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Sample records for higher accident frequencies

  1. Profiling high frequency accident locations using associations rules

    OpenAIRE

    GEURTS, Karolien; WETS, Geert; BRIJS, Tom; VANHOOF, Koen

    2002-01-01

    In Belgium, traffic safety is currently one of the government’s highest priorities. Identifying and profiling black spots and black zones in terms of accident related data and location characteristics must provide new insights into the complexity and causes of road accidents which, in turn, provide valuable input for government actions. In this paper, association rules are used to identify accident circumstances that frequently occur together at high frequency accident locations. Furthermore,...

  2. Profiling high-frequency accident locations using association rules

    OpenAIRE

    GEURTS, Karolien; WETS, Geert; BRIJS, Tom; VANHOOF, Koen

    2003-01-01

    In Belgium, traffic safety is currently one of the government's highest priorities. Identifying and profiling black spots and black zones in terms of accident related data and location characteristics must provide new insights into the complexity and causes of road accidents, which, in ram, provide valuable input for government actions. In this paper, association rules are used to identify accident circumstances that frequently occur together at high frequency accident locations. Furthermore...

  3. Accident frequency and unrealistic optimism: Children's assessment of risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Mary Sissons; Maclean, Morag; Stevens, Claire

    2018-02-01

    Accidental injury is a major cause of mortality and morbidity among children, warranting research on their risk perceptions. Three hundred and seven children aged 10-11 years assessed the frequency, danger and personal risk likelihood of 8 accidents. Two social-cognitive biases were manifested. The frequency of rare accidents (e.g. drowning) was overestimated, and the frequency of common accidents (e.g. bike accidents) underestimated; and the majority of children showed unrealistic optimism tending to see themselves as less likely to suffer these accidents in comparison to their peers, offering superior skills or parental control of the environment as an explanation. In the case of pedestrian accidents, children recognised their seriousness, underestimated the frequency of this risk and regarded their own road crossing skill as protection. These findings highlight the challenging task facing safety educators who, when teaching conventional safety knowledge and routines, also need to alert children to the danger of over-confidence without disabling them though fear. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Utilization of accident databases and fuzzy sets to estimate frequency of HazMat transport accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao Yuanhua; Keren, Nir; Mannan, M. Sam

    2009-01-01

    Risk assessment and management of transportation of hazardous materials (HazMat) require the estimation of accident frequency. This paper presents a methodology to estimate hazardous materials transportation accident frequency by utilizing publicly available databases and expert knowledge. The estimation process addresses route-dependent and route-independent variables. Negative binomial regression is applied to an analysis of the Department of Public Safety (DPS) accident database to derive basic accident frequency as a function of route-dependent variables, while the effects of route-independent variables are modeled by fuzzy logic. The integrated methodology provides the basis for an overall transportation risk analysis, which can be used later to develop a decision support system.

  5. Methodological aspects of core meltdown accidents frequency estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthis, P.

    1984-01-01

    A survey is given of the work of the ecological institute relating to models and methods used in the German Risk Study for the assessment of core meltdown accident frequency. A statistical model used by the ecological institute for the estimation of the outage behaviour of components is taken as a comparison, which leads to the conclusion that no appropriate methods for the assessment of component reliability are available to date. Furthermore, there are no secured methods for error propagation computation. The lower limits for the ranges of reliability of components are calculated by approximation. As a result of imperfect modelling and of a number of methodical inaccuracies and neglects, the German Risk Study underestimates the ranges of component reliability by a factor of 3 to 70 (depending on the type of component). (RF) [de

  6. Frequency of work zone accidents on construction projects : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    The overall objective of this research was to study work zone accidents in New York State, with particular attention to the : occurrence and mitigation of rear-end vehicle accidents. The specific objectives were to: : - Recommend changes to the NYSDO...

  7. Piping system damping data at higher frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ware, A.G.

    1987-01-01

    Research has been performed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) to determine best-estimate damping values for dynamic analyses of nuclear piping systems excited in the 20 to 100 Hz frequency range. Vibrations in this frequency range are typical of fluid-induced transients, for which no formal pipe damping guidelines exist. The available data found in the open literature and the USNRC/INEL nuclear piping damping data bank were reviewed, and a series of tests on a straight 3-in. (76-mm) piping system and a 5-in. (127-mm) system with several bends and elbows were conducted as part of this research program. These two systems were supported with typical nuclear piping supports that could be changed from test to test during the series. The resulting damping values were ≥ those of the Pressure Vessel Research Committee (PVRC) proposal for unisulated piping. Extending the PVRC damping curve from 20 to 100 Hz at 3% of critical damping would give a satisfactory representation of the test data. This position has been endorsed by the PVRC Technical Committee on Piping Systems. 14 refs

  8. Investigation of Qom Rural Area Water Network Accident in 2010 and Minimization Approaches of Accident Frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Jafari Mansoorian

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study : Accidents in water networks can lead to increase the uncounted water, costs of repair, maintenance, restoration and enter water contaminants to water network. The aim of this study is to survey the accidents of Qom rural water network and choose the right approaches to reduce the number of accidents. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional study, four sector of Qom province (Markazi, Dastjerd, Kahak and Qahan, were assessed over a period of 8 months (July – January 2010. This study was conducted through questionnaire of Ministry of Energy. Results: The total number of accidents was 763. The highest number of accidents in the four sectors was related to Markazi sector with 228 accidents. According to the time of the accident, the highest and lowest number of accident was related to September (19.7% and November (6.8%, respectively. According to the location of the accident on network, the highest and lowest number of accident was related to distribution network (64% and connections (17.5% and transmission pipe (18.34%, respectively. According to the type of the accident, the highest and lowest number of accident was related to breaking (47.8% and gasket failure (1.2%, respectively. Considering with the pipes’ material, the highest and lowest number of accident was related to polyethylene pipes (93% and steel and cast iron pipes (0.5%, 0.5%, respectively. Conclusions: Due to the high break rate of Polyethylene pipes, it is recommended to be placed in priority of leak detection and rehabilitation.   .

  9. Statistical modelling of the frequency and severity of road accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janstrup, Kira Hyldekær

    -reporting. The problem of under-reporting is not unique for traffic accidents as severe under-reporting is a challenge in many other fields of incident reporting. In other incidents fields with intended or unintended harm, research has investigated the behavioural reasons for why people choose to report an incident......Under-reporting of traffic accidents is a well-discussed subject in traffic safety and it is well-known that the degree of under-reporting of traffic accidents is quite high in many countries. Nevertheless, very little literature has been made to investigate what causes the high degree of under...... on the service quality within the police none have looked at the service quality specific for the handling of traffic accidents.The objective of this Ph.D. thesis is to investigate the extent of under-reporting of traffic accidents in Denmark and trace the under-reporting systematically. As something new...

  10. Transport accident frequency data, their sources and their application in risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appleton, P.R.

    1988-08-01

    Base transport accident frequency data and sources of these data are presented. Both generic information and rates specific to particular routes or packages are included. Strong packages, such as those containing significant quantities of radioactive materials, will survive most of the accidents represented by these base frequencies without a containment breach. The association of severity probability distributions with a base frequency, and package and contents response, leading to the quantification of release frequency and magnitude, are often more important in risk assessment than the base frequency itself. This paper therefore also includes brief comments on techniques adopted to utilize the base frequencies. This paper reports an accident frequency data survey undertaken at the end of 1986. It has not been updated to take account of work published between January 1987 and the Report publication date. (author)

  11. School sports accidents: analysis of causes, modes, and frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelm, J; Ahlhelm, F; Pape, D; Pitsch, W; Engel, C

    2001-01-01

    About 5% of all school children are seriously injured during physical education every year. Because of its influence on children's attitude toward sports and the economic aspects, an evaluation of causes and medical consequences is necessary. In this study, 213 school sports accidents were investigated. Besides diagnosis, the localization of injuries, as well as the duration of the sick leave were documented. Average age of injured students was 13 years. Most of the injured students blamed themselves for the accident. The most common injuries were sprains, contusions, and fractures. Main reasons for the accidents were faults in basic motion training. Playing soccer and basketball were the most frequent reasons for injuries. The upper extremity was more frequently involved than the lower extremity. Sports physicians and teachers should work out a program outlining the individual needs and capabilities of the injured students to reintegrate them into physical education.

  12. TITAN: a computer program for accident occurrence frequency analyses by component Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Yasushi; Tamaki, Hitoshi; Kanai, Shigeru

    2000-04-01

    In a plant system consisting of complex equipments and components for a reprocessing facility, there might be grace time between an initiating event and a resultant serious accident, allowing operating personnel to take remedial actions, thus, terminating the ongoing accident sequence. A component Monte Carlo simulation computer program TITAN has been developed to analyze such a complex reliability model including the grace time without any difficulty to obtain an accident occurrence frequency. Firstly, basic methods for the component Monte Carlo simulation is introduced to obtain an accident occurrence frequency, and then, the basic performance such as precision, convergence, and parallelization of calculation, is shown through calculation of a prototype accident sequence model. As an example to illustrate applicability to a real scale plant model, a red oil explosion in a German reprocessing plant model is simulated to show that TITAN can give an accident occurrence frequency with relatively good accuracy. Moreover, results of uncertainty analyses by TITAN are rendered to show another performance, and a proposal is made for introducing of a new input-data format to adapt the component Monte Carlo simulation. The present paper describes the calculational method, performance, applicability to a real scale, and new proposal for the TITAN code. In the Appendixes, a conventional analytical method is shown to avoid complex and laborious calculation to obtain a strict solution of accident occurrence frequency, compared with Monte Carlo method. The user's manual and the list/structure of program are also contained in the Appendixes to facilitate TITAN computer program usage. (author)

  13. Frequency Calculation For Loss Coolant Accident In The Nuclear Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sony, DT

    1996-01-01

    LOCA as initiating event is engineering judgement, because it is rare condition. So, to determine LOCA frequency used be probability and statistic method. By probability and statistic method was estimated from size, weld, age, learning curve and quality, etc. it has been calculated for LOCA frequency in the simplified piping system model, especially estimates from size and weld factors. From calculation, LOCA frequency is 9,82.10 - 6/year

  14. Frequencies of chromosomal inversions in Drosophila melanogaster in Fukushima after the nuclear power plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Masanobu; Kajihara, Ryutaro; Kato, Yasuko; Takano-Shimizu, Toshiyuki; Inoue, Yutaka

    2018-01-01

    In order to investigate genetic impact of a large amount of radionuclides released by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in 2011, we surveyed 2,304 haploid genomes of Drosophila melanogaster collected in three localities in Fukushima in 2012 and 2013 for chromosomal inversions. No unique inversion was found in 298 genomes in 2012 and only two in 2,006 genomes in 2013. The observed frequencies were even lower than the long-term average frequency of unique inversions in Japan. The common cosmopolitan inversions were also examined in Fukushima, Kyoto, and Iriomote (Okinawa) in 2012. Among three samples in Fukushima, the flies in Iizaka, where environmental radiation level was the highest, showed the lowest frequency of In(2L)t, but the highest frequency of In(3R)P, contrary to the expectation of decreasing of their frequencies in higher polluted areas. These results suggest that, at this level of genetic analysis, Fukushima populations of D. melanogaster would not have been negatively impacted following the release of radionuclides. Transposable P-element mobility was not likely to induce DNA damage solely or synergistically with radioactivity, because their transposition activity was totally repressed in the Fukushima strains. However, it should be noted that, because of limitations in access to the exclusion zone, we could only sample the populations in areas of relatively low radioactive contamination (0.39-0.63 μSv/h). Therefore, the present study is likely to be underpowered to detect any effects that might be expected in heavily contaminated areas.

  15. TITAN: a computer program for accident occurrence frequency analyses by component Monte Carlo simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nomura, Yasushi [Department of Fuel Cycle Safety Research, Nuclear Safety Research Center, Tokai Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Tamaki, Hitoshi [Department of Safety Research Technical Support, Tokai Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Kanai, Shigeru [Fuji Research Institute Corporation, Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-04-01

    In a plant system consisting of complex equipments and components for a reprocessing facility, there might be grace time between an initiating event and a resultant serious accident, allowing operating personnel to take remedial actions, thus, terminating the ongoing accident sequence. A component Monte Carlo simulation computer program TITAN has been developed to analyze such a complex reliability model including the grace time without any difficulty to obtain an accident occurrence frequency. Firstly, basic methods for the component Monte Carlo simulation is introduced to obtain an accident occurrence frequency, and then, the basic performance such as precision, convergence, and parallelization of calculation, is shown through calculation of a prototype accident sequence model. As an example to illustrate applicability to a real scale plant model, a red oil explosion in a German reprocessing plant model is simulated to show that TITAN can give an accident occurrence frequency with relatively good accuracy. Moreover, results of uncertainty analyses by TITAN are rendered to show another performance, and a proposal is made for introducing of a new input-data format to adapt the component Monte Carlo simulation. The present paper describes the calculational method, performance, applicability to a real scale, and new proposal for the TITAN code. In the Appendixes, a conventional analytical method is shown to avoid complex and laborious calculation to obtain a strict solution of accident occurrence frequency, compared with Monte Carlo method. The user's manual and the list/structure of program are also contained in the Appendixes to facilitate TITAN computer program usage. (author)

  16. A note on modeling road accident frequency: a flexible elasticity model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, António; Ferreira, Sara

    2011-11-01

    Count data models and their variants have been widely applied in accident modeling. The traditional log-linear function is used to represent the relationship between explanatory variables and the dependent variable (accident frequency). However, this function assumes constant elasticity for the estimation parameters, which is a limitation in the analysis of the effects of explanatory variables on accident risk. Although interaction effects between explanatory variables have been studied in the road safety context (where they are normally assessed by logistic regression), no one has yet examined the possibility of using a flexible function form allowing non-constant elasticity values. This paper seeks to explore the use of the translog function usually used in the economics context to allow the elasticity to vary with the values of other explanatory variables. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the application of the translog function to accident modeling and to compare the results with those of the traditional log-linear function negative binomial (NB) model. The results show that, in terms of goodness-of-fit statistics and residual analysis, the NB model with the translog function performs better than the traditional NB model. Additional evaluations in terms of predictive performance, hotspot identification and uncertainty associated with the estimated values were taken into account. Although this study is exploratory in nature, it suggests that the translog function has considerable potential for modeling accident observations. It is hoped that this novel accident modeling methodology will open the door to the reliable interpretation and evaluation of the influence of explanatory variables on accident frequency. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Radio frequency plasma nitriding of aluminium at higher power levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gredelj, Sabina; Kumar, Sunil; Gerson, Andrea R.; Cavallaro, Giuseppe P.

    2006-01-01

    Nitriding of aluminium 2011 using a radio frequency plasma at higher power levels (500 and 700 W) and lower substrate temperature (500 deg. C) resulted in higher AlN/Al 2 O 3 ratios than obtained at 100 W and 575 deg. C. AlN/Al 2 O 3 ratios derived from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis (and corroborated by heavy ion elastic recoil time of flight spectrometry) for treatments preformed at 100 (575 deg. C), 500 (500 deg. C) and 700 W (500 deg. C) were 1.0, 1.5 and 3.3, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that plasma nitrided surfaces obtained at higher power levels exhibited much finer nodular morphology than obtained at 100 W

  18. Cerebrovascular accidents complicating transcatheter aortic valve implantation: frequency, timing and impact on outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stortecky, Stefan; Windecker, Stephan; Pilgrim, Thomas; Heg, Dik; Buellesfeld, Lutz; Khattab, Ahmed A; Huber, Christoph; Gloekler, Steffen; Nietlispach, Fabian; Mattle, Heinrich; Jüni, Peter; Wenaweser, Peter

    2012-05-15

    Cerebrovascular accidents (CVA) are considered among the most serious adverse events after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). The objective of the present study was to evaluate the frequency and timing of CVA after TAVI and to investigate the impact on clinical outcomes within 30 days of the procedure. Between August 2007 and October 2011, 389 high-risk elderly patients with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis underwent TAVI via transfemoral, transapical or subclavian access. A total of 14 patients (3.6%) experienced at least one CVA within 30 days of follow-up and most events (74%) occurred within the first day of the procedure. Patients with CVA had an increased risk of all-cause (42.3% vs. 5.1%, ORadjusted 11.7, 95% CI 3.4-40.3, pCerebrovascular accidents among patients undergoing TAVI occur predominantly during the periprocedural period, are associated with multiple implantation attempts of the bioprosthesis and significantly impair prognosis.

  19. Extended Opacity Tables with Higher Temperature-Density-Frequency Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillaci, Mark; Orban, Chris; Delahaye, Franck; Pinsonneault, Marc; Nahar, Sultana; Pradhan, Anil

    2015-05-01

    Theoretical models for plasma opacities underpin our understanding of radiation transport in many different astrophysical objects. These opacity models are also relevant to HEDP experiments such as ignition scale experiments on NIF. We present a significantly expanded set of opacity data from the widely utilized Opacity Project, and make these higher resolution data publicly available through OSU's portal with dropbox.com. This expanded data set is used to assess how accurate the interpolation of opacity data in temperature-density-frequency dimensions must be in order to adequately model the properties of most stellar types. These efforts are the beginning of a larger project to improve the theoretical opacity models in light of experimental results at the Sandia Z-pinch showing that the measured opacity of Iron disagrees strongly with all current models.

  20. Driver behavior and accident frequency in school zones: Assessing the impact of sign saturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strawderman, Lesley; Rahman, Md Mahmudur; Huang, Yunchen; Nandi, Apurba

    2015-09-01

    Based on the models of human information processing, if a driver observes too many of the same signs, he or she may no longer pay attention to those signs. In the case of school zones, this expected effect may lead to non-compliance to posted speeds, negatively impacting safety around nearby schools. This study aims to investigate the effect of the number of nearby school zones on driver behavior (vehicle speed and compliance) and accident frequency. As a measure of the density of school zones, this study introduced and defined a new term sign saturation and presented a methodology to calculate sign saturation for school zones. Results found a significant effect of sign saturation on vehicle speed, compliance, and accident frequency. This study also examined the speeding behavior in school zones for different time of the day and day of the week. Results found that speeding was more prevalent in the early mornings and during the weekends. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Higher Eating Frequency Does Not Decrease Appetite in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrigue, Martine M; Drewnowski, Adam; Wang, Ching-Yun; Neuhouser, Marian L

    2016-01-01

    Consumption of small, frequent meals is suggested as an effective approach to control appetite and food intake and might be a strategy for weight loss or healthy weight maintenance. Despite much speculation on the topic, scientific evidence is limited to support such a relation in the absence of changes to diet composition. We examined the effects of high compared with low eating frequency (EF) on self-reported appetite as a secondary outcome in a controlled trial. We conducted a randomized, crossover intervention trial in 12 participants (4 men, 8 women) who completed 2 isocaloric 3-wk intervention phases of low EF (3 eating occasions/d) compared with high EF (8 eating occasions/d). On the last morning of each study phase, participants completed a 4-h appetite testing session. During the appetite testing session, participants completing the low EF phase consumed a meal at 0800. Participants completing the high EF intervention consumed the same meal spread evenly over 2 eating occasions at 0800 and 1030. Standardized ratings of hunger, desire to eat, fullness, thirst, and nausea were completed every 30 min with the use of paper-and-pencil semianchored 100-mm visual analog scales. A composite appetite score was calculated as the mean of hunger, desire to eat, and the inverse of fullness (calculated as 100-fullness rating). Linear regression analysis compared ratings between low EF and high EF conditions. The mean composite appetite score was higher in the high EF condition for the total testing period (baseline through 1200) (P appetite. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02548026. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  2. Coral larvae settle at a higher frequency on red surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, B.; Beard, M.; Miller, M. W.

    2011-09-01

    Although chemical cues serve as the primary determinants of larval settlement and metamorphosis, light is also known to influence the behavior and the settlement of coral planulae. For example, Porites astreoides planulae settle preferentially on unconditioned red substrata. In order to test whether this behavior was a response to color and whether other species also demonstrate color preference, settlement choice experiments were conducted with P. astreoides and Acropora palmata. In these experiments, larvae were offered various types of plastic substrata representing three to seven different color choices. Both species consistently settled on red (or red and orange) substrata at a higher frequency than other colors. In one experiment, P. astreoides settled on 100% of red, plastic cable ties but failed to settle on green or white substrata. In a second experiment, 24% of larvae settled on red buttons, more than settled on six other colors combined. A. palmata settled on 80% of red and of orange cables ties but failed to settle on blue in one experiment and settled on a greater proportion of red acrylic squares than on four other colors or limestone controls in a second experiment. The consistency of the response across a variety of plastic materials suggests the response is related to long-wavelength photosensitivity. Fluorescence and reflectance spectra of experimental substrata demonstrated that the preferred substrata had spectra dominated by wavelengths greater than 550 nm with little or no reflection or emission of shorter wavelengths. These results suggest that some species of coral larvae may use spectral cues for fine-scale habitat selection during settlement. This behavior may be an adaptation to promote settlement in crustose coralline algae (CCA)-dominated habitats facilitating juvenile survival.

  3. Comparative aspects of frequency of illness in agricultural workers from the zoned of intensive radiation contamination (after Chernobyl accident)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faktorov, Yi.Je.; Vyitte, P.M.; Jershova, M.O.; Belemets', M.P.; Chebanova, O.V.

    1997-01-01

    To study the frequency of illness with temporary loss of working ability (FITLWA) in the persons of main agricultural professions (drives, field workers, cattle breeders) working in the zone of strict radiation control (Polissia District, Kyiv Region) when compared with the 'clean' Lokhvytsia District, Poltava Region (the controls). FITLWA values were studied in 1496 workers. Within four year period after the accident at CAPP the residents of Polissia District received the dose of 2 rem due to Cesium-137, 134. Besides they were irradiated by incorporated Strontium-90, 89 and Plutonium-238,239,240. FITLWA values (duration of the illness, the number of patients) in all professional groups from this district have been established to be higher than in the controls. First of all it concerned the diseases of peripheral nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, respiratory organs, mental disorders, cardiovascular pathology

  4. The radiological consequences of degraded core accidents for the Sizewell PWR The impact of adopting revised frequencies of occurrence

    CERN Document Server

    Kelly, G N

    1983-01-01

    The radiological consequences of degraded core accidents postulated for the Sizewell PWR were assessed in an earlier study and the results published in NRPB-R137. Further analyses have since been made by the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) of degraded core accidents which have led to a revision of their predicted frequencies of occurrence. The implications of these revised frequencies, in terms of the risk to the public from degraded core accidents, are evaluated in this report. Increases, by factors typically within the range of about 1.5 to 7, are predicted in the consequences, compared with those estimated in the earlier study. However, the predicted risk from degraded core accidents, despite these increases, remains exceedingly small.

  5. Core damage frequency estimation using accident sequence precursor data: 1990-1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martz, H.F.

    1998-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) ongoing Accident Sequence Precursor (ASP) program uses probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) techniques to assess the potential for severe core damage (henceforth referred to simply as core damage) based on operating events. The types of operating events considered include accident sequence initiators, safety equipment failures, and degradation of plant conditions that could increase the probability that various postulated accident sequences occur. Such operating events potentially reduce the margin of safety available for prevention of core damage an thus can be considered as precursors to core damage. The current process for identifying, analyzing, and documenting ASP events is described in detail in Vanden Heuval et al. The significance of a Licensee Event Report (LER) event (or events) is measured by means of the conditional probability that the event leads to core damage, the so-called conditional core damage probability or, simply, CCDP. When the first ASP study results were published in 1982, it covered the period 1969--1979. In addition to identification and ranking of precursors, the original study attempted to estimate core damage frequency (CDF) based on the precursor events. The purpose of this paper is to compare the average annual CDF estimates calculated using the CCDP sum, Cooke-Goossens, Bier, and Abramson estimators for various reactor classes using the combined ASP data for the four years, 1990--1993. An important outcome of this comparison is an answer to the persistent question regarding the degree and effect of the positive bias of the CCDP sum method in practice. Note that this paper only compares the estimators with each other. Because the true average CDF is unknown, the estimation error is also unknown. Therefore, any observations or characterizations of bias are based on purely theoretical considerations

  6. Higher frequency network activity flow predicts lower frequency node activity in intrinsic low-frequency BOLD fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Sahil; Adhikari, Bhim Mani; Dhamala, Mukesh

    2013-01-01

    The brain remains electrically and metabolically active during resting conditions. The low-frequency oscillations (LFO) of the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) coherent across distributed brain regions are known to exhibit features of this activity. However, these intrinsic oscillations may undergo dynamic changes in time scales of seconds to minutes during resting conditions. Here, using wavelet-transform based time-frequency analysis techniques, we investigated the dynamic nature of default-mode networks from intrinsic BOLD signals recorded from participants maintaining visual fixation during resting conditions. We focused on the default-mode network consisting of the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), left middle temporal cortex (LMTC) and left angular gyrus (LAG). The analysis of the spectral power and causal flow patterns revealed that the intrinsic LFO undergo significant dynamic changes over time. Dividing the frequency interval 0 to 0.25 Hz of LFO into four intervals slow-5 (0.01-0.027 Hz), slow-4 (0.027-0.073 Hz), slow-3 (0.073-0.198 Hz) and slow-2 (0.198-0.25 Hz), we further observed significant positive linear relationships of slow-4 in-out flow of network activity with slow-5 node activity, and slow-3 in-out flow of network activity with slow-4 node activity. The network activity associated with respiratory related frequency (slow-2) was found to have no relationship with the node activity in any of the frequency intervals. We found that the net causal flow towards a node in slow-3 band was correlated with the number of fibers, obtained from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data, from the other nodes connecting to that node. These findings imply that so-called resting state is not 'entirely' at rest, the higher frequency network activity flow can predict the lower frequency node activity, and the network activity flow can reflect underlying structural

  7. Approach and results of the PWR low power and shutdown accident frequencies program - Coarse screening analysis for Surry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, T.L.; Musicki, Z.; Luckas, W.; Wong, S.M.; Fitzpatrick, R.G.

    1991-01-01

    Traditionally, probabilistic risk analyses of severe accidents in nuclear power plants have limited themselves to consideration of the set of initiating events occurring during full power operation. However, some analyses of accident initiators during low power, shutdown, and other modes of plant operation other than full power have been performed. These studies as well as the Chernobyl accident and recent operating experience at US pressurized water reactors (PWRs) suggested that risks during low power and shutdown could be significant. As such, the analysis of the frequencies, consequences, and risks of these accidents was identified as one task in the Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff's study of the implications of the Chernobyl accident to US commercial nuclear power plants. This program is an ongoing high priority effort at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The scope includes a Level 1 probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) with internal fire and flood for Surry Unit 1 (PWR). This program is also closely coupled to a parallel project for the Grand Gulf plant (BWWR) being conducted by SNL. The program is being performed in two phases. Phase 1 represents a coarse screening analysis to identify dominant accident scenarios as well as risk dominant plant configurations and plant operating states. In Phase 2, a detailed PRA will be performed for the dominant accident scenarios/operating states identified in Phase 1. The objectives, results and insights of Phase 1 are discussed in the paper

  8. The mutation frequency of Drosophila melanogaster populations living under conditions of increased background radiation due to the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainullin, V.G.; Rakin, A.O.; Shevchenko, V.A.; Myasnyankina, E.N.; Generalova, M.V.

    1992-01-01

    One of the problems facing the program in the wake of the Chernobyl accident is the estimation of genetic damage to plants and animals. Special attention was directed to studying the influence of radioactive pollutants at the accident site by means of an appropriate test system, using standard genetic subjects. The present study describes such investigations. Levels of persistent genetic damage in natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster found in the vicinity of the Chernobyl accident site were examined from August 1986-September 1989. Evidence is presented which indicates a relationship between the levels of radioactive pollution resulting from the Chernobyl accident and increasing genetic damage to exposed populations. The possible reasons for the decrease of mutation frequency observed in 1988 and 1989 are also discussed. Furthermore, evidence is presented which suggests that radiosensitive Drosophila mutants may be particularly sensitive indicators of radioactive pollution. (author). 16 refs.; 6 figs

  9. Profiling of high-frequency accident locations by use of association rules

    OpenAIRE

    GEURTS, Karolien; WETS, Geert; BRIJS, Tom; VANHOOF, Koen

    2003-01-01

    In Belgium, traffic safety is one of the government's highest priorities. The identification and profiling of black spots and black zones (geographical locations with high concentrations of traffic accidents) in terms of accident-related data and location characteristics must provide new insights into the complexity and causes of road accidents, which, in turn, provide valuable input for governmental actions. Association rules were used to identify accident-related circumstances that frequent...

  10. Higher frequency of cholelithiasis in eosinophilic cholecystitis, an unusual finding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarfraz, T.; Tariq, H.; Bashir, S.

    2015-01-01

    To determine the frequency of cholelithiasis in eosinophilic cholecystitis in our population. Study Design: Prospective descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Histopathology department, Combined Military Hospital (CMH), Peshawar (Pakistan) from Dec 2011 to Nov 2014. Material and Methods: Eighteen hundred (1800) cholecystectomy specimens were included in the study. The specimens which were properly fixed in 10% formalin were included in the specimen, while poorly fixed and autolysed specimens were excluded. The specimens were examined grossly, measured and block selection was done. The slides made were examined under light microscope by one histopathologist and findings were analyzed. Results: Out of 1800 cholecystectomy specimens, 25 cases (1.38%) were diagnosed as eosinophilic cholecystitis. Out of these 25 cases, 20 (80%) were females having an age range of 30-50 years, while 5 (20%) were males with an age range of 35-55 years. Out of these 25 cases of eosinophilic cholecystitis, 22 (88%) were having cholelithiasis, while 3 (12%) were acalculous eosiniophilic cholecystitis. Conclusion: Eosinophilic cholecystitis in our population is mostly calculous which is very significant finding contrary to data given in western literature, where most of eosinophilic cholecystitis is aclculous. This needs further evaluation to determine any genetic, geographic, environmental, dietary, microbiological or any other factor responsible in etiopathogenesis of calculous eosinophilic cholecystitis in our population, which could be helpful in prevention and management of this disease. (author)

  11. Differences in frequency rates and classes of occupational accidents in copper ore and black coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stecko, R.; Zacharzewski, J.

    1987-02-01

    This paper analyzes occupational accidents in copper mines and black coal mines in Poland from 1968 to 1985. Evaluates accident rate calculated per 1000 employees and per 100,000 t coal or copper ore output and distribution of accident classes characterized on the basis of miner absenteeism caused by an accident. Accident rate in coal mines calculated per 1,000 miners was: 58.5 in 1981, 51.0 in 1982, 39.5 in 1983, 36.6 in 1984 and 32.1 in 1985. Accident rate calculated per 100,000 t coal output was: 5.8 in 1980, 13.7 in 1981, 10.7 in 1982, 8.2 in 1983, 7.8 in 1984 and 6.7 in 1985. Curves showing accident rates and indices characterizing accident classes in 1968-1985 are plotted. Comparative evaluations of accident rate fluctuations in copper and coal mines suggest that these fluctuations are associated with causes other than mining and geologic conditions. Certain similiarities in accident rate fluctuations could be determined in spite of differing mining and geologic conditions and mine service life in the Lubin copper basin and Upper Silesia coal basin. 4 refs.

  12. Frequency of Specific Categories of Aviation Accidents and Incidents During 2001-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Joni K.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the types of accidents or incidents that are most important to the aviation safety risk. All accidents and incidents from 2001-2010 were assigned occurrence categories based on the taxonomy developed by the Commercial Aviation Safety Team/International Civil Aviation Organization (CAST/ICAO) Common Taxonomy Team (CICTT). The most frequently recorded categories were selected within each of five metrics: total accidents, fatal accidents, total injuries, fatal injuries and total incidents. This analysis was done separately for events within Part 121, Scheduled Part 135, Non-Scheduled Part 135 and Part 91. Combining those five sets of categories resulted in groups of between seven and eleven occurrence categories, depending on the flight operation. These groups represent 65-85% of all accidents and 68-81% of incidents.

  13. Analysis of rail accident frequencies and severities for the assessment of radioactive material transport risk - Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heywood, J.D.; Schwartz, G.; Fett, J.

    2001-01-01

    This shortened version of the final contractual report to the European Commission DGXVII summarises the work performed and the conclusions drawn from consideration, comparison and analysis of transport accident frequency and severity assessment methods for radioactive material transport by rail. This paper aims to provide an introduction to the study whose final report is 155 pages in length. The findings are based on a comprehensive review of transport risk assessment methods and related databases available to EU member states. The emphasis has been on the probabilistic accident severity and frequency assessment methodologies developed and used by the organisations involved in this EU-funded research project - AEA Technology and GRS. The results should be of major assistance in the understanding and development of standardised quantitative risk assessment models. Further work is suggested to underpin the development of a harmonised accident methodology including the collection of more detailed rail data and analysis on a year by year basis as well as further consideration of the assumptions made for fire accident scenarios. (author)

  14. Frequency of dicentrics in Ukrainian children and teenagers from areas near Chernobyl 20 years after the nuclear power plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoro, A.; Sebastia, N.; Candela, C.; Francesc Barquinero, J.; Soriano, J. M.; Almonacid, M.; Sahuquillo, V.; Alonso, O.; Cervera, J.; Such, E.; Silla, M. A.; Arnal, C.; Villaescusa, J. I.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, frequency of dicentrics in the peripheral blood of 55 children and teenagers from Ukrainian areas affected by the Chernobyl accident are studied, in order to assess the possible existence of chromosomal damage due to radiation, and to estimate absorbed dose through biological dosimetry. A total of 36 dicentric chromosomes found in 53477 analyzed cells reflected a low dicentric frequency (below the baseline limit). From these results, it can be concluded that, within the detection limits of the used technique, no overexposure to radiation was detected in these children. (Author) 18 refs.

  15. Effect of higher frequency on the classification of steady-state visual evoked potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Dong-Ok; Hwang, Han-Jeong; Dähne, Sven; Müller, Klaus-Robert; Lee, Seong-Whan

    2016-02-01

    Objective. Most existing brain-computer interface (BCI) designs based on steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs) primarily use low frequency visual stimuli (e.g., visual fatigue and no stimulus-related seizures. The fundamental objective of this study was to investigate the effect of stimulation frequency and duty-cycle on the usability of an SSVEP-based BCI system. Approach. We developed an SSVEP-based BCI speller using multiple LEDs flickering with low frequencies (6-14.9 Hz) with a duty-cycle of 50%, or higher frequencies (26-34.7 Hz) with duty-cycles of 50%, 60%, and 70%. The four different experimental conditions were tested with 26 subjects in order to investigate the impact of stimulation frequency and duty-cycle on performance and visual fatigue, and evaluated with a questionnaire survey. Resting state alpha powers were utilized to interpret our results from the neurophysiological point of view. Main results. The stimulation method employing higher frequencies not only showed less visual fatigue, but it also showed higher and more stable classification performance compared to that employing relatively lower frequencies. Different duty-cycles in the higher frequency stimulation conditions did not significantly affect visual fatigue, but a duty-cycle of 50% was a better choice with respect to performance. The performance of the higher frequency stimulation method was also less susceptible to resting state alpha powers, while that of the lower frequency stimulation method was negatively correlated with alpha powers. Significance. These results suggest that the use of higher frequency visual stimuli is more beneficial for performance improvement and stability as time passes when developing practical SSVEP-based BCI applications.

  16. Insights into location dependent loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA) frequency assessment for GSI-191 risk-informed applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, K.N., E-mail: KarlFleming@comcast.net [KNF Consulting LLC, Spokane, WA (United States); Lydell, B.O.Y. [SIGMA-PHASE INC., Vail, AZ (United States)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Role of operating experience in loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA) frequency assessment. • Plant-to-plant variability in calculated LOCA frequency. • Frequency of double-ended-guillotine-break (DEGB). • Uncertainties in LOCA frequencies. • Risk management insights. - Abstract: As a tribute to the published work by S.H. Bush, S. Beliczey and H. Schulz, this paper assesses the progress with methods and techniques for quantifying the reliability of piping systems in commercial nuclear power plants on the basis of failure rate estimates derived from field experience data in combination with insights and results from probabilistic fracture mechanics analyses and expert elicitation exercises. This status assessment is made from a technical perspective obtained through development of location-specific loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA) frequencies for input to risk-informed resolution of the generic safety issue (GSI) 191. The methods and techniques on which these GSI-191 applications are based build on a body of work developed by the authors during a period spanning more than two decades. The insights that are presented and discussed in this paper cover today’s knowledge base concerning how to utilize a risk-informed approach to the assessment of piping reliability in the context of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) in general and the resolution of GSI-191 in particular. Specifically the paper addresses the extent to which LOCA frequencies vary from location to location within a reactor coolant system pressure boundary (RCPB) for a given plant as well as vary from plant to plant, and the reasons for these variabilities. Furthermore, the paper provides the authors’ perspectives on interpretations and applications of information extracted from an expert elicitation process to obtain LOCA frequencies as documented in NUREG-1829 and how to apply this information to GSI-191. Finally, this paper documents technical insights relative to mitigation of

  17. Insights into location dependent loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA) frequency assessment for GSI-191 risk-informed applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, K.N.; Lydell, B.O.Y.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Role of operating experience in loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA) frequency assessment. • Plant-to-plant variability in calculated LOCA frequency. • Frequency of double-ended-guillotine-break (DEGB). • Uncertainties in LOCA frequencies. • Risk management insights. - Abstract: As a tribute to the published work by S.H. Bush, S. Beliczey and H. Schulz, this paper assesses the progress with methods and techniques for quantifying the reliability of piping systems in commercial nuclear power plants on the basis of failure rate estimates derived from field experience data in combination with insights and results from probabilistic fracture mechanics analyses and expert elicitation exercises. This status assessment is made from a technical perspective obtained through development of location-specific loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA) frequencies for input to risk-informed resolution of the generic safety issue (GSI) 191. The methods and techniques on which these GSI-191 applications are based build on a body of work developed by the authors during a period spanning more than two decades. The insights that are presented and discussed in this paper cover today’s knowledge base concerning how to utilize a risk-informed approach to the assessment of piping reliability in the context of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) in general and the resolution of GSI-191 in particular. Specifically the paper addresses the extent to which LOCA frequencies vary from location to location within a reactor coolant system pressure boundary (RCPB) for a given plant as well as vary from plant to plant, and the reasons for these variabilities. Furthermore, the paper provides the authors’ perspectives on interpretations and applications of information extracted from an expert elicitation process to obtain LOCA frequencies as documented in NUREG-1829 and how to apply this information to GSI-191. Finally, this paper documents technical insights relative to mitigation of

  18. A current drive by using the fast wave in frequency range higher than two timeslower hybrid resonance frequency on tokamaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Sun Ho

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient current drive scheme in central or off-axis region is required for the steady state operation of tokamak fusion reactors. The current drive by using the fast wave in frequency range higher than two times lower hybrid resonance (w>2wlh could be such a scheme in high density, high temperature reactor-grade tokamak plasmas. First, it has relatively higher parallel electric field to the magnetic field favorable to the current generation, compared to fast waves in other frequency range. Second, it can deeply penetrate into high density plasmas compared to the slow wave in the same frequency range. Third, parasitic coupling to the slow wave can contribute also to the current drive avoiding parametric instability, thermal mode conversion and ion heating occured in the frequency range w<2wlh. In this study, the propagation boundary, accessibility, and the energy flow of the fast wave are given via cold dispersion relation and group velocity. The power absorption and current drive efficiency are discussed qualitatively through the hot dispersion relation and the polarization. Finally, those characteristics are confirmed with ray tracing code GENRAY for the KSTAR plasmas.

  19. Reliability of double-wall-tube steam generator for FBR considering water leak accident frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Nobuyuki; Kinoshita, Izumi; Nishi, Yoshihisa

    2000-01-01

    For early realization, a fast breeder reactor (FBR) is required to reduce construction cost. A reactor concept in which the intermediate heat transport system is eliminated by introducing a double-wall-tube steam generator is one convincing approach. The reliability of the double-wall-tube SG in a water leak accident (sodium-water reaction accident) due to tube failure is strongly related to the mitigating system design. The safety design of the double-wall-tube SG approach is investigated to limit the accident occurrence below 10 -7 (1/ry. A tube-to-tube weld is excluded from the reference design, because the welding process is too difficult and complicated to effectively prevent adhesion of the double-wall-tube. The reliability of the tube-to-tube plate was evaluated at 10 -10 (l/hr) for an inner tube and 10 -9 (l/hr) for an outer with reference to the failure experience of previous SGs. The failure must be detected within 30 to 60 minutes. (author)

  20. The influence of biotic and abiotic factors on (137)Cs accumulation in higher fungi after the accident at Chernobyl NPP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarubina, N

    2016-09-01

    Levels of soil contamination with (137)Cs, the belonging of fungi to a certain ecological group, the localization depth of the main part of mycelium in soil are the primary factors influencing the value of (137)Cs specific activity in higher fungi after the accident at Chernobyl NPP. It has been found that the value of (137)Cs specific activity in fungi of one species could vary by more than 10 times during a vegetation period. A correlation between the changes of (137)Cs content in fungi during the vegetation period and the amount of precipitates during various periods preceding the collection of samples has not been determined. An assumption has been proposed stating dependence between peculiarities of mycelium growth during the vegetation period and the changes of (137)Cs specific activity in fungi. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Frequency changes of inherited anomalies in the Republic of Belarus after the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazjuk, G.I.; Kirillova, I.A.; Nikolaev, D.L.; Novikova, I.V.; Fomina, Z.N.; Khmel, R.D. [Belarus Institute for Hereditary Diseases, Minsk (Belarus)

    1995-12-31

    Complex cytogenetic, embryologic and clinical studies of possible genetic consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident for the population of Belarus have been carried out. They showed that groups of the population (pregnant women, fetuses, school children) had received biologically significant doses of radiation, as assessed by the registration of ring and dicentric chromosomes in blood lymphocytes. The study of more than 22,000 embryos and fetuses, and of 4090 neonates with compulsory registered congenital malformations, showed a considerable increase of anomalies of intrauterine origin since 1987. They correlated with the level of {sup 137}Cs contamination in the areas, but did not correlate with the preconception dose to the mother from the same radionuclide. Teratogenic effects of the Chernobyl pollution have not been conclusively idenitifed. The increase of embryonal anomalies was mainly due to the group of multifactorial defects, and to the anomalies with a large contribution from dominant mutations. The Down`s syndrome incidence showed to increase. (Author).

  2. Prevention of pedestrian accidents.

    OpenAIRE

    Kendrick, D

    1993-01-01

    Child pedestrian accidents are the most common road traffic accident resulting in injury. Much of the existing work on road traffic accidents is based on analysing clusters of accidents despite evidence that child pedestrian accidents tend to be more dispersed than this. This paper analyses pedestrian accidents in 573 children aged 0-11 years by a locally derived deprivation score for the years 1988-90. The analysis shows a significantly higher accident rate in deprived areas and a dose respo...

  3. Part-time farmers and accidents with agricultural machinery: a moderated mediated model on the role played by frequency of use and unsafe beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffaro, Federica; Roccato, Michele; Micheletti Cremasco, Margherita; Cavallo, Eugenio

    2018-01-25

    We aimed at testing a model of the direct and indirect effects of being a part-time farmer on the probability of being involved in an agricultural machinery-related accident, considering the role played by unsafe beliefs and the frequency of use of machinery. Two-hundred and fifty-two Italian men, regular users of agricultural machinery (age: Mean = 45.1 years, standard Deviation = 17.5), were administered a paper-and-pencil questionnaire addressing their relation with work, unsafe beliefs, and previous experience of machinery-related accidents. Being a part-time farmer showed a positive association with unsafe beliefs only among occasional machinery users. Unsafe beliefs in turn showed a positive association with accidents. The study gave a novel contribution to the knowledge of the chain of events connecting part-time farmers with machinery-related accidents. Preventive training interventions targeting part-timer farmers using agricultural machinery just occasionally should be developed.

  4. Reducing Undue Conservatism in "Higher Frequency" Structural Design Loads in Aerospace Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, J. Brent

    2012-01-01

    This study is intended to investigate the frequency dependency of significant strain due to vibratory loads in aerospace vehicle components. The notion that "higher frequency" dynamic loads applied as static loads is inherently conservative is perceived as widely accepted. This effort is focused on demonstrating that principle and attempting to evolve methods to capitalize on it to mitigate undue conservatism. It has been suggested that observations of higher frequency modes that resulted in very low corresponding strain did so due to those modes not being significant. Two avionics boxes, one with its first significant mode at 341 Hz and the other at 857 Hz, were attached to a flat panel installed on a curved orthogrid panel which was driven acoustically in tests performed at NASA/MSFC. Strain and acceleration were measured at select locations on each of the boxes. When possible, strain gage rosettes and accelerometers were installed on either side of a given structural member so that measured strain and acceleration data would directly correspond to one another. Ultimately, a frequency above which vibratory loads can be disregarded for purposes of static structural analyses and sizing of typical robust aerospace components is sought.

  5. Species With Greater Aerial Maneuverability Have Higher Frequency of Collisions With Aircraft: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Fernández-Juricic

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Antipredator responses may appear unsuccessful when animals are exposed to approaching vehicles, often resulting in mortality. Recent studies have addressed whether certain biological traits are associated with variation in collision risk with cars, but not with higher speed-vehicles like aircraft. Our goal was to establish the association between different species traits (i.e., body mass, eye size, brain size, wing loading, wing aspect ratio and the frequency of bird collisions with aircraft (hereafter, bird strikes using a comparative approach controlling for the effects of shared ancestry. We proposed directional predictions as to how each of the species traits would affect the frequency of bird strikes. Considering 39 bird species with all traits represented, the model containing wing loading had the best fit to account for the variance in bird strikes across species. In another model with 54 species exploring the fit to different polynomial models but considering only wing loading, we found that wing loading was negatively and linearly associated with the frequency of bird strikes. Counterintuitively, species with lower wing loading (hence, greater maneuverability had a higher frequency of bird strikes. We discuss potential non-mutually exclusive explanations (e.g., high wing loading species fly faster, thus gaining some extra time to avoid the aircraft flight path; high wing loading species are hazed more intensively at airports, which could lower collisions, etc.. Ultimately, our findings uncovered that species with low wing loading get struck at a higher rate at airports, which reduces the safety risk for humans because these species tend not to cause damaging strikes, but the ecological consequences of their potentially higher local mortality are unknown.

  6. The effect of electric field maximum on the Rabi flopping and generated higher frequency spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu Yueping; Cui Ni; Xiang Yang; Li Ruxin; Gong Shangqing; Xu Zhizhan

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the effect of the electric field maximum on the Rabi flopping and the generated higher frequency spectra properties by solving Maxwell-Bloch equations without invoking any standard approximations. It is found that the maximum of the electric field will lead to carrier-wave Rabi flopping (CWRF) through reversion dynamics which will be more evident when the applied field enters the sub-one-cycle regime. Therefore, under the interaction of sub-one-cycle pulses, the Rabi flopping follows the transient electric field tightly through the oscillation and reversion dynamics, which is in contrast to the conventional envelope Rabi flopping. Complete or incomplete population inversion can be realized through the control of the carrier-envelope phase (CEP). Furthermore, the generated higher frequency spectra will be changed from distinct to continuous or irregular with the variation of the CEP. Our results demonstrate that due to the evident maximum behavior of the electric field, pulses with different CEP give rise to different CWRFs, and then different degree of interferences lead to different higher frequency spectral features.

  7. Object Categorization in Finer Levels Relies More on Higher Spatial Frequencies and Takes Longer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashtiani, Matin N; Kheradpisheh, Saeed R; Masquelier, Timothée; Ganjtabesh, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    advantage of the superordinate (resp. basic) level to basic (resp. subordinate) level is mainly due to the computational constraints (the visual system processes higher spatial frequencies more slowly, and categorization in finer levels depends more on these higher spatial frequencies).

  8. HIGHER MODE FREQUENCY EFFECTS ON RESONANCE IN MACHINERY, STRUCTURES, AND PIPE SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leishear, R.

    2010-05-02

    The complexities of resonance in multi-degree of freedom systems (multi-DOF) may be clarified using graphic presentations. Multi-DOF systems represent actual systems, such as beams or springs, where multiple, higher order, natural frequencies occur. Resonance occurs when a cyclic load is applied to a structure, and the frequency of the applied load equals one of the natural frequencies. Both equations and graphic presentations are available in the literature for single degree of freedom (SDOF) systems, which describe the response of spring-mass-damper systems to harmonically applied, or cyclic, loads. Loads may be forces, moments, or forced displacements applied to one end of a structure. Multi-DOF systems are typically described only by equations in the literature, and while equations certainly permit a case by case analysis for specific conditions, graphs provide an overall comprehension not gleaned from single equations. In fact, this collection of graphed equations provides novel results, which describe the interactions between multiple natural frequencies, as well as a comprehensive description of increased vibrations near resonance.

  9. INTEG INSPEC, Accident Frequencies and Safety Analysis for Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnett, L.M.

    1976-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: These programs analyze the characteristics of a general model developed to represent the safety aspects of an operating nuclear reactor. These characteristics are the frequencies of incidents that are departures from the expected behavior of the reactor. Each incident is assumed to be preceded by a sequence of events starting at some initiating event. At each member in this sequence there may be functions such as safety circuits, and personnel operations that stop the sequence at that member. When mechanical devices fail they are assumed to remain inoperative until repaired. The model accounts for scheduled inspection and maintenance of all equipment in the system. 2 - Method of solution: In INTEG, the discontinuous density function is integrated by the trapezoidal rule from time equals zero to time equals t. INSPEC is based on the simulation of reactor operation as a Markov process. A vector of probabilities is successively multiplied by a transition matrix. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: INSPEC is limited to subsystems with no more than 7 safety circuits. The transition matrix can be made up as desired so that any intercorrelations between failures of circuits can be accommodated. In INTEG, failure rates of safety circuits are restricted to independence

  10. Analysis of Higher Order Modes in Large Superconducting Radio Frequency Accelerating Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Galek, Tomasz; Brackebusch, Korinna; Van Rienen, Ursula

    2015-01-01

    Superconducting radio frequency cavities used for accelerating charged particle beams are commonly used in accelerator facilities around the world. The design and optimization of modern superconducting RF cavities requires intensive numerical simulations. Vast number of operational parameters must be calculated to ensure appropriate functioning of the accelerating structures. In this study, we primarily focus on estimation and behavior of higher order modes in superconducting RF cavities connected in chains. To calculate large RF models the state-space concatenation scheme, an efficient hybrid method, is employed.

  11. Higher moments method for generalized Pareto distribution in flood frequency analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, C. R.; Chen, Y. F.; Huang, Q.; Gu, S. H.

    2017-08-01

    The generalized Pareto distribution (GPD) has proven to be the ideal distribution in fitting with the peak over threshold series in flood frequency analysis. Several moments-based estimators are applied to estimating the parameters of GPD. Higher linear moments (LH moments) and higher probability weighted moments (HPWM) are the linear combinations of Probability Weighted Moments (PWM). In this study, the relationship between them will be explored. A series of statistical experiments and a case study are used to compare their performances. The results show that if the same PWM are used in LH moments and HPWM methods, the parameter estimated by these two methods is unbiased. Particularly, when the same PWM are used, the PWM method (or the HPWM method when the order equals 0) shows identical results in parameter estimation with the linear Moments (L-Moments) method. Additionally, this phenomenon is significant when r ≥ 1 that the same order PWM are used in HPWM and LH moments method.

  12. Frequency, causes and human impact of motor vehicle-related road traffic accident (RTA) in Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nangana, Luzitu Severin; Monga, Ben; Ngatu, Nlandu Roger; Mbelambela, Etongola Papy; Mbutshu, Lukuke Hendrick; Malonga, Kaj Francoise

    2016-09-01

    Road traffic accident (RTA)-related trauma remains a public health issue. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency, causes and human impact of motor vehicle-related RTA in Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of Congo. A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted in the first semester of the year 2015 in which 288 drivers (144 RTA-causing drivers and 144 control drivers who have been declared not guilty by road safety agents) involved in 144 motor vehicle-related RTA were interviewed, and only data on all RTA involving two motor vehicles with at least four wheels were recorded and analyzed. Results showed a total of 144 RTA that involved two motor vehicles with four wheels occurring during the study period which affected 104 people, including 93 injury and 11 fatality cases. The mean age of RTA-causing drivers was 33.8 ± 7.4, whereas it was 35 ± 8.8 for control drivers. The majority of RTA-causing drivers (53.4 %) did not attend a driving school. Over speeding (32 %), distracted driving (22 %), overtaking (16 %) and careless driving/risky maneuver (15 %) and driving under the influence of alcohol (9 %) were the main causes of RTA occurrence. In addition, the absence of a valid driving license [aOR = 12.74 (±2.71); 95 % CI 3.877-41.916; p = 0.015], unfastened seat belt for the RTA-causing driver [aOR = 1.85 (±0.62); 95 % CI 1.306-6.661; p = 0.048] and presence of damages on RTA-causing vehicle [aOR = 33.56 (24.01); 95 % CI 1.429-78.352; p = 0.029] were associated with the occurrence of RTA-related fatality. This study showed a relatively high frequency of RTA occurring in Lubumbashi and suggests the necessity to reinforce road traffic regulation.

  13. Accidents in family forestry's firewood production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindroos, Ola; Aspman, Emma Wilhelmson; Lidestav, Gun; Neely, Gregory

    2008-05-01

    Firewood is commonly used around the world, but little is known about the work involved in its production and associated accidents. The objectives were to identify relationships between accidents and time exposure, workers' age and sex, equipment used and work activities in family forestry's firewood production. Data from a postal survey in Northern Sweden were compared to a database of injuries in the same region. Most accidents occurred to 50-69 year old men, who also worked most hours. No significant differences in sex and age were found between expected and recorded accident frequencies when calculated from total work hours; however, when calculated using numbers of active persons significant differences were found for both age and sex. Frequency of accidents per unit worked time was higher for machine involving activities than for other activities. Accidents that occurred when using wedge splitter machines were responsible for most of this overrepresentation. Fingers were the most commonly injured body parts. Mean accident rate for the equipment used was 87 accidents per million work hours, and the rate was highest for wedge splitters (122 accidents per million work hours). Exposure to elevated risks due to violation of safety procedures is discussed, as well as possible preventative measures.

  14. Biological effects in natural populations of small rodents in radiocontaminated areas. The frequency of bone marrow polyploid cells in bank voles in different years following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryabokon', N.I.

    1999-01-01

    On the basis of metaphase analysis results the peculiarities of dynamics of genome mutation frequency (polyploid cells) were studied in bone marrow of bank voles inhibiting the areas with different contamination level due to the Chernobyl accident (8-1526 kBq/m 2 for 137 Cs) in 1986-1991. Unexpectedly high frequencies of polyploid cells exceeding the pre-accidental level by factor of 10 1 -10 3 were recorded in all populations studied. Relationship between the frequency of parameter studied and the concentration of radionuclides incorporated in animal carcasses was proved. Statistically significant rise in the frequency of genome mutations with the time was revealed up to 1991, i.e. approximately to 12-th post-accidental animal generation [ru

  15. Higher balance task demands are associated with an increase in individual alpha peak frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorben eHülsdünker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Balance control is fundamental for most daily motor activities, and its impairment is associated with an increased risk of falling. Growing evidence suggests the human cortex is essentially contributing to the control of standing balance. However, the exact mechanisms remain unclear and need further investigation. In a previous study we introduced a new protocol to identify electrocortical activity associated with performance of different continuous balance tasks with the eyes opened. The aim of this study was to extend our previous results by investigating the individual alpha peak frequency (iAPF, a neurophysiological marker of thalamo-cortical information transmission, which remained unconsidered so far in balance research. Thirty-seven subjects completed nine balance tasks varying in surface stability and base of support. Electroencephalography (EEG was recorded from 32 scalp locations throughout balancing with the eyes closed to ensure reliable identification of the iAPF. Balance performance was quantified as the sum of anterior-posterior and medio-lateral movements of the supporting platform. The iAPF, as well as power in the theta, lower alpha and upper alpha frequency bands were determined for each balance task after applying an ICA-based artifact rejection procedure. Higher demands on balance control were associated with a global increase in iAPF and a decrease in lower alpha power. These results may indicate increased thalamo-cortical information transfer and general cortical activation, respectively. In addition, a significant increase in upper alpha activity was observed in the fronto-central region whereas it decreased in the centro-parietal region. Furthermore, midline theta increased with higher task demands probably indicating activation of error detection/processing mechanisms. IAPF as well as theta and alpha power were correlated with platform movements. The results provide new insights into spectral and spatial characteristics

  16. Analysis of avalanche risk factors in backcountry terrain based on usage frequency and accident data in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techel, F.; Zweifel, B.; Winkler, K.

    2015-09-01

    Recreational activities in snow-covered mountainous terrain in the backcountry account for the vast majority of avalanche accidents. Studies analyzing avalanche risk mostly rely on accident statistics without considering exposure (or the elements at risk), i.e., how many, when and where people are recreating, as data on recreational activity in the winter mountains are scarce. To fill this gap, we explored volunteered geographic information on two social media mountaineering websites - bergportal.ch and camptocamp.org. Based on these data, we present a spatiotemporal pattern of winter backcountry touring activity in the Swiss Alps and compare this with accident statistics. Geographically, activity was concentrated in Alpine regions relatively close to the main Swiss population centers in the west and north. In contrast, accidents occurred equally often in the less-frequented inner-alpine regions. Weekends, weather and avalanche conditions influenced the number of recreationists, while the odds to be involved in a severe avalanche accident did not depend on weekends or weather conditions. However, the likelihood of being involved in an accident increased with increasing avalanche danger level, but also with a more unfavorable snowpack containing persistent weak layers (also referred to as an old snow problem). In fact, the most critical situation for backcountry recreationists and professionals occurred on days and in regions when both the avalanche danger was critical and when the snowpack contained persistent weak layers. The frequently occurring geographical pattern of a more unfavorable snowpack structure also explains the relatively high proportion of accidents in the less-frequented inner-alpine regions. These results have practical implications: avalanche forecasters should clearly communicate the avalanche danger and the avalanche problem to the backcountry user, particularly if persistent weak layers are of concern. Professionals and recreationists, on the

  17. Measurement of optical-beat frequency in a photoconductive terahertz-wave generator using microwave higher harmonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murasawa, Kengo; Sato, Koki; Hidaka, Takehiko

    2011-05-01

    A new method for measuring optical-beat frequencies in the terahertz (THz) region using microwave higher harmonics is presented. A microwave signal was applied to the antenna gap of a photoconductive (PC) device emitting a continuous electromagnetic wave at about 1 THz by the photomixing technique. The microwave higher harmonics with THz frequencies are generated in the PC device owing to the nonlinearity of the biased photoconductance, which is briefly described in this article. Thirteen nearly periodic peaks in the photocurrent were observed when the microwave was swept from 16 to 20 GHz at a power of -48 dBm. The nearly periodic peaks are generated by the homodyne detection of the optical beat with the microwave higher harmonics when the frequency of the harmonics coincides with the optical-beat frequency. Each peak frequency and its peak width were determined by fitting a Gaussian function, and the order of microwave harmonics was determined using a coarse (i.e., lower resolution) measurement of the optical-beat frequency. By applying the Kalman algorithm to the peak frequencies of the higher harmonics and their standard deviations, the optical-beat frequency near 1 THz was estimated to be 1029.81 GHz with the standard deviation of 0.82 GHz. The proposed method is applicable to a conventional THz-wave generator with a photomixer.

  18. Accidents - Chernobyl accident; Accidents - accident de Tchernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

  19. Extending the ICRF to Higher Radio Frequencies: 24 and 43 GHz Astrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Christopher S.; Charlot, Patrick; Fomalont, Ed B.; Gordon, David; Lanyi, Gabor E.; Ma, Chopo; Naudet, Charles J.; Sovers, Ojars J.; Zhang, Liwei D.; Kq VLBI Survey Collaboration

    2004-06-01

    Celestial reference frames have been constructed at K-band (24 GHz) and Q-band (43 GHz) based on VLBI astrometric survey observations of active galactic nuclei. Five VLBA observing sessions covered the full 24 hours of right ascension and declinations down to -44°. K-band's 230 sources have median formal position uncertainties of 150 and 290 μas in α cos δ and δ, respectively; the corresponding uncertainties for 132 Q-band sources are 215 and 360 μas, respectively. K-band weighted RMS (WRMS) residuals were 33 ps and 48 fs/s in delay and rate, respectively. Comparison of the K-band frame to the S/X-band ICRF shows WRMS agreement of 330 and 590 μas in α cos δ and δ, respectively. The motivations for extending the ICRF to higher frequencies are to use more compact sources to construct a more stable frame, to provide phase calibrators, and to support spacecraft navigation at Ka-band.

  20. Improvement design study on steam generator of MHR-50/100 aiming higher safety level after water ingress accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyama, S.; Minatsuki, I.; Shimizu, K.

    2012-01-01

    Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. (MHI) has been studying on MHI original High Temperature Gas cooled Reactor (HTGR), namely MHR-50/100, for commercialization with supported by JAEA. In the heat transfer system, steam generator (SG) is one of the most important components because it should be imposed a function of heat transfer from reactor power to steam turbine system and maintaining a nuclear grade boundary. Then we especially focused an effort of a design study on the SG having robustness against water ingress accident based on our design experience of PWR, FBR and HTGR. In this study, we carried out a sensitivity analysis from the view point of economic and plant efficiency. As a result, the SG design parameter of helium inlet/outlet temperature of 750 deg. C/300 deg. C, a side-by-side layout and one unit of SG attached to a reactor were selected. In the next, a design improvement of SG was carried out from the view point of securing the level of inherent safety without reliance on active steam dump system during water ingress accident considering the situation of the Fukushima nuclear power plant disaster on March 11, 2011. Finally, according to above basic design requirement to SG, we performed a conceptual design on adapting themes of SG structure improvement. (authors)

  1. Does the prevalence of latent toxoplasmosis and frequency of Rhesus-negative subjects correlate with the nationwide rate of traffic accidents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flegr, Jaroslav; Dama, Madhukar

    2014-12-01

    Latent toxoplasmosis is probably the most common protistan parasitic disease with many indirect negative impacts on human health. One of the important impacts is impaired psychomotor function leading to reduced driving efficiency in Toxoplasma-seropositive subjects. Numerous case-control studies have established a positive relation between the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii (Nicolle et Manceaux, 1908) and probability of traffic accidents in study populations. The prevalence of toxoplasmosis varies between populations according to local geographical conditions, hygienic practices and kitchen habits. Similarly, we see a striking variation in the incidence of traffic accidents across countries. Hence, we compiled the largest ever data set on the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis and tried to understand its role in traffic accident-related deaths and disabilities across 87 countries. Simple non-parametric analysis showed a positive and strong relation of T. gondii seroprevalence and traffic accident related disabilities. Further, we conducted multivariate analysis to control for confounding factors. After controlling for wealth, geographical latitude, health of population, length of roads and number of vehicles, the correlation disappeared. When the frequency of RhD negativity and its interaction with toxoplasmosis were included into the model, the effects of toxoplasmosis seemingly returned. However, the analysed data suffered from the problem of multicollinearity. When a proper method of analysis, ridge regression, was applied, the effects of toxoplasmosis prevalence and RhD negativity frequency disappeared again. The existence of a strong correlation between the prevalence of toxoplasmosis and health of population in particular countries, which was the probable cause of multicollinearity and possible reason for the negative result of the present study, suggests that 'asymptomatic' latent toxoplasmosis could have a large impact on public health.

  2. Higher Eating Frequency Does Not Decrease Appetite in Healthy Adults12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrigue, Martine M; Drewnowski, Adam; Wang, Ching-Yun; Neuhouser, Marian L

    2016-01-01

    Background: Consumption of small, frequent meals is suggested as an effective approach to control appetite and food intake and might be a strategy for weight loss or healthy weight maintenance. Despite much speculation on the topic, scientific evidence is limited to support such a relation in the absence of changes to diet composition. Objective: We examined the effects of high compared with low eating frequency (EF) on self-reported appetite as a secondary outcome in a controlled trial. Methods: We conducted a randomized, crossover intervention trial in 12 participants (4 men, 8 women) who completed 2 isocaloric 3-wk intervention phases of low EF (3 eating occasions/d) compared with high EF (8 eating occasions/d). On the last morning of each study phase, participants completed a 4-h appetite testing session. During the appetite testing session, participants completing the low EF phase consumed a meal at 0800. Participants completing the high EF intervention consumed the same meal spread evenly over 2 eating occasions at 0800 and 1030. Standardized ratings of hunger, desire to eat, fullness, thirst, and nausea were completed every 30 min with the use of paper-and-pencil semianchored 100-mm visual analog scales. A composite appetite score was calculated as the mean of hunger, desire to eat, and the inverse of fullness (calculated as 100-fullness rating). Linear regression analysis compared ratings between low EF and high EF conditions. Results: The mean composite appetite score was higher in the high EF condition for the total testing period (baseline through 1200) (P appetite. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02548026. PMID:26561409

  3. Occupational Accidents And Preventive Measures

    CERN Document Server

    Fassnacht, V

    2006-01-01

    This report presents the 2005 statistics concerning occupational accidents involving members of the CERN personnel and contractors' personnel. It sets out the accident frequency and severity rates and provides a breakdown of accidents by cause and injury. It also contains a summary analysis of the most serious accidents and the associated recommendations.

  4. Road accidents involving bicycles: configurations and injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsi, Chiara; Montomoli, Cristina; Otte, Dietmar; Morandi, Anna

    2017-12-01

    This study analyzed the most common types of accident involving bicycles and compared the frequency of injuries. The data source was the database of German In-Depth Accident Study (GIDAS). Cases consist of bicycles and their riders involved in accidents between 2000 and 2010. In most collisions, the bicycle impacted with a car. The percentage of injured bicyclists was higher in collisions with a heavy vehicle and decreased when the bicycle impacted with lighter vehicles. A high percentage of injured bicyclists in single accidents was observed; the most severe injury was more frequently to head and extremities. Accidents involving a car and a bicycle with the right of way in a bicycle path represented about 20% of involved and injured bicyclists. The ten most frequent configurations represented about 60% of involved and injured bicyclists. These results contribute to understand the dangerous scenarios for bicyclists and to suggest preventive actions.

  5. Occupational Accidents: A Perspective of Pakistan Construction Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tauha Hussain Ali

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been observed that the construction industry is one of the notorious industry having higher rate of fatalities and injuries. Resulting in higher financial losses and work hour losses, which are normally faced by this industry due to occuptional accidents. Construction industry has the highest occupational accidents rate recorded throughout the world after agriculture industry. The construction work site is often a busy place having an incredibly high account of activities taking place, where everyone is moving in frenzy having particular task assigned. In such an environment, occupational accidents do occur. This paper gives information about different types of occupational accidents & their causes in the construction industry of Pakistan. A survey has been carried out to identify the types of occupational accidents often occur at construction site. The impact of each occupational accident has also been identified. The input from the different stakeholders involved on the work site was analyzed using RIW (Relative Importance Weight method. The findings of this research show that ?fall from elevation, electrocution from building power and snake bite? are the frequent occupational accidents occur within the work site where as ?fall from elevation, struck by, snake bite and electrocution from faulty tool? are the occupational accident with high impact within the construction industry of Pakistan. The results also shows the final ranking of the accidents based on higher frequency and higher impact. Poor Management, Human Element and Poor Site Condition are found as the root causes leading to such occupational accidents. Hence, this paper

  6. Historical aspects of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mettler, F.A. Jr.; Ricks, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    Radiation accidents are extremely rare events; however, the last two years have witnessed the largest radiation accidents in both the eastern and western hemispheres. It is the purpose of this chapter to review how radiation accidents are categorized, examine the temporal changes in frequency and severity, give illustrative examples of several types of radiation accidents, and finally, to describe the various registries for radiation accidents

  7. Updating of adventitious fuel pin failure frequency in sodium-cooled fast reactors and probabilistic risk assessment on consequent severe accident in Monju

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukano, Yoshitaka; Kurisaka, Kenichi; Nishimura, Masahiro; Naruto, Kenichi

    2015-01-01

    Experimental studies, deterministic approaches and probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) on local fault (LF) propagation in sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFRs) have been performed in many countries because LFs have been historically considered as one of the possible causes of severe accidents. Adventitious-fuel-pin-failures (AFPFs) have been considered to be the most dominant initiators of LFs in these PRAs because of their high frequency of occurrence during reactor operation and possibility of fuel-element-failure-propagation (FEFP). A PRA on FEFP from AFPF (FEFPA) in the Japanese prototype SFR (Monju) was performed in this study based on the state-of-the-art knowledge, reflecting the most recent operation procedures under off-normal conditions. Frequency of occurrence of AFPF in SFRs which was the initiating event of the event tree in this PRA was updated using a variety of methods based on the above-mentioned latest review on experiences of this phenomenon. As a result, the frequency of occurrence of, and the core damage frequency (CDF) from, AFPF in Monju was significantly reduced to a negligible magnitude compared with those in the existing PRAs. It was, therefore concluded that the CDF of FEFPA in Monju could be comprised in that of anticipated transient without scram or protected loss of heat sink events from both the viewpoint of occurrence probability and consequences. (author)

  8. A higher meal frequency may be associated with diminished weight loss after bariatric surgery

    OpenAIRE

    RIBEIRO, Angela Gadelha; COSTA, Maria José de Carvalho; FAINTUCH, Joel; DIAS, Maria Carolina Gonçalves

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between meal frequency, the occurrence of vomiting and weight loss among patients submitted to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass up to 9 months after surgery. METHODS: Female patients (n = 80) were followed at 3-month intervals for 9 months. Weight, BMI, 24-hour dietary recall, drug consumption and vomiting episodes were recorded and compared with nutritional outcome. RESULTS: The BMI values at 3, 6 and 9 months were 45.1 ± 9.7, 39.9 ± 7.6 an...

  9. Pattern extraction for high-risk accidents in the construction industry: a data-mining approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Mehran; Ardeshir, Abdollah; Fazel Zarandi, Mohammad Hossein; Soltanaghaei, Elahe

    2016-09-01

    Accidents involving falls and falling objects (group I) are highly frequent accidents in the construction industry. While being hit by a vehicle, electric shock, collapse in the excavation and fire or explosion accidents (group II) are much less frequent, they make up a considerable proportion of severe accidents. In this study, multiple-correspondence analysis, decision tree, ensembles of decision tree and association rules methods are employed to analyse a database of construction accidents throughout Iran between 2007 and 2011. The findings indicate that in group I, there is a significant correspondence among these variables: time of accident, place of accident, body part affected, final consequence of accident and lost workdays. Moreover, the frequency of accidents in the night shift is less than others, and the frequency of injury to the head, back, spine and limbs are more. In group II, the variables time of accident and body part affected are mostly related and the frequency of accidents among married and older workers is more than single and young workers. There was a higher frequency in the evening, night shifts and weekends. The results of this study are totally in line with the previous research.

  10. Accidents - Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

  11. Frequency-domain interferometer simulation with higher-order spatial modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freise, A; Heinzel, G; Lueck, H; Schilling, R; Willke, B; Danzmann, K

    2004-01-01

    FINESSE is a software simulation allowing one to compute the optical properties of laser interferometers used by interferometric gravitational-wave detectors today. This fast and versatile tool has already proven to be useful in the design and commissioning of gravitational-wave detectors. The basic algorithm of FINESSE numerically computes the light amplitudes inside an interferometer using Hermite-Gauss modes in the frequency domain. In addition, FINESSE provides a number of commands for easily generating and plotting the most common signals including power enhancement, error and control signals, transfer functions and shot-noise-limited sensitivities. Among the various simulation tools available to the gravitational wave community today, FINESSE provides an advanced and versatile optical simulation based on a general analysis of user-defined optical setups and is quick to install and easy to use

  12. The Influence of Higher Protein Intake and Greater Eating Frequency on Appetite Control in Overweight and Obese Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidy, Heather J.; Armstrong, Cheryl L.H.; Tang, Minghua; Mattes, Richard D.; Campbell, Wayne W.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of dietary protein intake and eating frequency on perceived appetite, satiety, and hormonal responses in overweight/obese men. Thirteen men (age 51 ± 4 years; BMI 31.3 ± 0.8 kg/m2) consumed eucaloric diets containing normal protein (79 ± 2 g protein/day; 14% of energy intake as protein) or higher protein (138 ± 3 g protein/day; 25% of energy intake as protein) equally divided among three eating occasions (3-EO; every 4 h) or six eating occasions (6-EO; every 2 h) on four separate days in randomized order. Hunger, fullness, plasma glucose, and hormonal responses were assessed throughout 11 h. No protein × eating frequency interactions were observed for any of the outcomes. Independent of eating frequency, higher protein led to greater daily fullness (P < 0.05) and peptide YY (PYY) concentrations (P < 0.05). In contrast, higher protein led to greater daily ghrelin concentrations (P < 0.05) vs. normal protein. Protein quantity did not influence daily hunger, glucose, or insulin concentrations. Independent of dietary protein, 6-EO led to lower daily fullness (P < 0.05) and PYY concentrations (P < 0.05). The 6-EO also led to lower glucose (P < 0.05) and insulin concentrations (P < 0.05) vs. 3-EO. Although the hunger-related perceived sensations and hormonal responses were conflicting, the fullness-related responses were consistently greater with higher protein intake but lower with increased eating frequency. Collectively, these data suggest that higher protein intake promotes satiety and challenge the concept that increasing the number of eating occasions enhances satiety in overweight and obese men. PMID:20339363

  13. Low frequency geomagnetic field fluctuations at low latitude during the passage of a higher pressure solar wind region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Villante

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The passage of a higher pressure solar wind region at the Earth's orbit marked the onset of low latitude (L=1.6 fluctuations in the frequency range (0.8–5.5 mHz for both the horizontal geomagnetic field components. Spectral peaks mostly occur at the same frequencies as the spectral enhancements which appeared in the long term analysis of experimental measurements from the same station and were tentatively interpreted in terms of ground signatures of global magnetospheric modes. A comparison with simultaneous observations discussed by previous investigations allows us to conclude that the same set of frequencies is enhanced in a wide portion of the Earth's magnetosphere.

  14. Accidents on ships in the Danish International Ship register

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ádám, Balázs; Rasmussen, Hanna Barbara

    to report accidents causing at least one day off work beyond the day of accident but the first source contains several accidents not fulfilling this criterion, too. Radio Medical is an independent service where all Danish ships may seek medical advice. The data sets were merged by identification number...... of our study is to describe trend of accidents and their contributing factors, with special focus on nationality, occurring in ships under Danish flag in the period 2010-2012. The study used two independent data sources, the Danish Maritime Authority and the Danish Radio Medical. It is mandatory...... to create a single database that has been studied by descriptive statistics and regression analysis. Findings show a stabilised number of accidents in the analysed period. The occurrence of accidents is influenced by nationality. There is a higher frequency of reported injuries found among Danish and other...

  15. A higher meal frequency may be associated with diminished weight loss after bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Angela Gadelha; Costa, Maria José de Carvalho; Faintuch, Joel; Dias, Maria Carolina Gonçalves

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationship between meal frequency, the occurrence of vomiting and weight loss among patients submitted to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass up to 9 months after surgery. Female patients (n = 80) were followed at 3-month intervals for 9 months. Weight, BMI, 24-hour dietary recall, drug consumption and vomiting episodes were recorded and compared with nutritional outcome. The BMI values at 3, 6 and 9 months were 45.1 +/- 9.7, 39.9 +/- 7.6 and 35.4 +/- 8.2 kg/m(2), respectively. The corresponding choleric intakes were 535.6 +/- 295.7, 677.1 +/- 314.7 and 828.6 +/- 398.2 kcal/day, and the numbers of daily meals were 5.0 +/- 2.5, 4.7 +/- 1.8 and 4.9 +/- 1.0, respectively. The peak of vomiting episodes occurred within 6 months; however, patients tolerated this complication despite its high prevalence. A significant negative correlation between weight loss and diet fractioning, but not vomiting, was observed throughout the entire postoperative period (P = 0.001). 1) Frequent small meals were associated with a reduction in weight loss after gastric bypass and a decrease in vomiting episodes at 6 months, and 2) vomiting did not interfere with nutritional outcome. Unless required because of vomiting or other reasons, multiple small meals may not be advantageous after such intervention.

  16. Postulated accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullrich, W.

    1980-01-01

    This lecture on 'Postulated Accidents' is the first of a series of lectures on the dynamic and transient behaviour of nuclear power plants, especially pressurized water reactors. The main points covered will be: Reactivity Accidents, Transients (Intact Loop) and Loss of Cooland Accidents (LOCA) including small leak. This lecture will discuss the accident analysis in general, the definition of the various operational phases, the accident classification, and, as an example, an accident sequence analysis on the basis of 'Postulated Accidents'. (orig./RW)

  17. Sinusoidal oscillators with lower gain requirements at higher frequencies based on an explicit tanh(x) nonlinearity

    KAUST Repository

    Elwakil, Ahmed S.

    2009-04-28

    Two novel sinusoidal oscillator structures with an explicit tanh(x) nonlinearity are proposed. The oscillators have the attractive feature: the higher the operating frequency, the lower the necessary gain required to start oscillations. A nonlinear model for the two oscillators is derived and verified numerically. Spice simulations using AMS BiCMOS 0.35 μ model parameters and experimental results are shown. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Higher frequency of isolated PMS2 loss in colorectal tumors in Colombian population: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamekh R

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Rania Shamekh,1 Mauro Cives,2 Jaime Mejia,3 Domenico Coppola,4 1Department of Pathology, University of South Florida, 2Department of Gastrointestinal Oncology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL, USA; 3Department of Pathology, Institutode Patologia Mejia Jimenez, Cali, Colombia; 4Department of Anatomic Pathology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL, USA Abstract: Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third most common cancer and the fourth most common cause of death worldwide. It accounts for >9% of all cancers. One of the pathogenic factors of CRC is germline mutation, leading to alteration and inactivation in the mismatch repair (MMR genes. The aim of the study is to compare the frequency of alterations in MMR protein expression in Caucasian CRC patients with Colombian CRC patients. A total of 45 Colombians and 48 Caucasians with CRC were studied. The microsatellite instability status of tumors was determined in primary CRC by immunohistochemistry using the automated Ventana Ultra. The combined loss of MLH1 and PMS2 was the most common alteration in both Colombian (11%, five out of 45 and Caucasian (12%, six out of 48 CRC patients. Interestingly, the loss of PMS2 expression in the presence of intact MLH1 was the second most common alteration in Colombians (8%, four out of 45, which was never seen in the Caucasian cohort (P=0.05. The loss of MLH1 alone and the combined loss of MSH6 and PMS2 expression were only observed in one out of 45 (2% Colombians but not in Caucasians. The combined loss of MSH2 and MSH6 was not observed in any of the patients studied. The preliminary findings support a significant difference in alterations of MMR protein expression in Colombian CRC patients compared with Caucasian CRC patients. These findings are novel and warrant further studies in larger cohorts. Keywords: colon cancer, MSI, MMR, immunohistochemistry

  19. A higher meal frequency may be associated with diminished weight loss after bariatric surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Gadelha Ribeiro

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between meal frequency, the occurrence of vomiting and weight loss among patients submitted to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass up to 9 months after surgery. METHODS: Female patients (n = 80 were followed at 3-month intervals for 9 months. Weight, BMI, 24-hour dietary recall, drug consumption and vomiting episodes were recorded and compared with nutritional outcome. RESULTS: The BMI values at 3, 6 and 9 months were 45.1 ± 9.7, 39.9 ± 7.6 and 35.4 ± 8.2 kg/m², respectively. The corresponding choleric intakes were 535.6 ± 295.7, 677.1 ± 314.7 and 828.6 ± 398.2 kcal/day, and the numbers of daily meals were 5.0 ± 2.5, 4.7 ± 1.8 and 4.9 ± 1.0, respectively. The peak of vomiting episodes occurred within 6 months; however, patients tolerated this complication despite its high prevalence. A significant negative correlation between weight loss and diet fractioning, but not vomiting, was observed throughout the entire postoperative period (P = 0.001. CONCLUSIONS: 1 Frequent small meals were associated with a reduction in weight loss after gastric bypass and a decrease in vomiting episodes at 6 months, and 2 vomiting did not interfere with nutritional outcome. Unless required because of vomiting or other reasons, multiple small meals may not be advantageous after such intervention.

  20. Occupational accidents: a perspective of pakistan construction industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, T.H.; Khahro, S.H.; Memon, F.A.

    2014-01-01

    It has been observed that the construction industry is one of the notorious industry having higher rate of facilities and injuries. Resulting in higher financial losses and work hour losses, which are normally faced by this industry due to occupational accidents. Construction industry has the highest occupational accidents rate recorded throughout the world after agriculture industry. The construction work site is often a busy place having an incredibly high account of activities taking place, where everyone is moving in frenzy having particular task assigned. In such an environment, occupational accidents do occur. This paper gives information about different types of occupational accidents and their causes in the construction industry of Pakistan. A survey has been carried out to identify the types of occupational accidents often occur at construction site. The impact of each occupational accident has also been identified. The input from the different stakeholders involved on the work site was analyzed using RIW (Relative Importance Weight) method. The findings of this research show that fall from elevation, electrocution from building power and snake bite are the frequent occupational accidents occur within the work site where as fall from elevation, struck by, snake bite and electrocution from faulty tool are the occupational accident with high impact within the construction industry of Pakistan. The results also shows the final ranking of the accidents based on higher frequency and higher impact. Poor Management, Human Element and Poor Site Condition are found as the root causes leading to such occupational accidents. Hence, this paper identify that what type of occupational accidents occur at the work place in construction industry of pakistan, in order to develop the corrective actions which should be adequate enough to prevent the re-occurrence of such accidents at work site. (author)

  1. Feasibility Studies on the Use of Higher Frequency Bands and Beamforming Selection Scheme for High Speed Train Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayotunde O. Laiyemo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With increasing popularity of high speed trains and traffic forecast for future cellular networks, the need to provide improved data rates using higher frequency bands (HFBs for train passengers is becoming crucial. In this paper, we modify the OFDM frame structure for HST, taking into account the increasing sensitivity to speed at HFBs. A lower bound on the SNR/SINR for a given rate for reliable communication was derived considering the physical layer parameters from the OFDM frame. We also analyze different pathloss models in the context of examining the required gain needed to achieve the same performance as with microwave bands. Finally, we present a time-based analogue beamforming selection approach for HST. We observed that, irrespective of the pathloss models used, the required gains are within the same range. For the same SNR/SINR at different frequency bands, the achievable data rate varies with respect to the frequency bands. Our results show the potential of the use of HFBs. However, due to the increased sensitivity of some channel parameters, a maximum frequency band of 38 GHz is suggested. Evaluation of our proposed beamforming scheme indicates a close performance to the optimal SVD scheme with a marginal rate gap of less than 2 b/s/Hz.

  2. The influence of biotic and abiotic factors on "1"3"7Cs accumulation in higher fungi after the accident at Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarubina, N.

    2016-01-01

    Levels of soil contamination with "1"3"7Cs, the belonging of fungi to a certain ecological group, the localization depth of the main part of mycelium in soil are the primary factors influencing the value of "1"3"7Cs specific activity in higher fungi after the accident at Chernobyl NPP. It has been found that the value of "1"3"7Cs specific activity in fungi of one species could vary by more than 10 times during a vegetation period. A correlation between the changes of "1"3"7Cs content in fungi during the vegetation period and the amount of precipitates during various periods preceding the collection of samples has not been determined. An assumption has been proposed stating dependence between peculiarities of mycelium growth during the vegetation period and the changes of "1"3"7Cs specific activity in fungi. - Highlights: • Factors influencing on the "1"3"7Cs accumulation by higher fungi have been studied. • "1"3"7Cs specific activity levels in one species fungi could change to up to 10 times during a vegetation season. • A reliable linear dependence of "1"3"7Cs content in fungi on precipitate quantity has not been determined.

  3. Welding characteristics of 27, 40 and 67 kHz ultrasonic plastic welding systems using fundamental- and higher-resonance frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujino, Jiromaru; Hongoh, Misugi; Yoshikuni, Masafumi; Hashii, Hidekazu; Ueoka, Tetsugi

    2004-04-01

    The welding characteristics of 27, 40 and 67 kHz ultrasonic plastic welding systems that are driven at only the fundamental-resonance frequency vibration were compared, and also those of the welding systems that were driven at the fundamental and several higher resonance frequencies simultaneously were studied. At high frequency, welding characteristics can be improved due to the larger vibration loss of plastic materials. For welding of rather thin or small specimens, as the fundamental frequency of these welding systems is higher and the numbers of driven higher frequencies are driven simultaneously, larger welded area and weld strength were obtained.

  4. Severe accident management. Prevention and Mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Effective planning for the management of severe accidents at nuclear power plants can produce both a reduction in the frequency of such accidents as well as the ability to mitigate their consequences if and when they should occur. This report provides an overview of accident management activities in OECD countries. It also presents the conclusions of a group of international experts regarding the development of accident management methods, the integration of accident management planning into reactor operations, and the benefits of accident management

  5. The frequency of chromatide aberrations as a function of radiation dose estimated by the number of dicentrics found by the cytogenetic analysis of lymphocytes in subjects affected by the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nugis, V.Yu.; Chirkov, A.A.

    1990-01-01

    A study was made of the frequency of chromatide aberrations in lymphocyte culture of subjects affected by the Chernobyl accident as a function of dose estimated by the incidence of dicentrics. The average number of chromatide aberrations was nearly the same within the dose range from 0 to 5 Gy exhibiting a tendency towards growth with dose. A high individual variability of the chromatide aberration frequency was observed

  6. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Surry, Unit 1: Analysis of core damage frequency from internal events during mid-loop operations, Appendices A--D. Volume 2, Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, T.L.; Musicki, Z.; Kohut, P.

    1994-06-01

    During 1989, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to carefully examine the Potential risks during low Power and shutdown operations. The program includes two parallel projects being performed by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Two plants, Surry (pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (boiling water reactor), were selected as the Plants to be studied. The objectives of the program are to assess the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states other than full power operation and to compare the estimated core damage frequencies, important accident sequences and other qualitative and quantitative results with those accidents initiated during full power operation as assessed in NUREG-1150. The objective of this report is to document the approach utilized in the Surry plant and discuss the results obtained. A parallel report for the Grand Gulf plant is prepared by SNL. This study shows that the core-damage frequency during mid-loop operation at the Surry plant is comparable to that of power operation. We recognize that there is very large uncertainty in the human error probabilities in this study. This study identified that only a few procedures are available for mitigating accidents that may occur during shutdown. Procedures written specifically for shutdown accidents would be useful. This document, Volume 2, Pt. 2 provides appendices A through D of this report

  7. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Surry, Unit 1: Analysis of core damage frequency from internal events during mid-loop operations, Main report (Chapters 7--12). Volume 2, Part 1B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, T.L.; Musicki, Z.; Kohut, P.

    1994-06-01

    During 1989, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to carefully examine the potential risks during low power and shutdown operations. The program includes two parallel projects being performed by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Two plants, Surry (pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (boiling water reactor), were selected as the plants to be studied. The objectives of the program are to assess the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states other than full power operation and to compare the estimated core damage frequencies, important accident sequences and other qualitative and quantitative results with those accidents initiated during full power operation as assessed in NUREG-1150. The objective of this report is to document the approach utilized in the Surry plant and discuss the results obtained. A parallel report for the Grand Gulf plant is prepared by SNL. This study shows that the core-damage frequency during mid-loop operation at the Surry plant is comparable to that of power operation. We recognize that there is very large uncertainty in the human error probabilities in this study. This study identified that only a few procedures are available for mitigating accidents that may occur during shutdown. Procedures written specific shutdown accidents would be useful

  8. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Surry, Unit 1: Analysis of core damage frequency from internal fires during mid-loop operations. Volume 3, Part 1, Main report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musicki, Z.; Chu, T.L.; Yang, J.; Ho, V.; Hou, Y.M.; Lin, J.; Siu, N.

    1994-07-01

    During l989, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to carefully examine the potential risks during low power and shutdown operations. The program includes two parallel projects being performed by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Two plants, Surry (pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (boiling water reactor), were selected as the plants to be studied. The objectives of the program are to assess the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states other than fun power operation and to compare the estimated core damage frequencies, important accident sequences and other qualitative and quantitative results with those accidents initiated during full power operation as assessed in NUREG-1150. The objective of this report is to document the approach utilized in ' the Surry plant and discuss the results obtained. A parallel report for the Grand Gulf plant is prepared by SNL. This study shows that the core-damage frequency during mid-loop operation at the Surry plant is comparable to that of power operation. We recognize that there is very large uncertainty in the human error probabilities in this study. This study identified that only a few. procedures are available for mitigating accidents that may occur during shutdown. Procedures written specifically for shutdown accidents would be useful

  9. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Surry, Unit 1: Analysis of core damage frequency from internal events during mid-loop operations, Appendices E (Sections E.1--E.8). Volume 2, Part 3A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, T.L.; Musicki, Z.; Kohut, P.

    1994-06-01

    During 1989, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to carefully examine the potential risks during low power and shutdown operations. The program includes two parallel projects being performed by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Two plants, Surry (pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (boiling water reactor), were selected as the plants to be studied. The objectives of the program are to assess the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states other than full power operation and to compare the estimated core damage frequencies, important accident sequences and other qualitative and quantitative results with those accidents initiated during full power operation as assessed in NUREG-1150. The objective of this report is to document the approach utilized in the Surry plant and discuss the results obtained. A parallel report for the Grand Gulf plant is prepared by SNL. This study shows that the core-damage frequency during mid-loop operation at the Surry plant is comparable to that of power operation. The authors recognize that there is very large uncertainty in the human error probabilities in this study. This study identified that only a few procedures are available for mitigating accidents that may occur during shutdown. Procedures written specifically for shutdown accidents would be useful

  10. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Surry, Unit 1: Analysis of core damage frequency from internal events during mid-loop operations, Main report (Chapters 1--6). Volume 2, Part 1A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, T.L.; Musicki, Z.; Kohut, P.

    1992-06-01

    During 1989, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to carefully examine the potential risks during low power and shutdown operations. The program includes two parallel projects being performed by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Two plants, Surry (pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (boiling water reactor), were selected as the plants to be studied. The objectives of the program are to assess the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states other than full power operation and to compare the estimated core damage frequencies, important accident sequences and other qualitative and quantitative results with those accidents initiated during full power operation as assessed in NUREG-1150. The objective of this report is to document the approach utilized in the Surry plant and discuss the results obtained. A parallel report for the Grand Gulf plant is prepared by SNL. This study shows that the core-damage frequency during mid-loop operation at the Surry plant is comparable to that of power operation. We recognize that there is very large uncertainty in the human error probabilities in this study. This study identified that only a few procedures are available for mitigating accidents that may occur during shutdown written specifically for shutdown accidents would be useful. This document presents Chapters 1--6 of the report

  11. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Surry, Unit 1: Analysis of core damage frequency from internal events during mid-loop operations, Appendices A--D. Volume 2, Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, T.L.; Musicki, Z.; Kohut, P. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)] [and others

    1994-06-01

    During 1989, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to carefully examine the Potential risks during low Power and shutdown operations. The program includes two parallel projects being performed by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Two plants, Surry (pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (boiling water reactor), were selected as the Plants to be studied. The objectives of the program are to assess the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states other than full power operation and to compare the estimated core damage frequencies, important accident sequences and other qualitative and quantitative results with those accidents initiated during full power operation as assessed in NUREG-1150. The objective of this report is to document the approach utilized in the Surry plant and discuss the results obtained. A parallel report for the Grand Gulf plant is prepared by SNL. This study shows that the core-damage frequency during mid-loop operation at the Surry plant is comparable to that of power operation. We recognize that there is very large uncertainty in the human error probabilities in this study. This study identified that only a few procedures are available for mitigating accidents that may occur during shutdown. Procedures written specifically for shutdown accidents would be useful. This document, Volume 2, Pt. 2 provides appendices A through D of this report.

  12. Influence of the Chernobyl accident on the frequency of chromosomal damage and health status of Lithuanian clean-up workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazutka, R. J.; Ridmeika, G. J.

    2006-01-01

    Chromosomal damage and health status were analyzed in Chernobyl clean-up workers currently residing in Lithuania. Statistically significantly (P < 0.05) increased frequencies of chromosome-type aberrations (chromosome breaks, dicentric and ring chromosomes) as well as aberrant cells were found in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of clean-up workers when measured 6-8 years after the exposure. Significant health impairment was characteristic of these persons as well. On average, 5.6 diseases per patient were diagnosed in clean-up workers suffering from cardiovascular diseases. This high co-morbidity resulted in quite high rates of metabolic syndrome (16.7%). Among Chernobyl clean-up workers that had experienced post-traumatic stress disorder, 76% suffered from highly expressed sleep disturbances. Analysis of thyroid diseases among 500 clean-up workers has revealed that 27.6% individuals have different pathology of thyroid gland. Thus, even 20 years after the Chernobyl disaster, clean-up workers must be considered as a group of primary interest both for researchers and physicians. (author)

  13. Plants experiencing chronic internal exposure to ionizing radiation exhibit higher frequency of homologous recombination than acutely irradiated plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovalchuk, O.; Kovalchuk, I.; Hohn, B. [Friedrich Miescher Institute, P.O. Box 2543, CH-4002 Basel (Switzerland); Arkhipov, A. [Chernobyl Scientific and Technical Center of International Research, Shkolnaya Str. 6, 255620 Chernobyl (Ukraine); Barylyak, I.; Karachov, I. [Ukrainian Scientific Genetics Center, Popudrenko Str. 50, 253660 Kiev (Ukraine); Titov, V. [Ivano-Frankivsk State Medical Academy, Galitska Str.2, 284000 Ivano-Frankivsk (Ukraine)

    2000-04-03

    different chemical composition, but equal radioactivity, exhibited different levels of HR, dependent upon the absorbed dose of radiation. Remarkably, we observed a much higher frequency of HR in plants exposed to chronic irradiation when compared to acutely irradiated plants. Although acute application of 0.1-0.5 Gy did not lead to an increase of frequency of HR, the chronic exposure of the plants to several orders of magnitude lower dose of 200 {mu}Gy led to a 5-6-fold induction of the frequency of HR as compared to the control.

  14. Active sources in the cutoff of centrifugal fans to reduce the blade tones at higher-order duct mode frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neise, W.; Koopmann, G. H.

    1991-01-01

    A previously developed (e.g., Neise and Koopmann, 1984; Koopmann et al., 1988) active noise control technique in which the unwanted acoustic signals from centrifugal fans are suppressed by placing two externally driven sources near the cutoff of the casing was applied to the frequency region where not only plane sound waves are propagational in the fan ducts but also higher-order acoustic modes. Using a specially designed fan noise testing facility, the performance of two fans (280-mm impeller diam and 508 mm diam) was monitored with static pressure taps mounted peripherally around the inlet nozzle. Experimental results show that the aerodynamically generated source pressure field around the cutoff is too complex to be successfully counterimaged by only two active sources introduced in this region. It is suggested that, for an efficient application of this noise control technique in the higher-order mode frequency regime, it is neccessary to use an active source involving larger number of individually driven loudspeakers.

  15. Accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, R.J.; Monty, B.S.; Liparulo, N.J.; Desaedeleer, G.

    1989-01-01

    The foundation of the framework for a Severe Accident Management Program is the contained in the Probabilistic Safety Study (PSS) or the Individual Plant Evaluations (IPE) for a specific plant. The development of a Severe Accident Management Program at a plant is based on the use of the information, in conjunction with other applicable information. A Severe Accident Management Program must address both accident prevention and accident mitigation. The overall Severe Accident Management framework must address these two facets, as a living program in terms of gathering the evaluating information, the readiness to respond to an event. Significant international experience in the development of severe accident management programs exist which should provide some direction for the development of Severe Accident Management in the U.S. This paper reports that the two most important elements of a Severe Accident Management Program are the Emergency Consultation process and the standards for measuring the effectiveness of individual Severe Accident Management Programs at utilities

  16. Prevention of radiation accidents and their consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khiski, J.

    1976-01-01

    Clearing out reasons for nuclear accidents enables to take effective measures to minimize them. The number of accidents in 1957 - 1974 is given. The frequency of accidents at various working places, while operating with various radioisotopes is presented. The analysis of accidents and the confirmation of these estimates can lead to the generalization of data and to the formulation of preventive measures [ru

  17. Unavoidable Accident

    OpenAIRE

    Grady, Mark F.

    2009-01-01

    In negligence law, "unavoidable accident" is the risk that remains when an actor has used due care. The counterpart of unavoidable accident is "negligent harm." Negligence law makes parties immune for unavoidable accident even when they have used less than due care. Courts have developed a number of methods by which they "sort" accidents to unavoidable accident or to negligent harm, holding parties liable only for the latter. These sorting techniques are interesting in their own right and als...

  18. How does higher frequency monitoring data affect the calibration of a process-based water quality model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson-Blake, Leah; Helliwell, Rachel

    2015-04-01

    Process-based catchment water quality models are increasingly used as tools to inform land management. However, for such models to be reliable they need to be well calibrated and shown to reproduce key catchment processes. Calibration can be challenging for process-based models, which tend to be complex and highly parameterised. Calibrating a large number of parameters generally requires a large amount of monitoring data, spanning all hydrochemical conditions. However, regulatory agencies and research organisations generally only sample at a fortnightly or monthly frequency, even in well-studied catchments, often missing peak flow events. The primary aim of this study was therefore to investigate how the quality and uncertainty of model simulations produced by a process-based, semi-distributed catchment model, INCA-P (the INtegrated CAtchment model of Phosphorus dynamics), were improved by calibration to higher frequency water chemistry data. Two model calibrations were carried out for a small rural Scottish catchment: one using 18 months of daily total dissolved phosphorus (TDP) concentration data, another using a fortnightly dataset derived from the daily data. To aid comparability, calibrations were carried out automatically using the Markov Chain Monte Carlo - DiffeRential Evolution Adaptive Metropolis (MCMC-DREAM) algorithm. Calibration to daily data resulted in improved simulation of peak TDP concentrations and improved model performance statistics. Parameter-related uncertainty in simulated TDP was large when fortnightly data was used for calibration, with a 95% credible interval of 26 μg/l. This uncertainty is comparable in size to the difference between Water Framework Directive (WFD) chemical status classes, and would therefore make it difficult to use this calibration to predict shifts in WFD status. The 95% credible interval reduced markedly with the higher frequency monitoring data, to 6 μg/l. The number of parameters that could be reliably auto

  19. Recent sediment dynamics in hadal trenches: Evidence for the influence of higher-frequency (tidal, near-inertial) fluid dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turnewitsch, Robert; Falahat, Saeed; Stehlikova, Jirina

    2014-01-01

    finds evidence for another mechanism that is superimposed on, and counteracts, the focussing mechanism. This superimposed mechanism is related to higher-frequency (tidal, near-inertial) fluid dynamics. In particular, there is evidence for a strong and negative relation between the intensity...... but significant influence on particulate-matter dynamics and food supply in hadal trenches in particular, but possibly also in the deep seas in general. A mechanism for the influence of internal tides on sediment dynamics is proposed. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.......In addition to high hydrostatic pressure, scarcity of food is viewed as a factor that limits the abundance and activity of heterotrophic organisms at great ocean depths, including hadal trenches. Supply of nutritious food largely relies on the flux of organic-rich particulate matter from...

  20. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Surry, Unit 1: Analysis of core damage frequency from internal events during mid-loop operations. Appendix E (Sections E.9-E.16), Volume 2, Part 3B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, T.L.; Musicki, Z.; Kohut, P.; Yang, J.; Bozoki, G.; Hsu, C.J.; Diamond, D.J.; Wong, S.M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Bley, D.; Johnson, D. [PLG Inc., Newport Beach, CA (United States)] [and others

    1994-06-01

    Traditionally, probabilistic risk assessments (PRA) of severe accidents in nuclear power plants have considered initiating events potentially occurring only during full power operation. Some previous screening analyses that were performed for other modes of operation suggested that risks during those modes were small relative to full power operation. However, more recent studies and operational experience have implied that accidents during low power and shutdown could be significant contributors to risk. Two plants, Surry (pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (boiling water reactor), were selected as the plants to be studied. The objectives of the program are to assess the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states other than full power operation and to compare the estimated core damage frequencies, important accident sequences and other qualitative and quantitative results with those accidents initiated during full power operation as assessed in NUREG-1150. The scope of the program includes that of a level-3 PRA. In phase 2, mid-loop operation was selected as the plant configuration to be analyzed based on the results of the phase 1 study. The objective of the phase 2 study is to perform a detailed analysis of the potential accident scenarios that may occur during mid-loop operation, and compare the results with those of NUREG-1150. The scope of the level-1 study includes plant damage state analysis, and uncertainty analysis. Volume 1 summarizes the results of the study. Internal events analysis is documented in Volume 2. It also contains an appendix that documents the part of the phase 1 study that has to do with POSs other than mid-loop operation. Internal fire and internal flood analyses are documented in Volumes 3 and 4. A separate study on seismic analysis, documented in Volume 5, was performed for the NRC by Future Resources Associates, Inc. Volume 6 documents the accident progression, source terms, and consequence analysis.

  1. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Surry, Unit-1: Analysis of core damage frequency from internal events during mid-loop operations. Appendix I, Volume 2, Part 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, T.L.; Musicki, Z.; Kohut, P.; Yang, J.; Bozoki, G.; Hsu, C.J.; Diamond, D.J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Bley, D.; Johnson, D. [PLG Inc., Newport Beach, CA (United States); Holmes, B. [AEA Technology, Dorset (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1994-06-01

    Traditionally, probabilistic risk assessments (PRA) of severe accidents in nuclear power plants have considered initiating events potentially occurring only during full power operation. Some previous screening analyses that were performed for other modes of operation suggested that risks during those modes were small relative to full power operation. However, more recent studies and operational experience have implied that accidents during low power and shutdown could be significant contributors to risk. During 1989, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to carefully examine the potential risks during low power and shutdown operations. The program includes two parallel projects being performed by Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL) and Sandia National Labs. (SNL). Two plants, Surry (pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (boiling water reactor), were selected as the plants to be studied. The objectives of the program are to assess the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states other than full power operation and to compare the estimated core damage frequencies, important accident sequences and other qualitative and quantitative results with those accidents initiated during full power operation as assessed in NUREG-1150. The objective of this volume of the report is to document the approach utilized in the level-1 internal events PRA for the Surry plant, and discuss the results obtained. A phased approach was used in the level-1 program. In phase 1, which was completed in Fall 1991, a coarse screening analysis examining accidents initiated by internal events (including internal fire and flood) was performed for all plant operational states (POSs). The objective of the phase 1 study was to identify potential vulnerable plant configurations, to characterize (on a high, medium, or low basis) the potential core damage accident scenarios, and to provide a foundation for a detailed phase 2 analysis.

  2. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Surry, Unit-1: Analysis of core damage frequency from internal events during mid-loop operations. Appendices F-H, Volume 2, Part 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, T.L.; Musicki, Z.; Kohut, P.; Yang, J.; Bozoki, G.; Hsu, C.J.; Diamond, D.J.; Bley, D.; Johnson, D.; Holmes, B.

    1994-06-01

    Traditionally, probabilistic risk assessments (PRA) of severe accidents in nuclear power plants have considered initiating events potentially occurring only during full power operation. Some previous screening analyses that were performed for other modes of operation suggested that risks during those modes were small relative to full power operation. However, more recent studies and operational experience have implied that accidents during low power and shutdown could be significant contributors to risk. Two plants, Surry (pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (boiling water reactor), were selected as the plants to be studied. The objectives of the program are to assess the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states other than full power operation and to compare the estimated core damage frequencies, important accident sequences and other qualitative and quantitative results with those accidents initiated during full power operation as assessed in NUREG-1150. The scope of the program includes that of a level-3 PRA. In phase 2, mid-loop operation was selected as the plant configuration to be analyzed based on the results of the phase 1 study. The objective of the phase 2 study is to perform a detailed analysis of the potential accident scenarios that may occur during mid-loop operation, and compare the results with those of NUREG-1150. The scope of the level-1 study includes plant damage state analysis, and uncertainty analysis. Volume 1 summarizes the results of the study. Internal events analysis is documented in Volume 2. It also contains an appendix that documents the part of the phase 1 study that has to do with POSs other than mid-loop operation. Internal fire and internal flood analyses are documented in Volumes 3 and 4. A separate study on seismic analysis, documented in Volume 5, was performed for the NRC by Future Resources Associates, Inc. Volume 6 documents the accident progression, source terms, and consequence analysis

  3. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Surry, Unit 1: Analysis of core damage frequency from internal events during mid-loop operations. Appendix E (Sections E.9-E.16), Volume 2, Part 3B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, T.L.; Musicki, Z.; Kohut, P.; Yang, J.; Bozoki, G.; Hsu, C.J.; Diamond, D.J.; Wong, S.M.; Bley, D.; Johnson, D.

    1994-06-01

    Traditionally, probabilistic risk assessments (PRA) of severe accidents in nuclear power plants have considered initiating events potentially occurring only during full power operation. Some previous screening analyses that were performed for other modes of operation suggested that risks during those modes were small relative to full power operation. However, more recent studies and operational experience have implied that accidents during low power and shutdown could be significant contributors to risk. Two plants, Surry (pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (boiling water reactor), were selected as the plants to be studied. The objectives of the program are to assess the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states other than full power operation and to compare the estimated core damage frequencies, important accident sequences and other qualitative and quantitative results with those accidents initiated during full power operation as assessed in NUREG-1150. The scope of the program includes that of a level-3 PRA. In phase 2, mid-loop operation was selected as the plant configuration to be analyzed based on the results of the phase 1 study. The objective of the phase 2 study is to perform a detailed analysis of the potential accident scenarios that may occur during mid-loop operation, and compare the results with those of NUREG-1150. The scope of the level-1 study includes plant damage state analysis, and uncertainty analysis. Volume 1 summarizes the results of the study. Internal events analysis is documented in Volume 2. It also contains an appendix that documents the part of the phase 1 study that has to do with POSs other than mid-loop operation. Internal fire and internal flood analyses are documented in Volumes 3 and 4. A separate study on seismic analysis, documented in Volume 5, was performed for the NRC by Future Resources Associates, Inc. Volume 6 documents the accident progression, source terms, and consequence analysis

  4. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Surry, Unit-1: Analysis of core damage frequency from internal events during mid-loop operations. Appendix I, Volume 2, Part 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, T.L.; Musicki, Z.; Kohut, P.; Yang, J.; Bozoki, G.; Hsu, C.J.; Diamond, D.J.; Bley, D.; Johnson, D.; Holmes, B.

    1994-06-01

    Traditionally, probabilistic risk assessments (PRA) of severe accidents in nuclear power plants have considered initiating events potentially occurring only during full power operation. Some previous screening analyses that were performed for other modes of operation suggested that risks during those modes were small relative to full power operation. However, more recent studies and operational experience have implied that accidents during low power and shutdown could be significant contributors to risk. During 1989, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to carefully examine the potential risks during low power and shutdown operations. The program includes two parallel projects being performed by Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL) and Sandia National Labs. (SNL). Two plants, Surry (pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (boiling water reactor), were selected as the plants to be studied. The objectives of the program are to assess the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states other than full power operation and to compare the estimated core damage frequencies, important accident sequences and other qualitative and quantitative results with those accidents initiated during full power operation as assessed in NUREG-1150. The objective of this volume of the report is to document the approach utilized in the level-1 internal events PRA for the Surry plant, and discuss the results obtained. A phased approach was used in the level-1 program. In phase 1, which was completed in Fall 1991, a coarse screening analysis examining accidents initiated by internal events (including internal fire and flood) was performed for all plant operational states (POSs). The objective of the phase 1 study was to identify potential vulnerable plant configurations, to characterize (on a high, medium, or low basis) the potential core damage accident scenarios, and to provide a foundation for a detailed phase 2 analysis

  5. Focus: Two-dimensional electron-electron double resonance and molecular motions: The challenge of higher frequencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franck, John M.; Chandrasekaran, Siddarth; Dzikovski, Boris; Dunnam, Curt R.; Freed, Jack H., E-mail: jhf3@cornell.edu [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology and National Biomedical Center for Advanced ESR Technology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)

    2015-06-07

    The development, applications, and current challenges of the pulsed ESR technique of two-dimensional Electron-Electron Double Resonance (2D ELDOR) are described. This is a three-pulse technique akin to 2D Exchange Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, but involving electron spins, usually in the form of spin-probes or spin-labels. As a result, it required the extension to much higher frequencies, i.e., microwaves, and much faster time scales, with π/2 pulses in the 2-3 ns range. It has proven very useful for studying molecular dynamics in complex fluids, and spectral results can be explained by fitting theoretical models (also described) that provide a detailed analysis of the molecular dynamics and structure. We discuss concepts that also appear in other forms of 2D spectroscopy but emphasize the unique advantages and difficulties that are intrinsic to ESR. Advantages include the ability to tune the resonance frequency, in order to probe different motional ranges, while challenges include the high ratio of the detection dead time vs. the relaxation times. We review several important 2D ELDOR studies of molecular dynamics. (1) The results from a spin probe dissolved in a liquid crystal are followed throughout the isotropic → nematic → liquid-like smectic → solid-like smectic → crystalline phases as the temperature is reduced and are interpreted in terms of the slowly relaxing local structure model. Here, the labeled molecule is undergoing overall motion in the macroscopically aligned sample, as well as responding to local site fluctuations. (2) Several examples involving model phospholipid membranes are provided, including the dynamic structural characterization of the boundary lipid that coats a transmembrane peptide dimer. Additionally, subtle differences can be elicited for the phospholipid membrane phases: liquid disordered, liquid ordered, and gel, and the subtle effects upon the membrane, of antigen cross-linking of receptors on the surface of plasma membrane

  6. Focus: Two-dimensional electron-electron double resonance and molecular motions: The challenge of higher frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franck, John M.; Chandrasekaran, Siddarth; Dzikovski, Boris; Dunnam, Curt R.; Freed, Jack H.

    2015-01-01

    The development, applications, and current challenges of the pulsed ESR technique of two-dimensional Electron-Electron Double Resonance (2D ELDOR) are described. This is a three-pulse technique akin to 2D Exchange Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, but involving electron spins, usually in the form of spin-probes or spin-labels. As a result, it required the extension to much higher frequencies, i.e., microwaves, and much faster time scales, with π/2 pulses in the 2-3 ns range. It has proven very useful for studying molecular dynamics in complex fluids, and spectral results can be explained by fitting theoretical models (also described) that provide a detailed analysis of the molecular dynamics and structure. We discuss concepts that also appear in other forms of 2D spectroscopy but emphasize the unique advantages and difficulties that are intrinsic to ESR. Advantages include the ability to tune the resonance frequency, in order to probe different motional ranges, while challenges include the high ratio of the detection dead time vs. the relaxation times. We review several important 2D ELDOR studies of molecular dynamics. (1) The results from a spin probe dissolved in a liquid crystal are followed throughout the isotropic → nematic → liquid-like smectic → solid-like smectic → crystalline phases as the temperature is reduced and are interpreted in terms of the slowly relaxing local structure model. Here, the labeled molecule is undergoing overall motion in the macroscopically aligned sample, as well as responding to local site fluctuations. (2) Several examples involving model phospholipid membranes are provided, including the dynamic structural characterization of the boundary lipid that coats a transmembrane peptide dimer. Additionally, subtle differences can be elicited for the phospholipid membrane phases: liquid disordered, liquid ordered, and gel, and the subtle effects upon the membrane, of antigen cross-linking of receptors on the surface of plasma membrane

  7. Increased Eating Frequency Is Associated with Lower Obesity Risk, But Higher Energy Intake in Adults: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue-Qiao Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Body weight is regulated by energy intake which occurs several times a day in humans. In this meta-analysis, we evaluated whether eating frequency (EF is associated with obesity risk and energy intake in adults without any dietary restriction. Experimental and observational studies published before July 2015 were selected through English-language literature searches in several databases. These studies reported the association between EF and obesity risk (odd ratios, ORs in adults who were not in dietary restriction. R software was used to perform statistical analyses. Ten cross-sectional studies, consisting of 65,742 participants, were included in this analysis. ORs were considered as effect size for the analysis about the effect of EF on obesity risk. Results showed that the increase of EF was associated with 0.83 time lower odds of obesity (i.e., OR = 0.83, 95% confidence intervals (CI 0.70–0.99, p = 0.040. Analysis about the effect of EF on differences in participants’ energy intake revealed that increased EF was associated with higher energy intake (β = 125.36, 95% CI 21.76–228.97, p = 0.017. We conclude that increased EF may lead to lower obesity risk but higher energy intake. Clinical trials are warranted to confirm these results and to assess the clinical practice applicability.

  8. The effectiveness of iodine prophylaxis and frequency of thyroid enlargement (thyroid goiter) and clinical diagnosis of thyroid diseases in inhabitants of Szczecin's region after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syrenicz, A.; Gozdzik, J.; Pynka, S.

    1991-01-01

    The study, supported by program MZ-17, was carried on 4567 inhabitants of the area of Szczecin (2350 females and 2217 males). The population was chosen randomly, according to a simple drawing scheme. All subjects were clinically examined using standardised questionnaires. In 3468 persons (including 1807 girls and women, 1661 boys and men) apart form clinical examination, the assessment of thyrotropin, thyroxine and triiodothyronine in serum and frequency of anti thyroglobulin antibodies and antithyroid membrane and antithyroid membrane antibodies were evaluated. The data indicate that 94% of children in Szczecin's region received the prophylactic dose of iodine, mostly between the 1st and 5th of May 1986. Only 17% of the adults received iodine. The most common preparation was Lugol solution given in a single dose. Among all persons who received iodine, only in 5% of subjects the side effects were noted (mostly in children), including symptoms of gastrointestinal tract (vomiting, abdomen pain) and occasionally intra thyroid side effects (thyroid pains). In examined population the high frequency of thyroid enlargement, mainly in women (up to 43-44% at the age group 30-50 years) was found. The frequency of thyroid enlargement, mainly in women (up to 43-44% at the age group 30-50 years) was found. The frequency of clinical diagnosis of thyroid disease was higher in woman than in man (most of the diffuse goiter, rarely the nodular goiter). The frequency of thyroid enlargement and clinical diagnosis of thyroid disease was not dependent on prophylactic iodine intake. The iodine prophylaxis did not influence on thyroid hormones and TSH serum levels and in frequency of antithyroid antibodies. (author). 1 ref, 6 tabs

  9. Preventing accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    As the most effective strategy for improving safety is to prevent accidents from occurring at all, the Volpe Center applies a broad range of research techniques and capabilities to determine causes and consequences of accidents and to identify, asses...

  10. Head and face injuries and helmet use among injured motorcyclists with road accidents in Isfahan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Dadkhah

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: The study aimed to assess the frequency of head and face injuries in motorcyclists who had an accident and to find out the relationship between helmet use and frequency of these injuries. METHODS: A cross-sectional study with multi-stage sampling method provides data on the injured motorcyclists with road accidents. Data came from a registration form which has documented information of each injured person who had a road accident and hospitalized in the biggest hospital of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Iran (Al-Zahra. All the registration forms were surveyed for hospitalization period, treatment costs, severity of injury, and date of accident during 2010 (n = 1626. Later, among the list of injured motorcyclists during the last 3 months of the registration form, 125 cases were randomly selected and interviewed by phone regarding occurrence of the head and face injuries and whether wearing helmet during the accident. Confidence intervals (CI, Chi-square, and Phi and Cramer’s correlation coefficient were applied. The ethical approval was provided. RESULTS: Accident by motorcycle was 31.0% of all road accidents. The frequency of motorcycle accidents was higher in the autumn and among 21-25 year olds. The mean period of hospitalization was 4.3 days and the mean of hospital costs was about 9000000 Rials [about 8200 United States dollar (USD, in 2010]. Of motorcyclist, 35.0% reported they were helmeted when they had the accident. The frequency of head and face injuries was 51.0% among all the injured motorcyclists, 22.0% and 78.0% among the helmeted and non-helmeted motorcyclists, respectively (P = 0.009, r = -0.267. CONCLUSION: Motorcycle accidents comprise a large number of road accidents and cause substantial morbidity and financial impact for the community members. Head and face injuries are the most common trauma in motorcyclists, and the injury rate is higher among non-helmeted motorcyclists.

  11. Accident management for severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bari, R.A.; Pratt, W.T.; Lehner, J.; Leonard, M.; Disalvo, R.; Sheron, B.

    1988-01-01

    The management of severe accidents in light water reactors is receiving much attention in several countries. The reduction of risk by measures and/or actions that would affect the behavior of a severe accident is discussed. The research program that is being conducted by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission focuses on both in-vessel accident management and containment and release accident management. The key issues and approaches taken in this program are summarized. 6 refs

  12. WORK ACCIDENTS ANALYSIS, EMPHASIZING THE FOREST SECTORS, IN A FEDERAL HIGH EDUCATION INSTITUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héder Alencar Vianna

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This research analyzed the probable causes of accidents at work, of the forest sectors, of a Federal Institution of Higher education in Minas Gerais State looking for minimizing risks damages to worker’s health and safety. The analyses were accomplished by means of the Accidents Communications in Service data bank and the results showed that in the studied period, for the forest sector, 50.71% of the accidents were attributed to the insecure act, 16.98% to insecure condition and 17.94% to personal factor of insecurity. The functional evaluation indicated that in 7.14% of the accidents occurred with workers that were not in the function established by the employment respective contracts. The rates of gravity and frequency of accidents calculated for the forest sectors allowed to conclude that the indices were higher than the others sectors and much higher than the values published by the Brazilian Ministry of Social Service and Assistance.

  13. Consumption Frequency of Foods Away from Home Linked with Higher Body Mass Index and Lower Fruit and Vegetable Intake among Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca A. Seguin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Consumption of foods prepared away from home (FAFH has grown steadily since the 1970s. We examined the relationship between FAFH and body mass index (BMI and fruit and vegetable (FV consumption. Methods. Frequency of FAFH, daily FV intake, height and weight, and sociodemographic data were collected using a telephone survey in 2008-2009. Participants included a representative sample of 2,001 adult men and women (mean age 54±15 years residing in King County, WA, with an analytical sample of 1,570. Frequency of FAFH was categorized as 0-1, 2–4, or 5+ times per week. BMI was calculated from self-reported height and weight. We examined the relationship between FAFH with FV consumption and BMI using multivariate models. Results. Higher frequency of FAFH was associated with higher BMI, after adjusting for age, income, education, race, smoking, marital status, and physical activity (women: p=0.001; men: p=0.003. There was a negative association between frequency of FAFH and FV consumption. FAFH frequency was significantly (p<0.001 higher among males than females (43.1% versus 54.0% eating out 0-1 meal per week, resp.. Females reported eating significantly (p<0.001 more FV than males. Conclusion. Among adults, higher frequency of FAFH was related to higher BMI and less FV consumption.

  14. Consumption Frequency of Foods Away from Home Linked with Higher Body Mass Index and Lower Fruit and Vegetable Intake among Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguin, Rebecca A.; Aggarwal, Anju; Vermeylen, Francoise; Drewnowski, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Consumption of foods prepared away from home (FAFH) has grown steadily since the 1970s. We examined the relationship between FAFH and body mass index (BMI) and fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption. Methods. Frequency of FAFH, daily FV intake, height and weight, and sociodemographic data were collected using a telephone survey in 2008-2009. Participants included a representative sample of 2,001 adult men and women (mean age 54 ± 15 years) residing in King County, WA, with an analytical sample of 1,570. Frequency of FAFH was categorized as 0-1, 2–4, or 5+ times per week. BMI was calculated from self-reported height and weight. We examined the relationship between FAFH with FV consumption and BMI using multivariate models. Results. Higher frequency of FAFH was associated with higher BMI, after adjusting for age, income, education, race, smoking, marital status, and physical activity (women: p = 0.001; men: p = 0.003). There was a negative association between frequency of FAFH and FV consumption. FAFH frequency was significantly (p < 0.001) higher among males than females (43.1% versus 54.0% eating out 0-1 meal per week, resp.). Females reported eating significantly (p < 0.001) more FV than males. Conclusion. Among adults, higher frequency of FAFH was related to higher BMI and less FV consumption. PMID:26925111

  15. A study on the estimation method of nuclear accident risk cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Yuji

    2016-01-01

    The methodology of estimating nuclear accident risk cost, as a part of nuclear power generation cost, has hardly been established due mainly to the extremely wide range of the estimation of the accident frequency. This study estimates the expected nuclear accident frequency for Japan, making use of the method of Bayesian statistics, which exploits both the information obtained by Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) and the observed historical accident frequencies. Using the PRA estimation of the Containment Failure Frequency (CFF) for Tomari nuclear power plant unit 3 of Hokkaido Electric Power Company (average: 2.1 x 10 -4 , 95th percentile: 7.7 x 10 -4 ) and the actual large-scale accident frequency (once in 1,460 reactor-years), the posterior CFF was estimated at 3.8 x 10 -4 . This study also took into account the 'external' factor causing unexpected nuclear accidents, concluding that such factor could result in higher CFF estimations, especially with larger observed accident numbers. (author)

  16. Higher frequency of brain abnormalities in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder patients without primary Sjögren's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Li-Na; Zhang, Min; Zhu, Hui; Liu, Jing-Yao

    2016-10-01

    Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder often co-exists with primary Sjögren's syndrome. We compared the clinical features of 16 neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder patients with ( n = 6) or without primary Sjögren's syndrome ( n = 10). All patients underwent extensive clinical, laboratory, and MRI evaluations. There were no statistical differences in demographics or first neurological involvement at onset between neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder patients with and without primary Sjögren's syndrome. The laboratory findings of cerebrospinal fluid oligoclonal banding, serum C-reactive protein, antinuclear autoantibody, anti-Sjögren's-syndrome-related antigen A antibodies, anti-Sjögren's-syndrome-related antigen B antibodies, and anti-Sm antibodies were significantly higher in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome than those without. Anti-aquaporin 4 antibodies were detectable in 67% (4/6) of patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome and in 60% (6/10) of patients without primary Sjögren's syndrome. More brain abnormalities were observed in patients without primary Sjögren's syndrome than in those with primary Sjögren's syndrome. Segments lesions (> 3 centrum) were noted in 50% (5/10) of patients without primary Sjögren's syndrome and in 67% (4/6) of patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome. These findings indicate that the clinical characteristics of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder patients with and without primary Sjögren's syndrome are similar. However, neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder patients without primary Sjögren's syndrome have a high frequency of brain abnormalities.

  17. Recent sediment dynamics in hadal trenches: Evidence for the influence of higher-frequency (tidal, near-inertial) fluid dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnewitsch, Robert; Falahat, Saeed; Stehlikova, Jirina; Oguri, Kazumasa; Glud, Ronnie N.; Middelboe, Mathias; Kitazato, Hiroshi; Wenzhöfer, Frank; Ando, Kojiro; Fujio, Shinzou; Yanagimoto, Daigo

    2014-08-01

    In addition to high hydrostatic pressure, scarcity of food is viewed as a factor that limits the abundance and activity of heterotrophic organisms at great ocean depths, including hadal trenches. Supply of nutritious food largely relies on the flux of organic-rich particulate matter from the surface ocean. It has been speculated that the shape of hadal trenches helps to ‘funnel' particulate matter into the deeper parts of the trench, leading to sediment ‘focussing' and improved benthic food supply. Here we investigate for five Northwest Pacific trenches the efficiency of sediment focussing by evaluating ratios of measured (sediment-derived) and expected (water-column-derived) sedimentary inventories of the naturally occurring and radioactive particulate-matter tracer 210Pbxs. The sites comprise a broad range of surface-ocean productivity and physical-oceanographic regimes. Across the five trench-axis settings the inventory ratio varies between 0.5 and 4.1, with four trench-axis settings having ratios>1 (sediment focussing) and one trench-axis setting a ratiowinnowing). Although the fluid- and sediment-dynamical forcing behind sediment focussing remains unclear, this study finds evidence for another mechanism that is superimposed on, and counteracts, the focussing mechanism. This superimposed mechanism is related to higher-frequency (tidal, near-inertial) fluid dynamics. In particular, there is evidence for a strong and negative relation between the intensity of propagating internal tides and the extent of sediment focussing in the trench-axis. The relation can be approximated by a power function and the most intense drop in sediment focussing already occurs at moderate internal-tide intensities. This suggests that propagating internal tides may have a subtle but significant influence on particulate-matter dynamics and food supply in hadal trenches in particular, but possibly also in the deep seas in general. A mechanism for the influence of internal tides on

  18. Nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    On 27 May 1986 the Norwegian government appointed an inter-ministerial committee of senior officials to prepare a report on experiences in connection with the Chernobyl accident. The present second part of the committee's report describes proposals for measures to prevent and deal with similar accidents in the future. The committee's evaluations and proposals are grouped into four main sections: Safety and risk at nuclear power plants; the Norwegian contingency organization for dealing with nuclear accidents; compensation issues; and international cooperation

  19. Higher frequency of secretor phenotype in O blood group ? its benefits in prevention and/or treatment of some diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Jaff, Mohamad Salih

    2010-01-01

    Mohamad Salih JaffPathology Department, Hawler Medical University (Formerly Salahaddin University), Erbil, Kurdistan Region, IraqAbstract: ABO blood groups and secretor status are important in clinical and forensic medicine and in relation to some diseases. There are geographic and racial differences in their frequencies, but the frequency of secretor status in different ABO blood group systems has not been determined yet. Therefore, the aim of this study was mainly to determine this point. B...

  20. Occupational accidents aboard merchant ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H.L.; Nielsen, D.; Frydenberg, Morten

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the frequency, circumstances, and causes of occupational accidents aboard merchant ships in international trade, and to identify risk factors for the occurrence of occupational accidents as well as dangerous working situations where possible preventive measures may...... be initiated. Methods: The study is a historical follow up on occupational accidents among crew aboard Danish merchant ships in the period 1993–7. Data were extracted from the Danish Maritime Authority and insurance data. Exact data on time at risk were available. Results: A total of 1993 accidents were...... aboard. Relative risks for notified accidents and accidents causing permanent disability of 5% or more were calculated in a multivariate analysis including ship type, occupation, age, time on board, change of ship since last employment period, and nationality. Foreigners had a considerably lower recorded...

  1. Accidents in making fireworks. Tapaturmat polttopuun teossa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solmio, H

    1991-01-01

    The accidents and the trends in the number of accidents and their causes were analyzed in a study conducted by the Forestry Department of the Work Efficiency Institute. The study was funded by the Finnish Agricultural Enterpreneurs' Pension Fund (MELA). The study material was selected from MELA's accident stage work and cause code. Altogether, the material comprised the following accidents that occurred while making and using firewood: 671 accidents in 1987 and 596 accidents in 1988. The amount of accidents caused by the working environment and hand tools was clearly higher in 1987 than in 1988. The number of accidents occurred while chopping wood was 20 % higher in 1987 than in 1988. April was the most accident-prone month both in 1987 and in 1988. Chopping of firewood was the most dangerous work stage in terms of the number of accidents. In 1988, the number of accidents in chopping firewood was 336, in sawing using circular saw 97 cases and other mechanized chopping led to 93 accidents. Heating with wood caused 33 accidents. In 1988 there were 10 (2 %) accidents involving loss of limbs and 9 of them occurred in the mechanized chopping of firewood. Nine accidents of these involved the loss of one or more fingers. Serious accidents, leading to inability to work for more than 3 months, were most frequent in chopping and in storing firewood.

  2. Frequency-swept laser light source at 1050 nm with higher bandwidth due to multiple semiconductor optical amplifiers in series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marschall, Sebastian; Thrane, Lars; Andersen, Peter E.

    2009-01-01

    We report on the development of an all-fiber frequency-swept laser light source in the 1050 nm range based on semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOA) with improved bandwidth due to multiple gain media. It is demonstrated that even two SOAs with nearly equal gain spectra can improve the performance...

  3. Bimodal atomic force microscopy driving the higher eigenmode in frequency-modulation mode: Implementation, advantages, disadvantages and comparison to the open-loop case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebeling, Daniel; Solares, Santiago D

    2013-01-01

    We present an overview of the bimodal amplitude-frequency-modulation (AM-FM) imaging mode of atomic force microscopy (AFM), whereby the fundamental eigenmode is driven by using the amplitude-modulation technique (AM-AFM) while a higher eigenmode is driven by using either the constant-excitation or the constant-amplitude variant of the frequency-modulation (FM-AFM) technique. We also offer a comparison to the original bimodal AFM method, in which the higher eigenmode is driven with constant frequency and constant excitation amplitude. General as well as particular characteristics of the different driving schemes are highlighted from theoretical and experimental points of view, revealing the advantages and disadvantages of each. This study provides information and guidelines that can be useful in selecting the most appropriate operation mode to characterize different samples in the most efficient and reliable way.

  4. Normal accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrow, C.

    1989-01-01

    The author has chosen numerous concrete examples to illustrate the hazardousness inherent in high-risk technologies. Starting with the TMI reactor accident in 1979, he shows that it is not only the nuclear energy sector that bears the risk of 'normal accidents', but also quite a number of other technologies and industrial sectors, or research fields. The author refers to the petrochemical industry, shipping, air traffic, large dams, mining activities, and genetic engineering, showing that due to the complexity of the systems and their manifold, rapidly interacting processes, accidents happen that cannot be thoroughly calculated, and hence are unavoidable. (orig./HP) [de

  5. Eating frequency is higher in weight loss maintainers and normal-weight individuals than in overweight individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, Jessica L; Phelan, Suzanne; Wing, Rena R; Raynor, Hollie A

    2011-11-01

    Eating frequency has been negatively related to body mass index (BMI). The relationship between eating frequency and weight loss maintenance is unknown. This secondary analysis examined eating frequency (self-reported meals and snacks consumed per day) in weight loss maintainers (WLM) who had reduced from overweight/obese to normal weight, normal weight (NW) individuals, and overweight (OW) individuals. Data collected July 2006 to March 2007 in Providence, RI, included three 24-hour dietary recalls (2 weekdays, 1 weekend day) analyzed using Nutrient Data System for Research software from 257 adults (WLM n=96, 83.3% women aged 50.0±11.8 years with BMI 22.1±1.7; NW n=80, 95.0% women aged 46.1±11.5 years with BMI 21.1±1.4; OW n=81, 53.1% women aged 51.4±9.0 years with BMI 34.2±4.1) with plausible intakes. Participant-defined meals and snacks were ≥50 kcal and separated by more than 1 hour. Self-reported physical activity was highest in WLM followed by NW, and then OW (3,097±2,572 kcal/week, 2,062±1,286 kcal/week, and 785±901 kcal/week, respectively; Pmeals consumed (2.7±0.4 meals/day). Eating frequency, particularly in regard to a pattern of three meals and two snacks per day, may be important in weight loss maintenance. Copyright © 2011 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Accident Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Accident statistics available on the Coast Guard’s website by state, year, and one variable to obtain tables and/or graphs. Data from reports has been loaded for...

  7. Radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nenot, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    Analysis of radiation accidents over a 50 year period shows that simple cases, where the initiating events were immediately recognised, the source identified and under control, the medical input confined to current handling, were exceptional. In many cases, the accidents were only diagnosed when some injuries presented by the victims suggested the radiological nature of the cause. After large-scale accidents, the situation becomes more complicated, either because of management or medical problems, or both. The review of selected accidents which resulted in severe consequences shows that most of them could have been avoided; lack of regulations, contempt for rules, human failure and insufficient training have been identified as frequent initiating parameters. In addition, the situation was worsened because of unpreparedness, insufficient planning, unadapted resources, and underestimation of psychosociological aspects. (author)

  8. Sports Accidents

    CERN Multimedia

    Kiebel

    1972-01-01

    Le Docteur Kiebel, chirurgien à Genève, est aussi un grand ami de sport et de temps en temps médecin des classes genevoises de ski et également médecin de l'équipe de hockey sur glace de Genève Servette. Il est bien qualifié pour nous parler d'accidents de sport et surtout d'accidents de ski.

  9. Radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poplavskij, K.K.; Smorodintseva, G.I.

    1978-01-01

    On the basis of a critical analysis of the available data on causes and consequences of radiation accidents (RA), a classification of RA by severity (five groups of accidents) according to biomedical consequences and categories of exposed personnel is proposed. A RA is defined and its main characteristics are described. Methods of RA prevention are proposed, as is a plan of specific measures to deal with RA in accordance with the proposed classification

  10. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Grand Gulf, Unit 1. Volume 5: Analysis of core damage frequency from seismic events for plant operational state 5 during a refueling outage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budnitz, R.J.; Davis, P.R.; Ravindra, M.K.; Tong, W.H.

    1994-08-01

    In 1989 the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to examine carefully the potential risks during low-power and shutdown operations. The program included two parallel projects, one at Sandia National Laboratories studying a boiling water reactor (Grand Gulf), and the other at Brookhaven National Laboratory studying a pressurized water reactor (Surry Unit 1). Both the Sandia and Brookhaven projects have examined only accidents initiated by internal plant faults---so-called ''internal initiators.'' This project, which has explored the likelihood of seismic-initiated core damage accidents during refueling outage conditions, is complementary to the internal-initiator analyses at Brookhaven and Sandia. This report covers the seismic analysis at Grand Gulf. All of the many systems modeling assumptions, component non-seismic failure rates, and human effort rates that were used in the internal-initiator study at Grand Gulf have been adopted here, so that the results of the study can be as comparable as possible. Both the Sandia study and this study examine only one shutdown plant operating state (POS) at Grand Gulf, namely POS 5 representing cold shutdown during a refueling outage. This analysis has been limited to work analogous to a level-1 seismic PRA, in which estimates have been developed for the core-damage frequency from seismic events during POS 5. The results of the analysis are that the core-damage frequency for earthquake-initiated accidents during refueling outages in POS 5 is found to be quite low in absolute terms, less than 10 -7 /year

  11. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Surry, Unit 1. Volume 5: Analysis of core damage frequency from seismic events during mid-loop operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budnitz, R.J.; Davis, P.R.; Ravindra, M.K.; Tong, W.H.

    1994-08-01

    In 1989 the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to examine carefully the potential risks during low-power and shutdown operations. The program included two parallel projects, one at Brookhaven National Laboratory studying a pressurized water reactor (Surry Unit 1) and the other at Sandia National Laboratories studying a boiling water reactor (Grand Gulf). Both the Brookhaven and Sandia projects have examined only accidents initiated by internal plant faults--so-called ''internal initiators.'' This project, which has explored the likelihood of seismic-initiated core damage accidents during refueling shutdown conditions, is complementary to the internal-initiator analyses at Brookhaven and Sandia. This report covers the seismic analysis at Surry Unit 1. All of the many systems modeling assumptions, component non-seismic failure rates, and human error rates that were used in the internal-initiator study at Surry have been adopted here, so that the results of the two studies can be as comparable as possible. Both the Brookhaven study and this study examine only two shutdown plant operating states (POSs) during refueling outages at Surry, called POS 6 and POS 10, which represent mid-loop operation before and after refueling, respectively. This analysis has been limited to work analogous to a level-1 seismic PRA, in which estimates have been developed for the core-damage frequency from seismic events during POSs 6 and 10. The results of the analysis are that the core-damage frequency of earthquake-initiated accidents during refueling outages in POS 6 and POS 10 is found to be low in absolute terms, less than 10 -6 /year

  12. Host-Parasite Interactions in Individuals with Type 1 and 2 Diabetes Result in Higher Frequency of Ascaris lumbricoides and Giardia lamblia in Type 2 Diabetic Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleuza Rodrigues Machado

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Host-parasite interactions in diabetic patients might influence diabetes complications and intestinal parasitosis. The aim was to investigate the occurrence of enteroparasites in individuals with diabetes types 1 and 2. A descriptive study was designed to estimate frequencies of parasites and to compare them in individuals with diabetes types 1 and 2 from two Health Centers and one hospital in the Federal District of Brazil. Patients were allocated to the study by convenience. Three fecal samples of 156 diabetic individuals (120 type 1 and 36 type 2 were analyzed using two parasitological methods. Enteroparasites or commensals frequency in diabetics was 64%. Diabetics infected with up to six species of intestinal parasites or commensals were found. Frequencies of Ascaris lumbricoides and Giardia lamblia were higher in individuals with type 2 diabetes. The lower frequency of A. lumbricoides found in type 1 diabetes may be related to a strong Th2 response to parasites. Autoimmune response developed in type 1 diabetic individuals characterized by the production of Th1 cytokines could explain low frequency of G. lamblia. High frequency of parasites found in type 2 diabetes emphasizes the importance of periodic parasitological examinations in these individuals.

  13. The risk of major nuclear accident: calculation and perception of probabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leveque, Francois

    2013-01-01

    Whereas before the Fukushima accident, already eight major accidents occurred in nuclear power plants, a number which is higher than that expected by experts and rather close to that corresponding of people perception of risk, the author discusses how to understand these differences and reconcile observations, objective probability of accidents and subjective assessment of risks, why experts have been over-optimistic, whether public opinion is irrational regarding nuclear risk, and how to measure risk and its perception. Thus, he addresses and discusses the following issues: risk calculation (cost, calculated frequency of major accident, bias between the number of observed accidents and model predictions), perceived probabilities and aversion for disasters (perception biases of probability, perception biases unfavourable to nuclear), the Bayes contribution and its application (Bayes-Laplace law, statistics, choice of an a priori probability, prediction of the next event, probability of a core fusion tomorrow)

  14. Higher plant availability and reduced reactor scram frequency in PWRs by appropriate system and I and C design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frei, G.; Weber, J.

    1987-01-01

    High plant availability and reliability are guaranteed by appropriate design of reactor and BOP systems, this including the plant I and C systems. It is of advantage to have design, construction and commissioning of the plant concentrated in the hands of a single company to avoid interface problems between the different areas of the plant. The integrated overall control concept developed by KWU with control, limitation and protection systems as well as optimized operational and monitoring systems assisted by instrumentation channel redundance and logic for selection of the second highest (or second lowest) signal value as appropriate for comparison with limitation setpoints, minimize the severity of transients. This results in a reduction in the frequency of reactor scrams and of unnecessary actuation of safety systems. Dynamic plant behavior is described for a number of examples where the improved plant behavior resulting from the above design features enhances plant availability

  15. Accident prevention in SME using ORM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kirsten; Duijm, Nijs Jan; Troen, Hanne

    2008-01-01

    Risk perception in SMEs is normally low, and this is closely related to the fact that the chance of a mall enterprise experiencing a serious accident is very small compared to companies that employ a large workforce. This is a fact even though the SMEs together have a higher accident frequency...... compared with large enterprises. To reach the SMEs we must find a way of supporting them, because they normally have neither the time nor the resources to acquire the knowledge and awareness necessary for working with their own safety. The Occupational Risk Model (ORM) developed by the Dutch Workgroup...... Occupational Risk Model WORM has been transferred to a Danish context, with the aim of creating a more simple system particularly for SMEs. The ORM identifies the activities in a person’s daily work that contribute most to the person’s risk and also identifies what conditions need to be changed in order...

  16. Accident sequence quantification with KIRAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Un; Han, Sang Hoon; Kim, Kil You; Yang, Jun Eon; Jeong, Won Dae; Chang, Seung Cheol; Sung, Tae Yong; Kang, Dae Il; Park, Jin Hee; Lee, Yoon Hwan; Hwang, Mi Jeong.

    1997-01-01

    The tasks of probabilistic safety assessment(PSA) consists of the identification of initiating events, the construction of event tree for each initiating event, construction of fault trees for event tree logics, the analysis of reliability data and finally the accident sequence quantification. In the PSA, the accident sequence quantification is to calculate the core damage frequency, importance analysis and uncertainty analysis. Accident sequence quantification requires to understand the whole model of the PSA because it has to combine all event tree and fault tree models, and requires the excellent computer code because it takes long computation time. Advanced Research Group of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute(KAERI) has developed PSA workstation KIRAP(Korea Integrated Reliability Analysis Code Package) for the PSA work. This report describes the procedures to perform accident sequence quantification, the method to use KIRAP's cut set generator, and method to perform the accident sequence quantification with KIRAP. (author). 6 refs

  17. Accident sequence quantification with KIRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Un; Han, Sang Hoon; Kim, Kil You; Yang, Jun Eon; Jeong, Won Dae; Chang, Seung Cheol; Sung, Tae Yong; Kang, Dae Il; Park, Jin Hee; Lee, Yoon Hwan; Hwang, Mi Jeong

    1997-01-01

    The tasks of probabilistic safety assessment(PSA) consists of the identification of initiating events, the construction of event tree for each initiating event, construction of fault trees for event tree logics, the analysis of reliability data and finally the accident sequence quantification. In the PSA, the accident sequence quantification is to calculate the core damage frequency, importance analysis and uncertainty analysis. Accident sequence quantification requires to understand the whole model of the PSA because it has to combine all event tree and fault tree models, and requires the excellent computer code because it takes long computation time. Advanced Research Group of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute(KAERI) has developed PSA workstation KIRAP(Korea Integrated Reliability Analysis Code Package) for the PSA work. This report describes the procedures to perform accident sequence quantification, the method to use KIRAP`s cut set generator, and method to perform the accident sequence quantification with KIRAP. (author). 6 refs.

  18. Criticality accident:

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canavese, Susana I.

    2000-01-01

    A criticality accident occurred at 10:35 on September 30, 1999. It occurred in a precipitation tank in a Conversion Test Building at the JCO Tokai Works site in Tokaimura (Tokai Village) in the Ibaraki Prefecture of Japan. STA provisionally rated this accident a 4 on the seven-level, logarithmic International Nuclear Event Scale (INES). The September 30, 1999 criticality accident at the JCO Tokai Works Site in Tokaimura, Japan in described in preliminary, technical detail. Information is based on preliminary presentations to technical groups by Japanese scientists and spokespersons, translations by technical and non-technical persons of technical web postings by various nuclear authorities, and English-language non-technical reports from various news media and nuclear-interest groups. (author)

  19. Will greenhouse gas-induced warming over the next 50 years lead to higher frequency and greater intensity of hurricanes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bengtsson, L.; Botzet, M.; Esch, M.

    1994-01-01

    The use of a high resolution atmospheric model at T106 resolution, for studying the influence on greenhouse warming on tropical storm climatology, is investigated. The same method for identifying the storms has been used as in a previous study by Bengtsson et al (1994). The sea surface temperature anomalies have been taken from a previous climate change experiment, obtained with a low resolution ocean-atmosphere coupled model. The global distribution of the storms agree in their geographical position and seasonal variability with that of the present climate, but the number of storms is significantly reduced, particularly at the Southern hemisphere. The main reason to this is related to increased tropospheric stability, associated with increased warming at the upper troposphere and changes in the large scale circulation such as a weaker Hadley circulation and stronger upper air westerlies. The surface winds in the tropics are generally weaker and evaporation is also somewhat reduced, in spite of higher sea surface temperatures. (orig.)

  20. Predicted occurrence rate of severe transportation accidents involving large casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennis, A.W.

    1978-01-01

    A summary of the results of an investigation of the severities of highway and railroad accidents as they relate to the shipment of large radioactive materials casks is discussed. The accident environments considered are fire, impact, crash, immersion, and puncture. For each of these environments, the accident severities and their predicted frequencies of occurrence are presented. These accident environments are presented in tabular and graphic form to allow the reader to evaluate the probabilities of occurrence of the accident parameter severities he selects

  1. Sleep Deprivation in Young and Healthy Subjects Is More Sensitively Identified by Higher Frequencies of Electrodermal Activity than by Skin Conductance Level Evaluated in the Time Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo F. Posada-Quintero

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed multiple measures of the autonomic nervous system (ANS based on electrodermal activity (EDA and heart rate variability (HRV for young healthy subjects undergoing 24-h sleep deprivation. In this study, we have utilized the error awareness test (EAT every 2 h (13 runs total, to evaluate the deterioration of performance. EAT consists of trials where the subject is presented words representing colors. Subjects are instructed to press a button (“Go” trials or withhold the response if the word presented and the color of the word mismatch (“Stroop No-Go” trial, or the screen is repeated (“Repeat No-Go” trials. We measured subjects' (N = 10 reaction time to the “Go” trials, and accuracy to the “Stroop No-Go” and “Repeat No-Go” trials. Simultaneously, changes in EDA and HRV indices were evaluated. Furthermore, the relationship between reactiveness and vigilance measures and indices of sympathetic control based on HRV were analyzed. We found the performance improved to a stable level from 6 through 16 h of deprivation, with a subsequently sustained impairment after 18 h. Indices of higher frequencies of EDA related more to vigilance measures, whereas lower frequencies index (skin conductance leve, SCL measured the reactiveness of the subject. We conclude that indices of EDA, including those of the higher frequencies, termed TVSymp, EDASymp, and NSSCRs, provide information to better understand the effect of sleep deprivation on subjects' autonomic response and performance.

  2. Imperfect conformation of experimental and epidemiological data for frequency of RET/РТС gene rearrangements in papillary thyroid carcinoma for the Chernobyl accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ushenkova L.N.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In an overview and analytical study of the epidemiological data on the frequency of RET/РТС gene rearrangements in sporadic and radiogenic (patients after radiotherapy, residents of contaminated after the Chernobyl disaster areas, victims after the atomic bombings, etc. carcinomas of the thyroid gland were examined. In general, the observed epidemiological laws were confirmed in radiobiology experiments by irradiation of different cultures of thyroid cells and ex vivo with the exception of Chernobyl cohorts. Induction of RET/РТС gene rearrangements by 131l exposure in children carcinomas of Chernobyl residents in mice did not observe too. It is concluded that the situation with the frequency of RET/РТС rearrangements in thyroid carcinoma in Chernobyl cohorts once again confirms the multifactorial nature of the induction and development of these tumors with a contribution of radiation and non-radiation factors (iodine deficiency and different stresses.

  3. Tchernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-06-01

    First, R.M.B.K type reactors are described. Then, safety problems are dealt with reactor control, behavior during transients, normal loss of power and behavior of the reactor in case of leak. A possible scenario of the accident of Tchernobyl is proposed: events before the explosion, possible initiators, possible scenario and events subsequent to the core meltdown (corium-concrete interaction, interaction with the groundwater table). An estimation of the source term is proposed first from the installation characteristics and the supposed scenario of the accident, and from the measurements in Europe; radiological consequences are also estimated. Radioactivity measurements (Europe, Scandinavia, Western Europe, France) are given in tables (meteorological maps and fallouts in Europe). Finally, a description of the site is given [fr

  4. Accident: Reminder

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    There is no left turn to Point 1 from the customs, direction CERN. A terrible accident happened last week on the Route de Meyrin just outside Entrance B because traffic regulations were not respected. You are reminded that when travelling from the customs, direction CERN, turning left to Point 1 is forbidden. Access to Point 1 from the customs is only via entering CERN, going down to the roundabout and coming back up to the traffic lights at Entrance B

  5. Economic situation and occupational accidents in Poland: 2002-2014 panel data regional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łyszczarz, Błażej; Nojszewska, Ewelina

    2018-01-07

    Occupational accidents constitute a substantial health and economic burden for societies around the world and a variety of factors determine the frequency of accidents at work. The aim of this paper is to investigate the relationship between the economic situation and the rate of occupational accidents in Poland. The analysis comprised data for 66 Polish sub-regions taken from the Central Statistical Office's Local Data Bank. The regression analysis with panel data for period 2002-2014 was applied to identify the relationships involved. Four measures of accidents were used: the rates of total occupational accidents, accidents among men and women separately as well as days of incapacity to work due to accidents at work per employee. Four alternative measures assessed the economic situation: gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, average remuneration, the unemployment rate and number of dwelling permits. The confounding variables included were: employment in hazardous conditions and the size of enterprises. The results of the regression estimates show that the number of occupational accidents in Poland exhibits procyclical behavior, which means that more accidents are observed during the times of economic expansion. Stronger relationships were observed in the equations explaining men's accident rates as well as total rates. A weaker and not always statistically significant impact of economic situation was identified for women's accident rates and days of incapacity to work. The results have important implications for occupational health and safety actions. In the periods of higher work intensity employers should focus on appropriate training and supervision of inexperienced workers as well as on ensuring enough time for already experienced employees to recuperate. In terms of public health actions, policy makers should focus on scrutinizing working conditions, educating employers and counteracting possible discrimination of injured employees. Int J Occup Med

  6. Females with paired occurrence of cancers in the UADT and genital region have a higher frequency of either Glutathione S-transferase M1/T1 null genotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhavar Sameer G

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Upper Aero digestive Tract (UADT is the commonest site for the development of second cancer in females after primary cervical cancer. Glutathione S-transferase (GSTM1 and / or T1 null genotype modulates the risk of developing UADT cancer (primary as well as second cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the difference in GST null genotype frequencies in females with paired cancers in the UADT and genital region as compared to females with paired cancers in the UADT and non-genital region. Forty-nine females with a cancer in the UADT and another cancer (at all sites-genital and non-genital were identified from a database of patients with multiple primary neoplasms and were analyzed for the GSTM1 and T1 genotype in addition to known factors such as age, tobacco habits, alcohol habits and family history of cancer. Frequencies of GSTM1 null, GSTT1 null, and either GSTM1/T1 null were higher in females with paired occurrence of cancer in the UADT and genital site (54%, 33% and 75% respectively in comparison to females with paired occurrence of cancer in the UADT and non-genital sites (22%, 6% and 24% respectively. The significantly higher inherited frequency of either GSTM1/T1 null genotype in females with a paired occurrence of cancers in UADT and genital region (p = 0.01, suggests that these females are more susceptible to damage by carcinogens as compared to females who have UADT cancers in association with cancers at non-genital sites.

  7. [Drugs and occupational accident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratzke, H; Albers, C

    1996-02-01

    In a case of a fatal occupational accident (construction worker, fall from roof, urine test positive for cocaine and THC, e.g. cannabis) the question arised to what extent those drug-related occupational accidents occur. In the literature only few cases, mainly dealing with cannabis influence, have been reported, however, a higher number is suspected. Cocaine and other stimulating drugs (amphetamine) are more often used to increase physical fitness. By direct or indirect interference with vigilance these compounds may provoke accidents. Due to the lack of a legal basis proving of the influence of drugs at the working place is still very limited, although highly sensitive chemical-toxicological assay procedures are available to detect even the chronic abuse (in hair). In the general conditions of accident insurances a compensation is excluded when alcohol is involved, but drugs are not mentioned. It is indeed difficult to establish a concentration limit for drugs like that existing for alcohol (1.1%). In each case the assay of the drug involved and exact knowledge of its specific effects is in an essential prerequisite to prove the causal relationship.

  8. Excitation of higher radial modes of azimuthal surface waves in the electron cyclotron frequency range by rotating relativistic flow of electrons in cylindrical waveguides partially filled by plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girka, Igor O.; Pavlenko, Ivan V.; Thumm, Manfred

    2018-05-01

    Azimuthal surface waves are electromagnetic eigenwaves of cylindrical plasma-dielectric waveguides which propagate azimuthally nearby the plasma-dielectric interface across an axial external stationary magnetic field. Their eigenfrequency in particular can belong to the electron cyclotron frequency range. Excitation of azimuthal surface waves by rotating relativistic electron flows was studied in detail recently in the case of the zeroth radial mode for which the waves' radial phase change within the layer where the electrons gyrate is small. In this case, just the plasma parameters cause the main influence on the waves' dispersion properties. In the case of the first and higher radial modes, the wave eigenfrequency is higher and the wavelength is shorter than in the case of the zeroth radial mode. This gain being of interest for practical applications can be achieved without any change in the device design. The possibility of effective excitation of the higher order radial modes of azimuthal surface waves is demonstrated here. Getting shorter wavelengths of the excited waves in the case of higher radial modes is shown to be accompanied by decreasing growth rates of the waves. The results obtained here are of interest for developing new sources of electromagnetic radiation, in nano-physics and in medical physics.

  9. Evaluation of severe accident environmental conditions taking accident management strategy into account for equipment survivability assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byung Chul; Jeong, Ji Hwan; Na, Man Gyun; Kim, Soong Pyung

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology utilizing accident management strategy in order to determine accident environmental conditions in equipment survivability assessments. In case that there is well-established accident management strategy for specific nuclear power plant, an application of this tool can provide a technical rationale on equipment survivability assessment so that plant-specific and time-dependent accident environmental conditions could be practically and realistically defined in accordance with the equipment and instrumentation required for accident management strategy or action appropriately taken. For this work, three different tools are introduced; Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) outcomes, major accident management strategy actions, and Accident Environmental Stages (AESs). In order to quantitatively investigate an applicability of accident management strategy to equipment survivability, the accident simulation for a most likely scenario in Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plants (KSNPs) is performed with MAAP4 code. The Accident Management Guidance (AMG) actions such as the Reactor Control System (RCS) depressurization, water injection into the RCS, the containment pressure and temperature control, and hydrogen concentration control in containment are applied. The effects of these AMG actions on the accident environmental conditions are investigated by comparing with those from previous normal accident simulation, especially focused on equipment survivability assessment. As a result, the AMG-involved case shows the higher accident consequences along the accident environmental stages

  10. Return to driving after severe traumatic brain injury: increased risk of traffic accidents and personal responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bivona, Umberto; DʼIppolito, Mariagrazia; Giustini, Marco; Vignally, Pascal; Longo, Eloise; Taggi, Franco; Formisano, Rita

    2012-01-01

    To determine the frequency of road traffic accidents among individuals who start or resume driving after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) and to investigate their responsibility for these accidents. Observational/retrospective study. Sixty adults with severe TBI and their caregivers. Return to Driving Questionnaire and Glasgow Outcome Scale. Thirty of the 60 participants started to drive or resumed driving after TBI. Nineteen (63%) of them were involved in traffic accidents, with personal responsibility in 26 of 36 after return to driving. Participants caused a significantly higher number of accidents after TBI than before. The ability to drive is frequently compromised after severe TBI. Specific rehabilitation of this complex activity should be a main goal of social reintegration programs in this population.

  11. Radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saenger, E.L.

    1986-01-01

    It is essential that emergency physicians understand ways to manage patients contaminated by radioactive materials and/or exposed to external radiation sources. Contamination accidents require careful surveys to identify the metabolic pathway of the radionuclides to guide prognosis and treatment. The level of treatment required will depend on careful surveys and meticulous decontamination. There is no specific therapy for the acute radiation syndrome. Prophylactic antibodies are desirable. For severely exposed patients treatment is similar to the supportive care given to patients undergoing organ transplantation. For high-dose extremity injury, no methods have been developed to reverse the fibrosing endarteritis that eventually leads to tissue death so frequently found with this type of injury. Although the Three Mile Island episode of March 1979 created tremendous public concern, there were no radiation injuries. The contamination outside the reactor building and the release of radioiodine were negligible. The accidental fuel element meltdown at Chernobyl, USSR, resulted in many cases of acute radiation syndrome. More than 100,000 people were exposed to high levels of radioactive fallout. The general principles outlined here are applicable to accidents of that degree of severity

  12. Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bar'yakhtar, V.G.

    1995-01-01

    The monograph contains the catastrophe's events chronology, the efficiency assessed of those measures assumed for their localization as well as their environmental and socio-economic impact. Among materials of the monograph the results are presented of research on the radioactive contamination field forming as well as those concerning the investigation of biogeochemical properties of Chernobyl radionuclides and their migration process in the environment of the Ukraine. The data dealing with biological effects of the continued combined internal and external radioactive influence on plants, animals and human health under the circumstances of Chernobyl accident are of the special interest. In order to provide the scientific generalizing information on the medical aspects of Chernobyl catastrophe, the great part of the monograph is allotted to appraise those factors affecting the health of different population groups as well as to depict clinic aspects of Chernobyl events and medico-sanitarian help system. The National Programme of Ukraine for the accident consequences elimination and population social protection assuring for the years 1986-1993 and this Programme concept for the period up to the year 2000 with a special regard of the world community participation there

  13. [Fatal occupational accidents in Lombardy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pianosi, G

    1995-01-01

    All fatal occupational accidents compensated in Lombardy from 1984 to 1989 were analyzed (1259 cases): significant differences between geographical distribution of fatal occupational accidents and workers were observed. Males accounted for about 95% of fatalities; an excess of cases was shown in both young and elderly workers. Death was the consequence of injuries involving most frequently the head, thorax and spinal cord. An excess of fatalities was observed in agriculture and, at a lower level, in manufacturing industries; small enterprises were involved in approximately 25% of fatalities occurring in the manufacturing industries and services. Employers were the victims of fatal accidents in 50% of cases in agriculture and in 70% of cases in craft industries. Construction, agriculture and transport accounted for about 50% of all fatalities. About 50% of fatal occupational accidents were related to vehicle use: the victim was the driver in the majority of cases, sometimes the victim was run over by a vehicle or fell from a vehicle. The results agree with some previous observations (e.g.: sex and age distribution; construction, agriculture and transport as working activities at high accident risk); but some original observations have emerged, in particular about the frequency of employers as victims and the role of vehicles in the genesis of fatal occupational accidents. If further studies confirm these latter observations, important developments could follow in preventive action design and implementation.

  14. Learning from nuclear accident experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaurio, J.K.

    1984-01-01

    Statistical procedures are developed to estimate accident occurrence rates from historical event records, to predict future rates and trends, and to estimate the accuracy of the rate estimates and predictions. Maximum likelihood estimation is applied to several learning models, and results are compared to earlier graphical and analytical estimates. The models are based on (1) the cumulative number of operating years, (2) the cumulative number of plants built, and (3) accidents (explicitly), with the accident rate distinctly different before and after an accident. The statistical accuracies of the parameters estimated are obtained in analytical form using the Fisher information matrix. Using data on core damage accidents in electricity producing plants, it is estimated that the probability for a plant to have a serious flaw has decreased from 0.1 to 0.01 during the developmental phase of the nuclear industry. At the same time the equivalent frequency of accidents has decreased from 0.04 per reactor year to 0.0004 per reactor year, partly due to the increasing population of plants. 10 references, 7 figures, 2 tables

  15. Psychosomatic health status of children exposed to the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korol, N.; Shibata, Yoshisada; Nakane, Yoshibumi

    1998-01-01

    Childhood victims were investigated focussing on the psychosomatic disorders. The subjects were some of the 3834 children who evacuated from the Chernobyl zone to Kiev (evacuees) and 200 children who have been living in Kiev since prior to the accident (comparison group). A psychological test administered to 504 evacuees aged 12-14 years at the time of the accident and the comparison group indicated that the frequencies of neutroticism, high level of anxiety and conflicts were significantly higher in the evacuees than in the comparison group (p<0.001). Another psychological test administered at puberty to the 504 evacuees and 200 other evacuees exposed to the accident at 4-6 years of age indicated that the psycho-emotional portrait of evacuated teenagers significantly changed with time since the accident. The effects of the Chernobyl accident on the health of the vegetative dystonia observed in 1987-1990 and 1990-1995 were higher in the evacuees than in the comparison group, although they were not statistically significant. Furthermore, a significant (p<0.001) association of the vegetative dystonia with peptic and cardiovascular disorders was observed. The present study indicates that the vegetative dystonia is still highly prevalent among childhood victims and deems to support that the vegetative dystonia may be a precursor of several diseases such as cardiovascular and peptic disorders. It should be emphasized that a health promotion program to produce a change in psychological and social problems after the Chernobyl accident is necessary to decrease the health impact among Ukrainian people. (author)

  16. Accident Risks In The Energy Sector: Comparative Evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirschberg, S.; Burgherr, P.

    2005-01-01

    Severe accidents are considered one of the most controversial issues in current comparative studies of the environmental and health impact of energy systems. The present work focuses on severe accident scenarios relating to fossil energy chains (coal, oil and gas), nuclear power and hydro-power. The scope of the study is not limited to the power production (conversion) step of these energy chains, but, wherever applicable, also includes full energy chains. With the exception of the nuclear chain, the focus of the present work is on the evaluation of the historical experience of accidents. The basis for this evaluation is the comprehensive database ENSAD (Energy-Related Severe Accident Database), which has been established at PSI. For hypothetical nuclear accidents, a probabilistic technique has also been employed. The broader picture, derived from examination of full energy chains, leads, on a world-wide basis, to the conclusion that immediate fatality rates are much higher for the fossil chains than expected if only power plants are considered. Generally, immediate fatality rates are significantly higher for non-OECD countries than for OECD countries, and, in the case of hydro and nuclear, the difference is rather dramatic. In addition to aggregated values, frequency-consequence curves are also provided, since they not only reflect implicitly a ranking based on aggregated values, but also include such information as the observed, or predicted, chain-specific maximum extent of damages. Finally, damage and external costs of severe accidents for the different energy chains have been estimated, based on the unit cost values for the various consequence types. (author)

  17. Psychosomatic health status of children exposed to the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korol, N. [Scientific Center for Radiation Medicine, Kiev (Ukraine); Shibata, Yoshisada; Nakane, Yoshibumi

    1998-12-01

    Childhood victims were investigated focussing on the psychosomatic disorders. The subjects were some of the 3834 children who evacuated from the Chernobyl zone to Kiev (evacuees) and 200 children who have been living in Kiev since prior to the accident (comparison group). A psychological test administered to 504 evacuees aged 12-14 years at the time of the accident and the comparison group indicated that the frequencies of neutroticism, high level of anxiety and conflicts were significantly higher in the evacuees than in the comparison group (p<0.001). Another psychological test administered at puberty to the 504 evacuees and 200 other evacuees exposed to the accident at 4-6 years of age indicated that the psycho-emotional portrait of evacuated teenagers significantly changed with time since the accident. The effects of the Chernobyl accident on the health of the vegetative dystonia observed in 1987-1990 and 1990-1995 were higher in the evacuees than in the comparison group, although they were not statistically significant. Furthermore, a significant (p<0.001) association of the vegetative dystonia with peptic and cardiovascular disorders was observed. The present study indicates that the vegetative dystonia is still highly prevalent among childhood victims and deems to support that the vegetative dystonia may be a precursor of several diseases such as cardiovascular and peptic disorders. It should be emphasized that a health promotion program to produce a change in psychological and social problems after the Chernobyl accident is necessary to decrease the health impact among Ukrainian people. (author)

  18. Warfarin maintenance dose in older patients: higher average dose and wider dose frequency distribution in patients of African ancestry than those of European ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garwood, Candice L; Clemente, Jennifer L; Ibe, George N; Kandula, Vijay A; Curtis, Kristy D; Whittaker, Peter

    2010-06-15

    Studies report that warfarin doses required to maintain therapeutic anticoagulation decrease with age; however, these studies almost exclusively enrolled patients of European ancestry. Consequently, universal application of dosing paradigms based on such evidence may be confounded because ethnicity also influences dose. Therefore, we determined if warfarin dose decreased with age in Americans of African ancestry, if older African and European ancestry patients required different doses, and if their daily dose frequency distributions differed. Our chart review examined 170 patients of African ancestry and 49 patients of European ancestry cared for in our anticoagulation clinic. We calculated the average weekly dose required for each stable, anticoagulated patient to maintain an international normalized ratio of 2.0 to 3.0, determined dose averages for groups 80 years of age and plotted dose as a function of age. The maintenance dose in patients of African ancestry decreased with age (PAfrican ancestry required higher average weekly doses than patients of European ancestry: 33% higher in the 70- to 79-year-old group (38.2+/-1.9 vs. 28.8+/-1.7 mg; P=0.006) and 52% in the >80-year-old group (33.2+/-1.7 vs. 21.8+/-3.8 mg; P=0.011). Therefore, 43% of older patients of African ancestry required daily doses >5mg and hence would have been under-dosed using current starting-dose guidelines. The dose frequency distribution was wider for older patients of African ancestry compared to those of European ancestry (PAfrican ancestry indicate that strategies for initiating warfarin therapy based on studies of patients of European ancestry could result in insufficient anticoagulation and thereby potentially increase their thromboembolism risk. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. [Accidents among postmen using motorbikes for mail deliveries in Tuscany in the period 2007-2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chellini, Elisabetta; Cortini, Barbara; Mameli, Marina; Abbarchi, M; Dei, Simona; Rossi, Oriana; Zallocco, A

    2014-01-01

    Health risks for postmen using motorbikes for mail delivery may be influenced by stability, weight and ease of handling of the vehicle, traffic and slippery or irregular road surface. To describe accidents that occurred among postmen in Tuscany and evaluate how many of these would have been prevented using the UNI EN 13595/2004 safety jacket. Record linkage of data obtained from the employer--the main mail delivery company in Italy--and from the Italian Workers Compensation Authority on accidents that occurred in postmen in Tuscany who used motorbikes for deliveries during the period 2007-2009. Accident rates (with CI 95%) by age, sex, year and province were calculated; the differences were evaluated using chi2 test. 1,342 accidents requiring at least 3 days' sick absence were recorded in postmen in Tuscany in the period 2007-2009, with an increasing trend in young men. The average accident rate was 17.6 per 100 workers, with 42,419 sick absence days. The female rate was higher compared to men (19.4%, CI 95% 18.03-20.79 in women vs 15.5%, CI 95%: 14.15-16.89 in men). 68% of accidents occurred driving a motorbike. The index of severity was 6.79, which was higher than that calculated by INAIL for the whole Tuscan transport and communication work sector (5.31). 309 accidents (11,021 sick absence days) could have been mitigated or avoided using UNI EN 13595/2004 safety jackets (47% spinal, 30% shoulder, 23% elbow, arm and forearm). The frequency of accidents in postmen using motorbikes is extremely high. Several serious accidents could have been prevented using the UNI EN 13595/2004 safety jackets, suggesting the need to make their use obligatory by these workers.

  20. Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capra, D.; Facchini, U.; Gianelle, V.; Ravasini, G.; Bacci, P.

    1988-01-01

    The radioactive cloud released during the Chernobyl accident reached the Padana plain and Lombardy in the night of April 30th 1986; the cloud remained in the northern Italian skies for a few days and then disappeared either dispersed by winds and washed by rains. The evidence in atmosphere of radionuclides as Tellurium, Iodine, Cesium, was promptly observed. The intense rain, in first week of may, washed the radioactivity and fall-out contamined the land, soil, grass. The present work concerns the overall contamination of the Northern Italy territory and in particular the radioactive fall-out in the Lakes region. Samples of soil have been measured at the gamma spectroscope; a correlation is found between the radionuclides concentration in soil samples and the rain intensity, when appropriate deposition models are considered. A number of measurements has been done on the Como'lake ecosystem: sediments, plankton, fishes and the overall fall-out in the area has been investigated

  1. Self-reported accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Katrine Meltofte; Andersen, Camilla Sloth

    2016-01-01

    The main idea behind the self-reporting of accidents is to ask people about their traffic accidents and gain knowledge on these accidents without relying on the official records kept by police and/or hospitals.......The main idea behind the self-reporting of accidents is to ask people about their traffic accidents and gain knowledge on these accidents without relying on the official records kept by police and/or hospitals....

  2. Accident Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripputi, Ivo; Lund, Ingemar

    2002-01-01

    There is a general feeling that decommissioning is an activity involving limited risks, compared to NPP operation, and in particular risks involving the general public. This is technically confirmed by licensing analysis and evaluations, where, once the spent fuel has been removed from the plant, the radioactivity inventory available to be released to the environment is very limited. Decommissioning activities performed so far in the world have also confirmed the first assumptions and no specific issue has been identified, in this field, to justify a completely new approach. Commercial interests in international harmonization, which could drive an in-depth discussion about the bases of this approach, are weak at the moment. However, there are several reasons why a discussion in an international framework about the Safety Case for decommissioning (and, in particular, about Accident Assessment) may be considered necessary and important, and why it may show some specific and peculiar aspects. An effort for a comprehensive and systematic D and D accident safety assessment of the decommissioning process is justified. It is necessary also to explore in a holistic way the aspects of industrial safety, and develop tools for the decision-making process optimization. The expected results are the implementation of appropriate and optimized protective measures in any event and of adequate on/off-site emergency plans for optimal public and workers protection. The experience from other decommissioning projects and large-scale industrial activities is essential to balance provisions and an Operating Experience review process (specific for decommissioning) should help to focus on real issues

  3. The nature of reactor accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domaratzki, Z.; Campbell, F.R.; Atchison, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    Reactor accidents are events which result in the release of radioactive material from a nuclear power plant due to the failure of one or more critical components of that plant. The failures, depending on their number and type, can result in releases whose consequences range from negligible to catastrophic. By way of examples, this paper describes four specific accidents which cover this range of consequence: failure of a reactor control system, loss of coolant, loss of coolant with impaired containment, and reactor core meltdown. For each a possible sequence of events and an estimate of the expected frequency are presented

  4. Accidents and human factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiwaki, Y.; Kawai, H.; Morishima, H.; Terano, T.; Sugeno, M.

    1984-01-01

    When the TMI accident occurred it was 4 a.m., an hour when the error potential of the operators would have been very high. The frequency of car and train accidents in Japan is also highest between 4 a.m. and 6 a.m. The error potential may be classified into five phases corresponding to the electroencephalogramic pattern (EEG). At phase 0, when the delta wave appears, a person is unconscious and in deep sleep; at phase I, when the theta wave appears, he is very tired, sleepy and subnormal; at phase II, when the alpha wave appears, he is normal, relaxed and passive; at phase III, when the beta wave appears, he is normal, clear-minded and active; at phase IV, when the strong beta or epileptic wave appears, he is hypernormal, excited and incapable of normal judgement. Should an accident occur at phase II, the brain condition may jump to phase IV. At this phase the error or accident potential is maximum. The response of the human brain to different types of noises and signals may vary somewhat for different individuals and for different groups of people. Therefore, the possibility that such differences in brain functions may influence the mental structure would be worthy of consideration in human factors and in the design of man-machine systems. Human reliability and performance would be affected by many factors: medical, physiological and psychological, etc. The uncertainty involved in human factors may not necessarily be probabilistic, but fuzzy. Therefore, it would be important to develop a theory by which both non-probabilistic uncertainties, or fuzziness, of human factors and the probabilistic properties of machines can be treated consistently. From the mathematical point of view, probabilistic measure is considered a special case of fuzzy measure. Therefore, fuzzy set theory seems to be an effective tool for analysing man-machine systems. To minimize human error and the possibility of accidents, new safety systems should not only back up man and make up for his

  5. The frequency of genotypes for the SNP Ser/Ser in the studied population of Albanian women is higher in the Balkan region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafer Gashi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In women undergoing natural cycles, just one oocyte is usually selected for ovulation, yet routine clinical techniques to support the development of multiple follicles using additional gonadotrophins result in numerous ovulations. Several parameters have been postulated as predictors of ovarian response (inhibin B, 17-β-estradiol and antiMüllerian hormone. Nevertheless, the FSH level on the day 3 of menstrual cycle remains, the most widely used biomarker due to its low cost, although, the genetic background of individuals seems to determine the response of patients to rFSH stimulation better than the stimulation design. Consequently, the variants of FSHR were explored and they may be involved in the role of FSH receptor in mediated signal transduction and with ovarian response in infertile women submitted to ovarian stimulation. In this study we examined, for the first time, the prevalence of genotype variants Asn680Ser in population Albanian women from Kosovo Dukagjin region who took part in IVF / ICSI program. The frequencies of the Asn680Ser genotype variants were as follows: Asn/Asn 22.1%, Asn/Ser 47.1%, and Ser/Ser 30.8%, respectively (Table 1. bE2 levels between the three genotype variants showed slight but statistically significant difference (p= 0.0308. No difference was also found between the genotype groups either in terms of AFC, amount of the FSH required for ovulation induction, stimulation length days, number of dominant follicles, oocyte retrieval number or endometrial thickness (Table 2. BMI was significantly higher in the Ser/Ser group as compared to those from the Asn/Ser or the Asn/Asn group (p= 0.0010 (Table 2. In the study population of Albanian women Dukagjin region of Kosovo had a higher incidence of Ser / SER genotype compared to Asn / Asn genotype. Our research results in the Albanian population differ from published data for other ethnic groups in the Balkans.

  6. Occupational Accidents with Agricultural Machinery in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogler, Robert; Quendler, Elisabeth; Boxberger, Josef

    2016-01-01

    The number of recognized accidents with fatalities during agricultural and forestry work, despite better technology and coordinated prevention and trainings, is still very high in Austria. The accident scenarios in which people are injured are very different on farms. The common causes of accidents in agriculture and forestry are the loss of control of machine, means of transport or handling equipment, hand-held tool, and object or animal, followed by slipping, stumbling and falling, breakage, bursting, splitting, slipping, fall, and collapse of material agent. In the literature, a number of studies of general (machine- and animal-related accidents) and specific (machine-related accidents) agricultural and forestry accident situations can be found that refer to different databases. From the database Data of the Austrian Workers Compensation Board (AUVA) about occupational accidents with different agricultural machinery over the period 2008-2010 in Austria, main characteristics of the accident, the victim, and the employer as well as variables on causes and circumstances by frequency and contexts of parameters were statistically analyzed by employing the chi-square test and odds ratio. The aim of the study was to determine the information content and quality of the European Statistics on Accidents at Work (ESAW) variables to evaluate safety gaps and risks as well as the accidental man-machine interaction.

  7. Accident information needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, D.J.; Arcieri, W.C.; Ward, L.W.

    1992-01-01

    A Five-step methodology has been developed to evaluate information needs for nuclear power plants under accident conditions and the availability of plant instrumentation during severe accidents. Step 1 examines the credible accidents and their relationships to plant safety functions. Step 2 determines the information personnel involved in accident management will need to understand plant behavior. Step 3 determines the capability of the instrumentation to function properly under severe accident conditions. Step 4 determines the conditions expected during the identified severe accidents. Step 5 compares the instrument capabilities and the severe accident conditions to evaluate the availability of the instrumentation to supply needed plant information

  8. Accident information needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, D.J.; Arcieri, W.C.; Ward, L.W.

    1992-12-31

    A Five-step methodology has been developed to evaluate information needs for nuclear power plants under accident conditions and the availability of plant instrumentation during severe accidents. Step 1 examines the credible accidents and their relationships to plant safety functions. Step 2 determines the information personnel involved in accident management will need to understand plant behavior. Step 3 determines the capability of the instrumentation to function properly under severe accident conditions. Step 4 determines the conditions expected during the identified severe accidents. Step 5 compares the instrument capabilities and the severe accident conditions to evaluate the availability of the instrumentation to supply needed plant information.

  9. Accident information needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, D.J.; Arcieri, W.C.; Ward, L.W.

    1992-01-01

    A Five-step methodology has been developed to evaluate information needs for nuclear power plants under accident conditions and the availability of plant instrumentation during severe accidents. Step 1 examines the credible accidents and their relationships to plant safety functions. Step 2 determines the information personnel involved in accident management will need to understand plant behavior. Step 3 determines the capability of the instrumentation to function properly under severe accident conditions. Step 4 determines the conditions expected during the identified severe accidents. Step 5 compares the instrument capabilities and the severe accident conditions to evaluate the availability of the instrumentation to supply needed plant information.

  10. Accident prevention in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steyrer, H.

    Large thermal power plants are insured to a great extent at the Industrial Injuries Insurance Institute of Instrument and Electric Engineering. Approximately 4800 employees are registered. The accident frequency according to an evaluation over 12 months lies around 79.8 per year and 1000 employees in fossil-fired power plants, around 34.1 per year and 1000 employees in nuclear power plants, as in nuclear power plants coal handling and ash removal are excluded. Injuries due to radiation were not registered. The crucial points of accidents are mechanical injuries received on solid, sharp-edged and pointed objects (fossil-fired power plants 28.6%, nuclear power plants 41.5%), stumbling, twisting or slipping (fossil-fired power plants 21.8%, nuclear power plants 19.5%) and injuries due to moving machine parts (only nuclear power plants 12.2%). However, accidents due to burns or scalds obtain with 4.2% and less a lower portion than expected. The accident statistics can explain this fact in a way that the typical power plant accident does not exist. (orig./GL) [de

  11. Severe accident phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jokiniemi, J.; Kilpi, K.; Lindholm, I.; Maekynen, J.; Pekkarinen, E.; Sairanen, R.; Silde, A.

    1995-02-01

    Severe accidents are nuclear reactor accidents in which the reactor core is substantially damaged. The report describes severe reactor accident phenomena and their significance for the safety of nuclear power plants. A comprehensive set of phenomena ranging from accident initiation to containment behaviour and containment integrity questions are covered. The report is based on expertise gained in the severe accident assessment projects conducted at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT). (49 refs., 32 figs., 12 tabs.)

  12. Safety climate and accidents at work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ajslev, Jeppe; Dastjerdi, Efat Lali; Dyreborg, Johnny

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Occupational safety climate is utilized as a way to measure the risk of accidents and injuries at work. This study investigates which factors are associated with safety climate and accidents at work. Methods: In the 2012 round of the Danish Work Environment and Health Study, 15,144 workers...... from the general working population of Denmark replied to questions about safety climate and accidents at work. Mutually adjusted logistic regression analyses determined the association between variables. Results: Within the last year, 5.7% had experienced an accident resulting in sickness absence....... The number of safety climate problems was progressively associated with the odds ratio (OR) for accidents. For one safety climate problem the OR for accidents was 2.01 (95% CI 1.67–2.42), for four or more safety climate problems the OR was 4.57 (95% CI 3.64–5.74). Young workers (18–24 years) had higher odds...

  13. Lack of evidence of HPV etiology of prostate cancer following radical surgery and higher frequency of the Arg/Pro genotype in turkish men with prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merve Aydin

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the possible role of HPV in the development of prostate cancer (PCa and investigate the distribution of the p53 codon 72 polymorphism in PCa in a Turkish population. Materials and methods A total of 96 tissues, which had been obtained using a radical surgery method, formalin-fixed and parafin-embedded, were used in this study. The study group consisted of 60 PCa tissues (open radical prostatectomy and the control group contained 36 benign prostatic hyperplasia tissues (BPH (transvesical open prostatectomy. The presence of HPV and the p53 codon 72 polymorphism was investigated in both groups using real-time PCR and pyrosequencing. Results The results of the real-time PCR showed no HPV DNA in any of the 36 BPH tissue samples. HPV-DNA was positive in only 1 of the 60 PCa samples (1.7%. The HPV type of this sample was identified as HPV-57. The distribution of the three genotypes, Arg/Arg, Arg/Pro and Pro/Pro was found to be 45.6, 45.6, and 8.8% in the PCa group and 57.1%, 34.3% and 8.6% in the control group, respectively. Compared with the control group, patients with PCa had a higher frequency of the Arg/Pro genotype and Proline allele (odds ratio (OR=1.67, 95% confidence interval (CI=0.68-4.09, p=0.044; OR=1.13, 95% CI=0.76-1.68, p=0.021, respectively. Conclusions The results of the study do not support the hyphothesis that prostate cancer is associated with HPV infection but indicated that Proline allele can be a risk factor in the development of PCa in the Turkish population.

  14. Primary school accident reporting in one education authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, A H A; Williams, W R; Sibert, J

    2002-02-01

    Studies have shown a correlation between increased accident rates and levels of deprivation in the community. School accident reporting is one area where an association might be expected. To investigate differences in primary school accident rates in deprived and more affluent wards, in an area managed by one education authority. Statistical analysis of accident form returns for 100 primary schools in one education authority in Wales over a two year period, in conjunction with visits to over one third of school sites. Accident report rates from schools in deprived wards were three times higher than those from schools in more affluent wards. School visits showed that this discrepancy was attributable primarily to differences in reporting procedures. One third of schools did not report accidents and approximately half did not keep records of minor accidents. The association between school accident report rates and deprivation in the community is complex. School accident data from local education authorities may be unreliable for most purposes of collection.

  15. Frequency of dicentrics in Ukrainian children and teenagers from areas near Chernobyl 20 years after the nuclear power plant accident; Frecuencia de dicentricos en ninos y adolescentes ucranianos de zonas cercanas a Chernobyl 20 anos despues del accidente de la central nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montoro, A.; Sebastia, N.; Candela, C.; Francesc Barquinero, J.; Soriano, J. M.; Almonacid, M.; Sahuquillo, V.; Alonso, O.; Cervera, J.; Such, E.; Silla, M. A.; Arnal, C.; Villaescusa, J. I.

    2012-07-01

    In this work, frequency of dicentrics in the peripheral blood of 55 children and teenagers from Ukrainian areas affected by the Chernobyl accident are studied, in order to assess the possible existence of chromosomal damage due to radiation, and to estimate absorbed dose through biological dosimetry. A total of 36 dicentric chromosomes found in 53477 analyzed cells reflected a low dicentric frequency (below the baseline limit). From these results, it can be concluded that, within the detection limits of the used technique, no overexposure to radiation was detected in these children. (Author) 18 refs.

  16. Compilation of accident statistics in PSE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jobst, C.

    1983-04-01

    The objective of the investigations on transportation carried out within the framework of the 'Project - Studies on Safety in Waste Management (PSE II)' is the determination of the risk of accidents in the transportation of radioactive materials by rail. The fault tree analysis is used for the determination of risks in the transportation system. This method offers a possibility for the determination of frequency and consequences of accidents which could lead to an unintended release of radionuclides. The study presented compiles all data obtained from the accident statistics of the Federal German Railways. (orig./RB) [de

  17. Statistical evaluation of design-error related nuclear reactor accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, K.O.; Marchaterre, J.F.

    1981-01-01

    In this paper, general methodology for the statistical evaluation of design-error related accidents is proposed that can be applied to a variety of systems that evolves during the development of large-scale technologies. The evaluation aims at an estimate of the combined ''residual'' frequency of yet unknown types of accidents ''lurking'' in a certain technological system. A special categorization in incidents and accidents is introduced to define the events that should be jointly analyzed. The resulting formalism is applied to the development of U.S. nuclear power reactor technology, considering serious accidents (category 2 events) that involved, in the accident progression, a particular design inadequacy. 9 refs

  18. Higher Physiotherapy Frequency Is Associated with Shorter Length of Stay and Greater Functional Recovery in Hospitalized Frail Older Adults: A Retrospective Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, P; Adamson, J; Cunningham, C; Embleton, G; Romero-Ortuno, R

    2016-01-01

    Extra physiotherapy has been associated with better outcomes in hospitalized patients, but this remains an under-researched area in geriatric medicine wards. We retrospectively studied the association between average physiotherapy frequency and outcomes in hospitalized geriatric patients. High frequency physiotherapy (HFP) was defined as ≥0.5 contacts/day. Of 358 eligible patients, 131 (36.6%) received low, and 227 (63.4%) HFP. Functional improvement (discharge versus admission) in the modified Rankin scale was greater in the HFP group (1.1 versus 0.7 points, Pphysiotherapy frequency and intensity in geriatric wards.

  19. The nuclear accidents: Causes and consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochd, M.

    1988-01-01

    The author discussed and compared the real causes of T.M.I. and Chernobyl accidents and cited their consequences. To better understand how these accidents occurred, a brief description of PWR type (reactor type of T.M.I.) and of RBMK type (reactor type of Chernobyl) has been presented. The author has also set out briefly the safety analysis objectives and the three barriers established to protect the public against the radiological consequences. To distinguish failures that cause severe accidents and to analyze them in details, it is necessary to classify the accidents. There are many ways to do it according to their initiator event, or to their frequency, or to their degree of gravity. The safety criteria adopted by nuclear industry have been explained. These criteria specify the limits of certain physical parameters that should not be exceeded in case of incidents or accidents. To compare the real causes of T.M.I. and Chernobyl accidents, the events that led to both have been presented. As observed the main common contributing factors in both cases are that the operators did not pay attention to warnings and signals that were available to them and that they were not trained to handle these accident sequences. The essential conclusions derived from these severe accidents are: -The improvement of operators competence contribute to reduce the accident risks; -The rapid and correct diagnosis of real conditions at each point of the accidents permits an appropriate behavior that would bring the plant to a stable state; -Competent technical teams have to intervene and to assist the operators in case of emergency; -Emergency plans and an international collaboration are necessary to limit the accident risks. 11 figs. (author)

  20. Higher physiotherapy frequency is associated with shorter length of stay and greater functional recovery in hospitalized frail older adults: a retrospective observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Hartley, Peter; Adamson, Jennifer; Cunningham, Carol; Embleton, Georgina; Romero-Ortuno, Roman

    2016-01-01

    Extra physiotherapy has been associated with better outcomes in hospitalized patients, but this remains an under-researched area in geriatric medicine wards. We retrospectively studied the association between average physiotherapy frequency and outcomes in hospitalized geriatric patients. High frequency physiotherapy (HFP) was defined as ≥0.5 contacts/day. Of 358 eligible patients, 131 (36.6%) received low, and 227 (63.4%) HFP. Functional improvement (discharge versus admission) in the modifi...

  1. FN-curves: preliminary estimation of severe accident risks after Fukushima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasconcelos, Vanderley de; Soares, Wellington Antonio; Costa, Antonio Carlos Lopes da, E-mail: vasconv@cdtn.br, E-mail: soaresw@cdtn.br, E-mail: aclc@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Doubts of whether the risks related to severe accidents in nuclear reactors are indeed very low were raised after the nuclear accident at Fukushima Daiichi in 2011. Risk estimations of severe accidents in nuclear power plants involve both probability and consequence assessment of such events. Among the ways to display risks, risk curves are tools that express the frequency of exceeding a certain magnitude of consequence. Societal risk is often represented graphically in a FN-curve, a type of risk curve, which displays the probability of having N or more fatalities per year, as a function of N, on a double logarithmic scale. The FN-curve, originally introduced for the assessment of the risks in the nuclear industry through the U.S.NRC Reactor Safety Study WASH-1400 (1975), is used in various countries to express and limit risks of hazardous activities. This first study estimated an expected rate of core damage equal to 5x10{sup -5} by reactor-year and suggested an upper bound of 3x10{sup -4} by reactor-year. A more recent report issued by Electric Power Research Institute - EPRI (2008) estimates a figure of the order of 2x10{sup -5} by reactor-year. The Fukushima nuclear accident apparently implies that the observed core damage frequency is higher than that predicted by these probabilistic safety assessments. Therefore, this paper presents a preliminary analyses of the FN-curves related to severe nuclear reactor accidents, taking into account a combination of available data of past accidents, probability modelling to estimate frequencies, and expert judgments. (author)

  2. FN-curves: preliminary estimation of severe accident risks after Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcelos, Vanderley de; Soares, Wellington Antonio; Costa, Antonio Carlos Lopes da

    2015-01-01

    Doubts of whether the risks related to severe accidents in nuclear reactors are indeed very low were raised after the nuclear accident at Fukushima Daiichi in 2011. Risk estimations of severe accidents in nuclear power plants involve both probability and consequence assessment of such events. Among the ways to display risks, risk curves are tools that express the frequency of exceeding a certain magnitude of consequence. Societal risk is often represented graphically in a FN-curve, a type of risk curve, which displays the probability of having N or more fatalities per year, as a function of N, on a double logarithmic scale. The FN-curve, originally introduced for the assessment of the risks in the nuclear industry through the U.S.NRC Reactor Safety Study WASH-1400 (1975), is used in various countries to express and limit risks of hazardous activities. This first study estimated an expected rate of core damage equal to 5x10 -5 by reactor-year and suggested an upper bound of 3x10 -4 by reactor-year. A more recent report issued by Electric Power Research Institute - EPRI (2008) estimates a figure of the order of 2x10 -5 by reactor-year. The Fukushima nuclear accident apparently implies that the observed core damage frequency is higher than that predicted by these probabilistic safety assessments. Therefore, this paper presents a preliminary analyses of the FN-curves related to severe nuclear reactor accidents, taking into account a combination of available data of past accidents, probability modelling to estimate frequencies, and expert judgments. (author)

  3. Nuclear accident dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The film presents statistical data on criticality accidents. It outlines past IAEA activities on criticality accident dosimetry and the technical documents that resulted from this work. The film furthermore illustrates an international comparison study on nuclear accident dosimetry conducted at the Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell, United Kingdom

  4. Nuclear accident dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-12-31

    The film presents statistical data on criticality accidents. It outlines past IAEA activities on criticality accident dosimetry and the technical documents that resulted from this work. The film furthermore illustrates an international comparison study on nuclear accident dosimetry conducted at the Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell, United Kingdom

  5. [Multicenter paragliding accident study 1990].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautenschlager, S; Karli, U; Matter, P

    1992-01-01

    During the period from 1.1.90 until 31.12.90, 86 injuries associated with paragliding were analyzed in a prospective study in 12 different Swiss hospitals with reference to causes, patterns, and frequencies. The injuries showed a mean score of over 2 and were classified as severe. Most frequent spine injuries (36%) and lesions of the lower extremity (35%) with a high risk of the ankles were diagnosed. One accident was fatal. 60% of the accidents happened during landing, 26% during launching and 14% during flight. Half of the pilots were affected during their primary training course. Most accidents were caused by inflight error of judgement--especially incorrect estimation of wind conditions--and further the choice of unfavourable landing sites. In contrast to previous injury-reports, only one equipment failure could be noted, but often the equipment was not corresponding with the experience and the weight of the pilot. To reduce the frequency of paragliding-injuries an accurate choice of equipment and an increased attention to environmental factors is mandatory. Furthermore an education-program regarding the attitude and intelligence of the pilot should be included in training courses.

  6. Improving aircraft accident forecasting for an integrated plutonium storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rock, J.C.; Kiffe, J.; McNerney, M.T.; Turen, T.A.

    1998-06-01

    Aircraft accidents pose a quantifiable threat to facilities used to store and process surplus weapon-grade plutonium. The Department of Energy (DOE) recently published its first aircraft accident analysis guidelines: Accident Analysis for Aircraft Crash into Hazardous Facilities. This document establishes a hierarchy of procedures for estimating the small annual frequency for aircraft accidents that impact Pantex facilities and the even smaller frequency of hazardous material released to the environment. The standard establishes a screening threshold of 10 -6 impacts per year; if the initial estimate of impact frequency for a facility is below this level, no further analysis is required. The Pantex Site-Wide Environmental Impact Statement (SWEIS) calculates the aircraft impact frequency to be above this screening level. The DOE Standard encourages more detailed analyses in such cases. This report presents three refinements, namely, removing retired small military aircraft from the accident rate database, correcting the conversion factor from military accident rates (accidents per 100,000 hours) to the rates used in the DOE model (accidents per flight phase), and adjusting the conditional probability of impact for general aviation to more accurately reflect pilot training and local conditions. This report documents a halving of the predicted frequency of an aircraft impact at Pantex and points toward further reductions

  7. Supervisor's accident investigation handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-02-01

    This pamphlet was prepared by the Environmental Health and Safety Department (EH and S) of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) to provide LBL supervisors with a handy reference to LBL's accident investigation program. The publication supplements the Accident and Emergencies section of LBL's Regulations and Procedures Manual, Pub. 201. The present guide discusses only accidents that are to be investigated by the supervisor. These accidents are classified as Type C by the Department of Energy (DOE) and include most occupational injuries and illnesses, government motor-vehicle accidents, and property damages of less than $50,000

  8. Severe Accidents in the Energy Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirschberg, S; Spiekerman, G; Dones, R

    1998-11-01

    nuclear. Generally, the immediate failure rates are for all considered energy carriers significantly higher for the non OECD countries than for OECD countries, while the internal ranking remains the same in both categories (with the important exception of hydro energy in OECD countries). This is valid both for the straight forward assessment as well as for the estimates employing allocation schemes, in which the trade based flows of fossil energy carriers between the non OECD and OECD countries are taken into account. In addition to the presentation of results of the aggregated energy chain specific values, frequency consequence curves are also provided. They reflect implicitly the above ranking but provide also such information as the observed or predicted chain specific maximum extents of damages. This perspective on severe accidents may lead to different system rankings, depending on the individual risk aversion. Finally, the limitations of the approach are discussed, and recommendations for future work are provided. (author) refs., 147 figs., 78 tabs.

  9. Severe Accidents in the Energy Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirschberg, S.; Spiekerman, G.; Dones, R.

    1998-11-01

    nuclear. Generally, the immediate failure rates are for all considered energy carriers significantly higher for the non OECD countries than for OECD countries, while the internal ranking remains the same in both categories (with the important exception of hydro energy in OECD countries). This is valid both for the straight forward assessment as well as for the estimates employing allocation schemes, in which the trade based flows of fossil energy carriers between the non OECD and OECD countries are taken into account. In addition to the presentation of results of the aggregated energy chain specific values, frequency consequence curves are also provided. They reflect implicitly the above ranking but provide also such information as the observed or predicted chain specific maximum extents of damages. This perspective on severe accidents may lead to different system rankings, depending on the individual risk aversion. Finally, the limitations of the approach are discussed, and recommendations for future work are provided. (author)

  10. Effects of the Chernobyl accident on public perceptions of nuclear plant accident risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindell, M.K.; Perry, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    Assessments of public perceptions of the characteristics of a nuclear power plant accident and affective responses to its likelihood were conducted 5 months before and 1 month after the Chernobyl accident. Analyses of data from 69 residents of southwestern Washington showed significant test-retest correlations for only 10 of 18 variables--accident likelihood, three measures of impact characteristics, three measures of affective reactions, and hazard knowledge by governmental sources. Of these variables, only two had significant changes in mean ratings; frequency of thought and frequency of discussion about a nearby nuclear power plant both increased. While there were significant changes only for two personal consequences (expectations of cancer and genetic effects), both of these decreased. The results of this study indicate that more attention should be given to assessing the stability of risk perceptions over time. Moreover, the data demonstrate that experience with a major accident can actually decrease rather than increase perceptions of threat

  11. Accident risks in the energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgherr, P.

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the accident rate of natural gas installations, which are quoted by the author to be lowest of all fossil fuels. The statistics on accidents and their consequences are looked at for the whole natural gas supply chain. The results of a study commissioned by the Swiss Gas and Water Professionals Association (SVGW) are presented and discussed. Statistics for the European Union and Eastern Europe are looked at and analysed. The study's methodological basis is described and the criteria used for the definition of an accident considered to be 'serious' are listed. The results of comparisons made of various energy chains are presented and discussed. Graphics are presented of frequency of occurrence and seriousness of damage for various forms of energy as well as for maximum possible consequences of accidents. Specific analyses for the natural gas chain are presented

  12. Unions, Health and Safety Committees, and Workplace Accidents in the Korean Manufacturing Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo-Yung Kim

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: Health and safety committees were found to reduce the incidence of accidents whereas unionized establishments have higher incidence of accidents than nonunionized establishments. We also found that health and safety committees can more effectively reduce accidents in nonunionized establishments. By contrast, nonexclusive joint committees can more effectively reduce accidents in unionized establishments.

  13. Accidents, 'black swans' and risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luxat, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Major accidents and natural disasters with severe consequences have occurred in all sectors of industrial activity with relatively high frequency. The severe consequences of concern involve either significant loss of life or major economic loss, or both loss of life and economic loss. Such events have the last two years been referred to as 'black swan' events following publication of Taleb's bestselling book. These events demonstrate limits to PRA application that arise from the underlying high uncertainty associated with the estimation of frequency of occurrence of such events. An approach is proposed in this paper that, consistent with the concept of defense in depth employed by the nuclear industry, augments probabilistic risk assessment with a methodology based upon 'threat - risk assessment'. This approach shifts these very low frequency high consequence 'black swan' events out of the probabilistic risk assessment domain into a deterministic emergency response assessment domain. (author)

  14. Visualization of Traffic Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Shen, Yuzhong; Khattak, Asad

    2010-01-01

    Traffic accidents have tremendous impact on society. Annually approximately 6.4 million vehicle accidents are reported by police in the US and nearly half of them result in catastrophic injuries. Visualizations of traffic accidents using geographic information systems (GIS) greatly facilitate handling and analysis of traffic accidents in many aspects. Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI), Inc. is the world leader in GIS research and development. ArcGIS, a software package developed by ESRI, has the capabilities to display events associated with a road network, such as accident locations, and pavement quality. But when event locations related to a road network are processed, the existing algorithm used by ArcGIS does not utilize all the information related to the routes of the road network and produces erroneous visualization results of event locations. This software bug causes serious problems for applications in which accurate location information is critical for emergency responses, such as traffic accidents. This paper aims to address this problem and proposes an improved method that utilizes all relevant information of traffic accidents, namely, route number, direction, and mile post, and extracts correct event locations for accurate traffic accident visualization and analysis. The proposed method generates a new shape file for traffic accidents and displays them on top of the existing road network in ArcGIS. Visualization of traffic accidents along Hampton Roads Bridge Tunnel is included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  15. Monitoring of congenital malformations in Belarus after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazjuk, G.I.; Kirillova, I.A.; Nikolaev, D.L.; Novikova, I.V.

    1993-01-01

    An investigation of over 21,000 embryos and fetuses from medically-induced abortions was conducted from 1980 through 1991 in the Republic of Belarus. More than half of the abortions studied were carried out after the Chernobyl nuclear accident, including 1176 from districts with 137 Cs soil contamination levels over 0.6 TBq/km 2 (15 Ci/km 2 ). Congenital malformations (CM's) in 7325 newborn children also were analyzed. The data on these children were obtained from a genetic monitoring program. It was shown that in the 5 years after the Chernobyl accident the frequency of abnormal developments in aborted fetuses from contaminated areas was significantly higher than in aborted fetuses from Minsk, which was relatively uncontaminated. Additionally, the CM incidence in newborn children increased in Belarus compared to the CM incidences before the accident; the increase was most significant in the heavily contaminated areas. The increases were attributed primarily to CMS characterized by dominant mutations. These increases could have been partially caused by factors unrelated to radiation dose, including defective nourishment, chemical contaminants, and psychological stresses. A correlation between CM increase and the parents' dose has not been established. 17 refs., 6 tabs

  16. [An analysis of industrial accidents in the working field with a particular emphasis on repeated accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakisaka, I; Yanagihashi, T; Tomari, T; Sato, M

    1990-03-01

    The present study is based on an analysis of routinely submitted reports of occupational accidents experienced by the workers of industrial enterprises under the jurisdiction of Kagoshima Labor Standard Office during a 5-year period 1983 to 1987. Officially notified injuries serious enough to keep employees away from their job for work at least 4 days were utilized in this study. Data was classified so as to give an observed frequency distribution for workers having any specified number of accidents. Also, the accident rate which is an indicator of the risk of accident was compared among different occupations, between age groups and between the sexes. Results obtained are as follows; 1) For the combined total of 6,324 accident cases for 8 types of occupation (Construction, Transportation, Mining & Quarrying, Forestry, Food manufacture, Lumber & Woodcraft, Manufacturing industry and Other business), the number of those who had at least one accident was 6,098, of which 5,837 were injured only once, 208 twice, 21 three times and 2 four times. When occupation type was fixed, however, the number of workers having one, two, three and four times of accidents were 5,895, 182, 19 and 2, respectively. This suggests that some workers are likely to have experienced repeated accidents in more than one type of occupation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Epidemiology of deaths due to traffic accidents in Kermanshah province (2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Malekifar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The increasing trend of traffic accidents is one of the most serious problems of public health. The aim of this paper was to investigate the fatal traffic accidents in Kermanshah province. Method: All research data required were obtained from Legal Medicine Organization and analyzed by Stata-11 software. Traffic statistics available on the Road Maintenance and Transportation Organization website were used to study the death rate per month and day according to traffic level on suburban highways. Results: The incidence rate of age-standardized deaths due to road traffic accidents was 26.1per 100,000 people, and the mean age of the dead was 39.98±21.60 years. The mortality rate was higher in men, those more than 40 years old, married, illiterate and self-employed. Considering the traffic rate on suburban roads, the highest death rate occurred in the warmest months of the year during the day. Furthermore, most deaths were due to collisions and the highest frequency of death was reported for the car occupants. In most cases, head injuries and head traumas were the final cause of death. A significant correlation was reported between the type of vehicle and the cause of death and how the accident occurred (P<0.05. Conclusion: The mortality rate due to traffic accidents in Kermanshah province is high. Surveillance over the suburban roads in hot seasons and male drivers is of particular importance.

  18. The effect of roundabout design features on cyclist accident rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hels, Tove; Orozova-Bekkevold, Ivanka

    2007-01-01

    Roundabouts are known to result in fewer traffic accidents than traditional intersections. However, this is to a lesser degree true for bicycles than for vehicles. In this paper, we aimed at establishing statistical relationships through Poisson regression and logistic regression analyses between...... was age of the roundabout-older roundabouts related to more accidents and higher accident probability. Excluding 48 single cyclist accidents strengthened the relationship between accidents on one hand and vehicle and cyclist volume and potential vehicle speed on the other. This stresses the significance...

  19. Accidents in radiotherapy: Lack of quality assurance?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novotny, J.

    1997-01-01

    About 150 radiological accidents, involving more than 3000 patients with adverse effects, 15 patient's fatalities and about 5000 staff and public exposures have been collected and analysed. Out of 67 analysed accidents in external beam therapy 22% has been caused by wrong calculation of the exposure time or monitor units, 13% by inadequate review of patient's chart, 12% by mistakes in the anatomical area to be treated. The remaining 35% can be attributed to 17 different causes. The most common mistakes in brachytherapy were wrong activities of sources used for treatment (20%), inadequate procedures for placement of sources applicators (14%), mistakes in calculating the treatment time (12%), etc. The direct and contributing causes of radiological accidents have been deduced from each event, when it was possible and categorized into 9 categories: mistakes in procedures (30%), professional mistakes (17%), communication mistakes (15%), lack of training (8.5%), interpretation mistakes (7%), lack of supervision (6%), mistakes in judgement (6%), hardware failures (5%), software and other mistakes (5.5%). Three types of direct and contributing causes responsible for almost 62% of all accidents are directly connected to the quality assurance of treatment. The lessons learnt from the accidents are related to frequencies of direct and contributing factors and show that most of the accident are caused by lack, non-application of quality assurance (QA) procedures or by underestimating of QA procedures. The international system for collection of accidents and dissemination of lessons learnt from the different accidents, proposed by IAEA, can contribute to better practice in many radiotherapy departments. Most of the accidents could have been avoided, had a comprehensive QA programme been established and properly applied in all radiotherapy departments, whatever the size. (author)

  20. Analysis of National Major Work Safety Accidents in China, 2003-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yunfeng; Zhang, Siheng; Rao, Jiaming; Wang, Haiqing; Li, Yang; Wang, Shengyong; Dong, Xiaomei

    2016-01-01

    This study provides a national profile of major work safety accidents in China, which cause more than 10 fatalities per accident, intended to provide scientific basis for prevention measures and strategies to reduce major work safety accidents and deaths. Data from 2003-2012 Census of major work safety accidents were collected from State Administration of Work Safety System (SAWS). Published literature and statistical yearbook were also included to implement information. We analyzed the frequency of accidents and deaths, trend, geographic distribution and injury types. Additionally, we discussed the severity and urgency of emergency rescue by types of accidents. A total of 877 major work safety accidents were reported, resulting in 16,795 deaths and 9,183 injuries. The numbers of accidents and deaths, mortality rate and incidence of major accidents have declined in recent years. The mortality rate and incidence was 0.71 and 1.20 per 10(6) populations in 2012, respectively. Transportation and mining contributed to the highest number of major accidents and deaths. Major aviation and railway accidents caused more casualties per incident, while collapse, machinery, electrical shock accidents and tailing dam accidents were the most severe situation that resulted in bigger proportion of death. Ten years' major work safety accident data indicate that the frequency of accidents and number of eaths was declined and several safety concerns persist in some segments.

  1. Analysis of National Major Work Safety Accidents in China, 2003–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    YE, Yunfeng; ZHANG, Siheng; RAO, Jiaming; WANG, Haiqing; LI, Yang; WANG, Shengyong; DONG, Xiaomei

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study provides a national profile of major work safety accidents in China, which cause more than 10 fatalities per accident, intended to provide scientific basis for prevention measures and strategies to reduce major work safety accidents and deaths. Methods: Data from 2003–2012 Census of major work safety accidents were collected from State Administration of Work Safety System (SAWS). Published literature and statistical yearbook were also included to implement information. We analyzed the frequency of accidents and deaths, trend, geographic distribution and injury types. Additionally, we discussed the severity and urgency of emergency rescue by types of accidents. Results: A total of 877 major work safety accidents were reported, resulting in 16,795 deaths and 9,183 injuries. The numbers of accidents and deaths, mortality rate and incidence of major accidents have declined in recent years. The mortality rate and incidence was 0.71 and 1.20 per 106 populations in 2012, respectively. Transportation and mining contributed to the highest number of major accidents and deaths. Major aviation and railway accidents caused more casualties per incident, while collapse, machinery, electrical shock accidents and tailing dam accidents were the most severe situation that resulted in bigger proportion of death. Conclusion: Ten years’ major work safety accident data indicate that the frequency of accidents and number of eaths was declined and several safety concerns persist in some segments. PMID:27057515

  2. Analysis of traffic accidents in Romania, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Călinoiu, Geovana; Minca, Dana Galieta; Furtunescu, Florentina Ligia

    2012-01-01

    This paper aimed to underline the main consequences of traffic accidents in Romania 2009 and their associated causes or circumstances. We identified some problematic geographic areas, some critical months or moments of the day and also the most frequent causes; all these should become targets for the future planning. The current analysis provides some priority criteria for public health interventions. So, the future national road safety strategy should be in line with the EU objectives, but also with the national priorities. Romania is far away from the average EU target for 2010 of halving the death by traffic accidents registered in 2001. To describe the circumstances and the consequences related to traffic accidents registered in Romania, for the year 2009. An ecological study was conducted. The traffic accidents circumstances were analyzed in terms of magnitude, geographic space, time and cause. The consequences were analyzed as affected people and damaged cars. A total of 28,627 traffic accidents were registered in Romania during the year 2009. 2,796 people were killed and 27,968 were hospitalized and 42,443 cars were damaged. 3 of 4 accidents were caused by violations on behalf of the car drivers. Most common violations in car drivers were excess of speed and priority violations (52.4%). Among the pedestrians, 7 of 10 accidents were caused by illegal crossing. A higher number of accidents occurred during the summer months and during the evening hours (from 5.00 pm till 8.00 pm). The traffic accidents represent a real public health problem in Romania and a serious burden for the health system. The gap between Romania and the other EU member states needs to be diminished in the next decade. In this purpose, the future national road safety strategy should be in line with the EU objectives, but also with the national priorities. Research is needed to understand the causes and the socio-economical impact of traffic accidents and to define appropriate national

  3. The Chernobyl accident consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-04-01

    Five teen years later, Tchernobyl remains the symbol of the greater industrial nuclear accident. To take stock on this accident, this paper proposes a chronology of the events and presents the opinion of many international and national organizations. It provides also web sites references concerning the environmental and sanitary consequences of the Tchernobyl accident, the economic actions and propositions for the nuclear safety improvement in the East Europe. (A.L.B.)

  4. Radiation, accidents, society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This book is meant to be used as a reference book for information officers at the event of a nuclear accident. The main part is edited in alphabetical order to facilitate use under stress. The book gives a short review of the health risks of radiation, and descriptions of accidents that have occured. The index words that have been chosen for the main part of the book have been selected due to experiences in connection with incidents and accidents. (L.E.)

  5. Reactivity insertion accident analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, J.M.L.; Nakata, H.; Yorihaz, H.

    1990-04-01

    The correct prediction of postulated accidents is the fundamental requirement for the reactor licensing procedures. Accident sequences and severity of their consequences depend upon the analysis which rely on analytical tools which must be validated against known experimental results. Present work presents a systematic approach to analyse and estimate the reactivity insertion accident sequences. The methodology is based on the CINETHICA code which solves the point-kinetics/thermohydraulic coupled equations with weighted temperature feedback. Comparison against SPERT experimental results shows good agreement for the step insertion accidents. (author) [pt

  6. Nuclear accidents and epidemiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    A consultation on epidemiology related to the Chernobyl accident was held in Copenhagen in May 1987 as a basis for concerted action. This was followed by a joint IAEA/WHO workshop in Vienna, which reviewed appropriate methodologies for possible long-term effects of radiation following nuclear accidents. The reports of these two meetings are included in this volume, and cover the subjects: 1) Epidemiology related to the Chernobyl nuclear accident. 2) Appropriate methodologies for studying possible long-term effects of radiation on individuals exposed in a nuclear accident. Figs and tabs

  7. Accidents (FARS) (National)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Accident - (1975-current): This data file (NTAD) contains information about crash characteristics and environmental conditions at the time of the crash. There is one...

  8. [Occupational accidents in an oil refinery in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Carlos Augusto Vaz de; Freitas, Carlos Machado de

    2002-10-01

    Work in oil refineries involves the risk of minor to major accidents. National data show the impact of accidents on this industry. A study was carried out to describe accident profile and evaluate the adequacy of accident reporting system. Data on all accidents reported in an oil refinery in the state of Rio de Janeiro for the year 1997 were organized and analyzed. The study population consisted of 153 injury cases, 83 hired and 69 contracted workers. The variables were: type of accident, operation mode and position of the worker injured. Among hired workers, minor accidents predominated (54.2%) and they occurred during regular operation activities (62.9%). Among contracted workers, there also predominated minor accidents (75.5%) in a higher percentage, but they occurred mainly during maintenance activities (96.8%). The study results showed that there is a predominance of accidents in lower hierarchy workers, and these accidents occur mainly during maintenance activities. There is a need to improve the company's accident reporting system and accident investigation procedures.

  9. Fatal accidents among Danes with multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Hansen, Thomas; Koch-Henriksen, Nils

    2006-01-01

    We compared the rate of fatal accidents among Danes with multiple sclerosis (MS) with that of the general population. The study was based on linkage of the Danish Multiple Sclerosis Registry to the Cause of Death Registry and covered all 10174 persons in whom MS was diagnosed during the period 19...... for deaths from burns (SMR = 8.90) and suffocation (SMR = 5.57). We conclude that persons with MS are more prone to fatal accidents than the general population. The excess risk is due not to traffic accidents but to burns and suffocation.......-1996. The end of follow-up was 1 January 1999. We calculated standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for various types of fatal accidents. A total of 76 persons (48 men and 28 women) died from accidents, whereas the expected number of fatalities from such causes was 55.7 (31.4 men and 24.3 women). Thus, the risk...... for death from accidents among persons with MS was 37% higher than that of the general population (SMR = 1.37). We found no significant excess risk for fatal road accidents (SMR = 0.80). The risk for falls was elevated (SMR = 1.29) but not statistically significantly so. The risks were particularly high...

  10. Domino effect in chemical accidents: main features and accident sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Casal Fàbrega, Joaquim; Darbra Roman, Rosa Maria

    2010-01-01

    The main features of domino accidents in process/storage plants and in the transportation of hazardous materials were studied through an analysis of 225 accidents involving this effect. Data on these accidents, which occurred after 1961, were taken from several sources. Aspects analyzed included the accident scenario, the type of accident, the materials involved, the causes and consequences and the most common accident sequences. The analysis showed that the most frequent causes a...

  11. Uncertainties and severe-accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastenberg, W.E.

    1991-01-01

    Severe-accident management can be defined as the use of existing and or alternative resources, systems, and actions to prevent or mitigate a core-melt accident. Together with risk management (e.g., changes in plant operation and/or addition of equipment) and emergency planning (off-site actions), accident management provides an extension of the defense-indepth safety philosophy for severe accidents. A significant number of probabilistic safety assessments have been completed, which yield the principal plant vulnerabilities, and can be categorized as (a) dominant sequences with respect to core-melt frequency, (b) dominant sequences with respect to various risk measures, (c) dominant threats that challenge safety functions, and (d) dominant threats with respect to failure of safety systems. Severe-accident management strategies can be generically classified as (a) use of alternative resources, (b) use of alternative equipment, and (c) use of alternative actions. For each sequence/threat and each combination of strategy, there may be several options available to the operator. Each strategy/option involves phenomenological and operational considerations regarding uncertainty. These include (a) uncertainty in key phenomena, (b) uncertainty in operator behavior, (c) uncertainty in system availability and behavior, and (d) uncertainty in information availability (i.e., instrumentation). This paper focuses on phenomenological uncertainties associated with severe-accident management strategies

  12. Accidents in the greenhouse-construction industry of SE Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Alonso, José; Carreño-Ortega, Angel; Vázquez-Cabrera, Fernando J; Callejón-Ferre, Angel Jesús

    2012-01-01

    This work analyses the labour accidents in the greenhouse-construction industry of SE Spain for the period 1999-2007 through a sample of 180 accident reports. The accidents were characterised by studying 5 variables in order to know the day of the week in which the accident occurred, the hour of the day of the accident, type of accident, the region of Spain in which the accident happened, and the resulting injury. The data characterising the accidents were submitted to a descriptive multiple-correspondence analysis. The incidence of accidents in the greenhouse-construction industry presented a high mean value of 15133.7 per 100,000 workers per year. The days with the greatest incidence of accidents were Thursday and Monday, while the period of greatest number of accidents occurred in the first 4h of the workday. No significant correspondence was found between the day of the week, the hour of the day, or any of the other 3 variables studied. The types of accidents with most frequency were: cuts, punctures, contact with hard or rough material, overexertion, and falls from one level to another. The most affected parts of the anatomy were the eyes, thorax, back, sides, lower legs, and feet. The most common types of injury were bone fractures, twists and sprains, distended muscles, contusions, and being crushed. The study calls attention to the high number of accidents at work, which needs to be corrected by fulfilment of safety regulations at work, on the part of the company. Finally, recommendations are made to correct this situation of high number of accidents at work. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  13. Factors contributing to young moped rider accidents in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Mette; Haustein, Sonja

    2016-01-01

    Young road users still constitute a high-risk group with regard to road traffic accidents. The crash rate of a moped is four times greater than that of a motorcycle, and the likelihood of being injured in a road traffic accident is 10-20 times higher among moped riders compared to car drivers...... was made between accident factors related to (1) the road and its surroundings, (2) the vehicle, and (3) the reported behaviour and condition of the road user. Thirteen accident factors were identified with the majority concerning the reported behaviour and condition of the road user. The average number...... of accident factors assigned per accident was 2.7. Riding speed was assigned in 45% of the accidents which made it the most frequently assigned factor on the part of the moped rider followed by attention errors (42%), a tuned up moped (29%) and position on the road (14%). For the other parties involved...

  14. Chernobyl accident and Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-12-01

    The report describes the Chernobyl accident and its consequences for Denmark in particular. It was commissioned by The Secretary of State for the Environment. Volume 2 contains copies of original documents issued by Danish authorities during the first accident phase and afterwards. Evaluations, monitoring data, press releases, legislation acts etc. are included. (author)

  15. Criticality accident in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, A.R. de.

    1984-01-01

    A recent criticality type accident, ocurred in Argetina, is commented. Considerations about the nature of the facility where this accident took place, its genesis, type of operation carried out on the day of the event, and the medical aspects involved are done. (Author) [pt

  16. Chernobyl accident and Danmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-12-01

    The report describes the Chernobyl accident and its consequences for Denmark in particular. It was commissioned by the Secretary of State for the Environment. Volume 1 contains copies of original documents issued by Danish authorities during the first accident phase and afterwards. Evaluations, monitoring data, press releases, legislation acts etc. are included. (author)

  17. Communication and industrial accidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    As, Sicco van

    2001-01-01

    This paper deals with the influence of organizational communication on safety. Accidents are actually caused by individual mistakes. However the underlying causes of accidents are often organizational. As a link between these two levels - the organizational failures and mistakes - I suggest the

  18. Chapter 6: Accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2018-04-01

    Th chapter 6 presents the accidents of: 1) Stimos (Italy - May, 1975); 2) San Salvador (El Salvador - February 5, 1989); 3) Soreq (Israel - June 21, 1990); 4) Nesvizh (Belarus - October 26, 1991); 5) Illinois (USA - February, 1965); 6)Maryland (EUA - December 11, 1991); 7)Hanoi (Vietnam -November 17, 1992); 8)Fleurus (Belgium - March 11, 2006) and final remarks on accidents.

  19. Radiological accidents in medical practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardenas Herrera, Juan

    2012-01-01

    Different radiological accidents that may occur in medical practice are shown. The following topics are focused: accident statistics for medical exposure, accidental medical exposures, radiotherapy accidents and potential accidental scenarios [es

  20. Group unified accident reporting database (GUARD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koene, W.; Waterfall, K.W.

    1991-01-01

    Significant advances have been made in recent years in enhancing the standard of safety within Shell Companies, such that safety has now been raised to a status equal to other primary business objectives. It is widely accepted that accident prevention is part of good business practice, and that a safe operation is normally an efficient operation. Safety programmes are being widely implemented which involve all employees from top management right down to the workforce including the contract staff, and the benefits are being realized. The effectiveness of any safety programme, however, must be continuously monitored, and in this respect injury and accident statistics play an important role as a prime indicator of safety performance. Statistics form part of the safety management process indicating the success of the safety programmes being implemented, and highlighting areas of weakness. Statistical information relating to the number and frequency of accidents, significant as it is, tells us little about how the accidents occur, or about how to improve the intrinsic safety of the operations. More detailed information on accident causes and lessons derived from the investigation of non-injurious accidents and near-misses is required for this, and for the setting of appropriate remedial actions. This paper concentrates on the feedback from accidents which have already occurred. This feedback plays a vital role as an indicator of safety performance upon which to judge the effectiveness of safety programmes, and also to provide important information relating to the immediate and underlying causes of accidents. To meet these requirements, however, a system for recording analyzing and communicating safety data is essential

  1. [Violence and accidents among older and younger adults: evidence from the Surveillance System for Violence and Accidents (VIVA), Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Tatiana Chama Borges; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Sá, Naíza Nayla Bandeira de; Silva, Marta Maria Alves da; Lima-Costa, Maria Fernanda

    2011-11-01

    Data from the Brazilian Surveillance System for Violence and Accidents (VIVA) in 2009 were used to examine socio-demographic characteristics, outcomes, and types of accidents and violence treated at 74 sentinel emergency services in 23 Brazilian State capitals and the Federal District. The analysis included 25,201 individuals aged > 20 years (10.1% > 60 years); 89.3% were victims of accidents and 11.9% victims of violence. Hospitalization was the outcome in 11.1% of cases. Compared to the general population, there were more men and non-white individuals among victims of accidents, and especially among victims of violence. As compared to younger adults (20-59 years), accidents and violence against elderly victims showed less association with alcohol, a higher proportion of domestic incidents, more falls and pedestrian accidents, and aggression by family members. Policies for the prevention of accidents and violence should consider the characteristics of these events in the older population.

  2. National and regional analysis of road accidents in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolón-Becerra, A; Lastra-Bravo, X; Flores-Parra, I

    2013-01-01

    In Spain, the absolute fatality figures decreased almost 50 percent between 1998 and 2009. Despite this great effort, road mortality is still of great concern to political authorities. Further progress requires efficient road safety policy based on an optimal set of measures and targets that consider the initial conditions and characteristics in each region. This study attempts to analyze road accidents in Spain and its provinces in time and space during 1998-2009. First, we analyzed daily, monthly, and nationwide (NUTS 0) development of road accidents, the correlation between logarithmic transformations of road accidents and territorial and socioeconomic variables, the causality by simple linear regression of road accidents and territorial and socioeconomic variables, and preliminary frequency by fast Fourier transform. Then we analyzed the annual trend in accidents in the Spanish provinces (NUTS 3) and found a correlation between the logarithmic transformations of the mortality rate, fatalities per fatal accident, and accidents resulting in injuries per inhabitant variables and population, population density, gross domestic product (GDP), length of road network, and area. Finally, causality was analyzed by simple linear regression. The most outstanding results were the negative correlation between mortality rate and population density in Spanish provinces, which has increased over time, and that road accidents in Spain have an approximate periodicity of 57 days. The fast Fourier transform analysis of road accident frequency in Spain was useful in identifying the periodic, harmonic components of accidents and casualties. The periodicity observed both for the period 1998-2009 and by year showed that the highest intensity in road accidents was bimonthly, despite the lower number of accidents and casualties in the spectra of amplitude and power and efforts to reduce the intensity and concentration during off-season travel (summer and December).

  3. Communication of work accidents involving biological material: a study in the city of Santa Cruz do Sul/RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayane Diehl

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Rationale and Objectives: Healthcare workers are constantly exposed to the risk of occupational accidents involving biological material. Thus the aim of the study was to develop a profile of workers involved in workplace accidents with biological materials in Santa Cruz do Sul, through the number of notifications made in information systems. Methods: Transversal retrospective study with a quantitative approach; data collection was carried out between the years 2008 and 2010 from medical records in the Municipal Reference Occupational Health Unit – UMREST – containing the notification via Individual Report of Accident Notification - RINA, and/or Work Accident Communication - CAT. Results: A total of 1,263 records were analyzed during the study period. There were 13 notifications in 2008, 7 cases in 2009 and 2 in 2010. Five records had CAT, 8 had RINA and 9 had RINA and CAT. The most frequently affected professional category was the nursing technician, with the highest frequency in 2008, followed by dentists and nurses. There was a higher prevalence of female workers, with 18 cases. The most prevalent age group was 20 to 49 years old. Conclusion: The study showed that women working in the nursingprofession at the productive-age group are the ones most often affected by work accidents involving biological material during the study period. The study results raise the suspicion of underreporting of accidents with biological material, considering the number of notifications in thesetting of records found in the investigated UMREST. KEYWORDS Wo rk-related accidents. Health care professional. Occupational accidents.

  4. Higher frequency of cagA EPIYA-C Phosphorylation Sites in H. pylori strains from first-degree relatives of gastric cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Queiroz Dulciene MM

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the prevalence of more virulent H. pylori genotypes in relatives of gastric cancer patients and in patients without family histories of gastric cancer. Methods We evaluated prospectively the prevalence of the infection by more virulent H. pylori strains in 60 relatives of gastric cancer patients comparing the results with those obtained from 49 patients without family histories of gastric cancer. H. pylori status was determined by the urease test, histology and presence of H. pylori ureA. The cytotoxin associated gene (cagA, the cagA-EPIYA and vacuolating cytotoxin gene (vacA were typed by PCR and the cagA EPIYA typing was confirmed by sequencing. Results The gastric cancer relatives were significant and independently more frequently colonized by H. pylori strains with higher numbers of CagA-EPIYA-C segments (OR = 4.23, 95%CI = 1.53–11.69 and with the most virulent s1m1 vacA genotype (OR = 2.80, 95%CI = 1.04–7.51. Higher numbers of EPIYA-C segments were associated with increased gastric corpus inflammation, foveolar hyperplasia and atrophy. Infection by s1m1 vacA genotype was associated with increased antral and corpus gastritis. Conclusions We demonstrated that relatives of gastric cancer patients are more frequently colonized by the most virulent H. pylori cagA and vacA genotypes, which may contribute to increase the risk of gastric cancer.

  5. [Accidents and injuries at work].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standke, W

    2014-06-01

    In the case of an accident at work, the person concerned is insured by law according to the guidelines of the Sozialgesetzbuch VII as far as the injuries have been caused by this accident. The most important source of information on the incident in question is the accident report that has to be sent to the responsible institution for statutory accident insurance and prevention by the employer, if the accident of the injured person is fatal or leads to an incapacity to work for more than 3 days (= reportable accident). Data concerning accidents like these are sent to the Deutsche Gesetzliche Unfallversicherung (DGUV) as part of a random sample survey by the institutions for statutory accident insurance and prevention and are analyzed statistically. Thus the key issues of accidents can be established and used for effective prevention. Although the success of effective accident prevention is undisputed, there were still 919,025 occupational accidents in 2011, with clear gender-related differences. Most occupational accidents involve the upper and lower extremities. Accidents are analyzed comprehensively and the results are published and made available to all interested parties in an effort to improve public awareness of possible accidents. Apart from reportable accidents, data on the new occupational accident pensions are also gathered and analyzed statistically. Thus, additional information is gained on accidents with extremely serious consequences and partly permanent injuries for the accident victims.

  6. Risk-based Analysis of Construction Accidents in Iran During 2007-2011-Meta Analyze Study.

    OpenAIRE

    Mehran Amiri; Abdollah Ardeshir; Mohammad Hossein Fazel Zarandi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background The present study aimed to investigate the characteristics of occupational accidents and frequency and severity of work related accidents in the construction industry among Iranian insured workers during the years 20072011. Methods The Iranian Social Security Organization (ISSO) accident database containing 21,864 cases between the years 2007-2011 was applied in this study. In the next step, Total Accident Rate (TRA), Total Severity Index (TSI), and Risk Factor (RF) were d...

  7. Review of U.S. Army Unmanned Aerial Systems Accident Reports: Analysis of Human Error Contributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-20

    within report documents. The information presented was obtained through a request to use the U.S. Army Combat Readiness Center’s Risk Management ...controlled flight into terrain (13 accidents), fueling errors by improper techniques (7 accidents), and a variety of maintenance errors (10 accidents). The...and 9 of the 10 maintenance accidents. Table 4. Frequencies Based on Source of Human Error Human error source Presence Poor Planning

  8. Database on aircraft accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishio, Masahide; Koriyama, Tamio

    2012-09-01

    The Reactor Safety Subcommittee in the Nuclear Safety and Preservation Committee published the report 'The criteria on assessment of probability of aircraft crash into light water reactor facilities' as the standard method for evaluating probability of aircraft crash into nuclear reactor facilities in July 2002. In response to the report, Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization has been collecting open information on aircraft accidents of commercial airplanes, self-defense force (SDF) airplanes and US force airplanes every year since 2003, sorting out them and developing the database of aircraft accidents for latest 20 years to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into nuclear reactor facilities. This year, the database was revised by adding aircraft accidents in 2010 to the existing database and deleting aircraft accidents in 1991 from it, resulting in development of the revised 2011 database for latest 20 years from 1991 to 2010. Furthermore, the flight information on commercial aircrafts was also collected to develop the flight database for latest 20 years from 1991 to 2010 to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into reactor facilities. The method for developing the database of aircraft accidents to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into reactor facilities is based on the report 'The criteria on assessment of probability of aircraft crash into light water reactor facilities' described above. The 2011 revised database for latest 20 years from 1991 to 2010 shows the followings. The trend of the 2011 database changes little as compared to the last year's one. (1) The data of commercial aircraft accidents is based on 'Aircraft accident investigation reports of Japan transport safety board' of Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. 4 large fixed-wing aircraft accidents, 58 small fixed-wing aircraft accidents, 5 large bladed aircraft accidents and 114 small bladed aircraft accidents occurred. The relevant accidents for evaluating

  9. Management of severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankowski, M.W.

    1987-01-01

    The definition and the multidimensionality aspects of accident management have been reviewed. The suggested elements in the development of a programme for severe accident management have been identified and discussed. The strategies concentrate on the two tiered approaches. Operative management utilizes the plant's equipment and operators capabilities. The recovery managment concevtrates on preserving the containment, or delaying its failure, inhibiting the release, and on strategies once there has been a release. The inspiration for this paper was an excellent overview report on perspectives on managing severe accidents in commercial nuclear power plants and extending plant operating procedures into the severe accident regime; and by the most recent publication of the International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group (INSAG) considering the question of risk reduction and source term reduction through accident prevention, management and mitigation. The latter document concludes that 'active development of accident management measures by plant personnel can lead to very large reductions in source terms and risk', and goes further in considering and formulating the key issue: 'The most fruitful path to follow in reducing risk even further is through the planning of accident management.' (author)

  10. Accidents with sulfuric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajković Miloš B.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfuric acid is an important industrial and strategic raw material, the production of which is developing on all continents, in many factories in the world and with an annual production of over 160 million tons. On the other hand, the production, transport and usage are very dangerous and demand measures of precaution because the consequences could be catastrophic, and not only at the local level where the accident would happen. Accidents that have been publicly recorded during the last eighteen years (from 1988 till the beginning of 2006 are analyzed in this paper. It is very alarming data that, according to all the recorded accidents, over 1.6 million tons of sulfuric acid were exuded. Although water transport is the safest (only 16.38% of the total amount of accidents in that way 98.88% of the total amount of sulfuric acid was exuded into the environment. Human factor was the common factor in all the accidents, whether there was enough control of the production process, of reservoirs or transportation tanks or the transport was done by inadequate (old tanks, or the accidents arose from human factor (inadequate speed, lock of caution etc. The fact is that huge energy, sacrifice and courage were involved in the recovery from accidents where rescue teams and fire brigades showed great courage to prevent real environmental catastrophes and very often they lost their lives during the events. So, the phrase that sulfuric acid is a real "environmental bomb" has become clearer.

  11. Management of severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankowski, M.W.

    1988-01-01

    The definition and the multidimensionality aspects of accident management have been reviewed. The suggested elements in the development of a programme for severe accident management have been identified and discussed. The strategies concentrate on the two tiered approaches. Operative management utilizes the plant's equipment and operators capabilities. The recovery management concentrates on preserving the containment, or delaying its failure, inhibiting the release, and on strategies once there has been a release. The inspiration for this paper was an excellent overview report on perspectives on managing severe accidents in commercial nuclear power plants and extending plant operating procedures into the severe accident regime; and by the most recent publication of the International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group (INSAG) considering the question of risk reduction and source term reduction through accident prevention, management and mitigation. The latter document concludes that active development of accident management measures by plant personnel can lead to very large reductions in source terms and risk, and goes further in considering and formulating the key issue: The most fruitful path to follow in reducing risk even further is through the planning of accident management

  12. Persistence of airline accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Carlos Pestana; Faria, Joao Ricardo; Gil-Alana, Luis Alberiko

    2010-10-01

    This paper expands on air travel accident research by examining the relationship between air travel accidents and airline traffic or volume in the period from 1927-2006. The theoretical model is based on a representative airline company that aims to maximise its profits, and it utilises a fractional integration approach in order to determine whether there is a persistent pattern over time with respect to air accidents and air traffic. Furthermore, the paper analyses how airline accidents are related to traffic using a fractional cointegration approach. It finds that airline accidents are persistent and that a (non-stationary) fractional cointegration relationship exists between total airline accidents and airline passengers, airline miles and airline revenues, with shocks that affect the long-run equilibrium disappearing in the very long term. Moreover, this relation is negative, which might be due to the fact that air travel is becoming safer and there is greater competition in the airline industry. Policy implications are derived for countering accident events, based on competition and regulation. © 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation © Overseas Development Institute, 2010.

  13. Prediction accident triangle in maintenance of underground mine facilities using Poisson distribution analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuluqi, M. H.; Prapdito, R. R.; Sambodo, F. P.

    2018-04-01

    In Indonesia, mining is categorized as a hazardous industry. In recent years, a dramatic increase of mining equipment and technological complexities had resulted in higher maintenance expectations that accompanied by the changes in the working conditions, especially on safety. Ensuring safety during the process of conducting maintenance works in underground mine is important as an integral part of accident prevention programs. Accident triangle has provided a support to safety practitioner to draw a road map in preventing accidents. Poisson distribution is appropriate for the analysis of accidents at a specific site in a given time period. Based on the analysis of accident statistics in the underground mine maintenance of PT. Freeport Indonesia from 2011 through 2016, it is found that 12 minor accidents for 1 major accident and 66 equipment damages for 1 major accident as a new value of accident triangle. The result can be used for the future need for improving the accident prevention programs.

  14. Social impact of accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, Isao

    1997-01-01

    There is the quite big difference between technological risk and social risk feeling. Various biases of social and sensational factors on accidents must be considered to recognize this difference. 'How safe is safe enough' is the perpetual thema concerning with not only technology but also sociology. The safety goal in aircraft design and how making effort to improve the present safety status in civil jet aircrafts is discussed as an example of social risk allowance. INSAG under IAEA started to discuss the safety culture after Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident on 1986. Safety culture and risk communication are the most important procedures to relieve the social impact for accidents. (author)

  15. Severe accident behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denning, R.S.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of severe accident behavior. The term source term is defined and a brief history of the regulatory use of source term is presented. The processes in severe accidents in light water reactors are described with particular emphasis on the relationships between accident thermal-hydraulics and chemistry. Those factors which have the greatest impact on predicted source terms are identified. Design differences between plants that affect source term estimation are also described. The principal unresolved issues are identified that are the focus of ongoing research and debate in the technical community

  16. Management of accident risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compes, P.C.

    1987-01-01

    The example of the Chernobyl accident and the statistics of the occurrence of accidents make clear the threat to humanity, if one cannot guarantee successful accident prevention in the use and distribution of the projects aimed at. The science of safety, as it is known in the Wuppertal model, makes its contribution to this vital task for the human community. It makes it necessary to create the essential dates and concepts, the methods, principles and techniques based on them and the associated instrumentation. (DG) [de

  17. Chernobyl accident and Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-12-01

    The report describes the Chernobyl accident and its consequences for Denmark in particular. It was commissioned by The Secretary of State for the Environment. The event at the accident site, the release and dispersal of radioactive substances into the atmosphere and over Europe, is described. A discussion of the Danish organisation for nuclear emergencies, how it was activated and adapted to the actual situation, is given. A comprehensive description of the radiological contamination in Denmark following the accident and the estimated health effects, is presented. The situation in other European countries is mentioned. (author)

  18. The impact of vessel speed reduction on port accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Young-Tae; Park, Hyosoo

    2016-03-19

    Reduced-speed zones (RSZs) have been designated across the world to control emissions from ships and prevent mammal strikes. While some studies have examined the effectiveness of speed reduction on emissions and mammal preservation, few have analyzed the effects of reduced ship speed on vessel safety. Those few studies have not yet measured the relationship between vessel speed and accidents by using real accident data. To fill this gap in the literature, this study estimates the impact of vessel speed reduction on vessel damages, casualties and frequency of vessel accidents. Accidents in RSZ ports were compared to non-RSZ ports by using U.S. Coast Guard data to capture the speed reduction effects. The results show that speed reduction influenced accident frequency as a result of two factors, the fuel price and the RSZ designation. Every $10 increase in the fuel price led to a 10.3% decrease in the number of accidents, and the RSZ designation reduced vessel accidents by 47.9%. However, the results do not clarify the exact impact of speed reduction on accident casualty. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Accident resistant transport container

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J.A.; Cole, K.K.

    The invention relates to a container for the safe air transport of plutonium having several intermediate wood layers and a load spreader intermediate an inner container and an outer shell for mitigation of shock during a hypothetical accident.

  20. Accident resistant transport container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, J.A.; Cole, J.K.

    1980-01-01

    The invention relates to a container for the safe air transport of plutonium having several intermediate wood layers and a load spreader intermediate an inner container and an outer shell for mitigation of shock during a hypothetical accident

  1. Big nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, W.; Billingon, D.E.; Cameron, R.F.; Curl, S.J.

    1983-09-01

    Much of the debate on the safety of nuclear power focuses on the large number of fatalities that could, in theory, be caused by extremely unlikely but just imaginable reactor accidents. This, along with the nuclear industry's inappropriate use of vocabulary during public debate, has given the general public a distorted impression of the risks of nuclear power. The paper reviews the way in which the probability and consequences of big nuclear accidents have been presented in the past and makes recommendations for the future, including the presentation of the long-term consequences of such accidents in terms of 'loss of life expectancy', 'increased chance of fatal cancer' and 'equivalent pattern of compulsory cigarette smoking'. The paper presents mathematical arguments, which show the derivation and validity of the proposed methods of presenting the consequences of imaginable big nuclear accidents. (author)

  2. Accidents in perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gittus, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    The nuclear industry perspective and the public perspective on big nuclear accidents and leukaemia near nuclear sites are discussed. The industry perspective is that big accidents are so unlikely as to be virtually impossible and that leukaemia is not specifically associated with nuclear installations. Clusters of cancer with statistical significance occur in major cities. The public perspective is coloured by a prejudice and myth: the fear of radiation. The big nuclear accident is seen therefore as much more unacceptable than any other big accident. Risks associated with Sizewell-B nuclear station and the liquid gas depot at Canvey Island are discussed. The facts and figures are presented as tables and graphs. Given conflicting interpretations of the leukaemia problem the public inclines towards the more pessimistic view. (author)

  3. Boating Accident Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Accident statistics available on the Coast Guard’s website by state, year, and one variable to obtain tables and/or graphs. Data from reports has been loaded for...

  4. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory. Epidemiology of Accidents in Academic Chemistry Laboratories, Part 2. Accident Intervention Study, Legal Aspects, and Observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellmann, Margaret A.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Reports on a chemistry laboratory accident intervention study conducted throughout the state of Colorado. Addresses the results of an initial survey of institutions of higher learning. Discusses some legal aspects concerning academic chemistry accidents. Provides some observations about academic chemistry laboratory accidents on the whole. (TW)

  5. Aircraft accident analysis for emergency planning and safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolosi, S.L.; Jordan, H.; Foti, D.; Mancuso, J.

    1996-01-01

    Potential aircraft accidents involving facilities at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site) are evaluated to assess their safety significance. This study addresses the probability and facility penetrability of aircraft accidents at the Site. The types of aircraft (large, small, etc.) that may credibly impact the Site determine the types of facilities that may be breached. The methodology used in this analysis follows elements of the draft Department of Energy Standard ''Accident Analysis for Aircraft Crash into Hazardous Facilities'' (July 1995). Key elements used are: the four-factor frequency equation for aircraft accidents; the distance criteria for consideration of airports, airways, and jet routes; the consideration of different types of aircraft; and the Modified National Defense Research Committee (NDRC) formula for projectile penetration, perforation, and minimum resistant thickness. The potential aircraft accident frequency for each type of aircraft applicable to the Site is estimated using a four-factor formula described in the draft Standard. The accident frequency is the product of the annual number of operations, probability of an accident, probability density function, and area. The annual number of operations is developed from site-specific and state-wide data

  6. Accidents with sulfuric acid

    OpenAIRE

    Rajković Miloš B.

    2006-01-01

    Sulfuric acid is an important industrial and strategic raw material, the production of which is developing on all continents, in many factories in the world and with an annual production of over 160 million tons. On the other hand, the production, transport and usage are very dangerous and demand measures of precaution because the consequences could be catastrophic, and not only at the local level where the accident would happen. Accidents that have been publicly recorded during the last eigh...

  7. The Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, J.O.; Christensen, G.; Lingjaerde, R.; Smidt Olsen, H.; Wethe, P.I.

    1986-10-01

    In connection with the Chernobyl accident the report gives a description of the technical features of importance to the accident, the course of events, and the estimated health hazards in the local environment. Dissimilarities in western and Sovjet reactor safety philosophy are dealt with, as well as conceivable concequences in relation to technology and research in western nuclear power programmes. Results of activity level measurements of air and foodstuff, made in Norway by Institute for Energy Technology, are given

  8. Accident and emergency management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, V.; Moellenbach, K.; Heinonen, R.; Jakobsson, S.; Kukko, T.; Berg, Oe.; Larsen, J.S.; Westgaard, T.; Magnusson, B.; Andersson, H.; Holmstroem, C.; Brehmer, B.; Allard, R.

    1988-06-01

    There is an increasing potential for severe accidents as the industrial development tends towards large, centralised production units. In several industries this has led to the formation of large organisations which are prepared for accidents fighting and for emergency management. The functioning of these organisations critically depends upon efficient decision making and exchange of information. This project is aimed at securing and possibly improving the functionality and efficiency of the accident and emergency management by verifying, demonstrating, and validating the possible use of advanced information technology in the organisations mentioned above. With the nuclear industry in focus the project consists of five main activities: 1) The study and detailed analysis of accident and emergency scenarios based on records from incidents and rills in nuclear installations. 2) Development of a conceptual understanding of accident and emergency management with emphasis on distributed decision making, information flow, and control structure sthat are involved. 3) Development of a general experimental methodology for evaluating the effects of different kinds of decision aids and forms of organisation for emergency management systems with distributed decision making. 4) Development and test of a prototype system for a limited part of an accident and emergency organisation to demonstrate the potential use of computer and communication systems, data-base and knowledge base technology, and applications of expert systems and methods used in artificial intelligence. 5) Production of guidelines for the introduction of advanced information technology in the organisations based on evaluation and validation of the prototype system. (author)

  9. Accident management information needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, D.J.; Ward, L.W.; Nelson, W.R.; Meyer, O.R.

    1990-04-01

    In support of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Accident Management Research Program, a methodology has been developed for identifying the plant information needs necessary for personnel involved in the management of an accident to diagnose that an accident is in progress, select and implement strategies to prevent or mitigate the accident, and monitor the effectiveness of these strategies. This report describes the methodology and presents an application of this methodology to a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) with a large dry containment. A risk-important severe accident sequence for a PWR is used to examine the capability of the existing measurements to supply the necessary information. The method includes an assessment of the effects of the sequence on the measurement availability including the effects of environmental conditions. The information needs and capabilities identified using this approach are also intended to form the basis for more comprehensive information needs assessment performed during the analyses and development of specific strategies for use in accident management prevention and mitigation. 3 refs., 16 figs., 7 tabs

  10. Accident management information needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, D.J.; Ward, L.W.; Nelson, W.R.; Meyer, O.R. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA))

    1990-04-01

    In support of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Accident Management Research Program, a methodology has been developed for identifying the plant information needs necessary for personnel involved in the management of an accident to diagnose that an accident is in progress, select and implement strategies to prevent or mitigate the accident, and monitor the effectiveness of these strategies. This report describes the methodology and presents an application of this methodology to a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) with a large dry containment. A risk-important severe accident sequence for a PWR is used to examine the capability of the existing measurements to supply the necessary information. The method includes an assessment of the effects of the sequence on the measurement availability including the effects of environmental conditions. The information needs and capabilities identified using this approach are also intended to form the basis for more comprehensive information needs assessment performed during the analyses and development of specific strategies for use in accident management prevention and mitigation. 3 refs., 16 figs., 7 tabs.

  11. A cluster analysis on road traffic accidents using genetic algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saharan, Sabariah; Baragona, Roberto

    2017-04-01

    The analysis of traffic road accidents is increasingly important because of the accidents cost and public road safety. The availability or large data sets makes the study of factors that affect the frequency and severity accidents are viable. However, the data are often highly unbalanced and overlapped. We deal with the data set of the road traffic accidents recorded in Christchurch, New Zealand, from 2000-2009 with a total of 26440 accidents. The data is in a binary set and there are 50 factors road traffic accidents with four level of severity. We used genetic algorithm for the analysis because we are in the presence of a large unbalanced data set and standard clustering like k-means algorithm may not be suitable for the task. The genetic algorithm based on clustering for unknown K, (GCUK) has been used to identify the factors associated with accidents of different levels of severity. The results provided us with an interesting insight into the relationship between factors and accidents severity level and suggest that the two main factors that contributes to fatal accidents are "Speed greater than 60 km h" and "Did not see other people until it was too late". A comparison with the k-means algorithm and the independent component analysis is performed to validate the results.

  12. Development of Database for Accident Analysis in Indian Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, Debi Prasad; Guru Raghavendra Reddy, K.

    2016-10-01

    Mining is a hazardous industry and high accident rates associated with underground mining is a cause of deep concern. Technological developments notwithstanding, rate of fatal accidents and reportable incidents have not shown corresponding levels of decline. This paper argues that adoption of appropriate safety standards by both mine management and the government may result in appreciable reduction in accident frequency. This can be achieved by using the technology in improving the working conditions, sensitising workers and managers about causes and prevention of accidents. Inputs required for a detailed analysis of an accident include information on location, time, type, cost of accident, victim, nature of injury, personal and environmental factors etc. Such information can be generated from data available in the standard coded accident report form. This paper presents a web based application for accident analysis in Indian mines during 2001-2013. An accident database (SafeStat) prototype based on Intranet of the TCP/IP agreement, as developed by the authors, is also discussed.

  13. Database on aircraft accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishio, Masahide; Koriyama, Tamio

    2013-11-01

    The Reactor Safety Subcommittee in the Nuclear Safety and Preservation Committee published 'The criteria on assessment of probability of aircraft crash into light water reactor facilities' as the standard method for evaluating probability of aircraft crash into nuclear reactor facilities in July 2002. In response to this issue, Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization has been collecting open information on aircraft accidents of commercial airplanes, self-defense force (SDF) airplanes and US force airplanes every year since 2003, sorting out them and developing the database of aircraft accidents for the latest 20 years to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into nuclear reactor facilities. In this report the database was revised by adding aircraft accidents in 2011 to the existing database and deleting aircraft accidents in 1991 from it, resulting in development of the revised 2012 database for the latest 20 years from 1992 to 2011. Furthermore, the flight information on commercial aircrafts was also collected to develop the flight database for the latest 20 years from 1992 to 2011 to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into reactor facilities. The method for developing the database of aircraft accidents to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into reactor facilities is based on the report 'The criteria on assessment of probability of aircraft crash into light water reactor facilities' described above. The 2012 revised database for the latest 20 years from 1992 to 2011 shows the followings. The trend of the 2012 database changes little as compared to the last year's report. (1) The data of commercial aircraft accidents is based on 'Aircraft accident investigation reports of Japan transport safety board' of Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. The number of commercial aircraft accidents is 4 for large fixed-wing aircraft, 58 for small fixed-wing aircraft, 5 for large bladed aircraft and 99 for small bladed aircraft. The relevant accidents

  14. The need to study of bounding accident in reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segawa, Satoshi; Fujita, Kunio

    2013-01-01

    There is a clear consensus that the severe accident corresponds to the core damage accident for power reactors. On the other hand, for FCFs, there is no clear consensus on what is the accident to assess the safety in the region of beyond design basis, or what is the accident which has very low probability but large consequence. The need to examine a bounding consequence of each type of accident is explained to advance the rationality of safety management and regulation and, as a result, to reinforce the safety of a reprocessing plant. The likelihood of occurrence of an accident causing a bounding consequence should correspond to that of a severe accident at a nuclear power plant. The bounding consequence will be derived using the deterministic method and sound engineering judgment supplemented by the probabilistic method. Once an agreement on such a concept is reached among regulators, operators and related experts it will help to provide a solid basis to ensure the safety of a reprocessing plant independent of that of a nuclear power plant. In this paper, we show a preliminary risk profile of RRP calculated by QSA (Quantitative Safety Assessment) which JNFL developed. The profile shows that bounding consequences of various accidents in a range of occurrence frequency corresponding to a severe accident at a nuclear power plant. And we find that the bounding consequence of high-level liquid waste boiling is the largest among all in this range. Therefore, the risk of this event is shown in this paper as an example. To build a common consensus about bounding accidents among concerned parties will encourage regulatory body to introduce such an idea for more effective regulation with scientific rationality. Additionally the study of bounding accidents can contribute to substantial development for accident management strategy as reprocessing operators. (authors)

  15. Risk Communication as a Tool for Training Apprentice Welders: A Study about Risk Perception and Occupational Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cezar-Vaz, Marta Regina; Bonow, Clarice Alves; Rocha, Laurelize Pereira; de Almeida, Marlise Capa Verde; Severo, Luana de Oliveira; Borges, Anelise Miritz; Vaz, Joana Cezar; Turik, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    The present study has aimed to identify the perceptions of apprentice welders about physical, chemical, biological, and physiological risk factors to which they are exposed; identify types of occupational accidents involving apprentice welders; and report the development of a socioenvironmental education intervention as a tool for risk communication for apprentice welders. A quantitative study was performed with 161 apprentice welders in Southern Brazil in 2011. Data collection was performed via structured interviews with the apprentice welders about risk perception, occupational accidents, and time experienced in welding. The data were analyzed using SPSS 19.0. The participants identified the following risk types: physical (96.9%), chemical (95%), physiological (86.3%), and biological (51.5%). In this sample, 39.7% of apprentice welders reported occupational accidents and 27.3% reported burning. The inferential analysis showed that the frequency of risk perception factors increases with the length of experience, and apprentice welders who have experienced accidents during welding activity perceive a higher amount of risk factors than those who have never experienced them. It is concluded that apprentice welders perceive risks and that they tend to relate risks with the occurrence of occupational accidents as an indicator of the dangerous nature of their activity. PMID:23326211

  16. CANDU safety under severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snell, V.G.; Howieson, J.Q.; Frescura, G.M.; King, F.; Rogers, J.T.; Tamm, H.

    1988-01-01

    The characteristics of the CANDU reactor relevant to severe accidents are set first by the inherent properties of the design, and second by the Canadian safety/licensing approach. Probabilistic safety assessment studies have been performed on operating CANDU plants, and on the 4 x 880 MW(e) Darlington station now under construction; furthermore a scoping risk assessment has been done for a CANDU 600 plant. They indicate that the summed severe core damage frequency is of the order of 5 x 10 -6 /year. CANDU nuclear plant designers and owner/operators share information and operational experience nationally and internationally through the CANDU Owners' Group (COG). The research program generally emphasizes the unique aspects of the CANDU concept, such as heat removal through the moderator, but it has also contributed significantly to areas generic to most power reactors such as hydrogen combustion, containment failure modes, fission product chemistry, and high temperature fuel behaviour. Abnormal plant operating procedures are aimed at first using event-specific emergency operating procedures, in cases where the event can be diagnosed. If this is not possible, generic procedures are followed to control Critical Safety Parameters and manage the accident. Similarly, the on-site contingency plans include a generic plan covering overall plant response strategy, and a specific plan covering each category of contingency

  17. CANDU safety under severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snell, V.G.; Howieson, J.Q.; Alikhan, S.; Frescura, G.M.; King, F.; Rogers, J.T.; Tamm, H.

    1996-01-01

    The characteristics of the CANDU reactor relevant to severe accidents are set first by the inherent properties of the design, and second by the Canadian safety/licensing approach. The pressure-tube concept allows the separate, low-pressure, heavy-water moderator to act as a backup heat sink even if there is no water in the fuel channels. Should this also fail, the calandria shell itself can contain the debris, with heat being transferred to the water-filled shield tank around the core. Should the severe core damage sequence progress further, the shield tank and the concrete reactor vault significantly delay the challenge to containment. Furthermore, should core melt lead to containment overpressure, the containment behaviour is such that leaks through the concrete containment wall reduce the possibility of catastrophic structural failure. The Canadian licensing philosophy requires that each accident, together with failure of each safety system in turn, be assessed (and specified dose limits met) as part of the design and licensing basis. In response, designers have provided CANDUs with two independent dedicated shutdown systems, and the likelihood of Anticipated Transients Without Scram is negligible. Probabilistic safety assessment studies have been performed on operating CANDU plants, and on the 4 x 880 MW(e) Darlington station now under construction; furthermore a scoping risk assessment has been done for a CANDU 600 plant. They indicate that the summed severe core damage frequency is of the order of 5 x 10 -6 /year. 95 refs, 3 tabs

  18. CANDU safety under severe accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snell, V G; Howieson, J Q [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (Canada); Alikhan, S [New Brunswick Electric Power Commission (Canada); Frescura, G M; King, F [Ontario Hydro (Canada); Rogers, J T [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, ON (Canada); Tamm, H [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (Canada). Whiteshell Research Lab.

    1996-12-01

    The characteristics of the CANDU reactor relevant to severe accidents are set first by the inherent properties of the design, and second by the Canadian safety/licensing approach. The pressure-tube concept allows the separate, low-pressure, heavy-water moderator to act as a backup heat sink even if there is no water in the fuel channels. Should this also fail, the calandria shell itself can contain the debris, with heat being transferred to the water-filled shield tank around the core. Should the severe core damage sequence progress further, the shield tank and the concrete reactor vault significantly delay the challenge to containment. Furthermore, should core melt lead to containment overpressure, the containment behaviour is such that leaks through the concrete containment wall reduce the possibility of catastrophic structural failure. The Canadian licensing philosophy requires that each accident, together with failure of each safety system in turn, be assessed (and specified dose limits met) as part of the design and licensing basis. In response, designers have provided CANDUs with two independent dedicated shutdown systems, and the likelihood of Anticipated Transients Without Scram is negligible. Probabilistic safety assessment studies have been performed on operating CANDU plants, and on the 4 x 880 MW(e) Darlington station now under construction; furthermore a scoping risk assessment has been done for a CANDU 600 plant. They indicate that the summed severe core damage frequency is of the order of 5 x 10{sup -6}/year. 95 refs, 3 tabs.

  19. Severe accident risks: An assessment for five US nuclear power plants: Appendices A, B, and C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-12-01

    This report summarizes an assessment of the risks from severe accidents in five commercial nuclear power plants in the United States. These risks are measured in a number of ways, including: the estimated frequencies of core damage accidents from internally initiated accidents and externally initiated accidents for two or the plants; the performance of containment structures under severe accident loadings; the potential magnitude of radionuclide release and offsite consequences of such accidents; and the overall risk (the product of accident frequencies and consequences). Supporting this summary report are a large number of reports written under contract to NRC that provide the detailed discussion of the methods used and results obtained in these risk studies. Volume 2 of this report contains three appendices, providing greater detail on the methods used, an example risk calculation, and more detailed discussion of particular technical issues found important in the risk studies

  20. Severe accident risks: An assessment for five US nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report summarizes an assessment of the risks from severe accidents in five commercial nuclear power plants in the United State. These risks are measured in a number of ways, including: the estimated frequencies of core damage accidents from internally initiated accidents and externally initiated accidents for two of the plants; the performance of containment structures under severe accident loadings; the potential magnitude of radionuclide releases and offsite consequences of such accidents; and the overall risk (the product of accident frequencies and consequences). Supporting this summary report are a large number of reports written under contract to NRC that provide the detailed discussion of the methods used and results obtained in these risk studies. This report, Volume 3, contains two appendices. Appendix D summarizes comments received, and staff responses, on the first (February 1987) draft of NUREG-1150. Appendix E provides a similar summary of comments and responses, but for the second (June 1989) version of the report

  1. Accidents in nuclear ships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oelgaard, P L [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    This report starts with a discussion of the types of nuclear vessels accidents, in particular accidents which involve the nuclear propulsion systems. Next available information on 61 reported nuclear ship events in considered. Of these 6 deals with U.S. ships, 54 with USSR ships and 1 with a French ship. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the sinking of vessels, the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/explosions, sea-water leaks into the submarines and sinking of vessels are considered. For each event a summary of available information is presented, and comments are added. In some cases the available information is not credible, and these events are neglected. This reduces the number of events to 5 U.S. events, 35 USSR/Russian events and 1 French event. A comparison is made between the reported Soviet accidents and information available on dumped and damaged Soviet naval reactors. It seems possible to obtain good correlation between the two types of events. An analysis is made of the accident and estimates are made of the accident probabilities which are found to be of the order of 10{sup -3} per ship reactor years. It if finally pointed out that the consequences of nuclear ship accidents are fairly local and does in no way not approach the magnitude of the Chernobyl accident. It is emphasized that some of the information on which this report is based, may not be correct. Consequently some of the results of the assessments made may not be correct. (au).

  2. Accidents in nuclear ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oelgaard, P.L.

    1996-12-01

    This report starts with a discussion of the types of nuclear vessels accidents, in particular accidents which involve the nuclear propulsion systems. Next available information on 61 reported nuclear ship events in considered. Of these 6 deals with U.S. ships, 54 with USSR ships and 1 with a French ship. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the sinking of vessels, the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/explosions, sea-water leaks into the submarines and sinking of vessels are considered. For each event a summary of available information is presented, and comments are added. In some cases the available information is not credible, and these events are neglected. This reduces the number of events to 5 U.S. events, 35 USSR/Russian events and 1 French event. A comparison is made between the reported Soviet accidents and information available on dumped and damaged Soviet naval reactors. It seems possible to obtain good correlation between the two types of events. An analysis is made of the accident and estimates are made of the accident probabilities which are found to be of the order of 10 -3 per ship reactor years. It if finally pointed out that the consequences of nuclear ship accidents are fairly local and does in no way not approach the magnitude of the Chernobyl accident. It is emphasized that some of the information on which this report is based, may not be correct. Consequently some of the results of the assessments made may not be correct. (au)

  3. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Grand Gulf, Unit 1: Analysis of core damage frequency from internally induced flooding events for Plant Operational State 5 during a refueling outage. Volume 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dandini, V.; Staple, B.; Kirk, H.; Whitehead, D.; Forester, J.

    1994-07-01

    An estimate of the contribution of internal flooding to the mean core damage frequency at the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station was calculated for Plant Operational State 5 during a refueling outage. Pursuant to this objective, flood zones and sources were identified and flood volumes were calculated. Equipment necessary for the maintenance of plant safety was identified and its vulnerability to flooding was determined. Event trees and fault trees were modified or developed as required, and PRA quantification was performed using the IRRAS code. The mean core damage frequency estimate for GGNS during POS 5 was found to be 2.3 E-8 per year

  4. Ambulance traffic accidents in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Po-Wei; Lin, Chih-Hao; Wu, Chen-Long; Fang, Pin-Hui; Lu, Chien-Hsin; Hsu, Hsiang-Chin; Chi, Chih-Hsien

    2018-04-01

    Ambulance traffic accidents (ATAs) are the leading cause of occupation-related fatalities among emergency medical service (EMS) personnel. We aim to use the Taiwan national surveillance system to analyze the characteristics of ATAs and to assist EMS directors in developing policies governing ambulance operations. A retrospective, cross-sectional and largely descriptive study was conducted using Taiwan national traffic accidents surveillance data from January 1, 2011 to October 31, 2016. Among the 1,627,217 traffic accidents during the study period, 715 ATAs caused 8 deaths within 24 h and 1844 injured patients. On average, there was one ATA for every 8598 ambulance runs. Compared to overall traffic accidents, ATAs were 1.7 times more likely to result in death and 1.9 times more likely to have injured patients. Among the 715 ATAs, 8 (1.1%) ATAs were fatal and 707 (98.9%) were nonfatal. All 8 fatalities were associated with motorcycles. The urban areas were significantly higher than the rural areas in the annual number of ATAs (14.2 ± 7.3 [7.0-26.7] versus 3.1 ± 1.9 [0.5-8.4], p = 0.013), the number of ATA-associated fatalities per year (0.2 ± 0.2 [0.0-0.7] versus 0.1 ± 0.1 [0.0-0.2], p = 0.022), and the annual number of injured patients (who needed urgent hospital visits) in ATAs (19.4 ± 7.3 [10.5-30.9] versus 5.2 ± 3.8 [0.9-15.3], p traffic accident reporting system should be built to provide EMS policy guidance for ATA reduction and outcome improvements. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Injury protection and accident causation parameters for vulnerable road users based on German In-Depth Accident Study GIDAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otte, Dietmar; Jänsch, Michael; Haasper, Carl

    2012-01-01

    Within a study of accident data from GIDAS (German In-Depth Accident Study), vulnerable road users are investigated regarding injury risk in traffic accidents. GIDAS is the largest in-depth accident study in Germany. Due to a well-defined sampling plan, representativeness with respect to the federal statistics is also guaranteed. A hierarchical system ACASS (Accident Causation Analysis with Seven Steps) was developed in GIDAS, describing the human causation factors in a chronological sequence. The accordingly classified causation factors - derived from the systematic of the analysis of human accident causes ("7 steps") - can be used to describe the influence of accident causes on the injury outcome. The bases of the study are accident documentations over ten years from 1999 to 2008 with 8204 vulnerable road users (VRU), of which 3 different groups were selected as pedestrians n=2041, motorcyclists n=2199 and bicyclists n=3964, and analyzed on collisions with cars and trucks as well as vulnerable road users alone. The paper will give a description of the injury pattern and injury mechanisms of accidents. The injury frequencies and severities are pointed out considering different types of VRU and protective measures of helmet and clothes of the human body. The impact points are demonstrated on the car, following to conclusion of protective measures on the vehicle. Existing standards of protection devices as well as interdisciplinary research, including accident and injury statistics, are described. With this paper, a summarization of the existing possibilities on protective measures for pedestrians, bicyclists and motorcyclists is given and discussed by comparison of all three groups of vulnerable road users. Also the relevance of special impact situations and accident causes mainly responsible for severe injuries are pointed out, given the new orientation of research for the avoidance and reduction of accident patterns. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. System 80+ design features for severe accident prevention and mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, M.C.; Schneider, R.E.; Finnicum, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    ABB-CE, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, is working to develop and certify the System 80+ design, which is ABB-CE's standardized evolutionary Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR) design. It incorporates design enhancements based on Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) insights, guidance from the EPRI's Utility Requirements Document, and US NRC's Severe Accident Policy. Major severe accident prevention and mitigation design features of the system is discussed along with its conformance to EPRI URD guidance, as applicable. Computer simulation of a best estimate severe accident scenario is presented to illustrate the acceptable containment performance of the design. It is concluded that by considering severe accident prevention and mitigation early in the design process, the System 80+ design represents a robust plant design that has low core damage frequencies, low containment conditional failure probabilities, and acceptable deterministic containment performance under severe accident conditions

  7. Statistical evaluation of design-error related accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, K.O.; Marchaterre, J.F.

    1980-01-01

    In a recently published paper (Campbell and Ott, 1979), a general methodology was proposed for the statistical evaluation of design-error related accidents. The evaluation aims at an estimate of the combined residual frequency of yet unknown types of accidents lurking in a certain technological system. Here, the original methodology is extended, as to apply to a variety of systems that evolves during the development of large-scale technologies. A special categorization of incidents and accidents is introduced to define the events that should be jointly analyzed. The resulting formalism is applied to the development of the nuclear power reactor technology, considering serious accidents that involve in the accident-progression a particular design inadequacy

  8. REAC/TS radiation accident registry. Update of accidents in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricks, R.C.; Berger, M.E.; Holloway, E.C.; Goans, R.E.

    2000-01-01

    Serious injury due to ionizing radiation is a rare occurrence. From 1944 to the present, 243 US accidents meeting dose criteria for classification as serious are documented in the REAC/TS Registry. Thirty individuals have lost their lives in radiation accidents in the United States. The Registry is part of the overall REAC/TS program providing 24-hour direct or consultative assistance regarding medical and heath physics problems associated with radiation accidents in local, national, and international incidents. The REAC/TS Registry serves as a repository of medically important information documenting the consequences of these accidents. Registry data are gathered from various sources. These include reports from the World Heath Organization (WHO), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC), state radiological health departments, medical/health physics literature, personal communication, the Internet, and most frequently, from calls for medical assistance to REAC/TS, as part of our 24-hour medical assistance program. The REAC/TS Registry for documentation of radiation accidents serves several useful purposes: 1) weaknesses in design, safety practices, training or control can be identified, and trends noted; 2) information regarding the medical consequences of injuries and the efficacy of treatment protocols is available to the treating physician; and 3) Registry case studies serve as valuable teaching tools. This presentation will review and summarize data on the US radiation accidents including their classification by device, accident circumstances, and frequency by respective states. Data regarding accidents with fatal outcomes will be reviewed. The inclusion of Registry data in the IAEA's International Reporting System of Radiation Events (RADEV) will also be discussed. (author)

  9. School accidents in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalamon, Johannes; Eberl, Robert; Ainoedhofer, Herwig; Singer, Georg; Spitzer, Peter; Mayr, Johannes; Schober, Peter H; Hoellwarth, Michael E

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain information about the mechanisms and types of injuries in school in Austria. Children between 0 and 18 years of age presenting with injuries at the trauma outpatient in the Department of Pediatric Surgery in Graz and six participating hospitals in Austria were evaluated over a 2-year prospective survey. A total of 28,983 pediatric trauma cases were registered. Personal data, site of the accident, circumstances and mechanisms of accident and the related diagnosis were evaluated. At the Department of Pediatric Surgery in Graz 21,582 questionnaires were completed, out of which 2,148 children had school accidents (10%). The remaining 7,401 questionnaires from peripheral hospitals included 890 school accidents (12%). The male/female ratio was 3:2. In general, sport injuries were a predominant cause of severe trauma (42% severe injuries), compared with other activities in and outside of the school building (26% severe injuries). Injuries during ball-sports contributed to 44% of severe injuries. The upper extremity was most frequently injured (34%), followed by lower extremity (32%), head and neck area (26%) and injuries to thorax and abdomen (8%). Half of all school related injuries occur in children between 10 and 13 years of age. There are typical gender related mechanisms of accident: Boys get frequently injured during soccer, violence, and collisions in and outside of the school building and during craft work. Girls have the highest risk of injuries at ball sports other than soccer.

  10. Measures for preventing and mitigating severe accidents of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Chengge

    1993-01-01

    Safety goals, integrity of the containment, accident management, functions of existing equipment and measures and emergency preparedness are discussed as technical basis for implementing the new safety code on the nuclear power plant safety design (HAF-0200(91)). The main quantitative safety goals are presented as core melt frequency -5 /ry for new plants and -4 /ry for existing or constructed plants, and 0.1% I, Cs release frequency -6 /ry. To keep the integrity of the containment, main efforts should be placed on the prevention of early failure of the containment and by pass or isolation failures. Should a late failure of the containment occur at a high probability, measures such as filtering vent should be considered. The leak rate of the containment could be higher than the previous 0.1-0.5 wt%/day, depending on the source term and dose results. But, a limiting leak rate of 1 wt%/day is defined. Accident management involves emergency operating procedures, training and retraining for the AM and adding some supporting equipment and display and diagnostic system for the AM. Those requirements are described. Emergency preparedness and measures can reduced the risk significantly. In the most case of accidents, sheltering is preferred as an effective protective actions

  11. Severe accident recriticality analyses (SARA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frid, W. E-mail: wiktor.frid@ski.se; Hoejerup, F.; Lindholm, I.; Miettinen, J.; Nilsson, L.; Puska, E.K.; Sjoevall, H

    2001-11-01

    quasi steady-state power following initial power excursion was in most cases approximately 20% of the nominal reactor power, according to SIMULATE-3K and APROS. However, in some RECRIT cases higher power levels, approaching 50% of the nominal power, were predicted leading to fuel temperatures exceeding the melting point, as a result of insufficient cooling of the fuel. Long-term containment response to recriticality was assessed through MELCOR calculations for the Olkiluoto 1 plant. At a stabilised reactor power of 19% of nominal power, the containment failure due to overpressurisation was predicted to occur 1.3 h after recriticality, if the accident is not mitigated. The SARA studies have clearly shown the sensitivity of recriticality phenomena to thermal-hydraulic modelling, the specifics of accident scenario, such as distribution of boron-carbide, and importance of multi-dimensional kinetics for determination of local power distribution in the core. The results of the project have pointed out the importance of adequate accident management strategies to be used by reactor operators and emergency staff during recovery actions. Recommendations in this area are given in the paper.

  12. Severe accident recriticality analyses (SARA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frid, W.; Hoejerup, F.; Lindholm, I.; Miettinen, J.; Nilsson, L.; Puska, E.K.; Sjoevall, H.

    2001-01-01

    -state power following initial power excursion was in most cases approximately 20% of the nominal reactor power, according to SIMULATE-3K and APROS. However, in some RECRIT cases higher power levels, approaching 50% of the nominal power, were predicted leading to fuel temperatures exceeding the melting point, as a result of insufficient cooling of the fuel. Long-term containment response to recriticality was assessed through MELCOR calculations for the Olkiluoto 1 plant. At a stabilised reactor power of 19% of nominal power, the containment failure due to overpressurisation was predicted to occur 1.3 h after recriticality, if the accident is not mitigated. The SARA studies have clearly shown the sensitivity of recriticality phenomena to thermal-hydraulic modelling, the specifics of accident scenario, such as distribution of boron-carbide, and importance of multi-dimensional kinetics for determination of local power distribution in the core. The results of the project have pointed out the importance of adequate accident management strategies to be used by reactor operators and emergency staff during recovery actions. Recommendations in this area are given in the paper

  13. Radiation accidents and dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagstuen, E.; Theisen, H.; Henriksten, T.

    1982-12-01

    On September 2nd 1982 one of the employees of the gamma-irradiation facility at Institute for Energy Technology, Kjeller, Norway entered the irradiation cell with a 65.7 kCi *sp60*Co- source in unshielded position. The victim received an unknown radiation dose and died after 13 days. Using electron spin resonance spectroscopy, the radiation dose in this accident was subsequently determined based on the production of longlived free radicals in nitroglycerol tablets borne by the operator during the accident. He used nitroglycerol for heart problems and free radical are easily formed and trapped in sugar which is the main component of the tablets. Calibration experiments were carried out and the dose given to the tablets during the accident was determined to 37.2 +- 0.5 Gy. The general use of free radicals for dose determinations is discussed. (Auth.)

  14. Big nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, W.

    1983-01-01

    Much of the debate on the safety of nuclear power focuses on the large number of fatalities that could, in theory, be caused by extremely unlikely but imaginable reactor accidents. This, along with the nuclear industry's inappropriate use of vocabulary during public debate, has given the general public a distorted impression of the safety of nuclear power. The way in which the probability and consequences of big nuclear accidents have been presented in the past is reviewed and recommendations for the future are made including the presentation of the long-term consequences of such accidents in terms of 'reduction in life expectancy', 'increased chance of fatal cancer' and the equivalent pattern of compulsory cigarette smoking. (author)

  15. Care of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renz, K.

    1983-01-01

    The small probability of a serious radiation accident happening dispenses neither the plants where radiation exposure occurs nor the employers' liability insurance associations from their obligation to make provision for such cases. On the other hand, the efforts involved in such preventive measures must be kept within reasonable limits. As a result of these considerations a concept for taking care of radiation accidents was developed that is based on already existing institutions. The most attention was demanded by questions of organization, logistics, communication and information. The syndrome appearing after acute whole-body irradiation is known. This syndrome in its different stages and the relative therapeutic measures form the basis for the organization of the care of radiation accidents. (orig./MG) [de

  16. Chromosome aberrations in Norwegian reindeer following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Røed, K.H.; Jacobsen, M.

    1995-01-01

    Chromosome analyses were carried out on peripheral blood lymphocytes of semi-domestic reindeer in Norway which had been exposed to varying amounts of radiocesium emanating from the Chernobyl accident. The sampling was done in the period 1987-1990. The material included 192 reindeer, originating from four herds in central Norway, an area considerably affected by fallout from the Chernobyl accident, and from three herds in northern Norway which was unaffected by fallout from the accident. Significant heterogeneity in the distribution of chromosome aberrations between herds was observed. The pattern of chromosome aberration frequencies between herds was not related to the variation in radiocesium exposure from the Chernobyl accident. Other factors than the Chernobyl accident appear therefore to be of importance for the distribution of aberration frequencies found among present herds. Within the most contaminated area the reindeer born in 1986 showed significantly more chromosome aberrations than those born both before and after 1986. This could suggest that the Chernobyl accident fallout created an effect particularly among calves, during the immediate post-accident period in the most exposed areas

  17. Review of nuclear reactor accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connelly, J.W.; Storr, G.J.

    1989-01-01

    Two types of severe reactor accidents - loss of coolant or coolant flow and transient overpower (TOP) accidents - are described and compared. Accidents in research reactors are discussed. The 1961 SL1 accident in the US is used as an illustration as it incorporates the three features usually combined in a severe accident - a design flaw or flaws in the system, a circumvention of safety circuits or procedures, and gross operator error. The SL1 reactor, the reactivity accident and the following fuel-coolant interaction and steam explosion are reviewed. 3 figs

  18. Criticality accident alarm system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malenfant, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    The American National Standard ANSI/ANS-8.3-1986, Criticality Accident Alarm System provides guidance for the establishment and maintenance of an alarm system to initiate personnel evacuation in the event of inadvertent criticality. In addition to identifying the physical features of the components of the system, the characteristics of accidents of concern are carefully delineated. Unfortunately, this ANSI Standard has led to considerable confusion in interpretation, and there is evidence that the ''minimum accident of concern'' may not be appropriate. Furthermore, although intended as a guide, the provisions of the standard are being rigorously applied, sometimes with interpretations that are not consistent. Although the standard is clear in the use of absorbed dose in free air of 20 rad, at least one installation has interpreted the requirement to apply to dose in soft tissue. The standard is also clear in specifying the response to both neutrons and gamma rays. An assembly of uranyl fluoride enriched to 5% 235 U was operated to simulate a potential accident. The dose, delivered in a free run excursion 2 m from the surface of the vessel, was greater than 500 rad, without ever exceeding a rate of 20 rad/min, which is the set point for activating an alarm that meets the standard. The presence of an alarm system would not have prevented any of the five major accidents in chemical operations nor is it absolutely certain that the alarms were solely responsible for reducing personnel exposures following the accident. Nevertheless, criticality alarm systems are now the subject of great effort and expense. 13 refs

  19. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Surry, Unit 1: Analysis of core damage frequency from internal floods during mid-loop operations. Volume 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohut, P.

    1994-07-01

    The major objective of the Surry internal flood analysis was to provide an improved understanding of the core damage scenarios arising from internal flood-related events. The mean core damage frequency of the Surry plant due to internal flood events during mid-loop operations is 4.8E-06 per year, and the 5th and 95th percentiles are 2.2E-07 and 1.8E-05 per year, respectively. Some limited sensitivity calculations were performed on three plant improvement options. The most significant result involves modifications of intake-level structure on the canal, which reduced core damage frequency contribution from floods in mid-loop by about 75%

  20. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Grand Gulf, Unit 1: Analysis of core damage frequency from internal fire events for Plant Operational State 5 during a refueling outage. Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambright, J.; Yakle, J.

    1994-07-01

    This report, Volume 3, presents the details of the analysis of core damage frequency due to fire during shutdown Plant Operational State 5 at the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station. Insights from previous fire analyses (Peach Bottom, Surry, LaSalle) were used to the greatest extent possible in this analysis. The fire analysis was fully integrated utilizing the same event trees and fault trees that were used in the internal events analysis. In assessing shutdown risk due to fire at Grand Gulf, a detailed screening was performed which included the following elements: (a) Computer-aided vital area analysis; (b) Plant inspections; (c) Credit for automatic fire protection systems; (d) Recovery of random failures; (e) Detailed fire propagation modeling. This screening process revealed that all plant areas had a negligible (<1.0E-8 per year) contribution to fire-induced core damage frequency

  1. Accident at Harrisburg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-05-01

    The course of events during the accident on 28 March 1979 at Three Mile Island-2 Reactor at Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, is described in detail. The effects (in the environment and within the safety containment) are described. The following points are then discussed: the possibility of a comparable accident occurring in the nuclear power stations in the German Federal Republic; the possibility of any point having been overlooked in the design of nuclear power stations in the Federal Republic; whether previous risk analyses are still valid; and how near the Three Mile Island reactor was to a core meltdown. Some conclusions are drawn. (U.K.)

  2. Mortal radiological accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gimenez, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    After defining the concept of 'Radiological accident', statistical data from Radiation Emergency Assistance Center of ORNL (United States of America) are given about the deaths caused by acute irradiation between 1944 and April 24, 1986 -ie, the day before Chernobyl nuclear accident- as well as on the number of deaths caused by the latter. Next the different clinical stages of the Acute Irradiation Syndrome (AIS) as well as its possible treatment are described, and finally the different physical, clinical and biological characteristics linked to the AIS and to its diagnosis and prognosis are discussed. (M.E.L.) [es

  3. The TMI-2 accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loureiro, L.A.

    1986-01-01

    A critical study about the technical and man-related facts in order to establish what is considered the worst commercial nuclear power accident until 1986. Radiological consequences and stress to the public are considered in contrast to antinuclear groups. This descriptive and technical study has the purpose to document written and oral opinions obtained abroad and then explain to the public in an easy language terminology. Preliminary study describing safety related systems fails and the accident itself with minute to minute description, conduct to the consequences and then, to learned lessons

  4. Domino effect in chemical accidents: main features and accident sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbra, R M; Palacios, Adriana; Casal, Joaquim

    2010-11-15

    The main features of domino accidents in process/storage plants and in the transportation of hazardous materials were studied through an analysis of 225 accidents involving this effect. Data on these accidents, which occurred after 1961, were taken from several sources. Aspects analyzed included the accident scenario, the type of accident, the materials involved, the causes and consequences and the most common accident sequences. The analysis showed that the most frequent causes are external events (31%) and mechanical failure (29%). Storage areas (35%) and process plants (28%) are by far the most common settings for domino accidents. Eighty-nine per cent of the accidents involved flammable materials, the most frequent of which was LPG. The domino effect sequences were analyzed using relative probability event trees. The most frequent sequences were explosion→fire (27.6%), fire→explosion (27.5%) and fire→fire (17.8%). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The survey of occupational accidents in Yazd gas agency (2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein Khoshakhlagh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Existence of coordinated and professional safety system to prevent occurrence of accidents and potential hazards seem to be essential in installing networks of gas distribution projects. Objective: To survey work-related accidents and safety performance indices in project implementation unit of Yazd gas agency. Methods: This analytical study was conducted on 197 of workforce in Yazd gas agency in 2013 that were selected by census and they were male. Demographic and accident information were gathered using a self-made questionnaire and face- to- face interview, and required information obtained from dossier to determine the safety performance indicators. Safety performance indicators were calculated in separately of 13 types occupations in project implementation unit of gas agency and data were analyzed using T-test. Findings: The highest accident frequency and severity rate were related to digging occupation and then metal line welding. Consequences of accidents were cuts (%56.7 and soreness (%14.9. The causes of accidents were related to uselessness of personal protective equipment (%25.2 and lack of precision in the task (%19.3. The highest rate of accident was observed among the age group 20-29 years with work experience of 4-6 years. Conclusion: According to the findings of this study and the risk of gas processes, it seems to be necessary the implementation of integrated management systems and training of workers about safety rules to improve the safety culture and prevent accidents.

  6. [Factors associated with road accidents in the city of Lubumbashi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandolo, Simon Ilunga; Matungulu, Charles Matungulu; Mukanya, Pascal Kimba; Umba, Irène Kabange; Kabamba, Julie Ndayi; Numbi, Oscar Luboya; Ilunga, Benjamin Kabyla; Kaj, Françoise Malonga; Lubaba, Célestin Banza; Ngongo, Ghislain Mashini

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a retrospective non-comparative cross-sectional study in Lubumbashi on factors associated with road accidents. To contribute to the reduction of morbidity and mortality related to road accidents based on a better understanding of this phenomenon in the city of Lubumbashi, to assess the frequency and the growth of road accidents in the city of Lubumbashi and to determine the factors predisposing to these accidents. This non-controlled retrospective cross-sectional descriptive study covered the period from 1st January to 31st December 2008, and included all cases of vehicles registered by the police department after an accident. A total of 1,915 road traffic were reported, mostly caused by public transport vehicles (59%) driven by young adult males (89% of cases) with a mean age of 28 years. The main cause was speeding combined with other factors (34% of cases). The majority of these accidents occurred in the city of Lubumbashi (52.9% of cases) between 6:00 a.m. and 6:00 p.m. (74% of cases). Transit vehicles were exposed to a greater risk of road accidents (59%). There is an urgent need for accurate information on the rules of the road for drivers and road users to reduce the mortality and morbidity due to road accidents.

  7. Trend of elevator-related accidents in tehran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaji, Ali; Ghodsi, Syyed Mohammad

    2014-06-01

    Elevator-related accidents are uncommon, but can cause significant injury. However, little data exist on these types of accidents. To compile and analyze accident data involving elevators in an effort to eliminate or at least significantly reduce such accidents. In this retrospective study we investigated 1,819 cases of elevator-related accidents during a four-year period (1999-2003) in Tehran. The data were obtained from the Tehran Safety Services & Fire Fighting Organization (TSFO) that is officially and solely responsible to conduct rescue missions of civilians in Tehran. The number of elevator accidents has increased steadily during the four year study period. During these four years there was a positive upward trend for serious injuries and mortality resulting from elevator accidents. Technical problems were the main cause with 74.5%, followed by power loss and overcapacity riding with 11.5% and 7.9% respectively. Sixty-three individuals sustained serious injury and 15 people died as a result of elevator accidents. The number of accidents was significantly higher in summer (x2=18.32, P=0.032) and a considerable proportion of incidences (54%, 947 cases out of 1819) occurred between 5 and 12 pm. Establishment of an organization to inspect the settings, maintenance, and repair of elevators is necessary.

  8. Trend of Elevator-Related Accidents in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Khaji

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background:   Elevator-related accidents are uncommon, but can cause significant injury. However, little data exist on these types of accidents. To compile and analyze accident data involving elevators in an effort to eliminate or at least significantly reduce such accidents. Methods: In this retrospective study we investigated 1,819 cases of elevator-related accidents during a four-year period (1999-2003 in Tehran. The data were obtained from the Tehran Safety Services & Fire Fighting Organization (TSFO that is officially and solely responsible to conduct rescue missions of civilians in Tehran. Results: The number of elevator accidents has increased steadily during the four year study period. During these four years here was a positive upward trend for serious injuries and mortality resulting from elevator accidents. Technical problems were the main cause with 74.5%, followed by power loss and overcapacity riding with 11.5% and 7.9%respectively. Sixty-three individuals sustained serious injury and 15 people died as a result of elevator accidents. The number of accidents was significantly higher in summer (x2=18.32, P=0.032 and a considerable proportion of incidences (54%, 947 cases out of 1819 occurred between 5 and 12 pm. Conclusions: Establishment of an organization to inspect the settings, maintenance, and repair of elevators is necessary

  9. [Frequently accidents and injury at school].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier Vargas, María; Martínez González, Vanesa

    2011-01-01

    During the time we have been in a private company that provide schools with medical care, we were surprised by the frequent and constant phone calls received to ask for our services. This fact made us take the decision to carry out a survey to find out the accidents and the most frequent injuries. According to the retrospective study we realized throughout two different academic courses in several schools in Cantabria, the 3.23% of the students have any accidents or injuries. We found out children between 11 and 15 have the highest accident rate, being 10.8 % higher when boys (rather than girls) are involved. The most common injuries are contusions 42.85%, followed by sprains 23.45%, being blows the reason in 42% of the cases, and surprisingly acts of aggression in 1%. It was also unexpected to learn that gyms, where children are taught in physical education, have the highest percent on accident rate. All these inquiries lead us to think that age, play and sports are determinant factors in the accidents happened in the school area.

  10. Cerebrovascular accidents in patients with a ventricular assist device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukui, Hiroyuki; Abla, Adib; Teuteberg, Jeffrey J; McNamara, Dennis M; Mathier, Michael A; Cadaret, Linda M; Kormos, Robert L

    2007-07-01

    A cerebrovascular accident is a devastating adverse event in a patient with a ventricular assist device. The goal was to clarify the risk factors for cerebrovascular accident. Prospectively collected data, including medical history, ventricular assist device type, white blood cell count, thrombelastogram, and infection, were reviewed retrospectively in 124 patients. Thirty-one patients (25%) had 48 cerebrovascular accidents. The mean ventricular assist device support period was 228 and 89 days in patients with and without cerebrovascular accidents, respectively (P cerebrovascular accidents occurred within 4 months after implantation. Actuarial freedom from cerebrovascular accident at 6 months was 75%, 64%, 63%, and 33% with the HeartMate device (Thoratec Corp, Pleasanton, Calif), Thoratec biventricular ventricular assist device (Thoratec Corp), Thoratec left ventricular assist device (Thoratec), and Novacor device (WorldHeart, Oakland, Calif), respectively. Twenty cerebrovascular accidents (42%) occurred in patients with infections. The mean white blood cell count at the cerebrovascular accident was greater than the normal range in patients with infection (12,900/mm3) and without infection (9500/mm3). The mean maximum amplitude of the thrombelastogram in the presence of infection (63.6 mm) was higher than that in the absence of infection (60.7 mm) (P = .0309). The risk of cerebrovascular accident increases with a longer ventricular assist device support period. Infection may activate platelet function and predispose the patient to a cerebrovascular accident. An elevation of the white blood cell count may also exacerbate the risk of cerebrovascular accident even in patients without infection. Selection of device type, prevention of infection, and meticulous control of anticoagulation are key to preventing cerebrovascular accident.

  11. Factors contributing to young moped rider accidents in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Mette; Haustein, Sonja

    2016-02-01

    Young road users still constitute a high-risk group with regard to road traffic accidents. The crash rate of a moped is four times greater than that of a motorcycle, and the likelihood of being injured in a road traffic accident is 10-20 times higher among moped riders compared to car drivers. Nevertheless, research on the behaviour and accident involvement of young moped riders remains sparse. Based on analysis of 128 accident protocols, the purpose of this study was to increase knowledge about moped accidents. The study was performed in Denmark involving riders aged 16 or 17. A distinction was made between accident factors related to (1) the road and its surroundings, (2) the vehicle, and (3) the reported behaviour and condition of the road user. Thirteen accident factors were identified with the majority concerning the reported behaviour and condition of the road user. The average number of accident factors assigned per accident was 2.7. Riding speed was assigned in 45% of the accidents which made it the most frequently assigned factor on the part of the moped rider followed by attention errors (42%), a tuned up moped (29%) and position on the road (14%). For the other parties involved, attention error (52%) was the most frequently assigned accident factor. The majority (78%) of the accidents involved road rule breaching on the part of the moped rider. The results indicate that preventive measures should aim to eliminate violations and increase anticipatory skills among moped riders and awareness of mopeds among other road users. Due to their young age the effect of such measures could be enhanced by infrastructural measures facilitating safe interaction between mopeds and other road users. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Accident characteristics at construction and maintenance zones in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Work zone safety is currently a major concern to transportation and highway engineers because of the relatively higher rates of accidents in these areas. There is a strong indication that during the next decade, emphasis will be placed on maintenance...

  13. Application of accident progression event tree technology to the Savannah River Site Defense Waste Processing Facility SAR analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandyberry, M.D.; Baker, W.H.; Wittman, R.S.; Amos, C.N.

    1993-01-01

    The Accident Analysis in the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) for the Savannah River Site (SRS) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) has recently undergone an upgrade. Non-reactor SARs at SRS (and other Department of Energy (DOE) sites) use probabilistic techniques to assess the frequency of accidents at their facilities. This paper describes the application of an extension of the Accident Progression Event Tree (APET) approach to accidents at the SRS DWPF. The APET technique allows an integrated model of the facility risk to be developed, where previous probabilistic accident analyses have been limited to the quantification of the frequency and consequences of individual accident scenarios treated independently. Use of an APET allows a more structured approach, incorporating both the treatment of initiators that are common to more than one accident, and of accident progression at the facility

  14. Note nuclear accidents combat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    In this document the starting points are described which underlie the new framework for the nuclear-accident combat in the Netherlands. All the elaboration of this is indicated in main lines. The juridical consequences of the proposed structure are enlightened and the sequel activities are indicated. (H.W.). 6 figs.; 8 tabs

  15. Measures against nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    A select committee appointed by the Norwegian Ministry of Social Affairs put forward proposals concerning measures for the improvement of radiation protection preparedness in Norway. On the basis on an assessment of the potential radiation accident threat, the report examines the process of response, and identifies the organizational and management factors that influence that process

  16. The Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The documentation abstracted contains a complete survey of the broadcasts transmitted by the Russian wire service of the Deutsche Welle radio station between April 28 and Mai 15, 1986 on the occasion of the Chernobyl reactor accident. Access is given to extracts of the remarkable eastern and western echoes on the broadcasts of the Deutsche Welle. (HP) [de

  17. Lessons learned from accidents investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuniga-Bello, P. [Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONACYT), Mexico City (Mexico); Croft, J. [National Radiological Protection Board (United Kingdom); Glenn, J

    1997-12-31

    Accidents from three main practices: medical applications, industrial radiography and industrial irradiators are used to illustrate some common causes of accidents and the main lessons to be learned. A brief description of some of these accidents is given. Lessons learned from the described accidents are approached by subjects covering: safety culture, quality assurance, human factors, good engineering practice, defence in depth, security of sources, safety assessment and monitoring and verification compliance. (author)

  18. Overview of core disruptive accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchaterre, J.F.

    1977-01-01

    An overview of the analysis of core-disruptive accidents is given. These analyses are for the purpose of understanding and predicting fast reactor behavior in severe low probability accident conditions, to establish the consequences of such conditions and to provide a basis for evaluating consequence limiting design features. The methods are used to analyze core-disruptive accidents from initiating event to complete core disruption, the effects of the accident on reactor structures and the resulting radiological consequences are described

  19. Lessons learned from accident investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuniga-Bello, P.; Croft, J.R.; Glenn, J.

    1998-01-01

    Accidents in three main practices - medical applications, industrial radiography and industrial irradiators - are used to illustrate some common causes of accidents and the main lessons to be learned from them. A brief description of some of these accidents is given. Lessons learned from the accidents described are approached bearing in mind: safety culture, quality assurance, human factors, good engineering practice, defence in depth, security of sources, safety assessment and monitoring and verification compliance. (author)

  20. Review of severe accidents and the results of accident consequence assessment in different energy systems (Contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuki, Yoshio; Muramatsu, Ken

    2008-05-01

    The cases of severe accidents and the consequence assessments in different energy systems, Coal, Oil, Gas, Hydro and Nuclear, were collected, and then they were further analyzed. In this report, the information on the accidents in various energy systems were collected from the sources of the Paul Scherrer Institute (hereinafter, 'PSI') and the International Atomic Energy Agency (hereinafter, 'IAEA'). The information on the severe accidents of nuclear power plants were collected from the report of the US Presidential Commission on Catastrophic Nuclear Accidents and several relevant reports issued in the countries of the European Union, together with the reports of the PSI and the IAEA. To analyze the collected information, several parameters, which are numbers of fatalities, injuries, evacuees and the costs of the damages, were chosen to characterize those accidents in different energy systems. And then, upon the comparison of these characteristics of different accidents, the impacts of the accidents in nuclear and other energy systems were compared. Upon the results of the analysis, it is pointed out that the cost caused by the Chernobyl Accident, the severe accident in nuclear energy, tends to be higher than in the other energy systems. On the other hand, from the aspects of fatalities and injuries, it is not confirmed that the damages of the Chernobyl Accident are larger than in the other energy systems. However, it is also recognized, as the specific characteristics of the severe nuclear accident, that the impacts of the accident spread in a wider area, and stay for a longer period, in comparison with the ones in the other energy systems. (author)

  1. ANS severe accident program overview & planning document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taleyarkhan, R.P.

    1995-09-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) severe accident document was developed to provide a concise and coherent mechanism for presenting the ANS SAP goals, a strategy satisfying these goals, a succinct summary of the work done to date, and what needs to be done in the future to ensure timely licensability. Guidance was received from various bodies [viz., panel members of the ANS severe accident workshop and safety review committee, Department of Energy (DOE) orders, Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requirements for ALWRs and advanced reactors, ACRS comments, world-wide trends] were utilized to set up the ANS-relevant SAS goals and strategy. An in-containment worker protection goal was also set up to account for the routine experimenters and other workers within containment. The strategy for achieving the goals is centered upon closing the severe accident issues that have the potential for becoming certification issues when assessed against realistic bounding events. Realistic bounding events are defined as events with an occurrency frequency greater than 10{sup {minus}6}/y. Currently, based upon the level-1 probabilistic risk assessment studies, the realistic bounding events for application for issue closure are flow blockage of fuel element coolant channels, and rapid depressurization-related accidents.

  2. Genital endometriosis rate dynamics before and after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Shbul', I.; Suprun, L.Ya.

    2000-01-01

    The necessity of endometriosis dynamics evaluation is caused by worse ecological situation on the area of Belarus. Genital endometriosis frequency was studied considering the outcomes of surgeries fulfilled in hospitals of Gomel, Mogilev and Vitebsk in 1981-1995. At this time 1254 women underwent an operation and 19% of patients (235 persons) were operated before the Chernobyl accident. In the first 5 years after the accident endometriosis frequency increased nearly 2 times. The next 5 years (1991-1995) the number of operated patients was 565, i.e. 45% from the whole number. Uterus was extirpated or amputated in 898 patients, ovaries at both sides were removed in 36 ones. As the analysis showed the endometriosis frequency grew in 2,5 times for last 15 years, the most significant increase of this pathology was observed during the first five years after the accident

  3. Features of fatal injuries in older cyclists in vehicle-bicycle accidents in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Yasuhiro; Oikawa, Shoko; Hitosugi, Masahito

    2018-01-02

    The purpose of this study was to identify and better understand the features of fatal injuries in cyclists aged 75 years and over involved in collisions with either hood- or van-type vehicles. This study investigated the fatal injuries of cyclists aged 75 years old and over by analyzing accident data. We focused on the body regions to which the fatal injury occurred using vehicle-bicycle accident data from the Institute for Traffic Accident Research and Data Analysis (ITARDA) in Japan. Using data from 2009 to 2013, we examined the frequency of fatally injured body region by gender, age, and actual vehicle travel speed. We investigated any significant differences in distributions of fatal injuries by body region for cyclists aged 75 years and over using chi-square tests to compare with cyclists in other age groups. We also investigated the cause of fatal head injuries, such as impact with a road surface or vehicle. The results indicated that head injuries were the most common cause of fatalities among the study group. At low vehicle travel speeds for both hood- and van-type vehicles, fatalities were most likely to be the result of head impacts against the road surface. The percentage of fatalities following hip injuries was significantly higher for cyclists aged 75 years and over than for those aged 65-74 or 13-59 in impacts with hood-type vehicles. It was also higher for women than men in the over-75 age group in impacts with these vehicles. For cyclists aged 75 years and over, wearing a helmet may be helpful to prevent head injuries in vehicle-to-cyclist accidents. It may also be helpful to introduce some safety measures to prevent hip injuries, given the higher level of fatalities following hip injury among all cyclists aged 75 and over, particularly women.

  4. EPRI research on accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oehlberg, R.N.; Chao, J.

    1991-01-01

    The paper discusses Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) efforts regarding severe reactor accident management and the Nuclear Management and Resources Council (NUMAEX), activities. (EPRI) Electric Power Research Institute accident management program consists of the two products just mentioned plus one related to severe accident plant status information and the MAAP 4.0 computer code. These are briefly discussed

  5. Accident management on french PWRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queniart, D.

    1990-06-01

    After a brief recall of French safety rationale, the reactor operation and severe accident management is given. The research and development aimed at developing accident management procedures and emergency organization in France for the case of a NPP accident are also given

  6. Work time control, sleep & accident risk: A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Philip; Albrecht, Sophie; Kecklund, Göran; Beckers, Debby G J; Leineweber, Constanze

    We examined whether the beneficial impact of work time control (WTC) on sleep leads to lower accident risk, using data from a nationally representative survey conducted in Sweden. Logistic regressions examined WTC in 2010 and 2012 as predictors of accidents occurring in the subsequent 2 years (N = 4840 and 4337, respectively). Sleep disturbance and frequency of short sleeps in 2012 were examined as potential mediators of the associations between WTC in 2010 and subsequent accidents as reported in 2014 (N = 3636). All analyses adjusted for age, sex, education, occupational category, weekly work hours, shift work status, job control and perceived accident risk at work. In both waves, overall WTC was inversely associated with accidents (p = 0.048 and p = 0.038, respectively). Analyses of the sub-dimensions of WTC indicated that Control over Daily Hours (influence over start and finish times, and over length of shift) did not predict accidents in either wave, while Control over Time-off (CoT; influence over taking breaks, running private errands during work and taking paid leave) predicted fewer accidents in both waves (p = 0.013 and p = 0.010). Sleep disturbance in 2012 mediated associations between WTC/CoT in 2010 and accidents in 2014, although effects' sizes were small (effectWTC = -0.006, 95% confidence interval [CI] = -0.018 to -0.001; effectCoT = -0.009, 95%CI = -0.022 to -0.001; unstandardized coefficients), with the indirect effects of sleep disturbance accounting for less than 5% of the total direct and indirect effects. Frequency of short sleeps was not a significant mediator. WTC reduces the risk of subsequently being involved in an accident, although sleep may not be a strong component of the mechanism underlying this association.

  7. Accident-tolerant control rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, Hirokazu; Sawabe, Takashi; Ogata, Takanari

    2013-01-01

    Boron carbide (B 4 C) and hafnium (Hf) metal are used for the neutron absorber materials of control rods in BWRs, and silver-indium-cadmium (Ag-In-Cd) alloy is used in PWRs. These materials are clad with stainless steel. The eutectic point of B 4 C and iron (Fe) is about 1150 deg. C and the melting point of Ag-In-Cd alloy is about 800 deg. C, which are lower than the temperature of zircaloy - steam reaction increases rapidly (∼1200 deg. C). Accordingly, it is possible that the control rods melt and collapse before the reactor core is significantly damaged in the case of severe accidents. Since the neutron absorber would be separated from the fuels, there is a risk of re-criticality, when pure water or seawater is injected for emergency cooling. In order to ensure sub-criticality and extend options of emergency cooling in the course of severe accidents, a concept of accident-tolerant control rod (ACT) has been derived. ACT utilises a new absorber material having the following properties: - higher neutron absorption than current control rod; - higher melting or eutectic temperature than 1200 deg. C where rapid zircaloy oxidation occurs; - high miscibility with molten fuel materials. The candidate of a new absorber material for ATC includes gadolinia (Gd 2 O 3 ), samaria (Sm 2 O 3 ), europia (Eu 2 O 3 ), dysprosia (Dy 2 O 3 ), hafnia (HfO 2 ). The melting point of these materials and the liquefaction temperature with Fe are higher than the rapid zircaloy oxidation temperature. ACT will not collapse before the core melt-down. After the core melt-down, the absorber material will be mixed with molten fuel material. The current absorber materials, such as B 4 C, Hf and Ag-In-Cd, are charged at the tip of ATC in which the neutron flux is high, and a new absorber material is charged in the low-flux region. This design could minimise the degradation of a new absorber material by the neutron absorption and the influence of ATC deployment on reactor control procedure. As a

  8. Proposal of the concept of selection of accidents that release large amounts of radioactive substances in the high temperature engineering test reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Masato; Honda, Yuki; Takada, Shoji; Sawa, Kazuhiro

    2015-01-01

    In Position, construction and equipment of testing and research reactor to be subjected to the use standards for rules Article 53 (prevention of expansion of the accident to release a large amount of radioactive material) generation the frequency is a lower accident than design basis accident, when what is likely to release a large amount of radioactive material or radiation from the facility has occurred, and take the necessary measures in order to prevent the spread of the accident. There is provided a lower accident than frequency design basis accidents, for those that may release a large amount of radioactive material or radiation. (author)

  9. [Current situation of accidents in the world].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Zinser, José Valente

    2010-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the number of traffic accidents is of concern. About 1.2 million people die every year on the roadways and about 20 to 50 million suffer from non-lethal trauma. Countries with low or medium incomes have higher rates of lethality by traffic accidents (21.5 and 19.5 per 100,000 habitants, respectively) than countries with higher incomes (10.3 per 100,000). It is estimated that the cost of traffic accidents in countries that are members of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), escalate to rates that are between 2-5% of the gross domestic product (GDP). According to data from the health sector in Mexico, these rates are equivalent to 1.3 of GDR The WHO foresees that traffic accident traumas will rise to be the third cause of mortality in 2030. Because of the high complexity of the transport sector, it is necessary that the Transport and Communication Ministry works in a multidisciplinary and intersectorial fashion to ensure that the land transportation systems operate effectively in accordance with national economic development and the quality of life of the Mexican people.

  10. The Influence of atmospheric conditions to probabilistic calculation of impact of radiology accident on PWR 1000 MWe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pande Made Udiyani; Sri Kuntjoro

    2015-01-01

    The calculation of the radiological impact of the fission products releases due to potential accidents that may occur in the PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) is required in a probabilistic. The atmospheric conditions greatly contribute to the dispersion of radionuclides in the environment, so that in this study will be analyzed the influence of atmospheric conditions on probabilistic calculation of the reactor accidents consequences. The objective of this study is to conduct an analysis of the influence of atmospheric conditions based on meteorological input data models on the radiological consequences of PWR 1000 MWe accidents. Simulations using PC-Cosyma code with probabilistic calculations mode, the meteorological data input executed cyclic and stratified, the meteorological input data are executed in the cyclic and stratified, and simulated in Muria Peninsula and Serang Coastal. Meteorological data were taken every hour for the duration of the year. The result showed that the cumulative frequency for the same input models for Serang coastal is higher than the Muria Peninsula. For the same site, cumulative frequency on cyclic input models is higher than stratified models. The cyclic models provide flexibility in determining the level of accuracy of calculations and do not require reference data compared to stratified models. The use of cyclic and stratified models involving large amounts of data and calculation repetition will improve the accuracy of statistical calculation values. (author)

  11. A GIS Approach to Evaluate Infrastructure Variables Influencing the Occurrence of Traffic Accidents in Urban Roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Selim Çepni

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Several studies worldwide have been developed that seek to explain the occurrence of traffic accidents from different perspectives. The analyses have addressed legal perspectives, technical attributes of vehicles and infrastructure as well as the psychological, behavioral and socio-economic components of the road system users. Recently, some analysis techniques based on the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS have been used, which allow the generation of spatial distribution maps, models and risk estimates from a spatial perspective. Sometimes analyses of traffic accidents are performed using quantitative statistical techniques, which place significant importance on the evolution of accidents. Studies such as those in references have shown that conventional statistical models are sometimes inadequate to model the frequency of traffic accidents, as they may provide erroneous inferences. GIS approach has been used to explore different spatial and temporal visualization technologies to reveal accident patterns and significant factors relating to vehicle crashes, or as a management system for accident analysis and the determination of hot spots. This paper examines the relationship between urban road accidents and variables related to road infrastructure, environment and traffic volumes. Some accident-prone sections in the city of Kocaeli are specifically identified by GIS tools. Urban road accidents in Kocaeli are a serious problem and it is believed that accidents can be related to infrastructure characteristics. The study aimed to establish the relationship between urban road accidents and the road infrastructure variables and revealed some possible accident prone locations for the period of 2013 and 2015 in Kocaeli city

  12. Casebook on electric safety accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    This book gives concentration on electric safety accidents in domestic and abroad, which introduces general electrical safety with property of electricity, safe equipment and maintenance and protection of electric shock. It lists the cases of accident caused of electricity in domestic like accident in power substation, utilization equipment, load system and another accident by electricity like death in electric shock another by electricity like death in electric shock in new building construction, the cases caused of electricity in abroad like damage in electric shock by high voltage electric transformer, electric shock in summer and earth fault accident by fault cooling tower.

  13. Radiological accidents balance in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nenot, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    This work deals with the radiological accidents in medicine. In medicine, the radiation accidents on medical personnel and patients can be the result of over dosage and bad focusing of radiotherapy sealed sources. Sometimes, the accidents, if they are unknown during a time enough for the source to be spread and to expose a lot of persons (in the case of source dismantling for instance) can take considerable dimensions. Others accidents can come from bad handling of linear accelerators and from radionuclide kinetics in some therapies. Some examples of accidents are given. (O.L.). 11 refs

  14. A Tool for Safety Officers Investigating " simple" Accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kirsten

    2010-01-01

    Most workplace accidents that happen in enterprises are simple and seldom result in serious injuries. Very often these kinds of workplace accidents are not investigated, and if they are, then the investigation is very brief, with comments such as that it was the victim’s own fault or just...... accidents normally caused by apparent banalities occur much more frequently and with a higher rate of fatalities, disablements and other serious injuries than the ostensibly most dangerous kinds of accidents. In 1999 a practical tool for use by safety officers was developed; this tool is based...... on the investigation methods applied in major accidents, but comprises a simpler and more user-friendly presentation. The tool involves three steps: Mapping the facts, analysing the events, and developing preventive solutions. Practical application of the tool has shown that it affords managers and workers...

  15. Initiating events frequency determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simic, Z.; Mikulicic, V.; Vukovic, I.

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes work performed for the Nuclear Power Station (NPS). Work is related to the periodic initiating events frequency update for the Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA). Data for all relevant NPS initiating events (IE) were reviewed. The main focus was on events occurring during most recent operating history (i.e., last four years). The final IE frequencies were estimated by incorporating both NPS experience and nuclear industry experience. Each event was categorized according to NPS individual plant examination (IPE) initiating events grouping approach. For the majority of the IE groups, few, or no events have occurred at the NPS. For those IE groups with few or no NPS events, the final estimate was made by means of a Bayesian update with general nuclear industry values. Exceptions are rare loss-of-coolant-accidents (LOCA) events, where evaluation of engineering aspects is used in order to determine frequency.(author)

  16. Differential requirements of CD4(+) T-cell signals for effector cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) priming and functional memory CTL development at higher CD8(+) T-cell precursor frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeshappa, Channakeshava S; Nanjundappa, Roopa H; Xie, Yufeng; Freywald, Andrew; Xu, Qingyong; Xiang, Jim

    2013-04-01

    Increased CD8(+) T-cell precursor frequency (PF) precludes the requirement of CD4(+) helper T (Th) cells for primary CD8(+) cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses. However, the key questions of whether unhelped CTLs generated at higher PF are functional effectors, and whether unhelped CTLs can differentiate into functional memory cells at higher PF are unclear. In this study, ovalbumin (OVA) -pulsed dendritic cells (DC(OVA)) derived from C57BL/6, CD40 knockout (CD40(-/-)) or CD40 ligand knockout (CD40L(-/-)) mice were used to immunize C57BL/6, Ia(b-/-), CD40(-/-) or CD40L(-/-) mice, whose PF was previously increased with transfer of 1 × 10(6) CD8(+) T cells derived from OVA-specific T-cell receptor (TCR) transgenic OTI, OTI(CD40(-/-)) or OTI(CD40L(-/-)) mice. All the immunized mice were then assessed for effector and memory CTL responses. Following DC immunization, relatively comparable CTL priming occurred without CD4(+) T-cell help and Th-provided CD40/CD40L signalling. In addition, the unhelped CTLs were functional effectors capable of inducing therapeutic immunity against established OVA-expressing tumours. In contrast, the functional memory development of CTLs was severely impaired in the absence of CD4(+) T-cell help and CD40/CD40L signalling. Finally, unhelped memory CTLs failed to protect mice against lethal tumour challenge. Taken together, these results demonstrate that CD4(+) T-cell help at higher PF, is not required for effector CTL priming, but is required for functional memory CTL development against cancer. Our data may impact the development of novel preventive and therapeutic approaches in cancer patients with compromised CD4(+) T-cell functions. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Three Mile Island accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barre, B.; Olivier, E.; Roux, J.P.; Pelle, P.

    2010-01-01

    Deluded by equivocal instrumentation signals, operators at TMI-2 (Three Mile Island - unit 2) misunderstood what was going on in the reactor and for 2 hours were taking inadequate decisions that turned a reactor incident into a major nuclear event that led to the melting of about one third of the core. The TMI accident had worldwide impacts in the domain of nuclear safety. The main consequences in France were: 1) the introduction of the major accident approach and the reinforcement of crisis management; 2) the improvement of the reactor design, particularly that of the pressurizer valves; 3) the implementation of safety probabilistic studies; 4) a better taking into account of the feedback experience in reactor operations; and 5) a better taking into account of the humane factor in reactor safety. (A.C.)

  18. The ultimate nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdus Salam, A.

    1988-01-01

    The estimated energy equivalent of Chernobyl explosion was the 1/150 th of the explosive energy equivalent of atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima; while the devastation that could be caused by the world's stock pile of nuclear weapons, could be equivalent to 160 millions of Chernobyl-like incidents. As known, the number of nuclear weapons is over 50,000 and 2000 nuclear weapons are sufficient to destroy the world. The Three Mile Island and Chernobyl accidents have been blamed on human factors but also the human element, particularly in the form of psychological stresses on those operating the nuclear weapons, could accidentally bring the world to a nuclear catastrophe. This opinion is encouraged by the London's Sunday Times magazine which gave a graphic description of life inside a nuclear submarine. So, to speak of nuclear reactor accidents and not of nuclear weapons is false security. (author)

  19. Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinauskas, A.P.; Buchanan, J.R.; Lorenz, R.A.; Yamashita, T.

    1986-01-01

    On April 26, 1986, an explosion occurred at the newest of four operating nuclear reactors at the Chernobyl site in the USSR. The accident initiated an international technical exchange of almost unprecedented magnitude; this exchange was climaxed with a meeting at the International Atomic Energy Agency in Vienna during the week of August 25, 1986. The meeting was attended by more than 540 official representatives from 51 countries and 20 international organizations. Information gleaned from that technical exchange is presented in this report. A description of the Chernobyl reactor, which differs significantly from commercial US reactors, is presented, the accident scenario advanced by the Russian delegation is discussed, and observations that have been made concerning fission product release are described

  20. Nuclear ship accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oelgaard, P.L.

    1993-05-01

    In this report available information on 28 nuclear ship accident and incidents is considered. Of these 5 deals with U.S. ships and 23 with USSR ships. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/explosions and sea water leaks into the submarines are considered. Comments are made on each of the events, and at the end of the report an attempt is made to point out the weaknesses of the submarine designs which have resulted in the accidents. It is emphasized that much of the available information is of a rather dubious nature. consequently some of the assessments made may not be correct. (au)

  1. The Fukushima accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maqua, M.; Stueck, R.

    2012-01-01

    On 11 March 2011, the Tohoku earthquake and the subsequent tsunami hit the Japanese east coast, causing more than 15,000 fatalities. To this date, 3,000 people are still missing. The Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP was the nuclear installation that was most affected by the tsunami. The earthquake cut off the NPP from the national grid. About 45 minutes later, the tsunami flooded units 1-4 and led to core meltdown events with large releases for units 1, 2 and 3. Unit 4 had been in refuelling outage at that time and lost the cooling of the spent fuel pool for several days. Considerable hydrogen explosions occurred in units 1, 3 and 4. Shortly after the accident, TEPCO started to mitigate the consequences of the accident by providing external cooling to the reactors and by removing the radioactive debris from the site. Great emphasis was laid on effective radiation protection measures for the clean-up workers. Thus, up to now there has been no fatality due to the radiation caused by the Fukushima accident. The main steps of the accident sequences are described, taking into account the latest findings of investigations performed by TEPCO or on behalf of the regulatory body. The presentation focuses on the description of the status of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant and the future steps for cleaning-up the site. In the presentation, the major phases of the roadmap that TEPCO has developed for the clean-up are highlighted. The risks associated with the current plant status and the clean-up phases are described. Abstract the content of the manuscript in a few lines.

  2. Severe accident management guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhle, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The events at Fukushima Daiichi have highlighted the importance of Severe Accident Management Guidelines (SAMGs). As the world has learned from the catastrophe and countries are considering changes to their nuclear regulatory programs, the content of SAMGs and their regulatory control are being evaluated. This presentation highlights several factors that are being addressed in the United States as rulemaking is underway pertaining to SAMGs. The question of how to be prepared for the unexpected is discussed with specific insights gleaned from Fukushima. (author)

  3. The Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rassow, J.

    1986-01-01

    The documentation aims at giving a clearly arranged account of facts, interrelations and comparative evaluations of general interest. It deals with the course of events, atmospheric dispersion and fallout of the substances released and discusses the basic principles of the metering of radioactive radiation, the calculation of body doses and comparative evaluations with the radioactive exposure and risks involved by other sources. The author intends to contribute to an objective discussion about the Chernobyl reactor accident and nuclear energy as such. (DG) [de

  4. Radiation accident in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheatley, J.

    1994-01-01

    In November 1992 a Vietnamese research physicist was working with a microtron accelerator when he received a radiation overexposure that required the subsequent amputation of his right hand. A team from the International Atomic Energy Agency visited Hanoi in March 1993 to carry out an investigation. It was concluded that the accident occurred primarily because of a lack of safety systems, although the lack of both written procedures and training in basic radiation safety were also major contributors. (author)

  5. Civilian Helicopter Search and Rescue Accidents in the United States: 1980 Through 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worley, Gordon H

    2015-12-01

    Helicopters are commonly used in search and rescue operations, and accidents have occurred during helicopter search and rescue (HSAR) missions. The purposes of this study were to investigate whether the HSAR accident rate in the United States could be determined and whether any common contributing factors or trends could be identified. Searches were conducted of the National Transportation Safety Board aviation accident database, the records of the major search and rescue and air medical organizations, and the medical and professional literature for reports of HSAR accidents. A total of 47 civilian HSAR accidents were identified during the study. Of these, 43% involved fatal injuries, compared with a 19% fatality rate for US helicopter general aviation accidents during the same time period and a 40% rate for helicopter emergency medical services. The HSAR accidents carried a significantly higher risk of fatal outcomes when compared with helicopter general aviation accidents (2-tailed Fisher's exact test, P .05). The number of HSAR missions conducted annually could not be established, so an overall accident rate could not be calculated. Although the overall number of HSAR accidents is small, the percentage of fatal outcomes from HSAR accidents is significantly higher than that from general helicopter aviation accidents and is comparable to that seen for helicopter emergency medical services operations. Further study could help to improve the safety of HSAR flights. Copyright © 2015 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Addressing severe accidents in the CANDU 9 design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nijhawan, S.M.; Wight, A.L.; Snell, V.G.

    1998-01-01

    CANDU 9 is a single-unit evolutionary heavy-water reactor based on the Bruce/Darlington plants. Severe accident issues are being systematically addressed in CANDU 9, which includes a number of unique features for prevention and mitigation of severe accidents. A comprehensive severe accident program has been formulated with feedback from potential clients and the Canadian regulatory agency. Preliminary Probabilistic Safety Analyses have identified the sequences and frequency of system and human failures that may potentially lead to initial conditions indicating onset of severe core damage. Severe accident consequence analyses have used these sequences as a guide to assess passive heat sinks for the core, and containment performance. Estimates of the containment response to mass and energy injections typical of postulated severe accidents have been made and the results are presented. We find that inherent CANDU severe accident mitigation features, such as the presence of large water volumes near the fuel (moderator and shield tank), permit a relatively slow severe accident progression under most plant damage states, facilitate debris coolability and allow ample time for the operator to arrest the progression within, progressively, the fuel channels, calandria vessel or shield tank. The large-volume CANDU 9 containment design complements these features because of the long times to reach failure

  7. PREVENTION OF OCCUPATIONAL ACCIDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovica Jovanovic

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Medical services, physicians and nurses play an essential role in the plant safety program through primary treatment of injured workers and by helping to identify workplace hazards. The physician and nurse should participate in the worksite investigations to identify specific hazard or stresses potentially causing the occupational accidents and injuries and in planning the subsequent hazard control program. Physicians and nurses must work closely and cooperatively with supervisors to ensure the prompt reporting and treatment of all work related health and safety problems. Occupational accidents, work related injuries and fatalities result from multiple causes, affect different segments of the working population, and occur in a myriad of occupations and industrial settings. Multiple factors and risks contribute to traumatic injuries, such as hazardous exposures, workplace and process design, work organization and environment, economics, and other social factors. With such a diversity of theories, it will not be difficult to understand that there does not exist one single theory that is considered right or correct and is universally accepted. These theories are nonetheless necessary, but not sufficient, for developing a frame of reference for understanding accident occurrences. Prevention strategies are also varied, and multiple strategies may be applicable to many settings, including engineering controls, protective equipment and technologies, management commitment to and investment in safety, regulatory controls, and education and training. Research needs are thus broad, and the development and application of interventions involve many disciplines and organizations.

  8. Radiological accident of Goiania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios, Elias; Gimenez, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    The accident of Goiania that took place in September, 1987, was the consequence of the dismantlement of the teletherapy equipment containing a Cs 137 source. The activity of the source was of about 5,2.10 13 Bq(1.400 Ci) and was made up by 1.10 -1 Kg of ClCs. This is one of the worst accidents, involving medical or industrial source, which happened up to the moment. The accident and the criteria adopted to face the emergency are described. The characteristics of the irradiation and superficial and internal contamination of the persons affected caused any dosimetric evaluation to be particularly difficult. The emergency control managed by capable persons was carried out with the expected difficulties in some areas within the Goiania city. About 90 % of the material could be recovered, in the removal works, in order to be treated as radioactive waste. Conclusions that should be taken into account in Argentina are reached. The authors of the article took part in the emergency by helping the brazilian Authorities within the Mutual Assistance Agreement between Argentina and Braxil. (M.E.L.) [es

  9. Thule accident 1968

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melgaard, L.; Moeller Kristensen, H.

    1987-01-01

    On January 21, 1968 an American B-52 bomber crashed on the ice at Thule in Nothern Greenland. The bomber carried 4 nuclear weapons that were destroyed. The radioactive material of the bombs was spread over a large area of the ice. About 850 Danes stayed at the Thule base in 1968 for a shorter or longer period. Out of these 850 probably between 70 and 170 men took part in the clearing after the accident. Danish and American authorities establised that the radioactive contamination from the accident was too small to cause any health effects. For that reason the Danish authorities did not follow the Danish workers in order to show late effects, if any. In defiance of the authorities' very cocksure attitude towards possible late effets parts of the Danish press in the Summer 1986 started to be interested in the matter and to search for previous Thule-workers. Up till January 1987 aboput 600 workers have been contacted by the press, trade unions, and private persons. About 500 out of the 600 workers report on illness, cancers and deaths. This report tries to compile the accessible informations on the matter, to descibe the possible radioactive and chemical effects, to compare the Thule accident with a similar incident in Spain in 1966, and to propose a comprehensive health examination of all the workers. (LN)

  10. HIV exposed seronegative (HESN compared to HIV infected individuals have higher frequencies of telomeric Killer Immunoglobulin-like Receptor (KIR B motifs; Contribution of KIR B motif encoded genes to NK cell responsiveness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Jackson

    Full Text Available Previously, we showed that Killer Immunoglobulin-like Receptor (KIR3DS1 homozygotes (hmz are more frequent in HIV exposed seronegative (HESN than in recently HIV infected (HIV+ individuals. KIR3DS1 encodes an activating Natural Killer (NK cell receptor (NKR. The link between KIR genotype and HIV outcomes likely arises from the function that NK cells acquire through expression of particular NKRs. An initial screen of 97 HESN and 123 HIV+ subjects for the frequency of KIR region gene carriage observed between-group differences for several telomeric KIR region loci. In a larger set of up to 106 HESN and 439 HIV+ individuals, more HESN than HIV+ subjects were KIR3DS1 homozygotes, lacked a full length KIR2DS4 gene and carried the telomeric group B KIR haplotype motif, TB01. TB01 is characterized by the presence of KIR3DS1, KIR2DL5A, KIR2DS3/5 and KIR2DS1, in linkage disequilibrium with each other. We assessed which of the TB01 encoded KIR gene products contributed to NK cell responsiveness by stimulating NK cells from 8 HIV seronegative KIR3DS1 and TB01 motif homozygotes with 721.221 HLA null cells and evaluating the frequency of KIR3DS1+/-KIR2DL5+/-, KIR3DS1+/-KIR2DS1+/-, KIR3DS1+/-KIR2DS5+/- NK cells secreting IFN-γ and/or expressing CD107a. A higher frequency of NK cells expressing, versus not, KIR3DS1 responded to 721.221 stimulation. KIR2DL5A+, KIR2DS1+ and KIR2DS5+ NK cells did not contribute to 721.221 responses or modulate those by KIR3DS1+ NK cells. Thus, of the TB01 KIR gene products, only KIR3DS1 conferred responsiveness to HLA-null stimulation, demonstrating its ligation can activate ex vivo NK cells.

  11. Examining accident reports involving autonomous vehicles in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favarò, Francesca M; Nader, Nazanin; Eurich, Sky O; Tripp, Michelle; Varadaraju, Naresh

    2017-01-01

    Autonomous Vehicle technology is quickly expanding its market and has found in Silicon Valley, California, a strong foothold for preliminary testing on public roads. In an effort to promote safety and transparency to consumers, the California Department of Motor Vehicles has mandated that reports of accidents involving autonomous vehicles be drafted and made available to the public. The present work shows an in-depth analysis of the accident reports filed by different manufacturers that are testing autonomous vehicles in California (testing data from September 2014 to March 2017). The data provides important information on autonomous vehicles accidents' dynamics, related to the most frequent types of collisions and impacts, accident frequencies, and other contributing factors. The study also explores important implications related to future testing and validation of semi-autonomous vehicles, tracing the investigation back to current literature as well as to the current regulatory panorama.

  12. Fatal accidents in nighttime vs. daytime highway construction work zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arditi, David; Lee, Dong-Eun; Polat, Gul

    2007-01-01

    Awareness about worker safety in nighttime construction has been a major concern because it is believed that nighttime construction creates hazardous work conditions. However, only a few studies provide valuable comparative information about accident characteristics of nighttime and daytime highway construction activities. This study investigates fatal accidents that occurred in Illinois highway work zones in the period 1996-2001 in order to determine the safety differences between nighttime and daytime highway construction. The lighting and weather conditions were included into the study as control parameters to see their effects on the frequency of fatal accidents occurring in work zones. According to this study, there is evidence that nighttime construction is more hazardous than daytime construction. The inclusion of a weather parameter into the analysis has limited effect on this finding. The study justifies establishing an efficient work zone accident reporting system and taking all necessary measures to enhance safety in nighttime work zones.

  13. Global ship accidents and ocean swell-related sea states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiwei; Li, Xiao-Ming

    2017-11-01

    With the increased frequency of shipping activities, navigation safety has become a major concern, especially when economic losses, human casualties and environmental issues are considered. As a contributing factor, the sea state plays a significant role in shipping safety. However, the types of dangerous sea states that trigger serious shipping accidents are not well understood. To address this issue, we analyzed the sea state characteristics during ship accidents that occurred in poor weather or heavy seas based on a 10-year ship accident dataset. Sea state parameters of a numerical wave model, i.e., significant wave height, mean wave period and mean wave direction, were analyzed for the selected ship accident cases. The results indicated that complex sea states with the co-occurrence of wind sea and swell conditions represent threats to sailing vessels, especially when these conditions include similar wave periods and oblique wave directions.

  14. Examining accident reports involving autonomous vehicles in California.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca M Favarò

    Full Text Available Autonomous Vehicle technology is quickly expanding its market and has found in Silicon Valley, California, a strong foothold for preliminary testing on public roads. In an effort to promote safety and transparency to consumers, the California Department of Motor Vehicles has mandated that reports of accidents involving autonomous vehicles be drafted and made available to the public. The present work shows an in-depth analysis of the accident reports filed by different manufacturers that are testing autonomous vehicles in California (testing data from September 2014 to March 2017. The data provides important information on autonomous vehicles accidents' dynamics, related to the most frequent types of collisions and impacts, accident frequencies, and other contributing factors. The study also explores important implications related to future testing and validation of semi-autonomous vehicles, tracing the investigation back to current literature as well as to the current regulatory panorama.

  15. Global ship accidents and ocean swell-related sea states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Zhang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available With the increased frequency of shipping activities, navigation safety has become a major concern, especially when economic losses, human casualties and environmental issues are considered. As a contributing factor, the sea state plays a significant role in shipping safety. However, the types of dangerous sea states that trigger serious shipping accidents are not well understood. To address this issue, we analyzed the sea state characteristics during ship accidents that occurred in poor weather or heavy seas based on a 10-year ship accident dataset. Sea state parameters of a numerical wave model, i.e., significant wave height, mean wave period and mean wave direction, were analyzed for the selected ship accident cases. The results indicated that complex sea states with the co-occurrence of wind sea and swell conditions represent threats to sailing vessels, especially when these conditions include similar wave periods and oblique wave directions.

  16. Radiation accident/disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kida, Yoshiko; Hirohashi, Nobuyuki; Tanigawa, Koichi

    2013-01-01

    Described are the course of medical measures following Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) Accident after the quake and tsunami (Mar. 11, 2011) and the future task for radiation accident/disaster. By the first hydrogen explosion in FNPP (Mar. 12), evacuation of residents within 20 km zone was instructed, and the primary base for measures of nuclear disaster (Off-site Center) 5 km afar from FNPP had to work as a front base because of damage of communicating ways, of saving of injured persons and of elevation of dose. On Mar. 13, the medical arrangement council consisting from stuff of Fukushima Medical University (FMU), National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Nuclear Safety Research Association and Prefectural officers was setup in residents' hall of Fukushima City, and worked for correspondence to persons injured or exposed, where communication about radiation and between related organizations was still poor. The Off-site Center's head section moved to Prefectural Office on Mar. 15 as headquarters. Early in the period, all residents evacuated from the 20 km zone, and in-hospital patients and nursed elderly were transported with vehicles, >50 persons of whom reportedly died mainly by their base diseases. The nation system of medicare for emergent exposure had consisted from the network of the primary to third facilities; there were 5 facilities in the Prefecture, 3 of which were localized at 4-9 km distance from FNPP and closed early after the Accident; and the secondary facility of FMU became responsible to all exposed persons. There was no death of workers of FNPP. Medical stuff also measured the ambient dose at various places near FNPP, having had risk of exposure. At the Accident, the important system of command, control and communication was found fragile and measures hereafter should be planned on assumption of the worst scenario of complete damage of the infrastructure and communication. It is desirable for Disaster Medical Assistance Team which

  17. Spatio-temporal patterns of hazards and their use in risk assessment and mitigation. Case study of road accidents in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalin Stanga, Iulian

    2013-04-01

    Road accidents are among the leading causes of death in many world countries, partly as an inherent consequence of the increasing mobility of today society. The World Health Organization estimates that 1.3 million people died in road accidents in 2011, which means 186 deaths per million. The tragic picture is completed by millions of peoples experiencing different physical injuries or by the enormous social and economic costs that these events imply. Romania has one of the most unsafe road networks within the European Union, with annual averages of 9400 accidents, 8300 injuries and almost 2680 fatalities (2007-2012). An average of 141 death per million is more than twice the average fatality rate in European Union (about 60 death per million). Other specific indicators (accidents or fatalities reported to the road length, vehicle fleet size, driving license owners or adult population etc.) are even worst in the same European context. Road accidents are caused by a complex series of factors, some of them being a relatively constant premise, while others act as catalyzing factors or triggering agent: road features and quality, vehicle technical state, weather conditions, human related factors etc. All these lead to a complex equation with too many unknown variables, making almost impossible a probabilistic approach. However, the high concentration of accidents in a region or in some road sectors is caused by the existence of a specific context, created by factors with permanent or repetitive character, and leads to the idea of a spatial autocorrelation between locations of different adjoining accident. In the same way, the increasing frequency of road accidents and of their causes repeatability in different periods of the year would allow to identify those black timeframes with higher incidence of road accidents. Identifying and analyzing the road blackspots (hotspots) and black zones would help to improve road safety by acting against the common causes that create

  18. A follow-up survey of the lymphocyte micronucleus for three victims seventheen years after Shanghai '6.25' 60Co radiation accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Jie; Chen Ying; Zhang Xueqing; Liu Xiulin; Yan Xuekun

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the long-term effect on lymphocyte micronucleus and its clinical significance for the three victims seventheen years after Shanghai '6.25' 60 Co radiation accident. Method: The MN and MNC frequency were observed by CBMN method. Results: The MN and MNC frequency were still higher than normal even 17 years after the expo- sure. The MN frequency is related with the former radiation dose. The MNC consisting of ≥2MN is the hightest for 'Long', but for 'Jun' it consisted of 1 MN. The MN frequency is lower 17 years after the exposure than that of 5 years, but higher than 10 years. Conclusions: The MN is one of important signs for long-term radiation effect. Special attention should be payed to the high level of MN remaining in the body for so long time. (authors)

  19. Radioactive release during nuclear accidents in Chernobyl and Fukushima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur Ain Sulaiman, Siti; Mohamed, Faizal; Rahim, Ahmad Nabil Ab

    2018-01-01

    Nuclear accidents that occurred in Chernobyl and Fukushima have initiated many research interests to understand the cause and mechanism of radioactive release within reactor compound and to the environment. Common types of radionuclide release are the fission products from the irradiated fuel rod itself. In case of nuclear accident, the focus of monitoring will be mostly on the release of noble gases, I-131 and Cs-137. As these are the only accidents have been rated within International Nuclear Events Scale (INES) Level 7, the radioactive release to the environment was one of the critical insights to be monitored. It was estimated that the release of radioactive material to the atmosphere due to Fukushima accident was approximately 10% of the Chernobyl accident. By referring to the previous reports using computational code systems to model the release rate, the release activity of I-131 and Cs-137 in Chernobyl was significantly higher compare to Fukushima. The simulation code also showed that Chernobyl had higher release rate of both radionuclides on the day of accident. Other factors affecting the radioactive release for Fukushima and Chernobyl accidents such as the current reactor technology and safety measures are also compared for discussion.

  20. Severe accident analysis methodology in support of accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boesmans, B.; Auglaire, M.; Snoeck, J.

    1997-01-01

    The author addresses the implementation at BELGATOM of a generic severe accident analysis methodology, which is intended to support strategic decisions and to provide quantitative information in support of severe accident management. The analysis methodology is based on a combination of severe accident code calculations, generic phenomenological information (experimental evidence from various test facilities regarding issues beyond present code capabilities) and detailed plant-specific technical information

  1. Using operational equipment to read accident dosemeters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, R T; Vigil, M M; Martinez, W A

    2004-01-01

    Analysis of accident dosemeters usually involves the use of laboratory-based counting equipment. Gamma spectrometers are used for indium, copper and gold, and alpha-beta detectors for sulphur. This equipment is usually not easily transported due to the shielding required and the weight and delicacy of the counters. For intercomparison studies that require reading the dosemeters on site, a transportable system is required unless the site operating the study can count samples for all the participants. In the case of an actual accident these systems would have a difficulty in counting a large number of accident dosemeters. In an accident, personnel are usually subdivided according to their level of exposure. Those exposed to higher doses are treated immediately. An alternate system should be made available to handle the dosemeters worn by those personnel are likely to receive lower doses. Improvements in portable operational equipment for gamma and beta monitoring allow their use as spectrometers. Such a system was used for the SILENE intercomparison conducted at IRSN Valduc on 12 June and 19, 2002, and the preliminary results compared well with the other participants.

  2. AN ANALYSIS OF ACCIDENT TRENDS AND MODELING OF SAFETY INDICES IN AN INDIAN CONSTRUCTION ORGANIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunku Venkata Siva Rajaprasad

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Construction industry has been recognized as a hazardous industry in many countries due to distinct nature of execution of works.The accident rate in construction sector is high all over the world due to dynamic nature of work activities. Occurrence of accidents and its severity in construction industry is several times higher than the manufacturing industries. The study was limited to a major construction organization in India to examine the trends in construction accidents for the period 2008-2014. In India, safety performance is gauged basing on safety indices; frequency, severity and incidence rates. It is not practicable to take decisions or to implement safety strategies on the basis of indices. The data used for this study was collected from a leading construction organization involved in execution of major construction activities all over India and abroad. The multiple regression method was adopted to model the pattern of safety indices wise .The pattern showed that significant relationships exist between the three safety indices and the related independent variables.

  3. Stress in accident and post-accident management at Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girard, P.; Dubreuil, G.H.

    1996-01-01

    The effects of the Chernobyl nuclear accident on the psychology of the affected population have been much discussed. The psychological dimension has been advanced as a factor explaining the emergence, from 1990 onwards, of a post-accident crisis in the main CIS countries affected. This article presents the conclusions of a series of European studies, which focused on the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. These studies show that the psychological and social effects associated with the post-accident situation arise from the interdependency of a number of complex factors exerting a deleterious effect on the population. We shall first attempt to characterise the stress phenomena observed among the population affected by the accident. Secondly, we will be presenting an anlysis of the various factors that have contributed to the emerging psychological and social features of population reaction to the accident and in post-accident phases, while not neglecting the effects of the pre-accident situation on the target population. Thirdly, we shall devote some initial consideration to the conditions that might be conducive to better management of post-accident stress. In conclusion, we shall emphasise the need to restore confidence among the population generally. (Author)

  4. Accident sequences and causes analysis in a hydrogen production process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jae, Moo Sung; Hwang, Seok Won; Kang, Kyong Min; Ryu, Jung Hyun; Kim, Min Soo; Cho, Nam Chul; Jeon, Ho Jun; Jung, Gun Hyo; Han, Kyu Min; Lee, Seng Woo [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-03-15

    Since hydrogen production facility using IS process requires high temperature of nuclear power plant, safety assessment should be performed to guarantee the safety of facility. First of all, accident cases of hydrogen production and utilization has been surveyed. Based on the results, risk factors which can be derived from hydrogen production facility were identified. Besides the correlation between risk factors are schematized using influence diagram. Also initiating events of hydrogen production facility were identified and accident scenario development and quantification were performed. PSA methodology was used for identification of initiating event and master logic diagram was used for selection method of initiating event. Event tree analysis was used for quantification of accident scenario. The sum of all the leakage frequencies is 1.22x10{sup -4} which is similar value (1.0x10{sup -4}) for core damage frequency that International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group of IAEA suggested as a criteria.

  5. Relationship between particle size and radiocesium in fluvial suspended sediment related to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazuya Tanaka

    2014-01-01

    We collected fluvial suspended sediments in Fukushima after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident and analyzed the 137 Cs concentration in bulk and size-fractioned samples to investigate the particle-size-dependent distribution of radiocesium. The 137 Cs concentration in bulk suspended sediments decreased from August to December 2011, possibly reflecting a decrease of radiocesium concentration in its source materials. Smaller particles had higher radiocesium concentrations, reflecting larger specific surface areas. Silt- and sand-size fractions occupied more than 95 % of the total 137 Cs in the suspended sediments. The contribution of clay-size fractions, which had the highest 137 Cs concentration, was quite small because of their low frequency. A line of the data showed that the particle size distribution of radiocesium was essential to evaluate the migration and distribution of radiocesium in river systems where radiocesium is mainly present as particulate form after the FDNPP accident. (author)

  6. Cernavoda CANDU severe accident evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negut, G.; Marin, A.

    1997-01-01

    The papers present the activities dedicated to Romania Cernavoda Nuclear Power Plant first CANDU Unit severe accident evaluation. This activity is part of more general PSA assessment activities. CANDU specific safety features are calandria moderator and calandria vault water capabilities to remove the residual heat in the case of severe accidents, when the conventional heat sinks are no more available. Severe accidents evaluation, that is a deterministic thermal hydraulic analysis, assesses the accidents progression and gives the milestones when important events take place. This kind of assessment is important to evaluate to recovery time for the reactor operators that can lead to the accident mitigation. The Cernavoda CANDU unit is modeled for the of all heat sinks accident and results compared with the AECL CANDU 600 assessment. (orig.)

  7. Improving performance with accident tolerant-fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, Daniel S.; Muniz, Rafael O.R.; Giovedi, Claudia; Universidade de São Paulo

    2017-01-01

    After the Fukushima reactor accident, efforts to improve risk management in nuclear operations have included the intensification of research on accident-tolerant fuels (ATFs). In this investigation, the physical properties of recently developed ATFs were compared with those of the current standard fuel, UO 2 - Zr. The goals for innovative fuel design include a rigorous characterization of the thermal, mechanical, and chemical considerations. The intentions are to lengthen the burnup cycle, raise the power density, and improve safety. Fuels must have a high uranium density - above that supported by UO 2 - and possess a coating that exhibits better oxidation resistance than Zircaloys. ATFs such as U 3 Si 2 , UN, and UC contain a higher uranium density and thermal conductivity than UO 2 , providing significant benefits. The ideal combination of fuel and cladding must increase performance in a loss-of-coolant accident. However, U 3 Si 2 , UN, and UC have a disadvantage; their respective swelling rates are higher than that of UO 2 . These ATFs also have thermal conductivities approximately four times higher than that of UO 2 . A study was conducted investigating the hydrogen generated by the oxidation of zirconium alloys in contact with steam using cladding options such as Fe-Cr-Al and silicon carbide. It was confirmed that ferritic alloys offer a better response under severe conditions, because of their mechanical properties as creep rate. The findings of this study indicate that advanced fuels should replace UO 2 - Zr as the fuel system of choice. (author)

  8. Traffic accidents on expressways: new threat to China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jinbao; Deng, Wei

    2012-01-01

    As China is building one of the largest expressway systems in the world, expressway safety problems have become serious concerns to China. This article analyzed the trends in expressway accidents in China from 1995 to 2010 and examined the characteristics of these accidents. Expressway accident data were obtained from the Annual Report for Road Traffic Accidents published by the Ministry of Public Security of China. Expressway mileage data were obtained from the National Statistics Yearbook published by the National Bureau of Statistics of China. Descriptive statistical analyses were conducted based on these data. Expressway deaths increased by 10.2-fold from 616 persons in 1995 to 6300 persons in 2010, and the average annual increase was 17.9 percent over the past 15 years, and the overall other road traffic deaths was -0.33 percent. China's expressway mileage accounted for only 1.85 percent of highway mileage driven in 2010, but expressway deaths made up 13.54 percent of highway traffic deaths. The average annual accident lethality rate [accident deaths/(accident deaths + accident injuries)] for China's expressways was 27.76 percent during the period 1995 to 2010, which was 1.33 times higher than the accident lethality rate of highway traffic accidents. China's government should pay attention to expressway construction and safety interventions during the rapid development period of expressways. Related causes, such as geographic patterns, speeding, weather conditions, and traffic flow composition, need to be studied in the near future. An effective and scientific expressway safety management services system, composed of a speed monitoring system, warning system, and emergency rescue system, should be established in developed and underdeveloped provinces in China to improve safety on expressway.

  9. Application of forensic image analysis in accident investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verolme, Ellen; Mieremet, Arjan

    2017-09-01

    Forensic investigations are primarily meant to obtain objective answers that can be used for criminal prosecution. Accident analyses are usually performed to learn from incidents and to prevent similar events from occurring in the future. Although the primary goal may be different, the steps in which information is gathered, interpreted and weighed are similar in both types of investigations, implying that forensic techniques can be of use in accident investigations as well. The use in accident investigations usually means that more information can be obtained from the available information than when used in criminal investigations, since the latter require a higher evidence level. In this paper, we demonstrate the applicability of forensic techniques for accident investigations by presenting a number of cases from one specific field of expertise: image analysis. With the rapid spread of digital devices and new media, a wealth of image material and other digital information has become available for accident investigators. We show that much information can be distilled from footage by using forensic image analysis techniques. These applications show that image analysis provides information that is crucial for obtaining the sequence of events and the two- and three-dimensional geometry of an accident. Since accident investigation focuses primarily on learning from accidents and prevention of future accidents, and less on the blame that is crucial for criminal investigations, the field of application of these forensic tools may be broader than would be the case in purely legal sense. This is an important notion for future accident investigations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. ECONOMIC COSTS ASSOCIATED WITH MOTORBIKE ACCIDENTS IN KATHMANDU, NEPAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diksha Sapkota

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Road traffic accidents, considered as global tragedies, are in increasing trend however, the safety situation is very severe in developing countries incurring substantial amount of human, economic and social costs. Motorcycle crashes, the commonest form, occur mostly on economically active population. However, there is limited coverage of studies on economic burden of motorcycle crashes. This study aims to estimate the total cost and DALYs lost due to motorbike accidents among victims of Kathmandu Valley.Materials and Methods: Retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted among the patients having history of motorbike accidents within past twelve months and at least 3 months from the date of data collection. Interview was conducted using proforma among 100 victims of accidents and their care giver in case of death from November 15, 2014 to May 15, 2015. Cost estimation of motorbike accident was done based on human capital approach. Data collection tool was pretested and collected data were analyzed by SPSS and Microsoft excel. Results: Males (79% belonging to the economically productive age group shared the highest proportion among total accidents victims. Most common reason for accidents was reported to be poor road condition (41%. Indirect cost was found to be significantly higher than direct costs highlighting its negative impact on economy of family and nation due to productivity loss. Total Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs lost per person was found to be 490 years and national estimation showed large burden of motorbike accidents due to huge DALY loss.Conclusions: For low resource countries like Nepal, high economic costs of motorbike accidents can pose additional burden to the fragile health system. These accidents can be prevented, and their consequences can be alleviated. There is an urgent need for reinforcement of appropriate interventions and legislation to decrease the magnitude of it and its associated grave

  11. Accident management insights after the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degueldre, Didier; Viktorov, Alexandre; Tuomainen, Minna; Ducamp, Francois; Chevalier, Sophie; Guigueno, Yves; Tasset, Daniel; Heinrich, Marcus; Schneider, Matthias; Funahashi, Toshihiro; Hotta, Akitoshi; Kajimoto, Mitsuhiro; Chung, Dae-Wook; Kuriene, Laima; Kozlova, Nadezhda; Zivko, Tomi; Aleza, Santiago; Jones, John; McHale, Jack; Nieh, Ho; Pascal, Ghislain; ); Nakoski, John; Neretin, Victor; Nezuka, Takayoshi; )

    2014-01-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) accident, that took place on 11 March 2011, initiated a significant number of activities at the national and international levels to reassess the safety of existing NPPs, evaluate the sufficiency of technical means and administrative measures available for emergency response, and develop recommendations for increasing the robustness of NPPs to withstand extreme external events and beyond design basis accidents. The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) is working closely with its member and partner countries to examine the causes of the accident and to identify lessons learnt with a view to the appropriate follow-up actions to be taken by the nuclear safety community. Accident management is a priority area of work for the NEA to address lessons being learnt from the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi NPP following the recommendations of Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities (CNRA), Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI), and Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health (CRPPH). Considering the importance of these issues, the CNRA authorised the formation of a task group on accident management (TGAM) in June 2012 to review the regulatory framework for accident management following the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident. The task group was requested to assess the NEA member countries needs and challenges in light of the accident from a regulatory point of view. The general objectives of the TGAM review were to consider: - enhancements of on-site accident management procedures and guidelines based on lessons learnt from the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident; - decision-making and guiding principles in emergency situations; - guidance for instrumentation, equipment and supplies for addressing long-term aspects of accident management; - guidance and implementation when taking extreme measures for accident management. The report is built on the existing bases for capabilities to respond to design basis

  12. CANDU severe accident analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negut, Gheorghe; Catana, Alexandru; Prisecaru, Ilie; Dupleac, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Romania is a EU member since January first 2007. This country faces now new challenges which imply also the nuclear power reactors now in operation. Romania operates since 1996 a CANDU nuclear power reactor and soon will start up a second unit. In EU PWR reactors are mostly operated, so that the Romania's reactors have to meet EU standards. Safety analysis guidelines require to model severe accidents for reactors of this type. Starting from previous studies a thermal-hydraulic model for a degraded CANDU core was developed. The initiating event is assumed to be a LOCA with simultaneous loss of moderator and coolant and the failure of emergency core cooling system (ECCS). This type of accident is likely to modify the reactor geometry and will lead to a severe accident development. When the coolant temperatures inside a pressure tube reaches 1000 deg. C, a contact between pressure tube and calandria tube occurs and the decay heat is transferred to the moderator. Due to the lack of cooling, the moderator eventually begins to boil and is expelled, through the calandria vessel relief ducts, into the containment. Therefore the calandria tubes (fuel channels) uncover, then disintegrate and fall down to the calandria vessel bottom. All the quantity of calandria moderator is vaporized and expelled, the debris will heat up and eventually boil. The heat accumulated in the molten debris will be transferred through the calandria vessel wall to the shield water tank surrounding the calandria vessel. The thermal hydraulics phenomena described above are modeled, analyzed and compared with the existing data. (authors)

  13. Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    Following the accident at Chernobyl nuclear reactor, WHO organized on 6 May 1986 in Copenhagen a one day consultation of experts with knowledge in the fields of meteorology, radiation protection, biological effects, reactor technology, emergency procedures, public health and psychology in order to analyse the development of events and their consequences and to provide guidance as to the needs for immediate public health action. The present report provides detailed information on the transportation and dispersion of the radioactive material in the atmosphere, especially volatile elements, during the release period 26 April - 5 May. Presented are the calculated directions and locations of the radioactive plume over Europe in the first 5 days after the accident, submitted by the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute. The calculations have been made for two heights, 1500m and 750m and the plume directions are grouped into five periods, covering five European areas. The consequences of the accident inside the USSR and the radiological consequences outside the USSR are presented including the exposure routes and the biological effects, paying particular attention to iodine-131 effects. Summarized are the first reported measured exposure rates above background, iodine-131 deposition and concentrations in milk and the remedial actions taken in various European countries. Concerning the cesium-137 problem, based on the UNSCEAR assessment of the consequences of the nuclear fallout, one concludes that the cesium contamination outside the USSR is not likely to cause any serious problems. Finally, the conclusions and the recommendations of the meeting, taking into account both the short-term and longer term considerations are presented

  14. Traffic accidents: an econometric investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Tito Moreira; Adolfo Sachsida; Loureiro Paulo

    2004-01-01

    Based on a sample of drivers in Brasilia's streets, this article investigates whether distraction explains traffic accidents. A probit model is estimated to determine the predictive power of several variables on traffic accidents. The main conclusion drawn from this study is that the proxies used to measure distraction, such as the use of cell phones and cigarette smoking in a moving vehicle, are significant factors in determining traffic accidents.

  15. Medical aspects of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messerschmidt, O.

    1990-01-01

    Reactor accidents and nuclear bomb explosions are compared including the release of radioactivity in an accident, results of risk studies, emergency measures of nuclear power plants, and evacuation of the population. The medical aspects refer to the prophylaxies of the thyroid gland, contamination and decontamination of body surfaces, recommendations of the ICRP, radiation injury after total body exposure and medical problems after a reactor accident. (DG)

  16. Accident management approach in Armenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghazaryan, K.

    1999-01-01

    In this lecture the accident management approach in Armenian NPP (ANPP) Unit 2 is described. List of BDBAs had been developed by OKB Gydropress in 1994. 13 accident sequences were included in this list. The relevant analyses had been performed in VNIIAES and the 'Guidelines on operator actions for beyond design basis accident (BDBA) management at ANPP Unit 2' had been prepared. These instructions are discussed

  17. Nuclear accidents and protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biocanin, R.; Amidzic, B.

    2005-01-01

    The numerous threats are our cruel reality. There is a great arsenal of nuclear weapons. Nuclear terrorism and nuclear accidents are always possible, especially during the transport and handling different nuclear material. Terrorist organisation also goes for coming into the possession of the nuclear means. Specific and important problem is human radioactive contamination in using nuclear energy for peaceful and military purpose. So, realisation of the universal and united system of NBCD gives us a possibility by using the modern communication equipment and very effective mobile units to react in a real time and successfully perform monitoring, alarming, protection and decontamination. (author) [sr

  18. The accident of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-10-01

    RBMK reactors (reactor control, protection systems, containment) and the nuclear power plant of Chernobyl are first presented. The scenario of the accident is given with a detailed chronology. The actions and consequences on the site are reviewed. This report then give the results of the source term estimation (fision product release, core inventory, trajectories, meteorological data...), the radioactivity measurements obtained in France. Health consequences for the French population are evoked. The medical consequences for the population who have received a high level of doses are reviewed [fr

  19. Psychological response of accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novikov, V.S.; Nikiforov, A.M.; Cheprasov, V.Yu.

    1996-01-01

    The psychological status of rescuers of consequences of Chernobyl[s accidents, having planned stationary examination and treatment of common somatic diseases, has been examined. THe age of men represented the study group was 35-54 years old. The results of medical-psychological examination showed the development in rescuers of common dysadaptation and stress state, characterized by depressive-hypochondriac state with high anxiety. The course of psychotherapeutic activities made possible to improve essentionally the psychological status of the patients. 12 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  20. Reactor accident in Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokalski, A.; Kowalski, A.

    1990-11-01

    The bibliography contains 1568 descriptions of papers devoted to Chernobylsk accident and recorded in ''INIS Atomindex'' to 30 June 1990. The descriptions were taken from ''INIS Atomindex'' and are presented in accordance with volumes of this journal (chronology of recording). Therefore all descriptions have numbers showing first the number of volume and then the number of record. The bibliography has at the end the detailed subject index consisting of 465 main headings and a lot of qualifiers. Some of them are descriptors taken from ''INIS Atomindex'' and some are key words taken from natural language. The index is in English as descriptions in the bibliography. (author)

  1. Accident prevention programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This study by the Steel Industry Safety and Health Commission was made within the context of the application by undertakings of the principles of accident and disease prevention previously adopted by the said Commission. It puts forward recommendations for the effective and gradual implementation of a programme of action on occupational health and safety in the various departments of an undertaking and in the undertaking as a whole. The methods proposed in this study are likely to be of interest to all undertakings in the metallurgical industry and other industrial sectors

  2. Serious accident in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    A peruvian man, victim of an important accidental irradiation arrived on the Saturday twenty ninth of may 1999 to the centre of treatment of serious burns at the Percy military hospital (Clamart -France). The accident spent on the twentieth of February 1999, on the site of a hydroelectric power plant, in construction at 300 km at the East of Lima. The victim has picked up an industrial source of iridium devoted to gamma-graphy operations and put it in his back pocket; of trousers. The workman has serious radiation burns. (N.C.)

  3. Credible investigation of air accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smart, K.

    2004-01-01

    Within the United Kingdom the Air Accidents Investigation Branch (AAIB) has been used as a model for the other transport modes accident investigation bodies. Government Ministers considered that the AAIB's approach had established the trust of the public and the aviation industry in its ability to conduct independent and objective investigations. The paper will examine the factors that are involved in establishing this trust. They include: the investigation framework; the actual and perceived independence of the accident investigating body; the aviation industry's safety culture; the qualities of the investigators and the quality of their liaison with bereaved families those directly affected by the accidents they investigate

  4. Guidance on accidents involving radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This annex contains advice to Health Authorities on their response to accidents involving radioactivity. The guidance is in six parts:-(1) planning the response required to nuclear accidents overseas, (2) planning the response required to UK nuclear accidents a) emergency plans for nuclear installations b) nuclear powered satellites, (3) the handling of casualties contaminated with radioactive substances, (4) background information for dealing with queries from the public in the event of an accident, (5) the national arrangements for incident involving radioactivity (NAIR), (6) administrative arrangements. (author)

  5. Comparison of the Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear accidents: a review of the environmental impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhauser, Georg; Brandl, Alexander; Johnson, Thomas E

    2014-02-01

    The environmental impacts of the nuclear accidents of Chernobyl and Fukushima are compared. In almost every respect, the consequences of the Chernobyl accident clearly exceeded those of the Fukushima accident. In both accidents, most of the radioactivity released was due to volatile radionuclides (noble gases, iodine, cesium, tellurium). However, the amount of refractory elements (including actinides) emitted in the course of the Chernobyl accident was approximately four orders of magnitude higher than during the Fukushima accident. For Chernobyl, a total release of 5,300 PBq (excluding noble gases) has been established as the most cited source term. For Fukushima, we estimated a total source term of 520 (340-800) PBq. In the course of the Fukushima accident, the majority of the radionuclides (more than 80%) was transported offshore and deposited in the Pacific Ocean. Monitoring campaigns after both accidents reveal that the environmental impact of the Chernobyl accident was much greater than of the Fukushima accident. Both the highly contaminated areas and the evacuated areas are smaller around Fukushima and the projected health effects in Japan are significantly lower than after the Chernobyl accident. This is mainly due to the fact that food safety campaigns and evacuations worked quickly and efficiently after the Fukushima accident. In contrast to Chernobyl, no fatalities due to acute radiation effects occurred in Fukushima. © 2013.

  6. Analysis of Surface Water Pollution Accidents in China: Characteristics and Lessons for Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hong; Zhang, Tongzhu; Liu, Bo; Lu, Feng; Fang, Shurong; You, Zhen

    2016-04-01

    Understanding historical accidents is important for accident prevention and risk mitigation; however, there are no public databases of pollution accidents in China, and no detailed information regarding such incidents is readily available. Thus, 653 representative cases of surface water pollution accidents in China were identified and described as a function of time, location, materials involved, origin, and causes. The severity and other features of the accidents, frequency and quantities of chemicals involved, frequency and number of people poisoned, frequency and number of people affected, frequency and time for which pollution lasted, and frequency and length of pollution zone were effectively used to value and estimate the accumulated probabilities. The probabilities of occurrences of various types based on origin and causes were also summarized based on these observations. The following conclusions can be drawn from these analyses: (1) There was a high proportion of accidents involving multi-district boundary regions and drinking water crises, indicating that more attention should be paid to environmental risk prevention and the mitigation of such incidents. (2) A high proportion of accidents originated from small-sized chemical plants, indicating that these types of enterprises should be considered during policy making. (3) The most common cause (49.8 % of the total) was intentional acts (illegal discharge); accordingly, efforts to increase environmental consciousness in China should be enhanced.

  7. Analysis of Surface Water Pollution Accidents in China: Characteristics and Lessons for Risk Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hong; Zhang, Tongzhu; Liu, Bo; Lu, Feng; Fang, Shurong; You, Zhen

    2016-04-01

    Understanding historical accidents is important for accident prevention and risk mitigation; however, there are no public databases of pollution accidents in China, and no detailed information regarding such incidents is readily available. Thus, 653 representative cases of surface water pollution accidents in China were identified and described as a function of time, location, materials involved, origin, and causes. The severity and other features of the accidents, frequency and quantities of chemicals involved, frequency and number of people poisoned, frequency and number of people affected, frequency and time for which pollution lasted, and frequency and length of pollution zone were effectively used to value and estimate the accumulated probabilities. The probabilities of occurrences of various types based on origin and causes were also summarized based on these observations. The following conclusions can be drawn from these analyses: (1) There was a high proportion of accidents involving multi-district boundary regions and drinking water crises, indicating that more attention should be paid to environmental risk prevention and the mitigation of such incidents. (2) A high proportion of accidents originated from small-sized chemical plants, indicating that these types of enterprises should be considered during policy making. (3) The most common cause (49.8% of the total) was intentional acts (illegal discharge); accordingly, efforts to increase environmental consciousness in China should be enhanced.

  8. Method of assessing severe accident management strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastenberg, W.E.; Apostolakis, G.; Dhir, V.K.; Okrent, D.; Jae, M.; Lim, H.; Milici, T.; Park, H.; Swider, J.; Xing, L.; Yu, D.

    1991-01-01

    Accident management can be defined as the innovative use of existing and or alternative resources, systems, and actions to prevent or mitigate a severe accident. A significant number of probabilistic safety assessments (PSAs) have been completed that yield the principal plant vulnerabilities. These vulnerabilities can be categorized as (1) dominant sequences with respect to core-melt frequency. (2) dominant sequences with respect to various risk measures. (3) dominant threats that challenge safety functions. (4) dominant threats with respect to failure of safety systems. For each sequence/threat and each combination of strategy, there may be several options available to the operator. Each strategy/option involves phenomenological and operational considerations regarding uncertainty. These considerations include uncertainties in key phenomena, operator behavior, system availability and behavior, and available information. This paper presents a methodology for assessing severe accident management strategies given the key uncertainties delineated at two workshops held at the University of California, Los Angeles. Based on decision trees and influence diagrams, the methodology is currently being applied to two case studies: cavity flooding in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) to prevent vessel penetration or failure, and drywell flooding in a boiling water reactor to prevent vessel and/or containment failure

  9. Radiation accidents: occurrence, types, consequences, medical management, and the lessons to be learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turai, I.; Veress, K.

    2001-01-01

    The paper reviews the frequency, causes and occurrence of radiation accidents with some significant exposure to human. More detailed information is provided in tabulated form on the health consequences of those twenty severe radiation accidents that occurred in 1986-2000, world-wide. Reference is given to the very low cumulative incidence of significant radiation accidents, as during the last 57 years there were, in average, seven registered accidents annually in all countries of the world. Thus, the chance for most of the physicians to meet a patient with symptoms of acute radiation injury during their professional career is very low

  10. Statistical analysis of accident data associated with sea transport (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raffestin, D.; Armingaud, F.; Schneider, T.; Delaigue, S.

    1998-01-01

    This analysis, based on Lloyd's database, gives an accurate description of the world fleet and the most severe ship accidents, as well as the frequencies of accident per ship type, accident category and age category. Complementary analyses were achieved using fire accident databases from AEA Technology and the French Bureau Veritas. The results should be used in the perspective of safety assessments of maritime shipments of radioactive material. For this purpose the existence of the regulations of the International Maritime Organisation has to be considered, leading to the introduction of correction factors to these statistical data derived from general cargo-carrying ships. (author)

  11. Statistical inference of the nuclear accidents occurrence number for the next decade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felizia, E.R.

    1987-01-01

    This paper aims to give a response using the classical statistical and bayesian inference techniques regarding the common characteristic in the Harrisburg and Chernobyl nuclear accidents: in both reactors, core fusion occurred. In relation to the last mentioned techniques, the most recent developments were applied, based on the decision theory of uncertainty; among others, the principle of maximum entropy. Besides, as a preliminar information on the accidents occurrence frequency with core fusion, the German risk analysis results were used. The estimations predicted for the next decade an average between one or two accidents with core fusion and low possibilities for the 'no accident' event in the same period. (Author)

  12. 1976 Hanford americium accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heid, K.R.; Breitenstein, B.D.; Palmer, H.E.; McMurray, B.J.; Wald, N.

    1979-01-01

    This report presents the 2.5-year medical course of a 64-year-old Hanford nuclear chemical operator who was involved in an accident in an americium recovery facility in August 1976. He was heavily externally contaminated with americium, sustained a substantial internal deposition of this isotope, and was burned with concentrated nitric acid and injured by flying debris about the face and neck. The medical care given the patient, including the decontamination efforts and clinical laboratory studies, are discussed. In-vivo measurements were used to estimate the dose rates and the accumulated doses to body organs. Urinary and fecal excreta were collected and analyzed for americium content. Interpretation of these data was complicated by the fact that the intake resulted both from inhalation and from solubilization of the americium embedded in facial tissues. A total of 1100 μCi was excreted in urine and feces during the first 2 years following the accident. The long-term use of diethylenetriaminepentate (DTPA), used principally as the zinc salt, is discussed including the method, route of administration, and effectiveness. To date, the patient has apparently experienced no complications attributable to this extensive course of therapy, even though he has been given approximately 560 grams of DTPA. 4 figures, 1 table

  13. Serious reactor accidents reconsidered

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-12-01

    The chance is determined for damage of the reactor core and that sequel events will cause excursion of radioactive materials into the environment. The gravity of such an accident is expressed by the source term. It appears that the chance for such an accident varies with the source term. In general it is valid that how larger the source term how smaller the chance is for it and vice versa. The chance for excursion is related to two complexes of events: serious damage (meltdown) of the reactor core, and the escape of the liberated radionuclides into the environment. The results are an order of magnitude consideration of the relation between the extent of the source term and the chance for it. From the spectrum of possible source terms three representative ones have been chosen: a large, a medium and a relative small source term. This choice is in accordance with international considerations. The hearth of this study is the estimation of the chance for occurrence of the three chosen source terms for new light-water reactors. refs.; figs.; tabs

  14. Assessment of accident energetics in LMFBR core-disruptive accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauske, H.K.

    1977-01-01

    An assessment of accident energetics in LMFBR core-disruptive accidents is given with emphasis on the generic issues of energetic recriticality and energetic fuel-coolant interaction events. Application of a few general behavior principles to the oxide-fueled system suggests that such events are highly unlikely following a postulated core meltdown event

  15. Accident analysis. A review of the various accidents classifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin Martin, L.; Figueras, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of the accident analysis, in relation with the safety evaluation, environmental impact and emergency planning, should be to identify the total risk to the population and workers from potential accidents in the facility, analizing it over full spectrum of severity. (auth.)

  16. Consequences of severe nuclear accidents in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibert, Petra; Arnold, Delia; Mraz, Gabriele; Arnold, Nikolaus; Gufler, Klaus; Kromp-Kolb, Helga; Kromp, Wolfgang; Sutter, Philipp

    2013-04-01

    A first part of the presentation is devoted to the consequences of the severe accident in the 1986 Chernobyl NPP. It lead to a substantial radioactive contaminated of large parts of Europe and thus raised the awareness for off-site nuclear accident consequences. Spatial patterns of the (transient) contamination of the air and (persistent) contamination of the ground were studied by both measurements and model simulations. For a variety of reasons, ground contamination measurements have variability at a range of spatial scales. Results will be reviewed and discussed. Model simulations, including inverse modelling, have shown that the standard source term as defined in the ATMES study (1990) needs to be updated. Sensitive measurements of airborne activities still reveal the presence of low levels of airborne radiocaesium over the northern hemisphere which stems from resuspension. Over time scales of months and years, the distribution of radionuclides in the Earth system is constantly changing, for example relocated within plants, between plants and soil, in the soil, and into water bodies. Motivated by the permanent risk of transboundary impacts from potential major nuclear accidents, the multidisciplinary project flexRISK (see http://flexRISK.boku.ac.at) has been carried out from 2009 to 2012 in Austria to quantify such risks and hazards. An overview of methods and results of flexRISK is given as a second part of the presentation. For each of the 228 NPPs, severe accidents were identified together with relevant inventories, release fractions, and release frequencies. Then, Europe-wide dispersion and dose calculations were performed for 2788 cases, using the Lagrangian particle model FLEXPART. Maps of single-case results as well as various aggregated risk parameters were produced. It was found that substantial consequences (intervention measures) are possible for distances up to 500-1000 km, and occur more frequently for a distance range up to 100-300 km, which is in

  17. [Accidents at work in construction workers: a peculiar utilization of the information flow INAIL-ISPESL-Regions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeo, G; Giaimo, M

    2007-01-01

    Indicators generally used to describe the work accident risk, i.e. frequency and injuries severity, are not suitable for comparison among single companies in order to point out those with major risk. We propose a method to draw out construction companies with higher risk of occupational injuries in the period 2003-2005 from INAIL-ISPESL-Regioni database. These companies will be object of specific interventions for the prevention, training and supervision from Prevention and Safety in Working Environments Services, from Provincial Labor Directions and Provincial Territorial Construction Committees.

  18. Factors Affecting Accidents Risks among Truck Drivers In Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elshamly Ahmed Fathalla

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Egypt is ranked among the countries with the highest rates of road accidents. According to the American Chamber of Commerce more than 96% of Egypt's goods are transported by trucks and due to their large volume and excessive weight, the severity and number of truck accident fatalities are much higher than other vehicles in Egypt. The present study aims at identifying truck driver's behavior and its influence on crash involvement. Due to the shortage in recording accident data and the inaccurate road accident audit, data was collected from several governorates in Egypt through questionnaire. Questionnaire forms were filled out through personal interviews with truck drivers. The total number of respondents was 643. The final analysis was made on the 615 questionnaires with complete answers. The data was analyzed and logistic regression was applied to accident related data to examine the contributing factors affecting accident occurrence of truck drivers. Results showed that fatigue in terms of driving hours (continuous and total and lack of sleep, drug use during driving, and driver obesity are the most influencing factors on the occurrence of truck accidents in Egypt. The findings of this research highlight the important role human factors have on the risk of crash involvement amongst Egypt's truck drivers and the need to improve their work conditions.

  19. Unrecorded Accidents Detection on Highways Based on Temporal Data Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi An

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Automatic traffic accident detection, especially not recorded by traffic police, is crucial to accident black spots identification and traffic safety. A new method of detecting traffic accidents is proposed based on temporal data mining, which can identify the unknown and unrecorded accidents by traffic police. Time series model was constructed using ternary numbers to reflect the state of traffic flow based on cell transmission model. In order to deal with the aftereffects of linear drift between time series and to reduce the computational cost, discrete Fourier transform was implemented to turn time series from time domain to frequency domain. The pattern of the time series when an accident happened could be recognized using the historical crash data. Then taking Euclidean distance as the similarity evaluation function, similarity data mining of the transformed time series was carried out. If the result was less than the given threshold, the two time series were similar and an accident happened probably. A numerical example was carried out and the results verified the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  20. ARAMIS project: A comprehensive methodology for the identification of reference accident scenarios in process industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delvosalle, Christian; Fievez, Cecile; Pipart, Aurore; Debray, Bruno

    2006-01-01

    In the frame of the Accidental Risk Assessment Methodology for Industries (ARAMIS) project, this paper aims at presenting the work carried out in the part of the project devoted to the definition of accident scenarios. This topic is a key-point in risk assessment and serves as basis for the whole risk quantification. The first result of the work is the building of a methodology for the identification of major accident hazards (MIMAH), which is carried out with the development of generic fault and event trees based on a typology of equipment and substances. The term 'major accidents' must be understood as the worst accidents likely to occur on the equipment, assuming that no safety systems are installed. A second methodology, called methodology for the identification of reference accident scenarios (MIRAS) takes into account the influence of safety systems on both the frequencies and possible consequences of accidents. This methodology leads to identify more realistic accident scenarios. The reference accident scenarios are chosen with the help of a tool called 'risk matrix', crossing the frequency and the consequences of accidents. This paper presents both methodologies and an application on an ethylene oxide storage

  1. The expert assistant in accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goddard, A.J.H.; Cannell, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    In the event of a nuclear accident in proximity to an urban area, the consequences resulting from the complex processes of environmental transport of radioactivity would require complex countermeasures. Emphasis has been placed on either modelling the potential effects of such an event on the population, or on attempting to predict the geographical evolution of the release. Less emphasis has been placed on the development of accident management aids with a in-built data acquisition capability. Given the problems of predicting the evolution of an accidental release of activity, more emphasis should be placed on the development of small regional systems specifically engineered to acquire and display environmental data in the most efficaceous form possible. A wealth of information can be obtained from appropriately-sited outstations which can aid those responsible for countermeasures in their decision making processes. The substantial volume of data which would arrive within the duration and during the aftermath of an accident requires skilled interpretation under conditions of considerable stress. It is necessary that a management aid notonly presents these data in a rapidly assimilable form, but is capable of making intelligent decisions of its own, on such matters as information display priority and the polling frequency of outstations. The requirement is for an expert assistant. The XERSES accident management aid has been designed with the foregoing features in mind. Intended for covering regions up to approximately 100 kms square, it links with between 1 and 64 outstations supplying a variety of environmental data. Under quiescent conditions the system will operate unattended, raising alarms remotely only when detecting abnormal conditions. Under emergency conditions, the system automatically adjusts such operating parameters as data acquisition rate

  2. Head and Maxillofacial Injuries in Child and Adolescent Victims of Automotive Accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Leite Cavalcanti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Victims of motor vehicle accidents may suffer multiple lesions, including maxillofacial injuries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with head, facial, and maxillofacial injuries in child and adolescent victims of automobile accidents. A cross-sectional study was carried out with analysis of forensic medical reports from the Legal Medical Institute of Campina Grande, Brazil, between January 2008 and December 2011. Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis was conducted using the chi-square test (α = 0.05. From 1613 medical reports analyzed, the sample is composed 232 (14.4% reports referring to child and adolescent victims of automobile accidents aged 0–19 years of both sexes. Victims were mostly adolescents aged from 15 to 19 years (64.2%, males (73.7%, and motorcyclists (51.3%. More than half of the victims had single lesions (54.3% located in the head (20.7% and face (21.6%. Head injuries occurred more frequently in children aged 0–4 years (53.8%, PR = 5.065, 95% CI = 1.617–5.870 and pedestrians (30.4%, PR = 2.039, 95% CI = 1.024–4.061, while facial and maxillofacial injuries occurred in higher proportion among females (31.1%, PR = 0.489, 95% CI = 0.251–0.954. Our findings suggest that accidents involving motorcyclists are the most prevalent, affecting male adolescents aged from 15 to 19 years, resulting in a high frequency of injuries in the head and face regions.

  3. Operational accidents and radiation exposures at ERDA facilities, 1975-1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-01

    The Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) accident frequency and losses were similar to that of the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) from 1970 through 1974. The ERDA incidence rates per 200,000 work hours were 1.05 for lost workday injuries and 17.8 for workdays lost. These rates are about one-third of the national industrial averages reported by the National Safety Council (NSC). Ten fatalities occurred at ERDA facilities resulting in an average annual rate of three deaths per 100,000 workers compared to the national rate of 14 deaths per 100,000 workers. ERDA's total property loss from 1975 to 1977 was $11.9 million; $1.8 million caused by fires. The average annual loss rates, in cents loss per $100 valuation, were 1.15 for non-fire and 0.18 for fire. These rates are higher than the AEC post; Rocky Flats period (1970 through 1974) which were 0.60 non-fire and 0.10 fire; but are lower than the average annual rates which were 2.4 non-fire and 1.7 fire for the entire history of the AEC. Accidents causing more than $50,000 in property damage are tabulated. ERDA continued to make a strong effort to eliminate unnecessary radiation exposure to workers. The number of employees exceeding 1 rem decreased from 2999 in 1975 to 2274 in 1977. The two appendixes include criteria for accident investigations and summaries of accident investigation reports.

  4. Maxillofacial trauma due to work-related accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hächl, O; Tuli, T; Schwabegger, A; Gassner, R

    2002-02-01

    Even though numerous reports on maxillofacial trauma exist, only a few give detailed information about work-related maxillofacial injuries. The purpose of this study was to reveal the significance of maxillofacial injuries related to accidents occurring at work by evaluating a large number of patients with maxillofacial injuries over a 9-year period. Out of the 8704 trauma patients treated between 1991 and 1999 in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery at the University of Innsbruck, Austria, 463 (5.4%) were injured at work. All charts were reviewed and analyzed according to age, gender, cause of accident, occupation, type of injury, location and frequency of fractures. The highest incidence of maxillofacial injury was found among construction workers (a total of 124 patients, 26.8%), followed by craftsmen (102 patients, 22.0%) and office employees (69 patients, 14.9%). The sex distribution showed an overall male-to-female ratio of 11.8:1 and those in the age group most affected were between 20 and 29 years of age. The most frequent cause of injury was a blow in 48.4%, followed by falls and falls over obstacles, accounting for 27.9% and 7.1%, respectively. Of all trauma, 45.4% (210 persons) sustained 423 maxillofacial fractures, 31.7% (147 patients) suffered 232 dento-alveolar injuries, and 21.2% (98 people) showed 430 soft-tissue injuries. One-fifth (20.7%) of all patients displayed concomitant injuries with cerebral and cranial trauma being the most common. The probability of sustaining maxillofacial trauma at work is correlated to the nature of the occupation. Individuals (mostly men) using tools or machines at work are exposed to a much higher risk of work-related maxillofacial trauma.

  5. Higher Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kunle Amuwo: Higher Education Transformation: A Paradigm Shilt in South Africa? ... ty of such skills, especially at the middle management levels within the higher ... istics and virtues of differentiation and diversity. .... may be forced to close shop for lack of capacity to attract ..... necessarily lead to racial and gender equity,.

  6. Keynote on lessons from major radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz, P.; Oresegun, M.; Wheatley, J.

    2000-01-01

    Generic lessons have been learned from a relatively large number of accidents in the most relevant practices (a set of analysis have been made on about 90 radiotherapy events, 43 industrial radiography and nine from industrial irradiations); more specific lessons have been drawn from in-depth investigations of individual accidents. The body of knowledge is grouped as follows: a) radiotherapy is very unique in that humans (patients) are purposely given very high radiation doses (20-75 Gy) by placing them in the radiation beam or by placing radioactive sources in contact with tissues. Intended deterministic effects are the essence of the normal radiotherapy practice and relatively small deviation from the intended doses, i.e,, slightly higher or lower than intended may cause increased rate of severe complication or reduce probability of cure. Consequences of major accidents have been devastating, affecting tens, even hundreds of patients and causing death (directly or indirectly) to a large number of them; b) accidents involving industrial radiography are the most frequent cause of overexposure to workers (radiographers); c) accidents with industrial irradiators have lower probability of occurrence, however, they are deemed to be fatal, especially when whole body exposure to panoramic gamma irradiators occur; partial body irradiation from industrial or research accelerator beams has led to amputation of hands and legs; d) when control of sources was relinquished ('orphan' sources) this has resulted in severe injuries, in some cases death and widespread contamination of the environment. A tool for further dissemination of lessons will be an international reporting system of unusual radiation events (RADEV), being introduced world-wide. Accidents were rarely due to a single human error or isolated equipment failure. In most cases there was a combination of elements such as: a) unawareness of the potential for an accident, b) poor education, which usually did not

  7. Containment severe accident thermohydraulic phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frid, W.

    1991-08-01

    This report describes and discusses the containment accident progression and the important severe accident containment thermohydraulic phenomena. The overall objective of the report is to provide a rather detailed presentation of the present status of phenomenological knowledge, including an account of relevant experimental investigations and to discuss, to some extent, the modelling approach used in the MAAP 3.0 computer code. The MAAP code has been used in Sweden as the main tool in the analysis of severe accidents. The dependence of the containment accident progression and containment phenomena on the initial conditions, which in turn are heavily dependent on the in-vessel accident progression and phenomena as well as associated uncertainties, is emphasized. The report is in three parts dealing with: * Swedish reactor containments, the severe accident mitigation programme in Sweden and containment accident progression in Swedish PWRs and BWRs as predicted by the MAAP 3.0 code. * Key non-energetic ex-vessel phenomena (melt fragmentation in water, melt quenching and coolability, core-concrete interaction and high temperature in containment). * Early containment threats due to energetic events (hydrogen combustion, high pressure melt ejection and direct containment heating, and ex-vessel steam explosions). The report concludes that our understanding of the containment severe accident progression and phenomena has improved very significantly over the parts ten years and, thereby, our ability to assess containment threats, to quantify uncertainties, and to interpret the results of experiments and computer code calculations have also increased. (au)

  8. Expert software for accident identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobnikar, M.; Nemec, T.; Muehleisen, A.

    2003-01-01

    Each type of an accident in a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) causes immediately after the start of the accident variations of physical parameters that are typical for that type of the accident thus enabling its identification. Examples of these parameter are: decrease of reactor coolant system pressure, increase of radiation level in the containment, increase of pressure in the containment. An expert software enabling a fast preliminary identification of the type of the accident in Krsko NPP has been developed. As input data selected typical parameters from Emergency Response Data System (ERDS) of the Krsko NPP are used. Based on these parameters the expert software identifies the type of the accident and also provides the user with appropriate references (past analyses and other documentation of such an accident). The expert software is to be used as a support tool by an expert team that forms in case of an emergency at Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration (SNSA) with the task to determine the cause of the accident, its most probable scenario and the source term. The expert software should provide initial identification of the event, while the final one is still to be made after appropriate assessment of the event by the expert group considering possibility of non-typical events, multiple causes, initial conditions, influences of operators' actions etc. The expert software can be also used as an educational/training tool and even as a simple database of available accident analyses. (author)

  9. Fukushima accident - reasons and impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slugen, V.

    2011-01-01

    The Fukushima accident influenced dramatically the current view on safety of nuclear facilities. Consideration about possible impacts of natural catastrophe in design of nuclear facilities seems to be much more important than before. European commission is focused on the stress-tests at nuclear power plants. His paper will go more in details having in mind reasons and impacts of Fukushima accident (Author)

  10. First Responders and Criticality Accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valerie L. Putman; Douglas M. Minnema

    2005-11-01

    Nuclear criticality accident descriptions typically include, but do not focus on, information useful to first responders. We studied these accidents, noting characteristics to help (1) first responders prepare for such an event and (2) emergency drill planners develop appropriate simulations for training. We also provide recommendations to help people prepare for such events in the future.

  11. Occupational accidents among mototaxi drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Camila Rego; de Araújo, Edna Maria; de Araújo, Tânia Maria; de Oliveira, Nelson Fernandes

    2012-03-01

    The use of motorcycles as a means of work has contributed to the increase in traffic accidents, in particular, mototaxi accidents. The aim of this study was to estimate and characterize the incidence of occupational accidents among the mototaxis registered in Feira de Santana, BA. This is a cross-sectional study with descriptive and census data. Of the 300 professionals registered at the Municipal Transportation Service, 267 professionals were interviewed through a structured questionnaire. Then, a descriptive analysis was conducted and the incidence of accidents was estimated based on the variables studied. Relative risks were calculated and statistical significance was determined using the chi-square test and Fisher's exact test, considering p accidents were observed in 10.5% of mototaxis. There were mainly minor injuries (48.7%), 27% of them requiring leaves of absence from work. There was an association between the days of work per week, fatigue in lower limbs and musculoskeletal complaints, and accidents. Knowledge of the working conditions and accidents involved in this activity can be of great importance for the adoption of traffic education policies, and to help prevent accidents by improving the working conditions and lives of these professionals.

  12. Frequency Hopping Transceiver Multiplexer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-03-01

    ATC 17 ULR IHQ OCLI CPCTR ULTRA HIGH "OQS" UP TO 4X HIGHER THAN BEST INDUS- TRY STANDARD (ATC 100). MICROWAVE POWER, CURRENT. AND 0 RATINGS5...Q"W were assigned to element (FigC-2); which will be modelled into the transformer previously ment td . The center frequencies, "Q", frequency range...of the TD 1288 system. Temperature stability, change with time or storage. Flexure Frequency, or non-linear change over bandwidth. * Humidity

  13. Neutron personal dosimetry in criticality accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, E.S. da; Mauricio, C.L.P.

    1996-01-01

    In the present work an innovating method is proposed to estimate the absorbed dose received by individuals irradiated with neutrons in an accident, even in the case that the victim is not using any kind of neutron dosemeter. The method combines direct measurements of 24 Na and 32 P activated in the human body. The calculation method was developed using data taken from previously published papers and experimental measurements. Other irradiations results in different neutron spectra prove the validity of the method here proposed. Using a whole body counter to measure 24 Na activity, it is possible to evaluate neutron absorbed doses in the order of 140 μ Gy of very soft (thermal) spectra. For fast neutron fields, the lower limit for neutron dose detection increases, but the present method continues to be very useful in accidents, with higher neutron doses. (author)

  14. Barriers to learning from incidents and accidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dechy, N.; Dien, Y.; Drupsteen, L.; Felicio, A.; Cunha, C.; Roed-Larsen, S.; Marsden, E.; Tulonen, T.; Stoop, J.; Strucic, M.; Vetere Arellano, A.L.; Vorm, J.K.J. van der; Benner, L.

    2015-01-01

    This document provides an overview of knowledge concerning barriers to learning from incidents and accidents. It focuses on learning from accident investigations, public inquiries and operational experience feedback, in industrial sectors that are exposed to major accident hazards. The document

  15. Probability of spent fuel transportation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClure, J.D.

    1981-07-01

    The transported volume of spent fuel, incident/accident experience and accident environment probabilities were reviewed in order to provide an estimate of spent fuel accident probabilities. In particular, the accident review assessed the accident experience for large casks of the type that could transport spent (irradiated) nuclear fuel. This review determined that since 1971, the beginning of official US Department of Transportation record keeping for accidents/incidents, there has been one spent fuel transportation accident. This information, coupled with estimated annual shipping volumes for spent fuel, indicated an estimated annual probability of a spent fuel transport accident of 5 x 10 -7 spent fuel accidents per mile. This is consistent with ordinary truck accident rates. A comparison of accident environments and regulatory test environments suggests that the probability of truck accidents exceeding regulatory test for impact is approximately 10 -9 /mile

  16. 29 CFR 1960.29 - Accident investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... reflective of the seriousness of the accident. (b) In any case, each accident which results in a fatality or... evidence uncovered during accident investigations which would be of benefit in developing a new OSHA...

  17. Traffic Accidents on Slippery Roads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonnesbech, J. K.; Bolet, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Police registrations from 65 accidents on slippery roads in normally Danish winters have been studied. The study showed: • 1 accident per 100 km when using brine spread with nozzles • 2 accidents per 100 km when using pre wetted salt • 3 accidents per 100 km when using kombi spreaders The results...... of accidents in normally Danish winter seasons are remarkable alike the amount of salt used in praxis in the winter 2011/2012. • 2.7 ton NaCl/km when using brine spread with nozzles • 5 ton NaCl/km when using pre wetted salt. • 5.7 ton NaCl/km when using kombi spreaders The explanation is that spreading...

  18. Corporate Cost of Occupational Accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rikhardsson, Pall M.; Impgaard, M.

    2004-01-01

    method could be used in all of the companies without revisions. The evaluation of accident cost showed that 2/3 of the costs of occupational accidents are visible in the Danish corporate accounting systems reviewed while 1/3 is hidden from management view. The highest cost of occupational accidents......The systematic accident cost analysis (SACA) project was carried out during 2001 by The Aarhus School of Business and PricewaterhouseCoopers Denmark with financial support from The Danish National Working Environment Authority. Its focused on developing and testing a method for evaluating...... occupational costs of companies for use by occupational health and safety professionals. The method was tested in nine Danish companies within three different industry sectors and the costs of 27 selected occupational accidents in these companies were calculated. One of the main conclusions is that the SACA...

  19. Dose assessment in radiological accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donkor, S.

    2013-04-01

    The applications of ionizing radiation bring many benefits to humankind, ranging from power generation to uses in medicine, industry and agriculture. Facilities that use radiation source require special care in the design and operation of equipment to prevent radiation injury to workers or to the public. Despite considerable development of radiation safety, radiation accidents do happen. The purpose of this study is therefore to discuss how to assess doses to people who will be exposed to a range of internal and external radiation sources in the event of radiological accidents. This will go a long way to complement their medical assessment thereby helping to plan their treatment. Three radiological accidents were reviewed to learn about the causes of those accidents and the recommendations that were put in place to prevent recurrence of such accidents. Various types of dose assessment methods were discussed.(au)

  20. Severe accidents in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohai, Dumitru; Dumitrescu, Iulia; Tunaru, Mariana

    2004-01-01

    The likelihood of accidents leading to core meltdown in nuclear reactors is low. The consequences of such an event are but so severe that developing and implementing of adequate measures for preventing or diminishing the consequences of such events are of paramount importance. The analysis of major accidents requires sophisticated computation codes but necessary are also relevant experiments for checking the accuracy of the predictions and capability of these codes. In this paper an overview of the severe accidents worldwide with definitions, computation codes and relating experiments is presented. The experimental research activity of severe accidents was conducted in INR Pitesti since 2003, when the Institute jointed the SARNET Excellence Network. The INR activity within SARNET consists in studying scenarios of severe accidents by means of ASTEC and RELAP/SCDAP codes and conducting bench-scale experiments

  1. JCO criticality accident termination operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanamori, Masashi

    2001-12-01

    On September 30 at around 10:35 AM, criticality accident occurred at the JCO's conversion building in Tokai-mura. Since criticality accident had not been anticipated, neither devices for termination of criticality accident nor neutron detectors were available. Immediately after the information of the accident, our emergency staff (Japan Nuclear Cycle development institute staff) went to JCO site, to measure the intensity of neutrons and gammas. There were four main tasks, first one was to measure the radiation intensity, second one was to terminate the criticality accident, third one is to alert the residents surrounding the JCO site, fourth one is to evacuate the employees in the site. These tasks were successfully performed until October 1. This paper describes about how these operations were performed by the relevant staffs. (author)

  2. [Research on accidents in a tire-producing plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mete, R; Sabatucci, A

    1989-09-30

    In the autumn of 1987 the U.S.L. health service (prevention, hygiene and occupational safety section) began a study about the accidents in a firm manufacturing tyres, placed in its own area. The retrospective enquiry starts from the analysis of typology, diffusion and seriousness of occupational accidents. The firm's accident register has been analyzed and integrated with other necessary information provided by the firm, by I.N.A.I.L. and by the air force metereological service. The study has been carried out on data concerning the following years: 1984-1985-1986. The accidents considered, implied absence from work and were divided as follows: for absence up till 3 days (in franchise), and more than 3 days (indemnified), applying the average value calculated on one year of the three analyzed. Every accident has been analyzed per year, month, day, hour of event. According to the classes: circumstances, kind of lesion, site of lesion, period of absence from work. The indices of: frequency, seriousness, incidence, mean duration have been calculated. The average monthly values of temperature: max and min. of the area and to the average monthly amount of processed elastomer (rate of production). The statistics we obtained, justified the study and showed the operative solution. The aspect of sanitary education and the general psychological aspect regarding the accident have been considered. Moreover the general operative solutions for the firm and specific ones for every department and for every position have been shown and faced up to. In this way, according to the risks that have emerged from the enquiries on previous accidents and thanks to direct inspection. it was possible to prevent accidents.

  3. Mitigation of severe accidents in AREVA's Gen 3+ nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, M., E-mail: manfred.fischer@areva.com; Henning, A.; Surmann, R.

    2014-04-01

    The current AREVA Gen 3+ PWR designs (EPR™ and ATMEA1) are based on the proven defense-in-depth safety concepts inherited from their predecessors, the French “N4” and the German “Konvoi” reactors. Complemented by specific enhancements, including higher redundancy and diversity as well as the use of passive systems, this leads to very low values of the core damage frequency (CDF). Notwithstanding this very low probability, dedicated design measures have been implemented to improve the response of the plant in case of a postulated severe accident (SA) with core melting. This way not only the frequency of large-early-releases (LERF) but also the related radiological consequences are drastically reduced. Situations that potentially lead to high loads that can challenge the short-term integrity of the containment, like RPV melt-through under high pressure, energetic hydrogen/steam explosions, as well as long-term containment failure caused by internal over-pressure are avoided by a combination of preventive measures and dedicated systems. At the example of the EPR{sup TM}, the paper gives an overview of the severe accident mitigation strategy and the related measures and systems of AREVAs current Gen 3+ reactors, with special focus on the function of the core melt stabilization system.

  4. A Policy Intervention Study to Identify High-Risk Groups to Prevent Industrial Accidents in Republic of Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwan Hyung Yi

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: The manufacturing industry, age over 50 years and workplaces with more than 50 employees showed a high severity level of occupational accidents. Male workers showed a higher severity level of occupational accidents than female workers. The employment period of < 3 years and newly hired workers with a relatively shorter working period are likely to have more occupational accidents than others. Overall, an industrial accident prevention policy must be established by concentrating all available resources and capacities of these high-risk groups.

  5. High seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in a subset of Mexican patients with work accidents and low socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Torres-Castorena, Alejandro; Liesenfeld, Oliver; Estrada-Martínez, Sergio; Urbina-Álvarez, Jesús D

    2012-01-11

    Toxoplasma gondii has been associated with reflex impairment and traffic accidents. It is unknown whether Toxoplasma infection might be associated with work accidents. Therefore, using a case-control seroprevalence study design, 133 patients with a recent work accident and 266 control subjects of the general population from the same region were examined with enzyme-linked immunoassays for the presence and levels of anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies and anti-Toxoplasma IgM antibodies. Socio-demographic, work, clinical and behavioral characteristics from each worker were obtained. Eleven (8.3%) of 133 patients, and 14 (5.3%) of 266 controls had anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies. Anti-T. gondii IgG levels were higher than 150 IU/ml in 8 (6%) patients and 10 (3.8%) controls. Anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies were found in one (0.8%) of the workers, and in 6 (2.3%) of the controls. No statistically significant differences in the IgG seroprevalences, frequencies of high IgG levels, and IgM seroprevalences among patients and controls were found. In contrast, a low socio-economic level in patients with work accidents was associated with Toxoplasma seropositivity (P = 0.01). Patients with work accidents and low socioeconomic status showed a significantly (OR = 3.38; 95% CI: 0.84-16.06; P = 0.04) higher seroprevalence of T. gondii infection than controls of the same socioeconomic status (15.1% vs. 5%, respectively). Multivariate analysis showed a positive association of T. gondii infection with boar meat consumption (OR = 3.04; 95% CI: 1.03-8.94; P = 0.04). In contrast, a negative association between T. gondii infection and national trips (OR = 0.40; 95% CI: 0.17-0.96; P = 0.04), sausage consumption (OR = 0.20; 95% CI: 0.05-0.68; P = 0.01), and ham consumption (OR = 0.16; 95% CI: 0.05-0.51; P = 0.002) was found. In the study described here seropositivity to T. gondii was associated to work accidents in a subset of patients with low socioeconomic status. This is the first report of an

  6. Homocysteine and cerebrovascular accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Saikat; Pal, Salil K; Mazumdar, Hirak; Bhandari, Biswanath; Bhattacherjee, Sharmistha; Pandit, Sudipta

    2009-06-01

    Hyperhomocysteinaemia is rapidly emerging as an important risk factor for coronary artery disease, possibly because of its propensity to accelerate atherosclerosis. Whether it is also a risk factor for cerebrovascular accidents (CVA) is a matter of debate till now, as there are conflicting results of the various prospective studies. The present study was performed to correlate the levels of plasma homocysteine levels with that of ischaemic and haemorrhagic CVA. Forty-two cases of CVA were randomly selected over a period of one year, and their risk factors were assessed. It was observed that serum homocysteine levels were significantly raised in those with intracerebral infarcts when compared to those with intracerebral haemorrhage, although homocysteine levels didn't prove to be prognostically significant.

  7. The Fukushima accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loria Meneses, Luis Guillermo

    2011-01-01

    The accident happened on March 11, 2011 in the nuclear reactors at the Fukushima plant, Japan, is described. The reactors of the Fukushima plant have been power reactors. The electrical energy is produced by use of the heat released in the fission. Nuclear reactors were affected after of the power outage as a result of the earthquake and the tsunami, and this has kept in operation the refrigeration systems. The japanese reactors have been fission reactors and have used uranium 235 or plutonium 239 as fissionable material. The nuclear reactions of fission are explained. The control of the nuclear reactions at Fukushima was complicated by the decreased of the neutrons absorption and has produced more reactions, generating great amounts of heat. The steam contaminated with the products of fission is produced by to cool the reactor with water. The fissionable material released is dragged until the atmosphere. Radioactive contamination at sites near the reactor was covered in a zone of exclusion with a radius of 30 km. The effects of radioactive contamination in the zone of exclusion are mentioned. The radioactive material from Japan has traveled with the wind in direction toward the north pole. The radioactive cloud has continued until to reach the north Africa and south of Europe. The cloud has approximated to Costa Rica, but the activity of the material found has been less of 0,01 Bq/m3. The Centro de Investigacion en Ciencias Atomicas, Nucleares y Moleculares (Cicanum) has initiated the collection of soil samples, water and earth products to detect part of the radioactive material from the cloud. The Cicanum has had modern equipments to quantify the specific concentrations of radioactive isotope, alpha emitters, beta and gamma, in food, water and milk. The Cicanum has maintained the radiological surveillance of foods after the Chernobyl accident [es

  8. Economic development, mobility and traffic accidents in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougueroua, M; Carnis, L

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this contribution is to estimate the impact of road economic conditions and mobility on traffic accidents for the case of Algeria. Using the cointegration approach and vector error correction model (VECM), we will examine simultaneously short term and long-term impacts between the number of traffic accidents, fuel consumption and gross domestic product (GDP) per capital, over the period 1970-2013. The main results of the estimation show that the number of traffic accidents in Algeria is positively influenced by the GDP per capita in the short and long term. It implies that a higher economic development worsens the road safety situation. However, the new traffic rules adopted in 2009 have an impact on the forecast trend of traffic accidents, meaning efficient public policy could improve the situation. This result calls for a strong political commitment with effective countermeasures for avoiding the further deterioration of road safety record in Algeria. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Experience with first aid in radiation sources accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klener, V.

    1979-01-01

    More than 20 years of experience at the Radiation Hygiene Centre of the Prague Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology with prevention of accidents involving sources of radiation and the Centre's participation in providing medical aid in such accidents are described. A list is given of major types of accidents over the past decade. Prevalent were accidents involving sealed gamma sources, resulting in excessive local irradiation with serious skin damage or injury to some of the deeper structures of the hands, requiring plastic operation. Chromosomal picture investigation allows the estimation of the equivalent body dose which only reached higher values in a single case recorded (1.5 Gy = 150 rad). Organisational measures are described for emergencies and the task is shown by radiation hygiene departments attached to regional hygiene stations. The present system is capable of providing adequate, prompt and effective assistance. (author)

  10. Scientific aspects of the Tohoku earthquake and Fukushima nuclear accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koketsu, Kazuki

    2016-04-01

    We investigated the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, and assessments conducted beforehand for earthquake and tsunami potential in the Pacific offshore region of the Tohoku District. The results of our investigation show that all the assessments failed to foresee the earthquake and its related tsunami, which was the main cause of the accident. Therefore, the disaster caused by the earthquake, and the accident were scientifically unforeseeable at the time. However, for a zone neighboring the reactors, a 2008 assessment showed tsunamis higher than the plant height. As a lesson learned from the accident, companies operating nuclear power plants should be prepared using even such assessment results for neighboring zones.

  11. Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    & Development (LDRD) National Security Education Center (NSEC) Office of Science Programs Richard P Databases National Security Education Center (NSEC) Center for Nonlinear Studies Engineering Institute Scholarships STEM Education Programs Teachers (K-12) Students (K-12) Higher Education Regional Education

  12. Undiagnosed post-traumatic stress disorder following motor vehicle accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, M M; McFarlane, A C; Hunter, C E; Griggs, W M

    1993-10-18

    To determine the pattern of emergence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among motor vehicle accident victims and to examine the influence of PTSD on subsequent levels of disability. A longitudinal study of motor vehicle accident victims one month and 18 months after the accident. Twenty-four motor vehicle accident victims admitted by the trauma team at the Royal Adelaide Hospital. A 52% response rate was achieved. Post-traumatic stress disorder as diagnosed by the Diagnostic Interview Schedule and disability as measured with the Sickness Impact Profile. Eighteen months after their accidents, six of the 24 subjects had clinically significant PTSD and one was considered borderline. None had been previously diagnosed or treated. The group with PTSD had higher scores on all measures of psychological distress one month after the accident and were more likely to use immature psychological defences. There was no association between physical outcome (measured with the modified Glasgow Outcome Scale) at six months and subsequent diagnosis of PTSD. However, the group with PTSD had higher levels of disability on assessment with the Sickness Impact Profile, particularly in the domain of social functioning. The results suggest PTSD was associated with work-related dysfunction equal to that associated with severe physical handicap. The data from this pilot study suggest that PTSD after motor vehicle accidents is an important cause of disability, which may also become the focus for damages in litigation. Thus, there is a need for further investigation of the early patterns of distress and to design preventive programs for victims of road accidents.

  13. Probability safety assessment of LOOP accident to molten salt reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei Mudan; Shao Shiwei; Yu Zhizhen; Chen Kun; Zuo Jiaxu

    2013-01-01

    Background: Loss of offsite power (LOOP) is a possible accident to any type of reactor, and this accident can reflect the main idea of reactor safety design. Therefore, it is very important to conduct a study on probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) of the molten salt reactor that is under LOOP circumstance. Purpose: The aim is to calculate the release frequency of molten salt radioactive material to the core caused by LOOP, and find out the biggest contributor to causing the radioactive release frequency. Methods: We carried out the PSA analysis of the LOOP using the PSA process risk spectrum, and assumed that the primary circuit had no valve and equipment reliability data based on the existing mature power plant equipment reliability data. Results: Through the PSA analysis, we got the accident sequences of the release of radioactive material to the core caused by LOOP and its frequency. The results show that the release frequency of molten salt radioactive material to the core caused by LOOP is about 2×10 -11 /(reactor ·year), which is far below that of the AP1000 LOOP. In addition, through the quantitative analysis, we obtained the point estimation and interval estimation of uncertainty analysis, and found that the biggest contributor to cause the release frequency of radioactive material to the core is the reactor cavity cooling function failure. Conclusion: This study provides effective help for the design and improvement of the following molten salt reactor system. (authors)

  14. Syncope and Its Impact on Occupational Accidents and Employment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Numé, Anna Karin; Kragholm, Kristian; Carlson, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    Background - First-time syncopal episodes usually occur in adults of working age, but their impact on occupational safety and employment remains unknown. We examined the associations of syncope with occupational accidents and termination of employment. Methods and Results - Through linkage...... of the syncope event. Over a median follow-up of 3.2 years (first to third quartiles, 2.0-4.5), 622 people with syncope had an occupational accident requiring hospitalization (2.1/100 person-years). In multiple Poisson regression analysis, the incidence rate ratio in the employed syncope population was higher......, 2.34-2.91). Conclusions - In this nationwide cohort, syncope was associated with a 1.4-fold higher risk of occupational accidents and a 2-fold higher risk of termination of employment compared with the employed general population....

  15. Construction industry accidents in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camino López, Miguel A; Ritzel, Dale O; Fontaneda, Ignacio; González Alcantara, Oscar J

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzed industrial accidents that take place on construction sites and their severity. Eighteen variables were studied. We analyzed the influence of each of these with respect to the severity and fatality of the accident. This descriptive analysis was grounded in 1,630,452 accidents, representing the total number of accidents suffered by workers in the construction sector in Spain over the period 1990-2000. It was shown that age, type of contract, time of accident, length of service in the company, company size, day of the week, and the remainder of the variables under analysis influenced the seriousness of the accident. IMPACT ON INJURY PREVENTION: The results obtained show that different training was needed, depending on the severity of accidents, for different age, length of service in the company, organization of work, and time when workers work. The research provides an insight to the likely causes of construction injuries in Spain. As a result of the analysis, industries and governmental agencies in Spain can start to provide appropriate strategies and training to the construction workers.

  16. Contributing factors in construction accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslam, R A; Hide, S A; Gibb, A G F; Gyi, D E; Pavitt, T; Atkinson, S; Duff, A R

    2005-07-01

    This overview paper draws together findings from previous focus group research and studies of 100 individual construction accidents. Pursuing issues raised by the focus groups, the accident studies collected qualitative information on the circumstances of each incident and the causal influences involved. Site based data collection entailed interviews with accident-involved personnel and their supervisor or manager, inspection of the accident location, and review of appropriate documentation. Relevant issues from the site investigations were then followed up with off-site stakeholders, including designers, manufacturers and suppliers. Levels of involvement of key factors in the accidents were: problems arising from workers or the work team (70% of accidents), workplace issues (49%), shortcomings with equipment (including PPE) (56%), problems with suitability and condition of materials (27%), and deficiencies with risk management (84%). Employing an ergonomics systems approach, a model is proposed, indicating the manner in which originating managerial, design and cultural factors shape the circumstances found in the work place, giving rise to the acts and conditions which, in turn, lead to accidents. It is argued that attention to the originating influences will be necessary for sustained improvement in construction safety to be achieved.

  17. International aspects of nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uematsu, K.

    1989-09-01

    The accident at Chernobyl revealed that there were shortcomings and gaps in the existing international mechanisms and brought home to governments the need for stronger measures to provide better protection against the risks of severe accidents. The main thrust of international co-operation with regard to nuclear safety issues is aimed at achieving a uniformly high level of safety in nuclear power plants through continuous exchanges of research findings and feedback from reactor operating experience. The second type of problem posed in the event of an accident resulting in radioactive contamination of several countries relates to the obligation to notify details of the circumstances and nature of the accident speedily so that the countries affected can take appropriate protective measures and, if necessary, organize mutual assistance. Giving the public accurate information is also an important aspect of managing an emergency situation arising from a severe accident. Finally, the confusion resulting from the unwarranted variety of protective measures implemented after the Chernobyl accident has highlighted the need for international harmonization of the principles and scientific criteria applicable to the protection of the public in the event of an accident and for a more consistent approach to emergency plans. The international conventions on third party liability in the nuclear energy sector (Paris/Brussels Conventions and the Vienna Convention) provide for compensation for damage caused by nuclear accidents in accordance with the rules and jurisdiction that they lay down. These provisions impose obligations on the operator responsible for an accident, and the State where the nuclear facility is located, towards the victims of damage caused in another country

  18. Incidence of posttraumatic stress disorder after traffic accidents in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Stephan; Otte, Dietmar; Petri, Maximilian; Decker, Sebastian; Stübig, Timo; Krettek, Christian; Müller, Christian W

    2014-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is possibly an overlooked diagnosis of victims suffering from traffic accidents sustaining serious to severe injuries. This paper investigates the incidence of PTSD after traffic accidents in Germany. Data from an accident research unit were analyzed in regard to collision details, and preclinical and clinical data. Preclinical data included details on crash circumstances and estimated injury severity as well as data on victims' conditions (e.g. heart rate, blood pressure, consciousness, breath rate). Clinical data included initial assessment in the emergency department, radiographic diagnoses, and basic life parameters comparable to the preclinical data as well as follow-up data on the daily ward. Data were collected in the German-In-Depth Accident Research study, and included gender, type of accident (e.g. type of vehicle, road conditions, rural or urban area), mental disorder, and AIS (Abbreviated Injury Scale) head score. AIS represent a scoring system to measure the injury severity of traffic accident victims. A total 258 out of 32807 data sets were included in this analysis. Data on accident and victims was collected on scene by specialized teams following established algorithms. Besides higher AIS Head scores for male motorcyclists compared to all other subgroups, no significant correlation was found between the mean maximum AIS score and the occurrence of PTSD. Furthermore, there was no correlation between higher AIS head scores, gender, or involvement in road traffic accidents and PTSD. In our study the overall incidence of PTSD after road traffic accidents was very low (0.78% in a total of 32.807 collected data sets) when compared to other published studies. The reason for this very low incidence of PTSD in our patient sample could be seen in an underestimation of the psychophysiological impact of traffic accidents on patients. Patients suffering from direct experiences of traumatic events such as a traffic accident

  19. Accident Analysis and Highway Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Noorliyana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 2010, Federal Route FT050 (Jalan Batu Pahat-Kluang has undergone many changes, including the improvement of geometric features (i.e., construction of median, dedicated U-turns and additional lanes and upgrading the quality of the road surface. Unfortunately, even with these enhancements, accidents continue to occur along this route. This study covered both accident analysis and blackspot study. Accident point weightage was used to identify blackspot locations. The results reveal hazardous road locations and blackspot ranking along the route.

  20. Medical care of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakao, Isamu

    1986-02-01

    This monograph, divided into six chapters, focuses on basic knowledge and medical strategies for radiation accidents. Chapters I to V deal with practice in emergency care for radiation exposure, covering 1) medical strategies for radiation accidents, 2) personnel dosimetry and monitoring, 3) nuclear facilities and their surrounding areas with the potential for creating radiation accidents, and emergency medical care for exposed persons, 4) emergency care procedures for radiation exposure and radioactive contamination, and 5) radiation hazards and their treatment. The last chapter provides some references. (Namekawa, K.)

  1. Judicial autopsy of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannan, P.M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses issues regarding the judicial autopsy of radiation accidents. In the litigation which follows a radiation accident, a claimant calls on the legal system to adjudicate a dispute. Scientific questions are thrust upon the court. The legal system (through attorneys for the parties) then invites scientists to assist the court in resolving such questions. The invitation, however, does not allow the scientist to bring along his full kit. Experimentation, such as repeating the accident with dosimeters to gather more accurate data, is generally not allowed. Also, the scientist must give up his practice of choosing which questions he will pursue

  2. A review of criticality accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stratton, W.R.; Smith, D.R.

    1989-03-01

    Criticality accidents and the characteristics of prompt power excursions are discussed. Forty-one accidental power transients are reviewed. In each case where available, enough detail is given to help visualize the physical situation, the cause or causes of the accident, the history and characteristics of the transient, the energy release, and the consequences, if any, to personnel and property. Excursions associated with large power reactors are not included in this study, except that some information on the major accident at the Chernobyl reactor in April 1986 is provided in the Appendix. 67 refs., 21 figs., 2 tabs

  3. The handling of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The symposium was attended by 204 participants from 39 countries and 5 international organizations. Forty-two papers were presented in 8 sessions. The purpose of the meeting was to foster an exchange of experiences gained in establishing and exercising plans for mitigating the effects of radiation accidents and in the handling of actual accident situations. Only a small number of accidents were reported at the symposium, and this reflects the very high standards of safety that has been achieved by the nuclear industry. No accidents of radiological significance were reported to have occurred at commercial nuclear power plants. Of the accidents reported, industrial radiography continues to be the area in which most of the radiation accidents occur. The experience gained in the reported accident situations served to confirm the crucial importance of the prompt availability of medical and radiological services, particularly in the case of uptake of radioactive material, and emphasized the importance of detailed investigation into the causes of the accident in order to improve preventative measures. One of the principal themes of the symposium involved emergency procedures related to nuclear power plant accidents, and several papers defining the scope, progression and consequences of design base accidents for both thermal and fast reactor systems were presented. These were complemented by papers defining the resultant protection requirements that should be satisfied in the establishment of plans designed to mitigate the effects of the postulated accident situations. Several papers were presented describing existing emergency organizational arrangements relating both to specific nuclear power plants and to comprehensive national schemes, and a particularly informative session was devoted to the topic of training of personnel in the practical conduct of emergency arrangements. The general feeling of the participants was one of studied confidence in the competence and

  4. Consequences in Sweden of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haegg, Conny.

    1990-01-01

    The radiation doses to man in Sweden due to the Chernobyl accident originate mainly from external irradiation from deposited radionuclides and internal irradiation from consumption of radioactively contaminated food stuffs. Inhalation and external irradiation from the passing cloud give only a minor contribution to the total dose. As an average for the Swedish population the individual radiation dose during the first year amounts to about 0.1 mSv, i.e. 10% of the natural background radiation. In the most contaminated areas, however, the individual dose may become 30 times higher than the average dose. The dose committed over 50 years has estimated to be about six times as high as the first year dose. The collective dose for the Swedish population has been estimated to about 1300 manSv the first year after the accident and the corresponding dose over 50 years to 5000 to 7000 manSv. This could lead to 100 to 200 extra fatal cancers. Furthermore, no damages on man that can be related to Chernobyl fallout, e.g. pre-natal effects, have so far been observed in Sweden. Shortly after the accident, several research projects were initiated in Sweden in order to follow the distribution of radionuclides in the aquatic and terrestrial environment. The results which in many cases are preliminary, shows that the recovery of the ecosystem will take several decades. (author)

  5. Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, Robert M.

    This chapter reports 1982 cases involving aspects of higher education. Interesting cases noted dealt with the federal government's authority to regulate state employees' retirement and raised the questions of whether Title IX covers employment, whether financial aid makes a college a program under Title IX, and whether sex segregated mortality…

  6. Underreporting of maritime accidents to vessel accident databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassel, Martin; Asbjørnslett, Bjørn Egil; Hole, Lars Petter

    2011-11-01

    Underreporting of maritime accidents is a problem not only for authorities trying to improve maritime safety through legislation, but also to risk management companies and other entities using maritime casualty statistics in risk and accident analysis. This study collected and compared casualty data from 01.01.2005 to 31.12.2009, from IHS Fairplay and the maritime authorities from a set of nations. The data was compared to find common records, and estimation of the true number of occurred accidents was performed using conditional probability given positive dependency between data sources, several variations of the capture-recapture method, calculation of best case scenario assuming perfect reporting, and scaling up a subset of casualty information from a marine insurance statistics database. The estimated upper limit reporting performance for the selected flag states ranged from 14% to 74%, while the corresponding estimated coverage of IHS Fairplay ranges from 4% to 62%. On average the study results document that the number of unreported accidents makes up roughly 50% of all occurred accidents. Even in a best case scenario, only a few flag states come close to perfect reporting (94%). The considerable scope of underreporting uncovered in the study, indicates that users of statistical vessel accident data should assume a certain degree of underreporting, and adjust their analyses accordingly. Whether to use correction factors, a safety margin, or rely on expert judgment, should be decided on a case by case basis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Perspectives on the economic risks of LWR accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, L.T.; Burke, R.P.

    1986-01-01

    Models which can be used for the analysis of the economic risks from events which may occur during LWR operation have been developed. The models include capabilities to estimate both onsite and offsite costs of LWR events ranging from routine plant forced outages to severe core-melt accidents resulting in large releases of radioactive material to the environment. The economic consequence models have been applied in studies of the economic risks from the operation of US LWR plants. The results of the analyses provide some important perspectives regarding the economic risks of LWR accidents. The analyses indicate that economic risks, in contrast to public health risks, are dominated by the onsite costs of relatively high-frequency forced outage events. Even for severe (e.g., core-melt) accidents, expected offsite costs are less than expected onsite costs for a typical US plant

  8. Development of a Methodology for VHTR Accident Consequence Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Joeun; Kim, Jintae; Jae, Moosung [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The substitution of the VHTR for burning fossil fuels conserves these hydrocarbon resources for other uses and eliminates the emissions of greenhouse. In Korea, for these reasons, constructing the VHTR plan for hydrogen production is in progress. In this study, the consequence analysis for the off-site releases of radioactive materials during severe accidents has been performed using the level 3 PRA technology. The offsite consequence analysis for a VHTR using the MACCS code has been performed. Since the passive system such as the RCCS(Reactor Cavity Cooling System) are equipped, the frequency of occurrence of accidents has been evaluated to be very low. For further study, the assessment for characteristic of VHTR safety system and precise quantification of its accident scenarios is expected to conduct more certain consequence analysis. This methodology shown in this study might contribute to enhancing the safety of VHTR design by utilizing the results having far lower effect on the environment than the LWRs.

  9. Examining accident reports involving autonomous vehicles in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nader, Nazanin; Eurich, Sky O.; Tripp, Michelle; Varadaraju, Naresh

    2017-01-01

    Autonomous Vehicle technology is quickly expanding its market and has found in Silicon Valley, California, a strong foothold for preliminary testing on public roads. In an effort to promote safety and transparency to consumers, the California Department of Motor Vehicles has mandated that reports of accidents involving autonomous vehicles be drafted and made available to the public. The present work shows an in-depth analysis of the accident reports filed by different manufacturers that are testing autonomous vehicles in California (testing data from September 2014 to March 2017). The data provides important information on autonomous vehicles accidents’ dynamics, related to the most frequent types of collisions and impacts, accident frequencies, and other contributing factors. The study also explores important implications related to future testing and validation of semi-autonomous vehicles, tracing the investigation back to current literature as well as to the current regulatory panorama. PMID:28931022

  10. Accident rates amongst regular bicycle riders in Tasmania, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Andrew J; Si, Lei; Gordon, Jared M; Saul, Tim; Curry, Beverley A; Otahal, Petr; Hitchens, Peta L

    2014-11-01

    To characterise the demographics, cycling habits and accident rates of adult cyclists in Tasmania. Volunteers ≥18 years of age who had cycled at least once/week over the previous month provided information on demographics; cycling experience; bicycles owned; hours/km/trips cycled per week; cycling purpose; protective equipment used; and major (required third-party medical treatment or resulted ≥1 day off work) or minor (interfered with individuals' regular daily activities and/or caused financial costs) accidents while cycling. Over 8-months, 136 cyclists (70.6% male) completed the telephone survey. Mean (standard deviation) age was 45.4 (12.1) years with 17.1 (11.4) years of cycling experience. In the week prior to interview, cyclists averaged 6.6 trips/week (totalling 105.7km or 5.0h). The most common reason for cycling was commuting/transport (34% of trips), followed by training/health/fitness (28%). The incidence of major and minor cycling accidents was 1.6 (95% CI 1.1-2.0) and 3.7 (2.3-5.0) per 100,000km, respectively. Male sex was associated with a significantly lower minor accident risk (incidence rate ratio=0.34, p=0.01). Mountain biking was associated with a significantly higher risk of minor accident compared with road or racing, touring, and city or commuting biking (phealth and wellbeing; cyclists also contributed substantially to the local economy. Accident rates are higher in this sample than previously reported in Tasmania and internationally. Mountain biking was associated with higher risks of both major and minor accidents compared to road/racing bike riding. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A comparison of the hazard perception ability of accident-involved and accident-free motorcycle riders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Andy S K; Ng, Terry C K; Lee, Hoe C

    2011-07-01

    Hazard perception is the ability to read the road and is closely related to involvement in traffic accidents. It consists of both cognitive and behavioral components. Within the cognitive component, visual attention is an important function of driving whereas driving behavior, which represents the behavioral component, can affect the hazard perception of the driver. Motorcycle riders are the most vulnerable types of road user. The primary purpose of this study was to deepen our understanding of the correlation of different subtypes of visual attention and driving violation behaviors and their effect on hazard perception between accident-free and accident-involved motorcycle riders. Sixty-three accident-free and 46 accident-involved motorcycle riders undertook four neuropsychological tests of attention (Digit Vigilance Test, Color Trails Test-1, Color Trails Test-2, and Symbol Digit Modalities Test), filled out the Chinese Motorcycle Rider Driving Violation (CMRDV) Questionnaire, and viewed a road-user-based hazard situation with an eye-tracking system to record the response latencies to potentially dangerous traffic situations. The results showed that both the divided and selective attention of accident-involved motorcycle riders were significantly inferior to those of accident-free motorcycle riders, and that accident-involved riders exhibited significantly higher driving violation behaviors and took longer to identify hazardous situations compared to their accident-free counterparts. However, the results of the regression analysis showed that aggressive driving violation CMRDV score significantly predicted hazard perception and accident involvement of motorcycle riders. Given that all participants were mature and experienced motorcycle riders, the most plausible explanation for the differences between them is their driving style (influenced by an undesirable driving attitude), rather than skill deficits per se. The present study points to the importance of

  12. Comparison of the Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear accidents: A review of the environmental impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinhauser, Georg, E-mail: georg.steinhauser@colostate.edu; Brandl, Alexander; Johnson, Thomas E.

    2014-02-01

    The environmental impacts of the nuclear accidents of Chernobyl and Fukushima are compared. In almost every respect, the consequences of the Chernobyl accident clearly exceeded those of the Fukushima accident. In both accidents, most of the radioactivity released was due to volatile radionuclides (noble gases, iodine, cesium, tellurium). However, the amount of refractory elements (including actinides) emitted in the course of the Chernobyl accident was approximately four orders of magnitude higher than during the Fukushima accident. For Chernobyl, a total release of 5300 PBq (excluding noble gases) has been established as the most cited source term. For Fukushima, we estimated a total source term of 520 (340–800) PBq. In the course of the Fukushima accident, the majority of the radionuclides (more than 80%) was transported offshore and deposited in the Pacific Ocean. Monitoring campaigns after both accidents reveal that the environmental impact of the Chernobyl accident was much greater than of the Fukushima accident. Both the highly contaminated areas and the evacuated areas are smaller around Fukushima and the projected health effects in Japan are significantly lower than after the Chernobyl accident. This is mainly due to the fact that food safety campaigns and evacuations worked quickly and efficiently after the Fukushima accident. In contrast to Chernobyl, no fatalities due to acute radiation effects occurred in Fukushima. - Highlights: • The environmental effects of Chernobyl and Fukushima are compared. • Releases of radionuclides from Chernobyl exceeded Fukushima by an order of magnitude. • Chernobyl caused more severe radiation-related health effects. • Overall, Chernobyl was a much more severe nuclear accident than Fukushima. • Psychological effects are neglected but important consequences of nuclear accidents.

  13. Accident response in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duco, J.; L'Homme, A.; Queniart, D.

    1988-07-01

    French PWR power plant design relies basically on a deterministic approach. A probabilistic approach was introduced in France in the early seventies to define safety provisions against external impacts. In 1977 an overall safety objective was issued by the safety authority in terms of an upper probability limit for having unacceptable consequences. Additional measures were taken (the ''H'' operating procedures) to complement the automatic systems normally provided by the initial design, so as to safisfy the safety objective. The TMI-2 accident enhanced the interest in confused situations in which possible multiple equipment failure and/or unappropriate previous actions of the operators impede the implementation of any of the existing event-oriented procedures. In such situations, the objective becomes to avoid core-melt by any means available: this is the goal of the Ul symptom-oriented procedure. Whenever a core-melt occurs, the radioactive releases into the environment must be compatible with the feasibility of the off-site emergency plans; that means that for some hypothetical, but still conceivable scenarios, provisions have to be made to delay and limit the consequences of the loss of the containment: the U2, U4 and U5 ultimate procedures have been elaborated for that purpose. For the case of an emergency, a nationwide organization has been set up to provide the plant operator with a redundant technical expertise, to help him save his plant or mitigate the radiological consequences of a core-melt

  14. RENEB accident simulation exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzozowska, Beata; Ainsbury, Elizabeth; Baert, Annelot; Beaton-Green, Lindsay; Barrios, Leonardo; Barquinero, Joan Francesc; Bassinet, Celine; Beinke, Christina; Benedek, Anett; Beukes, Philip; Bortolin, Emanuela; Buraczewska, Iwona; Burbidge, Christopher; De Amicis, Andrea; De Angelis, Cinzia; Della Monaca, Sara; Depuydt, Julie; De Sanctis, Stefania; Dobos, Katalin; Domene, Mercedes Moreno; Domínguez, Inmaculada; Facco, Eva; Fattibene, Paola; Frenzel, Monika; Monteiro Gil, Octávia; Gonon, Géraldine; Gregoire, Eric; Gruel, Gaëtan; Hadjidekova, Valeria; Hatzi, Vasiliki I; Hristova, Rositsa; Jaworska, Alicja; Kis, Enikő; Kowalska, Maria; Kulka, Ulrike; Lista, Florigio; Lumniczky, Katalin; Martínez-López, Wilner; Meschini, Roberta; Moertl, Simone; Moquet, Jayne; Noditi, Mihaela; Oestreicher, Ursula; Orta Vázquez, Manuel Luis; Palma, Valentina; Pantelias, Gabriel; Montoro Pastor, Alegria; Patrono, Clarice; Piqueret-Stephan, Laure; Quattrini, Maria Cristina; Regalbuto, Elisa; Ricoul, Michelle; Roch-Lefevre, Sandrine; Roy, Laurence; Sabatier, Laure; Sarchiapone, Lucia; Sebastià, Natividad; Sommer, Sylwester; Sun, Mingzhu; Suto, Yumiko; Terzoudi, Georgia; Trompier, Francois; Vral, Anne; Wilkins, Ruth; Zafiropoulos, Demetre; Wieser, Albrecht; Woda, Clemens; Wojcik, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    The RENEB accident exercise was carried out in order to train the RENEB participants in coordinating and managing potentially large data sets that would be generated in case of a major radiological event. Each participant was offered the possibility to activate the network by sending an alerting email about a simulated radiation emergency. The same participant had to collect, compile and report capacity, triage categorization and exposure scenario results obtained from all other participants. The exercise was performed over 27 weeks and involved the network consisting of 28 institutes: 21 RENEB members, four candidates and three non-RENEB partners. The duration of a single exercise never exceeded 10 days, while the response from the assisting laboratories never came later than within half a day. During each week of the exercise, around 4500 samples were reported by all service laboratories (SL) to be examined and 54 scenarios were coherently estimated by all laboratories (the standard deviation from the mean of all SL answers for a given scenario category and a set of data was not larger than 3 patient codes). Each participant received training in both the role of a reference laboratory (activating the network) and of a service laboratory (responding to an activation request). The procedures in the case of radiological event were successfully established and tested.

  15. Accident risk. Chapter 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Following a historical introduction in which WASH-740, WASH-1400, Swedish, Finnish, Scandinavian, Netherlands and West German analyses are briefly presented, the concept of risk itself is discussed, distinguishing between objective and subjective aspects, and between voluntary and involuntary risk. Risk analysis is briefly described and an attempt made to define acceptable risk. In treating the safety philosophy of nuclear power plants the engineered safety precautions are presented. The numerical results of the analysis made for Norwegian conditions are presented and discussed. Underground siting, which has been much discussed in Norway is also treated, and emergency planning briefly discussed. The probability and consequences of core meltdown in a light water reactor are then discussed, and the possible faults leading to this, both internal, human errors and external impacts are analysed. The failure mechanisms in the containment building which could lead to the release of activity are discussed, followed by the dispersion of the activity and the health and economic consequences. The accidents at Wuergassen and Brown's Ferry are briefly described as examples. A brief discussion of nuclear insurance and nuclear law in Norway form the concluding sections. (JIW)

  16. Cytogenetic studies for a group of people living in Japan 1 year after the Fukushima nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Ying; Zhou, Ping-kun; Zhang, Xue-qing; Wang, Zhi-dong; Wang, Yuan; Darroudi, Firouz

    2014-01-01

    In order to understand the potential health effect of radiation from Fukushima nuclear disaster, a group of people living in Japan during and after the accident were investigated 1 y after the accident. The venous blood samples were extracted in tune from 156 tested persons living in Tokyo and Niigata with average age of 42.4±10.2 y old as well as 87 controls living in Beijing with similar age and sex proportion. Conventional chromosome culture and cytochalasin B micronucleus methods were applied. The unstable chromosome aberrations of 200 cells and micronuclei (MN) and micronuclei cells (MNC) of 1000 bi-nucleated lymphocytes were analysed for each examined subject. The results showed that the frequencies±SE (x100) of the dicentrics plus rings were 0.17±0.024 % and 0.13±0.028 % in the tested and control populations (p > 0.05), respectively. The frequencies of the extra acentrics were 0.21±0.026 % and 0.06±0.018 % in the tested and control groups (p < 0.01), respectively. The total chromosomal aberration frequencies of the tested and control groups were 0.40±0.036 % and 0.20±0.034 % (p < 0.01), respectively. The MN and MNC frequencies of the tested group were 29.25±3.96 0/00 and 23.85±4.23 0/00, and 25.30±6.45 0/00 and 21.56±3.99 0/00 for control group (p < 0.01). With the exception of dicentrics, there were significant differences (p < 0.01) between two groups in frequencies of chromosome aberration and MN. Generally, 1 y after the Fukushima nuclear accident, the dicentric frequencies had not increased in the 156 persons investigated in this study. The increase in chromatid aberrations, chromosomal acentrics and MN was induced but could not be directly linked to radiation exposures, as an excess of dicentric frequency is linked. However, the observed higher frequency of chromosomal alterations might be related to exposure to the low doses of ionising in this cohort. Consequently, it is recommended to assess the long-term health effects in this

  17. Ergonomic study of biorhythm effect on the 62 occurrence of human errors and accidents in automobile manufacturing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-03-01

    Conclusion: This study showed that the frequency of accidents in critical days and negative section of physical cycle was more than expected. Also the frequency of accidents in critical days and negative section of emotional and intellectual cycle was less than expected. Due to the physical nature of the work activities in the automobile manufacturing industry can be stated that the study showed that in physical work activities, frequency of accidents in critical days and negative section of physical cycle in which the person is not physically ready to do the job was more than expected.

  18. Radioactivity control after Fukushima accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukovic, D.; Mitrovic, R.; Vicentijevic, M.; Pantelic, G.

    2011-01-01

    Fukushima nuclear accident has influence on more attention when radioactivity of fish were controlled. Sea fish, freshwater fish, fish products and fish flour were analysed ( 95 samples). All products were safe for use with radiation-hygienic aspects. [sr

  19. The Goiania accident - environmental survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godoy, J.M.; Moreira, M.C.F.; Fonseca, E.S. da

    1997-01-01

    The survey methods applied during the Goiania accident could be considered complementary one to the other, and were able to give a clear picture about the contamination in the city to guide the further decontamination works. (author)

  20. Severe accident recriticality analyses (SARA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frid, W.; Højerup, C.F.; Lindholm, I.

    2001-01-01

    with all three codes. The core initial and boundary conditions prior to recriticality have been studied with the severe accident codes SCDAP/RELAP5, MELCOR and MAAP4. The results of the analyses show that all three codes predict recriticality-both super-prompt power bursts and quasi steady-state power......Recriticality in a BWR during reflooding of an overheated partly degraded core, i.e. with relocated control rods, has been studied for a total loss of electric power accident scenario. In order to assess the impact of recriticality on reactor safety, including accident management strategies......, which results in large energy deposition in the fuel during power burst in some accident scenarios. The highest value, 418 cal g(-1), was obtained with SIMULATE-3K for an Oskarshamn 3 case with reflooding rate of 2000 kg s(-1). In most cases, however, the predicted energy deposition was smaller, below...

  1. Multidisciplinary accident investigation : volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-05-01

    The Task II final report for 1974 of the Multidisciplinary Accident Investigation : Team of the Maryland Medical-Legal Foundation, Inc. is presented. This report describes some preliminary findings emanating from a series of comprehensive, multivaria...

  2. Multidisciplinary accident investigation : volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-09-01

    The final report of the Multidisciplinary Accident Investigation Team of the Maryland Medical-Legal Foundation, Inc. is presented. The report describes the methodology, results, discussions, conclusions and recommendations pertaining to the investiga...

  3. [Early management of cerebrovascular accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libot, Jérômie; Guillon, Benoit

    2013-01-01

    A cerebrovascular accident requires urgent diagnosis and treatment.The management of a stroke must be early and adapted in order to improve the overall clinical outcome and lower the risk of mortality.

  4. HANARO thermal hydraulic accident analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chul; Kim, Heon Il; Lee, Bo Yook; Lee, Sang Yong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-06-01

    For the safety assessment of HANARO, accident analyses for the anticipated operational transients, accident scenarios and limiting accident scenarios were conducted. To do this, the commercial nuclear reactor system code. RELAP5/MOD2 was modified to RELAP5/KMRR; the thermal hydraulic correlations and the heat exchanger model was changed to incorporate HANARO characteristics. This report summarizes the RELAP/KMRR calculation results and the subchannel analyses results based on the RELAP/KMRR results. During the calculation, major concern was placed on the integrity of the fuel. For all the scenarios, the important accident analysis parameters, i.e., fuel centerline temperatures and the minimum critical heat flux ratio(MCHFR), satisfied safe design limits. It was verified, therefore, that the HANARO was safely designed. 21 tabs., 89 figs., 39 refs. (Author) .new.

  5. Three Mile Island Accident Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Three Mile Island Accident Data consists of mostly upper air and wind observations immediately following the nuclear meltdown occurring on March 28, 1979, near...

  6. Preparedness against nuclear power accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This booklet contains information about the organization against nuclear power accidents, which exist in the four Swedish counties with nuclear power plants. It is aimed at classes 7-9 of the Swedish schools. (L.E.)

  7. An approach to accidents modeling based on compounds road environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Ana; Neves, Jose

    2013-04-01

    The most common approach to study the influence of certain road features on accidents has been the consideration of uniform road segments characterized by a unique feature. However, when an accident is related to the road infrastructure, its cause is usually not a single characteristic but rather a complex combination of several characteristics. The main objective of this paper is to describe a methodology developed in order to consider the road as a complete environment by using compound road environments, overcoming the limitations inherented in considering only uniform road segments. The methodology consists of: dividing a sample of roads into segments; grouping them into quite homogeneous road environments using cluster analysis; and identifying the influence of skid resistance and texture depth on road accidents in each environment by using generalized linear models. The application of this methodology is demonstrated for eight roads. Based on real data from accidents and road characteristics, three compound road environments were established where the pavement surface properties significantly influence the occurrence of accidents. Results have showed clearly that road environments where braking maneuvers are more common or those with small radii of curvature and high speeds require higher skid resistance and texture depth as an important contribution to the accident prevention. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Statistical analysis of accident data associated with sea transport (data from 1994-1997). Annex 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, T.; Tabarre, M.; Armingaud, F.

    2001-01-01

    This analysis is based on Lloyd's database concerning sea transport accidents for the 1994-1997 period and completes the previous analysis based on 1994 data. It gives an accurate description of the world fleet and the most severe ship accidents (total losses), as well as the frequencies of accident (in average on the 1994-1997 period the frequency of accident for cargo carrying ships is 2.57.10 -3 loss /ship.year). Furthermore, an analysis has been performed on the ship casualties recorded by the Marine Accident Investigation Branch (MAIB) for UK vessels for the 1990-1996 period, this database including all accidents for which a declaration has been made to authorities (for example, the average frequency of fires derived from this analysis is 1.36.10 -2 per ship.year, this occurrence corresponding to the occurrence of initiating events of fire). Concerning fire accidents aboard ships supposed to be representative of the radioactive material transporters, a specific analysis was achieved by the French Bureau Veritas, on a selection of the world casualties (total losses) for the 1978-1988 period. This analysis related to the origin of the fire points out that it originates mainly in the machinery room and quarters. In a few cases the fire duration recorded is more than one day. (author)

  9. Improving performance with accident tolerant-fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Daniel S.; Muniz, Rafael O.R.; Giovedi, Claudia, E-mail: dsgomes@ipen.br, E-mail: rafael.orm@gmail.com, E-mail: claudia.giovedi@ctmsp.mar.mil.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Universidade de São Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Naval e Oceânica

    2017-07-01

    After the Fukushima reactor accident, efforts to improve risk management in nuclear operations have included the intensification of research on accident-tolerant fuels (ATFs). In this investigation, the physical properties of recently developed ATFs were compared with those of the current standard fuel, UO{sub 2} - Zr. The goals for innovative fuel design include a rigorous characterization of the thermal, mechanical, and chemical considerations. The intentions are to lengthen the burnup cycle, raise the power density, and improve safety. Fuels must have a high uranium density - above that supported by UO{sub 2} - and possess a coating that exhibits better oxidation resistance than Zircaloys. ATFs such as U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}, UN, and UC contain a higher uranium density and thermal conductivity than UO{sub 2}, providing significant benefits. The ideal combination of fuel and cladding must increase performance in a loss-of-coolant accident. However, U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}, UN, and UC have a disadvantage; their respective swelling rates are higher than that of UO{sub 2}. These ATFs also have thermal conductivities approximately four times higher than that of UO{sub 2}. A study was conducted investigating the hydrogen generated by the oxidation of zirconium alloys in contact with steam using cladding options such as Fe-Cr-Al and silicon carbide. It was confirmed that ferritic alloys offer a better response under severe conditions, because of their mechanical properties as creep rate. The findings of this study indicate that advanced fuels should replace UO{sub 2} - Zr as the fuel system of choice. (author)

  10. 49 CFR 195.50 - Reporting accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reporting accidents. 195.50 Section 195.50 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Annual, Accident, and Safety-Related Condition Reporting § 195.50 Reporting accidents. An accident...

  11. 28 CFR 301.106 - Repetitious accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Repetitious accidents. 301.106 Section 301.106 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INMATE ACCIDENT COMPENSATION General § 301.106 Repetitious accidents. If an inmate worker is involved in successive accidents...

  12. 32 CFR 644.532 - Reporting accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Reporting accidents. 644.532 Section 644.532... and Improvements § 644.532 Reporting accidents. Immediately upon receipt of information of an accident... that an accident has occurred, the former using command should be requested to send qualified explosive...

  13. 22 CFR 102.8 - Reporting accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reporting accidents. 102.8 Section 102.8... Accidents Abroad § 102.8 Reporting accidents. (a) To airline and Civil Aeronautics Administration... probably be the first to be informed of the accident, in which event he will be expected to report the...

  14. Accidents at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    The accidents which accurred at Wuergassen, Browns Ferry and Three Mile Island are each briefly described and discussed. The last is naturally treated in much more detail than the first two. Damage to the fuel elements is briefly considered and the release of fission products, radiation doses to the population and their expected consequences are discussed. The accidents are evaluated and related to risk evaluations, especially in WASH-1400. (JIW)

  15. JCO criticality accident termination operation

    OpenAIRE

    金盛 正至

    2010-01-01

    In 2001, we summarized the circumstances surrounding termination of the JCO criticality accident based on testimony in the Mito District Court on December 17, 2001. JCO was the company for uranium fuels production in Japan. That document was assembled based on actual testimony in the belief that a description of the work involved in termination of the accident would be useful in some way for preventing nuclear disasters in the future. This year is the tenth year of the JCO criticality acciden...

  16. Nuclear laws and radiologic accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frois, Fernanda

    1997-01-01

    Some aspects of the nuclear activities in Brazil, specially concerning the Goiania s accident are demonstrated using concepts from environmental and nuclear law. Nuclear and environmental competence, the impossibility of the states of making regional laws, as the lack of regulation about the nuclear waste, are discussed. The situation of Goiania when the accident happened, the present situation of the victims and the nuclear waste provisionally stored in Abadia de Goias is reported

  17. Evaluating Occupational Accidents and Their Indices In a Refining and Distributing Company of Petroleum Products of Mahshahr 2008-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ansarimoghaddam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Technological progress and oil industry development accompanies have a high rate of risk. This study was conducted with the aim of evaluating occupational accidents and related indicators for decreasing the number of damages by offering control measures. In this descriptive-analytical study, essential information was extracted from the records and agendas of the technical safety committee and the evaluation of accident frequency was done based on the accident type, the time and the location of its occurrence, environmental condition, root factors, and demographic variables of the injured. The relationship between repetition, severity, frequency of the accidents and marital status of the company’s personnel was also studied. Accident analysis was done by Chi square test . The occurrence of about 102 accidents was reported in an incident evaluation, which was done between the years 2008 and 2010. The average age of the injured was 29.1± 8.61. Accidents and clashes were 31.4% of the accidents and falling from height 21.6% of them. Many of the accidents occurred in plumbing activities (24.5%, tank construction (23.5%, and civil operations (15.7%. 47% of the accidents happened in 2009, 43% in 2010, and 10% in 2008. Occurrence rate of accidents was 48.1 and their intensity rate equaled 0.15 for one million working hours. The relationship of accident type and marital status was a meaningful relationship based on Chi-square test (P = 0.014; this test showed the relationship of accident type and its reasons a significant one as well. (P = 0.035 Considering the calculated coefficients and evaluated factors in this study, safety training, constant inquiring of sub-activities, inserting safety and HSE provisions and guidelines to the contractors’ contracts and monitoring their application would be effective in decreasing the number accidents. .

  18. Prediction of road accidents: A Bayesian hierarchical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deublein, Markus; Schubert, Matthias; Adey, Bryan T; Köhler, Jochen; Faber, Michael H

    2013-03-01

    In this paper a novel methodology for the prediction of the occurrence of road accidents is presented. The methodology utilizes a combination of three statistical methods: (1) gamma-updating of the occurrence rates of injury accidents and injured road users, (2) hierarchical multivariate Poisson-lognormal regression analysis taking into account correlations amongst multiple dependent model response variables and effects of discrete accident count data e.g. over-dispersion, and (3) Bayesian inference algorithms, which are applied by means of data mining techniques supported by Bayesian Probabilistic Networks in order to represent non-linearity between risk indicating and model response variables, as well as different types of uncertainties which might be present in the development of the specific models. Prior Bayesian Probabilistic Networks are first established by means of multivariate regression analysis of the observed frequencies of the model response variables, e.g. the occurrence of an accident, and observed values of the risk indicating variables, e.g. degree of road curvature. Subsequently, parameter learning is done using updating algorithms, to determine the posterior predictive probability distributions of the model response variables, conditional on the values of the risk indicating variables. The methodology is illustrated through a case study using data of the Austrian rural motorway network. In the case study, on randomly selected road segments the methodology is used to produce a model to predict the expected number of accidents in which an injury has occurred and the expected number of light, severe and fatally injured road users. Additionally, the methodology is used for geo-referenced identification of road sections with increased occurrence probabilities of injury accident events on a road link between two Austrian cities. It is shown that the proposed methodology can be used to develop models to estimate the occurrence of road accidents for any

  19. Frequency standards

    CERN Document Server

    Riehle, Fritz

    2006-01-01

    Of all measurement units, frequency is the one that may be determined with the highest degree of accuracy. It equally allows precise measurements of other physical and technical quantities, whenever they can be measured in terms of frequency.This volume covers the central methods and techniques relevant for frequency standards developed in physics, electronics, quantum electronics, and statistics. After a review of the basic principles, the book looks at the realisation of commonly used components. It then continues with the description and characterisation of important frequency standards

  20. Characteristics of motorcyclists involved in accidents between motorcycles and automobiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Lima de Oliveira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: traffic accidents are one of the main causes of death and disability, with motorcyclists representing the great majority of both the victims and the perpetrators. Objective: this work studied the characteristics of motorcyclists injured in accidents involving motorcycles and automobiles. Method: this study sought to interview 100 motorcyclists who had been injured in collisions between motorcycles and automobiles, and who were undergoing emergency hospital treatment in the region of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The questionnaires included demographic information (age, gender, skin color, education level, profession and questions about years of licensed driving practice, how often they would drive an automobile, how long they had had a motorcycle driver’s license, how often they would ride a motorcycle, the number of prior accidents involving a car, and the number of prior accidents not involving a car. Results: of the 100 consecutive accidents studied, 91 occurred with men and 9 with women, aged between 16 and 79 (m = 29 ± 11 years. Regarding their reason for using a motorcycle, 83% reported using it for transport, 7% for work, and 10% for leisure. Most of these accident victims had secondary or higher education (47%. Of the motorcyclists who held a car driver’s license, 68.3% drove the vehicle daily or weekly and held the license for more than one year. Sixty-seven percent of the accident victims used a motorcycle daily and had a motorcycle driver’s license for at least one year. Conclusion: among the motorcyclists injured, most were men aged 20 years or older, with complete secondary education, and experienced in driving both motorcycles and cars, indicating that recklessness while driving the motorcycle is the main cause of traffic accidents.

  1. Characteristics of motorcyclists involved in accidents between motorcycles and automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Amanda Lima de; Petroianu, Andy; Gonçalves, Dafne Maria Villar; Pereira, Gisele Araújo; Alberti, Luiz Ronaldo

    2015-01-01

    traffic accidents are one of the main causes of death and disability, with motorcyclists representing the great majority of both the victims and the perpetrators. this work studied the characteristics of motorcyclists injured in accidents involving motorcycles and automobiles. this study sought to interview 100 motorcyclists who had been injured in collisions between motorcycles and automobiles, and who were undergoing emergency hospital treatment in the region of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The questionnaires included demographic information (age, gender, skin color, education level, profession) and questions about years of licensed driving practice, how often they would drive an automobile, how long they had had a motorcycle driver's license, how often they would ride a motorcycle, the number of prior accidents involving a car, and the number of prior accidents not involving a car. of the 100 consecutive accidents studied, 91 occurred with men and 9 with women, aged between 16 and 79 (m = 29 ± 11) years. Regarding their reason for using a motorcycle, 83% reported using it for transport, 7% for work, and 10% for leisure. Most of these accident victims had secondary or higher education (47%). Of the motorcyclists who held a car driver's license, 68.3% drove the vehicle daily or weekly and held the license for more than one year. Sixty-seven percent of the accident victims used a motorcycle daily and had a motorcycle driver's license for at least one year. among the motorcyclists injured, most were men aged 20 years or older, with complete secondary education, and experienced in driving both motorcycles and cars, indicating that recklessness while driving the motorcycle is the main cause of traffic accidents.

  2. The IAEA Accident Management Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabanov, L.; Jankowski, M.; Mauersberger, H.

    1993-01-01

    Accident prevention and mitigation programmes and the Emergency Response System (ERS) are important elements of the Agency's activities in the area of nuclear power plant (NPP) safety. Safety Codes and Guides on siting, design, quality assurance and the operation of NPPs have been produced and are used by NPP operating organizations. Nuclear safety evaluation services are provided by the IAEA. The Emergency Response System and the International Nuclear Event Scale (INES) have been developed. The framework for the development of an accident management programme has been set up. The main goal is to develop an Accident Management Manual to provide a systematic, structured approach to the development and implementation of an accident management programme at NPPs. An outline of the Manual has been distributed and the first draft is available. The component parts are: Co-ordinated research programmes (CRPs) on severe accident management and containment behaviour; the use of vulnerability analysis; mitigation of the effects of hydrogen, and generic symptom oriented emergency operating procedures. The IAEA provides guidance by the dissemination of information on methods for accident management; collates information on approaches in this field in different organizations and countries; and arranges exchange of experience and the promulgation of knowledge through the training of NPP managers and senior technical staff. (orig.)

  3. CARNSORE: Hypothetical reactor accident study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walmod-Larsen, O.; Jensen, N.O.; Kristensen, L.; Meide, A.; Nedergaard, K.L.; Nielsen, F.; Lundtang Petersen, E.; Petersen, T.; Thykier-Nielsen, S.

    1984-06-01

    Two types of design-basis accident and a series of hypothetical core-melt accidents to a 600 MWe reactor are described and their consequences assessed. The PLUCON 2 model was used to calculate the consequences which are presented in terms of individual and collective doses, as well as early and late health consequences. The site proposed for the nucelar power station is Carnsore Point, County Wexford, south-east Ireland. The release fractions for the accidents described are those given in WASH-1400. The analyses are based on the resident population as given in the 1979 census and on 20 years of data from the meteorological stations at Rosslare Harbour, 8.5 km north of the site. The consequences of one of the hypothetical core-melt accidents are described in detail in a meteorological parametric study. Likewise the consequences of the worst conceivable combination of situations are described. Finally, the release fraction in one accident is varied and the consequences of a proposed, more probable ''Class 9 accident'' are presented. (author)

  4. The IAEA Accident Management Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabanov, L.; Jankowski, M.; Mauersberger, H. (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria))

    1993-02-01

    Accident prevention and mitigation programmes and the Emergency Response System (ERS) are important elements of the Agency's activities in the area of nuclear power plant (NPP) safety. Safety Codes and Guides on siting, design, quality assurance and the operation of NPPs have been produced and are used by NPP operating organizations. Nuclear safety evaluation services are provided by the IAEA. The Emergency Response System and the International Nuclear Event Scale (INES) have been developed. The framework for the development of an accident management programme has been set up. The main goal is to develop an Accident Management Manual to provide a systematic, structured approach to the development and implementation of an accident management programme at NPPs. An outline of the Manual has been distributed and the first draft is available. The component parts are: Co-ordinated research programmes (CRPs) on severe accident management and containment behaviour; the use of vulnerability analysis; mitigation of the effects of hydrogen, and generic symptom oriented emergency operating procedures. The IAEA provides guidance by the dissemination of information on methods for accident management; collates information on approaches in this field in different organizations and countries; and arranges exchange of experience and the promulgation of knowledge through the training of NPP managers and senior technical staff. (orig.).

  5. Reactor accidents and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beattie, J.R.; Griffiths, R.F.; Kaiser, G.D.; Kinchin, G.H.

    1978-01-01

    This is a condensed version of a paper, entitled 'The Environmental Impact of Radioactive Releases from Accidents in Nuclear Power Reactors', by the authors, presented to the Nuclear Energy Panel of the International Atomic Energy Agency/United Nations Environmental Programme. Headings include - Effects of ionising radiation on man; number of deaths expected from leukaemia and other cancers; risk estimates for incidence of benign nodules and thyroid cancer; maximum permissible levels and emergency levels of radiation and radioactivity; ICRP recommended dose limits for members of the general public; atmospheric dispersion and modelling; ICRP emergency reference levels for 1 131 , Cs 137 , Ru 106 and Sr 90 ; environmental consequences of accidental releases from nuclear power reactors; environmental impact of accidents to Magnox gas-cooled reactors; environmental impact of accidents to advanced gas-cooled reactors; environmental impact of accidents to fast reactors; and nature of risks. consequences are examined in terms of early and late biological effects on man, and contamination of land areas. Serious accidents are of low probability of occurrence, and the risk of accidents to nuclear power reactors is estimated to be very small. 43 references. (U.K.)

  6. JAERI's activities in JCO accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-09-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) was actively involved in a variety of technical supports and cooperative activities, such as advice on terminating the criticality condition, contamination checks of the residents and consultation services for the residents, as emergency response actions to the criticality accident at the uranium processing facility operated by the JCO Co. Ltd., which occurred on September 30, 1999. These activities were carried out in collaborative ways by the JAERI staff from the Tokai Research Establishment, Naka Fusion Research Establishment, Oarai Research Establishment, and Headquarter Office in Tokyo. As well, the JAERI was engaged in the post-accident activities such as identification of accident causes, analyses of the criticality accident, and dose assessment of exposed residents, to support the Headquarter for Accident Countermeasures of the Science and Technology Agency (STA), the Accident Investigation Committee and the Health Control Committee of the Nuclear Safety Commission of Japan (NSC). This report compiles the activities, that the JAERI has conducted to date, including the discussions on measures for terminating the criticality condition, evaluation of the fission number, radiation monitoring in the environment, dose assessment, analyses of criticality dynamics. (author)

  7. Nuclear fuel cycle facility accident analysis handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayer, J.E.; Clark, A.T.; Loysen, P.; Ballinger, M.Y.; Mishima, J.; Owczarski, P.C.; Gregory, W.S.; Nichols, B.D.

    1988-05-01

    The Accident Analysis Handbook (AAH) covers four generic facilities: fuel manufacturing, fuel reprocessing, waste storage/solidification, and spent fuel storage; and six accident types: fire, explosion, tornado, criticality, spill, and equipment failure. These are the accident types considered to make major contributions to the radiological risk from accidents in nuclear fuel cycle facility operations. The AAH will enable the user to calculate source term releases from accident scenarios manually or by computer. A major feature of the AAH is development of accident sample problems to provide input to source term analysis methods and transport computer codes. Sample problems and illustrative examples for different accident types are included in the AAH

  8. Recommendations for prevention of radiation accident in industrial gammagraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, L.S.; Silva, F.C.A. da

    2017-01-01

    Industrial Gammagraphy plays an important role in the quality control of various materials and components. It is classified by the International Atomic Energy Agency - IAEA as Category 2, due to its radiation risk caused by the use of high activity radioactive sources. This risk is based on the harmful consequences of human health, described in some accidents in the world, due to failures. In 2012, the 'Brazilian National Workshop on Accident Prevention in Industrial Gammagraphy' was carried out by DIAPI/CNEN, with the objective of disseminating knowledge about radiation accidents. At the time, the IRD/CNEN-RJ carried out a survey with the 75 participants using a form with 22 recommendations to prevent radiological accidents, in order to select the 10 most voted. A statistical study, using the 'Frequency Distribution' method, was performed to define 10 recommendations. The percentage and vote results were obtained by category of the participants and the 10 most important recommendations were defined to prevent radiation accidents. The recommendation that came in first place was 'Always use an individual monitor with alarm during all work'

  9. Radiological accidents: education for prevention and confrontation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardenas Herrera, Juan; Fernandez Gomez, Isis Maria

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to train and inform on radiological accidents as a preventive measure to improve the people life quality. Radiological accidents are part of the events of technological origin which are composed of nuclear and radiological accidents. As a notable figure is determined that there have been 423 radiological accidents from 1944 to 2005 and among the causes prevail industrial accidents, by irradiations, medical accidents and of laboratories, among others. Latin American countries such as Argentina, Brazil, Mexico and Peru are some where most accidents have occurred by radioactivity. The radiological accidents can have sociological, environmental, economic, social and political consequences. In addition, there are scenarios of potential nuclear accidents and in them the potential human consequences. Also, the importance of the organization and planning in a nuclear emergency is highlighted. Finally, the experience that Cuba has lived on the subject of radiological accidents is described [es

  10. Accident tolerant fuel analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Safety is central to the design, licensing, operation, and economics of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Consequently, the ability to better characterize and quantify safety margin holds the key to improved decision making about light water reactor design, operation, and plant life extension. A systematic approach to characterization of safety margins and the subsequent margins management options represents a vital input to the licensee and regulatory analysis and decision making that will be involved. The purpose of the Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Pathway research and development (R&D) is to support plant decisions for risk-informed margins management by improving economics and reliability, and sustaining safety, of current NPPs. Goals of the RISMC Pathway are twofold: (1) Develop and demonstrate a risk-assessment method coupled to safety margin quantification that can be used by NPP decision makers as part of their margin recovery strategies. (2) Create an advanced ''RISMC toolkit'' that enables more accurate representation of NPP safety margin. In order to carry out the R&D needed for the Pathway, the Idaho National Laboratory is performing a series of case studies that will explore methods- and tools-development issues, in addition to being of current interest in their own right. One such study is a comparative analysis of safety margins of plants using different fuel cladding types: specifically, a comparison between current-technology Zircaloy cladding and a notional ''accident-tolerant'' (e.g., SiC-based) cladding. The present report begins the process of applying capabilities that are still under development to the problem of assessing new fuel designs. The approach and lessons learned from this case study will be included in future Technical Basis Guides produced by the RISMC Pathway. These guides will be the mechanism for developing the specifications for RISMC tools and for defining how plant

  11. Risk assessment of maintenance operations: the analysis of performing task and accident mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Castrillo, Jesús A; Rubio-Romero, Juan Carlos; Guadix, Jose; Onieva, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Maintenance operations cover a great number of occupations. Most small and medium-sized enterprises lack the appropriate information to conduct risk assessments of maintenance operations. The objective of this research is to provide a method based on the concepts of task and accident mechanisms for an initial risk assessment by taking into consideration the prevalence and severity of the maintenance accidents reported. Data were gathered from 11,190 reported accidents in maintenance operations in the manufacturing sector of Andalusia from 2003 to 2012. By using a semi-quantitative methodology, likelihood and severity were evaluated based on the actual distribution of accident mechanisms in each of the tasks. Accident mechanisms and tasks were identified by using those variables included in the European Statistics of Accidents at Work methodology. As main results, the estimated risk of the most frequent accident mechanisms identified for each of the analysed tasks is low and the only accident mechanisms with medium risk are accidents when lifting or pushing with physical stress on the musculoskeletal system in tasks involving carrying, and impacts against objects after slipping or stumbling for tasks involving movements. The prioritisation of public preventive actions for the accident mechanisms with a higher estimated risk is highly recommended.

  12. Accident scenarios triggered by lightning strike on atmospheric storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Necci, Amos; Argenti, Francesca; Landucci, Gabriele; Cozzani, Valerio

    2014-01-01

    Severe Natech accidents may be triggered by lightning strike affecting storage tanks containing relevant inventories of hazardous materials. The present study focused on the identification of event sequences and accident scenarios following lightning impact on atmospheric tanks. Reference event trees, validated using past accident analysis, are provided to describe the specific accident chains identified, accounting for reference protection and mitigation safety barriers usually adopted in current industrial practice. An overall methodology was outlined to allow the calculation of the expected frequencies of final scenarios following lightning impact on atmospheric storage tanks, taking into account the expected performance of available safety barriers. The methodology was applied to a case study in order to better understand the data that may be obtained and their importance in the framework of quantitative risk assessment (QRA) and of the risk management of industrial facilities with respect to external hazards due to natural events. - Highlights: • Event sequences following lightning impact on atmospheric tanks were identified. • Reference event trees including standard safety barriers were obtained. • Safety barriers applied in industrial practice were assessed to quantify event trees. • Frequencies of final scenarios following lightning impact on tanks were calculated. • Natech scenarios caused by lightning have an important influence on risk profiles

  13. Accident Sequence Precursor Analysis for SGTR by Using Dynamic PSA Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Han Sul; Heo, Gyun Young; Kim, Tae Wan

    2016-01-01

    In order to address this issue, this study suggests the sequence tree model to analyze accident sequence systematically. Using the sequence tree model, all possible scenarios which need a specific safety action to prevent the core damage can be identified and success conditions of safety action under complicated situation such as combined accident will be also identified. Sequence tree is branch model to divide plant condition considering the plant dynamics. Since sequence tree model can reflect the plant dynamics, arising from interaction of different accident timing and plant condition and from the interaction between the operator action, mitigation system, and the indicators for operation, sequence tree model can be used to develop the dynamic event tree model easily. Target safety action for this study is a feed-and-bleed (F and B) operation. A F and B operation directly cools down the reactor cooling system (RCS) using the primary cooling system when residual heat removal by the secondary cooling system is not available. In this study, a TLOFW accident and a TLOFW accident with LOCA were the target accidents. Based on the conventional PSA model and indicators, the sequence tree model for a TLOFW accident was developed. Based on the results of a sampling analysis and data from the conventional PSA model, the CDF caused by Sequence no. 26 can be realistically estimated. For a TLOFW accident with LOCA, second accident timings were categorized according to plant condition. Indicators were selected as branch point using the flow chart and tables, and a corresponding sequence tree model was developed. If sampling analysis is performed, practical accident sequences can be identified based on the sequence analysis. If a realistic distribution for the variables can be obtained for sampling analysis, much more realistic accident sequences can be described. Moreover, if the initiating event frequency under a combined accident can be quantified, the sequence tree model

  14. Frequency Synthesiser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drago, Salvatore; Sebastiano, Fabio; Leenaerts, Dominicus M.W.; Breems, Lucien J.; Nauta, Bram

    2016-01-01

    A low power frequency synthesiser circuit (30) for a radio transceiver, the synthesiser circuit comprising: a digital controlled oscillator configured to generate an output signal having a frequency controlled by an input digital control word (DCW); a feedback loop connected between an output and an

  15. Frequency synthesiser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drago, S.; Sebastiano, Fabio; Leenaerts, Dominicus Martinus Wilhelmus; Breems, Lucien Johannes; Nauta, Bram

    2010-01-01

    A low power frequency synthesiser circuit (30) for a radio transceiver, the synthesiser circuit comprising: a digital controlled oscillator configured to generate an output signal having a frequency controlled by an input digital control word (DCW); a feedback loop connected between an output and an

  16. The question of the possibility of being killed or injured in a transport accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazakov N.A.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available the article presents an analysis of statistics, which shows that the probability to get in a road accident is higher and it is most likely to die in an air transport accident, by becoming a party of it.

  17. Modeling the economic consequences of LWR accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, R.P.; Aldrich, D.C.; Rasmussen, N.C.

    1984-01-01

    Models to be used for analyses of economic risks from events which may occur during LWR plant operation are developed in this study. The models include capabilities to estimate both onsite and offsite costs of LWR events ranging from routine plant outages to severe core-melt accidents resulting in large releases of radioactive material to the environment. The models can be used by both the nuclear power industry and regulatory agencies in cost-benefit analyses for decisionmaking purposes. The newly developed economic consequence models are applied in an example to estimate the economic risks from operation of the Surry Unit 2 plant. The analyses indicate that economic risks from US LWR operation, in contrast to public health risks, are dominated by relatively high-frequency forced outage events. Even for severe (e.g., core-melt) accidents, expected offsite costs are less than expected onsite costs for the Surry site. The implications of these conclusions for nuclear power plant operation and regulation are discussed

  18. The cost of nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    Proposed by a technical section of the SFEN, and based on a meeting with representatives of different organisations (OECD-NEA, IRSN, EDF, and European Nuclear Energy Forum), this publication addresses the economic consequences of a severe accident (level 6 or 7) within an electricity producing nuclear power plant. Such an assessment essentially relies on three pillars: release of radio-elements outside the reactor, the scenario of induced consequences, and the method of economic quantification. After a recall and a comment of safety arrangements, and of the generally admitted probability of such an accident, this document notices that several actors are concerned by nuclear energy and are trying to assess accident costs. The issue of how to assess a cost (or costs) of a nuclear accident is discussed: there are in fact several types of costs and consequences. Thus, some costs can be rather precisely quantified when some others can be difficult to assess or with uncertainty. The relevance of some cost categories appears to be a matter of discussion and one must not forget that consequences can occur on a long term. The need for methodological advances is outlined and three categories of technical objectives are identified for the assessment (efficiency of safety measures to be put forward to mitigate the risk via a better accident management, compensation of victims and nuclear civil responsibility, and comparison of electricity production sectors and assessment of externalisation to guide public choices). It is outlined that the impact of accidents depend on several factors, that the most efficient mean to limit consequences of accidents is of course to limit radioactive emissions

  19. Incorporation of phenomenological uncertainties in probabilistic safety analysis - application to LMFBR core disruptive accident energetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najafi, B; Theofanous, T G; Rumble, E T; Atefi, B

    1984-08-01

    This report describes a method for quantifying frequency and consequence uncertainty distribution associated with core disruptive accidents (CDAs). The method was developed to estimate the frequency and magnitude of energy impacting the reactor vessel head of the Clinch River Breeder Plant (CRBRP) given the occurrence of hypothetical CDAs. The methodology is illustrated using the CRBR example.

  20. A statistical description of the types and severities of accidents involving tractor semi-trailers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clauss, D.B.; Wilson, R.K.; Blower, D.F.; Campbell, K.L.

    1994-06-01

    This report provides a statistical description of the types and severities of tractor semi-trailer accidents involving at least one fatality. The data were developed for use in risk assessments of hazardous materials transportation. Several accident databases were reviewed to determine their suitability to the task. The TIFA (Trucks Involved in Fatal Accidents) database created at the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute was extensively utilized. Supplementary data on collision and fire severity, which was not available in the TIFA database, were obtained by reviewing police reports for selected TIFA accidents. The results are described in terms of frequencies of different accident types and cumulative distribution functions for the peak contact velocity, rollover skid distance, fire temperature, fire size, fire separation, and fire duration

  1. A survey on hazardous materials accidents during road transport in China from 2000 to 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jie; Li Fengying; Zhou Jingbo; Zhang Ling; Huang Lei; Bi Jun

    2010-01-01

    A study of 322 accidents that occurred during the road transport of hazardous materials (hazmat) in China from 2000 to 2008 was carried out. The results showed an increase in the frequency of accidents from 2000 to 2007 and a decline in 2008. More than 63% of the accidents occurred in the eastern coastal areas, 25.5% in the central inland areas, and only 10.9% in the western remote areas. The most frequent types of accident were releases (84.5%), followed by gas clouds (13.0%), fires (10.2%), no substance released due to timely measures (9.9%), and explosions (5.9%). The spatial distribution, the causes and consequences of the accidents related to the population (e.g., number of people killed, injured, evacuated, or poisoned), and environment elements were analyzed. Finally, conclusions are drawn concerning the need to improve certain safety measures in the road transport of hazmat in China.

  2. A synthesis of studies of access point density as a risk factor for road accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvik, Rune

    2017-10-01

    Studies of the relationship between access point density (number of access points, or driveways, per kilometre of road) and accident frequency or rate (number of accidents per unit of exposure) have consistently found that accident rate increases when access point density increases. This paper presents a formal synthesis of the findings of these studies. It was found that the addition of one access point per kilometre of road is associated with an increase of 4% in the expected number of accidents, controlling for traffic volume. Although studies consistently indicate an increase in accident rate as access point density increases, the size of the increase varies substantially between studies. In addition to reviewing studies of access point density as a risk factor, the paper discusses some issues related to formally synthesising regression coefficients by applying the inverse-variance method of meta-analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Industrial accidents triggered by lightning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renni, Elisabetta; Krausmann, Elisabeth; Cozzani, Valerio

    2010-12-15

    Natural disasters can cause major accidents in chemical facilities where they can lead to the release of hazardous materials which in turn can result in fires, explosions or toxic dispersion. Lightning strikes are the most frequent cause of major accidents triggered by natural events. In order to contribute towards the development of a quantitative approach for assessing lightning risk at industrial facilities, lightning-triggered accident case histories were retrieved from the major industrial accident databases and analysed to extract information on types of vulnerable equipment, failure dynamics and damage states, as well as on the final consequences of the event. The most vulnerable category of equipment is storage tanks. Lightning damage is incurred by immediate ignition, electrical and electronic systems failure or structural damage with subsequent release. Toxic releases and tank fires tend to be the most common scenarios associated with lightning strikes. Oil, diesel and gasoline are the substances most frequently released during lightning-triggered Natech accidents. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A CANDU Severe Accident Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negut, Gheorghe; Catana, Alexandru; Prisecaru, Ilie

    2006-01-01

    As interest in severe accident studies has increased in the last years, we have developed a set of simple models to analyze severe accidents for CANDU reactors that should be integrated in the EU codes. The CANDU600 reactor uses natural uranium fuel and heavy water (D2O) as both moderator and coolant, with the moderator and coolant in separate systems. We chose to analyze accident development for a LOCA with simultaneous loss of moderator cooling and the loss of emergency core cooling system (ECCS). This type of accident is likely to modify the reactor geometry and will lead to a severe accident development. When the coolant temperatures inside a pressure tube reaches 10000 deg C, a contact between pressure tube and calandria tube occurs and the residual heat is transferred to the moderator. Due to the lack of cooling, the moderator eventually begins to boil and is expelled, through the calandria vessel relief ducts, into the containment. Therefore the calandria tubes (fuel channels) will be uncovered, then will disintegrate and fall down to the calandria vessel bottom. After all the quantity of moderator is vaporized and expelled, the debris will heat up and eventually boil. The heat accumulated in the molten debris will be transferred through the calandria vessel wall to the shield tank water, which normally surrounds the calandria vessel. The phenomena described above are modelled, analyzed and compared with the existing data. The results are encouraging. (authors)

  5. Accident knowledge and emergency management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, B; Groenberg, C D

    1997-03-01

    The report contains an overall frame for transformation of knowledge and experience from risk analysis to emergency education. An accident model has been developed to describe the emergency situation. A key concept of this model is uncontrolled flow of energy (UFOE), essential elements are the state, location and movement of the energy (and mass). A UFOE can be considered as the driving force of an accident, e.g., an explosion, a fire, a release of heavy gases. As long as the energy is confined, i.e. the location and movement of the energy are under control, the situation is safe, but loss of confinement will create a hazardous situation that may develop into an accident. A domain model has been developed for representing accident and emergency scenarios occurring in society. The domain model uses three main categories: status, context and objectives. A domain is a group of activities with allied goals and elements and ten specific domains have been investigated: process plant, storage, nuclear power plant, energy distribution, marine transport of goods, marine transport of people, aviation, transport by road, transport by rail and natural disasters. Totally 25 accident cases were consulted and information was extracted for filling into the schematic representations with two to four cases pr. specific domain. (au) 41 tabs., 8 ills.; 79 refs.

  6. The radiological accident in Cochabamba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-07-01

    In April 2002 an accident involving an industrial radiography source containing 192 Ir occurred in Cochabamba, Bolivia, some 400 km from the capital, La Paz. A faulty radiography source container had been sent back to the headquarters of the company concerned in La Paz together with other equipment as cargo on a passenger bus. This gave rise to a potential for serious exposure for the bus passengers as well as for the company employees who were using and transporting the source. The Government of Bolivia requested the assistance of the IAEA under the terms of the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency. The IAEA in response assembled and sent to Bolivia a team composed of senior radiation safety experts and radiation pathology experts from Brazil, the United Kingdom and the IAEA to investigate the accident. The IAEA is grateful to the Government of Bolivia for the opportunity to report on this accident in order to disseminate the valuable lessons learned and help prevent similar accidents in the future

  7. Accident knowledge and emergency management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, B.; Groenberg, C.D.

    1997-03-01

    The report contains an overall frame for transformation of knowledge and experience from risk analysis to emergency education. An accident model has been developed to describe the emergency situation. A key concept of this model is uncontrolled flow of energy (UFOE), essential elements are the state, location and movement of the energy (and mass). A UFOE can be considered as the driving force of an accident, e.g., an explosion, a fire, a release of heavy gases. As long as the energy is confined, i.e. the location and movement of the energy are under control, the situation is safe, but loss of confinement will create a hazardous situation that may develop into an accident. A domain model has been developed for representing accident and emergency scenarios occurring in society. The domain model uses three main categories: status, context and objectives. A domain is a group of activities with allied goals and elements and ten specific domains have been investigated: process plant, storage, nuclear power plant, energy distribution, marine transport of goods, marine transport of people, aviation, transport by road, transport by rail and natural disasters. Totally 25 accident cases were consulted and information was extracted for filling into the schematic representations with two to four cases pr. specific domain. (au) 41 tabs., 8 ills.; 79 refs

  8. Longitudinal Trends in Fall Accidents in Community Dwelling Korean Adults: The 2008-2013 Korean Community Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ickpyo; Simpson, Annie N; Logan, Sarah; Woo, Hee-Soon

    2016-08-01

    To describe the longitudinal characteristics of unintentional fall accidents using a representative population-based sample of Korean adults. We examined data from the Korean Community Health Survey from 2008 to 2013. Univariate analysis and multivariable logistic regression were used to identify the characteristics of fall accidents in adults. Between 2008 and 2013, the incidence rate of fall accidents requiring medical treatment increased from 1,248 to 3,423 per 100,000 people (pfall accidents decreased from 38.12% to 23.16% (pfall accidents than males (pfall accidents was slippery floors (33.7% in 2011 and 36.3% in 2013). Between 2008 and 2010, variables associated with higher fall accident risk included specific months (August and September), old age, female gender, current drinker, current smoker, diabetes, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, and depression. A high level of education and living with a partner were negatively associated with fall accident risk. In 2013, people experiencing more than 1 fall accident felt more fear of falling than those having no fall accidents (odds ratio [OR] for 1 fall, 2.12; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.04-2.12; OR for more than 2 falls, 2.97; 95% CI, 2.83-3.10). The occurrence of fall accidents has consistently increased in Korea from 2008 to 2013. Future intervention studies are needed to reduce the increasing incidence rates of fall accidents in community dwelling adults.

  9. Longitudinal Trends in Fall Accidents in Community Dwelling Korean Adults: The 2008–2013 Korean Community Health Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe the longitudinal characteristics of unintentional fall accidents using a representative population-based sample of Korean adults. Methods We examined data from the Korean Community Health Survey from 2008 to 2013. Univariate analysis and multivariable logistic regression were used to identify the characteristics of fall accidents in adults. Results Between 2008 and 2013, the incidence rate of fall accidents requiring medical treatment increased from 1,248 to 3,423 per 100,000 people (pfall accidents decreased from 38.12% to 23.16% (pfall accidents than males (pfall accidents was slippery floors (33.7% in 2011 and 36.3% in 2013). Between 2008 and 2010, variables associated with higher fall accident risk included specific months (August and September), old age, female gender, current drinker, current smoker, diabetes, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, and depression. A high level of education and living with a partner were negatively associated with fall accident risk. In 2013, people experiencing more than 1 fall accident felt more fear of falling than those having no fall accidents (odds ratio [OR] for 1 fall, 2.12; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.04–2.12; OR for more than 2 falls, 2.97; 95% CI, 2.83–3.10). Conclusion The occurrence of fall accidents has consistently increased in Korea from 2008 to 2013. Future intervention studies are needed to reduce the increasing incidence rates of fall accidents in community dwelling adults. PMID:27606272

  10. Approaches to accident analysis in recent US Department of Energy environmental impact statements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, C.; Folga, S.; Nabelssi, B.

    1996-01-01

    A review of accident analyses in recent US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Impact Statements (EISs) was conducted to evaluate the consistency among approaches and to compare these approaches with existing DOE guidance. The review considered several components of an accident analysis: the overall scope, which in turn should reflect the scope of the EIS; the spectrum of accidents considered; the methods and assumptions used to determine frequencies or frequency ranges for the accident sequences; and the assumption and technical bases for developing radiological and chemical atmospheric source terms and for calculating the consequences of airborne releases. The review also considered the range of results generated with respect to impacts on various worker and general populations. In this paper, the findings of these reviews are presented and methods recommended for improving consistency among EISs and bringing them more into line with existing DOE guidance

  11. The Three Mile Island accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zebroski, E.L.

    1980-01-01

    It is important that the causes of this accident (and other, similar accidents but with less dramatic consequences) are completely understood and that the role of every contributing factor is exactly determined in order to discuss modifications and to judge their relative importance and schedule in an objective way. If the role of the various factors contributing to an accident is not fully understood, there will always be a 'mythology' of prejudiced and highly simplified assumptions. The experience of failure analysis shows that the causes first assumed are hardly ever the right ones, and that in some major and complex cases even the second or third generation of assumed causes is wrong. (orig.) [de

  12. Severe accident management guidelines tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez Varela, Javier; Tanarro Onrubia, Augustin; Martinez Fanegas, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Severe Accident is addressed by means of a great number of documents such as guidelines, calculation aids and diagnostic trees. The response methodology often requires the use of several documents at the same time while Technical Support Centre members need to assess the appropriate set of equipment within the adequate mitigation strategies. In order to facilitate the response, TECNATOM has developed SAMG TOOL, initially named GGAS TOOL, which is an easy to use computer program that clearly improves and accelerates the severe accident management. The software is designed with powerful features that allow the users to focus on the decision-making process. Consequently, SAMG TOOL significantly improves the severe accident training, ensuring a better response under a real situation. The software is already installed in several Spanish Nuclear Power Plants and trainees claim that the methodology can be followed easier with it, especially because guidelines, calculation aids, equipment information and strategies availability can be accessed immediately (authors)

  13. Severe accident simulation at Olkiuoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tirkkonen, H.; Saarenpaeae, T. [Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO), Olkiluoto (Finland); Cliff Po, L.C. [Micro-Simulation Technology, Montville, NJ (United States)

    1995-09-01

    A personal computer-based simulator was developed for the Olkiluoto nuclear plant in Finland for training in severe accident management. The generic software PCTRAN was expanded to model the plant-specific features of the ABB Atom designed BWR including its containment over-pressure protection and filtered vent systems. Scenarios including core heat-up, hydrogen generation, core melt and vessel penetration were developed in this work. Radiation leakage paths and dose rate distribution are presented graphically for operator use in diagnosis and mitigation of accidents. Operating on an graphically for operator use in diagnosis and mitigation of accidents. Operating on an 486 DX2-66, PCTRAN-TVO achieves a speed about 15 times faster than real-time. A convenient and user-friendly graphic interface allows full interactive control. In this paper a review of the component models and verification runs are presented.

  14. Containment integrity analysis under accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Chengge; Zhao Ruichang; Liu Zhitao

    2010-01-01

    Containment integrity analyses for current nuclear power plants (NPPs) mainly focus on the internal pressure caused by design basis accidents (DBAs). In addition to the analyses of containment pressure response caused by DBAs, the behavior of containment during severe accidents (SAs) are also evaluated for AP1000 NPP. Since the conservatism remains in the assumptions,boundary conditions and codes, margin of the results of containment integrity analyses may be overestimated. Along with the improvements of the knowledge to the phenomena and process of relevant accidents, the margin overrated can be appropriately reduced by using the best estimate codes combined with the uncertainty methods, which could be beneficial to the containment design and construction of large passive plants (LPP) in China. (authors)

  15. Patient treatment in radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanum, G.; Bruland, Oe.S.; Hjelle, D.; Reitan, J.B.

    1999-01-01

    Accidental human injury due to ionizing radiation is rare. Industrial accidents are comparatively the most common. Life saving procedures should always have priority to any concern about radiation injury or contamination. The personal risks for emergency medial personnel is negligible when simple measures are taken. Repeated clinical examinations and blood lymphocyte counts should be performed on all patients with suspected radiation injury to allow a diagnosis. The radiation syndrome develops within days or weeks depending on total radiation dose, dose rate and dose distribution. Damage to the bone marrow and gut are the most important. Local radiation injuries to the hands are common in industrial accidents. The Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority should always be called when a potential ionizing radiation accident takes place within Norway

  16. Action in case of accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matijasic, A.

    1961-01-01

    This report describes the radiation accidents that occurred in the Institute, causes of these accidents and actions undertaken to eliminate the consequences as well as losses and cost estimated. The accidents were as follows: explosion of the uranium mixture; contamination due to spill of P 32 ; contamination due to spilling of Sr 89 solution; spilling of I 131 in the cell for radioactive iodine production; contamination of the floor by P 32 ; contamination of the platform below the water shield at the RA reactor and during cleaning of the vertical channels; contamination due to spilling of Sr 89 solution; contamination of cells for I 131 and P 32 and the cell for isotopes packaging; contamination of the floor by non-identified isotope mixture; contamination of the cell for I'1 31 production by irradiated Tl powder; contamination by La 140 powder; contamination of the cell for isotopes packaging

  17. Nuclear law and radiological accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frois, F.

    1998-01-01

    Nuclear activities in Brazil, and particularly the radiological accident of Goiania, are examined in the light of the environmental and nuclear laws of Brazil and the issue of responsibility. The absence of legislation covering radioactive wastes as well as the restrictions on Brazilian States to issue regulations covering nuclear activities are reviewed. The radiological accident and its consequences, including the protection and compensation of the victims, the responsibility of the shareholders of the Instituto Goiano de Radioterapia, operator of the radioactive source, the provisional storage and the final disposal at Abadia de Goias of the radioactive waste generated by the accident are reviewed. Finally, nuclear responsibility, the inapplicability of the Law 6453/77 which deals with nuclear damages, and the state liability regime are analysed in accordance with the principles of the Brazilian Federal Constitution. (author)

  18. Breakfast and Snacks: Associations with Cognitive Failures, Minor Injuries, Accidents and Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Chaplin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available One strategy for examining effects of nutrients on cognitive function is to initially investigate foods that contain many different nutrients. If effects are demonstrated with these foods then further studies can address the role of specific nutrients. Breakfast foods (e.g., cereals, dairy products and fruit provide many important nutrients and consumption of breakfast has been shown to be associated with beneficial effects on cognitive function. Isolating effects of specific constituents of breakfast has proved more difficult and it is still unclear what impact breakfast has on real-life performance. The present study provided initial information on associations between breakfast consumption and cognitive failures and accidents. A second aim was to examine associations between consumption of snacks which are often perceived as being unhealthy (chocolate, crisps and biscuits. A sample of over 800 nurses took part in the study. The results showed that frequency of breakfast consumption (varied breakfasts: 62% cereal was associated with lower stress, fewer cognitive failures, injuries and accidents at work. In contrast, snacking on crisps, chocolate and biscuits was associated with higher stress, more cognitive failures and more injuries outside of work. Further research requires intervention studies to provide a clearer profile of causality and underlying mechanisms.

  19. [Health-related consequences of obstructive sleep apnea: daytime sleepiness, accident risk and legal aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, M; Kotterba, S

    2012-04-01

    Daytime sleepiness for any reason leads to impairment of daytime performance and an increased accident rate. The consequences are an increase of illness- and accident-related costs for the health system. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is one of the major reasons for increased daytime sleepiness, especially in professional drivers. The accident frequency in OSA can be significantly reduced by adequate continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy. Up till now there are no uniform legal regulations about the handling of OSAS patients or patients with daytime sleepiness due to other diseases as far as driving ability is concerned.

  20. Educational level and age as contributing factors to road traffic accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Ashkan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: This research analyzes data on road traffic accidents (RTA in Fars province, whose roads are among the highly dangerous ones in Iran. It inves- tigates educational level and age involved in RTA in order to discover patterns that can prevent or decrease accidents. Methods: This research made use of data visualization techniques to find hidden patterns. The data included mor- tality rate related to RTA in Fars province and were obtained from Fars Forensic Medicine Registry covering a period of 1 year from March 21, 2010 to March 21, 2011. All data were analyzed using SPSS 11.5. The results were reported as de- scriptive indices such as frequency (percentage. The Chi- square test was applied to the data concerning educational level and age. P value less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results: In the mentioned period, 1 831 people were killed, out of whom un/lowly educated people (69.6% ac- counted for the highest mortality rate. The significant rela- tionship between educational level and mortality rate was found (X2=275.98, P<0.0001. Also three was a significant association between age and mortality rate (X2=371.20, P<0.0001. Young people (age between 20 and 29 years contribute to higher RTA mortality rate compared with other age groups. Conclusion: The educational level and age are signifi- cantly correlated to mortality rate. The youth and un/lowly educated people suffer more fatal RTA. Key words: Accidents, traffic; Mortality; Education; Data mining; Iran