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Sample records for higher absence rates

  1. Researching Absences and Silences in Higher Education: Data for Democratisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, Louise

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge, power and democracy are being more explicitly related to higher education globally. Increasingly there are calls for cognitive justice and the development of a sociology of absences, particularly in relation to structures of inequalities and knowledge production from the Global South. The university of the future will need to be…

  2. Self-rated health and sickness-related absence: the modifying role of civic participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lancee, B.; ter Hoeven, C.L.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we examined civic participation as an effect modifier between self-rated health and absence from work. Building on the theoretical framework of social exchange, we use German data to test a conceptual model relating self-rated health to sickness-related absence, as well as the

  3. Indications of a Scarring Effect of Sickness Absence Periods in a Cohort of Higher Educated Self-Employed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnvoord, Liesbeth E C; Brouwer, Sandra; Buitenhuis, Jan; van der Klink, Jac J L; de Boer, Michiel R

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Little is known regarding incidence and recurrence of sickness absence in self-employed. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the number of prior episodes of sickness absence on the risk of subsequent periods of sickness absence in higher educated self-employed.

  4. Indications of a Scarring Effect of Sickness Absence Periods in a Cohort of Higher Educated Self-Employed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnvoord, Liesbeth E. C.; Brouwer, Sandra; Buitenhuis, Jan; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; de Boer, Michiel R.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Little is known regarding incidence and recurrence of sickness absence in self-employed. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the number of prior episodes of sickness absence on the risk of subsequent periods of sickness absence in higher educated self-employed. Methods In a historic register study based on the files of a Dutch private disability insurance company all sickness absence periods of 30 days or more were analysed. Results A total of 15,868 insured persons contributed 141,188 person years to the study. In total, 5608 periods of sickness absence occurred during follow-up. The hazard of experiencing a new period of sickness absence increased with every previous period, ranging from a hazard ratio of 2.83 in case of one previous period of sickness absence to a hazard ratio of 6.72 in case of four previous periods. This effect was found for both men and women and for all diagnostic categories of the first period of sickness absence. Conclusions Our study shows that for all diagnostic categories the hazard of experiencing a recurrence of sickness absence is appreciably higher than for experiencing a first episode. This suggests that this increased hazard may be related to the occurrence of sickness absence itself rather than related to characteristics of the insured person or of the medical condition. These findings could indicate that sickness absence periods may have a scarring effect on the self-employed person experiencing the sickness absence. PMID:27213963

  5. A Prospective Study of Ventilation Rates and Illness Absence in California Office Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliseeva, Ekaterina A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Spears, Michael [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Chan, Wanyu R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cohn, Sebastian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sullivan, Douglas P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fisk, William J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-10-07

    Background – This study investigated the associations of ventilation rates (VRs), estimated from indoor CO2 concentrations, in offices with the amount of respiratory infections, illness absences, and building-related health symptoms in occupants. Methods – Office buildings were recruited from three California climate zones. In one or more study spaces within each building, real-time logging sensors measured carbon dioxide, temperature, and relative humidity for one year. Ventilation rates were estimated using daily peak CO2 levels, and also using an alternative metric. Data on occupants and health outcomes were collected through web-based surveys every three months. Multivariate models were used to assess relationships between metrics of ventilation rate or CO2 and occupant outcomes. For all outcomes, negative associations were hypothesized with VR metrics, and positive associations with CO2 metrics. Results – Difficulty recruiting buildings and low survey response limited sample size and study power. In 16 studied spaces within 9 office buildings, VRs were uniformly high over the year, from twice to over nine times the California office VR standard (7 L/s or 15 cfm per person). VR and CO2 metrics had no statistically significant relationships with occupant outcomes, except for a small significantly positive association of the alternative VR metric with respiratory illness-related absence, contrary to hypotheses. Conclusions– The very high time-averaged VRs in the California office buildings studied presumably resulted from “economizer cycles” bringing in large volumes of outdoor air; however, in almost all buildings even the estimated minimum VRs supplied (without the economizer) substantially exceeded the minimum required VR. These high VRs may explain the absence of hypothesized relationships with occupant outcomes. Among uniformly high VRs, little variation in contaminant concentration and occupant effects would be expected. These findings may

  6. Reduction Rates for Higher Americium Oxidation States in Nitric Acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimes, Travis Shane [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mincher, Bruce Jay [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Schmitt, Nicholas C [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-30

    The stability of hexavalent americium was measured using multiple americium concentrations and nitric acid concentrations after contact with the strong oxidant sodium bismuthate. Contrary to our hypotheses Am(VI) was not reduced faster at higher americium concentrations, and the reduction was only zero-order at short time scales. Attempts to model the reduction kinetics using zero order kinetic models showed Am(VI) reduction in nitric acid is more complex than the autoreduction processes reported by others in perchloric acid. The classical zero-order reduction of Am(VI) was found here only for short times on the order of a few hours. We did show that the rate of Am(V) production was less than the rate of Am(VI) reduction, indicating that some Am(VI) undergoes two electron-reduction to Am(IV). We also monitored the Am(VI) reduction in contact with the organic diluent dodecane. A direct comparison of these results with those in the absence of the organic diluent showed the reduction rates for Am(VI) were not statistically different for both systems. Additional americium oxidations conducted in the presence of Ce(IV)/Ce(III) ions showed that Am(VI) is reduced without the typical growth of Am(V) observed in the systems sans Ce ion. This was an interesting result which suggests a potential new reduction/oxidation pathway for Am in the presence of Ce; however, these results were very preliminary, and will require additional experiments to understand the mechanism by which this occurs. Overall, these studies have shown that hexavalent americium is fundamentally stable enough in nitric acid to run a separations process. However, the complicated nature of the reduction pathways based on the system components is far from being rigorously understood.

  7. Widening and Expanding Participation in Australian Higher Education: In the Absence of Sociological Imagination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Trevor

    2015-01-01

    Social inclusion in Australian higher education was high on the agenda of the recent Rudd/Gillard Australian Government. This paper offers an assessment of that agenda, particularly the extent to which it worked in favour of under-represented groups. It argues that the Government's widening and expansion policies and its equity and aspiration…

  8. Rich or poor: Who should pay higher tax rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murilo Castro de Oliveira, Paulo

    2017-08-01

    A dynamic agent model is introduced with an annual random wealth multiplicative process followed by taxes paid according to a linear wealth-dependent tax rate. If poor agents pay higher tax rates than rich agents, eventually all wealth becomes concentrated in the hands of a single agent. By contrast, if poor agents are subject to lower tax rates, the economic collective process continues forever.

  9. Absence of saturation of void growth in rate theory with anisotropic diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Hudson, T S; Sutton, A P

    2002-01-01

    We present a first attempt at solution the problem of the growth of a single void in the presence of anisotropically diffusing radiation induced self-interstitial atom (SIA) clusters. In order to treat a distribution of voids we perform ensemble averaging over the positions of centres of voids using a mean-field approximation. In this way we are able to model physical situations in between the Standard Rate Theory (SRT) treatment of swelling (isotropic diffusion), and the purely 1-dimensional diffusion of clusters in the Production Bias Model. The background absorption by dislocations is however treated isotropically, with a bias for interstitial cluster absorption assumed similar to that of individual SIAs. We find that for moderate anisotropy, unsaturated void growth is characteristic of this anisotropic diffusion of clusters. In addition we obtain a higher initial void swelling rate than predicted by SRT whenever the diffusion is anisotropic.

  10. Performance Indicators: Sickness and Absence Rates as Indicators of Staff Morale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Sandra

    Employee absenteeism is a problem faced by all library and information service managers as it erodes both salary budgets and productivity. It can have an undermining effect on staff morale, and may be an indicator of low staff motivation levels. There are two types of absence, unavoidable and avoidable, which can be measured using lost time and…

  11. Sickness absence and return to work rates in women with breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, Corne A. M.; Koopmans, Petra C.; de Graaf, Jan H.; Balak, Fulya; Groothoff, Johan W.

    Most women are diagnosed with breast cancer when they are of working age. How long are breast cancer patients absent? How many of them return to work? ArboNed Occupational Health Services documents sickness absence data of 1 million workers of whom 40% were women. Between 2001 and 2005, 2,259 women

  12. Human schistosomiasis in Puerto Rico: reduced prevalence rate and absence of Biomphalaria glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giboda, M; Malek, E A; Correa, R

    1997-11-01

    A combined epidemiologic and malacologic survey of schistosomiasis in Puerto Rico was carried out in areas where previous surveys had reported the prevalence of the disease. This limited survey, with 495 persons examined, found a low prevalence (0.6%) of Schistosoma mansoni infections. The infections were restricted to three people more than 36 years of age. No infections were detected in children 16 years of age or less, and this cohort comprised 57.8% of the study group. Malacologic surveys of the four streams, 10 rivers, and eight lakes throughout the island revealed the absence of intermediate host Biomphalaria glabrata and the presence of Thiara granifera, a competitive species of B. glabrata and the predatory snail Marisa cornuarietis. We believe that the absence of B. glabrata is the primary reason for the sustained reduction in the prevalence of schistosomiasis in Puerto Rico.

  13. Estimating diversification rates for higher taxa: BAMM can give problematic estimates of rates and rate shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Andreas L S; Wiens, John J

    2018-01-01

    Estimates of diversification rates are invaluable for many macroevolutionary studies. Recently, an approach called BAMM (Bayesian Analysis of Macro-evolutionary Mixtures) has become widely used for estimating diversification rates and rate shifts. At the same time, several articles have concluded that estimates of net diversification rates from the method-of-moments (MS) estimators are inaccurate. Yet, no studies have compared the ability of these two methods to accurately estimate clade diversification rates. Here, we use simulations to compare their performance. We found that BAMM yielded relatively weak relationships between true and estimated diversification rates. This occurred because BAMM underestimated the number of rates shifts across each tree, and assigned high rates to small clades with low rates. Errors in both speciation and extinction rates contributed to these errors, showing that using BAMM to estimate only speciation rates is also problematic. In contrast, the MS estimators (particularly using stem group ages), yielded stronger relationships between true and estimated diversification rates, by roughly twofold. Furthermore, the MS approach remained relatively accurate when diversification rates were heterogeneous within clades, despite the widespread assumption that it requires constant rates within clades. Overall, we caution that BAMM may be problematic for estimating diversification rates and rate shifts. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  14. Atypical central pain processing in sensory modulation disorder: absence of temporal summation and higher after-sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Shalita, T; Vatine, J-J; Yarnitsky, D; Parush, S; Weissman-Fogel, I

    2014-02-01

    Sensory over-responsivity (SOR), a subtype of the proposed sensory modulation disorder (SMD), is characterized by over-responsiveness to stimuli in several sensory modalities. SMD individuals demonstrate abnormal responses to naturally occurring stimuli in a manner that interferes with daily life participation. Previous psychophysical testing of the somatosensory system revealed that SOR individuals rated pain sensations higher than controls, demonstrating hyperalgesia that can be centrally mediated. Temporal summation (TS) of second pain and after-sensation are manifestations of central sensitization; therefore, this study explored these measures for better characterization of central pain processing in SOR. Twelve SOR adults and 12 healthy controls participated. TS was produced by a train of fifteen repetitive heat pulses, 0.7 s duration each, and 2 s of inter-stimulus interval, applied to the thenar-eminence, while four pain ratings were obtained. An after-sensation was then measured for 5 min, obtaining six pain ratings. No TS of pain was indicated in the SOR group (SOR: p = 0.36; control: p sensation, individuals with SOR continued to report pain for the duration of the 5 min measured (p = 0.002). These results demonstrate an atypical response pattern, suggesting alteration in pain processing and/or modulation at a central level in individuals with SOR. These possible neural changes may manifest themselves as interference with daily functioning as well as shed light on some of the between-subject variability seen in psychophysical testing in non-painful subjects.

  15. Higher rates of sex evolve in spatially heterogeneous environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becks, Lutz; Agrawal, Aneil F

    2010-11-04

    The evolution and maintenance of sexual reproduction has puzzled biologists for decades. Although this field is rich in hypotheses, experimental evidence is scarce. Some important experiments have demonstrated differences in evolutionary rates between sexual and asexual populations; other experiments have documented evolutionary changes in phenomena related to genetic mixing, such as recombination and selfing. However, direct experiments of the evolution of sex within populations are extremely rare (but see ref. 12). Here we use the rotifer, Brachionus calyciflorus, which is capable of both sexual and asexual reproduction, to test recent theory predicting that there is more opportunity for sex to evolve in spatially heterogeneous environments. Replicated experimental populations of rotifers were maintained in homogeneous environments, composed of either high- or low-quality food habitats, or in heterogeneous environments that consisted of a mix of the two habitats. For populations maintained in either type of homogeneous environment, the rate of sex evolves rapidly towards zero. In contrast, higher rates of sex evolve in populations experiencing spatially heterogeneous environments. The data indicate that the higher level of sex observed under heterogeneity is not due to sex being less costly or selection against sex being less efficient; rather sex is sufficiently advantageous in heterogeneous environments to overwhelm its inherent costs. Counter to some alternative theories for the evolution of sex, there is no evidence that genetic drift plays any part in the evolution of sex in these populations.

  16. Community rating in the absence of risk equalisation: lessons from the Irish private health insurance market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Brian; Shinnick, Edward

    2013-04-01

    Ireland's private health insurance market operates on the basis of community rating, alongside open enrolment and lifetime cover. A risk equalisation scheme was introduced in 2003 to bolster community rating. However, in July 2008 the Irish Supreme Court set aside this scheme, on the basis of the interpretation of community rating in Irish legislation. This decision has significant implications for the Irish private health insurance market. This paper reviews the development of the market, focusing in particular on community rating. The breakdown of community rating in a market with multiple insurers with differing risk profiles is discussed. Applying this to the Irish market, it can be seen that the Irish Supreme Court judgment has significant implications for the application of community rating. Specifically, while community rating operates within plans, it no longer operates across the market, leading to high-risk lives paying more, on average, than low-risk lives. It has also led to greater opportunities for insurers to engage in market segmentation. This may have relevance for the design and operation of other community rated markets.

  17. A higher chest compression rate may be necessary for metronome-guided cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Tae Nyoung; Kim, Sun Wook; You, Je Sung; Cho, Young Soon; Chung, Sung Phil; Park, Incheol

    2012-01-01

    Metronome guidance is a simple and economical feedback system for guiding cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). However, a recent study showed that metronome guidance reduced the depth of chest compression. The results of previous studies suggest that a higher chest compression rate is associated with a better CPR outcome as compared with a lower chest compression rate, irrespective of metronome use. Based on this finding, we hypothesized that a lower chest compression rate promotes a reduction in chest compression depth in the recent study rather than metronome use itself. One minute of chest compression-only CPR was performed following the metronome sound played at 1 of 4 different rates: 80, 100, 120, and 140 ticks/min. Average compression depths (ACDs) and duty cycles were compared using repeated measures analysis of variance, and the values in the absence and presence of metronome guidance were compared. Both the ACD and duty cycle increased when the metronome rate increased (P = .017, metronome rates of 80 and 100 ticks/min were significantly lower than those for the procedures without metronome guidance. The ACD and duty cyle for chest compression increase as the metronome rate increases during metronome-guided CPR. A higher rate of chest compression is necessary for metronome-guided CPR to prevent suboptimal quality of chest compression. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Enabling Higher Data Rates for Planetary Science Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, L. J.; Townes, S. A.; Lazio, J.; Bell, D. J.; Chahat, N. E.; Kovalik, J. M.; Kuperman, I.; Sauder, J.; Liebrecht, P. E.

    2017-12-01

    The data rate from deep space spacecraft has increased by more than 10 orders of magnitude since the first lunar missions in the 1960s. The demand for increased data rates has stemmed from the increasing sophistication of the science questions being addressed and the concomitant increase in the complexity of the missions themselves (from fly-by to orbit to land and rove). Projections for the next few decades suggest the demand for data rates for deep space missions will continue to increase by approximately one order of magnitude every decade, driven by these same factors. Achieving higher data rates requires a partnership between the spacecraft and the ground system. We describe a series of technology developments for flight telecommunications systems, both at radio frequency (RF) and optical, to enable spacecraft to transmit and receive larger data volumes. These technology developments include deployable high gain antennas for small spacecraft, re-programmable software-defined radios, and optical communication packages designed for CubeSat form factors. The intent is that these developments would provide enhancements in capability for both spacecraft-Earth and spacecraft-spacecraft telecommunications. We also describe the future planning for NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN), which remains the prime conduit for data from all planetary science missions. Through a combination of new antennas and backends being installed over the next five years and incorporation of optical communications, the DSN aims to ensure that the historical improvements in data rates and volumes will continue for many decades. Part of this research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  19. Why do younger women have higher breast cancer recurrence rates after breast-conserving surgery?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Reiki; Matsuda, Masakazu; Miyayama, Haruhiko; Okazaki, Shinji; Kai, Chiharu; Ozaki, N.

    2003-01-01

    Preventing breast cancer recurrence after breast-conserving surgery is an important issue. The main factors contributing to such recurrence are positive margins, absence of radiotherapy and young age. To investigate the clinical significance of age in breast-conserving surgery, we examined the relationship between clinicopathological findings or outcome and age, especially young age. The cases were divided into three groups by age; 35 years old or less, 36-50y.o. and 51y.o. or higher. Between April 1989 and March 2003, 743 patients were treated with breast-conserving surgery. There were 49 patients aged 35 years old or less (6.6%). Younger age significantly correlated with positive surgical margin, lymph node metastases, higher proliferative activity, negative estrogen receptor (ER) or progesterone receptor (PgR), larger tumor size, and shorter nipple-tumor distances. Although younger patients had a higher recurrence rate irrespective of radiotherapy, margin status had an impact on recurrence rate. Thus, the reason young age was a significant factor for breast recurrence after breast-conserving surgery was that young patients frequently had numerous risk factors such as positive margin, higher proliferative activity, positive nodes, negative ER/PgR and larger tumor. However, negative surgical margins could reduce recurrence rates even in young women. These results suggest that more suitable criteria and strategies may be needed for young patients with breast cancer. (author)

  20. Social motivation in prospective memory: higher importance ratings and reported performance rates for social tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penningroth, Suzanna L; Scott, Walter D; Freuen, Margaret

    2011-03-01

    Few studies have addressed social motivation in prospective memory (PM). In a pilot study and two main studies, we examined whether social PM tasks possess a motivational advantage over nonsocial PM tasks. In the pilot study and Study 1, participants listed their real-life important and less important PM tasks. Independent raters categorized the PM tasks as social or nonsocial. Results from both studies showed a higher proportion of tasks rated as social when important tasks were requested than when less important tasks were requested. In Study 1, participants also reported whether they had remembered to perform each PM task. Reported performance rates were higher for tasks rated as social than for those rated as nonsocial. Finally, in Study 2, participants rated the importance of two hypothetical PM tasks, one social and one nonsocial. The social PM task was rated higher in importance. Overall, these findings suggest that social PM tasks are viewed as more important than nonsocial PM tasks and they are more likely to be performed. We propose that consideration of the social relevance of PM will lead to a more complete and ecologically valid theoretical description of PM performance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Precision measurement of the 7Be solar neutrino rate and absence of day-night asymmetry in Borexino

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davini, S.

    2011-01-01

    Borexino, in data taking since May 2007, is the only experiment capable to perform the measurement of low-energy solar-ν. Borexino has performed the first direct measurement of the 7 Be solar-ν rate with accuracy better than 5%. The absence of day-night asymmetry of the 7 Be solar-ν rate was measured with a total uncertainty of 1%. Borexino results alone reject the Low Δm 2 (LOW) region of solar-ν oscillation parameters at more than 8.5 σ CL. Combined with the other solar-ν data, Borexino measurements isolate the Large Mixing Angle (LMA)- Mikheyev Smirnov Wolfenstein (MSW) solution of neutrino oscillations without assuming CPT invariance in the neutrino sector.

  2. Graduation Rates and the Higher Education Demographic Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunsaker, B. Tom; Thomas, Douglas E.

    2013-01-01

    In his 1918 orienting work, The Higher Learning in America, Veblen highlights two primary aims of the higher education institution: (a) scientific and scholarly inquiry, and (b) the instruction of students (Veblen, 1918). As of 2006, this overarching mission remained intact. In contemporary literature, a common measure of the efficacy of the…

  3. Social support at work and leisure time and its association with self-rated health and sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkenberg, A; Nyfjäll, M; Hellgren, C; Vingård, E

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study is to investigate how different aspects of social support at work and in leisure time are associated with self rated health and sickness absence. The 541 participants in the study were representative for a working population in the public sector in Sweden with a majority being woman. Most of the variables were created from data from a questionnaire in March-April 2005. There were four independent variables and two dependent variables. The dependent were based on data from November 2006. A logistic regression model was used for the analysis of associations. A separate model was adapted for each of the explanatory variables for each outcome, which gave five models per independent variable. The study has given a greater awareness of the importance of employees receiving social support, regardless of type of support or from whom the support is coming. Social support has a strong association with SRH in a longitudinal perspective and no association between social support and sickness absence.

  4. ESTIMATING RETURN RATE OF HIGHER EDUCATION FUND IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semenikhina V. A.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the Russian government pays great attention to the field of higher and postgraduate education. But in the Russian scientific literature there are gaps related to the effectiveness of the overall evaluation of the higher education sector. The article dwells upon the problem of interregional income spread of the Russian population. Empirical estimator of difference influence accounting for human capital accumulated in Russian regions on wage levels and maximum increase of total wage levels and population income for 2001-2011 is carried out. Higher education, exceeding the influence of accumulated volume of the main funds, has a great influence on income spread in Russian regions. Besides, increase of higher education fund in Russian regions contributes to the population’s wage increase and growth in income, but at the same time it decreases legal wages. Results of the study extend knowledge of the economics of education of the Russian Federation.

  5. Emotional Competence and Drop-Out Rates in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, Emma

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to compare the emotional competence of first year undergraduates enrolled on a high or low drop-out rate (HDR and LDR, respectively) course, at a newly established university within the UK. Design/methodology/approach: A mixed methods approach using both quantitative and qualitative data collection methods was…

  6. Absence of higher derivatives in the renormalization of propagators in quantum field theories with infinitely many couplings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anselmi, Damiano

    2003-01-01

    I study some aspects of the renormalization of quantum field theories with infinitely many couplings in arbitrary spacetime dimensions. I prove that when the spacetime manifold admits a metric of constant curvature, the propagator is not affected by terms with higher derivatives. More generally, certain Lagrangian terms are not turned on by renormalization, if they are absent at the tree level. This restricts the form of the action of a non-renormalizable theory, and has applications to quantum gravity. The new action contains infinitely many couplings, but not all of the ones that might have been expected. In quantum gravity, the metric of constant curvature is an extremal, but not a minimum, of the complete action. Nonetheless, it appears to be the right perturbative vacuum, at least when the curvature is negative, suggesting that the quantum vacuum has a negative asymptotically constant curvature. The results of this paper give also a set of rules for a more economical use of effective quantum field theories and suggest that it might be possible to give mathematical sense to theories with infinitely many couplings at high energies, to search for physical predictions

  7. Student Ratings of Instruction in Turkish Higher Education

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    Nehir Sert

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The end-of-term student evaluations have a twofold purpose: to provide information for administrators to make personnel decisions, and to help instructors to improve the quality of their teaching. The aim of this study is to investigate the ‘utility’ of the Student Ratings of Instruction (SRI. To that end, the concerns of the administrators, instructors and students regarding the use of the SRI in formative and summative evaluations are questioned. This study also investigates possible variables associated with the SRI: 1 what are the differences in ratings among the below-average, average and the above-average students? and 2 what is the correlation between the students’ grades and ratings? The participants of the study consisted of 5 administrators, 17 instructors and 292 students from the faculty of education of a foundation university in Ankara. A triangulation of quantitative and qualitative methods was adopted. In the first phase, causal comparative and correlation research methods were implemented. In the second phase, qualitative data were collected through semi-structured interviews. The results revealed that there was no significant difference in the SRI among the below-average, average and above-average students. The correlation between the student grades and the SRI was significant at a low level. The SRI were reportedly utilised to make teaching more effective and to make decisions when employing part-time personnel only. The permanent personnel were not affected by the SRI. Suggestions have been put forward to verify the usefulness of SRI.

  8. Work Absence in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Leo Bonato; Lusine Lusinyan

    2004-01-01

    Work absence is a part of an individual's decision concerning hours worked. This paper focuses on sickness absence in Europe and builds on an analytical framework in which absence enters both labor supply and demand considerations, with sickness insurance provisions and labor market institutions affecting the costs of absence. The results from a panel of 18 European countries indicate that absence is higher under generous insurance systems and where employers bear little responsibility for th...

  9. Expensive Brains: “Brainy” Rodents have Higher Metabolic Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrero, Raúl; May-Collado, Laura J.; Agnarsson, Ingi; Hernández, Cristián E.

    2011-01-01

    Brains are the centers of the nervous system of animals, controlling the organ systems of the body and coordinating responses to changes in the ecological and social environment. The evolution of traits that correlate with cognitive ability, such as relative brain size is thus of broad interest. Brain mass relative to body mass (BM) varies among mammals, and diverse factors have been proposed to explain this variation. A recent study provided evidence that energetics play an important role in brain evolution (Isler and van Schaik, 2006). Using composite phylogenies and data drawn from multiple sources, these authors showed that basal metabolic rate (BMR) correlates with brain mass across mammals. However, no such relationship was found within rodents. Here we re-examined the relationship between BMR and brain mass within Rodentia using a novel species-level phylogeny. Our results are sensitive to parameter evaluation; in particular how species mass is estimated. We detect no pattern when applying an approach used by previous studies, where each species BM is represented by two different numbers, one being the individual that happened to be used for BMR estimates of that species. However, this approach may compromise the analysis. When using a single value of BM for each species, whether representing a single individual, or available species mean, our findings provide evidence that brain mass (independent of BM) and BMR are correlated. These findings are thus consistent with the hypothesis that large brains evolve when the payoff for increased brain mass is greater than the energetic cost they incur. PMID:21811456

  10. Invasive acacias experience higher ant seed removal rates at the invasion edges

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    D. Montesinos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Seed dispersal is a key process for the invasion of new areas by exotic species. Introduced plants often take advantage of native generalist dispersers. Australian acacias are primarily dispersed by ants in their native range and produce seeds bearing a protein and lipid rich reward for ant mutualists (elaiosome. Nevertheless, the role of myrmecochory in the expansion of Australian acacias in European invaded areas is still not clear. We selected one European population of Acacia dealbata and another of A. longifolia and offered elaiosome-bearing and elaiosome-removed seeds to local ant communities. For each species, seeds were offered both in high-density acacia stands and in low-density invasion edges. For both acacia species, seed removal was significantly higher at the low-density edges. For A. longifolia, manual elimination of elaiosomes reduced the chance of seed removal by 80% in the low-density edges, whereas it made no difference on the high-density stands. For A. dealbata, the absence of elaiosome reduced seed removal rate by 52%, independently of the acacia density. Our data suggests that invasive acacias have found effective ant seed dispersers in Europe and that the importance of such dispersers is higher at the invasion edges.

  11. Absence seizure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seizure - petit mal; Seizure - absence; Petit mal seizure; Epilepsy - absence seizure ... Elsevier; 2016:chap 101. Marcdante KJ, Kliegman RM. Seizures (paroxysmal disorders). In: Marcdante KJ, Kliegman RM, eds. Nelson Essentials ...

  12. Rate of alignment and communication using quantum systems in the absence of a shared frame of reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skotiniotis, Michael

    Quantum information theory is concerned with the storage, transmission, and manipulation of information that is represented in the degrees of freedom of quantum systems. These degrees of freedom are described relative to an external frame of reference. The lack of a requisite frame of reference imposes restrictions on the types of states quantum systems can be prepared in and the type of operations that can be performed on quantum systems. This thesis is concerned with the communication between two parties that lack a shared frame of reference. Specifically, I introduce a protocol whereby the parties can align their respective frames of reference, and a protocol for communicating quantum information in a reference frame independent manner. Using the accessible information to quantify the success of a reference frame alignment protocol I propose a new measure—the alignment rate—for quantifying the ability of a quantum state to stand in place of a classical frame of reference. I show that for the case where Alice and Bob lack a shared frame of reference associated with the groups G = U(1) and G = ZM (the finite cyclic group of M elements), the alignment rate is equal to the regularized, linearized G-asymmetry. The latter is a unique measure of the frameness of a quantum state and my result provides an operational interpretation of the G-asymmetry that was thus far lacking. In addition, I show that the alignment rate for finite cyclic groups of more than three elements is super-additive under the tensor product of two distinct pure quantum states. The latter is, to my knowledge, the first instance of a regularized quantity that exhibits super-additivity. In addition, I propose a reference-frame-independent protocol for communicating quantum information in the absence of a shared frame of reference associated with a general finite group G. The protocol transmits m logical qudits using r + m physical qudits prepared in a specific state that is reference

  13. Work Absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amilon, Anna; Wallette, Mårten

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates whether low levels of absence increase the probability of permanent employment and reduce that of unemployment for Swedish temporary workers. We investigate two reasons for absence: worker sickness and sickness of a dependent child. Using a competing risk estimation model,...

  14. Absence of bias in clinician ratings of everyday functioning among African American, Hispanic and Caucasian patients with schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Sabbag, Samir; Prestia, Davide; Robertson, Belinda; Ruiz, Pedro; Durand, Dante; Strassnig, Martin; Harvey, Philip D.

    2015-01-01

    A substantial research literature implicates potential racial/ethnic bias in the diagnosis of schizophrenia and in clinical ratings of psychosis. There is no similar information regarding bias effects on ratings of everyday functioning. Our aims were to determine if Caucasian raters vary in their ratings of the everyday functioning of schizophrenia patients of different ethnicities, to find out which factors determine accurate self-report of everyday functioning in different ethnic groups, an...

  15. Father Absence, Social Networks, and Maternal Ratings of Child Health: Evidence from the 2013 Social Networks and Health Information Survey in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelblute, Heather B; Altman, Claire E

    2018-04-01

    Objectives To bridge the literature on the effect of father absence, international migration, and social networks on child health, we assess the association between father absence and maternal ratings of child poor health (MCPH). Next we test whether social networks of immediate and extended kin mediate the relationship between fathers' absence and MCPH. Methods Nested logistic regression models predicting MCPH are estimated using the 2013 Social Networks and Health Information Survey, collected in a migrant-sending community in Guanajuato, Mexico. These unique data distinguish among father absence due to migration versus other reasons and between immediate and extended kin ties. Results Descriptive results indicate that 25% of children with migrant fathers are assessed as having poor health, more often than children with present (15.5%) or otherwise absent fathers (17.5%). In the multivariate models, fathers' absence is not predictive of MCPH. However, the presence of extended kin ties for the mother was associated with approximately a 50% reduction in the odds of MCPH. Additionally, mother's poor self-assessed health was associated with increased odds of MCPH while the presence of a co-resident adult lowered the odds of MCPH. In sensitivity analysis among children with migrant fathers, the receipt of paternal remittances lowered the odds of MCPH. Conclusions for Practice Social networks have a direct and positive association with MCPH rather than mediating the father absence-MCPH relationship. The presence of extended kin ties in the local community is salient for more favorable child health and should be considered in public health interventions aimed at improving child health.

  16. Analyses of Sickness Absence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijnen, S.M.M.

    2014-01-01

    Sickness absence is an empirical phenomenon of all time. Generally, it has a medical cause. However, other factors also appear to have an impact on the actual rate of sickness absence, such as the institutional setting, the business cycle and the economic structure. Many questions on the different

  17. The Absence of Fever Is Associated With Higher Mortality and Decreased Antibiotic and IV Fluid Administration in Emergency Department Patients With Suspected Septic Shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Daniel J; Carey, Jeremy R; Oedorf, Kimie; Day, Danielle E; Redfield, Colby S; Huguenel, Colin J; Roberts, Jonathan C; Sanchez, Leon D; Wolfe, Richard E; Shapiro, Nathan I

    2017-06-01

    This study evaluates whether emergency department septic shock patients without a fever (reported or measured) receive less IV fluids, have decreased antibiotic administration, and suffer increased in-hospital mortality. This was a secondary analysis of a prospective, observational study of patients with shock. The study was conducted in an urban, academic emergency department. The original study enrolled consecutive adult (aged 18 yr or older) emergency department patients from November 11, 2012, to September 23, 2013, who met one of the following shock criteria: 1) systolic blood pressure less than 90 mm Hg after at least 1L IV fluids, 2) new vasopressor requirement, or 3) systolic blood pressure less than 90 mm Hg and IV fluids held for concern of fluid overload. The current study is limited to patients with septic shock. Patients were grouped as febrile if they had a subjective fever or a measured temperature >100.4°F documented in the emergency department; afebrile patients lacked both. Among 378 patients with septic shock, 207 of 378 (55%; 50-60%) were febrile by history or measurement. Afebrile patients had lower rates of antibiotic administration in the emergency department (81% vs 94%; p < 0.01), lower mean volumes of IV fluids (2,607 vs 3,013 mL; p < 0.01), and higher in-hospital mortality rates (33% vs 11%; p < 0.01). After adjusting for bicarbonate less than 20 mEq/L, lactate concentration, respiratory rate greater than or equal to 24 breaths/min, emergency department antibiotics, and emergency department IV fluids volume, being afebrile remained a significant predictor of in-hospital mortality (odds ratio, 4.3; 95% CI, 2.2-8.2; area under the curve = 0.83). In emergency department patients with septic shock, afebrile patients received lower rates of emergency department antibiotic administration, lower mean IV fluids volume, and suffered higher in-hospital mortality.

  18. Risk-factors for stress-related absence among health care employees: a bio-psychosocial perspective. Associations between self-rated health, working conditions and biological stress hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Sophie Hansson

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Stress is a major cause of sickness absence and the health care sector appears to be especially at risk. This cross sectional study aimed to identify the risk factors for absence due to self-reported stress among health care employees. Methods: 225 health care employees were categorized into two groups based on presence or not of self-rated sickness absence for stress. Questionnaire data and stress sensitive hormones measurements were used.

    Results: Employees with stress related sick leave experienced worse health, poorer work satisfaction as well as worse social and home situations than those employees without stress-related sick leave. No-significant differences were identified regarding stress-sensitive hormones. The risk for employees, not satisfied at work, of becoming absent due to stress was approximately three fold compared to those who reported being satisfied (OR 2.8, 95% confidence interval; (CI 1.3 - 5.9. For those not satisfied with their social situation, the risk for sickness absence appeared to be somewhat higher (OR 3.2; CI 1.2 - 8.6. Individual factors such as recovery potential and meaning of life as well as work related factors such as skill development and work tempo predicted employee’ s work satisfaction.

    Conclusions: Based on cross sectional data, work-site and individual factors as well as social situations appear to increase the risk for absence due to stress among health care employees. Lower recovery potential, higher work tempo and poor leadership appeared to be related to the high degree of work related exhaustion experienced by employees.

  19. Self-rated health as a predictor of return to work among employees on long-term sickness absence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, M; Krol, B; Groothoff, JW

    Aims. The aim of the present study is to identify self-rated health predictors of return to work ( RTW) within the study population as a whole as well as in three subgroups, namely musculoskeletal complaints, other physical health complaints, and psychological complaints. Methods. The study was

  20. United States private schools have higher rates of exemptions to school immunization requirements than public schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Jana; Tserenpuntsag, Boldtsetseg; McNutt, Louise-Anne; Halsey, Neal

    2014-07-01

    To compare medical, religious, and personal belief immunization exemption rates between private and public schools in US. Exemption rates were calculated using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention School Immunization Assessment Surveys for the 2009-2010 school year excluding states with incomplete survey data. Standardized exemption rates weighted on enrollments in public and private schools were calculated. Differences in exemption rates between public and private schools were tested using Wilcoxon signed rank test. The overall state exemption rate was higher in US private than public schools, 4.25% (SD 4.27) vs 1.91% (1.67), P = .0001 and private schools had higher exemption rates for all types of exemptions; medical 0.58% (0.71) vs 0.34% (0.34) respectively (P = .0004), religious 2.09% (3.14) vs 0.83% (1.05) respectively (P = .0001), and personal belief 6.10% (4.12) vs 2.79% (1.57), respectively (P = .006). Overall exemption rates were significantly higher in states that allowed personal belief exemptions. Exemption rates were significantly higher in US private than in public schools. Children attending private schools may be at higher risk of vaccine-preventable diseases than public school children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [Effect of high magnesium ion concentration on the electron transport rate and proton exchange in thylakoid membranes in higher plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignat'ev, A R; Khorobrykh, S A; Ivanov, B N

    2001-01-01

    The effects of magnesium ion concentration on the rate of electron transport in isolated pea thylakoids were investigated in the pH range from 4.0 up to 8.0. In the absence of magnesium ions in the medium and in the presence of 5 mM MgCl2 in the experiments not only without added artificial acceptors but also with ferricyanide or methylviologen as an acceptor, this rate had a well-expressed maximum at pH 5.0. It was shown that, after depression to minimal values at pH 5.5-6.5, it gradually rose with increasing pH. An increase in magnesium ion concentration up to 20 mM essentially affected the electron transfer rate: it decreased somewhat at pH 4.0-5.0 but increased at higher pH values. At this magnesium ion concentration, the maximum rate was at pH 6.0-6.5 and the minimum, at pH 7.0. Subsequent rise upon increasing pH to 8.0 was expressed more sharply. The influence of high magnesium ion concentration on the rate of electron transport was not observed in the presence of gramicidin D. It was found that without uncoupler, the changes in the electron transfer rate under the influence of magnesium ions correlated to the changes in the first-order rate constant of the proton efflux from thylakoids. It is supposed that the change in the ability of thylakoids to keep protons by the action of magnesium ions is the result of electrostatic interactions of these ions with the charges on the external surface of membranes. A possible role of regulation of the electron transport rate by magnesium ions in vivo is discussed.

  2. Overcoming Absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Camilla Skovbjerg

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter, I address the rhetoric of modern love correspondence – its various purposes, modes of communication, and meta-reflections on writing and media – from the beginning of the 20th century till today. I analyze how love and the beloved are mediated in the articulated desire and longing...... of love letters, and how love letters are used as a medium to overcome absence. I also reflect on the material status of love letters in relation to the technological development and subsequently the replacement of traditional letters by their digital counterparts such as email, text messages and real...

  3. Impact of seeding rate, seeding date, rate and method of phosphorus application in faba bean (Vicia faba L. minor in the absence of moisture stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turk M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments were conducted during the winter seasons of 1998-1999, 1999-2000 and 2000-2001 at the semi-arid region in north of Jordan, to study the effect of seeding dates (14 January, 28 January and 12 February, seeding rates (50, 75 and 100 plants per metre, phosphorus levels (0, 17.5, 35.0 and 52.5 kg P per ha and two methods of P placement (banding and broadcast. Seeding rate, seeding date, and rate of phosphorus had a significant effect on most of the measured traits and the yield determinates. Method of phosphorus application had only a significant effect on seed yield and seed weight per plant. In general high yields were obtained by early seeding (14 January, high seeding rate (100-plant per square metre, and P application (52.5 kg P per ha drilled with the seed after cultivation (banded.

  4. A Comparison of Mortality Rates in a Large Population of Smokers and Non-smokers: based on the Presence or Absence of Coronary Artery Calcification

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, John W; Blaha, Michael J; Rivera, Juan J; Budoff, Matthew J; Khan, Atif N; Shaw, Leslee J; Berman, Daniel S; Raggi, Paolo; Min, James K; Rumberger, John A; Callister, Tracy Q; Blumenthal, Roger S.; Nasir, Khurram

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To further study the interplay between smoking status, Coronary Artery Calcium (CAC) and all-cause mortality. Background Prior studies have not directly compared the relative prognostic impact of CAC in smokers versus non-smokers. In particular, while zero CAC is a known favorable prognostic-marker, whether smokers without CAC have as good a prognosis as non-smokers without CAC is unknown. Given computed tomography (CT) screening for lung cancer appears effective in smokers, the relative prognostic implications of visualizing any CAC versus no CAC on such screening also deserve study. Methods Our study cohort consisted of 44,042 asymptomatic individuals referred for non-contrast cardiac CT (age 54±11 years, 54% males). Subjects were followed for a mean of 5.6 years. The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality. Results Approximately 14% (n=6020) of subjects were active smokers at enrollment. There were 901 deaths (2.05%) overall, with increased mortality in smokers vs. non-smokers (4.3% vs. 1.7%, p400). In multivariable analysis within these strata, we found mortality hazard ratios (HRs) of 3.8 (95% CI, 2.8-5.2), 3.5 (2.6-4.9), and 2.7 (2.1-3.5), respectively, in smokers compared to nonsmokers. At each stratum of elevated CAC score, mortality in smokers was consistently higher than mortality in non-smokers from the CAC stratum above. However, among the 19,898 individuals with CAC=0, the mortality HR for smokers without CAC was 3.6 (95% CI, 2.3-5.7), compared to non-smokers without CAC. Conclusion Smoking is a risk factor for death across the entire spectrum of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis. Smokers with any coronary calcification are at significantly increased future mortality risk than smokers without CAC. However, the absence of CAC may not be as useful a “negative risk factor” in active smokers; as this group has mortality rates similar to non-smokers with mild to moderate atherosclerosis. PMID:23058072

  5. Self-rated coping styles and registered sickness absence among nurses working in hospital care : A prospective 1-year cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, J. A. H.; Plat, N.; Mageroy, N.; Moen, B. E.; van der Klink, J. J. L.; Groothoff, J. W.; Roelen, C. A. M.

    Background: Sickness absence is an important problem in healthcare that affects the quality of care. Sickness absence has been related to coping strategies. Problem-focused coping was shown to be associated with low sickness absence and emotion-focused coping with high sickness absence among postal

  6. Vastus Lateralis Motor Unit Firing Rate Is Higher in Women With Patellofemoral Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallina, Alessio; Hunt, Michael A; Hodges, Paul W; Garland, S Jayne

    2018-05-01

    To compare neural drive, determined from motor unit firing rate, in the vastus medialis and lateralis in women with and without patellofemoral pain. Cross-sectional study. University research laboratory. Women (N=56) 19 to 35 years of age, including 36 with patellofemoral pain and 20 controls. Not applicable. Participants sustained an isometric knee extension contraction at 10% of their maximal voluntary effort for 70 seconds. Motor units (N=414) were identified using high-density surface electromyography. Average firing rate was calculated between 5 and 35 seconds after recruitment for each motor unit. Initial firing rate was the inverse of the first 3 motor unit interspike intervals. In control participants, vastus medialis motor units discharged at higher rates than vastus lateralis motor units (P=.001). This was not observed in women with patellofemoral pain (P=.78) because of a higher discharge rate of vastus lateralis compared with control participants (P=.002). No between-group differences were observed for vastus medialis (P=.93). Similar results were obtained for the initial motor unit firing rate. These findings suggest that women with patellofemoral pain have a higher neural drive to vastus lateralis but not vastus medialis, which may be a contributor of the altered patellar kinematics observed in some studies. The different neural drive may be an adaptation to patellofemoral pain, possibly to compensate for decreased quadriceps force production, or a precursor of patellofemoral pain. Copyright © 2018 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Does the Economic Crisis Have an Influence on the Higher Education Dropout Rate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leão Fernandes, Graça; Chagas Lopes, Margarida

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to identify the effects of the economic crisis on higher education (HE) dropout rates at Lisbon School of Economics and Management (ISEG)--Universidade de Lisboa, after having controlled for individual characteristics, family background, High School and HE trajectories. Our main hypothesis is that the economic crisis induces…

  8. Will ageing lead to a higher real exchange rate for the Netherlands?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ewijk, C.; Volkerink, M.

    2012-01-01

    Long term projections for the Netherlands indicate that demand for nontradables—e.g. health care services—will increase relative to supply due to population ageing. If this leads to higher future real exchanges rates this will erode the return of the savings currently made to prepare for ageing.

  9. Will ageing lead to a higher real exchange rate for the Netherlands?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ewijk, C.; Volkerink, M.

    2011-01-01

    Long-term projections for the Netherlands indicate that demand for nontradables - e.g. health care services - will increase relative to supply due to population ageing. If this leads to higher future real exchanges rates this will erode the return of the savings currently made to prepare for ageing.

  10. Calm Merino ewes have a higher ovulation rate and more multiple pregnancies than nervous ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lier, E; Hart, K W; Viñoles, C; Paganoni, B; Blache, D

    2017-07-01

    In 1990, two selection lines of Merino sheep were established for low and high behavioural reactivity (calm and nervous temperament) at the University of Western Australia. Breeding records consistently showed that calm ewes weaned 10% to 19% more lambs than the nervous ewes. We hypothesise that calm ewes could have a higher ovulation rate than nervous ewes and/or calm ewes could have a lower rate of embryo mortality than nervous ewes. We tested these hypotheses by comparing the ovulation rate and the rate of embryo mortality between the calm and nervous lines before and after synchronisation and artificial insemination. Merino ewes from the temperament selection lines (calm, n=100; nervous, n=100) were synchronised (early breeding season) for artificial insemination (day 0) (intravaginal sponges containing fluogestone acetate and eCG immediately after sponge withdrawal). On day-17 and 11 ovarian cyclicity and corpora lutea, and on days 30 and 74 pregnancies and embryos/foetuses were determined by ultrasound. Progesterone, insulin and leptin concentrations were determined in blood plasma samples from days 5, 12 and 17. Ovarian cyclicity before and after oestrus synchronisation did not differ between the lines, but ovulation rate did (day-17: calm 1.63; nervous 1.26; Pewes was higher than on day-17. Loss of embryos by day 30 was high (calm: 71/150; nervous: 68/130); but nervous ewes had a lower proportion (15/47) of multiple pregnancies compared with calm ewes (30/46; Pewes had higher insulin (32.0 pmol/l±1.17 SEM; P=0.013) and lower leptin (1.18 μg/l±0.04 SEM; P=0.002) concentrations than calm ewes (insulin: 27.8 pmol/l±1.17 SEM; leptin: 1.35 μg/l±0.04 SEM). The differences in reproductive outcomes between the calm and nervous ewes were mainly due to a higher ovulation rate in calm ewes. We suggest that reproduction in nervous ewes is compromised by factors leading up to ovulation and conception, or the uterine environment during early pregnancy, that reflect

  11. Bronchitis: sickness absence in London Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornwall, C J; Raffle, P A.B.

    1961-01-01

    Analysis of records of bronchitis morbidity of 4 days or more among 60,000 male London Transport employees for the years 1952 to 1956 is discussed. Bronchitis morbidity accounted for about 10% of the absences, similar to that for the country as a whole. Annual inception rate increased with age after age 45; average length of spell increased with age over the whole age range. Absence from bronchitis broadly correlated with foggy periods (Dec, 52; Jan, 56), more so with city workers. Higher rates exist in north sectors where pollution is higher (south wind), and there is more industry and a higher population density. Lower rates exist among country workers. 20 to 25% of bronchitis morbidity can be ascribed to air pollution when country and city workers are compared.

  12. Splenectomy is associated with higher infection and pneumonia rates among trauma laparotomy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fair, Kelly A; Connelly, Christopher R; Hart, Kyle D; Schreiber, Martin A; Watters, Jennifer M

    2017-05-01

    Splenectomy increases lifetime risk of thromboembolism (VTE) and is associated with long-term infectious complications, primarily, overwhelming post-splenectomy infection (OPSI). Our objective was to evaluate risk of VTE and infection at index hospitalization post-splenectomy. Retrospective review of all patients who received a laparotomy in the NTDB. Propensity score matching for splenectomy was performed, based on ISS, abdominal abbreviated injury score >3, GCS, sex and mechanism. Major complications, VTE, and infection rates were compared. Multiple logistic regression models were utilized to evaluate splenectomy-associated complications. 93,221 laparotomies were performed and 17% underwent splenectomy. Multiple logistic regression models did not demonstrate an association between splenectomy and major complications (OR 0.96, 95% CI 0.91-1.03, p = 0.25) or VTE (OR 1.05, 95% CI 0.96-1.14, p = 0.33). Splenectomy was independently associated with infection (OR 1.07, 95% CI 1.00-1.14, p = 0.045). Subgroup analysis of patients with infection demonstrated that splenectomy was most strongly associated with pneumonia (OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.26-1.57, p Splenectomy is not associated with higher overall complication or VTE rates during index hospitalization. However, splenectomy is associated with a higher rate of pneumonia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Sickness Absence: a Pan-European Study

    OpenAIRE

    Livanos, Ilias; Zangelidis, Alexandros

    2010-01-01

    This study, using the EU-LFS, examines the determinants of sickness absence in 26 EU countries. The analysis highlights the importance of demographic and workplace characteristics and of institutional and societal conditions. Female workers aged 26-35 exhibit higher absenteeism, possibly reflecting the level of high household labour pressure. Increased job insecurity, captured by temporary contracts, and labour market uncertainty, reflected in higher unemployment rates, have a negative effect...

  14. Lower serotonin level and higher rate of fibromyalgia syndrome with advancing pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atasever, Melahat; Namlı Kalem, Muberra; Sönmez, Çiğdem; Seval, Mehmet Murat; Yüce, Tuncay; Sahin Aker, Seda; Koç, Acar; Genc, Hakan

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the relationship between changes in serotonin levels during pregnancy and fibromyalgia syndrome (FS) and the relationships between FS and the physical/psychological state, biochemical and hormonal parameters, which may be related to the musculoskeletal system. This study is a prospective case-control study conducted with 277 pregnant women at the obstetric unit of Ankara University Faculty of Medicine, in the period between January and June 2015. FS was determined based on the presence or absence of the 2010 ACR diagnostic criteria and all the volunteers were asked to answer the questionnaires as Fibromyalgia Impact Criteria (FIQ), Widespread Pain Index (WPI), Symptom Severity Scale (SS), Beck Depression Inventory and Visual Analog Scale (VAS). Biochemical and hormonal markers (glucose, TSH, T4, Ca (calcium), P (phosphate), PTH (parathyroid hormone) and serotonin levels) relating to muscle and bone metabolism were measured. In the presence of fibromyalgia, the physical and psychological parameters are negatively affected (p serotonin levels may contribute to the development of fibromyalgia but this was not statistically significant. The Beck Depression Inventory scale statistically showed that increasing scores also increase the risk of fibromyalgia (p serotonin levels in women with FS are lower than the control group and that serotonin levels reduce as pregnancy progresses. Anxiety and depression in pregnant women with FS are higher than the control group. The presence of depression increases the likelihood of developing FS at a statistically significant level. Serotonin impairment also increases the chance of developing FS, but this correlation has not been shown to be statistically significant.

  15. With age a lower individual breathing reserve is associated with a higher maximal heart rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtscher, Martin; Gatterer, Hannes; Faulhaber, Martin; Burtscher, Johannes

    2018-01-01

    Maximal heart rate (HRmax) is linearly declining with increasing age. Regular exercise training is supposed to partly prevent this decline, whereas sex and habitual physical activity do not. High exercise capacity is associated with a high cardiac output (HR x stroke volume) and high ventilatory requirements. Due to the close cardiorespiratory coupling, we hypothesized that the individual ventilatory response to maximal exercise might be associated with the age-related HRmax. Retrospective analyses have been conducted on the results of 129 consecutively performed routine cardiopulmonary exercise tests. The study sample comprised healthy subjects of both sexes of a broad range of age (20-86 years). Maximal values of power output, minute ventilation, oxygen uptake and heart rate were assessed by the use of incremental cycle spiroergometry. Linear multivariate regression analysis revealed that in addition to age the individual breathing reserve at maximal exercise was independently predictive for HRmax. A lower breathing reserve due to a high ventilatory demand and/or a low ventilatory capacity, which is more pronounced at a higher age, was associated with higher HRmax. Age explained the observed variance in HRmax by 72% and was improved to 83% when the variable "breathing reserve" was entered. The presented findings indicate an independent association between the breathing reserve at maximal exercise and maximal heart rate, i.e. a low individual breathing reserve is associated with a higher age-related HRmax. A deeper understanding of this association has to be investigated in a more physiological scenario. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. New system for higher recovery rate of water borne Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Gad, Jens; Klinting, Mette

    2012-01-01

    Background: The two most common water borne pathogenic protozoa, Cryptosporidium and Giardia, cause diarrhea worldwide. Detecting these parasites in water samples depends on effective parasite recovery from the water matrix. The reported low recovery rates of the currently used filter methods...... motivate the development of systems with higher recovery rates. Materials and methods: Five replicates of IMS purified Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts (N=2x103) were injected into a specially coated filter unit with a carefully chosen pore size. Following filtration, sonication was performed...... were 85% were recorded when the filter was sonicated. Sonication usually affects parasite viability but could be tuned into a useful tool for enhanced backwash collection of parasites using a specially constructed filter unit and a sonication protocol. The filtration...

  17. Why the EU-15 Maintains Higher CIT Rates than the New Member States?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karpowicz Andrzej

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The European Union is not a homogenous area. This lack of homogeneity extends to taxes, which vary across jurisdictions. On average, Western Europe imposes significantly higher taxes on capital than New Member States, which joined the Community in 2004 and 2007. Often this fact is simply taken for granted. However, there are several arguments that can explain this variance. Although several of these arguments are well known and have been researched, they have not been assessed in combination, or used in a comparative analysis of corporate income tax (CIT rates between EU member states. Because of interest in harmonizing CIT throughout the EU, the roots of divergent CIT is of particular and timely value. Therefore, this article we attempts to demonstrate the differences in CIT rates in the EU-15 and New Member States. In so doing the general characteristics of these country grouping is identified, and then discussed in the context of the taxation theory.

  18. Higher order constraints on the Higgs production rate from fixed-target DIS data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekhin, S.; Bluemlein, J.; Moch, S.

    2011-01-01

    The constraints of fixed-target DIS data in fits of parton distributions including QCD corrections to next-to-next-to leading order are studied. We point out a potential problem in the analysis of the NMC data which can lead to inconsistencies in the extracted value for α s (M Z ) and the gluon distribution at higher orders in QCD. The implications for predictions of rates for Standard Model Higgs boson production at hadron colliders are investigated. We conclude that the current range of excluded Higgs boson masses at the Tevatron appears to be much too large. (orig.)

  19. Strain rate effects in nuclear steels at room and higher temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomos, G. E-mail: george.solomos@jrc.it; Albertini, C.; Labibes, K.; Pizzinato, V.; Viaccoz, B

    2004-04-01

    An investigation of strain rate, temperature and size effects in three nuclear steels has been conducted. The materials are: ferritic steel 20MnMoNi55 (vessel head), austenitic steel X6CrNiNb1810 (upper internal structure), and ferritic steel 26NiCrMo146 (bolting). Smooth cylindrical tensile specimens of three sizes have been tested at strain rates from 0.001 to 300 s{sup -1}, at room and elevated temperatures (400-600 deg. C). Full stress-strain diagrams have been obtained, and additional parameters have been calculated based on them. The results demonstrate a clear influence of temperature, which amounts into reducing substantially mechanical strengths with respect to RT conditions. The effect of strain rate is also shown. It is observed that at RT the strain rate effect causes up shifting of the flow stress curves, whereas at the higher temperatures a mild downshifting of the flow curves is manifested. Size effect tendencies have also been observed. Some implications when assessing the pressure vessel structural integrity under severe accident conditions are considered.

  20. Higher Growth Rate of Branch Duct Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasms Associates With Worrisome Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Jennifer M; Argiriadi, Pamela; Lee, Karen; Liu, Xiaoyu; Bagiella, Emilia; Lucas, Aimee L; Kim, Michelle Kang; Kumta, Nikhil A; Nagula, Satish; Sarpel, Umut; DiMaio, Christopher J

    2018-03-11

    or invasive cancers. BD-IPMNs that developed worrisome features were associated with a significantly higher rate of growth than lesions with low-risk features. Low risk BD-IPMNs that grow more than 2.5 mm/year might require surveillance. Copyright © 2018 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Does paternity leave affect mothers’ sickness absence

    OpenAIRE

    Bratberg, Espen; Naz, Ghazala

    2009-01-01

    Female labour force participation is high in Norway but sickness absence rates are higher for women than for men. This may be partly a result of unequal sharing of childcare in the family. In this paper, we consider the effect of paternity leave on sickness absence among women who have recently given birth. We draw on a six-year panel taken from full population data from administrative sources. We find that in the 6% of families where fathers take out leave more than the standard quota (gende...

  2. Explaining the gender gap in sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østby, K A; Mykletun, A; Nilsen, W

    2018-04-17

    In many western countries, women have a much higher rate of sickness absence than men. To what degree the gender differences in sickness absence are caused by gender differences in health is largely unknown. To assess to what degree the gender gap in sickness absence can be explained by health factors and work- and family-related stressors. Norwegian parents participating in the Tracking Opportunities and Problems (TOPP) study were asked about sickness absence and a range of factors possibly contributing to gender differences in sickness absence, including somatic and mental health, sleep problems, job control/demands, work-home conflicts, parent-child conflicts and stressful life events. Using a cross-sectional design, we did linear regression analyses, to assess the relative contribution from health and stressors. There were 557 study participants. Adjusting for health factors reduced the gender difference in sickness absence by 24%, while adjusting for stressors in the family and at work reduced the difference by 22%. A simultaneous adjustment for health factors and stressors reduced the difference in sickness absence by about 28%. Despite adjusting for a large number of factors, including both previously well-studied factors (e.g. health, job control/demands) and lesser-studied factors (parent-child conflict and sexual assault), this study found that most of the gender gap in sickness absence remains unexplained. Gender differences in health and stressors account for only part of the differences in sickness absence. Other factors must, therefore, exist outside the domains of health, work and family stressors.

  3. Rabies Vaccination: Higher Failure Rates in Imported Dogs than in those Vaccinated in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rota Nodari, E; Alonso, S; Mancin, M; De Nardi, M; Hudson-Cooke, S; Veggiato, C; Cattoli, G; De Benedictis, P

    2017-03-01

    The current European Union (EU) legislation decrees that pets entering the EU from a rabies-infected third country have to obtain a satisfactory virus-neutralizing antibody level, while those moving within the EU require only rabies vaccination as the risk of moving a rabid pet within the EU is considered negligible. A number of factors driving individual variations in dog vaccine response have been previously reported, including a high rate of vaccine failure in puppies, especially those subject to commercial transport. A total of 21 001 observations collected from dogs (2006-2012) vaccinated in compliance with the current EU regulations were statistically analysed to assess the effect of different risk factors related to rabies vaccine efficacy. Within this framework, we were able to compare the vaccination failure rate in a group of dogs entering the Italian border from EU and non-EU countries to those vaccinated in Italy prior to international travel. Our analysis identified that cross-breeds and two breed categories showed high vaccine success rates, while Beagles and Boxers were the least likely to show a successful response to vaccination (88.82% and 90.32%, respectively). Our analysis revealed diverse performances among the commercially available vaccines, in terms of serological peak windows, and marked differences according to geographical area. Of note, we found a higher vaccine failure rate in imported dogs (13.15%) than in those vaccinated in Italy (5.89%). Our findings suggest that the choice of vaccine may influence the likelihood of an animal achieving a protective serological level and that time from vaccination to sampling should be considered when interpreting serological results. A higher vaccine failure in imported compared to Italian dogs highlights the key role that border controls still have in assessing the full compliance of pet movements with EU legislation to minimize the risk of rabies being reintroduced into a disease-free area.

  4. Does higher income inequality adversely influence infant mortality rates? Reconciling descriptive patterns and recent research findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, Arjumand; Jones, Marcella K; Erwin, Paul Campbell

    2015-04-01

    As the struggle continues to explain the relatively high rates of infant mortality (IMR) exhibited in the United States, a renewed emphasis is being placed on the role of possible 'contextual' determinants. Cross-sectional and short time-series studies have found that higher income inequality is associated with higher IMR at the state level. Yet, descriptively, the longer-term trends in income inequality and in IMR seem to call such results into question. To assess whether, over the period 1990-2007, state-level income inequality is associated with state-level IMR; to examine whether the overall effect of income inequality on IMR over this period varies by state; to test whether the association between income inequality and IMR varies across this time period. IMR data--number of deaths per 1000 live births in a given state and year--were obtained from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control Wonder database. Income inequality was measured using the Gini coefficient, which varies from zero (complete equality) to 100 (complete inequality). Covariates included state-level poverty rate, median income, and proportion of high school graduates. Fixed and random effects regressions were conducted to test hypotheses. Fixed effects models suggested that, overall, during the period 1990-2007, income inequality was inversely associated with IMR (β = -0.07, SE (0.01)). Random effects models suggested that when the relationship was allowed to vary at the state-level, it remained inverse (β = -0.05, SE (0.01)). However, an interaction between income inequality and time suggested that, as time increased, the effect of income inequality had an increasingly positive association with total IMR (β = 0.009, SE (0.002)). The influence of state income inequality on IMR is dependent on time, which may proxy for time-dependent aspects of societal context. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Absence of dry season Plasmodium parasitaemia, but high rates of reported acute respiratory infection and diarrhoea in preschool-aged children in Kaédi, southern Mauritania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touray, Sunkaru; Bâ, Hampâté; Bâ, Ousmane; Koïta, Mohamedou; Salem, Cheikh B Ould Ahmed; Keïta, Moussa; Traoré, Doulo; Sy, Ibrahima; Winkler, Mirko S; Utzinger, Jürg; Cissé, Guéladio

    2012-09-07

    The epidemiology of malaria in the Senegal River Gorgol valley, southern Mauritania, requires particular attention in the face of ongoing and predicted environmental and climate changes. While "malaria cases" are reported in health facilities throughout the year, past and current climatic and ecological conditions do not favour transmission in the dry season (lack of rainfall and very high temperatures). Moreover, entomological investigations in neighbouring regions point to an absence of malaria transmission in mosquito vectors in the dry season. Because the clinical signs of malaria are non-specific and overlap with those of other diseases (e.g. acute respiratory infections and diarrhoea), new research is needed to better understand malaria transmission patterns in this region to improve adaptive, preventive and curative measures. We conducted a multipurpose cross-sectional survey in the city of Kaédi in April 2011 (dry season), assessing three major disease patterns, including malaria. Plasmodium spp. parasite rates were tested among children aged 6-59 months who were recruited from a random selection of households using a rapid diagnostic test and microscopic examination of Giemsa-stained thick and thin blood films. Acute respiratory infection and diarrhoea were the two other diseases investigated, administering a parental questionnaire to determine the reported prevalence among participating children. No Plasmodium infection was found in any of the 371 surveyed preschool-aged children using two different diagnostic methods. Acute respiratory infections and diarrhoea were reported in 43.4% and 35.0% of the participants, respectively. About two thirds of the children with acute respiratory infections and diarrhoea required medical follow-up by a health worker. Malaria was absent in the present dry season survey in the capital of the Gorgol valley of Mauritania, while acute respiratory infections and diarrhea were highly prevalent. Surveys should be repeated

  6. Higher resting heart rate variability predicts skill in expressing some emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuck, Natalie L; Grant, Rosemary C I; Sollers, John J; Booth, Roger J; Consedine, Nathan S

    2016-12-01

    Vagally mediated heart rate variability (vmHRV) is a measure of cardiac vagal tone, and is widely viewed as a physiological index of the capacity to regulate emotions. However, studies have not directly tested whether vmHRV is associated with the ability to facially express emotions. In extending prior work, the current report tested links between resting vmHRV and the objectively assessed ability to facially express emotions, hypothesizing that higher vmHRV would predict greater expressive skill. Eighty healthy women completed self-reported measures, before attending a laboratory session in which vmHRV and the ability to express six emotions in the face were assessed. A repeated measures analysis of variance revealed a marginal main effect for vmHRV on skill overall; individuals with higher resting vmHRV were only better able to deliberately facially express anger and interest. Findings suggest that differences in resting vmHRV are associated with the objectively assessed ability to facially express some, but not all, emotions, with potential implications for health and well-being. © 2016 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  7. Optimizing rate of nitrogen application for higher growth and yield of wheat (triticum aestivum l.) cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maqsood, M.; Shehzad, M.A.; Asim, A.; Ahmad, W.

    2012-01-01

    In order to optimize the nitrogen rates in three wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars for obtaining higher grain yield, a split plot experiment based on Randomized Complete Block Design with three replicates was conducted in the research field of University of Agriculture, Faisalabad during Rabi season 2006-07. Among treatments nitrogen levels (N0= 0, N/sub 1/= 50, N2= 100, N3= 150 kg ha/sup -1/) in main while wheat cultivars (V1= Punjnad-I, V/sub 2/= Fareed-2006, V3=Uqab-2000) were allocated in sub plots during the course of growing season. Traits as plant height, fertile tillers, spike length, spikelets spike-1, grains spike-1, 1000-grain weight, straw yield, grain yield and harvest index (HI) were significantly (P=0.05) affected by treatment combinations. Maximum grain yield was obtained by V3 (Uqab-2000) cultivar when treated with N3 (150 kg ha/sup -1/) fertilizer level. Also, results showed that with increasing nitrogen rates, wheat yield increases significantly up to a level of significance (P=0.05). Increasing nitrogen levels led to significantly increase in plant height (101.81 cm), spike bearing tillers (495.77), grains spike/sup -1/ (61.45), straw yield (8.60 t ha/sup -1/) and harvest index (36.17%) of V3 (Uqab-2000). In all traits except germination count, V3 (Uqab-2000) was found to be superior. (author)

  8. Effect of additives for higher removal rate in lithium niobate chemical mechanical planarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Sukhoon; Lee, Hyunseop; Cho, Hanchul; Lee, Sangjik; Kim, Hyoungjae; Kim, Sungryul; Park, Jaehong; Jeong, Haedo

    2010-01-01

    High roughness and a greater number of defects were created by lithium niobate (LN; LiNbO 3 ) processes such as traditional grinding and mechanical polishing (MP), should be decreased for manufacturing LN device. Therefore, an alternative process for gaining defect-free and smooth surface is needed. Chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) is suitable method in the LN process because it uses a combination approach consisting of chemical and mechanical effects. First of all, we investigated the LN CMP process using commercial slurry by changing various process conditions such as down pressure and relative velocity. However, the LN CMP process time using commercial slurry was long to gain a smooth surface because of lower material removal rate (MRR). So, to improve the material removal rate (MRR), the effects of additives such as oxidizer (hydrogen peroxide; H 2 O 2 ) and complexing agent (citric acid; C 6 H 8 O 7 ) in a potassium hydroxide (KOH) based slurry, were investigated. The manufactured slurry consisting of H 2 O 2 -citric acid in the KOH based slurry shows that the MRR of the H 2 O 2 at 2 wt% and the citric acid at 0.06 M was higher than the MRR for other conditions.

  9. Higher Rates of DZ Twinning in a Twenty-First Century Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhea, Sally Ann; Corley, Robin P; Heath, Andrew C; Iacono, William G; Neale, Michael C; Hewitt, John K

    2017-09-01

    The Colorado Twin Registry is a population based registry initiated in 1984 with the involvement of the Colorado Department of Health, Division of Vital Statistics. Recruitment includes birth cohorts several years prior to 1984 and all subsequent years. As part of a recent evaluation of Colorado birth records for the years 2006 through 2008 we became aware of a shifting trend in the proportion of MZ and DZ twins in the Colorado population. Historically (Bulmer 1970 The biology of twinning in man, Clarendon, Oxford) we have expected a 1/3, 1/3, 1/3 ratio of MZ, same-sex DZ and opposite sex DZ twins in Caucasian populations. An excess of MZ pairs in most studies was assumed to be due to selection bias. Somewhat more recently, Hur et al.(1995 Behav Genet 25, 337-340) provided evidence that the DZ twinning rate was falling and that therefore selection bias was not the reason for higher MZ enrollment in most twin studies. They suggested that twin researchers might consider strategies to over-enroll DZ pairs to maximize statistical power. In contrast, we now find that of the 3217 twin births in Colorado from 2006 to 2008 with identified sex information the MZ rate is estimated at only 22%, and we have corroborating reports from other states of similar estimates. These were calculated applying Weinberg's rule which assumes an equal birth rate for same sex and opposite sex DZ pairs so that the proportion of MZ in a sample is the proportion of same sex (MM + FF) minus the proportion of opposite-sex (MF, FM). We explore factors, such as an increase in the proportion of non-Caucasian parents and an increase in average maternal age, which may contribute to this shift.

  10. Higher Education Support Services and Graduation Rates of Structured Education Program Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepner, Seth

    2017-01-01

    The 1st-year retention rate of the Structured Education Program (SEP) is 90%, yet the 6-year graduation rate of SEP students is 29%. The gap between SEP 1st-year retention and graduation rates is the problem that this study addressed. The low graduation rate of SEP students is an important issue because graduation rates are used to measure the…

  11. Increased Total Anesthetic Time Leads to Higher Rates of Surgical Site Infections in Spinal Fusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puffer, Ross C; Murphy, Meghan; Maloney, Patrick; Kor, Daryl; Nassr, Ahmad; Freedman, Brett; Fogelson, Jeremy; Bydon, Mohamad

    2017-06-01

    A retrospective review of a consecutive series of spinal fusions comparing patient and procedural characteristics of patients who developed surgical site infections (SSIs) after spinal fusion. It is known that increased surgical time (incision to closure) is associated with a higher rate of postoperative SSIs. We sought to determine whether increased total anesthetic time (intubation to extubation) is a factor in the development of SSIs as well. In spine surgery for deformity and degenerative disease, SSI has been associated with operative time, revealing a nearly 10-fold increase in SSI rates in prolonged surgery. Surgical time is associated with infections in other surgical disciplines as well. No studies have reported whether total anesthetic time (intubation to extubation) has an association with SSIs. Surgical records were searched in a retrospective fashion to identify all spine fusion procedures performed between January 2010 and July 2012. All SSIs during that timeframe were recorded and compared with the list of cases performed between 2010 and 2012 in a case-control design. There were 20 (1.7%) SSIs in this fusion cohort. On univariate analyses of operative factors, there was a significant association between total anesthetic time (Infection 7.6 ± 0.5 hrs vs. no infection -6.0 ± 0.1 hrs, P operative time (infection 5.5 ± 0.4 hrs vs. no infection - 4.4 ± 0.06 hrs, P infections, whereas level of pathology and emergent surgery were not significant. On multivariate logistic analysis, BMI and total anesthetic time remained independent predictors of SSI whereas ASA status and operative time did not. Increasing BMI and total anesthetic time were independent predictors of SSIs in this cohort of over 1000 consecutive spinal fusions. 3.

  12. Absence of dry season Plasmodium parasitaemia, but high rates of reported acute respiratory infection and diarrhoea in preschool-aged children in Kaédi, southern Mauritania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Touray Sunkaru

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The epidemiology of malaria in the Senegal River Gorgol valley, southern Mauritania, requires particular attention in the face of ongoing and predicted environmental and climate changes. While “malaria cases” are reported in health facilities throughout the year, past and current climatic and ecological conditions do not favour transmission in the dry season (lack of rainfall and very high temperatures. Moreover, entomological investigations in neighbouring regions point to an absence of malaria transmission in mosquito vectors in the dry season. Because the clinical signs of malaria are non-specific and overlap with those of other diseases (e.g. acute respiratory infections and diarrhoea, new research is needed to better understand malaria transmission patterns in this region to improve adaptive, preventive and curative measures. Methods We conducted a multipurpose cross-sectional survey in the city of Kaédi in April 2011 (dry season, assessing three major disease patterns, including malaria. Plasmodium spp. parasite rates were tested among children aged 6–59 months who were recruited from a random selection of households using a rapid diagnostic test and microscopic examination of Giemsa-stained thick and thin blood films. Acute respiratory infection and diarrhoea were the two other diseases investigated, administering a parental questionnaire to determine the reported prevalence among participating children. Findings No Plasmodium infection was found in any of the 371 surveyed preschool-aged children using two different diagnostic methods. Acute respiratory infections and diarrhoea were reported in 43.4% and 35.0% of the participants, respectively. About two thirds of the children with acute respiratory infections and diarrhoea required medical follow-up by a health worker. Conclusions Malaria was absent in the present dry season survey in the capital of the Gorgol valley of Mauritania, while acute respiratory

  13. Removal of boron(III) by N-methylglucamine-type cellulose derivatives with higher adsorption rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inukai, Yoshinari; Tanaka, Yoshiharu; Matsuda, Toshio; Mihara, Nobutake; Yamada, Kouji; Nambu, Nobuyoshi; Itoh, Osamu; Doi, Takao; Kaida, Yasuhiko; Yasuda, Seiji

    2004-01-01

    To obtain adsorbents for boron(III) derived from a natural polymer, two forms (powder and fiber) of N-methylglucamine-type cellulose derivatives were newly synthesized. After the graft polymerization of two forms of cellulose with vinyl monomer having epoxy groups, the N-methylglucamine-type cellulose derivatives were obtained by the reaction of the grafted cellulose with N-methylglucamine. The adsorption capacities of the cellulose derivatives for boron(III) were the same levels as that of a commercially available N-methylglucamine-type polystyrene resin. However, the cellulose derivatives adsorbed boron(III) more quickly than the polystyrene resin. The adsorption and desorption of boron(III) with a column method using the cellulose fiber were achieved at a higher flow rate than that using the polystyrene resin. In addition, the boron(III), adsorbed on the cellulose fiber column, was quantitatively recovered with dilute hydrochloric acid in 20- and 200-fold increased concentrations. Consequently, it was found that the cellulose derivatives were superior to the polystyrene resin as adsorbents for boron(III) for treatment of a large quantity of wastewater

  14. Continuous fermentation and in-situ reed separation of butyric acid for higher sugar consumption rate and productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baroi, George Nabin; Skiadas, Ioannis; Westermann, Peter

    that disconnection of the REED system resulted to much lower (48 and 83% for glucose and xylose, respectively) sugars consumption rates and consequently lower butyric acid production rates. It was also noticeable that continuous operation, even without the REED system, resulted to higher glucose consumption rates...

  15. Does adding metformin to clomifene citrate lead to higher pregnancy rates in a subset of women with polycystic ovary syndrome?

    OpenAIRE

    Moll, E.; Korevaar, J.C.; Bossuyt, P.M.M.; van der Veen, F.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND An RCT among newly diagnosed, therapy naive women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) showed no significant differences in ovulation rate, ongoing pregnancy rate or spontaneous abortion rate in favour of clomifene citrate plus metformin compared with clomifene citrate. We wanted to assess whether there are specific subgroups of women with PCOS in whom clomifene citrate plus metformin leads to higher pregnancy rates. METHODS Subgroup analysis based on clinical and biochemical para...

  16. Increased risk of long-term sickness absence, lower rate of return to work, and higher risk of unemployment and disability pensioning for thyroid patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nexo, M A; Watt, T; Pedersen, J

    2014-01-01

    CONTEXT: Little is known about how thyroid diseases affect work ability. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the risk of work disability for patients with thyroid disease compared with the general population. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: In a longitudinal register study, ...

  17. Higher USA State Resident Neuroticism Is Associated With Lower State Volunteering Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Stewart J H

    2017-12-01

    Highly neurotic persons have dispositional characteristics that tend to precipitate social anxiety that discourages formal volunteering. With the 50 American states as analytical units, Study 1 found that state resident neuroticism correlated highly ( r = -.55) with state volunteering rates and accounted for another 26.8% of the volunteering rate variance with selected state demographics controlled. Study 2 replicated Study 1 during another period and extended the association to college student, senior, secular, and religious volunteering rates. Study 3 showed state resident percentages engaged in other social behaviors involving more familiarity and fewer demands than formal volunteering related to state volunteering rates but not to neuroticism. In Study 4, state resident neuroticism largely accounted statistically for relations between state volunteering rates and state population density, collectivism, social capital, Republican preference, and well-being. This research is the first to show that state resident neuroticism is a potent predictor of state volunteering rates.

  18. Predicting higher education graduation rates from institutional characteristics and resource allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence A. Hamrick

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available This study incorporated institutional characteristics (e.g., Carnegie type, selectivity and resource allocations (e.g., instructional expenditures, student affairs expenditures into a statistical model to predict undergraduate graduation rates. Instructional expenditures, library expenditures, and a number of institutional classification variables were significant predictors of graduation rates. Based on these results, recommendations as well as warranted cautions are included about allocating academic financial resources to optimize graduation rates

  19. Do Astronauts have a Higher Rate of Orthopedic Shoulder Conditions than a Cohort of Working Professionals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, Mitzi S.; Murray, Jocelyn D.; Young, Millenia; Wear, Mary L.; Tarver, W. J.; Van Baalen, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Occupational surveillance of astronaut shoulder injuries began with operational concerns at the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) during Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) training. NASA has implemented several occupational health initiatives during the past 20 years to decrease the number and severity of injuries, but the individual success rate is unknown. Orthopedic shoulder injury and surgery rates were calculated, but classifying the rates as normal, high or low was highly dependent on the comparison group. The purpose of this study was to identify a population of working professionals and compare orthopedic shoulder consultation and surgery rates.

  20. Medically certified sickness absence among health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khawaja, Rajab Ali; Sikander, Raheel; Khawaja, Asad Ali; Jareno, Rechel Joy Macadaan; Halepota, Aurangzeb Taj

    2012-09-01

    To compare the days and spells of sickness absence among males versus females and Saudi nationals versus expatriate employees of King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, and to identify the cause of sickness absence. The cross-sectional, descriptive study comprised 3117 King Khalid University Hospital employees. Records of physician-certified sickness absence from January 1 to June 30, 2009, were obtained from the employee health clinic's register. Absence rate, frequency, duration and severity were assessed and compared between genders and nationalities, and causes were noted. SPSS version 16 and student's t test were used for statistical analyses and comparison. A total of 377 (12.1 %) employees had 416 spells of sickness absence with 639 sick-off days (mean: 1.54 +/- 0.85). The probability of sickness absence was higher among Saudi (OR=1.33) and female (OR=1.39) employees. The association of sickness absence was not found among the absentees with either gender (p= 0.335) or nationality (p = 0.086). Almost all spells of sick-off days were of short duration. Longer spells were mainly due to chicken pox which was found to be more among the expatriates. Heavy absenteeism was found only among the Saudis. The most common causes of sickness absence were acute upper respiratory infection, diseases of musculoskeletal system and the digestive system. The rate, frequency and duration of absence due to sickness in the study were higher among Saudi and female employees. The rate of absence, with passage of time, has increased significantly among Saudi nationals.

  1. Predicting higher education graduation rates from institutional characteristics and resource allocation

    OpenAIRE

    Florence A. Hamrick; John H. Schuh; Mack C. Shelley

    2004-01-01

    This study incorporated institutional characteristics (e.g., Carnegie type, selectivity) and resource allocations (e.g., instructional expenditures, student affairs expenditures) into a statistical model to predict undergraduate graduation rates. Instructional expenditures, library expenditures, and a number of institutional classification variables were significant predictors of graduation rates. Based on these results, recommendations as well as warranted cautions are included about allocat...

  2. Results of a pilot scale melter test to attain higher production rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, M.L.; Perez, J.M. Jr.; Chapman, C.C.

    1991-01-01

    A pilot-scale melter test was completed as part of the effort to enhance glass production rates. The experiment was designed to evaluate the effects of bulk glass temperature and feed oxide loading. The maximum glass production rate obtained, 86 kg/hr-m 2 , was over 200% better than the previous record for the melter used

  3. Heroin addicts have higher discount rates for delayed rewards than non-drug-using controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, K N; Petry, N M; Bickel, W K

    1999-03-01

    Fifty-six heroin addicts and 60 age-matched controls were offered choices between monetary rewards ($11-$80) available immediately and larger rewards ($25-$85) available after delays ranging from 1 week to 6 months. Participants had a 1-in-6 chance of winning a reward that they chose on one randomly selected trial. Delay-discounting rates were estimated from the pattern of participants' choices. The discounting model of impulsiveness (Ainslie, 1975) implies that delay-discounting rates are positively correlated with impulsiveness. On average, heroin addicts' discount rates were twice those of controls (p = .004), and discount rates were positively correlated with impulsivity as measured by self-report questionnaires (p discounting rate as a measure of impulsiveness, a characteristic associated with substance abuse.

  4. Evidence of Absence software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalthorp, Daniel; Huso, Manuela M. P.; Dail, David; Kenyon, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Evidence of Absence software (EoA) is a user-friendly application used for estimating bird and bat fatalities at wind farms and designing search protocols. The software is particularly useful in addressing whether the number of fatalities has exceeded a given threshold and what search parameters are needed to give assurance that thresholds were not exceeded. The software is applicable even when zero carcasses have been found in searches. Depending on the effectiveness of the searches, such an absence of evidence of mortality may or may not be strong evidence that few fatalities occurred. Under a search protocol in which carcasses are detected with nearly 100 percent certainty, finding zero carcasses would be convincing evidence that overall mortality rate was near zero. By contrast, with a less effective search protocol with low probability of detecting a carcass, finding zero carcasses does not rule out the possibility that large numbers of animals were killed but not detected in the searches. EoA uses information about the search process and scavenging rates to estimate detection probabilities to determine a maximum credible number of fatalities, even when zero or few carcasses are observed.

  5. Are Interpersonal Violence Rates Higher Among Young Women in College Compared With Those Never Attending College?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Ann L; Follingstad, Diane R; Bush, Heather M; Fisher, Bonnie S

    2016-05-01

    Estimates of sexual violence and partner violence rates among young women are generated primarily from college samples. Few studies have data to compare rates among similar-aged women attending college with those who never attended college. This study aims to estimate rates of partner violence by type (sexual, physical, and psychological) and severity (mild, moderate, severe), sexual harassment, and knowing or suspecting that someone put a drug in a drink (drugged drink) among a national sample of 959 young women aged 18 to 24 in an intimate relationship in the past 12 months who were either currently in college (college;n= 272) or never attended college (non-college;n= 687). After adjusting for demographic differences between these two groups, no significant differences were found in rates of sexual partner violence (28.4% non-college, 23.5% college), physical partner violence (27.9% non-college, 26.3% college), psychological partner violence (Mscore: 6.10 non-college, 5.59 college), sexual harassment (15.5% non-college, 14.1% college), or drugged drink (8.5% non-college, 7.8% college). Finding high rates of interpersonal violence among young women who are and are not currently attending college indicates the need to target all young adults with violence prevention interventions in educational, workplace, and other community-based settings. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Higher speciation and lower extinction rates influence mammal diversity gradients in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamma, Krishnapriya; Ramakrishnan, Uma

    2015-02-04

    Little is known about the patterns and correlates of mammal diversity gradients in Asia. In this study, we examine patterns of species distributions and phylogenetic diversity in Asia and investigate if the observed diversity patterns are associated with differences in diversification rates between the tropical and non-tropical regions. We used species distribution maps and phylogenetic trees to generate species and phylogenetic diversity measures for 1° × 1° cells across mainland Asia. We constructed lineage-through-time plots and estimated diversification shift-times to examine the temporal patterns of diversifications across orders. Finally, we tested if the observed gradients in Asia could be associated with geographical differences in diversification rates across the tropical and non-tropical biomes. We estimated speciation, extinction and dispersal rates across these two regions for mammals, both globally and for Asian mammals. Our results demonstrate strong latitudinal and longitudinal gradients of species and phylogenetic diversity with Southeast Asia and the Himalayas showing highest diversity. Importantly, our results demonstrate that differences in diversification (speciation, extinction and dispersal) rates between the tropical and the non-tropical biomes influence the observed diversity gradients globally and in Asia. For the first time, we demonstrate that Asian tropics act as both cradles and museums of mammalian diversity. Temporal and spatial variation in diversification rates across different lineages of mammals is an important correlate of species diversity gradients observed in Asia.

  7. Vigorous physical activity predicts higher heart rate variability among younger adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Richard; McBerty, Victoria; Zaky, Adam; Gianotti, Melino

    2017-06-14

    Baseline heart rate variability (HRV) is linked to prospective cardiovascular health. We tested intensity and duration of weekly physical activity as predictors of heart rate variability in young adults. Time and frequency domain indices of HRV were calculated based on 5-min resting electrocardiograms collected from 82 undergraduate students. Hours per week of both moderate and vigorous activity were estimated using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. In regression analyses, hours of vigorous physical activity, but not moderate activity, significantly predicted greater time domain and frequency domain indices of heart rate variability. Adjusted for weekly frequency, greater daily duration of vigorous activity failed to predict HRV indices. Future studies should test direct measurements of vigorous activity patterns as predictors of autonomic function in young adulthood.

  8. Reducing Error Rates for Iris Image using higher Contrast in Normalization process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminu Ghali, Abdulrahman; Jamel, Sapiee; Abubakar Pindar, Zahraddeen; Hasssan Disina, Abdulkadir; Mat Daris, Mustafa

    2017-08-01

    Iris recognition system is the most secured, and faster means of identification and authentication. However, iris recognition system suffers a setback from blurring, low contrast and illumination due to low quality image which compromises the accuracy of the system. The acceptance or rejection rates of verified user depend solely on the quality of the image. In many cases, iris recognition system with low image contrast could falsely accept or reject user. Therefore this paper adopts Histogram Equalization Technique to address the problem of False Rejection Rate (FRR) and False Acceptance Rate (FAR) by enhancing the contrast of the iris image. A histogram equalization technique enhances the image quality and neutralizes the low contrast of the image at normalization stage. The experimental result shows that Histogram Equalization Technique has reduced FRR and FAR compared to the existing techniques.

  9. School absence and its effect on school performance for children born with orofacial clefts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Jane; Raynes-Greenow, Camille; Turner, Robin; Bower, Carol; Dodson, Alan; Hancock, Kirsten; Nassar, Natasha

    2017-07-17

    School absence is associated with lower performance on standardized tests. Children born with orofacial clefts (OFC) are likely to have more absence than children without OFC; however, school absence for children with OFC has not been quantified. We aimed to describe school absence and its relationship with school performance for children with and without OFC. Population-based record-linked cohort study of children (402 with OFC, 1789 without OFC) enrolled in schools in Western Australia, 2008 to 2012. We compared median school absence rates using Wilcoxon rank tests, and investigated the impact of school absence on standardized scores from reading, numeracy, and writing tests, using multivariable models fitted by generalized estimating equations. In Semester 1, at each primary school year level, children without OFC and children with cleft lip only or cleft palate only had similar median absence rates (approximately 1 week). Children with cleft lip and palate had significantly higher absence rates in Years 4 to 6 (between 1 and 2 weeks). During secondary school, median absence rates were higher (2 weeks) for all children, but not statistically different between children with and without OFC. Higher absence was significantly associated with lower standardized reading, numeracy, and writing scores. However, having a cleft of any type had little influence on the association between absence and test scores. School absence affected school performance for all children. Absence did not differentially disadvantage children born with OFC, suggesting current practices to identify and support children with OFC are minimizing effects of their absence on school performance. Birth Defects Research 109:1048-1056, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Higher contamination rate than usual. Treatment and disinfection of water in hot whirlpool systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herschman, W

    1985-10-01

    Hot whirlpools must meet the hygienic standards set in the Federal Law Concerning Prevention of Epidemics of 18 Dec 1979. The low water volume of whirlpool systems and the extraordinary contamination rate in uninterrupted operation require a specific water treatment and disinfestation technology to make up for the poor buffer capacity of the low water volume. (orig./BWI).

  11. Mechanisms promoting higher growth rate in arctic than in temperate shorebirds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schekkerman, H.; Tulp, I.Y.M.; Piersma, T.; Visser, G.H.

    2003-01-01

    We compared prefledging growth, energy expenditure, and time budgets in the arctic-breeding red knot (Calidris canutus) to those in temperate shorebirds, to investigate how arctic chicks achieve a high growth rate despite energetic difficulties associated with precocial development in a cold

  12. Mechanisms promoting higher growth rate in arctic than in temperate shorebirds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schekkerman, H; Tulp, Ingrid; Piersma, T.; Visser, G.H.

    We compared prefledging growth, energy expenditure, and time budgets in the arctic-breeding red knot (Calidris canutus) to those in temperate shorebirds, to investigate how arctic chicks achieve a high growth rate despite energetic difficulties associated with precocial development in a cold

  13. Honest signaling in trust interactions: smiles rated as genuine induce trust and signal higher earning opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Centorrino, S.; Djemai, E.; Hopfensitz, A.; Milinski, M.; Seabright, P.

    2015-01-01

    We test the hypothesis that smiles perceived as honest serve as a signal that has evolved to induce cooperation in situations requiring mutual trust. Potential trustees (84 participants from Toulouse, France) made two video clips averaging around 15 seconds for viewing by potential senders before the latter decided whether to ‘send’ or ‘keep’ a lower stake (4 euros) or higher stake (8 euros). Senders (198 participants from Lyon, France) made trust decisions with respect to the recorded clips....

  14. Surgical site infection and transfusion rates are higher in underweight total knee arthroplasty patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Manrique, MD

    2017-03-01

    Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that UW TKA patients have a higher likelihood of developing SSI and requiring blood transfusions. The specific reasons are unclear, but we conjecture that it may be related to decreased wound healing capabilities and low preoperative hemoglobin. Investigation of local tissue coverage and hematologic status may be beneficial in this patient population to prevent SSI. Based on the results of this study, a prospective evaluation of these factors should be undertaken.

  15. Accuracy of rate coding: When shorter time window and higher spontaneous activity help

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Leváková, Marie; Tamborrino, M.; Košťál, Lubomír; Lánský, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 95, č. 2 (2017), č. článku 022310. ISSN 2470-0045 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-08066S; GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB17AT048 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : rate coding * observation window * spontaneous activity * Fisher information * perfect integrate- and -fire model * Wiener process Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research OBOR OECD: Biology (theoretical, mathematical, thermal, cryobiology, biological rhythm), Evolutionary biology Impact factor: 2.366, year: 2016

  16. Comparison of higher order spectra in heart rate signals during two techniques of meditation: Chi and Kundalini meditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goshvarpour, Ateke; Goshvarpour, Atefeh

    2013-02-01

    The human heartbeat is one of the important examples of complex physiologic fluctuations. For the first time in this study higher order spectra of heart rate signals during meditation have explored. Specifically, the aim of this study was to analysis and compares the contribution of quadratic phase coupling of human heart rate variability during two forms of meditation: (1) Chinese Chi (or Qigong) meditation and (2) Kundalini Yoga meditation. For this purpose, Bispectrum was estimated by using biased, parametric and the direct (FFT) method. The results show that the mean Bispectrum magnitude of heart rate signals increased during Kundalini Yoga meditation, but it decreased significantly during Chi meditation. However, in both meditation techniques phase-coupled harmonics are shifted to the higher frequencies during meditation. In addition, it has shown that not only there are significant differences between rest and meditation states, but also heart rate patterns appear to be influenced by different types of meditation.

  17. Religious affiliation and psychiatric morbidity in Brazil: higher rates among evangelicals and spiritists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalgalarrondo, Paulo; Marín-León, Leticia; Botega, Neury José; Berti De Azevedo Barros, Marilisa; Bosco De Oliveira, Helenice

    2008-11-01

    To verify the association between the prevalence of mental symptoms and excessive alcohol intake with religious affiliation, church attendance and personal religiosity. A household survey of 515 adults randomly sampled included the WHO SUPRE-MISS questionnaire, SRQ-20 and AUDIT. Weighted prevalences were estimated and logistic analyses were performed. Minor psychiatric morbidity was greater among Spiritists and Protestants/ Evangelicals than in Catholics and in the ;no-religion' group. The latter had a greater frequency of abusive alcohol drinking pattern and Protestants/Evangelicals showed lower drinking patterns. Although belonging to Protestant/Evangelical churches in Brazil may inhibit alcohol involvement it seems to be associated to a higher frequency of depressive symptoms. Processes of seeking relief in new religious affiliations among sub-groups with previous minor psychiatric symptoms may probably occur in the Brazilian society.

  18. Higher rate of compensation after surgical treatment versus conservative treatment for acute Achilles tendon rupture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveen, Thor-Magnus; Troelsen, Anders; Barfod, Kristoffer Weisskirchner

    2015-01-01

    in the period from 1992 to 2010 in the DPIA database were identified and patient records were reviewed manually. RESULTS: The compensation awarded for the 18-year period totalled 18,147,202 DKK with 41% of patient claims being recognised. Out of 180 surgically treated patients, 79 received a total compensation...... of 14,051,377 DKK, median 47,637 (range: 5,000-3,577,043). Of 114 non-surgically treated patients, 40 received 3,715,224 DKK in compensation, with a median amount of 35,788 DKK (range: 5,000-830,073). CONCLUSION: Compensation after surgical treatment was 3.8 times higher than compensation after non......-surgical treatment. It is noteworthy that 34.5% of patients had an overlooked diagnosis which underlines the importance of a correct primary diagnosis. FUNDING: not relevant. TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant....

  19. Weaker gun state laws are associated with higher rates of suicide secondary to firearms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alban, Rodrigo F; Nuño, Miriam; Ko, Ara; Barmparas, Galinos; Lewis, Azaria V; Margulies, Daniel R

    2018-01-01

    Firearm-related suicides comprise over two-thirds of gun-related violence in the United States, and gun laws and policies remain under scrutiny, with many advocating for revision of the regulatory map for lawful gun ownership, aiming at restricting access and distribution of these weapons. However, the quantitative relationship between how strict gun laws are and the incidence of firearm violence with their associated mortality is largely unknown. We therefore, sought to explore the impact of firearm law patterns among states on the incidence and outcomes of firearm-related suicide attempts, utilizing established objective criteria. The National Inpatient Sample for the years 1998-2011 was queried for all firearm-related suicides. Discharge facilities were stratified into five categories (A, B, C, D, and F, with A representing states with the most strict and F representing states with the least strict laws) based on the Brady Campaign to prevent Gun Violence that assigns scorecards for every state. The primary outcomes were suicide attempts and in-hospital mortality per 100,000 populations by Brady state grade. During the 14-year study period, 34,994 subjects met inclusion criteria. The mean age was 42.0 years and 80.1% were male. A handgun was utilized by 51.8% of patients. The overall mortality was 33.3%. Overall, 22.0% had reported psychoses and 19.3% reported depression. After adjusting for confounding factors and using group A as reference, there were higher adjusted odds for suicide attempts for patients admitted in group C, D, and F category states (1.73, 2.09, and 1.65, respectively, all P gun laws, and these injuries tend to be associated with a higher mortality. Efforts aimed at nationwide standardization of firearm state laws are warranted, particularly for young adults and suicide-prone populations. III. Trauma Outcomes study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Lead Burden as a Factor for Higher Complication Rate in Patients With Implantable Cardiac Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Kolibash

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Lead revisions have increased over the last decade. Patients who do not undergo lead extraction face an increased lead burden. Consequences of increased lead burden have not been fully defined. We sought to characterize the complication rate and outcomes in patients with sterile redundant leads. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 242 consecutive patients [mean age 74 ± 12 years; 66.9% male] who underwent lead revision that resulted in an abandoned lead from January 2005 to June 2010. Patients were placed in a cohort based on number of leads after last recorded procedure (Group A: ≤2 [n=58]; Group B: 3-4 [n=168]; Group C: ≥5 [n=16]. Prespecified inhospital and long-term follow-up events were compared. Mortality rates were obtained from Social Security Death Index. Median follow-up was 2 years. Results: Baseline age, gender and race demographics were similar among the three groups. Increasing lead burden was associated with more adverse periprocedural events (A: 3.4%, B: 10.1%, C: 25.0%; P=0.031 and long-term device-related events (A: 1.7%, B: 13.0%, C: 18.8%; P=0.031. Device-related readmissions increased in frequency as lead burden increased (A: 3.5%, B: 18.5%, C: 37.5%; P=0.002. Combined periprocedural and late events also increased with more redundant leads (A: 5.2%, B: 23.2%, C: 44.0%; P=0.001. Total major events were infrequent (3.3%. There was no procedure-related mortality. Long-term all-cause mortality was not significantly different (A: 17.2%, B: 23.8%, C: 25.0%; P=0.567. Conclusions: Greater lead burden was associated with increased number of periprocedural and long-term minor events. It did not significantly impact major events or mortality.

  1. An integrated approach for a higher success rate in mergers and acquisitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Bertoncelj

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper outlines the importance of balanced management of hard and soft key success factors, combining the economic logic of corporate performance and human capital through an integrated approach to mergers and acquisitions. The study, based on a questionnaire and interviews, suggests that the achievement level ofmergers and acquisitions’ objectives of acquiring companies in Slovenia should be comparable to findings of similar studies; namely, the objectives that drove the deal were met only half the time. The results indicate that five hard success factors – a professional target search and due diligence, a realistic assessment of synergies, theright mix of financial sources, a detailed post-acquisition integration plan already prepared in the pre-deal phase and its speedy implementation – and five soft success factors – a new “combined” organizational culture, a competent management team, innovative employees, efficient and consistent communication and a creative business environment – are becoming increasingly relevant. Even though they differ in their importance for individual companies in the sample, they are all considered essential to increasing the success rate of corporate combinations

  2. Sex-role reversal of a monogamous pipefish without higher potential reproductive rate in females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogabe, Atsushi; Yanagisawa, Yasunobu

    2007-12-07

    In monogamous animals, males are usually the predominant competitors for mates. However, a strictly monogamous pipefish Corythoichthys haematopterus exceptionally exhibits a reversed sex role. To understand why its sex role is reversed, we measured the adult sex ratio and the potential reproductive rate (PRR), two principal factors influencing the operational sex ratio (OSR), in a natural population of southern Japan. The adult sex ratio was biased towards females throughout the breeding season, but the PRR, which increased with water temperature, did not show sexual difference. We found that an alternative index of the OSR (Sf/Sm: sex ratio of 'time in') calculated from the monthly data was consistently biased towards females. The female-biased OSR associated with sex-role reversal has been reported in some polyandrous or promiscuous pipefish, but factors biasing the OSR differed between these pipefish and C. haematopterus. We concluded that the similar PRR between the sexes in C. haematopterus does not confer reproductive benefit of polygamous mating on either sex, resulting in strict monogamous mating, and its female-biased adult sex ratio promotes female-female competition for a mate, resulting in sex-role reversal.

  3. Biodegradation testing of chemicals with high Henry’s constants – separating mass and effective concentration reveals higher rate constants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch, Heidi; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus; Comber, Mike

    Microextraction (HS-SPME) was applied directly on the test systems to measure substrate depletion by biodegradation relative to abiotic controls. HS-SPME was also applied to determine air to water partitioning ratios. Water phase biodegradation rate constants, kwater, were up to 72 times higher than test system...

  4. Higher dosage nicotine patches increase one-year smoking cessation rates : results from the European CEASE trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonnesen, P; Paoletti, P; Gustavsson, G; Russell, MA; Saracci, R; Gulsvik, A; Rijcken, B

    The Collaborative European Anti-Smoking Evaluation (CEASE) was a European multicentre, randomized, double-blind placebo controlled smoking cessation study, The objectives were to determine whether higher dosage and longer duration of nicotine patch therapy would increase the success rate. Thirty-six

  5. Understanding the Effect of Response Rate and Class Size Interaction on Students Evaluation of Teaching in a Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Kuwaiti, Ahmed; AlQuraan, Mahmoud; Subbarayalu, Arun Vijay

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to investigate the interaction between response rate and class size and its effects on students' evaluation of instructors and the courses offered at a higher education Institution in Saudi Arabia. Study Design: A retrospective study design was chosen. Methods: One thousand four hundred and forty four different courses…

  6. Ambient temperature does not affect fuelling rate in absence of digestive constraints in long-distance migrant shorebird fuelling up in captivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petit, Magali; Vezina, Francois; Piersma, Theunis; Heldmaier, G.

    Pre-flight fuelling rates in free-living red knots Calidris canutus, a specialized long-distance migrating shorebird species, are positively correlated with latitude and negatively with temperature. The single published hypothesis to explain these relationships is the heat load hypothesis that

  7. Children Receiving Free or Reduced-Price School Lunch Have Higher Food Insufficiency Rates in Summer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jin; Barnidge, Ellen; Kim, Youngmi

    2015-09-01

    In 2012, 20% of households in the United States with children lacked consistent access to adequate food. Food insufficiency has significant implications for children, including poor physical and mental health outcomes, behavior problems, and low educational achievements. The National School Lunch Program (NSLP) is one policy solution to reduce food insufficiency among children from low-income families. The objective of this project was to evaluate the association between NSLP participation and household food insufficiency by examining trajectories of food insufficiency over 10 calendar months. The calendar months included both nonsummer months when school is in session and summer months when school is out of session. The study used the data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation and conducted linear growth curve analyses in the multilevel modeling context. Comparisons were made between the trajectories of food insufficiencies among recipients of free or reduced-price lunch and their counterparts who are eligible but choose not to participate in the program. Heads of households that included children receiving free or reduced-price lunch (n = 6867) were more likely to be female, black, unmarried, and unemployed, and have a lower educational attainment than those whose children were eligible but did not receive free or reduced-price lunch (n = 11,396). For households participating in the NSLP, the food insufficiency rate was consistent from January to May at ∼4%, and then increased in June and July to >5%. Meanwhile, food insufficiency among eligible nonrecipients was constant throughout the year at nearly 2%. The NSLP protects households from food insufficiency. Policies should be instituted to make enrollment easier for households. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  8. Informatics technology mimics ecology: dense, mutualistic collaboration networks are associated with higher publication rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco D Sorani

    Full Text Available Information technology (IT adoption enables biomedical research. Publications are an accepted measure of research output, and network models can describe the collaborative nature of publication. In particular, ecological networks can serve as analogies for publication and technology adoption. We constructed network models of adoption of bioinformatics programming languages and health IT (HIT from the literature.We selected seven programming languages and four types of HIT. We performed PubMed searches to identify publications since 2001. We calculated summary statistics and analyzed spatiotemporal relationships. Then, we assessed ecological models of specialization, cooperativity, competition, evolution, biodiversity, and stability associated with publications.Adoption of HIT has been variable, while scripting languages have experienced rapid adoption. Hospital systems had the largest HIT research corpus, while Perl had the largest language corpus. Scripting languages represented the largest connected network components. The relationship between edges and nodes was linear, though Bioconductor had more edges than expected and Perl had fewer. Spatiotemporal relationships were weak. Most languages shared a bioinformatics specialization and appeared mutualistic or competitive. HIT specializations varied. Specialization was highest for Bioconductor and radiology systems. Specialization and cooperativity were positively correlated among languages but negatively correlated among HIT. Rates of language evolution were similar. Biodiversity among languages grew in the first half of the decade and stabilized, while diversity among HIT was variable but flat. Compared with publications in 2001, correlation with publications one year later was positive while correlation after ten years was weak and negative.Adoption of new technologies can be unpredictable. Spatiotemporal relationships facilitate adoption but are not sufficient. As with ecosystems, dense

  9. Informatics technology mimics ecology: dense, mutualistic collaboration networks are associated with higher publication rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorani, Marco D

    2012-01-01

    Information technology (IT) adoption enables biomedical research. Publications are an accepted measure of research output, and network models can describe the collaborative nature of publication. In particular, ecological networks can serve as analogies for publication and technology adoption. We constructed network models of adoption of bioinformatics programming languages and health IT (HIT) from the literature.We selected seven programming languages and four types of HIT. We performed PubMed searches to identify publications since 2001. We calculated summary statistics and analyzed spatiotemporal relationships. Then, we assessed ecological models of specialization, cooperativity, competition, evolution, biodiversity, and stability associated with publications.Adoption of HIT has been variable, while scripting languages have experienced rapid adoption. Hospital systems had the largest HIT research corpus, while Perl had the largest language corpus. Scripting languages represented the largest connected network components. The relationship between edges and nodes was linear, though Bioconductor had more edges than expected and Perl had fewer. Spatiotemporal relationships were weak. Most languages shared a bioinformatics specialization and appeared mutualistic or competitive. HIT specializations varied. Specialization was highest for Bioconductor and radiology systems. Specialization and cooperativity were positively correlated among languages but negatively correlated among HIT. Rates of language evolution were similar. Biodiversity among languages grew in the first half of the decade and stabilized, while diversity among HIT was variable but flat. Compared with publications in 2001, correlation with publications one year later was positive while correlation after ten years was weak and negative.Adoption of new technologies can be unpredictable. Spatiotemporal relationships facilitate adoption but are not sufficient. As with ecosystems, dense, mutualistic

  10. Absence of zero-temperature transmission rate of a double-chain tight-binding model for DNA with random sequence of nucleotides in thermodynamic limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Gang; Wang, X.R.

    2005-01-01

    The zero-temperature transmission rate spectrum of a double-chain tight-binding model for real DNA is calculated. It is shown that a band of extended-like states exists only for finite chain length with strong inter-chain coupling. While the whole spectrum tends to zero in thermodynamic limit, regardless of the strength of inter-chain coupling. It is also shown that a more faithful model for real DNA with periodic sugar-phosphate chains in backbone structures can be mapped into the above simple double-chain tight-binding model. Combined with above results, the transmission rate of real DNA with long random sequence of nucleotides is expected to be poor

  11. Fish community reassembly after a coral mass mortality: higher trophic groups are subject to increased rates of extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, David; Pinyol-Gallemí, Aleix; Alcoverro, Teresa; Arthur, Rohan

    2015-05-01

    Since Gleason and Clements, our understanding of community dynamics has been influenced by theories emphasising either dispersal or niche assembly as central to community structuring. Determining the relative importance of these processes in structuring real-world communities remains a challenge. We tracked reef fish community reassembly after a catastrophic coral mortality in a relatively unfished archipelago. We revisited the stochastic model underlying MacArthur and Wilson's Island Biogeography Theory, with a simple extension to account for trophic identity. Colonisation and extinction rates calculated from decadal presence-absence data based on (1) species neutrality, (2) trophic identity and (3) site-specificity were used to model post-disturbance reassembly, and compared with empirical observations. Results indicate that species neutrality holds within trophic guilds, and trophic identity significantly increases overall model performance. Strikingly, extinction rates increased clearly with trophic position, indicating that fish communities may be inherently susceptible to trophic downgrading even without targeted fishing of top predators. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  12. Heroin and cocaine abusers have higher discount rates for delayed rewards than alcoholics or non-drug-using controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Kris N; Petry, Nancy M

    2004-04-01

    To test a prediction of the discounting model of impulsiveness that discount rates would be positively associated with addiction. The delay-discount rate refers to the rate of reduction in the present value of a future reward as the delay to that reward increases. We estimated participants' discount rates on the basis of their pattern of choices between smaller immediate rewards ($11-80) and larger, delayed rewards ($25-85; at delays from 1 week to 6 months) in a questionnaire format. Participants had a one-in-six chance of winning a reward that they chose on one randomly selected trial. Heroin (n = 27), cocaine (n = 41) and alcohol (n = 33) abusers and non-drug-using controls (n = 44) were recruited from advertisements. They were tested in a drug abuse research clinic at a medical school. On average, the cocaine and heroin groups had higher rates than controls (both P rates for heroin abusers (P = 0.03), but not for cocaine or alcohol abusers (both P > 0.50). These data suggest that discount rates vary with the preferred drug of abuse, and that high discount rates should be considered in the development of substance abuse prevention and treatment efforts.

  13. Concerns and perceptions immediately following Superstorm Sandy: ratings for property damage were higher than for health issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael

    Governmental officials, health and safety professionals, early responders, and the public are interested in the perceptions and concerns of people faced with a crisis, especially during and immediately after a disaster strikes. Reliable information can lead to increased individual and community preparedness for upcoming crises. The objective of this research was to evaluate concerns of coastal and central New Jersey residents within the first 100 days of Superstorm Sandy's landfall. Respondents living in central New Jersey and Jersey shore communities were differentially impacted by the storm, with shore residents having higher evacuation rates (47% vs. 13%), more flood waters in their homes, longer power outages (average 23 vs. 6 days), and longer periods without Internet (29 vs. 6 days). Ratings of concerns varied both among and within categories as a function of location (central vs. coastal New Jersey), stressor level (ranging from 1 to 3 for combinations of power outages, high winds, and flooding), and demographics. Respondents were most concerned about property damage, health, inconveniences, ecological services, and nuclear power plants in that order. Respondents from the shore gave higher ratings to the concerns within each major category, compared to those from central Jersey. Four findings have implications for understanding future risk, recovery, and resiliency: (1) respondents with the highest stressor level (level 3) were more concerned about water damage than others, (2) respondents with flood damage were more concerned about water drainage and mold than others, (3) respondents with the highest stressor levels rated all ecological services higher than others, and (4) shore respondents rated all ecological services higher than central Jersey residents. These data provide information to design future preparedness plans, improve resiliency for future severe weather events, and reduce public health risk.

  14. Differential associations between glomerular filtration rate and duration of obesity depending on the presence or absence of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ybarra, Juan; Sánchez-Hernández, Joan; Vilallonga, Ramon; Romeo, June H

    2016-07-01

    A robust and consistent association between increasing body mass index (BMI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been reported in several observational studies. Obesity remains the main preventable risk factor for CKD because it largely mediates diabetes and hypertension, the 2 most common etiologies for end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). Obesity is associated weakly with early stages of kidney disease but strongly with kidney progression to ESKD, even after adjustment for hypertension and diabetes. To assess the relationship between estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and trans-thoracic echocardiography left ventricular function parameters in a cohort of patients with obesity. Cross-sectional study involving 324 obese (BMI=44.0±2.2Kg/m(2)) apparently healthy asymptomatic patients with an eGFR >60ml/min/1.73m(2). Each patient underwent transthoracic echocardiography and a blood testing. The eGFR was addressed by the CKD-EPI formula. All patients had a normal systolic function whereas 24.5% disclosed diastolic dysfunction (DD). Hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus prevalence were 34.5% and 4.5% (respectively). All patients disclosed an eGFR >60ml/min while none of them disclosed hyperfiltration (eGFR >120ml/min). eGFR correlated inversely with BMI and the duration of obesity and positively with diastolic function parameters (Pobesity (PObesity and its duration are likely to impose hemodynamic changes affecting simultaneously both heart (diastolic dysfunction) and kidney (decreased glomerular filtration rate). Larger prospective studies are warranted. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Absence of 60-Hz, 0.1-mT magnetic field-induced changes in oncogene transcription rates or levels in CEM-CM3 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahreis, G P; Johnson, P G; Zhao, Y L; Hui, S W

    1998-12-22

    Our objective was to assess the reproducibility of the 60-Hz magnetic field-induced, time-dependent transcription changes of c-fos, c-jun and c-myc oncogenes in CEM-CM3 cells reported by Phillips et al. (Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1132 (1992) 140-144). Cells were exposed to a 60-Hz magnetic field (MF) at 0.1 mT (rms), generated by a pair of Helmholtz coils energized in a reinforcing (MF) mode, or to a null magnetic field when the coils were energized in a bucking (sham) mode. After MF or sham exposure for 15, 30, 60 or 120 min, nuclei and cytoplasmic RNA were extracted. Transcription rates were measured by a nuclear run-on assay, and values were normalized against either their zero-time exposure values, or against those of the c-G3PDH (housekeeping) gene at the same time points. There was no significant difference, at P=0.05, detected between MF and either sham-exposed or control cells at any time point. Transcript levels of the oncogenes were measured by Northern analysis and normalized as above. No significant difference (P=0.05) in transcript levels between MF and either sham-exposed or control cells was detected.

  16. Higher Magnitude Cash Payments Improve Research Follow-up Rates Without Increasing Drug Use or Perceived Coercion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festinger, David S.; Marlowe, Douglas B.; Dugosh, Karen L.; Croft, Jason R.; Arabia, Patricia L.

    2008-01-01

    In a prior study (Festinger et al., 2005) we found that neither the mode (cash vs. gift card) nor magnitude ($10, $40, or $70) of research follow-up payments increased rates of new drug use or perceptions of coercion. However, higher payments and payments in cash were associated with better follow-up attendance, reduced tracking efforts, and improved participant satisfaction with the study. The present study extended those findings to higher payment magnitudes. Participants from an urban outpatient substance abuse treatment program were randomly assigned to receive $70, $100, $130, or $160 in either cash or a gift card for completing a follow-up assessment at 6 months post-admission (n ≅ 50 per cell). Apart from the payment incentives, all participants received a standardized, minimal platform of follow-up efforts. Findings revealed that neither the magnitude nor mode of payment had a significant effect on new drug use or perceived coercion. Consistent with our previous findings, higher payments and cash payments resulted in significantly higher follow-up rates and fewer tracking calls. In addition participants receiving cash vs. gift cards were more likely to use their payments for essential, non-luxury purchases. Follow-up rates for participants receiving cash payments of $100, $130, and $160 approached or exceeded the FDA required minimum of 70% for studies to be considered in evaluations of new medications. This suggests that the use of higher magnitude payments and cash payments may be effective strategies for obtaining more representative follow-up samples without increasing new drug use or perceptions of coercion. PMID:18395365

  17. Higher dose rate Gamma Knife radiosurgery may provide earlier and longer-lasting pain relief for patients with trigeminal neuralgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, John Y K; Sandhu, Sukhmeet; Miller, Denise; Solberg, Timothy; Dorsey, Jay F; Alonso-Basanta, Michelle

    2015-10-01

    Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) utilizes cobalt-60 as its radiation source, and thus dose rate varies as the fixed source decays over its half-life of approximately 5.26 years. This natural decay results in increasing treatment times when delivering the same cumulative dose. It is also possible, however, that the biological effective dose may change based on this dose rate even if the total dose is kept constant. Because patients are generally treated in a uniform manner, radiosurgery for trigeminal neuralgia (TN) represents a clinical model whereby biological efficacy can be tested. The authors hypothesized that higher dose rates would result in earlier and more complete pain relief but only if measured with a sensitive pain assessment tool. One hundred thirty-three patients were treated with the Gamma Knife Model 4C unit at a single center by a single neurosurgeon during a single cobalt life cycle from January 2006 to May 2012. All patients were treated with 80 Gy with a single 4-mm isocenter without blocking. Using an output factor of 0.87, dose rates ranged from 1.28 to 2.95 Gy/min. The Brief Pain Inventory (BPI)-Facial was administered before the procedure and at the first follow-up office visit 1 month from the procedure (mean 1.3 months). Phone calls were made to evaluate patients after their procedures as part of a retrospective study. Univariate and multivariate linear regression was performed on several independent variables, including sex, age in deciles, diagnosis, follow-up duration, prior surgery, and dose rate. In the short-term analysis (mean 1.3 months), patients' self-reported pain intensity at its worst was significantly correlated with dose rate on multivariate analysis (p = 0.028). Similarly, patients' self-reported interference with activities of daily living was closely correlated with dose rate on multivariate analysis (p = 0.067). A 1 Gy/min decrease in dose rate resulted in a 17% decrease in pain intensity at its worst and a 22% decrease

  18. Theoretical and computational study of the energy dependence of the muon transfer rate from hydrogen to higher-Z gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakalov, Dimitar, E-mail: dbakalov@inrne.bas.bg [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Tsarigradsko chaussée 72, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Adamczak, Andrzej [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakow (Poland); Stoilov, Mihail [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Tsarigradsko chaussée 72, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Vacchi, Andrea [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, Via A. Valerio 2, 34127 Trieste (Italy)

    2015-01-23

    The recent PSI Lamb shift experiment and the controversy about proton size revived the interest in measuring the hyperfine splitting in muonic hydrogen as an alternative possibility for comparing ordinary and muonic hydrogen spectroscopy data on proton electromagnetic structure. This measurement critically depends on the energy dependence of the muon transfer rate to heavier gases in the epithermal range. The available data provide only qualitative information, and the theoretical predictions have not been verified. We propose a new method by measurements of the transfer rate in thermalized target at different temperatures, estimate its accuracy and investigate the optimal experimental conditions. - Highlights: • Method for measuring the energy dependence of muon transfer rate to higher-Z gases. • Thermalization and depolarization of muonic hydrogen studied by Monte Carlo method. • Optimal experimental conditions determined by Monte Carlo simulations. • Mathematical model and for estimating the uncertainty of the experimental results.

  19. Does adding metformin to clomifene citrate lead to higher pregnancy rates in a subset of women with polycystic ovary syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, E; Korevaar, J C; Bossuyt, P M M; van der Veen, F

    2008-08-01

    An RCT among newly diagnosed, therapy naive women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) showed no significant differences in ovulation rate, ongoing pregnancy rate or spontaneous abortion rate in favour of clomifene citrate plus metformin compared with clomifene citrate. We wanted to assess whether there are specific subgroups of women with PCOS in whom clomifene citrate plus metformin leads to higher pregnancy rates. Subgroup analysis based on clinical and biochemical parameters of 111 women randomized to clomifene citrate plus metformin compared with 114 women randomized to clomifene citrate plus placebo. The data for age, BMI, waist-hip ratio (WHR) and plasma testosterone were available in all women, 2 h glucose in 80% of women and homeostatic model assessment for assessing insulin sensitivity (HOMA) in 50% of women. Of the women who were allocated to the metformin group, 44 women (40%) reached an ongoing pregnancy. In the placebo group, 52 women (46%) reached an ongoing pregnancy. There was a significantly different chance of an ongoing pregnancy for metformin versus placebo between subgroups based on age and WHR (P = 0.014). There was a positive effect of metformin versus placebo on pregnancy rate in older women (>or=28 years) with a high WHR, a negative effect of metformin versus placebo in young women (Metformin may be an effective addition to clomifene citrate in infertile women with PCOS, especially in older and viscerally obese patients.

  20. Does Prison Crowding Predict Higher Rates of Substance Use Related Parole Violations? A Recurrent Events Multi-Level Survival Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Ruderman

    Full Text Available This administrative data-linkage cohort study examines the association between prison crowding and the rate of post-release parole violations in a random sample of prisoners released with parole conditions in California, for an observation period of two years (January 2003 through December 2004.Crowding overextends prison resources needed to adequately protect inmates and provide drug rehabilitation services. Violence and lack of access to treatment are known risk factors for drug use and substance use disorders. These and other psychosocial effects of crowding may lead to higher rates of recidivism in California parolees.Rates of parole violation for parolees exposed to high and medium levels of prison crowding were compared to parolees with low prison crowding exposure. Hazard ratios (HRs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were estimated using a Cox model for recurrent events. Our dataset included 13070 parolees in California, combining individual level parolee data with aggregate level crowding data for multilevel analysis.Comparing parolees exposed to high crowding with those exposed to low crowding, the effect sizes from greatest to least were absconding violations (HR 3.56 95% CI: 3.05-4.17, drug violations (HR 2.44 95% CI: 2.00-2.98, non-violent violations (HR 2.14 95% CI: 1.73-2.64, violent and serious violations (HR 1.88 95% CI: 1.45-2.43, and technical violations (HR 1.86 95% CI: 1.37-2.53.Prison crowding predicted higher rates of parole violations after release from prison. The effect was magnitude-dependent and particularly strong for drug charges. Further research into whether adverse prison experiences, such as crowding, are associated with recidivism and drug use in particular may be warranted.

  1. Does Prison Crowding Predict Higher Rates of Substance Use Related Parole Violations? A Recurrent Events Multi-Level Survival Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruderman, Michael A; Wilson, Deirdra F; Reid, Savanna

    2015-01-01

    This administrative data-linkage cohort study examines the association between prison crowding and the rate of post-release parole violations in a random sample of prisoners released with parole conditions in California, for an observation period of two years (January 2003 through December 2004). Crowding overextends prison resources needed to adequately protect inmates and provide drug rehabilitation services. Violence and lack of access to treatment are known risk factors for drug use and substance use disorders. These and other psychosocial effects of crowding may lead to higher rates of recidivism in California parolees. Rates of parole violation for parolees exposed to high and medium levels of prison crowding were compared to parolees with low prison crowding exposure. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using a Cox model for recurrent events. Our dataset included 13070 parolees in California, combining individual level parolee data with aggregate level crowding data for multilevel analysis. Comparing parolees exposed to high crowding with those exposed to low crowding, the effect sizes from greatest to least were absconding violations (HR 3.56 95% CI: 3.05-4.17), drug violations (HR 2.44 95% CI: 2.00-2.98), non-violent violations (HR 2.14 95% CI: 1.73-2.64), violent and serious violations (HR 1.88 95% CI: 1.45-2.43), and technical violations (HR 1.86 95% CI: 1.37-2.53). Prison crowding predicted higher rates of parole violations after release from prison. The effect was magnitude-dependent and particularly strong for drug charges. Further research into whether adverse prison experiences, such as crowding, are associated with recidivism and drug use in particular may be warranted.

  2. Does Prison Crowding Predict Higher Rates of Substance Use Related Parole Violations? A Recurrent Events Multi-Level Survival Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruderman, Michael A.; Wilson, Deirdra F.; Reid, Savanna

    2015-01-01

    Objective This administrative data-linkage cohort study examines the association between prison crowding and the rate of post-release parole violations in a random sample of prisoners released with parole conditions in California, for an observation period of two years (January 2003 through December 2004). Background Crowding overextends prison resources needed to adequately protect inmates and provide drug rehabilitation services. Violence and lack of access to treatment are known risk factors for drug use and substance use disorders. These and other psychosocial effects of crowding may lead to higher rates of recidivism in California parolees. Methods Rates of parole violation for parolees exposed to high and medium levels of prison crowding were compared to parolees with low prison crowding exposure. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using a Cox model for recurrent events. Our dataset included 13070 parolees in California, combining individual level parolee data with aggregate level crowding data for multilevel analysis. Results Comparing parolees exposed to high crowding with those exposed to low crowding, the effect sizes from greatest to least were absconding violations (HR 3.56 95% CI: 3.05–4.17), drug violations (HR 2.44 95% CI: 2.00–2.98), non-violent violations (HR 2.14 95% CI: 1.73–2.64), violent and serious violations (HR 1.88 95% CI: 1.45–2.43), and technical violations (HR 1.86 95% CI: 1.37–2.53). Conclusions Prison crowding predicted higher rates of parole violations after release from prison. The effect was magnitude-dependent and particularly strong for drug charges. Further research into whether adverse prison experiences, such as crowding, are associated with recidivism and drug use in particular may be warranted. PMID:26492490

  3. Higher Rate of Tuberculosis in Second Generation Migrants Compared to Native Residents in a Metropolitan Setting in Western Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Florian M.; Fiebig, Lena; Hauer, Barbara; Brodhun, Bonita; Glaser-Paschke, Gisela; Haas, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Background In Western Europe, migrants constitute an important risk group for tuberculosis, but little is known about successive generations of migrants. We aimed to characterize migration among tuberculosis cases in Berlin and to estimate annual rates of tuberculosis in two subsequent migrant generations. We hypothesized that second generation migrants born in Germany are at higher risk of tuberculosis compared to native (non-migrant) residents. Methods A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted. All tuberculosis cases reported to health authorities in Berlin between 11/2010 and 10/2011 were eligible. Interviews were conducted using a structured questionnaire including demographic data, migration history of patients and their parents, and language use. Tuberculosis rates were estimated using 2011 census data. Results Of 314 tuberculosis cases reported, 154 (49.0%) participated. Of these, 81 (52.6%) were first-, 14 (9.1%) were second generation migrants, and 59 (38.3%) were native residents. The tuberculosis rate per 100,000 individuals was 28.3 (95CI: 24.0–32.6) in first-, 10.2 (95%CI: 6.1–16.6) in second generation migrants, and 4.6 (95%CI: 3.7–5.6) in native residents. When combining information from the standard notification variables country of birth and citizenship, the sensitivity to detect second generation migration was 28.6%. Conclusions There is a higher rate of tuberculosis among second generation migrants compared to native residents in Berlin. This may be explained by presumably frequent contact and transmission within migrant populations. Second generation migration is insufficiently captured by the surveillance variables country of birth and citizenship. Surveillance systems in Western Europe should allow for quantifying the tuberculosis burden in this important risk group. PMID:26061733

  4. Modified Mitchell osteotomy alone does not have higher rate of residual metatarsalgia than combined first and lesser metatarsal osteotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Jung Chen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Transfer metatarsalgia (TM is a common forefoot disorder secondary to hallux valgus (HV. Some authors suggest that a combined lesser metatarsal osteotomy while undergoing HV surgery improves metatarsalgia, whereas others concluded that isolated HV corrective osteotomy can improve symptomatic metatarsalgia. The main purpose of this retrospective study was to compare clinical outcomes in patients with and without combined lesser metatarsal osteotomy while receiving HV correction surgery. We retrospectively reviewed the patients who underwent osteotomy for HV correction between January 2000 and December 2010. All patients underwent HV correction with modified Mitchell osteotomy. Clinical evaluations including the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society score and residual metatarsalgia were assessed, and radiographic measurements were carried out. Sixty-five patients (83 feet meeting the selection criteria were enrolled. Thirty feet receiving a combined lesser metatarsal osteotomy were classified as the combined surgery (CS group, and the others were classified as the control (CN group (53 feet. The overall rate of persistent symptomatic metatarsalgia was 19.28% after operative treatment. There were six feet with residual metatarsalgia in the CS group, and 10 feet in the CN group. There was no significant difference in the rate of persistent symptoms between the two groups (p = 0.9. According to this result, modified Mitchell osteotomy alone did not have a higher rate of residual metatarsalgia than CS. We also found that the average recovery rate of TM was about 80.7% and those patients whose preoperative HV angle was > 30° had the higher risk of residual metatarsalgia after surgery.

  5. Obese Japanese adults with type 2 diabetes have higher basal metabolic rates than non-diabetic adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Rieko; Ohkawara, Kazunori; Ishikawa-Takata, Kazuko; Morita, Akemi; Watanabe, Shaw; Tanaka, Shigeho

    2011-01-01

    Several cross-sectional studies in Pima Indians and Caucasians have indicated that obese individuals with type 2 diabetes have a higher basal metabolic rate (BMR) than healthy, obese individuals. However, no study has investigated this comparison in Japanese subjects, who are known to be susceptible to type 2 diabetes due to genetic characteristics. Thirty obese Japanese adults with pre-type 2 diabetes (n=7) or type 2 diabetes (n=13) or without diabetes (n=10) participated in this study. BMR was measured using indirect calorimetry. The relationships between residual BMR (calculated as measured BMR minus BMR adjusted for fat-free mass, fat mass, age, and sex) and biomarkers including fasting glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)), fasting insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-R), triglycerides, and free fatty acids were examined using Pearson's correlation. BMR in diabetic subjects adjusted for fat-free mass, fat mass, age, and sex was 7.1% higher than in non-diabetic subjects. BMR in diabetic subjects was also significantly (pBMR and fasting glucose (r=0.391, p=0.032). These results indicate that in the Japanese population, obese subjects with type 2 diabetes have higher BMR compared with obese non-diabetic subjects. The fasting glucose level may contribute to these differences.

  6. The influence of managers' and colleagues' absence on public employee absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Ann-Kristina Løkke; Jensen, Morten Berg

    2015-01-01

    Background: The level of absence is higher in the public sector than in the private sector both internationally and in a Danish context (e.g. The Confederation of Danish Employers, 2002, Winkelmann, 1999). However, little economic research is conducted to understand determinants of absence among...... public sector employees (De Paola, 2010). Research on the effect of managers’ own absence on their employees’ absence is scarce (Kristensen et al., 2006, Løkke, 2008) and so is the effect of colleagues’ absence in a large scale (Bradley et al., 2007, Dale-Olsen et al., 2010, Hesselius et al., 2009......). To date, research on the simultaneous effect of managers’ and colleagues’ absence behavior does not exist. The most acknowledged literature on absence (e.g., Steers and Rhodes, 1978) concludes that absence is influenced by many determinants; this makes it relevant to control for gender, age etc. Aim...

  7. Sickness absence among health workers in belo horizonte, brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassi, Iara; Assunção, Ada Ávila; Pimenta, Adriano Marçal; Benavides, Fernando G; Ubalde-Lopez, Monica

    2016-05-25

    To describe the prevalence of sickness absence and to analyze factors associated with the outcome according to gender in a sample of healthcare workers at the Belo Horizonte Health Department. This study was based on a Belo Horizonte Health Department survey carried out between September 2008 and January 2009. From a randomly selected sample of 2,205 workers, 1,808 agreed to participate. Workers were classified into Health Staff or Health Care. Other explanatory variables were social and demographic data, work characteristics, and personal health. The Poisson regression was applied to analyze factors associated with sickness absence by the prevalence ratio (PR). The overall prevalence of sickness absence was 31.5% (23.8% for men and 34.6% for women). In the final model, we found higher rates of sickness absence in both male and female workers involved in tasks with high psychosocial demands (PR=1.86 men; PR=1.38 women) and in those that reported using medication for treating chronic diseases (PR=1.96 men; PR=1.50 women). Women having a permanent job contract had a higher prevalence of sickness absence than those having a temporary job contract (PR=1.71). Our findings suggest a paradox in how healthcare is organized: good results in terms of its global objective of providing healthcare for citizens contrast with lack of effective measures for protecting healthcare workers.

  8. Father Absence in Infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Frank A.; And Others

    This document reports a study investigating the effects of father absence on measures of cognitive, social, and motivational development in infancy. The sample included 54 black infants, 27 of whom were classified "father-absent." This classification was based on two indices, (1) a dichotomy of father-absent or father-present based on…

  9. How school climate relates to chronic absence: A multi-level latent profile analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eck, Kathryn; Johnson, Stacy R; Bettencourt, Amie; Johnson, Sarah Lindstrom

    2017-04-01

    Chronic absence is a significant problem in schools. School climate may play an important role in influencing chronic absence rates among schools, yet little research has evaluated how school climate constructs relate to chronic absence. Using multilevel latent profile analysis, we evaluated how profiles of student perceptions of school climate at both the student and school level differentiated school-level rates of chronic absence. Participants included 25,776 middle and high school students from 106 schools who completed a district administered school climate survey. Students attended schools in a large urban school district where 89% of 6th through 12th grade students were African-American and 61% were eligible for the federally subsidized school meals program. Three student-level profiles of perceptions of school climate emerged that corresponded to "positive," "moderate," and "negative" climate. Two predominant patterns regarding the distribution of these profiles within schools emerged that corresponded to the two school-level profiles of "marginal climate" and "climate challenged" schools. Students reporting "moderate" and "negative" climate in their schools were more likely to attend schools with higher chronic absence rates than students reporting that their school had "positive" climate. Likewise, "climate challenged" schools had significantly higher chronic absence rates than "marginal climate" schools. These results suggest that school climate shares an important relation with chronic absence among adolescent students attending urban schools. Implications for prevention and intervention programs are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Is the higher rate of parental child homicide in stepfamilies an effect of non-genetic relatedness?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hans TEMRIN; Johanna NORDLUND; Mikael RYING; Birgitta S. TULLBERG

    2011-01-01

    In an evolutionary perspective individuals are expected to vary the degree of parental love and care in relation to the fitness value that a child represents. Hence, stepparents are expected to show less solicitude than genetically related parents, and this lack of genetic relatedness has been used to explain the higher frequencies of child abuse and homicide found in stepfamilies.However, other factors than non-genetic relatedness may cause this over-representation in stepfamilies. Here we use a 45-year data set of parental child homicides in Sweden to test two hypotheses related to the higher incidence in stepfamilies: 1) adults in different types of family differ in their general disposition to use violence, and 2) parents are more likely to kill stepchildren than genetically related children. Of the 152 perpetrators in biparental families there was an overrepresentation of perpetrators in stepfamilies (n=27) compared with the general population. We found support for the first hypothesis in that both general and violent crime rates were higher in stepfamilies, both in the general population and among perpetrators of child homicide. However, we found no support for the second hypothesis because of the 27 perpetrators in stepfamilies the perpetrator killed a genetically related child in 13 cases, a stepchild in 13 cases and both types of children in one case. Moreover, out of the 12 families where the perpetrator lived with both stepchildren and genetic children, there was no bias towards killing stepchildren. Thus, we found no evidence for an effect of non-genetic relatedness per se [Current Zoology 57 (3): 253-59, 2011].

  11. Training in Using Earplugs or Using Earplugs with a Higher than Necessary Noise Reduction Rating? A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Salmani Nodoushan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL is one of the most common occupational diseases and the second most common cause of workers' claims for occupational injuries. Objective: Due to high prevalence of NIHL and several reports of improper use of hearing protective devices (HPDs, we conducted this study to compare the effect of face-to-face training in effective use of earplugs with appropriate NRR to overprotection of workers by using earplugs with higher than necessary noise reduction rating (NRR. Methods: In a randomized clinical trial, 150 workers referred to occupational medicine clinic were randomly allocated to three arms—a group wearing earplugs with an NRR of 25 with no training in appropriate use of the device; a group wearing earplugs with an NRR of 25 with training; another group wearing earplugs with an NRR of 30, with no training. Hearing threshold was measured in the study groups by real ear attenuation at threshold (REAT method. This trial is registered with Australian New Zealand clinical trials Registry, number ACTRN00363175. Results: The mean±SD age of the participants was 28±5 (range: 19–39 years. 42% of participants were female. The mean noise attenuation in the group with training was 13.88 dB, significantly higher than those observed in other groups. The highest attenuation was observed in high frequencies (4, 6, and 8 kHz in the group with training. Conclusion: Training in appropriate use of earplugs significantly affects the efficacy of earplugs—even more than using an earplug with higher NRR.

  12. Is the higher rate of parental child homicide in stepfamilies an effect of non-genetic relatedness?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans TEMRIN, Johanna NORDLUND, Mikael RYING, Birgitta S. TULLBERG

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In an evolutionary perspective individuals are expected to vary the degree of parental love and care in relation to the fitness value that a child represents. Hence, stepparents are expected to show less solicitude than genetically related parents, and this lack of genetic relatedness has been used to explain the higher frequencies of child abuse and homicide found in stepfamilies. However, other factors than non-genetic relatedness may cause this over-representation in stepfamilies. Here we use a 45-year data set of parental child homicides in Sweden to test two hypotheses related to the higher incidence in stepfamilies: 1 adults in different types of family differ in their general disposition to use violence, and 2 parents are more likely to kill stepchildren than genetically related children. Of the 152 perpetrators in biparental families there was an overrepresentation of perpetrators in stepfamilies (n=27 compared with the general population. We found support for the first hypothesis in that both general and violent crime rates were higher in stepfamilies, both in the general population and among perpetrators of child homicide. However, we found no support for the second hypothesis because of the 27 perpetrators in stepfamilies the perpetrator killed a genetically related child in 13 cases, a stepchild in 13 cases and both types of children in one case. Moreover, out of the 12 families where the perpetrator lived with both stepchildren and genetic children, there was no bias towards killing stepchildren. Thus, we found no evidence for an effect of non-genetic relatedness per se [Current Zoology 57 (3: 253–259, 2011].

  13. The Offer of Advanced Imaging Techniques Leads to Higher Acceptance Rates for Screening Colonoscopy - a Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Heinz; Gallitz, Julia; Hable, Robert; Vieth, Michael; Tontini, Gian Eugenio; Neurath, Markus Friedrich; Riemann, Jurgen Ferdinand; Neumann, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Colonoscopy plays a fundamental role in early diagnosis and management of colorectal cancer and requires public and professional acceptance to ensure the ongoing success of screening programs. The aim of the study was to prospectively assess whether patient acceptance rates to undergo screening colonoscopy could be improved by the offer of advanced imaging techniques. Overall, 372 randomly selected patients were prospectively included. A standardized questionnaire was developed that inquired of the patients their knowledge regarding advanced imaging techniques. Second, several media campaigns and information events were organized reporting about advanced imaging techniques, followed by repeated evaluation. After one year the evaluation ended. At baseline, 64% of the patients declared that they had no knowledge about new endoscopic methods. After twelve months the overall grade of information increased significantly from 14% at baseline to 34%. The percentage of patients who decided to undergo colonoscopy because of the offer of new imaging methods also increased significantly from 12% at baseline to 42% after 12 months. Patients were highly interested in the offer of advanced imaging techniques. Knowledge about these techniques could relatively easy be provided using local media campaigns. The offer of advanced imaging techniques leads to higher acceptance rates for screening colonoscopies.

  14. Non-English speakers attend gastroenterology clinic appointments at higher rates than English speakers in a vulnerable patient population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewell, Justin L.; Kushel, Margot B.; Inadomi, John M.; Yee, Hal F.

    2009-01-01

    Goals We sought to identify factors associated with gastroenterology clinic attendance in an urban safety net healthcare system. Background Missed clinic appointments reduce the efficiency and availability of healthcare, but subspecialty clinic attendance among patients with established healthcare access has not been studied. Study We performed an observational study using secondary data from administrative sources to study patients referred to, and scheduled for an appointment in, the adult gastroenterology clinic serving the safety net healthcare system of San Francisco, California. Our dependent variable was whether subjects attended or missed a scheduled appointment. Analysis included multivariable logistic regression and classification tree analysis. 1,833 patients were referred and scheduled for an appointment between 05/2005 and 08/2006. Prisoners were excluded. All patients had a primary care provider. Results 683 patients (37.3%) missed their appointment; 1,150 (62.7%) attended. Language was highly associated with attendance in the logistic regression; non-English speakers were less likely than English speakers to miss an appointment (adjusted odds ratio 0.42 [0.28,0.63] for Spanish, 0.56 [0.38,0.82] for Asian language, p gastroenterology clinic appointment, not speaking English was most strongly associated with higher attendance rates. Patient related factors associated with not speaking English likely influence subspecialty clinic attendance rates, and these factors may differ from those affecting general healthcare access. PMID:19169147

  15. 3D versus 2D Systematic Transrectal Ultrasound-Guided Prostate Biopsy: Higher Cancer Detection Rate in Clinical Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Peltier

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To compare prostate cancer detection rates of extended 2D versus 3D biopsies and to further assess the clinical impact of this method in day-to-day practice. Methods. We analyzed the data of a cohort of 220 consecutive patients with no prior history of prostate cancer who underwent an initial prostate biopsy in daily practice due to an abnormal PSA and/or DRE using, respectively, the classical 2D and the new 3D systems. All the biopsies were done by a single experienced operator using the same standardized protocol. Results. There was no significant difference in terms of age, total PSA, or prostate volume between the two groups. However, cancer detection rate was significantly higher using the 3D versus the 2D system, 50% versus 34% (P<0.05. There was no statistically significant difference while comparing the 2 groups in term of nonsignificant cancer detection. Conclusion. There is reasonable evidence demonstrating the superiority of the 3D-guided biopsies in detecting prostate cancers that would have been missed using the 2D extended protocol.

  16. Predictors of sickness absence in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette Lausten; Thulstrup, Ane Marie; Juhl, Mette

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this cohort study was to investigate associations between parity, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), assisted reproductive therapy (ART), time to pregnancy (TTP), and engagement in physical exercise and the risk of sickness absence in pregnancy from 10-29 completed pregnancy...... with higher HR of sickness absence. Physical exercise of >120 minutes per week was associated with lower HR 0.84 (95% CI 0.75-0.95). CONCLUSION: Risk for sickness absence was higher among women who were multiparous, overweight, obese, received ART, and had prolonged TTP, and lower among women engaged...

  17. HIV positivity but not HPV/p16 status is associated with higher recurrence rate in anal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Joshua E; Panico, Vinicius J A; Marconato, Heloisa M F; Sherr, David L; Christos, Paul; Pirog, Edyta C

    2013-12-01

    .06). The regional and distant failure rate was not related to HPV/p16 positivity or histologic differentiation of ACA; however, HIV positivity appeared to be associated with a higher recurrence rate and worse recurrence-free survival.

  18. Satellite telemetry reveals higher fishing mortality rates than previously estimated, suggesting overfishing of an apex marine predator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Michael E; Cortés, Enric; Vaudo, Jeremy J; Harvey, Guy C McN; Sampson, Mark; Wetherbee, Bradley M; Shivji, Mahmood

    2017-08-16

    Overfishing is a primary cause of population declines for many shark species of conservation concern. However, means of obtaining information on fishery interactions and mortality, necessary for the development of successful conservation strategies, are often fisheries-dependent and of questionable quality for many species of commercially exploited pelagic sharks. We used satellite telemetry as a fisheries-independent tool to document fisheries interactions, and quantify fishing mortality of the highly migratory shortfin mako shark ( Isurus oxyrinchus ) in the western North Atlantic Ocean. Forty satellite-tagged shortfin mako sharks tracked over 3 years entered the Exclusive Economic Zones of 19 countries and were harvested in fisheries of five countries, with 30% of tagged sharks harvested. Our tagging-derived estimates of instantaneous fishing mortality rates ( F = 0.19-0.56) were 10-fold higher than previous estimates from fisheries-dependent data (approx. 0.015-0.024), suggesting data used in stock assessments may considerably underestimate fishing mortality. Additionally, our estimates of F were greater than those associated with maximum sustainable yield, suggesting a state of overfishing. This information has direct application to evaluations of stock status and for effective management of populations, and thus satellite tagging studies have potential to provide more accurate estimates of fishing mortality and survival than traditional fisheries-dependent methodology. © 2017 The Author(s).

  19. Water Exchange Produces Significantly Higher Adenoma Detection Rate Than Water Immersion: Pooled Data From 2 Multisite Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Felix W; Koo, Malcolm; Cadoni, Sergio; Falt, Premysl; Hsieh, Yu-Hsi; Amato, Arnaldo; Erriu, Matteo; Fojtik, Petr; Gallittu, Paolo; Hu, Chi-Tan; Leung, Joseph W; Liggi, Mauro; Paggi, Silvia; Radaelli, Franco; Rondonotti, Emanuele; Smajstrla, Vit; Tseng, Chih-Wei; Urban, Ondrej

    2018-03-02

    To test the hypothesis that water exchange (WE) significantly increases adenoma detection rates (ADR) compared with water immersion (WI). Low ADR was linked to increased risk for interval colorectal cancers and related deaths. Two recent randomized controlled trials of head-to-head comparison of WE, WI, and traditional air insufflation (AI) each showed that WE achieved significantly higher ADR than AI, but not WI. The data were pooled from these 2 studies to test the above hypothesis. Two trials (5 sites, 14 colonoscopists) that randomized 1875 patients 1:1:1 to AI, WI, or WE were pooled and analyzed with ADR as the primary outcome. The ADR of AI (39.5%) and WI (42.4%) were comparable, significantly lower than that of WE (49.6%) (vs. AI P=0.001; vs. WI P=0.033). WE insertion time was 3 minutes longer than that of AI (Prate (vs. AI) of the >10 mm advanced adenomas. Right colon combined advanced and sessile serrated ADR of AI (3.4%) and WI (5%) were comparable and were significantly lower than that of WE (8.5%) (vs. AI P<0.001; vs. WI P=0.039). Compared with AI and WI, the superior ADR of WE offsets the drawback of a significantly longer insertion time. For quality improvement focused on increasing adenoma detection, WE is preferred over WI. The hypothesis that WE could lower the risk of interval colorectal cancers and related deaths should be tested.

  20. [Sickness absence associated with major life events].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markussen, Simen; Røgeberg, Ole

    2012-05-29

    Sickness absence in the Norwegian workplace doubled in the period 1993-2003. However, the extent to which the driving factors were medical or non-medical remains unclear, as does the extent to which the cause may be found in the composition of the workforce. A differences-in-differences regression model was used to estimate the added sickness absence associated with major life events such as separation, death of spouse and pregnancy in the period 1993-2005. The data were obtained from administrative registers covering the entire Norwegian population, and include all absence periods of 16 days' duration or more reported by a doctor's medical certificate. The primary outcome measures were incidence (the proportion of absentees in a given time window) and absence (the proportion of sick days in a given time window). The level of absence among employees exposed to the specified life events was compared to control groups matched for gender, age, education and income. In 1993, people in each of the three groups exposed to major life events had more frequent and longer periods of absence than people in the control groups. This added sickness absence increased between 1993 and 2005. The changes in added sickness absence were at times significant, particularly for pregnant women. While sickness absence among pregnant women in 1993 was 15.4 percentage points higher than in the control group, the difference had increased to 24.8 percentage points in 2005. We find it improbable for the increase in added sickness absence to be caused by changes in the medical impact of life events or alterations in the workforce composition. We believe the increase is caused by changing attitudes among the working population and in the medical profession towards sickness absence on grounds that are not strictly medical, combined with improved social acceptance and diagnosis of mental health issues, and/or a medicalisation of natural health variations (pregnancy) and emotional distress (grief).

  1. International comparisons of preterm birth: higher rates of late preterm birth are associated with lower rates of stillbirth and neonatal death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisonkova, S; Sabr, Y; Butler, B; Joseph, K S

    2012-12-01

    To examine international rates of preterm birth and potential associations with stillbirths and neonatal deaths at late preterm and term gestation. Ecological study. Canada, USA and 26 countries in Europe. All deliveries in 2004. Information on preterm birth (Statistics Canada, the EURO-PERISTAT project and the National Center for Health Statistics. Pearson correlation coefficients and random-intercept Poisson regression were used to examine the association between preterm birth rates and gestational age-specific stillbirth and neonatal death rates. Rate ratios with 95% confidence intervals were estimated after adjustment for maternal age, parity and multiple births. Stillbirths and neonatal deaths ≥ 32 and ≥ 37 weeks of gestation. International rates of preterm birth (births. Preterm birth rates at 32-36 weeks were inversely associated with stillbirths at ≥ 32 weeks (adjusted rate ratio 0.94, 95% CI 0.92-0.96) and ≥ 37 weeks (adjusted rate ratio 0.88, 95% CI 0.85-0.91) of gestation and inversely associated with neonatal deaths at ≥ 32 weeks (adjusted rate ratio 0.88, 95% CI 0.85-0.91) and ≥ 37 weeks (adjusted rate ratio 0.82, 95% CI 0.78-0.86) of gestation. Countries with high rates of preterm birth at 32-36 weeks of gestation have lower stillbirth and neonatal death rates at and beyond 32 weeks of gestation. Contemporary rates of preterm birth are indicators of both perinatal health and obstetric care services. © 2012 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2012 RCOG.

  2. Does adding metformin to clomifene citrate lead to higher pregnancy rates in a subset of women with polycystic ovary syndrome?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moll, E.; Korevaar, J. C.; Bossuyt, P. M. M.; van der Veen, F.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An RCT among newly diagnosed, therapy naive women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) showed no significant differences in ovulation rate, ongoing pregnancy rate or spontaneous abortion rate in favour of clomifene citrate plus metformin compared with clomifene citrate. We wanted to

  3. Leading during change: the effects of leader behavior on sickness absence in a Norwegian health trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstrøm, Vilde Hoff; Kjekshus, Lars Erik

    2012-09-17

    Organizational change often leads to negative employee outcomes such as increased absence. Because change is also often inevitable, it is important to know how these negative outcomes could be reduced. This study investigates how the line manager's behavior relates to sickness absence in a Norwegian health trust during major restructuring. Leader behavior was measured by questionnaire, where employees assessed their line manager's behavior (N = 1008; response rate 40%). Data on sickness absence were provided at department level (N = 35) and were measured at two times. Analyses were primarily conducted using linear regression; leader behavior was aggregated and weighted by department size. The results show a relationship between several leader behaviors and sickness absence. The line managers' display of loyalty to their superiors was related to higher sickness absence; whereas task monitoring was related to lower absence. Social support was related to higher sickness absence. However, the effect of social support was no longer significant when the line manager also displayed high levels of problem confrontation. The findings clearly support the line manager's importance for employee sickness absence during organizational change. We conclude that more awareness concerning the manager's role in change processes is needed.

  4. Higher dropout rate in non-native patients than in native patients in rehabilitation in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloots, Maurits; Scheppers, Emmanuel F.; van de Weg, Frans B.; Bartels, Edien A.; Geertzen, Jan H.; Dekker, Joost; Dekker, Jaap

    Dropout from a rehabilitation programme often occurs in patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain of non-native origin. However, the exact dropout rate is not known. The objective of this study was to determine the difference in dropout rate between native and non-native patients with chronic

  5. Accounting for Risk of Non-Completion in Private and Social Rates of Return to Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toutkoushian, Robert K.; Shafiq, M. Najeeb; Trivette, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Conventional studies of the private and social rates of return to a Bachelor's degree focus on the earnings difference between Bachelor degree holders and high school graduates, and find that there are large rates of return for degree recipients. The estimates in these studies, however, do not take into account the risk of not completing a degree.…

  6. Trauma centers with higher rates of angiography have a lesser incidence of splenectomy in the management of blunt splenic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capecci, Louis M; Jeremitsky, Elan; Smith, R Stephen; Philp, Frances

    2015-10-01

    Nonoperative management (NOM) for blunt splenic injury (BSI) is well-established. Angiography (ANGIO) has been shown to improve success rates with NOM. Protocols for NOM are not standardized and vary widely between centers. We hypothesized that trauma centers that performed ANGIO at a greater rate would demonstrate decreased rates of splenectomy compared with trauma centers that used ANGIO less frequently. A large, multicenter, statewide database (Pennsylvania Trauma Systems Foundation) from 2007 to 2011 was used to generate the study cohort of patients with BSI (age ≥ 13). The cohort was divided into 2 populations based on admission to centers with high (≥13%) or low (Splenectomy rates were then compared between the 2 groups, and multivariable logistic regression for predictors of splenectomy (failed NOM) were also performed. The overall rate of splenectomy in the entire cohort was 21.0% (1,120 of 5,333 BSI patients). The high ANGIO group had a lesser rate of splenectoy compared with the low ANGIO group (19% vs 24%; P splenectomy compared with low ANGIO centers (odds ratio, 0.68; 95% CI 0.58-0.80; P splenectomy rates compared with centers with lesser rate of ANGIO. Inclusion of angiographic protocols for NOM of BSI should be considered strongly. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Past absence as a predictor of present absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkke Møller, Ann-Kristina Løkke

    2014-01-01

    of confounders such as gender, age, seniority, wage, contracted number of work hours and season. The results of the empirical study show that there is a significant positive relationship between employees' absence duration and past absence spells and past absence days, respectively. The study thus confirms...... that past days and past spells have an equal potential of predicting present absent. Past absence behaviour can thus be used as an early warning for managers. The study also confirms that personal characteristics such as age and seniority also influence absence duration. Moreover, job characteristics...... such as wage and contracted number of work hours also influence absence duration. Finally, the season of the year seems to influence absence duration....

  8. The return of dissociation as absence within absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurevich, Hayuta

    2014-12-01

    My aim is to translate Ferenczi's central concepts of the intrapsychic impact and imprint of early developmental trauma into both revived and contemporary conceptualizations. The concept of dissociation was renounced by Freud, yet it is returning as a cornerstone of recent trauma theories. Ferenczi used the concept of "repression," but used it in the sense of an intrapsychic imprint of early external trauma that fragments consciousness, that is, as dissociation. Furthermore, early trauma is double: an absence of protection that threatens existence of the self, combined with an absence of attachment and of recognition of this threat and terror; thus it is an absence-within-absence. This contemporary conceptualization entails a widening of the intrapsychic realm to include an intersubjective one, and regards dissociation as a unique and complex intrapsychic absence, which is a negative of the external absence-within-absence in the early environment.

  9. Higher Precision of Heart Rate Compared with VO2 to Predict Exercise Intensity in Endurance-Trained Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Victor M; den Tillaar, Roland Van; Marques, Mario C

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the precision of oxygen uptake with heart rate regression during track running in highly-trained runners. Twelve national and international level male long-distance road runners (age 30.7 ± 5.5 yrs, height 1.71 ± 0.04 m and mass 61.2 ± 5.8 kg) with a personal best on the half marathon of 62 min 37 s ± 1 min 22 s participated in the study. Each participant performed, in an all-weather synthetic track five, six min bouts at constant velocity with each bout at an increased running velocity. The starting velocity was 3.33 m·s(-1) with a 0.56 m·s(-1) increase on each subsequent bout. VO2 and heart rate were measured during the runs and blood lactate was assessed immediately after each run. Mean peak VO2 and mean peak heart rate were, respectively, 76.2 ± 9.7 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1) and 181 ± 13 beats·min(-1). The linearity of the regressions between heart rate, running velocity and VO2 were all very high (r > 0.99) with small standard errors of regression (i.e. Sy.x at the velocity associated with the 2 and 4 mmol·L(-1) lactate thresholds). The strong relationships between heart rate, running velocity and VO2 found in this study show that, in highly trained runners, it is possible to have heart rate as an accurate indicator of energy demand and of the running speed. Therefore, in this subject cohort it may be unnecessary to use VO2 to track changes in the subjects' running economy during training periods. Key pointsHeart rate is used in the control of exercise intensity in endurance sports.However, few studies have quantified the precision of its relationship with oxygen uptake in highly trained runners.We evaluated twelve elite half-marathon runners during track running at various intensities and established three regressions: oxygen uptake / heart rate; heart rate / running velocity and oxygen uptake / running velocity.The three regressions presented, respectively, imprecision of 4,2%, 2,75% and 4,5% at the velocity

  10. Economy and job contract as contexts of sickness absence practices: revisiting locality and habitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, P; Vahtera, J; Nakari, R; Pentti, J; Kivimäki, M

    2004-04-01

    This study revisits two Finnish local governments-Raisio and Nokia-that in an earlier study showed different sickness absence rates in the early 1990s. The locality difference was interpreted sociologically, within a framework inspired by Bourdieu's theory of social field, habitus and practice. The same framework is applied in the present study, starting out from the hypothesis that a constant historical and cultural locality context tends to reproduce prevailing sickness absence practices. The hypothesis was tested by extending the context beyond the locality to the macroeconomic fluctuations that occurred during the 1990s and to the type of employment contract. In both localities a 30% rise was observed in levels of sickness absence from 1991-1993 to 1997-2000. At the beginning of the 1990s the absence rate among permanent employees was 1.86 times higher in Nokia than in Raisio; at the end of the decade the corresponding rate ratio was 1.88. The absence rates were significantly lower among fixed-term employees than permanent employees, but the locality difference was seen in their case, too. Both results support the hypothesis. In spite of major changes taking place in the national economy, the differences between the two towns' sickness absence rates persisted, which in this particular case probably reflects the persisting working-class character of Nokia and middle-class character of Raisio. The theory also applies to the difference between permanent and fixed-term employees: the peripheral power position of the latter on work related social fields leads to the observed practices, i.e. to the relatively low absence rate. The results of our revisit give reason to recapitulate and elaborate upon our theoretical interpretation with a view to deepening our understanding of the social origins of sickness absence practices in the post-industrial workplace, which is characterised by increasing atypical employment and growing job insecurity.

  11. Are Cancer incidence Rates Among Present And Past Workers Of The research Centers Of The Atomic Energy Commission higher Than The Rates Among The General Population?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litai, D.

    1999-01-01

    Cancer incidence rates among the workers of the AEC and its retirees have increased several fold in the last decade compared to the rates experienced in previous ones. This has brought about a wave of claims for compensation with negative repercussions in the media about the state of radiation safety in the nuclear research centers in the country. The Nuclear Research Center - Negev, being, generally closed to public and media visits, has taken the brunt of this criticism. Consequently, the question spelled out in the title has caused much concern and deserves to be discussed and explained. The purpose of this paper is to review what we know in this context and to show that the observed morbidity rates, worrying as they may be, are entirely natural, and, by and large, unrelated to the occupational exposures of the workers. It is well known that cancer incidence rates in the population rise steeply with age, especially over 50. As both research centers are approaching the age of 40, it is clear that a very large fraction of the workers and all retirees have passed this age and many are already in their sixties and even seventies. It is a well established fact that close to 40% of the population in this country (and many others as well) develop some type of cancer during their lifetime and close to a half of these succumb to it. As most of those cancers occur after the age of 50, this explains the increased rates alluded to above. Notably, numerous research centers around the globe have reached similar ages in the last decade and experience similar increases in morbidity, that have caused understandable concern and the initiation of epidemiological studies intended to identify the health effects of extended exposures to low doses, if any. Such studies have been carried out in several countries and followed, altogether, about 100,000 workers through 40 years. The studies showed no excess of cancer mortality among workers compared to the general population (adjusted

  12. Faster eating rates are associated with higher energy intakes during an ad libitum meal, higher BMI and greater adiposity among 4·5-year-old children: results from the Growing Up in Singapore Towards Healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Anna; Goh, Ai Ting; Fries, Lisa R; Sadananthan, Suresh A; Velan, S Sendhil; Michael, Navin; Tint, Mya-Thway; Fortier, Marielle V; Chan, Mei Jun; Toh, Jia Ying; Chong, Yap-Seng; Tan, Kok Hian; Yap, Fabian; Shek, Lynette P; Meaney, Michael J; Broekman, Birit F P; Lee, Yung Seng; Godfrey, Keith M; Chong, Mary F F; Forde, Ciarán G

    2017-04-01

    Faster eating rates are associated with increased energy intake, but little is known about the relationship between children's eating rate, food intake and adiposity. We examined whether children who eat faster consume more energy and whether this is associated with higher weight status and adiposity. We hypothesised that eating rate mediates the relationship between child weight and ad libitum energy intake. Children (n 386) from the Growing Up in Singapore Towards Healthy Outcomes cohort participated in a video-recorded ad libitum lunch at 4·5 years to measure acute energy intake. Videos were coded for three eating-behaviours (bites, chews and swallows) to derive a measure of eating rate (g/min). BMI and anthropometric indices of adiposity were measured. A subset of children underwent MRI scanning (n 153) to measure abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adiposity. Children above/below the median eating rate were categorised as slower and faster eaters, and compared across body composition measures. There was a strong positive relationship between eating rate and energy intake (r 0·61, P<0·001) and a positive linear relationship between eating rate and children's BMI status. Faster eaters consumed 75 % more energy content than slower eating children (Δ548 kJ (Δ131 kcal); 95 % CI 107·6, 154·4, P<0·001), and had higher whole-body (P<0·05) and subcutaneous abdominal adiposity (Δ118·3 cc; 95 % CI 24·0, 212·7, P=0·014). Mediation analysis showed that eating rate mediates the link between child weight and energy intake during a meal (b 13·59; 95 % CI 7·48, 21·83). Children who ate faster had higher energy intake, and this was associated with increased BMI z-score and adiposity.

  13. HIGHER PRECISION OF HEART RATE COMPARED WITH VO2 TO PREDICT EXERCISE INTENSITY IN ENDURANCE-TRAINED RUNNERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor M. Reis

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to assess the precision of oxygen uptake with heart rate regression during track running in highly-trained runners. Twelve national and international level male long-distance road runners (age 30.7 ± 5.5 yrs, height 1.71 ± 0.04 m and mass 61.2 ± 5.8 kg with a personal best on the half marathon of 62 min 37 s ± 1 min 22 s participated in the study. Each participant performed, in an all-weather synthetic track five, six min bouts at constant velocity with each bout at an increased running velocity. The starting velocity was 3.33 m·s-1 with a 0.56 m·s-1 increase on each subsequent bout. VO2 and heart rate were measured during the runs and blood lactate was assessed immediately after each run. Mean peak VO2 and mean peak heart rate were, respectively, 76.2 ± 9.7 mL·kg-1·min-1 and 181 ± 13 beats·min-1. The linearity of the regressions between heart rate, running velocity and VO2 were all very high (r > 0.99 with small standard errors of regression (i.e. Sy.x < 5% at the velocity associated with the 2 and 4 mmol·L-1 lactate thresholds. The strong relationships between heart rate, running velocity and VO2 found in this study show that, in highly trained runners, it is possible to have heart rate as an accurate indicator of energy demand and of the running speed. Therefore, in this subject cohort it may be unnecessary to use VO2 to track changes in the subjects' running economy during training periods.

  14. Predictors of sickness absence in college and university educated self-employed: a historic register study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnvoord, Liesbeth E C; Van der Klink, Jac J L; De Boer, Michiel R; Brouwer, Sandra

    2014-05-02

    Despite a large proportion of the workforce being self-employed, few studies have been conducted on risk factors for sickness absence in this population. The aim of this study is to identify risk factors for future sickness absence in a population of college and university educated self-employed. In a historic register study based on insurance company files risk factors were identified by means of logistic regression analysis. Data collected at application for private disability insurance from 634 applicants were related to subsequent sickness absence periods of 30 days or more during a follow-up period of 7.95 years. Variables studied were self-reported lifestyle variables, variables concerning medical history and present health conditions and variables derived from the general medical examination including blood tests and urinary analysis. Results from analysis of data from 634 applicants for private disability insurance show that previous periods of sickness absence (OR 2.07), female gender (OR 2.04), health complaints listed in the health declaration (OR 1.88), elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) (OR 4.05) and the nature of the profession were related to a higher risk of sickness absence. Sickness absence was found to be related to demographic variables (gender, profession), medical variables (health complaints and erythrocyte sedimentation rate) and to variables with both a medical and a behavioural component (previous sickness absence).

  15. Score of Inattention Subscale of ADHD Rating Scale-IV is Significantly Higher for AD/HD than PDD.

    OpenAIRE

    Fujibayashi, Hiromi; Kitayama, Shinji; Matsuo, Masafumi

    2010-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) and pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) must be differentiated because the respective treatments are different. However, they are difficult to distinguish because they often show similar symptoms. At our hospital, we have the rearer of a patient answer both the ADHD Rating Scale-IV (ADHD-RS) and the Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire (ASSQ), and use the results as an aid for the diagnosis of AD/HD or PDD. These results were compared wit...

  16. Hydraulic conductance as well as nitrogen accumulation plays a role in the higher rate of leaf photosynthesis of the most productive variety of rice in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylaran, Renante D; Adachi, Shunsuke; Ookawa, Taiichiro; Usuda, Hideaki; Hirasawa, Tadashi

    2011-07-01

    An indica variety Takanari is known as one of the most productive rice varieties in Japan and consistently produces 20-30% heavier dry matter during ripening than Japanese commercial varieties in the field. The higher rate of photosynthesis of individual leaves during ripening has been recognized in Takanari. By using pot-grown plants under conditions of minimal mutual shading, it was confirmed that the higher rate of leaf photosynthesis is responsible for the higher dry matter production after heading in Takanari as compared with a japonica variety, Koshihikari. The rate of leaf photosynthesis and shoot dry weight became larger in Takanari after the panicle formation and heading stages, respectively, than in Koshihikari. Roots grew rapidly in the panicle formation stage until heading in Takanari compared with Koshihikari. The higher rate of leaf photosynthesis in Takanari resulted not only from the higher content of leaf nitrogen, which was caused by its elevated capacity for nitrogen accumulation, but also from higher stomatal conductance. When measured under light-saturated conditions, stomatal conductance was already decreased due to the reduction in leaf water potential in Koshihikari even under conditions of a relatively small difference in leaf-air vapour pressure difference. In contrast, the higher stomatal conductance was supported by the maintenance of higher leaf water potential through the higher hydraulic conductance in Takanari with the larger area of root surface. However, no increase in root hydraulic conductivity was expected in Takanari. The larger root surface area of Takanari might be a target trait in future rice breeding for increasing dry matter production.

  17. Association between higher levels of sexual function, activity, and satisfaction and self-rated successful aging in older postmenopausal women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Wesley K.; Charo, Lindsey; Vahia, Ipsit V.; Depp, Colin; Allison, Matthew; Jeste, Dilip V.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To determine if measures of successful-aging are associated with sexual activity, satisfaction, and function in older post-menopausal women. Design Cross-sectional study using self-report surveys; analyses include chi-square and t-tests and multiple linear regression analyses. Setting Community-dwelling older post-menopausal women in the greater San Diego Region. Participants 1,235 community-dwelling women aged 60-89 years participating at the San Diego site of the Women's Health Initiative. Measurements Demographics and self-report measures of sexual activity, function, and satisfaction and successful aging. Results Sexual activity and functioning (desire, arousal, vaginal tightness, use of lubricants, and ability to climax) were negatively associated with age, as were physical and mental health. In contrast, sexual satisfaction and self-rated successful aging and quality of life remained unchanged across age groups. Successful aging measures were positively associated with sexual measures, especially self-rated quality of life and sexual satisfaction. Conclusions Self-rated successful aging, quality of life, and sexual satisfaction appear to be stable in the face of declines in physical health, some cognitive abilities, and sexual activity and function and are positively associated with each other across ages 60-89 years. PMID:21797827

  18. The dynamics of absence behaviour: Interrelations between absence from class and absence in class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonasson, Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Studies of absence in educational settings have primarily been concerned with the causes for and results of student absence. However, recent research has argued that distinguishing between different forms of absence could be important. In consequence, studying the way in whi...... in the social practice of students, teachers and school managers. Evaluations of both absence from class and absence in class are important for understanding how absence behaviour can be identified and prevented....... performance. It is helpful to describe these findings using theoretical frameworks from sociology and psychology: specifically, spill-over theory and symbolic capital theory. Conclusions: This study has demonstrated how different forms of absence become dynamically interrelated through ongoing negotiations...

  19. Normative data on the diurnal pattern of the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale ratings and its relation to age, sex, work, stress, sleep quality and sickness absence/illness in a large sample of daytime workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åkerstedt, Torbjorn; Hallvig, David; Kecklund, Göran

    2017-10-01

    Self-rated sleepiness responds to sleep loss, time of day and work schedules. There is, however, a lack of a normative reference showing the diurnal pattern during a normal working day, compared with a day off, as well as differences depending on stress, sleep quality, sex, age and being sick listed. The present study sought to provide such data for the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale. Participants were 431 individuals working in medium-sized public service units. Sleepiness (Karolinska Sleepiness Scale, scale 1-9) was rated at six times a day for a working week and 2 days off (>90.000 ratings). The results show a clear circadian pattern, with high values during the morning (4.5 at 07:00 hours) and evening (6.0 at 22:00 hours), and with low values (3-4) during the 10:00-16:00 hours span. Women had significantly higher (0.5 units) Karolinska Sleepiness Scale values than men, as did younger individuals (0.3 units), those with stress (1.3 units above the low-stress group) and those with poor sleep quality (1.0 units above those with qood sleep quality). Days off showed reduced sleepiness (0.7 units), while being sick listed was associated with an increased sleepiness (0.8 units). Multiple regression analysis of mean sleepiness during the working week yielded mean daytime stress, mean sleep quality, age, and sex as predictors (not sleep duration). Improved sleep quality accounted for the reduced sleepiness during days off, but reduced stress was a second factor. Similar results were obtained in a longitudinal mixed-model regression analysis across the 7 days of the week. The percentage of ratings at Karolinska Sleepiness Scale risk levels (8 + 9) was 6.6%, but most of these were obtained at 22:00 hours. It was concluded that sleepiness ratings are strongly associated with time of day, sleep quality, stress, work day/day off, being ill, age, and sex. © 2017 European Sleep Research Society.

  20. Do More Hospital Beds Lead to Higher Hospitalization Rates? A Spatial Examination of Roemer’s Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delamater, Paul L.; Messina, Joseph P.; Grady, Sue C.; WinklerPrins, Vince; Shortridge, Ashton M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Roemer’s Law, a widely cited principle in health care policy, states that hospital beds that are built tend to be used. This simple but powerful expression has been invoked to justify Certificate of Need regulation of hospital beds in an effort to contain health care costs. Despite its influence, a surprisingly small body of empirical evidence supports its content. Furthermore, known geographic factors influencing health services use and the spatial structure of the relationship between hospital bed availability and hospitalization rates have not been sufficiently explored in past examinations of Roemer’s Law. We pose the question, “Accounting for space in health care access and use, is there an observable association between the availability of hospital beds and hospital utilization?” Methods We employ an ecological research design based upon the Anderson behavioral model of health care utilization. This conceptual model is implemented in an explicitly spatial context. The effect of hospital bed availability on the utilization of hospital services is evaluated, accounting for spatial structure and controlling for other known determinants of hospital utilization. The stability of this relationship is explored by testing across numerous geographic scales of analysis. The case study comprises an entire state system of hospitals and population, evaluating over one million inpatient admissions. Results We find compelling evidence that a positive, statistically significant relationship exists between hospital bed availability and inpatient hospitalization rates. Additionally, the observed relationship is invariant with changes in the geographic scale of analysis. Conclusions This study provides evidence for the effects of Roemer’s Law, thus suggesting that variations in hospitalization rates have origins in the availability of hospital beds. This relationship is found to be robust across geographic scales of analysis. These findings suggest

  1. The Active Management of Risk in Multiparous Pregnancy at Term: association between a higher preventive labor induction rate and improved birth outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, James M.; Caughey, Aaron; Stenson, Ms. Morghan H.; Cronholm, Peter; Kellar, Lisa; Bennett, Ian; Margo, Katie; Stratton, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine if exposure of multiparous women to a high rate of preventive labor induction was associated with a significantly lower cesarean delivery rate. Study Design Retrospective cohort study involving 123 multiparas, who were exposed to the frequent use of preventive labor induction, and 304 multiparas, who received standard management. Rates of cesarean delivery and other adverse birth outcomes were compared in the two groups. Logistic regression controlled for confounding covariates. Results The exposed group had a lower cesarean delivery rate (aOR 0.09, 0.8% vs. 9.9%, p = 0.02) and a higher uncomplicated vaginal delivery rate (OR 0.53, 78.9% vs. 66.4%, p=0.01). Exposure was not associated with higher rates of other adverse birth outcomes. Conclusion Exposure of multiparas to a high rate of preventive labor induction was significantly associated with improved birth outcomes including a very low cesarean delivery rate. A prospective randomized trial is needed to determine causality. PMID:19254584

  2. Potential impact on HIV incidence of higher HIV testing rates and earlier antiretroviral therapy initiation in MSM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillips, Andrew N; Cambiano, Valentina; Miners, Alec

    2015-01-01

    count 350/μl. We investigated what would be required to reduce HIV incidence in MSM to below 1 per 1000 person-years (i.e. cost-effective. METHODS: A dynamic, individual-based simulation model was calibrated to multiple data sources...... with viral suppression to 80%, and it would be 90%, if ART is initiated at diagnosis. The scenarios required for such a policy to be cost-effective are presented. CONCLUSION: This analysis provides targets for the proportion of all HIV-positive MSM with viral suppression required to achieve substantial......BACKGROUND: Increased rates of testing, with early antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation, represent a key potential HIV-prevention approach. Currently, in MSM in the United Kingdom, it is estimated that 36% are diagnosed by 1 year from infection, and the ART initiation threshold is at CD4 cell...

  3. PCR reveals significantly higher rates of Trypanosoma cruzi infection than microscopy in the Chagas vector, Triatoma infestans: High rates found in Chuquisaca, Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucero David E

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Andean valleys of Bolivia are the only reported location of sylvatic Triatoma infestans, the main vector of Chagas disease in this country, and the high human prevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in this region is hypothesized to result from the ability of vectors to persist in domestic, peri-domestic, and sylvatic environments. Determination of the rate of Trypanosoma infection in its triatomine vectors is an important element in programs directed at reducing human infections. Traditionally, T. cruzi has been detected in insect vectors by direct microscopic examination of extruded feces, or dissection and analysis of the entire bug. Although this technique has proven to be useful, several drawbacks related to its sensitivity especially in the case of small instars and applicability to large numbers of insects and dead specimens have motivated researchers to look for a molecular assay based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR as an alternative for parasitic detection of T. cruzi infection in vectors. In the work presented here, we have compared a PCR assay and direct microscopic observation for diagnosis of T. cruzi infection in T. infestans collected in the field from five localities and four habitats in Chuquisaca, Bolivia. The efficacy of the methods was compared across nymphal stages, localities and habitats. Methods We examined 152 nymph and adult T. infestans collected from rural areas in the department of Chuquisaca, Bolivia. For microscopic observation, a few drops of rectal content obtained by abdominal extrusion were diluted with saline solution and compressed between a slide and a cover slip. The presence of motile parasites in 50 microscopic fields was registered using 400× magnification. For the molecular analysis, dissection of the posterior part of the abdomen of each insect followed by DNA extraction and PCR amplification was performed using the TCZ1 (5' – CGA GCT CTT GCC CAC ACG GGT GCT – 3

  4. Effect of temperature during ion sputtering on the surface segregation rate of antimony in an iron-antimony alloy at higher temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oku, M.; Hirokawa, K.; Kimura, H.; Suzuki, S.

    1986-01-01

    The surface segregation of antimony in an iron-0.23 at% antimony alloy was studied by XPS. The segregation rate in the temperature range between 800 and 900 K depends on the temperature during sputtering with argon ion of kinetic energy of 1 keV. The sputtering at room temperature or 473 K gives higher values of the segregation rate than those at 673 K. Both cases give the activation energy of 170 kJmol -1 for the surface segregation rate. The segregation of antimony is not observed after the sample is heated at 1000 K. (author)

  5. Loose regulation of medical marijuana programs associated with higher rates of adult marijuana use but not cannabis use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Arthur Robin; Santaella-Tenorio, Julian; Mauro, Christine M; Levin, Frances R; Martins, Silvia S

    2017-11-01

    Most US states have passed medical marijuana laws (MMLs), with great variation in program regulation impacting enrollment rates. We aimed to compare changes in rates of marijuana use, heavy use and cannabis use disorder across age groups while accounting for whether states enacted medicalized (highly regulated) or non-medical mml programs. Difference-in-differences estimates with time-varying state-level MML coded by program type (medicalized versus non-medical). Multi-level linear regression models adjusted for state-level random effects and covariates as well as historical trends in use. Nation-wide cross-sectional survey data from the US National Survey of Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) restricted use data portal aggregated at the state level. Participants comprised 2004-13 NSDUH respondents (n ~ 67 500/year); age groups 12-17, 18-25 and 26+ years. States had implemented eight medicalized and 15 non-medical MML programs. Primary outcome measures included (1) active (past-month) marijuana use; (2) heavy use (> 300 days/year); and (3) cannabis use disorder diagnosis, based on DSM-IV criteria. Covariates included program type, age group and state-level characteristics throughout the study period. Adults 26+ years of age living in states with non-medical MML programs increased past-month marijuana use 1.46% (from 4.13 to 6.59%, P = 0.01), skewing towards greater heavy marijuana by 2.36% (from 14.94 to 17.30, P = 0.09) after MMLs were enacted. However, no associated increase in the prevalence of cannabis use disorder was found during the study period. Our findings do not show increases in prevalence of marijuana use among adults in states with medicalized MML programs. Additionally, there were no increases in adolescent or young adult marijuana outcomes following MML passage, irrespective of program type. Non-medical marijuana laws enacted in US states are associated with increased marijuana use, but only among adults aged 26+ years. Researchers and

  6. Being born under adverse economic conditions leads to a higher cardiovascular mortality rate later in life: evidence based on individuals born at different stages of the business cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Berg, Gerard J; Doblhammer-Reiter, Gabriele; Christensen, Kaare

    2011-01-01

    since the 1870s and including the cause of death. To capture exogenous variation of conditions early in life, we use the state of the business cycle around birth. We find significant negative effects of economic conditions around birth on the individual CV mortality rate at higher ages...

  7. Boarding is associated with higher rates of medication delays and adverse events but fewer laboratory-related delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sri-On, Jiraporn; Chang, Yuchiao; Curley, David P; Camargo, Carlos A; Weissman, Joel S; Singer, Sara J; Liu, Shan W

    2014-09-01

    Hospital crowding and emergency department (ED) boarding are large and growing problems. To date, there has been a paucity of information regarding the quality of care received by patients boarding in the ED compared with the care received by patients on an inpatient unit. We compared the rate of delays and adverse events at the event level that occur while boarding in the ED vs while on an inpatient unit. This study was a secondary analysis of data from medical record review and administrative databases at 2 urban academic teaching hospitals from August 1, 2004, through January 31, 2005. We measured delayed repeat cardiac enzymes, delayed partial thromboplastin time level checks, delayed antibiotic administration, delayed administration of home medications, and adverse events. We compared the incidence of events during ED boarding vs while on an inpatient unit. Among 1431 patient medical records, we identified 1016 events. Emergency department boarding was associated with an increased risk of home medication delays (risk ratio [RR], 1.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.26-1.88), delayed antibiotic administration (RR, 2.49; 95% CI, 1.72-3.52), and adverse events (RR, 2.36; 95% CI, 1.15-4.72). On the contrary, ED boarding was associated with fewer delays in repeat cardiac enzymes (RR, 0.17; 95% CI, 0.09-0.27) and delayed partial thromboplastin time checks (RR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.27-0.96). Compared with inpatient units, ED boarding was associated with more medication-related delays and adverse events but fewer laboratory-related delays. Until we can eliminate ED boarding, it is critical to identify areas for improvement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Low-birthweight rates higher among Bangladeshi neonates measured during active birth surveillance compared to national survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemm, Rolf D W; Merrill, Rebecca D; Wu, Lee; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Ali, Hasmot; Labrique, Alain; Christian, Parul; West, Keith P

    2015-10-01

    Birth size is an important gauge of fetal and neonatal health. Birth size measurements were collected within 72 h of life for 16 290 live born, singleton infants in rural Bangladesh from 2004 to 2007. Gestational age was calculated based on the date of last menstrual period. Newborns were classified as small-for-gestational age (SGA) based on a birthweight below the 10th percentile for gestational age, using three sets of US reference data. Birth size distributions were explored based on raw values as well as after z-score standardisation in reference to World Health Organization (WHO) 2006 growth standards. Mean (SD) birthweight (g), length (cm) and head circumference (cm) measurements, completed within [median (25th, 75th percentile)] 15 (8, 23) h of life, were 2433 (425), 46.4 (2.4) and 32.4 (1.6), respectively. Twenty-two per cent were born preterm. Over one-half (55.3%) of infants were born low birthweight; 46.6%, 37.0% and 33.6% had a weight, length and head circumference below -2 z-scores of the WHO growth standard at birth; and 70.9%, 72.2% and 59.8% were SGA for weight based on Alexander et al., Oken et al. and Olsen et al. references, respectively. Infants in this typical rural Bangladesh setting were commonly born small, reflecting a high burden of fetal growth restriction and preterm birth. Our findings, produced by active birth surveillance, suggest that low birthweight is far more common than suggested by cross-sectional survey estimates. Interventions that improve fetal growth during pregnancy may have the largest impact on reducing SGA rates. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Numerical and experimental investigation of the bell-mouth inlet design of a centrifugal fan for higher internal flow rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang Hyeon; Heo, Seung; Cheong, Cheolung; Kim, Tae Hoon

    2013-01-01

    The energy efficiency of a household refrigerator is one of the most critical characteristics considered by manufacturers and consumers. Numerous studies in various fields have been conducted to increase energy efficiency. One of the most efficient methods to reduce the energy consumption of a refrigerator is by improving the performance of fans inside the refrigerator. A number of studies reported various ways to enhance fan performance. However, the majority of these studies focused solely on the fan and did not consider the working environment of the fan, such as the inlet and outlet flow characteristics. The expected performance of fans developed without consideration of these characteristics cannot be determined because complex inlet and outlet flow passage could adversely affect performance. This study investigates the effects of the design of the bell-mouth inlet on the performance of a centrifugal fan in a household refrigerator. In preliminary numerical studies, significant flow loss is identified through the bell-mouth inlet in the target fan system. Several design factors such as tip clearance, inner fence, motor-box struts, and guide vane are proposed to resolve these flow losses. The effects of these factors on fan performance are investigated using computational fluid dynamics techniques to solve incompressible Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations for predicting the circulating flow of the fan. Experiments are then performed to validate the numerical predictions. Results indicate that four design factors positively affect fan performance in terms of flow rate. The guide vane is the most effective design factor to consider for improving fan performance. Further studies are conducted to investigate the detailed effects of the guide vane by varying its install angle, install location, height, and length. These studies determine the optimum design of the guide vane to achieve the highest performance of the fan and the related flow characteristics

  10. Numerical and experimental investigation of the bell-mouth inlet design of a centrifugal fan for higher internal flow rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Hyeon; Heo, Seung; Cheong, Cheolung [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Hoon [Refrigeration Division, Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-15

    The energy efficiency of a household refrigerator is one of the most critical characteristics considered by manufacturers and consumers. Numerous studies in various fields have been conducted to increase energy efficiency. One of the most efficient methods to reduce the energy consumption of a refrigerator is by improving the performance of fans inside the refrigerator. A number of studies reported various ways to enhance fan performance. However, the majority of these studies focused solely on the fan and did not consider the working environment of the fan, such as the inlet and outlet flow characteristics. The expected performance of fans developed without consideration of these characteristics cannot be determined because complex inlet and outlet flow passage could adversely affect performance. This study investigates the effects of the design of the bell-mouth inlet on the performance of a centrifugal fan in a household refrigerator. In preliminary numerical studies, significant flow loss is identified through the bell-mouth inlet in the target fan system. Several design factors such as tip clearance, inner fence, motor-box struts, and guide vane are proposed to resolve these flow losses. The effects of these factors on fan performance are investigated using computational fluid dynamics techniques to solve incompressible Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations for predicting the circulating flow of the fan. Experiments are then performed to validate the numerical predictions. Results indicate that four design factors positively affect fan performance in terms of flow rate. The guide vane is the most effective design factor to consider for improving fan performance. Further studies are conducted to investigate the detailed effects of the guide vane by varying its install angle, install location, height, and length. These studies determine the optimum design of the guide vane to achieve the highest performance of the fan and the related flow characteristics

  11. APPRAISAL OF STUDENT RATING AS A MEASURE TO MANAGE THE QUALITY OF HIGHER EDUCATION IN INDIA: AN INSTITUTIONAL STUDY USING SIX SIGMA MODEL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Vijay

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Students' rating of teaching is one of the most widely accepted methods of measuring the quality in Higher Education worldwide. The overall experience gained by the students during their academic journey in their respective college is a key factor to determine the Institutional Quality. This study was conducted among the Physical Therapy students with an objective to capture the overall experience related to various aspects of their Academic environment including teaching and learning process adopted in their college. To facilitate that, a unique questionnaire called,"Academic Environment Evaluation Questionnaire (AEEQ was developed covering all the important teaching elements of the Higher Education Institutions. The students' opinion was captured and analyzed through six sigma analytical tool using Poisson distribution model. From the non-conformance level captured through the responses from the students about the various categories of teaching and learning elements, the corresponding Sigma rating for each teaching element was measured. Accordingly, a six point Quality rating system was developed customizing to each sigma values. This study brings a new, innovative student driven Quality rating system for the Higher Education Institutions in India.

  12. Labour Market Segregation and Gender Differences in Sickness Absence: Trends in 2005-2013 in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinonen, Taina; Viikari-Juntura, Eira; Husgafvel-Pursiainen, Kirsti; Virta, Lauri J; Laaksonen, Mikko; Autti-Rämö, Ilona; Solovieva, Svetlana

    2018-04-18

    Women have higher sickness absence rate than men, but less is known of changes in this difference over time. We examined gender differences in sickness absence trends focusing on gender segregation in the labour market. We used large nationwide register data on Finnish wage earners aged 25-59 and generalized estimation equations based on repeated logistic regression to estimate the annual risk of sickness absence lasting at least 2 weeks. Between 2005 and 2013, the age-adjusted proportion (%) of employees with all-cause sickness absence decreased from the initial levels of 10.6 among men and 15.1 among women by 16.7 and 13.6%, respectively. Among both genders, the largest decrease in sickness absence coincided with the peak of the economic recession in 2009. In sickness absence due to all causes and musculoskeletal diseases, also the excess decrease among men mainly occurred in 2009, and in sickness absence due to mental disorders 2 years later. In sickness absence due to all causes and musculoskeletal diseases, the increasing gender difference was mainly attributable to a larger decrease in sickness absence at the time of the recession in male-dominated groups, such as in manual and manufacturing work, than in other sectors and occupational classes. In mental disorders, the increasing gender difference was partly attributable to a later smaller decrease in sickness absence among female-dominated lower non-manual and lower income employment groups. The increasing gender differences did not result from differential distributional changes in employment or sociodemographic factors among the employed male and female populations. In fact, widening of the gender gap in sickness absence due to all causes and musculoskeletal diseases would have been even larger without faster increase among women in the educational level and in non-manual employment. Sickness absence decreased especially in male-dominated employment groups, resulting in a larger decrease in absences among

  13. Sickness absence patterns and trends in the health care sector: 5-year monitoring of female municipal employees in the health and care sectors in Norway and Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krane, Line; Johnsen, Roar; Fleten, Nils; Nielsen, Claus Vinther; Stapelfeldt, Christina M; Jensen, Chris; Braaten, Tonje

    2014-07-08

    Sickness absence is a growing public health problem in Norway and Denmark, with the highest absence rates being registered in Norway. We compared time trends in sickness absence patterns of municipal employees in the health and care sectors in Norway and Denmark. Data from 2004 to 2008 were extracted from the personnel registers of the municipalities of Kristiansand, Norway, and Aarhus, Denmark, for 3,181 and 8,545 female employees, respectively. Age-specific comparative statistics on sickness absence rates (number of calendar days of sickness absence/possible working days) and number of sick leave episodes were calculated for each year of the study period. There was an overall increasing trend in sickness absence rates in Denmark (P = 0.002), where rates were highest in the 20-29- (P = 0.01) and 50-59-year-old age groups (P = 0.03). Sickness absence rates in Norway were stable, except for an increase in the 20-29-year-old age group (P = 0.004). In both Norway and Denmark, the mean number of sick leave episodes increased (P sickness absence was higher in Norway than in Denmark. Both short-term and long-term absence increased in Denmark (P = 0.003 and P sickness absence rates in Denmark, while the largest overall increase in sick leave episodes was found in Norway. In both countries, the largest increases were observed among young employees. The results indicate that the two countries are converging in regard to sickness absence measured as rates and episodes.

  14. Endometrial Scratch Injury Induces Higher Pregnancy Rate for Women With Unexplained Infertility Undergoing IUI With Ovarian Stimulation: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maged, Ahmed M; Al-Inany, Hesham; Salama, Khaled M; Souidan, Ibrahim I; Abo Ragab, Hesham M; Elnassery, Noura

    2016-02-01

    To explore the impact of endometrial scratch injury (ESI) on intrauterine insemination (IUI) success. One hundred and fifty four infertile women received 100 mg of oral clomiphene citrate for 5 days starting on day 3 of the menstrual cycle. Patients were randomized to 2 equal groups: Group C received IUI without ESI and group S had ESI. Successful pregnancy was confirmed by ultrasound. 13, 21, and 10 women got pregnant after the first, second, and third IUI trials, respectively, with 28.6% cumulative pregnancy rate (PR). The cumulative PR was significantly higher in group S (39%) compared to group C (18.2%). The PR in group S was significantly higher compared to that in group C at the second and third trials. The PR was significantly higher in group S at the second trial compared to that reported in the same group at the first trial but nonsignificantly higher compared to that reported during the third trial, while in group C, the difference was nonsignificant. Eight pregnant women had first trimester abortion with 18.2% total abortion rate with nonsignificant difference between studied groups. The ESI significantly improves the outcome of IUI in women with unexplained infertility especially when conducted 1 month prior to IUI. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Being born under adverse economic conditions leads to a higher cardiovascular mortality rate later in life: evidence based on individuals born at different stages of the business cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Gerard J; Doblhammer-Reiter, Gabriele; Christensen, Kaare

    2011-05-01

    We connect the recent medical and economic literatures on the long-run effects of early-life conditions by analyzing the effects of economic conditions on the individual cardiovascular (CV) mortality rate later in life, using individual data records from the Danish Twin Registry covering births since the 1870s and including the cause of death. To capture exogenous variation of conditions early in life, we use the state of the business cycle around birth. We find significant negative effects of economic conditions around birth on the individual CV mortality rate at higher ages. There is no effect on the cancer-specific mortality rate. From variation within and between monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs born under different conditions, we conclude that the fate of an individual is more strongly determined by genetic and household-environmental factors if early-life conditions are poor. Individual-specific qualities come more to fruition if the starting position in life is better.

  16. Higher Prevalence and Awareness, but Lower Control Rate of Hypertension in Patients with Diabetes than General Population: The Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Hyun Ko

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundWe investigated the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control rate of hypertension in Korean adults with diabetes using nationally representative data.MethodsUsing data of 5,105 adults from the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2011 (4,389 nondiabetes mellitus [non-DM], 242 newly diagnosed with DM (new-DM, and 474 previously diagnosed with DM (known-DM, we analyzed the prevalence of hypertension (mean systolic blood pressure ≥140 mm Hg, diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mm Hg, or use of antihypertensive medication and control rate of hypertension (blood pressure [BP] <130/80 mm Hg.ResultsThe prevalence of hypertension in diabetic adults was 54.6% (44.4% in new-DM and 62.6% in known-DM, P<0.0001 and P<0.0001, respectively compared with non-DM adults (26.2%. Compared to non-DM, awareness (85.7%, P<0.001 and treatment (97.0%, P=0.020 rates were higher in known-DM, whereas no differences were found between new-DM and non-DM. Control rate among all hypertensive subjects was lower in new-DM (14.9%, compared to non-DM (35.1%, P<0.001 and known-DM (33.3%, P=0.004. Control rate among treated subjects was also lower in new-DM (25.2%, compared to non-DM (68.4%, P<0.0001 and known-DM (39.9%, P<0.0001.ConclusionHigher prevalence and low control rate of hypertension in adults with diabetes suggest that stringent efforts are needed to control BP in patients with diabetes, particularly in newly diagnosed diabetic patients.

  17. Higher success rate with transcranial electrical stimulation of motor-evoked potentials using constant-voltage stimulation compared with constant-current stimulation in patients undergoing spinal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigematsu, Hideki; Kawaguchi, Masahiko; Hayashi, Hironobu; Takatani, Tsunenori; Iwata, Eiichiro; Tanaka, Masato; Okuda, Akinori; Morimoto, Yasuhiko; Masuda, Keisuke; Tanaka, Yuu; Tanaka, Yasuhito

    2017-10-01

    During spine surgery, the spinal cord is electrophysiologically monitored via transcranial electrical stimulation of motor-evoked potentials (TES-MEPs) to prevent injury. Transcranial electrical stimulation of motor-evoked potential involves the use of either constant-current or constant-voltage stimulation; however, there are few comparative data available regarding their ability to adequately elicit compound motor action potentials. We hypothesized that the success rates of TES-MEP recordings would be similar between constant-current and constant-voltage stimulations in patients undergoing spine surgery. The objective of this study was to compare the success rates of TES-MEP recordings between constant-current and constant-voltage stimulation. This is a prospective, within-subject study. Data from 100 patients undergoing spinal surgery at the cervical, thoracic, or lumbar level were analyzed. The success rates of the TES-MEP recordings from each muscle were examined. Transcranial electrical stimulation with constant-current and constant-voltage stimulations at the C3 and C4 electrode positions (international "10-20" system) was applied to each patient. Compound muscle action potentials were bilaterally recorded from the abductor pollicis brevis (APB), deltoid (Del), abductor hallucis (AH), tibialis anterior (TA), gastrocnemius (GC), and quadriceps (Quad) muscles. The success rates of the TES-MEP recordings from the right Del, right APB, bilateral Quad, right TA, right GC, and bilateral AH muscles were significantly higher using constant-voltage stimulation than those using constant-current stimulation. The overall success rates with constant-voltage and constant-current stimulations were 86.3% and 68.8%, respectively (risk ratio 1.25 [95% confidence interval: 1.20-1.31]). The success rates of TES-MEP recordings were higher using constant-voltage stimulation compared with constant-current stimulation in patients undergoing spinal surgery. Copyright © 2017

  18. The effect on length of sickness absence by recognition of undetected psychiatric disorder in long-term sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Hans Jørgen; Bech, Per

    2009-01-01

    of return to work. METHODS: Over one year all 2,414 incident persons on LSA in a well-defined population were within one week after eight weeks of continuous sickness absence posted the Common Mental Disorders Screening Questionnaire (CMD-SQ) to screen for mental disorders. In a randomized controlled trial...... (RCT), of 1,121 responding participants, persons with a minimum level of psychiatric symptoms 420 were allocated to the intervention group and 416 to the control group. The intervention was a psychiatric examination including diagnostics with Present State Examination and feedback regarding treatment...... to work. RESULTS: The rate of return to work was non-significantly lower for the intervention group than for the control group, except for persons without a psychiatric sick-leave diagnosis who were sick-listed from full time work, who showed a significantly higher rate of return to work...

  19. Improving the ablation efficiency of excimer laser systems with higher repetition rates through enhanced debris removal and optimized spot pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arba-Mosquera, Samuel; Klinner, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate the reasons for the required increased radiant exposure for higher-repetition-rate excimer lasers and determine experimentally possible compensations to achieve equivalent ablation profiles maintaining the same single-pulse energies and radiant exposures for laser repetition rates ranging from 430 to 1000 Hz. Schwind eye-tech-solutions GmbH and Co. KG, Kleinostheim, Germany. Experimental study. Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) plates were photoablated. The pulse laser energy was maintained during all experiments; the effects of the flow of the debris removal, the shot pattern for the correction, and precooling the PMMA plates were evaluated in terms of achieved ablation versus repetition rate. The mean ablation performance ranged from 88% to 100%; the variability between the profile measurements ranged from 1.4% to 6.2%. Increasing the laser repetition rate from 430 Hz to 1000 Hz reduced the mean ablation performance from 98% to 91% and worsened the variability from 1.9% to 4.3%. Increasing the flow of the debris removal, precooling the PMMA plates to -18°C, and adapting the shot pattern for the thermal response of PMMA to excimer ablation helped stabilize the variability. Only adapting the shot pattern for the thermal response of PMMA to excimer ablation helped stabilize the mean ablation performance. The ablation performance of higher-repetition-rate excimer lasers on PMMA improved with improvements in the debris removal systems and shot pattern. More powerful debris removal systems and smart shot patterns in terms of thermal response improved the performance of these excimer lasers. Copyright © 2014 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Older Adults With a Combination of Vision and Hearing Impairment Experience Higher Rates of Cognitive Impairment, Functional Dependence, and Worse Outcomes Across a Set of Quality Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Jacob G S; Guthrie, Dawn M

    2017-08-01

    Hearing and vision impairment were examined across several health-related outcomes and across a set of quality indicators (QIs) in home care clients with both vision and hearing loss (or dual sensory impairment [DSI]). Data collected using the Resident Assessment Instrument for Home Care (RAI-HC) were analyzed in a sample of older home care clients. The QIs represent the proportion of clients experiencing negative outcomes (e.g., falls, social isolation). The average age of clients was 82.8 years ( SD = 7.9), 20.5% had DSI and 8.5% had a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Clients with DSI were more likely to have a diagnosis of dementia (not AD), have functional impairments, report loneliness, and have higher rates across 20 of the 22 QIs, including communication difficulty and cognitive decline. Clients with highly impaired hearing, and any visual impairment, had the highest QI rates. Individuals with DSI experience higher rates of adverse events across many health-related outcomes and QIs. Understanding the unique contribution of hearing and vision in this group can promote optimal quality of care.

  1. Upper Limb Absence: Predictors of Work Participation and Work Productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postema, Sietke G; Bongers, Raoul M; Brouwers, Michael A; Burger, Helena; Norling-Hermansson, Liselotte M; Reneman, Michiel F; Dijkstra, Pieter U; van der Sluis, Corry K

    2016-06-01

    To analyze work participation, work productivity, contributing factors, and physical work demands of individuals with upper limb absence (ULA). Cross-sectional study: postal survey (response rate, 45%). Twelve rehabilitation centers and orthopedic workshops. Individuals (n=207) with unilateral transverse upper limb reduction deficiency (RD) or acquired amputation (AA), at or proximal to the carpal level, between the ages of 18 and 65 years, and a convenience sample of control subjects (n=90) matched on age and sex. Not applicable. Employment status, self-reported work productivity measured with the Quality-Quantity method, and self-reported upper extremity work demands measured with the Upper Extremity Work Demands scale. Seventy-four percent of the individuals with RD and 57% of the individuals with AA were employed (vs 82% of the control group and 66% of the general population). Male sex, younger age, a medium or higher level of education, prosthesis use, and good general health were predictors of work participation. Work productivity was similar to that of the control group. Higher work productivity was inversely related to musculoskeletal complaint-related pain. When having predominantly mentally demanding work, individuals with ULA perceived higher upper extremity work demands compared with controls. Work participation of individuals with RD was slightly higher compared with that of the general population, whereas employment rates of individuals with AA were slightly lower. Furthermore, work productivity did not differ between individuals with RD, AA, and controls. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Psychosocial work conditions associated with sickness absence among hospital employees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suadicani, P; Olesen, K; Bonde, J P

    2014-01-01

    's salary database. RESULTS: A total of 1809 hospital employees took part with a response rate of 65%. The mean age was 43 (range: 20-69) and 75% were female. Totally, 363 study participants (20%) had at least 14 days sickness absence (defined as high absence) during the preceding year. Associations between...... essential covariates of sickness absence. METHODS: A cross-sectional questionnaire study of hospital employees which sought information on elements of the psychosocial work environment, general health status, life style, age, gender and profession. Data on sickness absence were obtained from the employer...

  3. Central nervous system tumours among adolescents and young adults (15-39 years) in Southern and Eastern Europe: Registration improvements reveal higher incidence rates compared to the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakis, Marios K; Panagopoulou, Paraskevi; Papathoma, Paraskevi; Tragiannidis, Athanasios; Ryzhov, Anton; Zivkovic-Perisic, Snezana; Eser, Sultan; Taraszkiewicz, Łukasz; Sekerija, Mario; Žagar, Tina; Antunes, Luis; Zborovskaya, Anna; Bastos, Joana; Florea, Margareta; Coza, Daniela; Demetriou, Anna; Agius, Domenic; Strahinja, Rajko M; Sfakianos, Georgios; Nikas, Ioannis; Kosmidis, Sofia; Razis, Evangelia; Pourtsidis, Apostolos; Kantzanou, Maria; Dessypris, Nick; Petridou, Eleni Th

    2017-11-01

    To present incidence of central nervous system (CNS) tumours among adolescents and young adults (AYAs; 15-39 years) derived from registries of Southern and Eastern Europe (SEE) in comparison to the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER), US and explore changes due to etiological parameters or registration improvement via evaluating time trends. Diagnoses of 11,438 incident malignant CNS tumours in AYAs (1990-2014) were retrieved from 14 collaborating SEE cancer registries and 13,573 from the publicly available SEER database (1990-2012). Age-adjusted incidence rates (AIRs) were calculated; Poisson and joinpoint regression analyses were performed for temporal trends. The overall AIR of malignant CNS tumours among AYAs was higher in SEE (28.1/million) compared to SEER (24.7/million). Astrocytomas comprised almost half of the cases in both regions, albeit the higher proportion of unspecified cases in SEE registries (30% versus 2.5% in SEER). Similar were the age and gender distributions across SEE and SEER with a male-to-female ratio of 1.3 and an overall increase of incidence by age. Increasing temporal trends in incidence were documented in four SEE registries (Greater Poland, Portugal North, Turkey-Izmir and Ukraine) versus an annual decrease in Croatia (-2.5%) and a rather stable rate in SEER (-0.3%). This first report on descriptive epidemiology of AYAs malignant CNS tumours in the SEE area shows higher incidence rates as compared to the United States of America and variable temporal trends that may be linked to registration improvements. Hence, it emphasises the need for optimisation of cancer registration processes, as to enable the in-depth evaluation of the observed patterns by disease subtype. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Enhancing Brain Lesions during Acute Optic Neuritis and/or Longitudinally Extensive Transverse Myelitis May Portend a Higher Relapse Rate in Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orman, G; Wang, K Y; Pekcevik, Y; Thompson, C B; Mealy, M; Levy, M; Izbudak, I

    2017-05-01

    Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders are inflammatory demyelinating disorders with optic neuritis and/or longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis episodes. We now know that neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders are associated with antibodies to aquaporin-4, which are highly concentrated on astrocytic end-feet at the blood-brain barrier. Immune-mediated disruption of the blood-brain barrier may manifest as contrast enhancement on brain MR imaging. We aimed to delineate the extent and frequency of contrast enhancement on brain MR imaging within 1 month of optic neuritis and/or longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis attacks and to correlate contrast enhancement with outcome measures. Brain MRIs of patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders were evaluated for patterns of contrast enhancement (periependymal, cloudlike, leptomeningeal, and so forth). The Fisher exact test was used to evaluate differences between the proportion of contrast enhancement in patients who were seropositive and seronegative for aquaporin-4 antibodies. The Mann-Whitney test was used to compare the annualized relapse rate and disease duration between patients with and without contrast enhancement and with and without seropositivity. Brain MRIs of 77 patients were evaluated; 59 patients (10 males, 49 females) were scanned within 1 month of optic neuritis and/or longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis attacks and were included in the analysis. Forty-eight patients were seropositive, 9 were seronegative, and 2 were not tested for aquaporin-4 antibodies. Having brain contrast enhancement of any type during an acute attack was significantly associated with higher annualized relapse rates ( P = .03) and marginally associated with shorter disease duration ( P = .05). Having periependymal contrast enhancement was significantly associated with higher annualized relapse rates ( P = .03). Brain MRIs of patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders with contrast

  5. Higher tacrolimus trough levels on days 2-5 post-renal transplant are associated with reduced rates of acute rejection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Seaghdha, C M

    2011-04-06

    We analyzed the association between whole-blood trough tacrolimus (TAC) levels in the first days post-kidney transplant and acute cellular rejection (ACR) rates. Four hundred and sixty-four consecutive, deceased-donor kidney transplant recipients were included. All were treated with a combination of TAC, mycophenolate mofetil and prednisolone. Patients were analyzed in four groups based on quartiles of the mean TAC on days 2 and 5 post-transplant: Group 1: median TAC 11 ng\\/mL (n = 122, range 2-13.5 ng\\/mL), Group 2: median 17 ng\\/mL (n = 123, range 14-20 ng\\/mL), Group 3: median 24 ng\\/mL (n = 108, range 20.5-27 ng\\/mL) and Group 4: median 33.5 ng\\/mL (n = 116, range 27.5-77.5 ng\\/mL). A graded reduction in the rates of ACR was observed for each incremental days 2-5 TAC. The one-yr ACR rate was 24.03% (95% CI 17.26-32.88), 22.20% (95% CI 15.78-30.70), 13.41% (95% CI 8.15-21.63) and 8.69% (95% CI 4.77-15.55) for Groups 1-4, respectively (p = 0.003). This study suggests that higher early TACs are associated with reduced rates of ACR at one yr.

  6. Gender and age differences in the recurrence of sickness absence due to common mental disorders: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bültmann Ute

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Common mental disorders (CMDs are an important cause of sickness absence and long-term work disability. Although CMDs are known to have high recurrence rates, little is known about the recurrence of sickness absence due to CMDs. The aim of this study was to investigate the recurrence of sickness absence due to CMDs, including distress, adjustment disorders, depressive disorders and anxiety disorders, according to age, in male and female employees in the Netherlands. Methods Data on sickness absence episodes due to CMDs were obtained for 137,172 employees working in the Dutch Post and Telecommunication companies between 2001 and 2007. The incidence density (ID and recurrence density (RD of sickness absence due to CMDs was calculated per 1000 person-years in men and women in the age-groups of Results The ID of one episode of CMDs sickness absence was 25.0 per 1000 person-years, and the RD was 76.7 per 1000 person-years. Sickness absence due to psychiatric disorders (anxiety and depression does not have a higher recurrence density of sickness absence due to any CMDs as compared to stress-related disorders (distress and adjustment disorders: 81.6 versus 76.0 per 1000 person-years. The ID of sickness absence due to CMDs was higher in women than in men, but the RD was similar. Recurrences were more frequent in women Conclusions Employees who have been absent from work due to CMDs are at increased risk of recurrent sickness absence due to CMDs and should be monitored after they return to work. The RD was similar in men and in women. In women

  7. Thalamic stimulation in absence epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luttjohann, A.K.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The site specific effects of two different types of electrical stimulation of the thalamus on electroencephalic epileptic activity as generated in the cortico-thalamo-cortical system were investigated in genetic epileptic WAG/Rij rats, a well characterized and validated absence

  8. Effects of sanitation on cognitive development and school absence: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sclar, G D; Garn, J V; Penakalapati, G; Alexander, K T; Krauss, J; Freeman, M C; Boisson, S; Medlicott, K O; Clasen, T

    2017-08-01

    We undertook this systematic review to explore the relationship between sanitation and learning outcomes, specifically cognitive development and absence. We searched leading databases to identify experimental and observational studies that address the effect of sanitation on our outcomes of interest. We identified 17 studies that met the review's eligibility criteria, four reporting on measures of cognitive development, 12 on school absence (with two studies reporting on school and work absence), and one study that reported on both outcomes. We assessed the risk of bias of individual studies as well as the overall strength of evidence for each outcome. Because of fundamental differences among the studies in terms of sanitation exposure and outcome measurement, pooling results via meta-analysis was deemed inappropriate so a descriptive review is presented. Studies reported that access to household sanitation was associated with measures of improved cognitive ability in children. However, collectively these studies were rated by GRADE as poor methodological quality with significant potential for confounding and bias, including publication bias. Studies on the association between household, community or school sanitation and school absence yielded mixed results. Some sanitation studies reported lower absence while others reported higher absence. Only the two randomized controlled trials reported no overall effects on absence even when combining sanitation with water supply improvements and hygiene promotion. Study quality as assessed by GRADE was again generally poor. While studies to date provide some support for positive effects from sanitation on cognitive development, the effects on school absence are uncertain. Differences in effects may be due to differences in study settings, type of sanitation exposure and most notably in outcome definitions. Further research in multiple settings using rigorous study designs and measuring intermediate outcomes such as exposure

  9. Interferon-free treatment for patients with chronic hepatitis C and autoimmune liver disease: higher SVR rates with special precautions for deterioration of autoimmune hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Tatsuo; Yasui, Shin; Nakamura, Masato; Nakamoto, Shingo; Takahashi, Koji; Wu, Shuang; Sasaki, Reina; Haga, Yuki; Ogasawara, Sadahisa; Saito, Tomoko; Kobayashi, Kazufumi; Kiyono, Soichiro; Ooka, Yoshihiko; Suzuki, Eiichiro; Chiba, Tetsuhiro; Maruyama, Hitoshi; Imazeki, Fumio; Moriyama, Mitsuhiko; Kato, Naoya

    2018-02-20

    Interferon-free treatment can achieve higher sustained virological response (SVR) rates, even in patients in whom hepatitis C virus (HCV) could not be eradicated in the interferon treatment era. Immune restoration in the liver is occasionally associated with HCV infection. We examined the safety and effects of interferon-free regimens on HCV patients with autoimmune liver diseases. All 7 HCV patients with autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) completed treatment and achieved SVR. Three patients took prednisolone (PSL) at baseline, and 3 did not take PSL during interferon-free treatment. In one HCV patient with AIH and cirrhosis, PSL were not administered at baseline, but she needed to take 40 mg/day PSL at week 8 for liver dysfunction. She also complained back pain and was diagnosed with vasospastic angina by coronary angiography at week 11. However, she completed interferon-free treatment. All 5 HCV patients with primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) completed treatment and achieved SVR. Three of these HCV patients with PBC were treated with UDCA during interferon-free treatment. Interferon-free regimens could result in higher SVR rates in HCV patients with autoimmune liver diseases. As interferon-free treatment for HCV may have an effect on hepatic immunity and activity of the autoimmune liver diseases, careful attention should be paid to unexpected adverse events in their treatments. Total 12 patients with HCV and autoimmune liver diseases [7 AIH and PBC], who were treated with interferon-free regimens, were retrospectively analyzed.

  10. Upper Limb Absence : Predictors of Work Participation and Work Productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postema, Sietke G; Bongers, Raoul M; Brouwers, Michael A; Burger, Helena; Norling-Hermansson, Liselotte M; Reneman, Michiel F; Dijkstra, Pieter U; van der Sluis, Corry K

    OBJECTIVES: To analyze work participation, work productivity, contributing factors, and physical work demands of individuals with upper limb absence (ULA). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study: postal survey (response rate, 45%). SETTING: Twelve rehabilitation centers and orthopedic workshops.

  11. Leflunomide is associated with a higher flare rate compared to methotrexate in the treatment of chronic uveitis in juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichler, J; Benseler, S M; Krumrey-Langkammerer, M; Haas, J-P; Hügle, B

    2015-01-01

    Chronic anterior uveitis is a serious complication of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA); disease flares are highly associated with loss of vision. Leflunomide (LEF) is used successfully for JIA joint disease but its effectiveness in uveitis has not been determined. The aim of this study was to determine whether LEF improves flare rates of uveitis in JIA patients compared to preceding methotrexate (MTX) therapy. A single-centre retrospective study of consecutive children with JIA and chronic anterior uveitis was performed. All children initially received MTX and were then switched to LEF. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data, dose and duration of MTX and LEF therapy, concomitant medications and rate of anterior uveitis flares, as determined by an expert ophthalmologist, were obtained. Flare rates were compared using a generalized linear mixed model with a negative binomial distribution. A total of 15 children were included (80% females, all antinuclear antibody positive). The median duration of MTX therapy was 51 (range 26-167) months; LEF was given for a median of 12 (range 4-47) months. Anti-tumour necrosis factor (anti-TNF-α) co-medication was given to four children while on MTX. By contrast, LEF was combined with anti-TNF-α treatment in six children. On MTX, JIA patients showed a uveitis flare rate of 0.0247 flares/month, while LEF treatment was associated with a significantly higher flare rate of 0.0607 flares/month (p = 0.008). Children with JIA had significantly more uveitis flares on LEF compared to MTX despite receiving anti-TNF-α co-medication more frequently. Therefore, LEF may need to be considered less effective in controlling chronic anterior uveitis.

  12. Do Teacher Absences Impact Student Achievement? Longitudinal Evidence from One Urban School District. NBER Working Paper No. 13356

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Raegen T.; Murnane, Richard J.; Willett, John B.

    2007-01-01

    Rates of employee absences and the effects of absences on productivity are topics of conversation in many organizations in many countries. One reason is that high rates of employee absence may signal weak management and poor labor-management relations. A second reason is that reducing rates of employee absence may be an effective way to improve…

  13. Ways to be different: Foraging adaptations that facilitate higher intake rates in a northerly wintering shorebird compared with a low-latitude conspecific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruthrauff, Daniel R.; Dekinga, Anne; Gill, Robert E.; van Gils, Jan A.; Piersma, Theunis

    2015-01-01

    At what phenotypic level do closely related subspecies that live in different environments differ with respect to food detection, ingestion and processing? This question motivated an experimental study on rock sandpipers (Calidris ptilocnemis). The species' nonbreeding range spans 20 deg of latitude, the extremes of which are inhabited by two subspecies: C. p. ptilocnemis that winters primarily in upper Cook Inlet, Alaska (61°N) and C. p. tschuktschorum that overlaps slightly with C. p. ptilocnemis but whose range extends much farther south (∼40°N). In view of the strongly contrasting energetic demands of their distinct nonbreeding distributions, we conducted experiments to assess the behavioral, physiological and sensory aspects of foraging and we used the bivalve Macoma balthica for all trials. C. p. ptilocnemis consumed a wider range of prey sizes, had higher maximum rates of energy intake, processed shell waste at higher maximum rates and handled prey more quickly. Notably, however, the two subspecies did not differ in their abilities to find buried prey. The subspecies were similar in size and had equally sized gizzards, but the more northern ptilocnemis individuals were 10–14% heavier than their same-sex tschuktschorum counterparts. The higher body mass in ptilocnemis probably resulted from hypertrophy of digestive organs (e.g. intestine, liver) related to digestion and nutrient assimilation. Given the previously established equality of the metabolic capacities of the two subspecies, we propose that the high-latitude nonbreeding range of ptilocnemis rock sandpipers is primarily facilitated by digestive (i.e. physiological) aspects of their foraging ecology rather than behavioral or sensory aspects.

  14. Core-needle biopsy of breast cancer is associated with a higher rate of distant metastases 5 to 15 years after diagnosis than FNA biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sennerstam, Roland B; Franzén, Bo S H; Wiksell, Hans O T; Auer, Gert U

    2017-10-01

    The literature offers discordant results regarding whether diagnostic biopsy is associated with the dissemination of cancer cells, resulting in local and/or distant metastasis. The long-term outcomes of patients with breast cancer were compared between those who were diagnosed using either fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) or core-needle biopsy (CNB) during 2 decades: the 1970s and 1990s. In the 1970s, the only diagnostic needle biopsy method used for breast cancer in Sweden was FNAB. CNB was introduced 1989 and became established in Stockholm Gotland County in the early 1990s. The authors compared the clinical outcomes of patients diagnosed using FNAB from 1971 to 1976 (n = 354) versus those of patients diagnosed using CNB from 1991 to 1995 (n = 1729). Adjusting for differences in various treatment modalities, mammography screening, tumor size, DNA ploidy, and patient age between the 2 decades, 2 strictly matched samples representing FNAB (n = 181) and CNB (n = 203) were selected for a 15-year follow-up study. In a comparison of the rates of distant metastasis in the strictly matched patient groups from the FNAB and CNB cohorts, significantly higher rates of late-appearing (5-15 years after diagnosis) distant metastasis were observed among the patients who were diagnosed on CNB compared with those who were diagnosed on FNAB. No significant difference in local metastasis was observed between the 2 groups. At 5 to 15 years after diagnosis of the primary tumor, CNB-diagnosed patients had significantly higher rates of distant metastases than FNAB-diagnosed patients. Cancer Cytopathol 2017;125:748-56. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  15. Effect of 60Co γ-irradiation on germination rate of corms and selection of a higher temperature-tolerance mutant 'zf893' of Crocus sativus L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qiaosheng; Wang Zhiping; Pan Jianyong; Li Xuebing; Xu Bujin; Zou Fenglian; Lu Gang

    2009-01-01

    The effects of 60 Co γ-rays irradiation on germination rate of corms of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) were studied and the results were as follows: (1) The corm germination rate raised with the corm fresh weight M (g) increasing, and the corms of 3 60 Co γ-rays, the typical radiation effect of dose on germination rate were obtained, and the semi-lethal dose (D 50 ) for the corms of 3 60 Co γ-rays and the stigma productivity of ZF893 was 1.3 times as that of the parent, for the field growing period, total weight of daughter corms and flower numbers of ZF893 were 22%, 27% and 30% higher than that of the parent, respectively. (4) The soluble protein SDS-PAGE patterns between ZF893 and it's parent were very similar, but the 54.8kD bands were much stronger in ZF893 and the 20.9 kD bands which were clear in ZF893, but were nearly absent in it's parent. (authors)

  16. Mechanistic dissimilarities between environmentally-influenced fatigue-crack propagation at near-threshold and higher growth rates in lower-strength steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suresh, S.; Ritchie, R. O.

    1981-11-01

    The role of hydrogen gas in influencing fatigue crack propagation is examined for several classes of lower strength pressure vessel and piping steels. Based on measurements over a wide range of growth rates from 10/sup -8/ to 10/sup -2/ mm/cycle, crack propagation rates are found to be significantly higher in dehumidified gaseous hydrogen compared to moist air in two distinct regimes of crack growth, namely (i) at the intermediate range of growth typically above approx. 10/sup -5/ mm/cycle, and (ii) at the near-threshold region below approx. 10/sup -6/ mm/cycle approaching lattice dimensions per cycle. Both effects are seen at maximum stress intensities (K/sub max/) far below the sustained-load threshold stress intensity for hydrogen-assisted cracking (K/sub Iscc/). Characteristics of environmentally influenced fatigue crack growth in each regime are shown to be markedly different with regard to fractography and the effect of such variables as load ratio and frequency. It is concluded that the primary mechanisms responsible for the influence of the environment in each regime are distinctly different. Whereas corrosion fatigue behavior at intermediate growth rates can be attributed to hydrogen embrittlement processes, the primary role of moist environments at near-threshold levels is shown to involve a contribution from enhanced crack closure due to the formation of crack surface corrosion deposits at low load ratios.

  17. Geometrical Sparing Factors for the Rectum and Bladder in the Prediction of Grade 2 and Higher Complications After High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy for Cervical Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.-W.; Liang, J.-A.; Hung, Y.-C.; Yeh, L.-S.; Chang, W.-C.; Yang, S.-N.; Lin, F.-J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to assess the predictive values of geometrical sparing factors for the rectum and bladder in high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy (HDRICB) for Grade 2 and higher late sequelae in patients with cervical cancer. Methods: A total of 392 patients were enrolled in this study. They were treated with external beam radiotherapy to the pelvis, after which HDRICB was performed using Ir-192 remote after-loading at 1-week intervals for three or four sessions. The geometrical sparing factor (GSF) was defined as the average of the ratios between the reference doses and the Point A dose. Results: A total of 46 patients (11.7%) had Grade 2 or higher late rectal complications (36 Grade 2, 9 Grade 3, and 1 Grade 4). In all, 32 patients (8.2%) had Grade 2 or higher late bladder complications (14 Grade 2, 16 Grade 3, and 2 Grade 4). Multivariate analysis demonstrated a high risk of rectal sequelae in patients who developed bladder complications (p = 0.0004, hazard ratio 3.54) and had a rectal GSF greater than 0.7 (p = 0.01, hazard ratio 1.99). The high risk factors for bladder complications were development of rectal complications (p = 0.0004, hazard ratio 3.74), concurrent chemotherapy (p = 0.0001, relative risk 3.94), and a bladder GSF greater than 0.9 (p = 0.01, hazard ratio, 2.53). Conclusion: This study demonstrates the predictive value of GSFs in HDRICB for cervical cancer. Patients with rectal GSFs greater than 0.7 or bladder GSFs greater than 0.9 are at risk for Grade 2 and higher late sequelae.

  18. Geometrical sparing factors for the rectum and bladder in the prediction of grade 2 and higher complications after high-dose-rate brachytherapy for cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shang-Wen; Liang, Ji-An; Hung, Yao-Ching; Yeh, Lian-Shung; Chang, Wei-Chun; Yang, Shih-Neng; Lin, Fang-Jen

    2009-12-01

    This study aimed to assess the predictive values of geometrical sparing factors for the rectum and bladder in high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy (HDRICB) for Grade 2 and higher late sequelae in patients with cervical cancer. A total of 392 patients were enrolled in this study. They were treated with external beam radiotherapy to the pelvis, after which HDRICB was performed using Ir-192 remote after-loading at 1-week intervals for three or four sessions. The geometrical sparing factor (GSF) was defined as the average of the ratios between the reference doses and the Point A dose. A total of 46 patients (11.7%) had Grade 2 or higher late rectal complications (36 Grade 2, 9 Grade 3, and 1 Grade 4). In all, 32 patients (8.2%) had Grade 2 or higher late bladder complications (14 Grade 2, 16 Grade 3, and 2 Grade 4). Multivariate analysis demonstrated a high risk of rectal sequelae in patients who developed bladder complications (p = 0.0004, hazard ratio 3.54) and had a rectal GSF greater than 0.7 (p = 0.01, hazard ratio 1.99). The high risk factors for bladder complications were development of rectal complications (p = 0.0004, hazard ratio 3.74), concurrent chemotherapy (p = 0.0001, relative risk 3.94), and a bladder GSF greater than 0.9 (p = 0.01, hazard ratio, 2.53). This study demonstrates the predictive value of GSFs in HDRICB for cervical cancer. Patients with rectal GSFs greater than 0.7 or bladder GSFs greater than 0.9 are at risk for Grade 2 and higher late sequelae.

  19. Analysis of 162 colon injuries in patients with penetrating abdominal trauma: concomitant stomach injury results in a higher rate of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Patricia A; Kirton, Orlando C; Dresner, Lisa S; Tortella, Bartholomew; Kestner, Mark M

    2004-02-01

    Fecal contamination from colon injury has been thought to be the most significant factor for the development of surgical site infection (SSI) after trauma. However, there are increasing data to suggest that other factors may play a role in the development of postinjury infection in patients after colon injury. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of gastric wounding on the development of SSI and nonsurgical site infection (NSSI) in patients with colon injury. Post hoc analysis was performed on data prospectively collected for 317 patients presenting with penetrating hollow viscus injury. One hundred sixty-two patients with colon injury were subdivided into one of three groups: patients with isolated colon wounds (C), patients with colon and stomach wounds with or without other organ injury (C+S), and patients with colon and other organ injury but no stomach injury (C-S) and assessed for the development of SSI and NSSI. Infection rates were also determined for patients who sustained isolated gastric injury (S) and gastric injury in combination with other injuries other than colon (S-C). Penetrating Abdominal Trauma Index, operative times, and transfusion were assessed. Discrete variables were analyzed by Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel chi2 test and Fisher's exact test. Risk factor analysis was performed by multivariate logistic regression. C+S patients had a higher rate of SSI infection (31%) than C patients (3.6%) (p=0.008) and C-S patients (13%) (p=0.021). Similarly, the incidence of NSSI was also significantly greater in the C+S group (37%) compared with the C patients (7.5%) (p=0.07) and the C-S patients (17%) (p=0.019). There was no difference in the rate of SSI or NSSI between the C and C-S groups (p=0.3 and p=0.24, respectively). The rate of SSI was significantly greater in the C+S patients when compared with the S-C patients (31% vs. 10%, p=0.008), but there was no statistical difference in the rate of NSSI in the C+S group and the S-C group (37

  20. Elevated basal progesterone levels are associated with increased preovulatory progesterone rise but not with higher pregnancy rates in ICSI cycles with GnRH antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, Mehmet Firat; Erdem, Mehmet; Mutlu, Ilknur; Bulut, Berk; Erdem, Ahmet

    2017-09-01

    To ascertain the association between basal progesterone (P) levels and the occurrence of preovulatory progesterone rise (PPR) and clinical pregnancy rates (CPRs) in ICSI cycles with GnRH antagonists. Serum P levels of 464 patients were measured on day 2 and day of hCG of cycles. Cycles with basal P levels>1.6ng/mL were cancelled. All embryos were cryopreserved in cycles with P levels≥2ng/mL on the day of hCG. The primary outcome measures were the incidence of PPR (P>1.5ng/mL) and CPR with regard to basal P. Basal P levels were significantly higher in cycles with PPR than in those without PPR (0.63±0.31 vs. 0.48±0.28ng/mL). Area under the curve for basal P according to ROC analysis to discriminate between elevated and normal P levels on the day of hCG was 0.65 (0.58-0.71 95% CI, pcycles with and without PPR was 0.65ng/mL. Cycles with basal P levels above 0.65ng/mL had a significantly higher incidence of PPR (30.9% vs. 13.5%) but similar clinical and cumulative pregnancy rates (38.8% vs. 31.1% and 41.7% vs. 32.6%, respectively) in comparison to cycles with basal P levels below 0.65ng/mL. In multivariate regression analysis, basal P levels, LH level on the first day of antagonist administration, and estradiol levels on the day of hCG trigger were the variables that predicted PPR. Basal P levels were associated with increased incidence of PPR but not with CPR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. What is the empirical evidence that hospitals with higher-risk adjusted mortality rates provide poorer quality care? A systematic review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Mohammed A

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite increasing interest and publication of risk-adjusted hospital mortality rates, the relationship with underlying quality of care remains unclear. We undertook a systematic review to ascertain the extent to which variations in risk-adjusted mortality rates were associated with differences in quality of care. Methods We identified studies in which risk-adjusted mortality and quality of care had been reported in more than one hospital. We adopted an iterative search strategy using three databases – Medline, HealthSTAR and CINAHL from 1966, 1975 and 1982 respectively. We identified potentially relevant studies on the basis of the title or abstract. We obtained these papers and included those which met our inclusion criteria. Results From an initial yield of 6,456 papers, 36 studies met the inclusion criteria. Several of these studies considered more than one process-versus-risk-adjusted mortality relationship. In total we found 51 such relationships in a widen range of clinical conditions using a variety of methods. A positive correlation between better quality of care and risk-adjusted mortality was found in under half the relationships (26/51 51% but the remainder showed no correlation (16/51 31% or a paradoxical correlation (9/51 18%. Conclusion The general notion that hospitals with higher risk-adjusted mortality have poorer quality of care is neither consistent nor reliable.

  2. Absence of satellites of asteroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehrels, T.; Drummond, J.D.; Levenson, N.A.

    1987-01-01

    The absence of satellites within 0.1-7.0 arcmin of minor planets noted in the present CCD imaging survey is judged consistent with previous theoretical studies of collisions in which it is held that satellites would have to be larger than about 30 km in order to be collisionally stable. In view of tidal stability, the only main belt asteroid satellites which could conceivably possess stability over eons are near-contact binaries. Any recent collisional debris would be chaotic and collisionally unstable. 15 references

  3. Long hours in paid and domestic work and subsequent sickness absence: does control over daily working hours matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ala-Mursula, L; Vahtera, J; Kouvonen, A; Väänänen, A; Linna, A; Pentti, J; Kivimäki, M

    2006-09-01

    To explore the associations of working hours (paid, domestic, commuting, and total) with sickness absence, and to examine whether these associations vary according to the level of employee control over daily working hours. Prospective cohort study among 25 703 full-time public sector employees in 10 towns in Finland. A survey of working hours and control over working hours was carried out in 2000-01. The survey responses were linked with register data on the number of self-certified (3 days) sickness absences until the end of 2003. Poisson regression analyses with generalised estimating equations were used to take into account the fact that the employees were nested within work units. Adjustments were made for work and family characteristics and health behaviour. The mean follow-up period was 28.1 (SD 8.1) months. Long domestic and total working hours were associated with higher rates of medically certified sickness absences among both genders. In contrast, long paid working hours were associated with lower rates of subsequent self-certified sickness absences. Long commuting hours were related to increased rates of sickness absence of both types. Low control over daily working hours predicted medically certified sickness absences for both the women and men and self-certified absences for the men. In combinations, high control over working hours reduced the adverse associations of long domestic and total working hours with medically certified absences. Employee control over daily working hours may protect health and help workers successfully combine a full-time job with the demands of domestic work.

  4. Changes in alcohol drinking and subsequent sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salonsalmi, Aino; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lahelma, Eero; Laaksonen, Mikko

    2015-06-01

    The aim was to examine whether changes in alcohol drinking are associated with sickness absence. Repeated postal questionnaires on alcohol drinking were conducted among employees of the City of Helsinki in 2000-2 and 2007 to assess changes in drinking habits between these two time points. Data on the number of self-certified and medically confirmed sickness absences were derived from the employer's register. Sickness absences were followed from 2007 until the end of 2010 among employees participating in both questionnaire surveys. The study includes 3252 female and 682 male employees 40-60 years old at baseline. Poisson regression was used in the data analysis and population attributable fractions (PAFs) were calculated. Alcohol drinking was associated especially with self-certified sickness absence. Rate ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for increasing weekly average drinking were 1.38, 1.18-1.62 among women and 1.58, 1.18-2.12 among men. Also stable problem drinking (for women 1.39, 1.26-1.54, for men 1.44, 1.10-1.87) and among women stable heavy drinking (1.53, 1.20-1.94) increased self-certified sickness absence. There were associations between alcohol drinking and medically confirmed sickness absence but these were mainly explained by health and health behaviours. Also, a decrease in weekly average drinking was associated with sickness absence among women whereas among men former problem drinking increased sickness absence. According to the PAF values, problem drinking had a stronger contribution to sickness absence than weekly average drinking. Alcohol drinking is particularly associated with self-certified sickness absence. Reducing adverse drinking habits is likely to prevent sickness absence. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  5. Low job satisfaction does not identify nurses at risk of future sickness absence: results from a Norwegian cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelen, C A M; Magerøy, N; van Rhenen, W; Groothoff, J W; van der Klink, J J L; Pallesen, S; Bjorvatn, B; Moen, B E

    2013-03-01

    Sickness absence is high in healthcare and contributes to nursing staff shortages reducing the efficiency and quality of patient care. Assessing the risk of sickness absence in working nurses opens opportunities for preventive strategies. Job satisfaction has attracted much attention in healthcare research and has been associated with sickness absence among nurses. To investigate if job satisfaction scores are useful to identify working nurses at risk of future sickness absence. Prospective cohort study with a baseline period from November 2008 to March 2009 and 1-year follow-up. Hospitals, nursing homes, and ambulant care settings in Norway. 2059 Norwegian nurses, of whom 1582 (77%) could be followed-up. Nurses received a questionnaire at baseline and after 1-year follow-up. The questionnaire contained the Job Satisfaction Index (JSI), a 5-item scale measuring overall job satisfaction, and asked for sickness absence in the last 12 months. Baseline JSI scores were included in a logistic regression model with self-rated sickness absence at 1-year follow-up as outcome variable. Predictions of sickness absence were calibrated by the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test. The ability of JSI scores to discriminate between nurses with and without sickness absence was examined by receiver operating characteristic analysis and expressed as area under the curve (AUC). Low job satisfaction was associated with higher odds of sickness absence (odds ratio [OR]=1.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.09) and high (≥ 31 days) sickness absence (OR=1.10; 95% CI 1.06-1.14). Calibration was acceptable, but job satisfaction neither discriminated between nurses with and without sickness absence (AUC=0.54; 95% CI 0.51-0.58) nor between nurses with and without high (≥ 31 days) sickness absence (AUC=0.58; 95% CI 0.54-0.63). The results of this study indicated that job satisfaction was associated with sickness absence, though job satisfaction scores as measured with the JSI did not

  6. Reference Values for the Marx Activity Rating Scale in a Young Athletic Population: History of Knee Ligament Injury Is Associated With Higher Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Kenneth L; Peck, Karen Y; Thompson, Brandon S; Svoboda, Steven J; Owens, Brett D; Marshall, Stephen W

    2015-01-01

    Activity-related patient-reported outcome measures are an important component of assessment after knee ligament injury in young and physically active patients; however, normative data for most activity scales are limited. To present reference values by sex for the Marx Activity Rating Scale (MARS) within a young and physically active population while accounting for knee ligament injury history and sex. Cross-sectional study. Level 2. All incoming freshman entering a US Service Academy in June of 2011 were recruited to participate in this study. MARS was administered to 1169 incoming freshmen (203 women) who consented to participate within the first week of matriculation. All subjects were deemed healthy and medically fit for military service on admission. Subjects also completed a baseline questionnaire that asked for basic demographic information and injury history. We calculated means with standard deviations, medians with interquartile ranges, and percentiles for ordinal and continuous variables, and frequencies and proportions for dichotomous variables. We also compared median scores by sex and history of knee ligament injury using the Kruskal-Wallis test. MARS was the primary outcome of interest. The median MARS score was significantly higher for men when compared with women (χ(2) = 13.22, df = 1, P MARS scores between men and women (χ(2) = 0.47, df = 1, P = 0.493) who reported a history of injury. Overall, median MARS scores were significantly higher among those who reported a history of knee ligament injury when compared with those who did not (χ(2) = 9.06, df = 1, P = 0.003). Assessing activity as a patient-reported outcome after knee ligament injury is important, and reference values for these instruments need to account for the influence of prior injury and sex. © 2015 The Author(s).

  7. Long-Term Results of Fixed High-Dose I-131 Treatment for Toxic Nodular Goiter: Higher Euthyroidism Rates in Geriatric Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gül Ege Aktaş

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Geriatric patient population has special importance due to particular challenges. In addition to the increase in incidence of toxic nodular goiter (TNG with age, it has a high incidence in the regions of low-medium iodine intake such as in our country. The aim of this study was to evaluate the overall outcome of high fixed dose radioiodine (RAI therapy, and investigate the particular differences in the geriatric patient population. Methods: One hundred and three TNG patients treated with high dose I-131 (370-740 MBq were retrospectively reviewed. The baseline characteristics; age, gender, scintigraphic patterns and thyroid function tests before and after treatment, as well as follow-up, duration of antithyroid drug (ATD medication and achievement of euthyroid or hypothyroid state were evaluated. The patient population was divided into two groups as those=>65 years and those who were younger, in order to assess the effect of age. Results: Treatment success was 90% with single dose RAI therapy. Hyperthyroidism was treated in 7±7, 2 months after RAI administration. At the end of the first year, overall hypothyroidism rate was 30% and euthyroid state was achieved in 70% of patients. Age was found to be the only statistically significant variable effecting outcome. A higher ratio of euthyroidism was achieved in the geriatric patient population. Conclusion: High fixed dose I-131 treatment should be preferred in geriatric TNG patients in order to treat persistent hyperthyroidism rapidly. The result of this study suggests that high fixed dose RAI therapy is a successful modality in treating TNG, and high rates of euthyroidism can be achieved in geriatric patients.

  8. Relationship between sickness presenteeism (WHO-HPQ) with depression and sickness absence due to mental disease in a cohort of Japanese workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Tomoko; Miyaki, Koichi; Song, Yixuan; Tsutsumi, Akizumi; Kawakami, Norito; Shimazu, Akihito; Takahashi, Masaya; Inoue, Akiomi; Kurioka, Sumiko

    2015-07-15

    Absence due to mental disease in the workplace has become a global public health problem. We aimed to evaluate the influence of presenteeism on depression and absence due to mental disease. A prospective study of 1831 Japanese employees from all areas of Japan was conducted. Presenteeism and depression were measured by the validated Japanese version of the World Health Organization Health and Work Performance Questionnaire (WHO-HPQ) and the K6 scale, respectively. Absence due to mental disease across a 2-year follow up was surveyed through medical certificates obtained for work absence. After adjusting for age and gender, participants with higher rates of sickness absolute and relative presenteeism (the lowest tertile of the scores) were significantly more likely to be absent due to mental disease (OR=4.40, 95% CI: 1.65-11.73, and OR=3.31, 95% CI: 1.50-7.27). Subsequently, higher rates of sickness absolute or relative presenteeism were significantly associated with higher rates of depression (K6≥13) one year later (OR=3.79, 95% CI: 2.48-5.81, and OR=2.89, 95% CI: 1.98-4.22). The number of females in the sample was relatively small. However, the rates of absence for females with and without mental illness did not significantly differ from those of men. More sickness presenteeism scores were found to be related to higher rates of depression and absence due to mental disease in this large-scale cohort of Japanese workers. Measurement of presenteeism could be used to evaluate the risk for depression and absenteeism. Furthermore, our findings suggest that intervention to improve presenteeism would be effective in preventing depression and absence due to mental illness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Danish Gulf War Veterans Revisited: No Evidence of Increased Sickness Absence or Reduced Labor Market Outcome After Deployment to the Persian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissen, Lars Ravnborg; Stoltenberg, Christian; Nielsen, Anni B Sternhagen; Vedtofte, Mia S; Marott, Jacob L; Gyntelberg, Finn; Guldager, Bernadette

    2016-11-01

    To examine the assumption that postdeployment incidence of sickness and other absence from work are higher among Gulf War Veterans compared with nonveterans. A prospective registry study including a cohort of 721 Danish Gulf War Veterans and a control cohort of 3,629 nonveterans selected from the general Danish population. Outcome measures were up to 23 years postdeployment incidence of (1) long-term sickness absence and (2) long-term all types of absence from work. Long term with regard to sickness and other absence was defined as exceeding 8 weeks. The association between outcomes and information on deployment history was studied using time-to-event analysis. The index date was the return date from the last deployment to the Gulf. The follow-up period was the time from index date until April 27, 2014. As the main finding, no difference was found between veterans and nonveterans in the incidence rate of long-term sickness absence. After an initial short period (3 months) with elevated incidence rate of long-term absence from work among veterans, there was no difference between the cohorts. Among Danish Gulf War Veterans, no postdeployment increased risk of long-term sickness absence or long-term absence from work was found as compared with nonveterans. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  10. Bilateral absence of musculocutaneous nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathada V Ravishankar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Brachial plexus is an important group of spinal nerve plexus that supplies the muscles of the upper limb via the ventral rami of the Cervical 5 - Thoracic 1 fibers of the spinal nerves. It is not uncommon to notice the variations during cadaveric dissections in many regions of the body, at different levels, such as, roots, trunks, division, cords, communications, and branches as reported in the literature. Although the nerve supply of the body musculature takes place in the fetal life itself, its course, branching pattern, innervations, and communication can show variable patterns as the fetal development progresses. One such anomaly was noticed during our routine cadaveric dissection in the Department of Anatomy, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Belgaum, showing bilateral absence of the musculocutaneous nerve, which obviously drew the attention of the students of medicine, physiotherapy, and learning clinicians as well.

  11. Dizziness causes absence from work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zaag-Loonen, H J; van Leeuwen, R B

    2015-09-01

    The objective of the study was to assess absenteeism from work due to dizziness in patients referred to a tertiary centre. Consecutive patients with a paid employment completed the WHO Health and work Performance Questionnaire, including items on work absence in the past 7 days and 4 weeks, and the Dizziness Handicap Inventory. Of the 400 patients [55% females, mean age 46.3 years (SD 10.8), range 18-68 years], 46 (12%) indicated they were completely disabled to work due to dizziness, while 202 (51%) patients indicated they had worked less than expected due to dizziness. Patients with more disease-related disabilities had more absenteeism from work. Half of the patients who are referred to a tertiary centre for dizziness report work absenteeism due to their complaints, and 12% is completely disabled to work.

  12. Familial prostate cancer has a more aggressive course than sporadic prostate cancer after treatment for localized disease, mainly due to a higher rate of distant metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupelian, Patrick A.; Klein, Eric A.; Suh, John H; Kupelian, Varant A.

    1997-01-01

    with negative and positive family history were 83% and 72% percent, respectively (p=0.013). The 5-year locRFS rates for patients with negative and positive family history were 91% and 87% percent, respectively (p=0.45). The 5-year dRFS rates for patients with negative and positive family history were 91% and 84%, respectively (p=0.032). Table 1 displays the statistical significance in crude (univariate) and adjusted (multivariate) analysis of all factors analyzed with respect to outcomes of interest. After adjusting for potential confounders, family history of prostate cancer remained strongly associated with biochemical failure. For RP patients, even in the presence of pathologic parameters, family history remained a strong independent predictor of biochemical, clinical, and distant failure (data not shown). Conclusion: Our findings suggest that familial prostate cancer may have a more aggressive course after treatment than non-familial prostate cancer, and that clinical and/or pathological parameters may not adequately predict this course. Familial prostate cancer seems associated with a higher rate of distant metastases. Further studies need to be performed to confirm these findings

  13. After microvascular decompression to treat trigeminal neuralgia, both immediate pain relief and recurrence rates are higher in patients with arterial compression than with venous compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lei; Gu, Xiaoyan; Sun, Guan; Guo, Jun; Lin, Xin; Zhang, Shuguang; Qian, Chunfa

    2017-07-04

    We explored differences in postoperative pain relief achieved through decompression of the trigeminal nerve compressed by arteries and veins. Clinical characteristics, intraoperative findings, and postoperative curative effects were analyzed in 72 patients with trigeminal neuralgia who were treated by microvascular decompression. The patients were divided into arterial and venous compression groups based on intraoperative findings. Surgical curative effects included immediate relief, delayed relief, obvious reduction, and invalid result. Among the 40 patients in the arterial compression group, 32 had immediate pain relief of pain (80.0%), 5 cases had delayed relief (12.5%), and 3 cases had an obvious reduction (7.5%). In the venous compression group, 12 patients had immediate relief of pain (37.5%), 13 cases had delayed relief (40.6%), and 7 cases had an obvious reduction (21.9%). During 2-year follow-up period, 6 patients in the arterial compression group experienced recurrence of trigeminal neuralgia, but there were no recurrences in the venous compression group. Simple artery compression was followed by early relief of trigeminal neuralgia more often than simple venous compression. However, the trigeminal neuralgia recurrence rate was higher in the artery compression group than in the venous compression group.

  14. Indexed effective orifice area is a significant predictor of higher mid- and long-term mortality rates following aortic valve replacement in patients with prosthesis-patient mismatch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Lin, Yiyun; Kang, Bo; Wang, Zhinong

    2014-02-01

    Prosthesis-patient mismatch (PPM) is defined as a too-small effective orifice area (EOA) of an inserted prosthetic relative to body size, resulting in an abnormally high postoperative gradient. It is unclear, however, whether residual stenosis after aortic valve replacement (AVR) has a negative impact on mid- and long-term survivals. We searched electronic databases, including PubMed, Embase, Medline and the Cochrane controlled trials register, through October 2012, to identify published full-text English studies on the association between PPM and mortality rates. A significant PPM was defined as an indexed EOA (iEOA)<0.85 cm2/m2, and severe PPM as an iEOA<0.65 cm2/m2. Two reviewers independently assessed the studies for inclusion and extracted data. Fourteen observational studies, involving 14 874 patients, met our final inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis demonstrated that PPM significantly increased mid-term (odds ratio [OR] 1.42, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.19-1.69) and long-term (OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.26-1.84) all-cause mortalities. Subgroup analysis showed that PPM was associated with higher mid- and long-term mortality rates only in younger and predominantly female populations. Risk-adjusted sensitivity analysis showed that severe PPM was associated with reduced survival (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.50, 95% CI 1.24-1.80), whereas moderate PPM was not (adjusted HR 0.96, 95% CI 0.86-1.07). Regardless of severity, however, PPM had a negative effect on survival in patients with impaired ejection fraction (adjusted HR 1.26, 95% CI 1.09-1.47). PPM (iEOA<0.85 cm2/m2) after AVR tended to be associated with increased long-term all-cause mortality in younger patients, females and patients with preoperative left ventricular dysfunction. Severe PPM (iEOA<0.65 cm2/m2) was a significant predictor of reduced long-term survival in all populations undergoing AVR.

  15. Azacitidine-lenalidomide (ViLen) combination yields a high response rate in higher risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS)-ViLen-01 protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittelman, Moshe; Filanovsky, Kalman; Ofran, Yishai; Rosenbaum, Hanna; Raanani, Pia; Braester, Andrei; Goldschmidt, Neta; Kirgner, Ilya; Herishanu, Yair; Perri, Chava; Ellis, Martin; Oster, Howard S

    2016-10-01

    Azacitidine treatment is effective in higher risk MDS (HR-MDS), with less than 50 % response, lasting 2 years. Aza and lenalidomide (Len) have a potential synergistic effect. ViLen-01 phase IIa trial includes 6-month induction (Aza 75 mg/m(2)/day, days 1-5, Len 10 mg/day, days 6-21, every 28 days), 6-month consolidation (Aza 75 mg/m(2)/day, days 1-5, every 28 days), and 12-month maintenance (Len 10 mg/day, days 1-21, every 28 days). Response was evaluated according to IWG criteria. Totally, 25 patients enrolled, with an average of 76.3 years old (60-87), and 88 % with major comorbidities. Thirteen patients completed induction, 7 proceeded for consolidation, and 2 for maintenance. The overall response rate (ORR) was 72 % (18/25), with 6 (24 %) for CR, 3 (12 %) for marrow CR, and 9 (36 %) for hematologic improvement (HI). The 7 non-responding patients were on the study 3 days to 4.1 months. At 6 months, 4 of 6 evaluable patients achieved complete cytogenetic response and 2 with del (5q) at diagnosis. Adverse events (AEs) were as expected in these patients: grades III-IV, mainly hematologic-thrombocytopenia (20 patients) and neutropenia (13 patients). The common non-hematologic AEs were infections (14 patients), nausea (7), vomiting (7), diarrhea (7), and skin reactions (5). The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 12 ± 1.36 months, with median overall survival (OS) of 12 ± 1.7 months. Quality of life (FACT questionnaire) data were available for 12 patients with a tendency towards improved QoL. This trial with elderly HR-MDS patients with an expected poor prognosis demonstrates a high (72 %) response rate and a reasonable expected safety profile but a relatively short PFS and OS.

  16. Deep breathing exercises with positive expiratory pressure at a higher rate improve oxygenation in the early period after cardiac surgery--a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urell, Charlotte; Emtner, Margareta; Hedenström, Hans; Tenling, Arne; Breidenskog, Marie; Westerdahl, Elisabeth

    2011-07-01

    In addition to early mobilisation, a variety of breathing exercises are used to prevent postoperative pulmonary complications after cardiac surgery. The optimal duration of the treatment is not well evaluated. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of 30 versus 10 deep breaths hourly, while awake, with positive expiratory pressure on oxygenation and pulmonary function the first days after cardiac surgery. A total of 181 patients, undergoing cardiac surgery, were randomised into a treatment group, performing 30 deep breaths hourly the first postoperative days, or into a control group performing 10 deep breaths hourly. The main outcome measurement arterial blood gases and the secondary outcome pulmonary function, evaluated with spirometry, were determined on the second postoperative day. Preoperatively, both study groups were similar in terms of age, SpO(2), forced expiratory volume in 1s and New York Heart Association classification. On the second postoperative day, arterial oxygen tension (PaO(2)) was 8.9 ± 1.7 kPa in the treatment group and 8.1 ± 1.4 kPa in the control group (p = 0.004). Arterial oxygen saturation (SaO(2)) was 92.7 ± 3.7% in the treatment group and 91.1 ± 3.8% in the control group (p = 0.016). There were no differences in measured lung function between the groups or in compliance to the breathing exercises. Compliance was 65% of possible breathing sessions. A significantly increased oxygenation was found in patients performing 30 deep breaths the first two postoperative days compared with control patients performing 10 deep breaths hourly. These results support the implementation of a higher rate of deep breathing exercises in the initial phase after cardiac surgery. Copyright © 2010 European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Job demands, health perception and sickness absence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, C.A.; Koopmans, P.C.; de Graaf, J.H.; van Zandbergen, J.W.; Groothoff, J.W.

    2007-01-01

    Background Investigation of the relations between job demands, health and sickness absence is required to design a strategy for the prevention of absence and disability. Aim To study the relationships between (physical and psychological) job demands, health perception and sickness absence. Methods

  18. Advantages and disadvantages of an objective selection process for early intervention in employees at risk for sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duijts, Saskia F A; Kant, Ijmert; Swaen, Gerard M H

    2007-05-02

    It is unclear if objective selection of employees, for an intervention to prevent sickness absence, is more effective than subjective 'personal enlistment'. We hypothesize that objectively selected employees are 'at risk' for sickness absence and eligible to participate in the intervention program. The dispatch of 8603 screening instruments forms the starting point of the objective selection process. Different stages of this process, throughout which employees either dropped out or were excluded, were described and compared with the subjective selection process. Characteristics of ineligible and ultimately selected employees, for a randomized trial, were described and quantified using sickness absence data. Overall response rate on the screening instrument was 42.0%. Response bias was found for the parameters sex and age, but not for sickness absence. Sickness absence was higher in the 'at risk' (N = 212) group (42%) compared to the 'not at risk' (N = 2503) group (25%) (OR 2.17 CI 1.63-2.89; p = 0.000). The selection process ended with the successful inclusion of 151 eligible, i.e. 2% of the approached employees in the trial. The study shows that objective selection of employees for early intervention is effective. Despite methodological and practical problems, selected employees are actually those at risk for sickness absence, who will probably benefit more from the intervention program than others.

  19. Sickness absence in a municipal public service of Goiânia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leão, Ana Lúcia de Melo; Barbosa-Branco, Anadergh; Rassi Neto, Elias; Ribeiro, Cristina Aparecida Neves; Turchi, Marília Dalva

    2015-01-01

    Sickness absence, as work absenteeism justified by medical certificate, is an important health status indicator of the employees and, overall, sociodemographic and occupational characteristics are among the main factors associated with sickness absence. Public administration accounts for 21.8% of the formal job positions in Brazil. This population allows the study of a wide range of professional categories. To assess the profile and indicators of sickness absence among public workers from the municipality of Goiania, in the State of Goiás, Brazil. A cross-sectional study on certified sick leaves, lasting longer than three days, of all civil servants from January 2005 to December 2010. Prevalence rates were calculated using as main criteria the number of individuals, episodes and sick days. 40,578 certified sick leaves were granted for health treatment among 13,408 public workers, in an annual average population of 17,270 people, which resulted in 944,722 days of absenteeism. The cumulative prevalence of sick leave for the period was of 143.7%, with annual average of 39.2% and duration of 23 days per episode. The cumulative prevalence of sickness absence was higher among women (52.0%), older than 40 years old (55.9%), with a partner (49.9%), low schooling (54.4%), education professionals (54.7%), > 10 years of service (61.9%), and with multiple work contracts (53.7%). Diagnoses groups (ICD-10) with higher cumulative prevalence of sick leaves were those with mental disorders (26.5%), musculoskeletal diseases (25.1%), and injuries (23.6%). Indicators of sickness absence express the magnitude of this phenomenon in the public sector and can assist in planning health actions for the worker, prioritizing the most vulnerable occupational groups.

  20. Higher neonatal growth rate and body condition score at 7 months are predictive factors of obesity in adult female Beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, Lucie; Thorin, Chantal; Flanagan, John; Biourge, Vincent; Serisier, Samuel; Nguyen, Patrick

    2017-04-13

    The risks during early growth on becoming overweight in adulthood are widely studied in humans. However, early-life predictive factors for canine adult overweight and obesity have not yet been studied. To identify factors that may help explain the development of overweight and obesity at adulthood in dogs, a longitudinal study of 2 years was conducted in 24 female Beagle dogs of the same age, sexual status, and raised under identical environmental conditions. By means of a hierarchical classification on principal components with the following quantitative values: fat-free mass (FFM), percentage fat mass and pelvic circumference at 2 years of age, three groups of dogs were established and were nominally named: ideal weight (IW, n = 9), slightly overweight (OW1, n = 6) and overweight (OW2, n = 9). With the aim of identifying predictive factors of development of obesity at adulthood parental characteristics, growth pattern, energy balance and plasma factors were analysed by logistic regression analysis. At 24 months, the group compositions were in line with the body condition scores (BCS 1-9) values of the IW (5 or 6/9), the OW1 (6/9) and the OW2 (7 or 8/9) groups. Logistic regression analysis permitted the identification of neonatal growth rate during the first 2 weeks of life (GR 2W ) and BCS at 7 months as predictors for the development of obesity at adulthood. Seventy percent of dogs with either GR 2W >125% or with BCS > 6/9 at 7 months belonged to the OW2 group. Results from energy intake and expenditure, corrected for FFM, showed that there was a greater positive energy imbalance between 7 and 10 months for the OW2, compared to the IW group. This study expands the understanding of previously reported risk factors for being overweight or obese in dogs, establishing that (i) 15 out of 24 of the studied dogs became overweight and (ii) GR 2W and BCS at 7 months of age could be used as predictive factors as overweight adult dogs in the OW2

  1. Managerial leadership is associated with self-reported sickness absence and sickness presenteeism among Swedish men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, Anna; Westerlund, Hugo; Magnusson Hanson, Linda L; Theorell, Töres

    2008-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between managerial leadership and self-reported sickness absence/presenteeism among Swedish men and women. Five thousand one hundred and forty-one Swedish employees, 56% of the participants in a nationally representative sample of the Swedish working population, were included in this cross-sectional questionnaire study. The leadership dimensions measured were five subscales of a standardized leadership questionnaire (Global Leadership and Organizational Behaviour Effectiveness Programme): Integrity, Team integration, Inspirational leadership, Autocratic leadership, and Self-centred leadership. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted, adjusting for factors in private life, employment category, labour-market sector, working conditions, self-reported general health, and satisfaction with life in general. Inspirational leadership was associated with a lower rate of short spells of sickness absence (women. Autocratic leadership was related to a greater amount of total sick days taken by men. Sometimes showing integrity was associated with higher rate of sickness absence >1 week among men, and seldom showing integrity was associated with more sickness presenteeism among women. Managers performing Team integration were sometimes associated with women taking fewer short (1 week) spells of sickness absence. Adjustment for self-reported general health did not alter these associations for men, but did so to some extent for women. Managerial leadership was found to be relevant for the understanding of sickness absence in the Swedish working population. There were distinctive gender differences.

  2. Sickness absence, moral hazard, and the business cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichler, Stefan

    2015-06-01

    The procyclical nature of sickness absence has been documented by many scholars in literature. So far, explanations have been based on labor force composition and reduced moral hazard caused by fear of job loss during recessions. In this paper, we propose and test a third mechanism caused by reduced moral hazard during booms and infections. We suggest that the workload is higher during economic booms and thus employees have to go to work despite being sick. In a theoretical model focusing on infectious diseases, we show that this will provoke infections of coworkers leading to overall higher sickness absence during economic upturns. Using state-level aggregated data from 112 German public health insurance funds (out of 145 in total), we find that sickness absence due to infectious diseases shows the largest procyclical pattern, as predicted by our theoretical model. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Interactional justice at work is related to sickness absence: a study using repeated measures in the Swedish working population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leineweber, Constanze; Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia; Peristera, Paraskevi; Eib, Constanze; Nyberg, Anna; Westerlund, Hugo

    2017-12-08

    Research has shown that perceived unfairness contributes to higher rates of sickness absence. While shorter, but more frequent periods of sickness absence might be a possibility for the individual to get relief from high strain, long-term sickness absence might be a sign of more serious health problems. The Uncertainty Management Model suggests that justice is particularly important in times of uncertainty, e.g. perceived job insecurity. The present study investigated the association between interpersonal and informational justice at work with long and frequent sickness absence respectively, under conditions of job insecurity. Data were derived from the 2010, 2012, and 2014 biennial waves of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH). The final analytic sample consisted of 19,493 individuals. We applied repeated measures regression analyses through generalized estimating equations (GEE), a method for longitudinal data that simultaneously analyses variables at different time points. We calculated risk of long and frequent sickness absence, respectively in relation to interpersonal and informational justice taking perceptions of job insecurity into account. We found informational and interpersonal justice to be associated with risk of long and frequent sickness absence independently of job insecurity and demographic variables. Results from autoregressive GEE provided some support for a causal relationship between justice perceptions and sickness absence. Contrary to expectations, we found no interaction between justice and job insecurity. Our results underline the need for fair and just treatment of employees irrespective of perceived job insecurity in order to keep the workforce healthy and to minimize lost work days due to sickness absence.

  4. Differences in the association between sickness absence and long-term sub-optimal health by occupational position: a 14-year follow-up in the GAZEL cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrie, Jane E; Kivimäki, Mika; Westerlund, Hugo; Head, Jenny; Melchior, Maria; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Zins, Marie; Goldberg, Marcel; Alexanderson, Kristina; Vahtera, Jussi

    2011-10-01

    Although sickness absence is a strong predictor of health, whether this association varies by occupational position has rarely been examined. The aim of this study was to investigate overall and diagnosis-specific sickness absence as a predictor of future long-term sub-optimal health by occupational position. This was a prospective occupational cohort study of 15 320 employees (73% men) aged 37-51. Sickness absences (1990-1992), included in 13 diagnostic categories, were examined by occupational position in relation to self-rated health measured annually during 1993-2006. 60% of employees in higher occupational positions and 22% in lower positions had no sickness absence. Conversely, 9.5% of employees in higher positions and 40% in lower positions had over 30 sick-leave days. Repeated-measures logistic regression analyses adjusted for age, sex and chronic disease showed employees with over 30 days absence, compared to those with no absence, had approximately double the risk of sub-optimal health over the 14-year follow-up in all occupational positions. 1-30 days sick-leave was associated with greater odds of sub-optimal health in the high (OR 1.48; 95% CI 1.27 to 1.72) and intermediate (1.29; 1.15 to 1.45) but not lower occupational positions (1.06; 0.82 to 1.38). Differences by occupational position in the association between sickness absence in 13 specific diagnostic categories and sub-optimal health over the ensuing 14 years were limited to stronger associations observed with cancer and mental disorders in the higher occupational positions. The association between sickness absence of more than 30 days over 3 years and future long-term self-rated health appears to differ little by occupational position.

  5. Learning skills and academic performance in children and adolescents with absence epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talero-Gutiérrez, C; Sánchez-Torres, J M; Velez-van-Meerbeke, A

    2015-03-01

    Although cognitive and learning disorders have been described in patients with epilepsy, very few studies focus on specific disorders such as absence epilepsy. The aim of this study was to evaluate learning skills and academic performance in children and adolescents with absence epilepsy. Observational case-control study. Cases were chosen from the Central League against Epilepsy's clinic in Bogotá, Colombia. Controls were selected from a private school and matched with cases by age, school year, and sex. Medical history, seizure frequency, antiepileptic treatment, and academic performance were assessed. Academic abilities were tested with Batería de Aptitudes Diferenciales y Generales (BADyG) (a Spanish-language test of differential and general aptitudes). Data were analysed using Student t-test. The sample consisted of 19 cases and 19 controls aged between 7 and 16. In 15 patients, seizures were controlled; all patients had received antiepileptic medication at some point and 78.9% were actively being treated. Although cases had higher rates of academic failure, a greater incidence of grade retention, and more therapeutic interventions than controls, these differences were not significant. Similarly, there were no significant differences on the BADyG test, except for the immediate memory subcategory on which cases scored higher than controls (P=.0006). Children treated pharmacologically for absence epilepsy, whose seizures are controlled, have normal academic abilities and skills for their age. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. The effect on length of sickness absence by recognition of undetected psychiatric disorder in long-term sickness absence. A randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Hans Jørgen; Bech, Per

    2009-01-01

    of return to work. METHODS: Over one year all 2,414 incident persons on LSA in a well-defined population were within one week after eight weeks of continuous sickness absence posted the Common Mental Disorders Screening Questionnaire (CMD-SQ) to screen for mental disorders. In a randomized controlled trial...... (RCT), of 1,121 responding participants, persons with a minimum level of psychiatric symptoms 420 were allocated to the intervention group and 416 to the control group. The intervention was a psychiatric examination including diagnostics with Present State Examination and feedback regarding treatment...... to work. RESULTS: The rate of return to work was non-significantly lower for the intervention group than for the control group, except for persons without a psychiatric sick-leave diagnosis who were sick-listed from full time work, who showed a significantly higher rate of return to work...

  7. Does provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling lead to higher HIV testing rate and HIV case finding in Rwandan clinics?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kayigamba, Felix R.; van Santen, Daniëla; Bakker, Mirjam I.; Lammers, Judith; Mugisha, Veronicah; Bagiruwigize, Emmanuel; de Naeyer, Ludwig; Asiimwe, Anita; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F.

    2016-01-01

    Provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling (PITC) is promoted as a means to increase HIV case finding. We assessed the effectiveness of PITC to increase HIV testing rate and HIV case finding among outpatients in Rwandan health facilities (HF). PITC was introduced in six HFs in 2009-2010. HIV

  8. Lower estimated glomerular filtration rate and higher albuminuria are associated with mortality and end-stage renal disease. A collaborative meta-analysis of kidney disease population cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astor, Brad C; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Gansevoort, Ron T

    2011-01-01

    We studied here the independent associations of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and albuminuria with mortality and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We performed a collaborative meta-analysis of 13 studies totaling 21,688 patients selected...

  9. Payment for antiretroviral drugs is associated with a higher rate of patients lost to follow-up than those offered free-of-charge therapy in Nairobi, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zachariah, R.; van Engelgem, I.; Massaquoi, M.; Kocholla, L.; Manzi, M.; Suleh, A.; Phillips, M.; Borgdorff, M.

    2008-01-01

    This retrospective analysis of routine programme data from Mbagathi District Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya shows the difference in rates of loss to follow-up between a cohort that paid 500 shillings/month (approximately US$7) for antiretroviral drugs (ART) and one that received medication free of charge.

  10. Lower estimated glomerular filtration rate and higher albuminuria are associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. A collaborative meta-analysis of high-risk population cohorts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velde, Marije; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Coresh, Josef; Astor, Brad C.; Woodward, Mark; Levey, Andrew S.; de Jong, Paul E.; Gansevoort, Ron T.

    Screening for chronic kidney disease is recommended in people at high risk, but data on the independent and combined associations of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and albuminuria with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality are limited. To clarify this, we performed a collaborative

  11. Leaves of Absence. School Law Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Education Association, Washington, DC. Research Div.

    This report contains State-by-State statutory summaries on three types of leaves of absence relating to teachers -- sick leave, maternity leave, and sabbatical leave. Only State laws that have specific reference to one of these three types of leaves of absence are included. Not included are those statutes granting boards of education the general…

  12. Severe occupational hand eczema, job stress and cumulative sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, D; Stock Gissendanner, S; Finkeldey, F; John, S M; Werfel, T; Diepgen, T L; Breuer, K

    2014-10-01

    Stress is known to activate or exacerbate dermatoses, but the relationships between chronic stress, job-related stress and sickness absence among occupational hand eczema (OHE) patients are inadequately understood. To see whether chronic stress or burnout symptoms were associated with cumulative sickness absence in patients with OHE and to determine which factors predicted sickness absence in a model including measures of job-related and chronic stress. We investigated correlations of these factors in employed adult inpatients with a history of sickness absence due to OHE in a retrospective cross-sectional explorative study, which assessed chronic stress (Trier Inventory for the Assessment of Chronic Stress), burnout (Shirom Melamed Burnout Measure), clinical symptom severity (Osnabrück Hand Eczema Severity Index), perceived symptom severity, demographic characteristics and cumulative days of sickness absence. The study group consisted of 122 patients. OHE symptoms were not more severe among patients experiencing greater stress and burnout. Women reported higher levels of chronic stress on some measures. Cumulative days of sickness absence correlated with individual dimensions of job-related stress and, in multiple regression analysis, with an overall measure of chronic stress. Chronic stress is an additional factor predicting cumulative sickness absence among severely affected OHE patients. Other relevant factors for this study sample included the 'cognitive weariness' subscale of the Shirom Melamed Burnout Measure and the physical component summary score of the SF-36, a measure of health-related life quality. Prevention and rehabilitation should take job stress into consideration in multidisciplinary treatment strategies for severely affected OHE patients. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Doctor-certified sickness absence in first and second trimesters of pregnancy among native and immigrant women in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brekke, Idunn; Berg, John E; Sletner, Line; Jenum, Anne Karen

    2013-03-01

    The authors sought to estimate differences in doctor-certified sickness absence during pregnancy among immigrant and native women. Population-based cohort study of pregnant women attending three Child Health Clinics in Groruddalen, Oslo, and their offspring. Questionnaire data were collected at gestational weeks 10-20 and 28. The participation rate was 74%. A multivariate Poisson regression was used to analyse differences in sickness absence in pregnancy between immigrant and native women. A total of 573 women who were employed prior to their pregnancies were included, 51% were immigrants. After adjusting for age, years of education, marital status, number of children, occupation, part-time/full-time work, health status, severe pregnancy-induced emesis and language proficiency, the immigrant/native differences in number of weeks with sickness absence decreased from 2.0 to 1.2 weeks. Part-time/full-time work, health status, severe pregnancy-induced emesis and language proficiency were significant predictors of sickness absence. Immigrant women had higher sickness absence than native women during pregnancy. The difference in average number of weeks between native and immigrant women was partly explained by poorer health status prior to pregnancy, severe pregnancy-induced emesis and poorer proficiency in the Norwegian language among the immigrant women.

  14. Father absence and gendered traits in sons and daughters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boothroyd, Lynda G; Cross, Catharine P

    2017-01-01

    Research has previously found a number of apparently contradictory patterns in the relationship between 'father absence' (having a non-resident father during childhood) and the expression of gender roles, as well as other sexually dimorphic traits such as aggression. In the current study we measured a battery of sexually differentiated traits in relation to family background. 133 men and 558 women from the United States and Australia completed the Bem Sex Role Inventory, the Barrett Impulsivity Scale, the Fear Survey Schedule and the Buss & Perry Aggression Questionnaire. Principal components analysis found two main axes of variation in these traits. Firstly, a general 'reactivity' factor, on which aggression, impulsivity, and fear all loaded positively, was weakly associated with father absence in women. Secondly, 'masculinity' (consisting of high scores on masculine traits, low fear, and physical and verbal aggression) was not associated with father absence. Participants (except American males) reporting a poor childhood relationship with their parents also had high 'reactivity' but not higher 'masculinity'. We found some evidence of a link between father absence and earlier age of first coitus in American females (although not in Australia), but there was no link with age of menarche in either country. Overall, the current results suggest that previous findings linking gender development with father absence in girls may have arisen from a tendency towards greater externalising and reactive behaviour rather than a change in gender development per se.

  15. Examining paid sickness absence by shift workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catano, V M; Bissonnette, A B

    2014-06-01

    Shift workers are at greater risk than day workers with respect to psychological and physical health, yet little research has linked shift work to increased sickness absence. To investigate the relationship between shift work and sickness absence while controlling for organizational and individual characteristics and shift work attributes that have confounded previous research. The study used archive data collected from three national surveys in Canada, each involving over 20000 employees and 6000 private-sector firms in 14 different occupational groups. The employees reported the number of paid sickness absence days in the past 12 months. Data were analysed using both chi-squared statistics and hierarchical regressions. Contrary to previous research, shift workers took less paid sickness absence than day workers. There were no differences in the length of the sickness absence between both groups or in sickness absence taken by female and male workers whether working days or shifts. Only job tenure, the presence of a union in the workplace and working rotating shifts predicted sickness absence in shift workers. The results were consistent across all three samples. In general, shift work does not seem to be linked to increased sickness absence. However, such associations may be true for specific industries. Male and female workers did not differ in the amount of sickness absence taken. Rotating shifts, regardless of industry, predicted sickness absence among shift workers. Consideration should be given to implementing scheduled time off between shift changes. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Does evening work predict sickness absence among female carers of the elderly?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tüchsen, Finn; Christensen, Karl Bang; Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to predict the risk ratio of sickness absence lasting > or = 2 weeks due to shift work among Danish workers caring for the elderly during the evening and at night. METHODS: A sample of Danish carers of the elderly were interviewed in 2005. The response...... rate was 78%. A cohort of 5627 shift and day workers was followed for sickness absence lasting > or = 2 weeks and for sickness absence lasting > or = 8 weeks in a sickness compensation register covering all social transfer payments in Denmark. RESULTS: Among the evening workers, the rate ratio (RR......) of sickness absence lasting > or = 2 weeks was 1.29 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.10-1.52). The rate ratio for sickness absence lasting > or = 8 weeks was 1.24 (95% CI 0.99-1.56). CONCLUSIONS: Evening work may cause long-term sickness absence lasting > or = 2 weeks....

  17. Are High-Severity Fires Burning at Much Higher Rates Recently than Historically in Dry-Forest Landscapes of the Western USA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, William L

    2015-01-01

    Dry forests at low elevations in temperate-zone mountains are commonly hypothesized to be at risk of exceptional rates of severe fire from climatic change and land-use effects. Their setting is fire-prone, they have been altered by land-uses, and fire severity may be increasing. However, where fires were excluded, increased fire could also be hypothesized as restorative of historical fire. These competing hypotheses are not well tested, as reference data prior to widespread land-use expansion were insufficient. Moreover, fire-climate projections were lacking for these forests. Here, I used new reference data and records of high-severity fire from 1984-2012 across all dry forests (25.5 million ha) of the western USA to test these hypotheses. I also approximated projected effects of climatic change on high-severity fire in dry forests by applying existing projections. This analysis showed the rate of recent high-severity fire in dry forests is within the range of historical rates, or is too low, overall across dry forests and individually in 42 of 43 analysis regions. Significant upward trends were lacking overall from 1984-2012 for area burned and fraction burned at high severity. Upward trends in area burned at high severity were found in only 4 of 43 analysis regions. Projections for A.D. 2046-2065 showed high-severity fire would generally be still operating at, or have been restored to historical rates, although high projections suggest high-severity fire rotations that are too short could ensue in 6 of 43 regions. Programs to generally reduce fire severity in dry forests are not supported and have significant adverse ecological impacts, including reducing habitat for native species dependent on early-successional burned patches and decreasing landscape heterogeneity that confers resilience to climatic change. Some adverse ecological effects of high-severity fires are concerns. Managers and communities can improve our ability to live with high-severity fire in

  18. Higher caloric intake in hospitalized adolescents with anorexia nervosa is associated with reduced length of stay and no increased rate of refeeding syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Neville H; Keane-Miller, Casey; Sainani, Kristin L; Kapphahn, Cynthia J

    2013-11-01

    To determine the effect of higher caloric intake on weight gain, length of stay (LOS), and incidence of hypophosphatemia, hypomagnesemia, and hypokalemia in adolescents hospitalized with anorexia nervosa. Electronic medical records of all subjects 10-21 years of age with anorexia nervosa, first admitted to a tertiary children's hospital from Jan 2007 to Dec 2011, were retrospectively reviewed. Demographic factors, anthropometric measures, incidence of hypophosphatemia (≤3.0 mg/dL), hypomagnesemia (≤1.7 mg/dL), and hypokalemia (≤3.5 mEq/L), and daily change in percent median body mass index (BMI) (%mBMI) from baseline were recorded. Subjects started on higher-calorie diets (≥1,400 kcal/d) were compared with those started on lower-calorie diets (Refeeding hypophosphatemia depends on the degree of malnutrition but not prescribed caloric intake, within the range studied. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Implementation of the forced answering option within online surveys: Do higher item response rates come at the expense of participation and answer quality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Décieux Jean Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Online surveys have become a popular method for data gathering for many reasons, including low costs and the ability to collect data rapidly. However, online data collection is often conducted without adequate attention to implementation details. One example is the frequent use of the forced answering option, which forces the respondent to answer each question in order to proceed through the questionnaire. The avoidance of missing data is often the idea behind the use of the forced answering option. However, we suggest that the costs of a reactance effect in terms of quality reduction and unit nonresponse may be high because respondents typically have plausible reasons for not answering questions. The objective of the study reported in this paper was to test the influence of forced answering on dropout rates and data quality. The results show that requiring participants answer every question increases dropout rates and decreases quality of answers. Our findings suggest that the desire for a complete data set has to be balanced against the consequences of reduced data quality.

  20. Sickness Absence in the Private Sector of Greece: Comparing Shipyard Industry and National Insurance Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Jelastopulu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 3% of employees are absent from work due to illness daily in Europe, while in some countries sickness absence exceeds 20 days per year. Based on a limited body of reliable studies, Greek employees in the private sector seem to be absent far less frequently ( < 5 days/year compared to most of the industrialized world. The aim of this study was to estimate the levels of sickness absence in the private sector in Greece, using shipyard and national insurance data. Detailed data on absenteeism of employees in a large shipyard company during the period 1999–2006 were utilized. National data on compensated days due to sickness absence concerning all employees (around 2 million insured by the Social Insurance Institute (IKA, the largest insurance scheme in Greece were retrieved from the Institute’s annual statistical reports for the period 1987–2006. Sick-leave days per employee and sick-leave rate (% were calculated, among other indicators. In the shipyard cohort, the employment time loss due to sick leave was 1%. The mean number of sick-leave days per employee in shipyards ranged between 4.6 and 8.7 and sick-leave rate (sickness absenteeism rate varied among 2% and 3.7%. The corresponding indicators for IKA were estimated between 5 and 6.3 sick-leave days per insured employee (median 5.8, and 2.14–2.72% (median 2.49%, respectively. Short sick-leave spells ( < 4 days may account at least for the 25% of the total number of sick-leave days, currently not recorded in national statistics. The level of sickness absence in the private sector in Greece was found to be higher than the suggested by previous reports and international comparative studies, but still remains one of the lowest in the industrialized world. In the 20-years national data, the results also showed a 7-year wave in sickness absence indexes (a decrease during the period 1991–1997 and an increase in 1998–2004 combined with a small yet significant decline as a

  1. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test and carbohydrate-deficient transferrin in alcohol-related sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermansson, Ulric; Helander, Anders; Brandt, Lena; Huss, Anders; Rönnberg, Sten

    2002-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that elevated, risky levels of alcohol consumption may lead to higher rates of sickness absence. However, no studies have examined the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) or serum carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) in relation to sickness absence in the workplace. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between sick-days, 12 months before screening, and the AUDIT and CDT (CDTect kit). Serum gamma-glutamyltransferase also was used for comparison. The study was carried out over 36 months in a large workplace and formed part of an ongoing controlled study. In conjunction with a routine health examination, employees were offered the opportunity to undergo an alcohol screening. Absence data were obtained from the company payroll system, and sickness absence was analyzed by using a three-ordinal level cumulative logistic model on the number of sick-days. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) are reported. Of the 989 subjects who participated in the study, 193 (19.5%) screened positive in relation to either the AUDIT (>or=8 points) or CDT (women), or both. Employees who screened positive with the AUDIT had a significantly higher proportion of sick-days (p = 0.047) compared with those who screened negative (OR = 1.4, CI 1.0-1.9). Neither long, continuous periods of sickness absence nor absence on Mondays or Fridays gave a clear indication of individuals who screened positive on the AUDIT or CDT test. Our data indicate that individuals with moderately elevated or risky levels of alcohol consumption show an increase in sick-days. Accordingly, workplaces have a good reason for using a more systematic approach to alcohol screening in routine workplace health examinations.

  2. Associations between sickness absence and harassment, threats, violence, or discrimination: a cross-sectional study of the Swedish Police.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svedberg, Pia; Alexanderson, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    To study if sick leave among employees in the Swedish Police was associated with experiences of discrimination, harassment, or (threats of) violence. All employees in the Swedish Police in 2005. Analyses of data from a questionnaire to all employees; 74% (n=16,725) responded. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) between sick leave and the studied factors were assessed. The rate of sickness absence was higher for women (12%) than for men (8%) (pmen had experienced discrimination, while more men reported harassment from the public and experiences of threats or violence. ORs were significant between sick-leave and discrimination, sexual harassment, and violence, and higher for the men. Associations between harassment from the public, threats of violence or violence, and sickness absence were statistically significant for men only. The study identifies the importance of investigating discrimination, harassment, and violence in relation to health outcomes for both male and female Police employees.

  3. Higher rates of triple-class virological failure in perinatally HIV-infected teenagers compared with heterosexually infected young adults in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, A; Lodwick, R; Noguera-Julian, A; Gibb, D M; Butler, K; Costagliola, D; Sabin, C; van Sighem, A; Ledergerber, B; Torti, C; Mocroft, A; Podzamczer, D; Dorrucci, M; De Wit, S; Obel, N; Dabis, F; Cozzi-Lepri, A; García, F; Brockmeyer, N H; Warszawski, J; Gonzalez-Tome, M I; Mussini, C; Touloumi, G; Zangerle, R; Ghosn, J; Castagna, A; Fätkenheuer, G; Stephan, C; Meyer, L; Campbell, M A; Chene, G; Phillips, A

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the time to, and risk factors for, triple-class virological failure (TCVF) across age groups for children and adolescents with perinatally acquired HIV infection and older adolescents and adults with heterosexually acquired HIV infection. We analysed individual patient data from cohorts in the Collaboration of Observational HIV Epidemiological Research Europe (COHERE). A total of 5972 participants starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) from 1998, aged 500 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL despite ≥ 4 months of use. TCVF was defined as cumulative failure of two NRTIs, an NNRTI and a bPI. The median number of weeks between diagnosis and the start of ART was higher in participants with perinatal HIV infection compared with participants with heterosexually acquired HIV infection overall [17 (interquartile range (IQR) 4-111) vs. 8 (IQR 2-38) weeks, respectively], and highest in perinatally infected participants aged 10-14 years [49 (IQR 9-267) weeks]. The cumulative proportion with TCVF 5 years after starting ART was 9.6% [95% confidence interval (CI) 7.0-12.3%] in participants with perinatally acquired infection and 4.7% (95% CI 3.9-5.5%) in participants with heterosexually acquired infection, and highest in perinatally infected participants aged 10-14 years when starting ART (27.7%; 95% CI 13.2-42.1%). Across all participants, significant predictors of TCVF were those with perinatal HIV aged 10-14 years, African origin, pre-ART AIDS, NNRTI-based initial regimens, higher pre-ART viral load and lower pre-ART CD4. The results suggest a beneficial effect of starting ART before adolescence, and starting young people on boosted PIs, to maximize treatment response during this transitional stage of development. © 2016 The Authors. HIV Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British HIV Association.

  4. Frequency of palmaris longus absence and its association with other anatomical variations in the Egyptian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raouf, Hoda Abdel; Kader, Ghada Abdel; Jaradat, Ahmed; Dharap, Amol; Fadel, Raouf; Salem, Abdel Halim

    2013-07-01

    The palmaris longus (PL) is one of the most variable muscles in the human body. Racial differences in its variation have been documented. Several studies have attempted to correlate PL absence with other anatomical variations. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of absence of PL, correlate it with gender and body side and to determine its association with other anatomical variations in the Egyptian population. The presence of PL was clinically determined in 386 Egyptians using the standard technique. All subjects were examined for the presence of the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) to the fifth finger. Allen's test was done to assess the completeness of the superficial palmar arch (SPA). The overall prevalence of absence of the PL in Egyptian subjects was 50.8%. There was no significant difference in PL absence with regard to the body side but a significant difference was seen as regards gender and when bilateral absence of PL was compared to its unilateral absence. Absence of FDS tendon to the fifth finger was seen in 1.3% subjects. There was no association between the absence of the FDS tendon to the fifth finger and either presence or absence of PL and also between the absence of PL and the incompleteness of SPA in both genders. In conclusion, the prevalence of absence of PL in the Egyptian population represents one of the highest rates of absence to be reported for this muscle, which is significantly different from that in other ethnic groups. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Apolipoprotein CIII overexpression exacerbates diet-induced obesity due to adipose tissue higher exogenous lipid uptake and retention and lower lipolysis rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposo, Helena F; Paiva, Adriene A; Kato, Larissa S; de Oliveira, Helena C F

    2015-01-01

    Hypertriglyceridemia is a common type of dyslipidemia found in obesity. However, it is not established whether primary hyperlipidemia can predispose to obesity. Evidences have suggested that proteins primarily related to plasma lipoprotein transport, such as apolipoprotein (apo) CIII and E, may significantly affect the process of body fat accumulation. We have previously observed an increased adiposity in response to a high fat diet (HFD) in mice overexpressing apoCIII. Here, we examined the potential mechanisms involved in this exacerbated response of apoCIII mice to the HFD. We measured body energy balance, tissue capacity to store exogenous lipids, lipogenesis and lipolysis rates in non-transgenic and apoCIII overexpressing mice fed a HFD during two months. Food intake, fat excretion and whole body CO2 production were similar in both groups. However, the adipose tissue mass (45 %) and leptin plasma levels (2-fold) were significantly greater in apoCIII mice. Lipogenesis rates were similar, while exogenous lipid retention was increased in perigonadal (2-fold) and brown adipose tissues (40 %) of apoCIII mice. In addition, adipocyte basal lipolysis (55 %) and in vivo lipolysis index (30 %) were significantly decreased in apoCIII mice. A fat tolerance test evidenced delayed plasma triglyceride clearance and greater transient availability of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) during the post-prandial state in the apoCIII mice plasma. Thus, apoCIII overexpression resulted in increased NEFA availability to adipose uptake and decreased adipocyte lipolysis, favoring lipid enlargement of adipose depots. We propose that plasma apoCIII levels represent a new risk factor for diet-induced obesity.

  6. Treatment Results of Postoperative Radiotherapy on Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity: Coexistence of Multiple Minor Risk Factors Results in Higher Recurrence Rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Kang-Hsing; Wang, Hung-Ming; Kang, Chung-Jan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the treatment results of postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) on squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (OSCC). Materials and Methods: This study included 302 OSCC patients who were treated by radical surgery and PORT. Indications for PORT include Stage III or IV OSCC according to the 2002 criteria of the American Joint Committee on Cancer, the presence of perineural invasion or lymphatic invasion, the depth of tumor invasion, or a close surgical margin. Patients with major risk factors, such as multiple nodal metastases, a positive surgical margin, or extracapsular spreading, were excluded. The prescribed dose of PORT ranged from 59.4 to 66.6Gy (median, 63Gy). Results: The 3-year overall and recurrence-free survival rates were 73% and 70%, respectively. Univariate analysis revealed that differentiation, perineural invasion, lymphatic invasion, bone invasion, location (hard palate and retromolar trigone), invasion depths ≥10mm, and margin distances ≤4mm were significant prognostic factors. The presence of multiple significant factors of univariate analysis correlated with disease recurrence. The 3-year recurrence-free survival rates were 82%, 76%, and 45% for patients with no risk factors, one or two risk factors, and three or more risk factors, respectively. After multivariate analysis, the number of risk factors and lymphatic invasion were significant prognostic factors. Conclusion: PORT may be an adequate adjuvant therapy for OSCC patients with one or two risk factors of recurrence. The presence of multiple risk factors and lymphatic invasion correlated with poor prognosis, and more aggressive treatment may need to be considered.

  7. Autotrophic and heterotrophic nitrification-anoxic denitrification dominated the anoxic/oxic sewage treatment process during optimization for higher loading rate and energy savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xueyu; Zheng, Shaokui; Zhang, Hangyu; Duan, Shoupeng

    2018-04-30

    This study clarified the dominant nitrogen (N)-transformation pathway and the key ammonia-oxidizing microbial species at three loading levels during optimization of the anoxic/oxic (A/O) process for sewage treatment. Comprehensive N-transformation activity analysis showed that ammonia oxidization was performed predominantly by aerobic chemolithotrophic and heterotrophic ammonia oxidization, whereas N 2 production was performed primarily by anoxic denitrification in the anoxic unit. The abundances of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), nitrite-oxidizing bacteria, and anaerobic AOB in activated sludge reflected their activities on the basis of high-throughput sequencing data. AOB amoA gene clone libraries revealed that the predominant AOB species in sludge samples shifted from Nitrosomonas europaea (61% at the normal loading level) to Nitrosomonas oligotropha (58% and 81% at the two higher loading levels). Following isolation and sequencing, the predominant culturable heterotrophic AOB in sludge shifted from Agrobacterium tumefaciens (42% at the normal loading level) to Acinetobacter johnsonii (52% at the highest loading level). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Infusion-related febrile reaction after haploidentical stem cell transplantation in children is associated with higher rates of engraftment syndrome and acute graft-versus-host disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yao; Huang, Xiao-Jun; Liu, Kai-Yan; Chen, Huan; Chen, Yu-Hong; Zhang, Xiao-Hui; Wang, Feng-Rong; Han, Wei; Wang, Jing-Zhi; Wang, Yu; Yan, Chen-Hua; Zhang, Yuan-Yuan; Sun, Yu-Qian; Xu, Lan-Ping

    2015-12-01

    The clinical significance and prognostic impact of IRFR in pediatric recipients of haploidentical SCT are not clearly understood. Therefore, we attempted to determine how IRFR affects clinical outcomes in children. Clinical data from 100 consecutive pediatric patients (60 boys and 40 girls; median age, 12 yr [range, 2-18 yr] after haploidentical SCT between January 2010 and December 2012 were collected retrospectively. IRFR was described as unexplained fever (>38 °C) within 24 h after the infusion of haploidentical PBSCs. Thirty-eight (38.0%) cases met the criteria for IRFR. ES was found in 24 (63.2%) of the 38 children with IRFR, with the median time of developing ES of +9 (7-16) days, while only 15 (25.4%) of the 59 children without IRFR were found with ES (p children after haploidentical SCT. Thirty-eight children comprised the IRFR group, and 59 were in the control (non-IRFR) group. High incidence of ES was observed in children with the occurrence of IRFR. Similarly, the incidence of stage I-IV and II-IV aGVHD was significantly higher in the febrile group. Multivariate analysis showed IRFR to be the risk factor for ES and aGVHD. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Ablation of arginylation in the mouse N-end rule pathway: loss of fat, higher metabolic rate, damaged spermatogenesis, and neurological perturbations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher S Brower

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In the N-end rule pathway of protein degradation, the destabilizing activity of N-terminal Asp, Glu or (oxidized Cys residues requires their conjugation to Arg, which is recognized directly by pathway's ubiquitin ligases. N-terminal arginylation is mediated by the Ate1 arginyltransferase, whose physiological substrates include the Rgs4, Rgs5 and Rgs16 regulators of G proteins. Here, we employed the Cre-lox technique to uncover new physiological functions of N-terminal arginylation in adult mice. We show that postnatal deletion of mouse Ate1 (its unconditional deletion is embryonic lethal causes a rapid decrease of body weight and results in early death of approximately 15% of Ate1-deficient mice. Despite being hyperphagic, the surviving Ate1-deficient mice contain little visceral fat. They also exhibit an increased metabolic rate, ectopic induction of the Ucp1 uncoupling protein in white fat, and are resistant to diet-induced obesity. In addition, Ate1-deficient mice have enlarged brains, an enhanced startle response, are strikingly hyperkinetic, and are prone to seizures and kyphosis. Ate1-deficient males are also infertile, owing to defects in Ate1(-/- spermatocytes. The remarkably broad range of specific biological processes that are shown here to be perturbed by the loss of N-terminal arginylation will make possible the dissection of regulatory circuits that involve Ate1 and either its known substrates, such as Rgs4, Rgs5 and Rgs16, or those currently unknown.

  10. Surgery for diverticular disease results in a higher hernia rate compared to colorectal cancer: a population-based study from Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, E S; Robertson, D I; Whitehead, M; Xu, J; Hall, S F

    2017-11-16

    Incisional hernias are a well described complication of abdominal surgery. Previous studies identified malignancy and diverticular disease as risk factors. We compared incisional hernia rates between colon resection for colorectal cancer (CRC) and diverticular disease (DD). We performed a retrospective, population-based, matched cohort study. Provincial databases were linked through the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences. These databases include all patients registered under the universal Ontario Health Insurance Plan. Patients aged 18-105 undergoing open colon resection, without ostomy formation between April 1, 2002 and March 31, 2009, were included. We excluded those with previous surgery, hernia, obstruction, and perforation. The primary outcomes were surgery for hernia repair, or diagnosis of hernia in clinic. We identified 4660 cases of DD. These were matched 2:1 by age and gender to 8933 patients with CRC for a total of 13,593. At 5 years, incisional hernias occurred in 8.3% of patients in the CRC cohort, versus 13.1% of those undergoing surgery for DD. After adjusting for important confounders (comorbidity score, wound infection, age, diabetes, prednisone and chemotherapy), hernias were still more likely in patients with DD [HR 1.58, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.43-1.76, P < 0.001]. The only significant covariate was wound infection (HR 1.63, 95% CI 1.43-1.87, P < 0.001). Our study found that incisional hernias occur more commonly in patients with DD than CRC.

  11. Fast-Rate Capable Electrode Material with Higher Energy Density than LiFePO4: 4.2V LiVPO4F Synthesized by Scalable Single-Step Solid-State Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minkyung; Lee, Seongsu; Kang, Byoungwoo

    2016-03-01

    Use of compounds that contain fluorine (F) as electrode materials in lithium ion batteries has been considered, but synthesizing single-phase samples of these compounds is a difficult task. Here, it is demonstrated that a simple scalable single-step solid-state process with additional fluorine source can obtain highly pure LiVPO 4 F. The resulting material with submicron particles achieves very high rate capability ≈100 mAh g -1 at 60 C-rate (1-min discharge) and even at 200 C-rate (18 s discharge). It retains superior capacity, ≈120 mAh g -1 at 10 C charge/10 C discharge rate (6-min) for 500 cycles with >95% retention efficiency. Furthermore, LiVPO 4 F shows low polarization even at high rates leading to higher operating potential >3.45 V (≈3.6 V at 60 C-rate), so it achieves high energy density. It is demonstrated for the first time that highly pure LiVPO 4 F can achieve high power capability comparable to LiFePO 4 and much higher energy density (≈521 Wh g -1 at 20 C-rate) than LiFePO 4 even without nanostructured particles. LiVPO 4 F can be a real substitute of LiFePO 4.

  12. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy was associated with a higher severe late toxicity rate in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients compared with radiotherapy alone: a meta-analysis based on randomized controlled trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Cheng-run; Ying, Hong-mei; Kong, Fang-fang; Zhai, Rui-ping; Hu, Chao-su

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the incidence and risk of severe late toxicity with concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients. Eligible studies included prospective randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating CCRT versus radiotherapy alone in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma and in which data on severe late toxicities were available. Random effects or fixed effect models were applied to obtain the summary incidence, relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Five RCTs with 1102 patients with NPC were included in this analysis. The summary incidence of overall severe late toxicities in patients receiving CCRT was 30.7% (95% CI, 18–47.2%) and the incidence of radiotherapy alone group was 21.7% (95% CI, 13.3–33.4%). The use of concurrent chemotherapy was associated with an increased risk of severe late toxicities, with a RR of 1.349 (95% CI, 1.108–1.643; P = 0.005). As for specific late toxicity, CCRT significantly increased the risk of ear deafness/otitis (RR = 1.567; 95% CI, 1.192–2.052), but other late toxicities were not significantly different. Patients receiving concurrent chemotherapy regimens with 3-week high-dose cisplatin (HC) have a higher risk of ear deafness/otitis (RR = 1.672; 95% CI, 1.174–2.382; P = 0.026). However, there was no significant increase in the RR of severe ear complication with the addition of non-3-week high-dose cisplatin (nonHC) regimens (RR = 1.433; 95% CI, 0.946–2.171; P = 0.095). With the present evidence, the addition of concurrent chemotherapy seems to increase the risk of severe late toxicities in patients with NPC, especially when using HC regimen for the occurrence of severe ototoxicity

  13. Pregnant women with HIV in rural Nigeria have higher rates of antiretroviral treatment initiation, but similar loss to follow-up as non-pregnant women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliyu, Muktar H; Blevins, Meridith; Megazzini, Karen M; Parrish, Deidra D; Audet, Carolyn M; Chan, Naomi; Odoh, Chisom; Gebi, Usman I; Muhammad, Mukhtar Y; Shepherd, Bryan E; Wester, C William; Vermund, Sten H

    2015-11-01

    We examined antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation and retention by sex and pregnancy status in rural Nigeria. We studied HIV-infected ART-naïve patients aged ≥15 years entering care from June 2009 to September 2013. We calculated the probability of early ART initiation and cumulative incidence of loss to follow-up (LTFU) during the first year of ART, and examined the association between LTFU and sex/pregnancy using Cox regression. The cohort included 3813 ART-naïve HIV-infected adults (2594 women [68.0%], 273 [11.8%] of them pregnant). The proportion of pregnant clients initiating ART within 90 days of enrollment (78.0%, 213/273) was higher than among non-pregnant women (54.3%,1261/2321) or men (53.0%, 650/1219), both pPregnant women initiated ART sooner than non-pregnant women and men (median [IQR] days from enrollment to ART initiation for pregnant women=7 days [0-21] vs 14 days [7-49] for non-pregnant women and 14 days [7-42] for men; pPregnant women with HIV in rural Nigeria were more likely to initiate ART but were no more likely to be retained in care. Our findings underscore the importance of effective retention strategies across all patient groups, regardless of sex and pregnancy status. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Source and sink nodes in absence seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Abner C; Machado, Birajara S; Caboclo, Luis Otavio S F; Fujita, Andre; Baccala, Luiz A; Sameshima, Koichi

    2016-08-01

    As opposed to focal epilepsy, absence seizures do not exhibit a clear seizure onset zone or focus since its ictal activity rapidly engages both brain hemispheres. Yet recent graph theoretical analysis applied to absence seizures EEG suggests the cortical focal presence, an unexpected feature for this type of epilepsy. In this study, we explore the characteristics of absence seizure by classifying the nodes as to their source/sink natures via weighted directed graph analysis based on connectivity direction and strength estimation using information partial directed coherence (iPDC). By segmenting the EEG signals into relatively short 5-sec-long time windows we studied the evolution of coupling strengths from both sink and source nodes, and the network dynamics of absence seizures in eight patients.

  15. Are lower levels of physical activity and self-rated fitness associated with higher levels of psychological distress in Croatian young adults? A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovro Štefan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Although previous evidence has shown that physical activity and physical fitness lower the level of psychological distress, little is known of simultaneous associations between of physical activity and physical fitness and with psychological distress, especially in young adults. Therefore, the main purpose of the present study was to explore both separate and simultaneous association between physical activity and physical fitness with psychological distress. Methods Participants in this cross-sectional study were 2,100 university students (1,041 men and 1,059 women chosen from eight faculties in the city of Zagreb. Physical activity, physical fitness and psychological distress were assessed using structured questionnaires. The associations were examined using logistic regression analysis. Results After adjusting for gender, body-mass index, self-rated health, material status, binge drinking, chronic disease/s and sleep quality, “insufficient” physical activity (OR = 2.60; 95% CI [1.92–3.52] and “lower” levels of physical fitness (tertile 2; OR = 1.94; 95% CI [1.25–3.01] and tertile 1; OR = 2.59; 95% CI [1.65–4.08] remained associated with “high” psychological distress. When physical activity and physical fitness were entered simultaneously into the model, “insufficient” physical activity (OR = 2.35; 95% CI [1.72–3.21] and “lower” levels of physical fitness (tertile 2; OR = 1.77; 95% CI [1.24–2.77] and tertile 1; OR = 2.00; 95% CI [1.26–3.20] remained associated with “high” psychological distress. Conclusion Our study shows that both “insufficient” physical activity and “lower” levels of physical fitness are associated with “high” psychological distress, even after adjusting for numerous covariates. Therefore, special policies aiming to increase the levels of physical activity and fitness are warranted.

  16. Can digital presence reconfigure experiences of absence?

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, J.; Clayton, W.

    2014-01-01

    Family Rituals 2.0 is a project based on the premise that work-related travel is unlikely to disappear in the foreseeable future. Many work roles – from truck drivers to CEOs – involve periods of absence, and often being away overnight. Travel which takes people away overnight impacts on family and home life; however, the emergence of powerful new digital communication technologies could challenge traditional experiences of such absence.\\ud \\ud Many studies have considered the potential for d...

  17. Effect of absence of vision on posture

    OpenAIRE

    Alotaibi, Abdullah Z.; Alghadir, Ahmad; Iqbal, Zaheen A.; Anwer, Shahnawaz

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The visual system is one of the sensory systems that enables the body to assess and process information about the external environment. In the absence of vision, a blind person loses contact with the outside world and develops faulty motor patterns, which results in postural deficiencies. However, literature regarding the development of such deficiencies is limited. The aim of this study was to discuss the effect of absence of vision on posture, the possible biomechanics behind the ...

  18. Worried sick? Sickness absence during organizational turmoil

    OpenAIRE

    Bratberg, Espen; Monstad, Karin

    2011-01-01

    Sickness absence has risen over the past years in Norway. An explanation put forward is that a tougher labour market represents a health hazard, while a competing hypothesis predicts that loss of job security works as a disciplinary device. In this analysis we aim to trace a causal impact of organizational turmoil or job insecurity on sickness absence, applying a difference-in-difference approach. Utilizing a negative financial shock that hit specific employers and workplaces, we find that...

  19. Relative Deprivation and Sickness Absence in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Helgertz

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: A high prevalence of sickness absence in many countries, at a substantial societal cost, underlines the importance to understand its determining mechanisms. This study focuses on the link between relative deprivation and the probability of sickness absence. Methods: 184,000 men and women in Sweden were followed between 1982 and 2001. The sample consists of working individuals between the ages of 19 and 65. The outcome is defined as experiencing more than 14 days of sickness absence during a year. Based on the complete Swedish population, an individual’s degree of relative deprivation is measured through income compared to individuals of the same age, sex, educational level and type. In accounting for the possibility that sickness absence and socioeconomic status are determined by common factors, discrete-time duration models were estimated, accounting for unobserved heterogeneity through random effects. Results: The results confirm that the failure to account for the dynamics of the individual’s career biases the influence from socioeconomic characteristics. Results consistently suggest a major influence from relative deprivation, with a consistently lower risk of sickness absence among the highly educated. Conclusions: Altering individual’s health behavior through education appears more efficient in reducing the reliance on sickness absence, rather than redistributive policies.

  20. Relative deprivation and sickness absence in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgertz, Jonas; Hess, Wolfgang; Scott, Kirk

    2013-08-29

    A high prevalence of sickness absence in many countries, at a substantial societal cost, underlines the importance to understand its determining mechanisms. This study focuses on the link between relative deprivation and the probability of sickness absence. 184,000 men and women in Sweden were followed between 1982 and 2001. The sample consists of working individuals between the ages of 19 and 65. The outcome is defined as experiencing more than 14 days of sickness absence during a year. Based on the complete Swedish population, an individual's degree of relative deprivation is measured through income compared to individuals of the same age, sex, educational level and type. In accounting for the possibility that sickness absence and socioeconomic status are determined by common factors, discrete-time duration models were estimated, accounting for unobserved heterogeneity through random effects. The results confirm that the failure to account for the dynamics of the individual's career biases the influence from socioeconomic characteristics. Results consistently suggest a major influence from relative deprivation, with a consistently lower risk of sickness absence among the highly educated. Altering individual's health behavior through education appears more efficient in reducing the reliance on sickness absence, rather than redistributive policies.

  1. Validation in the Absence of Observed Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathrop, John; Ezell, Barry

    2016-04-01

    This article addresses the problem of validating models in the absence of observed events, in the area of weapons of mass destruction terrorism risk assessment. We address that problem with a broadened definition of "validation," based on stepping "up" a level to considering the reason why decisionmakers seek validation, and from that basis redefine validation as testing how well the model can advise decisionmakers in terrorism risk management decisions. We develop that into two conditions: validation must be based on cues available in the observable world; and it must focus on what can be done to affect that observable world, i.e., risk management. That leads to two foci: (1) the real-world risk generating process, and (2) best use of available data. Based on our experience with nine WMD terrorism risk assessment models, we then describe three best use of available data pitfalls: SME confidence bias, lack of SME cross-referencing, and problematic initiation rates. Those two foci and three pitfalls provide a basis from which we define validation in this context in terms of four tests--Does the model: … capture initiation? … capture the sequence of events by which attack scenarios unfold? … consider unanticipated scenarios? … consider alternative causal chains? Finally, we corroborate our approach against three validation tests from the DOD literature: Is the model a correct representation of the process to be simulated? To what degree are the model results comparable to the real world? Over what range of inputs are the model results useful? © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  2. Higher rates of metabolic syndrome among women taking zidovudine as compared to tenofovir in rural Africa: preliminary data from the CART-1 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labhardt, Niklaus Daniel; Cheleboi, Molisana; Faturyiele, Olatunbosun; Motlatsi, Mokete M; Pfeiffer, Karolin; Lejone, Thabo Ismael; Cerutti, Bernard; Muser, Jürgen; Gupta, Ravi Shankar; Lynen, Lutgarde; Hatz, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Due to its side effects stavudine (D4T) has been replaced by zidovudine (AZT) and tenofovir (TDF) in most low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). In 2014 about 38% of adult first-line regimens contain AZT and 62% TDF [1]. Whereas the unfavourable metabolic outcomes of D4T in comparison to TDF have been described extensively, studies from LMICs comparing metabolic profiles between patients on AZT and TDF are scarce. Given the high number of patients in LMICs still taking AZT, data on their metabolic profile are needed. We present rates of metabolic syndrome (MS) in adult patients taking either AZT- or TDF-containing first-line, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase (NNRTI)-based regimens. Data derived from a cross-sectional multi-disease screening conducted in ten facilities in two rural districts of Lesotho, Southern Africa [2]. Patients were eligible if aged ≥25 years and on NNRTI-containing first-line ART ≥6 months. The MS definition for Africa of the International Diabetes Federation was applied [3]. Assessed potential predictors for MS were age, time on ART, virologic suppression, body-mass index (BMI), alcohol consumption, wealth quintile, NNRTI (nevirapine (NVP) or Efavirenz (EFV)), history of previous D4T exposure and ART-backbone (AZT or TDF). Statistical analyses - stratified for sex - comprised univariate logistic regression for each predictor variable with subsequent construction of a multivariate model including all predictors with an association to MS at a significance levelwomen. In women, aged ≥35 years, AZT-backbone, NVP-base, BMI ≥25kg/m2 and taking ART for ≥4.5 years were associated with MS in univariate analysis. In the multivariate model only AZT (adjusted odds-ratio: 2.2, 95% CI 1.4-3.6; p=0.001) and BMI ≥25kg/m2 (9.8; 2.8-34.1, pwomen who are on ART for ≥6 months predisposes to the development of metabolic syndrome. Given that, still 38% of first-line regimens in LMIC contain AZT, this finding needs to be verified in other

  3. Higher Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kunle Amuwo: Higher Education Transformation: A Paradigm Shilt in South Africa? ... ty of such skills, especially at the middle management levels within the higher ... istics and virtues of differentiation and diversity. .... may be forced to close shop for lack of capacity to attract ..... necessarily lead to racial and gender equity,.

  4. Targeting the Real Exchange Rate; Theory and Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos A. Végh Gramont; Guillermo Calvo; Carmen Reinhart

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical and empirical analysis of policies aimed at setting a more depreciated level of the real exchange rate. An intertemporal optimizing model suggests that, in the absence of changes in fiscal policy, a more depreciated level of the real exchange can only be attained temporarily. This can be achieved by means of higher inflation and/or higher real interest rates, depending on the degree of capital mobility. Evidence for Brazil, Chile, and Colombia supports the mo...

  5. Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    & Development (LDRD) National Security Education Center (NSEC) Office of Science Programs Richard P Databases National Security Education Center (NSEC) Center for Nonlinear Studies Engineering Institute Scholarships STEM Education Programs Teachers (K-12) Students (K-12) Higher Education Regional Education

  6. Pregnancy-related sickness absence among employed women in a Swedish county.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexanderson, K; Hensing, G; Carstensen, J; Bjurulf, P

    1995-06-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the variation of pregnancy-related sickness absence among employed women according to age, occupation, and degree of male-female domination within occupations. Data from a prospective study of all new sick-leave spells exceeding 7 d in 1985 and 1986 in the county of Ostergötland, Sweden, were related to the population at risk, through the Swedish Medical Birth Register. The subjects included in the analysis were all 7000 employed women that gave birth in 1985 and 1986, of which some 3000 were sick-listed at least once with pregnancy-related diagnoses. There was little difference in the pregnancy-related sickness absence between the age groups. The age-standardized rate for sick leaves involving pregnancy-related diagnoses differed substantially between occupations. Women in the metal industry had the highest rates; those employed in administration, banking, and insurance had the lowest. White-collar occupations generally had lower rates and blue-collar occupations higher rates, with some exceptions (eg, in saw mills, farming, and the chemical industry). Gender-integrated occupations had the lowest sick-leave rate, while extremely male-dominated jobs had the highest. The latter association remained after adjustment for occupational area. There were considerable differences between occupational groups in the rates of sick leaves involving pregnancy-related diagnoses. Some differences were related to physical load of the jobs being done, but not all. It seems important to consider also male-female domination within a job with respect to such sick leaves.

  7. CpG Oligonucleotide and Interleukin 2 stimulation enables higher cytogenetic abnormality detection rates than 12-o-tetradecanolyphorbol-13-acetate in Asian patients with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, Fiona Pui San; Lau, Lai Ching; Lim, Alvin Soon Tiong; Lim, Tse Hui; Lee, Geok Yee; Tien, Sim Leng

    2014-12-01

    The present study was designed to compare abnormality detection rates using DSP30 + IL2 and 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in Asian patients with B-CLL. Hematological specimens from 47 patients (29 newly diagnosed, 18 relapsed) were established as 72 h-DSP30 + IL2 and TPA cultures. Standard methods were employed to identify clonal aberrations by conventional cytogenetics (CC). The B-CLL fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) panel comprised ATM, CEP12, D13S25, and TP53 probes. DSP30 + IL2 cultures had a higher chromosomal abnormality detection rate (67 %) compared to TPA (44 %, p 0.05). Thirteen cases with abnormalities were found exclusively in DSP30 + IL2 cultures compared to one found solely in TPA cultures. DSP30 + IL2 cultures were comparable to the FISH panel in detecting 11q-, +12 and 17p- but not 13q-. It also has a predilection for 11q- bearing leukemic cells compared to TPA. FISH had a higher abnormality detection rate (84.1 %) compared to CC (66.0 %) with borderline significance (p = 0.051), albeit limited by its coverage. In conclusion, DSP30 + IL2 showed a higher abnormality detection rate. However, FISH is indispensable to circumvent low mitotic indices and detect subtle abnormalities.

  8. Treatment of moderate acute malnutrition with ready-to-use supplementary food results in higher overall recovery rates compared with a corn-soya blend in children in southern Ethiopia: an operations research trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakochuk, Crystal; van den Briel, Tina; Stephens, Derek; Zlotkin, Stanley

    2012-10-01

    Moderate and severe acute malnutrition affects 13% of children malnutrition affects fewer children but is associated with higher rates of mortality and morbidity. Supplementary feeding programs aim to treat moderate acute malnutrition and prevent the deterioration to severe acute malnutrition. The aim was to compare recovery rates of children with moderate acute malnutrition in supplementary feeding programs by using the newly recommended ration of ready-to-use supplementary food (RUSF) and the more conventional ration of corn-soya blend (CSB) in Ethiopia. A total of 1125 children aged 6-60 mo with moderate acute malnutrition received 16 wk of CSB or RUSF. Children were randomly assigned to receive one or the other food. The daily rations were purposely based on the conventional treatment rations distributed at the time of the study in Ethiopia: 300 g CSB and 32 g vegetable oil in the control group (1413 kcal) and 92 g RUSF in the intervention group (500 kcal). The higher ration size of CSB was provided because of expected food sharing. The HR for children in the CSB group was 0.85 (95% CI: 0.73, 0.99), which indicated that they had 15% lower recovery (P = 0.039). Recovery rates of children at the end of the 16-wk treatment period trended higher in the RUSF group (73%) than in the CSB group (67%) (P = 0.056). In comparison with CSB, the treatment of moderate acute malnutrition with RUSF resulted in higher recovery rates in children, despite the large ration size and higher energy content of the conventional CSB ration.

  9. Associations between health and combinations of sickness presence and absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, K; Marklund, S

    2014-01-01

    The association between sickness presence (SP), sickness absence (SA) and health is not well known although research on these phenomena has grown in recent years. To identify the health outcomes of different combinations of self-reported SP and SA while controlling for background and work-related factors. The study group was a representative three-wave sample of 1886 employed individuals from the Swedish Working Life Cohort, gathered in 2004-2006. Block-wise multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted for combinations of self-reported SP and SA, using controls for background, work-related and previous health factors. The crude odds ratios showed that health and mental well-being were most negatively affected in the group with high SP and SA in the preceding year. When differences in individual background, health and work-related factors were controlled for, distinct significant odds ratios remained. The odds ratios for negative health outcomes were between 1.49 (95% CI: 1.02-2.18) and 2.64 (95% CI: 1.81-3.85) higher among those with both high SP and high SA than those with both low SP and low SA. However, the study also indicated that individuals with high SP and low SA showed the highest odds ratios for poor mental well-being. The results showed that combinations of frequent self-rated SP and SA are related to negative values in the four measured aspects of self-reported health 1 year later. Occupational medicine practitioners should therefore be concerned particularly with employees who report frequently occurring SP and SA.

  10. Impact of recurrent changes in the work environment on nurses' psychological well-being and sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaeghe, Rik; Vlerick, Peter; Gemmel, Paul; Van Maele, Georges; De Backer, Guy

    2006-12-01

    This paper is a report of a study of how the occurrence and appraisal of recurrent changes in the work environment of hospital nurses affect psychological well-being (i.e. job satisfaction, eustress and distress) and absence through illness. Many researchers have demonstrated the impact of major organizational changes on employees' psychological well-being, but only a few have focused on the permanent consequences in work conditions. In a contemporary healthcare setting, an increased number of recurrent operational changes has become a normal characteristic of nurses' work environment. Specific work situations have frequently been associated with occupational stress, whereas employees' appraisal of recurrent changes as stressors and their relation to psychological well-being and health outcomes (i.e. sickness absence) have been dismissed. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted in 2003 with 2094 Registered Nurses in 10 general hospitals. Logistic regressions were used to investigate the impact on psychological well-being and prospectively measured rates of sickness absence (frequency and duration). The occurrence of changes in the work environment (in the past 6 months) had had a negative impact on staff psychological well-being. Nurses who had been confronted with changes scored statistically significantly higher for distress. Changes appraised as threatening were negatively related to job satisfaction and eustress, and positively related to distress and sickness absence (frequency and duration). Changes appraised as challenging were positively related to job satisfaction and eustress but had no impact on distress and sickness absence. Future research should take into consideration the impact of the occurrence and appraisal of recurrent changes in the work environment of healthcare employees (i.e. Registered Nurses) on psychological well-being and sickness absence. This should also be considered by managers when dealing with these nursing workforce

  11. The gender gap in sickness absence from work and the influence of parental absence on offspring absence 15?years later: register-based cohort of Norwegians born in 1974?1976

    OpenAIRE

    Kristensen, Petter; Corbett, Karina; Mehlum, Ingrid Sivesind

    2015-01-01

    Background Women have shown consistently higher levels of sickness absence from work in comparison to men, but explanations for this gender gap have not been completely understood. Life-course studies suggest that health and health-related social benefits in adult age are influenced by early life experiences. We aimed to estimate intergenerational associations with a 15-year time gap between parents? and offspring sickness absences, pursuing the hypothesis that this parental influence would h...

  12. Oral Presentations Have a Significantly Higher Publication Rate, But Not Impact Factors, Than Poster Presentations at the International Society for Study of Lumbar Spine meeting: Review of 1126 Abstracts From 2010 to 2012 Meetings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtori, Seiji; Orita, Sumihisa; Eguchi, Yawara; Aoki, Yasuchika; Suzuki, Miyako; Kubota, Gou; Inage, Kazuhide; Shiga, Yasuhiro; Abe, Koki; Kinoshita, Hideyuki; Inoue, Masahiro; Kanamoto, Hirohito; Norimoto, Masaki; Umimura, Tomotaka; Furuya, Takeo; Masao, Koda; Maki, Satoshi; Akazawa, Tsutomu; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

    2018-03-05

    A retrospective study. The aim of this study was to determine the publication rate and impact factors (IFs) among all abstracts presented at the 2010 and 2012 meetings of the International Society for the Study of Lumbar Spine (ISSLS). The publication rate of abstracts presented at overseas meetings was reported to be around 50%. However, the publication rate and IFs of oral and poster presentations made at ISSLS meetings were unclear. Moreover, whether the publication rates and IFs differed for papers associated with oral or poster presentations at ISSLS meetings was unknown. We investigated all 1126 abstracts (oral, special posters, general posters) presented at ISSLS meetings held between 2010 and 2012. PubMed was searched to identify publications and IFs were determined using journal citation reports. We also compared the publication rates and IFs between oral and poster presentations. The overall publication rate was 50.1% for three ISSLS meetings (564 publications/1126 abstracts). The overall publication rate for oral presentations, special posters, and general posters given in the 2010 to 2012 meetings was 62.0%, 48.3, and 46.6%, respectively. Overall, papers related to oral presentations had significantly higher publication rates than those of special and general posters (P = 0.0002). The average IFs of publications associated with abstracts presented at three ISSLS meetings was 2.802 for oral presentations, 2.593 for special posters, and 2.589 for general posters. There were no significant differences in average IFs between oral and poster presentations (P > 0.05). The publication rate for abstracts presented at ISSLS meetings was high and similar to publication rates for abstracts presented at other meetings concerning orthopedic and spine research. However, there was no significant difference in IFs between oral and poster presentations, suggesting that abstract evaluations cannot predict IFs of the eventual publication. 4.

  13. Trends in sickness absence in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Kristina; Bihrmann, Kristine; Mikkelsen, Sigurd

    2009-01-01

    's Authority, and the Labor Force Survey indicated a stable and largely unaltered pattern of sickness absence during the last 20 years. Findings from Statistics Denmark showed an increase in the cumulative incidence proportion from 6.6 to 7.5% among employed people between 2000 and 2007. CONCLUSION: Our data...... a linear regression analysis to analyze time trends in sickness absence based on datasets from the Danish Employers Confederation, the State Employer's Authority, the Labour Force Survey, and Statistics Denmark. RESULTS: The findings from the Confederation of Danish Employers, the State Employer...

  14. Congenital Absence of the Internal Carotid Artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florio, Francesco; Balzano, Silverio; Nardella, Michele; Strizzi, Vincenzo; Cammisa, Mario; Bozzini, Vincenzo; Catapano, Giuseppe; D'Angelo, Vincenzo

    1999-01-01

    We report three cases of congenital absence of an internal carotid artery (ICA), diagnosed incidentally by digital subtraction angiography. The analysis of the cases is based on the classification of segmental ICA agenesis proposed by Lasjaunias and Berenstein. Usually the patients with this rare vascular anomaly are asymptomatic; some may have symptoms related to cerebrovascular insufficiency, compression by enlarged intracranial collateral vessels, or complications associated with cerebral aneurysms. Diagnosis of congenital absence of ICA is made by skull base computed tomography (CT) scan, CT and magnetic resonance angiography, and conventional or digital subtraction angiography

  15. Isolated absence of the septum pellucidum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supprian, T.; Sian, J.; Heils, A.; Hofmann, E.; Warmuth-Metz, M.; Solymosi, L.

    1999-01-01

    Absence of the septum pellucidum in the human is a rare congenital anomaly. Previous reports suggest it is almost always associated with other brain anomalies. However, MRI in two patients with absence of the septum pellucidum presented here, indicates that this anomaly may occur without associated anomalies. It may be one manifestation of a spectrum of developmental anomalies. One patient presented with schizophrenic psychosis; developmental disturbances in limbic areas are believed to be associated with schizophrenia. Agenesis of the septum pellucidum may indicate abnormal development of limbic structures and it may be associated with anomalies, such as cytoarchitectural disturbances of cortical layers, as yet undetectable by MRI. (orig.)

  16. Isolated absence of the septum pellucidum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Supprian, T. [Department of Psychiatry, University of Wuerzburg, Fuechsleinstrasse 15, D-97080 Wuerzburg (Germany)]|[Department of Neuroradiology, University of Wuerzburg (Germany); Sian, J.; Heils, A. [Department of Psychiatry, University of Wuerzburg, Fuechsleinstrasse 15, D-97080 Wuerzburg (Germany); Hofmann, E.; Warmuth-Metz, M.; Solymosi, L. [Department of Neuroradiology, University of Wuerzburg (Germany)

    1999-08-01

    Absence of the septum pellucidum in the human is a rare congenital anomaly. Previous reports suggest it is almost always associated with other brain anomalies. However, MRI in two patients with absence of the septum pellucidum presented here, indicates that this anomaly may occur without associated anomalies. It may be one manifestation of a spectrum of developmental anomalies. One patient presented with schizophrenic psychosis; developmental disturbances in limbic areas are believed to be associated with schizophrenia. Agenesis of the septum pellucidum may indicate abnormal development of limbic structures and it may be associated with anomalies, such as cytoarchitectural disturbances of cortical layers, as yet undetectable by MRI. (orig.) With 1 fig., 19 refs.

  17. Longitudinal associations of active commuting with wellbeing and sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mytton, Oliver Tristan; Panter, Jenna; Ogilvie, David

    2016-03-01

    Our aim was to explore longitudinal associations of active commuting (cycling to work and walking to work) with physical wellbeing (PCS-8), mental wellbeing (MCS-8) and sickness absence. We used data from the Commuting and Health in Cambridge study (2009 to 2012; n=801) to test associations between: a) maintenance of cycling (or walking) to work over a one year period and indices of wellbeing at the end of that one year period; and b) associations between change in cycling (or walking) to work and change in indices of wellbeing. Linear regression was used for testing associations with PCS-8 and MCS-8, and negative binomial regression for sickness absence. After adjusting for sociodemographic variables, physical activity and physical limitation, those who maintained cycle commuting reported lower sickness absence (0.46, 95% CI: 0.14-0.80; equivalent to one less day per year) and higher MCS-8 scores (1.50, 0.10-2.10) than those who did not cycle to work. The association for sickness absence persisted after adjustment for baseline sickness absence. No significant associations were observed for PCS-8. Associations between change in cycle commuting and change in indices of wellbeing were not significant. No significant associations were observed for walking. This work provides some evidence of the value of cycle commuting in improving or maintaining the health and wellbeing of adults of working age. This may be important in engaging employers in the promotion of active travel and communicating the benefits of active travel to employees. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Authors attain comparable or slightly higher rates of citation publishing in an open access journal (CytoJournal compared to traditional cytopathology journals - A five year (2007-2011 experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora K Frisch

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The era of Open Access (OA publication, a platform which serves to better disseminate scientific knowledge, is upon us, as more OA journals are in existence than ever before. The idea that peer-reviewed OA publication leads to higher rates of citation has been put forth and shown to be true in several publications. This is a significant benefit to authors and is in addition to another relatively less obvious but highly critical component of the OA charter, i.e. retention of the copyright by the authors in the public domain. In this study, we analyzed the citation rates of OA and traditional non-OA publications specifically for authors in the field of cytopathology. Design: We compared the citation patterns for authors who had published in both OA and traditional non-OA peer-reviewed, scientific, cytopathology journals. Citations in an OA publication (CytoJournal were analyzed comparatively with traditional non-OA cytopathology journals (Acta Cytologica, Cancer Cytopathology, Cytopathology, and Diagnostic Cytopathology using the data from web of science citation analysis site (based on which the impact factors (IF are calculated. After comparing citations per publication, as well as a time adjusted citation quotient (which takes into account the time since publication, we also analyzed the statistics after excluding the data for meeting abstracts. Results: Total 28 authors published 314 publications as articles and meeting abstracts (25 authors after excluding the abstracts. The rate of citation and time adjusted citation quotient were higher for OA in the group where abstracts were included (P < 0.05 for both. The rates were also slightly higher for OA than non-OA when the meeting abstracts were excluded, but the difference was statistically insignificant (P = 0.57 and P = 0.45. Conclusion : We observed that for the same author, the publications in the OA journal attained a higher rate of citation than the publications in the

  19. Nickel-hydrogen battery state of charge management in the absence of active cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lurie, C.; Foroozan, S. [TRW, Redondo Beach, CA (United States); Brewer, J.; Jackson, L.G. [NASA, Huntsville, AL (United States). Marshall Space Flight Center

    1995-12-31

    Battery management during prelaunch activities has always required special attention and careful planning. `ne transition from nickel-cadmium to nickel-hydrogen batteries, with their higher self discharge rate and lower charge efficiency, as well as longer prelaunch scenarios, have made this aspect of spacecraft management even more challenging. The NASA AXAF-I Program requires high battery state of charge at launch. The use of active cooling, to ensure adequate state of charge during prelaunch charge, trickle charge, and stand was considered and proved to be expensive and difficult to implement. Alternate approaches were considered. A procedure including optimized charging and low rate (absence of active cooling, appeared promising and was investigated. The investigation includes three phases: (1) demonstration of the feasibility of the proposed procedure (2) development of a parametric data base (3) validation in an AXAF-I mission simulation test. Charging, trickle charging, and open circuit stand are considered in each phase. The major conclusion of this work is that nickel-hydrogen batteries can achieve and maintain high states of charge, in the absence of active cooling, using the approach described in this paper.

  20. Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, Robert M.

    This chapter reports 1982 cases involving aspects of higher education. Interesting cases noted dealt with the federal government's authority to regulate state employees' retirement and raised the questions of whether Title IX covers employment, whether financial aid makes a college a program under Title IX, and whether sex segregated mortality…

  1. Differences in sickness absence in Sweden and Denmark: the cross national HAKNAK study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Thomas; Christensen, Karl Bang; Vaez, Marjan

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate potential differences in sickness absence among public sector employees in Sweden and Denmark, and to what extent a difference was associated with age, gender, physical and psychosocial work environment exposures, lifestyle factors, self-rated health or work ability. METHODS...... of dependent and independent variables in the two sub-cohorts. Stratified logistic regression analysis was performed to identify causes for absence within the two sub-cohorts, and logistic regression analysis was performed to study differences in sickness absence levels between the two sub-cohorts. RESULTS......: More subjects from the Swedish study population reported more than 7 days of sickness absence. Factors associated with sickness absence were largely similar in the two countries. The difference in absence level between Sweden and Denmark was not associated with differences in age, gender, skill level...

  2. Effect of absence of vision on posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alotaibi, Abdullah Z; Alghadir, Ahmad; Iqbal, Zaheen A; Anwer, Shahnawaz

    2016-04-01

    [Purpose] The visual system is one of the sensory systems that enables the body to assess and process information about the external environment. In the absence of vision, a blind person loses contact with the outside world and develops faulty motor patterns, which results in postural deficiencies. However, literature regarding the development of such deficiencies is limited. The aim of this study was to discuss the effect of absence of vision on posture, the possible biomechanics behind the resulting postural deficiencies, and strategies to correct and prevent them. [Subjects and Methods] Various electronic databases including PubMed, Medline, and Google scholar were examined using the words "body", "posture", "blind" and "absence of vision". References in the retrieved articles were also examined for cross-references. The search was limited to articles in the English language. [Results] A total of 74 papers were shortlisted for this review, most of which dated back to the 1950s and 60s. [Conclusion] Blind people exhibit consistent musculoskeletal deformities. Absence of vision leads to numerous abnormal sensory and motor interactions that often limit blind people in isolation. Rehabilitation of the blind is a multidisciplinary task. Specialists from different fields need to diagnose and treat the deficiencies of the blind together as a team. Before restoring the normal mechanics of posture and gait, the missing link with the external world should be reestablished.

  3. Automatic characterization of dynamics in Absence Epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Katrine N. H.; Nielsen, Trine N.; Kjær, Troels W.

    2013-01-01

    Dynamics of the spike-wave paroxysms in Childhood Absence Epilepsy (CAE) are automatically characterized using novel approaches. Features are extracted from scalograms formed by Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT). Detection algorithms are designed to identify an estimate of the temporal development...

  4. Father Absence Effects on Military Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-01

    during his absence. Then there’s the problem of learning how to drive an automobile after being on a cruise for nine months." For those who felt that...D.C. 20370 3. Director for HRM Plans and Policy (OP-150) Human Resource Management Division Deputy Chief of Naval Operations (Manpoer. Personnel

  5. Pedagogy of Absence, Conflict, and Emergence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tom, Miye Nadya; Suárez-Krabbe, Julia; Caballero Castro, Trinidad

    2017-01-01

    This article employs the pedagogy of absence, conflict, and emergence (PACE), as an analytical approach to study concrete contributions to the decolonization of education. PACE seeks to transcend Eurocentric knowledge construction, and hence one of its fundamental efforts is to think from...

  6. School Ethical Climate and Teachers' Voluntary Absence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira-Lishchinsky, Orly; Rosenblatt, Zehava

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to offer a theoretical framework for linking school ethical climate with teachers' voluntary absence. The paper attempts to explain this relationship using the concept of affective organizational commitment. Design/methodology/approach: Participants were 1,016 school teachers from 35 high schools in Israel. Data were…

  7. Long-term sickness absence from work due to physical inactivity: A registry-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høgsbro, Cecilie; Davidsen, Michael; Sørensen, Jan

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between leisure-time physical inactivity and long-term sickness absence in a representative sample of individuals aged 16-54 years, within the labour market and in good health. It was hypothesised that physically inactive individuals have a higher risk of long-term sickness absence and longer duration of sickness absence. The study population was identified from the National Health and Morbidity Survey, 2010. Weekly data on long-term sickness absence were obtained from the National Register on Social Transfer Payments (the DREAM registry). The association of incidence and duration of long-term sickness absence with physical inactivity was explored using logistic and Poisson regression. Data were fitted to models with levels of physical activity, demographic, social and lifestyle characteristics as independent variables. A combined hurdle model was used to estimate the difference in mean number of absence weeks. Logistic regression showed that physically inactive individuals had a 27% higher incidence of long-term sickness absence compared with physically active individuals. The Poisson regression showed that long-term sickness absence was only slightly shorter (1 week less) for moderately active individuals compared with inactive individuals. The hurdle model estimated longer absence periods for inactive individuals (additional 2.5 weeks) in comparison with moderately and highly active individuals. The study showed that physically inactive individuals have a higher incidence of long-term absence and that physically inactive individuals have longer periods with sickness absence than moderately and highly active individuals. When adjustments for social and health behaviour were included, the estimated associations became statistically insignificant.

  8. Pretreatment seizure semiology in childhood absence epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Sudha Kilaru; Shinnar, Shlomo; Cnaan, Avital; Dlugos, Dennis; Conry, Joan; Hirtz, Deborah G; Hu, Fengming; Liu, Chunyan; Mizrahi, Eli M; Moshé, Solomon L; Clark, Peggy; Glauser, Tracy A

    2017-08-15

    To determine seizure semiology in children with newly diagnosed childhood absence epilepsy and to evaluate associations with short-term treatment outcomes. For participants enrolled in a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, comparative-effectiveness trial, semiologic features of pretreatment seizures were analyzed as predictors of treatment outcome at the week 16 to 20 visit. Video of 1,932 electrographic absence seizures from 416 participants was evaluated. Median seizure duration was 10.2 seconds; median time between electrographic seizure onset and clinical manifestation onset was 1.5 seconds. For individual seizures and by participant, the most common semiology features were pause/stare (seizure 95.5%, participant 99.3%), motor automatisms (60.6%, 86.1%), and eye involvement (54.9%, 76.5%). The interrater agreement for motor automatisms and eye involvement was good (72%-84%). Variability of semiology features between seizures even within participants was high. Clustering analyses revealed 4 patterns (involving the presence/absence of eye involvement and motor automatisms superimposed on the nearly ubiquitous pause/stare). Most participants experienced more than one seizure cluster pattern. No individual semiologic feature was individually predictive of short-term outcome. Seizure freedom was half as likely in participants with one or more seizure having the pattern of eye involvement without motor automatisms than in participants without this pattern. Almost all absence seizures are characterized by a pause in activity or staring, but rarely is this the only feature. Semiologic features tend to cluster, resulting in identifiable absence seizure subtypes with significant intraparticipant seizure phenomenologic heterogeneity. One seizure subtype, pause/stare and eye involvement but no motor automatisms, is specifically associated with a worse treatment outcome. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  9. Job characteristics, physical and psychological symptoms, and social support as antecedents of sickness absence among men and women in the private industrial sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Väänänen, Ari; Toppinen-Tanner, Salla; Kalimo, Raija; Mutanen, Pertti; Vahtera, Jussi; Peiró, José M

    2003-09-01

    Most longitudinal studies on the relationship between psychosocial health resources and risks, and the employees' subsequent sickness absences have been conducted in the public sector. The purpose of this study was to find out psychosocial antecedents of sickness absenteeism in the private industrial sector. The effects of job characteristics (job autonomy and job complexity), physical and psychological symptoms, and social support (from coworkers and supervisors) on sickness absenteeism were investigated. The number of long (4-21 days) and very long (>21 days) sickness absence episodes of 3895 persons (76% men and 24% women, mean age 44 years) was obtained from the health registers of a multinational forest industry corporation in 1995-1998. A questionnaire survey on the working conditions and health of the workers was carried out in 1996. The follow-up time of the sickness absences was 1-year 9-month. Job autonomy was found to be associated with long and very long episodes in men (rate ratio (RR) in the lowest autonomy group approximately 2 times higher than the highest autonomy group), and with very long episodes of absence in women (2-3 times higher RR between the low vs. the high category). Low job complexity predicted men's very long absences (RR 1.4). Long and very long episodes were associated with physical and psychological symptoms (RR 1.2-1.7) among men and women. Lack of coworkers' support increased the frequency of very long sickness absence among men (RR 1.4), and lack of supervisor's support among women (RR 1.6). Also, some interaction effects of social support variables were observed among both genders. We conclude that the studied psychosocial factors are associated with subsequent sickness absence, and that the associations are partly gender-specific. The results showing which variables are related to employees' sickness absenteeism in the private industrial sector can be applied in human resource management and health service planning.

  10. Workplace levels of psychosocial factors as prospective predictors of registered sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Karl Bang; Nielsen, Martin L; Rugulies, Reiner

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate whether workplace levels of psychosocial work environment factors predict individual sickness absence. METHODS: Data were collected in a prospective study in 52 Danish workplaces in three organizations: municipal care, technical services, and a pharmaceutical...... company. Psychosocial factors were aggregated as workplace means. We used multilevel Poisson regression models with psychosocial factors as predictors and individual level sickness absence from absence registries as outcome. RESULTS: High workplace levels of decision authority predicted low sickness...... absence in the technical services (rate ratio = 0.66, 95% confidence interval = 0.51-0.86) and high workplace levels of skill discretion predicted low sickness absence in the pharmaceutical company (rate ratio = 0.74, 95% confidence interval = 0.62-0.88) after control for relevant confounders. Workplaces...

  11. Authors attain comparable or slightly higher rates of citation publishing in an open access journal (CytoJournal) compared to traditional cytopathology journals - A five year (2007-2011) experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, Nora K; Nathan, Romil; Ahmed, Yasin K; Shidham, Vinod B

    2014-01-01

    The era of Open Access (OA) publication, a platform which serves to better disseminate scientific knowledge, is upon us, as more OA journals are in existence than ever before. The idea that peer-reviewed OA publication leads to higher rates of citation has been put forth and shown to be true in several publications. This is a significant benefit to authors and is in addition to another relatively less obvious but highly critical component of the OA charter, i.e. retention of the copyright by the authors in the public domain. In this study, we analyzed the citation rates of OA and traditional non-OA publications specifically for authors in the field of cytopathology. We compared the citation patterns for authors who had published in both OA and traditional non-OA peer-reviewed, scientific, cytopathology journals. Citations in an OA publication (CytoJournal) were analyzed comparatively with traditional non-OA cytopathology journals (Acta Cytologica, Cancer Cytopathology, Cytopathology, and Diagnostic Cytopathology) using the data from web of science citation analysis site (based on which the impact factors (IF) are calculated). After comparing citations per publication, as well as a time adjusted citation quotient (which takes into account the time since publication), we also analyzed the statistics after excluding the data for meeting abstracts. Total 28 authors published 314 publications as articles and meeting abstracts (25 authors after excluding the abstracts). The rate of citation and time adjusted citation quotient were higher for OA in the group where abstracts were included (P citation than the publications in the traditional non-OA journals in the field of cytopathology over a 5 year period (2007-2011). However, this increase was statistically insignificant if the meeting abstracts were excluded from the analysis. Overall, the rates of citation for OA and non-OA were slightly higher to comparable.

  12. A combination of high dose rate (10X FFF/2400 MU/min/10 MV X-rays) and total low dose (0.5 Gy) induces a higher rate of apoptosis in melanoma cells in vitro and superior preservation of normal melanocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarojini, Sreeja; Pecora, Andrew; Milinovikj, Natasha; Barbiere, Joseph; Gupta, Saakshi; Hussain, Zeenathual M; Tuna, Mehmet; Jiang, Jennifer; Adrianzen, Laura; Jun, Jaewook; Catello, Laurice; Sanchez, Diana; Agarwal, Neha; Jeong, Stephanie; Jin, Youngjin; Remache, Yvonne; Goy, Andre; Ndlovu, Alois; Ingenito, Anthony; Suh, K Stephen

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the apoptotic effects, toxicity, and radiosensitization of total low dose irradiation delivered at a high dose rate in vitro to melanoma cells, normal human epidermal melanocytes (HEM), or normal human dermal fibroblasts (HDF) and to study the effect of mitochondrial inhibition in combination with radiation to enhance apoptosis in melanoma cells. Cells irradiated using 10X flattening filter-free (FFF) 10 MV X-rays at a dose rate of 400 or 2400 MU/min and a total dose of 0.25-8 Gy were analyzed by cell/colony counting, MitoTracker, MTT, and DNA-damage assays, as well as by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR in the presence or absence of mitochondrial respiration inhibitors. A dose rate of 2400 MU/min killed on average five-fold more melanoma cells than a dose rate 400 MU/min at a total dose of 0.5 Gy and preserved 80% survival of HEM and 90% survival of HDF. Increased apoptosis at the 2400 MU/min dose rate is mediated by greater DNA damage, reduced cell proliferation, upregulation of apoptotic genes, and downregulation of cell cycle genes. HEM and HDF were relatively unharmed at 2400 MU/min. Radiation induced upregulation of mitochondrial respiration in both normal and cancer cells, and blocking the respiration with inhibitors enhanced apoptosis only in melanoma cells. A high dose rate with a low total dose (2400 MU/min, 0.5 Gy/10X FFF 10 MV X-rays) enhances radiosensitivity of melanoma cells while reducing radiotoxicity toward HEM and HDF. Selective cytotoxicity of melanoma cells is increased by blocking mitochondrial respiration.

  13. The gender gap in sickness absence from work and the influence of parental absence on offspring absence 15 years later: register-based cohort of Norwegians born in 1974-1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Petter; Corbett, Karina; Mehlum, Ingrid Sivesind

    2015-07-21

    Women have shown consistently higher levels of sickness absence from work in comparison to men, but explanations for this gender gap have not been completely understood. Life-course studies suggest that health and health-related social benefits in adult age are influenced by early life experiences. We aimed to estimate intergenerational associations with a 15-year time gap between parents' and offspring sickness absences, pursuing the hypothesis that this parental influence would have a stronger impact for women than for men. All persons born alive between 1974 and 1976 in Norway were followed up in several national registries. Employed persons considered to be at risk of sickness absence and also with parents at risk of sickness absence (n = 78,878) were followed in the calendar year of their 33(rd) birthday with respect to spells lasting >16 days. The probability of one or more spells during this year constituted the one-year risk under study. Additive risk differences in association with an exposure (parental sickness absence 15 years earlier) were estimated in a binomial regression analysis. The estimates were adjusted for parental socioeconomic factors. The 1-year sickness absence risk was higher for women (30.4%) than for men (12.3%). The crude risk differences between those exposed and those unexposed to parental sickness absence were similar in percentage points (PP) for women (3.8; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.6 to 4.9) and men (3.8; 95% CI 2.9 to 4.6). The risk differences were moderately attenuated after adjustment for parental education and father's income to 3.4 PP (2.2 to 4.5) for women and 2.8 PP (2.0 to 3.7) for men. Male absence was more strongly associated with the father's than with the mother's sickness absence, while associations for women were stronger for the same diagnostic groups as their parents. Parental sickness absence was moderately associated with sickness absence in the next generation. Bias from unmeasured confounders cannot

  14. Self-reported and employer-recorded sickness absence in doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, I J

    2014-09-01

    Doctors' sickness absence reduces the quality and continuity of patient care and is financially costly. Doctors have lower rates of sickness absence than other healthcare workers. To compare self-reported with recorded sickness absence in doctors in a UK National Health Service hospital trust. A retrospective questionnaire study. The main outcome measures were self-reported and trust-recorded sickness absence episodes of 4 days or more in two consecutive 6-month periods. The response rate was 82% (607/736). Self-reported sickness absence rates were 1.2% compared with a rate of 0.6% from trust-recorded data. There were 38 matched pairs of self-reported (mean duration: 18 days, standard deviation: 22 days) and trust-recorded (mean duration: 10 days, standard deviation: 17 days) sickness absence episodes of 4 days or more in the 12 months studied. A matched pairs t-test determined that the difference between the two means was significant (t = 2.57, P sickness absence was significantly under-recorded in this study population. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Congenital Absence of Left Circumflex Coronary Artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Ansari

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Congenital absence of left circumflex artery is a rare congenitalanomaly of the coronary arteries. The prevalence of theanomaly in different studies ranges from 0.6% to 1.3%. Ofthese, 80% are benign and asymptomatic and 20% are clinicallyimportant. We report a 56-year-old man presented withacute resting chest pain who was diagnosed as having acuteanterolateral infarction accompanied by electrocardiographicchanges and elevated cardiac enzymes. Coronary angiographyin different views was conducted, however, no left circumflexartery was found. The territory supplied by the artery had beenperfused by the super dominant right coronary artery. Therewas no left circumflex coronary artery with anomalous origin.Sever stenosis of left anterior ascending artery superimposedto the absent left circumflex artery was presented as acute anterolateralinfarction. Although absence of the artery is mostlyconsidered as a benign condition, atherosclerotic lesions maybe more important in such cases because of diminished compensatingmechanisms.

  16. Do work factors modify the association between chronic health problems and sickness absence among older employees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leijten, Fenna R M; van den Heuvel, Swenne G; Ybema, Jan Fekke; Robroek, Suzan J W; Burdorf, Alex

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to (i) assess how common chronic health problems and work-related factors predict sickness absence and (ii) explore whether work-related factors modify the effects of health problems on sickness absence. A one-year longitudinal study was conducted among employed persons aged 45-64 years from the Study on Transitions in Employment, Ability and Motivation (N = 8984). The presence of common chronic health problems and work-related factors was determined at baseline and self-reported sickness absence at one-year follow-up by questionnaire. Multinomial multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess associations between health, work factors, and sickness absence, and relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI) techniques were used to test effect modification. Common health problems were related to follow-up sickness absence, most strongly to high cumulative sickness absence (> 9 days per year). Baseline psychological health problems were strongly related to high sickness absence at follow-up [odds ratio (OR) 3.67, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 2.80-4.82]. Higher job demands at baseline increased the likelihood of high sickness absence at follow-up among workers with severe headaches [RERI 1.35 (95% CI 0.45-2.25)] and psychological health problems [RERI 3.51 (95% CI 0.67-6.34)] at baseline. Lower autonomy at baseline increased the likelihood of high sickness absence at follow-up among those with musculoskeletal [RERI 0.57 (95% CI 0.05-1.08)], circulatory [RERI 0.82 (95% CI 0.00-1.63)], and psychological health problems [RERI 2.94 (95% CI 0.17-5.70)] at baseline. Lower autonomy and higher job demands increased the association of an array of common chronic health problems with sickness absence, and thus focus should be placed on altering these factors in order to reduce sickness absence and essentially promote sustainable employability.

  17. Certifying the absence of quantum nonlocality

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Carl A.; Shi, Yaoyun

    2016-01-01

    Quantum nonlocality is an inherently non-classical feature of quantum mechanics and manifests itself through violation of Bell inequalities for nonlocal games. We show that in a fairly general setting, a simple extension of a nonlocal game can certify instead the absence of quantum nonlocality. Through contraposition, our result implies that a super-classical performance for such a game ensures that a player's output is unpredictable to the other player. Previously such output unpredictabilit...

  18. Work, Sickness, Absence, and Identity-Work

    OpenAIRE

    Trude Gjernes

    2013-01-01

    This article explores how a group of industrial workers experience long-term sickness absence and how they cope with this situation. The article presents data from in-depth interviews with male industrial workers employed in a Norwegian factory. The findings suggest that the factory workers handle their failing health by engaging in activities other than wage work. They did not accept a social situation characterized by passivity, social isolation, marginalization, or loss of self. The worker...

  19. Medical versus surgical abortion efficacy, complications and leave of absence compared in a partly randomized study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørbye, Christina; Nørgaard, Mogens; Nilas, Lisbeth

    2004-01-01

    To provide optimal information to women choosing between early medical and surgical abortion, rigorous comparisons of the two methods are warranted. We compared the outcome of 1135 consecutive women with gestational age (GA) ... gemeprost) or a surgical abortion (vacuum aspiration in general anesthesia). One hundred eleven of these women were randomized for abortion method. Surgical interventions and complications leading to readmission within the following 15 weeks were identified through a computer system. Information about...... antibiotic treatment, leave of absence and number of contacts to the health care system were obtained from mailed questionnaires. The number of complications was identical after the two methods, but surgical abortion was associated with a higher success rate [97.7% (708/725) vs. 94.1% (386/410), p

  20. Probiotics and child care absence due to infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Rikke Pilmann; Larnkjær, Anni; Ritz, Christian

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The risk of infections is higher in children attending child care compared with children cared for at home. This study examined the effect of a combination of probiotics on absence from child care because of respiratory and gastrointestinal infections in healthy infants aged 8 to 14...... range: 6-16). Intention-to-treat analysis showed no difference between the probiotics and placebo groups (P = .19). Additionally, there was no difference in any of the secondary outcomes between groups; the number of children with doctor-diagnosed upper or lower respiratory tract infections, the number...

  1. TYPICAL ABSENCES: RESULTS OF OWN INVESTIGATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Yu. Mukhin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Typical absences (TA are brief primary generalized epileptic seizures characterized by sudden onset and termination. According to their definition, absences consist of impairment of consciousness that is synchronously accompanied by electroencephalographic (EEG changes as generalized spike–slow wave discharges of 3 or more Hz. The authors conducted an investigation of 1261 patients with different forms of epilepsy with onset of seizures from the first days of life to the age of 18 years. The patients were followed up from 1990 to 2010. Absence seizures were detected in 231 patients, which accounts for 18.3 % of all the epileptic patients. TA were found in 102 patients, which constitutes 8.1 % of all cases of epilepsy with onset of seizures beyond the age of 18 years. The paper provides a detailed analysis of a group of patients with TA in terms of anamnestic, clinical, electroencephalographic, and neuroimaging features and the results of therapy with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs. The age of onset of TA-associated epilepsy was from 9 months to 17 years (mean 9.4 ± 4.06 years. The disease occurred most frequently in young school-age children (41.2 %. Isolated TA as the only type of seizures were observed in the clinical picture of 28 (27.5 % patients. TA were concurrent with other types of seizures in other cases. The investigators have identified 4 types of seizures which TA (generalized convulsions, myoclonic seizures, febrile seizures, and eyelid myoclonia may be concurrent with. Neuroimaging stated there were no brain changes in 85.3 % of TA-associated epilepsy cases. Moderate diffuse subatrophic changes were detected in other cases (14.7 %. Local cerebral structural abnormalities were absent. The use of antiepileptic therapy as both monotherapy and polytherapy using different combinations showed the high efficacy of AEDs. Complete remission was achieved in 84.3 % of TA-associated epilepsy cases. An AED-induced reduction in the frequency of

  2. The impact of herbivores on nitrogen mineralization rate : consequences for salt-marsh succession

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijnen, HJ; van der Wal, R; Bakker, JP

    Soil net N-mineralization rate was measured along a successional gradient in salt-marsh sites that were grazed by vertebrate herbivores, and in 5-year-old exclosures from which the animals were excluded. Mineralization rate was significantly higher at ungrazed than at grazed sites. In the absence of

  3. Explaining the social gradient in sickness absence: a study of a general working population in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löve, Jesper; Hensing, Gunnel; Holmgren, Kristina; Torén, Kjell

    2013-06-05

    Some previous studies have proposed potential explanatory factors for the social gradient in sickness absence. Yet, this research area is still in its infancy and in order to comprise the full range of socioeconomic positions there is a need for studies conducted on random population samples. The main aim of the present study was to investigate if somatic and mental symptoms, mental wellbeing, job strain, and physical work environment could explain the association between low socioeconomic position and belonging to a sample of new cases of sick-listed employees. This study was conducted on one random working population sample (n = 2763) and one sample of newly sick-listed cases of employees (n = 3044), drawn from the same random general population in western Sweden. Explanatory factors were self-rated 'Somatic and mental symptoms', 'Mental well-being', 'job strain', and 'physical work conditions' (i.e. heavy lifting and awkward work postures). Multiple logistic regression analyses were used. Somatic and mental symptoms, mental well-being, and job strain, could not explain the association between socioeconomic position and sickness absence in both women and men. However, physical work conditions explained the total association in women and much of this association in men. In men the gradient between Non-skilled manual OR 1.76 (1.24;2.48) and Skilled manual OR 1.59 (1.10;2.20), both in relation to Higher non-manual, remained unexplained. The present study strengthens the scientific evidence that social differences in physical work conditions seem to comprise a key element of the social gradient in sickness absence, particularly in women. Future studies should try to identify further predictors for this gradient in men.

  4. Effects of organizational justice on depressive symptoms and sickness absence: a longitudinal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ybema, Jan F; van den Bos, Kees

    2010-05-01

    A longitudinal three-wave study among a large representative sample of 1519 employees of various companies in The Netherlands examined how organizational justice (as measured by distributive and procedural justice) was related to depressive symptoms and sickness absence. It was predicted that perceived justice would contribute to lower depressive symptoms and sickness absence, whereas depressive symptoms and absenteeism in turn would contribute to lower perceptions of organizational justice. In line with the predictions, we found that both distributive and procedural justice contributed to lower depressive symptoms, and distributive justice contributed to lower sickness absence in the following year. With regard to reversed effects, sickness absence contributed to lower perceptions of distributive justice to some extent. Moreover, sickness absence was related to higher depressive symptoms a year later. This research shows the importance of justice in organizations as a means to enhance the wellbeing of people at work and to prevent absenteeism. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Socioeconomic status and duration and pattern of sickness absence. A 1-year follow-up study of 2331 hospital employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Sickness absence increases with lower socioeconomic status. However, it is not well known how this relation depends on specific aspects of sickness absence or the degree to which socioeconomic differences in sickness absence may be explained by other factors. The purpose of the study was to examine differences in sickness absence among occupational groups in a large general hospital; how they depend on combinations of frequency and duration of sickness absence spells; and if they could be explained by self-reported general health, personal factors and work factors. Methods The design is a 1-year prospective cohort study of 2331 hospital employees. Baseline information include job title, work unit, perceived general health, work factors and personal factors recorded from hospital administrative files or by questionnaire (response rate 84%). Sickness absence during follow-up was divided into short (1-3 days), medium (4-14 days) and long (>14 days) spells, and into no absence, "normal" absence (1-3 absences of certain durations) and "abnormal" absence (any other absence than "normal"). Socioeconomic status was assessed by job titles grouped in six occupational groups by level of education (from doctors to cleaners/porters). Effects of occupational group on sickness absence were adjusted for significant effects of age, gender, general health, personal factors and work factors. We used Poisson or logistic regression analysis to estimate the effects of model covariates (rate ratios (RR) or odds ratios (OR)) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results With a few exceptions sickness absence increased with decreasing socioeconomic status. However, the social gradient was quite different for different types of sickness absence. The gradient was strong for medium spells and "abnormal" absence, and weak for all spells, short spells, long spells and "normal" absence. For cleaners compared to doctors the adjusted risk estimates increased 4.2 (95% CI 2.8-6.2) and

  6. Socioeconomic status and duration and pattern of sickness absence. A 1-year follow-up study of 2331 hospital employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikkelsen Sigurd

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sickness absence increases with lower socioeconomic status. However, it is not well known how this relation depends on specific aspects of sickness absence or the degree to which socioeconomic differences in sickness absence may be explained by other factors. The purpose of the study was to examine differences in sickness absence among occupational groups in a large general hospital; how they depend on combinations of frequency and duration of sickness absence spells; and if they could be explained by self-reported general health, personal factors and work factors. Methods The design is a 1-year prospective cohort study of 2331 hospital employees. Baseline information include job title, work unit, perceived general health, work factors and personal factors recorded from hospital administrative files or by questionnaire (response rate 84%. Sickness absence during follow-up was divided into short (1-3 days, medium (4-14 days and long (>14 days spells, and into no absence, "normal" absence (1-3 absences of certain durations and "abnormal" absence (any other absence than "normal". Socioeconomic status was assessed by job titles grouped in six occupational groups by level of education (from doctors to cleaners/porters. Effects of occupational group on sickness absence were adjusted for significant effects of age, gender, general health, personal factors and work factors. We used Poisson or logistic regression analysis to estimate the effects of model covariates (rate ratios (RR or odds ratios (OR and their 95% confidence intervals (CI. Results With a few exceptions sickness absence increased with decreasing socioeconomic status. However, the social gradient was quite different for different types of sickness absence. The gradient was strong for medium spells and "abnormal" absence, and weak for all spells, short spells, long spells and "normal" absence. For cleaners compared to doctors the adjusted risk estimates increased 4.2 (95

  7. Socioeconomic status and duration and pattern of sickness absence. A 1-year follow-up study of 2331 hospital employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Trine R; Jensen, Signe M; Kreiner, Svend; Mikkelsen, Sigurd

    2010-10-25

    Sickness absence increases with lower socioeconomic status. However, it is not well known how this relation depends on specific aspects of sickness absence or the degree to which socioeconomic differences in sickness absence may be explained by other factors.The purpose of the study was to examine differences in sickness absence among occupational groups in a large general hospital; how they depend on combinations of frequency and duration of sickness absence spells; and if they could be explained by self-reported general health, personal factors and work factors. The design is a 1-year prospective cohort study of 2331 hospital employees. Baseline information include job title, work unit, perceived general health, work factors and personal factors recorded from hospital administrative files or by questionnaire (response rate 84%). Sickness absence during follow-up was divided into short (1-3 days), medium (4-14 days) and long (>14 days) spells, and into no absence, "normal" absence (1-3 absences of certain durations) and "abnormal" absence (any other absence than "normal"). Socioeconomic status was assessed by job titles grouped in six occupational groups by level of education (from doctors to cleaners/porters). Effects of occupational group on sickness absence were adjusted for significant effects of age, gender, general health, personal factors and work factors. We used Poisson or logistic regression analysis to estimate the effects of model covariates (rate ratios (RR) or odds ratios (OR)) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). With a few exceptions sickness absence increased with decreasing socioeconomic status. However, the social gradient was quite different for different types of sickness absence. The gradient was strong for medium spells and "abnormal" absence, and weak for all spells, short spells, long spells and "normal" absence. For cleaners compared to doctors the adjusted risk estimates increased 4.2 (95% CI 2.8-6.2) and 7.4 (95% CI 3.3-16) times

  8. Absence of higher order corrections to noncommutative Chern-Simons coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Ashok; Sheikh-Jabbari, M.M.

    2001-03-01

    We analyze the structure of noncommutative pure Chern-Simons theory systematically in the axial gauge. We show that there is no IR/UV mixing in this theory in this gauge. In fact, we show, using the usual BRST identities as well as the identities following from vector supersymmetry, that this is a free theory. As a result, the tree level Chern-Simons coefficient is not renormalized. It also holds that the Chern-Simons coefficient is not modified at finite temperature. (author)

  9. Ultra-high-resolution C-arm flat-detector CT angiography evaluation reveals 3-fold higher association rate for sporadic intracranial cavernous malformations and developmental venous anomalies: a retrospective study in consecutive 58 patients with 60 cavernous malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocak, Burak [Aksaray State Hospital, Department of Radiology, Aksaray (Turkey); Kizilkilic, Osman; Kocer, Naci; Islak, Civan [Istanbul University, Department of Radiology, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul (Turkey); Oz, Buge; Bakkaloglu, Dogu Vuralli [Istanbul University, Department of Pathology, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul (Turkey); Isler, Cihan [Istanbul University, Department of Neurosurgery, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2017-06-15

    The imaging and surgical literature has confusing association rates for the association between sporadic intracranial cavernous malformations (CMs) and developmental venous anomalies (DVAs). In this study, our purpose was to determine the association rate using ultra-high-resolution C-arm flat-detector CT angiography (FDCTA) and compare it with literature. Fifty-eight patients with 60 sporadic intracranial CMs that underwent an FDCTA study were included in our retrospective study. Re-evaluation of radiological data was performed based on the criteria defined by authors. Isotropic volumetric reconstructions with ultra-high resolution (voxel size of 102 μm{sup 3} for initial; 67 μm{sup 3} and 32 μm{sup 3} for further evaluation) were used for assessment. Sixteen patients underwent surgery for excision of their CMs. Fifty-one of all patients (87.9 %) were associated with a DVA. Undefined local venous structures (UD-LVSs) were observed in the remaining 7 patients (12.1 %). The strength of interobserver agreement was excellent [kappa(k) coefficient = 0.923]. Ultra-high-resolution FDCTA evaluation of CMs and DVAs reveals 3-fold higher association rate compared to the literature. FDCTA for patients with sporadic CMs could help identify the associated DVAs that remained undetected or unclear with other imaging modalities, which can be useful in decision-making processes, planning surgery, and during operation. (orig.)

  10. Father absence and reproduction-related outcomes in Malaysia, a transitional fertility population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Paula; Snopkowski, Kristin; Sear, Rebecca

    2014-06-01

    Father absence is consistently associated with children's reproductive outcomes in industrialized countries. It has been suggested that father absence acts as a cue to particular environmental conditions that influence life history strategies. Much less is known, however, about the effects of father absence on such outcomes in lower-income countries. Using data from the 1988 Malaysian Family Life Survey (n = 567), we tested the effect of father absence on daughters' age at menarche, first marriage, and first birth; parity progression rates; and desired completed family size in Malaysia, a country undergoing an economic and fertility transition. Father absence during later childhood (ages 8 to 15), although not during earlier childhood, was associated with earlier progressions to first marriage and first birth, after controlling for other confounders. Father absence does not affect age at menarche, desired family size, or progression from first to second birth. The patterns found in this transitional population partly mirror those in developed societies, where father absence accelerates reproductive events. There is, however, a notable contrast between the acceleration in menarche for father-absent girls consistently found in developed societies and the lack of any association in our findings. The mechanisms through which father absence affects reproduction may differ in different ecological contexts. In lower-income contexts, direct paternal investment or influence may be of more importance in determining reproductive behavior than whether fathers act as a cue to environmental conditions.

  11. Long-term sickness absence during pregnancy and the gender balance of workplaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melsom, Anne M

    2014-11-01

    This study addresses how the gender composition of workplaces affects pregnant women's sickness absence. It also assesses whether an observed association may be explaine by differential selection to female- or male-dominated workplaces. The analyses are based on Norwegian registry data from 2003-2011. Using Poisson regressions with detailed control for occupational categories, I examine whether the number of absence days are associated with the proportion of females at the workplace. I address possible selection effects by Poisson regressions with fixed individual effects using only within-individual variation on women with two or more pregnancies during the time window. The analyses indicate a positive and significant relationship between the female proportion in workplaces and sickness absence rates during pregnancy. Analyses limited to within-individual variation also show positive and significant effects of similar strength, indicating that the observed relationship is not due to differential selection of absence-prone pregnant workers to female-dominated workplaces. The proportion of female individuals at workplaces is positively associated with sickness absence rates during pregnancy this association is not likely explained by occupational nor individual characteristics the results are consistent with absence culture theory and more lenient norms concerning sickness absence during pregnancy at female-dominated workplaces. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  12. The effect of mental ill health on absence from work in different occupational classifications: analysis of routine data in the British Household Panel Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Will; Sutton, Matt; Macdonald, Sara; Maxwell, Margaret; Smith, Michael; Wilson, Philip; Morrison, Jill

    2012-12-01

    To investigate relationship of mental ill health to absence from work in different occupational classifications. Examined sickness absence, mental health (GHQ-12), physical health, job characteristics, and personal characteristics in 18 waves of the British Household Panel Survey. Overall sickness absence rate was 1.68%. Increased absence was associated with age greater than 45 years, female gender, lower occupational classification, and public-sector employers. Decreased absence was associated with part-time working. Scoring 4 or more on the General Health Questionnaire 12-item version (GHQ-12 caseness) was strongly associated with sickness absence. Public-sector employers had highest rates of sickness absence. GHQ-12 caseness had largest impact on absence in the public and nonprofit sectors, whereas physical health problems impacted more in the private sector. GHQ-12 caseness is strongly associated with increased absence in all classifications of occupations. Differences between sectors require further investigation.

  13. Risk factors of long-term sickness absence in Norway and Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vegard Johansen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This paper examines the level of long-term sickness absence (LTSA in Norway and Sweden. It also investigates whether risk factors of LTSA are the same in Norway and Sweden. Methods: More than 2500 Norwegian and Swedish workers between 20 and 60 years of age answered a postal questionnaire. The Norwegian and Swedish samples are weighted and representative with regard to regional background variables and demographic background variables, but the response rate was low. LTSA is defined as 15 days or more sickness absence in the previous year. Binary logistic regression is used to detect which factors influence LTSA. The analyses of LTSA include demographic factors, socio-economic position, and occupational characteristics. Results: Nineteen per cent of respondents in Norway and 11 per cent of respondents in Sweden experienced LTSA in the previous year. Many respondents from Sweden report mental problems and many Norwegian respondents report pain in back, neck, knuckles, and muscles. Income level is the most important predictor of LTSA in both countries. The direct impacts of gender, age, and physical work conditions are stronger in Norway than Sweden.Discussion: In accordance with official statistics and previous studies, the proportion of Norwegian respondents with LTSA is much higher than the proportion of Swedish respondents. The different levels of LTSA could be linked to differences in social policy. In line with previous studies, respondents with low income are overrepresented with LTSA, and gender, age, and physical work also matter. In contrast to previous studies, there is not any evidence of higher levels of LTSA among non-western immigrants, people with less education, and non-managers. These results reflect the control for ‘income level’, but they could also be related to limits with the survey (non-response, response bias, etc..

  14. The cross-lagged relationship between father absence and child problem behaviour in the early years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, E; Narayanan, M K; Midouhas, E

    2015-11-01

    Father absence has negative consequences for children's behaviour. Yet research has not examined how father absence and child behaviour may influence each other. This study models the cross-lagged relationship between father absence (non-residence) and child problem behaviour in the early years. We used data from the UK's Millennium Cohort Study, at children's ages 3, 5 and 7 years (Sweeps 2-4). The sample was 15,293 families in which both biological parents were co-resident at Sweep 1, when the child was aged 9 months. Child problem behaviour was assessed using the clinical cut-offs of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). We also investigated gender differences in the association between father absence and problem behaviour. Father absence at age 3 predicted a higher probability of the child scoring above cut-off for total difficulties at age 5, as did father absence at age 5 for total difficulties at age 7. There were no significant effects for total difficulties on father absence. Similar father absence effects were found for individual SDQ subscales. Using these subscales, we found few child behaviour effects, mostly during the preschool years: children's severe externalizing and social (but not emotional) problems were associated with a greater probability of the father being absent in the next sweep. All cross-lagged relationships were similar for boys and girls. Father absence seems to be mainly the cause rather than the outcome of child problem behaviour in young UK families, and to affect boys and girls similarly. There were some child (mostly externalizing) behaviour effects on father absence, particularly in the early years. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. The cross‐lagged relationship between father absence and child problem behaviour in the early years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M. K.; Midouhas, E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Father absence has negative consequences for children's behaviour. Yet research has not examined how father absence and child behaviour may influence each other. This study models the cross‐lagged relationship between father absence (non‐residence) and child problem behaviour in the early years. Methods We used data from the UK's Millennium Cohort Study, at children's ages 3, 5 and 7 years (Sweeps 2–4). The sample was 15 293 families in which both biological parents were co‐resident at Sweep 1, when the child was aged 9 months. Child problem behaviour was assessed using the clinical cut‐offs of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). We also investigated gender differences in the association between father absence and problem behaviour. Results Father absence at age 3 predicted a higher probability of the child scoring above cut‐off for total difficulties at age 5, as did father absence at age 5 for total difficulties at age 7. There were no significant effects for total difficulties on father absence. Similar father absence effects were found for individual SDQ subscales. Using these subscales, we found few child behaviour effects, mostly during the preschool years: children's severe externalizing and social (but not emotional) problems were associated with a greater probability of the father being absent in the next sweep. All cross‐lagged relationships were similar for boys and girls. Conclusions Father absence seems to be mainly the cause rather than the outcome of child problem behaviour in young UK families, and to affect boys and girls similarly. There were some child (mostly externalizing) behaviour effects on father absence, particularly in the early years. PMID:25708874

  16. Neurochemical and Behavioral Features in Genetic Absence Epilepsy and in Acutely Induced Absence Seizures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bazyan, A.S.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van

    2013-01-01

    The absence epilepsy typical electroencephalographic pattern of sharp spikes and slow waves (SWDs) is considered to be due to an interaction of an initiation site in the cortex and a resonant circuit in the thalamus. The hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated cationic Ih pacemaker

  17. Impact of Father Absence: III. Problems of Family Reintegrating Following Prolonged Father Absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Stewart L.; and others

    A three-phase, longitudinal study at Walter Reed Hospital in Washington, D.C., of family problems with prolonged father absence indicates that there is (1) continuing family growth beyond the situational crisis, (2) active re-examination of roles and values, and (3) heightened awareness of family strength and resourcefulness during the…

  18. Beyond the Excused/Unexcused Absence Binary: Classifying Absenteeism through a Voluntary/Involuntary Absence Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birioukov, Anton

    2016-01-01

    Student absenteeism in secondary schools has received international academic attention for quite some time. Absenteeism has been linked to diminished academic outcomes and is one of the leading causes of high school dropout. Although absenteeism is a serious concern for educational scholars, the definitions of absences and their subtypes are…

  19. Occupational musculoskeletal and mental disorders as the most frequent associations to worker's sickness absence: a 10-year cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zechinatti, Antonio Carlos; Belloti, João Carlos; de Moraes, Vinícius Ynoe; Albertoni, Walter Manna

    2012-05-11

    Sickness absence (SA) is a complex phenomenon influenced by the health of the worker and socio-economic factors. An epidemiological study of SA has never been conducted for Brazilian university workers. This study aimed to determine the main diseases that are associated with SA and find out the average length of SA duration, and its variation among different staff members and between sexes over the 10-year study period. We identified the main diseases responsible for SA in workers at a Brazilian federal university (UNIFESP) from January 1998 to August 2008 and grouped them according to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD10). Independent researchers assessed data collected from expert reports of the university Worker's Health Division. During the period of our study, 1176 workers experienced sickness absence. After evaluating 7579 consultations, ICD10 distribution showed that musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders ("M" axis) and mental and behavioral diseases ("F" axis) were the most important causes of SA, occurring in 47.3% (IC 95%; 44.15-49.8) of workers aged 46.2 (SD 10.1) years. Female workers represented 78.1% (IC 95%; 76-80.7) of all workers with SA, but men had higher proportional rates (Chi-square; p = 0.044). Longer SA periods were observed for illnesses related to neoplasms and infectious diseases. Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders and mental and behavioral diseases were the most frequent cause of sickness absence. Men had an increased frequency of SA, and neoplasms and infectious disorders were associated with longer absences. Mostly, these are occupational disorders. A preventative research-focused agenda is desirable for a more accurate depiction of this population in the scope of policy-making. Our results for SA in Brazilian workers correspond with those of other studies worldwide.

  20. Differences in sickness absence between self-employed and employed doctors: a cross-sectional study on national sample of Norwegian doctors in 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Doctors have a low prevalence of sickness absence. Employment status is a determinant in the multifactorial background of sickness absence. The effect of doctors’ employment status on sickness absence is unexplored. The study compares the number of sickness absence days during the last 12 months and the impact of employment status, psychosocial work stress, self-rated health and demographics on sickness absence between self-employed practitioners and employed hospital doctors in Norway. Methods The study population consisted of a representative sample of 521 employed interns and consultants and 313 self-employed GPs and private practice specialists in Norway, who received postal questionnaires in 2010. The questionnaires contained items on sickness absence days during the last 12 months, employment status, demographics, self-rated health, professional autonomy and psychosocial work stress. Results 84% (95% CI 80 to 88%) of self-employed and 60% (95% CI 55 to 64%) of employed doctors reported no absence at all last year. In three multivariate logistic regression models with sickness absence as response variable, employment category was a highly significant predictor for absence vs. no absence, 1 to 3 days of absence vs. no absence and 4 to 99 days of absence vs. no absence), while in a model with 100 or more days of absence vs. no absence, there was no difference between employment categories, suggesting that serious chronic disease or injury is less dependent on employment category. Average or poor self-rated health and low professional autonomy, were also significant predictors of sickness absence, while psychosocial work stress, age and gender were not. Conclusion Self-employed GPs and private practice specialist reported lower sickness absence than employed hospital doctors. Differences in sickness compensation, and organisational and individual factors may to a certain extent explain this finding. PMID:24885230

  1. Absence of U(1) anomalous superamplitudes in N≥5 supergravities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freedman, Daniel Z. [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, Stanford University,Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Center for Theoretical Physics and Department of Mathematics,Massachusetts Institute of Technology,Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Kallosh, Renata; Murli, Divyanshu [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, Stanford University,Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Proeyen, Antoine Van [KU Leuven, Institute for Theoretical Physics,Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001, Leuven (Belgium); Yamada, Yusuke [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, Stanford University,Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2017-05-12

    We list all potential candidates for U(1) anomalous non-local 1-loop 4-point amplitudes and higher loop UV divergences in N≥5 supergravities. The relevant chiral superinvariants are constructed from linearized chiral superfields and define the corresponding superamplitudes. The anomalous amplitudes, of the kind present in N=4, are shown to be absent in N≥5. In N=6 supergravity the result is deduced from the double-copy (N=4){sub YM}×(N=2){sub YM} model, whereas in N=5,8 the result on absence of anomalous amplitudes is derived in supergravities as well as in the (N=4){sub YM}×(N−4){sub YM} double-copy models.

  2. Absence of auditory 'global interference' in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxton, Jessica M; Stewart, Mary E; Barnard, Louise; Rodgers, Jacqui; Young, Allan H; O'Brien, Gregory; Griffiths, Timothy D

    2003-12-01

    There has been considerable recent interest in the cognitive style of individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). One theory, that of weak central coherence, concerns an inability to combine stimulus details into a coherent whole. Here we test this theory in the case of sound patterns, using a new definition of the details (local structure) and the coherent whole (global structure). Thirteen individuals with a diagnosis of autism or Asperger's syndrome and 15 control participants were administered auditory tests, where they were required to match local pitch direction changes between two auditory sequences. When the other local features of the sequence pairs were altered (the actual pitches and relative time points of pitch direction change), the control participants obtained lower scores compared with when these details were left unchanged. This can be attributed to interference from the global structure, defined as the combination of the local auditory details. In contrast, the participants with ASD did not obtain lower scores in the presence of such mismatches. This was attributed to the absence of interference from an auditory coherent whole. The results are consistent with the presence of abnormal interactions between local and global auditory perception in ASD.

  3. Absence of lateral palpebral raphe in Caucasians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Goold

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Lucy Goold1, Hirohiko Kakizaki1,2,3, Raman Malhotra3, Dinesh Selva11South Australian Institute of Ophthalmology and Discipline of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Adelaide, Australia; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Aichi Medical University, Nagakute, Aichi, Japan; 3Corneoplastic Unit and Eye Bank, Queen Victoria Hospital NHS Trust, East Grinstead, West Sussex, United KingdomAbstract: Classical anatomical teaching reports the presence of the lateral palpebral raphe formed at the union in the preseptal and orbital parts of the orbicularis oculi muscle, or by the tendon adhering these to the underlying zygomatic bone. The lateral palpebral raphe has been shown to be absent in Asian cadavers. The current study uses both evidence from the anatomical dissection of five eyelids from three Caucasian cadavers, and histological assessment of the lateral canthus of 13 eyelids from seven Caucasian cadavers to illustrate the absence of the lateral palpebral raphe in Caucasian population.Keywords: lateral palpebral raphe, orbicularis oculi muscle, Caucasian, cadavers

  4. Maternity and Absence in Shakespearean Romance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hopkins Helen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The equivocation of the private life of Elizabethan and Jacobean subjects with the public life of monarchy and state endowed mothers with an import, and therefore a power, not previously acknowledged. These changes provoked a fear of female disruption to patriarchal structures which found its way onto Shakespeare’s stage by the representation of mothers as ‘unnatural’ agents of chaos, associated with witchcraft, murder, dangerous ambition, and infidelity; if not by complete absence, which “posits the sacrifice of the mother’s desire as the basis of the ideal society” (Rose, 1991: 313. I suggest that in the late romances, specifically The Winter's Tale and The Tempest, Shakespeare found a form that could demonstrate the complexity of the mother’s position, while still resolving the action with a satisfactory ending that presented a stable continuation of patriarchal lineage. The fathers rely on a fantasy of parthenogenesis to relocate the role of the mother in themselves, ensuring the children are free from her corruptive influence and the bloodlines are safe. However, as all themes return to maternity - chastity, fertility, lineage for example - the fantasy of eradicating the mother is shown to be limited even in the artificial realm of the romance.

  5. Preferential streaming of the ductus venosus toward the right atrium is associated with a worse outcome despite a higher rate of invasive procedures in human fetuses with left diaphragmatic hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stressig, R; Fimmers, R; Schaible, T; Degenhardt, J; Axt-Fliedner, R; Gembruch, U; Kohl, T

    2013-12-01

    Preferential streaming of the ductus venosus (DV) toward the right atrium has been observed in fetuses with left diaphragmatic hernia (LDH). The purpose of this retrospective study was to compare survival rates to discharge between a group with preferential streaming of the DV toward the right heart and a group in which this abnormal flow pattern was not present. We retrospectively searched our patient records for fetuses with LDH in whom liver position, DV streaming and postnatal outcome information was available. 55 cases were found and divided into two groups: Group I fetuses exhibited abnormal DV streaming toward the right side of the heart; group II fetuses did not. Various prognostic and outcome parameters were compared. 62 % of group I fetuses and 88 % of group II fetuses survived to discharge (p = 0.032). Fetoscopic tracheal balloon occlusion (FETO) was performed in 66 % of group I fetuses and 23 % of group II fetuses (p = 0.003). Postnatal ECMO therapy was performed in 55 % of group I fetuses and 23 % of group II infants (p = 0.025). Moderate to severe chronic lung disease in survivors was observed in 56 % of the survivors of group I and 9 % of the survivors of group II (p = 0.002). Preferential streaming of the DV toward the right heart in human fetuses with left-sided diaphragmatic hernia was associated with a poorer postnatal outcome despite a higher rate of invasive pre- and postnatal procedures compared to fetuses without this flow abnormality. Specifically, abnormal DV streaming was found to be an independent predictor for FETO. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Speaking absence. Art museums, representation and knowledge creation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tali, M.

    2014-01-01

    In my dissertation I investigate multiple absences that are at work in art museums. My understanding of absence is informed by postcolonial theory, gender studies and memory studies. Museal absence involves material and immaterial sides that are based on excluded objects and certain unwanted social

  7. Sickness absence frequency among women working in hospital care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, Corne A. M.; Schreuder, Jolanda A. H.; Koopmans, Petra C.; Moen, Bente E.; Groothoff, Johan W.

    2009-01-01

    Background Frequent short sickness absences result in understaffing and interfere with work processes. We need more knowledge about factors associated with this type of absence. Aims To investigate associations between the frequency of previous sickness absence and self-reported perceptions of

  8. Sickness Absence in Swedish Parents of Children with Down's Syndrome: Relation to Self-Perceived Health, Stress and Sense of Coherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedov, G.; Wikblad, K.; Anneren, G.

    2006-01-01

    Background: The aims of present study were to study sickness absence among Swedish parents of children with Down's syndrome (DS) and to compare their rates of absence with those of control parents. Sickness absence data for 165 DS parents were compared with those for 174 control parents; all data were for the period 1997-2000. Sickness absence…

  9. Gender and age differences in the recurrence of sickness absence due to common mental disorders : a longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, P.C.; Roelen, C.A.M.; Bultmann, U.; Hoedeman, R.; van der Klink, J.J.L.; Groothoff, J.W.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Common mental disorders (CMDs) are an important cause of sickness absence and long-term work disability. Although CMDs are known to have high recurrence rates, little is known about the recurrence of sickness absence due to CMDs. The aim of this study was to investigate the recurrence of

  10. Enhanced tortuosity for electrolytes in microwave irradiated self-organized carbon-doped Ni/Co hydroxide nanocomposite electrodes with higher Ni/Co atomic ratio and rate capability for an asymmetric supercapacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Niraj; Kumar, Viresh; Panda, H S

    2017-11-03

    We demonstrate a green, facile and rapid microwave-mediated process for fabricating carbon black (CB) incorporated Ni/Co hydroxide porous nanocomposites and study the effect of various mass loading of CB on supercapacitor performance. The structure and interactions between CB and Ni/Co hydroxide are characterized by using x-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, which suggest the miniaturization of the single-phase Ni/Co hydroxide formation time. A morphology study reveals that the addition of CB into Ni/Co hydroxide develops a loose network structure with well-defined architectural pores. In addition, the nanocomposites demonstrate noticeable improvements in porosity and atomic ratio of Ni/Co with an increasing percentage of carbon, which results in a higher diffusion of electrolytes, and hence electrical conduction. The developed electrode materials exhibit a maximum specific capacitance value of 1526 Fg -1 at current density 1 Ag -1 with excellent cyclic stability (92% retention at 5000 cycles), energy density (76 Wh Kg -1 ), power density (250 W Kg -1 ) and rate capability. A solid state asymmetric supercapacitor device is fabricated and utilized to brighten a commercial LED effectively for validating real usage.

  11. Enhanced tortuosity for electrolytes in microwave irradiated self-organized carbon-doped Ni/Co hydroxide nanocomposite electrodes with higher Ni/Co atomic ratio and rate capability for an asymmetric supercapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Niraj; Kumar, Viresh; Panda, H. S.

    2017-11-01

    We demonstrate a green, facile and rapid microwave-mediated process for fabricating carbon black (CB) incorporated Ni/Co hydroxide porous nanocomposites and study the effect of various mass loading of CB on supercapacitor performance. The structure and interactions between CB and Ni/Co hydroxide are characterized by using x-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, which suggest the miniaturization of the single-phase Ni/Co hydroxide formation time. A morphology study reveals that the addition of CB into Ni/Co hydroxide develops a loose network structure with well-defined architectural pores. In addition, the nanocomposites demonstrate noticeable improvements in porosity and atomic ratio of Ni/Co with an increasing percentage of carbon, which results in a higher diffusion of electrolytes, and hence electrical conduction. The developed electrode materials exhibit a maximum specific capacitance value of 1526 Fg-1 at current density 1 Ag-1 with excellent cyclic stability (92% retention at 5000 cycles), energy density (76 Wh Kg-1), power density (250 W Kg-1) and rate capability. A solid state asymmetric supercapacitor device is fabricated and utilized to brighten a commercial LED effectively for validating real usage.

  12. Sickness absence among municipal workers in a Brazilian municipality: a secondary data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leao, Ana Lucia M; Barbosa-Branco, Anadergh; Turchi, Marília D; Steenstra, Ivan A; Cole, Donald C

    2017-12-28

    Sickness absence, work disability associated with illness or injury, is a major public health problem worldwide. Some studies have investigated determinants of sickness absence among workers with shorter job tenure, but have only focused on certain diagnostic groups. Although it is well established that job tenure has an inverse relationship with work injury rate, less is known about its association with sickness absence for other disorders. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the risk factors for incidence and duration of sickness absence according to diagnosis over a 7-year period. A dynamic cohort consisting of all permanent civil servants hired from 2005 to 2011 by the Goiania municipality-Brazil. Data of certified sickness absences longer than 3 days were analyzed. The incidence density was calculated per 1000 person-years in each ICD-10 category. The association between sickness absence and socio-demographic and occupational characteristics was examined using negative binomial regression models. 18,450 workers, mean age of 32 years, accumulated 14,909 episodes of sickness absence. Overall, the incidence density was 234.6 episodes per 1000 person years. Diagnostic groups with the highest incidence density of sickness absences were injuries (49.1), musculoskeletal disorders (31.3) and mental disorders (29.2). Factors predicting any sickness absence were female gender, older age, low education, being a health professional, multiple jobs and full-time employment. Mental health disorders were more common among education professionals, musculoskeletal disorders among blue collar workers and injuries among inspection workers. Prolonged time on sick leave was associated with male gender, older age groups, low education and income, blue-collar workers, more than one job contract and full time employment. These findings demonstrate a substantial sickness absentee burden and they provide relevant information for targeting prevention and health promotion

  13. High content of MYHC II in vastus lateralis is accompanied by higher VO2/power output ratio during moderate intensity cycling performed both at low and at high pedalling rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majerczak, J; Szkutnik, Z; Karasinski, J; Duda, K; Kolodziejski, L; Zoladz, J A

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between the content of various types of myosin heavy chain isoforms (MyHC) in the vastus lateralis muscle and pulmonary oxygen uptake during moderate power output incremental exercise, performed at low and at high pedalling rates. Twenty one male subjects (mean +/- SD) aged 24.1 +/- 2.8 years; body mass 72.9 +/- 7.2 kg; height 179.1 +/- 4.8 cm; BMI 22.69 +/- 1.89 kg.m(-2); VO2max 50.6 +/- 5.3 ml.kg.min(-1), participated in this study. On separate days, they performed two incremental exercise tests at 60 rev.min(-1) and at 120 rev.min(-1), until exhaustion. Gas exchange variables were measured continuously breath by breath. Blood samples were taken for measurements of plasma lactate concentration prior to the exercise test and at the end of each step of the incremental exercise. Muscle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis muscle, using Bergström needle, and they were analysed for the content of MyHC I and MyHC II using SDS--PAGE and two groups (n=7, each) were selected: group H with the highest content of MyHC II (60.7 % +/- 10.5 %) and group L with the lowest content of MyHC II (27.6 % +/- 6.1 %). We have found that during incremental exercise at the power output between 30-120 W, performed at 60 rev.min(-1), oxygen uptake in the group H was significantly greater than in the group L (ANCOVA, p=0.003, upward shift of the intercept in VO2/power output relationship). During cycling at the same power output but at 120 rev.min(-1), the oxygen uptake was also higher in the group H, when compared to the group L (i.e. upward shift of the intercept in VO2/power output relationship, ANCOVA, p=0.002). Moreover, the increase in pedalling rate from 60 to 120 rev.min(-1) was accompanied by a significantly higher increase of oxygen cost of cycling and by a significantly higher plasma lactate concentration in subjects from group H. We concluded that the muscle mechanical efficiency, expressed by the VO2/PO ratio

  14. Sickness Absence and Precarious Employment: A Comparative Cross-National Study of Denmark, Finland, Sweden, and Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Oke

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Precarious employment is a major social determinant of health and health inequalities with effects beyond the health of workers. Objective: To investigate the association between precarious employment and sickness absence in 4 Nordic countries, Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden. Methods: Logistic regression analyses were conducted separately for each country on data from 4186 respondents aged 15–65 years in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden derived from the 2010 European Working Conditions Survey. Sickness absence was based on self-reports and defined as absence of seven or more day per year. Precarious employment was operationalized as a multidimensional construct of indicators. Analyses were also conducted separately for men and women. Results: The prevalence of sickness absence was lowest in Sweden (18%, and highest in Finland (28%. 3 precarious employment indicators were positively associated with sickness absence; the pattern being largely similar in the total sample. In the sex-disaggregated sample, 5 precarious employment indicators increased the likelihood of sickness absence; the pattern was heterogeneous, with women generally having significantly higher odds of sickness absence than men. “Low household income” and “sickness presenteeism” were strong predictors of sickness absence among both sexes in most of the 4 studied countries. Sickness absence varied between the Nordic countries in the sex-disaggregated analyses. Conclusion: Precarious employment indicators predicted sickness absence in the Nordic countries. Findings emphasize the need to prioritize informed and monitored collective bargaining for all workers, increase working time flexibility, and improving work conditions.

  15. Sickness Absence and Precarious Employment: A Comparative Cross-National Study of Denmark, Finland, Sweden, and Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oke, A; Braithwaite, P; Antai, D

    2016-07-01

    Precarious employment is a major social determinant of health and health inequalities with effects beyond the health of workers. To investigate the association between precarious employment and sickness absence in 4 Nordic countries, Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden. Logistic regression analyses were conducted separately for each country on data from 4186 respondents aged 15-65 years in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden derived from the 2010 European Working Conditions Survey. Sickness absence was based on self-reports and defined as absence of seven or more day per year. Precarious employment was operationalized as a multidimensional construct of indicators. Analyses were also conducted separately for men and women. The prevalence of sickness absence was lowest in Sweden (18%), and highest in Finland (28%). 3 precarious employment indicators were positively associated with sickness absence; the pattern being largely similar in the total sample. In the sex-disaggregated sample, 5 precarious employment indicators increased the likelihood of sickness absence; the pattern was heterogeneous, with women generally having significantly higher odds of sickness absence than men. "Low household income" and "sickness presenteeism" were strong predictors of sickness absence among both sexes in most of the 4 studied countries. Sickness absence varied between the Nordic countries in the sex-disaggregated analyses. Precarious employment indicators predicted sickness absence in the Nordic countries. Findings emphasize the need to prioritize informed and monitored collective bargaining for all workers, increase working time flexibility, and improving work conditions.

  16. Sickness Absence and Disability Pension After Breast Cancer Diagnosis: A 5-Year Nationwide Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvillemo, Pia; Mittendorfer-Rutz, Ellenor; Bränström, Richard; Nilsson, Kerstin; Alexanderson, Kristina

    2017-06-20

    Purpose To explore future diagnosis-specific sickness absence and disability pension among women with breast cancer compared with women without breast cancer. Also, to examine associations with disease-related and sociodemographic factors among those with breast cancer. Methods Longitudinal register data on 3,547 women living in Sweden (age 20 to 65 years) who were first diagnosed with breast cancer in 2005, and a matched comparison cohort (n = 14,188), were analyzed for the annual prevalence of diagnosis-specific sickness absence and disability pension over 5 years. Logistic regressions were used to explore associations of disease-related and sociodemographic factors with future sickness absence and disability pension among women with breast cancer. Results Immediately after being diagnosed with breast cancer, the proportion of women with sickness absence was high but decreased continuously from the 1st through 5th year after diagnosis (71%, 40%, 30%, 22%, and 19%, respectively). In comparison, the range for women without breast cancer was 17% to 11%, respectively. The higher prevalence of sickness absence after breast cancer was mainly a result of breast cancer diagnosis, not a mental diagnosis, or other somatic diagnoses. Advanced cancer at diagnosis, > 90 days sickness absence before diagnosis, low education, and being born outside Sweden were associated with higher odds ratios for sickness absence and disability pension (odds ratio range, 1.40 to 6.45). Conclusion The level of sickness absence increased substantially in women with breast cancer during the first year after diagnosis and approached the level of breast cancer-free women in the following years; however, even in the first year, most women were not on sickness absence for a substantial time, and even in high-risk groups, many were not on sickness absence or disability pension in the following years. Information about relatively low future sickness absence and disability pension levels can be used by

  17. Absence of superoxide dismutase activity causes nuclear DNA fragmentation during the aging process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muid, Khandaker Ashfaqul; Karakaya, Hüseyin Çaglar; Koc, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Aging process increases ROS accumulation. • Aging process increases DNA damage levels. • Absence of SOD activity does not cause DNA damage in young cells. • Absence of SOD activity accelerate aging and increase oxidative DNA damages during the aging process. - Abstract: Superoxide dismutases (SOD) serve as an important antioxidant defense mechanism in aerobic organisms, and deletion of these genes shortens the replicative life span in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Even though involvement of superoxide dismutase enzymes in ROS scavenging and the aging process has been studied extensively in different organisms, analyses of DNA damages has not been performed for replicatively old superoxide dismutase deficient cells. In this study, we investigated the roles of SOD1, SOD2 and CCS1 genes in preserving genomic integrity in replicatively old yeast cells using the single cell comet assay. We observed that extend of DNA damage was not significantly different among the young cells of wild type, sod1Δ and sod2Δ strains. However, ccs1Δ mutants showed a 60% higher amount of DNA damage in the young stage compared to that of the wild type cells. The aging process increased the DNA damage rates 3-fold in the wild type and more than 5-fold in sod1Δ, sod2Δ, and ccs1Δ mutant cells. Furthermore, ROS levels of these strains showed a similar pattern to their DNA damage contents. Thus, our results confirm that cells accumulate DNA damages during the aging process and reveal that superoxide dismutase enzymes play a substantial role in preserving the genomic integrity in this process

  18. Absence of superoxide dismutase activity causes nuclear DNA fragmentation during the aging process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muid, Khandaker Ashfaqul; Karakaya, Hüseyin Çaglar; Koc, Ahmet, E-mail: ahmetkoc@iyte.edu.tr

    2014-02-07

    Highlights: • Aging process increases ROS accumulation. • Aging process increases DNA damage levels. • Absence of SOD activity does not cause DNA damage in young cells. • Absence of SOD activity accelerate aging and increase oxidative DNA damages during the aging process. - Abstract: Superoxide dismutases (SOD) serve as an important antioxidant defense mechanism in aerobic organisms, and deletion of these genes shortens the replicative life span in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Even though involvement of superoxide dismutase enzymes in ROS scavenging and the aging process has been studied extensively in different organisms, analyses of DNA damages has not been performed for replicatively old superoxide dismutase deficient cells. In this study, we investigated the roles of SOD1, SOD2 and CCS1 genes in preserving genomic integrity in replicatively old yeast cells using the single cell comet assay. We observed that extend of DNA damage was not significantly different among the young cells of wild type, sod1Δ and sod2Δ strains. However, ccs1Δ mutants showed a 60% higher amount of DNA damage in the young stage compared to that of the wild type cells. The aging process increased the DNA damage rates 3-fold in the wild type and more than 5-fold in sod1Δ, sod2Δ, and ccs1Δ mutant cells. Furthermore, ROS levels of these strains showed a similar pattern to their DNA damage contents. Thus, our results confirm that cells accumulate DNA damages during the aging process and reveal that superoxide dismutase enzymes play a substantial role in preserving the genomic integrity in this process.

  19. Hand sanitiser provision for reducing illness absences in primary school children: a cluster randomised trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Priest

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The potential for transmission of infectious diseases offered by the school environment are likely to be an important contributor to the rates of infectious disease experienced by children. This study aimed to test whether the addition of hand sanitiser in primary school classrooms compared with usual hand hygiene would reduce illness absences in primary school children in New Zealand. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This parallel-group cluster randomised trial took place in 68 primary schools, where schools were allocated using restricted randomisation (1:1 ratio to the intervention or control group. All children (aged 5 to 11 y in attendance at participating schools received an in-class hand hygiene education session. Schools in the intervention group were provided with alcohol-based hand sanitiser dispensers in classrooms for the winter school terms (27 April to 25 September 2009. Control schools received only the hand hygiene education session. The primary outcome was the number of absence episodes due to any illness among 2,443 follow-up children whose caregivers were telephoned after each absence from school. Secondary outcomes measured among follow-up children were the number of absence episodes due to specific illness (respiratory or gastrointestinal, length of illness and illness absence episodes, and number of episodes where at least one other member of the household became ill subsequently (child or adult. We also examined whether provision of sanitiser was associated with experience of a skin reaction. The number of absences for any reason and the length of the absence episode were measured in all primary school children enrolled at the schools. Children, school administrative staff, and the school liaison research assistants were not blind to group allocation. Outcome assessors of follow-up children were blind to group allocation. Of the 1,301 and 1,142 follow-up children in the hand sanitiser and control groups, respectively, the

  20. Endovascular treatment of basilar and ICA termination aneurysms: effects of the use of HydroCoils on treatment stability in a subgroup of patients prone to a higher recurrence rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geyik, Serdar; Yavuz, Kivilcim; Cekirge, Saruhan; Saatci, Isil

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the stability of occlusion of terminal bifurcation aneurysms after embolization with hydrogel-coated coils. Of 35 bifurcation aneurysms, 34 were treated with hydrogel-coated coils in combination with platinum coils, and 1 was treated with hydrogel-coated coils only. Aneurysms were located at the basilar tip in 17 patients, and the internal carotid artery (ICA) bifurcation in 18 patients. The patient population consisted of 20 women and 15 men with ages ranging from 21 to 65 years. The aneurysm was found in 16 patients on presentation for subarachnoid hemorrhage, and in 19 patients the finding was incidental. Of the 35 aneurysms, 25 were small, 9 were large and 1 was giant. The giant aneurysm was located at the basilar tip and showed partial thrombosis. All except two basilar tip aneurysms were treated with balloon assistance. The remaining two basilar tip aneurysms were embolized with the assistance of an aneurysmal neck bridge device. The mean percentage occluded aneurysm volume for all devices was in the range 34-100%. Follow-up angiograms were obtained at 1 year in 6 patients, 2 years in 11 patients, and 3 years in 18 patients. Angiograms obtained immediately after embolization demonstrated a Raymond class 1 occlusion in 29 patients (82.9%) and a Raymond class 2 occlusion in 6 patients (17.1%). In four of these six patients follow-up angiograms demonstrated regrowth with resultant Raymond class 3 occlusion. In the other two patients, Raymond class 2 occlusion remained stable on follow-up angiograms. In patients who had a Raymond class 1 occlusion on the angiogram obtained immediately after embolization, no regrowth was seen on the follow-up angiograms. The overall recanalization rate was 11.4% (three large, one giant) at 6 months. Retreatment was not considered in three of these patients and they were to be followed; the other patient was retreated. Our initial procedural data demonstrate that higher volumetric occlusion was

  1. Endovascular treatment of basilar and ICA termination aneurysms: effects of the use of HydroCoils on treatment stability in a subgroup of patients prone to a higher recurrence rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geyik, Serdar; Yavuz, Kivilcim; Cekirge, Saruhan; Saatci, Isil [Hacettepe University Hospital, Interventional Neuroradiology Unit, Radiology Department, Ankara (Turkey)

    2007-12-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the stability of occlusion of terminal bifurcation aneurysms after embolization with hydrogel-coated coils. Of 35 bifurcation aneurysms, 34 were treated with hydrogel-coated coils in combination with platinum coils, and 1 was treated with hydrogel-coated coils only. Aneurysms were located at the basilar tip in 17 patients, and the internal carotid artery (ICA) bifurcation in 18 patients. The patient population consisted of 20 women and 15 men with ages ranging from 21 to 65 years. The aneurysm was found in 16 patients on presentation for subarachnoid hemorrhage, and in 19 patients the finding was incidental. Of the 35 aneurysms, 25 were small, 9 were large and 1 was giant. The giant aneurysm was located at the basilar tip and showed partial thrombosis. All except two basilar tip aneurysms were treated with balloon assistance. The remaining two basilar tip aneurysms were embolized with the assistance of an aneurysmal neck bridge device. The mean percentage occluded aneurysm volume for all devices was in the range 34-100%. Follow-up angiograms were obtained at 1 year in 6 patients, 2 years in 11 patients, and 3 years in 18 patients. Angiograms obtained immediately after embolization demonstrated a Raymond class 1 occlusion in 29 patients (82.9%) and a Raymond class 2 occlusion in 6 patients (17.1%). In four of these six patients follow-up angiograms demonstrated regrowth with resultant Raymond class 3 occlusion. In the other two patients, Raymond class 2 occlusion remained stable on follow-up angiograms. In patients who had a Raymond class 1 occlusion on the angiogram obtained immediately after embolization, no regrowth was seen on the follow-up angiograms. The overall recanalization rate was 11.4% (three large, one giant) at 6 months. Retreatment was not considered in three of these patients and they were to be followed; the other patient was retreated. Our initial procedural data demonstrate that higher volumetric occlusion was

  2. On the absence of winds in ADAFs

    OpenAIRE

    Abramowicz, Marek A.; Lasota, Jean-Pierre; Igumenshchev, Igor V.

    2000-01-01

    We show that recently published assertions that advection dominated accretion flows (ADAFs) require the presence of strong winds are unfounded because they assume that low radiative efficiency in flows accreting at low rates onto black holes implies vanishing radial energy and angular momentum fluxes through the flow (which is also formulated in terms of the `Bernoulli function' being positive). This, however, is a property only of self-similar solutions which are an inadequate representation...

  3. Sickness absence and workplace levels of satisfaction with psychosocial work conditions at public service workplaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch-Hansen, Torsten; Wieclaw, Joanna; Agerbo, Esben

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to examine the impact of psychosocial work conditions on sickness absence while addressing methodological weaknesses in earlier studies. METHODS: The participants were 13,437 employees from 698 public service workplace units in Aarhus County, Denmark....... Satisfaction with psychosocial work conditions was rated on a scale from 0 (low) to 10 (high). Individual ratings were aggregated to workplace scores. Analysis of variance was used to compare the average number of days of yearly sickness absence in three groups with different levels of satisfaction...... with psychosocial work conditions. RESULTS: Sickness absence was 30.8% lower in the most satisfied group (11.7 days/year (CI 95%: 10.2; 13.1)) than in the least satisfied group (16.9 days/year (CI 95%: 15.3; 18.6)) adjusted for the covariates included. CONCLUSIONS: Satisfaction with psychosocial work conditions has...

  4. Impacts on work absence and performance: what really matters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynne-Jones, Gwenllian; Buck, Rhiannon; Varnava, Alice; Phillips, Ceri; Main, Chris J

    2009-12-01

    A number of factors influence an individual's decision to take sickness absence or to remain at work while ill. The relationship between health, work characteristics, individual perceptions of work and sickness absence and performance is complex and further clarification of the interactions between these factors is necessary. To assess the relative impact of health, work characteristics and perceptions of work on absence and performance. Cross-sectional survey of two public sector organizations (n = 505). Data were analysed using multivariate linear regression to assess the individual and combined influence of each class of independent variables on the following: days sickness absence, spells of sickness absence, VAS performance and presenteeism. Characteristics of work were weakly associated with days absence and performance. Perceptions of work were more strongly associated with performance than absence. Measures of mental health, rather than physical health, had the greatest influence on ability to work. Poor health had a greater impact on work performance than work absence. When considered together, health variables accounted for the largest proportion of explained variance in both absence and performance when compared with characteristics of work and work perceptions. Using absence as a marker of health-associated compromise at work may lead to an underestimation of the impact of health on work. This study demonstrates the need to manage the impact of health problems on the workforce not only from a bio-medical perspective but also in terms of the psychological pressures and the social context in which employees work.

  5. Job satisfaction and sickness absence: a questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelen, Corné A M; Koopmans, Petra C; Notenbomer, Annette; Groothoff, Johan W

    2008-12-01

    When dissatisfaction with work precedes sickness absence, screening for satisfaction levels might usefully detect workers at risk of sickness absence. To investigate whether job satisfaction was associated with subsequent sickness absence days or episodes. A sample of workers was randomly drawn from a population of employees who had an episode of absence between January and April 2003. Job satisfaction was measured using a validated single question with a Likert-type scale ranging from 1 (very dissatisfied) to 7 (very satisfied). Job satisfaction levels were linked to the number of recorded sickness absence days and episodes in 2003, distinguishing between short (1-7 days) episodes and long (>7 days) episodes. Of 898 questionnaires distributed, 518 (58%) were returned. The mean+/-standard deviation job satisfaction level was 5.1+/-1.4 and negatively related to the number of sickness absence days. Job satisfaction was also negatively related to the number of short episodes and long episodes of absence, but these associations were not significant. Job satisfaction was significantly related to total sickness absence duration. The association with the number of sickness absence episodes was weak and just below the level of statistical significance. Assessing work satisfaction levels might usefully identify those workers most likely to have the greatest sickness absence duration.

  6. Predictors of short- and long-term sickness absence in female post office workers in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzanna Szubert

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to highlight major predictors of the frequency of sickness absence in a group of workers directly involved in customer service. Material and Methods: The study was carried out on a random sample of 229 women employed as assistants and clerks in post offices. The survey was based on the Subjective Work, Health Status and Life Style Characteristics Questionnaire, and sickness absence data for the years 2004–2006. Results: The negative binominal regression model of sickness absence risk revealed the following significant predictors of short-term absence spells (1–29 days: 1 marital status, sickness absence risk for single women was (rate ratio (RR = 1.56 (95% confidence interval (CI: 1.01–2.39 vs. married women; 2 post offices employing 7 workers had a rate ratio of sickness absence of 1.6 (95% CI: 1.04–2.42; 13–25 workers – RR = 2.03 (95% CI: 1.41–2.93; > 25 workers – RR = 1.82 (95% CI: 1.15–2.88 compared with an average number of 8–12 workers; 3 shift work, RR = 1.57 (95% CI: 1.14–2.14; 4 breaks from work – the risk of absence in the case of any breaks amounted to RR = 1.5 (95% CI: 1.07–2.07 in comparison with the statutory breaks; 5 self-rated health reported as moderate relative to good health, RR = 1.71 (95% CI: 1.26–2.32; and 6 occurrence of respiratory diseases resulted in the risk of RR = 1.51 (95% CI: 1.08–2.08. The Poisson regression model of long-term sickness absence spells (≥ 30 days revealed the following significant predictors: 1 number of clients per shift: 51–100 clients, RR = 3.62 (95% CI: 1.07–22.6 compared with a lower number of clients; 2 self-rated health, assessed as moderate, RR = 1.97 (95% CI: 1.06–3.78 and 3 household chores performed for at least 4 h a day, RR = 0.4 (95% CI: 0.18–0.79. Conclusions: Association between sickness absence and workload as well as work organization indicates directions of corrective actions, which could reduce the

  7. Psychosocial work factors and sickness absence in 31 countries in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedhammer, Isabelle; Chastang, Jean-François; Sultan-Taïeb, Hélène; Vermeylen, Greet; Parent-Thirion, Agnès

    2013-08-01

    The studies on the associations between psychosocial work factors and sickness absence have rarely included a large number of factors and European data. The objective was to examine the associations between a large set of psychosocial work factors following well-known and emergent concepts and sickness absence in Europe. The study population consisted of 14,881 male and 14,799 female workers in 31 countries from the 2005 European Working Conditions Survey. Psychosocial work factors included the following: decision latitude, psychological demands, social support, physical violence, sexual harassment, discrimination, bullying, long working hours, shift and night work, job insecurity, job promotion and work-life imbalance. Covariates were as follows: age, occupation, economic activity, employee/self-employed status and physical, chemical, biological and biomechanical exposures. Statistical analysis was performed using multilevel negative binomial hurdle models to study the occurrence and duration of sickness absence. In the models, including all psychosocial work factors together and adjustment for covariates, high psychological demands, discrimination, bullying, low-job promotion and work-life imbalance for both genders and physical violence for women were observed as risk factors of the occurrence of sickness absence. Bullying and shift work increased the duration of absence among women. Bullying had the strongest association with sickness absence. Various psychosocial work factors were found to be associated with sickness absence. A less conservative analysis exploring each factor separately provided a still higher number of risk factors. Preventive measures should take psychosocial work environment more comprehensively into account to reduce sickness absence and improve health at work at European level.

  8. Work-family conflict as a risk factor for sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, N W H; Kant, I J; van Amelsvoort, L G P M; Kristensen, T S; Swaen, G M H; Nijhuis, F J N

    2006-07-01

    (1) To study both cross-sectional and prospective relationships between work-family conflict and sickness absence from work; (2) to explore the direction of the relationships between the different types of conflict (work-home interference and home-work interference) and sickness absence; and (3) to explore gender differences in the above relationships. Data from the Maastricht Cohort Study were used with six months of follow up (5072 men and 1015 women at T6). Work-family conflict was measured with the Survey Work-Home Interference Nijmegen (SWING). Sickness absence was assessed objectively through individual record linkage with the company registers on sickness absence. In the cross-sectional analyses, high levels of work-family conflict, work-home interference, and home-work interference were all associated with a higher odds of being absent at the time of completing the questionnaire, after controlling for age and long term disease. Differences in average number of absent days between cases and non-cases of work-home interference were significant for men and most pronounced in women, where the average number of absent days over six months follow up was almost four days higher in women with high versus low-medium work-home interference. A clear relation between work-family conflict and sickness absence was shown. Additionally, the direction of work-family conflict was associated with a different sickness absence pattern. Sickness absence should be added to the list of adverse outcomes for employees struggling to combine their work and family life.

  9. Joint associations of sleep duration and insomnia symptoms with subsequent sickness absence: the Helsinki Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallukka, Tea; Haaramo, Peija; Rahkonen, Ossi; Sivertsen, Børge

    2013-07-01

    We aimed to examine the joint associations of sleep duration and insomnia symptoms with subsequent sickness absence of various lengths while considering several covariates. Baseline surveys among 40-60-year-old employees of the City of Helsinki, Finland, (N = 6535) were prospectively linked with employer's personnel register data comprising short self-certified (1-3 days), medically-certified intermediate (4-14 days) and long (15 days or more) sickness absence spells. Average follow-up time was 4.1 years. Sleep duration, insomnia symptoms, sociodemographics, working conditions, health behaviours and health were self-reported in the surveys. Poisson regression analysis was used. Insomnia symptoms were associated with sickness absence at all levels of sleep duration. Adjusting for gender and age, U-shaped associations regarding sleep hours were found. Thus, those reporting short or long sleep and reporting insomnia symptoms had a higher risk for medically-certified intermediate and long sickness absence as compared to those reporting 7 hours of sleep without insomnia symptoms. Also, those reporting 6, 7, and 8 hours of sleep had a higher risk for such sickness absence, if they reported insomnia. Weak associations were also found for self-certified sickness absence, and for those reporting short and long sleep without insomnia. Adjustments attenuated the associations, but they mainly remained. These results suggest primacy of the effects of insomnia symptoms over sleep duration on sickness absence. Although insomnia dominated the joint association, U-shaped associations suggest that both sleep duration and insomnia symptoms need to be considered to promote work ability.

  10. Maternity Leave and Mothers' Long-Term Sickness Absence: Evidence From West Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guertzgen, Nicole; Hank, Karsten

    2018-04-01

    Exploiting unique German administrative data, we estimate the association between an expansion in maternity leave duration from two to six months in 1979 and mothers' postbirth long-term sickness absence over a period of three decades after childbirth. Adopting a difference-in-difference approach, we first assess the reform's labor market effects and, subsequently, prebirth and postbirth maternal long-term sickness absence, accounting for the potential role of the reform in mothers' selection into employment. Consistent with previous research, our estimates show that the leave extension caused mothers to significantly delay their return to work within the first year after childbirth. We then provide difference-in-difference estimates for the number and length of spells of long-term sickness absence among returned mothers. Our findings suggest that among those returned, mothers subject to the leave extension exhibit a higher incidence of long-term sickness absence compared with mothers who gave birth before the reform. This also holds true after we control for observable differences in prebirth illness histories. At the same time, we find no pronounced effects on mothers' medium-run labor market attachment following the short-run delay in return to work, which might rationalize a negative causal health effect. Breaking down the results by mothers' prebirth health status suggests that the higher incidence of long-term sickness absence among mothers subject to the reform may be explained by the fact that the reform facilitated the reentry of a negative health selection into the labor market.

  11. Case-specific colleague guidance for general practitioners' management of sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordhagen, H P; Harvey, S B; Rosvold, E O; Bruusgaard, D; Blonk, R; Mykletun, A

    2017-12-02

    General practitioners (GPs) report sickness absence certification as challenging. They express need for support with functional assessment beyond guidelines and reforms. Case-specific collegial one-to-one guidance for other clinical topics has proved popular with GPs and may be an acceptable and effective way to improve GPs skills and competence in sickness absence certification. To present a new model of case-specific colleague guidance focusing on the management of long-term sickness absence and to describe its feasibility in terms of application and reception among GPs, and also GPs' self-reports of effects on their practice. Randomly selected GPs received case-specific collegial guidance over a 12-month period, in two Norwegian trials, delivered by former GPs employed by the social security administration. We measured reception and perceived effects by GPs' self-report and registered participation and withdrawal rates. The participation rate (n = 165) was 94%, and no GPs withdrew during training. Among the 116 GPs responding to the survey (70%), 112 (97%; 95% CI 92-99) stated they would recommend it to their colleagues. Considerable benefit from the guidance was reported by 68 (59%; 95% CI 50-68). The GPs self-reported other effects on their sickness absence certification, specifically an increased use of part-time sickness absence (Fit-Note equivalent). This model of case-specific colleague guidance to aid GPs' management of long-term sickness absence is feasible and was popular. This type of guidance was perceived by GPs to be somewhat beneficial and to alter their sickness absence certification behaviour, though the true impact requires further testing in controlled trials. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  12. Psychosocial work environment and registered absence from work: estimating the etiologic fraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin L; Rugulies, Reiner; Smith-Hansen, Lars

    2006-01-01

    or supervisor, predictability, and meaning of work were assessed with questionnaires at baseline and sickness absence was followed-up in employers' registers for 1,919 respondents (response rate 75.2%, 68% women, mainly low-skilled jobs) from 52 Danish workplaces during a 2-year period. Etiologic fractions (EFs...

  13. Socioeconomic differences in health check-ups and medically certified sickness absence: a 10-year follow-up among middle-aged municipal employees in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piha, Kustaa; Sumanen, Hilla; Lahelma, Eero; Rahkonen, Ossi

    2017-04-01

    There is contradictory evidence on the association between health check-ups and future morbidity. Among the general population, those with high socioeconomic position participate more often in health check-ups. The main aims of this study were to analyse if attendance to health check-ups are socioeconomically patterned and affect sickness absence over a 10-year follow-up. This register-based follow-up study included municipal employees of the City of Helsinki. 13 037 employees were invited to age-based health check-up during 2000-2002, with a 62% attendance rate. Education, occupational class and individual income were used to measure socioeconomic position. Medically certified sickness absence of 4 days or more was measured and controlled for at the baseline and used as an outcome over follow-up. The mean follow-up time was 7.5 years. Poisson regression was used. Men and employees with lower socioeconomic position participated more actively in health check-ups. Among women, non-attendance to health check-up predicted higher sickness absence during follow-up (relative risk =1.26, 95% CI 1.17 to 1.37) in the fully adjusted model. Health check-ups were not effective in reducing socioeconomic differences in sickness absence. Age-based health check-ups reduced subsequent sickness absence and should be promoted. Attendance to health check-ups should be as high as possible. Contextual factors need to be taken into account when applying the results in interventions in other settings. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  14. Health-related behaviours and sickness absence from work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laaksonen, M; Piha, K; Martikainen, P; Rahkonen, O; Lahelma, E

    2009-12-01

    To compare associations of health-related behaviours with self-certified and medically confirmed sickness absence, and to examine whether these associations can be explained by psychosocial and physical working conditions and occupational social class. The study included 5470 female and 1464 male employees of the City of Helsinki surveyed in 2000-2002. These data were linked to sickness absence records until the end of 2005, providing a mean follow-up time of 3.9 years. Poisson regression analysis was used to examine associations of smoking, alcohol use, physical activity, dietary habits and relative weight (body mass index) with self-certified (1-3 days) and medically confirmed (> or =4 days) absence spells. Population attributable fractions (PAFs) were calculated to quantify the sickness absence burden related to the behaviours. Smoking and high relative weight were most strongly associated with sickness absence, while the associations of other studied health-related behaviours were weaker. The associations were stronger for medically confirmed sickness absence spells for which heavy smoking and obesity more than doubled the risk of sickness absence in men and nearly doubled it in women. Adjusting for psychosocial working conditions had little or no effect on the associations. Physical working conditions and social class somewhat attenuated the associations, especially for smoking and relative weight. In self-certified sickness absence the PAF for smoking (16.4 in men, 10.3 in women) was largest, while in medically confirmed absence relative weight had the largest PAF (23.5 in men, 15.0 in women). Health-related behaviours, smoking and high relative weight in particular, were associated with subsequent sickness absence independently of psychosocial and physical working conditions and social class. Decreasing smoking and relative weight is likely to provide important gains in work ability and reduce sickness absence.

  15. Sickness absence associated with shared and open-plan offices - a national cross sectional questionnaire survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pejtersen, Jan; Feveile, H; Christensen, Karl Bang

    2011-01-01

    of office; the analysis was adjusted for age, gender, socioeconomic status, body mass index, alcohol consumption, smoking habits, and physical activity during leisure time. Results Sickness absence was significantly related to having a greater number of occupants in the office (P...Objective The aim of this study was to examine whether shared and open-plan offices are associated with more days of sickness absence than cellular offices. Methods The analysis was based on a national survey of Danish inhabitants between 18–59 years of age (response rate 62%), and the study...

  16. Systematic review of active workplace interventions to reduce sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odeen, M; Magnussen, L H; Maeland, S; Larun, L; Eriksen, H R; Tveito, T H

    2013-01-01

    The workplace is used as a setting for interventions to prevent and reduce sickness absence, regardless of the specific medical conditions and diagnoses. To give an overview of the general effectiveness of active workplace interventions aimed at preventing and reducing sickness absence. We systematically searched PubMed, Embase, Psych-info, and ISI web of knowledge on 27 December 2011. Inclusion criteria were (i) participants over 18 years old with an active role in the intervention, (ii) intervention done partly or fully at the workplace or at the initiative of the workplace and (iii) sickness absence reported. Two reviewers independently screened articles, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. A narrative synthesis was used. We identified 2036 articles of which, 93 were assessed in full text. Seventeen articles were included (2 with low and 15 with medium risk of bias), with a total of 24 comparisons. Five interventions from four articles significantly reduced sickness absence. We found moderate evidence that graded activity reduced sickness absence and limited evidence that the Sheerbrooke model (a comprehensive multidisciplinary intervention) and cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) reduced sickness absence. There was moderate evidence that workplace education and physical exercise did not reduce sickness absence. For other interventions, the evidence was insufficient to draw conclusions. The review found limited evidence that active workplace interventions were not generally effective in reducing sickness absence, but there was moderate evidence of effect for graded activity and limited evidence for the effectiveness of the Sheerbrooke model and CBT.

  17. Involuntary Absence from an Organizational Point of View

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M.P. de Kok (Jan)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractInvoluntary absence is often seen as an exogenous factor, but firms can take actions to reduce it. In this paper the notion that firms, especially SMEs, are faced with a single decision whether or not to undertake these actions is questioned. A firm model on involuntary absence measures

  18. Return to work following sickness absence due to infectious mononucleosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, P.C.; Bakhtali, R.; Katan, A.A.; Groothoff, J.W.; Roelen, C.A.

    BACKGROUND: Epstein-Barr virus infectious mononucleosis among adults is notorious because of the prolonged incapacitating fatigue it causes. AIMS: To investigate the duration of sickness absence and return to work following infectious mononucleosis. METHODS: Episodes of sickness absence due to

  19. 20 CFR 416.1167 - Temporary absences and deeming rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Income Deeming of Income § 416.1167 Temporary absences and deeming..., we consider your absence to be temporary through the date of discharge. (b) Child away at school. If you are an eligible child who is away at school but comes home on some weekends or lengthy holidays...

  20. Genetic models of absence epilepsy: New concepts and insights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Stein, J.

    2017-01-01

    The discovery, development and use of genetic rodent models of absence epilepsy have led to a new theory about the origin of absence seizures, which has gained impact within the international epilepsy community. A focal zone has been identified in the perioral region of the somatosensory cortex in

  1. Does muscle strength predict future musculoskeletal disorders and sickness absence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, A; Sell, L; Hansen, J V

    2012-01-01

    High muscle strength is considered relevant for preventing musculoskeletal disorders and long-term sickness absence. However, prospective studies on the association between muscle strength and future musculoskeletal disorders and long-term sickness absence are few and show contrasting results....

  2. Omphalocele minor associated with complete absence of the large bowel.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ferede, Atakelet

    2012-02-01

    Colonic atresia, unlike small intestine atresia, is a rare congenital malformation. Congenital absence of the entire colon is exceptionally rare. Moreover, an association of omphalocele and complete absence of the colon has not yet been reported in the literature. We present an infant born with such combination of congenital anomalies.

  3. Focus Group Study Exploring Factors Related to Frequent Sickness Absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notenbomer, Annette; Roelen, Corné A M; van Rhenen, Willem; Groothoff, Johan W

    2016-01-01

    Research investigating frequent sickness absence (3 or more episodes per year) is scarce and qualitative research from the perspective of frequent absentees themselves is lacking. The aim of the current study is to explore awareness, determinants of and solutions to frequent sickness absence from the perspective of frequent absentees themselves. We performed a qualitative study of 3 focus group discussions involving a total of 15 frequent absentees. Focus group discussions were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Results were analyzed with the Graneheim method using the Job Demands Resources (JD-R) model as theoretical framework. Many participants were not aware of their frequent sickness absence and the risk of future long-term sickness absence. As determinants, participants mentioned job demands, job resources, home demands, poor health, chronic illness, unhealthy lifestyles, and diminished feeling of responsibility to attend work in cases of low job resources. Managing these factors and improving communication (skills) were regarded as solutions to reduce frequent sickness absence. The JD-R model provided a framework for determinants of and solutions to frequent sickness absence. Additional determinants were poor health, chronic illness, unhealthy lifestyles, and diminished feeling of responsibility to attend work in cases of low job resources. Frequent sickness absence should be regarded as a signal that something is wrong. Managers, supervisors, and occupational health care providers should advise and support frequent absentees to accommodate job demands, increase both job and personal resources, and improve health rather than express disapproval of frequent sickness absence and apply pressure regarding work attendance.

  4. Identifying workers at risk of sickness absence by questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, Corne A. M.; van der Pol, Tjepke R.; Koopmans, Petra C.; Groothoff, Johan W.

    2006-01-01

    Background Sickness absence is an important economic problem, because of high costs and lost productivity. Determining factors associated with increased risk of sickness absence may lead to the development of preventive measures. Aims To determine whether self-report questionnaires can identify

  5. Subjective health complaints in relation to sickness absence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, Corne A. M.; Koopmans, Petra C.; Groothoff, Johan W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The Dutch population is healthy in terms of living and working conditions, but the levels of subjective health complaints (SHC) and sickness absence are high in the Dutch workforce. Are SHC related to sickness absence? Participants: The study population included the personnel of four

  6. Avoidable sickness absence in a dutch working population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremer, A.M.; Steenbeek, R.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Sickness absence has an important impact on employers (e.g. reduced productivity, high costs) and employees (e.g. replacement, job loss). Therefore, we investigated possible reduction by exploring avoidable sickness absence. Methods A questionnaire was filled out by 2,954 Dutch workers

  7. Genetic models of absence epilepsy: New concepts and insights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Coenen, A.M.L.; Schwartzkroin, P.A.

    2009-01-01

    The discovery, development, and use of genetic rodent models of absence epilepsy have led to a new theory about the origin of absence seizures. A focal zone has been identified in the peri-oral region of the somatosensory cortex in WAG/Rij and GAERS – the two most commonly used models – from which

  8. Cortical and limbic excitability in rats with absence epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolmacheva, E.A.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Chepurnov, S.A.; Kaminskij, Y.; Mares, P.

    2004-01-01

    The classical cortico-reticular theory on absence epilepsy suggests that a hyperexcitable cortex is a precondition for the occurrence of absence seizures. In the present experiment seizure thresholds and characteristics of cortical and limbic epileptic afterdischarges (AD) were determined in a

  9. Employee experience of workplace supervisor contact and support during long-term sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buys, Nicholas J; Selander, John; Sun, Jing

    2017-12-07

    Workplace support is an important factor in promoting successful return to work. The purpose of this article is to examine relationships between supervisor contact, perceived workplace support and demographic variables among employees on long-term sickness absence. Data were collected from 204 public employees at a municipality in Sweden who had been on long term sickness absence (60 days or more) using a 23 question survey instrument that collected information on demographic variables, supervisor contact and perceived workplace support. Most injured employees (97%) reported having contact with their supervisors during their sickness absence, with a majority (56%) reporting high levels of support, including early (58.6%) and multiple (70.7%) contacts. Most were pleased with amount of contact (68.9%) and the majority had discussed workplace accommodations (68.1%). Employees who self-initiated contact, felt the amount of contact was appropriate, had a personal meeting with their supervisors and discussed workplace adjustments reported experiencing higher levels of support from supervisors. Employees on long-term sickness absence appreciate contact from their supervisors and this is associated with perceived workplace support. However, the amount and employee experience of this contact is important. It needs to be perceived by employees as supportive, which includes a focus on strategies (e.g., work adjustment) to facilitate a return to work. Supervisor training is required in this area to support the return to work process. Implications for Rehabilitation Contact and support from workplace supervisors is important to workers on long-term sickness absence. Employees appreciate frequent contact from supervisors during long-terms sickness absence. Employees appreciate a personal meeting with supervisors and the opportunity to discuss issues related to return to work such as work adjustment. Employers should provide training to supervisors on how to communicate and

  10. Analyzing sickness absence with statistical models for survival data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Karl Bang; Andersen, Per Kragh; Smith-Hansen, Lars

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Sickness absence is the outcome in many epidemiologic studies and is often based on summary measures such as the number of sickness absences per year. In this study the use of modern statistical methods was examined by making better use of the available information. Since sickness...... absence data deal with events occurring over time, the use of statistical models for survival data has been reviewed, and the use of frailty models has been proposed for the analysis of such data. METHODS: Three methods for analyzing data on sickness absences were compared using a simulation study...... involving the following: (i) Poisson regression using a single outcome variable (number of sickness absences), (ii) analysis of time to first event using the Cox proportional hazards model, and (iii) frailty models, which are random effects proportional hazards models. Data from a study of the relation...

  11. Feasibility of a mobile cognitive intervention in childhood absence epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Glynn

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Children with childhood absence epilepsy (CAE frequently present with cognitive comorbidities and school performance concerns. The present study evaluated the feasibility of an intervention for such comorbidities using a mobile cognitive therapy application on an iPad. Eight children with CAE and school concerns aged 7-11 participated in a four-week intervention. They were asked to use the application for 80 minutes per week (20 minutes/day, 4 times/week. Parents and children completed satisfaction surveys regarding the application. Participants were evaluated before and after the intervention using the Cognitive Domain of the NIH Toolbox and by parental completion of the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF. All eight patients completed the study, using the iPad for an average of 78 minutes/week. Children and parents reported high satisfaction with the application. Though a demonstration of efficacy was not the focus of the study, performance improvements were noted on a processing speed task and on a measure of fluid intelligence. An iPad based cognitive therapy was found to be a feasible intervention for children with CAE.

  12. Source memory in the absence of successful cued recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Gabriel I; Marsh, Richard L; Hicks, Jason L

    2006-07-01

    Five experiments were conducted to address the question of whether source information could be accessed in the absence of being able to recall an item. The authors used a paired-associate learning paradigm in which cue-target word pairs were studied, and target recall was requested in the presence of the cue. When target recall failed, participants were asked to make a source judgment of whether a man or woman spoke the unrecalled item. In 3 of the 5 experiments, source accuracy was at or very close to chance. By contrast, if cue-target pairs were studied multiple times or participants knew in advance of learning that a predictive judgment would be required, then predictive source accuracy was well above chance. These data are suggestive that context information may not play a very large role in metacognitive judgments such as feeling-of-knowing ratings or putting one into a tip-of-the-tongue state without strong and specific encoding procedures. These same results also highlight the important role that item memory plays in retrieving information about the context in which an item was experienced. Copyright 2006 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Higher Education, Poverty and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilak, Jandhyala B. G.

    2010-01-01

    There is a presumption among many policy makers that higher education is not necessary for economic growth and development; it is literacy and basic education and at best secondary education that are argued to be important. Estimates of internal rate of return contributed to strengthening of such a presumption. Accordingly, higher education has…

  14. Finding 'Evidence of Absence' in Medical Notes: Using NLP for Clinical Inferencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Marjorie E; Divita, Guy; Redd, Andrew; Rubin, Michael A; Samore, Matthew H; Gupta, Kalpana; Trautner, Barbara W; Gundlapalli, Adi V

    2016-01-01

    Extracting evidence of the absence of a target of interest from medical text can be useful in clinical inferencing. The purpose of our study was to develop a natural language processing (NLP) pipelineto identify the presence of indwelling urinary catheters from electronic medical notes to aid in detection of catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI). Finding clear evidence that a patient does not have an indwelling urinary catheter is useful in making a determination regarding CAUTI. We developed a lexicon of seven core concepts to infer the absence of a urinary catheter. Of the 990,391 concepts extractedby NLP from a large corpus of 744,285 electronic medical notes from 5589 hospitalized patients, 63,516 were labeled as evidence of absence.Human review revealed three primary causes for false negatives. The lexicon and NLP pipeline were refined using this information, resulting in outputs with an acceptable false positive rate of 11%.

  15. A Study on the Absence of Palmaris Longus in a Multi- racial Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SA Roohi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Palmaris longus is a dispensable muscle with a long tendon which is very useful in reconstructive surgery. It is absent 2.8 to 24% of the population depending on the race/ethnicity studied. Four hundred and fifty healthy subjects (equally distributed among Malaysia’s 3 major ethnic groups were clinically examined for the presence or absence of palmaris longus. This tendon was found to be absent unilaterally in 6.4% of study subjects, and bilaterally in 2.9% of study participants. Malays have a high prevalence of palmaris longus absence at 11.3% followed closely by Indians at 10.7% whilst Chinese had a low absence rate of 6.0%.

  16. Endometrial scratching in women with implantation failure after a first IVF/ICSI cycle; does it lead to a higher live birth rate? The SCRaTCH study: A randomized controlled trial (NTR 5342)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoogenhuijze, N.E.; H.L. Torrance (Helen); F. Mol (Femke); J.S.E. Laven (Joop); Scheenjes, E.; T. Traas (Theo); Janssen, C.; B.J. Cohlen (Ben); G. Teklenburg (Gijs); J.P. de Bruin (J.); van Oppenraaij, R.; Maas, J.W.M.; Moll, E.; K. Fleischer; M.H.A. van Hooff (Marcel); C.H. de Koning; A.E.P. Cantineau (Astrid); C.B. Lambalk (Cornelius); M.F.G. Verberg; Nijs, M.; Manger, A.P.; M.M.E. van Rumste (Minouche); van der Voet, L.F.; Preys-Bosman, A.; Visser, J.; Brinkhuis, E.; den Hartog, J.E.; A. Sluijmer (Alexander); Jansen, F.W.; Hermes, W.; Bandell, M.L.; Pelinck, M.J.; J. van Disseldorp (Jeroen); M. van Wely (Madelon); J.M.J. Smeenk; Pieterse, Q.D.; J.C. Boxmeer (Jolanda); Groenewoud, E.R.; M.J.C. Eijkemans (René); J.C. Kasius (J. C.); F.J.M. Broekmans (Frank)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Success rates of assisted reproductive techniques (ART) are approximately 30%, with the most important limiting factor being embryo implantation. Mechanical endometrial injury, also called 'scratching', has been proposed to positively affect the chance of implantation after

  17. Endometrial scratching in women with implantation failure after a first IVF/ICSI cycle; does it lead to a higher live birth rate? The SCRaTCH study: a randomized controlled trial (NTR 5342)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenhuijze, N.E. van; Torrance, H.L.; Mol, F.; Laven, J.S.; Scheenjes, E.; Traas, M.A.F.; Janssen, C.; Cohlen, B.; Teklenburg, G.; Bruin, J.P. de; Oppenraaij, R. van; Maas, J.W.; Moll, E.; Fleischer, K.; Hooff, M.H. van; Koning, C.; Cantineau, A.; Lambalk, C.B.; Verberg, M.; Nijs, M.; Manger, A.P.; Rumste, M. van; Voet, L.F. van der; Preys-Bosman, A.; Visser, J.; Brinkhuis, E.; Hartog, J.E. Den; Sluijmer, A.; Jansen, F.W.; Hermes, W.; Bandell, M.L.; Pelinck, M.J.; Disseldorp, J. van; Wely, M. van; Smeenk, J.; Pieterse, Q.D.; Boxmeer, J.C.; Groenewoud, E.R.; Eijkemans, M.J.; Kasius, J.C.; Broekmans, F.J.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Success rates of assisted reproductive techniques (ART) are approximately 30%, with the most important limiting factor being embryo implantation. Mechanical endometrial injury, also called 'scratching', has been proposed to positively affect the chance of implantation after embryo

  18. Endometrial scratching in women with implantation failure after a first IVF/ICSI cycle; does it lead to a higher live birth rate? The SCRaTCH study: a randomized controlled trial (NTR 5342)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoogenhuijze, N. E.; Torrance, H. L.; Mol, F.; Laven, J. S. E.; Scheenjes, E.; Traas, M. A. F.; Janssen, C.; Cohlen, B.; Teklenburg, G.; de Bruin, J. P.; van Oppenraaij, R.; Maas, J. W. M.; Moll, E.; Fleischer, K.; van Hooff, M. H.; de Koning, C.; Cantineau, A.; Lambalk, C. B.; Verberg, M.; Nijs, M.; Manger, A. P.; van Rumste, M.; van der Voet, L. F.; Preys-Bosman, A.; Visser, J.; Brinkhuis, E.; den Hartog, J. E.; Sluijmer, A.; Jansen, F. W.; Hermes, W.; Bandell, M. L.; Pelinck, M. J.; van Disseldorp, J.; van Wely, M.; Smeenk, J.; Pieterse, Q. D.; Boxmeer, J. C.; Groenewoud, E. R.; Eijkemans, M. J. C.; Kasius, J. C.; Broekmans, F. J. M.

    2017-01-01

    Success rates of assisted reproductive techniques (ART) are approximately 30%, with the most important limiting factor being embryo implantation. Mechanical endometrial injury, also called 'scratching', has been proposed to positively affect the chance of implantation after embryo transfer, but the

  19. Endometrial scratching in women with implantation failure after a first IVF/ICSI cycle; does it lead to a higher live birth rate? The SCRaTCH study : A randomized controlled trial (NTR 5342)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoogenhuijze, N. E.; Torrance, H. L.; Mol, F.; Laven, Joop S E; Scheenjes, E.; Traas, M.A.F.; Janssen, Bert J C; Cohlen, B.; Teklenburg, G.; Bruin, Jacob P; van Oppenraaij, R.; Maas, J. W M; Moll, Etelka; Fleischer, K.; van Hooff, Marcel H; de Koning, C.; Cantineau, A.; Lambalk, Cornelis B.; Verberg, M.F.G.; Nijs, M. M.; Manger, A. P.; Van Rumste, M. M.; Van der Voet, L F; Preys-Bosman, A.; Visser, J.; Brinkhuis, E.A.; den Hartog, J. E.; Sluijmer, A.; Jansen, F. W.; Hermes, W.; Bandell, M. L.; Pelinck, M. J.; van Disseldorp, J.; Wely, M.; Smeenk, J.; Pieterse, Q.D.; Boxmeer, J.C.; Groenewoud, Eva R.; Eijkemans, M. J.C.; Kasius, J. C.; Broekmans, F. J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Success rates of assisted reproductive techniques (ART) are approximately 30%, with the most important limiting factor being embryo implantation. Mechanical endometrial injury, also called 'scratching', has been proposed to positively affect the chance of implantation after embryo

  20. Gender difference in sickness absence from work: a multiple mediation analysis of psychosocial factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casini, Annalisa; Godin, Isabelle; Clays, Els; Kittel, France

    2013-08-01

    Previous research has shown that job characteristics, private life and psychosocial factors partially account for gender difference in work absences because of sickness. Most studies have analysed these factors separately. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether these explanatory factors act as mediators when they are considered simultaneously. The evaluated data set comprises the merger of two Belgian longitudinal studies, BELSTRESS III and SOMSTRESS. It includes 3821 workers (1541 men) aged 21-66 years, employed in eight organizations. A multiple mediation analysis was performed to explain the higher prevalence among women. Estimated factors were occupational grade, total number of paid working hours per week, job strain, overcommitment, home-work interference and social support at and outside work. Prospective data concerning duration and frequency of medically justified sickness absence (registered by the organizations) were used as outcomes. Overall, the mediating factors partially account for gender difference in sickness absence. The strongest mediator for both outcomes is job strain. In addition, difference in absence duration is mediated by social support at work, whereas difference in frequency is mediated by professional grade and home-work interference. Our results call attention to the necessity to elaborate actual preventive actions aiming at favouring a better positioning of women on the labour market in term of hierarchical level as well as in terms of quality of work for reducing sickness absence in this group.

  1. A brief history of typical absence seizures - Petit mal revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigo, Francesco; Trinka, Eugen; Lattanzi, Simona; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Nardone, Raffaele; Martini, Mariano

    2018-03-01

    In this article, we have traced back the history of typical absence seizures, from their initial clinical description to the more recent nosological position. The first description of absence seizures was made by Poupart in 1705 and Tissot in 1770. In 1824, Calmeil introduced the term "absences", and in 1838, Esquirol for the first time used the term petit mal. Reynolds instead used the term "epilepsia mitior" (milder epilepsy) and provided a comprehensive description of absence seizures (1861). In 1854, Delasiauve ranked absences as the seizure type with lower severity and introduced the concept of idiopathic epilepsy. Otto Binswanger (1899) discussed the role of cortex in the pathophysiology of "abortive seizures", whereas William Gowers (1901) emphasized the importance of a detailed clinical history to identify nonmotor seizures or very mild motor phenomena which otherwise may go unnoticed or considered not epileptic. At the beginning of the 20th Century, the term pyknolepsy was introduced, but initially was not universally considered as a type of epilepsy; it was definitely recognized as an epileptic entity only in 1945, based on electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings. Hans Berger, the inventor of the EEG, made also the first EEG recording of an atypical absence (his results were published only in 1933), whereas the characteristic EEG pattern was reported by neurophysiologists of the Harvard Medical School in 1935. The discovery of EEG made it also possible to differentiate absence seizures from so called "psychomotor" seizures occurring in temporal lobe epilepsy. Penfield and Jasper (1938) considered absences as expression of "centrencephalic epilepsy". Typical absences seizures are now classified by the International League Against Epilepsy among generalized nonmotor (absence) seizures. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Endometrial scratching in women with implantation failure after a first IVF/ICSI cycle; does it lead to a higher live birth rate? The SCRaTCH study: a randomized controlled trial (NTR 5342).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hoogenhuijze, N E; Torrance, H L; Mol, F; Laven, J S E; Scheenjes, E; Traas, M A F; Janssen, C; Cohlen, B; Teklenburg, G; de Bruin, J P; van Oppenraaij, R; Maas, J W M; Moll, E; Fleischer, K; van Hooff, M H; de Koning, C; Cantineau, A; Lambalk, C B; Verberg, M; Nijs, M; Manger, A P; van Rumste, M; van der Voet, L F; Preys-Bosman, A; Visser, J; Brinkhuis, E; den Hartog, J E; Sluijmer, A; Jansen, F W; Hermes, W; Bandell, M L; Pelinck, M J; van Disseldorp, J; van Wely, M; Smeenk, J; Pieterse, Q D; Boxmeer, J C; Groenewoud, E R; Eijkemans, M J C; Kasius, J C; Broekmans, F J M

    2017-07-21

    Success rates of assisted reproductive techniques (ART) are approximately 30%, with the most important limiting factor being embryo implantation. Mechanical endometrial injury, also called 'scratching', has been proposed to positively affect the chance of implantation after embryo transfer, but the currently available evidence is not yet conclusive. The primary aim of this study is to determine the effect of endometrial scratching prior to a second fresh in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI) cycle on live birth rates in women with a failed first IVF/ICSI cycle. Multicenter randomized controlled trial in Dutch academic and non-academic hospitals. A total of 900 women will be included of whom half will undergo an endometrial scratch in the luteal phase of the cycle prior to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation using an endometrial biopsy catheter. The primary endpoint is the live birth rate after the 2 nd fresh IVF/ICSI cycle. Secondary endpoints are costs, cumulative live birth rate (after the full 2 nd IVF/ICSI cycle and over 12 months of follow-up); clinical and ongoing pregnancy rate; multiple pregnancy rate; miscarriage rate and endometrial tissue parameters associated with implantation failure. Multiple studies have been performed to investigate the effect of endometrial scratching on live birth rates in women undergoing IVF/ICSI cycles. Due to heterogeneity in both the method and population being scratched, it remains unclear which group of women will benefit from the procedure. The SCRaTCH trial proposed here aims to investigate the effect of endometrial scratching prior to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation in a large group of women undergoing a second IVF/ICSI cycle. NTR 5342 , registered July 31 st , 2015. Version 4.10, January 4th, 2017.

  3. Social protection and the employment contract: the impact on work absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompa, Emile; Scott-Marshall, Heather; Fang, Miao

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of temporary employment on all-cause sickness absence of one week or more with a focus on how this relationship is moderated by factors related to social protection (job tenure, union membership and firm size). A sample of 5,307 individuals who experienced 9,574 distinct job episodes was drawn from a longitudinal Canadian labour market survey (2000-2004). Duration analysis was undertaken to model the time from the start of a job to the first sickness absence. Specifically, a proportional hazard model was estimated using a complementary log-log function for continuous time processes. Findings showed that temporary employment was associated with a lower rate of sickness absence after controlling for tenure, prior health status, and several other individual and job characteristics. The results suggest that the lack of social protection in temporary jobs is a powerful determinant of absence taking, even in the case of serious health conditions that require an absence of one week or more.

  4. A one-item workability measure mediates work demands, individual resources and health in the prediction of sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsen, Sannie Vester; Burr, Hermann; Diderichsen, Finn; Bjorner, Jakob Bue

    2013-10-01

    The study tested the hypothesis that a one-item workability measure represented an assessment of the fit between resources (the individuals' physical and mental health and functioning) and workplace demands and that this resource/demand fit was a mediator in the prediction of sickness absence. We also estimated the relative importance of health and work environment for workability and sickness absence. Baseline data were collected within a Danish work and health survey (3,214 men and 3,529 women) and followed up in a register of sickness absence. Probit regression analysis with workability as mediator was performed for a binary outcome of sickness absence. The predictors in the analysis were as follows: age, social class, physical health, mental health, number of diagnoses, ergonomic exposures, occupational noise, exposure to risks, social support from supervisor, job control and quantitative demands. High age, poor health and ergonomic exposures were associated with low workability and mediated by workability to sickness absence for both genders. Low social class and low quantitative demands were associated with low workability and mediated to sickness absence among men. The mediated part was from 11 to 63 % of the total effect for the significant predictors. Workability mediated health, age, social class and ergonomic exposures in the prediction of sickness absence. The health predictors had the highest association with both workability and sickness absence; physical work environment was higher associated with the outcomes than psychosocial work environment. However, the explanatory value of the predictors for the variance in the model was low.

  5. Absence of evidence or evidence of absence: reflecting on therapeutic implementations of attentional bias modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Patrick J F; Notebaert, Lies; MacLeod, Colin

    2014-01-15

    Attentional bias modification (ABM) represents one of a number of cognitive bias modification techniques which are beginning to show promise as therapeutic interventions for emotional pathology. Numerous studies with both clinical and non-clinical populations have now demonstrated that ABM can reduce emotional vulnerability. However, some recent studies have failed to achieve change in either selective attention or emotional vulnerability using ABM methodologies, including a recent randomised controlled trial by Carlbring et al. Some have sought to represent such absence of evidence as a sound basis not to further pursue ABM as an online intervention. While these findings obviously raise questions about the specific conditions under which ABM procedures will produce therapeutic benefits, we suggest that the failure of some studies to modify selective attention does not challenge the theoretical and empirical basis of ABM. The present paper seeks to put these ABM failures in perspective within the broader context of attentional bias modification research. In doing so it is apparent that the current findings and future prospects of ABM are in fact very promising, suggesting that more research in this area is warranted, not less.

  6. Associations between work stress, alcohol consumption and sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasse, R M; Nijhuis, F J; Kok, G

    1998-02-01

    To test an interactional model on the associations between work stressors, perceived stress, alcohol consumption and sickness absence. Cross-sectional survey. The study was part of a Worksite Health Project including an Employee Assistance Programme and a Health Promotion Programme in the Netherlands. Participants were blue-collar workers from two Municipal Garbage Collecting Departments and white-collar workers from a Pharmaceutical Company (N = 471). Measurements included socio-demographic characteristics (gender, age, education, marital status), work stressors, perceived stress, alcohol consumption and sickness absence. Type of work-site (blue- or white-collar) and smoking behaviour were used as covariates. Regression analyses resulted in three major findings. First, in the presence of stress, abstinence increased the risk of sickness absence compared with moderate drinking. We failed to find a significant relationship between excessive drinking and sickness absence. Secondly, stress mediated the associations between stressor and alcohol consumption, and between stressor and sickness absence, although stressors also directly predicted sickness absence. The association between abstinence and sickness absence could reflect medical problems of abstainers or a lack of skills for coping with stress. The failure to find a significant detrimental effect of excessive drinking may have been due to use of a low threshold for excessive drinking and/or low power. Prospective studies are needed to gain insight in causal relationships between the variables concerned.

  7. An exploration of anomia as origin of work absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoghbi-Manrique-de-Lara, Pablo; Sánchez-Medina, Agustín J

    2015-01-01

    Although it also portrays a loss of function in psychology, in this context the term anomia (from the Greek, an-: absence, and -nomos: law) is used to describe a sociological phenomenon that can lead individuals to misbehave due to feelings of valuelessness and cynicism resulting from a lack of integration in social life (Srole, 1956). Previous research has neglected anomia as part of the origin of employee work absence. This study tests the association between anomia and absence - operationalized as propensity to abusive absence due to illness. A large variety of job attitudes grouped in terms of organizational climate are controlled for. Data were collected from 84 of the 198 (42.4%) employees of a provincial Spanish Social Security Service. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test the associations. With the climate factors controlled for by entering them together with anomia in a SEM model as causes of absence, the results show a significant relationship between anomia and absence. The findings explain the origin of absence at work and management strategies. The very nature of anomia suggests that strategies can be designed to provide employees with an organizational `micro-cosmos' that promotes support, predictability, and bonds of trust to create an effective bulwark against absenteeism.

  8. Attitudes towards sickness absence and sickness presenteeism in health and care sectors in Norway and Denmark: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krane, Line; Larsen, Eva Ladekjær; Nielsen, Claus Vinther; Stapelfeldt, Christina Malmose; Johnsen, Roar; Risør, Mette Bech

    2014-08-27

    In the health and care sector, sickness absence and sickness presenteeism are frequent phenomena and constitute a field in need of exploration. Attitudes towards sickness absence involve also attitudes towards sickness presenteeism, i.e. going to work while sick, confirmed by previous studies. Sickness behavior, reflecting attitudes on work absence, could differ between countries and influence absence rates. But little is known about attitudes towards sickness absence and sickness presenteeism in the health and care sectors in Norway and Denmark. The aim of the present paper is therefore to explore attitudes towards sickness absence and sickness presenteeism among nursing home employees in both countries. Eight focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted using a semi-structured interview guide, the main attention of which was attitudes towards sickness absence and sickness presenteeism. FGDs were conducted in two nursing homes in Norway and two in Denmark, with different geographic locations: one in a rural area and one in an urban area in each country. FGDs were recorded, transcribed and analyzed using framework analysis to identify major themes and explanatory patterns. Four major significant themes were identified from the FGDs: a) sickness absence and sickness presenteeism, b) acceptable causes of sickness absence, c) job identity, and d) organization of work and physical aspects of the workplace. Our analyses showed that social commitment and loyalty to residents and colleagues was important for sickness absence and sickness presenteeism, as were perceived acceptable and non-acceptable reasons for sickness absence. Organization of work and physical aspects of the workplace were also found to have an influence on attitudes towards sickness absence. The general interpretation of the findings was that attitudes towards sickness absence and sickness presenteeism among nursing home employees were embedded in situational patterns of moral relationships and were

  9. Socioeconomic status and duration and pattern of sickness absence. A 1-year follow-up study of 2331 hospital employees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Trine Rønde; Jensen, Signe Marie; Kreiner, Svend

    2010-01-01

    prospective cohort study of 2331 hospital employees. Baseline information include job title, work unit, perceived general health, work factors and personal factors recorded from hospital administrative files or by questionnaire (response rate 84%). Sickness absence during follow-up was divided into short (1...... differences in sickness absence among occupational groups in a large general hospital; how they depend on combinations of frequency and duration of sickness absence spells; and if they could be explained by self-reported general health, personal factors and work factors. Methods The design is a 1-year...... doctors to cleaners/porters). Effects of occupational group on sickness absence were adjusted for significant effects of age, gender, general health, personal factors and work factors. We used Poisson or logistic regression analysis to estimate the effects of model covariates (rate ratios (RR) or odds...

  10. Sociodemographic Differences Between Alcohol Use and Sickness Absence: Pooled Analysis of Four Cohort Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ervasti, Jenni; Kivimäki, Mika; Head, Jenny; Goldberg, Marcel; Airagnes, Guillaume; Pentti, Jaana; Oksanen, Tuula; Salo, Paula; Suominen, Sakari; Jokela, Markus; Vahtera, Jussi; Zins, Marie; Virtanen, Marianna

    2018-01-01

    We examined differences in sickness absence in relation to at-risk drinking and abstinence, taking into account potential changes in consumption. We used individual-participant data (n = 46,514) from four prospective cohort studies from Finland, France and the UK. Participants responded to a survey on alcohol use at two time points 4-6 years apart, and were linked to records of sickness absence for an ~6-year follow-up after the latter survey. Abstainers were those reporting no alcohol use in either survey. At-risk drinkers at T1 were labelled as 'former', at-risk drinkers at T2 as 'current' and at-risk drinkers at both times as 'consistent' at-risk drinkers. The reference group was low-risk drinkers at both times. Study-specific analyses were stratified by sex and socioeconomic status (SES) and the estimates were pooled using meta-analysis. Among men (n = 17,285), abstainers (6%), former (5%), current (5%) and consistent (7%) at-risk drinkers had an increased risk of sickness absence compared with consistent low-risk drinkers (77%). Among women (n = 29,229), only abstainers (12%) had a higher risk of sickness absence compared to consistent low-risk drinkers (74%). After adjustment for lifestyle and health, abstaining from alcohol was associated with sickness absence among people with intermediate and high SES, but not among people with low SES. The U-shaped alcohol use-sickness absence association is more consistent in men than women. Abstinence is a risk factor for sickness absence among people with higher rather than lower SES. Healthy worker effect and health selection may partly explain the observed differences. In a pooled analysis from four cohort studies from three European countries, we demonstrated a U-shaped association between alcohol use and sickness absence, particularly among men. Abstinence from alcohol was associated with increased sickness absenteeism among both sexes and across socioeconomic strata, except those with low SES. © The Author 2017

  11. A Kink that Makes you Sick: the Effect of Sick Pay on Absence in a Social Insurance System

    OpenAIRE

    Petri Bockerman; Ohto Kanninen; Ilpo Suoniemi

    2014-01-01

    We examine the effect of the replacement rule of a social insurance system on sickness absence. The elasticity of absence with respect to the benefit level is a critical parameter in defining the optimal sickness insurance scheme. A pre-determined, piecewise linear policy rule in which the replacement rate is determined by past earnings allows identification of the causal effect using a regression kink design. Using a large administrative dataset, we find a substantial and robust behavioral r...

  12. Attention impairment in childhood absence epilepsy : An impulsivity problem?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cerminara, Caterina; D'Agati, Elisa; Casarelli, Livia; Kaunzinger, Ivo; Lange, Klaus W.; Pitzianti, Mariabernarda; Parisi, Pasquale; Tucha, Oliver; Curatolo, Paolo

    Although attention problems have often been described in children with childhood absence epilepsy (CAE), the use of different methodological approaches, neuropsychological tests, and heterogeneous experimental groups has prevented identification of the selective areas of attention deficit in this

  13. The Relationship Between Father-Absence and Encopresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaengold, Marilyn

    1977-01-01

    A review of the literature on encopresis shows strong emphasis on father-absence as a dominant factor. Other characteristics of patients and their families are listed, and theoretical considerations discussed. (MS)

  14. Computed tomography hepatic arteriography has a hepatic falciform artery detection rate that is much higher than that of digital subtraction angiography and 99mTc-MAA SPECT/CT: Implications for planning 90Y radioembolization?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgmans, M.C., E-mail: mburgmans@hotmail.com [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Singapore General Hospital, Outram Road, Singapore 169608 (Singapore); Too, C.W., E-mail: too.chow.wei@singhealth.com.sg [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Singapore General Hospital, Outram Road, Singapore 169608 (Singapore); Kao, Y.H., E-mail: yung.h.kao@gmail.com [Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET, Singapore General Hospital, Outram Road, Singapore 169608 (Singapore); Goh, A.S.W., E-mail: anthony.goh.s.w@sgh.com.sg [Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET, Singapore General Hospital, Outram Road, Singapore 169608 (Singapore); Chow, P.K.H., E-mail: gsupc@singnet.com.sg [Department of General Surgery, Singapore General Hospital, Outram Road, Singapore 169608 (Singapore); Office of Clinical Sciences, Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School Singapore, 8 College Road, Singapore 169857 (Singapore); Department of Surgical Oncology, National Cancer Center Singapore, 11 Hospital Drive, Singapore 169610 (Singapore); Tan, B.S., E-mail: tan.bien.soo@sgh.com.sg [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Singapore General Hospital, Outram Road, Singapore 169608 (Singapore); Tay, K.H., E-mail: tay.kiang.hiong@sgh.com.sg [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Singapore General Hospital, Outram Road, Singapore 169608 (Singapore); Lo, R.H.G., E-mail: richard.lo.h.g@sgh.com.sg [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Singapore General Hospital, Outram Road, Singapore 169608 (Singapore)

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: To compare the hepatic falciform artery (HFA) detection rates of digital subtraction angiography (DSA), computed tomography hepatic arteriography (CTHA) and 99mTc-macroaggregated albumin (99mTc-MAA) single photon emission computed tomography with integrated CT (SPECT/CT) and to correlate HFA patency with complication rates of yttrium-90 (90Y) radioembolization. Material and methods: From August 2008 to November 2010, 79 patients (range 23–83 years, mean 62.3 years; 67 male) underwent pre-treatment DSA, CTHA and 99mTc-MAA scintigraphy (planar/SPECT/CT) to assess suitability for radioembolization with 90Y resin microspheres. Thirty-seven patients were excluded from the study, because CTHA was performed with a catheter position that did not result in opacification of the liver parenchyma adjacent to the falciform ligament. DSA, CTHA and 99mTc-MAA SPECT/CT images and medical records were retrospectively reviewed. Results: A patent HFA was detected in 22 of 42 patients (52.3%). The HFA detection rates of DSA, CTHA and 99mTc-MAA SPECT/CT were 11.9%, 52.3% and 13.3%, respectively (p < 0.0001). An origin from the segment 4 artery was seen in 51.7% of HFAs. Prophylactic HFA coil-embolization prior to 90Y microspheres infusion was performed in 2 patients. Of the patients who underwent radioembolization with a patent HFA, none developed supra-umbilical radiation dermatitis. One patient experienced epigastric pain attributed to post-embolization syndrome and was managed conservatively. Conclusion: The HFA detection rate of CTHA is superior to that of DSA and 99mTc-MAA SPECT/CT. Complications related to non-target radiation of the HFA vascular territory rarely occur, even in patients undergoing radioembolization with a patent HFA.

  15. Endometrial scratching in women with implantation failure after a first IVF/ICSI cycle; does it lead to a higher live birth rate? The SCRaTCH study: A randomized controlled trial (NTR 5342)

    OpenAIRE

    van Hoogenhuijze, N. E.; Torrance, H. L.; Mol, F.; Laven, J. S. E.; Scheenjes, E.; Traas, M. A. F.; Janssen, C.; Cohlen, B.; Teklenburg, G.; de Bruin, J. P.; van Oppenraaij, R.; Maas, J. W. M.; Moll, E.; Fleischer, K.; van Hooff, M. H.

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Success rates of assisted reproductive techniques (ART) are approximately 30%, with the most important limiting factor being embryo implantation. Mechanical endometrial injury, also called 'scratching', has been proposed to positively affect the chance of implantation after embryo transfer, but the currently available evidence is not yet conclusive. The primary aim of this study is to determine the effect of endometrial scratching prior to a second fresh in vitro ferti...

  16. Computed tomography hepatic arteriography has a hepatic falciform artery detection rate that is much higher than that of digital subtraction angiography and 99mTc-MAA SPECT/CT: Implications for planning 90Y radioembolization?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgmans, M.C.; Too, C.W.; Kao, Y.H.; Goh, A.S.W.; Chow, P.K.H.; Tan, B.S.; Tay, K.H.; Lo, R.H.G.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the hepatic falciform artery (HFA) detection rates of digital subtraction angiography (DSA), computed tomography hepatic arteriography (CTHA) and 99mTc-macroaggregated albumin (99mTc-MAA) single photon emission computed tomography with integrated CT (SPECT/CT) and to correlate HFA patency with complication rates of yttrium-90 (90Y) radioembolization. Material and methods: From August 2008 to November 2010, 79 patients (range 23–83 years, mean 62.3 years; 67 male) underwent pre-treatment DSA, CTHA and 99mTc-MAA scintigraphy (planar/SPECT/CT) to assess suitability for radioembolization with 90Y resin microspheres. Thirty-seven patients were excluded from the study, because CTHA was performed with a catheter position that did not result in opacification of the liver parenchyma adjacent to the falciform ligament. DSA, CTHA and 99mTc-MAA SPECT/CT images and medical records were retrospectively reviewed. Results: A patent HFA was detected in 22 of 42 patients (52.3%). The HFA detection rates of DSA, CTHA and 99mTc-MAA SPECT/CT were 11.9%, 52.3% and 13.3%, respectively (p < 0.0001). An origin from the segment 4 artery was seen in 51.7% of HFAs. Prophylactic HFA coil-embolization prior to 90Y microspheres infusion was performed in 2 patients. Of the patients who underwent radioembolization with a patent HFA, none developed supra-umbilical radiation dermatitis. One patient experienced epigastric pain attributed to post-embolization syndrome and was managed conservatively. Conclusion: The HFA detection rate of CTHA is superior to that of DSA and 99mTc-MAA SPECT/CT. Complications related to non-target radiation of the HFA vascular territory rarely occur, even in patients undergoing radioembolization with a patent HFA.

  17. Refractory absence epilepsy associated with GLUT-1 deficiency syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Byrne, Susan

    2011-05-01

    GLUT-1 deficiency syndrome (GLUT-1 DS) is a disorder of cerebral glucose transport associated with early infantile epilepsy and microcephaly. We report two boys who presented with refractory absence epilepsy associated with hypoglycorrhachia, both of whom have genetically confirmed GLUT-1 DS. We propose that these children serve to expand the phenotype of GLUT-1 DS and suggest that this condition should be considered as a cause of refractory absence seizures in childhood.

  18. Focus Group Study Exploring Factors Related to Frequent Sickness Absence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Notenbomer

    Full Text Available Research investigating frequent sickness absence (3 or more episodes per year is scarce and qualitative research from the perspective of frequent absentees themselves is lacking. The aim of the current study is to explore awareness, determinants of and solutions to frequent sickness absence from the perspective of frequent absentees themselves.We performed a qualitative study of 3 focus group discussions involving a total of 15 frequent absentees. Focus group discussions were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Results were analyzed with the Graneheim method using the Job Demands Resources (JD-R model as theoretical framework.Many participants were not aware of their frequent sickness absence and the risk of future long-term sickness absence. As determinants, participants mentioned job demands, job resources, home demands, poor health, chronic illness, unhealthy lifestyles, and diminished feeling of responsibility to attend work in cases of low job resources. Managing these factors and improving communication (skills were regarded as solutions to reduce frequent sickness absence.The JD-R model provided a framework for determinants of and solutions to frequent sickness absence. Additional determinants were poor health, chronic illness, unhealthy lifestyles, and diminished feeling of responsibility to attend work in cases of low job resources. Frequent sickness absence should be regarded as a signal that something is wrong. Managers, supervisors, and occupational health care providers should advise and support frequent absentees to accommodate job demands, increase both job and personal resources, and improve health rather than express disapproval of frequent sickness absence and apply pressure regarding work attendance.

  19. Systematic review of active workplace interventions to reduce sickness absence

    OpenAIRE

    Odeen, Magnus; Magnussen, Liv Heide; Mæland, Silje; Larun, Lillebeth; Eriksen, Hege Randi; Tveito, Torill Helene

    2013-01-01

    Background: The workplace is used as a setting for interventions to prevent and reduce sickness absence, regardless of the specific medical conditions and diagnoses. Aims: To give an overview of the general effectiveness of active workplace interventions aimed at preventing and reducing sickness absence. Methods: We systematically searched PubMed, Embase, Psych-info, and ISI web of knowledge on 27 December 2011. Inclusion criteria were (i) participants over 18 years old with ...

  20. Congenital unilateral absence of the pulmonary artery in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Garcia, Mauricio; Escalante Mora, Hector A; Lozano Castillo, Alfonso J

    2000-01-01

    Unilateral absence of a pulmonary artery is a rare anomaly. It occurs with pulmonary ipsilateral hypoplasia and it's frequently associated with other cardiovascular malformations. The majority of the cases are diagnosed in childhood. This is a case report of two adult patients of the Hospital Central de la Policia Nacional in Bogota, Colombia, with unilateral absence of the pulmonary artery one isolated and the other with patent ductus arteriosus. We describe the clinical and roentgenographic findings of this congenital anomaly

  1. The mental health effects of multiple work and family demands. A prospective study of psychiatric sickness absence in the French GAZEL study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchior, Maria; Berkman, Lisa F; Niedhammer, Isabelle; Zins, Marie; Goldberg, Marcel

    2007-07-01

    Individuals who experience work stress or heavy family demands are at elevated risk of poor mental health. Yet, the cumulative effects of multiple work and family demands are not well known, particularly in men. We studied the association between multiple work and family demands and sickness absence due to non-psychotic psychiatric disorders in a longitudinal study conducted among members of the French GAZEL cohort study (8,869 men, 2,671 women) over a period of 9 years (1995-2003). Work stress and family demands were measured by questionnaire. Medically certified psychiatric sickness absence data were obtained directly from the employer. Rate ratios (RRs) of sickness absence were calculated using Poisson regression models, adjusting for age, marital status, social support, stressful life events, alcohol consumption, body mass and depressive symptoms at baseline. Participants simultaneously exposed to high levels of work and family demands (> or =2 work stress factors and > or =4 dependents) had significantly higher rates of sickness absence due to non-psychotic psychiatric disorders than participants with lower levels of demands (compared to participants exposed to 0-1 work stress factors and with 1-3 dependents, age-adjusted rate ratios were 2.37 (95% CI 1.02-5.52) in men and 6.36 (95% CI 3.38-11.94) in women. After adjusting for baseline socio-demographic, behavioral and health characteristics, these RRs were respectively reduced to 1.82 (95% CI 0.86-3.87) in men, 5.04 (95% CI 2.84-8.90) in women. The effect of multiple work and family demands was strongest for sickness absence due to depression: age-adjusted RRs among participants with the highest level of work and family demands were 4.70 (1.96-11.24) in men, 8.57 (4.26-17.22) in women; fully adjusted RRs: 3.55 (95% CI 1.62-7.77) in men, 6.58 (95%CI 3.46-12.50) in women. Men and women simultaneously exposed to high levels of work stress and family demands are at high risk of experiencing mental health problems

  2. The joint effects of promotion and prevention focus on performance, exhaustion and sickness absence among managers and non-managers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petrou, Paraskevas; Van den Heuvel, Machteld; Schaufeli, Wilmar

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the main and interaction effects of self-rated promotion and prevention regulatory focus on self-rated work performance, emotional exhaustion and sickness absence for managers and non-managers separately. The authors expected that promotion focus

  3. Suppression of the invasive plant mile-a-minute (Mikania micrantha) by local crop sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) by means of higher growth rate and competition for soil nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Shicai; Xu, Gaofeng; Clements, David Roy; Jin, Guimei; Chen, Aidong; Zhang, Fudou; Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi

    2015-01-28

    There are a variety of ways of increasing crop diversity to increase agricultural sustainability and in turn having a positive influence on nearby natural ecosystems. Competitive crops may provide potent management tools against invasive plants. To elucidate the competitive mechanisms between a sweet potato crop (Ipomoea batatas) and an invasive plant, mile-a-minute (Mikania micrantha), field experiments were carried out in Longchuan County of Yunnan Province, Southwest China, utilizing a de Wit replacement series. The trial incorporated seven ratios of sweet potato and mile-a-minute plants in 25 m(2) plots. In monoculture, the total biomass, biomass of adventitious root, leafstalk length, and leaf area of sweet potato were all higher than those of mile-a-minute, and in mixed culture the plant height, branch, leaf, stem node, adventitious root, flowering and biomass of mile-a-minute were suppressed significantly (P competition was less than interspecific competition. The competitive balance index of sweet potato demonstrated a higher competitive ability than mile-a-minute. Except pH, other soil nutrient contents of initial soil (CK) were significantly higher than those of seven treatments. The concentrations of soil organic matter, total N, total K, available N, available P, available K, exchange Ca, exchange Mg, available Mn, and available B were significantly greater (P competition of sweet potato in the mixture. Evidently sweet potato has a competitive advantage in terms of plant growth characteristics and greater absorption of soil nutrients. Thus, planting sweet potato is a promising technique for reducing infestations of mile-a-minute, providing weed management benefits and economic returns from harvest of sweet potatoes. This study also shows the potential value of replacement control methods which may apply to other crop-weed systems or invaded natural ecosystems.

  4. Emotional Dissonance, Mental Health Complaints, and Sickness Absence Among Health- and Social Workers. The Moderating Role of Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indregard, Anne-Marthe R.; Knardahl, Stein; Nielsen, Morten B.

    2018-01-01

    Health- and social workers are frequently exposed to emotionally demanding work situations that require emotion regulation. Studies have demonstrated a direct relationship between emotion regulation and health complaints and sickness absence. In order to prevent health complaints and to reduce sickness absence among health- and social workers, there is need for greater attention to mechanisms explaining when and how emotionally demanding work situations are related to employee health and sickness absence. The overarching aim of this study was therefore to examine the moderating role of generalized self-efficacy on the association between emotional dissonance, employee health (mental distress and exhaustion), and registry based sickness absence. The sample consisted of 937 health- and social workers. Data on emotional dissonance, generalized self-efficacy, exhaustion, and mental distress was collected through questionnaires, whereas official registry data were used to assess sickness absence. A two-step hierarchical regression analysis showed that emotional dissonance was significantly associated with exhaustion, mental distress, and sickness absence, after adjusting for sex, age, and occupation. Interaction analyses with simple slope tests found that self-efficacy moderated the association between emotional dissonance and both exhaustion and mental distress, but not the association with sickness absence. This study shows that health- and social workers who frequently experience emotional dissonance report higher levels of exhaustion and mental distress, and have a higher risk of medically certified sickness absence. Further, health- and social workers with lower self-efficacy beliefs are apparently more sensitive to the degree of emotional dissonance and experienced higher levels of exhaustion and mental distress. PMID:29740375

  5. Emotional Dissonance, Mental Health Complaints, and Sickness Absence Among Health- and Social Workers. The Moderating Role of Self-Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indregard, Anne-Marthe R; Knardahl, Stein; Nielsen, Morten B

    2018-01-01

    Health- and social workers are frequently exposed to emotionally demanding work situations that require emotion regulation. Studies have demonstrated a direct relationship between emotion regulation and health complaints and sickness absence. In order to prevent health complaints and to reduce sickness absence among health- and social workers, there is need for greater attention to mechanisms explaining when and how emotionally demanding work situations are related to employee health and sickness absence. The overarching aim of this study was therefore to examine the moderating role of generalized self-efficacy on the association between emotional dissonance, employee health (mental distress and exhaustion), and registry based sickness absence. The sample consisted of 937 health- and social workers. Data on emotional dissonance, generalized self-efficacy, exhaustion, and mental distress was collected through questionnaires, whereas official registry data were used to assess sickness absence. A two-step hierarchical regression analysis showed that emotional dissonance was significantly associated with exhaustion, mental distress, and sickness absence, after adjusting for sex, age, and occupation. Interaction analyses with simple slope tests found that self-efficacy moderated the association between emotional dissonance and both exhaustion and mental distress, but not the association with sickness absence. This study shows that health- and social workers who frequently experience emotional dissonance report higher levels of exhaustion and mental distress, and have a higher risk of medically certified sickness absence. Further, health- and social workers with lower self-efficacy beliefs are apparently more sensitive to the degree of emotional dissonance and experienced higher levels of exhaustion and mental distress.

  6. Sickness absence in the private sector of Greece: comparing shipyard industry and national insurance data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexopoulos, Evangelos C; Merekoulias, Georgios; Tanagra, Dimitra; Konstantinou, Eleni C; Mikelatou, Efi; Jelastopulu, Eleni

    2012-04-01

    Approximately 3% of employees are absent from work due to illness daily in Europe, while in some countries sickness absence exceeds 20 days per year. Based on a limited body of reliable studies, Greek employees in the private sector seem to be absent far less frequently (industrialized world. The aim of this study was to estimate the levels of sickness absence in the private sector in Greece, using shipyard and national insurance data. Detailed data on absenteeism of employees in a large shipyard company during the period 1999-2006 were utilized. National data on compensated days due to sickness absence concerning all employees (around 2 million) insured by the Social Insurance Institute (IKA, the largest insurance scheme in Greece) were retrieved from the Institute's annual statistical reports for the period 1987-2006. Sick-leave days per employee and sick-leave rate (%) were calculated, among other indicators. In the shipyard cohort, the employment time loss due to sick leave was 1%. The mean number of sick-leave days per employee in shipyards ranged between 4.6 and 8.7 and sick-leave rate (sickness absenteeism rate) varied among 2% and 3.7%. The corresponding indicators for IKA were estimated between 5 and 6.3 sick-leave days per insured employee (median 5.8), and 2.14-2.72% (median 2.49%), respectively. Short sick-leave spells (industrialized world. In the 20-years national data, the results also showed a 7-year wave in sickness absence indexes (a decrease during the period 1991-1997 and an increase in 1998-2004) combined with a small yet significant decline as a general trend. These observations deserve detailed monitoring and could only partly be attributed to the compensation and unemployment rates in Greece so other possible reasons should be explored.

  7. Do work-place initiated measures reduce sickness absence? Preventive measures and sickness absence among older workers in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midtsundstad, Tove I; Nielsen, Roy A

    2014-03-01

    The article examines whether preventive measures and work adjustments at the establishment level affects sickness absence among workers aged 50 years and older. We combine survey data from a representative sample of 713 Norwegian companies, mapping the prevalence of preventive health measures in the work place in 2005, with register data on sickness absence and demographic variables for workers aged 50 years or older in 2001 and 2007. By means of a difference-in-differences approach, we compare changes and differences in the likelihood of sickness absence among the sample group, with and without the various measures/ instruments in 2005 respectively. In general, work-place preventive measures at the establishment level have not contributed to reducing the probability for sickness absence among workers aged 50 years and older. However, analyses comparing differences between industries find that the work-place measures have had a positive effect on public administration employees. Whether work-place preventive initiatives influence levels of sickness absence seems to be contingent on sector and industry. Therefore, work-place measures may be more effective in the public administration sector where most employees have office jobs compared to sectors such as manufacturing, construction and transportation, where many employees have manual work and more physical demanding jobs. Work-place initiatives thus seem to have less effect on preventing sickness absence in sectors dominated by manual labour.

  8. The Infection Rate of Metal-on-Metal Total Hip Replacement Is Higher When Compared to Other Bearing Surfaces as Documented by the Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Phil; Lyons, Matt; O'Sullivan, Michael

    2018-02-01

    Despite the well-documented decline in the use of metal-on-metal (MoM) implants over the last decade, there are still controversies regarding whether all MoM implants are created equally. Complications such as elevated serum metal ion levels, aseptic lymphocyte-dominated vasculitis-associated lesion (ALVAL) and pseudotumours have all been well documented, but recent studies suggest increased risk of infection with MoM bearing surfaces. Most of these studies however have small patient numbers. The purpose of this study was to examine the cumulative incidence of revision for infection of MoM bearing surfaces in primary hip arthroplasty at a national and single-surgeon level. Data was collected from the Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry, which contains over 98% of all arthroplasties performed in Australia since 2001. The cumulative incidence of revision for infection was extracted at a national level and single-surgeon level. Two hundred seventy-six thousand eight hundred seventy-eight subjects were documented in the Australian registry. The 10-year cumulative percent revision for infection of MoM bearing surfaces in primary total hip replacement (THR) was 2.5% at a national level, compared to 0.8% for other bearing surfaces. The senior author contributed 1755 subjects with 7-year follow-up and a cumulative percent revision for infection of MoM bearing surfaces in primary THR of 36.9%, compared to 2.0% for other bearing surfaces. The cumulative percent of revision of MoM bearing surfaces is higher compared to other bearing surfaces; this is especially pronounced in cumulative percent of revision for infection. There was a higher cumulative percent of revision for infection in MoM bearings surfaces (in particular, large-head MoM) compared to other bearing surfaces at both the national and individual-surgeon level.

  9. Adrenocortical regulation, eating in the absence of hunger and BMI in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, L A; Granger, D A; Susman, E J

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine relations among adrenocortical regulation, eating in the absence of hunger, and body mass index (BMI) in children ages 5-9years (N=43). Saliva was collected before and after the Trier Social Stress Test for Children (TSST-C), and was later assayed for cortisol. Area under the curve with respect to increase (AUCi) was used as a measure of changes in cortisol release from baseline to 60min post-TSST-C. Age- and sex-specific BMI scores were calculated from measured height and weight, and eating in the absence of hunger was assessed using weighed food intake during a behavioral procedure. We also included a measure of parents' report of child impulsivity, as well as family demographic information. Participants were stratified by age into younger (5-7years) and older (8-9years) groups. In younger children, parents' reports of child impulsivity were significantly and positively associated with BMI; cortisol AUCi was not associated with BMI or eating in the absence of hunger. In older children, however, greater stress-related cortisol AUCi was related to higher BMI scores and greater energy intake in the absence of hunger. The results suggest that cortisol AUCi in response to psychosocial stress may be linked to problems with energy balance in children, with some variation by age. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Unexplained Absences and Risk of Death and Injury Among Nursing Home Residents: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolford, Marta H; Weller, Carolina; Ibrahim, Joseph E

    2017-04-01

    Unexplained absence of nursing home (NH) residents is one of the most challenging issues related to the care of older people. The aim of this review was to examine the death and injury outcomes of unexplained absence of NH residents. We searched MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, PsycINFO, AgeLine, and Cochrane Library to identify qualitative and quantitative studies published in the English language. Data on death and injury were collated, and aggregate proportions were calculated where possible. Nine studies were identified; most (n = 6) were conducted in the United States. Persons with dementia formed the study population in all studies. There were 1440 individual unexplained absences reported across the 9 studies. We calculated a rate of 82 deaths and 61 injuries per 1000 incidents of unexplained absence. Extreme temperatures were the most common cause of death. Most individuals left by foot, and were found within a 1-mile radius of place last seen in green vegetation and waterways. This review provides valuable insight into death and injury outcomes. Further studies are recommended to improve understanding and prevent adverse outcomes. Copyright © 2017 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The prevalence of implementation of mental health measures in companies and its association with sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pas, L Willemijn; Boot, Cécile R L; van der Beek, Allard J; Proper, Karin I

    2016-03-01

    The main objective was to determine the prevalence of implementation of mental health measures aimed at the prevention of high workload (workload measures) and the promotion of work engagement (engagement measures) in companies and sectors. Additionally, its associations with sickness absence was explored. Cross-sectional survey. An internet-based survey among 12,894 company representatives in the Netherlands. Descriptive analyses were performed to determine the prevalence, and differences between sectors were tested using Chi-squared tests. ANOVA was performed to examine the association between companies with or without mental health measures and sickness absence rates. 32.8% and 21.7% of the companies reported to have implemented 'continuously or often' workload measures and engagement measures, respectively. The sectors 'health care and welfare' and 'education' reported to have implemented measures most often. Having implemented engagement measures was significantly associated with lower sickness absence (4.1% vs 4.5%). Overall, workload measures were more often implemented than engagement measures. Future research is recommended to determine reasons for implementation as well as causality in the association between mental health measures and sickness absence. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Tuberculosis alters pancreatic enzymes in the absence of pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modisa S. Motswaledi

    2014-10-01

    Objective: To compare serum lipase and amylase activity levels in patients with tuberculosis (TB against those of healthy controls. Methods: Serum lipase and amylase activity levels were measured in 99 patients and 143 healthy controls using the Vitros 250 Chemistry analyser. Reference ranges for serum lipase and amylase were 23–300 U/L and 30–110 U/L, respectively. Results: Lipase was higher in patients with MTB than in controls (81.5 IU/L versus 66.5 IU/L, p = 0.006. Similarly, amylase was higher in the MTB patient group (76 IU/L versus 60 IU/L, p < 0.001. The Pearson correlation coefficient for lipase versus amylase (R was higher in the controls (R = 0.351, p < 0.0001 compared with MTB patients (R = 0.217, p = 0.035. Amongst MTB patients, lipase activity correlated positively with erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR (R = 0.263, p = 0.013, but not with haemoglobin concentration or treatment duration. A weak inverse correlation was noted between ESR and treatment duration (R = -0.222, p = 0.028. Conclusion: Pancreatic enzyme levels differ between MTB patients and normal controls; however, this difference still lies within the normal range. The concomitant increase of lipase with ESR, an inflammatory marker, could conceivably suggest a causal relationship. Further research is necessary to characterise MTB-derived enzymes for diagnostic and therapeutic utility.

  13. A one-item workability measure mediates work demands, individual resources and health in the prediction of sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Sannie Vester; Burr, Hermann; Diderichsen, Finn

    2012-01-01

    absence. We also estimated the relative importance of health and work environment for workability and sickness absence. METHODS: Baseline data were collected within a Danish work and health survey (3,214 men and 3,529 women) and followed up in a register of sickness absence. Probit regression analysis...... with workability as mediator was performed for a binary outcome of sickness absence. The predictors in the analysis were as follows: age, social class, physical health, mental health, number of diagnoses, ergonomic exposures, occupational noise, exposure to risks, social support from supervisor, job control......; physical work environment was higher associated with the outcomes than psychosocial work environment. However, the explanatory value of the predictors for the variance in the model was low....

  14. Interictal cardiorespiratory variability in temporal lobe and absence epilepsy in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varon, Carolina; Montalto, Alessandro; Jansen, Katrien; Lagae, Lieven; Marinazzo, Daniele; Faes, Luca; Van Huffel, Sabine

    2015-04-01

    It is well known that epilepsy has a profound effect on the autonomic nervous system, especially on the autonomic control of heart rate and respiration. This effect has been widely studied during seizure activity, but less attention has been given to interictal (i.e. seizure-free) activity. The studies that have been done on this topic, showed that heart rate and respiration can be affected individually, even without the occurrence of seizures. In this work, the interactions between these two individual physiological variables are analysed during interictal activity in temporal lobe and absence epilepsy in childhood. These interactions are assessed by decomposing the predictive information about heart rate variability, into different components like the transfer entropy, cross-entropy, self- entropy and the conditional self entropy. Each one of these components quantifies different types of shared information. However, when using the cross-entropy and the conditional self entropy, it is possible to split the information carried by the heart rate, into two main components, one related to respiration and one related to different mechanisms, like sympathetic activation. This can be done after assuming a directional link going from respiration to heart rate. After analysing all the entropy components, it is shown that in subjects with absence epilepsy the information shared by respiration and heart rate is significantly lower than for normal subjects. And a more remarkable finding indicates that this type of epilepsy seems to have a long term effect on the cardiac and respiratory control mechanisms of the autonomic nervous system.

  15. The contribution of gender-role orientation, work factors and home stressors to psychological well-being and sickness absence in male- and female-dominated occupational groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Olga; Steptoe, Andrew

    2002-02-01

    The associations of work stress, types of work and gender-role orientation with psychological well-being and sickness absence were investigated in a questionnaire survey of 588 male and female nurses and 387 male and female accountants. We hypothesised that health might be impaired among women working in the male-dominated occupation (accountancy), and men in the female-dominated occupation (nursing), but that effects might be moderated by job strain (perceptions of high demand and low control), work and home hassles, and traditional male (instrumentality) and female (expressivity) psychological characteristics. Responses were analysed from 172 female and 61 male nurses, and from 53 female and 81 male commercial accountants. Female accountants were more likely than other groups to have high anxiety scores on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales, while male nurses had the highest rates of sickness absence. Male nurses and female accountants also reported more work-related hassles than did female nurses and male accountants. Men and women in the same occupation did not differ in job strain or job social support, but nurses reported greater job strain than accountants, due to higher ratings of demands and lower skill utilisation. After adjusting for age, sex, occupation, paid work hours and a measure of social desirability bias, risk of elevated anxiety was independently associated with higher job strain, lower job social support, more work hassles, more domestic responsibility, lower instrumentality and higher expressivity. The association between sex and anxiety was no longer significant after instrumentality had been entered into the regression model. Sickness absence of more than three days over the past 12 months was independently associated with higher job strain, more work hassles, lower instrumentality and higher expressivity. The results suggest that when men and women occupy jobs in which they are in the cultural and numerical minority, there may be

  16. [Healthier after Psychotherapy? Analysis of Claims Data (Lower Saxony, Germany) on Sickness Absence Duration before and after Outpatient Psychotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epping, Jelena; de Zwaan, Martina; Geyer, Siegfried

    2017-11-17

    Introduction In employed populations sickness absence can be used as a good indicator of health status. In the present study, it was examined how periods of sickness absence are developing within one year before and after psychotherapy under comparison of three types of psychotherapy (behavior therapy, psychodynamic psychotherapy, and psychoanalysis), all fully covered by statutory health insurance. Methods and data The analyses were performed with pseudonymized claims data from the AOK Niedersachsen, a statutory health insurance (N=2,900,065 insured). Certified sickness absences before and after psychotherapy were examined for 9,916 patients. Parallelized controls were used to build a comparison of the length of sickness absences. Analyses were performed separately for women and for men. Results Within one year before starting psychotherapy, patients had longer sickness absences than controls on average. There was a reduction in the length of sickness absence of 20 days (median) within one year before to 12 days (median) within one year after the psychotherapy. The obtained differences between types of psychotherapy were considerable. Discussion Differences in terms of sickness absences may in part be explained by socio-demographic differences. Patients who underwent psychoanalysis were younger and had higher educational levels. However, it remains unclear why the differences of sickness absence periods were that high. It has to be discussed whether self-selection of patients with better health into psychoanalysis had occurred. Conclusions Patients undergoing psychoanalysis differ from patients who underwent other types of psychotherapy in terms of their duration of sickness absence as well as socio-demographic profile. Thus, due to differences in the composition of patients future research in psychotherapy will have to differentiate by type of psychotherapy. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Multidimensional intervention and sickness absence in assistant nursing students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Annemarie Lyng; Strøyer, Jesper; Ebbehøj, Niels Erik

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: When handling patients, nursing assistant (NA) students and nurse students are frequently exposed to risk factors for low back pain (LBP) including sudden loads and twisting and bending of the spine. Furthermore, LBP is a major cause of sickness absence. AIMS: To ascertain...... if a multidimensional prevention programme combining physical training, patient transfer technique and stress management prevents sickness absence and LBP in NA students. METHODS: The study was a 14-month cluster randomized controlled study. The participants were NA students from 37 randomly selected classes located...... at two schools of health and social care in Copenhagen, Denmark. The participants completed a comprehensive questionnaire regarding sickness absence, LBP and psychosocial factors on commencement and after completion of the study. RESULTS: Of 766 female NA students, 668 (87%) completed the baseline...

  18. Pricing of the Policy Life in Absence of Default Risk and Asset Liability Management

    OpenAIRE

    Giandomenico, Rossano

    2006-01-01

    The model, by using the option theory, determines the fair value of the life insurance policies in absence of default risk and shows that the fair fixed guaranteed interest-rate is less than the risk free interest rate due to the exchange of options between policyholders and shareholders. Furthermore, it shows that the effective liabilities duration is different from the duration of a default free zero coupon bond with the same time of maturity such that the equity value is immunized by using...

  19. [Congenital bilateral absence of vas deferens: From diagnosis to assisted reproductive techniques - the experience of three centers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauvillard, D; Perrin, A; Drapier, H; Ravel, C; Fréour, T; Férec, C; De Braekeleer, M; Amice, V

    2015-05-01

    To review the management with assisted reproductive technologies (ART) of men with congenital bilateral absence of vas deferens (CBAVD), associated with cystic fibrosis or not, after surgical retrieval [epididymal aspiration (MESA) or testicular biopsy (TESE)]. Multicenter retrospective study made of 2 groups: CBAVD and cystic fibrosis (CF) or CBAVD only (CF-RD). Two centers performed MESA (Brest and Nantes) and one TESE (Rennes). Sperm numeration, motility, vitality, morphology and nuclear maturity were measured in both centers performing MESA. Fertilization rate (TF) and cumulated progressive pregnancy rate by retrieved oocyte (TGC) were compared between centers following ART. Ninety patients underwent surgical retrieval between January 1996 and March 2013, 30 in the CF group and 60 in the CF-RD group. Semen parameters were comparable between groups and centers. Fifty-eight (22 in the CF group and 36 in the CF-RD group) patients received ART between April 1996 and October 2014. TF was 50% and 52% and TGC 26% and 32% in the CF group and CF-RD groups, respectively. The results did not differ between groups but TGC was higher in Rennes than in the other two centers. Both semen parameters and ART results are comparable and similar to those reported in the literature. As shown by the results obtained in Rennes, TESE seems to be more effective. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Congenital absence of the portal vein presenting as pulmonary hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, Sur Young; Lee, Whal; Cheon, Jung Eun; Kim, Woo Sun; Kim, In One; Yeon, Kyung Mo

    2007-01-01

    Congenital absence of the portal vein (CAPV) is a rare malformation in which intestinal and splenic venous flow bypasses the liver and drains directly into the systemic circulation via a congenital portosystemic shunt. We describe two cases of CAPV presenting as pulmonary hypertension that were initially suspected as primary pulmonary hypertension. However, subsequent ultrasonography and CT detected the absence of a portal vein and the presence of a portosystemic shunt. Pulmonary hypertension is a recognized complication of liver disease and portal hypertension. However, these two cases illustrate that CAPV may result in pulmonary hypertension without liver disease or portal hypertension

  1. Congenital absence of the portal vein presenting as pulmonary hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, Sur Young; Lee, Whal; Cheon, Jung Eun; Kim, Woo Sun; Kim, In One; Yeon, Kyung Mo [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-11-15

    Congenital absence of the portal vein (CAPV) is a rare malformation in which intestinal and splenic venous flow bypasses the liver and drains directly into the systemic circulation via a congenital portosystemic shunt. We describe two cases of CAPV presenting as pulmonary hypertension that were initially suspected as primary pulmonary hypertension. However, subsequent ultrasonography and CT detected the absence of a portal vein and the presence of a portosystemic shunt. Pulmonary hypertension is a recognized complication of liver disease and portal hypertension. However, these two cases illustrate that CAPV may result in pulmonary hypertension without liver disease or portal hypertension.

  2. Effect of organisational change type and frequency on long-term sickness absence in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstrøm, Vilde H; Kjekshus, Lars Erik

    2015-09-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate how the frequency of structural change and patient care-related change is related to employees' long-term sickness absence. Although a growing body of research is investigating the potentially harmful effects of organisational change on employee health, most studies have focused on single episodes of organisational change and do not differentiate among the types and frequencies of change. National registry data were collected from 2005 and 2007. A total of 34 712 health professionals from 56 hospitals were included (76% nurses, 18% physicians and 6% other health professionals) and the data were analysed using multilevel logistic regression. The research findings reveal a significantly higher probability of long-term sickness absence among employees who experienced more frequent structural changes (OR = 1.03; CI: 1.00-1.06; P changes. A higher frequency of organisational change may lead to more sickness-related absence among employees, with the effect depending on the type of change. These findings highlight the need for managers who are contemplating or are in the process of implementing organisational change to become more aware of the potentially harmful effects of frequent organisational change on employee health. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Basal levels of metabolic activity are elevated in Genetic Absence Epilepsy Rats from Strasbourg (GAERS): measurement of regional activity of cytochrome oxidase and lactate dehydrogenase by histochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, Franck; Koning, Estelle; Nehlig, Astrid

    2003-08-01

    The Genetic Absence Epilepsy Rats from Strasbourg (GAERS) are considered an isomorphic, predictive, and homologous model of human generalized absence epilepsy. It is characterized by the expression of spike-and-wave discharges in the thalamus and cortex. In this strain, basal regional rates of cerebral glucose utilization measured by the quantitative autoradiographic [(14)C]2-deoxyglucose technique display a widespread consistent increase compared to a selected strain of genetically nonepileptic rats (NE). In order to verify whether these high rates of glucose metabolism are paralleled by elevated activities of the enzymes of the glycolytic and tricarboxylic acid cycle pathways, we measured by histochemistry the regional activity of the two key enzymes of glucose metabolism, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) for the anaerobic pathway and cytochrome oxidase (CO) for the aerobic pathway coupled to oxidative phosphorylation. CO and LDH activities were significantly higher in GAERS than in NE rats in 24 and 28 of the 30 brain regions studied, respectively. The differences in CO and LDH activity between both strains were widespread, affected all brain systems studied, and ranged from 12 to 63%. The data of the present study confirm the generalized increase in cerebral glucose metabolism in GAERS, occurring both at the glycolytic and at the oxidative step. However, they still do not allow us to understand why the ubiquitous mutation(s) generates spike-and-wave discharges only in the thalamocortical circuit.

  4. Labour market trajectories following sickness absence due to self-reported all cause morbidity--a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Pernille; Lund, Thomas; Lindholdt, Louise; Nohr, Ellen A; Jensen, Chris; Søgaard, Hans Jørgen; Labriola, Merete

    2016-04-16

    To investigate differences in return to work (RTW) and employment trajectories in individuals on sick leave for either mental health reasons or other health related reasons. This study was based on 2036 new sickness absence cases who completed a questionnaire on social characteristics, expectations for RTW and reasons for sickness absence. They were divided into two exposure groups according to their self-reported sickness absence reason: mental health reasons or other health reasons. The outcome was employment status during the following 51 weeks and was measured both as time-to-event analysis and with sequence analysis. Individuals with mental health reasons for sickness absence had a higher risk of not having returned to work (RR 0.87 (0.80;0.93)). Adjusting for gender, age, education and employment did not change the estimate, however, after adding RTW expectations to the model, the excess risk was no longer present (RR 1.01 (0.95;1.08)). In relation to the sequence analysis, individuals with mental health related absence had significantly higher odds of being in the sickness absence cluster and significantly lower odds for being in the fast RTW cluster, but when adjusting for RTW expectations, the odds were somewhat attenuated and no longer significant. Employees on sick leave due to self-reported mental health problems spent more weeks in sickness absence and temporary benefits and had a higher risk of not having returned to work within a year compared to employees on sick leave due to other health reasons. The difference could be explained by their lower RTW expectations at baseline. This emphasises the need to develop suitable and specific interventions to facilitate RTW for this group of sickness absentees.

  5. The Group's Absence Norm and Commitment to the Group as Predictors of Group Member Absence in the Next Session: An Actor-Partner Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivlighan, Dennis M., Jr.; Kivlighan, D. Martin, III; Cole, Odessa Dorian

    2012-01-01

    The group's absence norm, a construct from the applied psychology literature, was used to examine session absences in personal growth groups. Rather than examining the absence norm statically, we modeled it dynamically as a time-varying covariate (Tasca et al., 2010). We also examined moderation by modeling the interaction of the absence norm and…

  6. Changes in drinking as predictors of changes in sickness absence: a case-crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ervasti, Jenni; Kivimäki, Mika; Pentti, Jaana; Halonen, Jaana I; Vahtera, Jussi; Virtanen, Marianna

    2018-01-01

    We investigated whether changes in alcohol use predict changes in the risk of sickness absence in a case-crossover design. Finnish public sector employees were surveyed in 2000, 2004 and 2008 on alcohol use and covariates. Heavy drinking was defined as either a weekly intake that exceeded recommendations (12 units for women; 23 for men) or having an extreme drinking session. The responses were linked to national sickness absence registers. We analysed the within-person relative risk of change in the risk of sickness absence in relation to change in drinking. Case period refers to being sickness absent within 1 year of the survey and control period refers to not being sickness absent within 1 year of the survey. Periods of heavy drinking were associated with increased odds of self-certified short-term (1-3 days) sickness absence (multivariable-adjusted OR 1.21, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.38 for all participants; 1.62, 95% CI 1.19 to 2.21 for men and 1.15, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.33 for women). A higher risk of short-term sickness absence was also observed after increase in drinking (OR=1.27, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.52) and a lower risk was observed after decrease in drinking (OR=0.83, 95% CI 0.69 to 1.00). Both increase (OR=1.38, 95% CI 1.21 to 1.57) and decrease (OR=1.27, 95% CI 1.19 to 1.43) in drinking were associated with increased risk of long-term (>9 days) medically certified all-cause sickness absence. Increase in drinking was related to increases in short-term and long-term sickness absences. Men and employees with a low socioeconomic position in particular seemed to be at risk. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Impact of School Flu Vaccine Program on Student Absences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaspohl, Sara S.; Dixon, Betty T.; Streater, James A.; Hausauer, Elizabeth T.; Newman, Christopher P.; Vogel, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    Literature provides evidence that school attendance correlates with academic performance and student success. Influenza is a contributing factor to school absences. Primary prevention for influenza includes immunization. School-located influenza vaccine (SLIV) programs provide greater access for students to be immunized. A retrospective review of…

  8. Psychosocial work factors and long sickness absence in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slany, Corinna; Schütte, Stefanie; Chastang, Jean-François; Parent-Thirion, Agnès; Vermeylen, Greet; Niedhammer, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Studies exploring a wide range of psychosocial work factors separately and together in association with long sickness absence are still lacking. The objective of this study was to explore the associations between psychosocial work factors measured following a comprehensive instrument (Copenhagen psychosocial questionnaire, COPSOQ) and long sickness absence (> 7 days/year) in European employees of 34 countries. An additional objective was to study the differences in these associations according to gender and countries. The study population consisted of 16 120 male and 16 588 female employees from the 2010 European working conditions survey. Twenty-five psychosocial work factors were explored. Statistical analysis was performed using multilevel logistic regression models and interaction testing. When studied together in the same model, factors related to job demands (quantitative demands and demands for hiding emotions), possibilities for development, social relationships (role conflicts, quality of leadership, social support, and sense of community), workplace violence (physical violence, bullying, and discrimination), shift work, and job promotion were associated with long sickness absence. Almost no difference was observed according to gender and country. Comprehensive prevention policies oriented to psychosocial work factors may be useful to prevent long sickness absence at European level.

  9. Contempt as the absence of appraisal, not recognition, respect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    Gervais & Fessler's defense of a sentiment construct for contempt captures features distinguishing the phenomenon from basic emotions and highlights the fact that it comprises a coordinated syndrome of responses. However, their conceptualization of contempt as the absence of respect equivocates. Consequently, a "dignity" culture that prescribes respect does not thereby limit legitimate contempt in the manner the authors claim.

  10. Sickness absence: self-reported and objective risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroome, E. de

    2006-01-01

    Absence from work in the Netherlands is partly caused by the work itself and therefore work-related interventions could be part of the solution. Such interventions should not only be aimed at risk factors highlighted by employees themselves, but should also focus on those factors that are found to

  11. Common mental disorders : Prediction of sickness absence durations and recurrences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper, Lammechiena

    2016-01-01

    Psychological disorders cause a considerable proportion of long-term sickness absence and constitute the most significant reason for disability pensions of employees under 55 years of age. Knowledge of the risk factors will help occupational physicians to initiate treatments and interventions at an

  12. [Problematic sickness absence: a quantitative and qualitative analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wees, P.J. van der; Stadhouders, N.; Staal, J.B.; Jeurissen, P.P.T.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In the Netherlands, an occupational physician supports absence management and staff's return to work, but this role may be hampered if there is uncertainty concerning return to labour options. The return to work process may be improved when a specialized second opinion organization is

  13. Management of long term sickness absence: a systematic realist review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Angela; O'Halloran, Peter; Porter, Sam

    2012-09-01

    The increasing impact and costs of long term sickness absence have been well documented. However, the diversity and complexity of interventions and of the contexts in which these take place makes a traditional review problematic. Therefore, we undertook a systematic realist review to identify the dominant programme theories underlying best practice, to assess the evidence for these theories, and to throw light on important enabling or disabling contextual factors. A search of the scholarly literature from 1950 to 2011 identified 5,576 articles, of which 269 formed the basis of the review. We found that the dominant programme theories in relation to effective management related to: early intervention or referral by employers; having proactive organisational procedures; good communication and cooperation between stakeholders; and workplace-based occupational rehabilitation. Significant contextual factors were identified as the level of support for interventions from top management, the size and structure of the organisation, the level of financial and organisational investment in the management of long-term sickness absence, and the quality of relationships between managers and staff. Consequently, those with responsibility for managing absence should bear in mind the contextual factors that are likely to have an impact on interventions, and do what they can to ensure stakeholders have at least a mutual understanding (if not a common purpose) in relation to their perceptions of interventions, goals, culture and practice in the management of long term sickness absence.

  14. 5 CFR 353.106 - Personnel actions during employee's absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... knowingly provides written notice of intent not to return to a position of employment with the agency, in... advantage of employment that they may have been entitled to had they not been absent. This is determined by... workplace and whether it was denied solely because of absence for military service; (2) Considering whether...

  15. Unilateral hydronephrosis with congenital absence of contralateral kidney in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muren, C.; Wikstad, I.

    1988-01-01

    The case histories of six children with absence of functioning renal parenchyma on one side and dilatation of the contralateral pelvis are reviewed. The hydronephrosis was obstructive in two cases. In the others no cause could be found. The development of this combination of renal malformations is discussed against an embryologic background. (orig.)

  16. Using recurrence plot for determinism analysis of EEG recordings in genetic absence epilepsy rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Gaoxiang; Li, Xiaoli; Dang, Chuangyin; Richards, Douglas A

    2008-08-01

    Understanding the transition of brain activity towards an absence seizure is a challenging task. In this paper, we use recurrence quantification analysis to indicate the deterministic dynamics of EEG series at the seizure-free, pre-seizure and seizure states in genetic absence epilepsy rats. The determinism measure, DET, based on recurrence plot, was applied to analyse these three EEG datasets, each dataset containing 300 single-channel EEG epochs of 5-s duration. Then, statistical analysis of the DET values in each dataset was carried out to determine whether their distributions over the three groups were significantly different. Furthermore, a surrogate technique was applied to calculate the significance level of determinism measures in EEG recordings. The mean (+/-SD) DET of EEG was 0.177+/-0.045 in pre-seizure intervals. The DET values of pre-seizure EEG data are significantly higher than those of seizure-free intervals, 0.123+/-0.023, (Pdeterminism in EEG epochs was present in 25 of 300 (8.3%), 181 of 300 (60.3%) and 289 of 300 (96.3%) in seizure-free, pre-seizure and seizure intervals, respectively. Results provide some first indications that EEG epochs during pre-seizure intervals exhibit a higher degree of determinism than seizure-free EEG epochs, but lower than those in seizure EEG epochs in absence epilepsy. The proposed methods have the potential of detecting the transition between normal brain activity and the absence seizure state, thus opening up the possibility of intervention, whether electrical or pharmacological, to prevent the oncoming seizure.

  17. Sickness absence in student nursing assistants following a preventive intervention programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, A L; Marott, J L; Suadicani, P

    2011-01-01

    reduced SF-36 scores for general health perception [general health (GH)], psychological well-being [mental health (MH)] and energy/fatigue [vitality (VT)] compared with the intervention group, which remained at the baseline level for all three measures. AIMS: To ascertain whether this effect remained......BACKGROUND: We have previously shown that a multidimensional programme combining physical training, patient transfer techniques and stress management significantly reduced sickness absence rates in student nurse assistants (NAs) after 14 months of follow-up. At follow-up, the control group had...... after a further 36 months of follow-up and to analyse the association of GH, MH and VT scores with sickness absence. METHODS: This was a cluster randomized prospective study. The original study involved assessment at baseline and follow-up at 14 months (the duration of the student NA course). Of 568...

  18. Variability in growth rates of larval haddock in the northern North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallego, A.; Heath, M.R.; Basford, D.J.

    1999-01-01

    of the spring plankton production bloom, and a likely explanation for the absence of environmental effects on larval growth was high food availability and larval feeding rates. Nevertheless, differences in growth were observed between cohorts, with larvae hatched later in the spring displaying higher growth...... at age than those hatched earlier. Particle-tracking modelling suggested that differences in temperature history between cohorts, on their own or compounded by a potential interaction between temperature and the development of plankton production, may explain the higher growth rate of the larvae hatched...

  19. Absence of bone sialoprotein (BSP) alters profoundly hematopoiesis and upregulates osteopontin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granito, Renata Neves; Bouleftour, Wafa; Sabido, Odile; Lescale, Chloé; Thomas, Mireille; Aubin, Jane E; Goodhardt, Michèle; Vico, Laurence; Malaval, Luc

    2015-06-01

    Matrix proteins of the SIBLING family interact with bone cells, extracellular matrix and mineral and are thus in a key position to regulate the microenvironment of the bone tissue, including its hematopoietic component. In this respect, osteopontin (OPN) has been implicated in the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) niche as negative regulator of the HSC function. We investigated the impact on hematopoietic regulation of the absence of the cognate bone sialoprotein (BSP). BSP knockout (-/-) mice display increased bone marrow cellularity, and an altered commitment of hematopoietic precursors to myeloid lineages, leading in particular to an increased frequency of monocyte/macrophage cells. The B cell pool is increased in -/- bone marrow, and its composition is shifted toward more mature lymphocyte stages. BSP-null mice display a decreased HSC fraction among LSK cells and a higher percentage of more committed progenitors as compared to +/+. The fraction of proliferating LSK progenitors is higher in -/- mice, and after PTH treatment the mutant HSC pool is lower than in +/+. Strikingly, circulating levels of OPN as well as its expression in the bone tissue are much higher in the -/-. Thus, a BSP-null bone microenvironment affects the hematopoietic system both quantitatively and qualitatively, in a manner in part opposite to the OPN knockout, suggesting that the effects might in part reflect the higher OPN expression in the absence of BSP. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Globalisation and Higher Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marginson, Simon; van der Wende, Marijk

    2007-01-01

    Economic and cultural globalisation has ushered in a new era in higher education. Higher education was always more internationally open than most sectors because of its immersion in knowledge, which never showed much respect for juridical boundaries. In global knowledge economies, higher education

  1. Job stress as a risk factor for absences among manual workers: a 12-month follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Yong-Seok; Leem, Jong-Han; Park, Shin-Goo; Jung, Dal-Young; Kim, Hwan-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the impact of job stress on absence from work caused by illnesses and accidents through a prospective research design. A total of 2,349 manual workers were included in this analysis. In the first survey, job stress was determined using the Korean Occupational Stress Scale-Short Form. In the second survey, information on absence due to accidents or illnesses during the past one year was obtained through a questionnaire. The relationship was analyzed using a logistic regression model with multiple imputation. After adjusting for confounding variables for males, absence due to accidents was statistically associated with high job demand, insufficient job control, inadequate social support, and organizational injustice. In addition, high job demands and organizational injustice were related to increased absence due to illnesses in both genders. A lack of reward was associated with increased absence due to illnesses among female workers. We found that job stress was associated with a higher risk of absence caused by accidents or illnesses of manual workers.

  2. Leadership Misplacement: How Can This Affect Institutions of Higher Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Victor C. X.; Sedivy-Benton, Amy Lynn

    2016-01-01

    Well-reasoned leadership theories are described in many academic books, yet they may not apply specifically to practices in higher education. In higher education, the absence of tailored leadership theories is compounded by the lack of technical skills or leadership ethics, resulting in leadership issues that impact the organization. To illustrate…

  3. Sickness absence among depressed patients attending the General Out Patients Department of the Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goar, G S; Moses, D A; Micheal, T A

    2013-01-01

    Depression has been associated with low productivity and long absence from work. This has a serious consequence for the individuals, the employer and the society. The objectives of this study were to determine sickness absence from work among depressed patients attending General Out Patients Department (GOPD) in the preceding 12 months, to assess socio-demographic correlates of sickness absence in these patients and lastly, to determine the effect of depression on perception of work performance. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study among 200 consecutive patients attending the General Out Patients Department of the Jos University Teaching Hospital from November 2006 to March 2007. A semi-structured questionnaire designed by the authors was used to collect socio-demographic variables, self-reported perception of work and sickness absence days in the 12 months prior to the study. Depression was assessed using Structured clinical Interview for DSM- IV (SCID) axis 1 disorder. A total of 51(25.4%) of the 200 patients met the DSM IV diagnostic criteria for major depression. The depressed respondents significantly had higher mean and cumulative days of sickness absence compared to the non-depressed (p marital status (p = 0.867) were associated with sickness absence. Older age (P = 0.001) was associated with sickness absence in the non-depressed while gender (p = 0.117), and marital status (p = 0.752) were not. Having a diagnosis of depression was associated with poor work performance compared with the non-depressed (p productivity and toprevent long spells of sickness absence.

  4. Predictors of recurrent sickness absence among workers having returned to work after sickness absence due to common mental disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arends, I.; van der Klink, J.J.L.; van Rhenen, W.; de Boer, M.R.; Bultmann, U.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate whether sociodemographic, disease-related, personal, and work-related factors - measured at baseline - are predictors of recurrent sickness absence (SA) at 6 and 12 months follow-up among workers who returned to work after SA due to common mental

  5. Predictors of recurrent sickness absence among workers having returned to work after sickness absence due to common mental disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arends, Iris; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; van Rhenen, Willem; de Boer, Michiel R.; Bultmann, Ute

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate whether sociodemographic, disease-related, personal, and work-related factors - measured at baseline - are predictors of recurrent sickness absence (SA) at 6 and 12 months follow-up among workers who returned to work after SA due to common mental

  6. The Power of Paradigms: A Discussion of the Absence of Bullying Research in the Context of the University Student Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleyshaw, Liz

    2010-01-01

    The literature on bullying is vast and this social phenomenon has been studied in depth in relation to schooling and the workplace. Between school and workplace lies higher education (HE), but there is a marked absence of published work regarding undergraduate student-to-student bullying in this setting. This theoretical paper explores possible…

  7. Electrical stimulation of the epileptic focus in absence epileptic WAG/RIJ rats: assessment of local and network excitability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luttjohann, A.K.; Zhang, S.W.; Peijper, R.A.G. de; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The study aims to investigate whether there is a higher excitability in the deep cortical layers of the pen-oral region of the somatosensory cortex as compared to other cortical regions in absence epileptic WAG/Rij rats and whether this is unique for this type of epileptic rats, as would

  8. The impact of the HDI on the association of psychosocial work demands with sickness absence and presenteeism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muckenhuber, Johanna; Burkert, Nathalie; Dorner, Thomas E; Großschädl, Franziska; Freidl, Wolfgang

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether psychosocial work demands have a different impact on sickness absence and presenteeism in countries with a high vs. countries with a low Human Development Index (HDI). This article is based on an analysis of the fifth European Working Conditions Survey. We investigated single items as well as complex constructs and indices. Sickness absence and presenteeism were measured as outcome variables. Following the model of Karasek and Theorell, we measured the HDI at the macro level and psychosocial job demands at the micro level as independent variables. The multivariate multilevel analysis reveals a significant association between the HDI and the number of days recorded for sickness absence. In countries with a higher HDI, people report a lower number of days with sickness absence. Higher psychosocial job demands are associated with poorer health. There are significant cross-level interaction effects between psychosocial job demands and the HDI for these associations. Psychosocial job demands are stronger associated with sickness absence and presenteeism in high-HDI than in low-HDI countries. We argue that Public Health Actions that are connected to work characteristics need to take into consideration the level of HDI of the countries. In low- and high-HDI countries, different actions could be necessary to reach the needs of the working population. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  9. High cardiovascular event rates in patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis: the REACH Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aichner, F T; Topakian, R; Alberts, M J

    2009-01-01

    /absence of ACAS at the time of inclusion. RESULTS: Compared with patients without ACAS (n = 30 329), patients with ACAS (n = 3164) had higher age- and sex-adjusted 1-year rates of transient ischaemic attack (3.51% vs. 1.61%, P ....26%, P = 0.04), cardiovascular death (2.29% vs. 1.52%, P = 0.002), the composite end-point cardiovascular death/myocardial infarction/stroke (6.03% vs. 4.29%, P

  10. Optimal Admission to Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Karsten

    This paper constructs higher education admission rules that maximise graduation rates and thus increase the skill level of the work force. An application shows that students with a low level in mathematics in secondary school ought to find it easier to be admitted to an economics programme than...... to law or psychology programmes, even though economics is the most difficult programme from which to graduate without a strong background in mathematics. Indirect gains from optimal admission include the potential of making whole cohorts of students more able to graduate with a higher education degree....

  11. A novel approach to early sickness absence management: The EASY (Early Access to Support for You) way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demou, Evangelia; Brown, Judith; Sanati, Kaveh; Kennedy, Mark; Murray, Keith; Macdonald, Ewan B.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sickness absence (SA) is multi-causal and remains a significant problem for employees, employers and society. This makes it necessary to concurrently manage a particular disabling condition and consider the working environment and employee-employer relationship. OBJECTIVE: To describe and examine the components of a novel SA management service Early Access to Support for You (EASY) and discuss their potential influence on the intervention. METHODS: A new sickness absence model, starting from day one of absence, was created called EASY. EASY is planned to support both employees and managers and comprises elements already found to be associated with reduction of SA, such as maintaining regular contact; early biopsychosocial case-management; physiotherapy; mental-health counselling; work modification; phased return-to-work; and health promotion activities. RESULTS: During the EASY implementation period, the SA rate at a health board reversed its trend of being one of the highest rates in the Scottish National Health Service (NHS) and EASY was considered helpful by both managers and employees. CONCLUSIONS: This paper describes an innovative occupational health intervention to sickness absence management based on the bio-psychosocial model to provide early intervention, and discusses the pros and cons of applying cognitive behavioural principles at an early stage in sickness-absence events, in order to improve return-to-work outcomes. PMID:26409380

  12. Taxing the rich at higher rates in South Africa?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kirstam

    1997 at a conference held in Ann Arbor by the Office of Tax Policy Research of ... The hours of work of high-income taxpayers are sometimes assumed to be .... Table 1: Top 1 per cent income share in Argentina, Australia, India, Indonesia,.

  13. Development of materials for higher burn-up rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrlich, K.; Anderko, K.

    1983-01-01

    The results obtained so far concerning both high-nickel austenitic steels (X10CrNiMoTiB10 25) and ferritic-martensitic steels (X18CrMoVNb12 1 corresponds to 1.4914) justify the expectations placed in these materials. Future R and D work will concentrate on high-nickel austenitic steels, in particular on in-pile residence time in the range of maximum cladding mean temperatures (He embrittlement), on confirmation of the fairly good swelling and creep behaviour to be obtained from neutron irradiation experiments as well as on material qualification and technology. As far the development in the field of martensitic steels the major question concerns the influence of neutron irradiation on the transient temperature. It is just as important and interesting to detect and describe the ruling in-pile creep mechanism in the 400 to 600 0 C range. Furthermore, questions on the fabrication and qualification of cladding tube boxes are also preeminent. (orig.) [de

  14. Frequency Rates and Correlates of Contrapower Harassment in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSouza, Eros R.

    2011-01-01

    The current study investigated incivility, sexual harassment, and racial-ethnic harassment simultaneously when the targets were faculty members and the perpetrators were students (i.e., academic contrapower harassment; ACH). The sample constituted 257 faculty members (90% were White and 53% were women) from a medium-sized state university in the…

  15. veteran athletes exercise at higher maximum heart rates than

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HR responses in different sporting disciplines." All tests were performed in the ... blood pressure (BP) and HR were measured from the right arm while the subjects were in a supine and standing position. Diastolic BP (DBP) was defined as the ...

  16. Response of inherently brittle materials on higher loading rates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chlup, Zdeněk; Flašar, Petr; Dlouhý, Ivo

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 77, č. 2 (2010), s. 359-366 ISSN 0013-7944 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/09/1821; GA AV ČR IAA200410502 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : Dynamic fracture toughness * Stress intensity factor * Ceramics Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 1.571, year: 2010

  17. Cross-National Validation of Prognostic Models Predicting Sickness Absence and the Added Value of Work Environment Variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, Corne A. M.; Stapelfeldt, Christina M.; Heymans, Martijn W.; van Rhenen, Willem; Labriola, Merete; Nielsen, Claus V.; Bultmann, Ute; Jensen, Chris

    Purpose To validate Dutch prognostic models including age, self-rated health and prior sickness absence (SA) for ability to predict high SA in Danish eldercare. The added value of work environment variables to the models' risk discrimination was also investigated. Methods 2,562 municipal eldercare

  18. Cross-National Validation of Prognostic Models Predicting Sickness Absence and the Added Value of Work Environment Variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, C.A.M.; Stapelfeldt, C.M.; Heijmans, M.W.; van Rhenen, W.; Labriola, M.; Nielsen, C.V.; Bultmann, U.; Jensen, C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To validate Dutch prognostic models including age, self-rated health and prior sickness absence (SA) for ability to predict high SA in Danish eldercare. The added value of work environment variables to the models’ risk discrimination was also investigated. Methods 2,562 municipal eldercare

  19. Reactions of enolisable ketones with dichloroisocyanuric acid in absence and presence of added chloride ions – a kinetic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. L. Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Kinetics of reactions of enolisable ketones (S = acetone/2-butanone with dichloroisocyanuric acid (DCICA were studied in aqueous acetic acid and perchloric acid media in absence and presence of added chloride ions. The reactions were found to be pseudo zero order and pseudo first order on [DCICA] in absence and presence of chloride ions respectively. Both in presence and absence of chloride ions, first order and fractional order in substrate and perchloric acid were observed respectively. An increase in the rate of reaction was observed with an increase in chloride ion concentration as well as acetic acid composition. The results were interpreted in terms of probable mechanisms involving (i rate-determining enol formation from the conjugate acid of the ketone (SH+ in the absence of added chloride ions and (ii rate-determining interaction of SH+ with the most effective molecular chlorine species produced by the hydrolysis of DCICA (rather than a rate-determining interaction of enol with chlorine in the presence of added chloride ions, prior to the rapid steps of product formation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/bcse.v29i1.12

  20. Congenital Absence of a Teat in a Japanese Black Heifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Elshabrawy Ghanem

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of Japanese Black heifer with a congenital absence of teat (athelia was observed at Highashi-Hiroshima Agricultural High School, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan. The heifer was born after transfer of embryo from Japanese Black cattle. The sire of the heifer was a proven Japanese Black. The birth weight of the heifer was 27 kg. On physical examination of the heifer at 21 months after birth, the teat at fore left was absent and the remaining three teats were normal in shape without any physical abnormalities. Per rectal palpation of the genital organs revealed the normal cervix and uterine horns. It was difficult to palpate the ovaries due to the fat around the organs. Blood samples were taken for cytogenetic and DNA testing. The heifer had normal chromosomal set. The heifer was culled due to its mammary abnormality. This might be the first to report a case of congenital absence of a teat in Japanese Black heifers.

  1. Common Mental Disorders in Longterm-Sickness Absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Hans Jørgen

    provided, in a randomized controlled design, a psychiatric examination giving feedback to the individuals, primary care, and rehabilitation officers with regard to treatment and rehabilitation. Half of individuals who just had passed eight weeks of continuous sickness absence had a mental disorder of which......Common Mental Disorders (CMD) such as depression, anxiety, and somatoform disorders impose heavy burdens on individuals and on society in the form of sickness absence. CMD are frequently undetected in primary care which postpone the initiation of proper treatment. This seriously worsens return...... to work (RTW). Comorbidity with somatic disorders also worsens RTW. CMD are, controlled for lifestyle, independent causes for the development of chronic and disabling somatic disorders. Collaborative care seems to be most effective intervention with regard to RTW. In this dissertation, the intervention...

  2. Preserving location and absence privacy in geo-social networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freni, Dario; Vicente, Carmen Ruiz; Mascetti, Sergio

    2010-01-01

    accessible to multiple users. This renders it difficult for GeoSN users to control which information about them is available and to whom it is available. This paper addresses two privacy threats that occur in GeoSNs: location privacy and absence privacy. The former concerns the availability of information...... about the presence of users in specific locations at given times, while the latter concerns the availability of information about the absence of an individual from specific locations during given periods of time. The challenge addressed is that of supporting privacy while still enabling useful services....... The resulting geo-aware social networks (GeoSNs) pose privacy threats beyond those found in location-based services. Content published in a GeoSN is often associated with references to multiple users, without the publisher being aware of the privacy preferences of those users. Moreover, this content is often...

  3. Ireland and immigration: explaining the absence of the far right

    OpenAIRE

    Garner, Steve

    2007-01-01

    This article seeks to explain the absence of far-right political formations in the history of the Republic of Ireland, especially in relation to immigration. I argue that the ‘mainstream’ nationalist parties have implemented a racialized governance of Ireland via the issue of citizenship (in the referendum of 2004). While hegemonic ideas on the racial purity of indigenous populations and the highly ambivalent attitudes and policies on immigration pursued over the last decade are characteristi...

  4. Absence of Debye screening in the quantum Coulomb system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brydges, D.C.; Keller, G.

    1994-01-01

    We present an approximation to the quantum Coulomb plasma at equilibrium which captures the power-law violations of Debye screening which have been reported in recent papers. The objectives are (1) to produce a simpler model which we will study in forthcoming papers, and (2) to develop a strategy by which the absence of screening can be proven for the low-density quantum Coulomb plasma itself

  5. THE CRIME OF UNJUSTIFIED ABSENCE IN THE ROMANIAN CRIMINAL CODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela GORUNESCU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The new Criminal Code of Romania regulates in Title XI of its Special Part the crimes against the combat capability of the military forces. Under this title, Chapter I is dedicated to the crimes committed by the military and defines the crime of unjustified absence. In this study, the author analysed the specific elements of this crime, including: the specific legal object - military discipline, the field of the active subject and the essential requirements imposed by its objective side.

  6. Backward running or absence of running from Creutz ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giedt, Joel; Weinberg, Evan

    2011-01-01

    We extract the running coupling based on Creutz ratios in SU(2) lattice gauge theory with two Dirac fermions in the adjoint representation. Depending on how the extrapolation to zero fermion mass is performed, either backward running or an absence of running is observed at strong bare coupling. This behavior is consistent with other findings which indicate that this theory has an infrared fixed point.

  7. Audiovisual Association Learning in the Absence of Primary Visual Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Seirafi, Mehrdad; De Weerd, Peter; Pegna, Alan J.; de Gelder, Beatrice

    2016-01-01

    Learning audiovisual associations is mediated by the primary cortical areas; however, recent animal studies suggest that such learning can take place even in the absence of the primary visual cortex. Other studies have demonstrated the involvement of extra-geniculate pathways and especially the superior colliculus (SC) in audiovisual association learning. Here, we investigated such learning in a rare human patient with complete loss of the bilateral striate cortex. We carried out an implicit ...

  8. Implications of the absence of high-mass radion signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Aqeel; Dillon, Barry M.; Grzadkowski, Bohdan; Gunion, John F.; Jiang, Yun

    2017-05-01

    Given the disappearance of the 750 GeV diphoton LHC signal and the absence of signals at high mass in this and other channels, significant constraints on the mixed Higgs-radion of the five-dimensional Randall-Sundrum model arise. By combining all channels, these constraints place a significant radion-mass-dependent lower bound on the radion vacuum expectation value that is fairly independent of the amount of Higgs radion mixing.

  9. Congenital absence of the portal vein in a boy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohda, E.; Hiramatsu, K.; Saeki, Morihiro; Nakano, Miwako; Masaki, Hidekazu; Ogawa, Kenji; Nirasawa, Mali

    1999-01-01

    Congenital absence of the portal vein (CAPV) is a malformation that is generally thought to be limited to females. We encountered an 11-year-old boy with this malformation. In 17 previously reported cases of CAPV, 2 were male. Three male patients, including our case, were Abernethy type Ib malformation. They had no associated liver tumour and two had no additional congenital abnormality. Conversely, 13 of the 15 female patients had congenital abnormalities and 6 had liver mass lesions. (orig.)

  10. A case of congenital unilateral absence of the vas deferens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mo B

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Bi Mo,1 Vishnu Garla,2 Lawrence M Wyner1 1Department of Surgery, 2Department of Internal Medicine, Marshall University, Huntington, WV, USA Background: Congenital unilateral absence of the vas deferens occurs in 0.5%–1.0% of males. It has been associated with various genitourinary abnormalities, including renal agenesis. We report a case of congenital unilateral absence of the vas deferens found incidentally during vasectomy in a patient with known unilateral renal agenesis. Case presentation: A 24-year-old male presented to our urology clinic requesting vasectomy. His past history was significant for left renal agenesis. Following successful right vasectomy, several attempts to locate the left vas deferens were unsuccessful. We diagnosed congenital unilateral absence of the vas deferens. Follow-up semen analysis showed azoospermia. Conclusion: As vasectomies are increasingly performed in outpatient settings, it is imperative that physicians be aware of this condition, which can be recognized by a simple physical exam. Recognition could prevent unnecessary surgery and prompt providers to investigate for associated abnormalities. Keywords: vas deferens, embryology, abnormalities, surgery

  11. Trichophagia along with trichobezoar in the absence of trichotillomania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aseem Mehra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichobezoars are rarely described in the absence of trichotillomania. In this report we present a case of trichobezoar associated with trichophagia in the absence of trichotillomania. A 16-year-old girl presented to surgery outpatient with complaints of pain in abdomen and vomiting for the last 6 months. Physical examination revealed a 14 × 16 cm firm, tender, mass with smooth surface, irregular margins, which was mobile with respiration. Ultrasound abdomen revealed a bizarre lesion in the right upper and middle abdomen suggestive of gastric bezoars. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy did not reveal any abnormality in the esophagus and showed a large mobile mass in the stomach. In view of trichobezoar, psychiatry consultation was sought. Exploration of history revealed that the patient was eating hairs and clay since early childhood. As per patient she would eat hairs thrown by others. She would like the taste of hair and had strong persistent desire to eat hair and would go out searching for the same. At times she would also eat clay. However, she denied of pulling her own hairs. Physical examination of scalp and other body parts did not show any evidence of alopecia or pulling of hair/short hair. She was managed surgically and was counseled about the consequences of eating hairs and clays and was encouraged not to eat hair. To conclude our case suggests that patients can have trichobezoar and trichophagia even in the absence of trichotillomania.

  12. Computer-based video analysis identifies infants with absence of fidgety movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Støen, Ragnhild; Songstad, Nils Thomas; Silberg, Inger Elisabeth; Fjørtoft, Toril; Jensenius, Alexander Refsum; Adde, Lars

    2017-10-01

    BackgroundAbsence of fidgety movements (FMs) at 3 months' corrected age is a strong predictor of cerebral palsy (CP) in high-risk infants. This study evaluates the association between computer-based video analysis and the temporal organization of FMs assessed with the General Movement Assessment (GMA).MethodsInfants were eligible for this prospective cohort study if referred to a high-risk follow-up program in a participating hospital. Video recordings taken at 10-15 weeks post term age were used for GMA and computer-based analysis. The variation of the spatial center of motion, derived from differences between subsequent video frames, was used for quantitative analysis.ResultsOf 241 recordings from 150 infants, 48 (24.1%) were classified with absence of FMs or sporadic FMs using the GMA. The variation of the spatial center of motion (C SD ) during a recording was significantly lower in infants with normal (0.320; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.309, 0.330) vs. absence of or sporadic (0.380; 95% CI 0.361, 0.398) FMs (P<0.001). A triage model with C SD thresholds chosen for sensitivity of 90% and specificity of 80% gave a 40% referral rate for GMA.ConclusionQuantitative video analysis during the FMs' period can be used to triage infants at high risk of CP to early intervention or observational GMA.

  13. Interventions targeting absences increase adherence and reduce abandonment of childhood cancer treatment in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaverria, Carmen; Rossell, Nuria; Hernandez, Angelica; Fuentes Alabi, Soad; Vasquez, Roberto; Bonilla, Miguel; Lam, Catherine G; Ribeiro, Raul C

    2015-09-01

    In El Salvador, about 200 new cases of pediatric cancer are diagnosed each year, and survival rates approach 70%. Although treatment is available at no cost, abandonment of therapy has remained at a steady yearly rate of 13% during the past decade. A time sensitive adherence tracking procedure (TS-ATP) was recently implemented to detect missed appointments, identify their causes, and intervene promptly. Procedure The study team was informed daily of patient/family failure to attend medical appointments in the pediatric oncology unit; the families were contacted and interviewed to ascertain and address the reasons. Patients who did not return after this initial contact were contacted again through local health clinics and municipalities. Law enforcement was a last resort for patients undergoing frontline treatment with a good prognosis., The system was adapted to clinical urgency: families of patients undergoing induction therapy were contacted within 24 hr, those in other therapy phases, within 48 hr, and those who had completed treatment, within one week. Reasons for absence were obtained by telephone or in person. The annual rate of abandonment was reduced from 13-3% during the 2 years period. There were 1,111 absences reported and 1,472 contacts with caregivers and institutions. The three main reasons for absences were financial needs (165, 23%), unforeseen barriers (116, 16%), and domestic needs (86, 12%). Use of the treatment adherence tracking system to locate and communicate with patients/families after missed appointments and the allocated aid stemming from these interviews substantially reduced abandonment and non-adherence. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. [Influence of the working conditions on sickness absence due to common diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaquero-Álvarez, Manuel; Álvarez-Theurer, Esther; Romero Saldaña, Manuel

    2018-04-01

    To estimate the importance of the working environment in sickness absence, as well as to show possible relationships with clinical-work variables. A descriptive observational study. SITE: Medical Inspection of an Andalusian province. A total of 1016 workers on certified sick leave due to a common illness. A self-report questionnaire was used to collect demographic data, profession, activity, risk assessment, and perceived occupational cause, on patients who voluntarily gave their consent when they were reviewed during 2015. The illness that caused certified sickness absences was verified in the computerised medical records. Using criteria applied by experts, the role of working conditions in each episode of certified sick leave was assessed. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine any relationships between the variables. An inadequate work environment was found in 17.1% of the sickness processes. Health and hospitality services activities have a significant association with working conditions as a cause of sick leave (P<.001). With respect to diagnosis, anxiety-depressive disorders (P<.01) and low back pain (P<.05) were associated with working conditions. The factors related to certified sickness absence and work environment were: residence (OR=0.34, 0.21-0.6), normal/higher education (OR=1.7, 1.2-2.4), (OR=2.0 1.3-3.1), large companies (OR=1.97, 1.3-2.9), and job (OR=2.7, 1.6-3, 2). Sickness absence is affected by factors related to the work environment. Specific preventive actions for workers at their workplace could reduce work related diseases classified as a common illness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. How to Pay for Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killingsworth, Charles C.

    The financial crisis for institutions of higher education is deepening. Higher tuition rates may be one of the answers, but this would exclude even more young people from attending college because of inability to pay, at a time when greater equality of opportunity in higher education has become an important goal. Federal support has helped but not…

  16. Higher Education and Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Roger

    2018-01-01

    After climate change, rising economic inequality is the greatest challenge facing the advanced Western societies. Higher education has traditionally been seen as a means to greater equality through its role in promoting social mobility. But with increased marketisation higher education now not only reflects the forces making for greater inequality…

  17. Higher Education in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Policy Institute of California, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Higher education enhances Californians' lives and contributes to the state's economic growth. But population and education trends suggest that California is facing a large shortfall of college graduates. Addressing this short­fall will require strong gains for groups that have been historically under­represented in higher education. Substantial…

  18. Reimagining Christian Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulme, E. Eileen; Groom, David E., Jr.; Heltzel, Joseph M.

    2016-01-01

    The challenges facing higher education continue to mount. The shifting of the U.S. ethnic and racial demographics, the proliferation of advanced digital technologies and data, and the move from traditional degrees to continuous learning platforms have created an unstable environment to which Christian higher education must adapt in order to remain…

  19. Happiness in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwick, Alex; Cannizzaro, Sara

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the higher education literature surrounding happiness and related notions: satisfaction, despair, flourishing and well-being. It finds that there is a real dearth of literature relating to profound happiness in higher education: much of the literature using the terms happiness and satisfaction interchangeably as if one were…

  20. Gender and Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bank, Barbara J., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This comprehensive, encyclopedic review explores gender and its impact on American higher education across historical and cultural contexts. Challenging recent claims that gender inequities in U.S. higher education no longer exist, the contributors--leading experts in the field--reveal the many ways in which gender is embedded in the educational…

  1. A role for the preoptic sleep-promoting system in absence epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suntsova, N; Kumar, S; Guzman-Marin, R; Alam, M N; Szymusiak, R; McGinty, D

    2009-10-01

    Absence epilepsy (AE) in humans and the genetic AE model in WAG/Rij rats are both associated with abnormalities in sleep architecture that suggest insufficiency of the sleep-promoting mechanisms. In this study we compared the functionality of sleep-active neuronal groups within two well-established sleep-promoting sites, the ventrolateral and median preoptic nuclei (VLPO and MnPN, respectively), in WAG/Rij and control rats. Neuronal activity was assessed using c-Fos immunoreactivity and chronic single-unit recording techniques. We found that WAG/Rij rats exhibited a lack of sleep-associated c-Fos activation of GABAergic MnPN and VLPO neurons, a lower percentage of MnPN and VLPO cells increasing discharge during sleep and reduced firing rates of MnPN sleep-active neurons, compared to non-epileptic rats. The role of sleep-promoting mechanisms in pathogenesis of absence seizures was assessed in non-epileptic rats using electrical stimulation and chemical manipulations restricted to the MnPN. We found that fractional activation of the sleep-promoting system in waking was sufficient to elicit absence-like seizures. Given that reciprocally interrelated sleep-promoting and arousal neuronal groups control thalamocortical excitability, we hypothesize that malfunctioning of sleep-promoting system results in impaired ascending control over thalamocortical rhythmogenic mechanisms during wake-sleep transitions thus favoring aberrant thalamocortical oscillations. Our findings suggest a pathological basis for AE-associated sleep abnormalities and a mechanism underlying association of absence seizures with wake-sleep transitions.

  2. Quality of Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zou, Yihuan

    is about constructing a more inclusive understanding of quality in higher education through combining the macro, meso and micro levels, i.e. from the perspectives of national policy, higher education institutions as organizations in society, individual teaching staff and students. It covers both......Quality in higher education was not invented in recent decades – universities have always possessed mechanisms for assuring the quality of their work. The rising concern over quality is closely related to the changes in higher education and its social context. Among others, the most conspicuous...... changes are the massive expansion, diversification and increased cost in higher education, and new mechanisms of accountability initiated by the state. With these changes the traditional internally enacted academic quality-keeping has been given an important external dimension – quality assurance, which...

  3. Approaches for predicting long-term sickness absence. Re: Schouten et al. "Screening manual and office workers for risk of long-term sickness absence: cut-off points for the Work Ability Index".

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Amelsvoort, Ludovic Gpm; Jansen, Nicole W H; Kant, I Jmert

    2015-05-01

    We read with much interest the article of Schouten et al (1) on identifying workers with a high risk for future long-term sickness absence using the Work Ability Index (WAI). The ability to identify high-risk workers might facilitate targeted interventions for such workers and, consequently, can reduce sickness absence levels and improve workers' health. Earlier studies by both Tamela et al (2), Kant et al (3), and Lexis et al (4) have demonstrated that such an approach, based on the identification of high-risk workers and a subsequent intervention, can be effectively applied in practice to reduce sickness absence significantly. The reason for our letter on Schouten et al's article is twofold. First, by including workers already on sick leave in a study predicting long-term sick leave will result in an overestimation of the predictive properties of the instrument and biased predictors, especially when also the outcome of interest is included as a factor in the prediction model. Second, we object to the use of the term "screening" when subjects with the condition screened for are included in the study. Reinforced by the inclusion of sickness absence in the prediction model, including workers already on sick leave will shift the focus of the study findings towards the prediction of (re)current sickness absence and workers with a below-average return-to-work rate, rather than the identification of workers at high risk for the onset of future long-term sickness absence. The possibilities for prevention will shift from pure secondary prevention to a mix of secondary and tertiary prevention. As a consequence, the predictors of the model presented in the Schouten et al article can be used as a basis for tailoring neither preventive measures nor interventions. Moreover, including the outcome (sickness absence) as a predictor in the model, especially in a mixed population including workers with and without the condition (on sick leave), will result in biased predictors and

  4. Do pigeons (Columba livia) use information about the absence of food appropriately? A further look into suboptimal choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes, Inês; Machado, Armando; Vasconcelos, Marco

    2017-11-01

    In the natural environment, when an animal encounters a stimulus that signals the absence of food-a 'bad-news' stimulus-it will most likely redirect its search to another patch or prey. Because the animal does not pay the opportunity cost of waiting in the presence of a bad-news stimulus, the properties of the stimulus (e.g., its duration and probability) may have little impact in the evolution of the decision processes deployed in these circumstances. Hence, in the laboratory, when animals are forced to experience a bad-news stimulus they seem to ignore its duration, even though they pay the cost of waiting. Under certain circumstances, this insensitivity to the opportunity cost can lead to suboptimal preferences, such as a preference for an option yielding a low rather than a high rate of reinforcement. In 2 experiments, we tested Vasconcelos, Monteiro, and Kacelnik's (2015) assumption that, if given the opportunity, animals will escape the bad-news stimulus. To predict when an escape response should occur, we incorporated ideas from the prey choice model into Vasconcelos et al. (2015) model and made 2 novel predictions. Namely, both longer intertrial intervals and longer durations of signals predicting food or no food should lead to higher proportions of escape responses. The results of 2 experiments with pigeons supported these predictions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. "Terrain Paper" on Demography and Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgkinson, Harold L.

    Major demographic trends and consequences for higher education are examined. The Baby Boom sharply increased birth rates from 1946 to 1964 and was followed by a decline in births that lasted from 1964 to 1978. Currently there is an increased birth rate, but of much smaller size than the Baby Boom rates, due largely to the smaller size of the…

  6. Higher English for CFE

    CERN Document Server

    Bridges, Ann; Mitchell, John

    2015-01-01

    A brand new edition of the former Higher English: Close Reading , completely revised and updated for the new Higher element (Reading for Understanding, Analysis and Evaluation) - worth 30% of marks in the final exam!. We are working with SQA to secure endorsement for this title. Written by two highly experienced authors this book shows you how to practice for the Reading for Understanding, Analysis and Evaluation section of the new Higher English exam. This book introduces the terms and concepts that lie behind success and offers guidance on the interpretation of questions and targeting answer

  7. Managerial leadership is associated with employee stress, health, and sickness absence independently of the demand-control-support model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerlund, Hugo; Nyberg, Anna; Bernin, Peggy; Hyde, Martin; Oxenstierna, Gabriel; Jäppinen, Paavo; Väänänen, Ari; Theorell, Töres

    2010-01-01

    Research on health effects of managerial leadership has only taken established work environment factors into account to a limited extent. We therefore investigated the associations between a measure of Attentive Managerial Leadership (AML), and perceived stress, age-relative self-rated health, and sickness absence due to overstrain/fatigue, adjusting for the dimensions of the Demand-Control-Support model. Blue- and white-collar workers from Finland, Germany and Sweden employed in a multi-national forest industry company (N=12,622). Cross-sectional data on leadership and health from a company-wide survey analysed with logistic regression in different subgroups. AML was associated with perceived stress, age-relative self-rated health, and sickness absence due to overstrain/fatigue after controlling for the Demand-Control-Support model. Lack of AML was significantly associated with a high stress level in all subgroups (OR=1.68-2.67). Associations with age-relative self-rated health and sickness absence due to overstrain/fatigue were weaker, but still significant, and in the expected direction for several of the subgroups studied, suggesting an association between lack of AML and negative health consequences. The study indicates that managerial leadership is associated with employee stress, health, and sickness absence independently of the Demand-Control-Support model and should be considered in future studies of health consequences for employees, and in work environment interventions.

  8. Socio-demographic and work-related risk factors for medium- and long-term sickness absence among Italian workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Errico, Angelo; Costa, Giuseppe

    2012-10-01

    Few studies investigated determinants of sickness absence in representative samples of the general population, none of which in Italy. Aim of this study was to assess influence and relative importance of socio-demographic and work-related characteristics on medium- and long-term sickness absence in a random sample of Italian workers. Approximately 60,000 workers participating in a national survey in 2007 were interviewed regarding sickness absence during the whole previous week, and on socio-demographics, employment characteristics and exposure to a set of physical and psychosocial hazards in the workplace. The association between sickness absence and potential determinants was estimated by multivariable logistic regression models stratified by gender. From the final multivariate models, in both genders sickness absence was statistically significantly associated with tenure employment, working in larger firms, exposure to risk of injury and to bullying or discrimination and, among employees, with shift work. In males, sickness absence was also associated with lower education, employment in the public administration and with exposure to noise or vibration, whereas among women also with manual work and ergonomic factors. In both genders, the attributable fraction for employment-related characteristics was higher than that for socio-demographic ones. The association with tenure or salaried jobs, and with employment in larger firms or in the public sector suggests that, besides illness, job security is the most important determinant of sickness absence, consistently with the results of previous studies. However, our results indicate that a reduction in exposure to workplace hazards may contribute to reduce absenteeism.

  9. Effort--reward imbalance and medically certified absence for mental health problems: a prospective study of white-collar workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndjaboué, R; Brisson, C; Vézina, M; Blanchette, C; Bourbonnais, R

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the effects of psychosocial work factors on objectively assessed mental health problems leading to medically certified absence. Only one study has evaluated the prospective effects of effort-reward imbalance (ERI) at work with regards to this outcome. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of ERI on the incidence of medically certified absence for mental health problems. The study included 2086 white-collar workers (63.3% women) employed in public organisations in Quebec city. Participants were followed over a 9-year period. Medical absences from work were collected from employers' files and psychosocial factors were measured using the ERI questionnaire. Cox regression models were used to estimate the incidence of certified sickness absence due to mental health problems that lasted 5 workdays or more, while controlling for confounders. Workers exposed to ERI had a higher risk of a first spell of medically certified absence for mental health problems (HR=1.38, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.76) compared with unexposed workers. Low reward was significantly associated with a high risk among men (HR=2.80, 95% CI 1.34 to 5.89) but not in women. (HR=1.24, 95% CI 0.90 to 1.73). Effort at work had no effect on certified absence. All these effects were adjusted for potential confounders. ERI and low reward at work were prospectively associated with medically certified absence for mental health problems. These effects seem to differ by gender. Primary prevention that is aimed at reducing these stressors should be considered to help reduce the incidence of such severe mental health problems.

  10. Do gastrointestinal complaints increase the risk for subsequent medically certified long-term sickness absence? The HUSK study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øverland Simon

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastrointestinal complaints are very common in the general population and very often co-occur with common mental disorders. We aimed to study the prospective impact of gastrointestinal complaints on long term sickness absence, and address the contribution from co-occurring common mental disorders and other somatic symptoms. Method Health data on 13 880 40-45 year olds from the Hordaland Health Study (1997-99 were linked to national registries on sickness absence. As part of a wider health screening, gastrointestinal complaints were ascertained. Participant's anxiety and depression, and the presence of other somatic symptoms were evaluated. In Cox regression models, we predicted sickness absences over an average 5.4 years follow-up, with adjustment for confounders, anxiety and depression and other somatic symptoms. Results After adjusting for gender, level of education and smoking, those reporting GI complaints had higher risk for later sickness absence (HR = 1.42, 95% CI 1.34-1.51. GI complaints were associated with both anxiety (OR = 3.66, 95% CI 3.31-4.04 and depression (OR = 3.28, 95% CI 2.89-3.72, and a high level of other somatic symptoms (OR = 8.50, 95% CI 7.69-9.40. The association of GI complaints was still independently associated with future sickness absence (HR = 1.17, 95% CI 1.10-1.16 adjusting for mental illness and other somatic symptoms. Discussion Sickness absence is a complex behavioural outcome, but our results suggest GI complaints contribute by increasing the risk of long term sickness absence independently of comorbid mental illness and presence of other somatic symptoms. Occupational consequences of illness are important, and should also be addressed clinically with patients presenting with GI complaints.

  11. Shift and Day Work: A Comparison of Sickness Absence, Lateness, and other Absence Behaviour at an Oil Refinery from 1962 to 1965

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, P. J.

    1967-01-01

    Despite the increasing use of continuous process shift work in modern industry, few studies on the medical aspects of shift work can be found in recent literature of occupational health. Physiologists have shown that the ability of the body to adjust its circadian rhythms to alteration in hours of work or sleep can take up to a month. The usual type of shift work in industry involves weekly changes of hours, and thus on theoretical grounds at least this may not be the most suitable frequency for shift changes. Sickness absence of male refinery workers has been studied over a four-year period. The figures show that continuous three-cycle shift workers have consistently and significantly lower rates of sickness than day workers in similar occupations. The annual inception rate (spells) standardized for age was 108% for shift workers and 182% for day workers, and the average annual duration per man was 11 days for shift workers and 18 days for day workers, although the average length of spell was slightly longer among shift workers. As far as is known, such a difference has not been described before in detail. Age-related lateness and absenteeism have been measured and show similar wide differences between the two groups. Although both types of worker are largely self-selected, the difference is not due to medical selection or to an excess of any one type of disease in day workers. Over three-quarters of 150 shift workers interviewed stated that they preferred shift work hours and that sleeping difficulties were not common. It is suggested that the main reasons for the difference between shift and day workers' sickness absence lie in the degree of personal involvement in the work and in the social structure of the working group. PMID:6023084

  12. Planning for Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Caj-Gunnar

    1984-01-01

    Decision processes for strategic planning for higher education institutions are outlined using these parameters: institutional goals and power structure, organizational climate, leadership attitudes, specific problem type, and problem-solving conditions and alternatives. (MSE)

  13. Advert for higher education

    OpenAIRE

    N.V. Provozin; А.S. Teletov

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses the features advertising higher education institution. The analysis results of marketing research students for their choice of institutions and further study. Principles of the advertising campaign on three levels: the university, the faculty, the separate department.

  14. On higher derivative gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accioly, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    A possible classical route conducting towards a general relativity theory with higher-derivatives starting, in a sense, from first principles, is analysed. A completely causal vacuum solution with the symmetries of the Goedel universe is obtained in the framework of this higher-derivative gravity. This very peculiar and rare result is the first known vcuum solution of the fourth-order gravity theory that is not a solution of the corresponding Einstein's equations.(Author) [pt

  15. Higher Spins & Strings

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    The conjectured relation between higher spin theories on anti de-Sitter (AdS) spaces and weakly coupled conformal field theories is reviewed. I shall then outline the evidence in favour of a concrete duality of this kind, relating a specific higher spin theory on AdS3 to a family of 2d minimal model CFTs. Finally, I shall explain how this relation fits into the framework of the familiar stringy AdS/CFT correspondence.

  16. Congenital Complete Absence of Pericardium Masquerading as Pulmonary Embolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq, Saad; Mahmood, Sultan; Madeira, Samuel; Tarasov, Ethan

    2013-01-01

    Congenital absence of the pericardium is a rare cardiac condition, which can be either isolated or associated with other cardiac and extracardiac anomalies. There are six different types, depending on the severity of the involvement. Most of the patients with this defect are asymptomatic, especially the ones with complete absence of the pericardium. However, some patients are symptomatic, reporting symptoms that include chest pain, palpitations, dyspnea, and syncope. Diagnosis is established by the characteristic features on chest X-ray, echocardiogram, chest computed tomography (CT), and/or cardiac magnetic resonance imging (MRI). We present here a case of a 23 year-old-male, who presented to our hospital with complaints of pleuritic chest pain and exertional dyspnea, of a two-week duration. He was physically active and his past history was otherwise insignificant. His chest CT with contrast was interpreted as showing evidence of multiple emboli, predominantly in the left lung, and he was started on a heparin and warfarin therapy. A repeat chest CT with contrast three weeks later showed no significant change from the previous CT scan. Both scans showed that the heart was abnormally rotated to the left side of the chest. An echocardiogram raised the suspicion of congenital absence of the pericardium, with a posteriorly displaced heart. In retrospect, motion artifact on the left lung, attributed to cardiac pulsations and the lack of pericardium, resulted in a CT chest appearance, mimicking findings of pulmonary embolism. The misdiagnosis of pulmonary embolism was attributed to the artifact caused by excessive cardiac motion artifact on the chest CT scan. In non-gated CT angiograms, excessive motion causes an artifact that blurs the pulmonary vessels, reminiscent of a ′seagull′ or a ′boomerang′. Physicians need to be aware of this phenomenon, as well as the characteristic radiological features of this congenital anomaly, to enable them to make a correct

  17. Development and validation of a prediction model for long-term sickness absence based on occupational health survey variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roelen, Corné; Thorsen, Sannie; Heymans, Martijn

    2018-01-01

    LTSA during follow-up. Results: The 15-predictor model was reduced to a 9-predictor model including age, gender, education, self-rated health, mental health, prior LTSA, work ability, emotional job demands, and recognition by the management. Discrimination by the 9-predictor model was significant (AUC...... population. Implications for rehabilitation Long-term sickness absence risk predictions would enable healthcare providers to refer high-risk employees to rehabilitation programs aimed at preventing or reducing work disability. A prediction model based on health survey variables discriminates between...... employees at high and low risk of long-term sickness absence, but discrimination was not practically useful. Health survey variables provide insufficient information to determine long-term sickness absence risk profiles. There is a need for new variables, based on the knowledge and experience...

  18. Bilateral Absence of Musculocutaneous Nerve: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Anubha

    2014-01-01

    Detailed knowledge of course and distribution of nerves in the axilla and arm is very important in the management of nerve injuries particularly in case of their variations. Bilateral absence of the musculocutaneous nerve was found during routine dissection in a male cadaver. The dissected part was cleared to see the distribution of the muscles of the arm. The muscles of the flexor compartment were supplied by the median nerve, instead of the musculocutaneous nerve. The present case report of this anatomical variation of the nerves should help in management of nerve injuries in the axilla or the arm. PMID:25386419

  19. A 48,XXXX female with absence of ovaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collen, R J; Falk, R E; Lippe, B M; Kaplan, S A

    1980-01-01

    A 16 1/2-year-old phenotypic female had primary amenorrhea, mild mental retardation, radioulnar synostosis, and other minor anomalies. Chromosome constitution of leukocytes and skin fibroblasts was 48,XXXX. Plasma levels of gonadotropins were increased, and those of estrogens, decreased consistent with ovarian failure. Laparoscopy showed a small midline uterus, and 2 fallopian tubes, and fimbriae. Neither ovaries nor gonadal streaks were seen on either side. This patient appears to represent the first instance of 48,XXXX aneuploidy with documented absence of ovaries.

  20. Mechanical stress activates NMDA receptors in the absence of agonists

    OpenAIRE

    Maneshi, Mohammad Mehdi; Maki, Bruce; Gnanasambandam, Radhakrishnan; Belin, Sophie; Popescu, Gabriela K.; Sachs, Frederick; Hua, Susan Z.

    2017-01-01

    While studying the physiological response of primary rat astrocytes to fluid shear stress in a model of traumatic brain injury (TBI), we found that shear stress induced Ca2+ entry. The influx was inhibited by MK-801, a specific pore blocker of N-Methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor (NMDAR) channels, and this occurred in the absence of agonists. Other NMDA open channel blockers ketamine and memantine showed a similar effect. The competitive glutamate antagonists AP5 and GluN2B-selective inhibitor i...