WorldWideScience

Sample records for high-z metallic wall

  1. ICRF antennas optimized for operation with a high-Z metallic wall in ASDEX Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zammuto, I. [Euratom Association, Max Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)], E-mail: i.zammuto@libero.it; Krivska, A. [Euratom Association, Institute of Plasma Physics ASCR, Prague (Czech Republic); Telecommunication Engineering Department, Czech Technical University of Prague, Prague (Czech Republic); Bobkov, V.; Braun, F.; Bilato, R. [Euratom Association, Max Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Noterdaeme, J.-M. [Euratom Association, Max Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); EESA Department, University of Gent, Gent (Belgium)

    2009-06-15

    High-Z materials are considered the best candidates for plasma facing components (PFCs) in future fusion devices, while ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) heating is a method of choice because of its flexibility, cost effectiveness, and plug-to-power efficiency. But high-Z materials and ICRF have been a difficult combination. ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) is pioneering the use of a tungsten (W) wall and in the next years it will prove (or disprove) the appropriateness of this combination for the future. This paper describes the optimization procedure for and the main features of a new proposed ICRF antenna for AUG specifically designed to improve the compatibility of ICRF with a high-Z metallic wall. The optimization criteria for a new design are based on a reduction of the parasitic parallel electric field responsible of the impurity production. The evolutionary design of the 2-strap antenna is compared with a redesigned 4-strap antenna embedded in the wall. Moreover, options and constraints on how to integrate a wider antenna in the present configuration of ASDEX Upgrade and its integration on the stabilizing wall are discussed.

  2. X-ray Conversion Efficiency of high-Z hohlraum wall materials for indirect drive ignition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewald, E; Rosen, M; Glenzer, S H; Suter, L J; Girard, F; Jadaud, J P; Schein, J; Constantin, C G; Neumayer, P; Landen, O

    2008-02-22

    We measure the conversion efficiency of 351 nm laser light to soft x-rays (0.1-5 keV) for Au, U and high Z mixtures 'cocktails' used for hohlraum wall materials in indirect drive ICF. We use spherical targets in a direct drive geometry, flattop laser pulses and laser smoothing with phase plates to achieve constant and uniform laser intensities of 10{sup 14} and 10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2} over the target surface that are relevant for the future ignition experiments on NIF. The absolute time and spectrally-resolved radiation flux is measured with a multichannel soft x-ray power diagnostic. The conversion efficiency is then calculated by dividing the measured x-ray power by the incident laser power from which the measured laser backscattering losses is subtracted. After {approx}0.5 ns, the time resolved x-ray conversion efficiency reaches a slowly increasing plateau of 95% at 10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2} laser intensity and of 80% at 10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2}. The M-band flux (2-5 keV) is negligible at 10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2} reaching {approx}1% of the total x-ray flux for all target materials. In contrast, the M-band flux is significant and depends on the target material at 10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2} laser intensity, reaching values between 10% of the total flux for U and 27% for Au. Our LASNEX simulations show good agreement in conversion efficiency and radiated spectra with data when using XSN atomic physics model and a flux limiter of 0.15, but they underestimate the generated M-band flux.

  3. Advances in understanding of high-Z material erosion and re-deposition in low-Z wall environment in DIII-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, R.; Rudakov, D. L.; Stangeby, P. C.; Wampler, W. R.; Abrams, T.; Brezinsek, S.; Briesemeister, A.; Bykov, I.; Chan, V. S.; Chrobak, C. P.; Elder, J. D.; Guo, H. Y.; Guterl, J.; Kirschner, A.; Lasnier, C. J.; Leonard, A. W.; Makowski, M. A.; McLean, A. G.; Snyder, P. B.; Thomas, D. M.; Tskhakaya, D.; Unterberg, E. A.; Wang, H. Q.; Watkins, J. G.

    2017-05-01

    Dedicated DIII-D experiments coupled with modeling reveal that the net erosion rate of high-Z materials, i.e. Mo and W, is strongly affected by carbon concentration in the plasma and the magnetic pre-sheath properties. Different methods such as electrical biasing and local gas injection have been investigated to control high-Z material erosion. The net erosion rate of high-Z materials is significantly reduced due to the high local re-deposition ratio. The ERO modeling shows that the local re-deposition ratio is mainly controlled by the electric field and plasma density within the magnetic pre-sheath. The net erosion can be significantly suppressed by reducing the sheath potential drop. A high carbon impurity concentration in the background plasma is also found to reduce the net erosion rate of high-Z materials. Both DIII-D experiments and modeling show that local 13CH4 injection can create a carbon coating on the metal surface. The profile of 13C deposition provides quantitative information on radial transport due to E  ×  B drift and the cross-field diffusion. The deuterium gas injection upstream of the W sample can reduce W net erosion rate by plasma perturbation. In H-mode plasmas, the measured inter-ELM W erosion rates at different radial locations are well reproduced by ERO modeling taking into account charge-state-resolved carbon ion flux in the background plasma calculated using the OEDGE code.

  4. Dynamics of low- and high-Z metal ions emitted during nanosecond laser-produced plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsied, Ahmed M.; Diwakar, Prasoon K.; Polek, Mathew; Hassanein, Ahmed

    2016-11-01

    Dynamics of metal ions during laser-produced plasmas was studied. A 1064 nm, Nd: YAG laser pulse was used to ablate pure Al, Fe, Co, Mo, and Sn samples. Ion flux and velocity were measured using Faraday cup ion collector. Time-of-flight measurements showed decreasing ion flux and ion velocity with increasing atomic weight, and heavy metal ion flux profile exhibited multiple peaks that was not observed in lighter metals. Slow peak was found to follow shifted Maxwell Boltzmann distribution, while the fast peak was found to follow Gaussian distribution. Ion flux angular distribution that was carried out on Mo and Al using fixed laser intensity 2.5 × 1010 W/cm2 revealed that the slow ion flux peaks at small angles, that is, close to normal to the target ˜0° independent of target's atomic weight, and fast ion flux for Mo peaks at large angles ˜40° measured from the target normal, while it completely absents for Al. This difference in spatial and temporal distribution reveals that the emission mechanism of the fast and slow ions is different. From the slow ion flux angular distribution, the measured plume expansion ratio (plume forward peaking) was 1.90 and 2.10 for Al and Mo, respectively. Moreover, the effect of incident laser intensity on the ion flux emission as well as the emitted ion velocity were investigated using laser intensities varying from 2.5 × 1010 W/cm2 to 1.0 × 1011 W/cm2. Linear increase of fast ion flux and velocity, and quadratic increase of slow ion flux and velocity were observed. For further understanding of plume dynamics, laser optical emission spectroscopy was used to characterize Sn plasma by measuring the temporal and spatial evolution of plasma electron density Ne and electron temperature Te. At 3.5 mm away from the target, plasma density showed slow decrease with time, however electron temperature was observed to decrease dramatically. The maximum plasma density and temperature occurred at 0.5 mm away from target and were measured to

  5. Polarity and ion recombination corrections in continuous and pulsed beams for ionization chambers with high Z chamber walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldosary, Ghada; Safigholi, Habib; Song, William; Seuntjens, Jan; Sarfehnia, Arman

    2017-03-01

    In this work, the response of Farmer-type ionization chambers fitted with high atomic number (Z) walls is studied, and results of the effects of such walls on polarity and ion recombination correction factors in both continuous and pulsed beams are presented. Measurements were made in a continuous Co-60 beam and a pulsed 6MV linac beam using an Exradin-A12 ionization chamber fitted with the manufacturer's C-552 plastic wall, as well as geometrically identical walls made from aluminum, copper and molybdenum. The bias voltage was changed between 10values (range: +50 to +560V). Ion recombination was determined from Jaffé plots and by using the "two-voltage technique". The saturation charge measured with each chamber wall was extrapolated from Jaffé plots. Additionally, the effect of different wall materials on chamber response was studied using MCNP simulations. Results showed that the polarity correction factor is not significantly affected by changes in chamber wall material (within 0.1%). Furthermore, although the saturation charges greatly vary with each chamber wall material, and charge multiplication increases for higher atomic number wall materials, the standard methods of calculating ion recombination yielded results that differed by only 0.2%. Therefore, polarity and ion recombination correction factors are not greatly affected by the chamber wall material. The experimental saturation charges for all the different wall materials agreed well within the uncertainty with MCNP simulations. The breakdown of the linear relationship in Jaffé plots that was previously reported to exist for conventional chamber walls was also observed with the different wall materials.

  6. The impact of low-Z and high-Z metal implants in IMRT: A Monte Carlo study of dose inaccuracies in commercial dose algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spadea, Maria Francesca, E-mail: mfspadea@unicz.it [Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, University of Magna Graecia, Catanzaro 88100, Italy and Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States); Verburg, Joost Mathias; Seco, Joao [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States); Baroni, Guido [Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano University, Milano 20133, Italy and Bioengineering Unit, Fondazione CNAO, Pavia 27100 (Italy)

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: The aim of the study was to evaluate the dosimetric impact of low-Z and high-Z metallic implants on IMRT plans. Methods: Computed tomography (CT) scans of three patients were analyzed to study effects due to the presence of Titanium (low-Z), Platinum and Gold (high-Z) inserts. To eliminate artifacts in CT images, a sinogram-based metal artifact reduction algorithm was applied. IMRT dose calculations were performed on both the uncorrected and corrected images using a commercial planning system (convolution/superposition algorithm) and an in-house Monte Carlo platform. Dose differences between uncorrected and corrected datasets were computed and analyzed using gamma index (Pγ{sub <1}) and setting 2 mm and 2% as distance to agreement and dose difference criteria, respectively. Beam specific depth dose profiles across the metal were also examined. Results: Dose discrepancies between corrected and uncorrected datasets were not significant for low-Z material. High-Z materials caused under-dosage of 20%–25% in the region surrounding the metal and over dosage of 10%–15% downstream of the hardware. Gamma index test yielded Pγ{sub <1}>99% for all low-Z cases; while for high-Z cases it returned 91% < Pγ{sub <1}< 99%. Analysis of the depth dose curve of a single beam for low-Z cases revealed that, although the dose attenuation is altered inside the metal, it does not differ downstream of the insert. However, for high-Z metal implants the dose is increased up to 10%–12% around the insert. In addition, Monte Carlo method was more sensitive to the presence of metal inserts than superposition/convolution algorithm. Conclusions: The reduction in terms of dose of metal artifacts in CT images is relevant for high-Z implants. In this case, dose distribution should be calculated using Monte Carlo algorithms, given their superior accuracy in dose modeling in and around the metal. In addition, the knowledge of the composition of metal inserts improves the accuracy of

  7. The ZINGRS Radio Survey: Probing metallicities at high-z with far-IR fine-structure lines and the radio continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferkinhoff, Carl; Higdon, Sarah; Higdon, James L.; Tidwell, Hannah; Rangel, Miguel; Vishwas, Amit; Nikola, Thomas; Stacey, Gordon J.; Brisbin, Drew

    2017-01-01

    The present day Universe is rich in metals that enable efficient cooling of gas in the ISM in order to form stars, create planets and make the building blocks of life as we know it. The Universe did not start in this state - we know that metals had to build up over time with successive generations of stars. Revealing the details of this evolution, however, is challenging and requires probes of metallicity that are not susceptible to dust extinction nor exhibit the degeneracies common to tracers in the visible regime. One possible indicator combines the far-IR fine structure lines with the radio continuum. Recently we have undertaken a multi-band radio continuum survey with the JVLA of high-z galaxies from ZINGRS. These observations will constrain the galaxies’ thermal and nonthermal radio emissions and demonstrate the use of far-IR lines together with radio continuum as a metallicity indicator. ZINGRS, the ZEUS 1 and 2 INvestigated Galaxy Reference Sample, includes ~30 galaxies from z ~ 1 - 4.5 for which the far-IR fine-structure lines (e.g. [CII] 158, [NII] 122, [OIII] 88) have been observed with the ZEUS-1 and 2 instruments. This is the largest collection of far-IR fine-structure line detections at high-z and is ideal for demonstrating the use of this new indicator. Here we describe the theory behind the new indicator, give an overview of ZINGRS, and report on the status of our radio survey.

  8. Enhanced reactive metal wall for dehalogenation of hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howson, Paul E.; Mackenzie, Patricia D.; Horney, David P.

    1996-01-01

    A method is provided for remediation of contaminated solutions using a tiered metal wall or column. The tiered metal wall or column has at least three zones with graduated sizes of reducing metal particles. Contaminated solutions pass through the tiered wall or column to dehalogenate contaminant halogenated hydrocarbons.

  9. Enhanced reactive metal wall for dehalogenation of hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howson, P.E.; Mackenzie, P.D.; Horney, D.P.

    1996-08-06

    A method is provided for remediation of contaminated solutions using a tiered metal wall or column. The tiered metal wall or column has at least three zones with graduated sizes of reducing metal particles. Contaminated solutions pass through the tiered wall or column to dehalogenate contaminant halogenated hydrocarbons. 3 figs.

  10. 高Z重金介质的肿瘤放疗增敏效应研究现状%Research Progress of Radiosensitization Effects of High-Z Metallic Materials in Tumor Radiotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王旭飞

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨高Z重金介质的放射剂量增强效应及其应用于肿瘤放疗增敏的研究历史、当前进展与未来发展方向.方法:全面检索高Z介质表面/界面的剂量效应及其用于肿瘤放疗增敏的早期研究和最新报道.针对近年来开展的重金介质放疗增敏相关研究,按照放疗射线类型和增敏效应研究手段分别进行总结述评,以把握该领域的发展历史和研究现状,并对现存的问题进行讨论和展望.结果:目前针对高Z重金介质的放疗增敏研究主要包括质粒DNA辐照、体外细胞辐照、动物肿瘤模型试验以及剂量学模拟等手段.针对传统X-γ射线放疗的增敏效应研究最为深入,针对同步辐射放疗、质子重离子放疗等先进放疗技术的重金增敏研究也有开展.研究结果已充分证明了重金介质的放射增敏效应及其用于肿瘤放疗增敏的可行性,为临床前试验的进一步开展提供了重要的理论和实验依据.结论:高Z重金介质的肿瘤放疗增敏效应研究近年来取得了较快的进展,部分研究已从增敏效应验证进入放疗试验的增敏参数优化和作用机理研究阶段,为实现其在临床肿瘤放疗中的应用,增敏效应的微观作用机理是必须深入研究的重要课题.%To make a comprehensive review on the researches of the radisensitization effects of high-Z metallic materials in tumor radiotherapy, covering the early-stage work, current progress and further problems for future studies. Methods: Literature on the radioenhancing effects at the surface or interface of high-Z materials and the radiosensitization effects of high-Z metallic materials in radiation therapy of tumor, from early-stage work to newly published reseraches, are reviewed in detail, with regard to different types of therapeutic radations and research methods. Results: With different methods like plasmid DNA and cell irradiation, animal tumor treatment and computer

  11. Final Report for "Stabilization of resistive wall modes using moving metal walls"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forest, Cary B.

    2014-02-05

    The UW experiment used a linear pinch experiment to study the stabilization of MHD by moving metal walls. The methodology of the experiment had three steps. (1) Identify and understand the no-wall MHD instability limits and character, (2) identify and understand the thin-wall MHD instabilities (re- sistive wall mode), and then (3) add the spinning wall and understand its impact on stability properties. During the duration of the grant we accomplished all 3 of these goals, discovered new physics, and completed the experiment as proposed.

  12. Design and Measurement of Metallic Post-Wall Waveguide Components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, T.J.; Bekers, D.J.; Tauritz, J.L.; Vliet, F.E. van

    2009-01-01

    Abstract—In this paper we discuss the design and measurement of a set of metallic post-wall waveguide components for antenna feed structures. The components are manufactured on a single layer printed circuit board and excited by a grounded coplanar waveguide. For a straight transmission line, a 90°

  13. Topological Phase Transition in Metallic Single-Wall Carbon Nanotube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuyama, Rin; Izumida, Wataru; Eto, Mikio

    2017-01-01

    The topological phase transition is theoretically studied in a metallic single-wall carbon nanotube (SWNT) by applying a magnetic field B parallel to the tube. The Z topological invariant, winding number, is changed discontinuously when a small band gap is closed at a critical value of B, which can be observed as a change in the number of edge states owing to the bulk-edge correspondence. This is confirmed by numerical calculations for finite SWNTs of ˜1 µm length, using a one-dimensional lattice model to effectively describe the mixing between σ and π orbitals and spin-orbit interaction, which are relevant to the formation of the band gap in metallic SWNTs.

  14. Modelling Galaxy Formation at high z

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    I describe a semi-analytical model for the formation and evolution of galaxies in hierarchical clustering models, and its predictions for the properties of the galaxy population at high z. The predictions are found to agree well with the observed properties of the Lyman break galaxies found at z sim 3 by Steidel et al. The models predict that the star formation rate per comoving volume should have peaked at z sim 1-2, which also agrees well with recent observational data.

  15. High-Z Coating Experiments on Omega EP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasik, Max; Oh, J.; Stoeckl, C.; Schmitt, A. J.; Aglitskiy, Y.; Obenschain, S. P.

    2016-10-01

    Previous experiments on Nike KrF laser (λ=248nm) at NRL found that a thin (400-800 Å) high-Z (Au or Pd) overcoat on the target is effective in suppressing broadband imprint. Implementation of this technique on the tripled Nd:glass (351nm) NIF would enable higher uniformity direct-drive experiments there. To this end, we are carrying out experiments using the NIF-like beams of Omega EP. On Nike, a low-intensity, highly smooth prepulse heats and pre-expands the low thermal mass metallic coating to 100 um scale length. This likely improves imprint reduction for longer spatial scales because of increased distance between laser absorption and the ablation surface. The 3 ω beams of Omega EP do not have this feature due to nonlinear harmonic conversion. We introduced a means of pre-expanding the high-Z coating to similar length scale on Omega EP using a soft x-ray prepulse, generated by irradiating an auxiliary Au foil 1cm in front of the main target tens of ns prior to the main target drive. Coating dynamics are measured using side-on radiography. The effectiveness of pre-expansion on imprint reduction will be assessed by measurements of the RT-amplified imprint using monochromatic curved crystal radiography. Work supported by the Department of Energy/NNSA.

  16. Through-Metal-Wall Power Delivery and Data Transmission for Enclosed Sensors: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review was to assess the current viable technologies for wireless power delivery and data transmission through metal barriers. Using such technologies sensors enclosed in hermetical metal containers can be powered and communicate through exterior power sources without penetration of the metal wall for wire feed-throughs. In this review, we first discuss the significant and essential requirements for through-metal-wall power delivery and data transmission and then we: (1) descr...

  17. NC INCREMENTAL SHEET METAL FORMING PROCESS AND VERTICAL WALL SQUARE BOX FORMING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Liuru; Mo Jianhua; Xiao Xiangzhi

    2004-01-01

    The forming principle and deformation analysis of NC incremental sheet metal forming process as well as the process planning, experiment and key process parameters of vertical wall square box forming are presented. Because the deformation of sheet metal only occurs around the tool head and the deformed region is subjected to stretch deformation, the deformed region of sheet metal thins, and surface area increases. Sheet metal forming stepwise is to lead to the whole sheet metal deformation. The forming half-apex angle θ and corner radius R are the main process parameters in NC incremental forming of vertical wall square box. According to sine law, a vertical wall square box can't be formed by NC incremental sheet metal forming process in a single process, rather, it must be formed in multi processes. Thus, the parallel line type tool path process method is presented to form the vertical wall square box, and the experiment and analysis are made to verify it.

  18. Redistribution of metals on the JET vessel wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrenberg, J.; Behrisch, R.; Martinelli, A.P.; Coad, J.P.; De Kock, L.; Goodall, D.H.J.; McCracken, G.M.

    1987-02-01

    Wall long term samples (LTS) which were exposed during the 1984 and 1985 operational periods of JET have been investigated by means of surface analysis techniques. The results indicate that deposition of wall material (Fe, Cr, Ni) and its distribution on the vessel wall were strongly affected by wall erosion on bellows protection plates during unstable discharge phases. Erosion sources and deposition sinks are spatially correlated indicating that most of the eroded material is deposited close to its source.

  19. Selective breakdown of metallic pathways in double-walled carbon nanotube networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Allen L; Sun, Yong; Powell, Lyndsey; Sun, Chuan-Fu; Chen, Chien-Fu; Lee, Cheng S; Wang, YuHuang

    2015-01-07

    Covalently functionalized, semiconducting double-walled carbon nanotubes exhibit remarkable properties and can outperform their single-walled carbon nanotube counterparts. In order to harness their potential for electronic applications, metallic double-walled carbon nanotubes must be separated from the semiconductors. However, the inner wall is inaccessible to current separation techniques which rely on the surface properties. Here, the first approach to address this challenge through electrical breakdown of metallic double-walled carbon nanotubes, both inner and outer walls, within networks of mixed electronic types is described. The intact semiconductors demonstrate a ∼62% retention of the ON-state conductance in thin film transistors in response to covalent functionalization. The selective elimination of the metallic pathways improves the ON/OFF ratio, by more than 360 times, to as high as 40 700, while simultaneously retaining high ON-state conductance.

  20. PHYSICAL BASES OF SYSTEMS CREATION FOR MAGNETIC-IMPULSIVE ATTRACTION OF THIN-WALLED SHEET METALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Batygin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The work is dedicated to the physical base of systems creating for the thin-walled sheet metals magnetic pulse attraction. Some practical realization models of the author’s suggestions are represented.

  1. A Computationally-Efficient Numerical Model to Characterize the Noise Behavior of Metal-Framed Walls

    OpenAIRE

    Arjunan, Arun; Wang, Chang; English, Martin; Stanford, Mark; Lister, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Architects, designers, and engineers are making great efforts to design acoustically-efficient metal-framed walls, minimizing acoustic bridging. Therefore, efficient simulation models to predict the acoustic insulation complying with ISO 10140 are needed at a design stage. In order to achieve this, a numerical model consisting of two fluid-filled reverberation chambers, partitioned using a metal-framed wall, is to be simulated at one-third-octaves. This produces a large simulation model consi...

  2. Resonant cavities in metallic single-wall nanotubes: Green's function calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jódar, Esther; Pérez-Garrido, Antonio; Díaz-Sánchez, Anastasio

    2006-05-01

    We study the electronic transport of a metallic single-wall carbon nanotube sandwiched between two equal metallic single-wall nanotubes of different radii. We calculate the transmission function and the density of states using the Green’s function method. This cavity behaves as a resonant box with quasibound states producing resonances and antiresonances in transmission. This behavior is a consequence of the different band structures for nanotubes forming the cavity.

  3. Through-Metal-Wall Power Delivery and Data Transmission for Enclosed Sensors: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ding-Xin; Hu, Zheng; Zhao, Hong; Hu, Hai-Feng; Sun, Yun-Zhe; Hou, Bao-Jian

    2015-12-15

    The aim of this review was to assess the current viable technologies for wireless power delivery and data transmission through metal barriers. Using such technologies sensors enclosed in hermetical metal containers can be powered and communicate through exterior power sources without penetration of the metal wall for wire feed-throughs. In this review, we first discuss the significant and essential requirements for through-metal-wall power delivery and data transmission and then we: (1) describe three electromagnetic coupling based techniques reported in the literature, which include inductive coupling, capacitive coupling, and magnetic resonance coupling; (2) present a detailed review of wireless ultrasonic through-metal-wall power delivery and/or data transmission methods; (3) compare various ultrasonic through-metal-wall systems in modeling, transducer configuration and communication mode with sensors; (4) summarize the characteristics of electromagnetic-based and ultrasound-based systems, evaluate the challenges and development trends. We conclude that electromagnetic coupling methods are suitable for through thin non-ferromagnetic metal wall power delivery and data transmission at a relatively low data rate; piezoelectric transducer-based ultrasonic systems are particularly advantageous in achieving high power transfer efficiency and high data rates; the combination of more than one single technique may provide a more practical and reliable solution for long term operation.

  4. Through-Metal-Wall Power Delivery and Data Transmission for Enclosed Sensors: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding-Xin Yang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review was to assess the current viable technologies for wireless power delivery and data transmission through metal barriers. Using such technologies sensors enclosed in hermetical metal containers can be powered and communicate through exterior power sources without penetration of the metal wall for wire feed-throughs. In this review, we first discuss the significant and essential requirements for through-metal-wall power delivery and data transmission and then we: (1 describe three electromagnetic coupling based techniques reported in the literature, which include inductive coupling, capacitive coupling, and magnetic resonance coupling; (2 present a detailed review of wireless ultrasonic through-metal-wall power delivery and/or data transmission methods; (3 compare various ultrasonic through-metal-wall systems in modeling, transducer configuration and communication mode with sensors; (4 summarize the characteristics of electromagnetic-based and ultrasound-based systems, evaluate the challenges and development trends. We conclude that electromagnetic coupling methods are suitable for through thin non-ferromagnetic metal wall power delivery and data transmission at a relatively low data rate; piezoelectric transducer-based ultrasonic systems are particularly advantageous in achieving high power transfer efficiency and high data rates; the combination of more than one single technique may provide a more practical and reliable solution for long term operation.

  5. Growth of metal-catalyst-free nitrogen-doped metallic single-wall carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin-Cheng; Hou, Peng-Xiang; Zhang, Lili; Liu, Chang; Cheng, Hui-Ming

    2014-09-01

    Nitrogen-doped (N-doped) single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were synthesized by chemical vapor deposition using SiOx nanoparticles as a catalyst and ethylenediamine as the source of both carbon and nitrogen. The N-doped SWCNTs have a mean diameter of 1.1 nm and a narrow diameter range, with 92% of them having diameters from 0.7 to 1.4 nm. Multi-wavelength laser Raman spectra and temperature-dependent electrical resistance indicate that the SWCNT sample is enriched with metallic nanotubes. These N-doped SWCNTs showed excellent electrocatalytic activity for the oxygen reduction reaction and highly selective and sensitive sensing ability for dopamine detection.Nitrogen-doped (N-doped) single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were synthesized by chemical vapor deposition using SiOx nanoparticles as a catalyst and ethylenediamine as the source of both carbon and nitrogen. The N-doped SWCNTs have a mean diameter of 1.1 nm and a narrow diameter range, with 92% of them having diameters from 0.7 to 1.4 nm. Multi-wavelength laser Raman spectra and temperature-dependent electrical resistance indicate that the SWCNT sample is enriched with metallic nanotubes. These N-doped SWCNTs showed excellent electrocatalytic activity for the oxygen reduction reaction and highly selective and sensitive sensing ability for dopamine detection. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional information including Raman spectra, ORR polarization curves, CV curves, etc. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr03172e

  6. Avoiding metallic walls: Use of modal superposition in plasmonic waveguides to reduce propagation loss

    CERN Document Server

    Rodríguez-Fortuño, Francisco J

    2011-01-01

    We theoretically explore the possibility of reducing the propagation loss in a metal-insulator-metal (MIM) waveguide, using mode combinations to achieve wall-avoiding field distributions along a certain propagation length. We present analytical results for several waveguides showing notable loss reduction, and we discuss the tradeoffs between low loss and high confinement present in this technique.

  7. Resistive sensor and electromagnetic actuator for feedback stabilization of liquid metal walls in fusion reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Mirhoseini, S H M

    2016-01-01

    Liquid metal walls in fusion reactors will be subject to instabilities, turbulence, induced currents, error fields and temperature gradients that will make them locally bulge, thus entering in contact with the plasma, or deplete, hence exposing the underlying solid substrate. To prevent this, research has begun to actively stabilize static or flowing liquid metal layers by locally applying forces in feedback with thickness measurements. Here we present resistive sensors of liquid metal thickness and demonstrate jxB actuators, to locally control it.

  8. Strain Induced Insulator-Metal Transition in Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁建文; 颜晓红; 刘超平; 唐娜斯

    2004-01-01

    In terms of a single-π orbital model, an analytical expression of the lowest-lying conduction-band and the highestlying valence-band is derived for single wall carbon nanotubes under both the uniaxial and torsional strains. We observe not only semiconductor-metal transitions in primary metallic tubes, but also insulator-metal transitions in semiconducting tubes. Additionally, an indirect transition of electrons and a quantized electron-resonance have been expected in optical spectrum experiments of the nanotubes.

  9. Plasma operation with an all metal first-wall: Comparison of an ITER-like wall with a carbon wall in JET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, G. F.; Jet Efda Contributors; ASDEX-Upgrade Team

    2013-07-01

    Installation of the ITER-like Wall (ILW) in JET, has allowed a direct comparison of operation with all carbon plasma facing components (PFCs) to an all metal beryllium/tungsten first-wall under otherwise nearly identical conditions. The JET results are compared with experience from ASDEX-Upgrade where there was a gradual change to a full tungsten first-wall over an extended period. The scope of this review ranges from experience with machine conditioning, impurities and breakdown to material migration, fuel retention, disruptions, impact on operational space, energy confinement and compatibility with impurity seeding. Significant changes are reported, not only in the physics directly related to plasma-surface interactions but also to the main plasma which is strongly affected in unexpected ways, impacting many aspects of tokamak operation.

  10. Achievement of Runaway Electron Energy Dissipation by High-Z Gas Injection in DIII-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollmann, E. M.

    2014-10-01

    Disruption runaway electron (RE) formation followed by RE beam-wall strikes is a concern for future tokamaks, motivating the study of mitigation techniques to reduce the RE beam energy in a controlled manner. A promising approach for doing this is the injection of high-Z gas into the RE beam. Massive (100 torr-l) injection of high-Z gas into RE beams in DIII-D is shown to significantly dissipate both RE magnetic and kinetic energy. For example, injection of argon into a typical 300 kA current RE beam is observed to cause a drop in kinetic energy from 50 kJ to 10 kJ in 10 ms, thus rapidly reducing the damage-causing capability of the RE beam. Both the RE kinetic energy and pitch angle are important for determining the resulting wall damage, with high energy, high pitch angle electrons typically considered most dangerous. The RE energy distribution is found to be more skewed toward low energies than predicted by avalanche theory. The pitch angle is not found to be constant, as is frequently assumed, but is shown to drop from sin(θ) ~ 1 for energies less than 1 MeV to sin(θ) ~ 0 . 2 for energies greater than 10 MeV. Injection of high-Z impurities does not appear to change the overall shape of the energy or pitch angle distributions dramatically. The enhanced RE energy dissipation appears to be caused primarily via collisions with the cold plasma leading to line radiation. Synchrotron power loss only becomes significant in the absence of high-Z impurities, while radial transport loss of REs is seen to become dominant if the RE beam moves sufficiently close to the vessel walls. The experiments demonstrate that avalanche theory somewhat underestimates collisional dissipation of REs in the presence of high-Z atoms, even in the absence of radial transport losses, meaning that reducing RE wall damage in large tokamaks should be easier than previously expected. Supported by the US Department of Energy under DE-FG02-07ER54917 and DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  11. Space-resolved Resistive Measurement of Liquid Metal Wall Thickness

    CERN Document Server

    Mirhoseini, S M H

    2016-01-01

    In a fusion reactor internally coated with liquid metal, it will be important to diagnose the thickness of the liquid at various locations in the vessel, as a function of time, and possibly respond to counteract undesired bulging or depletion. The electrical conductance between electrodes immersed in the liquid metal can be used as a simple proxy for the local thickness. Here a matrix of electrodes is shown to provide spatially resolved measurements of liquid metal thickness in the absence of plasma. First a theory is developed for mxn electrodes, and then it is experimentally demonstrated for 3x1 electrodes. The experiments were carried out with Galinstan, but are easily extended to Lithium or other liquid metals.

  12. Electronic transport properties of metallic single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹觉先; 颜晓红; 肖杨; 丁建文

    2003-01-01

    We have calculated the differential conductance of metallic carbon nanotubes by the scatter matrix method. It is found that the differential conductance of metallic nanotube-based devices oscillates as a function of the bias voltage between the two leads and the gate voltage. Oscillation period T is directly proportional to the reciprocal of nanotube length. In addition, we found that electronic transport properties are sensitive to variation of the length of the nanotube.

  13. Heavy Metal Bioaccumulation in an Atypical Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor of the Abdominal Wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncati, Luca; Gatti, Antonietta Morena; Capitani, Federico; Barbolini, Giuseppe; Maiorana, Antonio; Palmieri, Beniamino

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metals are able to interfere with the function of vital cellular components. Besides in trace heavy metals, which are essential at low concentration for humans, there are heavy metals with a well-known toxic and oncogenic potential. In this study, for the first time in literature, we report the unique adulthood case of an atypical primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the abdominal wall, diagnosed by histology and immunohistochemistry, with the molecular hybridization support. The neoplasia occurred in a patient chronically exposed to a transdermal delivery of heavy metal salts (aluminum and bismuth), whose intracellular bioaccumulation has been revealed by elemental microanalysis.

  14. Study of Plant Cell Wall Polymers Affected by Metal Accumulation Using Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Shi-You [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2015-03-02

    This project aims to employ newly-developed chemical imaging techniques to measure, in real-time, the concentration, dynamics and spatial distribution of plant cell wall polymers during biomass growth with inoculation of transgenic symbiotic fungi, and to explore a new pathway of delivering detoxified metal to plant apoplast using transgenic symbiotic fungi, which will enhance metal accumulation from soil, and potentially these metals may in turn be used as catalysts to improve the efficiency of biomass conversion to biofuels. The proposed new pathway of biomass production will: 1) benefit metal and radionuclide contaminant mobility in subsurface environments, and 2) potentially improve biomass production and process for bioenergy

  15. Decoration of Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes by Metal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    metal catalyst support for electrocatalytic and sensing applica- tions because of their ... for catalysis6 or in electronics.7 Modern electronics devices based on carbon ..... 3 E.G. Rakov, Nanomaterials Handbook, 2006, 56, 105–175. 4 S.C. Mu ...

  16. Process for separating metallic from semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ya-Ping (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A method for separating semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes from metallic single-walled carbon nanotubes is disclosed. The method utilizes separation agents that preferentially associate with semiconducting nanotubes due to the electrical nature of the nanotubes. The separation agents are those that have a planar orientation, .pi.-electrons available for association with the surface of the nanotubes, and also include a soluble portion of the molecule. Following preferential association of the separation agent with the semiconducting nanotubes, the agent/nanotubes complex is soluble and can be solubilized with the solution enriched in semiconducting nanotubes while the residual solid is enriched in metallic nanotubes.

  17. On the intergalactic attenuation for high-z galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Akio K.

    2015-01-01

    Even after the cosmic reionization, neutral hydrogen still remains in the intergalactic space. These intervening hydrogen atoms absorb the radiation from high-z objects and make a numerous absorption lines, the so-called Lyman alpha forest, in the spectra of the objects. To know the absorption amount as a function of redshift is essentially important for studies of the high-z objects, for example, to predict how much reddening occurs in the spectra of the high-z galaxies, which is used as the so-called Lyman break technique. The current standard model for the intergalactic attenuation is Madau (1995). However, the intergalactic absorbers' statistics, which is the ingredient of the model, is largely updated during two decades after Madau (1995). Here, I present an update of this kind model. I also show a preliminary result of the absorption excess in a proto-cluster environment found in a composite spectrum of galaxies behind the proto-cluster.

  18. Metals attenuation in minerally-enhanced slurry walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, J.C.; Prince, M.J. [Bucknell Univ., Lewisburg, PA (United States); Adams, T.L. [Woodward-Clyde Consultants, Blue Bell, PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    In current practice, a soil-bentonite slurry trench cutoff wall is a mixture of water, soil, and bentonite that is designed to serve as a passive barrier to ground water and contaminant transport. This study evaluated the transformation of a passive slurry trench cutoff wall barrier to an active barrier system. Conventional soil-bentonite vertical barriers presently serve as passive barriers to contaminated ground water. An active barrier will not only fulfill the functions of the present passive barrier system, but also retard contaminant transport by adsorptive processes. Attapulgite, Na-chabazite, and Ca-chabazite were added to {open_quotes}activate{close_quotes} the conventional soil-bentonite backfill. Batch extraction tests were performed to determine the partitioning coefficients of cadmium and zinc between the liquid and solid phase when in contact with the backfill mixes. Batch extraction and mathematical modeling results demonstrate the ability of an active barrier to retard the transport of cadmium and zinc. The reactivity of the soil-bentonite vertical barrier depends heavily on the inorganic being adsorbed. The reactivity of the barrier also depends on the adsorptive capabilities of the clay minerals added to the conventional soil-bentonite vertical barrier. The results of laboratory studies suggest that passive barrier systems can be transformed to active systems. Further, the data suggests that although conventional soil-bentonite vertical barriers are presently designed as passive barriers, they already have adsorptive capacity associated with active barriers.

  19. Synthesis and Characterization of Magnetic Metal-encapsulated Multi-walled Carbon Nanobeads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leela Mohana Reddy A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractA novel, cost-effective, easy and single-step process for the synthesis of large quantities of magnetic metal-encapsulated multi-walled carbon nanobeads (MWNB and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT using catalytic chemical vapour deposition of methane over Mischmetal-based AB3alloy hydride catalyst is presented. The growth mechanism of metal-encapsulated MWNB and MWNT has been discussed based on the catalytically controlled root-growth mode. These carbon nanostructures have been characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and HRTEM, energy dispersive analysis of X-ray (EDAX and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. Magnetic properties of metal-filled nanobeads have been studied using PAR vibrating sample magnetometer up to a magnetic field of 10 kOe, and the results have been compared with those of metal-filled MWNT.

  20. Characteristics of extreme ultraviolet emission from high-Z plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, H.; Higashiguchi, T.; Suzuki, Y.; Kawasaki, M.; Suzuki, C.; Tomita, K.; Nishikino, M.; Fujioka, S.; Endo, A.; Li, B.; Otsuka, T.; Dunne, P.; O'Sullivan, G.

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and soft x-ray sources in the 2 to 7 nm spectral region related to the beyond EUV (BEUV) question at 6.x nm and the water window source based on laser-produced high-Z plasmas. Resonance emission from multiply charged ions merges to produce intense unresolved transition arrays (UTAs), extending below the carbon K edge (4.37 nm). An outline of a microscope design for single-shot live cell imaging is proposed based on high-Z plasma UTA source, coupled to multilayer mirror optics.

  1. Random telegraph noise in metallic single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Hyun-Jong; Woo Uhm, Tae; Won Kim, Sung; Gyu You, Young; Wook Lee, Sang; Ho Jhang, Sung, E-mail: shjhang@konkuk.ac.kr [Division of Quantum Phases and Devices, School of Physics, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Campbell, Eleanor E. B. [Division of Quantum Phases and Devices, School of Physics, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); EaStCHEM, School of Chemistry, Edinburgh University, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JJ (United Kingdom); Woo Park, Yung [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-12

    We have investigated random telegraph noise (RTN) observed in individual metallic carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Mean lifetimes in high- and low-current states, τ{sub high} and τ{sub low}, have been studied as a function of bias-voltage and gate-voltage as well as temperature. By analyzing the statistics and features of the RTN, we suggest that this noise is due to the random transition of defects between two metastable states, activated by inelastic scattering with conduction electrons. Our results indicate an important role of defect motions in the 1/f noise in CNTs.

  2. A Computationally-Efficient Numerical Model to Characterize the Noise Behavior of Metal-Framed Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Arjunan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Architects, designers, and engineers are making great efforts to design acoustically-efficient metal-framed walls, minimizing acoustic bridging. Therefore, efficient simulation models to predict the acoustic insulation complying with ISO 10140 are needed at a design stage. In order to achieve this, a numerical model consisting of two fluid-filled reverberation chambers, partitioned using a metal-framed wall, is to be simulated at one-third-octaves. This produces a large simulation model consisting of several millions of nodes and elements. Therefore, efficient meshing procedures are necessary to obtain better solution times and to effectively utilise computational resources. Such models should also demonstrate effective Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI along with acoustic-fluid coupling to simulate a realistic scenario. In this contribution, the development of a finite element frequency-dependent mesh model that can characterize the sound insulation of metal-framed walls is presented. Preliminary results on the application of the proposed model to study the geometric contribution of stud frames on the overall acoustic performance of metal-framed walls are also presented. It is considered that the presented numerical model can be used to effectively visualize the noise behaviour of advanced materials and multi-material structures.

  3. Large structural, thin-wall castings made of metals subject to hot tearing, and their fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smashey, Russell W. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    An article, such as a gas turbine engine mixer, is made by providing a mold structure defining a thin-walled, hollow article, and a base metal that is subject to hot tear cracking when cast in a generally equiaxed polycrystalline form, such as Rene' 108 and Mar-M247. The article is fabricated by introducing the molten base metal into the mold structure, and directionally solidifying the base metal in the mold structure to form a directionally oriented structure. The directionally oriented structure may be formed of a single grain or oriented multiple grains.

  4. Transition of single-walled carbon nanotubes from metallic to semiconducting in field-effect transistors by hydrogen plasma treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Gang; Li, Qunqing; Jiang, Kaili; Zhang, Xiaobo; Chen, Jia; Ren, Zheng; Fan, Shoushan

    2007-06-01

    We report hydrogen plasma treatment results on converting the metallic single-walled carbon nanotubes to semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes. We found that the as-grown single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) can be sorted as three groups which behave as metallic, as-metallic, and semiconducting SWNTs. These three groups have different changes under hydrogen plasma treatment and successive annealing process. The SWNTs can be easily hydrogenated in the hydrogen plasma environment and the as-metallic SWNTs can be transformed to semiconducting SWNTs. The successive annealing process can break the C-H bond, so the conversion is reversible.

  5. Separated metallic and semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes: opportunities in transparent electrodes and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Fushen; Meziani, Mohammed J; Cao, Li; Sun, Ya-Ping

    2011-04-19

    Ever since the discovery of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), there have been many reports and predictions on their superior properties for use in a wide variety of potential applications. However, an SWNT is either metallic or semiconducting; these properties are distinctively different in electrical conductivity and many other aspects. The available bulk-production methods generally yield mixtures of metallic and semiconducting SWNTs, despite continuing efforts in metallicity-selective nanotube growth. Presented here are significant advances and major achievements in the development of postproduction separation methods, which are now capable of harvesting separated metallic and semiconducting SWNTs from different production sources with sufficiently high enrichment and quantities for satisfying at least the needs in research and technological explorations. Opportunities and some available examples for the use of metallic SWNTs in transparent electrodes and semiconducting SWNTs in various device nanotechnologies are highlighted and discussed.

  6. Metallic Interface Emerging at Magnetic Domain Wall of Antiferromagnetic Insulator: Fate of Extinct Weyl Electrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youhei Yamaji

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Topological insulators, in contrast to ordinary semiconductors, accompany protected metallic surfaces described by Dirac-type fermions. Here, we theoretically show that another emergent two-dimensional metal embedded in the bulk insulator is realized at a magnetic domain wall. The domain wall has long been studied as an ingredient of both old-fashioned and leading-edge spintronics. The domain wall here, as an interface of seemingly trivial antiferromagnetic insulators, emergently realizes a functional interface preserved by zero modes with robust two-dimensional Fermi surfaces, where pyrochlore iridium oxides proposed to host the condensed-matter realization of Weyl fermions offer such examples at low temperatures. The existence of in-gap states that are pinned at domain walls, theoretically resembling spin or charge solitons in polyacetylene, and protected as the edges of hidden one-dimensional weak Chern insulators characterized by a zero-dimensional class-A topological invariant, solves experimental puzzles observed in R_{2}Ir_{2}O_{7} with rare-earth elements R. The domain wall realizes a novel quantum confinement of electrons and embosses a net uniform magnetization that enables magnetic control of electronic interface transports beyond the semiconductor paradigm.

  7. Synthesis of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes: Effects of Active Metals, Catalyst Supports, and Metal Loading Percentage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Wen Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of active metals, catalyst supports, and metal loading percentage on the formation of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs were studied. In particular, iron, cobalt, and nickel were investigated for SWNTs synthesis. Iron was found to grow better-quality SWNTs compared to cobalt and nickel. To study the effect of catalyst supports, magnesium oxide, silicon oxide, and aluminium oxide were chosen for iron. Among the studied supports, MgO was identified to be a suitable support for iron as it produced SWNTs with better graphitisation determined by Raman analysis. Increasing the iron loading decreased the quality of SWNTs due to extensive agglomeration of the iron particles. Thus, lower metal loading percentage is preferred to grow better-quality SWNTs with uniform diameters.

  8. Simulation of die wall friction's effect on density distribution in metallic powder compaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周照耀; 赵伟斌; 陈普庆; 陈维平; 邵明; 王郡文

    2002-01-01

    A computer simulation procedure for metal powder die compaction was described. Friction behavior of metal powder during cold compaction was simulated by the finite element method. The movement of powder relative to the die wall was taken into consideration by utilizing the shear friction model. Friction between the powder and the rigid die wall leads to inhomogeneous density distribution during the compaction process. The floating die technique and double punch pressing can attain more homogenous compacts than the fixed die technique can do. The results obtained from numerical analysis agree well with the experimental results. Simulation model was built in MSC.Mentat, and MSC.Marc software was used to calculate the powder compaction process.

  9. Reduction of Injection Pressure for Thin Walled Molding using the Laser Metal Sintered Mold

    OpenAIRE

    米山, 猛; 内藤, 圭亮; 阿部, 諭; 宮丸, 充

    2010-01-01

    Using milling combined laser metal sintering, porous surface has been fabricated on the thin walled cavity closed by the surrounded thick cavity in the injection mold. Resin flows into the cavity of 2mm thick at first around the thin part and then flows into the thin cavity of 0.2mm thick with 11mm square by packing pressure. The packing pressure for filling the thin part was compared among laser metal sintered mold with or without porous surface, steel mold with or without porous block. The ...

  10. Characterizations of Enriched Metallic Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes in Polymer Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin; Li, Jing; Lu, Yijiang; Cinke, Martin; Au, Dyng; Harmon, Julie P.; Muisener, Patricia Anne O.; Clayton, LaNetra; D'Angelo, John

    2003-01-01

    Using different processing conditions, we disperse the single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) into the polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) to form composites. In the melt-blended sample, the SWNTs originally semiconducting - became predominantly metallic after dispersion into the melt-blended composite. The interaction of the PMMA and SWNT is investigated by the polarized Raman studies. The structure changes in the PMMA and SWNT shows that the anisotropic interactions are responsible for SWNT electronic density of states (DOS) changes. The increased metallic SWNT percentage is confirmed by the conductivity and dielectric constant measurements .

  11. Metal-Assisted Hydrogen Storage on Pt-Decorated Single-Walled Carbon Nanohorns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yun [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Brown, Craig [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Neumann, Dan [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Geohegan, David B [ORNL; Puretzky, Alexander A [ORNL; Rouleau, Christopher M [ORNL; Hu, Hui [ORNL; Styers-Barnett, David J [ORNL; Krasnov, Pavel O. [Rice University; Yakobson, Boris I. [Rice University

    2012-01-01

    The catalytic dissociation of hydrogen molecules by metal nanoparticles and spillover of atomic hydrogen onto various supports is a well-established phenomenon in catalysis. However, the mechanisms by which metal catalyst nanoparticles can assist in enhanced hydrogen storage on high-surface area supports are still under debate. Experimental measurements of metal-assisted hydrogen storage have been hampered by inaccurate estimation of atomically stored hydrogen deduced from comparative measurements between metal-decorated and undecorated samples. Here we report a temperature cycling technique combined with inelastic neutron scattering (INS) measurements of quantum rotational transitions of molecular H2 to more accurately quantify adsorbed hydrogen aided by catalytic particles using single samples. Temperature cycling measurements on single-wall carbon nanohorns (SWCNHs) decorated with 2-3 nm Pt nanoparticles showed 0.17 % mass fraction of metal-assisted hydrogen storage (at 0.5 MPa) at room temperature. Temperature cycling of Pt-decorated SWCNHs using a Sievert s apparatus also indicated metal-assisted hydrogen adsorption of 0.08 % mass fraction at 5 MPa at room temperature. No additional metal-assisted hydrogen storage was observed in SWCNH samples without Pt nanoparticles cycled to room temperature, or in Pt-SWCNHs when the temperature was cycled to less than 150K. The possible formation of C-H bonds due to spilled-over atomic hydrogen was also investigated using both INS and density functional theory calculations.

  12. Ground state hyperfine splitting of high Z hydrogenlike ions

    CERN Document Server

    Shabaev, V M; Kühl, T; Artemiev, A N; Yerokhin, V A

    1997-01-01

    The ground state hyperfine splitting values of high Z hydrogenlike ions are calculated. The relativistic, nuclear and QED corrections are taken into account. The nuclear magnetization distribution correction (the Bohr-Weisskopf effect) is evaluated within the single particle model with the g_{S}-factor chosen to yield the observed nuclear moment. An additional contribution caused by the nuclear spin-orbit interaction is included in the calculation of the Bohr-Weisskopf effect. It is found that the theoretical value of the wavelength of the transition between the hyperfine splitting components in ^{165}Ho^{66+} is in good agreement with experiment.

  13. Selective etching of metallic single-wall carbon nanotubes with hydrogen plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanien, A; Tokumoto, M; Umek, P; Vrbanič, D; Mozetič, M; Mihailović, D; Venturini, P; Pejovnik, S

    2005-02-01

    We present Raman scattering and scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) measurements on hydrogen plasma etched single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). Interestingly, both the STM and Raman spectroscopy show that the metallic SWNTs are dramatically altered and highly defected by the plasma treatment. In addition, structural characterizations show that metal catalysts are detached from the ends of the SWNT bundles. For semiconducting SWNTs we observe no feature of defects or etching along the nanotubes. Raman spectra in the radial breathing mode region of plasma-treated SWNT material show that most of the tubes are semiconducting. These results show that hydrogen plasma treatment favours etching of metallic nanotubes over semiconducting ones and therefore could be used to tailor the electronic properties of SWNT raw materials.

  14. Optimal Shakedown of the Thin-Wall Metal Structures Under Strength and Stiffness Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alawdin Piotr

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Classical optimization problems of metal structures confined mainly with 1st class cross-sections. But in practice it is common to use the cross-sections of higher classes. In this paper, a new mathematical model for described shakedown optimization problem for metal structures, which elements are designed from 1st to 4th class cross-sections, under variable quasi-static loads is presented. The features of limited plastic redistribution of forces in the structure with thin-walled elements there are taken into account. Authors assume the elastic-plastic flexural buckling in one plane without lateral torsional buckling behavior of members. Design formulae for Methods 1 and 2 for members are analyzed. Structures stiffness constrains are also incorporated in order to satisfy the limit serviceability state requirements. With the help of mathematical programming theory and extreme principles the structure optimization algorithm is developed and justified with the numerical experiment for the metal plane frames.

  15. GRB Probes of the High-z Universe with EXIST

    CERN Document Server

    Grindlay, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    The Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST) mission concept is optimized for study of high-z GRBs as probes of the early Universe. With a High Energy Telescope (HET) incorporating a 4.5m^2 5-600keV (CZT; 0.6mm pixels) detector plane for coded aperture imaging a 90deg x 70deg (>10% coding fraction) field of view with 2' resolution and 5 sigma sources, EXIST will perform rapid (7, EXIST will open a new era in studies of the early Universe as well as carry o ut a rich program of AGN and transient-source science. An overview of the GRB science objectives and a brief discussion of the overall mission design and operations is given, and example high-z GRB IRT spectra are shown. EXIST is being proposed to the Astro2010 Decadal Survey as a 5 year Medium Class mission that could be launched as early as 2017.

  16. Experiments with Liquid Metal Walls: Status of the Lithium Tokamak Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaita, Robert; Boyle, Dennis; Gray, Timothy; Granstedt, Erik; Hammett, Gregory; Jacobson, Craig M; Jones, Andrew; Kozub, Thomas; Kugel, Henry; Leblanc, Benoit; Logan, Nicholas; Lucia, Matthew; Lundberg, Daniel; Majeski, Richard; Mansfield, Dennis; Menard, Jonathan; Spaleta, Jeffrey; Strickler, Trevor

    2010-02-16

    Liquid metal walls have been proposed to address the first wall challenge for fusion reactors. The Lithium Tokamak Experiment (LTX) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) is the first magnetic confinement device to have liquid metal plasma-facing components (PFC's) that encloses virtually the entire plasma. In the Current Drive Experiment-Upgrade (CDX-U), a predecessor to LTX at PPPL, the highest improvement in energy confinement ever observed in Ohmically-heated tokamak plasmas was achieved with a toroidal liquid lithium limiter. The LTX extends this liquid lithium PFC by using a conducting conformal shell that almost completely surrounds the plasma. By heating the shell, a lithium coating on the plasma-facing side can be kept liquefied. A consequence of the low-recycling conditions from liquid lithium walls is the need for efficient plasma fueling. For this purpose, a molecular cluster injector is being developed. Future plans include the installation of a neutral beam for core plasma fueling, and also ion temperature measurements using charge-exchange recombination spectroscopy. Low edge recycling is also predicted to reduce temperature gradients that drive drift wave turbulence. Gyrokinetic simulations are in progress to calculate fluctuation levels and transport for LTX plasmas, and new fluctuation diagnostics are under development to test these predictions. __________________________________________________

  17. Experiments with liquid metal walls: Status of the lithium tokamak experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaita, Robert, E-mail: kaita@pppl.gov [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ (United States); Berzak, Laura; Boyle, Dennis; Gray, Timothy; Granstedt, Erik; Hammett, Gregory; Jacobson, Craig M.; Jones, Andrew; Kozub, Thomas; Kugel, Henry; Leblanc, Benoit; Logan, Nicholas; Lucia, Matthew; Lundberg, Daniel; Majeski, Richard; Mansfield, Dennis; Menard, Jonathan; Spaleta, Jeffrey; Strickler, Trevor; Timberlake, John [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2010-11-15

    Abstarct: Liquid metal walls have been proposed to address the first wall challenge for fusion reactors. The lithium tokamak experiment (LTX) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) is the first magnetic confinement device to have liquid metal plasma-facing components (PFC's) that encloses virtually the entire plasma. In the current drive experiment-upgrade (CDX-U), a predecessor to LTX at PPPL, the highest improvement in energy confinement ever observed in ohmically heated tokamak plasmas was achieved with a toroidal liquid lithium limiter. The LTX extends this liquid lithium PFC by using a conducting conformal shell that almost completely surrounds the plasma. By heating the shell, a lithium coating on the plasma-facing side can be kept liquefied. A consequence of the low-recycling conditions from liquid lithium walls is the need for efficient plasma fueling. For this purpose, a molecular cluster injector is being developed. Future plans include the installation of a neutral beam for core plasma fueling, and also ion temperature measurements using charge-exchange recombination spectroscopy (CHERS). Low edge recycling is also predicted to reduce temperature gradients that drive drift wave turbulence. Gyrokinetic simulations are in progress to calculate fluctuation levels and transport for LTX plasmas, and new fluctuation diagnostics are under development to test these predictions.

  18. High-Power Piezoelectric Acoustic-Electric Power Feedthru for Metal Walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Xiaoqi; Biederman, Will; Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Jones, Christopher; Aldrich, Jack; Chang, Zensheu

    2008-01-01

    Piezoelectric acoustic-electric power feed-through devices transfer electric power wirelessly through a solid wall by using acoustic waves. This approach allows for the removal of holes through structures. The technology is applicable to power supply for electric equipment inside sealed containers, vacuum or pressure vessels, etc where the holes on the wall are prohibitive or result in significant performance degrade or complex designs. In the author's previous work, 100-W electric power was transferred through a metal wall by a small, simple-structure piezoelectric device. To meet requirements of higher power applications, the feasibility to transfer kilowatts level power was investigated. Pre-stressed longitudinal piezoelectric feedthru devices were analyzed by finite element model. An equivalent circuit model was developed to predict the power transfer characteristics to different electric loads. Based on the analysis results, a prototype device was designed, fabricated and a demonstration of the transmission of electric power up to 1-kW was successfully conducted. The methods to minimize the plate wave excitation on the wall were also analyzed. Both model analysis and experimental results are presented in detail in this presentation.

  19. wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irshad Kashif

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Maintaining indoor climatic conditions of buildings compatible with the occupant comfort by consuming minimum energy, especially in a tropical climate becomes a challenging problem for researchers. This paper aims to investigate this problem by evaluating the effect of different kind of Photovoltaic Trombe wall system (PV-TW on thermal comfort, energy consumption and CO2 emission. A detailed simulation model of a single room building integrated with PV-TW was modelled using TRNSYS software. Results show that 14-35% PMV index and 26-38% PPD index reduces as system shifted from SPV-TW to DGPV-TW as compared to normal buildings. Thermal comfort indexes (PMV and PPD lie in the recommended range of ASHARE for both DPV-TW and DGPV-TW except for the few months when RH%, solar radiation intensity and ambient temperature were high. Moreover PVTW system significantly reduces energy consumption and CO2 emission of the building and also 2-4.8 °C of temperature differences between indoor and outdoor climate of building was examined.

  20. High-z Universe with Gamma Ray Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouveliotou, C.

    2011-01-01

    Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) are the most luminous explosions in space and trace the cosmic star formation history back to the first generations of stars. Their bright afterglows allow us to trace the abundances of heavy elements to large distances, thereby measuring cosmic chemical evolution. To date GRBs have been detected up to distances of z=8.23 and possibly even beyond z9. This makes GRBs a unique and powerful tool to probe the high-z Universe up to the re-ionization era. We discuss the current status of the field, place it in context with other probes, and also discuss new mission concepts that have been planned to utilize GRBs as probes.

  1. Luminous, High-z, Type-2 Quasars are Still Missing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Gordon T.; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Rivera, Angelica

    2017-01-01

    A simple unified model suggests that there should be roughly equal numbers of type-1 (unobscured) and type 2 (obscured) quasars. However, we argue that the expected population of luminous, high-z, type-2 quasars are still missing. While large numbers of type-2 AGNs have now been identified (both via spectroscopy and through color-based arguments in the optical, IR, and X-ray), the vast majority of these are low-luminosity objects at zmodel" predict similar numbers of type-1 and type-2 quasars, this conspicuous lack of luminous type-2 quasars at high-redshift constitutes a major unsolved problem. To uncover these missing type-2 quasars, we explore a candidate selection algorithm that utilizes the sky area of AllWISE, the depth/resolution of large-area Spitzer-IRAC surveys, and optical data from the SDSS.

  2. Stress-induced self-rolled metal/insulator bifilm microtube with micromesh walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kook-Nyung; Seo, Yeong-Tai; Lee, Min-Ho; Jung, Suk-Won; Kim, Yong-Kweon; Kim, Jung-Mu; Kyeong Seong, Woo

    2013-01-01

    A metal/insulator microtube with micromesh walls was constructed using stress-assisted self-rolling technology. The mesh-sidewall Pt/Ti/SiO2 microtube was self-formed by a tensile-stressed metal Pt/Ti film deposited onto a pre-patterned SiO2 micromesh layer. The microtube measured about 25 µm in diameter and was longer than 7 mm. The sidewall of the microtube was a square mesh, 5-20 µm long, and was electrically connected to electrical pads for electrical conductance measurement. The electrical resistance of the rolled-up microtube was measured to be 250-350 Ω when the microtube resistor's length was around 540 µm. The real-time measurement of the conductance change of the microtube with a Pt resistor could monitor the temperature change generated by heat injection. The microtube with micromesh walls is expected to be an interesting structure that has promising potential for use in electronics, chemical and biological applications.

  3. Detecting high-$z$ galaxies in the Near Infrared Background

    CERN Document Server

    Yue, Bin; Helgason, Kári

    2015-01-01

    Emission from high-$z$ galaxies must unquestionably contribute to the Near-InfraRed Background (NIRB). However, this contribution has so far proven difficult to isolate even after subtracting resolved galaxies to deep levels. Remaining NIRB fluctuations are dominated by unresolved low-redshift galaxies on small angular scales, and by an unidentified component of unclear origin on large scales ($\\approx 1000"$). In this paper, by analyzing mock maps generated from semi-numerical simulations and empirically determined $L_{\\rm UV} - M_{\\rm h}$ relations, we find that fluctuations associated with galaxies at $5 < z < 10$ amount to several percent of the unresolved NIRB flux. We investigate the properties of this component for different survey areas and limiting magnitudes. In all cases, we show that this signal can be efficiently, and most easily at small angular scales, isolated by cross-correlating the source-subtracted NIRB with Lyman Break Galaxies (LBGs) detected in the same field by {\\tt HST} surveys....

  4. Metal coated functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes for composite applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qiang

    This study is considered as a method for producing multifunctional composite materials by using metals coated Single-walled Carbon Nanotubes (SWCNTs). In this research, various metals (Ni, Cu, Ag) were successfully deposited onto the surface of SWCNTs. It has been found that homogenous dispersion and dense nucleation sites are the necessary conditions to form uniform coatings on SWCNTs. Functionalization has been applied to achieve considerable improvement in the dispersion of purified SWCNTs and creates more nucleation sites for subsequent metal deposition. A three-step electroless plating approach was used and the coating mechanism is described in the paper. The samples were characterized by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Raman spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Bulk copper/aluminum-SWNT composites were processed by powder metallurgy with wet mixing techniques. Coated SWCNTs were well dispersed in the metal matrix. Cold pressing followed by sintering was applied to control porosity. The relationships between hardness and SWCNTs addition were discussed. Ni-SWCNTs composite coatings were prepared by electro-composite deposition. SWCNTs were suspended in a Ni deposition electrolyte and deposited together with nickel during electrodeposition. SWCNTs concentrations in the coatings were found to be related to the SWCNTs concentration in the solution, current density and agitation rate. The microstructure of the coatings has been examined by electron microscopy. Ni coated SWCNTs were also incorporated into the high temperature Bismaleimide (BMI)/graphite composite to improve Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) shielding and surface conductivity. The vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) was used to process these composites. Surface and volume resistivity and EMI shielding effectiveness of the composites

  5. Mesoscopic Metal-Insulator Transition at Ferroelastic Domain Walls in VO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Keith M [ORNL; Kalinin, Sergei V [ORNL; Kolmakov, Andrei [ORNL; Luk' yanchuk, Prof. Igor A. [University of Picardie Jules Verne, Amiens, France; Meunier, Vincent [ORNL; Proksch, Roger [Asylum Research, Santa Barbara, CA; Shelton Jr, William Allison [ORNL; Strelcov, Evgheni [Southern Illinois University; Tselev, Alexander [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    The novel phenomena induced by symmetry breaking at homointerfaces between ferroic variants in ferroelectric and ferroelastic materials have attracted recently much attention. Using variable temperature scanning microwave microscopy, we demonstrate the mesoscopic strain-induced metal-insulator phase transitions in the vicinity of ferroelastic domain walls in the semiconductive VO2 that nucleated at temperatures as much as 10-12 C below bulk transition, resulting in the formation of conductive channels in the material. Density functional theory is used to rationalize the process low activation energy. This behavior, linked to the strain inhomogeneity inherent in ferroelastic materials, can strongly affect interpretation of phase-transition studies in VO2 and similar materials with symmetry-lowering transitions, and can also be used to enable new generations of electronic devices though strain engineering of conductive and semiconductive regions.

  6. Liquid Metal Walls, Lithium, And Low Recycling Boundary Conditions In Tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Majeski

    2010-01-15

    At present, the only solid material believed to be a viable option for plasma-facing components (PFCs) in a fusion reactor is tungsten. Operated at the lower temperatures typical of present-day fusion experiments, tungsten is known to suffer from surface degradation during long-term exposure to helium-containing plasmas, leading to reduced thermal conduction to the bulk, and enhanced erosion. Existing alloys are also quite brittle at temperatures under 700oC. However, at a sufficiently high operating temperature (700 - 1000 oC), tungsten is selfannealing and it is expected that surface damage will be reduced to the point where tungsten PFCs will have an acceptable lifetime in a reactor environment. The existence of only one potentially viable option for solid PFCs, though, constitutes one of the most significant restrictions on design space for DEMO and follow-on fusion reactors. In contrast, there are several candidates for liquid metal-based PFCs, including gallium, tin, lithium, and tin-lithium eutectics. We will discuss options for liquid metal walls in tokamaks, looking at both high and low recycling materials. We will then focus in particular on one of the candidate liquids, lithium. Lithium is known to have a high chemical affinity for hydrogen, and has been shown in test stands1 and fusion experiments2,3 to produce a low recycling surface, especially when liquid. Because it is also low-Z and is usable in a tokamak over a reasonable temperature range (200 - 400 oC), it has been now been used as a PFC in several confinement experiments (TFTR, T11- M, CDX-U, NSTX, FTU, and TJ-II), with favorable results. The consequences of substituting low recycling walls for the traditional high recycling variety on tokamak equilibria are very extensive. We will discuss some of the expected modifications, briefly reviewing experimental results, and comparing the results to expectations.

  7. Impact of lithium on the plasma performance in the all-metal-wall tokamak ASDEX upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, P.T.; Moreno Quicios, R.; Arredondo Parra, R.; Ploeckl, B.; McDermott, R.; Neu, R.; Wolfrum, E. [MPI fuer Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Maingi, R.; Mansfield, D.K.; Diallo, A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Collaboration: ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2016-07-01

    Several tokamaks reported improvement in key plasma parameters concurrent with the presence of lithium in the plasma. At ASDEX Upgrade explorative experiments have been performed to find out if such effects can be observed when operating with an all-metal-wall. A gas gun launcher was developed capable to inject pellets containing about 1.6 x 10{sup 20} Li atoms at 2 Hz. The speed of about 600 m/s is sufficient to achieve core penetration and to create a homogeneous Li concentration of up to 10 %. With a typical sustainment time on the order of 100 ms, only transient Li presence without any pile up was achieved. Deposition of Li on plasma facing components, which remained for several discharges after injection, was observed. This short lived wall conditioning showed beneficial effects during plasma start-up. However, the accompanying surface contamination negatively impacted some diagnostics. The Li impact on the confinement was investigated in a dedicated plasma scenario with a proven sensitivity to nitrogen and helium. In phases with N seeding enhancing the confinement by about 30 %, Li injection resulted in a very modest, transient loss of confinement (about 5 %). No Li impact was found for pure Deuterium plasmas.

  8. Synthesis of single-walled carbon nanotube networks using monodisperse metallic nanocatalysts encapsulated in reverse micelles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayduchenko Igor A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on a method of synthesis of single-walled carbon nanotubes percolated networks on silicon dioxide substrates using monodisperse Co and Ni catalyst. The catalytic nanoparticles were obtained by modified method of reverse micelles of bis-(2-ethylhexyl sulfosuccinate sodium in isooctane solution that provides the nanoparticle size control in range of 1 to 5 nm. The metallic nanoparticles of Ni and Co were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM and atomic-force microscopy (AFM. Carbon nanotubes were synthesized by chemical vapor deposition of CH4/H2 composition at temperature 1000 °С on catalysts pre-deposited on silicon dioxide substrate. Before temperature treatment during the carbon nanotube synthesis most of the catalyst material agglomerates due to magnetic forces while during the nanotube growth disintegrates into the separate nanoparticles with narrow diameter distribution. The formed nanotube networks were characterized using AFM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and Raman spectroscopy. We find that the nanotubes are mainly single-walled carbon nanotubes with high structural perfection up to 200 μm long with diameters from 1.3 to 1.7 nm consistent with catalyst nanoparticles diameter distribution and independent of its material.

  9. The Lyα emission from high- z galaxies hosting strong damped Lyα systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Ravi; Srianand, Raghunathan; Noterdaeme, Pasquier; Petitjean, Patrick

    2017-02-01

    We study the average Lyα emission associated with high-z strong (log N(H I) ≥ 21) damped Lyα systems (DLAs). We report Lyα luminosities (LLyα) for the full as well as various sub-samples based on N(H I), z, (r - i) colours of QSOs and rest equivalent width of Si IIλ1526 line (i.e. W1526). For the full sample, we find LLyα level detection of Lyα emission in the red part of the DLA trough. The LLyα is found to be higher for systems with higher W1526 with its peak, detected at ≥3σ, redshifted by about 300-400 km s-1 with respect to the systemic absorption redshift, as seen in Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) and Lyα emitters. A clear signature of a double-hump Lyα profile is seen when we consider W1526 ≥0.4 Å and (r - i) radiation that is 4-10 times stronger than the metagalactic UV background at these redshifts. The relationship between the SFR and surface mass density of atomic gas seen in DLAs is similar to that of local dwarf and metal-poor galaxies. We show that the low-luminosity galaxies will contribute appreciably to the stacked spectrum if the size-luminosity relation seen for H I at low z is also present at high-z. Alternatively, large Lyα haloes seen around LBGs could also explain our measurements.

  10. Half-Metallic Properties of Single-Walled Polymeric Manganese Phthalocyanine Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbin Jiang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a theoretical study of the electronic and magnetic properties of single-walled manganese phthalocyanine (MnPc nanotubes which can be thought of as rolled-up ribbons of the two-dimensional (2D polymeric MnPc sheet. Our density functional theory calculations show that all of the MnPc nanotubes investigated here are half-metals with 100% spin polarization around the Fermi level. Following the increase of the tube diameter, the number of spin-down energy bands of MnPc nanotubes is always increased while the spin-up band gap of MnPc nanotubes approaches that of the 2D MnPc sheet in an oscillatory manner. Because the half-metallic character of MnPc nanotubes is deeply rooted in the distribution of electrons in the energy bands dominated by the Mn 3d atomic orbitals, adsorption of CO molecules on the Mn ions leads to a redistribution of electrons in the Mn 3d orbitals and thus can tune precisely the spin state and electronic transport properties of MnPc nanotubes, demonstrating promising applications of MnPc nanotubes in future molecular spintronics and single-molecule sensors.

  11. Thermal analysis for laser selective removal of metallic single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jizhou, E-mail: jzsong@zju.edu.cn [Department of Engineering Mechanics and Soft Matter Research Center, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Li, Yuhang [The Solid Mechanics Research Center, Beihang University (BUAA), Beijing 100191 (China); Du, Frank; Xie, Xu; Rogers, John A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Huang, Yonggang [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Center for Engineering and Health, and Skin Disease Research Center, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States)

    2015-04-28

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) have been envisioned as one of the best candidates for future semiconductors due to their excellent electrical properties and ample applications. However, SWNTs grow as mixture of both metallic and semiconducting tubes and this heterogeneity hampers their practical applications. Laser radiation shows promises to remove metallic SWNTs (m-SWNTs) in air under an appropriate condition. We established a scaling law, validated by finite element simulations, for the temperature rise of m-SWNTs under a pulsed laser with a Gaussian spot. It is shown that the maximum normalized m-SWNT temperature rise only depends on two non-dimensional parameters: the normalized pulse duration time and the normalized interfacial thermal resistance. In addition, the maximum temperature rise is inversely proportional to the square of spot size and proportional to the incident laser power. These results are very helpful to understand the underlying physics associated with the removal process and provides easily interpretable guidelines for further optimizations.

  12. A Facile Route to Metal Oxides/Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Macrofilm Nanocomposites for Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeyuan eCao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Nanocomposites consisting of transition-metal oxides and carbon nanomaterials with a desired size and structure are highly demanded for high performance energy storage devices. Here, a facile two-step and cost-efficient approach relying on directly thermal treatment of chemical-vapor-deposition products is developed as a general synthetic method to prepare a family of metal oxides (MxOy (M=Fe, Co, Ni/single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT macrofilm nanocomposites. The MxOy nanoparticles obtained are of 3-17 nm in diameter and homogeneously anchor on the free-standing SWNT macrofilms. NiO/SWNT also exhibits a high specific capacitance of 400 F g-1 and fast charge-transfer Faradaic redox reactions to achieve asymmetric supercapacitors with a high power and energy density. All MxOy/SWNT nanocomposites could deliver a high capacity beyond 1000 mAh g-1 and show excellent cycling stability for lithium-ion batteries. The impressive results demonstrate the promise for energy storage devices and the general approach may pave the way to synthesize other functional nanocomposites.

  13. Half-metallic properties of single-walled polymeric manganese phthalocyanine nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hongbin; Bai, Meilin; Wei, Peng; Sun, Lili; Shen, Ziyong; Hou, Shimin

    2012-01-01

    We present a theoretical study of the electronic and magnetic properties of single-walled manganese phthalocyanine (MnPc) nanotubes which can be thought of as rolled-up ribbons of the two-dimensional (2D) polymeric MnPc sheet. Our density functional theory calculations show that all of the MnPc nanotubes investigated here are half-metals with 100% spin polarization around the Fermi level. Following the increase of the tube diameter, the number of spin-down energy bands of MnPc nanotubes is always increased while the spin-up band gap of MnPc nanotubes approaches that of the 2D MnPc sheet in an oscillatory manner. Because the half-metallic character of MnPc nanotubes is deeply rooted in the distribution of electrons in the energy bands dominated by the Mn 3d atomic orbitals, adsorption of CO molecules on the Mn ions leads to a redistribution of electrons in the Mn 3d orbitals and thus can tune precisely the spin state and electronic transport properties of MnPc nanotubes, demonstrating promising applications of MnPc nanotubes in future molecular spintronics and single-molecule sensors.

  14. Oscillatory vapour shielding of liquid metal walls in nuclear fusion devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eden, G G; Kvon, V; van de Sanden, M C M; Morgan, T W

    2017-08-04

    Providing an efficacious plasma facing surface between the extreme plasma heat exhaust and the structural materials of nuclear fusion devices is a major challenge on the road to electricity production by fusion power plants. The performance of solid plasma facing surfaces may become critically reduced over time due to progressing damage accumulation. Liquid metals, however, are now gaining interest in solving the challenge of extreme heat flux hitting the reactor walls. A key advantage of liquid metals is the use of vapour shielding to reduce the plasma exhaust. Here we demonstrate that this phenomenon is oscillatory by nature. The dynamics of a Sn vapour cloud are investigated by exposing liquid Sn targets to H and He plasmas at heat fluxes greater than 5 MW m(-2). The observations indicate the presence of a dynamic equilibrium between the plasma and liquid target ruled by recombinatory processes in the plasma, leading to an approximately stable surface temperature.Vapour shielding is one of the interesting mechanisms for reducing the heat load to plasma facing components in fusion reactors. Here the authors report on the observation of a dynamic equilibrium between the plasma and the divertor liquid Sn surface leading to an overall stable surface temperature.

  15. Wall-to-wall stress induced in (6,5) semiconducting nanotubes by encapsulation in metallic outer tubes of different diameters: a resonance Raman study of individual C60-derived double-wall carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalpando-Paez, Federico; Muramatsu, Hiroyuki; Kim, Yoong Ahm; Farhat, Hootan; Endo, Morinobu; Terrones, Mauricio; Dresselhaus, Mildred S

    2010-03-01

    We measure resonant Raman scattering from 11 individual C(60)-derived double-wall carbon nanotubes all having inner semiconducting (6,5) tubes and various outer metallic tubes. The Raman spectra show the radial breathing modes (RBM) of the inner and the outer tubes to be simultaneously in resonance with the same laser energy. We observe that an increase in the RBM frequency of the inner tubes is related to an increase in the RBM frequency of the outer tubes. The Raman spectra also contain a sharp G(-) feature that increases in frequency as the nominal diameter of the outer metallic tubes decreases. Finally, the one-phonon second-order D-band mode shows a two-way frequency splitting that decreases with decreasing nominal wall-to-wall distance. We suggest that the stress which increases with decreasing nominal wall-to-wall distance is responsible for the hardening that is observed in the frequencies of the RBM, D and G(-) modes of the inner (6,5) semiconducting tubes.

  16. Making ICRF power compatible with a high-Z wall in ASDEX Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobkov, V.; Aguiam, D.; Bilato, R.; Brezinsek, S.; Colas, L.; Faugel, H.; Fünfgelder, H.; Herrmann, A.; Jacquot, J.; Kallenbach, A.; Milanesio, D.; Maggiora, R.; Neu, R.; Noterdaeme, J.-M.; Ochoukov, R.; Potzel, S.; Pütterich, T.; Silva, A.; Tierens, W.; Tuccilo, A.; Tudisco, O.; Wang, Y.; Yang, Q.; Zhang, W.; ASDEX Upgrade Team; the EUROfusion MST1 Team

    2017-01-01

    A comparison of the ASDEX Upgrade 3-strap ICRF antenna data with the linear electro-magnetic TOPICA calculations is presented. The comparison substantiates a reduction of the local electric field at the radially protruding plasma-facing elements of the antenna as a relevant approach for minimizing tungsten (W) sputtering in conditions when the slow wave is strongly evanescent. The measured reaction of the time-averaged RF current at the antenna limiters to the antenna feeding variations is less sensitive than predicted by the calculations. This is likely to have been caused by temporal and spatial fluctuations in the 3D plasma density distribution affected by local non-linear interactions. The 3-strap antenna with the W-coated limiters produces drastically less W sputtering compared to the W-coated 2-strap antennas. This is consistent with the non-linear asymptotic SSWICH-SW calculations for RF sheaths.

  17. Lying-down metallic single-walled carbon nanotubes as efficient linkers for metalloprotein-based nanodevices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldacchini, Chiara; Cannistraro, Salvatore

    2010-04-01

    Metalloproteins recently emerged as good candidates for signal transduction in bionanodevices, but the feasibility of such novel devices is strongly connected to the achievement of an efficient charge transport between single metalloproteins and metal electrodes. In this work, we propose the use of metallic single-walled carbon nanotubes as efficient linkers between metalloproteins and metal surfaces. By means of a conductive atomic force microscopy investigation, we compare the conduction across single yeast cytochrome c molecules covalently bound both to bare gold and to functionalized metallic single-walled carbon nanotubes lying on gold. At comparable forces applied by the microscope tip (i.e., comparable physical contact), the measured current is higher when a metallic single-walled carbon nanotubes is in between the metalloprotein and the gold surface. The analysis of the single molecule current responses by means of a non-resonant tunneling transport model suggests that the increasing in the conduction is due both to the strong electronic conjugation existing at the nanotubes/gold interface and to the participation of the nanotube electronic bands to the charge transport.

  18. Formation of transition metal cluster adducts on the surface of single-walled carbon nanotubes: HRTEM studies

    KAUST Repository

    Kalinina, Irina V.

    2014-01-01

    We report the formation of chromium clusters on the outer walls of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). The clusters were obtained by reacting purified SWNTs with chromium hexacarbonyl in dibutyl ether at 100°C. The functionalized SWNTs were characterized by thermogravimetic analysis, XPS, and high-resolution TEM. The curvature of the SWNTs and the high mobility of the chromium moieties on graphitic surfaces allow the growth of the metal clusters and we propose a mechanism for their formation. © 2014 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  19. Physiological and proteomic changes suggest an important role of cell walls in the high tolerance to metals of Elodea nuttallii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larras, Floriane; Regier, Nicole; Planchon, Sébastien; Poté, John; Renaut, Jenny; Cosio, Claudia

    2013-12-15

    Macrophytes bioaccumulate metals, the suggestion being made that they be considered for phytoremediation. However, a thorough understanding of the mechanisms of metal tolerance in these plants is necessary to allow full optimization of this approach. The present study was undertaken to gain insight into Hg and Cd accumulation and their effects in a representative macrophyte, Elodea nuttallii. Exposure to methyl-Hg (23 ng dm(-3)) had no significant effect while inorganic Hg (70 ng dm(-3)) and Cd (281 μg dm(-3)) affected root growth but did not affect shoots growth, photosynthesis, or antioxidant enzymes. Phytochelatins were confirmed as having a role in Cd tolerance in this plant while Hg tolerance seems to rely on different mechanisms. Histology and subcellular distribution revealed a localized increase in lignification, and an increased proportion of metal accumulation in cell wall over time. Proteomics further suggested that E. nuttallii was able to efficiently adapt its energy sources and the structure of its cells during Hg and Cd exposure. Storage in cell walls to protect cellular machinery is certainly predominant at environmental concentrations of metals in this plant resulting in a high tolerance highlighted by the absence of toxicity symptoms in shoots despite the significant accumulation of metals.

  20. Metal octacarboxyphthalocyanine / multi-walled carbon nanotube hybrid for the development of dye solar cells

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mphahlele, N

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available octacarboxyphthalocyanines-multi-walled carbon nanotubes hybrid was prepared through non- covalent (Pi)p-(Pi)p stacking. The metallo-octacarboxyphthalocyanines-multi-walled carbon nanotubes hybrid was later employed in dye solar cells as a photosensitiser of choice...

  1. High-performance hydrogen production and oxidation electrodes with hydrogenase supported on metallic single-wall carbon nanotube networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svedružić, Draženka; Blackburn, Jeffrey L; Tenent, Robert C; Rocha, John-David R; Vinzant, Todd B; Heben, Michael J; King, Paul W

    2011-03-30

    We studied the electrocatalytic activity of an [FeFe]-hydrogenase from Clostridium acetobutylicum (CaH2ase) immobilized on single-wall carbon nanotube (SWNT) networks. SWNT networks were prepared on carbon cloth by ultrasonic spraying of suspensions with predetermined ratios of metallic and semiconducting nanotubes. Current densities for both proton reduction and hydrogen oxidation electrocatalytic activities were at least 1 order of magnitude higher when hydrogenase was immobilized onto SWNT networks with high metallic tube (m-SWNT) content in comparison to hydrogenase supported on networks with low metallic tube content or when SWNTs were absent. We conclude that the increase in electrocatalytic activities in the presence of SWNTs was mainly due to the m-SWNT fraction and can be attributed to (i) substantial increases in the active electrode surface area, and (ii) improved electronic coupling between CaH2ase redox-active sites and the electrode surface.

  2. Direct intermolecular force measurements between functional groups and individual metallic or semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thong, Ya Xuan; Poon, Yin Fun; Chen, Tzu-Yin; Li, Lain-Jong; Chan-Park, Mary B

    2014-02-26

    Many electronic applications of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) require electronic homogeneity in order to maximally exploit their outstanding properties. Non-covalent separation is attractive as it is scalable and results in minimal alteration of nanotube properties. However, fundamental understanding of the metallicity-dependence of functional group interactions with nanotubes is still lacking; this lack is compounded by the absence of methods to directly measure these interactions. Herein, a novel technology platform based on a recently developed atomic force microscopy (AFM) mode is reported which directly quantifies the adhesion forces between a chosen functional group and individual nanotubes of known metallicity, permitting comparisons between different metallicity. These results unambiguously show that this technology platform is able to discriminate the subtle adhesion force differences of a chosen functional group with pure metallic as opposed to pure semiconducting nanotubes. This new method provides a route towards rapid advances in understanding of non-covalent interactions of large libraries of compounds with nanotubes of varying metallicity and diameter; presenting a superior tool to assist the discovery of more effective metallicity-based SWNT separation agents.

  3. Review of recent experiments on the T-10 tokamak with all metal wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vershkov, V. A.; Sarychev, D. V.; Notkin, G. E.; Shelukhin, D. A.; Buldakov, M. A.; Dnestrovskij, Yu. N.; Grashin, S. A.; Kirneva, N. A.; Krupin, V. A.; Klyuchnikov, L. A.; Melnikov, A. V.; Neudatchin, S. V.; Nurgaliev, M. R.; Pavlov, Yu. D.; Savrukhin, P. V.; T-10 Team

    2017-10-01

    Transition to an all-metal wall was realized on T-10 by replacement of graphite limiters with tungsten ones. Light impurity levels remained high and W accumulation in the plasma core was revealed. A movable lithium (Li) limiter was added to investigate the possibility of the limitation of tungsten and light impurity levels in plasma. For the first time, tokamak results on tungsten protection with Li were obtained in OH and ECRH regimes. After lithization the tungsten density in the core dropped more than an order of magnitude, while W influx into plasma decreased 2-4 times. Drastic drops of light impurities in plasma were observed together with improvement of energy confinement time and density limit values. Nevertheless, Li levels in plasma remained low in both OH and ECRH regimes. Li density in the core as low as 0.5% of n e was obtained. Tungsten transport in T-10 plasma was investigated and results on prevention of W accumulation with central ECRH were obtained. Effects of plasma exposure on ITER-grade tungsten plates from limiters were studied. Investigations of density fluctuation with correlation reflectometry confirmed a decrease of fluctuation amplitude on high field side. Modeling showed that this effect can be, to a great extent, explained by the non-locality of reflectometry. Toroidal correlations at a distance of 2.5 m along field lines were studied. Three-wave interaction between geodesic acoustic modes and broad-band turbulence was found by analysis of heavy ion beam probe diagnostics data. The possibility of plasma current control and the prevention of non-thermal electron beams formation at density limit disruption by means of ECR heating and the controlled operation of OH power supply system has been demonstrated. The study of plasma density decay after gas puff switch off during density ramp-up phase in OH regimes and the effect of ‘density pump out’ during ECRH showed that both effects can be explained by the assumption regarding electron

  4. Differential response of antioxidative systems of maize (Zea mays L.) roots cell walls to osmotic and heavy metal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuletić, M; Hadži-Tašković Šukalović, V; Marković, K; Kravić, N; Vučinić, Ž; Maksimović, V

    2014-01-01

    An analysis of peroxidase and ascorbate oxidase activity, phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of isolated maize root cell walls was performed in controls and plants stressed with polyethylene glycol (PEG) or heavy metals, zinc or copper. Peroxidase activity (oxidative and peroxidative) was more pronounced in the ionic than in the covalent cell wall fraction. PEG induced an increase and Zn(2+) a decrease of both ionically bound peroxidase activities. In the covalent fraction, Cu(2+) decreased oxidative and increased peroxidative activity of peroxidase. Isoelectric focusing of ionically bound proteins and activity staining for peroxidase demonstrated increased intensities and appearance of new acidic isoforms, especially in Zn(2+) and PEG treatments. Most pronounced basic isoforms (pI ~ 7.5) in controls, decreased in intensity or completely disappeared in stressed plants. Ascorbate oxidase activity was significantly increased by PEG and decreased by Zn(2+) treatments, and highly correlated with peroxidase activity. Antioxidant capacity and total phenolics content increased in heavy metal-treated and decreased in PEG-treated plants. Analysis of individual phenolic components revealed p-coumaric and ferulic acids, as the most abundant, as well as ferulic acid dimers, trimers and tetramers in the cell walls; their quantity increased under stress conditions. Results presented demonstrate the existence of diverse mechanisms of plant response to different stresses. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  5. Current driven domain wall motion in rare-earth transition metal alloys with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Songtian; Liu, Xiaoxi; Morisako, Akimistu

    2012-09-01

    The domain wall movement behaviors under current combining with magnetic field in perpendicularly magnetized TbFeCo wire were studied by a polar magneto-optical Kerr effect microscope. The velocity for domain wall creeping along electrons flowing direction was found to be apparently higher than that of domain wall creeping against electrons flowing, which is the signature of the spin transfer torque effect. By employing the modified field-driven creep motion law, a spin transfer efficiency of 2.7 Oe cm2/10(6) A was determined for TbFeCo wire by treating the spin transfer torque as an effective field adding to the external field. The high spin transfer efficiency suggests that perpendicularly magnetized system with sharp domain walls in TbFeCo film shows high superiorities for applications in spin transfer torque based devices compared with in-plane magnetized systems.

  6. Direct observation of nanoscale Peltier and Joule effects at metal-insulator domain walls in vanadium dioxide nanobeams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favaloro, Tela; Suh, Joonki; Vermeersch, Bjorn; Liu, Kai; Gu, Yijia; Chen, Long-Qing; Wang, Kevin X; Wu, Junqiao; Shakouri, Ali

    2014-05-14

    The metal to insulator transition (MIT) of strongly correlated materials is subject to strong lattice coupling, which brings about the unique one-dimensional alignment of metal-insulator (M-I) domains along nanowires or nanobeams. Many studies have investigated the effects of stress on the MIT and hence the phase boundary, but few have directly examined the temperature profile across the metal-insulating interface. Here, we use thermoreflectance microscopy to create two-dimensional temperature maps of single-crystalline VO2 nanobeams under external bias in the phase coexisting regime. We directly observe highly localized alternating Peltier heating and cooling as well as Joule heating concentrated at the M-I domain boundaries, indicating the significance of the domain walls and band offsets. Utilizing the thermoreflectance technique, we are able to elucidate strain accumulation along the nanobeam and distinguish between two insulating phases of VO2 through detection of the opposite polarity of their respective thermoreflectance coefficients. Microelasticity theory was employed to predict favorable domain wall configurations, confirming the monoclinic phase identification.

  7. Development of eddy current testing probe for thick-walled metal plate and quantitative evaluation of cracks

    CERN Document Server

    Sato, K; Uchimoto, T; Takagi, T

    2003-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the crack detection of thick-walled non-magnetic metal plates by eddy current testing, which is difficult because of Kelvin skin effect generally. The purpose of this research is the development of an new eddy current testing probe for cracks in thick-walled plates and crack shapes quantitative evaluation. The probe was designed, based on the numerical computation using 3D fast eddy current code. The advantages of this new probe are strong eddy current on the back of specimens and gentle decrement of eddy current in the thickness direction. Through experiments, we confirmed that this probe can detect the back artificial defect with 0.5 mm thickness on IN-CONEL 718 specimen with 7.0 mm thickness. Reconstruction of crack shapes was performed based on the experimental results with the inverse problem code developed by authors. The length and depth of reconstructed defects approximately agree with those of real crack. (author)

  8. Investigation of Surfactant Type, Dosage and Ultrasonication Temperature Control on Dispersity of Metal-Coated Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiaoning; Li, Wei

    2016-04-01

    We studied the dispersity of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) combined with different metal- lic particles (Ni and Fe). An ultrasonic-assisted water-bath dispersion process was used to dis- perse the metal-coated MWNTs in different solutions and the dispersity was measured using an ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer. The dispersity and morphology of the MWNTs were characterized using field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) together with digital image processing technology. Effects of dispersant type (sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS), oleic acid, and polymer (TNEDIS)) and surfactant dosage on the dispersity of the metal-coated MWNTs were investigated under controlled and uncontrolled temperatures and results were compared with those from the untreated MWNTs. The results showed that the negative effects of temperature on the ultrasonic dispersion process could be eliminated through a temperature-controlled system. Moreover, the TNEDIS, SDBS, and oleic acid were arranged in the descending order of the dispersion effect degree. The untreated MWNTs, Ni-coated MWNTs, and Fe-coated MWNTs were arranged in the descending degree of dispersity order. Since the metal coating makes the MWNTs harder and more fragile, the metal-coated MWNTs are more likely to fracture during the ultrasonic dispersion process.

  9. Multi-walled carbon nanotube-supported metal-doped ZnO nanoparticles and their photocatalytic property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C S; Liu, T G; Lin, L W; Xie, X D; Chen, X H; Liu, Q C; Liang, B; Yu, W W; Qiu, C Y

    2013-01-01

    A simple and versatile approach has been developed to synthesize multi-walled carbon nanotubes/metal-doped ZnO nanohybrid materials (MWNT/M-doped ZnO) by means of the co-deposition method. The experimental results illuminate that MWNTs can be modified by metal-doped ZnO nanoparticles at 450 °C, such as Mn, Mg, and Co elements. Furthermore, the MWNT/Mg-doped ZnO hybrids have been proven to have a high photocatalytic ability for methyl orange (MO), in which the degraded rate for MO reaches 100 % in 60 min. The enhancement in photocatalytic activity is attributed to the excellent electriconal property of MWNTs and Mg-doping. The resultant MWNT/Mg-doped ZnO nanohybrids have potential applications in photocatalysis and environmental protection.

  10. Bulk electrical properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes immobilized by dielectrophoresis: evidence of metallic or semiconductor behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mureau, Natacha; Watts, Paul C P; Tison, Yann; Silva, S Ravi P

    2008-06-01

    We report the electrical characterization of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) trapped between two electrodes by dielectrophoresis (DEP). At high frequency, SWCNTs collected by DEP are expected to be of metallic type. Indeed current-voltage (I-V) measurements for devices made at 10 MHz show high values of conductivity and exhibit metallic behavior with linear and symmetric electrical features attributed to ohmic conduction. At low frequency, SWCNTs attracted by DEP are expected to be of semiconducting nature. Devices made at 10 kHz behave as semiconductors and demonstrate nonlinear and rectifying electrical characteristics with conductivities many orders of magnitude below the sample resulting from high-frequency immobilization of SWCNTs. Conducting atomic force microscopy (C-AFM) and current density calculation results are presented to reinforce results obtained by I-V measurements which clearly show type separation of SWCNTs after DEP experiments.

  11. Electrical behavior of Langmuir-Blodgett networks of sorted metallic and semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Mark K; Rosamond, Mark C; Pearson, Christopher; Zeze, Dagou A; Petty, Michael C

    2012-10-30

    Langmuir-Blodgett deposition has been used to form thin film networks of both metallic and semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes. These have been investigated to understand their physical, optical, and morphological properties. The electrical conductivities over the temperature range 80-350 K and across electrode gaps of 220 nm and 2 mm have been explored. In the case of semiconducting tubes, the results suggest that Poole-Frenkel conduction is the dominant electrical process at temperatures below 150 K and electric fields of greater than 1 MV m(-1). Metallic nanotube networks exhibit a decrease in resistance with a reduction in temperature. This can be approximated by a linear relationship, giving a temperature coefficient of resistance of 10(-3) K(-1).

  12. Development of Metal-impregnated Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes for Toxic Gas Contaminant Control in Advanced Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinke, Martin; Li, Jing; Chen, Bin; Wignarajah, Kanapathipillai; Pisharody, Suresh A.; Fisher, John W.; Delzeit, Lance; Meyyappan, Meyya; Partridge, Harry; Clark, Kimberlee

    2003-01-01

    The success of physico-chemical waste processing and resource recovery technologies for life support application depends partly on the ability of gas clean-up systems to efficiently remove trace contaminants generated during the process with minimal use of expendables. Highly purified metal-impregnated carbon nanotubes promise superior performance over conventional approaches to gas clean-up due to their ability to direct the selective uptake gaseous species based both on the nanotube s controlled pore size, high surface area, and ordered chemical structure that allows functionalization and on the nanotube s effectiveness as a catalyst support material for toxic contaminants removal. We present results on the purification of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) and efforts at metal impregnation of the SWCNT's.

  13. Exploring star formation in high-z galaxies using atomic and molecular emission lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullberg, Bitten

    2016-03-01

    The conditions under which stars are formed and the reasons for triggering and quenching of starburst events in high-z galaxies, are still not well understood. Studying the interstellar medium (ISM) and the morphology of high-z galaxies are therefore key points in order to understand galaxy evolution. The cosmic star formation rate density peaks between 1thesis presents three studies of the ISM in high-z galaxies and their morphologies by: Exploring the physical conditions of the ISM in a sample of dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) using the relative observed line strength of ionised carbon ([CII]) and carbon monoxide (CO). We find that the line ratios can best be described by a medium of [CII] and CO emitting gas with a higher [CII] than CO excitation temperature, high CO optical depth tau(CO)>>1, and low to moderate [CII] optical depth tau(CII)2, pave the road for future investigations of the star-forming ISM in high-z galaxies, by illustrating the importance of multi-wavelength, fine structure- and molecular line studies.

  14. Simulations on High-z Long Gamma-Ray Burst Rate

    CERN Document Server

    Qin, Shu-Fu; Lu, Rui-Jing; Wei, Jian-Yan; Zhang, Shuang-Nan

    2009-01-01

    Since the launch of Swift satellite, detections of high-z (z>4 and up to about 8.3 currently) long gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs) have been rapidly growing up, even approaching the very early Universe. The observed high-z LGRB rate shows significant excess over that estimated from the star formation history. We investigate what may be responsible for this high productivity of GRBs at high-z through Monte Carlo simulations based on current Swift LGRB sample. Elaborated effective Swif/BAT trigger probability and redshift detection probability for LGRBs are estimated with current Swift/BAT sample and CGRO/BATSE LGRB sample. We compare our simulations to the Swift observations via log N-\\log P and L-z distributions. In the case that LGRB rate is purely proportional to the star formation rate (SFR), our simulations poorly reproduce the LGRB rate at z>4, although the simulated \\log N-\\log P distribution is in good agreement with the observed one. Assuming that the excess of high-z GRB rate is due to the cosmic metallicit...

  15. Giant clumps in simulated high- z Galaxies: properties, evolution and dependence on feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandelker, Nir; Dekel, Avishai; Ceverino, Daniel; DeGraf, Colin; Guo, Yicheng; Primack, Joel

    2017-01-01

    We study the evolution and properties of giant clumps in high-z disc galaxies using adaptive mesh refinement cosmological simulations at redshifts z ˜ 6-1. Our sample consists of 34 galaxies, of halo masses 1011-1012 M⊙ at z = 2, run with and without radiation pressure (RP) feedback from young stars. While RP has little effect on the sizes and global stability of discs, it reduces the amount of star-forming gas by a factor of ˜2, leading to a similar decrease in stellar mass by z ˜ 2. Both samples undergo extended periods of violent disc instability continuously forming giant clumps of masses 107-109 M⊙ at a similar rate, though RP significantly reduces the number of long-lived clumps (LLCs). When RP is (not) included, clumps with circular velocity ≲ 40 (20) km s- 1, baryonic surface density ≲ 200 (100)M⊙ pc- 2 and baryonic mass ≲ 108.2 (107.3) M⊙ are short-lived, disrupted in a few free-fall times. More massive and dense clumps survive and migrate towards the disc centre over a few disc orbital times. In the RP simulations, the distribution of clump masses and star formation rates (SFRs) normalized to their host disc is similar at all redshifts, exhibiting a truncated power law with a slope slightly shallower than -2. The specific SFR (sSFR) of the LLCs declines with age as they migrate towards the disc centre, producing gradients in mass, stellar age, gas fraction, sSFR and metallicity that distinguish them from the short-lived clumps which tend to populate the outer disc. Ex situ mergers comprise ˜37 per cent of the mass in clumps and ˜29 per cent of the SFR. They are more massive and with older stellar ages than the in situ clumps, especially near the disc edge. Roughly half the galaxies at redshifts z = 4-1 are clumpy, with ˜3-30 per cent of their SFR and ˜0.1-3 per cent of their stellar mass in clumps.

  16. Synthesis and optical properties of nanorattles and multiple-walled nanoshells/nanotubes made of metal alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yugang; Wiley, Benjamin; Li, Zhi-Yuan; Xia, Younan

    2004-08-04

    The galvanic replacement reaction between silver and chloroauric acid has been exploited as a powerful means for preparing metal nanostructures with hollow interiors. Here, the utility of this approach is further extended to produce complex core/shell nanostructures made of metals by combining the replacement reaction with electroless deposition of silver. We have fabricated nanorattles consisting of Au/Ag alloy cores and Au/Ag alloy shells by starting with Au/Ag alloy colloids as the initial template. We have also prepared multiple-walled nanoshells/nanotubes (or nanoscale Matrioshka) with a variety of shapes, compositions, and structures by controlling the morphology of the template and the precursor salt used in each step of the replacement reaction. There are a number of interesting optical features associated with these new core/shell metal nanostructures. For example, nanorattles made of Au/Ag alloys displayed two well-separated extinction peaks, a feature similar to that of gold or silver nanorods. The peak at approximately 510 nm could be attributed to the Au/Ag alloy cores, while the other peak was associated with the Au/Ag alloy shells and could be continuously tuned in the spectral range from red to near-infrared.

  17. Noble metal coated single-walled carbon nanotubes for applications in surface enhanced Raman scattering imaging and photothermal therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojing; Wang, Chao; Cheng, Liang; Lee, Shuit-Tong; Liu, Zhuang

    2012-05-02

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with various unique optical properties are interesting nanoprobes widely explored in biomedical imaging and phototherapies. Herein, DNA-functionalized SWNTs are modified with noble metal (Ag or Au) nanoparticles via an in situ solution phase synthesis method comprised of seed attachment, seeded growth, and surface modification with polyethylene glycol (PEG), yielding SWNT-Ag-PEG and SWNT-Au-PEG nanocomposites stable in physiological environments. With gold or silver nanoparticles decorated on the surface, the SWNT-metal nanocomposites gain an excellent concentration and excitation-source dependent surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) effect. Using a near-infrared (NIR) laser as the excitation source, targeted Raman imaging of cancer cells labeled with folic acid (FA) conjugated SWNT-Au nanocomposite (SWNT-Au-PEG-FA) is realized, with images acquired in significantly shortened periods of time as compared to that of using nonenhanced SWNT Raman probes. Owing to the strong surface plasmon resonance absorption contributed by the gold shell, the SWNTs-Au-PEG-FA nanocomposite also offers remarkably improved photothermal cancer cell killing efficacy. This work presents a facile approach to synthesize water-soluble noble metal coated SWNTs with a strong SERS effect suitable for labeling and fast Raman spectroscopic imaging of biological samples, which has been rarely realized before. The SWNT-Au-PEG nanocomposite developed here may thus be an interesting optical theranostic probe for cancer imaging and therapy.

  18. Metal Decorated Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube/Polyimide Composites with High Dielectric Constants and Low Loss Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, Sayata; Watson, Kent A.; Dudley, Kenneth L.; Elliott, Holly A.; Smith, Joseph G.; Connell, John W.

    2009-01-01

    The measurement of observable electromagnetic phenomena in materials and their derived intrinsic electric material properties are of prime importance in the discovery and development of material systems for electronic and aerospace applications. Nanocomposite materials comprised of metal decorated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were prepared by a facile method and characterized. Metal particles such as silver, platinum and palladium with diameters ranging from less than 5 to over 50 nanometers were distributed randomly on the MWCNTs. The metal-containing MWCNTs were then melt mixed into a polymer matrix and the mixture extruded as ribbons. These extruded ribbons exhibited a moderate to high degree of MWCNT alignment as determined by HRSEM. These ribbons were then fabricated into test specimens while maintaining MWCNT alignment and subsequently characterized for electromagnetic properties at 8-12 GHz. The present study is focused on silver decorated MWCNTs dispersed in an Ultem polyimide matrix. The results of the electromagnetic characterization showed that certain sample configurations exhibited a decoupling of the permittivity and loss factor (?? and ??) indicating that these properties could be tailored within certain limits. The decoupling and independent control of these fundamental electrical material parameters offer a new class of materials with potential applications in electronics, microwave engineering and optics.

  19. Electro-oxidation of methanol at multi-walled carbon nanotubes decorated with metal nanoparticles

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maxakato, NW

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available ) electrocatalyst, the catalytic surface is poisoned by strongly adsorbed reaction intermediates, mainly carbon monoxide that block the active sites. An approach to overcome this problem consists of alloying Pt with a second metal such as ruthenium (Ru). This allows...

  20. Impact of nitrogen seeding on confinement and power load control of a high-triangularity JET ELMy H-mode plasma with a metal wall

    CERN Document Server

    Giroud, C; Jachmich, S; Rimini, F; Beurskens, M N A; Balboa, I; Brezinsek, S; Coelho, R; Coenen, J W; Frassinetti, L; Joffrin, E; Oberkofler, M; Lehnen, M; Liu, Y; Marsen, S; K, K McCormick; Meigs, A; Neu, R; Sieglin, B; van Rooij, G; Arnoux, G; Belo, P; Brix, M; Clever, M; Coffey, I; Devaux, S; Douai, D; Eich, T; Flanagan, J; Grunhagen, S; Huber, A; Kempenaars, M; Kruezi, U; Lawson, K; Lomas, P; Lowry, C; Nunes, I; Sirinnelli, A; Sips, A C C; Stamp, M; Wiesen, S; contributors, JET-EFDA

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the impact on confinement and power load of the high-shape 2.5MA ELMy H-mode scenario at JET of a change from an all carbon plasma facing components to an all metal wall. In preparation to this change, systematic studies of power load reduction and impact on confinement as a result of fuelling in combination with nitrogen seeding were carried out in JET-C and are compared to their counterpart in JET with a metallic wall. An unexpected and significant change is reported on the decrease of the pedestal confinement but is partially recovered with the injection of nitrogen.

  1. A system of two piezoelectric transducers and a storage circuit for wireless energy transmission through a thin metal wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hongping; Hu, Yuantai; Chen, Chuanyao; Wang, Ji

    2008-10-01

    A system to wirelessly convey electric energy through a thin metal wall is proposed in the paper, where 2 piezoelectric transducers are used to realize energy transformation between electric and mechanical, and a rechargeable battery is employed to store the transmitted energy. To integrate them as a whole, an interface of a modulating circuit is applied between the transducer system and the storage battery. In addition, a synchronized switch harvesting on inductor in parallel with the transducer system is introduced to artificially extend the closed interval of the modulating circuit. The process of transmitting energy is computed, and the performance of the transducer system is optimized in detail for a prescribed external electric source. The results obtained are useful for understanding and designing wireless energy supply systems.

  2. Ab initio electronic circular dichroism of fullerenes, single-walled carbon nanotubes, and ligand-protected metal nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguez, Cecilia; Hidalgo, Francisco

    2014-09-01

    The versatility and applicability of a time-perturbed density functional method implemented within the SIESTA program package to calculate electronic circular dichroism of diverse nanoparticles is discussed. Results for nanostructures, such as fullerenes, single-wall carbon nanotubes, as well as metallic nanoparticles composed of up to hundreds of atoms were examined by comparison with previously reported experimental and theoretical results. In all cases, the calculated electronic circular dichroism shows very good consistency with other calculations, and a remarkable agreement with experiments. It is concluded that such a high-level method provides theoretical support for the quantification, understanding, and prediction of chirality and its measurement in nanostructures. It is expected that this information would be useful to motivate further experimental studies and interpretation of optical activity in terms of electronic circular dichroism in novel nanostructures. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Anti-impact and energy-absorption of metal and compound thin-wall cylindrical tubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yong-tao; SHEN Zhi-chun; ZHENG Gang-tie

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents an energy iterative method to determine the second critical velocity by comparing the time histories of the kinetic energy and the buckling deformation based on the finite element model of the impact system. To design anti-impact structures of the thin-wall cylindrical tubes with this new method, the cost of the experiment can be considerably reduced. The feasibility and validity of this method are demonstrated by a dropping hammer experiment. In addition, this paper deals with the influence of constrained damping layers on the anti-impact capability and energy-absorption of thin-wall cylindrical tubes. Results show that the constrained damping layers make the energy-absorption and the anti-impact capability increased comparing with the naked tubes; the thickness of the damping layer should be restricted in a range, or else the anti-impact capability will decrease with the increase of the damping layer thickness; for the constrained layer, the anti-impact capability will increase with the augment of its thickness.

  4. Transient Magnetohydrodynamic Liquid-Metal Flows in a Rectangular Channel with a Moving Conducting Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-01

    use of liquid metals for current collectors in homopolar motors and generators has led to the design of machines of superior performance. The steady...In some applications of homopolar generators it becomes necessary not only to start and stop the machines but also to operate them under oscillating...conditions. This could be the case in an application where a homopolar generator behaves as an extremely high energy capacitor. Therefore, one is

  5. The Global 21-cm Signal in the Context of the High-z Galaxy Luminosity Function

    CERN Document Server

    Mirocha, Jordan; Sun, G

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by recent progress in studies of the high-$z$ Universe, we build a new model for the global 21-cm signal that is explicitly calibrated to measurements of the galaxy luminosity function (LF) and further tuned to match the Thomson scattering optical depth of the cosmic microwave background, $\\tau_e$. Assuming that the $z \\lesssim 8$ galaxy population can be smoothly extrapolated to higher redshifts, the recent decline in best-fit values of $\\tau_e$ and the inefficient heating induced by X-ray binaries (HMXBs; the presumptive sources of the X-ray background at high-$z$) imply that the entirety of cosmic reionization and reheating occurs at redshifts $z \\lesssim 12$. In contrast to past global 21-cm models, whose $z \\sim 20$ ($\

  6. Enhanced electron yield from a laser-plasma accelerator using high-Z gas jet targets

    CERN Document Server

    Mirzaie, Mohammad; Li, Song; Sokollik, Thomas; He, Fei; Cheng, Ya; Sheng, Zhengming; Zhang, Jie

    2014-01-01

    An investigation of the multi-hundred MeV electron beam yield (charge) form helium, nitrogen, neon and argon gas jet plasmas in a laser-plasma wakefield acceleration experiment was carried out. The charge measurement has been made via imaging the electron beam intensity profile on a fluorescent screen into a 14-bit charge coupled device (CCD) which was cross-calibrated with nondestructive electronics-based method. Within given laser and plasma parameters, we found that laser-driven low Z- gas jet targets generate high-quality and well-collimated electron beams with reasonable yields at the level of 10-100 pC. On the other hand, filamentary electron beams which were observed from high-Z gas jets at higher densities reached much higher yield. Evidences for cluster formation were clearly observed in high-Z gases, especially in the argon gas jet target where we received the highest yield of ~ 3 nC

  7. A dynamical mass estimator for high z galaxies based on spectroastrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Gnerucci, A; Cresci, G; Maiolino, R; Mannucci, F; Schreiber, N M Forster; Davies, R; Shapiro, K; Hicks, E K S

    2011-01-01

    Galaxy dynamical masses are important physical quantities to constrain galaxy evolutionary models, especially at high redshifts. However, at z~2 the limited signal to noise ratio and spatial resolution of the data usually do not allow spatially resolved kinematical modeling and very often only virial masses can be estimated from line widths. But even such estimates require a good knowledge of galaxy size, which may be smaller than the spatial resolution. Spectroastrometry is a technique which combines spatial and spectral resolution to probe spatial scales significantly smaller than the spatial resolution of the observations. Here we apply it to the case of high-z galaxies and present a method based on spectroastrometry to estimate dynamical masses of high z galaxies, which overcomes the problem of size determination with poor spatial resolution. We construct and calibrate a "spectroastrometric" virial mass estimator, modifying the "classical" virial mass formula. We apply our method to the [O III] or H{\\alph...

  8. Metal Stents in Management of Pancreatic Pseudocyst and Walled Off Necrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Paramasivam

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The science behind pancreatitis and its complications is an ever evolving and challenging field. More than two centuries after the first description of pancreatic pseudocyst by Eugene Opie, some clear consensus and guidelines have evolved. Atlanta Symposium in 1992 attempted to offer a global ‘consensus’ and a universally applicable classification system for acute pancreatitis, tough comprehensive; some of the definitions were confusing [1]. Recent data and deeper understanding of pathophysiology of organ failure and necrotising pancreatitis, and the advent of superior diagnostic imaging have propelled towards the formation of revised Atlanta classification in 2012. Local complications of acute pancreatitis among others are acute pancreatic fluid collection, pancreatic pseudocyst, acute necrotic collection and walled-off necrosis. Rarer complications are gastric outlet dysfunction, splenic and portal vein thrombosis, and colonic necrosis

  9. Atomistic study of mixing at high Z / low Z interfaces at Warm Dense Matter Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haxhimali, Tomorr; Glosli, James; Rudd, Robert; Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Team

    2016-10-01

    We use atomistic simulations to study different aspects of mixing occurring at an initially sharp interface of high Z and low Z plasmas in the Warm/Hot Dense Matter regime. We consider a system of Diamond (the low Z component) in contact with Ag (the high Z component), which undergoes rapid isochoric heating from room temperature up to 10 eV, rapidly changing the solids into warm dense matter at solid density. We simulate the motion of ions via the screened Coulomb potential. The electric field, the electron density and ionizations level are computed on the fly by solving Poisson equation. The spatially varying screening lengths computed from the electron cloud are included in this effective interaction; the electrons are not simulated explicitly. We compute the electric field generated at the Ag-C interface as well as the dynamics of the ions during the mixing process occurring at the plasma interface. Preliminary results indicate an anomalous transport of high Z ions (Ag) into the low Z component (C); a phenomenon that is partially related to the enhanced transport of ions due to the generated electric field. These results are in agreement with recent experimental observation on Au-diamond plasma interface. This work was performed under the auspices of the US Dept. of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  10. Optimizing the Search for High-z GRBs: The JANUS X-ray Coded Aperture Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Burrows, D N; Palmer, D; Romano, P; Mangano, V; La Parola, V; Falcone, A D; Roming, P W A

    2011-01-01

    We discuss the optimization of gamma-ray burst (GRB) detectors with a goal of maximizing the detected number of bright high-redshift GRBs, in the context of design studies conducted for the X-ray transient detector on the JANUS mission. We conclude that the optimal energy band for detection of high-z GRBs is below about 30 keV. We considered both lobster-eye and coded aperture designs operating in this energy band. Within the available mass and power constraints, we found that the coded aperture mask was preferred for the detection of high-z bursts with bright enough afterglows to probe galaxies in the era of the Cosmic Dawn. This initial conclusion was confirmed through detailed mission simulations that found that the selected design (an X-ray Coded Aperture Telescope) would detect four times as many bright, high-z GRBs as the lobster-eye design we considered. The JANUS XCAT instrument will detect 48 GRBs with z > 5 and fluence Sx > 3 {\\times} 10-7 erg cm-2 in a two year mission.

  11. Theoretical Investigation on Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes Doped with Nitrogen, Pyridine-Like Nitrogen Defects, and Transition Metal Atoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Mananghaya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses the inherent difficulty in synthesizing single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs with uniform chirality and well-defined electronic properties through the introduction of dopants, topological defects, and intercalation of metals. Depending on the desired application, one can modify the electronic and magnetic properties of SWCNTs through an appropriate introduction of imperfections. This scheme broadens the application areas of SWCNTs. Under this motivation, we present our ongoing investigations of the following models: (i (10, 0 and (5, 5 SWCNT doped with nitrogen (CNxNT, (ii (10, 0 and (5, 5 SWCNT with pyridine-like defects (3NV-CNxNT, (iii (10, 0 SWCNT with porphyrine-like defects (4ND-CNxNT. Models (ii and (iii were chemically functionalized with 14 transition metals (TMs: Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pd, Ag, Pt and Au. Using the spin-unrestricted density functional theory (DFT, stable configurations, deformations, formation and binding energies, the effects of the doping concentration of nitrogen, pyridine-like and porphyrine-like defects on the electronic properties were all examined. Results reveal that the electronic properties of SWCNTs show strong dependence on the concentration and configuration of nitrogen impurities, its defects, and the TMs adsorbed.

  12. Impact of nitrogen seeding on confinement and power load control of a high-triangularity JET ELMy H-mode plasma with a metal wall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giroud, C.; Maddison, G. P.; Jachmich, S.; Rimini, F.; Beurskens, M. N. A.; Balboa, I.; Brezinsek, S.; Coelho, R.; Coenen, J. W.; Frassinetti, L.; Joffrin, E.; Oberkofler, M.; Lehnen, M.; Liu, Y.; Marsen, S.; McCormick, K.; Meigs, A.; Neu, R.; Sieglin, B.; van Rooij, G. J.; Arnoux, G.; Belo, P.; Brix, M.; Clever, M.; Coffey, I.; Devaux, S.; Douai, D.; Eich, T.; Flanagan, J.; S. Grünhagen,; Huber, A.; Kempenaars, M.; Kruezi, U.; Lawson, K.; Lomas, P.; Lowry, C.; Nunes, I.; Sirinnelli, A.; Sips, A.C.C.; Stamp, M.; Wiesen, S.; JET-EFDA Contributors,

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the impact on confinement and power load of the high-shape 2.5 MA ELMy H-mode scenario at JET of a change from all carbon plasma-facing components to an all metal wall. In preparation to this change, systematic studies of power load reduction and impact on confinement as a result

  13. Global and pedestal confinement in JET with a Be/W metallic wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beurskens, M. N. A.; Frassinetti, L.; Challis, C.; Giroud, C.; Saarelma, S.; Alper, B.; Angioni, C.; Bilkova, P.; Bourdelle, C.; Brezinsek, S.; Buratti, P.; Calabro, G.; Eich, T.; Flanagan, J.; Giovannozzi, E.; Groth, M.; Hobirk, J.; Joffrin, E.; Leyland, M. J.; Lomas, P.; de la Luna, E.; Kempenaars, M.; Maddison, G.; Maggi, C.; Mantica, P.; Maslov, M.; Matthews, G.; Mayoral, M.-L.; Neu, R.; Nunes, I.; Osborne, T.; Rimini, F.; Scannell, R.; Solano, E. R.; Snyder, P. B.; Voitsekhovitch, I.; de Vries, Peter; Contributors, JET-EFDA

    2014-04-01

    Type I ELMy H-mode operation in JET with the ITER-like Be/W wall (JET-ILW) generally occurs at lower pedestal pressures compared to those with the full carbon wall (JET-C). The pedestal density is similar but the pedestal temperature where type I ELMs occur is reduced and below to the so-called critical type I-type III transition temperature reported in JET-C experiments. Furthermore, the confinement factor H98(y,2) in type I ELMy H-mode baseline plasmas is generally lower in JET-ILW compared to JET-C at low power fractions Ploss/Pthr,08 Pthr,08 the L-H power threshold from Martin et al 2008 (J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 123 012033)). Higher power fractions have thus far not been achieved in the baseline plasmas. At Ploss/Pthr,08 > 2, the confinement in JET-ILW hybrid plasmas is similar to that in JET-C. A reduction in pedestal pressure is the main reason for the reduced confinement in JET-ILW baseline ELMy H-mode plasmas where typically H98(y,2) = 0.8 is obtained, compared to H98(y,2) = 1.0 in JET-C. In JET-ILW hybrid plasmas a similarly reduced pedestal pressure is compensated by an increased peaking of the core pressure profile resulting in H98(y,2) ⩽ 1.25. The pedestal stability has significantly changed in high triangularity baseline plasmas where the confinement loss is also most apparent. Applying the same stability analysis for JET-C and JET-ILW, the measured pedestal in JET-ILW is stable with respect to the calculated peeling-ballooning stability limit and the ELM collapse time has increased to 2 ms from typically 200 µs in JET-C. This indicates that changes in the pedestal stability may have contributed to the reduced pedestal confinement in JET-ILW plasmas. A comparison of EPED1 pedestal pressure prediction with JET-ILW experimental data in over 500 JET-C and JET-ILW baseline and hybrid plasmas shows a good agreement with 0.8 < (measured pped)/(predicted pped,EPED) < 1.2, but that the role of triangularity is generally weaker in the JET-ILW experimental data

  14. Contact resistance of multi-walled carbon nanotube/natural rubber nanocomposites with metallic ball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Tomoyoshi; Fujishige, Masatsugu; Noguchi, Toru; Ueki, Hiroyuki; Niihara, Ken-ichi; Takeuchi, Kenji

    2016-12-01

    This paper reports on the contact resistance (Rc) between carbon filler/natural rubber (NR) nanocomposite and gold ball: three varieties of nanocomposites were prepared from carbon black (CB) and two kinds of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with different diameter. Rc of MWCNT/NR nanocomposite was remarkably less than that of CB/NR nanocomposites. The relationship between Rc of MWCNT/NR nanocomposites and applied load was expressed in the formula, Rc=C·P-n (P: load, C and n: constant): for the MWCNTs (diameters of 13 nm)/NR and MWCNTs (diameters of 67 nm)/ NR nanocomposites, they were expressed as Rc=1724·P-0.6 and Rc=344·P-0.37, respectively. The former (MWCNT, ϕ13 nm) showed higher Rc than the latter (MWCNT, ϕ67 nm) over whole region of applied load. The mechanical hardness of the former was higher (90 HsA) than that of the latter (82 HsA). Therefore, the smaller contact area between the nanocomposite and gold ball of the former resulted in higher Rc. The apparent specific contact resistivity was calculated from the observed values of Rc and contact area: 130 Ω mm2 and 127 Ω mm2 for the former (MWCNT, ϕ13 nm) and the latter (MWCNT, ϕ67 nm), respectively.

  15. [A case of locally advanced breast cancer successfully treated with wide resection and reconstruction of chest wall with A-O metallic plates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, H; Tatsuta, M; Masuda, N; Miya, A; Ezumi, K; Shimizu, J; Ikeda, M; Ishida, H; Masutani, S; Kawasaki, T; Furukawa, H; Satomi, T

    2001-10-01

    A 63-year-old female with locally advanced breast cancer was treated with preoperative chemotherapy using docetaxel. The therapeutic regimen was comprised of four cycles at 3-week intervals. One cycle consisted of 80 mg of docetaxel which was administered on day 1. A remarkable response was confirmed. The side effects such as leukopenia, general fatigue and alopecia were moderate and had no influence on the patient's QOL. After preoperative chemotherapy, a full thickness chest wall resection was performed. Chest wall defect was reconstructed with orthopedic A-O metallic plates, Marlex mesh and rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap. These metal plates were very useful because it was easy to bend and twist them manually to fit the defect at the time of operation. Moreover, the curved metal plates preserved the cone form of the chest cage. The postoperative course was favourable without frail chest or wound infection.

  16. Impregnation of Catalytic Metals in Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes for Toxic Gas Conversion in Life Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Wignarajah, Kanapathipillai; Cinke, Marty; Partridge, Harry; Fisher, John

    2004-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) possess extraordinary properties such as high surface area, ordered chemical structure that allows functionalization, larger pore volume, and very narrow pore size distribution that have attracted considerable research attention from around the world since their discovery in 1991. The development and characterization of an original and innovative approach for the control and elimination of gaseous toxins using single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) promise superior performance over conventional approaches due to the ability to direct the selective uptake of gaseous species based on their controlled pore size, increased adsorptive capacity due to their increased surface area and the effectiveness of carbon nanotubes as catalyst supports for gaseous conversion. We present our recent investigation of using SWNTs as catalytic supporting materials to impregnate metals, such as rhodium (Rh), palladium (Pd) and other catalysts. A protocol has been developed to oxidize the SWNTs first and then impregnate the Rh in aqueous rhodium chloride solution, according to unique surface properties of SWNTs. The Rh has been successfully impregnated in SWNTs. The Rh-SWNTs have been characterized by various techniques, such as TGA, XPS, TEM, and FTIR. The project is funded by a NASA Research Announcement Grant to find applications of single walled nanocarbons in eliminating toxic gas Contaminant in life support system. This knowledge will be utilized in the development of a prototype SWNT KO, gas purification system that would represent a significant step in the development of high efficiency systems capable of selectively removing specific gaseous for use in regenerative life support system for human exploration missions.

  17. Impregnation of Catalytic Metals in Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes for Toxic Gas Conversion in Life Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Wignarajah, Kanapathipillai; Cinke, Marty; Partridge, Harry; Fisher, John

    2004-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) possess extraordinary properties such as high surface area, ordered chemical structure that allows functionalization, larger pore volume, and very narrow pore size distribution that have attracted considerable research attention from around the world since their discovery in 1991. The development and characterization of an original and innovative approach for the control and elimination of gaseous toxins using single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) promise superior performance over conventional approaches due to the ability to direct the selective uptake of gaseous species based on their controlled pore size, increased adsorptive capacity due to their increased surface area and the effectiveness of carbon nanotubes as catalyst supports for gaseous conversion. We present our recent investigation of using SWNTs as catalytic supporting materials to impregnate metals, such as rhodium (Rh), palladium (Pd) and other catalysts. A protocol has been developed to oxidize the SWNTs first and then impregnate the Rh in aqueous rhodium chloride solution, according to unique surface properties of SWNTs. The Rh has been successfully impregnated in SWNTs. The Rh-SWNTs have been characterized by various techniques, such as TGA, XPS, TEM, and FTIR. The project is funded by a NASA Research Announcement Grant to find applications of single walled nanocarbons in eliminating toxic gas Contaminant in life support system. This knowledge will be utilized in the development of a prototype SWNT KO, gas purification system that would represent a significant step in the development of high efficiency systems capable of selectively removing specific gaseous for use in regenerative life support system for human exploration missions.

  18. Folate-targeted single-wall metal-organic nanotubes used as multifunctional drug carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Linyan; Liu, Min; Huang, Kebin; Ai, Xia; Li, Cun; Ma, Jifei; Jin, Tianming; Liu, Xin

    2017-01-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is a member of the anthracycline class of chemotherapeutic agents that are used for the treatment of many common human cancers. A self-assembled functionalized metal-organic nanotubes, SWMONTs could be loaded with the anticancer drug DOX. Via the modification of SWMONTs, DOX/SWMONTs-SiO2, DOX/SWMONTs-SiO2-NH2, DOX/SWMONTs-SiO2-NH2-FA samples could be obtained. The SEM characterization of the samples indicated that the particle size of DOX/SWMONTs-SiO2NH2 samples were smaller than 200 nm. Drug-release experiments implied that DOX from the DOX/SWMONTs-SiO2-NH2-FA samples could be released faster at acidic tumor tissue than at normal body fluid (pH7.4). DOX has strong cytotoxicity, and at 20 μg/mL dosage of DOX large amount of apoptotic cells could be seen. Cellular uptaking experiments were used to study the apoptotic mechanism, while for DOX/SWMONTs-SiO2-NH2-FA samples, the strong drug fluorescence was found in the cytoplasm rather than in the nucleus.

  19. Technical note: Conversion of isoprene hydroxy hydroperoxides (ISOPOOHs) on metal environmental simulation chamber walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhammer, Anne-Kathrin; Breitenlechner, Martin; Keutsch, Frank N.; Hansel, Armin

    2017-03-01

    Sources and sinks of isoprene oxidation products from low-NOx isoprene chemistry have been studied at the CERN CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving Outdoor Droplets) chamber with a custom-built selective reagent ion time-of-flight mass spectrometer (SRI-ToF-MS), which allows quantitative measurement of isoprene hydroxy hydroperoxides (ISOPOOHs). The measured concentrations of the main oxidation products were compared to chemical box model simulations based on the Leeds Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM) v3.3. The modeled ISOPOOH concentrations are a factor of 20 higher than the observed concentrations, and methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) and methacrolein (MACR) concentrations are up to a factor of 2 lower compared to observations, despite the artifact-free detection method. Addition of catalytic conversion of 1,2-ISOPOOH and 4,3-ISOPOOH to methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) and methacrolein (MACR) on the stainless-steel surface of the chamber to the chemical mechanism resolves the discrepancy between model predictions and observation. This suggests that isoprene chemistry in a metal chamber under low-NOx conditions cannot be described by a pure gas phase model alone. Biases in the measurement of ISOPOOH, MVK, and MACR can be caused not only intra-instrumentally but also by the general experimental setup. The work described here extends the role of heterogeneous reactions affecting gas phase composition and properties from instrumental surfaces, described previously, to general experimental setups. The role of such conversion reactions on real environmental surfaces is yet to be explored.

  20. A rational design for the separation of metallic and semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes using a magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Chengzhi; Wan, Da; Jia, Junji; Li, Delong; Pan, Chunxu; Liao, Lei

    2016-06-01

    The separation of metallic (m-) and semiconducting (s-) single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) without causing contamination and damage is a major challenge for SWNT-based devices. As a facile and nondestructive tool, the use of a magnetic field could be an ideal strategy to separate m-/s-SWNTs, based on the difference of magnetic susceptibilities. Here, we designed a novel magnetic field-assisted floating catalyst chemical vapor deposition system to separate m-/s-SWNTs. Briefly, m-SWNTs are attracted toward the magnetic pole, leaving s-SWNTs on the substrate. By using this strategy, s-SWNTs with a purity of 99% could be obtained, which is enough to construct high-performance transistors with a mobility of 230 cm2 V-1 s-1 and an on/off ratio of 106. We also established a model to quantitatively calculate the percentage of m-SWNTs on the substrate and this model shows a good match with the experimental data. Furthermore, our rational design also provides a new avenue for the growth of SWNTs with specific chirality and manipulated arrangement due to the difference of magnetic susceptibilities between different diameters, chiralities, and types.The separation of metallic (m-) and semiconducting (s-) single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) without causing contamination and damage is a major challenge for SWNT-based devices. As a facile and nondestructive tool, the use of a magnetic field could be an ideal strategy to separate m-/s-SWNTs, based on the difference of magnetic susceptibilities. Here, we designed a novel magnetic field-assisted floating catalyst chemical vapor deposition system to separate m-/s-SWNTs. Briefly, m-SWNTs are attracted toward the magnetic pole, leaving s-SWNTs on the substrate. By using this strategy, s-SWNTs with a purity of 99% could be obtained, which is enough to construct high-performance transistors with a mobility of 230 cm2 V-1 s-1 and an on/off ratio of 106. We also established a model to quantitatively calculate the percentage of m

  1. The Ly$\\alpha$ emission from high-$z$ galaxies hosting strong Damped Ly$\\alpha$ systems

    CERN Document Server

    Joshi, Ravi; Noterdaeme, Pasquier; Petitjean, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    We study the average Ly$\\alpha$ emission associated with high-$z$ strong (log $N$(H I) $\\ge$ 21) damped Ly$\\alpha$ systems (DLAs). We report Ly$\\alpha$ luminosities ($L_{\\rm Ly\\alpha}$) for the full as well as various sub-samples based on $N$(H I), $z$, $(r-i)$ colours of QSOs and rest equivalent width of Si II$\\lambda$1526 line (i.e., $W_{1526}$). For the full sample, we find $L_{\\rm Ly\\alpha}$$< 10^{41} (3\\sigma)\\ \\rm erg\\ s^{-1}$ with a $2.8\\sigma$ level detection of Ly$\\alpha$ emission in the red part of the DLA trough. The $L_{\\rm Ly\\alpha}$ is found to be higher for systems with higher $W_{1526}$ with its peak, detected at $\\geq 3\\sigma$, redshifted by about 300-400 $\\rm km\\ s^{-1}$ with respect to the systemic absorption redshift, as seen in Lyman Break Galaxies (LBGs) and Ly$\\alpha$ emitters. A clear signature of a double-hump Ly$\\alpha$ profile is seen when we consider $W_{1526} \\ge 0.4$ \\AA\\ and $(r-i) < 0.05$. Based on the known correlation between metallicity and $W_{1526}$, we interpret our...

  2. X-ray imaging of subsurface dynamics in high-Z materials at the Diamond Light Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eakins, D E; Chapman, D J

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we describe a new approach enabling study of subsurface dynamics in high-Z materials using the unique combination of high-energy synchrotron X-rays, a hybrid bunch structure, and a new dynamic loading platform. We detail the design and operation of the purpose-built, portable small bore gas-gun, which was installed on the I12 high-energy beamline at the Diamond Light Source and used to drive compression waves into solid and porous metal targets. Using a hybrid bunch structure and broadband X-ray pulses of up to 300 keV, radiographic snapshots were captured during various dynamic deformation processes in cm-scale specimens, thereby contributing to a more complete understanding of the evolution of mesoscale damage. Importantly, we highlight strategies for overcoming the challenges associated with using high-energy X-rays, and suggest areas for improvement needed to advance dynamic imaging through large-scale samples of relevance to engineering scenarios. These preliminary measurements demonstrate the feasibility of probing highly transient phenomena using the presented methodology.

  3. X-ray imaging of subsurface dynamics in high-Z materials at the Diamond Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eakins, D. E., E-mail: d.eakins@imperial.ac.uk; Chapman, D. J. [Institute of Shock Physics, Imperial College London, London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-15

    In this paper, we describe a new approach enabling study of subsurface dynamics in high-Z materials using the unique combination of high-energy synchrotron X-rays, a hybrid bunch structure, and a new dynamic loading platform. We detail the design and operation of the purpose-built, portable small bore gas-gun, which was installed on the I12 high-energy beamline at the Diamond Light Source and used to drive compression waves into solid and porous metal targets. Using a hybrid bunch structure and broadband X-ray pulses of up to 300 keV, radiographic snapshots were captured during various dynamic deformation processes in cm-scale specimens, thereby contributing to a more complete understanding of the evolution of mesoscale damage. Importantly, we highlight strategies for overcoming the challenges associated with using high-energy X-rays, and suggest areas for improvement needed to advance dynamic imaging through large-scale samples of relevance to engineering scenarios. These preliminary measurements demonstrate the feasibility of probing highly transient phenomena using the presented methodology.

  4. X-ray imaging of subsurface dynamics in high-Z materials at the Diamond Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eakins, D. E.; Chapman, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we describe a new approach enabling study of subsurface dynamics in high-Z materials using the unique combination of high-energy synchrotron X-rays, a hybrid bunch structure, and a new dynamic loading platform. We detail the design and operation of the purpose-built, portable small bore gas-gun, which was installed on the I12 high-energy beamline at the Diamond Light Source and used to drive compression waves into solid and porous metal targets. Using a hybrid bunch structure and broadband X-ray pulses of up to 300 keV, radiographic snapshots were captured during various dynamic deformation processes in cm-scale specimens, thereby contributing to a more complete understanding of the evolution of mesoscale damage. Importantly, we highlight strategies for overcoming the challenges associated with using high-energy X-rays, and suggest areas for improvement needed to advance dynamic imaging through large-scale samples of relevance to engineering scenarios. These preliminary measurements demonstrate the feasibility of probing highly transient phenomena using the presented methodology.

  5. Arene guest selectivity and pore flexibility in a metal-organic framework with semi-fluorinated channel walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Rebecca; Vitórica-Yrezábal, Iñigo J.; Hill, Adrian; Brammer, Lee

    2017-01-01

    A metal-organic framework (MOF) with one-dimensional channels of approximately hexagonal cross-section [Ag2(O2CCF2CF2CO2)(TMP)] 1 (TMP =2,3,5,6-tetramethylpyrazine) has been synthesized with MeOH filling the channels in its as-synthesized form as [Ag2(O2CCF2CF2CO2)(TMP)]·n(MeOH) 1-MeOH (n = 1.625 by X-ray crystallography). The two types of ligand connect columns of Ag(I) centres in an alternating manner, both around the channels and along their length, leading to an alternating arrangement of hydrocarbon (C-H) and fluorocarbon (C-F) groups lining the channel walls, with the former groups projecting further into the channel than the latter. MeOH solvent in the channels can be exchanged for a variety of arene guests, ranging from xylenes to tetrafluorobenzene, as confirmed by gas chromatography, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and 13C cross-polarization magic angle spinning NMR spectroscopy. Alkane and perfluoroalkane guests, however, do not enter the channels. Although exhibiting some stability under a nitrogen atmosphere, sufficient to enable crystal structure determination, the evacuated MOF 1 is unstable for periods of more than minutes under ambient conditions or upon heating, whereupon it undergoes an irreversible solid-state transformation to a non-porous polymorph 2, which comprises Ag2(O2CCF2CF2CO2) coordination layers that are pillared by TMP ligands. This transformation has been followed in situ by powder X-ray diffraction and shown to proceed via a crystalline intermediate. This article is part of the themed issue 'Coordination polymers and metal-organic frameworks: materials by design'.

  6. SCREENING OF HIGH-Z GRAINS AND RELATED PHENOMENA IN COLLOIDAL PLASMAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.Bystrenko

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent important results are briefly presented concerning the screening of high-Z impurities in colloidal plasmas. The review focuses on the phenomenon of nonlinear screening and its effects on the structure of colloidal plasmas, the role of trapped ions in grain screening, and the effects of strong collisions in the plasma background. It is shown that the above effects may strongly modify the properties of the grain screening giving rise to considerable deviations from the conventional Debye-Huckel theory as dependent on the physical processes in the plasma background.

  7. Effect of High Z material on the performance of an air-breathing laser ablation thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimamura, Kohei; Kiyono, Inoru; Yokota, Ippei; Ozaki, Naoto; Yokota, Shigeru

    2016-09-01

    A Laser propulsion, such as a Lightcraft, is a candidate for the low cost transportation system between the ground to space instead of the chemical rocket. Using the shock wave induced by focusing laser beam on the ablator in air, the huge fuel is unnecessary to generate the thrust. In this study, the high-Z material was doped into the polystyrene to emphasize the ionization effect in air. We evaluate the intensity of the bremsstrahlung radiation, the plasma parameter, and the thrust performance.

  8. Ablation of high-Z material dust grains in edge plasmas of magnetic fusion devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marenkov, E. D.; Krasheninnikov, S. I.

    2014-12-01

    The model, including shielding effects of high-Z dust grain ablation in tokamak edge plasma, is presented. In a contrast to shielding models developed for pellets ablation in a hot plasma core, this model deals with the dust grain ablation in relatively cold edge plasma. Using some simplifications, a closed set of equations determining the grain ablation rate Γ is derived and analyzed both analytically and numerically. The scaling law for Γ versus grain radius and ambient plasma parameters is obtained and confirmed by the results of numerical solutions. The results obtained are compared with both dust grain models containing no shielding effects and the pellet ablation models.

  9. Disruption mitigation using laser ablation of high-Z impurities in HL-1M tokamak

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Yong-Zhen; Feng Xing-Ya; Guo Gan-Cheng; Xu De-Ming; Zheng Yin-Jia

    2006-01-01

    A preliminary experiment triggering a plasma current quench by laser ablation of high-Z impurities has been performed in the HL-1M tokamak. The injection of impurities with higher electric charges into tokamak plasmas can increase the radiation cooling of the plasma. Resistive, highly radiating plasma formed prior to the thermal quench can dissipate both the thermal and magnetic energies, which is possibly a simple and potential approach to reducing significantly the plasma thermal energy and magnetic energy before a disruption thereby a safe plasma termination is obtained.

  10. Experimental and theoretical comparison of gas desorption energies on metallic and semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandeltort, Lynn; Chen, De-Li; Saidi, Wissam A; Johnson, J Karl; Cole, Milton W; Yates, John T

    2013-05-22

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) exhibit high surface areas and precisely defined pores, making them potentially useful materials for gas adsorption and purification. A thorough understanding of the interactions between adsorbates and SWNTs is therefore critical to predicting adsorption isotherms and selectivities. Metallic (M-) and semiconducting (S-) SWNTs have extremely different polarizabilities that might be expected to significantly affect the adsorption energies of molecules. We experimentally and theoretically show that this expectation is contradicted, for both a long chain molecule (n-heptane) and atoms (Ar, Kr, and Xe). Temperature-programmed desorption experiments are combined with van der Waals corrected density functional theory, examining adsorption on interior and exterior sites of the SWNTs. Our calculations show a clear dependence of the adsorption energy on nanotube diameter but not on whether the tubes are conducting or insulating. We find no significant experimental or theoretical difference in adsorption energies for molecules adsorbed on M- and S-SWNTs having the same diameter. Hence, we conclude that the differences in polarizabilities between M- and S-SWNTs have a negligible influence on gas adsorption for spherical molecules as well as for highly anisotropic molecules such as n-heptane. We expect this conclusion to apply to all types of adsorbed molecules where van der Waals interactions govern the molecular interaction with the SWNT.

  11. Surface-Anchored Poly(4-vinylpyridine)–Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube–Metal Composites for Gas Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Yoon, Bora

    2016-08-05

    A platform for chemiresistive gas detectors based upon single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) dispersions stabilized by poly(4-vinylpyridine) (P4VP) covalently immobilized onto a glass substrate was developed. To fabricate these devices, a glass substrate with gold electrodes is treated with 3-bromopropyltrichlorosilane. The resulting alkyl bromide coating presents groups that can react with the P4VP to covalently bond (anchor) the polymer–SWCNT composite to the substrate. Residual pyridyl groups in P4VP not consumed in this quaternization reaction are available to coordinate metal nanoparticles or ions chosen to confer selectivity and sensitivity to target gas analytes. Generation of P4VP coordinated to silver nanoparticles produces an enhanced response to ammonia gas. The incorporation of soft Lewis acidic Pd2+ cations by binding PdCl2 to P4VP yields a selective and highly sensitive device that changes resistance upon exposure to vapors of thioethers. The latter materials have utility for odorized fuel leak detection, microbial activity, and breath diagnostics. A third demonstration makes use of permanganate incorporation to produce devices with large responses to vapors of volatile organic compounds that are susceptible to oxidation.

  12. Evaluation of the immunological profile of antibody-functionalized metal-filled single-walled carbon nanocapsules for targeted radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Ruiz de Garibay, Aritz; Spinato, Cinzia; Klippstein, Rebecca; Bourgognon, Maxime; Martincic, Markus; Pach, Elzbieta; Ballesteros, Belén; Ménard-Moyon, Cécilia; Al-Jamal, Khuloud T.; Tobias, Gerard; Bianco, Alberto

    2017-02-01

    This study investigates the immune responses induced by metal-filled single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) under in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo settings. Either empty amino-functionalized CNTs [SWCNT-NH2 (1)] or samarium chloride-filled amino-functionalized CNTs with [SmCl3@SWCNT-mAb (3)] or without [SmCl3@SWCNT-NH2 (2)] Cetuximab functionalization were tested. Conjugates were added to RAW 264.7 or PBMC cells in a range of 1 μg/ml to 100 μg/ml for 24 h. Cell viability and IL-6/TNFα production were determined by flow cytometry and ELISA. Additionally, the effect of SWCNTs on the number of T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes and monocytes within the PBMC subpopulations was evaluated by immunostaining and flow cytometry. The effect on monocyte number in living mice was assessed after tail vein injection (150 μg of each conjugate per mouse) at 1, 7 and 13 days post-injection. Overall, our study showed that all the conjugates had no significant effect on cell viability of RAW 264.7 but conjugates 1 and 3 led to a slight increase in IL-6/TNFα. All the conjugates resulted in significant reduction in monocyte/macrophage cell numbers within PBMCs in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, monocyte depletion was not observed in vivo, suggesting their suitability for future testing in the field of targeted radiotherapy in mice.

  13. Discriminating between Metallic and Semiconducting Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Using Physisorbed Adsorbates: Role of Wavelike Charge-Density Fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wang; Chen, Yun; Jiang, Qing

    2016-12-01

    Discriminating between metallic (M ) and semiconducting (S ) single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) remains a fundamental challenge in the field of nanotechnology. We address this issue by studying the adsorption of the isotropic atoms Xe, Kr, and a highly anisotropic molecule n heptane on M - and S -SWNTs with density functional theory that includes many-body dispersion forces. We find that the distinct polarizabilities of M - and S -SWNTs exhibit significantly different physisorption properties, which are also strongly controlled by the SWNT's diameter, adsorption site, adsorbate coverage, and the adsorbate's anisotropy. These findings stem from the wavelike nature of charge-density fluctuations in SWNTs. Particularly, these results allow us to rationalize the unusual √{3 }×√{3 }R 3 00 phase of Kr atoms on small gap M -SWNTs and the double desorption peak temperatures of n heptane on M -SWNTs in experiments, and also propose the n heptane as an effective sensor for experimentally discriminating M - and S -SWNTs.

  14. Radiofrequency electric-field heating behaviors of highly enriched semiconducting and metallic single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stuart J. Corr[1,2,3; Mustafa Raoof[2,4; Brandon T. Cisneros[2,3,5; Alvin W. Orbaek[3; Matthew A. Cheney[1,2,3; Justin J. Law[1,3; Nadia C. Lara[1,3; Andrew R. Barron[3,6; Lon J. Wilsor[3; Steven A. Curley[1,2,7

    2015-01-01

    It is theorized that enhanced thermal heating may result from exposing single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) embedded in a conductive host to radiofrequency (RF) electric fields. We examine the RF-induced (13.56 MHz) heating behaviors of 95% metallic- and semiconducting-enriched SWNTs (m-/s-SWNTs) suspended in aqueous solutions with varying NaC1 molarity (0.001 mM-1 M). The heating effects were only evident for host molarities below 1 mM (equivalent to 0.1 S/m) at which the s-SWNT heating rates dominated those of the m-SWNTs. The heating effects were localized to aligned and aggregated "SWNT ropes" -1 cm in length that formed in suspension, parallel to the electric-field vector, during the RF exposure. For molarities above 1 mM, no enhancements were evident, owing to the large heating effects of the bulk ionic NaC1 suspensions, which were observed in previous studies. Although larger enhancement effects proportional to the host conductivity have been theoretically predicted for m-/s-SWNT suspensions, this was not observed most likely because of the aggregation and screening effects, which diminished the scattered electric field near the m-/s-SWNTs. Our research may further the development of better nanoparticle heating agents for applications such as non-invasive RF-induced cancer hyperthermia.

  15. Electrically robust metal nanowire network formation by in-situ interconnection with single-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Jong Seok; Han, Joong Tark; Jung, Sunshin; Jang, Jeong In; Kim, Ho Young; Jeong, Hee Jin; Jeong, Seung Yol; Baeg, Kang-Jun; Lee, Geon-Woong

    2014-01-01

    Modulation of the junction resistance between metallic nanowires is a crucial factor for high performance of the network-structured conducting film. Here, we show that under current flow, silver nanowire (AgNW) network films can be stabilised by minimizing the Joule heating at the NW-NW junction assisted by in-situ interconnection with a small amount (less than 3 wt%) of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). This was achieved by direct deposition of AgNW suspension containing SWCNTs functionalised with quadruple hydrogen bonding moieties excluding dispersant molecules. The electrical stabilisation mechanism of AgNW networks involves the modulation of the electrical transportation pathway by the SWCNTs through the SWCNT-AgNW junctions, which results in a relatively lower junction resistance than the NW-NW junction in the network film. In addition, we propose that good contact and Fermi level matching between AgNWs and modified SWCNTs lead to the modulation of the current pathway. The SWCNT-induced stabilisation of the AgNW networks was also demonstrated by irradiating the film with microwaves. The development of the high-throughput fabrication technology provides a robust and scalable strategy for realizing high-performance flexible transparent conductor films.

  16. Towards a complete census of high-z ULIRGs with Herschel

    CERN Document Server

    Magdis, G E; Hwang, H S

    2011-01-01

    Using Herschel PACS and SPIRE observations as part of the HerMES, we explore the far-IR properties of a sample of mid-IR selected starburst dominated ultra-luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) at z ~ 2. We derive robust estimates of infrared luminosities (L_IR) and dust temperatures (Td) of the population and find that galaxies in our sample range from those that are as cold as high-z sub-millimeter galaxies (SMGs) to those that are as warm as optically faint radio galaxies (OFRGs) and local ULIRGs. We also demonstrate that a significant fraction of our sample would be missed from ground based (sub)mm surveys (850-1200{\\mu}m) showing that the latter introduce a bias towards the detection of colder sources. Similarly, based on PACS data as part of the PEP project, we construct for the first time the full average SED of a sub-sample of infrared luminous Lyman break galaxies at z ~ 3, and find them to have higher T_d when compared to that of SMGs with comparable L_IR. We conclude that high-z ULIRGs span a wide ra...

  17. High-z Quasars in the R_h=ct Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Melia, Fulvio

    2013-01-01

    One cannot understand the early appearance of 10^9 solar-mass black holes without invoking anomalously high accretion rates or the creation of exotically massive seeds, neither of which is seen in the local Universe. Recent observations have compounded this problem by demonstrating that most, if not all, of the high-z quasars appear to be accreting at the Eddington limit. In the context of LCDM, the only viable alternative now appears to be the assemblage of supermassive black holes via mergers, as long as the seeds started forming at redshifts >40, but ceased being created by z~20-30. In this paper, we show that, whereas the high-z quasars may be difficult to explain within the framework of the standard model, they can instead be interpreted much more sensibly in the context of the R_h=ct Universe. In this cosmology, 5-20 solar-mass seeds produced after the onset of re-ionization (at z10^9 solar masses by z> 6, merely by accreting at the standard Eddington rate.

  18. Constraining the Epoch of Reionization from the Observed Properties of the High-z Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador-Solé, Eduard; Manrique, Alberto; Guzman, Rafael; Rodríguez Espinosa, José Miguel; Gallego, Jesús; Herrero, Artemio; Mas-Hesse, J. Miguel; Marín Franch, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    We combine observational data on a dozen independent cosmic properties at high-z with the information on reionization drawn from the spectra of distant luminous sources and the cosmic microwave background (CMB) to constrain the interconnected evolution of galaxies and the intergalactic medium since the dark ages. The only acceptable solutions are concentrated in two narrow sets. In one of them reionization proceeds in two phases: a first one driven by Population III stars, completed at z∼ 10, and after a short recombination period a second one driven by normal galaxies, completed at z∼ 6. In the other set both kinds of sources work in parallel until full reionization at z∼ 6. The best solution with double reionization gives excellent fits to all the observed cosmic histories, but the CMB optical depth is 3σ larger than the recent estimate from the Planck data. Alternatively, the best solution with single reionization gives less good fits to the observed star formation rate density and cold gas mass density histories, but the CMB optical depth is consistent with that estimate. We make several predictions, testable with future observations, that should discriminate between the two reionization scenarios. As a byproduct our models provide a natural explanation to some characteristic features of the cosmic properties at high-z, as well as to the origin of globular clusters.

  19. Use of alkali metal salts to prepare high purity single-walled carbon nanotube solutions and thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashour, Rakan F.

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) display interesting electronic and optical properties desired for many advanced thin film applications, such as transparent conductive electrodes or thin-film transistors. Large-scale production of SWCNTs generally results in polydispersed mixtures of nanotube structures. Since SWCNT electronic character (conducting or semiconducting nature) depends on the nanotube structure, application performance is being held back by this inability to discretely control SWCNT synthesis. Although a number of post-production techniques are able to separate SWCNTs based on electronic character, diameter, or chirality, most still suffer from the disadvantage of high costs of materials, equipment, or labor intensity to be relevant for large-scale production. On the other hand, chromatographic separation has emerged as a method that is compatible with large scale separation of metallic and semiconducting SWCNTs. In this work, SWCNTs, in an aqueous surfactant suspension of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), are separated by their electronic character using a gel chromatography process. Metallic SWCNTs (m-SWCNTs) are collected as initial fractions since they show minimum interaction with the gel medium, whereas, semiconducting SWCNTs (sc- SWCNTs) remain adsorbed to the gel. The process of sc-SWCNT retention in the gel is found to be driven by the packing density of SDS around the SWCNTs. Through a series of separation experiments, it is shown that sc-SWCNTs can be eluted from the gel simply by disturbing the configuration of the SDS/SWCNT micellar structure. This is achieved by either introducing a solution containing a co-surfactant, such as sodium cholate (SC), or solutions of alkali metal ionic salts. Analysis of SWCNT suspensions by optical absorption provides insights into the effect of changing the metal ion (M+ = Li+, Na+, and K+) in the eluting solution. Salts with smaller metal ions (e.g. Li+) require higher concentrations to achieve

  20. Highly efficient metal-free growth of nitrogen-doped single-walled carbon nanotubes on plasma-etched substrates for oxygen reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dingshan; Zhang, Qiang; Dai, Liming

    2010-11-03

    We have for the first time developed a simple plasma-etching technology to effectively generate metal-free particle catalysts for efficient metal-free growth of undoped and/or nitrogen-doped single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Compared with undoped CNTs, the newly produced metal-free nitrogen-containing CNTs were demonstrated to show relatively good electrocatalytic activity and long-term stability toward oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in an acidic medium. Owing to the highly generic nature of the plasma etching technique, the methodology developed in this study can be applied to many other substrates for efficient growth of metal-free CNTs for various applications, ranging from energy related to electronic and to biomedical systems.

  1. Development of scalable methods for the utilization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes in polymer and metal matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vennerberg, Danny Curtis

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) have received considerable attention as reinforcement for composites due to their high tensile strength, stiffness, electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity as well as their low coefficient of thermal expansion. However, despite the availability of huge quantities of low-cost, commercially synthesized nanotubes, the utilization of MWCNTs in engineering composites is extremely limited due to difficulties in achieving uniform dispersion and strong interfacial bonding with the matrix. A proven method of enhancing the nanotube-polymer interface and degree of MWCNT dispersion involves functionalizing the MWCNTs through oxidation with strong acids. While effective at laboratory scales, this technique is not well-suited for large-scale operations due to long processing times, poor yield, safety hazards, and environmental concerns. This work aims to find scalable solutions to several of the challenges associated with the fabrication of MWCNT-reinforced composites. For polymer matrix composite applications, a rapid, dry, and cost-effective method of oxidizing MWCNTs with O3 in a fluidized bed was developed as an alternative to acid oxidation. Oxidized MWCNTs were further functionalized with silane coupling agents using water and supercritical carbon dioxide as solvents in order to endow the MWCNTs with matrix-specific functionalities. The effect of silanization on the cure kinetics, rheological behavior, and thermo-mechanical properties of model epoxy nanocomposites were investigated. Small additions of functionalized MWCNTs were found to increase the glass transition temperature, strength, and toughness of the epoxy. In order to achieve composite properties approaching those of individual nanotubes, new approaches are needed to allow for high loadings of MWCNTs. One strategy involves making macroscopic mats of nanotubes called buckypaper (BP) and subsequently infiltrating the mats with resin in processes familiar to

  2. Sheet resistance characterization of locally anisotropic transparent conductive films made of aligned metal-enriched single-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hosung; Kim, Duckjong; Baik, Seunghyun

    2014-09-21

    One-dimensional conductive fillers such as single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) can be aggregated and aligned during transparent conductive film (TCF) formation by the vacuum filtration method. The potential error of analysing the average sheet resistance of these anisotropic films, using the four-point probe in-line method and the conversion formula developed assuming uniform isotropic material properties, was systematically investigated by finite element analysis and experiments. The finite element analysis of anisotropic stripe-patterned TCFs with alternating low (ρ1) and high (ρ2) resistivities revealed that the estimated average sheet resistance approached ρ1/t when the probes were parallel to the aligned nanotubes. The thickness of the film is t. It was more close to ρ2/t when the probes were perpendicular to the aligned tubes. Indeed, TCFs fabricated by the vacuum filtration method using metal-enriched SWNTs exhibited highly anisotropic local regions where tubes were aggregated and aligned. The local sheet resistances of randomly oriented, aligned, and perpendicular tube regions of the TCF at a transmittance of 89.9% were 5000, 2.4, and 12 300 Ω □(-1), respectively. Resistivities of the aggregated and aligned tube region (ρ1 = 1.2 × 10(-5) Ω cm) and the region between tubes (ρ2 = 6.2 × 10(-2) Ω cm) could be approximated with the aid of finite element analysis. This work demonstrates the potential error of characterizing the average sheet resistance of anisotropic TCFs using the four-point probe in-line method since surprisingly high or low values could be obtained depending on the measurement angle. On the other hand, a better control of aggregation and alignment of nanotubes would realize TCFs with a very small anisotropic resistivity and a high transparency.

  3. On The Non-Gaussian Errors in High-z Supernovae Type Ia Data

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Meghendra; Sharma, Amit; Gupta, Shashikant; Sharma, Satendra

    2016-01-01

    The nature of random errors in any data set that is Gaussian is a well established fact according to the Central Limit Theorem. Supernovae type Ia data have played a crucial role in major discoveries in cosmology. Unlike in laboratory experiments, astronomical measurements can not be performed in controlled situations. Thus, errors in astronomical data can be more severe in terms of systematics and non-Gaussianity compared to those of laboratory experiments. In this paper, we use the Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistic to test non-Gaussianity in high-z supernovae data. We apply this statistic to four data sets, i.e., Gold data(2004), Gold data(2007), Union2 catalogue and the Union2.1 data set for our analysis. Our results shows that in all four data sets the errors are consistent with the Gaussian distribution.

  4. Enabling Decadal-level Surveys (High-z GRBs, AGN, Transients) to EXIST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindlay, Jonathan E.; Bloom, J.; Coppi, P.; Soderberg, A.; Hong, J.; Moseley, H.; Tagliaferr, G.

    2009-12-01

    The Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST) has completed a Astrophysics Strategic Mission Concept Study (ASMCS) for consideration now by the Astro2010 Decadal Survey as a Medium class mission for the coming decade. EXIST would enable the most sensitive and immediate probes of the physical conditions during the epoch of reionization (EOR) at z 7-15 by its unparalled sensitivity to discover and immediately identify high-z Gamma-ray Bursts (GRBs). With a GRB sensitivity nearly 10X that of Swift, and a proposed onboard optical-IR telescope (IRT) as well as a contributed (Italy) Soft X-ray Imager (SXI), the High Energy Telescope (HET) on EXIST can detect and slew to a mision science and the HET, IRT and SXI are given along with descriptions of how the mission could serve a vast range of science investigations not yet possible.

  5. Prepulse effects on the interaction of intense femtosecond laser pulses with high-Z solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhidkov, Alexei; Sasaki, Akira; Utsumi, Takayuki; Fukumoto, Ichirou; Tajima, Toshiki; Saito, Fumikazu; Hironaka, Yoichiro; Nakamura, Kazutaka G.; Kondo, Ken-ichi; Yoshida, Masatake

    2000-11-01

    K{alpha} emission of high-Z solid targets irradiated by an intense, short (<100 fs) laser pulse in the 10 keV region is shown to be sensitive to the electron energy cutoff, which is strongly dependent on the density gradient of the plasma corona formed by a long prepulse. The absorption rate of short laser pulses, the hot electron distribution, and x-ray emission from a Cu slab target are studied via a hybrid model, which combines the hydrodynamics, collisional particle-in-cell, and Monte Carlo simulation techniques, and via a direct spectroscopic measurement. An absorption mechanism originating from the interaction of the laser pulse with plasma waves is found to increase the absorption rate by over 30% even for a very short, s-polarized laser pulse. Calculated and measured x-ray spectra are in good agreement, confirming the electron energy cutoff.

  6. High-Z Nanoparticle/Polymer Nanocomposites for Gamma-Ray Scintillation Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao

    An affordable and reliable solution for spectroscopic gamma-ray detection has long been sought after due to the needs from research, defense, and medical applications. Scintillators resolve gamma energy by proportionally converting a single high-energy photon into a number of photomultiplier-tube-detectable low-energy photons, which is considered a more affordable solution for general purposes compared to the delicate semiconductor detectors. An ideal scintillator should simultaneously exhibit the following characteristics: 1) high atomic number (Z) for high gamma stopping power and photoelectron production; 2) high light yield since the energy resolution is inversely proportional to the square root of light yield; 3) short emission decay lifetime; and 4) low cost and scalable production. However, commercial scintillators made from either inorganic single crystals or plastics fail to satisfy all requirements due to their intrinsic material properties and fabrication limitations. The concept of adding high-Z constituents into plastic scintillators to harness high Z, low cost, and fast emission in the resulting nanocomposite scintillators is not new in and of itself. Attempts have been made by adding organometallics, quantum dots, and scintillation nanocrystals into the plastic matrix. High-Z organometallics have long been used to improve the Z of plastic scintillators; however, their strong spin-orbit coupling effect entails careful triplet energy matching using expensive triplet emitters to avoid severe quenching of the light yield. On the other hand, reported quantum dot- and nanocrystal-polymer nanocomposites suffer from moderate Z and high optical loss due to aggregation and self-absorption at loadings higher than 10 wt%, limiting their potential for practical application. This dissertation strives to improve the performance of nanoparticle-based nanocomposite scintillators. One focus is to synthesize transparent nanocomposites with higher loadings of high-Z

  7. Numerical Studies of High-Z Plasma in the HyperV Plasma Guns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Linchun; Messer, Sarah; Witherspoon, F. Douglas; Welch, Dale; Thoma, Carsten; Phillips, Mike; Bogatu, I. Nick; Galkin, Sergei; Macfarlane, Joe; Golovkin, Igor

    2010-11-01

    Numerical studies of railguns and coaxial guns at HyperV Technologies Corp. include simulations of hypervelocity plasma transport in the gun, plasma expansion out of the nozzle, and two or more jets merging in vacuum. Plasma detachment, merging jets temperature and charge state evolution are examined in these processes. High-Z materials, such as argon and xenon, are used throughout these simulations. The plasma moves with an initial velocity of 0-10 km/s (80-100 km/s for jet merging), the initial number density ranges from 10^15cm-3 to 10^18cm-3, and the merging jets are several centimeters in radius. The LSP code is used to perform the simulations using improved fluid algorithms and equation-of-state models from Voss and atomic data from Prism.

  8. ALMA observation of high-z extreme star-forming environments discovered by Planck/Herschel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneissl, R.

    2016-05-01

    The Comic Microwave Background satellite Planck with its High Frequency Instrument has surveyed the mm/sub-mm sky in six frequency channels from 100 to 900 GHz. A sample of 228 cold sources of the Cosmic Infrared Background was observed in follow-up with Herschel SPIRE. The majority of sources appear to be over-densities of star-forming galaxies matching the size of high-z proto-cluster regions, while a 3% fraction are individual bright, lensed galaxies. A large observing program is underway with the aim of resolving the regions into the constituent members of the Planck sources. First ALMA data have been received on one Planck/Herschel proto-cluster candidate, showing the expected large over-abundance of bright mm/sub-mm sources within the cluster region. ALMA long baseline data of the brightest lensed galaxy in the sample with > 1 Jy at 350 μm are also forthcoming.

  9. Discrimination of high-Z materials in concrete-filled containers using muon scattering tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazão, L.; Velthuis, J.; Thomay, C.; Steer, C.

    2016-07-01

    An analysis method of identifying materials using muon scattering tomography is presented, which uses previous knowledge of the position of high-Z objects inside a container and distinguishes them from similar materials. In particular, simulations were performed in order to distinguish a block of Uranium from blocks of Lead and Tungsten of the same size, inside a concrete-filled drum. The results show that, knowing the shape and position from previous analysis, it is possible to distinguish 5 × 5 × 5 cm3 blocks of these materials with about 4h of muon exposure, down to 2 × 2 × 2 cm3 blocks with 70h of data using multivariate analysis (MVA). MVA uses several variables, but it does not benefit the discrimination over a simpler method using only the scatter angles. This indicates that the majority of discrimination is provided by the angular information. Momentum information is shown to provide no benefits in material discrimination.

  10. Beyond Extreme Ultra Violet (BEUV) Radiation from Spherically symmetrical High-Z plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Kensuke; Fujioka, Shinsuke; Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Ugomori, Teruyuki; Tanaka, Nozomi; Kawasaki, Masato; Suzuki, Yuhei; Suzuki, Chihiro; Tomita, Kentaro; Hirose, Ryouichi; Eshima, Takeo; Ohashi, Hayato; Nishikino, Masaharu; Scally, Enda; Nshimura, Hiroaki; Azechi, Hiroshi; O'Sullivan, Gerard

    2016-03-01

    Photo-lithography is a key technology for volume manufacture of high performance and compact semiconductor devices. Smaller and more complex structures can be fabricated by using shorter wavelength light in the photolithography. One of the most critical issues in development of the next generation photo-lithography is to increase energy conversion efficiency (CE) from laser to shorter wavelength light. Experimental database of beyond extreme ultraviolet (BEUV) radiation was obtained by using spherically symmetrical high-Z plasmas generated with spherically allocated laser beams. Absolute energy and spectra of BEUV light emitted from Tb, Gd, and Mo plasmas were measured with a absolutely calibrated BEUV calorimeter and a transmission grating spectrometer. 1.0 x 1012 W/cm2 is the optimal laser intensity to produced efficient BEUV light source plasmas with Tb and Gd targets. Maximum CE is achieved at 0.8% that is two times higher than the published CEs obtained with planar targets.

  11. Microfield dynamics in dense hydrogen plasmas with high-Z impurities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hau-Riege, Stefan P.; Weisheit, Jon

    2017-01-01

    We use large-scale classical molecular dynamics to determine microfield properties for several dense plasma mixtures. By employing quantum statistical potentials (QSPs) to regularize the Coulomb interaction, our simulations follow motions of electrons as well as ions for times long enough to track relaxation phenomena involving both types of particles. Coulomb coupling, relative to temperature, of different pairs of species in the hot, dense matter being simulated ranges from weak to strong. We first study the effect of such coupling differences, along with composition and QSP differences, on the roles of electrons and various mixture components in determining probability distributions of instantaneous, total microfields experienced by the ions. Then, we address two important dynamical questions: (1) How is the quasistatic part of the total field to be extracted from the time-dependent simulation data? (2) Under what conditions does the commonly used approximation of ions with fixed Yukawa-like screening by free electrons accurately describe quasistatic fields? We identify a running, short-time average of the total field at each ion as its slowly evolving, quasistatic part. We consider several ways to specify the averaging interval, and note the influence of ion dynamics in this issue. When all species are weakly coupled, the quasistatic fields have probability distributions agreeing well with those we obtain from simulations of Yukawa-screened ions. However, agreement deteriorates as the coupling between high-Z ions increases well beyond unity, principally because the Yukawa model tends to underestimate the true screening of close high-Z pairs. Examples of this fact are given, and some consequences for the high-field portions of probability distributions are discussed.

  12. The global 21-cm signal in the context of the high- z galaxy luminosity function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirocha, Jordan; Furlanetto, Steven R.; Sun, Guochao

    2017-01-01

    We build a new model for the global 21-cm signal that is calibrated to measurements of the high-z galaxy luminosity function (LF) and further tuned to match the Thomson scattering optical depth of the cosmic microwave background, τe. Assuming that the z ≲ 8 galaxy population can be smoothly extrapolated to higher redshifts, the recent decline in best-fitting values of τe and the inefficient heating induced by X-ray binaries (the presumptive sources of the high-z X-ray background) imply that the entirety of cosmic reionization and reheating occurs at z ≲ 12. In contrast to past global 21-cm models, whose z ˜ 20 (ν ˜ 70 MHz) absorption features and strong ˜25 mK emission features were driven largely by the assumption of efficient early star formation and X-ray heating, our new models peak in absorption at ν ˜ 110 MHz at depths ˜-160 mK and have negligible emission components. Current uncertainties in the faint-end of the LF, binary populations in star-forming galaxies, and UV and X-ray escape fractions introduce ˜20 MHz (˜50 mK) deviations in the trough's frequency (amplitude), while emission signals remain weak (≲10 mK) and are confined to ν ≳ 140 MHz. These predictions, which are intentionally conservative, suggest that the detection of a 21-cm absorption minimum at frequencies below ˜90 MHz and/or emission signals stronger than ˜10mK at ν ≲ 140 MHz would provide strong evidence for `new' sources at high redshifts, such as Population III stars and their remnants.

  13. Proposal to negotiate a collaboration agreement for the design and prototyping of a machine for laser treatment of metallic vacuum chamber walls for electron cloud mitigation at the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Proposal to negotiate a collaboration agreement for the design and prototyping of a machine for laser treatment of metallic vacuum chamber walls for electron cloud mitigation at the High Luminosity LHC

  14. Role of CrRLK1L Cell Wall Sensors HERCULES1 and 2, THESEUS1, and FERONIA in Growth Adaptation Triggered by Heavy Metals and Trace Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Richter

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cell walls are not only a protective barrier surrounding protoplasts but serve as signaling platform between the extracellular environment and the intracellular physiology. Ions of heavy metals and trace elements, summarized to metal ions, bind to cell wall components, trigger their modification and provoke growth responses. To examine if metal ions trigger cell wall sensing receptor like kinases (RLKs of the Catharanthus roseus RLK1-like (CrRLK1L family we employed a molecular genetic approach. Quantitative transcription analyses show that HERCULES1 (HERK1, THESEUS1 (THE1, and FERONIA (FER were differently regulated by cadmium (Cd, nickel (Ni, and lead (Pb. Growth responses were quantified for roots and etiolated hypocotyls of related mutants and overexpressors on Cd, copper (Cu, Ni, Pb, and zinc (Zn and revealed a complex pattern of gene specific, overlapping and antagonistic responses. Root growth was often inversely affected to hypocotyl elongation. For example, both HERK genes seem to negatively regulate hypocotyl elongation upon Cd, Ni, Zn, and Pb while they support root growth on Cd, Cu, and Ni. The different THE1 alleles exhibited a similar effect between roots and hypocotyls on Ni, where the loss-of-function mutant was more tolerant while the gain of function mutants were hypersensitive indicating that THE1 is mediating Ni specific inhibition of hypocotyl elongation in the dark. In contrast hypocotyl elongation of the knock-out mutant, fer-4, was hypersensitive to Ni but exhibited a higher tolerance to Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn. These data indicate an antagonistic action between THE1 and FER in relation to hypocotyl elongation upon excess of Ni. FERs function as receptor for rapid alkalinization factors (RALFs was tested with the indicator bromocresol purple. While fer-4 roots strongly acidified control and metal ion containing media, the etiolated hypocotyls alkalized the media which is consistent with the already shorter hypocotyl of fer-4

  15. Investigation into the effects of high-Z nano materials in proton therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, R.; Royle, G.; Lourenço, A.; Schwarz, M.; Fracchiolla, F.; Ricketts, K.

    2016-06-01

    High-Z nano materials have been previously shown to increase the amount of dose deposition within the tumour due to an increase in secondary electrons. This study evaluates the effects of high-Z nano materials in combination with protons, and the impact of proton energy, nanoparticle material and concentration. These effects were studied in silico through Monte Carlo simulation and experimentally through a phantom study, with particular attention to macroscale changes to the Bragg peak in the presence of nanoparticles. Three nanoparticle materials were simulated (gold, silver and platinum) at three concentrations (0.01, 0.1 and 6.5 mg ml-1) at two clinical proton energies (60 and 226 MeV). Simulations were verified experimentally using Gafchromic film measurements of gold nanoparticles suspended in water at two available high concentrations (5.5 mg ml-1 and 1.1 mg ml-1). A significant change to Bragg peak features was evident, where at 226 MeV and 6.5 mg ml-1, simulations of gold showed a 4.7 mm longitudinal shift of the distal edge and experimentally at 5.5 mg ml-1, a shift of 2.2 mm. Simulations showed this effect to be material dependent, where platinum having the highest physical density caused the greatest shift with increasing concentration. A dose enhancement of 6%  ±  0.05 and 5%  ±  0.15 (60 MeV and 226 MeV, respectively) was evident with gold at 6.5 mg ml-1 to water alone, compared to the 21%  ±  0.53 observed experimentally as dose to film with 5.5 mg ml-1 of gold nanoparticles suspended in water at 226 MeV. The introduction of nanoparticles has strong potential to enhance dose in proton therapy, however the changes to the Bragg peak distribution that occur with high concentrations need to be accounted for to ensure tumour coverage.

  16. A dynamical mass estimator for high z galaxies based on spectroastrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnerucci, A.; Marconi, A.; Cresci, G.; Maiolino, R.; Mannucci, F.; Schreiber, N. M. F.; Davies, R.; Shapiro, K.; Hicks, E. K. S.

    2011-09-01

    Galaxy dynamical masses are important physical quantities to constrain galaxy evolutionary models, especially at high redshifts. However, at z ≳ 2 the limited signal to noise ratio and spatial resolution of the data usually do not allow spatially resolved kinematical modeling and very often only virial masses can be estimated from line widths. But even such estimates require a good knowledge of galaxy size, which may be smaller than the spatial resolution. Spectroastrometry is a technique which combines spatial and spectral resolution to probe spatial scales significantly smaller than the spatial resolution of the observations. Here we apply it to the case of high-z galaxies and present a method based on spectroastrometry to estimate dynamical masses of high z galaxies, which overcomes the problem of size determination with poor spatial resolution. We construct and calibrate a "spectroastrometric" virial mass estimator, modifying the "classical" virial mass formula. We apply our method to the [O III] or Hα emission line detected in z ~ 2-3 galaxies from AMAZE, LSD and SINS samples and we compare the spectroastrometric estimator with dynamical mass values resulting from full spatially resolved kinematical modeling. The spectroastrometric estimator is found to be a good approximation of dynamical masses, presenting a linear relation with a residual dispersion of only 0.15 dex. This is a big improvement compared to the "classical" virial mass estimator which has a non linear relation and much larger dispersion (0.47 dex) compared to dynamical masses. By applying our calibrated estimator to 16 galaxies from the AMAZE and LSD samples, we obtain masses in the ~107-1010 M⊙ range extending the mass range attainable with dynamical modeling. Based on observations collected with European Southern Observatory/Very Large Telescope (ESO/VLT) (proposals 075.A-0300, 076.A-0711 and 178.B-0838), with the Italian TNG, operated by FGG (INAF) at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque

  17. Estimations of electron-positron pair production at high-intensity laser interaction with high-Z targets

    CERN Document Server

    Gryaznykh, D A; Lykov, V A

    1998-01-01

    Electron-positron pairs' generation occuring in the interaction of $10^{18}$-$10^{20}$~W/cm$^2$ laser radiation with high-Z targets are examined. Computational results are presented for the pair production and the positron yield from the target with allowance for the contribution of pair production processes due to electrons and bremsstrahlung photons. Monte-Carlo simulations using the PRIZMA code confirm the estimates obtained. The possible positron yield from high-Z targets irradiated by picosecond lasers of power $10^2$-$10^3$~TW is estimated to be $10^9$-$10^{11}$.

  18. Enhanced electron yield from laser-driven wakefield acceleration in high-Z gas jets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaie, Mohammad; Hafz, Nasr A M; Li, Song; Liu, Feng; He, Fei; Cheng, Ya; Zhang, Jie

    2015-10-01

    An investigation of the electron beam yield (charge) form helium, nitrogen, and neon gas jet plasmas in a typical laser-plasma wakefield acceleration experiment is carried out. The charge measurement is made by imaging the electron beam intensity profile on a fluorescent screen into a charge coupled device which was cross-calibrated with an integrated current transformer. The dependence of electron beam charge on the laser and plasma conditions for the aforementioned gases are studied. We found that laser-driven wakefield acceleration in low Z-gas jet targets usually generates high-quality and well-collimated electron beams with modest yields at the level of 10-100 pC. On the other hand, filamentary electron beams which are observed from high-Z gases at higher densities reached much higher yields. Evidences for cluster formation were clearly observed in the nitrogen gas jet target, where we received the highest electron beam charge of ∼1.7 nC. Those intense electron beams will be beneficial for the applications on the generation of bright X-rays, gamma rays radiations, and energetic positrons via the bremsstrahlung or inverse-scattering processes.

  19. Four quasars above redshift 6 discovered by the Canada-France High-z Quasar Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Willott, Chris J; Omont, Alain; Bergeron, Jacqueline; Delfosse, Xavier; Forveille, Thierry; Albert, Loic; Reyle, Celine; Hill, Gary J; Gully-Santiago, Michael; Vinten, Phillip; Crampton, David; Hutchings, John B; Schade, David; Simard, Luc; Sawicki, Marcin; Beelen, Alexandre; Cox, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    The Canada-France High-z Quasar Survey (CFHQS) is an optical survey designed to locate quasars during the epoch of reionization. In this paper we present the discovery of the first four CFHQS quasars at redshift greater than 6, including the most distant known quasar, CFHQS J2329-0301 at z=6.43. We describe the observational method used to identify the quasars and present optical, infrared, and millimeter photometry and optical and near-infrared spectroscopy. We investigate the dust properties of these quasars finding an unusual dust extinction curve for one quasar and a high far-infrared luminosity due to dust emission for another. The mean millimeter continuum flux for CFHQS quasars is substantially lower than that for SDSS quasars at the same redshift, likely due to a correlation with quasar UV luminosity. For two quasars with sufficiently high signal-to-noise optical spectra, we use the spectra to investigate the ionization state of hydrogen at z>5. For CFHQS J1509-1749 at z=6.12, we find significant evol...

  20. Fast Neutron Tomography of Low-Z Object in High-Z Material Shielding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babai, Ruth Weiss; Sabo-Napadensky, Iris; Bar, Doron; Mor, Ilan; Tamim, Noam; Dangendorf, Volker; Tittelmeier, Kai; Bromberger, Benjamin; Weierganz, Mathias

    The technique and first results of Fast Neutron Tomography (FNCT) experiments are presented which are performed at the accelerator facility of PTB, Germany. A high-intensity neutron beam of broad spectral distribution with an average energy of 5.5 MeV, was produced by 11.5 MeV deuterons impinging upon a thick beryllium target. The capability of FNCT for high contrast imaging of low-Z materials embedded in thick high-Z shielding materials is demonstrated, which is superior to more conventional high-energy X-ray imaging techniques. For demonstrating the method special test objects were prepared: One consisted of an assembled polyethylene cylinder with holes of various diameters and directions drilled in its surface and inner parts. The plastic phantom was inserted into lead cylinders of different thicknesses. The detector system consisted of a plastic scintillator along with a dedicated optics, image-intensifier and a CCD camera. Two scintillator screens were compared: a bulk plastic scintillator screen and a fibres optical scintillator screen. The tomographic scans were taken in two geometrical configurations: cone beam and semi-fan beam configuration. The image quality favours the semi-fan beam configuration which on the other hand is more time consuming The obtained tomographic images and a comparison of the imaging quality between the different experimental conditions will be presented.

  1. Constraining the epoch of reionization from the observed properties of the high-z Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Salvador-Solé, Eduard; Guzman, Rafael; Espinosa, José Miguel Rodríguez; Gallego, Jesús; Herrero, Artemio; Mas-Hesse, J Miguel; Franch, Antonio Marín

    2016-01-01

    We combine observational data on a dozen independent cosmic properties at high-$z$ with the information on reionization drawn from the spectra of distant luminous sources and the cosmic microwave background (CMB) to constrain the interconnected evolution of galaxies and the intergalactic medium since the dark ages. The only acceptable solutions are concentrated in two narrow sets. In one of them reionization proceeds in two phases: a first one driven by Population III stars, completed at $z\\sim 10$, and after a short recombination period a second one driven by normal galaxies, completed at $z\\sim 6$. In the other set both kinds of sources work in parallel until full reionization at $z\\sim 6$. The best solution with double reionization gives excellent fits to all the observed cosmic histories, but the CMB optical depth is 3-$\\sigma$ larger than the recent estimate from the Planck data. Alternatively, the best solution with single reionization gives less good fits to the observed star formation rate density and...

  2. Spectroscropy of middle charge state high-z ions in the ultraviolet for plasma diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utter, Steven Bryan [Auburn Univ., AL (United States)

    1999-12-11

    The quest for the creation of an economically feasible thermonuclear fusion energy reactor is sttill active after many decades of research. Modern machines produce plasmas which are both hotter and more dense than those created 30 years ago and future devices promise to continue this trend. Paramount to this research is the capability to adequately measure certain parameters of the plasma such as temperature, density, impurity concentration and radiation loss. This dissertation reports three sets of spectroscopic measurements from intermediate charge state of high-Z ions, which have been performed at the Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) facility of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, relevant to the development of spectral plasma diagnostics and to the understanding of radiative energy loss from heavy impurity ions of today's and future fusion devices: measurements of W radiation from 40 - 85 A, precision measurements along the Cu isoelectric sequence, and UV spectroscopy of Ti-like W. The results are also compared to the best available theoretical calculations.

  3. Dipole Analysis of 249 High-Z SCP Union Supernovae According to the Expansion Center Model

    CERN Document Server

    Lorenzi, Luciano

    2011-01-01

    The topic of the paper is a preliminary analysis of 1743 data calculated for 249 High-z SCP Union supernovae, according to the expansion center model. The analysis of the ECM data set in Hubble units begins with 13 listed normal points corresponding to 13 z-bin samples at as many Hubble depths. Here the novel finding is a resulting clear drop in the average scattering of the SNe Ia absolute magnitudes M with the ECM Hubble depth D, after using the average trend computed in paper IX and here reconfirmed. Other correlations of the M scattering with the position in the sky are proposed as pointers for future investigations. Consequently, 13 ECM dipole tests on the 13 z-bin samples were carried out both with unweighed and weighed fittings. A further check was made through another ECM dipole test on the same 13 z bins, with Hubble depths D obtained by assuming M= according to paper IX and X. In conclusion the analysis of 249 SCP SNe confirms once again the expansion center model at any Hubble depth, including a s...

  4. ASTRO-H White Paper - Chemical Evolution in High-z Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Tashiro, M S; Ohno, M; Sameshima, H; Seta, H; Ueno, H; Nakagawa, T; Tamura, T; Paerels, F; Kawai, N

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate ASTRO-H's capability to measure the chemical evolution in the high-z (z <~ 3) universe by observing X-ray afterglows of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and distant Blazars. Utilizing these sources as background light sources, the excellent energy resolution of ASTRO-H/SXS allows us to detect emission and absorption features from heavy elements in the circumstellar material in the host galaxies, from the intergalactic medium (IGM) and in the ejecta of GRB explosions. In particular, we can constrain the existence of the warm-hot intergalactic material (WHIM), thought to contain most of the baryons at redshift of z < ~3, with a typical exposure of one day for a follow-up observation of a GRB afterglow or 300 ks exposure for several distant Blazars. In addition to the chemical evolution study, the combination of the SGD, HXI, SXI and SXS will measure, for the first time, the temporal behavior of the spectral continuum of GRB afterglows and Blazars over a broad energy range and short ti...

  5. In situ measurement of low-Z material coating thickness on high Z substrate for tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, D., E-mail: dmueller@pppl.gov; Roquemore, A. L.; Jaworski, M.; Skinner, C. H.; Miller, J.; Creely, A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Raman, P.; Ruzic, D. [Department of Nuclear, Plasma, and Radiological Engineering, Center for Plasma Material Interaction, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Rutherford backscattering of energetic particles can be used to determine the thickness of a coating of a low-Z material over a heavier substrate. Simulations indicate that 5 MeV alpha particles from an {sup 241}Am source can be used to measure the thickness of a Li coating on Mo tiles between 0.5 and 15 μm thick. Using a 0.1 mCi source, a thickness measurement can be accomplished in 2 h of counting. This technique could be used to measure any thin, low-Z material coating (up to 1 mg/cm{sup 2} thick) on a high-Z substrate, such as Be on W, B on Mo, or Li on Mo. By inserting a source and detector on a moveable probe, this technique could be used to provide an in situ measurement of the thickness of Li coating on NSTX-U Mo tiles. A test stand with an alpha source and an annular solid-state detector was used to investigate the measurable range of low-Z material thicknesses on Mo tiles.

  6. Control of high-Z PFC erosion by local gas injection in DIII-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudakov, D.L., E-mail: rudakov@fusion.gat.com [University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0417 (United States); Stangeby, P.C. [University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies, Toronto M3H 5T6 (Canada); Wong, C.P.C. [General Atomics, P. O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); McLean, A.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Wampler, W.R. [Sandia National Laboratory, P.O. Box 5800, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Watkins, J.G. [Sandia National Laboratory, P.O. Box 969, Livermore, CA 94551-0969 (United States); Boedo, J.A. [University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0417 (United States); Briesemeister, A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37830 (United States); Buchenauer, D.A. [Sandia National Laboratory, P.O. Box 969, Livermore, CA 94551-0969 (United States); Chrobak, C.P. [General Atomics, P. O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Elder, J.D. [University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies, Toronto M3H 5T6 (Canada); Fenstermacher, M.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Guo, H.Y. [General Atomics, P. O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Lasnier, C.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Leonard, A.W. [General Atomics, P. O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Maingi, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, PO Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Moyer, R.A. [University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0417 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Reduced erosion of a high-Z PFC divertor surface was observed in DIII-D with local injection of methane and deuterium gases. Molybdenum-coated silicon samples were exposed in the lower divertor of DIII-D using DiMES under plasma conditions previously shown to cause significant net erosion of Mo. Three exposures with {sup 13}CH{sub 4} and one exposure with D{sub 2} gas injection about 12 cm upstream of the samples located within 1–2 cm of the attached strike point were performed. Reduction of Mo erosion was evidenced in-situ by the suppression of MoI line radiation at 386.4 nm once the gas injection started. Post-mortem ion beam analysis demonstrated that the net erosion of molybdenum near the center of the samples exposed with {sup 13}CH{sub 4} injection was below the measurement resolution of 0.5 nm, corresponding to a rate of ⩽0.04 nm/s. Compared to the previously measured erosion rates, this constitutes a reduction by a factor of >10.

  7. Interaction of intense femtosecond laser pulses with high-Z solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhidkov, A.; Sasaki, Akira; Utsumi, Takayuki; Fukumoto, Ichirou; Tajima, Toshiki [Advanced Photon Research Center, Kansai Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Neyagawa, Osaka (Japan); Yoshida, Masatake [National Institute of Material and Chemical Research, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Kondo, Kenichi [Materials and Structures Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    A plasma irradiated by an intense very short pulse laser can be an ultimate high brightness source of incoherent inner-shell X-ray emission of 1-30 keV. The recently developed 100 TW, 20 fs laser facility in JAERI can make considerable enhancement here. To show this a hybrid model combining hydrodynamics and collisional particle-in-cell simulations is applied. Effect of laser prepulse on the interaction of an intense s-polarized femtosecond, {approx}20/40 fs, laser pulse with high-Z solid targets is studied. A new absorption mechanism originating from the interaction of the laser pulse with plasma waves excited by the relativistic component of the Lorentz force is found to increase the absorption rate over 30% even for a very short laser pulse. The obtained hot electron temperature exceeds 0.5-1 MeV at optimal conditions for absorption. Results of the simulation for lower laser pulse intensities are in good agreement with the experimental measurements of the hot electron energy distribution. (author)

  8. Enhanced electron yield from laser-driven wakefield acceleration in high-Z gas jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirzaie, Mohammad; Hafz, Nasr A. M., E-mail: nasr@sjtu.edu.cn; Li, Song; Liu, Feng; Zhang, Jie [Key Laboratory for Laser Plasmas (MOE) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); IFSA Collaborative Innovation Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); He, Fei; Cheng, Ya [State Key Laboratory of High Field Laser Physics, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2015-10-15

    An investigation of the electron beam yield (charge) form helium, nitrogen, and neon gas jet plasmas in a typical laser-plasma wakefield acceleration experiment is carried out. The charge measurement is made by imaging the electron beam intensity profile on a fluorescent screen into a charge coupled device which was cross-calibrated with an integrated current transformer. The dependence of electron beam charge on the laser and plasma conditions for the aforementioned gases are studied. We found that laser-driven wakefield acceleration in low Z-gas jet targets usually generates high-quality and well-collimated electron beams with modest yields at the level of 10-100 pC. On the other hand, filamentary electron beams which are observed from high-Z gases at higher densities reached much higher yields. Evidences for cluster formation were clearly observed in the nitrogen gas jet target, where we received the highest electron beam charge of ∼1.7 nC. Those intense electron beams will be beneficial for the applications on the generation of bright X-rays, gamma rays radiations, and energetic positrons via the bremsstrahlung or inverse-scattering processes.

  9. Giant Clumps in Simulated High-z Galaxies: Properties, Evolution and Dependence on Feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Mandelker, Nir; Ceverino, Daniel; DeGraf, Colin; Guo, Yicheng; Primack, Joel

    2015-01-01

    We study the evolution of giant clumps in high-z disc galaxies using AMR cosmological simulations at redshifts z=6-1. Our sample consists of 34 galaxies, of halo masses 10^{11}-10^{12}M_s at z=2, run with and without radiation pressure (RP) feedback from young stars. While RP has little effect on the sizes and global stability of discs, it reduces the amount of star-forming gas by a factor of ~2, leading to a decrease in stellar mass by a similar factor by z~2. Both samples undergo violent disc instability (VDI) and form giant clumps of masses 10^7-10^9M_s at a similar rate, though RP significantly reduces the number of long-lived clumps. When RP is (not) included, clumps with circular velocity <40(20)km/s, baryonic surface density <200(100)M_s/pc^2 and baryonic mass <10^{8.2}(10^{7.3})M_s are short-lived, disrupted in a few free-fall times. The more massive and dense clumps survive and migrate toward the disc centre over a few disc orbital times. In the RP simulations, the distribution of clump mass...

  10. In situ measurement of low-Z material coating thickness on high Z substrate for tokamaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, D; Roquemore, A L; Jaworski, M; Skinner, C H; Miller, J; Creely, A; Raman, P; Ruzic, D

    2014-11-01

    Rutherford backscattering of energetic particles can be used to determine the thickness of a coating of a low-Z material over a heavier substrate. Simulations indicate that 5 MeV alpha particles from an (241)Am source can be used to measure the thickness of a Li coating on Mo tiles between 0.5 and 15 μm thick. Using a 0.1 mCi source, a thickness measurement can be accomplished in 2 h of counting. This technique could be used to measure any thin, low-Z material coating (up to 1 mg/cm(2) thick) on a high-Z substrate, such as Be on W, B on Mo, or Li on Mo. By inserting a source and detector on a moveable probe, this technique could be used to provide an in situ measurement of the thickness of Li coating on NSTX-U Mo tiles. A test stand with an alpha source and an annular solid-state detector was used to investigate the measurable range of low-Z material thicknesses on Mo tiles.

  11. Ly\\alpha\\ emission line reconstruction for high-$z$ QSOs

    CERN Document Server

    Greig, Bradley; McGreer, Ian D; Gallerani, Simona; Haiman, Zoltán

    2016-01-01

    We introduce an intrinsic Ly\\alpha\\ emission line profile reconstruction method for high-$z$ quasars (QSOs). This approach utilises a covariance matrix of emission line properties obtained from a large, moderate-$z$ ($2 \\leq z \\leq 2.5$), high signal to noise (S/N > 15) sample of BOSS QSOs. For each QSO, we complete a Monte Carlo Markov Chain fitting of the continuum and emission line properties and perform a visual quality assessment to construct a large database of robustly fit spectra. With this dataset, we construct a covariance matrix to describe the correlations between the high ionisation emission lines Ly\\alpha, C IV, Si IV + O IV] and C III], and find it to be well approximated by an $N$-dimensional Gaussian distribution. This covariance matrix characterises the correlations between the line width, peak height and velocity offset from systemic while also allowing for the existence of broad and narrow line components for Ly\\alpha\\ and C IV. We illustrate how this covariance matrix allows us to statist...

  12. Is there a Difference in Van Der Waals Interactions between Rare Gas Atoms Adsorbed on Metallic and Semiconducting Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, De-Li [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering; Mandeltort, Lynn [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Saidi, Wissam A. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering; Yates, John T. [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Cole, Milton W. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept of Physics; Johnson, J. Karl [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering; National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Differences in polarizabilities of metallic (M) and semiconducting (S) single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) might give rise to differences in adsorption potentials. We show from experiments and van der Waals-corrected density functional theory (DFT) that binding energies of Xe adsorbed on M- and S-SWNTs are nearly identical. Temperature programmed desorption of Xe on purified M- and S-SWNTs give similar peak temperatures, indicating that desorption kinetics and binding energies are independent of the type of SWNT. Binding energies computed from vdW-corrected DFT are in good agreement with experiments.

  13. Is there a difference in van der Waals interactions between rare gas atoms adsorbed on metallic and semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, De-Li; Mandeltort, Lynn; Saidi, Wissam A; Yates, John T; Cole, Milton W; Johnson, J Karl

    2013-03-29

    The differences in the polarizabilities of metallic (M) and semiconducting (S) single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) might give rise to differences in adsorption potentials. We show from experiments and van der Waals--corrected density functional theory that the binding energies of Xe adsorbed on M- and S-SWNTs are nearly identical. Temperature programed desorption experiments of Xe on purified M- and S-SWNTs give similar peak temperatures, indicating that desorption kinetics and binding energies are independent of the type of SWNT. Binding energies computed from vdW-corrected density functional theory are in good agreement with experiments.

  14. The antiphase boundary in half-metallic Heusler alloy Co2Fe(Al,Si): atomic structure, spin polarization reversal, and domain wall effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedelkoski, Zlatko; Sanchez, Ana M.; Ghasemi, Arsham; Hamaya, Kohei; Evans, Richard F. L.; Bell, Gavin R.; Hirohata, Atsufumi; Lazarov, Vlado K.

    2016-11-01

    Atomic resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy reveals the presence of an antiphase boundary in the half-metallic Co2Fe(Al,Si) full Heusler alloy. By employing the density functional theory calculations, we show that this defect leads to reversal of the sign of the spin-polarization in the vicinity of the defect. In addition, we show that this defect reduces the strength of the exchange interactions, without changing the ferromagnetic ordering across the boundary. Atomistic spin calculations predict that this effect reduces the width of the magnetic domain wall compared to that in the bulk.

  15. Fluidic patch antenna based on liquid metal alloy/single-wall carbon-nanotubes operating at the S-band frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aïssa, B.; Nedil, M.; Habib, M. A.; Haddad, E.; Jamroz, W.; Therriault, D.; Coulibaly, Y.; Rosei, F.

    2013-08-01

    This letter describes the fabrication and characterization of a fluidic patch antenna operating at the S-band frequency (4 GHz). The antenna prototype is composed of a nanocomposite material made by a liquid metal alloy (eutectic gallium indium) blended with single-wall carbon-nanotube (SWNTs). The nanocomposite is then enclosed in a polymeric substrate by employing the UV-assisted direct-writing technology. The fluidic antennas specimens feature excellent performances, in perfect agreement with simulations, showing an increase in the electrical conductivity and reflection coefficient with respect to the SWNTs concentration. The effect of the SWNTs on the long-term stability of antenna's mechanical properties is also demonstrated.

  16. A TEST OF COSMOLOGICAL MODELS USING HIGH-z MEASUREMENTS OF H(z)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melia, Fulvio [Department of Physics, The Applied Math Program, and Department of Astronomy, The University of Arizona, AZ 85721 (United States); McClintock, Thomas M., E-mail: fmelia@email.arizona.edu, E-mail: tmcclintock89@gmail.com [Department of Physics, The University of Arizona, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    The recently constructed Hubble diagram using a combined sample of SNLS and SDSS-II SNe Ia, and an application of the Alcock–Paczyński (AP) test using model-independent Baryon Acoustic Oscillation (BAO) data, have suggested that the principal constraint underlying the cosmic expansion is the total equation-of-state of the cosmic fluid, rather than that of its dark energy. These studies have focused on the critical redshift range (0 ≲ z ≲ 2) within which the transition from decelerated to accelerated expansion is thought to have occurred, and they suggest that the cosmic fluid has zero active mass, consistent with a constant expansion rate. The evident impact of this conclusion on cosmological theory calls for an independent confirmation. In this paper, we carry out this crucial one-on-one comparison between the R{sub h} = ct universe (a Friedmann–Robertson–Walker cosmology with zero active mass) and wCDM/ΛCDM, using the latest high-z measurements of H(z). Whereas the SNe Ia yield the integrated luminosity distance, while the AP diagnostic tests the geometry of the universe, the Hubble parameter directly samples the expansion rate itself. We find that the model-independent cosmic chronometer data prefer R{sub h} = ct over wCDM/ΛCDM with a Bayes Information Criterion likelihood of ∼95% versus only ∼5%, in strong support of the earlier SNe Ia and AP results. This contrasts with a recent analysis of H(z) data based solely on BAO measurements which, however, strongly depend on the assumed cosmology. We discuss why the latter approach is inappropriate for model comparisons, and emphasize again the need for truly model-independent observations to be used in cosmological tests.

  17. Comparison of sample digestion techniques for the determination of trace and residual catalyst metal content in single-wall carbon nanotubes by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grinberg, Patricia, E-mail: patricia.grinberg@nrc.ca [Measurement Science and Standards, National Research Council Canada, Ottawa (Canada); Sturgeon, Ralph E. [Measurement Science and Standards, National Research Council Canada, Ottawa (Canada); Diehl, Liange de O.; Bizzi, Cezar A. [Measurement Science and Standards, National Research Council Canada, Ottawa (Canada); Chemistry Department, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria (Brazil); Flores, Erico M.M. [Chemistry Department, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria (Brazil)

    2015-03-01

    A single-wall carbon nanotube material produced by laser ablation of renewable biochar in the presence of Ni and Co catalyst was characterized for residual catalyst (Co and Ni) as well as trace metal impurity content (Fe, Mo, Cr, Pb and Hg) by isotope dilution ICP-MS following sample digestion. Several matrix destruction procedures were evaluated, including a multi-step microwave-assisted acid digestion, dry ashing at 450 °C and microwave-induced combustion with oxygen. Results were benchmarked against those derived from neutron activation analysis and also supported by solid sampling continuum source GF-AAS for several of the elements. Although laborious to execute, the multi-step microwave-assisted acid digestion proved to be most reliable for recovery of the majority of the analytes, although content of Cr remained biased low for each approach, likely due to its presence as refractory carbide. - Highlights: • Determination of trace and residual catalyst metal content in Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry. • Comparative study of digestion methodology combined with high precision isotope dilution ICP-MS for quantitation of elements of toxicologic relevance. • Results were benchmarked against those derived from neutron activation analysis and also supported by solid sampling continuum source GF-AAS for several of the elements.

  18. Preparation and characterization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes/chitosan nanocomposite and its application for the removal of heavy metals from aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salam, Mohamed Abdel, E-mail: masalam16@hotmail.com [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80200, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Makki, Mohamad S.I.; Abdelaal, Magdy Y.A. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80200, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia)

    2011-02-03

    Research highlights: > Nanocomposite made of multi-walled carbon nanotubes and chitosan was prepared and characterized. > The characterization confirmed the homogenous and well distribution of the MWCNTs within the chitosan matrix. > MWCNTs/chitosan nanocomposite was used for the removal of copper, zinc, cadmium and nickel ions from aqueous solution. > The results showed that nanocomposite could remove successfully most of the metal ions from solution with high efficiency. - Abstract: Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were modified with chitosan, and a homogenous nanocomposite was obtained. The morphological properties of the MWCNTs/chitosan nanocomposite were studied with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The morphological results indicate the successful modification and the formation of MWCNTs/chitosan nanocomposites. The MWCNTs/chitosan nanocomposite was packed inside a glass column and used for the removal of copper, zinc, cadmium, and nickel ions from aqueous solution. The MWCNTs/chitosan nanocomposite showed a great efficiency for the removal of the target metal ions from the aqueous solution. The results suggested that this novel MWCNTs/chitosan nanocomposite could be used for different environmental applications.

  19. Potential Safe Termination by Laser Ablation of High Z Impurity in the HL-1M Tokamak

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENGYongzhen; FENGXingya; ZHENGYinjja; GUOGancheng; XUDeming; DENGZhongchao

    2003-01-01

    In the contemporary large tokamak, the disruptive termination of a discharge will reduce the lifetime of the first wall materials with the intense heat flux at the energy quench and the intense runaway electrons duringthe current quench, and generate high electron magnetic forces on vacuum vessel components with intense eddy current at the current quench. Thus, avoidance and softening of the energy quench and the current quench and controlling an expected disruption or emergency shutdown must be established in the present tokamak machines.

  20. An On-line Monitoring System for Hydrogen Distribution in the Metallic Wall Caused by Hydrogen Permeation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Based on the electrochemical permeation technique and the patent by Du, an intelligent electrochemical measurement system for determination of the hydrogen distribution in the wall of hydrogenation reactor has been developed and tested. lt consists of a PC computer, a single chip unit, an I/V converter and an electrochemical hydrogen probe. The construction of the electrochemical hydrogen probe is described and the features of the measured system are given.The diffusion coefficient of 2.25Cr1Mo steel determined with present system was in good agreement with the value in the literature. Experimental results of hydrogen concentration in a wall of hydrogen charged testing autoclave made of AlSl 321 stainless steel are presented. The present system can intelligently display hydrogen amount-of-substance concentration and mass fraction concentration, hydrogen concentration distribution curves in steels, permeation current density curve. An intelligent detection technique can be provided for predicting the susceptibility to hydrogen-induced cracks owing to hydrogen permeation in the wall of hydrogenation reactor in the field.

  1. Optical properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes highly separated in semiconducting and metallic tubes functionalized with poly(vinylidene fluoride)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matea, A.; Baibarac, M.; Baltog, I.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, the interaction of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) highly separated in metallic (M) and semiconducting (S) tubes is studied by resonant Raman scattering and FTIR spectroscopy. In this order, the PVDF/SWNTs membranes were prepared by the evaporation of dimethylformamide (DMF) from PVDF solutions containing i) the as-prepared SWNTs samples, i.e., as mixtures of metallic (33%) and semiconducting (66%) tubes (M + S-SWNTs), ii) SWNTs highly separated in metallic tubes (98%, M-SWNTs), and iii) SWNTs highly separated in semiconducting tubes (99%, S-SWNTs). An increase in the PVDF β phase weight, highlighted by the increase in the absorbance of IR band at 843 cm-1, is reported to take place in the presence of M + S-SWNTs and S-SWNTs. An increase of the PVDF γ crystalline phase weight is reported for the PVDF/M + S-SWNTs, PVDF/M-SWNTs and PVDF/S-SWNTs membranes. Using Raman scattering, a donor-acceptor interaction is invoked to take place at the interface PVDF/M + S-SWNTs and PVDF/S-SWNTs. In the case of the membranes based on PVDF and M-SWNTs, the changes reported in Raman spectra of the two constituents are explained on the base induction-interaction forces between the permanent dipole of PVDF and induced dipole of M-SWNTs.

  2. Metal-functionalized single-walled graphitic carbon nitride nanotubes: a first-principles study on magnetic property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenoy Vivek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The magnetic properties of metal-functionalized graphitic carbon nitride nanotubes were investigated based on first-principles calculations. The graphitic carbon nitride nanotube can be either ferromagnetic or antiferromagnetic by functionalizing with different metal atoms. The W- and Ti-functionalized nanotubes are ferromagnetic, which are attributed to carrier-mediated interactions because of the coupling between the spin-polarized d and p electrons and the formation of the impurity bands close to the band edges. However, Cr-, Mn-, Co-, and Ni-functionalized nanotubes are antiferromagnetic because of the anti-alignment of the magnetic moments between neighboring metal atoms. The functionalized nanotubes may be used in spintronics and hydrogen storage.

  3. Impact of cross-field motion on ablation of high-Z dust in fusion edge plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, R. D.; Krasheninnikov, S. I.

    2017-07-01

    The impact of cross-field motion of high-Z dust grains on their shielding by ablation cloud in edge plasmas of tokamaks is analyzed. The modification of the existing high-Z dust shielding theory is developed, which takes the dust motion effects into account. It is shown that the cross-field motion can lead to a large factor increase of the dust ablation rate, as compared to the previous model. It is also shown that the motion effects take place when the dust cross-field velocity exceeds a threshold value. The dependencies of the dust ablation flux on the dust velocity and of the threshold velocity on the dust size and the ambient plasma temperature are obtained.

  4. Unsorted single walled carbon nanotubes enabled the fabrication of high performance organic thin film transistors with low cost metal electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithson, Chad S; Zhu, Shiping; Wigglesworth, Tony; Wu, Yiliang

    2013-10-09

    Transistors with a diketopyrrolopyrrole-quarterthiophene (DPP-QT) semiconductor and low-cost Al or Cu electrodes were studied. Albeit a large charge injection resistance exists between DPP-QT and Al or Cu, the resistance was dramatically reduced when unsorted single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were blended into the DPP-QT film. This led to a high mobility of 0.64 and 1.1 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), respectively, for Al and Cu devices, which is similar or even better than the device using gold electrodes (0.78 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)).

  5. Preparation of metal wire supported solid-phase microextraction fiber coated with multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Juanjuan; Sun, Min; Xu, Lili; Li, Jubai; Liu, Xia; Jiang, Shengxiang

    2011-09-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes-coated solid-phase microextraction fiber was prepared by a novel protocol involving mussel-adhesive-protein-inspired polydopamine film. The polydopamine was used as binding agent to immobilize amine-functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes onto the surface of the stainless steel wire via Michael addition or Schiff base reaction. Surface properties of the fiber were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscope and X-ray photoelectron spectroscope. Six phenols in aqueous solution were used as model compounds to investigate the extraction performance of the fiber and satisfactory results were obtained. Limit of detection was 0.10 μg/L for 2-methylphenol (2-MP) and 4-methylphenol (4-MP), and 0.02 μg/L for 2-ethylphenol (2-EP), 4-ethylphenol (4-EP), 2-tert-butylphenol (2-t-BuP), and 4-tert-butylphenol (4-t-BuP), which were much lower than commercial fiber and fibers made in laboratory. RSDs for one unique fiber are in the range of 1.92-7.00%. Fiber-to-fiber (n=3) reproducibility ranges from 4.44 to 8.41%. It also showed very high stability and durability to acid, alkali, organic solvent, and high temperature. Real water sample from Yellow river was applied to test the reliability of the established solid-phase microextraction (SPME)-GC method and recoveries with addition level at 5 and 100 μg/L were in the range from 81.5 to 110.0%.

  6. FeII/MgII, [Fe/Mg] Ratios and High-z Quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Korista, K; Corbin, M R; Freudling, W; Korista, Kirk; Kodituwakku, Nalaka; Corbin, Michael; Freudling, Wolfram

    2003-01-01

    It has been suggested in the literature that the (Fe/alpha) abundance ratio may be used as a chronometer, due to a delay in this ratio reaching its solar value as predicted by galactic chemical evolution models. Using grids of photoionization models along a sequence of the (Fe/Mg) abundance ratio vs.\\ metallicity with time in a giant elliptical starburst scenario, we investigate the relationship between the (Fe/Mg) abundance ratio and the FeII/MgII emission line flux ratio under the assumption that these lines originate in photoionized clouds within the broad emission line regions of quasars.

  7. Can gamma ray bursts be used as effective tracers of star formation to high Z?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckman, John; Giammanco, Corrado

    Long duration gamma ray bursts (GRB's) have been identified as originating in type II SNa explosions, produced during the late stage evolution of massive stars. As the lifetimes of their progenitors are so short the GRB rate per unit (comoving) volume of space, on scales which include significant numbers of galaxies, could be proportional to the star formation rate (SFR), at least to the formation rate of massive stars. Unfortunately both theory and observation imply that those SNe which give rise to gamma ray bursts occur in stars of low metallicity, less than half an order of magnitude lower than solar. Here we examine the evidence and show that although some workers believe that it is possible to use local galaxies with GRB's to calibrate the SFR in more distant galaxies others claim that this may be possible given independent ways of determining the metallicities of the distant galaxies, while others suggest that it is too difficult, at least with present measurements, to use GRB's to determine the SFR at values of redshift higher than 5. We conclude that although their intrinsic power gives GRB's the facility to guide observers towards star forming galaxies, only by also using complementary indicators will we be able to make plausible determinations of the SFR as a function of epoch beyond z = 5, i.e. during the first 2 Gyr after the Big Bang.

  8. Towards simulating star formation in turbulent high-z galaxies with mechanical supernova feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Kimm, Taysun; Devriendt, Julien; Dubois, Yohan; Slyz, Adrianne

    2015-01-01

    Feedback from supernovae is essential to understanding the self-regulation of star formation in galaxies. However, the efficacy of the process in a cosmological context remains unclear due to excessive radiative losses during the shock propagation. To better understand the impact of SN explosions on the evolution of galaxies, we perform a suite of high-resolution (12 pc), zoom-in cosmological simulations of a Milky Way-like galaxy at z=3 with adaptive mesh refinement. We find that SN explosions can efficiently regulate star formation, leading to the stellar mass and metallicity consistent with the observed mass-metallicity relation and stellar mass-halo mass relation at z~3. This is achieved by making three important changes to the classical feedback scheme: i) the different phases of SN blast waves are modelled directly by injecting radial momentum expected at each stage, ii) the realistic time delay of SNe, commencing at as early as 3 Myr, is required to disperse very dense gas before a runaway collapse set...

  9. Liquid Wall Chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, W R

    2011-02-24

    The key feature of liquid wall chambers is the use of a renewable liquid layer to protect chamber structures from target emissions. Two primary options have been proposed and studied: wetted wall chambers and thick liquid wall (TLW) chambers. With wetted wall designs, a thin layer of liquid shields the structural first wall from short ranged target emissions (x-rays, ions and debris) but not neutrons. Various schemes have been proposed to establish and renew the liquid layer between shots including flow-guiding porous fabrics (e.g., Osiris, HIBALL), porous rigid structures (Prometheus) and thin film flows (KOYO). The thin liquid layer can be the tritium breeding material (e.g., flibe, PbLi, or Li) or another liquid metal such as Pb. TLWs use liquid jets injected by stationary or oscillating nozzles to form a neutronically thick layer (typically with an effective thickness of {approx}50 cm) of liquid between the target and first structural wall. In addition to absorbing short ranged emissions, the thick liquid layer degrades the neutron flux and energy reaching the first wall, typically by {approx}10 x x, so that steel walls can survive for the life of the plant ({approx}30-60 yrs). The thick liquid serves as the primary coolant and tritium breeding material (most recent designs use flibe, but the earliest concepts used Li). In essence, the TLW places the fusion blanket inside the first wall instead of behind the first wall.

  10. Electrochemistry at nanoscale electrodes: individual single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and SWNT-templated metal nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudin, Petr V; Snowden, Michael E; Macpherson, Julie V; Unwin, Patrick R

    2011-12-27

    Individual nanowires (NWs) and native single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) can be readily used as well-defined nanoscale electrodes (NSEs) for voltammetric analysis. Here, the simple photolithography-free fabrication of submillimeter long Au, Pt, and Pd NWs, with sub-100 nm heights, by templated electrodeposition onto ultralong flow-aligned SWNTs is demonstrated. Both individual Au NWs and SWNTs are employed as NSEs for electron-transfer (ET) kinetic quantification, using cyclic voltammetry (CV), in conjunction with a microcapillary-based electrochemical method. A small capillary with internal diameter in the range 30-70 μm, filled with solution containing a redox-active mediator (FcTMA(+) ((trimethylammonium)methylferrocene), Fe(CN)(6)(4-), or hydrazine) is positioned above the NSE, so that the solution meniscus completes an electrochemical cell. A 3D finite-element model, faithfully reproducing the experimental geometry, is used to both analyze the experimental CVs and derive the rate of heterogeneous ET, using Butler-Volmer kinetics. For a 70 nm height Au NW, intrinsic rate constants, k(0), up to ca. 1 cm s(-1) can be resolved. Using the same experimental configuration the electrochemistry of individual SWNTs can also be accessed. For FcTMA(+/2+) electrolysis the simulated ET kinetic parameters yield very fast ET kinetics (k(0) > 2 ± 1 cm s(-1)). Some deviation between the experimental voltammetry and the idealized model is noted, suggesting that double-layer effects may influence ET at the nanoscale.

  11. Welding for testability: An approach aimed at improving the ultrasonic testing of thick-walled austenitic and dissimilar metal welds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Sabine; Dugan, Sandra [Materials Testing Institute University of Stuttgart (MPA), Pfaffenwaldring 32, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Barth, Martin; Schubert, Frank; Köhler, Bernd [Fraunhofer Institute for Nondestructive Testing, Dresden Branch (IZFP-D), Maria-Reiche-Str. 2, 01109 Dresden (Germany)

    2014-02-18

    Austenitic and dissimilar welds in thick walled components show a coarse grained, dendritic microstructure. Therefore, ultrasonic testing has to deal with beam refraction, scattering and mode conversion effects. As a result, the testing techniques typically applied for isotropic materials yield dissatisfying results. Most approaches for improvement of ultrasonic testing have been based on modeling and improved knowledge of the complex wave propagation phenomena. In this paper, we discuss an alternative approach: is it possible to use a modified welding technology which eliminates the cause of the UT complications, i.e. the large-grained structure of the weld seams? Various modification parameters were tested, including: TIG current pulsing, additional DC and AC magnetic fields, and also additional external vibrations during welding. For all welds produced under different conditions, the grain structure of the weld seam was characterized by optical and GIUM microstructure visualizations on cross sections, wave field propagation measurements, and ultrasonic tests of correct detectability of flaws. The mechanical properties of the welds were also tested.

  12. Transition metal doped poly(aniline-co-pyrrole)/multi-walled carbon nanotubes nanocomposite for high performance supercapacitor electrode materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhibar, Saptarshi; Bhattacharya, Pallab; Hatui, Goutam; Das, C.K., E-mail: chapal12@yahoo.co.in

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • The CuCl{sub 2} doped copolymer (PANI and PPy)/MWCNTs nanocomposite was prepared. • The nanocomposite achieved highest specific capacitance of 383 F/g at a 0.5 A/g. • Nanocomposite exhibits better energy density as well as power density. • The nanocomposite also showed better electrical conductivity at room temperature. • The nanocomposite can be used as promising electrode materials for supercapacitor. - Abstract: In this present communication, copolymer of polyaniline (PANI) and polypyrrole (PPy) that is poly(aniline-co-pyrrole) [poly(An-co-Py)], copper chloride (CuCl{sub 2}) doped poly(aniline-co-pyrrole) [poly(An-co-Py) Cu], and CuCl{sub 2} doped poly(aniline-co-pyrrole)/multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) [poly(An-co-Py) Cu CNT] nanocomposite have been prepared by a simple and inexpensive in-situ chemical oxidative polymerization method, using ammonium persulfate (APS) as oxidant and hydrochloric acid (HCl) as dopant and investigated as high performance supercapacitor electrode materials. The possible interaction between CuCl{sub 2} with copolymers and MWCNTs was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and UV–visible spectroscopy analysis. The morphological characteristic of all the electrode materials were analyzed by Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study. The electrochemical characterizations of all the electrode materials were carried out by three electrode probe method where, standard calomel electrode and platinum were used as reference and counter electrodes, respectively. Among all the electrode materials, poly(An-co-Py) Cu CNT nanocomposite achieved highest specific capacitance value of 383 F/g at 0.5 A/g scan rate. The nanocomposite showed better electrical conductivity at room temperature and also attained nonlinear current–voltage characteristic. Based on the superior electrochemical as well as other properties the as prepared

  13. Constraining the PopIII IMF with high-z GRBs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Q.; Maio, U.; Ciardi, B.; Salvaterra, R.

    2017-04-01

    We study the signatures of enrichment from PopIII stars in observations of PopII GRBs (GRBIIs) at high redshift by using numerical N-body/hydrodynamical simulations including atomic and molecular cooling, star formation and metal spreading from stellar populations with different initial mass functions (IMFs), yields and lifetimes. PopIII and PopII star formation regimes are followed simultaneously and both a top-heavy and a Salpeter-like IMF for pristine PopIII star formation are adopted. We find that the fraction of GRBIIs hosted in a medium previously enriched by PopIII stars (PopIII-dominated) is model-independent. Typical abundance ratios, such as [Si/O] versus[C/O] and [Fe/C] versus[Si/C], can help to disentangle enrichment from massive and intermediate PopIII stars, while low-mass first stars are degenerate with regular PopII generations. The properties of galaxies hosting PopIII-dominated GRBIIs are not very sensitive to the particular assumption on the mass of the first stars.

  14. Constraining the PopIII IMF with high-z GRBs

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Q; Ciardi, B; Salvaterra, R

    2016-01-01

    We study the possibility to detect and distinguish signatures of enrichment from PopIII stars in observations of PopII GRBs (GRBIIs) at high redshift by using numerical N-body/hydrodynamical simulations including atomic and molecular cooling, star formation and metal spreading from stellar populations with different initial mass functions (IMFs), yields and lifetimes. PopIII and PopII star formation regimes are followed simultaneously and both a top-heavy and a Salpeter-like IMF for pristine PopIII star formation are adopted. We find that the fraction of GRBIIs hosted in a medium previously enriched by PopIII stars (PopIII-dominated) is model independent. Typical abundance ratios, such as [Si/O] vs [C/O] and [Fe/C] vs [Si/C], can help to disentangle enrichment from massive and intermediate PopIII stars, while low-mass first stars are degenerate with regular PopII generations. The properties of galaxies hosting PopIII-dominated GRBIIs are not very sensitive to the particular assumption on the mass of the first...

  15. Kinematic classifications of local interacting galaxies: implications for the merger/disk classifications at high-z

    CERN Document Server

    Hung, Chao-Ling; Yuan, Tiantian; Larson, Kirsten L; Casey, Caitlin M; Smith, Howard A; Sanders, D B; Kewley, Lisa J; Hayward, Christopher C

    2015-01-01

    The classification of galaxy mergers and isolated disks is key for understanding the relative importance of galaxy interactions and secular evolution during the assembly of galaxies. The kinematic properties of galaxies as traced by emission lines have been used to suggest the existence of a significant population of high-z star-forming galaxies consistent with isolated rotating disks. However, recent studies have cautioned that post-coalescence mergers may also display disk-like kinematics. To further investigate the robustness of merger/disk classifications based on kinematic properties, we carry out a systematic classification of 24 local (U)LIRGs spanning a range of galaxy morphologies: from isolated spiral galaxies, ongoing interacting systems, to fully merged remnants. We artificially redshift the WiFeS observations of these local (U)LIRGs to z=1.5 to make a realistic comparison with observations at high-z, and also to ensure that all galaxies have the same spatial sampling of ~900 pc. Using both kineme...

  16. Development of long pulse RF heating and current drive for H-mode scenarios with metallic walls in WEST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekedahl, Annika, E-mail: annika.ekedahl@cea.fr; Bourdelle, Clarisse; Artaud, Jean-François; Bernard, Jean-Michel; Bufferand, Hugo; Colas, Laurent; Decker, Joan; Delpech, Léna; Dumont, Rémi; Goniche, Marc; Helou, Walid; Hillairet, Julien; Lombard, Gilles; Magne, Roland; Mollard, Patrick; Nardon, Eric; Peysson, Yves; Tsitrone, Emmanuelle [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2015-12-10

    The longstanding expertise of the Tore Supra team in long pulse heating and current drive with radiofrequency (RF) systems will now be exploited in the WEST device (tungsten-W Environment in Steady-state Tokamak) [1]. WEST will allow an integrated long pulse tokamak programme for testing W-divertor components at ITER-relevant heat flux (10-20 MW/m{sup 2}), while treating crucial aspects for ITER-operation, such as avoidance of W-accumulation in long discharges, monitoring and control of heat fluxes on the metallic plasma facing components (PFCs) and coupling of RF waves in H-mode plasmas. Scenario modelling using the METIS-code shows that ITER-relevant heat fluxes are compatible with the sustainment of long pulse H-mode discharges, at high power (up to 15 MW / 30 s at I{sub P} = 0.8 MA) or high fluence (up to 10 MW / 1000 s at I{sub P} = 0.6 MA) [2], all based on RF heating and current drive using Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ICRH) and Lower Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD). This paper gives a description of the ICRH and LHCD systems in WEST, together with the modelling of the power deposition of the RF waves in the WEST-scenarios.

  17. Metal accumulation and antioxidant defenses in the freshwater fish Carassius auratus in response to single and combined exposure to cadmium and hydroxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Ruijuan; Wang, Xinghao; Wang, Zunyao, E-mail: wangzun315cn@163.com; Wei, Zhongbo; Wang, Liansheng

    2014-06-30

    Highlights: • Cd and OH-MWCNTs have a synergistic effect on Carassius auratus. • OH-MWCNTs significantly increased Cd accumulation in liver after 12 d exposure. • Co-exposure to Cd and OH-MWCNTs evoked severe hepatic oxidative stress. - Abstract: The effects of cadmium, hydroxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes, and their mixture on metal accumulation and antioxidant defenses were studied using the goldfish Carassius auratus as the test organism. The fish were exposed to 0.1 mg/L Cd, 0.5 mg/L OH-MWCNTs, or 0.1 mg/L Cd + 0.5 mg/L OH-MWCNTs for 3 and 12 days. Then, the Cd concentration was determined in the gill, liver and muscle. Moreover, hepatic antioxidant enzyme activity (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase), glutathione level and malondialdehyde content were also measured. A continuous accumulation of Cd was observed throughout the experimental period. Cd accumulation in tissues occurred in the following order: gill > liver > muscle at 3 days and liver > gill > muscle at 12 days. The concentrations of Cd in the livers of fish exposed to the combination of Cd + OH-MWCNTs were significantly higher than those in fish exposed to either single chemical after 12 d of exposure. Meanwhile, the mixture evoked severe oxidative stress in the exposed fish, as indicated by significant inhibition of SOD, CAT and GPx activity, a remarkable decrease in GSH level, and simultaneous elevation of MDA content. These results suggested that the effect of the combined factors on metal accumulation and oxidative stress biomarkers was more obvious than that of single factors at longer exposure durations.

  18. Synthesis of single-walled carbon nanotubes by the pyrolysis of a compression activated iron(II) phthalocyanine/phthalocyanine metal-free derivative/ferric acetate mixture

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tawanda Mugadza; Edith Antunes; Tebello Nyokong

    2015-07-01

    This paper reports on the synthesis of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) from an activated mixture of iron (II) phthalocyanine, its metal-free derivative and ferric acetate. The powdered mixture was activated by compression into a tablet by applying a force of 300 kN, followed by re-grinding into powder and heating it to high temperatures (1000°C). The activation by compression resulted in more than 50% debundling of SWCNTs as judged by transition electron microscopy. Acid functionalization of the SWCNTs was confirmed by the increase in the D:G ratio from 0.56 to 0.87 in the Raman spectra and the observation of an average of one carboxylic acid group per 13 carbon atoms from thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). TGA also showed that the initial decomposition temperatures for the activated and non-activated mixtures to be 205°C and 245°C, respectively. Hence, activation leads to the lowering of the pyrolysis temperature of the phthalocyanines. X-ray diffraction, electronic absorption and Fourier transform infrared spectra were also employed to characterize the SWCNT.

  19. The Study of Cosmic Ray Tomography Using Multiple Scattering of Muons for Imaging of High-Z Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xiao-Dong; Li, Yu-Lei; Luo, Wen; Wu, Hui-Yin; Yang, He-Run; Chen, Guo-Xiang; Zhu, Zhi-Chao; Zhao, Xiu-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Muon tomography is developing as a promising system to detect high-Z (atomic number) material for ensuring homeland security. In the present work, three kinds of spatial locations of materials which are made of aluminum, iron, lead and uranium are simulated with GEANT4 codes, which are horizontal, diagonal and vertical objects, respectively. Two statistical algorithms are used with MATLAB software to reconstruct the image of detected objects, which are the Point of Closet Approach (PoCA) and Maximum Likelihood Scattering-Expectation Maximization iterative algorithm (MLS-EM), respectively. Two analysis methods are used to evaluate the quality of reconstruction image, which are the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) and the localization ROC (LROC) curves, respectively. The reconstructed results show that, compared with PoCA algorithm, MLS-EM can achieve a better image quality in both edge preserving and noise reduction. And according to the analysis of ROC (LROC) curves, it shows that MLS-EM algorithm can ...

  20. Massive Galaxies at High-z: Assembly Patterns, Structure & Dynamics in the Fast Phase of Galaxy Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Oñorbe, J; Domínguez-Tenreiro, R; Knebe, A; Serna, A

    2011-01-01

    Relaxed, massive galactic objects have been identified at redshifts z = 4;5; and 6 in hydrodynamical simulations run in a large cosmological volume. This allowed us to analyze the assembly patterns of the high mass end of the galaxy distribution at these high zs, by focusing on their structural and dynamical properties. Our simulations indicate that massive objects at high redshift already follow certain scaling relations. These relations define virial planes at the halo scale, whereas at the galactic scale they define intrinsic dynamical planes that are, however, tilted relative to the virial plane. Therefore, we predict that massive galaxies must lie on fundamental planes from their formation. We briefly discuss the physical origin of the tilt in terms the physical processes underlying massive galaxy formation at high z, in the context of a two-phase galaxy formation scenario. Specifically, we have found that it lies on the different behavior of the gravitationally heated gas as compared with cold gas previ...

  1. What can be expected from high-Z semiconductor detectors. [Assessment of promising semiconductor materials; 25 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armantrout, G.A.; Swierkowski, S.P.; Sherohman, J.W.; Lee, J.H.

    1976-11-17

    It has been hoped that high-Z semiconductors would offer efficient ..gamma..-ray detection at or near ambient temperatures with energy resolution significantly better than NaI (Tl) scintillators. For use at X-ray energies, this goal has been achieved with both HgI/sub 2/, CdTe, and GaAs detectors. However, at higher energies (approximately 660 keV) all current detectors have one or more significant deficiencies in terms of attainable volume, charge collection efficiency, and polarization effects. Starting with first principles, all potential compounds which can be formed by the binary combination of elements from the periodic chart were considered as possible detector materials. A rank-ordered listing of the most promising materials for further development is given as well as an assessment of the prospects for future success. 25 references.

  2. High-z gamma-ray bursts for unraveling the dark ages mission HiZ-GUNDAM

    CERN Document Server

    Yonetoku, Daisuke; Sawano, Tatsuya; Ikeda, Hirokazu; Harayama, Atsushi; Takata, Shunsuke; Yoshida, Kazuki; Seta, Hiroki; Toyanago, Asuka; Kagawa, Yasuaki; Kawai, Kentaro; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Sakamoto, Takanori; Serino, Motoko; Kurosawa, Shunsuke; Gunji, Shuichi; Tanimori, Toru; Murakami, Toshio; Yatsu, Yoichi; Yamaoka, Kazutaka; Yoshida, Atsumasa; Kawabata, Koji; Matsumoto, Toshio; Tsumura, Koji; Matsuura, Shuji; Shirahata, Mai; Okita, Hirofumi; Yanagisawa, Kensi; Yoshida, Michitoshi; Motohara, Kentaro

    2014-01-01

    We are now investigating and studying a small satellite mission HiZ-GUNDAM for future observation of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). The mission concept is to probe "the end of dark ages and the dawn of formation of astronomical objects", i.e. the physical condition of early universe beyond the redshift z > 7. We will consider two kinds of mission payloads, (1) wide field X-ray imaging detectors for GRB discovery, and (2) a near infrared telescope with 30 cm in diameter to select the high-z GRB candidates effectively. In this paper, we explain some requirements to promote the GRB cosmology based on the past observations, and also introduce the mission concept of HiZ-GUNDAM and basic development of X-ray imaging detectors.

  3. Transition energy and lifetime for the ground state hyperfine splitting of high Z lithium-like ions

    CERN Document Server

    Shabaev, V M; Tupitsyn, I; Yerokhin, V A; Artemiev, A N; Kühl, T; Tomaselli, M; Zherebtsov, O M

    1998-01-01

    The ground state hyperfine splitting values and the transition probabilities between the hyperfine structure components of high Z lithiumlike ions are calculated in the range Z=49-83. The relativistic, nuclear, QED and interelectronic interaction corrections are taken into account. It is found that the Bohr-Weisskopf effect can be eliminated in a combination of the hyperfine splitting values of the hydrogenlike and lithiumlike ions of an isotope. This gives a good possibility for testing the QED effects in a combination of the strong electric and magnetic fields of the heavy nucleus. Using the experimental result for the 1s hyperfine splitting in ^{209}Bi^{82+}, the 2s hyperfine splitting in ^{209}Bi^{80+} is calculated to be \\Delta E=0.7981(2) eV while the contribution derived from QED constitutes 0.0007(1) eV.

  4. Proposed pushered single shell capsule design for the investigation of mid/high Z mix on the NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Ryan; Tipton, Robert; Graziani, Frank

    2016-05-01

    The CD Mix campaign has given a detailed explination of the mix mechanics in the current ignition capsule designs by investigating the relationship between material mixing, shell-fuel interfaces, and the change in thermonuclear yield given a deuterated layer in the capsule. Alternative ignition scenarios include the use of double shell designs that incorporate high-Z material in the capsule. Simulations are conducted on a proposed capsule platform using the ARES code on a scaled capsule design using a partially reduced glass capsule design. This allows for the inclusion of deuterium on the inner surface of the pusher layer similar to the CD mix experiments. The presence of silicon dioxide allows for the investigation of the influence of higher Z material on the mixing characteristics.

  5. An analytic solution for the minimal bathtub toy model: challenges in the star formation history of high-z galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekel, Avishai; Mandelker, Nir

    2014-11-01

    We study the minimal `bathtub' toy model as a tool for capturing key processes of galaxy evolution and identifying robust successes and challenges in reproducing high-z observations. The source and sink terms of the continuity equations for gas and stars are expressed in simple terms from first principles. The assumed dependence of star formation rate (SFR) on gas mass self-regulates the system into a unique asymptotic behaviour, which is approximated by an analytic quasi-steady-state (QSS) solution. We address the validity of the QSS at different epochs independent of earlier conditions. At high z, where the accretion is gaseous, the specific SFR (sSFR) is predicted to be sSFR ≃ [(1 + z)/3]5/2 Gyr-1, slightly above the cosmological specific accretion rate, as observed at z = 3-8. The gas fraction is expected to decline slowly, and the observations constrain the SFR efficiency per dynamical time to ɛ ≃ 0.02. The stellar-to-virial mass ratio fsv is predicted to be constant in time, and the observed value requires an outflow mass-loading factor η ≃ 1-3, depending on the penetration efficiency of gas into the galaxy. However, at z ˜ 2, where stars are also accreted through mergers, there is a conflict between model and observations. The model that maximizes the sSFR, with the outflows fully recycled, underestimates the sSFR by a factor of ˜3 and overestimates fsv. With strong outflows, the model can match the observed fsv but then it underestimates the sSFR by an order of magnitude. We discuss potential remedies including a bias due to the exclusion of quenched galaxies.

  6. Subaru High-z Exploration of Low-Luminosity Quasars (SHELLQs): New z > 6 Quasar Survey with Subaru/HSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Yoshiki; SHELLQs Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Quasars at high redshift are an important and unique probe of the distant Universe, for understanding the origin and progress of cosmic reionization, the early growth of supermassive black holes, and the evolution of quasar host galaxies and their dark matter halos, among other topics. We are currently carrying out a new spectroscopic survey, called SHELLQs (Subaru High-z Exploration of Low-Luminosity Quasars), to search for low-luminosity quasars at z > 6. By exploiting the exquisite imaging data produced by the Subaru Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) survey, we aim to probe quasar luminosities down to M1450 ~ -22 mag, i.e., below the classical threshold between quasars and Seyfert galaxies. Candidate selection is performed by combining several photometric approaches including a Bayesian probabilistic algorithm. A large spectroscopic observing program is underway, using Subaru/FOCAS, GTC/OSIRIS, and Gemini/GMOS; in particular, SHELLQs has been approved as a Subaru intensive program to use 20 nights in the coming four semesters. As of August 2016, we have discovered ~40 quasars and bright galaxies at z ~ 6 and beyond, from the first 100 deg2 of the HSC survey (Matsuoka et al. 2016, ApJ, 828, 26). Surprisingly, we are starting to see the steep rise of the luminosity function of high-z galaxies, compared with that of quasars, at magnitudes fainter than M1450 ~ -22 mag or zAB ~ 24 mag. Multi-wavelength follow-up studies of the discovered objects as well as further survey observations are ongoing.

  7. Imaging of high-Z material for nuclear contraband detection with a minimal prototype of a Muon Tomography station based on GEM detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Gnanvo, Kondo; Hohlmann, Marcus; Locke, Judson B; Quintero, Amilkar S; Mitra, Debasis

    2010-01-01

    Muon Tomography based on the measurement of multiple scattering of atmospheric cosmic ray muons in matter is a promising technique for detecting heavily shielded high-Z radioactive materials (U, Pu) in cargo or vehicles. The technique uses the deflection of cosmic ray muons in matter to perform tomographic imaging of high-Z material inside a probed volume. A Muon Tomography Station (MTS) requires position-sensitive detectors with high spatial resolution for optimal tracking of incoming and outgoing cosmic ray muons. Micro Pattern Gaseous Detector (MPGD) technologies such as Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors are excellent candidates for this application. We have built and operated a minimal MTS prototype based on 30cm \\times 30cm GEM detectors for probing targets with various Z values inside the MTS volume. We report the first successful detection and imaging of medium-Z and high-Z targets of small volumes (~0.03 liters) using GEM-based Muon Tomography.

  8. Measurements and modeling of mid- and high-Z coronal plasmas from laser-irradiated planar foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fein, Jeffrey; Trantham, Matt; Frank, Yechiel; Raicher, Erez; Fraenkel, Moshe; Holloway, James P.; Keiter, Paul; Shvarts, Dov; Drake, R. Paul

    2016-10-01

    Plasmas generated from mid- to high-Z elements with intense (1015 W/cm2) lasers have applications as x-ray drive for indirect-drive fusion, as means to mitigate laser-plasma instabilities in direct-drive fusion, and as bright sources of x-rays for imaging dense plasmas. However, modeling of these plasmas is difficult due to the wide range of densities and temperatures present, and the resulting wide range of physical processes that determine their energetics. Measurements of electron density profiles from irradiated planar foils show a shortening gradient length scale when increasing the foil material Z. We present analytical models and Rad-Hydro simulations to assess the role of Z-dependent processes, such as distributed laser absorption and nLTE atomic physics in determining the observed profiles. Supported through the NNSA-DS and SC-OFES Joint Program in HED Laboratory Plasmas, by Grant Number DE-NA0002956, the NLUF Grant Number DE-NA0002719, by the DTRA, Grant Number DTRA-1-10-0077 and by the NSF Graduate Research Fellowship.

  9. In-situ Measurement of Low-Z Material Coating Thickness on High Z Substrate for Tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, D [PPPL; Roquemore, A L [PPPL; Jaworski, M [PPPL; Skinner, C H [PPPL; Miller, J [PPPL; Creely, A [PPPL; Raman, P [2University of Illinois, Champaign, IL, USA; Ruzic, D [2University of Illinois, Champaign, IL, USA

    2014-07-01

    Rutherford backscattering (RBS) of energetic particles can be used to determine the thickness of a coating of a low-Z material over a heavier substrate. Simulations indicate that 5 MeV alpha particles from an Am source can be used to measure the thickness of a Li coating on Mo tiles between 0.5 and 15 μm thick. Using a 0.1 mCi source, a thickness measurement can be accomplished in 2 hours of counting. This technique could be used to measure any thin, low-Z material coating (up to 1 mg/cm^2 thick) on a high-Z substrate, such as Be on W, B on Mo, or Li on Mo. By inserting a source and detector on a moveable probe, this technique could be used to provide an in situ measurement of the thickness of Li coating on NSTX-U Mo tiles. A test stand with an alpha source and an annular solid-state detector was used to investigate the measurable range of low-Z material thicknesses on Mo tiles.

  10. Wonderful Walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenman, Jim

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author emphasizes the importance of "working" walls in children's programs. Children's programs need "working" walls (and ceilings and floors) which can be put to use for communication, display, storage, and activity space. The furnishings also work, or don't work, for the program in another sense: in aggregate, they serve as…

  11. Ambiguous walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mody, Astrid

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) in the built environment has encouraged myriad applications, often embedded in surfaces as an integrated part of the architecture. Thus the wall as responsive luminous skin is becoming, if not common, at least familiar. Taking into account how wall...

  12. Studies on the heterogeneous electron transport and oxygen reduction reaction at metal (Co, Fe) octabutylsulphonylphthalocyanines supported on multi-walled carbon nanotube modified graphite electrode

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mamuru, SA

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Heterogeneous electron transfer dynamics and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activities using octabutylsulphonylphthalocyanine complexes of iron (FeOBSPc) and cobalt (CoOBSPc) supported on multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) platforms have been...

  13. COMPARE THE BEHAVIOR FACTOR OF THE ULTIMATE RESISTANCE OF MOMENT FRAME, PLAIN AND PERFORATED STEEL PLATE SHEAR WALLS AND BUCKLING RESTRAINED BRACE AS YIELDING METAL DAMPER

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid Reza Ashrafi; Peyman Beiranvand; Kasra Shahbazian; Shaahin Bidmeshki; Somaye Yaghooti

    2016-01-01

    Steel moment frame systems, steel plate shear walls and also buckling restrained brace (BRB) are considered as the most widely used seismic resistant systems of the world. Firstly, in this research, in order to validate the finite element models, the tested sample of steel plate shear walls of 4 floors at the University of Alberta, Canada, and the tested sample of buckling restrained brace at the University of Berkeley California, with the software ABAQUS 6.10-1 were used. Then, the obtained ...

  14. Wall Turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanratty, Thomas J.

    1980-01-01

    This paper gives an account of research on the structure of turbulence close to a solid boundary. Included is a method to study the flow close to the wall of a pipe without interferring with it. (Author/JN)

  15. COMPARE THE BEHAVIOR FACTOR OF THE ULTIMATE RESISTANCE OF MOMENT FRAME, PLAIN AND PERFORATED STEEL PLATE SHEAR WALLS AND BUCKLING RESTRAINED BRACE AS YIELDING METAL DAMPER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Ashrafi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Steel moment frame systems, steel plate shear walls and also buckling restrained brace (BRB are considered as the most widely used seismic resistant systems of the world. Firstly, in this research, in order to validate the finite element models, the tested sample of steel plate shear walls of 4 floors at the University of Alberta, Canada, and the tested sample of buckling restrained brace at the University of Berkeley California, with the software ABAQUS 6.10-1 were used. Then, the obtained results of the test and analysis have been compared. The confirmed models have been used for the analysis of two-dimensional frame of plain and perforated steel plate shear walls with a regular pattern of positing holes in the screen, buckling restrained brace and moment frame of 4 floors.

  16. Self-consistent simulations of a von Kármán type dynamo in a spherical domain with metallic walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guervilly, Céline; Brummell, Nicholas H

    2012-10-01

    We have performed numerical simulations of boundary-driven dynamos using a three-dimensional nonlinear magnetohydrodynamical model in a spherical shell geometry. A conducting fluid of magnetic Prandtl number Pm=0.01 is driven into motion by the counter-rotation of the two hemispheric walls. The resulting flow is of von Kármán type, consisting of a layer of zonal velocity close to the outer wall and a secondary meridional circulation. Above a certain forcing threshold, the mean flow is unstable to non-axisymmetric motions within an equatorial belt. For fixed forcing above this threshold, we have studied the dynamo properties of this flow. The presence of a conducting outer wall is essential to the existence of a dynamo at these parameters. We have therefore studied the effect of changing the material parameters of the wall (magnetic permeability, electrical conductivity, and thickness) on the dynamo. In common with previous studies, we find that dynamos are obtained only when either the conductivity or the permeability is sufficiently large. However, we find that the effect of these two parameters on the dynamo process are different and can even compete to the detriment of the dynamo. Our self-consistent approach allow us to analyze in detail the dynamo feedback loop. The dynamos we obtain are typically dominated by an axisymmetric toroidal magnetic field and an axial dipole component. We show that the ability of the outer shear layer to produce a strong toroidal field depends critically on the presence of a conducting outer wall, which shields the fluid from the vacuum outside. The generation of the axisymmetric poloidal field, on the other hand, occurs in the equatorial belt and does not depend on the wall properties.

  17. 一种液压夹套式平动离合器的设计和试验研究%The Design and Experiment of a Hydraulic Metal Thin-wall Clutch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩旭; 马德森; 赵国平; 童军

    2016-01-01

    该文介绍一种液压夹套式平动离合器,该离合器利用液压夹套金属薄壁段受压应力变形和释放压力后金属薄壁回弹的性能实现离合功能,使用了液压油作为介质对薄壁均匀施压。经过初步结构设计及仿真设计了离合器产品。经过离合器的试验研究,考核了离合器性能,并通过试验研究的结果对仿真参数进行了修正。%This paper introduces a Hydraulic metal thin-wall clutch used in translational motion mechanism. The deformation and spring-back of the metal thin-wall is used for separation and reunion of the clutch. The clutch uses hydraulic oil to impose pressure in whole worked area. The clutch is designed after first structural design and simulation. Through experiment of the clutch, the function of the clutch is tested, and the results of the experiment improve the simulation.

  18. Achieving Stable Radiation Pressure Acceleration of Heavy Ions via Successive Electron Replenishment from Ionization of a High-Z Material Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, X. F.; Qiao, B.; Zhang, H.; Kar, S.; Zhou, C. T.; Chang, H. X.; Borghesi, M.; He, X. T.

    2017-05-01

    A method to achieve stable radiation pressure acceleration (RPA) of heavy ions from laser-irradiated ultrathin foils is proposed, where a high-Z material coating in front is used. The coated high-Z material, acting as a moving electron repository, continuously replenishes the accelerating heavy ion foil with comoving electrons in the light-sail acceleration stage due to its successive ionization under laser fields with Gaussian temporal profile. As a result, the detrimental effects such as foil deformation and electron loss induced by the Rayleigh-Taylor-like and other instabilities in RPA are significantly offset and suppressed so that stable acceleration of heavy ions are maintained. Particle-in-cell simulations show that a monoenergetic Al13 + beam with peak energy 3.8 GeV and particle number 1 010 (charge >20 nC ) can be obtained at intensity 1 022 W /cm2 .

  19. Two-photon exchange corrections to the 2p(1/2)-2s transition energy in Li-like high- Z ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerokhin; Artemyev; Shabaev; Sysak; Zherebtsov; Soff

    2000-11-27

    A rigorous QED calculation of the two-photon exchange corrections to the 2p(1/2)- 2s transition energy in Li-like high- Z ions is presented. The contribution due to an exchange by more than two photons is evaluated within the Breit approximation. The resulting theoretical value of the 2p(1/2)- 2s transition energy in Li-like uranium is found to be 280.44(20) eV.

  20. Wall Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinley, Connie Q.

    2004-01-01

    The author of this article, an art teacher at Monarch High School in Louisville, Colorado, describes how her experience teaching in a new school presented an exciting visual challenge for an art teacher--monotonous brick walls just waiting for decoration. This school experienced only minimal instances of graffiti, but as an art teacher, she did…

  1. CLIMBING WALL

    CERN Multimedia

    1999-01-01

    The FIRE AND RESCUE Group of TIS Commission informs that the climbing wall in the yard of the Fire-fighters Station, is intended for the sole use of the members of that service, and recalls that access to this installation is forbidden for safety reasons to all persons not belonging to the Service.CERN accepts no liability for damage or injury suffered as a result of failure to comply with this interdiction.TIS/DI

  2. Theoretical study on irradiation damage of metal-filled multi-walled carbon nanotubes%内嵌金属的多壁碳纳米管辐射损伤研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马佳文; 巩文斌; 张伟; 许子健; 王呈斌; 任翠兰; 怀平; 朱志远

    2016-01-01

    辐射损伤性能是制约核电池效能和使用寿命的重要因素。美国研究者 Popa-Simil 提出基于碳纳米管、金属复合结构材料的概念核电池,可实现核能到电能的高效转换,其设计中利用了碳纳米管的抗辐射损伤特性。本文通过建立包覆金属铜的多壁碳纳米管模型,采用分子动力学方法,对内嵌金属的多壁碳纳米管体系进行了辐射损伤的模拟研究。从配位缺陷数、溅射原子数、完美结构缺陷(Perfect structure defect, PST)原子数以及总的辐射损伤量等方面,与无内嵌金属的碳纳米管体系进行了分析对比。发现在有金属铜内嵌的情况下,溅射原子产额与无金属内嵌情况差别不大,但配位数缺陷和PST缺陷减小。表明内嵌金属起到支撑的效果,降低多壁碳纳米管在辐照下的形变,增强了其自修复能力,从而使得辐照耐受性能有所增强。%Background: Nuclear battery is a promising energy transfer device with outstanding performance. Since the 1950s, a lot of studies have been made on the transfer of nuclear energy to electric energy through a small device. However, irradiation damage affects the efficiency and lifetime of nuclear battery. Popa-Simil proposed a theoretical model based on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) and metal which can achieve high energy transfer efficiency. The irradiation tolerance of MWNTs with metal embedded should be evaluated.Purpose: This study aims to investigate the irradiation tolerance of the model of a multi-walled carbon nanotube with copper atoms embedded and compare it with one containing no cooper atoms to find out the effect of metal inside nanotubes on the irradiation tolerance.Methods: Based on empirical analytical potentials, molecular dynamics (MD) method was applied to investigate irradiation damage of the multi-walled nanotube structure with copper inside. We chose six incident energy points, which are 100 eV, 200 e

  3. High-Yield High-Efficiency Positron Generation in High-Z Metal Targets Irradiated by Laser Produced Electrons from Near-Critical Density Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wei; Hu, Rong-Hao; Shou, Yin-Ren; Gong, Zheng; Yu, Jin-Qing; Lin, Chen; Ma, Wen-Jun; Zhao, Yan-Yin; Lu, Hai-Yang; Yan, Xue-Qing

    2017-08-01

    Not Available Supported by the National Basic Research Program of China under Grant No 2013CBA01502, the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos 11575011 and 11535001, the National Grand Instrument Project under Grant No 2012YQ030142, and the UK EPSRC under Grant Nos EP/G054950/1, EP/G056803/1, EP/G055165/1 and EP/M022463/1.

  4. Attenuation efficiency of X-ray and comparison to gamma ray and neutrons in composite metal foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuo; Bourham, Mohamed; Rabiei, Afsaneh

    2015-12-01

    Steel-steel composite metal foams (S-S CMFs) and Aluminum-steel composite metal foams (Al-S CMFs) with various sphere sizes and matrix materials were manufactured and investigated for nuclear and radiation environments applications. 316 L Stainless steel, high-speed T15 steel and aluminum materials were used as the matrix material together with 2, 4 and 5.2 mm steel hollow spheres to manufacture various types of composite metal foams (CMFs). High-speed T15 steel is selected due to its high tungsten and vanadium concentration (both high-Z elements) to further improve the shielding efficiency of CMFs. This new type of S-S CMF is called high-Z steel-steel composite metal foam (HZ S-S CMF). Radiation shielding efficiency of all types of CMFs was explored for the attenuation of X-ray, gamma ray and neutron. The experimental results were compared with pure lead and Aluminum A356, and verified theoretically through XCOM and Monte Carlo Z-particle Transport Code (MCNP). It was observed that the radiation shielding effectiveness of CMFs is relatively independent of sphere sizes as long as the ratio of sphere-wall thickness to its outer-radius stays constant. However, the smaller spheres seem to be more efficient in general due to the fine fluctuation in the gray value profile of their 2D Micro-CT images. S-S CMFs and Al-S CMFs are respectively 275% and 145% more effective for X-ray attenuation than Aluminum A356. Compared to pure lead, CMFs show adequate attenuation with additional advantages of being lightweight and more environmentally friendly. The mechanical performance of HZ S-S CMFs under quasi-static compression was compared to that of other classes of S-S CMF. It is observed that the addition of high-Z elements to the matrix of CMFs improved their shielding against X-rays, low energy gamma rays and neutrons, while maintained their low density, high mechanical properties and high-energy absorption capability.

  5. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes and metal-organic framework nanocomposites as novel hybrid electrode materials for the determination of nano-molar levels of lead in a lab-on-valve format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Wu, Yichun; Xie, Jing; Ge, Huali; Hu, Xiaoya

    2013-09-07

    Metal-organic frameworks have been the subject of intense research because of their unique physicochemical properties. The presented study investigates the application of multi-wall carbon nanotubes and metal-organic frameworks (MWCNTs@Cu3(BTC)2) nanoparticles-modified electrode for the determination of trace levels of lead. The nanocomposites were prepared by solvothermal synthesis and characterized in detail. The experimental procedure was carried out by accumulating lead on the electrode surface and subsequently measuring with differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry in a lab-on-valve format. The main parameters affecting the analytical performance, including the amount of MWCNTs@Cu3(BTC)2 suspension, supporting electrolyte and its pH, stripping mode, and flow rate, have been investigated in detail. Under the optimum conditions, the oxidation peak current displayed a calibration response for lead over a concentration range from 1.0 × 10(-9) to 5.0 × 10(-8) mol L(-1) with a excellent detection limit of 7.9 × 10(-10) mol L(-1). The relative standard deviation of 7 successive scans was 3.10% for 1.0 × 10(-8) mol L(-1) lead. The established method showed a great improvement in sensitivity and sample throughput for lead analysis.

  6. The precise energy spectra measurement of laser-accelerated MeV/n-class high-Z ions and protons using CR-39 detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanasaki, M.; Jinno, S.; Sakaki, H.; Kondo, K.; Oda, K.; Yamauchi, T.; Fukuda, Y.

    2016-03-01

    The diagnosis method, using a combination of a permanent magnet and CR-39 track detectors, has been developed to separately measure the energy spectrum of the laser-accelerated MeV/n-class high-Z ions and that of MeV protons. The main role of magnet is separating between high-Z ions and protons, not for the usual energy spectrometer, while ion energy was precisely determined from careful analysis of the etch pit shapes and the etch pit growth behaviors in the CR-39. The method was applied to laser-driven ion acceleration experiments using CO2 clusters embedded in a background H2 gas. Ion energy spectra with uncertainty ΔE  =  0.1 MeV n-1 for protons and carbon/oxygen ions were simultaneously obtained separately. The maximum energies of carbon/oxygen ions and protons were determined as 1.1  ±  0.1 MeV and 1.6  ±  0.1 MeV n-1, respectively. The sharp decrease around 1 MeV n-1 observed in the energy spectrum of carbon/oxygen ions could be due to a trace of the ambipolar hydrodynamic expansion of CO2 clusters. Thanks to the combination of the magnet and the CR-39, the method is robust against electromagnetic pulse (EMP).

  7. Subaru high-$z$ exploration of low-luminosity quasars (SHELLQs). I. Discovery of 15 quasars and bright galaxies at $5.7 < z < 6.9$

    CERN Document Server

    Matsuoka, Yoshiki; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Iwasawa, Kazushi; Strauss, Michael A; Nagao, Tohru; Imanishi, Masatoshi; Niida, Mana; Toba, Yoshiki; Akiyama, Masayuki; Asami, Naoko; Bosch, James; Foucaud, Sébastien; Furusawa, Hisanori; Goto, Tomotsugu; Gunn, James E; Harikane, Yuichi; Ikeda, Hiroyuki; Kawaguchi, Toshihiro; Kikuta, Satoshi; Komiyama, Yutaka; Lupton, Robert H; Minezaki, Takeo; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Morokuma, Tomoki; Murayama, Hitoshi; Nishizawa, Atsushi J; Ono, Yoshiaki; Ouchi, Masami; Price, Paul A; Sameshima, Hiroaki; Silverman, John D; Sugiyama, Naoshi; Tait, Philip J; Takada, Masahiro; Takata, Tadafumi; Tanaka, Masayuki; Tang, Ji-Jia; Utsumi, Yousuke

    2016-01-01

    We report the discovery of 15 quasars and bright galaxies at $5.7 < z < 6.9$. This is the initial result from the Subaru High-$z$ Exploration of Low-Luminosity Quasars (SHELLQs) project, which exploits the exquisite multi-band imaging data produced by the Subaru Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) Strategic Program survey. The candidate selection is performed by combining several photometric approaches including a Bayesian probabilistic algorithm to reject stars and dwarfs. The spectroscopic identification was carried out with the Gran Telescopio Canarias and the Subaru Telescope for the first 80 deg$^2$ of the survey footprint. The success rate of our photometric selection is quite high, approaching 100 % at the brighter magnitudes ($z_{\\rm AB} < 23.5$ mag). Our selection also recovered all the known high-$z$ quasars on the HSC images. Among the 15 discovered objects, six are likely quasars, while the other six with interstellar absorption lines and in some cases narrow emission lines are likely bright Lyman-br...

  8. On FAST3D simulations of directly-driven inertial-fusion targets with high-Z layers for reducing laser imprint and surface non-uniformity growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Jason; Schmitt, Andrew; Klapisch, Marcel; Karasik, Max; Obenschain, Steve

    2013-10-01

    Modifications to the FAST3D code have been made to enhance its ability to simulate the dynamics of plastic ICF targets with high-Z overcoats. This class of problems is challenging computationally due in part to plasma conditions that are not in a state of local thermodynamic equilibrium and to the presence of mixed computational cells containing more than one material. Recently, new opacity tables for gold, palladium and plastic have been generated with an improved version of the STA code. These improved tables provide smoother, higher-fidelity opacity data over a wider range of temperature and density states than before, and contribute to a more accurate treatment of radiative transfer processes in FAST3D simulations. Furthermore, a new, more efficient subroutine known as ``MMEOS'' has been installed in the FAST3D code for determining pressure and temperature equilibrium conditions within cells containing multiple materials. We will discuss these topics, and present new simulation results for high-Z planar-target experiments performed recently on the NIKE Laser Facility. Work supported by DOE/NNSA.

  9. Composite panel, wall assembly and components therefor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, P.J.

    1988-12-20

    This invention is concerned with improvements in wall assemblies made of a plurality of composite wall panels, such as concrete wall panels, and components and connectors for such assemblies. The invention is also concerned with a method of making such composite wall panels by molding concrete to form a concrete panel. It is particularly applicable for the provision of upstanding walls around oil tanks and hydrocarbon storage facilities, thereby to form part of a containment structure that can satisfy safety regulations for spills around such facilities. In accordance with another aspect of the invention, there is provided a composite building product comprising a concrete panel, said panel being obtained by molding a respective concrete composition. The panel has at least one metal hinge element integrally secured at a respective peripheral edge, with said metal hinge element being secured at the panel to project sufficiently therefrom so as to present a first hinge element. Several of the panels can be connected in a corral-type wall assembly in a variety of configuration. Another aspect of the invention provides, for use in a wall assembly, a portable composite panel comprising a concrete panel body, which is obtained by molding a respective concrete composition; and a frame assembly for reinforcing the peripheral edges of said concrete panel body. The frame assembly includes at least one metal member for provision of a first hing element for connecting a plurality of said panels in a corral-type wall assembly. 7 figs.

  10. Selective adsorption of aromatic acids by a nanocomposite based on magnetic carboxylic multi-walled carbon nanotubes and novel metal-organic frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-kui; Zhang, Hai-xia; Shi, Yan-ping

    2017-09-01

    A novel magnetic adsorbent was designed and synthesized for adsorption and determination of hazardous aromatic acids (AAs) based on the zeolite imidazolate frameworks of Eu (ZIF-Eu), Fe3O4 and carboxyl multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs-COOH). ZIF-Eu was fabricated for the first time, and Fe3O4 nanoparticles were encapsulated in MWCNTs-COOH, which made the separation procedure simple and easy-realizable. Adsorption experiments indicated that the adsorbent had superior affinity and selectivity to adsorbates with multi-ring, multi-carboxylic and electron-withdrawing group substituted structures, and it can achieve the selective adsorption of AAs from the aromatic mixture, the mechanism of which was evaluated and attributed to the intermolecular π-π electron-donor-acceptor (EDA) and hydrogen-bonding interactions. Seven AAs with different substituents were selected as target adsorbates to investigate the influences of critical experimental conditions on the adsorption efficiencies. Adsorption isotherms and kinetics were investigated and indicated that Dubinin-Ashtakhov model and pseudo-second-order model could well describe the adsorption of AAs on the nanocomposite. Adsorption thermodynamics study suggested that the adsorption reactions were spontaneous, endothermic and thermodynamically favorable. In addition, desorption conditions for AAs, and reusability of the novel adsorbent was evaluated, which confirmed the recyclability of the novel adsorbent.

  11. Fabrication of metal nanoshells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Woo (Inventor); Choi, Sang H. (Inventor); Lillehei, Peter T. (Inventor); Chu, Sang-Hyon (Inventor); Park, Yeonjoon (Inventor); King, Glen C. (Inventor); Elliott, Jr., James R. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Metal nanoshells are fabricated by admixing an aqueous solution of metal ions with an aqueous solution of apoferritin protein molecules, followed by admixing an aqueous solution containing an excess of an oxidizing agent for the metal ions. The apoferritin molecules serve as bio-templates for the formation of metal nanoshells, which form on and are bonded to the inside walls of the hollow cores of the individual apoferritin molecules. Control of the number of metal atoms which enter the hollow core of each individual apoferritin molecule provides a hollow metal nonparticle, or nanoshell, instead of a solid spherical metal nanoparticle.

  12. Fillability of Thin-Wall Steel Castings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert C. Voigt; Joseph Bertoletti; Andrew Kaley; Sandi Ricotta; Travis Sunday

    2002-07-30

    The use of steel components is being challenged by lighter nonferrous or cast iron components. The development of techniques for enhancing and ensuring the filability of thin-wall mold cavities is most critical for thinner wall cast steel production. The purpose of this research was to develop thin-wall casting techniques that can be used to reliably produce thin-wall castings from traditional gravity poured sand casting processes. The focus of the research was to enhance the filling behavior to prevent misrunds. Experiments were conducted to investigate the influence of various foundry variables on the filling of thin section steel castings. These variables include casting design, heat transfer, gating design, and metal fluidity. Wall thickness and pouring temperature have the greatest effect on casting fill. As wall thickness increases the volume to surface area of the casting increases, which increases the solidification time, allowing the metal to flow further in thicker sect ions. Pouring time is another significant variable affecting casting fill. Increases or decreases of 20% in the pouring time were found to have a significant effect on the filling of thin-wall production castings. Gating variables, including venting, pouring head height, and mold tilting also significantly affected thin-wall casting fill. Filters offer less turbulent, steadier flow, which is appropriate for thicker castings, but they do not enhance thin-wall casting fill.

  13. Falling walls

    CERN Multimedia

    It was 20 years ago this week that the Berlin wall was opened for the first time since its construction began in 1961. Although the signs of a thaw had been in the air for some time, few predicted the speed of the change that would ensue. As members of the scientific community, we can take a moment to reflect on the role our field played in bringing East and West together. CERN’s collaboration with the East, primarily through links with the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, JINR, in Dubna, Russia, is well documented. Less well known, however, is the role CERN played in bringing the scientists of East and West Germany together. As the Iron curtain was going up, particle physicists on both sides were already creating the conditions that would allow it to be torn down. Cold war historian Thomas Stange tells the story in his 2002 CERN Courier article. It was my privilege to be in Berlin on Monday, the anniversary of the wall’s opening, to take part in a conference entitled &lsquo...

  14. Relativistic nuclear recoil corrections to the energy levels of hydrogen-like and high Z lithium like atoms in all orders in $\\alpha$Z

    CERN Document Server

    Artemiev, A N; Yerokhin, V A

    1995-01-01

    The relativistic nuclear recoil corrections to the energy levels of low-laying states of hydrogen-like and high Z lithium-like atoms in all orders in \\alpha Z are calculated. The calculations are carried out using the B-spline method for the Dirac equation. For low Z the results of the calculation are in good agreement with the \\alpha Z -expansion results. It is found that the nuclear recoil contribution, additional to the Salpeter's one, to the Lamb shift (n=2) of hydrogen is -1.32(6)\\,kHz. The total nuclear recoil correction to the energy of the (1s)^{2}2p_{\\frac{1}{2}}-(1s)^{2}2s transition in lithium-like uranium constitutes -0.07\\,eV and is largely made up of QED contributions.

  15. Comparison of experimental proton-induced fluorescence spectra for a selection of thin high-Z samples with Geant4 Monte Carlo simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Incerti, S., E-mail: sebastien.incerti@tdt.edu.vn [Division of Nuclear Physics, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Faculty of Applied Sciences, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Univ. Bordeaux, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); CNRS, IN2P3, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); Barberet, Ph.; Dévès, G.; Michelet, C. [Univ. Bordeaux, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); CNRS, IN2P3, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); Francis, Z. [Université Saint Joseph, Science Faculty, Department of Physics, Beirut (Lebanon); Ivantchenko, V. [Ecoanalytica, Moscow (Russian Federation); Geant4 Associates International Ltd, Hebden Bridge (United Kingdom); Mantero, A. [SWHARD srl, via Greto di Cornigliano 6r, 16152 Genova (Italy); El Bitar, Z. [Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien, CNRS/IN2P3, 67037 Strasbourg Cedex (France); Bernal, M.A. [Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil); Tran, H.N. [Division of Nuclear Physics, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Faculty of Applied Sciences, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Karamitros, M.; Seznec, H. [Univ. Bordeaux, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); CNRS, IN2P3, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France)

    2015-09-01

    The general purpose Geant4 Monte Carlo simulation toolkit is able to simulate radiative and non-radiative atomic de-excitation processes such as fluorescence and Auger electron emission, occurring after interaction of incident ionising radiation with target atomic electrons. In this paper, we evaluate the Geant4 modelling capability for the simulation of fluorescence spectra induced by 1.5 MeV proton irradiation of thin high-Z foils (Fe, GdF{sub 3}, Pt, Au) with potential interest for nanotechnologies and life sciences. Simulation results are compared to measurements performed at the Centre d’Etudes Nucléaires de Bordeaux-Gradignan AIFIRA nanobeam line irradiation facility in France. Simulation and experimental conditions are described and the influence of Geant4 electromagnetic physics models is discussed.

  16. Four 3D "brick-wall"-like metal-organic frameworks with a flexible ligand of (S,S,R,R)-1,2,3,4-cyclopentanetetracarboxylic acid: crystal structures, luminescent and magnetic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Lin; Luan, Xin-Jun; Zhang, Cui-Ping; Kang, Yi-Fan; Zhang, Wen-Tao; Wang, Yao-Yu; Shi, Qi-Zhen

    2013-02-01

    To investigate the conformation of cyclopentanetetracarboxylic acid, four new "brick-wall"-like metal-organic frameworks have been synthesized from hydrothermal reactions with different metal salts, (S,S,R,R)-1,2,3,4-cyclopentanetetracarboxylic acid (H(4)cptc) and auxiliary N-donor ligands, namely, Cu(2)(S,S,R,R-cptc)(bpe)(H(2)O)(2)·2H(2)O (1), Co(2)(S,S,R,R-cptc)(bpe)(0.5)(H(2)O)(2)·2H(2)O (2), Cd(4)(S,S,R,R-cptc)(2)(bpa)(2)(H(2)O)(5)·2H(2)O (3) and Co(2)(S,S,R,R-cptc)(bpy)(0.5)(H(2)O)(2)·2(H(2)O) (4) (bpe = 4-(2-(pyridine-4-yl)vinyl)pyridine, bpa = 4-(2-(pyridine-4-yl)ethyl)pyridine, bpy = 4-(pyridine-4-yl)pyridine). The complexes were further characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, power X-ray diffraction, FT-IR spectra, fluorescent measurements and variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements. The results of the structural investigations show that 1 is a charming (3,3,4)-trinodal architecture, 3 is an interesting trinodal (3,4,5)-connected architecture, and 2 and 4 are isostructural, which are both (4,5)-connected networks. In addition, the magnetic measurements indicate that 2 and 4 show weak antiferromagnetic interactions, and the fluorescent measurement shows the strong solid-state fluorescent emission at room temperature for 3.

  17. Wall to Wall Optimal Transport

    CERN Document Server

    Hassanzadeh, Pedram; Doering, Charles R

    2013-01-01

    The calculus of variations is employed to find steady divergence-free velocity fields that maximize transport of a tracer between two parallel walls held at fixed concentration for one of two constraints on flow strength: a fixed value of the kinetic energy or a fixed value of the enstrophy. The optimizing flows consist of an array of (convection) cells of a particular aspect ratio Gamma. We solve the nonlinear Euler-Lagrange equations analytically for weak flows and numerically (and via matched asymptotic analysis in the fixed energy case) for strong flows. We report the results in terms of the Nusselt number Nu, a dimensionless measure of the tracer transport, as a function of the Peclet number Pe, a dimensionless measure of the energy or enstrophy of the flow. For both constraints the maximum transport Nu_{MAX}(Pe) is realized in cells of decreasing aspect ratio Gamma_{opt}(Pe) as Pe increases. For the fixed energy problem, Nu_{MAX} \\sim Pe and Gamma_{opt} \\sim Pe^{-1/2}, while for the fixed enstrophy scen...

  18. Antiferromagnetic domain wall motion driven by spin-orbit torques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiino, Takayuki; Oh, Se-Hyeok; Haney, Paul M.; Lee, Seo-Won; Go, Gyungchoon; Park, Byong-Guk; Lee, Kyung-Jin

    2016-01-01

    We theoretically investigate dynamics of antiferromagnetic domain walls driven by spin-orbit torques in antiferromagnet/heavy metal bilayers. We show that spin-orbit torques drive antiferromagnetic domain walls much faster than ferromagnetic domain walls. As the domain wall velocity approaches the maximum spin-wave group velocity, the domain wall undergoes Lorentz contraction and emits spin-waves in the terahertz frequency range. The interplay between spin-orbit torques and the relativistic dynamics of antiferromagnetic domain walls leads to the efficient manipulation of antiferromagnetic spin textures and paves the way for the generation of high frequency signals from antiferromagnets. PMID:27588878

  19. Measurement of the Absolute Hohlraum Wall Albedo Under Ignition Foot Drive Condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, O S; Glenzer, S H; Suter, L J; Turner, R E; Campbell, K M; Dewald, E L; Hammel, B A; Kauffman, R L; Landen, O L; Rosen, M D; Wallace, R J; Weber, F A

    2003-08-26

    We present the first measurements of the absolute albedos of hohlraums made from gold or from high-Z mixtures. The measurements are performed over the range of radiation temperatures (70-100 eV) expected during the foot of an indirect-drive temporally-shaped ignition laser pulse, where accurate knowledge of the wall albedo (i.e. soft x-ray wall re-emission) is most critical for determining capsule radiation symmetry. We find that the gold albedo agrees well with calculations using the super transition array opacity model, potentially providing additional margin for ICF ignition.

  20. Measurement of the absolute hohlraum wall albedo under ignition foot drive conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suter, L J; Wallace, R J; Hammel, B A; Weber, F A; Landen, O L; Campbell, K M; DeWald, E L; Glenzer, S H; Rosen, M D; Jones, O S; Turner, R E; Kauffmann, R L; Hammer, J H

    2003-11-25

    We present the first measurements of the absolute albedos of hohlraums made from gold or from high-Z mixtures. The measurements are performed over the range of radiation temperatures (70-100 eV) expected during the foot of an indirect-drive temporally-shaped ignition laser pulse, where accurate knowledge of the wall albedo (i.e. soft x-ray wall re-emission) is most critical for determining capsule radiation symmetry. We find that the gold albedo agrees well with calculations using the super transition array opacity model, potentially providing additional margin for ICF ignition.

  1. 聚变堆液态第一壁膜流MHD流动及其稳定性机制研究%Liquid metal MHD film flow and its stability mechanism for the liquid first wall of fusion reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秀杰; 潘传杰; 许增裕

    2013-01-01

    建立了液态金属膜流MHD流动的数学物理模型,开发了相关数值模拟程序。首先,通过相关实验结果对该程序进行了校验。然后,对液态金属锂膜流在横向强磁场中的MHD流动进行了模拟,给出了入口流速、入口膜厚、底壁宽度、壁面粗糙度对其MHD流动的影响。模拟结果表明,存在唯一入口流速和唯一底壁宽度使得膜流MHD流动稳定;存在两个入口膜厚值使得膜流MHD流动稳定;壁面粗糙度对膜流MHD流动影响较小。最后,通过膜流MHD流动平衡分析,初步给出了其MHD稳定性的物理机制。分析结果表明,增加底壁宽度有利于降低电磁阻力,增加膜流的MHD稳定性;膜流的稳定流速随入口膜厚的增加先增大后减小,同时其最大稳定流速值相对于无磁场的情况减小很多。%A mathematical and physical modeling of the liquid metal MHD film flow has been built and a related numerical code has been developed. Firstly, the code is validated by the related experimental results. Secondly, numerical simulation of the liquid metal MHD film flow is carried out by this code. The effects of the inlet velocity, the initial film thickness, the width of the bottom wall and the wall roughness on the flow state are presented. It is indicated that there is only one value of the inlet velocity and the substrate width when the film flow state is stable, and two initial film thickness values exist at the stable state, the wall roughness has little effect on the film flow state. In the end, the preliminary stable mechanism of the film MHD flow based on a equilibrium analysis is described, it is indicated that the increase of the substrate width is helpful to reduce the electromagnetic resistance and increase the MHD stability;the stable velocity firstly increases then decreases with the increase of the initial film thickness and it is greatly reduced compared to the no magnetic field case.

  2. Research on the Characteristics of Metal Oxide Film on Piping Inner Walls of Power Plant Boilers%火电厂锅炉管道金属内壁氧化膜的影响因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄万启; 李志刚; 张洪博; 曹松彦

    2013-01-01

    研究给水加氧处理前后锅炉管壁金属氧化膜生成情况,以确定不同温度范围内金属氧化膜的主要影响因素.分析和比较了给水全挥发处理(AVT)工况和加氧处理(OT)工况下,省煤器和水冷壁管氧化膜的特点;通过试验台和现场研究数据,探讨了锅炉高温段氧化皮生成与剥离的成因.研究结果表明,纯水中加入的氧气使热力系统低温段(300℃以内)金属表面生成了具有保护作用的棕红色Fe2O3膜,这层Fe2O3膜需要连续供氧维持其稳定性;锅炉高温段受热面中18铬系列奥氏体不锈钢氧化皮剥落原因较为复杂,温度和材料本身应是主要影响因素.%The formation of oxidation film on boiler tubes before and after oxygenation treatment (OT) is studied to figure out the major factors contributing to the metal surface oxide film within different temperature ranges.The characteristics of the oxide film on the economizer and water wall tubes are analyzed and compared under the conditions of feedwater all-volatile (reduction/oxidation) treatment(AVT(R)/AVT(O)) and oxygenation treatment.The causes of metal oxidation and scale exfoliation in the high-temperature section of boilers are also explored with the data from both test bench and field testing.The results show that feeding oxygen to the water makes the metal surface form a redish brown Fe2O3 coating layer in the low-temperature section of the thermal system (under 300 ℃),and this layer requires continuous oxygen feeding to maintain its stability.The causes of scale exfoliation of 18Cr austenitic stainless steel in high-temperature sections are complex.Nevertheless,the temperature and the material itself are believed to be the major culprits.

  3. An analytic solution for the minimal bathtub toy model: challenges in the star-formation history of high-z galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Dekel, Avishai

    2014-01-01

    We study the minimal ``bathtub" toy model as an analytic tool for capturing key processes of galaxy evolution and identifying robust successes and challenges in reproducing observations at high redshift. The source and sink terms of the continuity equations for gas and stars are expressed in simple terms from first principles. The assumed dependence of star-formation rate (SFR) on gas mass self-regulates the system into a unique asymptotic behavior, which is approximated by an analytic quasi-steady-state solution (QSS). We address the validity of the QSS at different epochs independent of earlier conditions. At high z, where the accretion is assumed to consist of gas only, the specific SFR is robustly predicted to be sSFR = [(1+z)/3]^{5/2} Gyr^{-1}, slightly higher than the cosmological specific accretion rate, in agreement with observations at z=3-8. The gas fraction is expected to decline slowly, and the observations constrain the SFR efficiency per dynamical time to epsilon=0.02. The stellar-to-virial mass...

  4. First mid-infrared spectrum of a faint high-z galaxy: Observations of CFRS 14.1157 with the Infrared Spectrograph on the Spitzer Space Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Higdon, S J U; Higdon, J L; Herter, T; Charmandaris, V; Houck, J R; Soifer, B T; Brandl, B R; Armus, L; Hao, L

    2004-01-01

    The unprecedented sensitivity of the Infrared Spectrograph on the Spitzer Space Telescope allows for the first time the measurement of mid-infrared spectra from 14 to 38 microns of faint high-z galaxies. This unique capability is demonstrated with observations of sources having 16 micron fluxes of 3.6 mJy (CFRS 14.1157) and 0.35 mJy (CFRS 14.9025). A spectral-fitting technique is illustrated which determines the redshift by fitting emission and absorption features characteristic of nearby galaxies to the spectrum of an unknown source. For CFRS 14.1157, the measured redshift is z = 1.00+/-0.20 in agreement with the published result of z = 1.15. The spectrum is dominated by emission from an AGN, similar to the nucleus of NGC 1068, rather than a typical starburst with strong PAH emission like M82. Such spectra will be crucial in characterizing the nature of newly discovered distant galaxies, which are too faint for optical follow-up.

  5. Achieving Stable Radiation Pressure Acceleration of Heavy Ions via Successive Electron Replenishment from Ionization of a High-Z Material Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, X. F.; Qiao, B.; Chang, H. X.; Kar, S.; Zhou, C. T.; Borghesi, M.; He, X. T.

    2016-10-01

    Generation of monoenergetic heavy ion beams aroused more scientific interest in recent years. Radiation pressure acceleration (RPA) is an ideal mechanism for obtaining high-quality heavy ion beams, in principle. However, to achieve the same energy per nucleon (velocity) as protons, heavy ions undergo much more serious Rayleigh-Taylor-like (RT) instability and afterwards much worse Coulomb explosion due to loss of co-moving electrons. This leads to premature acceleration termination of heavy ions and very low energy attained in experiment. The utilization of a high-Z coating in front of the target may suppress the RT instability and Coulomb explosion by continuously replenishing the accelerating heavy ion foil with co-moving electrons due to its successive ionization under laser fields with Gaussian temporal and spatial profiles. Thus stable RPA can be realized. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional particles-in-cell simulations with dynamic ionization show that a monoenergetic Al13+ beam with peak energy 4.0GeV and particle number 1010 (charge > 20nC) can be obtained at intensity 1022 W/cm2. Supported by the NSF, Nos. 11575298 and 1000-Talents Program of China.

  6. Four phases of angular-momentum buildup in high-z galaxies:from cosmic-web streams to an extended tilted ring, disc and bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Danovich, Mark; Hahn, Oliver; Ceverino, Daniel; Primack, Joel

    2014-01-01

    We study the buildup of angular momentum (AM) in high-z galaxies using zoom-in hydro-cosmological simulations. The disc AM originates in a few co-planar streams of cold gas and merging galaxies tracing filaments of the cosmic web and undergo 4 phases of evolution. In phase I, outside the halo virial radius (Rv), the elongated streams gain AM by tidal torques with a specific AM (sAM) ~1.7 times that of the dark matter (DM) due to the gas' higher quadrupole moment. This AM is expressed as stream impact parameters, from ~0.3Rv to occasional counter rotation. In phase II, in the outer halo, while the incoming DM mixes with the existing halo of lower sAM to a spin $\\lambda_{\\rm dm}\\sim0.04$, the cold streams transport the AM to the inner halo such that their spin in the halo is $\\sim3\\lambda_{\\rm dm}$. In phase III, near pericenter, the streams dissipate and form a non-uniform, rotating ring extending to ~0.3Rv and tilted relative to the inner disc. Torques exerted partly by the disc make the gas ring lose AM, spi...

  7. Galaxy counterparts of intervening high-z sub-DLAs/DLAs and MgII absorbers towards gamma-ray bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Schulze, S; Milvang-Jensen, B; Rossi, A; Jakobsson, P; Ledoux, C; De Cia, A; Kruehler, T; Mehner, A; Bjoernsson, G; Chen, H -W; Vreeswijk, P M; Perley, D A; Hjorth, J; Levan, A J; Tanvir, N R; Ellison, S; Moller, P; Worseck, G; Chapman, R; Dall'Aglio, A; Letawe, G

    2012-01-01

    We present the first search for galaxy counterparts of intervening high-z (2

  8. 超声波穿金属厚壁通信电路系统设计与实现%Design and Implementation of Ultrasonic Through-metal-thick-wall Communication Circuit System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海廷; 杨涛

    2013-01-01

    A novel ultrasonic high voltage pulse transmitting circuit based on a energy storage inductance was presented after analyzing ultrasonic through-metal-thick-wall communication system that needs high frequency and high voltage. The control signal based on FPGA drived IGBT switch component with high precision and frequency. The receiving signal amplifier and bandpass filtering circuit were designed to achieve the stability of the ultrasonic receiving signal after analyzing the ultrasonic transmission condition in the medium interface. Data flows were restored based on FPGA after ultrasonic signal envelope detection and A/D sampling. The design scheme has important potential applications which realizes the information collection and transmission with high speed in sealed containers.%在分析超声波穿金属厚壁通信系统需要高频高压的基础上,设计了一种利用电感储能产生高压脉冲的发射电路.采用FPGA产生高精度高频控制信号,驱动IGBT开关元件.同时在对介质表面声波透射状况分析后,设计了接收信号放大和带通滤波电路,实现了超声信号的稳定接收.在接收信号包络检波和A/D采样转换后,通过FPGA处理实现了数据流的还原.该设计方案可实现密闭容器内信息的采集与高速传输,具有重要的应用前景.

  9. Effect of Mould Wall Thickness on Rate of Solidification of Centrifugal Casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhusudhan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In Centrifugal Casting process the centrifugal force presses the metal against the inner wall of the metal mould, resulting in rapid solidification of the molten metal. However the solidification structures like structural uniformity and structural character of the solidified metal of centrifugal casting is of great importance, regarding to its mechanical properties. The solidification time of the casting is dependent upon the various parameters like speed ofrotation of the mold, mould wall temperature, heat transfer coefficient at the metal-mold interface, mould wall thickness, material of the mould and so on. In this paper experimental study of effect of mould wall thickness on solidification of the centrifugal casting has been discussed. As the mould wall thickness increases, due to the chilling effect, the solidification time decreases. Fine grains are observed in castings produced in thick walled mould and coarse grains are observed in thin walled moulds. Brinel Hardness of the casting was measured.

  10. A metallicity-spin temperature relation in damped Lyman-$\\alpha$ systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kanekar, Nissim; Briggs, Frank H; Chengalur, Jayaram N

    2009-01-01

    We report evidence for an anti-correlation between spin temperature $T_s$ and metallicity [Z/H], detected at $3.6 \\sigma$ significance in a sample of 26 damped Lyman-$\\alpha$ absorbers (DLAs) at redshifts $0.09 1.7$ have low metallicities, [Z/H] $< -1$, implying that the HI in high-$z$ DLAs is predominantly warm. The anti-correlation between $T_s$ and [Z/H] is consistent with the presence of a mass-metallicity relation in DLAs, suggested by the tight correlation between DLA metallicity and the kinematic widths of metal lines. Most high-$z$ DLAs are likely to arise in galaxies with low masses ($M_{\\rm vir} < 10^{10.5} M_\\odot$), low metallicities ([Z/H]$< -1$, and low cold gas fractions.

  11. Comparative study of Trombe wall, water wall and trans wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sodha, M.S.; Bansal, N.K.; Singh, S.; Ram, S.; Annamalai, M.; Iyer, M.V.; Nirmala, K.A.; Venkatesh, P.; Prasad, C.R.; Subramani, C.

    1982-01-01

    The thermal performances of three systems viz. Trombe wall: (1) without; and (2) with vents (forced air circulation), water wall and Transwall have been studied analytically interms of heat flux entering the living space (Maintained at 20/sup 0/C) corresponding to the meteriological data on January 19, 1981 at New Delhi (India), a typical cold winter day. Subsequent parametric studies using the simulation indicated that the Transwall system is the more efficient system for the passive heating of buildings.

  12. BAND-9 ALMA OBSERVATIONS OF THE [N II] 122 μm LINE AND FIR CONTINUUM IN TWO HIGH-z GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferkinhoff, Carl [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Brisbin, Drew; Stacey, Gordon J. [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Nikola, Thomas [Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Sheth, Kartik [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Hailey-Dunsheath, Steve [California Institute of Technology, Mail Code 301-17, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Falgarone, Edith, E-mail: ferkinhoff@mpia.de [LERMA, CNRS, Observatoire de Paris and ENS (France)

    2015-06-20

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) observations of two high-redshift systems (SMMJ02399-0136 at z{sub 1} ∼ 2.8 and the Cloverleaf QSO at z{sub 1} ∼ 2.5) in their rest-frame 122 μm continuum (ν{sub sky} ∼ 650 GHz, λ{sub sky} ∼ 450 μm) and [N ii] 122 μm line emission. The continuum observations with a synthesized beam of ∼0.″ 25 resolve both sources and recover the expected flux. The Cloverleaf is resolved into a partial Einstein ring, while SMMJ02399-0136 is unambiguously separated into two components: a point source associated with an active galactic nucleus and an extended region at the location of a previously identified dusty starburst. We detect the [N ii] line in both systems, though significantly weaker than our previous detections made with the first generation z (Redshift) and Early Universe Spectrometer. We show that this discrepancy is mostly explained if the line flux is resolved out due to significantly more extended emission and longer ALMA baselines than expected. Based on the ALMA observations we determine that ≥75% of the total [N ii] line flux in each source is produced via star formation. We use the [N ii] line flux that is recovered by ALMA to constrain the N/H abundance, ionized gas mass, hydrogen- ionizing photon rate, and star formation rate. In SMMJ02399-0136 we discover it contains a significant amount (∼1000 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}) of unobscured star formation in addition to its dusty starburst and argue that SMMJ02399-0136 may be similar to the Antennae Galaxies (Arp 244) locally. In total these observations provide a new look at two well-studied systems while demonstrating the power and challenges of Band-9 ALMA observations of high-z systems.

  13. Domain Walls on Singularities

    CERN Document Server

    Halyo, Edi

    2009-01-01

    We describe domain walls that live on $A_2$ and $A_3$ singularities. The walls are BPS if the singularity is resolved and non--BPS if it is deformed and fibered. We show that these domain walls may interpolate between vacua that support monopoles and/or vortices.

  14. The Lamportian cell wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keiliszewski, M.; Lamport, D. (Michigan State Univ. Plant Research Lab., East Lansing (United States))

    1991-05-01

    The Lamportian Warp-Weft hypothesis suggests a cellulose-extensin interpenetrating network where extensin mechanically couples the load-bearing cellulose microfibrils in a wall matrix that is best described as a microcomposite. This model is based on data gathered from the extensin-rich walls of tomato and sycamore cell suspension culture, wherein extensin precursors are insolubilized into the wall by undefined crosslinks. The authors recent work with cell walls isolated from intact tissue as well as walls from suspension cultured cells of the graminaceous monocots maize and rice, the non-graminaceous monocot asparagus, the primitive herbaceous dicot sugar beet, and the gymnosperm Douglas Fir indicate that although extensins are ubiquitous to all plant species examined, they are not the major structural protein component of most walls examined. Amino acid analyses of intact and HF-treated walls shows a major component neither an HRGP, nor directly comparable to the glycine-rich wall proteins such as those associated with seed coat walls or the 67 mole% glycine-rich proteins cloned from petunia and soybean. Clearly, structural wall protein alternatives to extensin exist and any cell wall model must take that into account. If we assume that extracellular matrices are a priori network structures, then new Hypless' structural proteins in the maize cell wall raise questions about the sort of network these proteins create: the kinds of crosslinks involved; how they are formed; and the roles played by the small amounts of HRGPs.

  15. Halogenation of microcapsule walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, T. R.; Schaab, C. K.; Scott, J. C.

    1972-01-01

    Procedure for halogenation of confining walls of both gelatin and gelatin-phenolic resin capsules is similar to that used for microencapsulation. Ten percent halogen content renders capsule wall nonburning; any higher content enhances flame-retardant properties of selected internal phase material. Halogenation decreases permeability of wall material to encapsulated materials.

  16. A new method of preparing single-walled carbon nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Vivekchang, SRC; Govindaraj, A.

    2003-01-01

    A novel method of purification for single-walled carbon nanotubes, prepared by an arc-discharge method, is described. The method involves a combination of acid washing followed by high temperature hydrogen treatment to remove the metal nanoparticles and amorphous carbon present in the as-synthesized single-walled carbon nanotubes. The purified single-walled carbon nanotubes have been characterised by low-angle X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, thermo-gravimetric analysis and Raman spect...

  17. Evolution of the Stability Work from Classic Retaining Walls to Mechanically Stabilized Earth Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anghel Stanciu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available For the consolidation of soil mass and the construction of the stability works for roads infrastructure it was studied the evolution of these kinds of works from classical retaining walls - common concrete retaining walls, to the utilization in our days of the modern and competitive methods - mechanically stabilized earth walls. Like type of execution the variety of the reinforced soil is given by the utilization of different types of reinforcing inclusions (steel strips, geosynthetics, geogrids or facing (precast concrete panels, dry cast modular blocks, metal sheets and plates, gabions, and wrapped sheets of geosynthetics.

  18. Improvement of high T{sub c} superconductor by near-optimum pinning centers created by high Z, high-energy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinstein, Roy, E-mail: Weinstein@uh.edu [Texas Center for Superconductivity, Physics Department, 632 Science and Research Bldg. 1, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5005 (United States); Sawh, Ravi-Persad; Parks, Drew; Mayes, Billy [Texas Center for Superconductivity, Physics Department, 632 Science and Research Bldg. 1, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5005 (United States)

    2012-02-01

    Damage tracks left by high Z, high-energy ions in high temperature superconductor (HTS) can serve the need to pin in place the magnetic field quanta. Such pinning centers (PCs) can serve to dramatically increase the critical current density, J{sub c}. Specific energy loss, S{sub e}, which is effective in the YBCO superconductor (YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}}) lies in the range 0.7 Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To S{sub e} Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 3.5 keV/A. At 77 K, a sharp peak in J{sub c} occurs at S{sub e} {approx} 2.1 keV/A, for fluences of 10{sup 12} ions/cm{sup 2}, where record in-field J{sub c} is achieved in large-grain YBCO. For example, J{sub c} = 340 kA/cm{sup 2} at 77 K, applied field of 1 T. At closely similar conditions record in-field J{sub c} is achieved in thick coated conductor, e.g., J{sub c} = 543 kA/cm{sup 2} at 77 K, 1 T. When corrected to the optimum S{sub e}, this J{sub c} increases to 770 kA/cm{sup 2}. These near-optimum PCs have very small diameter of damage (d{sub d} {approx} 6.6 nm) close to the value, predicted theoretically. However, they are very discontinuous, whereas theory predicts that continuous columnar PCs are the best to obtain high J{sub c}. We find that the advantages of discontinuous PCs at S{sub e} = 2.1 keV/A, are (a) a factor of 12 less damage to the HTS (resulting in improved percolation and T{sub c}) and (b) entanglement of fluxoids (even for parallel PCs). This results in five times higher J{sub c} than can be achieved with continuous columnar PCs. In large-grain HTS, these pinning centers increase J{sub c} by a factor of 17, indicating that the dominant reduction of J{sub c} in large-grain HTS is due not to weak links, voids, non-optimum oxygenation, etc., but to a dearth of pinning centers.

  19. Electromagnetic approaches to wall characterization, wall mitigation, and antenna design for through-the-wall radar systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thajudeen, Christopher

    of ground reflections, and situations where they may be applied to the estimation of the parameters associated with an interior wall. It is demonstrated through extensive computer simulations and laboratory experiments that, by proper exploitation of the electromagnetic characteristics of walls, one can efficiently extract the constitutive parameters associated with unknown wall(s) as well as to characterize and image the intra-wall region. Additionally, it is possible, to a large extent, to remove the negative wall effects, such as shadowing and incorrect target localization, as well as to enhance the imaging and classification of targets behind walls. In addition to the discussion of post processing the radar data to account for wall effects, the design of antenna elements used for transmit (Tx) and receive (Rx) operations in TWR radars is also discussed but limited to antennas for mobile, handheld, or UAV TWR systems which impose design requirements such as low profiles, wide operational bands, and in most cases lend themselves to fabrication using surface printing techniques. A new class of wideband antennas, formed though the use of printed metallic paths in the form of Peano and Hilbert space-filling curves (SFC) to provide top-loading properties that miniaturize monopole antenna elements, has been developed for applications in conformal and/or low profile antennas systems, such as mobile platforms for TWRI and communication systems. Additionally, boresight gain enhancements of a stair-like antenna geometry, through the addition of parasitic self-similar patches and gate like ground plane structures, are presented.

  20. Abdominal wall fat pad biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amyloidosis - abdominal wall fat pad biopsy; Abdominal wall biopsy; Biopsy - abdominal wall fat pad ... method of taking an abdominal wall fat pad biopsy . The health care provider cleans the skin on ...

  1. Fabrication of Metallic Hollow Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Woo (Inventor); Choi, Sr., Sang H. (Inventor); Lillehei, Peter T. (Inventor); Chu, Sang-Hyon (Inventor); Park, Yeonjoon (Inventor); King, Glen C. (Inventor); Elliott, James R. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Metal and semiconductor nanoshells, particularly transition metal nanoshells, are fabricated using dendrimer molecules. Metallic colloids, metallic ions or semiconductors are attached to amine groups on the dendrimer surface in stabilized solution for the surface seeding method and the surface seedless method, respectively. Subsequently, the process is repeated with additional metallic ions or semiconductor, a stabilizer, and NaBH.sub.4 to increase the wall thickness of the metallic or semiconductor lining on the dendrimer surface. Metallic or semiconductor ions are automatically reduced on the metallic or semiconductor nanoparticles causing the formation of hollow metallic or semiconductor nanoparticles. The void size of the formed hollow nanoparticles depends on the dendrimer generation. The thickness of the metallic or semiconductor thin film around the dendrimer depends on the repetition times and the size of initial metallic or semiconductor seeds.

  2. Two endogenous proteins that induce cell wall extension in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQueen-Mason, S.; Durachko, D. M.; Cosgrove, D. J.

    1992-01-01

    Plant cell enlargement is regulated by wall relaxation and yielding, which is thought to be catalyzed by elusive "wall-loosening" enzymes. By employing a reconstitution approach, we found that a crude protein extract from the cell walls of growing cucumber seedlings possessed the ability to induce the extension of isolated cell walls. This activity was restricted to the growing region of the stem and could induce the extension of isolated cell walls from various dicot stems and the leaves of amaryllidaceous monocots, but was less effective on grass coleoptile walls. Endogenous and reconstituted wall extension activities showed similar sensitivities to pH, metal ions, thiol reducing agents, proteases, and boiling in methanol or water. Sequential HPLC fractionation of the active wall extract revealed two proteins with molecular masses of 29 and 30 kD associated with the activity. Each protein, by itself, could induce wall extension without detectable hydrolytic breakdown of the wall. These proteins appear to mediate "acid growth" responses of isolated walls and may catalyze plant cell wall extension by a novel biochemical mechanism.

  3. The Age of the Young Bulge-like Population in the Stellar System Terzan 5: Linking the Galactic Bulge to the High-z Universe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferraro, F. R.; Massari, D.; Dalessandro, E.; Lanzoni, B.; Origlia, L.; Rich, R. M.; Mucciarelli, A.

    2016-01-01

    The Galactic bulge is dominated by an old, metal-rich stellar population. The possible presence and the amount of a young (a few gigayears old) minor component is one of the major issues debated in the literature. Recently, the bulge stellar system Terzan 5 was found to harbor three sub-populations

  4. Solar heating wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenfelder, J.L.

    1983-08-16

    A solar heating wall is disclosed including a water pipe circulation system having a plurality of separate tubes, each formed as a loop, connected between a water supply and a return. The separate tubes are arranged in a single vertical plane at the approximate center of the wall. The wall is formed within a frame which is packed with a material suited for use as a thERMAL RESERVOIR, SUCH AS concrete. The frame provides extra support by having a series of horizontally disposed cross supports on one surface of the wall and a series of vertically disposed cross supports on the opposite surface A pressure relief valve may be provided between the water supply to the separate tubes and the water supply to the building or structure containing the solar wall, so that the solar wall can be adapted for use with a city water system.

  5. Cell Wall Proteome

    OpenAIRE

    Boudart, Georges; Minic, Zoran; Albenne, Cécile; Canut, Hervé; Jamet, Elisabeth; Pont-Lezica, Rafael F

    2007-01-01

    In this chapter, we will focus on the contribution of proteomics to the identification and determination of the structure and function of CWPs as well as discussing new perspectives in this area. The great variety of proteins found in the plant cell wall is described. Some families, such as glycoside hydrolases, proteases, lectins, and inhibitors of cell wall modifying enzymes, are discussed in detail. Examples of the use of proteomic techniques to elucidate the structure of various cell wall...

  6. Staggered domain wall fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Hoelbling, Christian

    2016-01-01

    We construct domain wall fermions with a staggered kernel and investigate their spectral and chiral properties numerically in the Schwinger model. In some relevant cases we see an improvement of chirality by more than an order of magnitude as compared to usual domain wall fermions. Moreover, we present first results for four-dimensional quantum chromodynamics, where we also observe significant reductions of chiral symmetry violations for staggered domain wall fermions.

  7. Green walls in Vancouver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, R. [Sharp and Diamond Landscape Architecture Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    With the renewed interest in design for microclimate control and energy conservation, many cities are implementing clean air initiatives and sustainable planning policies to mitigate the effects of urban climate and the urban heat island effect. Green roofs, sky courts and green walls must be thoughtfully designed to withstand severe conditions such as moisture stress, extremes in temperature, tropical storms and strong desiccating winds. This paper focused on the installation of green wall systems. There are 2 general types of green walls systems, namely facade greening and living walls. Green facades are trellis systems where climbing plants can grow vertically without attaching to the surface of the building. Living walls are part of a building envelope system where plants are actually planted and grown in a wall system. A modular G-SKY Green Wall Panel was installed at the Aquaquest Learning Centre at the Vancouver Aquarium in Stanley Park in September 2006. This green wall panel, which was originally developed in Japan, incorporates many innovative features in the building envelope. It provides an exterior wall covered with 8 species of plants native to the Coastal Temperate Rain Forest. The living wall is irrigated by rainwater collected from the roof, stored in an underground cistern and fed through a drip irrigation system. From a habitat perspective, the building imitates an escarpment. Installation, support systems, irrigation, replacement of modules and maintenance are included in the complete wall system. Living walls reduce the surface temperature of buildings by as much as 10 degrees C when covered with vegetation and a growing medium. The project team is anticipating LEED gold certification under the United States-Canada Green Building Council. It was concluded that this technology of vegetated building envelopes is applicable for acoustical control at airports, biofiltration of indoor air, greywater treatment, and urban agriculture and vertical

  8. International Divider Walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruis, A.; Sneller, A.C.W.(L.)

    2013-01-01

    The subject of this teaching case is the Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system implementation at International Divider Walls, the world market leader in design, production, and sales of divider walls. The implementation in one of the divisions of this multinational company had been successful, a

  9. Domain wall filters

    CERN Document Server

    Bär, O; Neuberger, H; Witzel, O; Baer, Oliver; Narayanan, Rajamani; Neuberger, Herbert; Witzel, Oliver

    2007-01-01

    We propose using the extra dimension separating the domain walls carrying lattice quarks of opposite handedness to gradually filter out the ultraviolet fluctuations of the gauge fields that are felt by the fermionic excitations living in the bulk. This generalization of the homogeneous domain wall construction has some theoretical features that seem nontrivial.

  10. Thin Wall Iron Castings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.F. Cuttino; D.M. Stefanescu; T.S. Piwonka

    2001-10-31

    Results of an investigation made to develop methods of making iron castings having wall thicknesses as small as 2.5 mm in green sand molds are presented. It was found that thin wall ductile and compacted graphite iron castings can be made and have properties consistent with heavier castings. Green sand molding variables that affect casting dimensions were also identified.

  11. International Divider Walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruis, A.; Sneller, A.C.W.(L.)

    2013-01-01

    The subject of this teaching case is the Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system implementation at International Divider Walls, the world market leader in design, production, and sales of divider walls. The implementation in one of the divisions of this multinational company had been successful,

  12. Hard and soft walls

    CERN Document Server

    Milton, Kimball A

    2011-01-01

    In a continuing effort to understand divergences which occur when quantum fields are confined by bounding surfaces, we investigate local energy densities (and the local energy-momentum tensor) in the vicinity of a wall. In this paper, attention is largely confined to a scalar field. If the wall is an infinite Dirichlet plane, well known volume and surface divergences are found, which are regulated by a temporal point-splitting parameter. If the wall is represented by a linear potential in one coordinate $z$, the divergences are softened. The case of a general wall, described by a potential of the form $z^\\alpha$ for $z>0$ is considered. If $\\alpha>2$, there are no surface divergences, which in any case vanish if the conformal stress tensor is employed. Divergences within the wall are also considered.

  13. Single Wall Nanotube Type-Specific Functionalization and Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boul, Peter; Nikolaev, Pavel; Sosa, Edward; Arepalli, Sivaram; Yowell, Leonard

    2008-01-01

    Metallic single-wall carbon nanotubes were selectively solubilized in THF and separated from semiconducting nanotubes. Once separated, the functionalized metallic tubes were de-functionalized to restore their metallic band structure. Absorption and Raman spectroscopy of the enriched samples support conclusions of the enrichment of nanotube samples by metallic type. A scalable method for enriching nanotube conductive type has been developed. Raman and UV-Vis data indicate SWCNT reaction with dodecylbenzenediazonium results in metallic enrichment. It is expected that further refinement of this techniques will lead to more dramatic separations of types and diameters.

  14. The age of the young bulge-like population in the stellar system Terzan5: linking the Galactic bulge to the high-z Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Ferraro, F R; Dalessandro, E; Lanzoni, B; Origlia, L; Rich, R M; Mucciarelli, A; -,

    2016-01-01

    The Galactic bulge is dominated by an old, metal rich stellar population. The possible presence and the amount of a young (a few Gyr old) minor component is one of the major issues debated in the literature. Recently, the bulge stellar system Terzan 5 was found to harbor three sub-populations with iron content varying by more than one order of magnitude (from 0.2 up to 2 times the solar value), with chemical abundance patterns strikingly similar to those observed in bulge field stars. Here we report on the detection of two distinct main sequence turn-off points in Terzan 5, providing the age of the two main stellar populations: 12 Gyr for the (dominant) sub-solar component and 4.5 Gyr for the component at super-solar metallicity. This discovery classifies Terzan 5 as a site in the Galactic bulge where multiple bursts of star formation occurred, thus suggesting a quite massive progenitor possibly resembling the giant clumps observed in star forming galaxies at high redshifts. This connection opens a new route ...

  15. "I Climbed the Great Wall"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    I finally climbed the Great Wall, A dream of my childhood; my heart is filled with pleasure at the indescribable beauty of the Wall. China’s ancient civilization is best documented by the grandeur of the Wall.

  16. Mitigation of Blast Effects on Aluminum Foam Protected Masonry Walls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Yu; WU Chengqing; GRIFFITH Mike

    2008-01-01

    Terrorist attacks using improvised explosive devices (lED) can result in unreinforced masonry (URM) wall collapse.Protecting URM wall from lED attack is very complicated.An effective solution to mitigate blast effects on URM wall is to retrofit URM walls with metallic foam sheets to absorb blast energy.However,mitigation of blast effects on metallic foam protected URM walls is currently in their infancy in the world.In this palaer,numerical models are used to simulate the performance of aluminum foam protected URM walls subjected to blast loads.A distinctive model,in which mortar and brick units of masonry are discritized individually,is used to model the performance of masonry and the contact between the masonry and steel face-sheet of aluminum foam is modelled using the interface element model.The aluminum foam is modelled by a nonlinear elastoplastic material model.The material models for masonry,aluminum foam and interface are then coded into a finite element program LS-DYNA3D to perform the numerical calculations of response and damage of aluminum foam protected URM walls under airblast loads.Discussion is made on the effectiveness of the aluminum foam protected system for URM wall against blast loads.

  17. Advanced walling systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Villiers, A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The question addressed by this chapter is: How should advanced walling systems be planned, designed, built, refurbished, and end their useful lives, to classify as smart, sustainable, green or eco-building environments?...

  18. Composite and Nanocomposite Metal Foams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Duarte

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Open-cell and closed-cell metal foams have been reinforced with different kinds of micro- and nano-sized reinforcements to enhance their mechanical properties of the metallic matrix. The idea behind this is that the reinforcement will strengthen the matrix of the cell edges and cell walls and provide high strength and stiffness. This manuscript provides an updated overview of the different manufacturing processes of composite and nanocomposite metal foams.

  19. Conducting Wall Hall Thrusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, Dan M.; Hofer, Richard R.; Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira; Polk, James E.; Dotson, Brandon

    2013-01-01

    A unique configuration of the magnetic field near the wall of Hall thrusters, called Magnetic Shielding, has recently demonstrated the ability to significantly reduce the erosion of the boron nitride (BN) walls and extend the life of Hall thrusters by orders of magnitude. The ability of magnetic shielding to minimize interactions between the plasma and the discharge chamber walls has for the first time enabled the replacement of insulating walls with conducting materials without loss in thruster performance. The boron nitride rings in the 6 kW H6 Hall thruster were replaced with graphite that self-biased to near the anode potential. The thruster efficiency remained over 60% (within two percent of the baseline BN configuration) with a small decrease in thrust and increase in Isp typical of magnetically shielded Hall thrusters. The graphite wall temperatures decreased significantly compared to both shielded and unshielded BN configurations, leading to the potential for higher power operation. Eliminating ceramic walls makes it simpler and less expensive to fabricate a thruster to survive launch loads, and the graphite discharge chamber radiates more efficiently which increases the power capability of the thruster compared to conventional Hall thruster designs.

  20. A new method of preparing single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S R C Vivekchand; A Govindaraj

    2003-10-01

    A novel method of purification for single-walled carbon nanotubes, prepared by an arc-discharge method, is described. The method involves a combination of acid washing followed by high temperature hydrogen treatment to remove the metal nanoparticles and amorphous carbon present in the as-synthesized singlewalled carbon nanotubes. The purified single-walled carbon nanotubes have been characterised by low-angle X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, thermo-gravimetric analysis and Raman spectroscopy.

  1. Where are the Walls?

    CERN Document Server

    Olive, Keith A; Peterson, Adam J

    2012-01-01

    The reported spatial variation in the fine-structure constant at high redshift, if physical, could be due to the presence of dilatonic domains, and one or more domain walls inside our horizon. An absorption spectrum of an object in a different domain from our own would be characterized by a different value of alpha. We show that while a single wall solution is statically comparable to a dipole fit, and is a big improvement over a weighted mean (despite adding 3 parameters), a two-wall solution is a far better fit (despite adding 3 parameters over the single wall solution). We derive a simple model accounting for the two-domain wall solution. The goodness of these fits is however dependent on the extra random error which was argued to account for the large scatter in most of the data. When this error is omitted, all the above solutions are poor fits to the data. When included, the solutions that exhibit a spatial dependence agree with the data much more significantly than the Standard Model; however, the Stand...

  2. Mouse bladder wall injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chi-Ling; Apelo, Charity A; Torres, Baldemar; Thai, Kim H; Hsieh, Michael H

    2011-07-12

    Mouse bladder wall injection is a useful technique to orthotopically study bladder phenomena, including stem cell, smooth muscle, and cancer biology. Before starting injections, the surgical area must be cleaned with soap and water and antiseptic solution. Surgical equipment must be sterilized before use and between each animal. Each mouse is placed under inhaled isoflurane anesthesia (2-5% for induction, 1-3% for maintenance) and its bladder exposed by making a midline abdominal incision with scissors. If the bladder is full, it is partially decompressed by gentle squeezing between two fingers. The cell suspension of interest is intramurally injected into the wall of the bladder dome using a 29 or 30 gauge needle and 1 cc or smaller syringe. The wound is then closed using wound clips and the mouse allowed to recover on a warming pad. Bladder wall injection is a delicate microsurgical technique that can be mastered with practice.

  3. Axion domain wall baryogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daido, Ryuji; Kitajima, Naoya [Department of Physics, Tohoku University,Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Takahashi, Fuminobu [Department of Physics, Tohoku University,Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Kavli IPMU, TODIAS, University of Tokyo,Kashiwa 277-8583 (Japan)

    2015-07-28

    We propose a new scenario of baryogenesis, in which annihilation of axion domain walls generates a sizable baryon asymmetry. Successful baryogenesis is possible for a wide range of the axion mass and decay constant, m≃10{sup 8}–10{sup 13} GeV and f≃10{sup 13}–10{sup 16} GeV. Baryonic isocurvature perturbations are significantly suppressed in our model, in contrast to various spontaneous baryogenesis scenarios in the slow-roll regime. In particular, the axion domain wall baryogenesis is consistent with high-scale inflation which generates a large tensor-to-scalar ratio within the reach of future CMB B-mode experiments. We also discuss the gravitational waves produced by the domain wall annihilation and its implications for the future gravitational wave experiments.

  4. Two simple methods for calculating the penetration time of a longitudinal magnetic field through the wall of a metallic tube; Dos metodos simples para calcular el tiempo de penetracion de un campo magnetico longitudinal a traves de la pared de un tubo metalico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez D, H.; Colunga S, S.; Lopez C, R.; Melendez L, L.; Ramos S, J.; Cabral P, A.; Gonzalez T, L.; Chavez A, E.; Valencia A, R

    1991-06-15

    Two simple and fast methods to calculate the penetration time of a longitudinal magnetic field through the wall of a long metallic tube of circular cross section are presented. The first method is based upon the proposition of an 'effective penetration thickness' given by the polar angle average of all possible straight-line transverse penetration paths of field lines through the tube wall. This method provides a quick calculation that yields a remarkably good approximation to experimental and reported values of the penetration time. In the second method the tube is considered as a RL circuit. Thus the penetration time is given by the ratio L{sub T} /R{sub T} where L{sub T} is the inductance of the tube considered as a one turn coil, and R{sub T} is the tube resistance. This method is faster to apply than the previous one but the values obtained provide only a rough approximation to the penetration time. Applications of the two methods are given for the tokamak chambers of the Japanese 'HYBTOK', the Brazilian 'TBR' and the Mexican 'Novillo'. The resulting values of the penetration time approximate very well to the reported ones in the first two cases and to the experimental one in the last. The methods are also applied to calculate the penetration time in two long tubes, one of aluminum and other of copper. Calculated values approximate very well to measured values. (Author)

  5. Congenital Abdominal Wall Defects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risby, Kirsten; Jakobsen, Marianne Skytte; Qvist, Niels

    2016-01-01

    complications were seen in five (15%) children: four had detachment of the mesh and one patient developed abdominal compartment syndrome. Mesh related clinical infection was observed in five children. In hospital mortality occurred in four cases (2 gastroschisis and 2 omphalocele) and was not procedure......OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical utility of GORE® DUALMESH (GDM) in the staged closure of large congenital abdominal wall defects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data of patients with congenital abdominal wall defects managed with GDM was analyzed for outcome regarding complete fascial closure; mesh...

  6. Timber frame walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Brandt, Erik

    2010-01-01

    A ventilated cavity is usually considered good practice for removing moisture behind the cladding of timber framed walls. Timber frame walls with no cavity are a logical alternative as they are slimmer and less expensive to produce and besides the risk of a two-sided fire behind the cladding....... It was found that the specific damages made to the vapour barrier as part of the test did not have any provable effect on the moisture content. In general elements with an intact vapour barrier did not show a critical moisture content at the wind barrier after four years of exposure....

  7. Method Research of High Z Materials Detection Based on High Energy X-ray Scattering%基于高能X射线散射的高原子序数物质探测方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄伟奇; 杨祎罡; 李元景; 王百荣

    2012-01-01

    针对核材料的探测问题,利用其高原子序数(Z)的特性,提出了基于散射能谱解析识别物质原子序数的方法.该方法通过对X射线与物质相互作用所产生的散射光子的测量和分析来进行物质识别,这些光子包括正电子湮没光子、轫致辐射光子和康普顿散射光子,携带了物质原子序数的信息.蒙特卡罗模拟计算结果表明,该方法能够分析核素的原子序数,尤其对核材料等高Z物质的分析更为有效.采用LaBr3(Ce)探测器测量了基于7 MeV电子直线加速器的多个样品的散射能谱,结果表明,该方法能有效区分高原子序数物质.%In order to detect nuclear materials the study of the atomic number (Z) identification method based on scattering spectrum analysis and high Z characteristic of special nuclear materials was presened. The method can identify materials by detecting and analyzing positron annihilation photons, bremsstrahlung photons and Compton scattered photons produced by the interaction between X-ray and matter. The results of Monte Carlo simulation show that the method can discriminate Z effectively, especially for high Z materials. An experimental facility based on 7 MeV linac was set up for feasibility study and scattering spectra were observed with a LaBr3(Ce) detector. Preliminary results verify that high Z materials can be discriminated successfully.

  8. Domain wall dynamics of magnetically bistable microwires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ipatov M.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We studied domain wall propagation of magnetically-bistable Fe- Co-rich microwires paying attention on effect of applied and internal stresses. We measured hysteresis loops and domain wall propagation in various magnetic Fe- Co-rich amorphous microwires with metallic nucleus diameters (from 12 □m till 22 □m using Sixtus Tonks-like experiments. Application of tensile stresses results in decreasing of domain wall velocity. We discussed magnetoelastic contribution in dynamics of domain wall propagation. We observed, that microwires with different geometries exhibit v(H dependences with different slopes. Application of stresses resulted in decrease of DW velocity, v, and DW mobility S. Quite fast DW propagation (v till 2500 m/s at H about 30 A/m has been observed in low magnetostrictive magnetically bistable Co56Fe8Ni10Si110B16 microwires. Consequently, we can assume that generally magnetoelastic energy affects DW dynamics: decreasing magnetoelastic energy, Kme, DW velocity increases.

  9. Boundary Conditions at the Walls with Thermionic Electron Emission in Two Temperature Modeling of "Thermal" Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Pekker, Leonid

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we propose new boundary conditions at the hot walls with thermionic electron emission for two-temperature thermal arc models. In the derived boundary conditions the walls are assumed to be made from refractory metals and that the erosion of the wall is small and, therefore, is not taken into account in the model. In these boundary conditions the plasma sheath formed at the electrode is considered as the interface between the plasma and the wall. The derived boundary conditions allow the calculation of the heat flux to the walls from the plasma and consequently the thermionic electron current that makes the two temperature thermal model self consistent.

  10. Intense Magnetized Plasma-Wall Interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Bruno S. [UNR; Fuelling, Stephan [UNR

    2013-11-30

    This research project studied wall-plasma interactions relevant to fusion science. Such interactions are a critical aspect of Magneto-Inertial Fusion (MIF) because flux compression by a pusher material, in particular the metal for the liner approach to MIF, involves strong eddy current heating on the surface of the pusher, and probably interactions and mixing of the pusher with the interior fuel during the time when fusion fuel is being burned. When the pusher material is a metal liner, high-energy-density conditions result in fascinating behavior. For example, "warm dense matter" is produced, for which material properties such as resistivity and opacity are not well known. In this project, the transformation into plasma of metal walls subjected to pulsed megagauss magnetic fields was studied with an experiment driven by the UNR 1 MA Zebra generator. The experiment was numerically simulated with using the MHRDR code. This simple, fundamental high-energy-density physics experiment, in a regime appropriate to MIF, has stimulated an important and fascinating comparison of numerical modeling codes and tables with experiment. In addition, we participated in developing the FRCHX experiment to compress a field-reversed-configuration (FRC) plasma with a liner, in collaboration with researchers from Air Force Research Laboratory and Los Alamos National Lab, and we helped develop diagnostics for the Plasma Liner Experiment (PLX) at LANL. Last, but not least, this project served to train students in high-energy-density physics.

  11. Moisture Research - Optimizing Wall Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, Lois [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Mantha, Pallavi [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2013-05-01

    In this project, the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) team evaluated several different configurations of wall assemblies to determine the accuracy of moisture modeling and make recommendations to ensure durable, efficient assemblies. WUFI and THERM were used to model the hygrothermal and heat transfer characteristics of these walls. Wall assemblies evaluated included code minimum walls using spray foam insulation and fiberglass batts, high R-value walls at least 12 in. thick (R-40 and R-60 assemblies), and brick walls with interior insulation.

  12. Metal Matrix Composite Solar Cell Metallization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilt David M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Advanced solar cells are moving to ever thinner formats in order to save mass and in some cases improve performance. As cells are thinned, the possibility that they may fracture or cleave due to mechanical stresses is increased. Fractures of the cell can degrade the overall device performance if the fracture propagates through the contact metallization, which frequently occurs. To address this problem, a novel semiconductor metallization system based on multi-walled carbon nanotube (CNT reinforcement, termed metal matrix composite (MMC metallization is under investigation. Electro-mechanical characterization of MMC films demonstrate their ability to provide electrical conductivity over >40 micron wide cracks in the underlying semiconductor, with the carbon nanotubes bridging the gap. In addition, these materials show a “self-healing” behaviour, electrically reconnecting at ~30 microns when strained past failure. Triple junction (TJ space cells with MMC metallization demonstrated no loss in Jsc after intentional fracture, whereas TJ cells with conventional metallization suffer up to 50% Jsc loss.

  13. Nuclear recoil corrections to the 2p$_{3/2}$ state energy of hydrogen-like and high Z lithium-like atoms in all orders in $\\alpha$Z

    CERN Document Server

    Artemiev, A N; Yerokhin, V A

    1995-01-01

    The relativistic nuclear recoil corrections to the energy of the 2p_{\\frac{3}{2}} state of hydrogen-like and the (1s)^{2}2p_{\\frac{3}{2 }} state of high Z lithium-like atoms in all orders in \\alpha Z are calculated. The calculations are carried out using the B-spline method for the Dirac equation. For low Z the results of the calculation are in good agreement with the \\alpha Z -expansion results. It is found that the total nuclear recoil contribution to the energy of the (1s)^{2}2p_{\\frac{3}{2}}- (1s)^{2}2s transition in lithium-like uranium constitutes -0.09\\,eV.

  14. Final Report on DTRA Basic Research Project #BRCALL08-Per3-C-2-0006 "High-Z Non-Equilibrium Physics and Bright X-ray Sources with New Laser Targets"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colvin, Jeffrey D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-06-01

    This project had two major goals. Final Goal: obtain spectrally resolved, absolutely calibrated x-ray emission data from uniquely uniform mm-scale near-critical-density high-Z plasmas not in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) to benchmark modern detailed atomic physics models. Scientific significance: advance understanding of non-LTE atomic physics. Intermediate Goal: develop new nano-fabrication techniques to make suitable laser targets that form the required highly uniform non-LTE plasmas when illuminated by high-intensity laser light. Scientific significance: advance understanding of nano-science. The new knowledge will allow us to make x-ray sources that are bright at the photon energies of most interest for testing radiation hardening technologies, the spectral energy range where current x-ray sources are weak. All project goals were met.

  15. Efficient and controlled domain wall nucleation for magnetic shift registers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alejos, Oscar; Raposo, Víctor; Sanchez-Tejerina, Luis; Martinez, Eduardo

    2017-09-19

    Ultrathin ferromagnetic strips with high perpendicular anisotropy have been proposed for the development of memory devices where the information is coded in tiny domains separated by domain walls. The design of practical devices requires creating, manipulating and detecting domain walls in ferromagnetic strips. Recent observations have shown highly efficient current-driven domain wall dynamics in multilayers lacking structural symmetry, where the walls adopt a chiral structure and can be driven at high velocities. However, putting such a device into practice requires the continuous and synchronous injection of domain walls as the first step. Here, we propose and demonstrate an efficient and simple scheme for nucleating domain walls using the symmetry of the spin orbit torques. Trains of short sub-nanosecond current pulses are injected in a double bit line to generate a localized longitudinal Oersted field in the ferromagnetic strip. Simultaneously, other current pulses are injected through the heavy metal under the ferromagnetic strip. Notably, the Slonczewski-like spin orbit torque assisted by the Oersted field allows the controlled injection of a series of domain walls, giving rise to a controlled manner for writing binary information and, consequently, to the design of a simple and efficient domain wall shift register.

  16. Formation of charged ferroelectric domain walls with controlled periodicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednyakov, Petr S; Sluka, Tomas; Tagantsev, Alexander K; Damjanovic, Dragan; Setter, Nava

    2015-10-30

    Charged domain walls in proper ferroelectrics were shown recently to possess metallic-like conductivity. Unlike conventional heterointerfaces, these walls can be displaced inside a dielectric by an electric field, which is of interest for future electronic circuitry. In addition, theory predicts that charged domain walls may influence the electromechanical response of ferroelectrics, with strong enhancement upon increased charged domain wall density. The existence of charged domain walls in proper ferroelectrics is disfavoured by their high formation energy and methods of their preparation in predefined patterns are unknown. Here we develop the theoretical background for the formation of charged domain walls in proper ferroelectrics using energy considerations and outline favourable conditions for their engineering. We experimentally demonstrate, in BaTiO3 single crystals the controlled build-up of high density charged domain wall patterns, down to a spacing of 7 μm with a predominant mixed electronic and ionic screening scenario, hinting to a possible exploitation of charged domain walls in agile electronics and sensing devices.

  17. High-R Walls for Remodeling: Wall Cavity Moisture Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiehagen, J.; Kochkin, V.

    2012-12-01

    The focus of the study is on the performance of wall systems, and in particular, the moisture characteristics inside the wall cavity and in the wood sheathing. Furthermore, while this research will initially address new home construction, the goal is to address potential moisture issues in wall cavities of existing homes when insulation and air sealing improvements are made.

  18. High-R Walls for Remodeling. Wall Cavity Moisture Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiehagen, J. [NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Kochkin, V. [NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2012-12-01

    The focus of the study is on the performance of wall systems, and in particular, the moisture characteristics inside the wall cavity and in the wood sheathing. Furthermore, while this research will initially address new home construction, the goal is to address potential moisture issues in wall cavities of existing homes when insulation and air sealing improvements are made.

  19. Formation and yield of multi-walled carbon nanotubes synthesized via chemical vapour deposition routes using different metal-based catalysts of FeCoNiAl, CoNiAl and FeNiAl-LDH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Jaafar, Adila Mohamad; Yahaya, Asmah Hj; Masarudin, Mas Jaffri; Zainal, Zulkarnain

    2014-11-05

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were prepared via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using a series of different catalysts, derived from FeCoNiAl, CoNiAl and FeNiAl layered double hydroxides (LDHs). Catalyst-active particles were obtained by calcination of LDHs at 800 °C for 5 h. Nitrogen and hexane were used as the carrier gas and carbon source respectively, for preparation of MWCNTs using CVD methods at 800 °C. MWCNTs were allowed to grow for 30 min on the catalyst spread on an alumina boat in a quartz tube. The materials were subsequently characterized through X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, surface area analysis, field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. It was determined that size and yield of MWCNTs varied depending on the type of LDH catalyst precursor that is used during synthesis. MWCNTs obtained using CoNiAl-LDH as the catalyst precursor showed smaller diameter and higher yield compared to FeCoNiAl and FeNiAl LDHs.

  20. Formation and Yield of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Synthesized via Chemical Vapour Deposition Routes Using Different Metal-Based Catalysts of FeCoNiAl, CoNiAl and FeNiAl-LDH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Zobir Hussein

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs were prepared via chemical vapor deposition (CVD using a series of different catalysts, derived from FeCoNiAl, CoNiAl and FeNiAl layered double hydroxides (LDHs. Catalyst-active particles were obtained by calcination of LDHs at 800 °C for 5 h. Nitrogen and hexane were used as the carrier gas and carbon source respectively, for preparation of MWCNTs using CVD methods at 800 °C. MWCNTs were allowed to grow for 30 min on the catalyst spread on an alumina boat in a quartz tube. The materials were subsequently characterized through X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, surface area analysis, field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. It was determined that size and yield of MWCNTs varied depending on the type of LDH catalyst precursor that is used during synthesis. MWCNTs obtained using CoNiAl-LDH as the catalyst precursor showed smaller diameter and higher yield compared to FeCoNiAl and FeNiAl LDHs.

  1. ICM METALLICITY EVOLUTION: EFFECTS OF DYNAMICAL PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Cora

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a study on the origin of the metallicity evolution of the intracluster medium (ICM by applying a semi-analytic model of galaxy formation to N-Body/SPH non-radiative cosmological simulations of clusters of galaxies. The results obtained for a set of clusters with virial masses of - 1:5 - 1015 h-1M contribute to the theoretical interpretation of recent observational X-ray data, which indicate a decrease of the average iron content of the intracluster gas with increasing redshift, z. We nd that this evolution is mainly due to a progressive increase of the iron content within 15 per cent of the virial radius as a result of dynamical processes. The clusters have been considerably enriched by z - 1 with very low contribution from recent star formation. Low entropy gas that has been enriched at high z sink to the cluster centre contributing to the evolution of the metallicity pro les.

  2. Occupy Wall Street

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Michael J.; Bang, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes the political form of Occupy Wall Street on Twitter. Drawing on evidence contained within the profiles of over 50,000 Twitter users, political identities of participants are characterized using natural language processing. The results find evidence of a traditional oppositio......This article analyzes the political form of Occupy Wall Street on Twitter. Drawing on evidence contained within the profiles of over 50,000 Twitter users, political identities of participants are characterized using natural language processing. The results find evidence of a traditional...... oppositional social movement alongside a legitimizing countermovement, but also a new notion of political community as an ensemble of discursive practices that are endogenous to the constitution of political regimes from the “inside out.” These new political identities are bound by thin ties of political...

  3. Timber frame walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Brandt, Erik

    2010-01-01

    A ventilated cavity is usually considered good practice for removing moisture behind the cladding of timber framed walls. Timber frame walls with no cavity are a logical alternative as they are slimmer and less expensive to produce and besides the risk of a two-sided fire behind the cladding...... were removed in some of the elements to simulate damaged vapour barriers. The condition of the wind barriers of elements with intact vapour barriers was inspected from the inside after four years of exposure. This paper presents results with emphasis on the moisture conditions behind the wind barrier....... It was found that the specific damages made to the vapour barrier as part of the test did not have any provable effect on the moisture content. In general elements with an intact vapour barrier did not show a critical moisture content at the wind barrier after four years of exposure....

  4. Space, composition, vertical wall ...

    OpenAIRE

    Despot, Katerina; Sandeva, Vaska

    2016-01-01

    The space in which it is an integral segment of our life is nourished with many functional and decorative elements. One aspect for consideration of vertical walls or The vertical gardens and their aesthetic impact in space called function. Vertical gardens bordering the decoration to totally functional garden in areas where there is little oxygen and space, ideal for residential buildings and public spaces where missing greenery, special place occupies in interior design where their expres...

  5. Scalable Resolution Display Walls

    KAUST Repository

    Leigh, Jason

    2013-01-01

    This article will describe the progress since 2000 on research and development in 2-D and 3-D scalable resolution display walls that are built from tiling individual lower resolution flat panel displays. The article will describe approaches and trends in display hardware construction, middleware architecture, and user-interaction design. The article will also highlight examples of use cases and the benefits the technology has brought to their respective disciplines. © 1963-2012 IEEE.

  6. Localization in single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuhrer, M.S.; Cohen, M.L.; Zettl, A.; Crespi, V.H.

    1998-08-15

    We demonstrate that in low temperature semiconductor-like regions the electrical resistance of single-walled carbon nanotube mats is highly nonlinear with a temperature-dependent threshold field for the onset of nonohmic conduction. The modest applied electric field completely suppresses the upturn in resistance and recovers metallic behavior over the entire temperature range 2.2K < T < 300K. The transport data indicate low-temperature localization of charge carriers arise from disorder on the nanotube bundles themselves and not from granularity caused by weak interbundle connections. The temperature-independent localization radius a is determined to be approximately 330 nm.

  7. Spin pumping by a field-driven domain wall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duine, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    We present the theory of spin pumping by a field-driven domain wall for the situation that spin is not fully conserved. We calculate the pumped current in a metallic ferromagnet to first order in the time derivative of the magnetization direction. Irrespective of the microscopic details, the result

  8. Applications of Single-Walled Carbon Nanohorns and Their Toxicities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin; Miyawaki; Masako; Yudasaka; Sumio; Iijima

    2007-01-01

    1 Results Single-walled carbon nanohorn (SWNH) aggregate ,composed of thousands of graphitic tubules (2 -5nmin diameter and 40 -50 nminlength) with a conical"horn-like"cap,has spherical structure with a diam-eter of about 100 nm(Fig.1)[1].The SWNHs contain no metal catalyst ,because they are produced bylaserablation of pure graphite targets .

  9. Wall Street som kreationistisk forkynder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekman, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Artiklen gennemgår Karen Hos etnografi om Wall Street: "Liquidated: An ethnography of Wall Street" set i lyset af den offentlige debat vedrørende Goldman Sachs opkøb af Dong......Artiklen gennemgår Karen Hos etnografi om Wall Street: "Liquidated: An ethnography of Wall Street" set i lyset af den offentlige debat vedrørende Goldman Sachs opkøb af Dong...

  10. Light shining through walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redondo, Javier [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Ringwald, Andreas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    Shining light through walls? At first glance this sounds crazy. However, very feeble gravitational and electroweak effects allow for this exotic possibility. Unfortunately, with present and near future technologies the opportunity to observe light shining through walls via these effects is completely out of question. Nevertheless there are quite a number of experimental collaborations around the globe involved in this quest. Why are they doing it? Are there additional ways of sending photons through opaque matter? Indeed, various extensions of the standard model of particle physics predict the existence of new particles called WISPs - extremely weakly interacting slim particles. Photons can convert into these hypothetical particles, which have no problems to penetrate very dense materials, and these can reconvert into photons after their passage - as if light was effectively traversing walls. We review this exciting field of research, describing the most important WISPs, the present and future experiments, the indirect hints from astrophysics and cosmology pointing to the existence of WISPs, and finally outlining the consequences that the discovery of WISPs would have. (orig.)

  11. Analytical 1D models of the wall thermal resistance of rectangular minichannels applied in heat exchangers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rybiński Witold

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents four 1-dimensional models of thermal resistance of walls in a heat exchanger with rectangular minichannels. The first model is the simplest one, with a single wall separating two fluids. The second model of the so called equivalent wall takes into account total volume of intermediate walls between layers of minichannels and of side walls of minichannels. The next two more complicated models take separately into account thermal resistance of these walls. In these two models side walls are treated as fins. The results of models comparison are presented. It is shown that thermal resistance may be neglected for metal walls but it should be taken into account for the walls made of plastics. For the case of non-neglected wall thermal resistance the optimum wall thickness was derived. Minichannel heat exchangers made of plastic are larger than those built of metal, but are significantly cheaper. It makes possible to use of such exchangers in inexpensive microscale ORC installations.

  12. Molded Concrete Center Mine Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, E. V.

    1987-01-01

    Proposed semiautomatic system forms concrete-foam wall along middle of coal-mine passage. Wall helps support roof and divides passage into two conduits needed for ventilation of coal face. Mobile mold and concrete-foam generator form sections of wall in place.

  13. Metallated metal-organic frameworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bury, Wojciech; Farha, Omar K.; Hupp, Joseph T.; Mondloch, Joseph E.

    2017-08-22

    Porous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and metallated porous MOFs are provided. Also provided are methods of metallating porous MOFs using atomic layer deposition and methods of using the metallated MOFs as catalysts and in remediation applications.

  14. Metallated metal-organic frameworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bury, Wojciech; Farha, Omar K.; Hupp, Joseph T.; Mondloch, Joseph E.

    2017-02-07

    Porous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and metallated porous MOFs are provided. Also provided are methods of metallating porous MOFs using atomic layer deposition and methods of using the metallated MOFs as catalysts and in remediation applications.

  15. Cell Wall Biology: Perspectives from Cell Wall Imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kieran J.D.Lee; Susan E.Marcus; J.Paul Knox

    2011-01-01

    Polysaccharide-rich plant cell walls are important biomaterials that underpin plant growth,are major repositories for photosynthetically accumulated carbon,and,in addition,impact greatly on the human use of plants. Land plant cell walls contain in the region of a dozen major polysaccharide structures that are mostly encompassed by cellulose,hemicelluloses,and pectic polysaccharides. During the evolution of land plants,polysaccharide diversification appears to have largely involved structural elaboration and diversification within these polysaccharide groups. Cell wall chemistry is well advanced and a current phase of cell wall science is aimed at placing the complex polysaccharide chemistry in cellular contexts and developing a detailed understanding of cell wall biology. Imaging cell wall glycomes is a challenging area but recent developments in the establishment of cell wall molecular probe panels and their use in high throughput procedures are leading to rapid advances in the molecular understanding of the spatial heterogeneity of individual cell walls and also cell wall differences at taxonomic levels. The challenge now is to integrate this knowledge of cell wall heterogeneity with an understanding of the molecular and physiological mechanisms that underpin cell wall properties and functions.

  16. Canal Wall Reconstruction Mastoidectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective To investigate the advantages of canal wall reconstruction (CWR) mastoidectomy, a single-stage technique for cholesteatoma removal and posterior external canal wall reconstruction, over the open and closed procedures in terms of cholesteatoma recurrence. Methods: Between June 2002 and December 2005, 38 patients (40 ears) with cholesteatoma were admited to Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital and received surgical treatments. Of these patients, 25 were male with ages ranging between 11 and 60 years (mean = 31.6 years) and 13 were female with ages ranging between 20 and 65 years (mean = 38.8 years). Canal wall reconstruction (CWR)mastoidectomy was performed in 31 ears and canal wall down (CWD) mastoidectomy in 9 ears. Concha cartilage was used for ear canal wall reconstruction in 22 of the 31 CWR procedures and cortical mastoid bone was used in the remaining 9 cases. Results At 0.5 to 4 years follow up, all but one patients remained free of signs of cholesteatoma recurrence, i.e., no retraction pocket or cholesteatoma matrix. One patient, a smoker, needed revision surgery due to cholesteatoma recurrence 1.5 year after the initial operation. The recurrence rate was therefore 3.2% (1/31). Cholesteatoma recurrence was monitored using postoperative CT scans whenever possible. In the case that needed a revision procedure, a retraction pocket was identified by otoendoscopy in the pars flacida area that eventually evolved into a cholesteatoma. A pocket extending to the epitympanum filled with cholesteatoma matrix was confirmed during the revision operation, A decision to perform a modified mastoidectomy was made as the patient refused to quit smoking. The mean air-bone gap in pure tone threshold was 45 dB before surgery and 25 dB after (p < 0.05). There was no difference between using concha cartilage and cortical mastoid bone for the reconstruction regarding air-bone gap improvement, CT findings and otoendoscopic results. Conclusion CWR mastoidectomy can be used for

  17. Monte-Carlo simulations of strongly interacting dipolar fluids between two conducting walls

    OpenAIRE

    Klapp, Sabine H. L.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract We report Monte-Carlo simulation results for a strongly interacting dipolar soft-sphere (DSS) fluid confined between two conducting, planar walls. The long-range dipolar interactions, including contributions from the ``image dipoles'' in the metal, are handled by mapping onto a problem with three-dimensional periodicity which can be treated by conventional Ewald summation methods. Considering two different wall separationsour results indicate the occurence of wall...

  18. The influence of wall permeability on laminar and turbulent flows: Theory and simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breugem, W.P.

    2005-01-01

    The study of flows over permeable walls is relevant to many applications. Examples are flows over and through porous river beds, vegetation, snow, heat exchangers of foam metal, and oil wells. The main objectives of this thesis are to gain insight in the influence of wall permeability on both lamina

  19. Wall reflection modeling for charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CXRS) measurements on Textor and ITER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banerjee, S.; Vasu, P.; von Hellermann, M.; Jaspers, R. J. E.

    2010-01-01

    Contamination of optical signals by reflections from the tokamak vessel wall is a matter of great concern. For machines such as ITER and future reactors, where the vessel wall will be predominantly metallic, this is potentially a risk factor for quantitative optical emission spectroscopy. This is, i

  20. Wall reflection modeling for charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CXRS) measurements on Textor and ITER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banerjee, S.; Vasu, P.; von Hellermann, M.; Jaspers, R. J. E.

    2010-01-01

    Contamination of optical signals by reflections from the tokamak vessel wall is a matter of great concern. For machines such as ITER and future reactors, where the vessel wall will be predominantly metallic, this is potentially a risk factor for quantitative optical emission spectroscopy. This is, i

  1. Left ventricular wall stress compendium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, L; Ghista, D N; Tan, R S

    2012-01-01

    Left ventricular (LV) wall stress has intrigued scientists and cardiologists since the time of Lame and Laplace in 1800s. The left ventricle is an intriguing organ structure, whose intrinsic design enables it to fill and contract. The development of wall stress is intriguing to cardiologists and biomedical engineers. The role of left ventricle wall stress in cardiac perfusion and pumping as well as in cardiac pathophysiology is a relatively unexplored phenomenon. But even for us to assess this role, we first need accurate determination of in vivo wall stress. However, at this point, 150 years after Lame estimated left ventricle wall stress using the elasticity theory, we are still in the exploratory stage of (i) developing left ventricle models that properly represent left ventricle anatomy and physiology and (ii) obtaining data on left ventricle dynamics. In this paper, we are responding to the need for a comprehensive survey of left ventricle wall stress models, their mechanics, stress computation and results. We have provided herein a compendium of major type of wall stress models: thin-wall models based on the Laplace law, thick-wall shell models, elasticity theory model, thick-wall large deformation models and finite element models. We have compared the mean stress values of these models as well as the variation of stress across the wall. All of the thin-wall and thick-wall shell models are based on idealised ellipsoidal and spherical geometries. However, the elasticity model's shape can vary through the cycle, to simulate the more ellipsoidal shape of the left ventricle in the systolic phase. The finite element models have more representative geometries, but are generally based on animal data, which limits their medical relevance. This paper can enable readers to obtain a comprehensive perspective of left ventricle wall stress models, of how to employ them to determine wall stresses, and be cognizant of the assumptions involved in the use of specific models.

  2. Reconstrução da parede torácica com suporte metálico externo: técnica alternativa na mediastinite pós-esternotomia Reconstruction of the chest wall with external metal brace: alternative technique in poststernotomy mediastinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius José da Silva Nina

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Demonstrar a experiência com a reconstrução da parede torácica utilizando suporte metálico como redutor da tensão nas linhas de sutura do retalho miocutâneo em casos de mediastinite. MÉTODOS: No período de julho de 2001 a fevereiro de 2006, foram realizadas 1389 cirurgias cardíacas em nossa instituição, das quais oito (0,6% evoluíram com mediastinite. Sete pacientes eram do sexo masculino, com idade média de 56,7 anos. Os fatores de risco para infecção foram diabetes e obesidade em sete e desnutrição em um caso. Sete pacientes haviam sido submetidos à cirurgia de revascularização do miocárdio e um, à correção de cardiopatia congênita. A reconstrução da parede torácica consistiu na colocação percutânea de fios de Kirschner paralelos às bordas da ferida para ancoramento das suturas do plano muscular, reduzindo a tensão nos bordos livres da ferida, de modo a permitir a sutura convencional do tecido subcutâneo e pele. RESULTADOS: Ocorreu um óbito no pós-operatório imediato por arritmia e um tardio por sepse. Os demais pacientes apresentaram evolução pós-operatória satisfatória, com boa cicatrização da ferida após a remoção das hastes metálicas, no 21º dia de pós-operatório e no seguimento de 6 a 54 meses. CONCLUSÃO: Neste grupo de pacientes, a reconstrução da parede torácica com a utilização temporária de hastes metálicas mostrou-se um procedimento seguro, eficaz e com bom resultado estético e funcional.OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the experience with the reconstruction of the chest wall utilizing metal brace to reduce the tension in the suture lines of myocutaneous flap in cases of mediastinitis. METHODS: From July 2001 to February 2006, 1389 heart surgeries were performed in our institution of which eight (0.6% developed mediastinitis. Seven were male and the mean age was 56.7 years. The risk factors for infection were diabetes and obesity in seven and malnutrition in one case

  3. Hydroxyl vacancies in single-walled aluminosilicate and aluminogermanate nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teobaldi, Gilberto; Hofer, Werner A [Surface Science Research Centre, Department of Chemistry, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3BX (United Kingdom); Beglitis, Nikolaos S; Fisher, Andrew J [London Centre for Nanotechnology, 17-19 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AK (United Kingdom); Zerbetto, Francesco [Dipartimento di Chimica ' G Ciamician' , Universita degli Studi di Bologna, via Selmi 2, 40126 Bologna (Italy)

    2009-05-13

    We report a theoretical study of hydroxyl vacancies in aluminosilicate and aluminogermanate single-walled metal-oxide nanotubes. Defects are introduced on both sides of the tube walls and lead to occupied and empty states in the band gap which are highly localized both in energy and in real space. Different magnetization states are found depending on both the chemical composition and the specific side with respect to the tube cavity. The defect-induced perturbations to the pristine electronic structure are related to the electrostatic polarization across the tube walls and the ensuing change in Lewis acid-base reactivity. A general approach towards a quantitative evaluation of both the polarization across the tube walls and the tube excluded volume is also proposed and discussed on an electrostatic basis.

  4. Nitrogen Abundances in High-z DLAs

    CERN Document Server

    Molaro, P; D'Odorico, V; Péroux, C

    2003-01-01

    Determination of chemical abundances for elements produced mainly by Type I SNae and intermediate mass stars in high redshift DLAs probes the early chemical build-up on time-scales comparable with their production. Nitrogen shows a peculiar behaviour never detected before in any other class of objects. For [N/H] < -3 there is a plateau with [N/Si]= -1.45(\\pm 0.05). We interpret this as empirical evidence for primary N production by massive stars in young systems where AGB stars have not yet had time to make their contribution. The plateau provides the observational integrated yields for N production by massive stars which are theoretically rather uncertain. High N/Si and solar [alpha/iron-peak] ratios are observed at high redshift and place at an earlier epoch the onset of star formation. On the other hand, low N/Si, i.e. young objects, are observed also at relatively low redshifts. These evidences suggest that DLAs started to be formed at a very early epoch but their formation has been extended up to late...

  5. High-Z Cosmography at a Glance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitagliano, Vincenzo; Xia, Jun-Qing; Liberati, Stefano; Viel, Matteo

    2015-01-01

    Cosmography is the tool that makes possible to untie the interpretation of cosmological observations from the definition of any dynamical prior. We review the constraints on the cosmographic parameter obtained using the most thorough data set ensemble available. We focus on some specific topics about the statistically based selection of the most stringent fitting expansion.

  6. High-z Galaxies Through Gravitational Lensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. de Diego

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La gravedad es el motor clave de la evolución del universo y de la formación de sus principales estructuras: las galaxias, cúmulos de galaxias y filamentos. La gravedad es también una herramienta muy valiosa para explorar el universo a alto corrimientos al rojo a través del efecto relativista de las lentes gravitatorias. Los potenciales gravitatorios de los cúmulos de galaxias convierten a estos objetos en poderosos telescopios cósmicos que magnifican la señal de galaxias con alto corrimiento al rojo. En este trabajo presentamos un proyecto para estudiar tales galaxias con el Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC y el instrumento OSIRIS. Describimos el fenómeno de lente gravitatorio, enfatizando el caso del régimen fuerte en cúmulos de galaxias. A continuación mostramos una aplicación de los códigos numéricos para estudiar el cúmulo MS2137.3-2353. Finalmente discutimos el uso del Gran Telescopio Milimétrico (GTM para hallar candidatos de galaxias lenteadas a muy alto corrimiento al rojo

  7. Cell wall-associated malate dehydrogenase activity from maize roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadži-Tašković Šukalović, Vesna; Vuletić, Mirjana; Marković, Ksenija; Vučinić, Zeljko

    2011-10-01

    Isolated cell walls from maize (Zea mays L.) roots exhibited ionically and covalently bound NAD-specific malate dehydrogenase activity. The enzyme catalyses a rapid reduction of oxaloacetate and much slower oxidation of malate. The kinetic and regulatory properties of the cell wall enzyme solubilized with 1M NaCl were different from those published for soluble, mitochondrial or plasma membrane malate dehydrogenase with respect to their ATP, Pi, and pH dependence. Isoelectric focusing of ionically-bound proteins and specific staining for malate dehydrogenase revealed characteristic isoforms present in cell wall isolate, different from those present in plasma membranes and crude homogenate. Much greater activity of cell wall-associated malate dehydrogenase was detected in the intensively growing lateral roots compared to primary root with decreased growth rates. Presence of Zn(2+) and Cu(2+) in the assay medium inhibited the activity of the wall-associated malate dehydrogenase. Exposure of maize plants to excess concentrations of Zn(2+) and Cu(2+) in the hydroponic solution inhibited lateral root growth, decreased malate dehydrogenase activity and changed isoform profiles. The results presented show that cell wall malate dehydrogenase is truly a wall-bound enzyme, and not an artefact of cytoplasmic contamination, involved in the developmental processes, and detoxification of heavy metals.

  8. Cell Wall Metabolism in Response to Abiotic Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyacinthe Le Gall

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on the responses of the plant cell wall to several abiotic stresses including drought, flooding, heat, cold, salt, heavy metals, light, and air pollutants. The effects of stress on cell wall metabolism are discussed at the physiological (morphogenic, transcriptomic, proteomic and biochemical levels. The analysis of a large set of data shows that the plant response is highly complex. The overall effects of most abiotic stress are often dependent on the plant species, the genotype, the age of the plant, the timing of the stress application, and the intensity of this stress. This shows the difficulty of identifying a common pattern of stress response in cell wall architecture that could enable adaptation and/or resistance to abiotic stress. However, in most cases, two main mechanisms can be highlighted: (i an increased level in xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase (XTH and expansin proteins, associated with an increase in the degree of rhamnogalacturonan I branching that maintains cell wall plasticity and (ii an increased cell wall thickening by reinforcement of the secondary wall with hemicellulose and lignin deposition. Taken together, these results show the need to undertake large-scale analyses, using multidisciplinary approaches, to unravel the consequences of stress on the cell wall. This will help identify the key components that could be targeted to improve biomass production under stress conditions.

  9. Strengthening of Shear Walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christian Skodborg

    -plane loaded walls and disks is however not included in any guidelines, and only a small fraction of scientists have initiated research within this topic. Furthermore, studies of the principal behavior and response of a strengthened disk has not yet been investigated satisfactorily, and this is the principal...... be altered to fit the surrounding boundary conditions. The effective cohesive law will then become a function of the investigated structural geometry. A simplified approach for the latter topic was used to predict the load capacity of concrete beams in shear. Results obtained were acceptable, but the model...

  10. Axions from wall decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, S; Hagmann, C; Sikivie, P

    2001-01-08

    The authors discuss the decay of axion walls bounded by strings and present numerical simulations of the decay process. In these simulations, the decay happens immediately, in a time scale of order the light travel time, and the average energy of the radiated axions is {approx_equal} 7m{sub a} for v{sub a}/m{sub a} {approx_equal} 500. is found to increase approximately linearly with ln(v{sub a}/m{sub a}). Extrapolation of this behavior yields {approx_equal} 60 m{sub a} in axion models of interest.

  11. Abdominal wall endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyaya, P; Karak, A K; Sinha, A K; Kumar, B; Karki, S; Agarwal, C S

    2010-01-01

    Endometriosis of abdominal wall scar following operation on uterus and tubes is extremely rare. The late onset of symptoms after surgery is the usual cause of misdiagnosis. Scar endometriosis is a rare disease which is difficult to diagnose and should always be considered as a differential diagnosis of painful abdominal masses in women. The diagnosis is made only after excision and histopathology of the lesion. Preoperative differentials include hernia, lipoma, suture granuloma or abscess. Hence an awareness of the entity avoids delay in diagnosis, helps clinicians to a more tailored treatment and also avoids unnecessary referrals. We report a case of abdominal endometriosis. The definitive diagnosis of which was established by histopathological studies.

  12. Dielectrophoretic assembly of semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotube transistor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Se-Hun KWON; Young-Keun JEONG; Soongeun KWON; Myung-Chang KANG; Hyung-Woo LEE

    2011-01-01

    A novel burning technique for making a semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) transistor assembled by the dielectrophoretic force was suggested. The fabrication process consisted of two steps. First, to align and attach a bundle of SWNTs between the source and drain, the alternating (AC) voltage was applied to the electrodes. When a bundle of SWNTs was connected between two electrodes, some of metallic nanotubes and semi-conducing nanotubes existed together. The second step is to burn the metallic SWNTS by applying the voltage between two electrodes. With increasing the voltage, more current flowed through the metallic SWNTs, thus, the metallic SWNTs burnt earlier than the semiconducting one. This technique enables to obtain only semi-conducting SWNTs connection in the transistor. Through the I-Vcharacteristic graph, the moment of metallic SWNTs burning and the characteristic of semi-conducing nanotubes were verified.

  13. Investigation of inelastic electron tunneling spectra of metal-molecule-metal junctions fabricated using direct metal transfer method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Hyunhak; Hwang, Wang-Taek; Kim, Pilkwang; Kim, Dongku; Jang, Yeonsik; Min, Misook; Park, Yun Daniel; Lee, Takhee, E-mail: tlee@snu.ac.kr [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Institute of Applied Physics, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Xiang, Dong [Institute of Modern Optics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Song, Hyunwook [Department of Applied Physics, Kyung Hee University, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 446–701 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Heejun, E-mail: hjeong@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Applied Physics, Hanyang University, Ansan 426-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-09

    We measured the inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS) characteristics of metal-molecule-metal junctions made with alkanethiolate self-assembled monolayers. The molecular junctions were fabricated using a direct metal transfer method, which we previously reported for high-yield metal-molecule-metal junctions. The measured IETS data could be assigned to molecular vibration modes that were determined by the chemical structure of the molecules. We also observed discrepancies and device-to-device variations in the IETS data that possibly originate from defects in the molecular junctions and insulating walls introduced during the fabrication process and from the junction structure.

  14. Voltage-controlled domain wall traps in ferromagnetic nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Uwe; Emori, Satoru; Beach, Geoffrey S. D.

    2013-06-01

    Electrical control of magnetism has the potential to bring about revolutionary new spintronic devices, many of which rely on efficient manipulation of magnetic domain walls in ferromagnetic nanowires. Recently, it has been shown that voltage-induced charge accumulation at a metal-oxide interface can influence domain wall motion in ultrathin metallic ferromagnets, but the effects have been relatively modest and limited to the slow, thermally activated regime. Here we show that a voltage can generate non-volatile switching of magnetic properties at the nanoscale by modulating interfacial chemistry rather than charge density. Using a solid-state ionic conductor as a gate dielectric, we generate unprecedentedly strong voltage-controlled domain wall traps that function as non-volatile, electrically programmable and switchable pinning sites. Pinning strengths of at least 650 Oe can be readily achieved, enough to bring to a standstill domain walls travelling at speeds of at least ~20 m s-1. We exploit this new magneto-ionic effect to demonstrate a prototype non-volatile memory device in which voltage-controlled domain wall traps facilitate electrical bit selection in a magnetic nanowire register.

  15. Abdominal wall blocks in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børglum, Jens; Gögenür, Ismail; Bendtsen, Thomas F

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review Abdominal wall blocks in adults have evolved much during the last decade; that is, particularly with the introduction of ultrasound-guided (USG) blocks. This review highlights recent advances of block techniques within this field and proposes directions for future research.......  Recent findings Ultrasound guidance is now considered the golden standard for abdominal wall blocks in adults, even though some landmark-based blocks are still being investigated. The efficiency of USG transversus abdominis plane blocks in relation to many surgical procedures involving the abdominal wall...... been introduced with success. Future research should also investigate the effect of specific abdominal wall blocks on neuroendocrine and inflammatory stress response after surgery.  Summary USG abdominal wall blocks in adults are commonplace techniques today. Most abdominal wall blocks are assigned...

  16. Structure of axionic domain walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, M. C.; Sikivie, P.

    1985-09-01

    The structure of axionic domain walls is investigated using the low-energy effective theory of axions and pions. We derive the spatial dependence of the phases of the Peccei-Quinn scalar field and the QCD quark-antiquark condensates inside an axionic domain wall. Thence an accurate estimate of the wall surface energy density is obtained. The equations of motion for axions, photons, leptons, and baryons in the neighborhood of axionic domain walls are written down and estimates are given for the wall reflection and transmission coefficients of these particles. Finally, we discuss the energy dissipation by axionic domain walls oscillating in the early universe due to the reflection of particles in the primordial soup.

  17. Structure of axionic domain walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, M.C.; Sikivie, P.

    1985-09-15

    The structure of axionic domain walls is investigated using the low-energy effective theory of axions and pions. We derive the spatial dependence of the phases of the Peccei-Quinn scalar field and the QCD quark-antiquark condensates inside an axionic domain wall. Thence an accurate estimate of the wall surface energy density is obtained. The equations of motion for axions, photons, leptons, and baryons in the neighborhood of axionic domain walls are written down and estimates are given for the wall reflection and transmission coefficients of these particles. Finally, we discuss the energy dissipation by axionic domain walls oscillating in the early universe due to the reflection of particles in the primordial soup.

  18. Electrical resisitivity of mechancially stablized earth wall backfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snapp, Michael; Tucker-Kulesza, Stacey; Koehn, Weston

    2017-06-01

    Mechanically stabilized earth (MSE) retaining walls utilized in transportation projects are typically backfilled with coarse aggregate. One of the current testing procedures to select backfill material for construction of MSE walls is the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials standard T 288: ;Standard Method of Test for Determining Minimum Laboratory Soil Resistivity.; T 288 is designed to test a soil sample's electrical resistivity which correlates to its corrosive potential. The test is run on soil material passing the No. 10 sieve and believed to be inappropriate for coarse aggregate. Therefore, researchers have proposed new methods to measure the electrical resistivity of coarse aggregate samples in the laboratory. There is a need to verify that the proposed methods yield results representative of the in situ conditions; however, no in situ measurement of the electrical resistivity of MSE wall backfill is established. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) provides a two-dimensional (2D) profile of the bulk resistivity of backfill material in situ. The objective of this study was to characterize bulk resistivity of in-place MSE wall backfill aggregate using ERT. Five MSE walls were tested via ERT to determine the bulk resistivity of the backfill. Three of the walls were reinforced with polymeric geogrid, one wall was reinforced with metallic strips, and one wall was a gravity retaining wall with no reinforcement. Variability of the measured resistivity distribution within the backfill may be a result of non-uniform particle sizes, thoroughness of compaction, and the presence of water. A quantitative post processing algorithm was developed to calculate mean bulk resistivity of in-situ backfill. Recommendations of the study were that the ERT data be used to verify proposed testing methods for coarse aggregate that are designed to yield data representative of in situ conditions. A preliminary analysis suggests that ERT may be utilized

  19. Asymptotic Dynamics of Monopole Walls

    CERN Document Server

    Cross, R

    2015-01-01

    We determine the asymptotic dynamics of the U(N) doubly periodic BPS monopole in Yang-Mills-Higgs theory, called a monopole wall, by exploring its Higgs curve using the Newton polytope and amoeba. In particular, we show that the monopole wall splits into subwalls when any of its moduli become large. The long-distance gauge and Higgs field interactions of these subwalls are abelian, allowing us to derive an asymptotic metric for the monopole wall moduli space.

  20. Dynamical domain wall and localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuta Toyozato

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on the previous works (Toyozato et al., 2013 [24]; Higuchi and Nojiri, 2014 [25], we investigate the localization of the fields on the dynamical domain wall, where the four-dimensional FRW universe is realized on the domain wall in the five-dimensional space–time. Especially we show that the chiral spinor can localize on the domain wall, which has not been succeeded in the past works as the seminal work in George et al. (2009 [23].

  1. Target or barrier? The cell wall of early- and later- diverging plants vs cadmium toxicity: differences in the response mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi eParrotta

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Increasing industrialization and urbanization result in emission of pollutants in the environment including toxic heavy metals, as cadmium and lead. Among the different heavy metals contaminating the environment, cadmium raises great concern, as it is ecotoxic and as such can heavily impact ecosystems. The cell wall is the first structure of plant cells to come in contact with heavy metals. Its composition, characterized by proteins, polysaccharides and in some instances lignin and other phenolic compounds, confers the ability to bind non-covalently and/or covalently heavy metals via functional groups. A strong body of evidence in the literature has shown the role of the cell wall in heavy metal response: it sequesters heavy metals, but at the same time its synthesis and composition can be severely affected. The present review analyzes the dual property of plant cell walls, i.e. barrier and target of heavy metals, by taking Cd toxicity as example. Following a summary of the known physiological and biochemical responses of plants to Cd, the review compares the wall-related mechanisms in early- and later-diverging land plants, by considering the diversity in cell wall composition. By doing so, common as well as unique response mechanisms to metal/cadmium toxicity are identified among plant phyla and discussed. After discussing the role of hyperaccumulators’ cell walls as a particular case, the review concludes by considering important aspects for plant engineering.

  2. Hempcrete Noise Barrier Wall for Highway Noise Insulation : Research & Construction

    OpenAIRE

    KC, Prabesh

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to study the possibility of Hempcrete or hemp-lime composite noise barrier walls in the highways and to construct the walls for the acoustic test according to the European Union Standards EN ISO 717-1 and ISO 10140-2 for air-borne sound insulation. The thesis was commissioned by the company Hemprefine Oy, and all the standard tests were performed in the HAMK-Ruukki Sheet Metal Centre in Hämeenlinna and the VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd in Espoo. ...

  3. Magnetoelastic contribution in domain wall propagation of micrometric wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukov, A; Blanco, J M; Ipatov, M; Zhukova, V

    2012-09-01

    We report on studies of domain wall propagation of magnetically-bistable Fe-Co-rich microwires paying attention on the effect of applied and internal stresses. We measured magnetic domain propagation in various magnetic Fe-Co-rich amorphous microwires with metallic nucleus diameters (from 2.8 microm to 18 microm) using Sixtus Tonks-like experiments. We found that application of applied stresses and increasing of internal stresses result in decreasing of domain wall (DW) velocity. We assume that in order to achieve higher DW propagation velocity at the same magnetic field and enhanced DW mobility, special attention should be paid to the decrease of magnetoelastic energy.

  4. Vacuum Insulator Development for the Dielectric Wall Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, J R; Blackfield, D; Caporaso, G J; Chen, Y; Hawkins, S; Kendig, M; Poole, B; Sanders, D M; Krogh, M; Managan, J E

    2008-03-17

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, we are developing a new type of accelerator, known as a Dielectric Wall Accelerator, in which compact pulse forming lines directly apply an accelerating field to the beam through an insulating vacuum boundary. The electrical strength of this insulator may define the maximum gradient achievable in these machines. To increase the system gradient, we are using 'High Gradient Insulators' composed of alternating layers of dielectric and metal for the vacuum insulator. In this paper, we present our recent results from experiment and simulation, including the first test of a High Gradient Insulator in a functioning Dielectric Wall Accelerator cell.

  5. Observing Electrokinetic Janus Particle-Channel Wall Interaction Using Microparticle Image Velocimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boymelgreen, Alicia; Yossifon, Gilad

    2015-08-01

    Three-dimensional/two-component microparticle image velocimetry is used to examine the hydrodynamic flow patterns around metallodielectric Janus particles 15 μm in diameter adjacent to insulating and conducting walls. Far from the walls, the observed flow patterns are in good qualitative agreement with previous experimental and analytical models. However, close to the conducting wall, strong electrohydrodynamic flows are observed at low frequencies, which result in fluid being injected toward the particle. The proximity of the metallic hemisphere to the conducting wall is also shown to produce a localized field gradient, which results in dielectrophoretic trapping of 300 nm polystyrene particles across a broad range of frequencies.

  6. H I Column Densities, Metallicities, and Dust Extinction of Metal-Strong Damped Lya Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kaplan, Kyle F; Herbert-Fort, Stephane; Ellison, Sara L; Dessauges-Zavadsky, Miroslava

    2010-01-01

    With the Blue Channel Spectrograph (BCS) on the MMT telescope, we have obtained spectra to the atmospheric cutoff of quasars previously known to show at least one absorption system at z>1.6 with very strong metal lines (candidate metal-strong damped Lya systems; cMSDLAs). The BCS/MMT spectra yield precise estimates of the HI column densities (NHI) of the systems through Voigt profile analysis of their Lya transitions. Nearly all of the cMSDLAs (41/43) satisfy the NHI criterion of DLAs, 10^20.3. As a population, these systems have systematically higher NHI values than DLAs chosen randomly from quasar sightlines. Combining our NHI measurements with previously measured metal column densities, we estimate metallicities for the MSDLAs. These systems have significantly higher values than randomly selected DLAs; at z~2, the MSDLAs show a median metallicity [M/H] ~ -0.67 that is 0.6dex higher than a corresponding control sample. This establishes MSDLAs as having amongst the most metal-rich gas in the high z universe....

  7. PREFACE: Domain wall dynamics in nanostructures Domain wall dynamics in nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrows, C. H.; Meier, G.

    2012-01-01

    Domain structures in magnetic materials are ubiquitous and have been studied for decades. The walls that separate them are topological defects in the magnetic order parameter and have a wide variety of complex forms. In general, their investigation is difficult in bulk materials since only the domain structure on the surface of a specimen is visible. Cutting the sample to reveal the interior causes a rearrangement of the domains into a new form. As with many other areas of magnetism, the study of domain wall physics has been revitalised by the advent of nanotechnology. The ability to fabricate nanoscale structures has permitted the formation of simplified and controlled domain patterns; the development of advanced microscopy methods has permitted them to be imaged and then modelled; subjecting them to ultrashort field and current pulses has permitted their dynamics to be explored. The latest results from all of these advances are described in this special issue. Not only has this led to results of great scientific beauty, but also to concepts of great applicability to future information technologies. In this issue the reader will find the latest results for these domain wall dynamics and the high-speed processes of topological structures such as domain walls and magnetic vortices. These dynamics can be driven by the application of magnetic fields, or by flowing currents through spintronic devices using the novel physics of spin-transfer torque. This complexity has been studied using a wide variety of experimental techniques at the edge of the spatial and temporal resolution currently available, and can be described using sophisticated analytical theory and computational modelling. As a result, the dynamics can be engineered to give rise to finely controlled memory and logic devices with new functionality. Moreover, the field is moving to study not only the conventional transition metal ferromagnets, but also complex heterostructures, novel magnets and even other

  8. Properties of lead deposits in cell walls of radish (Raphanus sativus) roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Hiroshi; Fukuoka, Daisuke; Tatai, Yuri; Kamachi, Hiroyuki; Hayatsu, Manabu; Ono, Manami; Suzuki, Suechika

    2013-01-01

    Various mechanisms are involved in detoxification of heavy metals such as lead (Pb) in plant cells. Most of the Pb taken up by plants accumulates in their roots. However, the detailed properties of Pb complexes in roots remain unclear. We have investigated the properties of Pb deposits in root cell walls of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) seedlings grown on glass beads bed containing Pb pellets, which are the source of Pb-contamination in shooting range soils. Pb deposits were tightly bound to cell walls. Cell wall fragments containing about 50,000 ppm Pb were prepared from the roots. After extracting Pb from the cell wall fragments using HCl, Pb ions were recombined with the Pb-extracted cell wall fragments in a solution containing Pb acetate. When the cell wall fragments were treated with pectinase (E.C. 3.2.1.15) and were chemically modified with 1-ethyl-3-dimethylamino-propylcarboimide, the Pb-rebinding ability of the treated cell wall fragments decreased. When acid-treated cell wall fragments were incubated in a solution containing Pb(2+) and excess amounts of a chelating agent, Pb recombined with the cell wall fragments were measured to estimate the affinity between Pb(2+) and the cell wall fragments. Our data show that Pb(2+) binds to carboxyl groups of cell walls. The source of the carboxyl groups is suggested to be pectic compounds. A stability constant of the Pb-cell wall complex was estimated to be about 10(8). The role of root cell walls in the mechanism underlying heavy metal tolerance was discussed.

  9. Pectinous cell wall thickenings formation - A common defense strategy of plants to cope with Pb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzesłowska, Magdalena; Rabęda, Irena; Basińska, Aneta; Lewandowski, Michał; Mellerowicz, Ewa J; Napieralska, Anna; Samardakiewicz, Sławomir; Woźny, Adam

    2016-07-01

    Lead, one of the most abundant and hazardous trace metals affecting living organisms, has been commonly detected in plant cell walls including some tolerant plants, mining ecotypes and hyperaccumulators. We have previously shown that in tip growing Funaria sp. protonemata cell wall is remodeled in response to lead by formation of thickenings rich in low-methylesterified pectins (pectin epitope JIM5 - JIM5-P) able to bind metal ions, which accumulate large amounts of Pb. Hence, it leads to the increase of cell wall capacity for Pb compartmentalization. Here we show that diverse plant species belonging to different phyla (Arabidopsis, hybrid aspen, star duckweed), form similar cell wall thickenings in response to Pb. These thickenings are formed in tip growing cells such as the root hairs, and in diffuse growing cells such as meristematic and root cap columella cells of root apices in hybrid aspen and Arabidopsis and in mesophyll cells in star duckweed fronds. Notably, all analyzed cell wall thickenings were abundant in JIM5-P and accumulated high amounts of Pb. In addition, the co-localization of JIM5-P and Pb commonly occurred in these cells. Hence, cell wall thickenings formed the extra compartment for Pb accumulation. In this way plant cells increased cell wall capacity for compartmentalization of this toxic metal, protecting protoplast from its toxicity. As cell wall thickenings occurred in diverse plant species and cell types differing in the type of growth we may conclude that pectinous cell wall thickenings formation is a widespread defense strategy of plants to cope with Pb. Moreover, detection of natural defense strategy, increasing plant cell walls capacity for metal accumulation, reveals a promising direction for enhancing plant efficiency in phytoremediation.

  10. Diplopia and orbital wall fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boffano, P.; Roccia, F.; Gallesio, C.; Karagozoglu, K.H.; Forouzanfar, T.

    2014-01-01

    Diplopia is a symptom that is frequently associated with orbital wall fractures. The aim of this article was to present the incidence and patterns of diplopia after orbital wall blow-out fractures in 2 European centers, Turin and Amsterdam, and to identify any correlation between this symptom and su

  11. Domain Walls in SU(5)

    CERN Document Server

    Poghosian, L E; Pogosian, Levon; Vachaspati, Tanmay

    2000-01-01

    We consider the Grand Unified SU(5) model with a small or vanishing cubic term in the adjoint scalar field in the potential. This gives the model an approximate or exact Z$_2$ symmetry whose breaking leads to domain walls. The simplest domain wall has the structure of a kink across which the Higgs field changes sign ($\\Phi \\to -\\Phi$) and inside which the full SU(5) is restored. The kink is shown to be perturbatively unstable for all parameters. We then construct a domain wall solution that is lighter than the kink and show it to be perturbatively stable for a range of parameters. The symmetry in the core of this domain wall is smaller than that outside. The interactions of the domain wall with magnetic monopole is discussed and it is shown that magnetic monopoles with certain internal space orientations relative to the wall pass through the domain wall. Magnetic monopoles in other relative internal space orientations are likely to be swept away on collision with the domain walls, suggesting a scenario where ...

  12. Solar Walls in tsbi3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittchen, Kim Bjarne

    tsbi3 is a user-friendly and flexible computer program, which provides support to the design team in the analysis of the indoor climate and the energy performance of buildings. The solar wall module gives tsbi3 the capability of simulating solar walls and their interaction with the building. This...

  13. Control of Wall Mounting Robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Christoffer; Pedersen, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a method for designing controllers for trajectory tracking with actuator constraints. In particular, we consider a joystick-controlled wall mounting robot called WallMo. In contrast to previous works, a model-free approach is taken to the control problem, where the path...

  14. The "Brick Wall" Graphic Organizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteson, Shirley M.

    2016-01-01

    A brick wall provides a fitting description of what happens when teachers try to teach a concept for which students are unprepared. When students are unsuccessful academically, their foundational knowledge may be missing, incomplete, or incorrect. As a result, students "hit a brick wall," and their academic progress stops because they do…

  15. Diplopia and orbital wall fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boffano, P.; Roccia, F.; Gallesio, C.; Karagozoglu, K.H.; Forouzanfar, T.

    2014-01-01

    Diplopia is a symptom that is frequently associated with orbital wall fractures. The aim of this article was to present the incidence and patterns of diplopia after orbital wall blow-out fractures in 2 European centers, Turin and Amsterdam, and to identify any correlation between this symptom and

  16. Moisture Research - Optimizing Wall Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, L.; Mantha, P.

    2013-05-01

    The Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) evaluated several different configurations of wall assemblies to determine the accuracy of moisture modeling and make recommendations to ensure durable, efficient assemblies. WUFI and THERM were used to model the hygrothermal and heat transfer characteristics of these walls.

  17. Effect of heavy metals on soil fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosak-Świderska, Bożena

    2010-05-01

    Fungi constitute a high proportion of the microbial biomass in soil.Being widespread in soil their large surface-to-volume ratio and high metabolic activity, fungi can contribute significantly to heavy metal dynamics in soil. At neutral pH heavy metals in soils tend to be immobilized to precipitation and/or absorption to cation exchange sites of clay minerals. In the acidic soils, metals are more mobile and enter food webs easier. Microbial production of acids and chelating agents can mobilize to toxic metals. Mobilization is often by uptake and intracellular accumulation of the heavy metlas, and in this way, the bioavailability of metals towards other organisms can be more reduced. Fungi were isolated from soils from Upper Silesia in Poland and belonged to widespread genera: Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Penicillium and Trichoderma. Fungi from different taxonomic groups differ greatly in their tolerance to heavy metals. This could be related to their wall structure and chemistry as well as biochemical and physiological characteristics of fungi. Localization of metals in fungal cells was studied using electron microscopy analysis. Metal biosorption in the cell wall can be complex as melanin granules. Fungal vacuoles have an important role in the regulation of the cytosolic concentration of metal ions, and may contribute to heavy metal tolerance.In polluted soils with heavy metals, fungal species composition can be changed and their physiological activity can be changed, too.

  18. Domain wall description of superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Brito, F A; Silva, J C M

    2012-01-01

    In the present work we shall address the issue of electrical conductivity in superconductors in the perspective of superconducting domain wall solutions in the realm of field theory. We take our set up made out of a dynamical complex scalar field coupled to gauge field to be responsible for superconductivity and an extra scalar real field that plays the role of superconducting domain walls. The temperature of the system is interpreted as the parameter to move type I to type II domain walls. Alternatively, this means that the domain wall surface is suffering an acceleration as one goes from one type to another. On the other hand, changing from type I to type II state means a formation of a condensate what is in perfect sense of lowering the temperature around the superconductor. One can think of this scenario as an analog of holographic scenarios where this set up is replaced by a black hole near the domain wall.

  19. A novel vacuum spectrometer for total reflection x-ray fluorescence analysis with two exchangeable low power x-ray sources for the analysis of low, medium, and high Z elements in sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wobrauschek, P., E-mail: wobi@ati.ac.at; Prost, J.; Ingerle, D.; Kregsamer, P.; Streli, C. [Atominstitut, TU Wien, Stadionallee 2, 1020 Vienna (Austria); Misra, N. L. [Fuel Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2015-08-15

    The extension of the detectable elemental range with Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence (TXRF) analysis is a challenging task. In this paper, it is demonstrated how a TXRF spectrometer is modified to analyze elements from carbon to uranium. Based on the existing design of a vacuum TXRF spectrometer with a 12 specimen sample changer, the following components were renewed: the silicon drift detector with 20 mm{sup 2} active area and having a special ultra-thin polymer window allowing the detection of elements from carbon upwards. Two exchangeable X-ray sources guarantee the efficient excitation of both low and high Z elements. These X-ray sources were two light-weighted easily mountable 35 W air-cooled low-power tubes with Cr and Rh anodes, respectively. The air cooled tubes and the Peltier-cooled detector allowed to construct a transportable tabletop spectrometer with compact dimensions, as neither liquid nitrogen cooling for the detector nor a water cooling circuit and a bulky high voltage generator for the X-ray tubes are required. Due to the excellent background conditions as a result of the TXRF geometry, detection limits of 150 ng for C, 12 ng for F, and 3.3 ng for Na have been obtained using Cr excitation in vacuum. For Rh excitation, the detection limits of 90 pg could be achieved for Sr. Taking 10 to 20 μl of sample volume, extrapolated detection limits in the ng/g (ppb) range are resulting in terms of concentration.

  20. A novel vacuum spectrometer for total reflection x-ray fluorescence analysis with two exchangeable low power x-ray sources for the analysis of low, medium, and high Z elements in sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wobrauschek, P; Prost, J; Ingerle, D; Kregsamer, P; Misra, N L; Streli, C

    2015-08-01

    The extension of the detectable elemental range with Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence (TXRF) analysis is a challenging task. In this paper, it is demonstrated how a TXRF spectrometer is modified to analyze elements from carbon to uranium. Based on the existing design of a vacuum TXRF spectrometer with a 12 specimen sample changer, the following components were renewed: the silicon drift detector with 20 mm(2) active area and having a special ultra-thin polymer window allowing the detection of elements from carbon upwards. Two exchangeable X-ray sources guarantee the efficient excitation of both low and high Z elements. These X-ray sources were two light-weighted easily mountable 35 W air-cooled low-power tubes with Cr and Rh anodes, respectively. The air cooled tubes and the Peltier-cooled detector allowed to construct a transportable tabletop spectrometer with compact dimensions, as neither liquid nitrogen cooling for the detector nor a water cooling circuit and a bulky high voltage generator for the X-ray tubes are required. Due to the excellent background conditions as a result of the TXRF geometry, detection limits of 150 ng for C, 12 ng for F, and 3.3 ng for Na have been obtained using Cr excitation in vacuum. For Rh excitation, the detection limits of 90 pg could be achieved for Sr. Taking 10 to 20 μl of sample volume, extrapolated detection limits in the ng/g (ppb) range are resulting in terms of concentration.

  1. ICRF heating in JET during initial operations with the ITER-like wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacquet, P.; Brix, M.; Graham, M.; Mayoral, M.-L.; Meigs, A.; Monakhov, I.; Sirinelli, A. [Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Bobkov, V.; Drewelow, P.; Pütterich, T. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Assoziation, Garching (Germany); Brezinsek, S. [IEK-4, Forschungszentrum Jülich, Association EURATOM-FZJ (Germany); Campergue, A-L. [Ecole Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées, F77455 Marne-la-Vallée (France); Colas, L. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Czarnecka, A. [Association Euratom-IPPLM, Hery 23, 01-497 Warsaw (Poland); Klepper, C. C. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6169 (United States); Lerche, E.; Van-Eester, D. [Association EURATOM-Belgian State, ERM-KMS, Brussels (Belgium); Milanesio, D. [Politecnico di Torino, Department of Electronics, Torino (Italy); Mlynar, J. [Association EURATOM-IPP.CR, Za Slovankou 3, 182 21 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Collaboration: JET-EFDA Contributors

    2014-02-12

    In 2011/12, JET started operation with its new ITER-Like Wall (ILW) made of a tungsten (W) divertor and a beryllium (Be) main chamber wall. The impact of the new wall material on the JET Ion Cyclotron Resonance Frequency (ICRF) operation was assessed and also the properties of JET plasmas heated with ICRF were studied. No substantial change of the antenna coupling resistance was observed with the ILW as compared with the carbon wall. Heat-fluxes on the protecting limiters close the antennas quantified using Infra-Red (IR) thermography (maximum 4.5 MW/m{sup 2} in current drive phasing) are within the wall power load handling capabilities. A simple RF sheath rectification model using the antenna near-fields calculated with the TOPICA code can well reproduce the heat-flux pattern around the antennas. ICRF heating results in larger tungsten and nickel (Ni) contents in the plasma and in a larger core radiation when compared to Neutral Beam Injection (NBI) heating. Some experimental facts indicate that main-chamber W components could be an important impurity source: the divertor W influx deduced from spectroscopy is comparable when using RF or NBI at same power and comparable divertor conditions; the W content is also increased in ICRF-heated limiter plasmas; and Be evaporation in the main chamber results in a strong and long lasting reduction of the impurity level. The ICRF specific high-Z impurity content decreased when operating at higher plasma density and when increasing the hydrogen concentration from 5% to 20%. Despite the higher plasma bulk radiation, ICRF exhibited overall good plasma heating efficiency; The ICRF power can be deposited at plasma centre and the radiation is mainly from the outer part of the plasma. Application of ICRF heating in H-mode plasmas started, and the beneficial effect of ICRF central electron heating to prevent W accumulation in the plasma core could be observed.

  2. Channel Wall Landslides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] The multiple landslides in this VIS image occur along a steep channel wall. Note the large impact crater in the context image. The formation of the crater may have initially weakened that area of the surface prior to channel formation. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -2.7, Longitude 324.8 East (35.2 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  3. Wall Shear Stress, Wall Pressure and Near Wall Velocity Field Relationships in a Whirling Annular Seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Gerald L.; Winslow, Robert B.; Thames, H. Davis, III

    1996-01-01

    The mean and phase averaged pressure and wall shear stress distributions were measured on the stator wall of a 50% eccentric annular seal which was whirling in a circular orbit at the same speed as the shaft rotation. The shear stresses were measured using flush mounted hot-film probes. Four different operating conditions were considered consisting of Reynolds numbers of 12,000 and 24,000 and Taylor numbers of 3,300 and 6,600. At each of the operating conditions the axial distribution (from Z/L = -0.2 to 1.2) of the mean pressure, shear stress magnitude, and shear stress direction on the stator wall were measured. Also measured were the phase averaged pressure and shear stress. These data were combined to calculate the force distributions along the seal length. Integration of the force distributions result in the net forces and moments generated by the pressure and shear stresses. The flow field inside the seal operating at a Reynolds number of 24,000 and a Taylor number of 6,600 has been measured using a 3-D laser Doppler anemometer system. Phase averaged wall pressure and wall shear stress are presented along with phase averaged mean velocity and turbulence kinetic energy distributions located 0.16c from the stator wall where c is the seal clearance. The relationships between the velocity, turbulence, wall pressure and wall shear stress are very complex and do not follow simple bulk flow predictions.

  4. Čerenkov free-electron laser with side walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkal, Yashvir; Kumar, Vinit

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we have proposed a Čerenkov free-electron laser (CFEL) with metallic side walls, which are used to confine an electromagnetic surface mode supported by a thin dielectric slab placed on top of a conducting surface. This leads to an enhancement in coupling between the optical mode and the co-propagating electron beam, and consequently, performance of the CFEL is improved. We set up coupled Maxwell-Lorentz equations for the system, in analogy with an undulator based conventional FEL, and obtain formulas for the small-signal gain and growth rate. It is shown that small signal gain and growth rate in this configuration are larger compared to the configuration without the side walls. In the nonlinear regime, we solve the coupled Maxwell-Lorentz equations numerically and study the saturation behaviour of the system. It is found that the Čerenkov FEL with side walls saturates quickly, and produces powerful coherent terahertz radiation.

  5. Čerenkov free-electron laser with side walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalkal, Yashvir, E-mail: yashvirkalkal@gmail.com [Homi Bhabha National Institute, Mumbai 400094 (India); Accelerator and Beam Physics Laboratory, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013 (India); Kumar, Vinit [Homi Bhabha National Institute, Mumbai 400094 (India); Accelerator and Beam Physics Laboratory, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013 (India)

    2016-08-11

    In this paper, we have proposed a Čerenkov free-electron laser (CFEL) with metallic side walls, which are used to confine an electromagnetic surface mode supported by a thin dielectric slab placed on top of a conducting surface. This leads to an enhancement in coupling between the optical mode and the co-propagating electron beam, and consequently, performance of the CFEL is improved. We set up coupled Maxwell–Lorentz equations for the system, in analogy with an undulator based conventional FEL, and obtain formulas for the small-signal gain and growth rate. It is shown that small signal gain and growth rate in this configuration are larger compared to the configuration without the side walls. In the nonlinear regime, we solve the coupled Maxwell–Lorentz equations numerically and study the saturation behaviour of the system. It is found that the Čerenkov FEL with side walls saturates quickly, and produces powerful coherent terahertz radiation.

  6. Diplopia and orbital wall fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boffano, Paolo; Roccia, Fabio; Gallesio, Cesare; Karagozoglu, K Hakki; Forouzanfar, Tymour

    2014-01-01

    Diplopia is a symptom that is frequently associated with orbital wall fractures. The aim of this article was to present the incidence and patterns of diplopia after orbital wall blow-out fractures in 2 European centers, Turin and Amsterdam, and to identify any correlation between this symptom and such fractures. This study is based on 2 databases that have continuously recorded data of patients hospitalized with maxillofacial fractures between 2001 and 2010. On the whole, 447 patients (334 males, 113 females) with pure blow-out orbital wall fractures were included. The most frequently involved orbital site was the floor (359 fractures), followed by medial wall (41 fractures) and lateral wall (5 fractures). At presentation, 227 patients (50.7%) had evidence of diplopia. In particular, in most patients, a diplopia in all directions was referred (78 patients). Statistically significant associations were found between diplopia on eye elevation and orbital floor fractures (P diplopia and medial wall fractures (P diplopia on eye elevation and horizontal diplopia at presentation could be useful clinical indicators orbital floor and medial wall fractures, respectively.

  7. Green towers and green walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, R. [Sharp and Diamond Landscape Architecture and Planning, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    North American cities face many major environmental and health issues such as urban heat island effect, the intensity of storms, microclimate around buildings, imperviousness of sites, poor air quality and increases in respiratory disease. Several new technologies are starting to address global impacts and community level issues as well as the personal health and comfort of building occupants. These include green towers, living walls, vegetated rooftops and ecological site developments. This paper examined these forms of eco-development and presented their benefits. It discussed green walls in Japan; green towers in Malaysia, Singapore and Great Britain; green facades of climbing plants; active living walls in Canada; and passive living walls in France and Canada. It also discussed thermal walls; thematic walls; vertical gardens and structured wildlife habitat. Last, it presented testing, monitoring, research and conclusions. The Centre for the Advancement of Green Roof Technology is setting up a program to test thermal performance, to assess plant survival and to monitor green walls at the British Columbia Institute of Technology in Vancouver, Canada as much of the research out of Japan is only available in Japanese script. It was concluded that green architecture can provide shade, food, rainwater, shelter for wildlife and mimic natural systems. 15 refs.

  8. Magnetarc Welding - peculiarities of joining thin wall tubes

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents the MAGNETARC welding of thin tubes achieved with an original longitudinal magnetization system, designed to assure the magnetic flux concentration on tube wall. Process main stages are presented, from the arc initiation until the molten metal appears, upsetting is achieved and the weld forms. Infrared thermography was used for temperature measurements and process visualization. Macro and microstructural analysis accompanies the hardness tests made on correspondingly weld...

  9. OTVE combustor wall condition monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szemenyei, Brian; Nelson, Robert S.; Barkhoudarian, S.

    1989-01-01

    Conventional ultrasonics, eddy current, and electromagnetic acoustic transduction (EMAT) technologies were evaluated to determine their capability of measuring wall thickness/wear of individual cooling channels in test specimens simulating conditions in the throat region of an OTVE combustion chamber liner. Quantitative results are presented for the eddy current technology, which was shown to measure up to the optimum 20-mil wall thickness with near single channel resolution. Additional results demonstrate the capability of the conventional ultrasonics and EMAT technologies to detect a thinning or cracked wall. Recommendations for additional eddy current and EMAT development tests are presented.

  10. Economics of abdominal wall reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Curtis; Roth, J Scott

    2013-10-01

    The economic aspects of abdominal wall reconstruction are frequently overlooked, although understandings of the financial implications are essential in providing cost-efficient health care. Ventral hernia repairs are frequently performed surgical procedures with significant economic ramifications for employers, insurers, providers, and patients because of the volume of procedures, complication rates, the significant rate of recurrence, and escalating costs. Because biological mesh materials add significant expense to the costs of treating complex abdominal wall hernias, the role of such costly materials needs to be better defined to ensure the most cost-efficient and effective treatments for ventral abdominal wall hernias.

  11. Juyongguan on the Great Wall

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Juyongguan Pass on the Great Wall,one ofthe most important strategic passes of the oldcapital Beijing,is now repaired and a goodplace for tourists to see ancient Chinesemilitary and cultural facilities,as well asbeautiful local scenery.

  12. Statistical characteristics of simulated walls

    CERN Document Server

    Demianski, M; Müller, V; Turchaninov, V I

    2000-01-01

    The large scale matter distribution in three different simulations of CDM models is investigated and compared with corresponding results of the Zel'dovich theory of nonlinear gravitational instability. We show that the basic characteristics of wall-like structure elements are well described by this theory, and that they can be expressed by the cosmological parameters and a few spectral moments of the perturbation spectrum. Therefore the characteristics of such elements provide reasonable estimates of these parameters. We show that the compressed matter is relaxed and gravitationally confined, what manifests itself in the existence of walls as (quasi)stationary structure elements with life time restricted by their disruption into high density clouds. The matter distribution is investigated both in the real and redshift spaces. In both cases almost the same particles form the walls, and we estimate differences in corresponding wall characteristics. The same methods are applied to several mock catalogues of 'gal...

  13. Nano magnetic vortex wall guide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Y. Yuan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A concept of nano magnetic vortex wall guide is introduced. Two architectures are proposed. The first one is properly designed superlattices while the other one is bilayer nanostrips. The concept is verified by micromagnetic simulations. Both guides can prevent the vortex core in a magnetic vortex wall from colliding with sample surface so that the information stored in the vortex core can be preserved during its transportation from one location to another one through the guides.

  14. Actinomycosis - Left Post Chest Wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kafil Akhtar, M. Naim, S. Shamshad Ahmad, Nazoora Khan, Uroos Abedi, A.H. Khan*

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A forty year old female of weak body built presented with recurring small hard lumps in let posteriorchest wall for 3 years and discharging ulcers for 3 months duration. Clinically, the provisional diagnosiswas malignancy with secondary infection. FNAC showed features suggestive of dysplasia buthistopathology confirmed the diagnosis as actinomycosis. The present case is reported due to rare incidenceof actinomycosis at post chest wall with muscle involvement.

  15. CHEST WALL HAMARTOMA : Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Gülden DİNİZ; Ortaç, Ragıp; Aktaş, Safiye; TEMİR, Günyüz; HOŞGÖR, Münevver; Karaca, İrfan

    2005-01-01

    A case of four-month – old girl diagnosed as chest wall hamartoma is presented. This entity is an extremely rare but characteristic lesion of the ribs usually presenting in the neonate or infant with a mass or respiratory symptoms. Complete sponraneous regression of the lesion has been reported. Recently conservative management of asymptomatic childiren was recommended. Although rare, this condition ought to be kept in mind while dealing with infantile chest wall masses to avoid an errone...

  16. CHEST WALL HAMARTOMA : Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Gülden DİNİZ; Ortaç, Ragıp; Aktaş, Safiye; HOŞGÖR, Günyüz TEMİR2Münevver; Karaca, İrfan

    2005-01-01

    A case of four-month – old girl diagnosed as chest wall hamartoma is presented. This entity is an extremely rare but characteristic lesion of the ribs usually presenting in the neonate or infant with a mass or respiratory symptoms. Complete sponraneous regression of the lesion has been reported. Recently conservative management of asymptomatic childiren was recommended. Although rare, this condition ought to be kept in mind while dealing with infantile chest wall masses to avoid...

  17. Permeable conformal walls and holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachas, Constantin; de Boer, Jan; Dijkgraaf, Robbert; Ooguri, Hirosi

    2002-06-01

    We study conformal field theories in two dimensions separated by domain walls, which preserve at least one Virasoro algebra. We develop tools to study such domain walls, extending and clarifying the concept of `folding' discussed in the condensed-matter literature. We analyze the conditions for unbroken supersymmetry, and discuss the holographic duals in AdS3 when they exist. One of the interesting observables is the Casimir energy between a wall and an anti-wall. When these separate free scalar field theories with different target-space radii, the Casimir energy is given by the dilogarithm function of the reflection probability. The walls with holographic duals in AdS3 separate two sigma models, whose target spaces are moduli spaces of Yang-Mills instantons on T4 or K3. In the supergravity limit, the Casimir energy is computable as classical energy of a brane that connects the walls through AdS3. We compare this result with expectations from the sigma-model point of view.

  18. Permeable conformal walls and holography

    CERN Document Server

    Bachas, C P; Dijkgraaf, R; Ooguri, H

    2002-01-01

    We study conformal field theories in two dimensions separated by domain walls, which preserve at least one Virasoro algebra. We develop tools to study such domain walls, extending and clarifying the concept of `folding' discussed in the condensed-matter literature. We analyze the conditions for unbroken supersymmetry, and discuss the holographic duals in AdS3 when they exist. One of the interesting observables is the Casimir energy between a wall and an anti-wall. When these separate free scalar field theories with different target-space radii, the Casimir energy is given by the dilogarithm function of the reflection probability. The walls with holographic duals in AdS3 separate two sigma models, whose target spaces are moduli spaces of Yang-Mills instantons on T4 or K3. In the supergravity limit, the Casimir energy is computable as classical energy of a brane that connects the walls through AdS3. We compare this result with expectations from the sigma-model point of view.

  19. Wall force produced during disruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, H.; Paccagnella, R.; Breslau, J.

    2009-11-01

    The study of disruptions is of great importance for ITER. Previous work on disruptions [1] is extended to compute toroidally asymmetric wall force in ITER, using the M3D code. The disruptions are produced by n = 1 resistive wall modes or external kink modes. A thin wall resistive boundary model is used to calculate the wall forces. The symmetric wall force, produced by a VDE, and the asymmetric wall force, produced by n = 1 modes, are comparable in magnitude. It is found that the asymmetric and axisymmetric forces scale with the growth rate of the instability multiplied by the square of the current divided by magnetic field. A similar scaling was reported for VDEs in JET [2]. Numerically, the study of disruptions is very challenging. In the M3D extended MHD code, dealiasing was applied in the toroidal direction. Advection terms were treated with a numerical upwind method. These techniques provided sufficient numerical stability to simulate entire disruption events. [4pt] [1] R. Paccagnella, H. R. Strauss, and J. Breslau, Nucl. Fusion (2009) 49 035003. [2] V. Riccardo, T. C. Hender, P. J. Lomas, et al., Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion (2004)

  20. THE STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF STEEL SILOS WITH CYLINDRICAL-WALL BEARING AND PROFILE-STEEL BEARING

    OpenAIRE

    Zhengjun Tang; Daibiao Zhou; Chenwei Peng; Wenping Wu

    2015-01-01

    The silos are widely used in bulk material in many fields such as agriculture, mining, chemical, electric power storage, etc. Thin metal cylindrical silo shells are vulnerable to buckling failure caused by the compressive wall friction force. In this paper, the structural analysis of two types of steel silo with cylindrical-wall bearing and profile-steel bearing is implemented by Abaqus finite element analysis. The results indicate that under the same loading conditions, steel silos with prof...

  1. Effects of the flexibility of the arterial wall on the wall shear stresses and wall tension in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salsac, Anne-Virginie; Fernandez, Miguel; Chomaz, Jean-Marc

    2005-11-01

    As an abdominal aortic aneurysm develops, large changes occur in the composition and structure of the arterial wall, which result in its stiffening. So far, most studies, whether experimental or numerical, have been conducted assuming the walls to be rigid. A numerical simulation of the fluid structure interactions is performed in different models of aneurysms in order to analyze the effects that the wall compliance might have on the flow topology. Both symmetric and non-symmetric models of aneurysms are considered, all idealistic in shape. The wall mechanical properties are varied in order to simulate the progressive stiffening of the walls. The spatial and temporal distributions of wall tension are calculated for the different values of the wall elasticity and compared to the results for the rigid walls. In the case of rigid walls, the calculation of the wall shear stresses and pressure compare very well with experimental results.

  2. Rigid Pillars and Double Walls in a Porous Metal-Organic Framework:Single-Crystal to Single-Crystal ,Controlled Uptake and Release of Iodine and Electrical Conductivity%刚性柱双π墙金属有机框架:单晶到单晶结构转换,碘富集与缓释,协同导电性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾明华; 李丹丹; 殷政; 王强心; 张东材

    2012-01-01

    The first high stable micro-porous metal-organic framework with rigid pillars and double-walls, Zn3(pybz)2(lac)2 o 2. 5DMF (1) was constructed from infinite pillars {[Zn3(Z)L-lac)2]2+ and 4-pyridyl benzoate (pybz) which is long,polar and ditopic at the opposite ends through the pyridine and the carboxylate under solvothermal reaction. 1 crystallized in tetragonal PA21c space group. There are ID channels running along the c axis with window size of 1. 12×1. 02 nm2 in 1. A void volume of 43. o% was calculated by PLATON. A Langmuir surface area of 918. 5 m2 o g~3 further confirms the permanent porosity of complex 1'. The framework of 1 is highly stable up to 400℃ which is confirmed by TG and variable temperature powder X-ray diffraction measurement.Guest removed phase Zn3(pybz)2(lac)2(l') can be obtained through single-crystal to single-crystal transformation. 1' shows outstanding iodine enrichment ability in cyclohexane solution of I2 and one gram of 1' can absorb approximately 1 g of iodine to obtain {[Zn3(pybz)2(lac)2] o 3I2}"(1' o 3I2X 1' o 3I2 shows controlled iodine releasing in ethanol solvent. The potential inter molecular interactions between I2 and it-electron walls induced n→ σ charge* transfer and resulted in cooperative electrical conductivity for of lυ)3I2,hich is about 440 times higher than iodine. A special phenomena was found that increased electrical conductivity resulted from cooperative interaction between insulating guests and insulating coordination polymers for the first time.%本文在溶剂热条件下利用刚性柱型金属手性配位链(Zn-lactate),辅助于三角架桥联配体(pybz)构筑了目前第一例高稳定性、双π墙的纳米孔道配位聚合物Zn3(pybz)2(lac)2·2.5DMF(1).化合物1具有孔径为1.12 nm×1.02 nm的一维纳米通道,其孔洞率Vvoid为43.5%,Langmuir比表面积为918.5m2·g-1,热稳定性高达400℃.化合物1通过晶态转换的方式得到去客体化合物Zn3 (pybz)2 (lac)2(1′).1′在碘

  3. Isolation of the Cell Wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canut, Hervé; Albenne, Cécile; Jamet, Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    This chapter describes a method allowing the purification of the cell wall for studying both polysaccharides and proteins. The plant primary cell wall is mainly composed of polysaccharides (90-95 % in mass) and of proteins (5-10 %). At the end of growth, specialized cells may synthesize a lignified secondary wall composed of polysaccharides (about 65 %) and lignin (about 35 %). Due to its composition, the cell wall is the cellular compartment having the highest density and this property is used for its purification. It plays critical roles during plant development and in response to environmental constraints. It is largely used in the food and textile industries as well as for the production of bioenergy. All these characteristics and uses explain why its study as a true cell compartment is of high interest. The proposed method of purification can be used for large amount of material but can also be downscaled to 500 mg of fresh material. Tools for checking the quality of the cell wall preparation, such as protein analysis and microscopy observation, are also provided.

  4. Coupled Dzyaloshinskii walls and their current-induced dynamics by the spin Hall effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez, Eduardo, E-mail: edumartinez@usal.es [Dpto. de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Salamanca, Plaza de los Caídos s/n, E-37008 Salamanca (Spain); Alejos, Óscar [Dpto. de Electricidad y Electrónica, Universidad de Valladolid, Paseo de Belén, 7, E-47011 Valladolid (Spain)

    2014-07-14

    The nucleation of domain walls in ultrathin ferromagnetic/heavy-metal bilayers is studied by means of micromagnetic simulations. In the presence of interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, the nucleated walls naturally adopt a homochiral configuration with internal magnetization pointing antiparallely. The interaction between these walls was analyzed and described in terms of a classical dipolar force between the magnetic moments of the walls, which couples their dynamics. Additionally, the current-induced motion of two homochiral walls in the presence of longitudinal fields was also studied by means of a simple one-dimensional model and micromagnetic modeling, considering both one free-defect strip and another one with random edge roughness. It is evidenced that in the presence of pinning due to edge roughness, the in-plane longitudinal field introduces an asymmetry in the current-induced depinning, in agreement with recent experimental results.

  5. Domain wall motion driven by spin Hall effect—Tuning with in-plane magnetic anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rushforth, A. W., E-mail: andrew.rushforth@nottingham.ac.uk [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-21

    This letter investigates the effects of in-plane magnetic anisotropy on the current induced motion of magnetic domain walls in systems with dominant perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, where accumulated spins from the spin Hall effect in an adjacent heavy metal layer are responsible for driving the domain wall motion. It is found that that the sign and magnitude of the domain wall velocity in the uniform flow regime can be tuned significantly by the in-plane magnetic anisotropy. These effects are sensitive to the ratio of the adiabatic and non-adiabatic spin transfer torque parameters and are robust in the presence of pinning and thermal fluctuations.

  6. Facile synthesis and properties of hierarchical double-walled copper silicate hollow nanofibers assembled by nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Renxi; Yang, Yang; Xing, Yan; Chen, Li; Song, Shuyan; Jin, Rongchao

    2014-04-22

    The hierarchical assembly of multilevel, nonspherical hollow structures remains a considerable challenge. Here, we report a facile approach for synthesizing copper silicate hollow nanofibers with an ultrasmall nanotube-assembled, double-walled structure. The as-prepared hollow fibers possess a tailored complex wall structure, high length-to-diameter ratio, good structural stability, and a high surface area, and they exhibit excellent performance as an easily recycled adsorbent for wastewater treatment and as an ideal support for noble metal catalysts. In addition, this strategy can be extended as a general approach to prepare other double-walled, hollow, fibrous silica-templated materials.

  7. Wave Instabilities and Unidirectional Light Flow in a Cavity with Rotating Walls

    CERN Document Server

    Lannebère, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the conditions for the emergence of wave instabilities in a vacuum cavity delimited by cylindrical metallic walls in relative rotation. It is shown that for a small vacuum gap and for a rotation velocity exceeding a certain threshold, the interactions between the surface plasmon polaritons supported by each wall give rise to an unstable behavior of the electromagnetic field manifested in an exponential growth with time. The instabilities occur only for certain modes of oscillation and are due to the transformation of kinetic energy into electromagnetic energy. We also study the possibility of having asymmetric light flows and optical isolation relying on the relative motion of the cavity walls.

  8. On the universality of luminosity-metallicity and mass-metallicity relations for compact star-forming galaxies at redshifts 0 < z < 3

    CERN Document Server

    Izotov, Y I; Fricke, K J; Henkel, C

    2015-01-01

    We study relations between global characteristics of low-redshift (0 1. These data were combined with the corresponding data for high-redshift (2 < z < 3) star-forming galaxies. We find that in all diagrams low-z and high-z star-forming galaxies are closely related indicating a very weak dependence of metallicity on stellar mass, redshift, and star-formation rate. This finding argues in favour of the universal character of the global relations for compact star-forming galaxies with high-excitation HII regions over redshifts 0 < z < 3.

  9. Phase breaking in three-terminal contacted single-walled carbon nanotube bundles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krstić, V.; Roth, S.; Burghard, M.

    2000-12-01

    The three-terminal electrical transport through single-walled carbon nanotube bundles with low resistive metal contacts is investigated at room temperature. After correcting for the lead resistance, two-probe resistances close to the value expected for a metallic single-walled carbon nanotube are found. Analysis of the experimental data in the frame of the Landauer-Büttiker formalism reveals the phase- and momentum-randomizing effect of the third electrode, which is at floating potential, on the quasiballistic transport. Within this model, the phase-coherence length of the charge carriers is estimated to be ~300 nm at room temperature.

  10. Abdominal wall hernia and pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K K; Henriksen, N A; Jorgensen, L N

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: There is no consensus as to the treatment strategy for abdominal wall hernias in fertile women. This study was undertaken to review the current literature on treatment of abdominal wall hernias in fertile women before or during pregnancy. METHODS: A literature search was undertaken in Pub......Med and Embase in combination with a cross-reference search of eligible papers. RESULTS: We included 31 papers of which 23 were case reports. In fertile women undergoing sutured or mesh repair, pain was described in a few patients during the last trimester of a subsequent pregnancy. Emergency surgery...... of incarcerated hernias in pregnant women, as well as combined hernia repair and cesarean section appears as safe procedures. No major complications were reported following hernia repair before or during pregnancy. The combined procedure of elective cesarean section and abdominal wall hernia repair was reported...

  11. Catalysts of plant cell wall loosening

    OpenAIRE

    Cosgrove, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    The growing cell wall in plants has conflicting requirements to be strong enough to withstand the high tensile forces generated by cell turgor pressure while selectively yielding to those forces to induce wall stress relaxation, leading to water uptake and polymer movements underlying cell wall expansion. In this article, I review emerging concepts of plant primary cell wall structure, the nature of wall extensibility and the action of expansins, family-9 and -12 endoglucanases, family-16 xyl...

  12. Diffusion-damped domain wall dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varga, R; Infante, G [Inst. Phys., Fac. Sci., UPJS, Park Angelinum 9, 04154 Kosice (Slovakia); Badini-Confalonieri, G A; Vazquez, M, E-mail: rvarga@upjs.s [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, Cantoblanco, 28049, Madrid (Spain)

    2010-01-01

    In the given work, the influence of diffusional damping on the domain wall dynamics of heat treated FeSiBP microwires is presented. Two regions of the domain wall dynamics have been found. At low applied fields diffusion damping prevails, keeping the domain wall velocity and mobility low. At higher fields, the diffusional effects are overcomed and domain wall velocity increases steeply and so does the domain wall mobility.

  13. The DEMO wall load challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenninger, R.; Albanese, R.; Ambrosino, R.; Arbeiter, F.; Aubert, J.; Bachmann, C.; Barbato, L.; Barrett, T.; Beckers, M.; Biel, W.; Boccaccini, L.; Carralero, D.; Coster, D.; Eich, T.; Fasoli, A.; Federici, G.; Firdaouss, M.; Graves, J.; Horacek, J.; Kovari, M.; Lanthaler, S.; Loschiavo, V.; Lowry, C.; Lux, H.; Maddaluno, G.; Maviglia, F.; Mitteau, R.; Neu, R.; Pfefferle, D.; Schmid, K.; Siccinio, M.; Sieglin, B.; Silva, C.; Snicker, A.; Subba, F.; Varje, J.; Zohm, H.

    2017-04-01

    For several reasons the challenge to keep the loads to the first wall within engineering limits is substantially higher in DEMO compared to ITER. Therefore the pre-conceptual design development for DEMO that is currently ongoing in Europe needs to be based on load estimates that are derived employing the most recent plasma edge physics knowledge. An initial assessment of the static wall heat load limit in DEMO infers that the steady state peak heat flux limit on the majority of the DEMO first wall should not be assumed to be higher than 1.0 MW m-2. This compares to an average wall heat load of 0.29 MW m-2 for the design {\\tt {EU}}{\\tt {~}}{\\tt {DEMO1}}{\\tt {~2015}} assuming a perfect homogeneous distribution. The main part of this publication concentrates on the development of first DEMO estimates for charged particle, radiation, fast particle (all static) and disruption heat loads. Employing an initial engineering wall design with clear optimization potential in combination with parameters for the flat-top phase (x-point configuration), loads up to 7 MW m-2 (penalty factor for tolerances etc not applied) have been calculated. Assuming a fraction of power radiated from the x-point region between 1/5 and 1/3, peaks of the total power flux density due to radiation of 0.6-0.8 MW m-2 are found in the outer baffle region. This first review of wall loads, and the associated limits in DEMO clearly underlines a significant challenge that necessitates substantial engineering efforts as well as a considerable consolidation of the associated physics basis.

  14. Wall conditioning of JET with the ITER-Like Wall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douai, D.; Brezinsek, S.; Esser, H. G.; Joffrin, E.; Keenan, T.; Knipe, S.; Kogut, D.; Lomas, P. J.; Marsen, S.; Nunes, I.; Philipps, V.; Pitts, R.A.; Shimada, M.; P. de Vries,

    2013-01-01

    The initial conditioning cycle of \\{JET\\} İLW\\} is analysed and compared with restart and operation in 2008 with a carbon dominated wall. Comparable water and oxygen decay times are observed during bake-out in both cases. Despite a 2 × 10−3 mbar l/s leak rate duri

  15. [Structure of the interalveolar wall].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senelar, R

    1975-01-01

    The wall, which unites as well as separates two contiguous pulmonary alveoli is composed of: - a conjuntival partition, the veritable skeleton of the wall, which is occupied, to the largest extent, by capillary blood vessels. Between the capillaries, conjunctival cells are dispursed: fibrocytes, fibroblasts and histiocytes, of which some can be mobilised, transformed into macrophages, and penetrate into the alveolar lumen; - modified epithelial cells, whose very thin, vast expansions cover the conjunctival partition; - a liquid film, 0.2 mu in thickness, which separates the epithelial cells, or pneumocytes from the alveolar air. Numerous physiological implications result from this organisation.

  16. Domain wall description of superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brito, F.A. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Caixa Postal 10071, 58109-970 Campina Grande, Paraíba (Brazil); Freire, M.L.F. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Estadual da Paraíba, 58109-753 Campina Grande, Paraíba (Brazil); Mota-Silva, J.C. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Caixa Postal 10071, 58109-970 Campina Grande, Paraíba (Brazil); Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Caixa Postal 5008, 58051-970 João Pessoa, Paraíba (Brazil)

    2014-01-20

    In the present work we shall address the issue of electrical conductivity in superconductors in the perspective of superconducting domain wall solutions in the realm of field theory. We take our set up made out of a dynamical complex scalar field coupled to gauge field to be responsible for superconductivity and an extra scalar real field that plays the role of superconducting domain walls. The temperature of the system is interpreted through the fact that the soliton following accelerating orbits is a Rindler observer experiencing a thermal bath.

  17. Thermal analysis of ductile iron in thin walled casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Górny

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Hypereutectic ductile iron was cast in self hardening moulding sand to produce castings with the shape of Archimedes spirals and with wall thickness of 1, 2 and 3 mm. Inmould technique was used to produce thin wall ductile iron (TWDI. In this work it has been carried out thermal analysis in spiral with 3 mm wall thickness. The present work provides results of thermal analysis, that are initial temperature of metal in mould cavity, velocity of metal stream as well as solidification time. Measurement of temperature shows that there is essential its drop during filling of mould cavity and amounts 230 oC for distance 700 mm from the beginning of spiral. On the basic on first derivative of temperature versus time characteristic solidification points were distinguish, namely solidification of primary graphite, austenite dendrite and eutectic. Experimental measurements of temperature drop during filling of mould cavity along with microscopic examinations of castings structure can be used to verify computer modeling and simulation of fluid flow and thermal field in TWDI.

  18. VLSI metallization

    CERN Document Server

    Einspruch, Norman G; Gildenblat, Gennady Sh

    1987-01-01

    VLSI Electronics Microstructure Science, Volume 15: VLSI Metallization discusses the various issues and problems related to VLSI metallization. It details the available solutions and presents emerging trends.This volume is comprised of 10 chapters. The two introductory chapters, Chapter 1 and 2 serve as general references for the electrical and metallurgical properties of thin conducting films. Subsequent chapters review the various aspects of VLSI metallization. The order of presentation has been chosen to follow the common processing sequence. In Chapter 3, some relevant metal deposition tec

  19. Rapid precision casting for complex thin-walled aluminum alloy parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuanpu DONG

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on Vacuum Differential Pressure Casting (VDPC precision forming technology and the Selective Laser Sintering (SLS Rapid Prototyping (RP technology, a rapid manufacturing method called Rapid Precision Casting (RPC process from computer three-dimensional solid models to metallic parts was investigated. The experimental results showed that the main advantage of RPC was not only its ability to cast higher internal quality and more accurate complex thin-walled aluminum alloy parts, but also the greatly-reduced lead time cycle from Selective Laser Sintering(SLS plastic prototyping to metallic parts. The key forming technology of RPC for complex thin-walled metallic parts has been developed for new casting production and Rapid Tooling (RT, and it is possible to rapidly manufacture high-quality and accurate metallic parts by means of RP in foundry industry.

  20. New Bricks in the Wall

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RONG JIAOJIAO

    2007-01-01

    @@ Whenever a newcomer enters the classroom, he points at the wall. "Look at that!" says Li Shunye, indicating a picture of something that looks a bit like a pink furry fox, only with an oversized tail. "It's a squirrel," says the 9-year-old. "I made it."

  1. Designing a Sound Reducing Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erk, Kendra; Lumkes, John; Shambach, Jill; Braile, Larry; Brickler, Anne; Matthys, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Acoustical engineers use their knowledge of sound to design quiet environments (e.g., classrooms and libraries) as well as to design environments that are supposed to be loud (e.g., concert halls and football stadiums). They also design sound barriers, such as the walls along busy roadways that decrease the traffic noise heard by people in…

  2. Solar Walls for concrete renovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gramkow, Lotte; Vejen, Niels Kristian; Olsen, Lars

    1996-01-01

    This repport gives a short presentation of three full-scale testing solar walls, the construction including the architectural design, materials and components, transportation and storage of solar enegy, the effect on the construction behind, statics and practical experience.The results...

  3. Overlap/Domain-wall reweighting

    CERN Document Server

    Fukaya, H; Cossu, G; Hashimoto, S; Kaneko, T; Noaki, J

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the eigenvalues of nearly chiral lattice Dirac operators constructed with five-dimensional implementations. Allowing small violation of the Ginsparg-Wilson relation, the HMC simulation is made much faster while the eigenvalues are not significantly affected. We discuss the possibility of reweighting the gauge configurations generated with domain-wall fermions to those of exactly chiral lattice fermions.

  4. Wary Eyes Monitoring Wall Street

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Linda

    2008-01-01

    School business officials kept a close watch on the financial markets this week--and on district investment portfolios and teacher-retirement funds--as stock prices gyrated and once-sound institutions got government bailouts or crumbled into bankruptcy. While financial observers said it was too soon to predict how Wall Street's upheaval might…

  5. Solar Walls for concrete renovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gramkow, Lotte; Vejen, Niels Kristian; Olsen, Lars

    1996-01-01

    This repport gives a short presentation of three full-scale testing solar walls, the construction including the architectural design, materials and components, transportation and storage of solar enegy, the effect on the construction behind, statics and practical experience.The results of the mea...

  6. Fandom and the fourth wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna Kathryn Ballinger

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available I use the Teen Wolf fandom as an example to examine the ways social media has created a more complicated, nuanced relationship with fans. The collapse of the fourth wall between fans and The Powers That Be can have both positive and negative impacts, depending on the willingness of participants to maintain mutual respect and engage in meaningful dialogue.

  7. Shear wall ultimate drift limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffey, T.A. [Duffy, (T.A.) Tijeras, NM (United States); Goldman, A. [Goldman, (A.), Sandia, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Farrar, C.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1994-04-01

    Drift limits for reinforced-concrete shear walls are investigated by reviewing the open literature for appropriate experimental data. Drift values at ultimate are determined for walls with aspect ratios ranging up to a maximum of 3.53 and undergoing different types of lateral loading (cyclic static, monotonic static, and dynamic). Based on the geometry of actual nuclear power plant structures exclusive of containments and concerns regarding their response during seismic (i.e.,cyclic) loading, data are obtained from pertinent references for which the wall aspect ratio is less than or equal to approximately 1, and for which testing is cyclic in nature (typically displacement controlled). In particular, lateral deflections at ultimate load, and at points in the softening region beyond ultimate for which the load has dropped to 90, 80, 70, 60, and 50 percent of its ultimate value, are obtained and converted to drift information. The statistical nature of the data is also investigated. These data are shown to be lognormally distributed, and an analysis of variance is performed. The use of statistics to estimate Probability of Failure for a shear wall structure is illustrated.

  8. Wary Eyes Monitoring Wall Street

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Linda

    2008-01-01

    School business officials kept a close watch on the financial markets this week--and on district investment portfolios and teacher-retirement funds--as stock prices gyrated and once-sound institutions got government bailouts or crumbled into bankruptcy. While financial observers said it was too soon to predict how Wall Street's upheaval might…

  9. Designing a Sound Reducing Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erk, Kendra; Lumkes, John; Shambach, Jill; Braile, Larry; Brickler, Anne; Matthys, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Acoustical engineers use their knowledge of sound to design quiet environments (e.g., classrooms and libraries) as well as to design environments that are supposed to be loud (e.g., concert halls and football stadiums). They also design sound barriers, such as the walls along busy roadways that decrease the traffic noise heard by people in…

  10. Statistical characteristics of simulated walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiański, M.; Doroshkevich, A. G.; Müller, V.; Turchaninov, V.

    2000-11-01

    The large-scale matter distribution in three different simulations of CDM models is investigated and compared with corresponding results of the Zel'dovich theory of non-linear gravitational instability. We show that the basic characteristics of wall-like structure elements are well described by this theory, and that they can be expressed by the cosmological parameters and a few spectral moments of the perturbation spectrum. Therefore the characteristics of such elements provide reasonable estimates of these parameters. We show that the compressed matter is relaxed and gravitationally confined and manifests itself in the existence of walls as (quasi-)stationary structure elements with a lifetime restricted by their disruption into high-density clouds. The matter distribution is investigated in both real and redshift spaces. In both cases almost the same particles form the walls, and we estimate differences in corresponding wall characteristics. The same methods are applied to several mock catalogues of `galaxies', which allows us to characterize a large-scale bias between the spatial distribution of dark matter and of simulated `galaxies'.

  11. Partial domain wall partition functions

    CERN Document Server

    Foda, O

    2012-01-01

    We consider six-vertex model configurations on a rectangular lattice with n (N) horizontal (vertical) lines, and "partial domain wall boundary conditions" defined as 1. all 2n arrows on the left and right boundaries point inwards, 2. n_u (n_l) arrows on the upper (lower) boundary, such that n_u + n_l = N - n, also point inwards, 3. all remaining n+N arrows on the upper and lower boundaries point outwards, and 4. all spin configurations on the upper and lower boundaries are summed over. To generate (n-by-N) "partial domain wall configurations", one can start from A. (N-by-N) configurations with domain wall boundary conditions and delete n_u (n_l) upper (lower) horizontal lines, or B. (2n-by-N) configurations that represent the scalar product of an n-magnon Bethe eigenstate and an n-magnon generic state on an N-site spin-1/2 chain, and delete the n lines that represent the Bethe eigenstate. The corresponding "partial domain wall partition function" is computed in construction {A} ({B}) as an N-by-N (n-by-n) det...

  12. The Influence of Wall Binders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    This report is an analysis of the thermal bridge effects that occur in wall binders in masonry buildings. The effects are analyzed using a numerical calculation programme.The results are compared to the values given in the danish standard, DS418....

  13. Chuck Close: "Off the Wall."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Describes the planning and design process of "Off the Wall," a student-developed CD-ROM multimedia project about the life and work of artist Chuck Close-the product of a studio-based course in Learning Experiments Design at the University of Georgia. The design includes an element of gaming; text is kept sparse; navigational elements are rendered…

  14. Rethinking China's new great wall

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ma, Zhijun; Melville, David S; Liu, Jianguo; Chen, Ying; Yang, Hongyan; Ren, Wenwei; Zhang, Zhengwang; Piersma, Theunis; Li, Bo

    2014-01-01

    ... enclosed by thousands of kilometers of seawalls, whose length exceeds that of China’s famous ancient “Great Wall” (see photos and map). This new “Great Wall,” covering 60% of the total length of coast-line along mainland China...

  15. Thermal Performance Evaluation of Walls with Gas Filled Panel Insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrestha, Som S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Desjarlais, Andre Omer [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Atchley, Jerald Allen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Gas filled insulation panels (GFP) are very light weight and compact (when uninflated) advanced insulation products. GFPs consist of multiple layers of thin, low emittance (low-e) metalized aluminum. When expanded, the internal, low-e aluminum layers form a honeycomb structure. These baffled polymer chambers are enveloped by a sealed barrier and filled with either air or a low-conductivity gas. The sealed exterior aluminum foil barrier films provide thermal resistance, flammability protection, and properties to contain air or a low conductivity inert gas. This product was initially developed with a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy. The unexpanded product is nearly flat for easy storage and transport. Therefore, transportation volume and weight of the GFP to fill unit volume of wall cavity is much smaller compared to that of other conventional insulation products. This feature makes this product appealing to use at Army Contingency Basing, when transportation cost is significant compared to the cost of materials. The objective of this study is to evaluate thermal performance of walls, similar to those used at typical Barracks Hut (B-Hut) hard shelters, when GFPs are used in the wall cavities. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) tested performance of the wall in the rotatable guarded hotbox (RGHB) according to the ASTM C 1363 standard test method.

  16. Thin Wall Austempered Ductile Iron (TWADI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Górny

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the analysis of thin walled castings made of ductile iron is considered. It is shown that thin wall austempered ductile iron can be obtained by means of short-term heat treatment of thin wall castings without addition of alloying elements. Metallographic examinations of 2 mm thin walled castings along with casting with thicker wall thickness (20x28 mm after different austempring conditions are presented. It has been proved that short-term heat treatment amounted 20 minutes of austenitizing at 880 oC followed by holding at 400 oC for 5 minutes causes ausferrite matrix in 2 mm wall thickness castings, while casting with thicker wall thickness remain untransformed and martensite is still present in a matrix. Finally there are shown that thin wall ductile iron is an excellent base material for austempering heat treatments. As a result high mechanical properties received in thin wall plates made of austempered ductile iron.

  17. Toxicity of heavy metals and metal-containing nanoparticles on plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Ghazala; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2016-08-01

    Plants are under the continual threat of changing climatic conditions that are associated with various types of abiotic stresses. In particular, heavy metal contamination is a major environmental concern that restricts plant growth. Plants absorb heavy metals along with essential elements from the soil and have evolved different strategies to cope with the accumulation of heavy metals. The use of proteomic techniques is an effective approach to investigate and identify the biological mechanisms and pathways affected by heavy metals and metal-containing nanoparticles. The present review focuses on recent advances and summarizes the results from proteomic studies aimed at understanding the response mechanisms of plants under heavy metal and metal-containing nanoparticle stress. Transport of heavy metal ions is regulated through the cell wall and plasma membrane and then sequestered in the vacuole. In addition, the role of different metal chelators involved in the detoxification and sequestration of heavy metals is critically reviewed, and changes in protein profiles of plants exposed to metal-containing nanoparticles are discussed in detail. Finally, strategies for gaining new insights into plant tolerance mechanisms to heavy metal and metal-containing nanoparticle stress are presented. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Plant Proteomics--a bridge between fundamental processes and crop production, edited by Dr. Hans-Peter Mock.

  18. PPOOLEX experiments on wall condensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laine, J.; Puustinen, M. (Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology, Nuclear Safety Research Unit (Finland))

    2009-08-15

    This report summarizes the results of the wall condensation experiments carried out in December 2008 and January 2009 with the scaled down PPOOLEX test facility designed and constructed at Lappeenranta University of Technology. Steam was blown into the dry well compartment and from there through a DN200 blowdown pipe to the condensation pool. Altogether five experiments, each consisting of several blows, were carried out. The main purpose of the experiment series was to study wall condensation phenomenon inside the dry well compartment while steam is discharged through it into the condensation pool and to produce comparison data for CFD calculations at VTT. The PPOOLEX test facility is a closed stainless steel vessel divided into two compartments, dry well and wet well. For the wall condensation experiments the test facility was equipped with a system for collecting and measuring the amount of condensate from four different wall segments of the dry well compartment. A thermo graphic camera was used in a couple of experiments for filming the outside surface of the dry well wall. The effect of the initial temperature level of the dry well structures and of the steam flow rate for the accumulation of condensate was studied. The initial temperature level of the dry well structures varied from 23 to 99 deg. C. The steam flow rate varied from 90 to 690 g/s and the temperature of incoming steam from 115 to 160 deg. C. During the initial phase of steam discharge the accumulation of condensate was strongly controlled by the temperature level of the dry well structures; the lower the initial temperature level was the more condensate was accumulated. As the dry well structural temperatures increased the condensation process slowed down. Most of the condensate usually accumulated during the first 200 seconds of the discharge. However, the condensation process never completely stopped because a small temperature difference remained between the dry well atmosphere and inner wall

  19. Metal Detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington-Lueker, Donna

    1992-01-01

    Schools that count on metal detectors to stem the flow of weapons into the schools create a false sense of security. Recommendations include investing in personnel rather than hardware, cultivating the confidence of law-abiding students, and enforcing discipline. Metal detectors can be quite effective at afterschool events. (MLF)

  20. Through-the-wall radar imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Amin, Moeness G

    2011-01-01

    Wall Attenuation and Dispersion, A. Hussein Muqaibel, M.A. Alsunaidi, Nuruddeen M. Iya, and A. Safaai-JaziAntenna Elements, Arrays, and Systems for Through-the-Wall Radar Imaging, A. Hoorfar and A. FathyBeamforming for Through-the-Wall Radar Imaging, G. Alli and D. DiFilippoImage and Localization of Behind-the-Wall Targets Using Collocated and Distributed Apertures, Y.D. Zhang and A. HuntConventional and Emerging Waveforms for Detection and Imaging of Targets behind Walls, F. Ahmad and R.M. NarayananInverse Scattering Approaches in Through-the-Wall Imaging, K. Sarabandi, M. Thiel, M. Dehmollai

  1. Wall Effects induced by Ceramic in Quiescent Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noirez, L.; Baroni, P.

    2017-01-01

    At the liquid-solid interface, the energy of the liquid is different from the bulk resulting from surface tension due to the balance between the attraction between molecules to each other (cohesion) and the attraction to the surface (wetting). While capillary effects are well known and described at the air/liquid/solid interfaces, much less is known on the effects induced in the bulk close to the wall. The present experimental study reveals that non-negligible interfacial effects can be revealed in the bulk of the liquid using the high wetting power of ceramics. Close to the wall, thermal measurements reveal a progressive temperature drop in the liquid (about 0.15°C). This zone extends up to several millimeters, creates a non-equilibrium/equilibrium interface within the liquid and is balanced at larger distances by a temperature increase. This localized effect is highlighted with strong wetting metal oxide surfaces as ceramics.

  2. Near-wall behavior of turbulent wall-bounded flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buschmann, Matthias H. [Institut fuer Luft- und Kaeltetechnik Dresden, Bertolt-Brecht-Allee 20, 01309 Dresden (Germany)], E-mail: Matthias.Buschmann@ilkdresden.de; Indinger, Thomas [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Institute of Aerodynamics, Boltzmannstr., 15, 85748 Garching (Germany); Gad-el-Hak, Mohamed [Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23284-3015 (United States)

    2009-10-15

    A data base compiling a large number of results from direct numerical simulations and physical experiments is used to explore the properties of shear and normal Reynolds stresses very close to the wall of turbulent channel/pipe flows and boundary layers. Three types of scaling are mainly investigated, classical inner, standard mixed, and pure outer scaling. The study focuses on the wall behavior, the location and the value of the peak Reynolds shear stress and the three normal stresses. A primary observation is that all of these parameters show a significant Karman number dependence. None of the scalings investigated works in an equal manner for all parameters. It is found that the respective first-order Taylor series expansion satisfactorily represents each stress only in a surprisingly thin layer very close to the wall. In some cases, a newly introduced scaling based on u{sub {tau}}{sup 3/2}u{sub e}{sup 1/2} offers a remedy.

  3. Electromagnetic augmentation for casting of thin metal sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, John R. (Hinsdale, IL)

    1989-01-01

    Thin metal sheets are cast by magnetically levitating molten metal deposited in a mold within a ferromagnetic yoke and between AC conducting coils and linearly displacing the magnetically levitated liquid metal while it is being cooled by the water-cooled walls of the mold to form a solid metal sheet. A conducting shield is electrically coupled to the molten metal sheet to provide a return path for eddy currents induced in the metal sheet by the current in the AC conducting coils. In another embodiment, a DC conducting coil is coupled to the metal sheet for providing a direct current therein which interacts with the magnetic field to levitate the moving metal sheet. Levitation of the metal sheet in both molten and solid forms reduces its contact pressure with the mold walls while maintaining sufficient engagement therebetween to permit efficient conductive cooling by the mold through which a coolant fluid may be circulated. The magnetic fields associated with the currents in the aforementioned coils levitate the molten metal sheet while the mold provides for its lateral and vertical confinement. A leader sheet having electromagnetic characteristics similar to those of the molten metal sheet is used to start the casing process and precedes the molten metal sheet through the yoke/coil arrangement and mold and forms a continuous sheet therewith. The yoke/coil arrangement may be either U-shaped with a single racetrack coil or may be rectangular with a pair of spaced, facing bedstead coils.

  4. [Metal poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, A

    2003-01-01

    Metals are amongst the oldest toxic substances known to man. In today's industrialized world the sources of exposure to metals are ubiquitous both in the field of work and from polluted water, foodstuffs and the environment. Their toxicity is characterized by the metallic element in question, but this is modified by the type of compound, whether organic or inorganic, and its characteristics of hydrosolubility and liposolubility, which determines its toxicokinetics and thus the possibilities of it reaching its targets. The biomolecules most affected by metals are the proteins with enzymatic activity, which is why their pathology is multisystemic. The principal systems affected are the gastrointestinal, central and peripheral neurological, haematic and renal. Some metallic compounds are carcinogenic. Metals's treatment is conditioned by their chemical reactivity. They can be deactivated and eliminated by the administering of chelating agents that produce complex molecules, which are non-toxic and can be excreted. The principal chelating agents are: BAL (British Anti-Lewisite or dimercaprol) DMPS (2,3-Dimercapto-1-propanesulfonic Acid) and DMSA (meso-2,3-Dimercaptosuccinic or Succimer), EDTA, Penicilamine (b,b-dimethylcysteine) and Deferoxamine. Toxicokinetic characteristics, mechanism of action, clinical picture and treatment of some of the most relevant metals and metalloids: lead, mercury and arsenic, are considered.

  5. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Sonographic gallbladder wall thickness in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    gallbladder wall thickness and the subjects' age, sex, height and weight .... sex distributions and mean height and weights were calculated. Results were expressed .... establishing of a population-based US gallbladder wall thickness so that.

  6. Brick Walls on the Brane

    CERN Document Server

    Medved, A J M

    2002-01-01

    The so-called ``brick-wall model'' is a semi-classical approach that has been used to explain black hole entropy in terms of thermal matter fields. Here, we apply the brick-wall formalism to thermal bulk fields in a Randall-Sundrum brane world scenario. In this case, the black hole entity is really a string-like object in the anti-de Sitter bulk, while appearing as a Schwarzchild black hole to observers living on the brane. In spite of these exotic circumstances, we establish that the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy law is preserved. Although a similar calculation was recently considered in the literature, this prior work invoked a simplifying assumption (which we avoid) that can not be adequately justified.

  7. Brick walls on the brane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medved, A J M [Department of Physics and Theoretical Physics Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada)

    2002-01-21

    The so-called 'brick-wall model' is a semiclassical approach that has been used to explain black hole entropy in terms of thermal matter fields. Here, we apply the brick-wall formalism to thermal bulk fields in a Randall-Sundrum brane world scenario. In this case, the black hole entity is really a string-like object in the anti-de Sitter bulk, while appearing as a Schwarzchild black hole to observers living on the brane. In spite of these exotic circumstances, we establish that the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy law is preserved. Although a similar calculation was recently considered in the literature, this prior study invoked a simplifying assumption (which we avoid) that cannot be adequately justified.

  8. Creating universes with thick walls

    CERN Document Server

    Ulvestad, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    We study the dynamics of a spherically symmetric false vacuum bubble embedded in a true vacuum region separated by a "thick wall", which is generated by a scalar field in a quartic potential. We study the "Farhi-Guth-Guven" (FGG) quantum tunneling process by constructing numerical solutions relevant to this process. The ADM mass of the spacetime is calculated, and we show that there is a lower bound that is a significant fraction of the scalar field mass. We argue that the zero mass solutions used to by some to argue against the physicality of the FGG process are artifacts of the thin wall approximation used in earlier work. We argue that the zero mass solutions should not be used to question the viability of the FGG process.

  9. Transmittance of single wall carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, W.; Hone, J.; Richards, P.L.; Zettl, A.

    2001-07-31

    The authors have measured the far infrared absorption of single wall carbon nanotube (SWNT) ropes at 1.5K and SWNT ropes in polyethylene (PE) over the range 1.5 < T < 300 K. A weak peak is observed at 28 cm{sup -1} at 1.5K for free standing SWNT samples. The frequency and temperature dependence of the peak is consistent with absorption by an E{sub 2g} symmetric, ''squash mode'', SWNT phonon, which is infrared active due to an adsorbate or disorder. The peak frequency for SWNT ropes in PE is at 40 cm{sup -1} and temperature dependent. They attribute the increase in the frequency of the peak for SWNT in PE to the effect of {approx} 0.2GPa of hydrostatic pressure exerted on the SWNT ropes due to the thermal contraction of PE when cooled to low temperatures. Using two independent methods, they estimate that the SWNT may radially buckle at this pressure. The buckling distortion may cause the pressure dependence of the peak frequency. They cannot rule out the possibility that the peak is an absorption onset from adsorbate modes extrinsic to the SWNT or from interband transitions at a small electronic band gap. An effective medium calculation of Drude metal grains in polyethylene gives a frequency dependence consistent with their data, but the model underestimates the strength of scattering by orders of magnitude.

  10. Walled-off pancreatic necrosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael; Stamatakos; Charikleia; Stefanaki; Konstantinos; Kontzoglou; Spyros; Stergiopoulos; Georgios; Giannopoulos; Michael; Safioleas

    2010-01-01

    Walled-off pancreatic necrosis (WOPN), formerly known as pancreatic abscess is a late complication of acute pancreatitis. It can be lethal, even though it is rare. This critical review provides an overview of the continually expanding knowledge about WOPN, by review of current data from references identified in Medline and PubMed, to September 2009, using key words, such as WOPN, infected pseudocyst, severe pancreatitis, pancreatic abscess, acute necrotizing pancreatitis (ANP), pancreas, inflammation and al...

  11. Droplets Evaporation on Heated Wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misyura S. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Various modes of evaporation in a wide range of droplet sizes and wall temperatures have been investigated in the present work. For any initial drop size there are three typical boiling regime: 1 the nucleate boiling; 2 the transitional regime; 3 the film boiling. The width of the transition region of boiling crisis increases with increasing the initial volume V0. Evaporation of large droplets at high superheat depends on the initial droplet shape.

  12. Statistical characteristics of simulated walls

    OpenAIRE

    Demianski, M.; Doroshkevich, A. G.; V.; Mueller; Turchaninov, V.

    2000-01-01

    The large scale matter distribution in three different simulations of CDM models is investigated and compared with corresponding results of the Zel'dovich theory of nonlinear gravitational instability. We show that the basic characteristics of wall-like structure elements are well described by this theory, and that they can be expressed by the cosmological parameters and a few spectral moments of the perturbation spectrum. Therefore the characteristics of such elements provide reasonable esti...

  13. Theoretical Studies of Substitutionally Doped Single-Walled Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles See Yeung

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The rich chemistry of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs is enhanced by substitutional doping, a process in which a single atom of the nanotube sidewall is replaced by a heteroatom. These so-called heteroatom-substituted SWCNTs (HSWCNTs exhibit unique chemical and physical properties not observed in their corresponding undoped congeners. Herein, we present theoretical studies of both main group element and transition metal-doped HSWCNTs. Within density functional theory (DFT, we discuss mechanistic details of their proposed synthesis from vacancy-defected SWCNTs and describe their geometric and electronic properties. Additionally, we propose applications for these nanomaterials in nanosensing, nanoelectronics, and nanocatalysis.

  14. Plasma excitations in a single-walled carbon nanotube with an external transverse magnetic field

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K A Vijayalakshmi; T P Nafeesa Baby

    2013-02-01

    The effect of different uniform transverse external magnetic fields in plasma frequency when propagated parallel to the surface of the single-walled metallic carbon nanotubes is studied. The classical electrodynamics as well as Maxwell’s equations are used in the calculations. Equations are developed for both short- and long-wavelength limits and the variations are studied graphically.

  15. Conjugated Polymer-Assisted Dispersion of Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes : The Power of Polymer Wrapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samanta, Suman Kalyan; Fritsch, Martin; Scherf, Ullrich; Gomulya, Widianta; Bisri, Satria Zulkarnaen; Loi, Maria Antonietta

    2014-01-01

    CONSPECTUS: The future application of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) in electronic (nano)devices is closely coupled to the availability of pure, semiconducting SWNTs and preferably, their defined positioning on suited substrates. Commercial carbon nanotube raw mixtures contain metallic as we

  16. Biosorption of Ni2+ and Fe3+ by Fungal Cell Wall Sacchrides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper reports on the adsorption characteristic of heavy metal ions (Ni2+and Fe3+) using a novel biceorbent, prepared from cell walls of Rhizopus oryzae. The optimum operating conditions are investigated in both single ion system and binary system.

  17. Flooding Effect on Earth Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meysam Banimahd

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Earth building is a sustainable, environmentally friendly and economical method of construction that has been used worldwide for many centuries. For the past three decades, earth has seen a revival as a building material for a modern construction method due to its benefits in terms of low carbon content, low cost and energy involved during construction, as well as the fact that it is a sustainable technology of building. Climate change is influencing precipitation levels and patterns around the world, and as a consequence, flood risk is increasing rapidly. When flooding occurs, earth buildings are exposed to water by submersion, causing an increase in the degree of saturation of the earth structures and therefore a decrease of the suction between particles. This study investigated the effect of cycles of flooding (consecutive events of flooding followed by dry periods on earth walls. A series of characterization tests were carried out to obtain the physical and mechanical properties of the studied earth material. In a second stage, Flooding Simulation Tests (FST were performed to explore the earth walls’ response to repeated flooding events. The results obtained for the tested earth wall/samples with reinforced material (straw reveal hydraulic hysteresis when wall/samples are subject to cycles of wetting and drying.

  18. Tube wall thickness measurement apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagasse, P.R.

    1985-06-21

    An apparatus for measuring the thickness of a tube's wall for the tube's entire length and radius by determining the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the known thickness of a selected standard item. The apparatus comprises a base and a first support member having first and second ends. The first end is connected to the base and the second end is connected to a spherical element. A second support member is connected to the base and spaced apart from the first support member. A positioning element is connected to and movable relative to the second support member. An indicator is connected to the positioning element and is movable to a location proximate the spherical element. The indicator includes a contact ball for first contacting the selected standard item and holding it against the spherical element. The contact ball then contacts the tube when the tube is disposed about the spherical element. The indicator includes a dial having a rotatable needle for indicating the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the thickness of the selected standard item.

  19. Tube wall thickness measurement apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagasse, P.R.

    1985-06-21

    An apparatus for measuring the thickness of a tube's wall for the tube's entire length and radius by determining the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the known thickness of a selected standard item. The apparatus comprises a base and a first support member having first and second ends. The first end is connected to the base and the second end is connected to a spherical element. A second support member is connected to the base and spaced apart from the first support member. A positioning element is connected to and movable relative to the second support member. An indicator is connected to the positioning element and is movable to a location proximate the spherical element. The indicator includes a contact ball for first contacting the selected standard item and holding it against the spherical element. The contact ball then contacts the tube when the tube is disposed about the spherical element. The indicator includes a dial having a rotatable needle for indicating the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the thickness of the selected standard item.

  20. Tube wall thickness measurement apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagasse, Paul R. (Santa Fe, NM)

    1987-01-01

    An apparatus for measuring the thickness of a tube's wall for the tube's entire length and circumference by determining the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the known thickness of a selected standard item. The apparatus comprises a base and a first support member having first and second ends. The first end is connected to the base and the second end is connected to a spherical element. A second support member is connected to the base and spaced apart from the first support member. A positioning element is connected to and movable relative to the second support member. An indicator is connected to the positioning element and is movable to a location proximate the spherical element. The indicator includes a contact ball for first contacting the selected standard item and holding it against the spherical element. The contact ball then contacts the tube when the tube is disposed about the spherical element. The indicator includes a dial having a rotatable needle for indicating the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the thickness of the selected standard item.

  1. Thermal insulation properties of walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhukov Aleksey Dmitrievich

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Heat-protective qualities of building structures are determined by the qualities of the used materials, adequate design solutions and construction and installation work of high quality. This rule refers both to the structures made of materials similar in their structure and nature and mixed, combined by a construction system. The necessity to ecaluate thermal conductivity is important for a product and for a construction. Methods for evaluating the thermal protection of walls are based on the methods of calculation, on full-scale tests in a laboratory or on objects. At the same time there is a reason to believe that even deep and detailed calculation may cause deviation of the values from real data. Using finite difference method can improve accuracy of the results, but it doesn’t solve all problems. The article discusses new approaches to evaluating thermal insulation properties of walls. The authors propose technique of accurate measurement of thermal insulation properties in single blocks and fragments of walls and structures.

  2. Dose reduction of scattered photons from concrete walls lined with lead: Implications for improvement in design of megavoltage radiation therapy facility mazes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Affan, I. A. M., E-mail: info@medphys-environment.co.uk; Hugtenburg, R. P.; Piliero, M. [Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Bari, D. S. [Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP, United Kingdom and University of Zakho, Duhok (Iraq); Al-Saleh, W. M. [Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP, United Kingdom and King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Science, Hofuf (Saudi Arabia); Evans, S. [Department of Medical Physics and Clinical Engineering, Singleton Hospital, Swansea SA2 8QA (United Kingdom); Al-Hasan, M.; Al-Zughul, B. [College of Sciences, Zarqa University, Zarqa (Jordan); Al-Kharouf, S. [The Royal Scientific Society, Amman (Jordan); Ghaith, A. [Association of Arab Universities, Amman (Jordan)

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: This study explores the possibility of using lead to cover part of the radiation therapy facility maze walls in order to absorb low energy photons and reduce the total dose at the maze entrance of radiation therapy rooms. Methods: Experiments and Monte Carlo simulations were utilized to establish the possibility of using high-Z materials to cover the concrete walls of the maze in order to reduce the dose of the scattered photons at the maze entrance. The dose of the backscattered photons from a concrete wall was measured for various scattering angles. The dose was also calculated by the FLUKA and EGSnrc Monte Carlo codes. The FLUKA code was also used to simulate an existing radiotherapy room to study the effect of multiple scattering when adding lead to cover the concrete walls of the maze. Monoenergetic photons were used to represent the main components of the x ray spectrum up to 10 MV. Results: It was observed that when the concrete wall was covered with just 2 mm of lead, the measured dose rate at all backscattering angles was reduced by 20% for photons of energy comparable to Co-60 emissions and 70% for Cs-137 emissions. The simulations with FLUKA and EGS showed that the reduction in the dose was potentially even higher when lead was added. One explanation for the reduction is the increased absorption of backscattered photons due to the photoelectric interaction in lead. The results also showed that adding 2 mm lead to the concrete walls and floor of the maze reduced the dose at the maze entrance by up to 90%. Conclusions: This novel proposal of covering part or the entire maze walls with a few millimeters of lead would have a direct implication for the design of radiation therapy facilities and would assist in upgrading the design of some mazes, especially those in facilities with limited space where the maze length cannot be extended to sufficiently reduce the dose.

  3. The cell wall of Fusarium oxysporum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoffelmeer, EAM; Klis, FM; Sietsma, JH; Cornelissen, BJC

    1999-01-01

    Sugar analysis of isolated cell walls from three formae speciales of Fusarium oxysporum showed that they contained not only glucose and (N-acetyl)-glucosamine, but also mannose, galactose, and uronic acids, presumably originating from cell wall glycoproteins. Cell wall glycoproteins accounted for

  4. The cell wall of Fusarium oxysporum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoffelmeer, EAM; Klis, FM; Sietsma, JH; Cornelissen, BJC

    1999-01-01

    Sugar analysis of isolated cell walls from three formae speciales of Fusarium oxysporum showed that they contained not only glucose and (N-acetyl)-glucosamine, but also mannose, galactose, and uronic acids, presumably originating from cell wall glycoproteins. Cell wall glycoproteins accounted for 50

  5. To detect anomalies in diaphragm walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruit, R.

    2015-01-01

    Diaphragm walls are potentially ideal retaining walls for deep excavations in densely built-up areas, as they cause no vibrations during their construction and provide structural elements with high strength and stiffness. In the recent past, however, several projects using diaphragm walls as soil an

  6. Static domain wall in braneworld gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdalla, M.C.B.; Carlesso, P.F. [UNESP, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Instituto de Fisica Teiorica, Rua Dr. Bento Teobaldo Ferraz 271, Bloco II, Barra-Funda, Caixa Postal 70532-2, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Hoff da Silva, J.M. [UNESP, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Departamento de Fisica e Quimica, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil)

    2014-01-15

    In this paper we consider a static domain wall inside a 3-brane. Different from the standard achievement obtained in General Relativity, the analysis performed here gives a consistency condition for the existence of static domain walls in a braneworld gravitational scenario. Also the behavior of the domain wall's gravitational field in the newtonian limit is shown. (orig.)

  7. Methods & Strategies: Put Your Walls to Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Julie; Durham, Annie

    2016-01-01

    This column provides ideas and techniques to enhance your science teaching. This month's issue discusses planning and using interactive word walls to support science and reading instruction. Many classrooms have word walls displaying vocabulary that students have learned in class. Word walls serve as visual scaffolds to support instruction. To…

  8. Steel Sheet Pile Walls in Soft Soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kort, D.A.

    2002-01-01

    For almost a century, steel sheet pile walls are applied worldwide as earth retaining structures for excavations and quay walls. Within the framework of the development of European structural codes for Civil Engineering works, the Eurocodes, Eurocode 3 Part 5 for design of steel sheet pile walls was

  9. Metals 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, S.W.; Rogers, L.C.; Slaughter, G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Boensch, F.D. [6025 Oak Hill Lane, Centerville, OH (United States); Claus, R.O.; de Vries, M. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    1993-05-01

    This strategic planning exercise identified and characterized new and emerging advanced metallic technologies in the context of the drastic changes in global politics and decreasing fiscal resources. In consideration of a hierarchy of technology thrusts stated by various Department of Defense (DOD) spokesmen, and the need to find new and creative ways to acquire and organize programs within an evolving Wright Laboratory, five major candidate programs identified are: C-17 Flap, Transport Fuselage, Mach 5 Aircraft, 4.Fighter Structures, and 5. Missile Structures. These results were formed by extensive discussion with selected major contractors and other experts, and a survey of advanced metallic structure materials. Candidate structural applications with detailed metal structure descriptions bracket a wide variety of uses which warrant consideration for the suggested programs. An analysis on implementing smart skins and structures concepts is given from a metal structures perspective.

  10. ' HEAVY METALS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    exposed fish were about 3-5 times higher than the concentrations detected in control fish. ... The outcome effect 15 impairment of carbohydrate metabolism, which caused fish ..... of pesticides, heavy metal, detergent and petroleum.

  11. Plasma metallization

    CERN Document Server

    Crowther, J M

    1997-01-01

    Many methods are currently used for the production of thin metal films. However, all of these have drawbacks associated with them, for example the need for UHV conditions, high temperatures, exotic metal precursors, or the inability to coat complex shaped objects. Reduction of supported metal salts by non-isothermal plasma treatment does not suffer from these drawbacks. In order to produce and analyse metal films before they become contaminated, a plasma chamber which could be attached directly to a UHV chamber with XPS capability was designed and built. This allowed plasma treatment of supported metal salts and surface analysis by XPS to be performed without exposure of the metal film to the atmosphere. Non-equilibrium plasma treatment of Nylon 66 supported gold(lll) chloride using hydrogen as the feed gas resulted in a 95% pure gold film, the remaining 5% of the film being carbon. If argon or helium were used as the feed gases during plasma treatment the resultant gold films were 100% pure. Some degree of s...

  12. Intercalation of aggregation-free and well-dispersed gold nanoparticles into the walls of mesoporous silica as a robust "green" catalyst for n-alkane oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lifang; Hu, Juncheng; Richards, Ryan

    2009-01-28

    Aggregate-free and well-dispersed gold nanoparticles were intercalated into the walls of mesoporous silica forming a nanoreactor demonstrating high catalytic activity for "green" alkane oxidation. The material is robust and can be recycled. The method may be developed to intercalate other metal or alloy nanoparticles into the walls of mesoporous silica.

  13. Ion cyclotron resonance frequency heating in JET during initial operations with the ITER-like wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacquet, P., E-mail: philippe.jacquet@ccfe.ac.uk; Monakhov, I.; Arnoux, G.; Brix, M.; Graham, M.; Meigs, A.; Sirinelli, A. [Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Bobkov, V.; Devaux, S.; Drewelow, P.; Pütterich, T. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Assoziation, Garching (Germany); Colas, L. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Czarnecka, A. [Association Euratom-IPPLM, Hery 23, 01-497 Warsaw (Poland); Lerche, E.; Van-Eester, D. [Association EURATOM-Belgian State, ERM-KMS, Brussels (Belgium); Mayoral, M.-L. [Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); EFDA Close Support Unit, Garching (Germany); Brezinsek, S. [IEK-4, Forschungszentrum Jülich, Association EURATOM-FZJ, Jülich (Germany); Campergue, A.-L. [Ecole Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées, F77455 Marne-la-Vallée (France); Klepper, C. C. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6169 (United States); Milanesio, D. [Politecnico di Torino, Department of Electronics, Torino (Italy); and others

    2014-06-15

    In 2011/12, JET started operation with its new ITER-Like Wall (ILW) made of a tungsten (W) divertor and a beryllium (Be) main chamber wall. The impact of the new wall materials on the JET Ion Cyclotron Resonance Frequency (ICRF) operation is assessed and some important properties of JET plasmas heated with ICRF are highlighted. A ∼ 20% reduction of the antenna coupling resistance is observed with the ILW as compared with the JET carbon (JET-C) wall. Heat-fluxes on the protecting limiters close the antennas, quantified using Infra-Red thermography (maximum 4.5 MW/m{sup 2} in current drive phasing), are within the wall power load handling capabilities. A simple RF sheath rectification model using the antenna near-fields calculated with the TOPICA code can reproduce the heat-flux pattern around the antennas. ICRF heating results in larger tungsten and nickel (Ni) contents in the plasma and in a larger core radiation when compared to Neutral Beam Injection (NBI) heating. The location of the tungsten ICRF specific source could not be identified but some experimental observations indicate that main-chamber W components could be an important impurity source: for example, the divertor W influx deduced from spectroscopy is comparable when using RF or NBI at same power and comparable divertor conditions, and Be evaporation in the main chamber results in a strong reduction of the impurity level. In L-mode plasmas, the ICRF specific high-Z impurity content decreased when operating at higher plasma density and when increasing the hydrogen concentration from 5% to 15%. Despite the higher plasma bulk radiation, ICRF exhibited overall good plasma heating performance; the power is typically deposited at the plasma centre while the radiation is mainly from the outer part of the plasma bulk. Application of ICRF heating in H-mode plasmas has started, and the beneficial effect of ICRF central electron heating to prevent W accumulation in the plasma core has been observed.

  14. Quantitative Analysis of Isolated Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes with Their Molar Absorbance Coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shota Kuwahara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The molar absorbance coefficients of metallic, semiconducting, and (6,5 chirality enriched single-wall carbon nanotubes were evaluated by a spray technique combined with atomic force microscopy. Single-wall carbon nanotubes with isolated and a single predominant electronic type were obtained by using the density-gradient ultracentrifugation technique. In the visible region, all coefficients had similar values around 2–5 × 109/mL mol−1 cm−1, independent of their diameter distribution and the electronic types of single-wall carbon nanotubes, and the εS22/εM11  and εS11/εM11 were estimated to be 1.0 and 4.0, respectively. The coefficient strongly depends on the length of single-wall carbon nanotubes, independent of their electronic types and chirality.

  15. THE STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF STEEL SILOS WITH CYLINDRICAL-WALL BEARING AND PROFILE-STEEL BEARING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengjun Tang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The silos are widely used in bulk material in many fields such as agriculture, mining, chemical, electric power storage, etc. Thin metal cylindrical silo shells are vulnerable to buckling failure caused by the compressive wall friction force. In this paper, the structural analysis of two types of steel silo with cylindrical-wall bearing and profile-steel bearing is implemented by Abaqus finite element analysis. The results indicate that under the same loading conditions, steel silos with profile-steel bearing and cylindrical-Wall bearing have similar values in Mises stress, but the steel silo with profile-steel bearing has a smaller radial displacement and a better capability of buckling resistance. Meanwhile, the total steel volumes reduced 8.0% comparing to the steel silo with cylindrical-wall bearing. Therefore, steel soil with profile-steel bearing not only has a less steel volumes but also a good stability.

  16. Thin Wall Austempered Ductile Iron (TWADI)

    OpenAIRE

    M. Górny; E. Fraś

    2009-01-01

    In this paper the analysis of thin walled castings made of ductile iron is considered. It is shown that thin wall austempered ductile iron can be obtained by means of short-term heat treatment of thin wall castings without addition of alloying elements. Metallographic examinations of 2 mm thin walled castings along with casting with thicker wall thickness (20x28 mm) after different austempring conditions are presented. It has been proved that short-term heat treatment amounted 20 minutes of a...

  17. Structure of Plant Cell Walls : XXVI. The Walls of Suspension-Cultured Sycamore Cells Contain a Family of Rhamnogalacturonan-I-Like Pectic Polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, T; Thomas, J; Darvill, A; Albersheim, P

    1989-02-01

    Considerable information has been obtained about the primary structures of suspension-cultured sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus) cell-wall pectic polysaccharides, i.e. rhamnogalacturonan I, rhamnogalacturonan II, and homogalacturonan. However, these polysaccharides, which are solubilized from the walls by endo-alpha-1,4-polygalacturonase, account for only about half of the pectic polysaccharides known to be present in sycamore cell walls. We now report that, after exhaustive treatment with endo-alpha-1,4-polygalacturonase, additional pectic polysaccharides were extracted from sycamore cell walls by treatment with Na(2)CO(3) at 1 and 22 degrees C. These previously uncharacterized polysaccharides accounted for approximately 4% of the cell wall. Based on the glycosyl and glycosyl-linkage compositions and the nature of the products obtained by treating the quantitatively predominant NaCO(3)-extracted polysaccharides with lithium metal dissolved in ethylenediamine, the polysaccharides were found to strongly resemble rhamnogalacturonan I. However, unlike rhamnogalacturonan I that characteristically had equal amounts of 2- and 2,4-linked rhamnosyl residues in its backbone, the polysaccharides extracted in Na(2)CO(3) at 1 degrees C had markedly disparate ratios of 2- to 2,4-linked rhamnosyl residues. We concluded that polysaccharides similar to rhamnogalacturonan I but with different degrees of branching are present in the walls of suspension-cultured sycamore cells.

  18. Seismic displacement of gravity retaining walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Mohamed Hafez Ismail Ibrahim

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Seismic displacement of gravity walls had been studied using conventional static methods for controlled displacement design. In this study plain strain numerical analysis is performed using Plaxis dynamic program where prescribed displacement is applied at the bottom boundary of the soil to simulate the applied seismic load. Constrained absorbent side boundaries are introduced to prevent any wave reflection. The studied soil is chosen dense granular sand and modeled as elasto-plastic material according to Mohr–Column criteria while the gravity wall is assumed elastic. By comparing the resulted seismic wall displacements calculated by numerical analysis for six historical ground motions with that calculated by the pseudo-static method, it is found that numerical seismic displacements are either equal to or greater than corresponding pseudo-static values. Permissible seismic wall displacement calculated by AASHTO can be used for empirical estimation of seismic displacement. It is also found that seismic wall displacement is directly proportional with the positive angle of inclination of the back surface of the wall, soil flexibility and with the earthquake maximum ground acceleration. Seismic wall sliding is dominant and rotation is negligible for rigid walls when the ratio between the wall height and the foundation width is less than 1.4, while for greater ratios the wall becomes more flexible and rotation (rocking increases till the ratio reaches 1.8 where overturning is susceptible to take place. Cumulative seismic wall rotation increases with dynamic time and tends to be constant at the end of earthquake.

  19. Metallic Hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvera, Isaac; Zaghoo, Mohamed; Salamat, Ashkan

    2015-03-01

    Hydrogen is the simplest and most abundant element in the Universe. At high pressure it is predicted to transform to a metal with remarkable properties: room temperature superconductivity, a metastable metal at ambient conditions, and a revolutionary rocket propellant. Both theory and experiment have been challenged for almost 80 years to determine its condensed matter phase diagram, in particular the insulator-metal transition. Hydrogen is predicted to dissociate to a liquid atomic metal at multi-megabar pressures and T =0 K, or at megabar pressures and very high temperatures. Thus, its predicted phase diagram has a broad field of liquid metallic hydrogen at high pressure, with temperatures ranging from thousands of degrees to zero Kelvin. In a bench top experiment using static compression in a diamond anvil cell and pulsed laser heating, we have conducted measurements on dense hydrogen in the region of 1.1-1.7 Mbar and up to 2200 K. We observe a first-order phase transition in the liquid phase, as well as sharp changes in optical transmission and reflectivity when this phase is entered. The optical signature is that of a metal. The mapping of the phase line of this transition is in excellent agreement with recent theoretical predictions for the long-sought plasma phase transition to metallic hydrogen. Research supported by the NSF, Grant DMR-1308641, the DOE Stockpile Stewardship Academic Alliance Program, Grant DE-FG52-10NA29656, and NASA Earth and Space Science Fellowship Program, Award NNX14AP17H.

  20. Mechanism of bubble detachment from vibrating walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dongjun; Park, Jun Kwon, E-mail: junkeun@postech.ac.kr; Kang, Kwan Hyoung [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), San 31, Hyoja-dong, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, In Seok [Department of Chemical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), San 31, Hyoja-dong, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    We discovered a previously unobserved mechanism by which air bubbles detach from vibrating walls in glasses containing water. Chaotic oscillation and subsequent water jets appeared when a wall vibrated at greater than a critical level. Wave forms were developed at water-air interface of the bubble by the wall vibration, and water jets were formed when sufficiently grown wave-curvatures were collapsing. Droplets were pinched off from the tip of jets and fell to the surface of the glass. When the solid-air interface at the bubble-wall attachment point was completely covered with water, the bubble detached from the wall. The water jets were mainly generated by subharmonic waves and were generated most vigorously when the wall vibrated at the volume resonant frequency of the bubble. Bubbles of specific size can be removed by adjusting the frequency of the wall's vibration.

  1. Pulmonary complications of abdominal wall defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panitch, Howard B

    2015-01-01

    The abdominal wall is an integral component of the chest wall. Defects in the ventral abdominal wall alter respiratory mechanics and can impair diaphragm function. Congenital abdominal wall defects also are associated with abnormalities in lung growth and development that lead to pulmonary hypoplasia, pulmonary hypertension, and alterations in thoracic cage formation. Although infants with ventral abdominal wall defects can experience life-threatening pulmonary complications, older children typically experience a more benign respiratory course. Studies of lung and chest wall function in older children and adolescents with congenital abdominal wall defects are few; such investigations could provide strategies for improved respiratory performance, avoidance of respiratory morbidity, and enhanced exercise ability for these children.

  2. Shielding efficiency of metal hydrides and borohydrides in fusion reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Vishvanath P.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mass attenuation coefficients, mean free paths and exposure buildup factors have been used to characterize the shielding efficiency of metal hydrides and borohydrides, with high density of hydrogen. Gamma ray exposure buildup factors were computed using five-parameter geometric progression fitting at energies 0.015 MeV to15 MeV, and for penetration depths up to 40 mean free paths. Fast-neutron shielding efficiency has been characterized by the effective neutron removal cross-section. It is shown that ZrH2 and VH2 are very good shielding materials for gamma rays and fast neutrons due to their suitable combination of low- and high-Z elements. The present work should be useful for the selection and design of blankets and shielding, and for dose evaluation for components in fusion reactors.

  3. POROUS WALL, HOLLOW GLASS MICROSPHERES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sexton, W.

    2012-06-30

    Hollow Glass Microspheres (HGM) is not a new technology. All one has to do is go to the internet and Google{trademark} HGM. Anyone can buy HGM and they have a wide variety of uses. HGM are usually between 1 to 100 microns in diameter, although their size can range from 100 nanometers to 5 millimeters in diameter. HGM are used as lightweight filler in composite materials such as syntactic foam and lightweight concrete. In 1968 a patent was issued to W. Beck of the 3M{trademark} Company for 'Glass Bubbles Prepared by Reheating Solid Glass Particles'. In 1983 P. Howell was issued a patent for 'Glass Bubbles of Increased Collapse Strength' and in 1988 H. Marshall was issued a patent for 'Glass Microbubbles'. Now Google{trademark}, Porous Wall, Hollow Glass Microspheres (PW-HGMs), the key words here are Porous Wall. Almost every article has its beginning with the research done at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The Savannah River Site (SRS) where SRNL is located has a long and successful history of working with hydrogen and its isotopes for national security, energy, waste management and environmental remediation applications. This includes more than 30 years of experience developing, processing, and implementing special ceramics, including glasses for a variety of Department of Energy (DOE) missions. In the case of glasses, SRS and SRNL have been involved in both the science and engineering of vitreous or glass based systems. As a part of this glass experience and expertise, SRNL has developed a number of niches in the glass arena, one of which is the development of porous glass systems for a variety of applications. These porous glass systems include sol gel glasses, which include both xerogels and aerogels, as well as phase separated glass compositions, that can be subsequently treated to produce another unique type of porosity within the glass forms. The porous glasses can increase the surface area compared to &apos

  4. Tube wall thickness measurement apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagasse, P.R.

    1987-01-06

    An apparatus is described for measuring the thickness of a tube's wall for the tube's entire length and circumference by determining the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the known thickness of a selected standard item, the apparatus comprising: a. a base; b. a first support member having first and second ends, the first end being connected to the base, the first support member having a sufficiently small circumference that the tube can be slid over the first support member; c. a spherical element, the spherical element being connected to the second end of the first support member. The spherical element has a sufficiently small circumference at its equator that the tube can be slid over the spherical element, the spherical element having at its equator a larger circumference than the first support member; d. a second support member having first and second ends, the first end being connected to the base, the second support member being spaced apart form the first support member; e. a positioning element connected to and moveable relative to the second support member; and f. an indicator connected to the positioning element and being moveable thereby to a location proximate the spherical element. The indicator includes a contact ball for contacting the selected standard item and holding it against the spherical element, the contact ball contacting the tube when the tube is disposed about the spherical element. The indicator includes a dial having a rotatable needle for indicating the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the thickness of the selected standard item, the rotatable needle being operatively connected to and responsive to the position of the contact ball.

  5. Water Walls for Life Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Michael T. (Inventor); Gormly, Sherwin J. (Inventor); Hammoudeh, Mona (Inventor); Richardson, Tra-My Justine (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A method and associated system for processing waste gases, liquids and solids, produced by human activity, to separate (i) liquids suitable for processing to produce potable water, (ii) solids and liquids suitable for construction of walls suitable for enclosing a habitat volume and for radiation shielding, and (iii) other fluids and solids that are not suitable for processing. A forward osmosis process and a reverse osmosis process are sequentially combined to reduce fouling and to permit accumulation of different processable substances. The invention may be used for long term life support of human activity.

  6. Explosive Fragmentation of Dividing Walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    bloc~ks and the complexity of the molds that would have to be built, it was de- cided to use full-scale masonry blocks. The walls fabricated were 163...Z .y ,. ,- ;. -.. "COMBINED DISTRIBUTION FOR TESI SERIES 3W I o3 10 ’ I • I ’ ii i’i’I l’l ’ I ’-I"* I *1" PiiPl’ ’ 1 ’l i l• iT -7,62 cm Rs

  7. First Wall and Operational Diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasnier, C; Allen, S; Boedo, J; Groth, M; Brooks, N; McLean, A; LaBombard, B; Sharpe, J; Skinner, C; Whyte, D; Rudakov, D; West, W; Wong, C

    2006-06-19

    In this chapter we review numerous diagnostics capable of measurements at or near the first wall, many of which contribute information useful for safe operation of a tokamak. There are sections discussing infrared cameras, visible and VUV cameras, pressure gauges and RGAs, Langmuir probes, thermocouples, and erosion and deposition measurements by insertable probes and quartz microbalance. Also discussed are dust measurements by electrostatic detectors, laser scattering, visible and IR cameras, and manual collection of samples after machine opening. In each case the diagnostic is discussed with a view toward application to a burning plasma machine such as ITER.

  8. Witten Index and Wall Crossing

    CERN Document Server

    Hori, Kentaro; Yi, Piljin

    2014-01-01

    We compute the Witten index of one-dimensional gauged linear sigma models with at least ${\\mathcal N}=2$ supersymmetry. In the phase where the gauge group is broken to a finite group, the index is expressed as a certain residue integral. It is subject to a change as the Fayet-Iliopoulos parameter is varied through the phase boundaries. The wall crossing formula is expressed as an integral at infinity of the Coulomb branch. The result is applied to many examples, including quiver quantum mechanics that is relevant for BPS states in $d=4$ ${\\mathcal N}=2$ theories.

  9. Fire behaviour of tabique walls

    OpenAIRE

    Araújo, Alexandre; Fonseca, E.M.M.; Ferreira, Débora; P. A. G. Piloto; Pinto,Jorge

    2015-01-01

    The tabique is one of the main Portuguese traditional building techniques, which is based on raw materials as earth and wood. In general, a tabique wall is formed by a simple timber structure covered by an earth-based material. Earth has an important role in this system because it protects the internal timber structure along with its finishing function. The Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro is the northeast region of Portugal and it is very rich in terms of tabique construction heritage. Nowadays, ...

  10. Spontaneous Behaviors and Wall-Curvature Lead to Apparent Wall Preference in Planarian.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshitaro Akiyama

    Full Text Available The planarian Dugesia japonica tends to stay near the walls of its breeding containers and experimental dishes in the laboratory, a phenomenon called "wall preference". This behavior is thought to be important for environmental adaptation, such as hiding by planarians in nature. However, the mechanisms regulating wall-preference behavior are not well understood, since this behavior occurs in the absence of any particular stimulation. Here we show the mechanisms of wall-preference behavior. Surprisingly, planarian wall-preference behavior was also shown even by the head alone and by headless planarians. These results indicate that planarian "wall-preference" behavior only appears to be a "preference" behavior, and is actually an outcome of spontaneous behaviors, rather than of brain function. We found that in the absence of environmental cues planarians moved basically straight ahead until they reached a wall, and that after reaching a wall, they changed their direction of movement to one tangential to the wall, suggesting that this spontaneous behavior may play a critical role in the wall preference. When we tested another spontaneous behavior, the wigwag movement of the planarian head, using computer simulation with various wigwag angles and wigwag intervals, large wigwag angle and short wigwag interval reduced wall-preference behavior. This indicated that wigwag movement may determine the probability of staying near the wall or leaving the wall. Furthermore, in accord with this simulation, when we tested planarian wall-preference behavior using several assay fields with different curvature of the wall, we found that concavity and sharp curvature of walls negatively impacted wall preference by affecting the permissible angle of the wigwag movement. Together, these results indicate that planarian wall preference may be involuntarily caused by the combination of two spontaneous planarian behaviors: moving straight ahead until reaching a wall and

  11. Anterior chest wall examination reviewed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Trotta

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Anterior chest wall involvement is not infrequently observed within inflammatory arthropaties, particularly if one considers seronegative spondiloarthritides and SAPHO syndrome. Physical examination is unreliable and conventional X-rays analysis is an unsatisfactory tool during diagnostic work-up of this region. Scintigraphic techniques yield informations both on the activity and on the anatomical extent of the disease while computerized tomography visualize the elementary lesions, such as erosions, which characterize the process. Moreover, when available, magnetic resonance imaging couple the ability to finely visualize such lesions with the possibility to show early alterations and to characterize the “activity” of the disease, presenting itself as a powerful tool both for diagnosis and follow-up. This review briefly shows the applications of imaging techniques for the evaluation of the anterior chest wall focusing on what has been done in the SAPHO syndrome which can be considered prototypical for this regional involvement since it is the osteo-articular target mainly affected by the disease.

  12. Cellular partitioning of nanoparticulate versus dissolved metals in marine phytoplankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielmyer-Fraser, Gretchen K; Jarvis, Tayler A; Lenihan, Hunter S; Miller, Robert J

    2014-11-18

    Discharges of metal oxide nanoparticles into aquatic environments are increasing with their use in society, thereby increasing exposure risk for aquatic organisms. Separating the impacts of nanoparticle from dissolved metal pollution is critical for assessing the environmental risks of the rapidly growing nanomaterial industry, especially in terms of ecosystem effects. Metal oxides negatively affect several species of marine phytoplankton, which are responsible for most marine primary production. Whether such toxicity is generally due to nanoparticles or exposure to dissolved metals liberated from particles is uncertain. The type and severity of toxicity depends in part on whether phytoplankton cells take up and accumulate primarily nanoparticles or dissolved metal ions. We compared the responses of the marine diatom, Thalassiosira weissflogii, exposed to ZnO, AgO, and CuO nanoparticles with the responses of T. weissflogii cells exposed to the dissolved metals ZnCl2, AgNO3, and CuCl2 for 7 d. Cellular metal accumulation, metal distribution, and algal population growth were measured to elucidate differences in exposure to the different forms of metal. Concentration-dependent metal accumulation and reduced population growth were observed in T. weissflogii exposed to nanometal oxides, as well as dissolved metals. Significant effects on population growth were observed at the lowest concentrations tested for all metals, with similar toxicity for both dissolved and nanoparticulate metals. Cellular metal distribution, however, markedly differed between T. weissflogii exposed to nanometal oxides versus those exposed to dissolved metals. Metal concentrations were highest in the algal cell wall when cells were exposed to metal oxide nanoparticles, whereas algae exposed to dissolved metals had higher proportions of metal in the organelle and endoplasmic reticulum fractions. These results have implications for marine plankton communities as well as higher trophic levels, since

  13. Evaluating rammed earth walls: a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, P. [Deakin University, Geelong (Australia). Built Environment Research Group; La Trobe University, Wodonga (Australia); Luther, M.B. [Deakin University, Geelong (Australia). Built Environment Research Group

    2004-03-01

    The following research has been undertaken as a response to the recent controversy regarding the suitability of rammed earth wall construction as an effective building envelope in regard to its thermal performance. The R-value for rammed earth walls is low hence they might be expected to conduct heat into a building during summer. However the large mass of these walls and the associated thermal lag in heat transfer from outside to inside may result in the walls performing satisfactorily in a building which is only occupied during working hours. Internal rammed earth walls may act as moderators of large diurnal temperature swings helping to produce an even comfortable temperature within a building. Empirical (in situ) measurements of temperature and heat flux were taken on the walls of an existing rammed earth office building in New South Wales, Australia during the summer. An analysis was performed which established a methodology to measure the heat flow associated with the walls, floor, ceiling, windows and infiltration for one office during occupied hours and the net energy transferred between the office and these elements was established. During this time the earth walls performed well. External walls were found to transmit comparatively little heat to the office and the internal walls absorbed heat during this time. Diffuse sky radiation transmitted by the window and infiltration are both likely to be important factors in the summer heat load. (author)

  14. Immersion Refractometry of Isolated Bacterial Cell Walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquis, Robert E.

    1973-01-01

    Immersion-refractometric and light-scattering measurements were adapted to determinations of average refractive indices and physical compactness of isolated bacterial cell walls. The structures were immersed in solutions containing various concentrations of polymer molecules that cannot penetrate into wall pores, and then an estimate was made of the polymer concentration or the refractive index of the polymer solution in which light scattering was reduced to zero. Because each wall preparation was heterogeneous, the refractive index of the medium for zero light scattering had to be estimated by extrapolation. Refractive indices for walls suspended in bovine serum albumin solutions ranged from 1.348 for walls of the rod form of Arthrobacter crystallopoietes to 1.382 for walls of the teichoic acid deficient, 52A5 strain of Staphylococcus aureus. These indices were used to calculate approximate values for solids content per milliliter, and the calculated values agreed closely with those estimated from a knowledge of dextran-impermeable volumes per gram, dry weight, of the walls. When large molecules such as dextrans or serum albumin were used for immersion refractometry, the refractive indices obtained were for entire walls, including both wall polymers and wall water. When smaller molecules that can penetrate wall pores to various extents were used with Micrococcus lysodeikticus walls, the average, apparent refractive index of the structures increased as the molecular size of probing molecules was decreased. It was possible to obtain an estimate of 1.45 to 1.46 for the refractive index of wall polymers, predominantly peptidoglycans in this case, by extrapolating the curve for refractive index versus molecular radius to a value of 0.2 nm, the approximate radius of a water molecule. This relatively low value for polymer refractive index was interpreted as evidence in favor of the amorphous, elastic model of peptidoglycan structure and against the crystalline, rigid

  15. The State of the GeoWall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, P. J.; Leigh, J.; van Keken, P.; Johnson, A.

    2003-12-01

    The GeoWall stereo projection technology has been widely adopted within Earth Science. Over 20,000 undergraduate students per year use a GeoWall in classroom and lab settings at over 80 institutions around the world using over 200 GeoWalls. We believe that critical mass for this technology has been reached in the Earth Science. Many collaborations have been initiated. With Iris, GeoWall is exploring new ways to monitor seismic networks in real-time and to visualize extremely large, whole Earth seismic simulations. We are also working with a number of drilling organizations including JOI, DOSECC and LacCore to bring modern visualization technology to core interpretation and drill site selection. Also, over 15 museums now have or are building GeoWalls for informal education. Much of the science that is being performed on the GeoWall is finding its way directly into the classroom and science museum. One of the success stories has been the GeoWall Consortium's interaction with industry. The basic hardware for the GeoWall has been spun off to companies that now sell variations of the hardware. In addition, many software companies including ESRI and Dynamic Graphics have added support for the GeoWall in their products. The future of GeoWall is four fold. Curriculum development will bring more material to all GeoWall users. Assessment of the curriculum and educational psychology will give us GeoWall best practices. In technology development, the GeoWall 2 is a 20+ million pixel, tiled display which brings more resolution to the Earth Sciences than ever. To support research the consortium is developing a volume rendering application to visualize extremely large datasets.

  16. Aortic Wall Injury Related to Endovascular Therapy for Aortic Coarctation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tretter, Justin T; Jones, Thomas K; McElhinney, Doff B

    2015-09-01

    Aortic wall complications can occur in unrepaired aortic coarctation (CoA) and after surgical repair or endovascular treatment. This review summarizes the available literature and current understanding of aortic wall injury (AWI) surrounding the management of CoA, focusing specifically on acute and follow-up AWI after endovascular treatment. There have been 23 reported cases of aortic rupture after endovascular treatment for CoA, including angioplasty alone, bare metal stenting, and primary covered stent therapy. Even if these published cases represent only a minority of ruptures that have actually occurred, the incidence is substantially <1%. The incidence of acute aneurysm formation was 0% to 13% after angioplasty, 0% to 5% after bare metal stent placement, and <1% after covered stent placement. The reported incidence and natural history of both acute and new AWI during follow-up after endovascular therapy for CoA varies considerably, likely secondary to ascertainment and reporting biases and inconsistent definitions. Although important AWI after endovascular treatment of CoA seems to be declining in frequency with increasing experience and improving technology, it remains one of the most important potential adverse outcomes. Long-term surveillance for new AWI and monitoring of existing AWI is mandatory, with institution of appropriate treatment when necessary. A central research focus in this population should be determination of the appropriate treatment for both native and recurrent CoA across various ages with regard to limiting recurrent CoA and preventing associated aortic wall complications, in addition to determining the appropriate treatment of various AWI. Consistent definitions and reporting are necessary to truly understand the incidence of, risk factors for, and measures protective against AWI after angioplasty or stent implantation for CoA.

  17. Near wall flow parameters in the blade end-wall corner region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, R. K.; Raj, R.

    The effects of secondary end-wall corner flows on near wall flow parameters in turbomachinary are studied. Important near wall flow parameters such as the wall shear stress vector, the mean wall pressure, the wall pressure fluctuations, and the correlation of the wall pressure fluctuation with the velocity fluctuation in three-dimensional turbulent flows are first experimentally investigated. The blade end-wall corner region is simulated by mounting airfoil section of symmetric blades on both sides of the flat plate with semicircular leading edge. Observed changes in the maximum values of the wall shear stress and its location from the corner line could be associated with the streching and attenuation of the horseshoe vortex. The values of wall pressure fluctuation intensity in the blade end-wall corner region are found to be influenced by the changes of the strength of the horseshoe vortex. The correlation of the wall pressure fluctuation with the velocity fluctuation indicated higher values of correlation coefficient in the inner region as compared to the outer region of the shear layer. The values of wall pressure-velocity correlation coefficient in the blade end-wall corner region also decrease in the streamwise direction while increasing in the presence of favorable and adverse pressure gradients.

  18. Ultraviolet and infrared studies of the single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotube films with different thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abouelsayed, A., E-mail: a_sobhi77@yahoo.com [Spectroscopy Department, Physics Division, National Research Centre, 33 El Bohouth st. (Former El Tahrir st.), Dokki, Giza P.O. 12622 (Egypt); Eisa, Wael H. [Spectroscopy Department, Physics Division, National Research Centre, 33 El Bohouth st. (Former El Tahrir st.), Dokki, Giza P.O. 12622 (Egypt); Dawy, M. [Physical Chemistry Department, Inorganic Chemical Industries and Mineral Resources Division National Research Centre, 33 El Bohouth st. (former El Tahrir st.), Dokki, Giza P.O. 12622 (Egypt); Shabaka, A. [Spectroscopy Department, Physics Division, National Research Centre, 33 El Bohouth st. (Former El Tahrir st.), Dokki, Giza P.O. 12622 (Egypt)

    2016-02-15

    Ultraviolet and infrared transmission measurements on an unoriented single-wall (SWCNTs) and multi-wall (MWCNTs) carbon nanotubes films were performed over a frequency range 190–2500 nm for the four different films. A clear change in the fine structure of the infrared spectrum for different films. The higher-energy optical absorption bands, which correspond to transitions across the Van Hove singularities, are not observed in the measured frequency range in the case of MWCNTs films. The broad excitation in the low-energy range below 0.025 eV (Drude peak (E{sub M0})) are attributed to the contributions from metallic carriers localized in a finite length. This Drude peak (E{sub M0}) at low-energies is decreased in in case of MWCNTs, which suggests a progressive transition of metallic tubes to insulating state. The unoriented MWCNTs films have an average thickness of about 200–400 nm. The scanning electron microscope pictures of the SWCNTs and the MWCNTs films illustrate the morphological differences between the four studied samples. The volume fraction of the carbon nanotubes in all films appears to be the same, although there is a difference for particles other than nanotubes in the films.

  19. Inferring Core Tungsten Behavior Using SPRED During the DIII-D Metal Rings Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, D. M.; Kaplan, D.; Groebner, R.; Grierson, B.; Unterberg, Z.; Victor, B.

    2016-10-01

    The GA SPRED EUV spectrometer was used to study core emission of highly charged tungsten ions (W40+-W45+) in the 120-135Å region during the recent Metal Rings Campaign. These experiments used two 5-cm wide toroidal rings of W-coated metal inserts exposed to a variety of DIII-D discharges to study effects of high-Z divertor erosion, migration, core uptake, and effects on advanced tokamak performance. For the proper core temperature range (2-4 keV), the measured multistate W emission forms a well defined spectral pattern that can be used to study the relative importance of strike point location, flux expansion, injected power, ELM characteristics and magnetic drift direction for high-Z core contamination in DIII-D. The spectra are fit using simple Gaussians to estimate concentrations using the historical SPRED intensity calibration. Calibration shots using known core dosages of pellet injected W are used to help infer the relative response of the instrument. Supported by US DOE under DE-FC02-04ER54698, DE-AC02-09CH11466, DE-AC05-00OR22725, DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  20. Electron Spin in Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindelof, P. E.; Borggreen, J.; Jensen, A.; Nygård, J.; Poulsen, P. R.

    2003-10-01

    We review aspects of electrical transport in metallic single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) related to the spin of the conductance electrons. For large contact resistances, R ≫ h/2e2, a SWCNT exhibits Coulomb blockade, and transmission can only occur, when a gate voltage leads to an energy degeneracy for two different numbers of electrons in the SWCNT. The Coulomb blockade gate voltage change is directly proportional to the addition energy for single electron tunnelling. In certain ideal cases every second of the populated electronic states has a higher addition energy, indicating that two spindegenerate electrons are roomed at each orbital state. A low addition energy therefore corresponds to approaching an even number of electrons. The odd-even alternation can be checked in a magnetic field, since then the odd additional electron may enter in one of two Zeeman states. If the high resistance contact is a tunnel junction, the transmission reflects the density of states. This leads to a direct detection of the so-called Luttinger liquid state of the electrons. Ferromagnetic contacts to the SWCNT leads to a conductance which depends on the orientation of the magnetic domains in the contacts. The magnetoresistance effect can be much larger than expected from a simple spin-valve phenomenon. For any intermediate normal metal (Au) contact resistances, R ˜ h/2e2, the Coulomb blockade may still separate the single electron states in the SWCNT with odd and even numbers of electrons. However, at the lowest temperatures the transmission only shows Coulomb blockade for even number of electrons. In the situations with odd number of electrons a coherent tunnelling process dominates. This shortage of the blockade is rooted in the Kondo states formed in the two Au electrodes by exchange interaction due to the spin state in the SWCNT. This tunnelling process is a result of a net spin on the SWCNT and consequently a spin degeneracy. A triplet state is forced into degeneracy with

  1. Cell Wall Assembly in Fucus Zygotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quatrano, Ralph S.; Stevens, Patricia T.

    1976-01-01

    Fertilization triggers the assembly of a cell wall around the egg cell of three brown algae, Fucus vesiculosus, F. distichus, and F. inflatus. New polysaccharide polymers are continually being added to the cell wall during the first 24 hours of synchronous embryo development. This wall assembly involves the extracellular deposition of fibrillar material by cytoplasmic vesicles fusing with the plasma membrane. One hour after fertilization a fragmented wall can be isolated free of cytoplasm and contains equal amounts of cellulose and alginic acid with no fucose-containing polymers (fucans) present. Birefringence of the wall caused by oriented cellulose microfibrils is not detected in all zygotes until 4 hours, at which time intact cell walls can be isolated that retain the shape of the zygote. These walls have a relatively low ratio of fucose to xylose and little sulfate when compared to walls from older embryos. When extracts of walls from 4-hour zygotes are subjected to cellulose acetate electrophoresis at pH 7, a single fucan (F1) can be detected. By 12 hours, purified cell walls are composed of fucans containing a relatively high ratio of fucose to xylose and high levels of sulfate, and contain a second fucan (F2) which is electrophoretically distinct from F1. F2 appears to be deposited in only a localized region of the wall, that which elongates to form the rhizoid cell. Throughout wall assembly, the polyuronide block co-polymer alginic acid did not significantly vary its mannuronic (M) to guluronic (G) acid ratio (0.33-0.55) or its block distribution (MG, 54%; GG, 30%; MM, 16%). From 6 to 24 hours of embryo development, the proportion of the major polysaccharide components found in purified walls is stable. Alginic acid is the major polymer and comprises about 60% of the total wall, while cellulose and the fucans each make-up about 20% of the remainder. During the extracellular assembly of this wall, the intracellular levels of the storage glucan laminaran

  2. Evaluation of Strategies to Improve the Thermal Performance of Steel Frames in Curtain Wall Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hyun Oh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, metal curtain wall systems have been widely used in high-rise buildings due to many advantages, including being lightweight, rapid construction, and aesthetic features. Since the metal frame may lead to lower energy performance, thermal discomfort, and condensation risk due to the high thermal conductivity, its thermal performance can be important for the improvement of the overall thermal performance of the curtain wall system, as well as the energy efficiency of the building envelope. This study aims to evaluate variety of design strategies to improve the thermal performance of steel curtain wall frames. Five base cases and three further steps were selected for two different head profile shapes based on a state-of-the art technology review, and their thermal transmittances were calculated through simulations according to the ISO 12631 standard which is an international standard for calculating thermal transmittance of curtain wall system. Measured results that were obtained from hot-box tests were compared with the calculated results to validate the simulation method of this study. The shape of the head profile did not strongly influence the overall thermal transmittance, and the choice of strategies for the rabbet space was more important. More effective strategies could be decided according to the steps for variation development. This result can serve as a guideline for the design of high-performance curtain wall frames.

  3. Results of the JET real-time disruption predictor in the ITER-like wall campaigns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega, Jesús, E-mail: jesus.vega@ciemat.es [Asociación EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusión, Madrid (Spain); Dormido-Canto, Sebastián [Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia (UNED), Madrid (Spain); López, Juan M. [Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, CAEND UPM-CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Murari, Andrea [Consorzio RFX, Associazione EURATOM/ENEA per la Fusione, Padua (Italy); Ramírez, Jesús M. [Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia (UNED), Madrid (Spain); Moreno, Raúl [Asociación EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusión, Madrid (Spain); Ruiz, Mariano [Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, CAEND UPM-CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Alves, Diogo [Associação EURATOM/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear – Laboratório Associado, Instituto Superior Técnico, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Felton, Robert [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Center, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: •JET real-time disruption predictor with metallic wall 991 discharges analyzed. •Predictor training has been carried out with JET C wall data. •Success, false alarm and missed alarm rates are 98.4%, 0.9% and 1.6%, respectively. •Alarms are triggered in average 426 ms before the disruption. -- Abstract: The impact of disruptions in JET became even more important with the replacement of the previous Carbon Fiber Composite (CFC) wall with a more fragile full metal ITER-like wall (ILW). The development of robust disruption mitigation systems is crucial for JET (and also for ITER). Moreover, a reliable real-time (RT) disruption predictor is a pre-requisite to any mitigation method. The Advance Predictor Of DISruptions (APODIS) has been installed in the JET Real-Time Data Network (RTDN) for the RT recognition of disruptions. The predictor operates with the new ILW but it has been trained only with discharges belonging to campaigns with the CFC wall. 7 real-time signals are used to characterize the plasma status (disruptive or non-disruptive) at regular intervals of 32 ms. After the first 3 JET ILW campaigns (991 discharges), the success rate of the predictor is 98.36% (alarms are triggered in average 426 ms before the disruptions). The false alarm and missed alarm rates are 0.92% and 1.64%.

  4. Boundary conditions at the walls with thermionic electron emission in two temperature modeling of “thermal” plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pekker, Leonid; Hussary, Nakhleh [Victor Technologies, West Lebanon, New Hampshire 03781 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    In this paper, we propose new boundary conditions for the electric potential, the electron energy equation, and the energy equation for heavy particles (ions and neutrals) at the hot walls with thermionic electron emission for two-temperature thermal arc models. The derived boundary conditions assume that the walls are made from refractory metals and, consequently, the erosion of the wall is small and can be neglected. In these boundary conditions, the plasma sheath formed at the electrode is viewed as the interface between the plasma and the wall. The derived boundary conditions allow the calculation of the heat flux to the walls from the plasma. This allows the calculation of the thermionic electron current that makes the model of electrode-plasma interaction self-consistent.

  5. Heat and mass transfer analysis of unsteady MHD nanofluid flow through a channel with moving porous walls and medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zubair Akbar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the numerical study of heat and mass transfer analysis in a viscous unsteady MHD nanofluid flow through a channel with porous walls and medium in the presence of metallic nanoparticles. The two cases for effective thermal conductivity are discussed in the analysis through H-C model. The impacts of the governing parameters on the flow, heat and mass transfer aspects of the issue are talked about. Under the patronage of small values of permeable Reynolds number and relaxation/contraction parameter, we locate that, when wall contraction is together with suction, flow turning is encouraged close to the wall where the boundary layer is shaped. On the other hand, when the wall relaxation is coupled with injection, the flow adjacent to the porous walls decreased. The outcome of the exploration may be beneficial for applications of biotechnology. Numerical solutions for the velocity, heat and mass transfer rate at the boundary are obtained and analyzed.

  6. Extending hydraulic lifetime of iron walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackenzie, P.D. [General Electric Corp. Research and Development Center, Schenectady, NY (United States); Sivavec, T.M.; Horney, D.P.

    1997-12-31

    Iron walls for control of groundwaters contaminated with chlorinated solvents and reducible metals are becoming much more widely used and field studies of this technology have proven successful to date. However, there is still much uncertainty in predicting long-term performance. This work focuses on two factors affecting the lifetime of the iron media: plugging at the treatment zone entrance and precipitation in the bulk iron media. Plugging at the system entrance is due principally to dissolved oxygen in the incoming water and is an issue in aerobic aquifers or in ex-situ canister tests. In an in-situ treatment system, plugging would result in a dramatic reduction in flow through the iron zone. Designs to minimize plugging in field applications include use of larger iron particles and admixing sand of comparable size with the iron particles. Mineral precipitation in the bulk iron media can lead to porosity losses in the media, again reducing flow through the treatment zone. Decreases in reactivity of the iron media may also occur. The nature of the mineral precipitation and the factors that affect extent of mineral precipitation are examined by a variety of tools, including tracer tests, aqueous inorganic profiles, and surface analysis techniques. At short treatment times, measured porosity losses are due mainly to entrapment of a film of H{sub 2} gas on the iron surfaces and also to Fe(OH){sub 2} precipitation. Over longer treatment times precipitation of Fe(OH){sub 2} and FeCO{sub 3} in low carbonate waters and of Fe(OH){sub 2}, FeCO{sub 3} and CaCO{sub 3} in higher carbonate waters will begin to dominate porosity losses. Preliminary results of an on-going study to control pH in an iron zone by admixing iron sulfide with iron show no difference in extent of carbonate precipitation versus a 100% iron system, suggesting that these systems are supersaturated with respect to carbonate precipitation.

  7. Quantum Interference Control of Ballistic Magneto- resistance in a Magnetic Nanowire Containing Two Atomic- Size Domain Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Fallahi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The magnetoresistance of a one-dimensional electron gas in a metallic ferromagnetic nanowire containing two atomic-size domain walls has been investigated in the presence of spin-orbit interaction. The magnetoresistance is calculated in the ballistic regime, within the Landauer-Büttiker formalism. It has been demonstrated that the conductance of a magnetic nanowire with double domain walls can be controlled through the domain walls separation. Also, we have represented another alternative way that enables us to handle easily the magnetoresistance of such a system as well as its conductance by utilizing the Rashba-type spin-orbit interaction induced by the external gates.

  8. On milling of thin-wall conical and tubular workpieces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Mu-Ping; Tsai, Nan-Chyuan; Yeh, Cheng-Wei

    2016-05-01

    Thin-wall tubular-geometry workpieces have been widely applied in aircraft and medical industries. However, due to the special geometry of this kind of workpieces and induced poor machinability, the desired accuracy of machining tends to be greatly degraded, no matter what type of metal-cutting task such as milling, drilling or turning is undertaken. Though numerous research reports are available that the tool path can be planned on the basis of preset surface profile before actual milling operation is performed, it is still difficult to predict the real-time surface profile errors for peripheral milling of thin-wall tubular workpieces. Instead of relying on tool path planning, this research is focused on how to real-time formulate the appropriate applied cutting torque via feedback of spindle motor current. On the other hand, a few suitable cutting conditions which are able to prevent potential break/crack of thin-wall workpieces and enhance productivity but almost retain the same cutting quality is proposed in this research. To achieve this goal, estimated surface profile error on machined parts due to deflections caused by both tool and workpiece is studied at first. Traditionally, by adjusting cutting parameters such as feed rate or cut depth, the deflection of tool or workpiece can be expected not to exceed the specified limit. Instead, an effective feedback control loop is proposed by this work for applying real-time appropriate applied cutting torque to prevent potential break/crack of the thin-wall conical workpieces. The torque estimation approach by spindle motor current feedback and the corresponding fuzzy logic controller are employed. Compared with constant cutting torque during milling operation in tradition manner, it is observed that the time consumption of milling cycle by aid of the aforesaid fuzzy logic controller is greatly shortened while the resulted cutting accuracy upon finish of workpiece can be almost retained.

  9. Improvements in Production of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzano, Leandro; Resasco, Daniel E.

    2009-01-01

    A continuing program of research and development has been directed toward improvement of a prior batch process in which single-walled carbon nanotubes are formed by catalytic disproportionation of carbon monoxide in a fluidized-bed reactor. The overall effect of the improvements has been to make progress toward converting the process from a batch mode to a continuous mode and to scaling of production to larger quantities. Efforts have also been made to optimize associated purification and dispersion post processes to make them effective at large scales and to investigate means of incorporating the purified products into composite materials. The ultimate purpose of the program is to enable the production of high-quality single-walled carbon nanotubes in quantities large enough and at costs low enough to foster the further development of practical applications. The fluidized bed used in this process contains mixed-metal catalyst particles. The choice of the catalyst and the operating conditions is such that the yield of single-walled carbon nanotubes, relative to all forms of carbon (including carbon fibers, multi-walled carbon nanotubes, and graphite) produced in the disproportionation reaction is more than 90 weight percent. After the reaction, the nanotubes are dispersed in various solvents in preparation for end use, which typically involves blending into a plastic, ceramic, or other matrix to form a composite material. Notwithstanding the batch nature of the unmodified prior fluidized-bed process, the fluidized-bed reactor operates in a continuous mode during the process. The operation is almost entirely automated, utilizing mass flow controllers, a control computer running software specific to the process, and other equipment. Moreover, an important inherent advantage of fluidized- bed reactors in general is that solid particles can be added to and removed from fluidized beds during operation. For these reasons, the process and equipment were amenable to

  10. Advancements in subsurface barrier wall technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mutch, R.D. Jr.; Ash, R.E. IV; Caputi, J.R. [Eckenfelder Inc., Mahwah, NJ (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Subsurface barrier walls have been an important component of site remediation efforts for nearly thirty years. However, until the last decade, limited design options were available for barrier wall construction. Most barrier walls were constructed using traditional technologies such as soil-bentonite slurry trench and, in some instances, conventional compacted clay. While other technologies certainly existed, such as vibrating beam and sheet pile walls, they represented a minor share of the remediation market. Today the remediation engineer considering a subsurface barrier wall-based remediation is confronted with a baffling array, of new technologies and permutations of these technologies. Moreover, new technologies are entering the marketplace seemingly on a monthly basis. A partial listing of available barrier wall technologies is presented.

  11. Shape dynamics of growing cell walls

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Shiladitya; Dinner, Aaron R

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a general theoretical framework to study the shape dynamics of actively growing and remodeling surfaces. Using this framework we develop a physical model for growing bacterial cell walls and study the interplay of cell shape with the dynamics of growth and constriction. The model allows us to derive constraints on cell wall mechanical energy based on the observed dynamics of cell shape. We predict that exponential growth in cell size requires a constant amount of cell wall energy to be dissipated per unit volume. We use the model to understand and contrast growth in bacteria with different shapes such as spherical, ellipsoidal, cylindrical and toroidal morphologies. Coupling growth to cell wall constriction, we predict a discontinuous shape transformation, from partial constriction to cell division, as a function of the chemical potential driving cell-wall synthesis. Our model for cell wall energy and shape dynamics relates growth kinetics with cell geometry, and provides a unified framework to d...

  12. Hydrodynamics of ultra-relativistic bubble walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Leitao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In cosmological first-order phase transitions, gravitational waves are generated by the collisions of bubble walls and by the bulk motions caused in the fluid. A sizeable signal may result from fast-moving walls. In this work we study the hydrodynamics associated to the fastest propagation modes, namely, ultra-relativistic detonations and runaway solutions. We compute the energy injected by the phase transition into the fluid and the energy which accumulates in the bubble walls. We provide analytic approximations and fits as functions of the net force acting on the wall, which can be readily evaluated for specific models. We also study the back-reaction of hydrodynamics on the wall motion, and we discuss the extrapolation of the friction force away from the ultra-relativistic limit. We use these results to estimate the gravitational wave signal from detonations and runaway walls.

  13. Systematic survey of the dose enhancement in tissue-equivalent materials facing medium- and high-Z backscatterers exposed to X-rays with energies from 5 to 250 keV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidenbusch, M; Harder, D; Regulla, D

    2014-05-01

    The present study has been inspired by the results of earlier dose measurements in tissue-equivalent materials adjacent to thin foils of aluminum, copper, tin, gold, and lead. Large dose enhancements have been observed in low-Z materials near the interface when this ensemble was irradiated with X-rays of qualities known from diagnostic radiology. The excess doses have been attributed to photo-, Compton, and Auger electrons released from the metal surfaces. Correspondingly, high enhancements of biological effects have been observed in single cell layers arranged close to gold surfaces. The objective of the present work is to systematically survey, by calculation, the values of the dose enhancement in low-Z media facing backscattering materials with a variety of atomic numbers and over a large range of photon energies. Further parameters to be varied are the distance of the point of interest from the interface and the kind of the low-Z material. The voluminous calculations have been performed using the PHOTCOEF algorithm, a proven set of interpolation functions fitted to long-established Monte Carlo results, for primary photon energies between 5 and 250 keV and for atomic numbers varying over the periodic system up to Z = 100. The calculated results correlate well with our previous experimental results. It is shown that the values of the dose enhancement (a) vary strongly in dependence upon Z and photon energy; (b) have maxima in the energy region from 40 to 60 keV, determined by the K and L edges of the backscattering materials; and (c) are valued up to about 130 for "International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) soft tissue" (soft tissue composition recommended by the ICRP) as the adjacent low-Z material. Maximum dose enhancement associated with the L edge occurs for materials with atomic numbers between 50 and 60, e.g., barium (Z = 56) and iodine (Z = 53). Such materials typically serve as contrast media in medical X-ray diagnostics. The gradual

  14. Motional Effect on Wall Shear Stresses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Samuel Alberg; Torben Fründ, Ernst; Yong Kim, Won

    Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of death and severe disability. Wall Shear Stress (WSS), the stress exerted on vessel walls by the flowing blood is a key factor in the development of atherosclerosis. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is widely used for WSS estimations. Most CFD simulations...... are based on static models to ease computational burden leading to inaccurate estimations. The aim of this work was to estimate the effect of vessel wall deformations (expansion and bending) on WSS levels....

  15. Transport and coherent structures in wall turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Tardu, Sedat

    2014-01-01

    Wall bounded turbulent flows are of major importance in industrial and environmental fluid mechanics. The structure of the wall turbulence is intrinsically related to the coherent structures that play a fundamental role in the transport process. The comprehension of their regeneration mechanism is indispensable for the development of efficient strategies in terms of drag control and near wall turbulence management. This book provides an up-to-date overview on the progress made in this specific area in recent years.

  16. Electron-wall Interaction in Hall Thrusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y. Raitses; D. Staack; M. Keidar; N.J. Fisch

    2005-02-11

    Electron-wall interaction effects in Hall thrusters are studied through measurements of the plasma response to variations of the thruster channel width and the discharge voltage. The discharge voltage threshold is shown to separate two thruster regimes. Below this threshold, the electron energy gain is constant in the acceleration region and therefore, secondary electron emission (SEE) from the channel walls is insufficient to enhance electron energy losses at the channel walls. Above this voltage threshold, the maximum electron temperature saturates.

  17. Experimental investigations on dry stone masonry walls

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Brick unreinforced masonry walls have been widely studied both from experimental and numerical point of view, but scarce experimental information is available for dry stone masonry walls that constitute the material more frequently used in the construction of ancient historical constructions. Therefore, the present work aims at increasing the insight about the behavior of typical ancient masonry walls under cyclic loading. To attain such goal, different experimental approaches are consi...

  18. Rectangular Blocks vs Polygonal Walls in Archaeoseismology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus-G. Hinzen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Collapsed or deformed walls in ancient structures constitute important evidence in archaeoseismology, where damage is interpreted in terms of earthquake ground motion. A large variety of wall types have been developed during the millennia in different cultural backgrounds. Often walls with polygonal-shaped building blocks are regarded as more earthquake-resistant than a wall consisting of rectangular elements and, as is sometimes speculated, that the irregular wall types were intentionally developed for that purpose. We use simply structured discrete element models of four walls with different block geometries, perfect rectangular, an Inka-type structure and two polygonal designs, to test their dynamic behavior. In addition to an analytic calculation of ground motion, we use measured strong motion signals as boundary conditions for the 3D wall models with varying height to width ratios. At peak ground accelerations between 1.0 and 9.0 m/s2 and major frequencies of 0.5 to 3 Hz, numeric experiments with the horizontally applied analytic ground motions result in clear differences in the resistance of the four wall types with the rectangular block wall being most vulnerable. For more complex measured 3D motions the Inka-type wall proves more stable than the rectangular block wall; however, height to width ratio still has equally strong influence on the stability. Internal deformation of non-collapsed walls shows some correlation with the parameters of the driving motion. For simple impulsive ground motions, a peak ground displacement threshold exists between toppling and remaining upright for all four models but peak acceleration cannot be reliably back calculated.

  19. Unveiling the Secrets of Metallicity and Massive Star Formation Using DLAs Along Gamma-Ray Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucchiara, A.; Fumagalli, M.; Rafelski, M.; Kocevski, D.; Prochaska, J. X.; Cooke, R. J.; Becker, G. D.

    2015-01-01

    We present the largest, publicly available, sample of Damped Lyman-alpha systems (DLAs) along Swift discovered Gamma-ray Bursts (GRB) line of sights in order to investigate the environmental properties of long GRB hosts in the z = 1.8 - 6 redshift range. Compared with the most recent quasar DLAs sample (QSO-DLA), our analysis shows that GRB-DLAs probe a more metal enriched environment at z approximately greater than 3, up to [X/H] approximately -0.5. In the z = 2 - 3 redshift range, despite the large number of lower limits, there are hints that the two populations may be more similar (only at 90% significance level) than at higher redshifts. Also, at high-z, the GRB-DLA average metallicity seems to decline at a shallower rate than the QSO-DLAs: GRB-DLA hosts may be polluted with metals at least as far as approximately 2 kpc from the GRB explosion site, probably due to previous star-formation episodes and/or supernovae explosions. This shallow metallicity trend, extended now up to z approximately 5, confirms previous results that GRB hosts are star-forming and have, on average, higher metallicity than the general QSO-DLA population. Finally, our host metallicity measurements are broadly consistent with the predictions derived from the hypothesis of two channels of GRB progenitors, one of which is mildly affected by a metallicity bias, although more data are needed to constrain the models at z approximately greater than 4.

  20. Recovery after abdominal wall reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristian Kiim

    2017-01-01

    was lacking. Study II was a case-control study of the effects of an enhanced recovery after surgery pathway for patients undergoing abdominal wall reconstruction for a giant hernia. Sixteen consecutive patients were included prospectively after the implementation of a new enhanced recovery after surgery...... pathway at the Digestive Disease Center, Bispebjerg Hospital, and compared to a control group of 16 patients included retrospectively in the period immediately prior to the implementation of the pathway. The enhanced recovery after surgery pathway included preoperative high-dose steroid, daily assessment...... of revised discharge criteria and an aggressive approach to restore bowel function (chewing gum and enema on postoperative day two). Patients who followed the enhanced recovery after surgery pathway reported low scores of pain, nausea and fatigue, and were discharged significantly faster than patients...