not only cancer of that same side of the larynx but also paralysis of the other side. (author)

  20. Assessing Capacity for Sustainability of Effective Programs and Policies in Local Health Departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabak, Rachel G; Duggan, Katie; Smith, Carson; Aisaka, Kristelle; Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Brownson, Ross C

    2016-01-01

    Sustainability has been defined as the existence of structures and processes that allow a program to leverage resources to effectively implement and maintain evidence-based public health and is important in local health departments (LHDs) to retain the benefits of effective programs. Explore the applicability of the Program Sustainability Framework in high- and low-capacity LHDs as defined by national performance standards. Case study interviews from June to July 2013. Standard qualitative methodology was used to code transcripts; codes were developed inductively and deductively. Six geographically diverse LHD's (selected from 3 of high and 3 of low capacity) : 35 LHD practitioners. Thematic reports explored the 8 domains (Organizational Capacity, Program Adaptation, Program Evaluation, Communications, Strategic Planning, Funding Stability, Environmental Support, and Partnerships) of the Program Sustainability Framework. High-capacity LHDs described having environmental support, while low-capacity LHDs reported this was lacking. Both high- and low-capacity LHDs described limited funding; however, high-capacity LHDs reported greater funding flexibility. Partnerships were important to high- and low-capacity LHDs, and both described building partnerships to sustain programming. Regarding organizational capacity, high-capacity LHDs reported better access to and support for adequate staff and staff training when compared with low-capacity LHDs. While high-capacity LHDs described integration of program evaluation into implementation and sustainability, low-capacity LHDs reported limited capacity for measurement specifically and evaluation generally. When high-capacity LHDs described program adoption, they discussed an opportunity to adapt and evaluate. Low-capacity LHDs struggled with programs requiring adaptation. High-capacity LHDs described higher quality communication than low-capacity LHDs. High- and low-capacity LHDs described strategic planning, but high-capacity

  1. Accumulative pollution, "clean technology," and policy design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toman, M.A.; Withagen, C.A.A.M.

    2000-01-01

    This paper addresses the optimal long-term management of an accumulative but assimilable pollutant through economic incentive policies that restrict more damaging production processes and induce more benign alternatives. Using a simple general equilibrium approach, we consider the possibility that

  2. Uptake, accumulation and some biochemical responses in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Under the conditions of these increasing zinc concentrations, the highest zinc accumulation was obtained in the roots of the plants treated with 10 mM applications. The zinc concentration in the vegetative parts, was highest in the root and was lowest in the cotyledons. The highest bioconcentration factor (BCF) value was ...

  3. Accumulation pattern of total nonstructural carbohydrate in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Umukoro

    1977-09-09

    Sep 9, 1977 ... 1Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria (INTA), EEA Famaillá, Argentina. 2Department of Plant Sciences, University of California Davis, CA, USA. Accepted 17 October, 2012. The pattern of total nonstructural carbohydrate (TNC) accumulation in strawberry (Fragaria ananassa. Duch.) nursery ...

  4. Capital accumulation and embodied technological progress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grass, D.; Hartl, R.F.; Kort, P.M.

    This paper combines technology adoption with capital accumulation taking into account technological progress. We model this as a multi-stage optimal control problem and solve it using the corresponding maximum principle. The model with linear revenue can be solved analytically, while the model with

  5. Organic carbon accumulation in Brazilian mangal sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Christian J.; Smoak, Joseph M.; Sanders, Luciana M.; Sathy Naidu, A.; Patchineelam, Sambasiva R.

    2010-12-01

    This study reviews the organic carbon (OC) accumulation rates in mangrove forests, margins and intertidal mudflats in geographically distinct areas along the Brazilian coastline (Northeastern to Southern). Our initial results indicate that the mangrove forests in the Northeastern region of Brazil are accumulating more OC (353 g/m 2/y) than in the Southeastern areas (192 g/m 2/y) being that the sediment accumulation rates, 2.8 and 2.5 mm/y, and OC content ˜7.1% and ˜5.8% (dry sediment weight) were contributing factors to the discrepancies between the forests. The intertidal mudflats on the other hand showed substantially greater OC accumulation rates, sedimentation rates and content 1129 g/m 2/y and 234 g/m 2/y; 7.3 and 3.4 mm/y; 10.3% and ˜2.7% (OC of dry sediment weight content), respectively, in the Northeastern compared to the Southeastern region. Mangrove forests in the South-Southeastern regions of Brazil may be more susceptible to the rising sea level, as they are geographically constricted by the vast mountain ranges along the coastline.

  6. Curriculum Development through YTS Modular Credit Accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Further Education Unit, London (England).

    This document reports the evaluation of the collaborately developed Modular Training Framework (MainFrame), a British curriculum development project, built around a commitment to a competency-based, modular credit accumulation program. The collaborators were three local education authorities (LEAs), those of Bedfordshire, Haringey, and Sheffield,…

  7. Immunohistochemical evaluation of iron accumulation in term ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Classical immunohistochemical studies on placenta have shown that there is a linear increase in iron storage in the placenta in the first half of a normal pregnancy, however, these stocks are decreased in normal 3rd trimester placenta. Iron accumulation in term placentas of preeclamptic and normal pregnancies were ...

  8. NUTRIENTS ACCUMULATION IN FRUITS OF BERRY SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sava Parascovia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As a result of observations and biochemical analysis of the berries made during the years 2013-2014 in Republic of Moldova, it was found that bacciferous species included in the study had a wide spectrum of colors, from white, orange, red to blue and black. The possibility to extend the consumption of fresh berries is because these species ripen in series starting with honeysuckle in May, then one by one until September: strawberry, raspberry, currant, gooseberry, barberry, jostaberry, blueberry, sea buckthorn, blackberry, chokeberry, guilder rose. Chokeberries accumulated the highest average amount of soluble solids - 18.02%, jostaberries highlighted with the highest average amount of accumulated sugars - 9.56%. Red currant highlighted with the highest acidity - 5.22%, while blueberries with low acidity - 1.43%. Rosehip has accumulated the highest average amount of tannins and coloring substances - 546.65 mg%. Rosehip berries accumulated the highest amount of vitamin C average - 292.38 mg%, the black currant - 179.69 mg%, jostaberry - 112.86 mg%, and sea buckthorn - 96.7 mg%. The highest average values of the coefficient sugar / acid certifying good qualities were found in: blueberries - 4.39, guelder rose - 3.93, gooseberry - 3.55.

  9. Accumulation pattern of total nonstructural carbohydrate in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pattern of total nonstructural carbohydrate (TNC) accumulation in strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch.) nursery runner plants, cv. eCamarosaf, was determined for three growing seasons. Plant growth and fruit production patterns were also evaluated. The experiments were carried out on plants propagated in high ...

  10. RF SYSTEM FOR THE SNS ACCUMULATOR RING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BLASKIEWICZ, M.; BRENNAN, J.M.; BRODOWSKI, J.; DELONG, J.; METH, M.; SMITH, K.; ZALTSMAN, A.

    2001-01-01

    During accumulation the RF beam current in the spallation neutron source ring rises from 0 to 50 amperes. A clean, 250 nanosecond gap is needed for the extraction kicker risetime. Large momentum spread and small peak current are needed to prevent instabilities and stopband related losses. A robust RF system meeting these requirements has been designed

  11. Capital accumulation in private information economies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Boháček, Radim

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 1 (2005), s. 1-22 ISSN 1534-5998 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : moral hazard * capital accumulation Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.bepress.com/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1172&context=bejm

  12. Accumulating Project Management Knowledge Using Process Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niederman, Fred; March, Salvatore T.; Mueller, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Process theory has become an important mechanism for the accumulation of knowledge in a number of disciplines. In contrast with variance theory, which focuses on co-variation of dependent and independent variables, process theory focuses on sequences of activities, their duration and the intervals

  13. Contextual investigation of factors affecting sludge accumulation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pit latrines in slums areas of Uganda fill up faster than might be expected from some estimates owing to inappropriate use and failure to consider critical factors affecting sludge accumulation rates at the planning, design and construction stages. This study sought to investigate factors affecting filling rates of lined pit latrines ...

  14. Temporal accumulation of oriented visual features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pugeault, Nicolas; Krüger, Norbert

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a framework for accumulating on-line a model of a moving object (e.g., when manipulated by a robot). The proposed scheme is based on Bayesian filtering of local features, filtering jointly position, orientation and appearance information. The work presented here is novel ...

  15. Accumulation of nanocarriers in the ovary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schädlich, Andreas; Hoffmann, Stefan; Mueller, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Several nanocarrier systems are frequently used in modern pharmaceutical therapies. Within this study a potential toxicity risk of all nanoscaled drug delivery systems was found. An accumulation of several structurally different nanocarriers but not of soluble polymers was detected in rodent ovar...... but the results might as well open a new field of targeted ovarian therapies....

  16. Snow as an accumulator of air pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert T. Brown

    1976-01-01

    Using simple analytical techniques, the amounts of air pollutants accumulated in winter snow were determined and the results correlated with lichen survival on trees. Pollutants measured were particulate matter, sulfate, and chloride. An inverse relationship was found between amounts of each of these pollutants and the abundance of various lichens.

  17. Electric charger for an accumulator or battery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robers, E.W.J.; Molenaar, B.A.M.; Smit, W.; Bech, L.P.; Bouman, C.

    2009-01-01

    The invention relates to an electric charger for an accumulator or a battery or the like, which is adapted for rapid charging during an on-period and comprises for this purpose control means for starting and ending the on-period. The charger is provided with a circuit for converting a supply voltage

  18. Mitochondrial accumulation of APP and Abeta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavlov, Pavel F; Petersen, Anna Camilla Hansson; Glaser, Elzbieta

    2009-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggest that alterations in energy metabolism are among the earliest events that occur in the Alzheimer disease (AD) affected brain. Energy consumption is drastically decreased in the AD-affected regions of cerebral cortex and hippocampus pointing towards compromised mitocho...

  19. Absorptive capacity and smart companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Moro González

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The current competitive environment is substantially modifying the organizations’ learning processes due to a global increase of available information allowing this to be transformed into knowledge. This opportunity has been exploited since the nineties by the tools of “Business Analytics” and “Business Intelligence” but, nevertheless, being integrated in the study of new organizational capacities engaged in the process of creating intelligence inside organizations is still an outstanding task. The review of the concept of absorptive capacity and a detailed study from the perspective of this new reality will be the main objective of study of this paper.Design/methodology/approach: By comparing classical absorptive capacity and absorptive capacity from the point of view of information management tools in each one of the three stages of the organizational learning cycle, some gaps of the former are overcome/fulfilled. The academic/bibliographical references provided in this paper have been obtained from ISI web of knowledge, Scopus and Dialnet data bases, supporting the state of affairs on absorptive capacity and thereafter filtering by "Business Intelligence" and "Business Analytics". Specialized websites and Business Schools` Publications there have also been included, crowning the content on information management tools used that are currently used in the strategic consulting.Findings: Our contribution to the literature is the development of "smart absorptive capacity". This is a new capacity emerging from the reformulation of the classical concept of absorptive capacity wherein some aspects of its definition that might have been omitted are emphasized. The result of this new approach is the creation of a new Theoretical Model of Organizational Intelligence, which aims to explain, within the framework of the Resources and Capabilities Theory, the competitive advantage achieved by the so-called smart companies

  20. Fuel Class Higher Alcohols

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani

    2016-08-17

    This chapter focuses on the production and combustion of alcohol fuels with four or more carbon atoms, which we classify as higher alcohols. It assesses the feasibility of utilizing various C4-C8 alcohols as fuels for internal combustion engines. Utilizing higher-molecular-weight alcohols as fuels requires careful analysis of their fuel properties. ASTM standards provide fuel property requirements for spark-ignition (SI) and compression-ignition (CI) engines such as the stability, lubricity, viscosity, and cold filter plugging point (CFPP) properties of blends of higher alcohols. Important combustion properties that are studied include laminar and turbulent flame speeds, flame blowout/extinction limits, ignition delay under various mixing conditions, and gas-phase and particulate emissions. The chapter focuses on the combustion of higher alcohols in reciprocating SI and CI engines and discusses higher alcohol performance in SI and CI engines. Finally, the chapter identifies the sources, production pathways, and technologies currently being pursued for production of some fuels, including n-butanol, iso-butanol, and n-octanol.

  1. Accumulation of carbon in northern mire ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolonen, K.; Turunen, J.; Alm, J. [Joensuu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Biology; Korhola, A. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Lab. of Physical Geography; Jungner, H. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dating Lab.; Vasander, H. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Forest Ecology

    1996-12-31

    The basic feature in the functional ecology of any mire ecosystem is retardation of the effective decay of organic material resulting in a conspicuous accumulation of plant debris as peat overtime. The carbon accumulation process is slow, and climatic change may have an impact on the carbon cycle of peatlands, therefore, it has been of interest to study the rate of carbon accumulation by geological methods from dated peat strata. The approach is hampered by several facts. First, the mires vary enormously as to their vegetation and hydrology and hence their production and decay properties. It follows that a great number of study sites are needed. Second, the peat in mires expands both vertically and laterally, and this requires a spatial reconstruction of carbon accumulation within a mire basin. Third, simple geological methods cannot account for the actual rate of carbon accumulation in peat, and finally, an additional carbon sink in the mire ecosystems can be the mineral subsoil beneath peat. The proposed warming will perhaps shift northwards the existing climatic mire regimes and, thus, the northern aapa fens will change to Sphagnum bogs that are more effective in sequestering carbon, but distinctly less effective in their CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emanation. The role of mire fires in more remote northern areas may then become another important factor. The answer to the important question of future total sequestration of carbon to peatlands depends on the precipitation and its seasonal distribution pattern. Most climatic scenarios predict a decrease in the evaporation surplus during the summer at northern regions. Presumably, the consequent lowering of the water table would improve growth of forest on mires and simultaneously decrease the methane fluxes from peat. The combined net effect could be a clear restraining of the radiative forcing

  2. Accumulation of carbon in northern mire ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolonen, K; Turunen, J; Alm, J [Joensuu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Biology; Korhola, A [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Lab. of Physical Geography; Jungner, H [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dating Lab.; Vasander, H [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Forest Ecology

    1997-12-31

    The basic feature in the functional ecology of any mire ecosystem is retardation of the effective decay of organic material resulting in a conspicuous accumulation of plant debris as peat overtime. The carbon accumulation process is slow, and climatic change may have an impact on the carbon cycle of peatlands, therefore, it has been of interest to study the rate of carbon accumulation by geological methods from dated peat strata. The approach is hampered by several facts. First, the mires vary enormously as to their vegetation and hydrology and hence their production and decay properties. It follows that a great number of study sites are needed. Second, the peat in mires expands both vertically and laterally, and this requires a spatial reconstruction of carbon accumulation within a mire basin. Third, simple geological methods cannot account for the actual rate of carbon accumulation in peat, and finally, an additional carbon sink in the mire ecosystems can be the mineral subsoil beneath peat. The proposed warming will perhaps shift northwards the existing climatic mire regimes and, thus, the northern aapa fens will change to Sphagnum bogs that are more effective in sequestering carbon, but distinctly less effective in their CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emanation. The role of mire fires in more remote northern areas may then become another important factor. The answer to the important question of future total sequestration of carbon to peatlands depends on the precipitation and its seasonal distribution pattern. Most climatic scenarios predict a decrease in the evaporation surplus during the summer at northern regions. Presumably, the consequent lowering of the water table would improve growth of forest on mires and simultaneously decrease the methane fluxes from peat. The combined net effect could be a clear restraining of the radiative forcing

  3. Identification of Genes Associated with Chlorophyll Accumulation in Flower Petals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmiya, Akemi; Hirashima, Masumi; Yagi, Masafumi; Tanase, Koji; Yamamizo, Chihiro

    2014-01-01

    Plants have an ability to prevent chlorophyll accumulation, which would mask the bright flower color, in their petals. In contrast, leaves contain substantial amounts of chlorophyll, as it is essential for photosynthesis. The mechanisms of organ-specific chlorophyll accumulation are unknown. To identify factors that determine the chlorophyll content in petals, we compared the expression of genes related to chlorophyll metabolism in different stages of non-green (red and white) petals (very low chlorophyll content), pale-green petals (low chlorophyll content), and leaves (high chlorophyll content) of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.). The expression of many genes encoding chlorophyll biosynthesis enzymes, in particular Mg-chelatase, was lower in non-green petals than in leaves. Non-green petals also showed higher expression of genes involved in chlorophyll degradation, including STAY-GREEN gene and pheophytinase. These data suggest that the absence of chlorophylls in carnation petals may be caused by the low rate of chlorophyll biosynthesis and high rate of degradation. Similar results were obtained by the analysis of Arabidopsis microarray data. In carnation, most genes related to chlorophyll biosynthesis were expressed at similar levels in pale-green petals and leaves, whereas the expression of chlorophyll catabolic genes was higher in pale-green petals than in leaves. Therefore, we hypothesize that the difference in chlorophyll content between non-green and pale-green petals is due to different levels of chlorophyll biosynthesis. Our study provides a basis for future molecular and genetic studies on organ-specific chlorophyll accumulation. PMID:25470367

  4. ROMANIAN ADMINISTRATIVE CAPACITY OF EUROPEAN FUNDS ABSOBTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Bosie (Ungureanu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The capacity to absorb European funds is part of a state complex integrated admninistrative capacity, a component of a state as a whole. The analysis in this article starts from the theoretical development by studying the reports made by the Romanian Government, correlated with the European Union reports on funds and Romanian legislation. This analysis of the EU's structural funds, highlights the importance of accessing them and the degree to which Romania and member countries benefits of income support.European funds are meant to supplement a member of the Union funds to the extent that they are accessed through the projects. Money allocated on type of operation is distributed in amounts proportionate to that state needs. Money distributed will be justified by their realization of infrastructure projects, environment, transport, human resources development, rural and regional development.Theoretical research lay the foundation for determining administrative capacity in Romania from the first time of defining the concept until now. Empirical research reveals the degree of absorption of which is that Romania has in comparison with some EU countries, former socialist countries present democratic states.The absorption capacity of European funds determine the strength of a state administrative management issues in the management of monetary dated. Power in handling management administrative problems can be efficient in higher manner and it’s represented by cost-benefit analysis and the degree of satisfaction of citizen interest. As public services are financially supported and developed, the degree of citizen satisfaction is greater in an implemented decentralized administrative system.

  5. Accumulation of intra-cellular polyphosphate in Chlorella vulgaris cells is related to indole-3-acetic acid produced by Azospirillum brasilense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meza, Beatriz; de-Bashan, Luz E; Hernandez, Juan-Pablo; Bashan, Yoav

    2015-06-01

    Accumulation of intra-cellular phosphate, as polyphosphate, was measured when the microalga Chlorella vulgaris was immobilized in alginate with either of two wild-type strains of the microalgae growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum brasilense or their corresponding IAA-attenuated mutants. Wild type strains of A. brasilense induced higher amounts of intra-cellular phosphate in Chlorella than their respective mutants. Calculations comparing intra-cellular phosphate accumulation by culture or net accumulation by the cell and the amount of IAA that was produced by each of these strains revealed that higher IAA was linked to higher accumulations of intra-cellular phosphate. Application of four levels of exogenous IAA reported for A. brasilense and their IAA-attenuated mutants to cultures of C. vulgaris enhanced accumulation of intra-cellular phosphate; the higher the content of IAA per culture or per single cell, the higher was the amount of accumulated phosphate. When an IAA-attenuated mutant was complemented with exogenous IAA, accumulation of intra-cellular phosphate at the culture level was even higher than phosphate accumulation with the respective wild type strains. When calculating the net accumulation of intra-cellular phosphate in the complementation experiment, net intra-cellular phosphate induced by the IAA-attenuated mutant was completely restored and was similar to the wild strains. We propose that IAA produced by A. brasilense is linked to polyphosphate accumulation in C. vulgaris. Copyright © 2015 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Higher spin gauge theories

    CERN Document Server

    Henneaux, Marc; Vasiliev, Mikhail A

    2017-01-01

    Symmetries play a fundamental role in physics. Non-Abelian gauge symmetries are the symmetries behind theories for massless spin-1 particles, while the reparametrization symmetry is behind Einstein's gravity theory for massless spin-2 particles. In supersymmetric theories these particles can be connected also to massless fermionic particles. Does Nature stop at spin-2 or can there also be massless higher spin theories. In the past strong indications have been given that such theories do not exist. However, in recent times ways to evade those constraints have been found and higher spin gauge theories have been constructed. With the advent of the AdS/CFT duality correspondence even stronger indications have been given that higher spin gauge theories play an important role in fundamental physics. All these issues were discussed at an international workshop in Singapore in November 2015 where the leading scientists in the field participated. This volume presents an up-to-date, detailed overview of the theories i...

  7. INTERNATIONALIZATION IN HIGHER EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Crisan-Mitra

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Internationalization of higher education is one of the key trends of development. There are several approaches on how to achieve competitiveness and performance in higher education and international academic mobility; students’ exchange programs, partnerships are some of the aspects that can play a significant role in this process. This paper wants to point out the student’s perception regarding two main directions: one about the master students’ expectation regarding how an internationalized master should be organized and should function, and second the degree of satisfaction of the beneficiaries of internationalized master programs from Babe-Bolyai University. This article is based on an empirical qualitative research that was implemented to students of an internationalized master from the Faculty of Economics and Business Administration. This research can be considered a useful example for those preoccupied to increase the quality of higher education and conclusions drawn have relevance both theoretically and especially practically.

  8. Quality of Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zou, Yihuan; Zhao, Yingsheng; Du, Xiangyun

    . This transformation involves a broad scale of change at individual level, organizational level, and societal level. In this change process in higher education, staff development remains one of the key elements for university innovation and at the same time demands a systematic and holistic approach.......This paper starts with a critical approach to reflect on the current practice of quality assessment and assurance in higher education. This is followed by a proposal that in response to the global challenges for improving the quality of higher education, universities should take active actions...... of change by improving the quality of teaching and learning. From a constructivist perspective of understanding education and learning, this paper also discusses why and how universities should give more weight to learning and change the traditional role of teaching to an innovative approach of facilitation...

  9. Reputation in Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martensen, Anne; Grønholdt, Lars

    2005-01-01

    leaders of higher education institutions to set strategic directions and support their decisions in an effort to create even better study programmes with a better reputation. Finally, managerial implications and directions for future research are discussed.Keywords: Reputation, image, corporate identity......The purpose of this paper is to develop a reputation model for higher education programmes, provide empirical evidence for the model and illustrate its application by using Copenhagen Business School (CBS) as the recurrent case. The developed model is a cause-and-effect model linking image...

  10. Reputation in Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plewa, Carolin; Ho, Joanne; Conduit, Jodie

    2016-01-01

    Reputation is critical for institutions wishing to attract and retain students in today's competitive higher education setting. Drawing on the resource based view and configuration theory, this research proposes that Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) need to understand not only the impact...... of independent resources but of resource configurations when seeking to achieve a strong, positive reputation. Utilizing fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA), the paper provides insight into different configurations of resources that HEIs can utilize to build their reputation within their domestic...

  11. Navigating in higher education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thingholm, Hanne Balsby; Reimer, David; Keiding, Tina Bering

    Denne rapport er skrevet på baggrund af spørgeskemaundersøgelsen – Navigating in Higher Education (NiHE) – der rummer besvarelser fra 1410 bachelorstuderende og 283 undervisere fordelt på ni uddannelser fra Aarhus Universitet: Uddannelsesvidenskab, Historie, Nordisk sprog og litteratur, Informati......Denne rapport er skrevet på baggrund af spørgeskemaundersøgelsen – Navigating in Higher Education (NiHE) – der rummer besvarelser fra 1410 bachelorstuderende og 283 undervisere fordelt på ni uddannelser fra Aarhus Universitet: Uddannelsesvidenskab, Historie, Nordisk sprog og litteratur...

  12. Anomalous heat capacity of nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Likhachev, V.N.; Vinogradov, G.A.; Alymov, M.I.

    2006-01-01

    The heat capacity of nanosized particles exceeds (from few to tenth percents) the same values of the corresponding bulk materials, and this difference increases with the diminishing of the sizes. In the present Letter we give an explanation of this phenomenon on an example of a nanocrystal with simple cubic lattice and an arbitrary shape. The simplest harmonic interaction potential of the nearest neighbors is used. A qualitative agreement with experimental data is obtained. The decisive role is attributed to the choice of boundary conditions: free boundaries provide the 'softening' of vibrational spectrum thus giving larger contribution to the heat capacity. The increase in heat capacity depends on the particle size, shape and sample perfection

  13. Seismic fragility capacity of equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iijima, Toru; Abe, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Kenichi

    2006-01-01

    Seismic probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) is an available method to evaluate residual risks of nuclear plants that are designed on definitive seismic conditions. From our preliminary seismic PSA analysis, horizontal shaft pumps are important components that have significant influences on the core damage frequency (CDF). An actual horizontal shaft pump and some kinds of elements were tested to evaluate realistic fragility capacities. Our test results showed that the realistic fragility capacity of horizontal shaft pump would be at least four times as high as a current value, 1.6 x 9.8 m/s 2 , used for our seismic PSA. We are going to incorporate the fragility capacity data that were obtained from those tests into our seismic PSA analysis, and we expect that the reliability of seismic PSA should increase. (author)

  14. On risk and decisional capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checkland, D

    2001-02-01

    Limits to paternalism are, in the liberal democracies, partially defined by the concepts of decision-making capacity/incapacity (mental competence/incompetence). The paper is a response to Ian Wilks's (1997) recent attempt to defend the idea that the standards for decisional capacity ought to vary with the degree of risk incurred by certain choices. Wilks's defense is based on a direct appeal to the logical features of examples and analogies, thus attempting to by-pass earlier criticisms (e.g., Culver & Gert, 1990) of risk-based standards. Wilks's argument is found wanting on the grounds that he misconstrues the logic of such capacity, especially in accounting for conceptual and pragmatic ties with issues of decisional authority. A diagnosis is offered as to the source of Wilks's error (the assumption that mental competence is a species of wider genus of "competence"), and an alternative way of accounting for risk within the predominant contemporary legal framework is sketched.

  15. Accumulation of polycyclic arenes in Baltic Sea algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veldre, I.A.; Itra, A.R.; Paal' me, L.P.; Kukk, Kh.A.

    1985-01-01

    The paper presents data on the level of benzo(a)pyrene (BP) and some other polycyclic arenes in alga and phanerogam specimens from different gulfs of the Baltic Sea. Algae were shown to absorb BP from sea water. The mean concentration of BP in sea water was under 0.004 microgram/1, while in algae it ranged 0.1-21.2 micrograms/kg dry weight. Algae accumulate BP to a higher degree than phanerogams. The highest concentrations of BP were found in algae Enteromorpha while the lowest ones in Furcellaria. In annual green algae, BP level was higher in autumn, i. e. at the end of vegetation period, than in spring. Brown algae Fucus vesiculosus is recommended for monitoring polycyclic arene pollution in the area from Vormsi Island to Kaesmu and green algae Cladophora or Enteromorpha in the eastern part of the Finnish Gulf.

  16. Heavy metal accumulation by poplar in calcareous soil with various degrees of multi-metal contamination: implications for phytoextraction and phytostabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yahu; Nan, Zhongren; Su, Jieqiong; Wang, Ning

    2013-10-01

    The object of this study was to assess the capacity of Populus alba L. var. pyramidalis Bunge for phytoremediation of heavy metals on calcareous soils contaminated with multiple metals. In a pot culture experiment, a multi-metal-contaminated calcareous soil was mixed at different ratios with an uncontaminated, but otherwise similar soil, to establish a gradient of soil metal contamination levels. In a field experiment, poplars with different stand ages (3, 5, and 7 years) were sampled randomly in a wastewater-irrigated field. The concentrations of cadmium (Cd), Cu, lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in the poplar tissues and soil were determined. The accumulation of Cd and Zn was greatest in the leaves of P. pyramidalis, while Cu and Pb mainly accumulated in the roots. In the pot experiment, the highest tissue concentrations of Cd (40.76 mg kg(-1)), Cu (8.21 mg kg(-1)), Pb (41.62 mg kg(-1)), and Zn (696 mg kg(-1)) were all noted in the multi-metal-contaminated soil. Although extremely high levels of Cd and Zn accumulated in the leaves, phytoextraction using P. pyramidalis may take at least 24 and 16 years for Cd and Zn, respectively. The foliar concentrations of Cu and Pb were always within the normal ranges and were never higher than 8 and 5 mg kg(-1), respectively. The field experiment also revealed that the concentrations of all four metals in the bark were significantly higher than that in the wood. In addition, the tissue metal concentrations, together with the NH4NO3-extractable concentrations of metals in the root zone, decreased as the stand age increased. P. pyramidalis is suitable for phytostabilization of calcareous soils contaminated with multiple metals, but collection of the litter fall would be necessary due to the relatively high foliar concentrations of Cd and Zn.

  17. Cathode material for lithium ion accumulators prepared by screen printing for Smart Textile applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrový, T.; Kazda, T.; Syrová, L.; Vondrák, J.; Kubáč, L.; Sedlaříková, M.

    2016-03-01

    The presented study is focused on the development of LiFePO4 based cathode for thin and flexible screen printed secondary lithium based accumulators. An ink formulation was developed for the screen printing technique, which enabled mass production of accumulator's cathode for Smart Label and Smart Textile applications. The screen printed cathode was compared with an electrode prepared by the bar coating technique using an ink formulation based on the standard approach of ink composition. Obtained LiFePO4 cathode layers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and galvanostatic charge/discharge measurements at different loads. The discharge capacity, capacity retention and stability at a high C rate of the LiFePO4 cathode were improved when Super P and PVDF were replaced by conductive polymers PEDOT:PSS. The achieved capacity during cycling at various C rates was approximately the same at the beginning and at the end, and it was about 151 mAh/g for cycling under 1C. The obtained results of this novelty electrode layer exceed the parameters of several electrode layers based on LiFePO4 published in literature in terms of capacity, cycling stability and overcomes them in terms of simplicity/industrial process ability of cathode layer fabrication and electrode material preparation.

  18. Capacitated dynamic lot sizing with capacity acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hongyan; Meissner, Joern

    2011-01-01

    One of the fundamental problems in operations management is determining the optimal investment in capacity. Capacity investment consumes resources and the decision, once made, is often irreversible. Moreover, the available capacity level affects the action space for production and inventory...

  19. Computational Chemistry Capacity Building in an Underprivileged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bridging the gap with the other continents requires the identification of capacity ... university in South Africa), where computational chemistry research capacity has ... testifies the feasibility of such capacity building also in conditions of limited ...

  20. Denitrification capacity of bioreactors filled with refuse at different landfill ages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yingxu; Wu Songwei; Wu Weixiang; Sun Hua; Ding Ying

    2009-01-01

    The denitrification capacity of refuse at different landfill ages in bioreactor landfill system was studied. Three reactors filled with 1-year-old refuse (R1), 6-year-old refuse (R6) and 11-year-old refuse (R11), respectively, were operated in the experiment. Nitrate solution (1000 mg NO 3 - -N L -1 ) was added into each reactor. The results showed that the reactors were all able to consume nitrate. However, 1-year-old refuse in R1 had both a higher nitrate reduction rate and concentration of N 2 . In addition, vertical differences in nitrate removal along the depth of R1 were observed. The bottom-layer refuse and the middle-layer refuse both showed higher efficiency in nitrate depletion than the top layer. Furthermore, N 2 O accumulation was found in R11 with the concentration up to 19.3% of the released gas. These results suggested that 1-year-old refuse, which was partly degraded, was more suitable to use as denitrification medium.

  1. Isolation and characterization of Lactobacillus helveticus DSM 20075 variants with improved autolytic capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spus, Maciej; Liu, Hua; Wels, Michiel; Abee, Tjakko; Smid, Eddy J

    2017-01-16

    Lactobacillus helveticus is widely used in dairy fermentations and produces a range of enzymes, which upon cell lysis can be released into the cheese matrix and impact degradation of proteins, peptides and lipids. In our study we set out to explore the potential of Lb. helveticus DSM 20075 for increased autolytic capacity triggered by conditions such as low pH and high salt concentrations encountered in cheese environments. Lb. helveticus DSM 20075 was subjected to varied incubation temperatures (ranging from 37 to 50°C). High-temperature incubation (in the range of 45 to 50°C) allowed us to obtain a collection of six variant strains (V45-V50), which in comparison to the wild-type strain, showed higher growth rates at elevated temperatures (42°C-45°C). Moreover, variant strain V50 showed a 4-fold higher, in comparison to wild type, autolytic capacity in cheese-like conditions. Next, strain V50 was used as an adjunct in lab-scale cheese making trials to measure its impact on aroma formation during ripening. Specifically, in cheeses made with strain V50, the relative abundance of benzaldehyde increased 3-fold compared to cheeses made with the wild-type strain. Analysis of the genome sequence of strain V50 revealed multiple mutations in comparison to the wild-type strain DSM 20075 including a mutation found in a gene coding for a metal ion transporter, which can potentially be linked to intracellular accumulation of Mn 2+ and benzaldehyde formation. The approach of high-temperature incubation can be applied in dairy industry for the selection of (adjunct) cultures targeted at accelerated cheese ripening and aroma formation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. THE LEGAL CAPACITY TO TRADE

    OpenAIRE

    ADELIN UNGUREANU

    2014-01-01

    Trading is a part of our society. The man has been trading from ancient times so the amount of trades and transactions around the world is huge. In order for us to initiate, organize and deploy such trades we have to have certain rules which can help regulate the social and professional or legal aspect of trades. Therefore the sole trader capacity must be obtained and used in order for the contracts to be valid. The right and obligations that come with this capacity constitute activities t...

  3. Free energy and heat capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurata, M.; Devanathan, R.

    2015-01-01

    Free energy and heat capacity of actinide elements and compounds are important properties for the evaluation of the safety and reliable performance of nuclear fuel. They are essential inputs for models that describe complex phenomena that govern the behaviour of actinide compounds during nuclear fuels fabrication and irradiation. This chapter introduces various experimental methods to measure free energy and heat capacity to serve as inputs for models and to validate computer simulations. This is followed by a discussion of computer simulation of these properties, and recent simulations of thermophysical properties of nuclear fuel are briefly reviewed. (authors)

  4. THE LEGAL CAPACITY TO TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADELIN UNGUREANU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Trading is a part of our society. The man has been trading from ancient times so the amount of trades and transactions around the world is huge. In order for us to initiate, organize and deploy such trades we have to have certain rules which can help regulate the social and professional or legal aspect of trades. Therefore the sole trader capacity must be obtained and used in order for the contracts to be valid. The right and obligations that come with this capacity constitute activities that can be reflected and analysed by obtaining and maintain the sole trader status.

  5. Building Capacity in Ethical Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Douglas-Jones, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    review to ensure the protection of human subjects participating in research. Drawing on fieldwork with the Forum for Ethical Review Committees in the Asian and Western Pacific Region, I explore two distinct forms taken by capacity building within that organization to support and train members of ethics...... review committees. The first, with an emphasis on standards and measurability, takes as its priority international accountability for clinical trial research. e second explores how the organization goes about persuading trainees to see and do ‘ethics’ differently. is distinction between forms of capacity...

  6. Exploring Higher Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conover, Willis M.

    1992-01-01

    Maintains that the social studies reform movement includes a call for the de-emphasis of rote memory and more attention to the development of higher-order thinking skills. Discusses the "thinking tasks" concept derived from the work of Hilda Taba and asserts that the tasks can be used with almost any social studies topic. (CFR)

  7. Higher-Order Hierarchies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduces the notion of higher-order inheritance hierarchies. They are useful because they provide well-known benefits of object-orientation at the level of entire hierarchies-benefits which are not available with current approaches. Three facets must be adressed: First, it must be po...

  8. Inflation from higher dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafi, Q.

    1987-01-01

    We argue that an inflationary phase in the very early universe is related to the transition from a higher dimensional to a four-dimensional universe. We present details of a previously considered model which gives sufficient inflation without fine tuning of parameters. (orig.)

  9. Higher Education Funding Formulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeown-Moak, Mary P.

    1999-01-01

    One of the most critical components of the college or university chief financial officer's job is budget planning, especially using formulas. A discussion of funding formulas looks at advantages, disadvantages, and types of formulas used by states in budgeting for higher education, and examines how chief financial officers can position the campus…

  10. Liberty and Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Dennis F.

    1989-01-01

    John Stuart Mill's principle of liberty is discussed with the view that it needs to be revised to guide moral judgments in higher education. Three key elements need to be modified: the action that is constrained; the constraint on the action; and the agent whose action is constrained. (MLW)

  11. Fuel Class Higher Alcohols

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani

    2016-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the production and combustion of alcohol fuels with four or more carbon atoms, which we classify as higher alcohols. It assesses the feasibility of utilizing various C4-C8 alcohols as fuels for internal combustion engines

  12. Evaluation in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bognar, Branko; Bungic, Maja

    2014-01-01

    One of the means of transforming classroom experience is by conducting action research with students. This paper reports about the action research with university students. It has been carried out within a semester of the course "Methods of Upbringing". Its goal has been to improve evaluation of higher education teaching. Different forms…

  13. Higher-level Innovization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandaru, Sunith; Tutum, Cem Celal; Deb, Kalyanmoy

    2011-01-01

    we introduce the higher-level innovization task through an application of a manufacturing process simulation for the Friction Stir Welding (FSW) process where commonalities among two different Pareto-optimal fronts are analyzed. Multiple design rules are simultaneously deciphered from each front...

  14. Benchmarking for Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Norman, Ed.; Lund, Helen, Ed.

    The chapters in this collection explore the concept of benchmarking as it is being used and developed in higher education (HE). Case studies and reviews show how universities in the United Kingdom are using benchmarking to aid in self-regulation and self-improvement. The chapters are: (1) "Introduction to Benchmarking" (Norman Jackson…

  15. Creativity in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Drazena; Mabic, Mirela

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents results of research related to perception of creativity in higher education made by the authors at the University of Mostar from Bosnia and Herzegovina. This research was based on a survey conducted among teachers and students at the University. The authors developed two types of questionnaires, one for teachers and the other…

  16. California's Future: Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Hans

    2015-01-01

    California's higher education system is not keeping up with the changing economy. Projections suggest that the state's economy will continue to need more highly educated workers. In 2025, if current trends persist, 41 percent of jobs will require at least a bachelor's degree and 36 percent will require some college education short of a bachelor's…

  17. Cyberbullying in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Maria A.; Smith, Gina S.; Brashen, Henry

    2013-01-01

    Bullying has extended beyond the schoolyard into online forums in the form of cyberbullying. Cyberbullying is a growing concern due to the effect on its victims. Current studies focus on grades K-12; however, cyberbullying has entered the world of higher education. The focus of this study was to identify the existence of cyberbullying in higher…

  18. Competitiveness - higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labas Istvan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Involvement of European Union plays an important role in the areas of education and training equally. The member states are responsible for organizing and operating their education and training systems themselves. And, EU policy is aimed at supporting the efforts of member states and trying to find solutions for the common challenges which appear. In order to make our future sustainable maximally; the key to it lies in education. The highly qualified workforce is the key to development, advancement and innovation of the world. Nowadays, the competitiveness of higher education institutions has become more and more appreciated in the national economy. In recent years, the frameworks of operation of higher education systems have gone through a total transformation. The number of applying students is continuously decreasing in some European countries therefore only those institutions can “survive” this shortfall, which are able to minimize the loss of the number of students. In this process, the factors forming the competitiveness of these budgetary institutions play an important role from the point of view of survival. The more competitive a higher education institution is, the greater the chance is that the students would like to continue their studies there and thus this institution will have a greater chance for the survival in the future, compared to ones lagging behind in the competition. Aim of our treatise prepared is to present the current situation and main data of the EU higher education and we examine the performance of higher education: to what extent it fulfils the strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth which is worded in the framework of Europe 2020 programme. The treatise is based on analysis of statistical data.

  19. Youth self-formation and the 'capacity to aspire': The itinerant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article employs the lenses of 'aspiration', 'space', and 'technologies of self' to present the argument that his 'capacity to aspire' has to be understood on the basis of his active self-formation and disciplining, accumulated across the itinerant spaces of his life. The aim of this article is to open a window onto how young ...

  20. Upgrading of seismic capacity of WWER equipment including reactor control rods and distribution systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostarev, V.

    1993-01-01

    This paper concerns the experience of CKTI VIBROSEISM firm (CVS) in seismic capacity upgrading of the WWER equipment and pipings. During the last 15 years CVS has accumulated a lot of experimental and analysis results on many of WWER units 'in former Soviet Union. That might be very useful in seismic protecting of East European Nuclear Power Plants. (author)

  1. Aerobic capacity mediates susceptibility for the transition from steatosis to steatohepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, E Matthew; McCoin, Colin S; Allen, Julie A; Gastecki, Michelle L; Koch, Lauren G; Britton, Steven L; Fletcher, Justin A; Fu, Xiarong; Ding, Wen-Xing; Burgess, Shawn C; Rector, R Scott; Thyfault, John P

    2017-07-15

    Low intrinsic aerobic capacity is associated with increased all-cause and liver-related mortality in humans. Low intrinsic aerobic capacity in the low capacity runner (LCR) rat increases susceptibility to acute and chronic high-fat/high-sucrose diet-induced steatosis, without observed increases in liver inflammation. Addition of excess cholesterol to a high-fat/high-sucrose diet produced greater steatosis in LCR and high capacity runner (HCR) rats. However, the LCR rat demonstrated greater susceptibility to increased liver inflammatory and apoptotic markers compared to the HCR rat. The progressive non-alcoholic fatty liver disease observed in the LCR rats following western diet feeding was associated with further declines in liver fatty acid oxidation and mitochondrial respiratory capacity compared to HCR rats. Low aerobic capacity increases risk for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and liver-related disease mortality, but mechanisms mediating these effects remain unknown. We recently reported that rats bred for low aerobic capacity (low capacity runner; LCR) displayed susceptibility to high fat diet-induced steatosis in association with reduced hepatic mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and respiratory capacity compared to high aerobic capacity (high capacity runner; HCR) rats. Here we tested the impact of aerobic capacity on susceptibility for progressive liver disease following a 16-week 'western diet' (WD) high in fat (45% kcal), cholesterol (1% w/w) and sucrose (15% kcal). Unlike previously with a diet high in fat and sucrose alone, the inclusion of cholesterol in the WD induced hepatomegaly and steatosis in both HCR and LCR rats, while producing greater cholesterol ester accumulation in LCR compared to HCR rats. Importantly, WD-fed low-fitness LCR rats displayed greater inflammatory cell infiltration, serum alanine transaminase, expression of hepatic inflammatory markers (F4/80, MCP-1, TLR4, TLR2 and IL-1β) and effector caspase (caspase 3 and 7

  2. Unknown and abnormal accumulation in the chest in bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Toshiaki; Takeuchi, Masashi; Tokunaga, Koji; Maeda, Yoichi; Hasegawa, Kazuhiko.

    1979-01-01

    In scintigraphies of forty patients with hemiplegia following appoplexia, focal abnormal accumulations in the chest region were seen in bone scintigraphies of four patients. These hot accumulations could be neither rib fracture, rib metastases, nor abnormal calcium accumulation. A mechanism of these accumulation remains to undicided. We believe that this phenomena is related to abnormal bone metabolism in hemiplegial condition. (author)

  3. Research on accumulating the harmful elements in geothermal water with aquatic plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing, Bingbing; Guo, Licong; Peng, Yongqing [Institute of Energy Sources (China); The Institute of Biology (China))

    1988-11-10

    As a result of component analyses for geothermal water, environmental pollution potentialities with use of geothermal water were generally recognized with high mineral material and high content of F{sup -}in North China. Although injection methods are effective to eliminate the environment pollution of geothermal fluid, the technique and cost of injection are not practical at present yet for the technical level and financial capacity of China and other developing countries. Through the comparison of physical, chemical and biological methods, the biological method possesses low cost and great disposed quantity. After making the test for accumulating harmful elements in geothermal water with aquatic plants to find suitable one, nine kinds of aquatic plants, which can accumulate elements of Cl{sup -}, Na{sup +} and F{sup -}, were selected for further tests. As a test result, the aquatic plants which could comprehensively accumulate Na{sup +}, Cl{sup -} and F{sup -} were Ceratophyllum demersum, Mymphoides pettatum and Spirodela polyrrhiza, the aquatic plant which could comprehensively accumulate Na{sup +} and Cl{sup -} was Alternanthera philoxenoids, and the aquatic plant which could accumulate F{sup -} was Lemna minor. These aquatic plants were considered as the optimized plants for purifying geothermal water. 4 refs., 5 tabs.

  4. Glucosylceramide accumulation is not confined to the lysosome in fibroblasts from patients with Gaucher disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Maria; Rozaklis, Tina; Lovejoy, Melanie; Zarrinkalam, Krystyna; Hopwood, John J; Meikle, Peter J

    2008-04-01

    Gaucher disease (GD) is an inborn error of glycosphingolipid metabolism resulting from a deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme beta-glucosidase leading to the accumulation of glucosylceramide (GC) in lysosomes of affected cells. In order to determine the effect of GC accumulation on intracellular lipid content in fibroblasts from patients with GD, we measured individual species of ceramide, di- and trihexosylceramide, sphingomyelin, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylglycerol using electrospray ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry. The different subspecies of each lipid class correlated with each other and were summed to give total lipid concentrations. In addition to GC, we also noted secondary elevations in other lipids, especially in type 2 GD. Sub-cellular fractionation showed that GC was not confined to the lysosome but increased throughout the cell. The sequelae of extra-lysosomal accumulation may have implications in the pathogenic mechanisms of GD by interaction with biochemical and metabolic pathways located outside the lysosome. The elevation of ceramide in confluent type 2 GD fibroblasts redistributed from its primary site of accumulation in the lysosome to the endosomal region at four-weeks post-confluence. The accumulation of lipids in the endosome and lysosome suggests both impaired trafficking of lipids and reduced capacity of the lysosome to degrade lipids.

  5. Differential effects of citric acid on cadmium uptake and accumulation between tall fescue and Kentucky bluegrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, ShuTing; Dong, Qin; Wang, ZhaoLong

    2017-11-01

    Organic acids play an important role in cadmium availability, uptake, translocation, and detoxification. A sand culture experiment was designed to investigate the effects of citric acid on Cd uptake, translocation, and accumulation in tall fescue and Kentucky bluegrass. The results showed that two grass species presented different Cd chemical forms, organic acid components and amount in roots. The dormant Cd accumulated in roots of tall fescue was the pectate- and protein- integrated form, which contributed by 84.85%. However, in Kentucky bluegrass, the pectate- and protein- integrated Cd was only contributed by 35.78%, and the higher proportion of Cd form was the water soluble Cd-organic acid complexes. In tall fescue, citric acid dramatically enhanced 2.8 fold of Cd uptake, 3 fold of root Cd accumulation, and 2.3 fold of shoot Cd accumulation. In Kentucky bluegrass, citric acid promoted Cd accumulation in roots, but significantly decreased Cd accumulation in shoots. These results suggested that the enhancements of citric acid on Cd uptake, translocation, and accumulation in tall fescue was associated with its promotion of organic acids and the water soluble Cd-organic acid complexes in roots. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Maturation of Rb+ and PAH accumulation by rabbit anterior uvea and choroid plexus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupin, T.; Fritz, C.; Becker, B.

    1985-01-01

    In vitro accumulation of radioactive para-aminohippuric acid ( 3 H-PAH) and rubidium ( 86 Rb+) by the anterior uvea, ciliary processes, and the choroid plexus was evaluated in tissues from newborn and various aged rabbits. Accumulation of PAH was present in the anterior uvea at 1 day of age (tissue to media ratio, T/M, of 2.1 +/- 0.2) and remained at this level for the first 14 days of life. Accumulation did not rise to adult levels until 21 days of age (T/M 5.5 +/- 0.6). Rubidium accumulation in the anterior uvea, a measure of Na+, K+-pump activity, was higher than adult values 6 hr after birth (T/M25.2 +/- 0.9). Activity remained elevated through day 28 and did not fall to adult levels until day 60 (T/M 13.4 +/- 0.6). Accumulation studies on isolated ciliary processes were similar to those obtained from anterior uveal tissue. Daily subcutaneous injections of penicillin (300,000 units/kg/day) for 1 week had no effect on anterior uvea PAH accumulation (penicillin T/M was 1.7 +/- 0.1 and saline control T/M was 2.0 +/- 0.2). Accumulation of either 3 H-PAH or 86 Rb+ by the choroid plexus was present 1 day after birth in amounts that were similar to adult values and did not change during the 90 days of testing

  7. Trace element concentrations in higher fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrne, A.R.; Ravnik, V.; Kosta, L.

    1976-01-01

    The concentrations of ten trace elements, As, Br, Cd, Cu, Hg, I, Mn, Se, Zn and V, have been determined in up to 27 species of higher fungi from several sites in Slovenia, Yugoslavia. Analyses were based on destructive neutron activation techniques. Data are presented and compared with the concentrations found in soils. Previously values were non-existent or scanty for these elements, so that the data represent typical levels for basidiomycetes. In addition to confirming high levels of mercury in many species, the survey also found that cadmium is accumulated to a surprising extent by most fungi, the average value being 5 ppm. Among other accumulations found was bromine by the genus Amanita, and selenium by edible Boletus. Correlation analysis between all pairs of trace elements gave values for r of from 0.75 to 0.43 for 7 pairs (Cu and Hg, 0.75; Se and As, 0.69). As well as these features of biochemical interest, the values found and the pattern of accumulation suggest potential uses of fungi in environmental studies

  8. Generation Capacity Investments and High Levels of Renewables. The Impact of a German Capacity Market on Northwest Europe. Discussion paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozdemir, O.; De Joode, J.; Koutstaal, P.R.; Van Hout, M. [ECN Policy Studies, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-05-15

    Presently, Northwest European centralised electricity markets are designed as 'energy-only' markets. In an energy-only market, the price received for electricity produced is set by the marginal generation unit. Potentially, the designs of these markets could leave the owners of these units with 'missing money': i.e. money that is required to recover investment cost. Further, increasing penetration of renewables could exacerbate this problem. Of all the different options available to tackle the 'missing money' problem, capacity mechanisms have attracted most of the attention in recent policy debates in Europe. This paper contributes to ongoing policy discussions by providing a quantitative analysis of the phenomena of 'missing money' and capacity mechanisms in Northwest Europe. Our analysis shows that in the case of energy-only markets with a much higher penetration of intermittent electricity sources such as wind and solar PV, the 'missing money' problem may be aggravated, because operating hours for peak and mid-merit order capacity will be considerably reduced. Furthermore, unilateral introduction of capacity mechanisms in integrated electricity markets can have considerable impacts on cross-border electricity flows and investment decisions. Stand-alone introduction of a capacity market in Germany will likely result in higher investments in Germany at the expense of lower investments outside Germany and an increase in net exports from Germany. A possible advantage of a unilateral capacity mechanism in Germany may be a reduction in super-peak prices in the larger market area. Thus, neighbouring countries may have the possibility to free ride on the increase in flexible capacity in Germany. However, this advantage is conditional and depends on sufficient availability of interconnection capacity necessary to be able to use this reserve capacity. Otherwise, security of supply might be more at risk if the German

  9. Accumulation of sucrose in irradiated agricultural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, T.

    1986-01-01

    Irradiation of agricultural products with ionizing radiation causes various physiological changes and one of the interesting phenomena is the increase of sucrose in irradiated potatoes. The relationship, however, between sucrose content and irradiation dose was not clarified. The author has made the relationship clear and found out that the sucrose content once enhanced by a high dose of irradiation does not lower during storage for a long period. It has been found that the sucrose accumulation caused by irradiation occurred in sweet potatoes and chestnuts as well as potatoes. In this article the effect of gamma-irradiation on the sucrose content of potato tubers, sweet potato roots and chestnuts will be reviewed and the mechanism of this sucrose accumulation will be discussed

  10. The future of the antiproton accumulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autin, B.

    1983-01-01

    When the Antiproton Accumulator was designed in 1977, it was considered as an element of the high energy proton-antiproton collision experiments in the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron. Since that time, antiproton physics has become more and more popular: a second experimental area was built in the SPS, the Intersecting Storage Rings started a special antiproton programme and a considerable interest has bloomed in the energy range of nuclear physics with the LEAR machine. Moreover, any projection on hadron physics in the coming years shows an insatiable appetite of experimentalists for more antiprotons. Therefore, basic studies have been pursued since the beginning of last year to transform the accumulator into an abundant source of antiprotons

  11. Bromine accumulation in acidic black colluvial soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Cortizas, Antonio; Ferro Vázquez, Cruz; Kaal, Joeri; Biester, Harald; Costa Casais, Manuela; Taboada Rodríguez, Teresa; Rodríguez Lado, Luis

    2016-02-01

    Recent investigations showed that bromine is incorporated to soil organic matter (SOM), its content increasing with humification. But few research was done on its long-term accumulation and the role played by pedogenetic processes, as those involved in organic matter stabilization. We investigated bromine content and distribution in four deep, acidic, organic-rich, Holocene soils from an oceanic area of Western Europe. Bromine concentrations (93-778 μg g-1) in the silt + clay (stabilized as aluminium-OM associations, and to a lesser extent on soil acidity (pH) and iron-OM associations. Thus, at scales of thousands of years, bromine accumulation in acidic soils is linked to the pool of metal-clay-stabilized organic matter.

  12. Accumulation of sucrose in irradiated agricultural products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, T. [National Food Research Inst., Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1986-03-15

    Irradiation of agricultural products with ionizing radiation causes various physiological changes and one of the interesting phenomena is the increase of sucrose in irradiated potatoes. The relationship, however, between sucrose content and irradiation dose was not clarified. The author has made the relationship clear and found out that the sucrose content once enhanced by a high dose of irradiation does not lower during storage for a long period. It has been found that the sucrose accumulation caused by irradiation occurred in sweet potatoes and chestnuts as well as potatoes. In this article the effect of gamma-irradiation on the sucrose content of potato tubers, sweet potato roots and chestnuts will be reviewed and the mechanism of this sucrose accumulation will be discussed.

  13. Solar-Panel Dust Accumulation and Cleanings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Air-fall dust accumulates on the solar panels of NASA's Mars Exploration Rovers, reducing the amount of sunlight reaching the solar arrays. Pre-launch models predicted steady dust accumulation. However, the rovers have been blessed with occasional wind events that clear significant amounts of dust from the solar panels. This graph shows the effects of those panel-cleaning events on the amount of electricity generated by Spirit's solar panels. The horizontal scale is the number of Martian days (sols) after Spirit's Jan. 4, 2005, (Universal Time) landing on Mars. The vertical scale indicates output from the rover's solar panels as a fraction of the amount produced when the clean panels first opened. Note that the gradual declines are interrupted by occasional sharp increases, such as a dust-cleaning event on sol 420.

  14. Livelihood Resilience and Adaptive Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thulstrup, Andreas Waaben

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses the implementation and outcomes of national development programs in a mountainous commune in Vietnam. The article traces the history of State intervention and the capacity of households and the community to adapt to change. The assessment reveals unintended consequences of t...

  15. Model of clinker capacity expansion

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Stylianides, T

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a model which has been applied in practice to determine an optimal plan for clinker capacity expansion. The problem was formulated as an integer linear program aiming to determine the optimal number, size and location of kilns...

  16. Research projects and capacity building

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Breen, CM

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available A World Bank long-term perspective study on Sub-Saharan Africa highlighted the need to build human and institutional capacity in virtually all sectors and countries. In South Africa, establishment of a democratic government in 1994 saw increased...

  17. Outage capacity of multicarrier systems

    KAUST Repository

    Yilmaz, Ferkan; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2010-01-01

    The probability density function and the cumulative distribution function of the product of shifted Gamma variates are obtained in terms of the generalized Fox's H function. Using these new results, the exact outage capacity of multi carrier transmission through a slow Nakagami-m fading channel is presented. Moreover, it is shown that analytical and simulation results are in perfect agreement. © 2009 IEEE.

  18. Building adaptive capacity in Assam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumyadeep Banerjee

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A starting point for adapting to longer-term climate change could be adaptation to short-term climate variability and extreme events. Making more informed choices about the use of remittances can enhance the adaptive capacity of remittance-receiving households.

  19. Frequency-dependent heat capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrens, Claus Flensted

    The frequency–dependent heat capacity of super-cooled glycerol near the glass transition is measured using the 3w detection technique. An electrical conducting thin film with a temperature–dependent electrical resistance is deposited on a substrate. The thin film is used simultaneously as a heater...

  20. Improving African health research capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeff; Wallace, Samantha A; Liljestrand, Jerker

    2010-01-01

    The issue of strengthening local research capacity in Africa is again high on the health and development agenda. The latest initiative comes from the Wellcome Trust. But when it comes to capacity development, one of the chief obstacles that health sectors in the region must confront is the migrat......The issue of strengthening local research capacity in Africa is again high on the health and development agenda. The latest initiative comes from the Wellcome Trust. But when it comes to capacity development, one of the chief obstacles that health sectors in the region must confront...... is the migration of health professionals to countries that offer more lucrative opportunities, like those in western Europe. To combat this ''brain drain'', already back in 1984, the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Sida) created a training programme in which healthcare professionals from...... Africa conducted the bulk of their research in their own countries. However, the model was only partly successful. Several years ago, we assessed the preconditions for the renewal of Sida support for research and research training activities in the region. Based on our work to develop a critical mass...