Sample records for high-temperature lithium thin-film

  1. Thin-film Rechargeable Lithium Batteries (United States)

    Bates, J. B.; Gruzalski, G. R.; Dudney, N. J.; Luck, C. F.; Yu, X.


    Rechargeable thin films batteries with lithium metal anodes, an amorphous inorganic electrolyte, and cathodes of lithium intercalation compounds have been fabricated and characterized. The cathodes include TiS{sub 2}, the {omega} phase of V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, and the cubic spinel Li{sub x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 4} with open circuit voltages at full charge of about 2.5 V, 3.7 V, and 4.2 V, respectively. The development of these robust cells, which can be cycled thousands of times, was possible because of the stability of the amorphous lithium electrolyte, lithium phosphorus oxynitride. This material has a typical composition of Li{sub 2.9}PO{sub 3.3}N{sub 0.46} and a conductivity at 25 C of 2 {mu}S/cm. Thin film cells have been cycled at 100% depth of discharge using current densities of 2 to 100 {mu}A/cm{sup 2}. The polarization resistance of the cells is due to the slow insertion rate of Li{sup +} ions into the cathode. Chemical diffusion coefficients for Li{sup +} ions in the three types of cathodes have been estimated from the analysis of ac impedance measurements.

  2. Growth of cuprate high temperature superconductor thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H-U Habermeier


    Full Text Available   This paper reviews briefly the development of physical vapour deposition based HTS thin film preparation technologies to today’s state-of-the-art methods. It covers the main trends of in-situ process and growth control. The current activities to fabricate tapes for power applications as well as to tailor interfaces in cuprate are described. Some future trends in HTS thin film research, both for science as well as application driven activities are outlined.

  3. Effects of high temperature and film thicknesses on the texture evolution in Ag thin films (United States)

    Eshaghi, F.; Zolanvari, A.


    In situ high-temperature X-ray diffraction techniques were used to study the effect of high temperatures (up to 600°C) on the texture evolution in silver thin films. Ag thin films with different thicknesses of 40, 80, 120 and 160nm were sputtered on the Si(100) substrates at room temperature. Then, microstructure of thin films was determined using X-ray diffraction. To investigate the influence of temperature on the texture development in the Ag thin films with different thicknesses, (111), (200) and (220) pole figures were evaluated and orientation distribution functions were calculated. Minimizing the total energy of the system which is affected by competition between surface and elastic strain energy was a key factor in the as-deposited and post annealed thin films. Since sputtering depositions was performed at room temperature and at the same thermodynamic conditions, the competition growth caused the formation of the {122} fiber texture in as-deposited Ag thin films. It was significantly observed that the post annealed Ag thin films showed {111} fiber texture varied with the thickness of thin films. Increasing thin film thickness from 40nm to 160nm led to decreasing the intensity of the {111} fiber texture.

  4. Grating coupler on single-crystal lithium niobate thin film (United States)

    Chen, Zhihua; Wang, Yiwen; Jiang, Yunpeng; Kong, Ruirui; Hu, Hui


    The grating coupler on single-crystal lithium niobate thin film (lithium niobate on insulator, LNOI) was designed. A bottom reflector was added in the LNOI material to improve the coupling efficiency. The grating structure was optimized by FDTD method. The material parameters such as layer thickness of lithium niobate thin film, SiO2 thickness were discussed with respect to the coupling efficiency, and the tolerances of grating period, etch depth, groove width and fiber position were also studied systematically. The simulated maximum coupling efficiency from a grating coupler with (without) bottom reflector to a single-mode fiber is about 78% (40%) in z-cut LNOI for TE polarization.

  5. New Methods for Thin Film Deposition and First Investigations of the use of High Temperature Superconductors for Thin Film Cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Gustafsson, Anna; Vollenberg, Wilhelmus; Seviour, Rebecca


    Niobium thin film cavities have shown good and reliable performance for LEP and LHC, although there are limitations to overcome if this technique should be used for new accelerators such as the ILC. New coating techniques like High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (HiPIMS) has shown very promising results and we will report on its possible improvements for Nb thin film cavity performance. Current materials used in accelerator Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) technologies operate at temperatures below 4 K, which require complex cryogenic systems. Researchers have investigated the use of High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) to form RF cavities, with limited success. We propose a new approach to achieve a high-temperature SRF cavity based on the superconducting ’proximity effect’. The superconducting proximity effect is the effect through which a superconducting material in close proximity to a non-superconducting material induces a superconducting condensate in the latter. Using this effect we hope...

  6. Thin Film Sensors for Minimally-Intrusive Measurements in Harsh High Temperature Environment (United States)

    Lei, Jih-Fen; Will, Herbert A.; Martin, Lisa C.


    Advanced thin film sensors are being developed to provide accurate surface temperature, heat flux and strain measurements for components used in hostile propulsion environments. These sensors are sputter deposited and microfabricated directly onto the test articles with no additional bonding agent. The thickness of the sensors is only a few micrometers which creates minimal disturbance of the gas flow over the test surface. Thus thin film sensors have the advantage over conventional wire- based sensors by providing minimally intrusive measurement and having a faster response. These thin film sensors are being developed for characterization of advanced materials and structures in hostile, high-temperature environments, and for validation of design codes. This paper presents the advances of three high temperature thin film sensor technologies developed at NASA Lewis Research Center: thermocouples, heat-flux gages and strain gages. The fabrication techniques of these thin film sensors which include physical vapor deposition, photolithography patterning and lead Wire attachment are described. Sensors demonstrations on a variety of engine materials, including superalloys, ceramics and advanced ceramic matrix composites, in several hostile, high-temperature test environments are presented. The advantages and limitations of thin film sensor technology are also discussed.

  7. Properties of thin films for high temperature flow sensors (United States)

    Albin, Sacharia


    Requirements of material parameters of high temperature flow sensors are identified. Refractory metal silicides offer high temperature sensitivity and high frequency response and are stable up to 1000 C. Intrinsic semiconductors of high band gap are also considered as sensor elements. SiC and diamond are identified. Combined with substrates of low thermal and electrical conductivity, such as quartz or Al2O3, these materials meet several requirements of high sensitivity and frequency response. Film deposition and patterning techniques suitable for these materials are identified.

  8. High-temperature stability of thermoelectric Ca3Co4O9 thin films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinks, P.; Van Nong, Ngo; Pryds, Nini


    An enhanced thermal stability in thermoelectric Ca3Co4O9 thin films up to 550 °C in an oxygen rich environment was demonstrated by high-temperature electrical and X-ray diffraction measurements. In contrast to generally performed heating in helium gas, it is shown that an oxygen/helium mixture...... provides sufficient thermal contact, while preventing the previously disregarded formation of oxygen vacancies. Combining thermal cycling with electrical measurements proves to be a powerful tool to study the real intrinsic thermoelectric behaviour of oxide thin films at elevated temperatures. © 2015 AIP...

  9. MultiLayer solid electrolyte for lithium thin film batteries (United States)

    Lee, Se -Hee; Tracy, C. Edwin; Pitts, John Roland; Liu, Ping


    A lithium metal thin-film battery composite structure is provided that includes a combination of a thin, stable, solid electrolyte layer [18] such as Lipon, designed in use to be in contact with a lithium metal anode layer; and a rapid-deposit solid electrolyte layer [16] such as LiAlF.sub.4 in contact with the thin, stable, solid electrolyte layer [18]. Batteries made up of or containing these structures are more efficient to produce than other lithium metal batteries that use only a single solid electrolyte. They are also more resistant to stress and strain than batteries made using layers of only the stable, solid electrolyte materials. Furthermore, lithium anode batteries as disclosed herein are useful as rechargeable batteries.

  10. Preparation and Analysis of Platinum Thin Films for High Temperature Sensor Applications (United States)

    Wrbanek, John D.; Laster, Kimala L. H.


    A study has been made of platinum thin films for application as high temperature resistive sensors. To support NASA Glenn Research Center s high temperature thin film sensor effort, a magnetron sputtering system was installed recently in the GRC Microsystems Fabrication Clean Room Facility. Several samples of platinum films were prepared using various system parameters to establish run conditions. These films were characterized with the intended application of being used as resistive sensing elements, either for temperature or strain measurement. The resistances of several patterned sensors were monitored to document the effect of changes in parameters of deposition and annealing. The parameters were optimized for uniformity and intrinsic strain. The evaporation of platinum via oxidation during annealing over 900 C was documented, and a model for the process developed. The film adhesion was explored on films annealed to 1000 C with various bondcoats on fused quartz and alumina. From this compiled data, a list of optimal parameters and characteristics determined for patterned platinum thin films is given.

  11. Thin film lithium-based batteries and electrochromic devices fabricated with nanocomposite electrode materials (United States)

    Gillaspie, Dane T; Lee, Se-Hee; Tracy, C. Edwin; Pitts, John Roland


    Thin-film lithium-based batteries and electrochromic devices (10) are fabricated with positive electrodes (12) comprising a nanocomposite material composed of lithiated metal oxide nanoparticles (40) dispersed in a matrix composed of lithium tungsten oxide.

  12. Synthesis and Characterization of Thin Film Lithium-Ion Batteries Using Polymer Electrolytes (United States)

    Maranchi, Jeffrey P.; Kumta, Prashant N.; Hepp, Aloysius F.; Raffaelle, Ryne P.


    The present paper describes the integration of thin film electrodes with polymer electrolytes to form a complete thin film lithium-ion battery. Thin film batteries of the type, LiCoO2 [PAN, EC, PC, LiN(CF3SO2)2] SnO2 have been fabricated. The results of the synthesis and characterization studies will be presented and discussed.

  13. High temperature thermoelectric properties of strontium titanate thin films with oxygen vacancy and niobium doping

    KAUST Repository

    Sarath Kumar, S. R.


    We report the evolution of high temperature thermoelectric properties of SrTiO3 thin films doped with Nb and oxygen vacancies. Structure-property relations in this important thermoelectric oxide are elucidated and the variation of transport properties with dopant concentrations is discussed. Oxygen vacancies are incorporated during growth or annealing in Ar/H2 above 800 K. An increase in lattice constant due to the inclusion of Nb and oxygen vacancies is found to result in an increase in carrier density and electrical conductivity with simultaneous decrease in carrier effective mass and Seebeck coefficient. The lattice thermal conductivity at 300 K is found to be 2.22 W m-1 K-1, and the estimated figure of merit is 0.29 at 1000 K. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  14. Characterization of Thick and Thin Film SiCN for Pressure Sensing at High Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rama B. Bhat


    Full Text Available Pressure measurement in high temperature environments is important in many applications to provide valuable information for performance studies. Information on pressure patterns is highly desirable for improving performance, condition monitoring and accurate prediction of the remaining life of systems that operate in extremely high temperature environments, such as gas turbine engines. A number of technologies have been recently investigated, however these technologies target specific applications and they are limited by the maximum operating temperature. Thick and thin films of SiCN can withstand high temperatures. SiCN is a polymer-derived ceramic with liquid phase polymer as its starting material. This provides the advantage that it can be molded to any shape. CERASET™ also yields itself for photolithography, with the addition of photo initiator 2, 2-Dimethoxy-2-phenyl-acetophenone (DMPA, thereby enabling photolithographical patterning of the pre-ceramic polymer using UV lithography. SiCN fabrication includes thermosetting, crosslinking and pyrolysis. The technology is still under investigation for stability and improved performance. This work presents the preparation of SiCN films to be used as the body of a sensor for pressure measurements in high temperature environments. The sensor employs the phenomenon of drag effect. The pressure sensor consists of a slender sensitive element and a thick blocking element. The dimensions and thickness of the films depend on the intended application of the sensors. Fabrication methods of SiCN ceramics both as thin (about 40–60 µm and thick (about 2–3 mm films for high temperature applications are discussed. In addition, the influence of thermosetting and annealing processes on mechanical properties is investigated.

  15. Preparation of LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} cathode thin films for thin film lithium secondary batteries by a mist CVD process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tadanaga, Kiyoharu, E-mail: [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai, Osaka, 599-8531 (Japan); Yamaguchi, Akihiro; Sakuda, Atsushi; Hayashi, Akitoshi; Tatsumisago, Masahiro [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai, Osaka, 599-8531 (Japan); Duran, Alicia; Aparacio, Mario [Instituto de Cerámica y Vidrio, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Kelsen 5 (Campus de Cantoblanco), Madrid, 28049 (Spain)


    Highlights: • LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} thin films were prepared by using the mist CVD process. • An aqueous solution of lithium and manganese acetates is used for the precursor solution. • The cell with the LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} thin films exhibited a capacity of about 80 mAh/g. • The cell showed good cycling performance during 10 cycles. - Abstract: LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} cathode thin films for thin film lithium secondary batteries were prepared by using so-called the “mist CVD process”, employing an aqueous solution of lithium acetate and manganese acetate, as the source of Li and Mn, respectively. The aqueous solution of starting materials was ultrasonically atomized to form mist particles, and mists were transferred by nitrogen gas to silica glass substrate to form thin films. FE-SEM observation revealed that thin films obtained by this process were dense and smooth, and thin films with a thickness of about 750 nm were obtained. The electrochemical cell with the thin films obtained by sintering at 700 °C exhibited a capacity of about 80 mAh/g, and the cell showed good cycling performance during 10 cycles.

  16. Optical and structural properties of single-crystal lithium niobate thin film (United States)

    Han, Huangpu; Cai, Lutong; Hu, Hui


    High-refractive-index contrast, single-crystal lithium niobate thin films are emerging as a new platform for integrated optics. Such lithium niobate thin films are prepared using ion implantation and direct-wafer bonding to a SiO2 layer deposited on a LN substrate. However, the ion-implantation process can cause changes in the refractive index and result in lattice damage, and there are few studies on the optical and structural properties of lithium niobate thin film to compensate for this. In this paper, we reported that the refractive index of lithium niobate thin film can reach that of the bulk material by annealing in an oxygen atmosphere at 500 °C for 5 h. The experimental results of high-resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) and Rutherford back-scattering spectrum (RBS) showed a good crystal lattice arrangement in the LN thin film. These experimental results confirmed that the refractive index and crystal-lattice structural properties of the lithium niobate thin film were similar to that of the bulk material. To demonstrate the application on integrated optics, a 1 μm wide photonic wire was fabricated and the near-field intensity profile at 1.55 μm wavelength was obtained and compared with the simulation result.

  17. Zirconium diboride thin films for use in high temperature sensors and MEMS devices (United States)

    Stewart, David M.; Bernhardt, George P.; Lad, Robert J.


    Sensors and MEMS devices operating in high temperature environments require stable thin films with high electrical conductivity for use as electrodes, bond pads, and other components. Metal films are unreliable because of thermodynamically driven morphological instability and agglomeration over long times. Zirconium diboride (ZrB2) is an ultra-high temperature conducting ceramic with a melting point of 3245°C, with low atomic diffusion rates compared to other materials. To evaluate ZrB2 as a high temperature film, 200 nm thick ZrB2 films were synthesized on r-sapphire substrates using e-beam co-evaporation of elemental Zr and B sources. Film stability was characterized after post-deposition thermal treatments from 600-1000°C in both reducing (vacuum) and oxidizing (air) environments. ZrB2 films deposited at room temperature are amorphous, but have short-range order characteristic of ZrB2 bonding. ZrB2 films grown at 600°C are polycrystalline with preferred changes occur after annealing at 850°C for 55 hours in vacuum, and film electrical conductivity remains leads to ZrB2 film decomposition into ZrO2 and B2O3 phases, the latter of which is volatile. X-ray diffraction indicates that a 50 nm thick hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) capping layer grown on top of ZrB2 via magnetron sputtering hinders oxidation, but the ZrB2 eventually transforms to ZrO2. These results indicate that ZrB2 films are attractive for potential use in sensors and MEMS devices in high temperature reducing environments, and for short times in oxidizing environments when covered with a h-BN capping layer.

  18. Lithiation and Delithiation Mechanisms of Gold Thin Film Model Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries: Electrochemical Characterization


    Bach, Philipp; Stratmann, M; Valencia-Jaime, I.; Romero, A. H.; Renner, Frank


    Lithium Ion batteries have to be significantly improved to fulfill the challenging needs in electromobility or large scale energy storage technology. In this context the use of model electrodes such as single-crystals or thin films allows well-defined mechanistic studies. Here we present a detailed electrochemical investigation of the lithiation-delithiation behavior of Au thin film model electrodes in ionic liquid electrolyte. Cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic-, stepwise potentiostatic lithi...

  19. High temperature superconducting thin films and quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) for gradiometers

    CERN Document Server

    Graf zu Eulenburg, A


    the best balance and gradient sensitivity at 1kHz were 3x10 sup - sup 3 and 222fT/(cm sq root Hz))) respectively. The measured spatial response to a current carrying wire was in good agreement with a theoretical model. A significant performance improvement was obtained with the development of a single layer gradiometer with 13mm baseline, fabricated on 30x10mm sup 2 bicrystals. For such a device, the gradient sensitivity at 1kHz was 50fT/(cm sq root Hz)) and the gradiometer was used successfully for unshielded magnetocardiography. A parasitic effective area compensation scheme was employed with two neighbouring SQUIDs coupled in an opposite sense to the same gradiometer loop. This improved the balance from the intrinsic value of 10 sup - sup 3 to 3x10 sup - sup 5. This thesis describes several aspects of the development of gradiometers using high temperature Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUID). The pulsed laser deposition of thin films of YBa sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub 7 sub - subdelta (YBCO) on Sr...

  20. High temperature electrical resistivity and Seebeck coefficient of Ge2Sb2Te5 thin films (United States)

    Adnane, L.; Dirisaglik, F.; Cywar, A.; Cil, K.; Zhu, Y.; Lam, C.; Anwar, A. F. M.; Gokirmak, A.; Silva, H.


    High-temperature characterization of the thermoelectric properties of chalcogenide Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST) is critical for phase change memory devices, which utilize self-heating to quickly switch between amorphous and crystalline states and experience significant thermoelectric effects. In this work, the electrical resistivity and Seebeck coefficient are measured simultaneously as a function of temperature, from room temperature to 600 °C, on 50 nm and 200 nm GST thin films deposited on silicon dioxide. Multiple heating and cooling cycles with increasingly maximum temperature allow temperature-dependent characterization of the material at each crystalline state; this is in contrast to continuous measurements which return the combined effects of the temperature dependence and changes in the material. The results show p-type conduction (S > 0), linear S(T), and a positive Thomson coefficient (dS/dT) up to melting temperature. The results also reveal an interesting linearity between dS/dT and the conduction activation energy for mixed amorphous-fcc GST, which can be used to estimate one parameter from the other. A percolation model, together with effective medium theory, is adopted to correlate the conductivity of the material with average grain sizes obtained from XRD measurements. XRD diffraction measurements show plane-dependent thermal expansion for the cubic and hexagonal phases.

  1. Structural and Electrochemical Properties of Lithium Nickel Oxide Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyu-bong Cho


    Full Text Available LiNiO2 thin films were fabricated by RF magnetron sputtering. The microstructure of the films was determined by X-ray diffraction and field-emission scanning electron microscopy. The electrochemical properties were investigated with a battery cycler using coin-type half-cells. The LiNiO2 thin films annealed below 500°C had the surface carbonate. The results suggest that surface carbonate interrupted the Li intercalation and deintercalation during charge/discharge. Although the annealing process enhanced the crystallization of LiNiO2, the capacity did not increase. When the annealing temperature was increased to 600°C, the FeCrNiO4 oxide phase was generated and the discharge capacity decreased due to an oxygen deficiency in the LiNiO2 thin film. The ZrO2-coated LiNiO2 thin film provided an improved discharge capacity compared to bare LiNiO2 thin film suggesting that the improved electrochemical characteristic may be attributed to the inhibition of surface carbonate by ZrO2 coating layer.

  2. Thin-film Rechargeable Lithium Batteries for Implantable Devices (United States)

    Bates, J. B.; Dudney, N. J.


    Thin films of LiCoO{sub 2} have been synthesized in which the strongest x ray reflection is either weak or missing, indicating a high degree of preferred orientation. Thin film solid state batteries with these textured cathode films can deliver practical capacities at high current densities. For example, for one of the cells 70% of the maximum capacity between 4.2 V and 3 V ({approximately}0.2 mAh/cm{sup 2}) was delivered at a current of 2 mA/cm{sup 2}. When cycled at rates of 0.1 mA/cm{sup 2}, the capacity loss was 0.001%/cycle or less. The reliability and performance of Li LiCoO{sub 2} thin film batteries make them attractive for application in implantable devices such as neural stimulators, pacemakers, and defibrillators.

  3. Thin-film calorimetry. In-situ characterization of materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omelcenko, Alexander; Wulfmeier, Hendrik; Albrecht, Daniel; Fritze, Holger [Clausthal Univ. of Technology, Goslar (Germany). Inst. of Energy Research and Physical Technologies; El Mofid, Wassima; Ivanov, Svetlozar; Bund, Andreas [Ilmenau Univ. of Technology (Germany). Dept. of Electrochemistry


    Thin-film calorimetry allows for qualitative and quantitative in-situ analysis of thermodynamic properties of thin films and thin-film systems from room temperature up to 1000 C. It is based on highly sensitive piezoelectric langasite resonators which serve simultaneously as planar temperature sensors and substrates for the films of interest. Generation or consumption of heat during phase transformations of the films cause deviations from the regular course of the resonance frequency. Thermodynamic data such as phase transformation temperatures and enthalpies are extracted from these deviations. Thin-film calorimetry on Sn and Al thin films is performed to prove the concept. The results demonstrate high reproducibility of the measurement approach and are in agreement with literature data obtained by established calorimetric techniques. The calibration of the system is done in different atmospheres by application of defined heat pulses via heating structures. The latter replace the films of interest and simulate phase transformations to provide detailed analysis of the heat transfer mechanisms occurring in the measurement system. Based on this analysis, a data evaluation concept is developed. Application-relevant studies are performed on thin films of the lithium-ion battery materials NMC(A), NCA, LMO, and MoS{sub 2}. Their phase transformation temperatures and enthalpies are evaluated in oxidizing and reducing atmospheres. Furthermore, their thermodynamic stability ranges are presented. Finally, measurements on all-solid-state thin-film batteries during electrochemical cycling are performed. They demonstrate the suitability of the system for in-situ investigations.

  4. A Step toward High-Energy Silicon-Based Thin Film Lithium Ion Batteries. (United States)

    Reyes Jiménez, Antonia; Klöpsch, Richard; Wagner, Ralf; Rodehorst, Uta C; Kolek, Martin; Nölle, Roman; Winter, Martin; Placke, Tobias


    The next generation of lithium ion batteries (LIBs) with increased energy density for large-scale applications, such as electric mobility, and also for small electronic devices, such as microbatteries and on-chip batteries, requires advanced electrode active materials with enhanced specific and volumetric capacities. In this regard, silicon as anode material has attracted much attention due to its high specific capacity. However, the enormous volume changes during lithiation/delithiation are still a main obstacle avoiding the broad commercial use of Si-based electrodes. In this work, Si-based thin film electrodes, prepared by magnetron sputtering, are studied. Herein, we present a sophisticated surface design and electrode structure modification by amorphous carbon layers to increase the mechanical integrity and, thus, the electrochemical performance. Therefore, the influence of amorphous C thin film layers, either deposited on top (C/Si) or incorporated between the amorphous Si thin film layers (Si/C/Si), was characterized according to their physical and electrochemical properties. The thin film electrodes were thoroughly studied by means of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy. We can show that the silicon thin film electrodes with an amorphous C layer showed a remarkably improved electrochemical performance in terms of capacity retention and Coulombic efficiency. The C layer is able to mitigate the mechanical stress during lithiation of the Si thin film by buffering the volume changes and to reduce the loss of active lithium during solid electrolyte interphase formation and cycling.

  5. Second harmonic generation in nano-structured thin-film lithium niobate waveguides. (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Xiong, Xiao; Andrade, Nicolas; Venkataraman, Vivek; Ren, Xi-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can; Lončar, Marko


    Integrated thin-film lithium niobate platform has recently emerged as a promising candidate for next-generation, high-efficiency wavelength conversion systems that allow dense packaging and mass-production. Here we demonstrate efficient, phase-matched second harmonic generation in lithographically-defined thin-film lithium niobate waveguides with sub-micron dimensions. Both modal phase matching in fixed-width waveguides and quasi-phase matching in periodically grooved waveguides are theoretically proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Our low-loss (~3.0 dB/cm) nanowaveguides possess normalized conversion efficiencies as high as 41% W-1cm-2.

  6. Efficient second harmonic generation in χ(2) profile reconfigured lithium niobate thin film (United States)

    Cai, Lutong; Wang, Yiwen; Hu, Hui


    Second harmonic wave was efficiently generated in proton exchanged lithium niobate thin film channel waveguides. Modal dispersion phase matching was achieved between two guided modes at pump and second-harmonic wavelengths with the same polarization, enabling using the largest second-order nonlinear component d33. The χ(2) profile in the lithium niobate thin film was reconfigured by proton exchange, leading to significantly enhanced modal overlap integral between the interacting modes. Normalized conversion efficiency up to 48% W-1 cm-2 was achieved in experiments.

  7. Heavy lithium-doped ZnO thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lithium-doped ZnO thin films (ZnO : Li) were prepared by spray pyrolysis method on the glass substrates for ( = [Li]/[Zn]) value varied between 5 and 70%. Structural, electrical and optical properties of the samples were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV–Vis–NIR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), ...

  8. Preparation and characterization of nanostructured Ni2N thin film as electrode for lithium ion storage (United States)

    Ma, Zhi-yuan; Zhang, Hong; Sun, Xiang; Guo, Jia; Li, Zhi-cheng


    The hierarchical Ni2N thin films were fabricated by a method of reactive radio-frequency magnetron sputtering, operating at ambient temperature. The phase composition and microstructure of the Ni2N thin films were analyzed by using X-ray diffractometer, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The Ni2N thin films were applied as electrodes for lithium ion storage with the metallic lithium as counter and reference electrode, and the related electrochemical characteristics were investigated. The binder-free Ni2N thin film electrodes show a reversible specific capacity of around 450 mA h g-1 at a current density of 120 mA g-1, and exhibit a superior rate performance with a specific capacity of 191.7 mA h g-1 at a current density of 2240 mA g-1. TEM analysis on the phase evolution of the Ni2N thin film electrodes induced at various discharge/charge statuses revealed that the lithiation process has a stepwise mechanisms consisting of the Li+-intercalation reaction and a subsequent conversion reaction, while the delithiation process is mainly composed of a typical conversion reaction.

  9. Periodic domain inversion in x-cut single-crystal lithium niobate thin film (United States)

    Mackwitz, P.; Rüsing, M.; Berth, G.; Widhalm, A.; Müller, K.; Zrenner, A.


    We report the fabrication of periodically poled domain patterns in x-cut lithium niobate thin-film. Here, thin films on insulator have drawn particular attention due to their intrinsic waveguiding properties offering high mode confinement and smaller devices compared to in-diffused waveguides in bulk material. In contrast to z-cut thin film lithium niobate, the x-cut geometry does not require back electrodes for poling. Further, the x-cut geometry grants direct access to the largest nonlinear and electro-optical tensor element, which overall promises smaller devices. The domain inversion was realized via electric field poling utilizing deposited aluminum top electrodes on a stack of LN thin film/SiO2 layer/Bulk LN, which were patterned by optical lithography. The periodic domain inversion was verified by non-invasive confocal second harmonic microscopy. Our results show domain patterns in accordance to the electrode mask layout. The second harmonic signatures can be interpreted in terms of spatially, overlapping domain filaments which start their growth on the +z side.

  10. Flexible lithium-ion planer thin-film battery

    KAUST Repository

    Kutbee, Arwa T.


    Commercialization of wearable electronics requires miniaturized, flexible power sources. Lithium ion battery is a strong candidate as the next generation high performance flexible battery. The development of flexible materials for battery electrodes suffers from the limited material choices. In this work, we present a flexible inorganic lithium-ion battery with no restrictions on the materials used. The battery showed an enhanced normalized capacity of 146 ??Ah/cm2.

  11. The effect of thin film morphology on the electrochemical performance of Cu-Sn anode for lithium rechargeable batteries. (United States)

    Polat, B D; Keleş, O


    We investigate the anode performance of non ordered and ordered nanostructured Cu-Sn thin films deposited via electron beam deposition technique. The ordered nanostructured Cu-Sn thin film having nano-porosities was fabricated using an oblique (co)deposition technique. Our results showed that the nano structured Cu-Sn thin film containing Cu-Sn nanorods had higher initial anodic capacity (790 mA h g(-)) than that of the non ordered thin film (330 mA h g(-)). But the capacity of the ordered nanostructured Cu-Sn thin film diminished after the first cycle and a steady state capacity value around 300 mA h g(-) is sustainable in following up to 80th cycle, which is attributed to the composition and morphology of the thin film. The presence of copper containing Sn nanorods leading to form nano-porosities as interstitial spaces among them, enhanced lithium ions movement within thin film and increased the thin film tolerance against the stress generated because of the drastic volume change occurred during lithiation-delithiation processes; hence, homogenously distributed porosities increased the cycle life of the thin film.

  12. Tuning the Spin State in LaCoO3 Thin Films for Enhanced High-Temperature Oxygen Electrocatalysis. (United States)

    Hong, Wesley T; Gadre, Milind; Lee, Yueh-Lin; Biegalski, Michael D; Christen, Hans M; Morgan, Dane; Shao-Horn, Yang


    The slow kinetics of oxygen surface exchange hinders the efficiency of high-temperature oxygen electrocatalytic devices such as solid oxide fuel cells and oxygen separation membranes. Systematic investigations of material properties that link to catalytic activity can aid in the rational design of highly active cathode materials. Here, we explore LaCoO3 thin films as a model system for tuning catalytic activity through strain-induced changes in the Co spin state. We demonstrate that Raman spectroscopy can be used to probe the Co-O bond strength at different temperatures to determine the relative spin occupancies of LaCoO3. We find that strain can be used to reduce the spin transition temperature and promote the occupation of higher spin states that weaken the Co-O bond. The decrease in Co-O bond strength and increased spin moment of the thin films result in significant enhancements of the oxygen surface exchange kinetics by up to 2 orders of magnitude.

  13. Ultrahigh-Performance Cu2ZnSnS4 Thin Film and Its Application in Microscale Thin-Film Lithium-Ion Battery: Comparison with SnO2. (United States)

    Lin, Jie; Guo, Jianlai; Liu, Chang; Guo, Hang


    To develop a high-performance anode for thin-film lithium-ion batteries (TFBs, with a total thickness on the scale of micrometers), a Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin film is fabricated by magnetron sputtering and exhibits an ultrahigh performance of 950 mAh g-1 even after 500 cycles, which is the highest among the reported CZTS for lithium storage so far. The characterization and electrochemical tests reveal that the thin-film structure and additional reactions both contribute to the excellent properties. Furthermore, the microscale TFBs with effective footprints of 0.52 mm2 utilizing the CZTS thin film as anode are manufactured by microfabrication techniques, showing superior capability than the analogous TFBs with the SnO2 thin film as anode. This work demonstrates the advantages of exploiting thin-film electrodes and novel materials into micropower sources by electronic manufacture methods.

  14. High-temperature laser annealing for thin film polycrystalline silicon solar cell on glass substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chowdhury, A.; Slaoui, A. [InESS-UdS-CNRS, Strasbourg (France); Schneider, J. [CSG Solar AG, Thalheim (Germany); Fraunhofer Centre for Silicon Photovoltaics, Halle (Germany); Dore, J. [CSG Solar AG, Thalheim (Germany); Suntech R and D Australia Pty Ltd, Sydney (Australia); Mermet, F. [IREPA Laser, Strasbourg (France)


    Thin film polycrystalline silicon films grown on glass substrate were irradiated with an infrared continuous wave laser for defects annealing and/or dopants activation. The samples were uniformly scanned using an attachment with the laser system. Substrate temperature, scan speed and laser power were varied to find suitable laser annealing conditions. The Raman spectroscopy and Suns-V{sub oc} analysis were carried out to qualify the films quality after laser annealing. A maximum enhancement of the open circuit voltage V{sub oc} of about 100 mV is obtained after laser annealing of as-grown polysilicon structures. A strong correlation was found between the full width half maximum of the Si crystalline peak and V{sub oc}. It is interpreted as due to defects annealing as well as to dopants activation in the absorbing silicon layer. The maximum V{sub oc} reached is 485 mV after laser treatment and plasma hydrogenation, thanks to defects passivation. (orig.)

  15. Electrical Properties of Thin-Film Capacitors Fabricated Using High Temperature Sputtered Modified Barium Titanate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Mamazza


    Full Text Available Simple thin-film capacitor stacks were fabricated from sputter-deposited doped barium titanate dielectric films with sputtered Pt and/or Ni electrodes and characterized electrically. Here, we report small signal, low frequency capacitance and parallel resistance data measured as a function of applied DC bias, polarization versus applied electric field strength and DC load/unload experiments. These capacitors exhibited significant leakage (in the range 8–210 μA/cm2 and dielectric loss. Measured breakdown strength for the sputtered doped barium titanate films was in the range 200 kV/cm −2 MV/cm. For all devices tested, we observed clear evidence for dielectric saturation at applied electric field strengths above 100 kV/cm: saturated polarization was in the range 8–15 μC/cm2. When cycled under DC conditions, the maximum energy density measured for any of the capacitors tested here was ~4.7 × 10−2 W-h/liter based on the volume of the dielectric material only. This corresponds to a specific energy of ~8 × 10−3 W-h/kg, again calculated on a dielectric-only basis. These results are compared to those reported by other authors and a simple theoretical treatment provided that quantifies the maximum energy that can be stored in these and similar devices as a function of dielectric strength and saturation polarization. Finally, a predictive model is developed to provide guidance on how to tailor the relative permittivities of high-k dielectrics in order to optimize their energy storage capacities.

  16. Thin Films of Reduced Hafnium Oxide with Excess Carbon for High-Temperature Oxidation Protection (United States)


    contamination; thus the higher oxygen content found by XPS is partly due to organic impurities (and, possibly, water ) that are mostly concentrated in the...International Service Award, 2007. 25 REFERENCES ’C. B. Bargeron, R. C. Benson, and A. N. Jette , "High-Temperature Diffusion of Oxygen in Oxidizing Hafnium...A. N. Jette , and T. E. Phillips, "Oxidation of Hafnium Carbide in the Temperature Range 1400 ° to 2060 °C," Journal of the American Ceramic Society

  17. High Temperature Magnetic Properties of Indirect Exchange Spring FePt/M(Cu,C/Fe Trilayer Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anabil Gayen


    Full Text Available We report the investigation of temperature dependent magnetic properties of FePt and FePt(30/M(Cu,C/Fe(5 trilayer thin films prepared by using magnetron sputtering technique at ambient temperature and postannealed at different temperatures. L10 ordering, hard magnetic properties, and thermal stability of FePt films are improved with increasing postannealing temperature. In FePt/M/Fe trilayer, the formation of interlayer exchange coupling between magnetic layers depends on interlayer materials and interface morphology. In FePt/C/Fe trilayer, when the C interlayer thickness was about 0.5 nm, a strong interlayer exchange coupling between hard and soft layers was achieved, and saturation magnetization was enhanced considerably after using interlayer exchange coupling with Fe. In addition, incoherent magnetization reversal process observed in FePt/Fe films changes into coherent switching process in FePt/C/Fe films giving rise to a single hysteresis loop. High temperature magnetic studies up to 573 K reveal that the effective reduction in the coercivity decreases largely from 34 Oe/K for FePt/Fe film to 13 Oe/K for FePt/C(0.5/Fe film demonstrating that the interlayer exchange coupling seems to be a promising approach to improve the stability of hard magnetic properties at high temperatures, which is suitable for high-performance magnets and thermally assisted magnetic recording media.

  18. Performance of RF sputtered p-Si/n-ZnO nanoparticle thin film heterojunction diodes in high temperature environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Satyendra Kumar, E-mail: [Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Model Institute of Engineering and Technology, Jammu, 181122 (India); Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology, Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh, 211004 (India); Hazra, Purnima, E-mail: [Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Shri Mata Vaishno Devi University, Katra, Jammu and Kashmir, 182320 (India)


    Highlights: • Synthesize ZnO nanoparticle thin film on p-Si substrate using RF sputtering method. • I–V and C–V characteristics of Si/ZnO heterojunction diode are studied. • High temperature performance is analyzed accounting barrier height inhomogeneities. • Gaussian distribution of BH inhomogeneities is considered to modify Richardson plot. • Modified R constant is 33.06 Acm{sup −2}K{sup −2}, i.e. nearer to theoretical value 32 Acm{sup −2}K{sup −2}. - Abstract: In this article, temperature-dependent current-voltage characteristics of n-ZnO/p-Si nanoparticle thin film heterojunction diode grown by RF sputtering technique are analyzed in the temperature range of 300–433 k to investigate the performance of the device in high temperature environment. The microstructural, morphological, optical and temptrature dependent electrical properties of as-grown nanoparticle thin film were characterized by X-ray diffractometer (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), field emmision scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), variable angle ellipsometer and semiconductor device analyzer. XRD spectra of as-grown ZnO films are exhibited that highly c-axis oriented ZnO nanostructures are grown on p- Si〈100〉 substrate whereas AFM and FESEM images confirm the homogeneous deposition of ZnO nanoparticles on surface of Si substratewith minimum roughness.The optical propertiesof as-grown ZnO nanoparticles have been measured in the spectral range of 300–800 nm using variable angle ellipsometer.To measure electrical parameters of the device prototype in the temperature range of room temperature (300 K) to 433 K, large area ohmic contacts were fabricated on both side of the ZnO/Si heterostructure. From the current-voltage charcteristics of ZnO/Si heterojunction device, it is observed that the device exhibits rectifing nature at room temperature. However, with increase in temperature, reverse saturation current and barrier

  19. High-temperature sensor instrumentation with a thin-film-based sapphire fiber. (United States)

    Guo, Yuqing; Xia, Wei; Hu, Zhangzhong; Wang, Ming


    A novel sapphire fiber-optic high-temperature sensor has been designed and fabricated based on blackbody radiation theory. Metallic molybdenum has been used as the film material to develop the blackbody cavity, owing to its relatively high melting point compared to that of sapphire. More importantly, the fabrication process for the blackbody cavity is simple, efficient, and economical. Thermal radiation emitted from such a blackbody cavity is transmitted via optical fiber to a remote place for detection. The operating principle, the sensor structure, and the fabrication process are described here in detail. The developed high-temperature sensor was calibrated through a calibration blackbody furnace at temperatures from 900°C to 1200°C and tested by a sapphire crystal growth furnace up to 1880°C. The experimental results of our system agree well with those from a commercial Rayteck MR1SCCF infrared pyrometer, and the maximum residual is approximately 5°C, paving the way for high-accuracy temperature measurement especially for extremely harsh environments.

  20. Enhanced high temperature thermoelectric response of sulphuric acid treated conducting polymer thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Sarath Kumar, S. R.


    We report the high temperature thermoelectric properties of solution processed pristine and sulphuric acid treated poly(3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(4-styrenesulfonate) (or PEDOT:PSS) films. The acid treatment is shown to simultaneously enhance the electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient of the metal-like films, resulting in a five-fold increase in thermoelectric power factor (0.052 W/m. K ) at 460 K, compared to the pristine film. By using atomic force micrographs, Raman and impedance spectra and using a series heterogeneous model for electrical conductivity, we demonstrate that acid treatment results in the removal of PSS from the films, leading to the quenching of accumulated charge-induced energy barriers that prevent hopping conduction. The continuous removal of PSS with duration of acid treatment also alters the local band structure of PEDOT:PSS, resulting in simultaneous enhancement in Seebeck coefficient.

  1. LiCoO2 and SnO2 Thin Film Electrodes for Lithium-Ion Battery Applications (United States)

    Maranchi, Jeffrey P.; Hepp, Aloysius F.; Kumta, Prashant N.


    There is an increasing need for small dimension, ultra-lightweight, portable power supplies due to the miniaturization of consumer electronic devices. Rechargeable thin film lithium-ion batteries have the potential to fulfill the growing demands for micro-energy storage devices. However, rechargeable battery technology and fabrication processes have not kept paced with the advances made in device technology. Economical fabrication methods lending excellent microstructural and compositional control in the thin film battery electrodes have yet to be fully developed. In this study, spin coating has been used to demonstrate the flexibility of the approach to produce both anode (SnO2) and cathode (LiCoO2) thin films. Results on the microstructure crystal structure and electrochemical properties of the thin film electrodes are described and discussed.

  2. Pulsed-laser deposition of vicinal and c-axis oriented high temperature superconducting thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Rössler, R


    respect to the temperature, oxygen pressure and laser fluence. (Re,Hg)Ba sub 2 Ca sub ( n-1)Cu sub n O sub x films are synthesized on (001) and vicinal SrTiO sub 3 substrates in a two step process employing pulsed-laser deposition of Hg-free precursor films and Hg-vapour annealing in a sealed quartz tube. The sealed quartz tube technique is described in detail and the thermodynamics and the phase formation are discussed. The influence of the Hg-vapour pressure and the annealing temperature on the film properties are investigated. The influence of Hg-vapour annealing on Bi sub 2 Sr sub 2 CaCu sub 2 O sub x films is described. YBa sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub x films with thicknesses 20 to 480 nm are deposited on vicinal SrTiO sub 3 substrates (10 degrees tilt angle). Variation of the resistivities and changes in the film morphology depending on film thickness are described. The influence of post-annealing treatments on the film properties is discussed. Pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) of high temperature superconducting ...

  3. Nanocomposite thin films for high temperature optical gas sensing of hydrogen (United States)

    Ohodnicki, Jr., Paul R.; Brown, Thomas D.


    The disclosure relates to a plasmon resonance-based method for H.sub.2 sensing in a gas stream at temperatures greater than about C. utilizing a hydrogen sensing material. The hydrogen sensing material is comprised of gold nanoparticles having an average nanoparticle diameter of less than about 100 nanometers dispersed in an inert matrix having a bandgap greater than or equal to 5 eV, and an oxygen ion conductivity less than approximately 10.sup.-7 S/cm at a temperature of C. Exemplary inert matrix materials include SiO.sub.2, Al.sub.2O.sub.3, and Si.sub.3N.sub.4 as well as modifications to modify the effective refractive indices through combinations and/or doping of such materials. At high temperatures, blue shift of the plasmon resonance optical absorption peak indicates the presence of H.sub.2. The method disclosed offers significant advantage over active and reducible matrix materials typically utilized, such as yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) or TiO.sub.2.

  4. Protection of high temperature superconducting thin-films in a semiconductor processing environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yizi; Fiske, R.; Sanders, S.C.; Ekin, J.W. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO (United States)


    Annealing studies have been carried out for high temperature superconductor YBaCuO{sub 7{minus}{delta}} in a reducing ambient, in order to identify insulator layer(s) that will effectively protect the superconducting film in the hostile environment. While a layer of magnesium oxide (MgO) sputter deposited directly on YBaCuO{sub 7{minus}{delta}} film provides some degree of protection, the authors found that a composite structure of YBCO/SrTiO{sub 3}/MgO, where the SrTiO{sub 3} was grown by laser ablation immediately following YBCO deposition (in-situ process), was much more effective. They also address the need for a buffer layer between YBCO and aluminum (Al) during annealing. Al is most commenly used for semiconductor metalization, but is known to react readily with YBCO at elevated temperatures. The authors found that the most effective buffer layers are platinum (Pt) and gold/platinum (Au/Pt).

  5. Foldable interpenetrated metal-organic frameworks/carbon nanotubes thin film for lithium-sulfur batteries (United States)

    Mao, Yiyin; Li, Gaoran; Guo, Yi; Li, Zhoupeng; Liang, Chengdu; Peng, Xinsheng; Lin, Zhan


    Lithium-sulfur batteries are promising technologies for powering flexible devices due to their high energy density, low cost and environmental friendliness, when the insulating nature, shuttle effect and volume expansion of sulfur electrodes are well addressed. Here, we report a strategy of using foldable interpenetrated metal-organic frameworks/carbon nanotubes thin film for binder-free advanced lithium-sulfur batteries through a facile confinement conversion. The carbon nanotubes interpenetrate through the metal-organic frameworks crystal and interweave the electrode into a stratified structure to provide both conductivity and structural integrity, while the highly porous metal-organic frameworks endow the electrode with strong sulfur confinement to achieve good cyclability. These hierarchical porous interpenetrated three-dimensional conductive networks with well confined S8 lead to high sulfur loading and utilization, as well as high volumetric energy density.

  6. High-temperature performance of MoS{sub 2} thin-film transistors: Direct current and pulse current-voltage characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, C.; Samnakay, R.; Balandin, A. A., E-mail: [Nano-Device Laboratory (NDL), Department of Electrical Engineering, Bourns College of Engineering, University of California—Riverside, Riverside, California 92521 (United States); Phonon Optimized Engineered Materials (POEM) Center, Materials Science and Engineering Program, University of California—Riverside, Riverside, California 92521 (United States); Rumyantsev, S. L. [Department of Electrical, Computer, and Systems Engineering, Center for Integrated Electronics, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Shur, M. S. [Department of Electrical, Computer, and Systems Engineering, Center for Integrated Electronics, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States)


    We report on fabrication of MoS{sub 2} thin-film transistors (TFTs) and experimental investigations of their high-temperature current-voltage characteristics. The measurements show that MoS{sub 2} devices remain functional to temperatures of at least as high as 500 K. The temperature increase results in decreased threshold voltage and mobility. The comparison of the direct current (DC) and pulse measurements shows that the direct current sub-linear and super-linear output characteristics of MoS{sub 2} thin-films devices result from the Joule heating and the interplay of the threshold voltage and mobility temperature dependences. At temperatures above 450 K, a kink in the drain current occurs at zero gate voltage irrespective of the threshold voltage value. This intriguing phenomenon, referred to as a “memory step,” was attributed to the slow relaxation processes in thin films similar to those in graphene and electron glasses. The fabricated MoS{sub 2} thin-film transistors demonstrated stable operation after two months of aging. The obtained results suggest new applications for MoS{sub 2} thin-film transistors in extreme-temperature electronics and sensors.

  7. Integration and High-Temperature Characterization of Ferroelectric Vanadium-Doped Bismuth Titanate Thin Films on Silicon Carbide (United States)

    Ekström, Mattias; Khartsev, Sergiy; Östling, Mikael; Zetterling, Carl-Mikael


    4H-SiC electronics can operate at high temperature (HT), e.g., 300°C to 500°C, for extended times. Systems using sensors and amplifiers that operate at HT would benefit from microcontrollers which can also operate at HT. Microcontrollers require nonvolatile memory (NVM) for computer programs. In this work, we demonstrate the possibility of integrating ferroelectric vanadium-doped bismuth titanate (BiTV) thin films on 4H-SiC for HT memory applications, with BiTV ferroelectric capacitors providing memory functionality. Film deposition was achieved by laser ablation on Pt (111)/TiO2/4H-SiC substrates, with magnetron-sputtered Pt used as bottom electrode and thermally evaporated Au as upper contacts. Film characterization by x-ray diffraction analysis revealed predominately (117) orientation. P- E hysteresis loops measured at room temperature showed maximum 2 P r of 48 μC/cm2, large enough for wide read margins. P- E loops were measurable up to 450°C, with losses limiting measurements above 450°C. The phase-transition temperature was determined to be about 660°C from the discontinuity in dielectric permittivity, close to what is achieved for ceramics. These BiTV ferroelectric capacitors demonstrate potential for use in HT NVM applications for SiC digital electronics.

  8. Electrode and solid electrolyte thin films for secondary lithium-ion batteries (United States)

    Chen, C. H.; Kelder, E. M.; Schoonman, J.

    Electrostatic spray deposition (ESD) was employed to prepare thin layers of Li 1.2Mn 2O 4 (nominal composition) and BPO 4:0.035Li 2O for all-solid-state thin film lithium-ion batteries. The relationships between layer morphologies and deposition conditions such as solvent composition of the precursor solutions and substrate temperature were investigated. It was found that a low substrate temperature and/or high boiling point of the solvent may lead to a relatively dense structure. Reticular porous structures are formed, if films were deposited at 250°C and a mixture of 85 vol.% butyl carbitol and 15 vol.% ethanol was used as the solvent. The Li 1.2Mn 2O 4 layers, formed in the 250-400°C temperature range, were amorphous or micro-crystalline. After annealing beyond 600 °C, they could be crystallized into a spinel-structured material. Glassy BPO 4:0.035Li 2O layers could fill the pores of porous Li 1.2Mn 2O 4 layers to form a dense intermediate electrolyte layer. Thin-film rocking-chair batteries, Li 1.2Mn 2O 4|BPO 4:0.035Li 2O|Li 1.2Mn 2O 4|Al, were prepared and revealed an open-circuit voltage of about 1.2 V after charging.

  9. Plasma properties during magnetron sputtering of lithium phosphorous oxynitride thin films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ane Sælland; Stamate, Eugen; Thydén, Karl Tor Sune


    The nitrogen dissociation and plasma parameters during radio frequency sputtering of lithium phosphorus oxynitride thin films in nitrogen gas are investigated by mass appearance spectrometry, electrostatic probes and optical emission spectroscopy, and the results are correlated with electrochemical...... properties and microstructure of the films. Low pressure and moderate power are associated with lower plasma density, higher electron temperature, higher plasma potential and larger diffusion length for sputtered particles. This combination of parameters favors the presence of more atomic nitrogen, a fact...... that correlates with a higher ionic conductivity. Despite of lower plasma density the film grows faster at lower pressure where the higher plasma potential, translated into higher energy for impinging ions on the substrate, resulted in a compact and smooth film structure. Higher pressures showed much less...

  10. Cu2Sb thin film electrodes prepared by pulsed laser deposition f or lithium batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Seung-Wan; Reade, Ronald P.; Cairns, Elton J.; Vaughey, Jack T.; Thackeray, Michael M.; Striebel, Kathryn A.


    Thin films of Cu2Sb, prepared on stainless steel and copper substrates with a pulsed laser deposition technique at room temperature, have been evaluated as electrodes in lithium cells. The electrodes operate by a lithium insertion/copper extrusion reaction mechanism, the reversibility of which is superior when copper substrates are used, particularly when electrochemical cycling is restricted to the voltage range 0.65-1.4 V vs. Li/Li+. The superior performance of Cu2Sb films on copper is attributed to the more active participation of the extruded copper in the functioning of the electrode. The continual and extensive extrusion of copper on cycling the cells leads to the isolation of Li3Sb particles and a consequent formation of Sb. Improved cycling stability of both types of electrodes was obtained when cells were cycled between 0.65 and 1.4 V. A low-capacity lithium-ion cell with Cu2Sb and LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 electrodes, laminated from powders, shows excellent cycling stability over the voltage range 3.15 - 2.2 V, the potential difference corresponding to approximately 0.65-1.4 V for the Cu2Sb electrode vs. Li/Li+. Chemical self-discharge of lithiated Cu2Sb electrodes by reaction with the electrolyte was severe when cells were allowed to relax on open circuit after reaching a lower voltage limit of 0.1 V. The solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer formed on Cu2Sb electrodes after cells had been cycled between 1.4 and 0.65 V vs. Li/Li+ was characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy; the SEI layer contributes to the large irreversible capacity loss on the initial cycle of these cells. The data contribute to a better understanding of the electrochemical behavior of intermetallic electrodes in rechargeable lithium batteries.

  11. FT-IR analysis of high temperature annealing effects in a-SiC:H thin films (United States)

    Frischmuth, Tobias; Schneider, Michael; Grille, Thomas; Schmid, U.


    Hydrogenated amorphous SiC (a-SiC:H) is an attractive material for MEMS applications where high robustness or operation in harsh environments is targeted. In previous publications, it was demonstrated, that the properties of a-SiC:H thin films can be tailored over a wide range by changing the auxiliary table excitation power of a dual plasma source deposition process using an inductively coupled plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition system. In this work, the annealing behavior of dual plasma source deposited a-SiC:H thin films under argon atmosphere is investigated by using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy for chemical analysis. All investigated layers show a decrease of hydrogen containing bonds (X-Hx) and an increase of Si-C bonds with increasing annealing temperature in the FT-IR spectrum. This behaviour is directly linked to the effusion of hydrogen from the thin films at elevated temperatures. In addition, films deposited at higher auxiliary plasma power show more X-Hx and less Si-C bonds, indicating a higher hydrogen amount in those films. All layers shrink with increasing annealing temperature due to the effusion of hydrogen with a stronger shrink at higher PT values caused by the increased hydrogen amount. This shrink also leads to a densification of the thin films.

  12. Sulfur-vanadium oxide gel composites as thin film cathodes for rechargeable lithium batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, S.P.; Gavrilov, A.B.; Skotheim, T.A.


    A class of novel electroactive cathode materials based on composites produced from elemental sulfur and vanadium oxide xerogels or aerogels has been developed as models for lithium battery applications. The use of elemental sulfur in rechargeable lithium batteries has been hindered due to certain limitations such as, very low electronic conductivity and the out-diffusion of polysulfides during the cycling process which reduces the cycling efficiency. Vanadium oxide xerogels and aerogels have certain desirable characteristic physico-chemical properties, such as, high surface areas with nono-scale interconnecting porosity, high electronic conductivity, non- or nanocrystallinity, and oxidation reduction catalytic activity. Since these properties may improve the performance of sulfur based rechargeable batteries, a family of composite cathodes containing elemental sulfur and vanadium oxide gels were produced. The performance of the composites cathodes, in thin film form, were evaluated in coin cells and AA cells with metallic lithium anodes and liquid electrolytes. The multifunctional role of vanadium oxide gels on the cell performance of the cells having composite cathodes has been qualitatively explored. Results indicate that the cathodes having xerogel composites based on vanadium oxide sol from vanadium oxide isopropoxide can be made with high sulfur content (80 wt %) and with low carbon content (5 wt %) and without any polymer binder. This shows the contribution of adhesive properties and electronic conductivity of vanadium oxide xerogels. A significant suppression of polysulfide out-diffusion is observed with appropriate processing of the composite cathodes. It is anticipated that the nanoscale interconnecting porosity of gels plays an important role in this behavior. An excellent rate capability is observed with the vanadium-oxide sulfur composite cathodes indicating the contribution of intrinsic electrochemical properties of the vanadium oxide.

  13. The study of effect of solid electrolyte on charge-discharge characteristics of thin-film lithium-ion batteries (United States)

    Mazaletskiy, L. A.; Lebedev, M. E.; Mironenko, A. A.; Naumov, V. V.; Novozhilova, A. V.; Fedorov, I. S.; Rudy, A. S.


    Results of studies of the solid electrolyte effect on capacitance of thin-film electrodes on the basis of Si-O-Al and VxOy nanocomposites are presented. The studies were carried out by comparing the charge-discharge characteristics of two pairs of the identical electrodes, one of which was covered by LiPON film, within prototypes with two lithium electrodes - the counter and the reference electrode.

  14. High-temperature conductivity evaluation of Nb doped SrTiO{sub 3} thin films: Influence of strain and growth mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguesse, Frédéric [Imperial College London, Department of Materials and London Centre for Nanotechnology, Exhibition Road, SW7 2AZ, London (United Kingdom); CIC ENERGIGUNE, Parque Tecnológico de Alaba, Albert Einstein 48, ED.CIC, 01510, Miñano (Spain); Axelsson, Anna-Karin [Imperial College London, Department of Materials and London Centre for Nanotechnology, Exhibition Road, SW7 2AZ, London (United Kingdom); Reinhard, Patrick [Nonmetallic Inorganic Materials, ETH Zürich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Str. 10, HCI G539, CH-8093, Zürich (Switzerland); Tileli, Vasiliki [Imperial College London, Department of Materials and London Centre for Nanotechnology, Exhibition Road, SW7 2AZ, London (United Kingdom); Rupp, Jennifer L.M. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Alford, Neil McN [Imperial College London, Department of Materials and London Centre for Nanotechnology, Exhibition Road, SW7 2AZ, London (United Kingdom)


    Doped SrTiO{sub 3} thin films, 55 nm thick, were epitaxially grown by Pulsed Laser Deposition with niobium contents ranging from 2 to 5 mol% on SrTiO{sub 3} and LaAlO{sub 3} substrates. The different templates result in different growth defects, film growth mechanism and therefore a different volume fraction of uniformly strained film under the critical thickness. The investigation of the conductivity reveals a significant difference between the two substrate choices, but only at elevated temperatures with conductivity values up to 30% larger for films on SrTiO{sub 3} substrates compared with LaAlO{sub 3}. Whereas in bulk ceramics the niobium level dictates the total conductivity, here it was found that the substrate choice had a greater influence for thin films, in particular at temperatures over 400 °C. This finding provides important information on conductive layers in complex heterostructures where strain and defects could work cooperatively. - Highlights: • Relation between growth mechanisms of Nb-SrTiO{sub 3} thin films with substrate mismatch • Strain dependence of the conductivity revealed by high temperature measurements • Increase of conductivity for films deposited on SrTiO{sub 3} compared to LaAlO{sub 3} substrates • Conductivity mechanisms depend on the mechanical strain applied by the substrate.

  15. Investigation on the oxidation behavior of AlCrVxN thin films by means of synchrotron radiation and influence on the high temperature friction (United States)

    Tillmann, Wolfgang; Kokalj, David; Stangier, Dominic; Paulus, Michael; Sternemann, Christian; Tolan, Metin


    Friction minimization is an important topic which is pursued in research and industry. In addition to the use of lubricants, friction-reducing oxide phases can be utilized which occur during. These oxides are called Magnéli phases and especially vanadium oxides exhibit good friction reducing properties. Thereby, the lubrication effect can be traced back to oxygen deficiencies. AlCrN thin films are being used as coatings for tools which have to withstand high temperatures. A further improvement of AlCrN thin films concerning their friction properties is possible by incorporation of vanadium. This study analyzes the temperature dependent oxidation behavior of magnetron sputtered AlCrVN thin films with different vanadium contents up to 13.5 at.-% by means of X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy. Up to 400 °C the coatings show no oxidation. A higher temperature of 700 °C leads to an oxidation and formation of Magnéli phases of the coatings with vanadium contents above 10.7 at.-%. Friction coefficients, measured by ball-on-disk test are correlated with the oxide formation in order to figure out the effect of vanadium oxides. At 700 °C a decrease of the friction coefficient with increasing vanadium content can be observed, due to the formation of VO2, V2O3 and the Magnéli phase V4O7.

  16. Thin film thermocouples for in situ membrane electrode assembly temperature measurements in a polybenzimidazole-based high temperature proton exchange membrane unit cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, Syed Talat; Lebæk, Jesper; Nielsen, Lars Pleth


    This paper presents Type-T thin film thermocouples (TFTCs) fabricated on Kapton (polyimide) substrate for measuring the internal temperature of PBI(polybenzimidazole)-based high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell (HT-PEMFC). Magnetron sputtering technique was employed to deposit a 2 mu...... m thick layer of TFTCs on 75 mu m thick Kapton foil. The Kapton foil was treated with in situ argon plasma etching to improve the adhesion between TFTCs and the Kapton substrate. The TFTCs were covered with a 7 mu m liquid Kapton layer using spin coating technique to protect them from environmental...

  17. High energy density, thin-film, rechargeable lithium batteries for marine field operations (United States)

    Huang, Biying; Cook, Christopher C.; Mui, Simon; Soo, Philip P.; Staelin, David H.; Mayes, Anne M.; Sadoway, Donald R.

    All solid state, thin-film batteries with the cell configuration of VO x/block copolymer electrolyte/Li have been designed, constructed, and tested. The additive-free (no carbon, no binder) cathode consisted of a dense film of vanadium oxide (˜200 nm thick), deposited on aluminum foil and prepared by laser assisted vapor deposition of vanadium metal in an oxygen atmosphere of controlled chemical potential. The electrolyte was a block copolymer of poly[oligo(oxy-ethylene) methacrylate]- b-poly-(methyl methacrylate) [hence forth denoted as POEM- b-PMMA] containing LiCF 3SO 3. The anode was metallic lithium. At room temperature, cathode capacities of ˜395 mAh/g were measured at a current rate of 0.5 C ( C=400 mA/g) over an operating voltage ranging from 1.5 to 4.0 V. The cathode proved to be resistant to capacity fade as evidenced by the small loss of discharge capacity during the extended cycling (over 200 cycles). It was possible to draw substantial currents. Routine testing was conducted at 0.5 C; however, discharge rates as high as 1.6 C were achieved. Based upon these results, cells designed with these materials in optimal dimensions are projected to have energy densities exceeding ˜350 Wh/kg and power densities exceeding 560 W/kg at 1.6 C.

  18. All-solid-state thin-film rechargeable lithium batteries using solid redox polymerization electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, M.; Visco, S.J.; DeJonghe, L.C.


    Lithium batteries using solid redox polymerization electrodes maintain the advantages of all-solid-state thin-film systems while overcoming the limitations of using intercalation compounds as cathodes (i.e., insufficient rate capability and unsatisfactory cathode utilization). Laboratory Li/PEO/SRPE cells have already demonstrated much higher power capability, energy density, and cathode utilization than analogous Li/PEO/TiS{sub 2} cells. One of the Li/PEO/SRPE cells has achieved 350 cycles from 50{degree}C to 93{degree}C with a sustained energy density of 264 Wh/kg (241 Wh/1), power density of 160 W/kg (144 W/1), and 38% to 75% of cathode utilization at 90% voltage efficiency. At 100{degree}C, power densities of over 2400 W/kg and energy density of 200 W/kg have been achieved with up to 96% utilization of cathode capacity. At ambient temperatures, the cells can be discharged at a current density of 250 {mu}A/cm{sup 2}, achieving a film capacity of 0.5 coulombs/cm{sup 2}. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  19. Finite Element Analysis of Silicon Thin Films on Soft Substrates as Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries (United States)

    Shaffer, Joseph


    The wide-scale use of green technologies such as electric vehicles has been slowed due to insufficient means of storing enough portable energy. Therefore it is critical that efficient storage mediums be developed in order to transform abundant renewable energy into an on-demand source of power. Lithium (Li) ion batteries are seeing a stream of improvements as they are introduced into many consumer electronics, electric vehicles and aircraft, and medical devices. Li-ion batteries are well suited for portable applications because of their high energy-to-weight ratios, high energy densities, and reasonable life cycles. Current research into Li-ion batteries is focused on enhancing its energy density, and by changing the electrode materials, greater energy capacities can be realized. Silicon (Si) is a very attractive option because it has the highest known theoretical charge capacity. Current Si anodes, however, suffer from early capacity fading caused by pulverization from the stresses induced by large volumetric changes that occur during charging and discharging. An innovative system aimed at resolving this issue is being developed. This system incorporates a thin Si film bonded to an elastomeric substrate which is intended to provide the desired stress relief. Non-linear finite element simulations have shown that a significant amount of deformation can be accommodated until a critical threshold of Li concentration is reached; beyond which buckling is induced and a wavy structure appears. When compared to a similar system using rigid substrates where no buckling occurs, the stress is reduced by an order of magnitude, significantly prolonging the life of the Si anode. Thus the stress can be released at high Li-ion diffusion induced strains by buckling the Si thin film. Several aspects of this anode system have been analyzed including studying the effects of charge rate and thin film plasticity, and the results are compared with preliminary empirical measurements to

  20. Metal-organic chemical vapour deposition of lithium manganese oxide thin films via single solid source precursor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyedotun K.O.


    Full Text Available Lithium manganese oxide thin films were deposited on sodalime glass substrates by metal organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD technique. The films were prepared by pyrolysis of lithium manganese acetylacetonate precursor at a temperature of 420 °C with a flow rate of 2.5 dm3/min for two-hour deposition period. Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS, UV-Vis spectrophotometry, X-ray diffraction (XRD spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM and van der Pauw four point probe method were used for characterizations of the film samples. RBS studies of the films revealed fair thickness of 1112.311 (1015 atoms/cm2 and effective stoichiometric relationship of Li0.47Mn0.27O0.26. The films exhibited relatively high transmission (50 % T in the visible and NIR range, with the bandgap energy of 2.55 eV. Broad and diffused X-ray diffraction patterns obtained showed that the film was amorphous in nature, while microstructural studies indicated dense and uniformly distributed layer across the substrate. Resistivity value of 4.9 Ω·cm was obtained for the thin film. Compared with Mn0.2O0.8 thin film, a significant lattice absorption edge shift was observed in the Li0.47Mn0.27O0.26 film.

  1. Fourcross shaped metamaterial filters fabricated from high temperature superconducting YBCO and Au thin films for terahertz waves (United States)

    Demirhan, Y.; Alaboz, H.; Nebioğlu, M. A.; Mulla, B.; Akkaya, M.; Altan, H.; Sabah, C.; Ozyuzer, L.


    In this study, we present a new, unique fourcross shaped metamaterial terahertz (THz) filter fabricated from both gold thin films and YBa2Cu3O7-d high T c superconducting thin films. A commercial electromagnetic simulation software, CST Microwave Studio, is used to design and optimize the metamaterial filter structures. The proposed fourcross shaped rectangular filter structure consists of periodic metallic rings where strip lines are located at the sides of the ring. Fourcross metamaterial filters are fabricated by using e-beam lithography and ion beam etching techniques. Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy measurements validated the design predictions for both the center frequencies and bandwidths of the resonances due to the fourcross structures. The resonance switching of the transmission spectra was investigated by lowering the temperature below the critical transition temperature. This resonance switching effect is not observed in filters made up of metals. This novel fourcross rectangular resonator with a temperature-dependent resonance behavior holds great potential for active, tunable and low loss THz devices for imaging, sensing, and detection applications.

  2. High Temperature Solid State Lithium Battery Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Reliable energy systems with high energy density capable of operating at high temperatures, pressures and radiation levels are needed for certain NASA missions....

  3. Irreversible lithium storage during lithiation of amorphous silicon thin film electrodes studied by in-situ neutron reflectometry (United States)

    Jerliu, Bujar; Hüger, Erwin; Horisberger, Michael; Stahn, Jochen; Schmidt, Harald


    Amorphous silicon is a promising high-capacity anode material for application in lithium-ion batteries. However, a huge drawback of the material is that the large capacity losses taking place during cycling lead to an unstable performance. In this study we investigate the capacity losses occurring during galvanostatic lithiation of amorphous silicon thin film electrodes by in-situ neutron reflectometry experiments for the first ten cycles. As determined from the analysis of the neutron scattering length density and of the film thickness, the capacity losses are due to irreversible storage of lithium in the electrode. The amount of stored lithium increases during cycling to 20% of the maximum theoretical capacity after the 10th cycle. Possible explanations are discussed.

  4. Improved superconducting properties of MgB2 thin films fabricated by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method at high temperature (United States)

    Yakinci, M. Eyyuphan; Yakinci, Z. Deniz; Aksan, M. Ali; Balci, Yakup


    High quality MgB2 superconducting thin films have been successfully prepared by 2.4 MHz ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (USP) system on single crystal Al2O3 (0 0 1) substrates. The microstructure, electrical and magnetic properties of approximately 500-600 nm thick films were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in conjunction with the energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), resistance versus temperature (R-T) and magnetization measurements (M-H) under different magnetic fields and transport critical current density (Jc). Films were first heat treated in situ in the spraying chamber with an extra Mg powder during deposition to compensate excess evaporation of Mg from the films and then additionally heat treated in Ar atmosphere at 700 °C for a short time. According to the results obtained, orientation on any particular direction for the crystal growth was not seen. Homogeneous, highly dense and highly smooth surface morphology and low resistance have been achieved under optimum conditions. Optimally treated films exhibited relatively high transport critical current density of 2.37 × 105 A cm-2. These results have been also compared with the Jcmag results calculated from the M-H curves. The electrical resistance property of the best samples was obtained to be 39.5 and 37.4 K for Tc and Tzero, respectively.

  5. High temperature setup for measurements of Seebeck coefficient and electrical resistivity of thin films using inductive heating (United States)

    Adnane, L.; Williams, N.; Silva, H.; Gokirmak, A.


    We have developed an automated setup for simultaneous measurement of Seebeck coefficient S(T) and electrical resistivity ρ(T) of thin film samples from room temperature to ˜650 °C. S and ρ are extracted from current-voltage (I-V) measurements obtained using a semiconductor parameter analyzer and temperature measurements obtained using commercial thermocouples. The slope and the x-axis intercept of the I-V characteristics represent the sample conductance G and the Seebeck voltage, respectively. The measured G(T) can be scaled to ρ(T) by the geometry factor obtained from the room temperature resistivity measurement of the film. The setup uses resistive or inductive heating to control the temperature and temperature gradient on the sample. Inductive heating is achieved with steel plates that surround the test area and a water cooled copper pipe coil underneath that generates an AC magnetic field. The measurements can be performed using resistive heating only or inductive heating only, or a combination of both depending on the desired heating ranges. Inductive heating provides a more uniform heating of the test area, does not require contacts to the sample holder, can be used up to the Curie temperature of the particular magnetic material, and the temperature gradients can be adjusted by the relative positions of the coil and sample. Example results obtained for low doped single-crystal silicon with inductive heating only and with resistive heating only are presented.

  6. Amorphous and Crystalline Vanadium Oxides as High-Energy and High-Power Cathodes for Three-Dimensional Thin-Film Lithium Ion Batteries. (United States)

    Mattelaer, Felix; Geryl, Kobe; Rampelberg, Geert; Dendooven, Jolien; Detavernier, Christophe


    Flexible wearable electronics and on-chip energy storage for wireless sensors drive rechargeable batteries toward thin-film lithium ion batteries. To enable more charge storage on a given surface, higher energy density materials are required, while faster energy storage and release can be obtained by going to thinner films. Vanadium oxides have been examined as cathodes in classical and thin-film lithium ion batteries for decades, but amorphous vanadium oxide thin films have been mostly discarded. Here, we investigate the use of atomic layer deposition, which enables electrode deposition on complex three-dimensional (3D) battery architectures, to obtain both amorphous and crystalline VO2 and V2O5, and we evaluate their thin-film cathode performance. Very high volumetric capacities are found, alongside excellent kinetics and good cycling stability. Better kinetics and higher volumetric capacities were observed for the amorphous vanadium oxides compared to their crystalline counterparts. The conformal deposition of these vanadium oxides on silicon micropillar structures is demonstrated. This study shows the promising potential of these atomic layer deposited vanadium oxides as cathodes for 3D all-solid-state thin-film lithium ion batteries.

  7. High temperature flow behaviour of SiC reinforced lithium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Abstract. The compressive flow behaviour of lithium aluminosilicate (LAS) glass, with and without SiC particulate reinforcements, was studied. The LAS glass crystallized to β spodumene during high-temperature testing. The flow behaviour of LAS glass changed from Newtonian to non-Newtonian due to the presence of.

  8. Chemical etching of Tungsten thin films for high-temperature surface acoustic wave-based sensor devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spindler, M., E-mail: [IFW Dresden, SAWLab Saxony, P.O. Box 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); Herold, S.; Acker, J. [BTU Cottbus – Senftenberg, Faculty of Sciences, P.O. Box 101548, 01968 Senftenberg (Germany); Brachmann, E.; Oswald, S.; Menzel, S.; Rane, G. [IFW Dresden, SAWLab Saxony, P.O. Box 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany)


    Surface acoustic wave devices are widely used as wireless sensors in different application fields. Recent developments aimed to utilize those devices as temperature sensors even in the high temperature range (T > 300 °C) and in harsh environmental conditions. Therefore, conventional materials, which are used for the substrate and for the interdigital transducer finger electrodes such as multilayers or alloys based on Al or Cu have to be exchanged by materials, which fulfill some important criteria regarding temperature related effects. Electron beam evaporation as a standard fabrication method is not well applicable for depositing high temperature stable electrode materials because of their very high melting points. Magnetron sputtering is an alternative deposition process but is also not applicable for lift-off structuring without any further improvement of the structuring process. Due to a relatively high Ar gas pressure of about 10{sup −1} Pa, the sidewalls of the photoresist line structures are also covered by the metallization, which subsequently prevents a successful lift-off process. In this study, we investigate the chemical etching of thin tungsten films as an intermediate step between magnetron sputtering deposition of thin tungsten finger electrodes and the lift-off process to remove sidewall covering for a successful patterning process of interdigital transducers. - Highlights: • We fabricated Tungsten SAW Electrodes by magnetron sputtering technology. • An etching process removes sidewall covering of photoresist, which allows lift-off. • Tungsten etching rates based on a hydrogen peroxide solutions were determined.

  9. Tuning thin-film electrolyte for lithium battery by grafting cyclic carbonate and combed poly(ethylene oxide) on polysiloxane. (United States)

    Li, Jie; Lin, Yue; Yao, Hehua; Yuan, Changfu; Liu, Jin


    A tunable polysiloxane thin-film electrolyte for all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries was developed. The polysiloxane was synthesized by hydrosilylation of polymethylhydrosiloxane with cyclic [(allyloxy)methyl]ethylene ester carbonic acid and vinyl tris(2-methoxyethoxy)silane. (1) H NMR spectroscopy and gel-permeation chromatography demonstrated that the bifunctional groups of the cyclic propylene carbonate (PC) and combed poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) were well grafted on the polysiloxane. At PC/PEO=6:4, the polysiloxane-based electrolyte had an ionic conductivity of 1.55 × 10(-4) and 1.50 × 10(-3)  S cm(-1) at 25 and 100 °C, respectively. The LiFePO4 /Li batteries fabricated with the thin-film electrolyte presented excellent cycling performance in the temperature range from 25 to 100 °C with an initial discharge capacity at a rate of 1 C of 88.2 and 140 mA h g(-1) at 25 and 100 °C, respectively. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Stresses evolution at high temperature (200°C on the interface of thin films in magnetic components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doumit Nicole


    Full Text Available In the field of electronics, the increase of operating temperatures is a major industrial and scientific challenge because it allows reducing mass and volume of components especially in the aeronautic domain. So minimizing our components reduce masses and the use of cooling systems. For that, the behaviours and interface stresses of our components (in particular magnetic inductors and transformers that are constituted of one magnetic layer (YIG or an alumina substrate (Al2O3 representing the substrate and a thin copper film are studied at high temperature (200°C. COMSOL Multiphysics is used to simulate our work and to validate our measurements results. In this paper, we will present stresses results according to the geometrical copper parameters necessary for the component fabrication. Results show that stresses increase with temperature and copper’s thickness while remaining always lower than 200MPa which is the rupture stress value.

  11. Effect of lithium-ion diffusibility on interfacial resistance of LiCoO2 thin film electrode modified with lithium tungsten oxides (United States)

    Hayashi, Tetsutaro; Miyazaki, Takamichi; Matsuda, Yasutaka; Kuwata, Naoaki; Saruwatari, Motoaki; Furuichi, Yuki; Kurihara, Koji; Kuzuo, Ryuichi; Kawamura, Junichi


    To investigate the contribution of lithium-ion diffusibility of lithium tungsten oxides (LWOs) to low interfacial resistance, we fabricate thin-film electrodes of 6Li-enriched LiCoO2 (6LCO) modified with various structure-types of 6Li-enriched LWOs by pulsed laser deposition. The electrodes are subjected to X-ray diffraction (XRD), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and secondary-ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) analyses. XRD reveals that the LWO layers have Li2WO4 structure with rhombohedral and tetragonal symmetries and amorphous states. EIS shows that the lowest interfacial resistance of the positive electrodes is given by the amorphous state, followed in order by the tetragonal and the rhombohedral symmetry, and that the diffusion coefficients of lithium-ions in the electrodes increase in the same order. SIMS demonstrates that the fastest lithium-ion self-diffusibility into the LWOs is found in the amorphous state, followed in order by tetragonal and rhombohedral symmetry. Furthermore, the amorphous state LWO modification shows smooth lithium-ion diffusion between the LWO and LCO layers after the electrochemical test. Conversely, the rhombohedral LWO modification demonstrates congested lithium-ion diffusion between the LWO and LCO layers after the test. Thus, fast lithium-ion self-diffusibility into the LWO-modified LCO contributes to enhancing the diffusion of lithium-ions, resulting in the reduction of interfacial resistance.

  12. Fabrication of highly crystalline oxide thin films on plastics: Sol–gel transfer technique involving high temperature process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiromitsu Kozuka


    Full Text Available Si(100 substrates were coated with a polyimide (PI–polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP mixture film, and an alkoxide-derived TiO2 gel film was deposited on it by spin-coating. The gel films were fired under various conditions with final annealing at 600–1000 °C. The PI–PVP layer was completely decomposed at such high temperatures while the TiO2 films survived on Si(100 substrates without any damages. When the final annealing temperature was raised, the crystalline phase changed from anatase to rutile, and the crystallite size and the refractive index of the films tended to increase. The TiO2 films thus fired on Si(100 substrates were transferred to polycarbonate (PC substrates by melting the surface of the plastic substrate either in a near-infrared image furnace or on a hot plate under a load. Cycles of deposition and firing were found to be effective in achieving successful transfer even for the films finally annealed at 1000 °C. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analyses on the film/Si(100 interface suggested that the residual carbon or carbides at the interface could be a possible factor, but not a necessary and decisive factor that allows the film transfer.

  13. Fast lithium-ion conducting thin-film electrolytes integrated directly on flexible substrates for high-power solid-state batteries. (United States)

    Ihlefeld, Jon F; Clem, Paul G; Doyle, Barney L; Kotula, Paul G; Fenton, Kyle R; Apblett, Christopher A


    By utilizing an equilibrium processing strategy that enables co-firing of oxides and base metals, a means to integrate the lithium-stable fast lithium-ion conductor lanthanum lithium tantalate directly with a thin copper foil current collector appropriate for a solid-state battery is presented. This resulting thin-film electrolyte possesses a room temperature lithium-ion conductivity of 1.5 × 10(-5) S cm(-1) , which has the potential to increase the power of a solid-state battery over current state of the art. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Water-free titania-bronze thin films with superfast lithium-ion transport. (United States)

    Zhang, Kui; Katz, Michael B; Li, Baihai; Kim, Sung Joo; Du, Xianfeng; Hao, Xiaoguang; Jokisaari, Jacob R; Zhang, Shuyi; Graham, George W; Van der Ven, Anton; Bartlett, Bart M; Pan, Xiaoqing


    Using pulsed laser deposition, TiO2 (-) B and its recently discovered variant Ca:TiO2 (-) B (CaTi5O11) are synthesized as highly crystalline thin films for the first time by a completely water-free process. Significant enhancement in the Li-ion battery performance is achieved by manipulating the crystal orientation of the films, used as anodes, with a demonstration of extraordinary structural stability under extreme conditions. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Clean waveguides in lithium niobate thin film formed by He ion implantation (United States)

    Zhang, Shao-Mei; Jiang, Yun-Peng; Jiao, Yang


    We report on the fabrication of channel waveguides by He ion implantation in a single-crystal LiNbO3 film bonded to a SiO2/LiNbO3 substrate. The planar waveguides were also formed under the same conditions to show the refractive index changes and the thermal annealing properties of ion-implanted LiNbO3 thin film. Using a moderate implantation energy, the formed channel waveguides were clean because He ions passed through the LiNbO3 thin film and deposited into the SiO2 layer. The optical propagation properties of channel waveguides were measured using an end-face coupling method, and the theoretical results were simultaneously calculated for comparison. The mode sizes and end-face reflectivities of channel waveguides with different widths were numerically calculated. The propagation losses were also estimated at approximately 12.2 and 14.3 dB/cm for 7 μm- and 5 μm-wide waveguides, respectively, by the Fabry-Perot method.

  16. Effects of lithium doping on microstructure, electrical properties, and chemical bonds of sol-gel derived NKN thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chun-Cheng [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Department of Mathematic and Physical Sciences, R.O.C. Air Force Academy, Kaohsiung 820, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chan-Ching; Weng, Chung-Ming [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Chu, Sheng-Yuan, E-mail: [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Center for Micro/Nano Science and Technology, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Hong, Cheng-Shong [Department of Electronic Engineering, National Kaohsiung Normal University, Kaohsiung 802, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Cheng-Che [Department of Digital Game and Animation Design, Tung-Fang Design University, Kaohsiung 829, Taiwan (China)


    Highly (100/110) oriented lead-free Li{sub x}(Na{sub 0.5}K{sub 0.5}){sub 1−x}NbO{sub 3} (LNKN, x = 0, 0.02, 0.04, and 0.06) thin films are fabricated on Pt/Ti/SiO{sub 2}/Si substrates via a sol-gel processing method. The lithium (Li) dopants modify the microstructure and chemical bonds of the LNKN films, and therefore improve their electrical properties. The optimal values of the remnant polarization (P{sub r} = 14.3 μC/cm{sup 2}), piezoelectric coefficient (d{sub 33} = 48.1 pm/V), and leakage current (<10{sup −5} A/cm{sup 2}) are obtained for a lithium addition of x = 0.04 (i.e., 4 at. %). The observation results suggest that the superior electrical properties are the result of an improved crystallization, a larger grain size, and a smoother surface morphology. It is shown that the ion transport mechanism is dominated by an Ohmic behavior under low electric fields and the Poole-Frenkel emission effect under high electric fields.

  17. β-NMR measurements of molecular-scale lithium-ion dynamics in poly(ethylene oxide)-lithium-salt thin films. (United States)

    McKenzie, Iain; Cortie, David L; Harada, Masashi; Kiefl, Robert F; Levy, C D Philip; MacFarlane, W Andrew; McFadden, Ryan M L; Morris, Gerald D; Ogata, Shin-Ichi; Pearson, Matthew R; Sugiyama, Jun


    β-detected NMR (β-NMR) has been used to study the molecular-scale dynamics of lithium ions in thin films of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) containing either lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) or lithium trifluoroacetate (LiTFA) salts at monomer-to-salt ratios (EO/Li) of 8.3. The results are compared with previous β-NMR measurements on pure PEO and PEO with lithium triflate (LiOTf) at the same loading [McKenzie et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136, 7833 (2014)]. Activated hopping of (8)Li(+) was observed in all of the films above ∼250 K, with the hopping parameters strongly correlated with the ionicity of the lithium salt rather than the polymer glass transition temperature. The pre-exponential factor increases exponentially with ionicity, while the activation energy for hopping increases approximately linearly, going from 6.3±0.2 kJ mol(-1) in PEO:LiTFA to 17.8±0.2 kJ mol(-1) in PEO:LiTFSI. The more rapid increase in the pre-exponential factor outweighs the effect of the larger activation energy and results in (8)Li(+) hopping being fastest in PEO followed by PEO:LiTFSI, PEO:LiOTf, and PEO:LiTFA.

  18. β-NMR measurements of molecular-scale lithium-ion dynamics in poly(ethylene oxide)-lithium-salt thin films (United States)

    McKenzie, Iain; Cortie, David L.; Harada, Masashi; Kiefl, Robert F.; Levy, C. D. Philip; MacFarlane, W. Andrew; McFadden, Ryan M. L.; Morris, Gerald D.; Ogata, Shin-Ichi; Pearson, Matthew R.; Sugiyama, Jun


    β -detected NMR (β -NMR) has been used to study the molecular-scale dynamics of lithium ions in thin films of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) containing either lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) or lithium trifluoroacetate (LiTFA) salts at monomer-to-salt ratios (EO/Li) of 8.3. The results are compared with previous β -NMR measurements on pure PEO and PEO with lithium triflate (LiOTf) at the same loading [McKenzie et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136, 7833 (2014)]. Activated hopping of 8Li+ was observed in all of the films above ˜250 K, with the hopping parameters strongly correlated with the ionicity of the lithium salt rather than the polymer glass transition temperature. The pre-exponential factor increases exponentially with ionicity, while the activation energy for hopping increases approximately linearly, going from 6.3 ±0.2 kJ mol-1 in PEO:LiTFA to 17.8 ±0.2 kJ mol-1 in PEO:LiTFSI. The more rapid increase in the pre-exponential factor outweighs the effect of the larger activation energy and results in 8Li+ hopping being fastest in PEO followed by PEO:LiTFSI, PEO:LiOTf, and PEO:LiTFA.

  19. Epitaxial thin films (United States)

    Hunt, Andrew Tye; Deshpande, Girish; Lin, Wen-Yi; Jan, Tzyy-Jiuan


    Epitatial thin films for use as buffer layers for high temperature superconductors, electrolytes in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), gas separation membranes or dielectric material in electronic devices, are disclosed. By using CCVD, CACVD or any other suitable deposition process, epitaxial films having pore-free, ideal grain boundaries, and dense structure can be formed. Several different types of materials are disclosed for use as buffer layers in high temperature superconductors. In addition, the use of epitaxial thin films for electrolytes and electrode formation in SOFCs results in densification for pore-free and ideal gain boundary/interface microstructure. Gas separation membranes for the production of oxygen and hydrogen are also disclosed. These semipermeable membranes are formed by high-quality, dense, gas-tight, pinhole free sub-micro scale layers of mixed-conducting oxides on porous ceramic substrates. Epitaxial thin films as dielectric material in capacitors are also taught herein. Capacitors are utilized according to their capacitance values which are dependent on their physical structure and dielectric permittivity. The epitaxial thin films of the current invention form low-loss dielectric layers with extremely high permittivity. This high permittivity allows for the formation of capacitors that can have their capacitance adjusted by applying a DC bias between their electrodes.

  20. High-performance and linear thin-film lithium niobate Mach-Zehnder modulators on silicon up to 50  GHz. (United States)

    Rao, Ashutosh; Patil, Aniket; Rabiei, Payam; Honardoost, Amirmahdi; DeSalvo, Richard; Paolella, Arthur; Fathpour, Sasan


    Compact electro-optical modulators are demonstrated on thin films of lithium niobate on silicon operating up to 50 GHz. The half-wave voltage length product of the high-performance devices is 3.1 at DC and less than 6.5 up to 50 GHz. The 3 dB electrical bandwidth is 33 GHz, with an 18 dB extinction ratio. The third-order intermodulation distortion spurious free dynamic range is 97.3  dBHz2/3 at 1 GHz and 92.6  dBHz2/3 at 10 GHz. The performance demonstrated by the thin-film modulators is on par with conventional lithium niobate modulators but with lower drive voltages, smaller device footprints, and potential compatibility for integration with large-scale silicon photonics.

  1. Pulsed laser deposited Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanostructured thin film on graphene as anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khamlich, S., E-mail: [UNESCO-UNISA Africa Chair in Nanosciences-Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Muckleneuk Ridge, PO Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), iThemba LABS-National Research Foundation, 1 Old Faure Road, Somerset West 7129, PO Box 722, Somerset West, Western Cape Province (South Africa); Nuru, Z.Y. [UNESCO-UNISA Africa Chair in Nanosciences-Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Muckleneuk Ridge, PO Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), iThemba LABS-National Research Foundation, 1 Old Faure Road, Somerset West 7129, PO Box 722, Somerset West, Western Cape Province (South Africa); Bello, A.; Fabiane, M.; Dangbegnon, J.K.; Manyala, N. [Department of Physics, SARChI Chair in Carbon Technology and Materials, Institute of Applied Materials, University of Pretoria, Pretoria (South Africa); Maaza, M. [UNESCO-UNISA Africa Chair in Nanosciences-Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Muckleneuk Ridge, PO Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), iThemba LABS-National Research Foundation, 1 Old Faure Road, Somerset West 7129, PO Box 722, Somerset West, Western Cape Province (South Africa)


    Graphical abstract: A different approach for the fabrication of an anode material system that comprises pulsed laser-deposited (PLD) Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} grown on few layer graphene (FLG) by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) was used. The electrochemical performance of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanostructured thin film was improved by FLG, which make it a promising candidate for future lithium-ion batteries application. - Highlights: • Pulsed laser deposition technique was used to deposit Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} on few-layer graphene (FLG). • FLG improved the electrochemical performance of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanostructured thin film. • Good stable cycle of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}/FLG/Ni electrode make it one of the promise anode materials for future lithium-ion batteries. - Abstract: Pulsed laser deposition technique was used to deposit Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanostructured thin film on a chemical vapor deposited few-layer graphene (FLG) on nickel (Ni) substrate for application as anode material for lithium-ion batteries. The experimental results show that graphene can effectively enhance the electrochemical property of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}. For Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin film deposited on Ni (Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Ni), a discharge capacity of 747.8 mA h g{sup −1} can be delivered during the first lithiation process. After growing Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin film on FLG/Ni, the initial discharge capacity of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}/FLG/Ni was improved to 1234.5 mA h g{sup −1}. The reversible lithium storage capacity of the as-grown material is 692.2 mA h g{sup −1} after 100 cycles, which is much higher than that of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Ni (111.3 mA h g{sup −1}). This study reveals the differences between the two material systems and emphasizes the role of the graphene layers in improving the electrochemical stability of the Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanostructured thin film.

  2. Preparation of Gold Nanoparticles Deposited Silicon Thin Film Electrode by Self-Assembly Method for the Employment of an Anode Material for Lithium Secondary Batteries. (United States)

    Halim, Martin; Kim, Jung Sub; Nguyen, Si Hieu; Jeon, Bup Ju; Lee, Joong Kee


    This work describes a self-assembly method of gold nanoparticles coating on the surface of silicon thin films for the anode material of lithium secondary batteries. The preparation of the silicon thin films was carried out by electron cyclotron resonance metal organic chemical vapor deposition (ECR-MOCVD) process. The obtained films were further coated with (3-aminopropyl)-trimethoxysilane (APTMS) which has a role to bind the oxygen functional groups on Si surface and the gold nanoparticles. The dispersed gold nanoparticles on the surface of silicon thin films could be prepared due to self-assembly phenomena which interact between attraction and repulsion in gold nanoparticles colloidal solution (GNCS). The use of reducing agent of sodium citrate and tannic acid in GNCS significantly affected the size of gold nanoparticle in our experimental range. Based on our experimental results, the higher reversible capacity was exhibited for the silicon that was immersed in the GNCS consisted of only sodium citrate. The GNCS consisted of both sodium citrate and tannic acid produced severe coagulated nanoparticles when deposited on the silicon surface and thus inhibited the lithium movement from electrolyte to silicon surface. Consequently, the reversible capacity of silicon anode material with coagulated gold nanoparticles coating showed the reduced performance.

  3. Investigation of lithium sulphate for high temperature thermal energy storage (United States)

    Bayon, Alicia; Liu, Ming; Bruno, Frank; Hinkley, Jim


    Lithium sulphate (Li2SO4) was evaluated as a solid-solid PCM material to be coupled with concentrated solar power (CSP) technologies. The energy is stored in a cubic crystalline phase that is formed at temperatures above 576°C and can potentially be discharged at temperatures as low as 150°C, providing both sensible and latent thermal energy storage in a hybrid sensible-latent system. These operational conditions are appropriate for current CSP technologies based on subcritical steam Rankine power cycles. Results from thermal cycling experiments in air showed no change in energy storage capacity after 15 cycles. There was up to a 5% reduction in latent thermal capacity and 0.95% in total thermal capacity after 150 cycles in air. In our paper, we evaluate a hybrid sensible-latent thermal energy storage system based on lithium sulphate from an economic and technical performance point of view, demonstrating its potential as a high temperature thermal energy storage material.

  4. Low-temperature anodic bonding using thin films of lithium-niobate-phosphate glass (United States)

    Woetzel, S.; Kessler, E.; Diegel, M.; Schultze, V.; Meyer, H.-G.


    This paper reports on the investigation of a low-temperature anodic bonding process with layers of a lithium-niobate-phosphate glass on chip level. The glass layers are deposited by means of rf sputtering. The applied glass is characterised by its high ion conductivity, enabling anodic bonding at room temperature. Results of the optimisation process concerning the intrinsic stress of the glass layers and the thermal exposure of the substrates through the deposition process are presented. The stoichiometry of the glass layers is verified through Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS). The bonding strength is measured by tensile tests. Microfabricated atomic vapour cells are used for hermeticity tests of the bonding by absorption measurements of the caesium D1 line.

  5. Homo-junction ferroelectric field-effect-transistor memory device using solution-processed lithium-doped zinc oxide thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Nayak, Pradipta K.


    High performance homo-junction field-effect transistor memory devices were prepared using solution processed transparent lithium-doped zinc oxide thin films for both the ferroelectric and semiconducting active layers. A highest field-effect mobility of 8.7 cm2/Vs was obtained along with an Ion/Ioff ratio of 106. The ferroelectric thin filmtransistors showed a low sub-threshold swing value of 0.19 V/dec and a significantly reduced device operating voltage (±4 V) compared to the reported hetero-junction ferroelectrictransistors, which is very promising for low-power non-volatile memory applications.

  6. Chemically Functionalized, Well-Dispersed Carbon Nanotubes in Lithium-Doped Zinc Oxide for Low-Cost, High-Performance Thin-Film Transistors. (United States)

    Son, Gi-Cheol; Chee, Sang-Soo; Jun, Ji-Hyun; Son, Myungwoo; Lee, Sun Sook; Choi, Youngmin; Jeong, Sunho; Ham, Moon-Ho


    Surface-functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are introduced into lithium-doped ZnO thin-film transistors (TFTs) as an alternative to the conventional incorporation of an expensive element, indium. The crucial role of surface functionalization of CNTs is clarified with the demonstration of indium-free ZnO-based TFTs with a field-effect mobility of 28.6 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) and an on/off current ratio of 9 × 10(6) for low-cost, high-performance electronics. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Investigating degradation behaviors induced by mobile Cu ions under high temperature negative bias stress in a-InGaZnO thin film transistors (United States)

    Chiang, Hsiao-Cheng; Chang, Ting-Chang; Liao, Po-Yung; Chen, Bo-Wei; Tsao, Yu-Ching; Tsai, Tsung-Ming; Chien, Yu-Chieh; Yang, Yi-Chieh; Chen, Kuan-Fu; Yang, Chung-I.; Hung, Yu-Ju; Chang, Kuan-Chang; Zhang, Sheng-Dong; Lin, Sung-Chun; Yeh, Cheng-Yen


    This letter investigates the effect of negative bias temperature stress (NBTS) on amorphous InGaZnO4 thin film transistors with copper electrodes. After 2000 s of NBTS, an abnormal subthreshold swing and on-current (Ion) degradation is observed. The recovery of the Id-Vg curve after either annealing or positive bias temperature stress suggests that there are some native mobile copper ions in the active layer. Both the existence of copper and the degradation mechanism can be confirmed by AC stress with different frequencies and by transmission electron microscope energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis.

  8. Thin films for geothermal sensing: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The report discusses progress in three components of the geothermal measurement problem: (1) developing appropriate chemically sensitive thin films; (2) discovering suitably rugged and effective encapsulation schemes; and (3) conducting high temperature, in-situ electrochemical measurements. (ACR)

  9. Growth of LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} thin films by pulsed-laser deposition and their electrochemical properties in lithium microbatteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julien, C. [Univ. Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France). LMDH; Haro-Poniatowski, E. [Laboratorio de Optica Cuantica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa, Apdo. Postal 55-534, Mexico (Mexico); Camacho-Lopez, M.A. [LMDH, UMR 7603, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 4 place Jussieu, 75252, Paris (France); Escobar-Alarcon, L. [Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Apdo. Postal 18-1027, Mexico (Mexico); Jimenez-Jarquin, J. [Laboratorio de Optica Cuantica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa, Apdo. Postal 55-534, Mexico (Mexico)


    Films of LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} were grown by pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) onto silicon wafers using sintered targets which consisted in the mixture of LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} and Li{sub 2}O powders. The film formation has been studied as a function of the preparation conditions, i.e. composition of the target, substrate temperature, and oxygen partial pressure in the deposition chamber. Composition, morphology and structural properties of PLD films have been investigated using Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Raman scattering spectroscopy. The films deposited from target LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}+15% Li{sub 2}O have an excellent crystallinity when deposited onto silicon substrate maintained at 300 C in an oxygen partial pressure of 100 mTorr. It is found that such a film crystallizes in the spinel structure (Fd3m symmetry) as evidenced by X-ray diffraction. Well-textured polycrystalline films exhibit crystallite size of 300 nm. Pulsed-laser deposited LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} thin films obtained with a polycrystalline morphology were successfully used as cathode materials in lithium microbatteries. The Li//LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} thin film cells have been tested by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge techniques in the potential range 3.0-4.2 V. Specific capacity as high as 120 mC/cm{sup 2} {mu}m was measured on polycrystalline films. The chemical diffusion coefficients for the Li{sub x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 4} thin films appear to be in the range of 10{sup -11}-10{sup -12} cm{sup 2}/s. Electrochemical measurements show a good cycleability of PLD films when cells are charged-discharged at current densities of 5-25 {mu}A/cm{sup 2}. (orig.)

  10. Nanostructured TiO2/carbon nanosheet hybrid electrode for high-rate thin-film lithium-ion batteries. (United States)

    Moitzheim, S; Nimisha, C S; Deng, Shaoren; Cott, Daire J; Detavernier, C; Vereecken, P M


    Heterogeneous nanostructured electrodes using carbon nanosheets (CNS) and TiO2 exhibit high electronic and ionic conductivity. In order to realize the chip level power sources, it is necessary to employ microelectronic compatible techniques for the fabrication and characterization of TiO2-CNS thin-film electrodes. To achieve this, vertically standing CNS grown through a catalytic free approach on a TiN/SiO2/Si substrate by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) was used. The substrate-attached CNS is responsible for the sufficient electronic conduction and increased surface-to-volume ratio due to its unique morphology. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) of nanostructured amorphous TiO2 on CNS provides enhanced Li storage capacity, high rate performance and stable cycling. The amount of deposited TiO2 masks the underlying CNS, thereby controlling the accessibility of CNS, which gets reflected in the total electrochemical performance, as revealed by the cyclic voltammetry and charge/discharge measurements. TiO2 thin-films deposited with 300, 400 and 500 ALD cycles on CNS have been studied to understand the kinetics of Li insertion/extraction. A large potential window of operation (3-0.01 V); the excellent cyclic stability, with a capacity retention of 98% of the initial value; and the remarkable rate capability (up to 100 C) are the highlights of TiO2/CNS thin-film anode structures. CNS with an optimum amount of TiO2 coating is proposed as a promising approach for the fabrication of electrodes for chip compatible thin-film Li-ion batteries.

  11. GeO2 Thin Film Deposition on Graphene Oxide by the Hydrogen Peroxide Route: Evaluation for Lithium-Ion Battery Anode. (United States)

    Medvedev, Alexander G; Mikhaylov, Alexey A; Grishanov, Dmitry A; Yu, Denis Y W; Gun, Jenny; Sladkevich, Sergey; Lev, Ovadia; Prikhodchenko, Petr V


    A peroxogermanate thin film was deposited in high yield at room temperature on graphene oxide (GO) from peroxogermanate sols. The deposition of the peroxo-precursor onto GO and the transformations to amorphous GeO2, crystalline tetragonal GeO2, and then to cubic elemental germanium were followed by electron microscopy, XRD, and XPS. All of these transformations are influenced by the GO support. The initial deposition is explained in view of the sol composition and the presence of GO, and the different thermal transformations are explained by reactions with the graphene support acting as a reducing agent. As a test case, the evaluation of the different materials as lithium ion battery anodes was carried out revealing that the best performance is obtained by amorphous germanium oxide@GO with >1000 mAh g(-1) at 250 mA g(-1) (between 0 and 2.5 V vs Li/Li(+) cathode), despite the fact that the material contained only 51 wt % germanium. This is the first demonstration of the peroxide route to produce peroxogermanate thin films and thereby supported germanium and germanium oxide coatings. The advantages of the process over alternative methodologies are discussed.

  12. Lithium fluoride thin film detectors for low-energy proton beam diagnostics by photoluminescence of colour centres (United States)

    Montereali, R. M.; Ampollini, A.; Picardi, L.; Ronsivalle, C.; Bonfigli, F.; Libera, S.; Nichelatti, E.; Piccinini, M.; Vincenti, M. A.


    Optically transparent LiF thin films thermally evaporated on glass and Si(100) substrates were used for advanced diagnostics of proton beams of energies from 1.4 to 7 MeV produced by a linear accelerator for protontheraphy under development at ENEA C.R. Frascati. The proton irradiation induces the formation of stable colour centres, among them the aggregate F2 and F3 + optically active defects. After exposure of LiF films grown on glass perpendicularly to the proton beams, their accumulated transversal spatial distributions were carefully measured by reading the latent two-dimensional (2-D) fluorescence images stored in the LiF thin layers by local formation of these broad-band visible light-emitting defects with an optical microscope under blue lamp excitation. Taking advantage from the low thickness of LiF thin films and from the linear behaviour of the integrated F2 and F3 + photoluminescence intensities up to the irradiation fluence of ∼5x1015 p/cm2, placing a cleaved LiF film grown on Si substrate with the cutted edge perpendicular to the proton beam, the 2-D fluorescence image of the film surface could allow to obtain the depth profile of the energy released by protons, which mainly lose their energy at the end of the path.

  13. Pyrolyzed thin film carbon (United States)

    Tai, Yu-Chong (Inventor); Liger, Matthieu (Inventor); Harder, Theodore (Inventor); Konishi, Satoshi (Inventor); Miserendino, Scott (Inventor)


    A method of making carbon thin films comprises depositing a catalyst on a substrate, depositing a hydrocarbon in contact with the catalyst and pyrolyzing the hydrocarbon. A method of controlling a carbon thin film density comprises etching a cavity into a substrate, depositing a hydrocarbon into the cavity, and pyrolyzing the hydrocarbon while in the cavity to form a carbon thin film. Controlling a carbon thin film density is achieved by changing the volume of the cavity. Methods of making carbon containing patterned structures are also provided. Carbon thin films and carbon containing patterned structures can be used in NEMS, MEMS, liquid chromatography, and sensor devices.

  14. Thin film processes II

    CERN Document Server

    Kern, Werner


    This sequel to the 1978 classic, Thin Film Processes, gives a clear, practical exposition of important thin film deposition and etching processes that have not yet been adequately reviewed. It discusses selected processes in tutorial overviews with implementation guide lines and an introduction to the literature. Though edited to stand alone, when taken together, Thin Film Processes II and its predecessor present a thorough grounding in modern thin film techniques.Key Features* Provides an all-new sequel to the 1978 classic, Thin Film Processes* Introduces new topics, and sever

  15. Fabrication and characterization of high energy density lithium-rich nickel manganese cobalt oxide cathode thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baggetto, Loic [ORNL; Mohanty, Debasish [ORNL; Meisner, Roberta Ann [ORNL; Daniel, Claus [ORNL; Wood III, David L [ORNL; Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL; Veith, Gabriel M [ORNL


    This paper reports a method to prepare Li-rich NMC (Li1.2Mn0.55Ni0.15Co0.1O2) thin film cathodes for Li-ion batteries using magnetron sputtering and post-annealing in O2. The use of thin films with no binder and conductive additives enables to study in detail the surface reaction chemistry upon cycling as well as the microstructural changes in the bulk. We show that it is essential to control the deposition pressure to obtain the expected layered(R-3m)-layered(C2/m) structure, thus providing large reversible capacities up to 270 mAh g-1 and voltage profiles close to those expected. This is substantiated by TEM/SAED results showing that the films consist of a layered structure with trigonal symmetry in which Li/TM ordering is achieved. The study of various XPS core levels determines that the surface is comprised of Mn4+, Co3+ and Ni2+ cations inside an O2- framework. The losses mechanisms are studied during long cycling. After 184 cycles, the microstructure does not reveal the presence of Li/TM ordering, which supports that Li2MnO3 conversion is irreversible. In addition, we characterize that the surface chemistry evolves significantly upon cycling. The surface of cycled discharged electrodes is mostly made of inorganic species (LiF, Lix POy Fz , LixPFy), along with small amounts of organic species with C-O and O-C=O groups such as PEO, LiOR and LiCO2R. Moreover, the results support that Ni and Co migrate into the bulk whereas Mn is enriched at the surface. In the case of Mn, the reduction of Mn4+ into Mn3+ is clearly evidenced, as expected from the activation of Li2MnO3 domains.

  16. High temperature lithium cells with solid polymer electrolytes (United States)

    Yang, Jin; Eitouni, Hany Basam; Singh, Mohit


    Electrochemical cells that use electrolytes made from new polymer compositions based on poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) and other high-softening-temperature polymers are disclosed. These materials have a microphase domain structure that has an ionically-conductive phase and a phase with good mechanical strength and a high softening temperature. In one arrangement, the structural block has a softening temperature of about C. These materials can be made with either homopolymers or with block copolymers. Such electrochemical cells can operate safely at higher temperatures than have been possible before, especially in lithium cells. The ionic conductivity of the electrolytes increases with increasing temperature.

  17. Thin Film Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Vossen, John L.


    This sequel to the 1978 classic, Thin Film Processes, gives a clear, practical exposition of important thin film deposition and etching processes that have not yet been adequately reviewed. It discusses selected processes in tutorial overviews with implementation guide lines and an introduction to the literature. Though edited to stand alone, when taken together, Thin Film Processes II and its predecessor present a thorough grounding in modern thin film techniques. Key Features * Provides an all-new sequel to the 1978 classic, Thin Film Processes * Introduces new topics, and several key topics presented in the original volume are updated * Emphasizes practical applications of major thin film deposition and etching processes * Helps readers find the appropriate technology for a particular application

  18. Fabrication by using a sputtering method and charge-discharge properties of large-sized and thin-filmed lithium ion rechargeable batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakazawa, Hiromi; Sano, Kimihiro [Research and Development Center, Geomatec Co. Ltd., 3-13-7 Yaguchi, Otaku, Tokyo 146-0093 (Japan); Baba, Mamoru [Graduate School of Engineering, Iwate University, 4-3-5 Ueda, Morioka 020-8551 (Japan)


    Large-sized and thin-filmed lithium ion rechargeable batteries composed of a Li{sub 2-x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 4} positive electrode, a V{sub 2}O{sub 5} negative electrode and a Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4-x}N{sub x} electrolyte have been developed on glass substrates by using a sputtering method, and their electrochemical characteristics were investigated. A typical cell size of the batteries was 100mmx100mm in area and about 3.1{mu}m in thickness as a whole. The battery with a maximum cell size of 200mmx200mm was also successfully fabricated. These pinhole-free batteries showed a good rechargeable performance between 3.5 and 0.3V with a typical charge-discharge capacity of about 0.9mAh for the battery with a 100mmx100mm size and of about 5.5mAh for the battery with a 200mmx200mm size. These batteries having almost the same characteristics have stably been fabricated with a good yield rate, and they could drive a digital watch as one of realistic portable devices more than 1 month with only one time charge. (author)

  19. Optical thin film devices (United States)

    Mao, Shuzheng


    Thin film devices are applied to almost all modern scientific instruments, and these devices, especially optical thin film devices, play an essential role in the performances of the instruments, therefore, they are attracting more and more attention. Now there are numerous kinds of thin film devices and their applications are very diversified. The 300-page book, 'Thin Film Device and Applications,' by Prof. K. L. Chopra gives some general ideas, and my paper also outlines the designs, fabrication, and applications of some optical thin film devices made in my laboratory. Optical thin film devices have been greatly developed in the recent decades. Prof. A. Thelan has given a number of papers on the theory and techniques, Prof. H. A. Macleod's book, 'Thin Film Optical Filters,' has concisely concluded the important concepts of optical thin film devices, and Prof. J. A. Dobrowobski has proposed many successful designs for optical thin film devices. Recently, fully-automatic plants make it easier to produce thin film devices with various spectrum requirements, and some companies, such as Balzers, Leybold AG, Satis Vacuum AG, etc., have manufactured such kinds of coating plants for research or mass-production, and the successful example is the production of multilayer antireflection coatings with high stability and reproducibility. Therefore, it could be said that the design of optical thin film devices and coating plants is quite mature. However, we cannot expect that every problem has been solved, the R&D work still continues, the competition still continues, and new design concepts, new techniques, and new film materials are continually developed. Meanwhile, the high-price of fully-automatic coating plants makes unpopular, and automatic design of coating stacks is only the technique for optimizing the manual design according to the physical concepts and experience, in addition, not only the optical system, but also working environment should be taken into account when

  20. Thin Film & Deposition Systems (Windows) (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Coating Lab: Contains chambers for growing thin film window coatings. Plasma Applications Coating Lab: Contains chambers for growing thin film window coatings. Solar...

  1. A Lithium-Air Battery Stably Working at High Temperature with High Rate Performance. (United States)

    Pan, Jian; Li, Houpu; Sun, Hao; Zhang, Ye; Wang, Lie; Liao, Meng; Sun, Xuemei; Peng, Huisheng


    Driven by the increasing requirements for energy supply in both modern life and the automobile industry, the lithium-air battery serves as a promising candidate due to its high energy density. However, organic solvents in electrolytes are likely to rapidly vaporize and form flammable gases under increasing temperatures. In this case, serious safety problems may occur and cause great harm to people. Therefore, a kind of lithium-air that can work stably under high temperature is desirable. Herein, through the use of an ionic liquid and aligned carbon nanotubes, and a fiber shaped design, a new type of lithium-air battery that can effectively work at high temperatures up to 140 °C is developed. Ionic liquids can offer wide electrochemical windows and low vapor pressures, as well as provide high thermal stability for lithium-air batteries. The aligned carbon nanotubes have good electric and heat conductivity. Meanwhile, the fiber format can offer both flexibility and weavability, and realize rapid heat conduction and uniform heat distribution of the battery. In addition, the high temperature has also largely improved the specific powers by increasing the ionic conductivity and catalytic activity of the cathode. Consequently, the lithium-air battery can work stably at 140 °C with a high specific current of 10 A g -1 for 380 cycles, indicating high stability and good rate performance at high temperatures. This work may provide an effective paradigm for the development of high-performance energy storage devices. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Deposition and characterization of thin films of materials with application in cathodes for lithium rechargeable micro batteries; Deposito y caracterizacion de peliculas delgadas de materiales con aplicacion en catodos para microbaterias recargables de litio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez I, J. [UAEM, Facultad de Quimica, 50000 Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)


    In this thesis work is reported the deposition and characterization of thin films of materials of the type LiMO{sub 2}, with M=Co and Ni, which have application in cathodes for micro-batteries of lithium ions. In the last years some investigators have reported that the electrochemical operation of the lithium ions batteries it can improve recovering the cathode, in bundle form, with some metal oxides as the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}; for that the study of the formation of thin films in bilayer form LiMO{sub 2}/AI{sub 2}O{sub 3} is of interest in the development of lithium ions micro batteries. The thin films were deposited using the laser ablation technique studying the effect of some deposit parameters in the properties of the one formed material, as: laser fluence, substrate temperature and working atmosphere, with the purpose of optimizing it. In the case of the LiCoO{sub 2} it was found that to use an inert atmosphere of argon allows to obtain the material with the correct composition. Additionally, with the use of a temperature in the substrate of 150 C is possible to obtain to the material with certain crystallinity grade that to the subjected being to a post-deposit thermal treatment at 300 C for three hours, it gives as result a totally crystalline material. In the case of the thin films of LiNiO{sub 2}, it was necessary to synthesize the oxide starting from a reaction of solid state among nickel oxide (NiO) and lithium oxide (Li{sub 2}O) obtaining stoichiometric LiNiO{sub 2}. For the formation of the thin films of LiNiO{sub 2} it was used an argon atmosphere and the laser fluence was varied, the deposits were carried out to two different substrates temperatures, atmosphere and 160 C. In both cases the material it was recovered with an alumina layer, found that this layer didn't modify the structural properties of the base oxide (LiCoO{sub 2} and LiNiO{sub 2}). (Author)

  3. Sandwiched Thin-Film Anode of Chemically Bonded Black Phosphorus/Graphene Hybrid for Lithium-Ion Battery. (United States)

    Liu, Hanwen; Zou, Yuqin; Tao, Li; Ma, Zhaoling; Liu, Dongdong; Zhou, Peng; Liu, Hongbo; Wang, Shuangyin


    A facile vacuum filtration method is applied for the first time to construct sandwich-structure anode. Two layers of graphene stacks sandwich a composite of black phosphorus (BP), which not only protect BP from quickly degenerating but also serve as current collector instead of copper foil. The BP composite, reduced graphene oxide coated on BP via chemical bonding, is simply synthesized by solvothermal reaction at 140 °C. The sandwiched film anode used for lithium-ion battery exhibits reversible capacities of 1401 mAh g-1 during the 200th cycle at current density of 100 mA g-1 indicating superior cycle performance. Besides, this facile vacuum filtration method may also be available for other anode material with well dispersion in N-methyl pyrrolidone (NMP). © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Thin film device applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kaur, Inderjeet


    Two-dimensional materials created ab initio by the process of condensation of atoms, molecules, or ions, called thin films, have unique properties significantly different from the corresponding bulk materials as a result of their physical dimensions, geometry, nonequilibrium microstructure, and metallurgy. Further, these characteristic features of thin films can be drasti­ cally modified and tailored to obtain the desired and required physical characteristics. These features form the basis of development of a host of extraordinary active and passive thin film device applications in the last two decades. On the one extreme, these applications are in the submicron dimensions in such areas as very large scale integration (VLSI), Josephson junction quantum interference devices, magnetic bubbles, and integrated optics. On the other extreme, large-area thin films are being used as selective coatings for solar thermal conversion, solar cells for photovoltaic conver­ sion, and protection and passivating layers. Ind...

  5. Ceramic Composite Thin Films (United States)

    Ruoff, Rodney S. (Inventor); Stankovich, Sasha (Inventor); Dikin, Dmitriy A. (Inventor); Nguyen, SonBinh T. (Inventor)


    A ceramic composite thin film or layer includes individual graphene oxide and/or electrically conductive graphene sheets dispersed in a ceramic (e.g. silica) matrix. The thin film or layer can be electrically conductive film or layer depending the amount of graphene sheets present. The composite films or layers are transparent, chemically inert and compatible with both glass and hydrophilic SiOx/silicon substrates. The composite film or layer can be produced by making a suspension of graphene oxide sheet fragments, introducing a silica-precursor or silica to the suspension to form a sol, depositing the sol on a substrate as thin film or layer, at least partially reducing the graphene oxide sheets to conductive graphene sheets, and thermally consolidating the thin film or layer to form a silica matrix in which the graphene oxide and/or graphene sheets are dispersed.

  6. Multifunctional thin film surface (United States)

    Brozik, Susan M.; Harper, Jason C.; Polsky, Ronen; Wheeler, David R.; Arango, Dulce C.; Dirk, Shawn M.


    A thin film with multiple binding functionality can be prepared on an electrode surface via consecutive electroreduction of two or more aryl-onium salts with different functional groups. This versatile and simple method for forming multifunctional surfaces provides an effective means for immobilization of diverse molecules at close proximities. The multifunctional thin film has applications in bioelectronics, molecular electronics, clinical diagnostics, and chemical and biological sensing.

  7. Solid-state lithium battery (United States)

    Ihlefeld, Jon; Clem, Paul G; Edney, Cynthia; Ingersoll, David; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Fenton, Kyle Ross


    The present invention is directed to a higher power, thin film lithium-ion electrolyte on a metallic substrate, enabling mass-produced solid-state lithium batteries. High-temperature thermodynamic equilibrium processing enables co-firing of oxides and base metals, providing a means to integrate the crystalline, lithium-stable, fast lithium-ion conductor lanthanum lithium tantalate (La.sub.1/3-xLi.sub.3xTaO.sub.3) directly with a thin metal foil current collector appropriate for a lithium-free solid-state battery.

  8. Study of LiNiVO{sub 4} thin films used as anodes in lithium micro-batteries; Etude de couches minces de type LiNiVO{sub 4} utilisables en tant qu'electrode negative dans des microbatteries au lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, V.


    Since fifteen years, considerable effort has been invested in developing thin film solid state micro-batteries as possible integrated components in microelectronics. The recent technological improvement concerning miniaturized systems opens a large field of applications for the future use of micro-batteries. LiNiVO{sub 4} thin films are promising materials as anodes for lithium micro-batteries. All the thin films have been prepared by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering using a LiNiVO{sub 4} target. The discharge gas was either pure argon or a mixture of argon and oxygen. We have studied the influence of some experimental parameters such as the oxygen partial pressure, the sputtering power, the target-substrate distance, the total pressure and the substrate temperature on the composition, the microstructure and the electrochemical properties. The chemical composition of the thin films has been determined by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy combined with nuclear reaction analysis. Among all experimental parameters investigated, only the partial pressure of oxygen has a considerable influence on the thin film composition. Auger spectroscopy has revealed a good homogeneity of the thin films. X-ray diffraction shows that the as-deposited thin films are amorphous. The near-stoichiometric composition Li{sub 1.12}NiV{sub 1.02}O{sub 4}.11 has highlighted good electrochemical properties in the potential range [3 V - 0.02 V]. This particular composition displays a high capacity of 1000 mAh/g which is enhanced when the film is annealed at 300 degrees C. (author)

  9. Thin film ceramic thermocouples (United States)

    Gregory, Otto (Inventor); Fralick, Gustave (Inventor); Wrbanek, John (Inventor); You, Tao (Inventor)


    A thin film ceramic thermocouple (10) having two ceramic thermocouple (12, 14) that are in contact with each other in at least on point to form a junction, and wherein each element was prepared in a different oxygen/nitrogen/argon plasma. Since each element is prepared under different plasma conditions, they have different electrical conductivity and different charge carrier concentration. The thin film thermocouple (10) can be transparent. A versatile ceramic sensor system having an RTD heat flux sensor can be combined with a thermocouple and a strain sensor to yield a multifunctional ceramic sensor array. The transparent ceramic temperature sensor that could ultimately be used for calibration of optical sensors.

  10. Thin Film Photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zweibel, K.


    The motivation to develop thin film technologies dates back to the inception of photovoltaics. It is an idea based on achieving truly low-cost photovoltaics appropriate for mass production and energy significant markets. The key to the idea is the use of pennies worth of active materials. Since sunlight carries relatively little energy in comparison with combustion-based energy sources, photovoltaic (PV) modules must be cheap to produce energy that can be competitive. Thin films are presumed to be the answer to that low-cost requirement. But how cheap do they have to be? The following is an oversimplified analysis that allows some insight into this question.

  11. Thin film metal-oxides

    CERN Document Server

    Ramanathan, Shriram


    Presents an account of the fundamental structure-property relations in oxide thin films. This title discusses the functional properties of thin film oxides in the context of applications in the electronics and renewable energy technologies.

  12. Thin film superconductor magnetic bearings (United States)

    Weinberger, Bernard R.


    A superconductor magnetic bearing includes a shaft (10) that is subject to a load (L) and rotatable around an axis of rotation, a magnet (12) mounted to the shaft, and a stator (14) in proximity to the shaft. The stator (14) has a superconductor thin film assembly (16) positioned to interact with the magnet (12) to produce a levitation force on the shaft (10) that supports the load (L). The thin film assembly (16) includes at least two superconductor thin films (18) and at least one substrate (20). Each thin film (18) is positioned on a substrate (20) and all the thin films are positioned such that an applied magnetic field from the magnet (12) passes through all the thin films. A similar bearing in which the thin film assembly (16) is mounted on the shaft (10) and the magnet (12) is part of the stator (14) also can be constructed.

  13. Scanned probe microscopy for thin film superconductor development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreland, J. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO (United States)


    Scanned probe microscopy is a general term encompassing the science of imaging based on piezoelectric driven probes for measuring local changes in nanoscale properties of materials and devices. Techniques like scanning tunneling microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and scanning potentiometry are becoming common tools in the production and development labs in the semiconductor industry. The author presents several examples of applications specific to the development of high temperature superconducting thin films and thin-film devices.

  14. Biomimetic thin film deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieke, P.R.; Graff, G.E.; Campbell, A.A.; Bunker, B.C.; Baskaran, S.; Song, L.; Tarasevich, B.J.; Fryxell, G.E.


    Biological mineral deposition for the formation of bone, mollusk shell and other hard tissues provides materials scientists with illustrative materials processing strategies. This presentation will review the key features of biomineralization and how these features can be of technical importance. We have adapted existing knowledge of biomineralization to develop a unique method of depositing inorganic thin films and coating. Our approach to thin film deposition is to modify substrate surfaces to imitate the proteins found in nature that are responsible for controlling mineral deposition. These biomimetic surfaces control the nucleation and growth of the mineral from a supersaturated aqueous solution. This has many processing advantages including simple processing equipment, environmentally benign reagents, uniform coating of highly complex shapes, and enhanced adherence of coating. Many different types of metal oxide, hydroxide, sulfide and phosphate materials with useful mechanical, optical, electronic and biomedical properties can be deposited.

  15. Thin film processes

    CERN Document Server

    Vossen, John L


    Remarkable advances have been made in recent years in the science and technology of thin film processes for deposition and etching. It is the purpose of this book to bring together tutorial reviews of selected filmdeposition and etching processes from a process viewpoint. Emphasis is placed on the practical use of the processes to provide working guidelines for their implementation, a guide to the literature, and an overview of each process.

  16. Sputtered Thin Film Research (United States)


    and Idonllly hy block numbor) Reactive Sputtering, Heteroepitaxy, Thin Films Single Crystal Zinc Oxide, Titanium Dioxide, Aluminum Nitride, Gallium...Conditions were determined for the deposition of amorphous neodymium ultra- phosphate films. This material holds the potential for the fabrication...reaching the substrate at any time during sputtering. A 17.2 cm diameter quartz plate was covered with a thin coating of zinc sulflde and placed on

  17. Trimethylsilylcyclopentadiene as a novel electrolyte additive for high temperature application of lithium nickel manganese oxide cathode (United States)

    Tu, Wenqiang; Ye, Changchun; Yang, Xuerui; Xing, Lidan; Liao, Youhao; Liu, Xiang; Li, Weishan


    Electrolyte additives are necessary for the application of high potential cathode in high energy density lithium ion batteries, especially at elevated temperature. However, the electrolyte additives that can effectively suppress the dissolution of transition metal ions from cathode have seldom been developed up to date. In this work, we propose a novel electrolyte additive, trimethylsilylcyclopentadiene (SE), for high temperature application of a representative high potential cathode, lithium nickel manganese oxide (LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4). It is found that the dissolution of Mn and Ni from LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 can be effectively suppressed by applying SE. With applying 0.25% SE, the dissolved amount of Mn and Ni is decreased by 97.4% and 98%, respectively, after 100 cycles at 55 °C. Correspondingly, the cyclic performance of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 is significantly improved. Physical characterizations and electrochemical measurements show that SE can be preferentially oxidized and generate a protective film on LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4. The resulting film inhibits the electrolyte decomposition and the transition metal ion dissolution.

  18. Thin Film Heat Flux Sensor Development for Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) Systems (United States)

    Wrbanek, John D.; Fralick, Gustave C.; Hunter, Gary W.; Zhu, Dongming; Laster, Kimala L.; Gonzalez, Jose M.; Gregory, Otto J.


    The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has an on-going effort for developing high temperature thin film sensors for advanced turbine engine components. Stable, high temperature thin film ceramic thermocouples have been demonstrated in the lab, and novel methods of fabricating sensors have been developed. To fabricate thin film heat flux sensors for Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) systems, the rough and porous nature of the CMC system posed a significant challenge for patterning the fine features required. The status of the effort to develop thin film heat flux sensors specifically for use on silicon carbide (SiC) CMC systems with these new technologies is described.

  19. Thin film photovoltaic device (United States)

    Catalano, A.W.; Bhushan, M.


    A thin film photovoltaic solar cell which utilizes a zinc phosphide semiconductor is of the homojunction type comprising an n-type conductivity region forming an electrical junction with a p-type region, both regions consisting essentially of the same semiconductor material. The n-type region is formed by treating zinc phosphide with an extrinsic dopant such as magnesium. The semiconductor is formed on a multilayer substrate which acts as an opaque contact. Various transparent contacts may be used, including a thin metal film of the same chemical composition as the n-type dopant or conductive oxides or metal grids. 5 figs.

  20. Thin-film solar cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metselaar, J.W.; Kuznetsov, V.I.


    The invention relates to a thin-film solar cell provided with at least one p-i-n junction comprising at least one p-i junction which is at an angle alpha with that surface of the thin-film solar cell which collects light during operation and at least one i-n junction which is at an angle beta with

  1. Thin films: Past, present, future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zweibel, K


    This report describes the characteristics of the thin film photovoltaic modules necessary for an acceptable rate of return for rural areas and underdeveloped countries. The topics of the paper include a development of goals of cost and performance for an acceptable PV system, a review of current technologies for meeting these goals, issues and opportunities in thin film technologies.

  2. High-Temperature Stable Anatase Titanium Oxide Nanofibers for Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes. (United States)

    Lee, Sangkyu; Eom, Wonsik; Park, Hun; Han, Tae Hee


    Control of the crystal structure of electrochemically active materials is an important approach to fabricating high-performance electrodes for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Here, we report a methodology for controlling the crystal structure of TiO2 nanofibers by adding aluminum isopropoxide to a common sol-gel precursor solution utilized to create TiO2 nanofibers. The introduction of aluminum cations impedes the phase transformation of electrospun TiO2 nanofibers from the anatase to the rutile phase, which inevitably occurs in the typical annealing process utilized for the formation of TiO2 crystals. As a result, high-temperature stable anatase TiO2 nanofibers were created in which the crystal structure was well-maintained even at high annealing temperatures of up to 700 °C. Finally, the resulting anatase TiO2 nanofibers were utilized to prepare LIB anodes, and their electrochemical performance was compared to pristine TiO2 nanofibers that contain both anatase and rutile phases. Compared to the electrode prepared with pristine TiO2 nanofibers, the electrode prepared with anatase TiO2 nanofibers exhibited excellent electrochemical performances such as an initial Coulombic efficiency of 83.9%, a capacity retention of 89.5% after 100 cycles, and a rate capability of 48.5% at a current density of 10 C (1 C = 200 mA g-1).

  3. Polyimide Aerogel Thin Films (United States)

    Meador, Mary Ann; Guo, Haiquan


    Polyimide aerogels have been crosslinked through multifunctional amines. This invention builds on "Polyimide Aerogels With Three-Dimensional Cross-Linked Structure," and may be considered as a continuation of that invention, which results in a polyimide aerogel with a flexible, formable form. Gels formed from polyamic acid solutions, end-capped with anhydrides, and cross-linked with the multifunctional amines, are chemically imidized and dried using supercritical CO2 extraction to give aerogels having density around 0.1 to 0.3 g/cubic cm. The aerogels are 80 to 95% porous, and have high surface areas (200 to 600 sq m/g) and low thermal conductivity (as low as 14 mW/m-K at room temperature). Notably, the cross-linked polyimide aerogels have higher modulus than polymer-reinforced silica aerogels of similar density, and can be fabricated as both monoliths and thin films.

  4. Thin film hydrogen sensor (United States)

    Lauf, R.J.; Hoffheins, B.S.; Fleming, P.H.


    A hydrogen sensor element comprises an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having a thin-film metallization deposited thereon which forms at least two resistors on the substrate. The metallization comprises a layer of Pd or a Pd alloy for sensing hydrogen and an underlying intermediate metal layer for providing enhanced adhesion of the metallization to the substrate. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors, and at least one of the resistors is left uncovered. The difference in electrical resistances of the covered resistor and the uncovered resistor is related to hydrogen concentration in a gas to which the sensor element is exposed. 6 figs.

  5. Nonlinear optical thin films (United States)

    Leslie, Thomas M.


    A focused approach to development and evaluation of organic polymer films for use in optoelectronics is presented. The issues and challenges that are addressed include: (1) material synthesis, purification, and the tailoring of the material properties; (2) deposition of uniform thin films by a variety of methods; (3) characterization of material physical properties (thermal, electrical, optical, and electro-optical); and (4) device fabrication and testing. Photonic materials, devices, and systems were identified as critical technology areas by the Department of Commerce and the Department of Defense. This approach offers strong integration of basic material issues through engineering applications by the development of materials that can be exploited as the active unit in a variety of polymeric thin film devices. Improved materials were developed with unprecedented purity and stability. The absorptive properties can be tailored and controlled to provide significant improvement in propagation losses and nonlinear performance. Furthermore, the materials were incorporated into polymers that are highly compatible with fabrication and patterning processes for integrated optical devices and circuits. By simultaneously addressing the issues of materials development and characterization, keeping device design and fabrication in mind, many obstacles were overcome for implementation of these polymeric materials and devices into systems. We intend to considerably improve the upper use temperature, poling stability, and compatibility with silicon based devices. The principal device application that was targeted is a linear electro-optic modulation etalon. Organic polymers need to be properly designed and coupled with existing integrated circuit technology to create new photonic devices for optical communication, image processing, other laser applications such as harmonic generation, and eventually optical computing. The progression from microscopic sample to a suitable film

  6. Tungsten-rhenium thin film thermocouples for SiC-based ceramic matrix composites (United States)

    Tian, Bian; Zhang, Zhongkai; Shi, Peng; Zheng, Chen; Yu, Qiuyue; Jing, Weixuan; Jiang, Zhuangde


    A tungsten-rhenium thin film thermocouple is designed and fabricated, depending on the principle of thermal-electric effect caused by the high temperature. The characteristics of thin film thermocouples in different temperatures are investigated via numerical analysis and analog simulation. The working mechanism and thermo-electric features of the thermocouples are analyzed depending on the simulation results. Then the thin film thermocouples are fabricated and calibrated. The calibration results show that the thin film thermocouples based on the tungsten-rhenium material achieve ideal static characteristics and work well in the practical applications.

  7. Handbook of thin film technology

    CERN Document Server

    Frey, Hartmut


    “Handbook of Thin Film Technology” covers all aspects of coatings preparation, characterization and applications. Different deposition techniques based on vacuum and plasma processes are presented. Methods of surface and thin film analysis including coating thickness, structural, optical, electrical, mechanical and magnetic properties of films are detailed described. The several applications of thin coatings and a special chapter focusing on nanoparticle-based films can be found in this handbook. A complete reference for students and professionals interested in the science and technology of thin films.

  8. Active Oxygen Generator by Silent Discharge and Oxidation Power in Formation of Oxide Thin Films (United States)

    Tanaka, Masaaki; Kawagoe, Yasuyuki; Tsukazaki, Hisashi; Yamanishi, Kenichiro

    We have studied the low pressure silent discharge type active oxygen generator in terms of the application to the formation of oxide thin films. In this paper the oxidation power of active oxygen in the oxide thin film formation is compared with that of oxygen and ozone by forming silicon oxide thin films. It was confirmed that the oxidation power is in turn of active oxygen > ozone > oxygen from the experimental result of the number of x in SiOx thin film. Furthermore we applied active oxygen to the formation of the thin film high temperature super conductor and active oxygen was found to be effective to the formation of the thin film with high performance.

  9. Some spectral response characteristics of ZnTe thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    used in optoelectronic detection of THz radiation (Winnewis- ser et al 1997). Photoluminescence study on ZnTe was also carried out in recent years (Nishio et al 1999). The ZnTe thin films grown at room temperature and high temperature substrates are found to be polycrystalline in nature (Kalita et al 1999). By investigating ...

  10. Front and backside processed thin film electronic devices (United States)

    Yuan, Hao-Chih; Wang, Guogong; Eriksson, Mark A.; Evans, Paul G.; Lagally, Max G.; Ma, Zhenqiang


    This invention provides methods for fabricating thin film electronic devices with both front- and backside processing capabilities. Using these methods, high temperature processing steps may be carried out during both frontside and backside processing. The methods are well-suited for fabricating back-gate and double-gate field effect transistors, double-sided bipolar transistors and 3D integrated circuits.

  11. Zinc oxide based nanocomposite thin film electrodes and the effect of D.C. plasma oxidation power on discharge capacity for lithium ion batteries. (United States)

    Akbulut, Hatem; Guler, Mehmet Oguz; Aydin, Yasemin


    Zinc oxide based thin films have been grown on glass and stainless steel substrates in two steps; thermal evaporation from high purity metallic zinc and D.C. plasma oxidation. X-ray diffraction has shown that the films were polycrystalline nature and small predominant orientation at some specific planes. Analysis showed that plasma oxidation starts from the thermally evaporated leaf-like surfaces and produces a core-shell structure of ZnO on the metallic Zn. Increasing plasma oxidation power causes increased amount of ZnO volume and resistivity. Coin-type (CR2016) test cells were assembled in an argon-filled glove box and cyclically tested. The electrochemical performance of the films has been studied by cyclic voltammetry. The dependence of converted Li-ions on voltage profile of the films has been determined. It was found that the Zn/ZnO films exhibited highest the number of converted Li-ions at 175 W plasma oxidation conditions. Discharge capacity measurements revealed the double phase structures of Zn/ZnO exhibited significantly high reversible capacities. The high capacity and low capacity fade values were attributed to the high electrical conductivity and buffering ability of metallic Zn in the anodes.

  12. Inequality of quenched and high temperature structure of lithium deficient LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piszora, P. [Laboratory of Magnetochemistry, Adam Mickiewicz University, Grunwaldzka 6, PL-60780 Poznan (Poland)]. E-mail:


    Structural characterization of the new low temperature polymorph of the lithium-deficient lithium-manganese spinel, synthesized and quenched from 1073 K has been obtained by Rietveld structure refinements of X-ray powder diffraction data recorded using synchrotron radiation. A slight lithium ions deficiency causes formation of the tetragonal phase provided that the samples obtained at high temperature are rapidly quenched in the solid CO{sub 2}. The new phase has a tetragonally distorted spinel structure at 140 K with a space group F4 {sub 1} /ddm, unit cells of a = 8.33180(6) A and c = 8.08617(7) A. On heating, at 280 K, the tetragonal phase transforms to cubic spinel structure (Fd3m) and it remains cubic up to 1163 K.

  13. Characterization of organic thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Ulman, Abraham; Evans, Charles A


    Thin films based upon organic materials are at the heart of much of the revolution in modern technology, from advanced electronics, to optics to sensors to biomedical engineering. This volume in the Materials Characterization series introduces the major common types of analysis used in characterizing of thin films and the various appropriate characterization technologies for each. Materials such as Langmuir-Blodgett films and self-assembled monolayers are first introduced, followed by analysis of surface properties and the various characterization technologies used for such. Readers will find detailed information on: -Various spectroscopic approaches to characterization of organic thin films, including infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy -X-Ray diffraction techniques, High Resolution EELS studies, and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy -Concise Summaries of major characterization technologies for organic thin films, including Auger Electron Spectroscopy, Dynamic Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry, and Tra...

  14. Rare Earth Oxide Thin Films

    CERN Document Server

    Fanciulli, Marco


    Thin rare earth (RE) oxide films are emerging materials for microelectronic, nanoelectronic, and spintronic applications. The state-of-the-art of thin film deposition techniques as well as the structural, physical, chemical, and electrical properties of thin RE oxide films and of their interface with semiconducting substrates are discussed. The aim is to identify proper methodologies for the development of RE oxides thin films and to evaluate their effectiveness as innovative materials in different applications.

  15. Dependence of the constitution, microstructure and electrochemical behaviour of magnetron sputtered Li-Ni-Mn-Co-O thin film cathodes for lithium-ion batteries on the working gas pressure and annealing conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strafela, Marc; Fischer, Julian; Leiste, Harald; Rinke, Monika; Bergfeldt, Thomas; Seifert, Hans Juergen; Ulrich, Sven [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. for Applied Materials (IAM); Music, Denis; Chang, Keke; Schneider, Jochen [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Materials Chemistry


    Li(Ni{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3})O{sub 2} as a cathode material for lithium ion batteries shows good thermal stability, high reversible capacity (290 mAh g{sup -1}), good rate capability and better results in terms of environmental friendliness. In this paper thin film cathodes in the material system Li-Ni-Mn-Co-O were deposited onto silicon and stainless steel substrates, by non-reactive r.f. magnetron sputtering from a ceramic Li{sub 1.18}(Ni{sub 0.39}Mn{sub 0.19}Co{sub 0.35})O{sub 1.97} target at various argon working gas pressures between 0.2 Pa and 20 Pa. A comprehensive study on the composition and microstructure was carried out. The results showed that the elemental composition varies depending on argon working gas pressure. The elemental composition was determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy in combination with carrier gas hot extraction. The films showed different grain orientations depending argon working gas pressures. The degree of cation order in the lattice structure of the films deposited at 0.5 Pa and 7 Pa argon working gas pressure, was increased by annealing in an argon/oxygen atmosphere at different pressures for one hour. The microstructure of the films varies with annealing gas pressure and is characterized using X-ray diffraction and unpolarized micro-Raman spectroscopy at room temperature. Electrochemical characterization of as-deposited and annealed films was carried out by galvanostatic cycling in Li-Ni-Mn-Co-O half-cells against metallic lithium. Correlations between process parameters, constitution, microstructure and electrochemical behaviour are discussed in detail.

  16. Thin Films for Thermoelectric Applications (United States)

    Silva, M. F.; Ribeiro, J. F.; Carmo, J. P.; Gonçalves, L. M.; Correia, J. H.

    The introduction of nanotechnology opened new horizons previously unattainable by thermoelectric devices. The nano-scale phenomena began to be exploited through techniques of thin-film depositions to increase the efficiency of thermoelectric films. This chapter reviews the fundamentals of the phenomenon of thermoelectricity and its evolution since it was discovered in 1822. This chapter also reviews the thermoelectric devices, the macro to nano devices, describing the most used techniques of physical vapor depositions to deposit thermoelectric thin-films. A custom made deposition chamber for depositing thermoelectric thin films by the thermal co-evaporation technique, where construction issues and specifications are discussed, is then presented. All the steps for obtaining a thermoelectric generator in flexible substrate with the custom deposition chamber (to incorporate in thermoelectric microsystems) are described. The aim of thermoelectric microsystem relays is to introduce an energy harvesting application to power wireless sensor networks (WSN) or biomedical devices. The scanning probe measuring system for characterization of the thermoelectric thin films are also described in this chapter. Finally, a few of the prototypes of thermoelectric thin films (made of bismuth and antimony tellurides, {Bi}2{Te}3, and {Sb}2{Te}3, respectively) obtained by co-evaporation (using the custom made deposition chamber) and characterized for quality assessment are dealt with. All the issues involved in the co-evaporation and characterization are objects of analysis in this chapter.

  17. Thin film detection of High Energy Materials: Optical Pumping Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Barthwal, Sachin


    We present our work on High Energy Material detection based on thin film of Lithium using the phenomenon of Optical Pumping. The Li atoms present in the thin film are optically pumped to one of the ground hyperfine energy levels so that they can no more absorb light from the resonant light source. Now in presence of a RF signal, which quantifies the ambient magnetic field, this polarized atomic system is again randomized thus making it reabsorb the resonant light. This gives a quantified measurement of the magnetic field surrounding the thin film detector. This is then mapped to the presence of magnetic HEM and hence the HEM are detected. Our approach in this regard starts with verifying the stability of Lithium atoms in various solvents so as to get a suitable liquid medium to form a thin film. In this regard, various UV-visible characterization spectra are presented to finally approach a stable system for the detection. We have worked on around 10 polar and non- polar solvents to see the stability criteria....

  18. Ta-based amorphous metal thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGlone, John M., E-mail: [School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331-5501 (United States); Olsen, Kristopher R. [Department of Chemistry, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331-4003 (United States); Stickle, William F.; Abbott, James E.; Pugliese, Roberto A.; Long, Greg S. [Hewlett-Packard Company, Corvallis, OR, 97333 (United States); Keszler, Douglas A. [Department of Chemistry, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331-4003 (United States); Wager, John F. [School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331-5501 (United States)


    With their lack of grains and grain boundaries, amorphous metals are known to possess advantageous mechanical properties and enhanced chemical stability relative to crystalline metals. Commonly, however, they exhibit poor high-temperature stability because of their metastable nature. Here, we describe two new Ta-based ternary metal thin films that retain thermal stability to 600 °C and above. The new thin-film compositions, Ta{sub 2}Ni{sub 2}Si{sub 1} and Ta{sub 2}Mo{sub 2}Si{sub 1}, are amorphous, exhibiting ultra-smooth surfaces (<0.4 nm) and resistivities typical of amorphous metals (224 and 177 μΩ cm, respectively). - Highlights: • New Ta-based amorphous metals were sputter deposited from individual targets. • As-deposited amorphous structure was confirmed through diffraction techniques. • Electrical and surface properties were characterized and possess smooth surfaces. • No evidence of crystallization up to 600 °C (TaNiSi) and 800 °C (TaMoSi). • Ultra-smooth surfaces remained unchanged up to crystallization temperature.

  19. Galvanostatic Ion Detrapping Rejuvenates Oxide Thin Films. (United States)

    Arvizu, Miguel A; Wen, Rui-Tao; Primetzhofer, Daniel; Klemberg-Sapieha, Jolanta E; Martinu, Ludvik; Niklasson, Gunnar A; Granqvist, Claes G


    Ion trapping under charge insertion-extraction is well-known to degrade the electrochemical performance of oxides. Galvanostatic treatment was recently shown capable to rejuvenate the oxide, but the detailed mechanism remained uncertain. Here we report on amorphous electrochromic (EC) WO3 thin films prepared by sputtering and electrochemically cycled in a lithium-containing electrolyte under conditions leading to severe loss of charge exchange capacity and optical modulation span. Time-of-flight elastic recoil detection analysis (ToF-ERDA) documented pronounced Li(+) trapping associated with the degradation of the EC properties and, importantly, that Li(+) detrapping, caused by a weak constant current drawn through the film for some time, could recover the original EC performance. Thus, ToF-ERDA provided direct and unambiguous evidence for Li(+) detrapping.

  20. Suppressed gross erosion of high-temperature lithium via rapid deuterium implantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abrams, T.; Jaworski, M. A.; Chen, M.; Carter, E. A.; Kaita, R.; Stotler, D. P.; De Temmerman, G.; Morgan, T. W.; van den Berg, M. A.; van der Meiden, H. J.


    Lithium-coated high- Z substrates are planned for use in the NSTX-U divertor and are a candidate plasma facing component (PFC) for reactors, but it remains necessary to characterize the gross Li erosion rate under high plasma fluxes (>10 23 m −2 s −1 ), typical for the divertor region. In this

  1. Selective inorganic thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, M.L.F.; Pohl, P.I.; Brinker, C.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Separating light gases using membranes is a technology area for which there exists opportunities for significant energy savings. Examples of industrial needs for gas separation include hydrogen recovery, natural gas purification, and dehydration. A membrane capable of separating H{sub 2} from other gases at high temperatures could recover hydrogen from refinery waste streams, and facilitate catalytic dehydrogenation and the water gas shift (CO + H{sub 2}O {yields} H{sub 2} + CO{sub 2}) reaction. Natural gas purification requires separating CH{sub 4} from mixtures with CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S, H{sub 2}O, and higher alkanes. A dehydrating membrane would remove water vapor from gas streams in which water is a byproduct or a contaminant, such as refrigeration systems. Molecular sieve films offer the possibility of performing separations involving hydrogen, natural gas constituents, and water vapor at elevated temperatures with very high separation factors. It is in applications such as these that the authors expect inorganic molecular sieve membranes to compete most effectively with current gas separation technologies. Cryogenic separations are very energy intensive. Polymer membranes do not have the thermal stability appropriate for high temperature hydrogen recovery, and tend to swell in the presence of hydrocarbon natural gas constituents. The authors goal is to develop a family of microporous oxide films that offer permeability and selectivity exceeding those of polymer membranes, allowing gas membranes to compete with cryogenic and adsorption technologies for large-scale gas separation applications.

  2. Nanocrystal thin film fabrication methods and apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kagan, Cherie R.; Kim, David K.; Choi, Ji-Hyuk; Lai, Yuming


    Nanocrystal thin film devices and methods for fabricating nanocrystal thin film devices are disclosed. The nanocrystal thin films are diffused with a dopant such as Indium, Potassium, Tin, etc. to reduce surface states. The thin film devices may be exposed to air during a portion of the fabrication. This enables fabrication of nanocrystal-based devices using a wider range of techniques such as photolithography and photolithographic patterning in an air environment.

  3. Laser applications in thin-film photovoltaics


    Bartlome, R.; Strahm, B.; Sinquin, Y.; Feltrin, A.; Ballif, C.


    We review laser applications in thin-film photovoltaics (thin-film Si, CdTe, and Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells). Lasers are applied in this growing field to manufacture modules, to monitor Si deposition processes, and to characterize opto-electrical properties of thin films. Unlike traditional panels based on crystalline silicon wafers, the individual cells of a thin-film photovoltaic module can be serially interconnected by laser scribing during fabrication. Laser scribing applications are descri...

  4. Magnetization in permalloy thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    RACHANA GUPTA1,∗, MUKUL GUPTA2 and THOMAS GUTBERLET3. 1VES College of Arts, Science and Commerce, Sindhi Society, Chembur, Mumbai 400 071,. India. 2UGC-DAE Consortium for ... E-mail: Abstract. Thin films of permalloy (Ni80Fe20) were prepared using an Ar+N2 mixture.

  5. Thin film corrosion. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raut, M.K.


    Corrosion of chromium/gold (Cr/Au) thin films during photolithography, prebond etching, and cleaning was evaluated. Vapors of chromium etchant, tantalum nitride etchant, and especially gold etchant were found to corrosively attack chromium/gold films. A palladium metal barrier between the gold and chromium layers was found to reduce the corrosion from gold etchant.

  6. Center for Thin Film Studies (United States)


    12 (3.22) To understand (3.22) requires a basic knowledge of differential geometry (Do Carmo , 1976). The determinant and trace of M1dj are the...A.G. Dirks and H.J. Leamy, "Columnar Microstructure in Vapour Deposited Thin Films," Thin Solid Films 47 219-233 (1977). M.P. Do Carmo , Differential

  7. Suppression of copper thin film loss during graphene synthesis. (United States)

    Lee, Alvin L; Tao, Li; Akinwande, Deji


    Thin metal films can be used to catalyze the growth of nanomaterials in place of the bulk metal, while greatly reducing the amount of material used. A big drawback of copper thin films (0.5-1.5 μm thick) is that, under high temperature/vacuum synthesis, the mass loss of films severely reduces the process time due to discontinuities in the metal film, thereby limiting the time scale for controlling metal grain and film growth. In this work, we have developed a facile method, namely "covered growth" to extend the time copper thin films can be exposed to high temperature/vacuum environment for graphene synthesis. The key to preventing severe mass loss of copper film during the high temperature chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process is to have a cover piece on top of the growth substrate. This new "covered growth" method enables the high-temperature annealing of the copper film upward of 4 h with minimal mass loss, while increasing copper film grain and graphene domain size. Graphene was then successfully grown on the capped copper film with subsequent transfer for device fabrication. Device characterization indicated equivalent physical, chemical, and electrical properties to conventional CVD graphene. Our "covered growth" provides a convenient and effective solution to the mass loss issue of thin films that serve as catalysts for a variety of 2D material syntheses.

  8. Characterization of nanocrystalline cadmium telluride thin films ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    tion method, successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR), are described. For deposition of CdTe thin films, cadmium ... By conducting several trials optimization of the adsorption, reaction and rinsing time duration for CdTe thin film deposition was ... 3.1 Reaction mechanism. CdTe thin films were grown on micro ...

  9. Thin-Film Ceramic Thermocouples Fabricated and Tested (United States)

    Wrbanek, John D.; Fralick, Gustave C.; Farmer, Serene C.; Sayir, Ali; Gregory, Otto J.; Blaha, Charles A.


    The Sensors and Electronics Technology Branch of the NASA Glenn Research Center is developing thin-film-based sensors for surface measurement in propulsion system research. Thin-film sensors do not require special machining of the components on which they are mounted, and they are considerably thinner than wire- or foil-based sensors. One type of sensor being advanced is the thin-film thermocouple, specifically for applications in high-temperature combustion environments. Ceramics are being demonstrated as having the potential to meet the demands of thin-film thermocouples in advanced aerospace environments. The maximum-use temperature of noble metal thin-film thermocouples, 1500 C (2700 F), may not be adequate for components used in the increasingly harsh conditions of advanced aircraft and next-generation launch vehicles. Ceramic-based thermocouples are known for their high stability and robustness at temperatures exceeding 1500 C, but are typically in the form of bulky rods or probes. As part of ASTP, Glenn's Sensors and Electronics Technology Branch is leading an in-house effort to apply ceramics as thin-film thermocouples for extremely high-temperature applications as part of ASTP. Since the purity of the ceramics is crucial for the stability of the thermocouples, Glenn's Ceramics Branch and Case Western Reserve University are developing high-purity ceramic sputtering targets for fabricating high-temperature sensors. Glenn's Microsystems Fabrication Laboratory, supported by the Akima Corporation, is using these targets to fabricate thermocouple samples for testing. The first of the materials used were chromium silicide (CrSi) and tantalum carbide (TaC). These refractory materials are expected to survive temperatures in excess of 1500 C. Preliminary results indicate that the thermoelectric voltage output of a thin-film CrSi versus TaC thermocouple is 15 times that of the standard type R (platinum-rhodium versus platinum) thermocouple, producing 20 mV with a 200

  10. Epitaxial thin film growth and properties of unconventional oxide superconductors. Cuprates and cobaltates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krockenberger, Y.


    The discovery of high-temperature superconductors has strongly driven the development of suited thin film fabrication methods of complex oxides. One way is the adaptation of molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) for the growth of oxide materials. Another approach is the use of pulsed laser deposition (PLD) which has the advantage of good stoichiometry transfer from target to the substrate. Both techniques are used within this thesis. Epitaxial thin films of new materials are of course needed for future applications. In addition, the controlled synthesis of thin film matter which can be formed far away from thermal equilibrium allows for the investigation of fundamental physical materials properties. (orig.)

  11. Polymer Substrates For Lightweight, Thin-Film Solar Cells (United States)

    Lewis, Carol R.


    Substrates survive high deposition temperatures. High-temperature-resistant polymers candidate materials for use as substrates of lightweight, flexible, radiation-resistant solar photovoltaic cells. According to proposal, thin films of copper indium diselenide or cadmium telluride deposited on substrates to serve as active semiconductor layers of cells, parts of photovoltaic power arrays having exceptionally high power-to-weight ratios. Flexibility of cells exploited to make arrays rolled up for storage.

  12. Metallic and Ceramic Thin Film Thermocouples for Gas Turbine Engines (United States)

    Tougas, Ian M.; Amani, Matin; Gregory, Otto J.


    Temperatures of hot section components in today's gas turbine engines reach as high as 1,500 °C, making in situ monitoring of the severe temperature gradients within the engine rather difficult. Therefore, there is a need to develop instrumentation (i.e., thermocouples and strain gauges) for these turbine engines that can survive these harsh environments. Refractory metal and ceramic thin film thermocouples are well suited for this task since they have excellent chemical and electrical stability at high temperatures in oxidizing atmospheres, they are compatible with thermal barrier coatings commonly employed in today's engines, they have greater sensitivity than conventional wire thermocouples, and they are non-invasive to combustion aerodynamics in the engine. Thin film thermocouples based on platinum:palladium and indium oxynitride:indium tin oxynitride as well as their oxide counterparts have been developed for this purpose and have proven to be more stable than conventional type-S and type-K thin film thermocouples. The metallic and ceramic thin film thermocouples described within this paper exhibited remarkable stability and drift rates similar to bulk (wire) thermocouples. PMID:24217356

  13. Metallic and ceramic thin film thermocouples for gas turbine engines. (United States)

    Tougas, Ian M; Amani, Matin; Gregory, Otto J


    Temperatures of hot section components in today's gas turbine engines reach as high as 1,500 °C, making in situ monitoring of the severe temperature gradients within the engine rather difficult. Therefore, there is a need to develop instrumentation (i.e., thermocouples and strain gauges) for these turbine engines that can survive these harsh environments. Refractory metal and ceramic thin film thermocouples are well suited for this task since they have excellent chemical and electrical stability at high temperatures in oxidizing atmospheres, they are compatible with thermal barrier coatings commonly employed in today's engines, they have greater sensitivity than conventional wire thermocouples, and they are non-invasive to combustion aerodynamics in the engine. Thin film thermocouples based on platinum:palladium and indium oxynitride:indium tin oxynitride as well as their oxide counterparts have been developed for this purpose and have proven to be more stable than conventional type-S and type-K thin film thermocouples. The metallic and ceramic thin film thermocouples described within this paper exhibited remarkable stability and drift rates similar to bulk (wire) thermocouples.

  14. Metallic and Ceramic Thin Film Thermocouples for Gas Turbine Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto J. Gregory


    Full Text Available Temperatures of hot section components in today’s gas turbine engines reach as high as 1,500 °C, making in situ monitoring of the severe temperature gradients within the engine rather difficult. Therefore, there is a need to develop instrumentation (i.e., thermocouples and strain gauges for these turbine engines that can survive these harsh environments. Refractory metal and ceramic thin film thermocouples are well suited for this task since they have excellent chemical and electrical stability at high temperatures in oxidizing atmospheres, they are compatible with thermal barrier coatings commonly employed in today’s engines, they have greater sensitivity than conventional wire thermocouples, and they are non-invasive to combustion aerodynamics in the engine. Thin film thermocouples based on platinum:palladium and indium oxynitride:indium tin oxynitride as well as their oxide counterparts have been developed for this purpose and have proven to be more stable than conventional type-S and type-K thin film thermocouples. The metallic and ceramic thin film thermocouples described within this paper exhibited remarkable stability and drift rates similar to bulk (wire thermocouples.

  15. Thin films of soft matter

    CERN Document Server

    Kalliadasis, Serafim


    A detailed overview and comprehensive analysis of the main theoretical and experimental advances on free surface thin film and jet flows of soft matter is given. At the theoretical front the book outlines the basic equations and boundary conditions and the derivation of low-dimensional models for the evolution of the free surface. Such models include long-wave expansions and equations of the boundary layer type and are analyzed via linear stability analysis, weakly nonlinear theories and strongly nonlinear analysis including construction of stationary periodic and solitary wave and similarity solutions. At the experimental front a variety of very recent experimental developments is outlined and the link between theory and experiments is illustrated. Such experiments include spreading drops and bubbles, imbibitions, singularity formation at interfaces and experimental characterization of thin films using atomic force microscopy, ellipsometry and contact angle measurements and analysis of patterns using Minkows...

  16. High Temperature Stable Separator for Lithium Batteries Based on SiO2 and Hydroxypropyl Guar Gum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Vieira Carvalho


    Full Text Available A novel membrane based on silicon dioxide (SiO2 and hydroxypropyl guar gum (HPG as binder is presented and tested as a separator for lithium-ion batteries. The separator is made with renewable and low cost materials and an environmentally friendly manufacturing processing using only water as solvent. The separator offers superior wettability and high electrolyte uptake due to the optimized porosity and the good affinity of SiO2 and guar gum microstructure towards organic liquid electrolytes. Additionally, the separator shows high thermal stability and no dimensional-shrinkage at high temperatures due to the use of the ceramic filler and the thermally stable natural polymer. The electrochemical tests show the good electrochemical stability of the separator in a wide range of potential, as well as its outstanding cycle performance.

  17. Fabrication of cermet bearings for the control system of a high temperature lithium cooled nuclear reactor (United States)

    Yacobucci, H. G.; Heestand, R. L.; Kizer, D. E.


    The techniques used to fabricate cermet bearings for the fueled control drums of a liquid metal cooled reference-design reactor concept are presented. The bearings were designed for operation in lithium for as long as 5 years at temperatures to 1205 C. Two sets of bearings were fabricated from a hafnium carbide - 8-wt. % molybdenum - 2-wt. % niobium carbide cermet, and two sets were fabricated from a hafnium nitride - 10-wt. % tungsten cermet. Procedures were developed for synthesizing the material in high purity inert-atmosphere glove boxes to minimize oxygen content in order to enhance corrosion resistance. Techniques were developed for pressing cylindrical billets to conserve materials and to reduce machining requirements. Finishing was accomplished by a combination of diamond grinding, electrodischarge machining, and diamond lapping. Samples were characterized in respect to composition, impurity level, lattice parameter, microstructure and density.

  18. Structural and electrical properties of lithio-borate solid electrolyte thin films (United States)

    Dzwonkowski, P.; Julien, C.; Balkanski, M.


    The effect of deposition conditions on the growth structure of amorphous thin films of lithio-borate solid electrolyte was investigated by means of infrared absorption and complex impedance spectroscopies. Thin films of vitreous solid electrolyte in the alkali-oxide/borate-oxide system were grown by vacuum quasi-flash evaporation. The complex impedance measurements of the thin solid films in the sandwich geometry show a high ionic conductivity. Incorporation of lithium salt dopant has been also studied. The structure was determined using infrared absorption spectra which are sensitive to deposition conditions and to the amount of lithium incorporated.

  19. MCP performance improvement using alumina thin film (United States)

    Yang, Yuzhen; Yan, Baojun; Liu, Shulin; Zhao, Tianchi; Yu, Yang; Wen, Kaile; Li, Yumei; Qi, Ming


    The performance improvement using alumina thin film on a dual microchannel plate (MCP) detector for single electron counting was investigated. The alumina thin film was coated on all surfaces of the MCPs by atomic layer deposition method. It was found that the gain, the single electron resolution and the peak-to-valley ratio of the dual MCP detector were significantly enhanced by coating the alumina thin film. The optimum operating conditions of the new dual MCP detector have been studied.

  20. Testing thin film adhesion strength acoustically (United States)

    Madanshetty, Sameer I.; Wanklyn, Kevin M.; Ji, Hang


    A new method of measuring the adhesion strength of thin films to their substrates is reported. The method is based on an analogy with the common tensile test of materials. This is an acoustic method that uses acoustic microcavitation to bring about controlled erosion of the thin film. Based on the insonification pressure and the time to complete erosion, the adhesion strength is assessed. The measurements correctly rank order a set of thin film samples of known adhesion strengths.

  1. Growth and characterization of PNZST thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhai Jiwei; Li, X.; Yao, Y.; Chen, Haydn


    We have grown and compared microstructures and dielectric properties of PNZST thin films prepared on two different substrates by sol-gel methods. To ensure a complete single-phase perovskite PNZST thin film, a capping layer of PbO must be added to the top surface of the thin film before final heat treatment. Microstructure characterization was examined with X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Dielectric and antiferroelectric properties were investigated as a function of temperature.

  2. Numerical modeling of thin film optical filters (United States)

    Topasna, Daniela M.; Topasna, Gregory A.


    Thin films are an important and sometimes essential component in many optical and electrical devices. As part of their studies in optics, students receive a basic grounding in the propagation of light through thin films of various configurations. Knowing how to calculate the transmission and reflection of light of various wavelengths through thin film layers is essential training that students should have. We present exercises where students use Mathcad to numerically model the transmission and reflection of light from various thin film configurations. By varying the number of layers and their optical parameters, students learn how to adjust the transmission curves in order to tune particular filters to suit needed applications.

  3. Analysis of Hard Thin Film Coating (United States)

    Shen, Dashen


    MSFC is interested in developing hard thin film coating for bearings. The wearing of the bearing is an important problem for space flight engine. Hard thin film coating can drastically improve the surface of the bearing and improve the wear-endurance of the bearing. However, many fundamental problems in surface physics, plasma deposition, etc, need further research. The approach is using electron cyclotron resonance chemical vapor deposition (ECRCVD) to deposit hard thin film an stainless steel bearing. The thin films in consideration include SiC, SiN and other materials. An ECRCVD deposition system is being assembled at MSFC.

  4. Thin films for emerging applications v.16

    CERN Document Server

    Francombe, Maurice H


    Following in the long-standing tradition of excellence established by this serial, this volume provides a focused look at contemporary applications. High Tc superconducting thin films are discussed in terms of ion beam and sputtering deposition, vacuum evaporation, laser ablation, MOCVD, and other deposition processes in addition to their ultimate applications. Detailed treatment is also given to permanent magnet thin films, lateral diffusion and electromigration in metallic thin films, and fracture and cracking phenomena in thin films adhering to high-elongation substrates.

  5. Thin film solar energy collector (United States)

    Aykan, Kamran; Farrauto, Robert J.; Jefferson, Clinton F.; Lanam, Richard D.


    A multi-layer solar energy collector of improved stability comprising: (1) a substrate of quartz, silicate glass, stainless steel or aluminum-containing ferritic alloy; (2) a solar absorptive layer comprising silver, copper oxide, rhodium/rhodium oxide and 0-15% by weight of platinum; (3) an interlayer comprising silver or silver/platinum; and (4) an optional external anti-reflective coating, plus a method for preparing a thermally stable multi-layered solar collector, in which the absorptive layer is undercoated with a thin film of silver or silver/platinum to obtain an improved conductor-dielectric tandem.

  6. Vanadium dioxide thin film with low phase transition temperature deposited on borosilicate glass substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Zhangli; Chen Sihai, E-mail:; Wang Boqing; Huang Ying; Liu Nengfu; Xu Jin; Lai Jianjun


    A nanostructured vanadium dioxide (VO{sub 2}) thin film showing a low metal-insulator transition temperature of 30 {sup o}C has been fabricated through reactive ion beam sputtering followed by thermal annealing. The thin film was grown on borosilicate glass substrate at the temperature of 280 {sup o}C with a Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} buffer layer. Both scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy images have been taken to investigate the configuration of VO{sub 2} thin film. The average height of the crystallite is 20 nm and the grain size ranges from 40 nm to 100 nm. The transmittance measured from low to high temperatures also reveals that the film possesses excellent switching property in infrared light at critical transition temperature, with switching efficiency of 52% at 2600 nm. This experiment paves the way of VO{sub 2} thin film's application in smart windows.

  7. Flexible thin film magnetoimpedance sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurlyandskaya, G.V., E-mail: [Universidad del País Vasco, UPV/EHU, Departamento de Electricidad y Electrónica, P.O. Box 644, Bilbao 48080 (Spain); Ural Federal University, Laboratory of Magnetic sensoric, Lenin Ave. 51, 620083 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Fernández, E. [BCMaterials UPV-EHU, Vizcaya Science and Technology Park, 48160 Derio (Spain); Svalov, A. [Universidad del País Vasco, UPV/EHU, Departamento de Electricidad y Electrónica, P.O. Box 644, Bilbao 48080 (Spain); Ural Federal University, Laboratory of Magnetic sensoric, Lenin Ave. 51, 620083 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Burgoa Beitia, A. [Universidad del País Vasco, UPV/EHU, Departamento de Electricidad y Electrónica, P.O. Box 644, Bilbao 48080 (Spain); García-Arribas, A. [Universidad del País Vasco, UPV/EHU, Departamento de Electricidad y Electrónica, P.O. Box 644, Bilbao 48080 (Spain); BCMaterials UPV-EHU, Vizcaya Science and Technology Park, 48160 Derio (Spain); Larrañaga, A. [SGIker, Servicios Generales de Investigación, Universidad del País Vasco (UPV/EHU), 48080 Bilbao (Spain)


    Magnetically soft thin film deposited onto polymer substrates is an attractive option for flexible electronics including magnetoimpedance (MI) applications. MI FeNi/Ti based thin film sensitive elements were designed and prepared using the sputtering technique by deposition onto rigid and flexible substrates at different deposition rates. Their structure, magnetic properties and MI were comparatively analyzed. The main structural features were sufficiently accurately reproduced in the case of deposition onto cyclo olefine polymer substrates compared to glass substrates for the same conditions. Although for the best condition (28 nm/min rate) of the deposition onto polymer a significant reduction of the MI field sensitivity was found satisfactory for sensor applications sensitivity: 45%/Oe was obtained for a frequency of 60 MHz. - Highlights: • [FeNi/Ti]{sub 3}/Cu/[FeNi/Ti]{sub 3} films were prepared by sputtering at different deposition rates. • Polymer substrates insure sufficiently accurate reproducibility of the film structure. • High deposition rate of 28 nm/min insures the highest values of the magnetoimpedance sensitivity. • Deposition onto polymer results in the satisfactory magnetoimpedance sensitivity of 45%/Oe.

  8. Intrinsically conductive polymer thin film piezoresistors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lillemose, Michael; Spieser, Martin; Christiansen, N.O.


    We report on the piezoresistive effect in the intrinsically conductive polymer, polyaniline. A process recipe for indirect patterning of thin film polyaniline has been developed. Using a specially designed chip, the polyaniline thin films have been characterised with respect to resistivity...

  9. Block copolymer directed nanoporous metal thin films.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arora, H.; Li, Z.H.; Sai, H.; Kamperman, M.M.G.; Warren, S.C.; Wiesner, U.


    Porous metal thin films have high potential for use in applications such as catalysis, electrical contacts, plasmonics, as well as energy storage and conversion. Structuring metal thin films on the nanoscale to generate high surface areas poses an interesting challenge as metals have high surface

  10. A monolithic thin film electrochromic window

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldner, R.B.; Arntz, F.O.; Berera, G.; Haas, T.E.; Wong, K.K. [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States). Electro-Optics Technology Center; Wei, G. [Mobil Solar Energy Corp., Billerica, MA (United States); Yu, P.C. [PPG Industries, Inc., Monroeville, PA (United States)


    Three closely related thin film solid state ionic devices that are potentially important for applications are: electrochromic smart windows, high energy density thin film rechargeable batteries, and thin film electrochemical sensors. Each usually has at least on mixed ion/electron conductor, an electron-blocking ion conductor, and an ion-blocking electron conductor, and many of the technical issues associated with thin film solid state ionics are common to all three devices. Since the electrochromic window has the added technical requirement of electrically-controlled optical modulation, (over the solar spectrum), and since research at the authors` institution has focused primarily on the window structure, this paper will address the electrochromic window, and particularly a monolithic variable reflectivity electrochromic window, as an illustrative example of some of the challenges and opportunities that are confronting the thin film solid state ionics community. 33 refs.

  11. Zinc oxide thin film acoustic sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammed, Ali Jasim; Salih, Wafaa Mahdi; Hassan, Marwa Abdul Muhsien; Nusseif, Asmaa Deiaa; Kadhum, Haider Abdullah [Department of Physics , College of Science, Al-Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad (Iraq); Mansour, Hazim Louis [Department of Physics , College of Education, Al-Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad (Iraq)


    This paper reports the implementation of (750 nm) thickness of Zinc Oxide (ZnO) thin film for the piezoelectric pressure sensors. The film was prepared and deposited employing the spray pyrolysis technique. XRD results show that the growth preferred orientation is the (002) plane. A polycrystalline thin film (close to mono crystallite like) was obtained. Depending on the Scanning Electron Microscopy photogram, the film homogeneity and thickness were shown. The resonance frequency measured (about 19 kHz) and the damping coefficient was calculated and its value was found to be about (2.5538), the thin film be haves as homogeneous for under and over damped. The thin film pressure sensing was approximately exponentially related with frequency, the thin film was observed to has a good response for mechanical stresses also it is a good material for the piezoelectric properties.

  12. Experimental and ab initio investigations on textured Li–Mn–O spinel thin film cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, J., E-mail: [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Applied Materials (IAM), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Music, D. [RWTH Aachen University, Materials Chemistry, Kopernikusstrasse 10, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Bergfeldt, T.; Ziebert, C.; Ulrich, S.; Seifert, H.J. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Applied Materials (IAM), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)


    This paper describes the tailored preparation of nearly identical lithium–manganese–oxide thin film cathodes with different global grain orientations. The thin films were synthesized by rf magnetron sputtering from a LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}-target in a pure argon plasma. Under appropriate processing conditions, thin films with a cubic spinel structure and a nearly similar density and surface topography but different grain orientation, i.e. (111)- and (440)-textured films, were achieved. The chemical composition was determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy and carrier gas hot extraction. The constitution- and microstructure were evaluated by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The surface morphology and roughness were investigated by scanning electron and atomic force microscopy. The differently textured films represent an ideal model system for studying potential effects of grain orientation on the lithium ion diffusion and electrochemical behavior in LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}-based thin films. They are nearly identical in their chemical composition, atomic bonding behavior, surface-roughness, morphology and thickness. Our initial ab initio molecular dynamics data indicate that Li ion transport is faster in (111)-textured structure than in (440)-textured one. - Highlights: • Thin film model system of differently textured cubic Li–Mn–O spinels. • Investigation of the Li–Mn–O thin film mass density by X-ray reflectivity. • Ab initio molecular dynamics simulation on Li ion diffusion in LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}.

  13. Polycrystalline thin films : A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valvoda, V. [Charles Univ., Prague (Czech Republic). Faculty of Mathematics and Physics


    Polycrystalline thin films can be described in terms of grain morphology and in terms of their packing by the Thornton`s zone model as a function of temperature of deposition and as a function of energy of deposited atoms. Grain size and preferred grain orientation (texture) can be determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) methods. A review of XRD analytical methods of texture analysis is given with main attention paid to simple empirical functions used for texture description and for structure analysis by joint texture refinement. To illustrate the methods of detailed structure analysis of thin polycrystalline films, examples of multilayers are used with the aim to show experiments and data evaluation to determine layer thickness, periodicity, interface roughness, lattice spacing, strain and the size of diffraction coherent volumes. The methods of low angle and high angle XRD are described and discussed with respect to their complementary information content.

  14. Biocompatibility and Surface Properties of TiO2 Thin Films Deposited by DC Magnetron Sputtering (United States)

    López-Huerta, Francisco; Cervantes, Blanca; González, Octavio; Hernández-Torres, Julián; García-González, Leandro; Vega, Rosario; Herrera-May, Agustín L.; Soto, Enrique


    We present the study of the biocompatibility and surface properties of titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films deposited by direct current magnetron sputtering. These films are deposited on a quartz substrate at room temperature and annealed with different temperatures (100, 300, 500, 800 and 1100 °C). The biocompatibility of the TiO2 thin films is analyzed using primary cultures of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) of Wistar rats, whose neurons are incubated on the TiO2 thin films and on a control substrate during 18 to 24 h. These neurons are activated by electrical stimuli and its ionic currents and action potential activity recorded. Through X-ray diffraction (XRD), the surface of TiO2 thin films showed a good quality, homogeneity and roughness. The XRD results showed the anatase to rutile phase transition in TiO2 thin films at temperatures between 500 and 1100 °C. This phase had a grain size from 15 to 38 nm, which allowed a suitable structural and crystal phase stability of the TiO2 thin films for low and high temperature. The biocompatibility experiments of these films indicated that they were appropriated for culture of living neurons which displayed normal electrical behavior. PMID:28788667

  15. Preferential growth of ZnO thin films by the atomic layer deposition technique (United States)

    Pung, Swee-Yong; Choy, Kwang-Leong; Hou, Xianghui; Shan, Chongxin


    Preferred orientation of ZnO thin films deposited by the atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique could be manipulated by deposition temperature. In this work, diethyl zinc (DEZn) and deionized water (H2O) were used as a zinc source and oxygen source, respectively. The results demonstrated that (10.0) dominant ZnO thin films were grown in the temperature range of 155-220 °C. The c-axis crystal growth of these films was greatly suppressed. Adhesion of anions (such as fragments of an ethyl group) on the (00.2) polar surface of the ZnO thin film was believed to be responsible for this suppression. In contrast, (00.2) dominant ZnO thin films were obtained between 220 and 300 °C. The preferred orientations of (10.0) and (00.2) of the ZnO thin films were examined by XRD texture analysis. The texture analysis results agreed well with the alignments of ZnO nanowires (NWs) which were grown from these ZnO thin films. In this case, the nanosized crystals of ZnO thin films acted as seeds for the growth of ZnO nanowires (NWs) by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. The highly (00.2) textured ZnO thin films deposited at high temperatures, such as 280 °C, contained polycrystals with the c axis perpendicular to the substrate surface and provided a good template for the growth of vertically aligned ZnO NWs.

  16. Macro stress mapping on thin film buckling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goudeau, P.; Villain, P.; Renault, P.-O.; Tamura, N.; Celestre, R.S.; Padmore, H.A.


    Thin films deposited by Physical Vapour Deposition techniques on substrates generally exhibit large residual stresses which may be responsible of thin film buckling in the case of compressive stresses. Since the 80's, a lot of theoretical work has been done to develop mechanical models but only a few experimental work has been done on this subject to support these theoretical approaches and nothing concerning local stress measurement mainly because of the small dimension of the buckling (few 10th mm). This paper deals with the application of micro beam X-ray diffraction available on synchrotron radiation sources for stress mapping analysis of gold thin film buckling.

  17. Stabilized thin film heterostructure for electrochemical applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The invention provides a method for the formation of a thin film multi-layered heterostructure upon a substrate, said method comprising the steps of: a. providing a substrate; b. depositing a buffer layer upon said substrate, said buffer layer being a layer of stable ionic conductor (B); c...... or less; and e. repeating steps b. and c. a total of N times, such that N repeating pairs of layers (A/B) are built up, wherein N is 1 or more. The invention also provides a thin film multi-layered heterostructure as such, and the combination of a thin film multi-layered heterostructure and a substrate...

  18. Nanostructured thin films and coatings functional properties

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Sam


    The second volume in ""The Handbook of Nanostructured Thin Films and Coatings"" set, this book focuses on functional properties, including optical, electronic, and electrical properties, as well as related devices and applications. It explores the large-scale fabrication of functional thin films with nanoarchitecture via chemical routes, the fabrication and characterization of SiC nanostructured/nanocomposite films, and low-dimensional nanocomposite fabrication and applications. The book also presents the properties of sol-gel-derived nanostructured thin films as well as silicon nanocrystals e

  19. Raman spectroscopy of thin films (United States)

    Burgess, James Shaw

    Raman spectroscopy was used in conjunction with x-ray diffraction and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to elucidate structural and compositional information on a variety of samples. Raman was used on the unique La 2NiMnO6 mixed double perovskite which is a member of the LaMnO3 family of perovskites and has multiferroic properties. Raman was also used on nanodiamond films as well as some boron-doped carbon compounds. Finally, Raman was used to identify metal-dendrimer bonds that have previously been overlooked. Vibrational modes for La2NiMnO6 were ascribed by comparing spectra with that for LaMnO3 bulk and thin film spectra. The two most prominent modes were labeled as an asymmetric stretch (A g) centered around 535 cm-1 and a symmetric stretch (B g) centered around 678 cm. The heteroepitaxial quality of La2NiMnO 6 films on SrTiO3 (100) and LaAlO3 (100) substrates were examined using the Raman microscope by way of depth profile experiments and by varying the thickness of the films. It was found that thin films (10 nm) had much greater strain on the LaAlO3 substrate than on the SrTiO3 substrate by examining the shifts of the Ag and the Bg modes from their bulk positions. Changes in the unit cell owing to the presence of oxygen defects were also monitored using Raman spectroscopy. It was found that the Ag and Bg modes shifted between samples formed with different oxygen partial pressures. These shifts could be correlated to changes in the symmetry of the manganese centers due to oxygen defects. Raman spectroscopy was used to examine the structural and compositional characteristics of carbon materials. Nanocrystalline diamond coated cutting tools were examined using the Raman Microscope. Impact, abrasion, and depth profile experiments indicated that delamination was the primary cause of film failure in these systems. Boron doped material of interest as catalyst supports were also examined. Monitoring of the G-mode and intensities of the D- and G-modes indicated that

  20. Synthesis of LiVO{sub 3} thin films by spray pyrolysis technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouzidi, A., E-mail: bouzidi_attou@yahoo.f [Laboratoire d' Elaboration et de Caracterisations des Materiaux, Departement d' Electronique, Universite Djillali Liabes, BP89, Sidi Bel Abbes 22000 (Algeria); Benramdane, N.; Medles, M.; Khadraoui, M. [Laboratoire d' Elaboration et de Caracterisations des Materiaux, Departement d' Electronique, Universite Djillali Liabes, BP89, Sidi Bel Abbes 22000 (Algeria); Bresson, S. [Laboratoire de Biochimie, INSERM, ERI 12, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Universite de Picardie Jules Verne, Place Victor Pauchet, F-80000 Amiens (France); Mathieu, C.; Desfeux, R. [Universite d' Artois, Faculte Jean Perrin, Rue Jean Souvraz, SP18, 62307 Lens (France); Marssi, M. El. [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere Condensee, Universite de Picardie Jules Verne, 33 rue St. Leu, 80039 Amiens (France)


    Lithium metavanadate thin films were successfully deposited on glass substrates by spray pyrolysis technique at substrate temperature of 250 {sup o}C. 0.2 M spraying solution was prepared by mixing appropriate volumes of LiCl and VCl{sub 3} solutions. Structural, vibrational and optical properties of deposited film are discussed. X-ray diffraction and micro-Raman spectroscopy have revealed that LiVO{sub 3} with monoclinic symmetry was obtained. Optical properties of thin film were studied from transmission measurement in the range UV-Visible.

  1. Indium oxide thin film based ammonia gas and ethanol vapour sensor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    For the fabrication of miniature heater indium tin oxide thin film was grown on special high temperature corning glass substrate by flash evaporation method. Gold was deposited on the film using thermal evaporation technique under high vacuum. The film was then annealed at 700 K for an hour. The thermocouple attached ...

  2. Development of Strontium Titanate Thin films on Technical Substrates for Superconducting Coated Conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallewatta, Pallewatta G A P; Yue, Zhao; Grivel, Jean-Claude


    SrTiO3 is a widely studied perovskite material due to its advantages as a template for high temperature superconducting tapes. Heteroepitaxial SrTiO3 thin films were deposited on Ni/W tapes using dip-coating in a precursor solution followed by drying and annealing under reducing conditions. Nearl...

  3. Low-field vortex dynamics in various high-Tc thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vortex dynamics; flux creep; high temperature superconductor; thin film; ac susceptibil- ity. PACS Nos 74.72.-h; 74.76.Bz; 74.60.Ge. 1. Introduction. Despite the predictions of fundamental new physics and intriguing vortex phenomena in high-Tc materials at very low fields [1–6], a vast majority of experimental vortex dynam-.

  4. Thin films of absorber material Cu2ZnSnS4 for solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cazzaniga, Andrea Carlo; Ettlinger, Rebecca Bolt; Schou, Jørgen


    Pulsed Laser Deposition technique is applied to the production of thin films of CZTS (Cu2ZnSnS4).This vacuum technique has proven to be particularly successful in the production of films with acomplex stoichiometry, as in the case of high temperature superconductors. The material ablated bythe la...

  5. Effect of Sb content on the thermoelectric properties of annealed CoSb{sub 3} thin films deposited via RF co-sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Aziz, E-mail: [Department of Nano-Mechatronics, Korea University of Science and Technology (UST), 217 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nano-Mechanics, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials (KIMM), 156 Gajeongbuk-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Seungwoo, E-mail: [Department of Nano-Mechatronics, Korea University of Science and Technology (UST), 217 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nano-Mechanics, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials (KIMM), 156 Gajeongbuk-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-343 (Korea, Republic of)


    Graphical abstract: The X-ray diffraction patterns and temperature dependence of the Seebeck coefficient of the annealed Co–Sb thin films. - Highlights: • CoSb{sub 3} phase thin films were prepared using RF co sputtering method. • Thin film thermoelectric properties were hugely dependent on Sb content. • All thin films shows n-type conduction behavior at high temperatures. • The thin films with excess Sb possess the largest Seebeck coefficient. • The thin films with CoSb{sub 2} phase possess the largest power factor. - Abstract: A series of CoSb{sub 3} thin films with Sb contents in the range 70–79 at.% were deposited at room temperature via RF co-sputtering. The thin films were amorphous in the as-deposited state and annealed at 300 °C for 3 h to obtain crystalline samples. The annealed thin films were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD), and these data indicate that the films exhibited good crystallinity. The XRD patterns indicate single-phase CoSb{sub 3} thin films in the Sb-rich samples. For the Sb-deficient samples, however, mixed-phase thin films consisting of CoSb{sub 2} and CoSb{sub 3} components were obtained. The electrical and thermoelectric properties were measured at temperatures up to 760 K and found to be highly sensitive to the phases that were present. We observed a change in the thermoelectric properties of the films from p-type at low temperatures to n-type at high temperatures, which indicates potential applications as n-type thermoelectric thin films. A large Seebeck coefficient and power factor was obtained for the single-phase CoSb{sub 3} thin films. The CoSb{sub 2} phase thin films were also found to possess a significant Seebeck coefficient, which coupled with the much smaller electrical resistivity, provided a larger power factor than the single-phase CoSb{sub 3} thin films. We report maximum power factor of 7.92 mW/m K{sup 2} for the CoSb{sub 2}-containing mixed phase thin film and 1

  6. Mechanical Properties of Silicon Carbonitride Thin Films (United States)

    Peng, Xiaofeng; Hu, Xingfang; Wang, Wei; Song, Lixin


    Silicon carbonitride thin films were synthesized by reactive rf sputtering a silicon carbide target in nitrogen and argon atmosphere, or sputtering a silicon nitride target in methane and argon atmosphere, respectively. The Nanoindentation technique (Nanoindenter XP system with a continuous stiffness measurement technique) was employed to measure the hardness and elastic modulus of thin films. The effects of sputtering power on the mechanical properties are different for the two SiCN thin films. With increasing sputtering power, the hardness and the elastic modulus decrease for the former but increase for the latter. The tendency is similar to the evolution trend of Si-C bonds in SiCN materials. This reflects that Si-C bonds provide greater hardness for SiCN thin films than Si-N and C-N bonds.

  7. Highly stretchable wrinkled gold thin film wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Joshua, E-mail:; Park, Sun-Jun; Nguyen, Thao [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Chu, Michael [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Pegan, Jonathan D. [Department of Materials and Manufacturing Technology, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Khine, Michelle, E-mail: [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States)


    With the growing prominence of wearable electronic technology, there is a need to improve the mechanical reliability of electronics for more demanding applications. Conductive wires represent a vital component present in all electronics. Unlike traditional planar and rigid electronics, these new wearable electrical components must conform to curvilinear surfaces, stretch with the body, and remain unobtrusive and low profile. In this paper, the piezoresistive response of shrink induced wrinkled gold thin films under strain demonstrates robust conductive performance in excess of 200% strain. Importantly, the wrinkled metallic thin films displayed negligible change in resistance of up to 100% strain. The wrinkled metallic wires exhibited consistent performance after repetitive strain. Importantly, these wrinkled thin films are inexpensive to fabricate and are compatible with roll to roll manufacturing processes. We propose that these wrinkled metal thin film wires are an attractive alternative to conventional wires for wearable applications.

  8. Integrated Substrate and Thin Film Design Methods

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thaler, Stephen


    .... However, since modem thin film technology allows a wide range of exotic compositions and stoichiometries via deposition, surface treatments, and nano-fabrication, it is anticipated that this newly...

  9. Thermally tunable ferroelectric thin film photonic crystals.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, P. T.; Wessels, B. W.; Imre, A.; Ocola, L. E.; Northwestern Univ.


    Thermally tunable PhCs are fabricated from ferroelectric thin films. Photonic band structure and temperature dependent diffraction are calculated by FDTD. 50% intensity modulation is demonstrated experimentally. This device has potential in active ultra-compact optical circuits.

  10. Epitaxy, thin films and superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagd Christensen, Morten


    This report is the result of structural investigations of 3d transition metal superlattices consisting of Fe/V, Cr/Mn, V/Mn and Fe/Mn, and a structural and magnetic study of a series of Ho/Pr alloys. The work includes preparation and characterization of substrates as well as growth of thin films and Fe/V superlattices by molecular beam epitaxy, including in-situ characterization by reflection high energy electron diffraction and Auger electron spectroscopy. Structural characterization has been done by x-ray diffraction and neutron diffraction. The x-ray diffraction experiments have been performed on the rotating copper anode at Risoe, and at synchrotron facilities in Hamburg and Brookhaven, and the neutron scattering was done at the Danish research reactor DR3 at Risoe. In addition to longitudinal scans, giving information about the structural parameters in the modulation direction, non-specular scans were also performed. This type of scans gives information about in-plane orientation and lattice parameters. From the analysis, structural information is obtained about lattice parameters, epitaxial strain, coherence lengths and crystallographic orientation for the superlattice systems, except Fe/Mn superlattices, which could not be modelled. For the Ho/Pr alloys, x-ray magnetic scattering was performed, and the crystal and magnetic structure was investigated. (au) 14 tabs.; 58 ills., 96 refs.

  11. Aging phenomena in polystyrene thin films


    Fukao, Koji; Koizumi, Hiroki


    The aging behavior is investigated for thin films of atactic polystyrene through measurements of complex electric capacitance. During isothermal aging process the real part of the electric capacitance increases with aging time, while the imaginary part decreases with aging time. This result suggests that the aging time dependence of the real and imaginary parts are mainly associated with change in thickness and dielectric permittivity, respectively. In thin films, the thickness depends on the...

  12. Multilayer Thin Film Sensors for Damage Diagnostics (United States)

    Protasov, A. G.; Gordienko, Y. G.; Zasimchuk, E. E.


    The new innovative approach to damage diagnostics within the production and maintenance/servicing procedures in industry is proposed. It is based on the real-time multiscale monitoring of the smart-designed multilayer thin film sensors of fatigue damage with the standard electrical input/output interfaces which can be connected to the embedded and on-board computers. The multilayer thin film sensors supply information about the actual unpredictable deformation damage, actual fatigue life, strain localization places, damage spreading, etc.

  13. Laser processing for thin-film photovoltaics (United States)

    Compaan, Alvin D.


    Over the past decade major advances have occurred in the field of thin- film photovoltaics (PV) with many of them a direct consequence of the application of laser processing. Improved cell efficiencies have been achieved in crystalline and polycrystalline Si, in hydrogenated amorphous silicon, and in two polycrystalline thin-film materials. The use of lasers in photovoltaics includes laser hole drilling for emitter wrap-through, laser trenching for buried bus lines, and laser texturing of crystalline and polycrystalline Si cells. In thin-film devices, laser scribing is gaining increased importance for module interconnects. Pulsed laser recrystallization of boron-doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon is used to form highly conductive p-layers in p-i-n amorphous silicon cells and in thin-film transistors. Optical beam melting appears to be an attractive method for forming metal semiconductor alloys for contact formation. Finally, pulsed lasers are used for deposition of the entire semiconductor absorber layer in two types of polycrystalline thin-film cells-those based on copper indium diselenide and those based on cadmium telluride. In our lab we have prepared and studied heavily doped polycrystalline silicon thin films and also have used laser physical vapor deposition (LPVD) to prepare 'all-LPVD' CdS/CdTe solar cells on glass with efficiencies tested at NREL at 10.5%. LPVD is highly flexible and ideally suited for prototyping PV cells using ternary or quaternary alloys and for exploring new dopant combinations.

  14. Laser applications in thin-film photovoltaics (United States)

    Bartlome, R.; Strahm, B.; Sinquin, Y.; Feltrin, A.; Ballif, C.


    We review laser applications in thin-film photovoltaics (thin-film Si, CdTe, and Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells). Lasers are applied in this growing field to manufacture modules, to monitor Si deposition processes, and to characterize opto-electrical properties of thin films. Unlike traditional panels based on crystalline silicon wafers, the individual cells of a thin-film photovoltaic module can be serially interconnected by laser scribing during fabrication. Laser scribing applications are described in detail, while other laser-based fabrication processes, such as laser-induced crystallization and pulsed laser deposition, are briefly reviewed. Lasers are also integrated into various diagnostic tools to analyze the composition of chemical vapors during deposition of Si thin films. Silane (SiH4), silane radicals (SiH3, SiH2, SiH, Si), and Si nanoparticles have all been monitored inside chemical vapor deposition systems. Finally, we review various thin-film characterization methods, in which lasers are implemented.

  15. Lanthanide doped ceria thin films as possible counter electrode materials in electrochromic devices

    CERN Document Server

    Hartridge, A


    suitability of these thin films as counter electrodes in electrochromic devices. The final chapter then turns to the electrochemical insertion of lithium into these materials using cyclic voltammetry. All films studied enabled the reversible insertion of lithium with varying potentials and charge capacities without the loss of transmission of light common to other potential counter electrode materials. Certain compositions however, comprising ceria doped with Dy, Y, Nd and Pr, allowed enough lithium insertion (charge capacity) to fulfil the requirements of counter electrode materials in electrochromic devices. These materials are therefore worthy of further study. Crystalline solid solutions of lanthanide doped ceria have long been known for their high ionic conductivity and as such have found applications as oxygen sensors and in solid oxide fuel cells. With advances in preparative techniques over the years, thin films of ceria doped with zirconia and titania have been studied and found to possess the necess...

  16. Ultrafast Laser-Shock-Induced Confined Metaphase Transformation for Direct Writing of Black Phosphorus Thin Films. (United States)

    Qiu, Gang; Nian, Qiong; Motlag, Maithilee; Jin, Shengyu; Deng, Biwei; Deng, Yexin; Charnas, Adam R; Ye, Peide D; Cheng, Gary J


    Few-layer black phosphorus (BP) has emerged as one of the most promising candidates for post-silicon electronic materials due to its outstanding electrical and optical properties. However, lack of large-scale BP thin films is still a major roadblock to further applications. The most widely used methods for obtaining BP thin films are mechanical exfoliation and liquid exfoliation. Herein, a method of directly synthesizing continuous BP thin films with the capability of patterning arbitrary shapes by employing ultrafast laser writing with confinement is reported. The physical mechanism of confined laser metaphase transformation is understood by molecular dynamics simulation. Ultrafast laser ablation of BP layer under confinement can induce transient nonequilibrium high-temperature and high-pressure conditions for a few picoseconds. Under optimized laser intensity, this process induces a metaphase transformation to form a crystalline BP thin film on the substrate. Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy techniques are utilized to characterize the morphology of the resulting BP thin films. Field-effect transistors are fabricated on the BP films to study their electrical properties. This unique approach offers a general methodology to mass produce large-scale patterned BP films with a one-step manufacturing process that has the potential to be applied to other 2D materials. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Thin film dielectric composite materials (United States)

    Jia, Quanxi; Gibbons, Brady J.; Findikoglu, Alp T.; Park, Bae Ho


    A dielectric composite material comprising at least two crystal phases of different components with TiO.sub.2 as a first component and a material selected from the group consisting of Ba.sub.1-x Sr.sub.x TiO.sub.3 where x is from 0.3 to 0.7, Pb.sub.1-x Ca.sub.x TiO.sub.3 where x is from 0.4 to 0.7, Sr.sub.1-x Pb.sub.x TiO.sub.3 where x is from 0.2 to 0.4, Ba.sub.1-x Cd.sub.x TiO.sub.3 where x is from 0.02 to 0.1, BaTi.sub.1-x Zr.sub.x O.sub.3 where x is from 0.2 to 0.3, BaTi.sub.1-x Sn.sub.x O.sub.3 where x is from 0.15 to 0.3, BaTi.sub.1-x Hf.sub.x O.sub.3 where x is from 0.24 to 0.3, Pb.sub.1-1.3x La.sub.x TiO.sub.3+0.2x where x is from 0.23 to 0.3, (BaTiO.sub.3).sub.x (PbFeo.sub.0.5 Nb.sub.0.5 O.sub.3).sub.1-x where x is from 0.75 to 0.9, (PbTiO.sub.3).sub.- (PbCo.sub.0.5 W.sub.0.5 O.sub.3).sub.1-x where x is from 0.1 to 0.45, (PbTiO.sub.3).sub.x (PbMg.sub.0.5 W.sub.0.5 O.sub.3).sub.1-x where x is from 0.2 to 0.4, and (PbTiO.sub.3).sub.x (PbFe.sub.0.5 Ta.sub.0.5 O.sub.3).sub.1-x where x is from 0 to 0.2, as the second component is described. The dielectric composite material can be formed as a thin film upon suitable substrates.

  18. Thin film absorber for a solar collector (United States)

    Wilhelm, William G.


    This invention pertains to energy absorbers for solar collectors, and more particularly to high performance thin film absorbers. The solar collectors comprising the absorber of this invention overcome several problems seen in current systems, such as excessive hardware, high cost and unreliability. In the preferred form, the apparatus features a substantially rigid planar frame with a thin film window bonded to one planar side of the frame. An absorber in accordance with the present invention is comprised of two thin film layers that are sealed perimetrically. In a preferred embodiment, thin film layers are formed from a metal/plastic laminate. The layers define a fluid-tight planar envelope of large surface area to volume through which a heat transfer fluid flows. The absorber is bonded to the other planar side of the frame. The thin film construction of the absorber assures substantially full envelope wetting and thus good efficiency. The window and absorber films stress the frame adding to the overall strength of the collector.

  19. Polycystalline silicon thin films for electronic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, Christian Claus


    with an activation energy of E{sub A}{sup poly-Si}=1.1 eV. By long-lasting tempering or a short high-temperature step finally the stable layer configuration substrate/Al+Si islands(hillocks)/poly-Si can be reached (E{sub A}{sup hillocks}=2.4 eV). The further main topic of this thesis is the study of the applicability of the poly-silicon layers fabricated by means of the ALILE and R-ALILE process for electronic applications. First thin-film transistors were studied. Additionally thin-film solar cells with microcrystalline silicon as absorber material on polycrystalline R-ALILE seed layers were fabricated. Finally the suitedness of the fabricated poly-silicon layers for crytographic applications were studied.

  20. Organic thin films and surfaces directions for the nineties

    CERN Document Server

    Ulman, Abraham


    Physics of Thin Films has been one of the longest running continuing series in thin film science consisting of 20 volumes since 1963. The series contains some of the highest quality studies of the properties ofvarious thin films materials and systems.In order to be able to reflect the development of todays science and to cover all modern aspects of thin films, the series, beginning with Volume 20, will move beyond the basic physics of thin films. It will address the most important aspects of both inorganic and organic thin films, in both their theoretical as well as technological aspects. Ther

  1. Vibration welding system with thin film sensor (United States)

    Cai, Wayne W; Abell, Jeffrey A; Li, Xiaochun; Choi, Hongseok; Zhao, Jingzhou


    A vibration welding system includes an anvil, a welding horn, a thin film sensor, and a process controller. The anvil and horn include working surfaces that contact a work piece during the welding process. The sensor measures a control value at the working surface. The measured control value is transmitted to the controller, which controls the system in part using the measured control value. The thin film sensor may include a plurality of thermopiles and thermocouples which collectively measure temperature and heat flux at the working surface. A method includes providing a welder device with a slot adjacent to a working surface of the welder device, inserting the thin film sensor into the slot, and using the sensor to measure a control value at the working surface. A process controller then controls the vibration welding system in part using the measured control value.

  2. Plasmonic modes in thin films: quo vadis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio ePolitano


    Full Text Available Herein, we discuss the status and the prospect of plasmonic modes in thin films. Plasmons are collective longitudinal modes of charge fluctuation in metal samples excited by an external electric field. Surface plasmons (SPs are waves that propagate along the surface of a conductor with applications in magneto-optic data storage, optics, microscopy, and catalysis. In thin films the electronic response is influenced by electron quantum confinement. Confined electrons modify the dynamical screening processes at the film/substrate interface by introducing novel properties with potential applications and, moreover, they affect both the dispersion relation of SP frequency and the damping processes of the SP.Recent calculations indicate the emergence of acoustic surface plasmons (ASP in Ag thin films exhibiting quantum well states and in graphene films. The slope of the dispersion of ASP decreases with film thickness. We also discuss open issues in research on plasmonic modes in graphene/metal interfaes.

  3. Solid surfaces, interfaces and thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Lüth, Hans


    This book emphasises both experimental and theoretical aspects of surface, interface and thin-film physics. As in previous editions the preparation of surfaces and thin films, their atomic and morphological structure, their vibronic and electronic properties as well as fundamentals of adsorption are treated. Because of their importance in modern information technology and nanostructure research, particular emphasis is paid to electronic surface and interface states, semiconductor space charge layers and heterostructures. A special chapter of the book is devoted to collective phenomena at interfaces and in thin films such as superconductivity and magnetism. The latter topic includes the meanwhile important issues giant magnetoresistance and spin-transfer torque mechanism, both effects being of high interest in information technology. In this new edition, for the first time, the effect of spin-orbit coupling on surface states is treated. In this context the class of the recently detected topological insulators,...

  4. Multifractal characteristics of titanium nitride thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ţălu Ştefan


    Full Text Available The study presents a multi-scale microstructural characterization of three-dimensional (3-D micro-textured surface of titanium nitride (TiN thin films prepared by reactive DC magnetron sputtering in correlation with substrate temperature variation. Topographical characterization of the surfaces, obtained by atomic force microscopy (AFM analysis, was realized by an innovative multifractal method which may be applied for AFM data. The surface micromorphology demonstrates that the multifractal geometry of TiN thin films can be characterized at nanometer scale by the generalized dimensions Dq and the singularity spectrum f(α. Furthermore, to improve the 3-D surface characterization according with ISO 25178-2:2012, the most relevant 3-D surface roughness parameters were calculated. To quantify the 3-D nanostructure surface of TiN thin films a multifractal approach was developed and validated, which can be used for the characterization of topographical changes due to the substrate temperature variation.

  5. Nanostructured thin films and coatings mechanical properties

    CERN Document Server


    The first volume in "The Handbook of Nanostructured Thin Films and Coatings" set, this book concentrates on the mechanical properties, such as hardness, toughness, and adhesion, of thin films and coatings. It discusses processing, properties, and performance and provides a detailed analysis of theories and size effects. The book presents the fundamentals of hard and superhard nanocomposites and heterostructures, assesses fracture toughness and interfacial adhesion strength of thin films and hard nanocomposite coatings, and covers the processing and mechanical properties of hybrid sol-gel-derived nanocomposite coatings. It also uses nanomechanics to optimize coatings for cutting tools and explores various other coatings, such as diamond, metal-containing amorphous carbon nanostructured, and transition metal nitride-based nanolayered multilayer coatings.

  6. Domains in Ferroic Crystals and Thin Films

    CERN Document Server

    Tagantsev, Alexander K; Fousek, Jan


    Domains in Ferroic Crystals and Thin Films presents experimental findings and theoretical understanding of ferroic (non-magnetic) domains developed during the past 60 years. It addresses the situation by looking specifically at bulk crystals and thin films, with a particular focus on recently-developed microelectronic applications and methods for observation of domains with techniques such as scanning force microscopy, polarized light microscopy, scanning optical microscopy, electron microscopy, and surface decorating techniques. Domains in Ferroic Crystals and Thin Films covers a large area of material properties and effects connected with static and dynamic properties of domains, which are extremely relevant to materials referred to as ferroics. In most solid state physics books, one large group of ferroics is customarily covered: those in which magnetic properties play a dominant role. Numerous books are specifically devoted to magnetic ferroics and cover a wide spectrum of magnetic domain phenomena. In co...

  7. The preliminary design of bearings for the control system of a high-temperature lithium-cooled nuclear reactor (United States)

    Yacobucci, H. G.; Waldron, W. D.; Walowit, J. A.


    The design of bearings for the control system of a fast reactor concept is presented. The bearings are required to operate at temperatures up to 2200 F in one of two fluids, lithium or argon. Basic bearing types are the same regardless of the fluid. Crowned cylindrical journals were selected for radially loaded bearings and modified spherical bearings were selected for bearings under combined thrust and radial loads. Graphite and aluminum oxide are the materials selected for the argon atmosphere bearings while cermet compositions (carbides or nitrides bonded with refractory metals) were selected for the lithium lubricated bearings. Mounting of components is by shrink fit or by axial clamping utilizing differential thermal expansion.

  8. Feasibility Study of Thin Film Thermocouple Piles (United States)

    Sisk, R. C.


    Historically, thermopile detectors, generators, and refrigerators based on bulk materials have been used to measure temperature, generate power for spacecraft, and cool sensors for scientific investigations. New potential uses of small, low-power, thin film thermopiles are in the area of microelectromechanical systems since power requirements decrease as electrical and mechanical machines shrink in size. In this research activity, thin film thermopile devices are fabricated utilizing radio frequency sputter coating and photoresist lift-off techniques. Electrical characterizations are performed on two designs in order to investigate the feasibility of generating small amounts of power, utilizing any available waste heat as the energy source.

  9. Laser thermoreflectance for semiconductor thin films metrology (United States)

    Gailly, P.; Hastanin, J.; Duterte, C.; Hernandez, Y.; Lecourt, J.-B.; Kupisiewicz, A.; Martin, P.-E.; Fleury-Frenette, K.


    We present a thermoreflectance-based metrology concept applied to compound semiconductor thin films off-line characterization in the solar cells scribing process. The presented thermoreflectance setup has been used to evaluate the thermal diffusivity of thin CdTe films and to measure eventual changes in the thermal properties of 5 μm CdTe films ablated by nano and picosecond laser pulses. The temperature response of the CdTe thin film to the nanosecond heating pulse has been numerically investigated using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The computational and experimental results have been compared.

  10. High magnetic field properties of Fe-pnictide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurth, Fritz


    The recent discovery of high-temperature superconductivity in Fe-based materials triggered worldwide efforts to investigate their fundamental properties. Despite a lot of similarities to cuprates and MgB{sub 2}, important differences like near isotropic behaviour in contrast to cuprates and the peculiar pairing symmetry of the order parameter (OP) have been reported. The OP symmetry of Fe-based superconductors (FBS) was theoretically predicted to be of so-called s± state prior to various experimental works. Still, most of the experimental results favour the s± scenario; however, definitive evidence has not yet been reported. Although no clear understanding of the superconducting mechanisms yet exists, potential applications such as high-field magnets and Josephson devices have been explored. Indeed, a lot of reports about FBS tapes, wires, and even SQUIDs have been published to this date. In this thesis, the feasibility of high-field magnet applications of FBS is addressed by studying their transport properties, involving doped BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} (Ba-122) and LnFeAs(O,F) [Ln=Sm and Nd]. Particularly, it is important to study physical properties in a sample form (i.e. thin films) that is close to the conditions found in applications. However, the realisation of epitaxial FBS thin films is not an easy undertaking. Recent success in growing epitaxial FBS thin films opens a new avenue to delve into transport critical current measurements. The information obtained through this research will be useful for exploring high-field magnet applications. This thesis consists of 7 chapters: Chapter 1 describes the motivation of this study, the basic background of superconductivity, and a brief summary of the thin film growth of FBS. Chapter 2 describes experimental methods employed in this study. Chapter 3 reports on the fabrication of Co-doped Ba-122 thin films on various substrates. Particular emphasis lies on the discovery of fluoride substrates to be beneficial for

  11. Structural and optical properties of ZnO–SnO{sub 2} mixed thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tharsika, T., E-mail:; Haseeb, A.S.M.A., E-mail:; Sabri, M.F.M., E-mail:


    Nanocrystalline ZnO–SnO{sub 2} mixed thin films were deposited by the spray pyrolysis technique at various substrate temperatures during deposition. The mixed films were prepared in the range of 20.9 at.% to 73.4 at.% by altering the Zn/(Sn + Zn) atomic ratio in the starting solution. Morphology, crystal structures, and optical properties of the films were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and ultraviolet–visible and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. XRD analysis reveals that the crystallinity of the Sn-rich mixed thin films increases with increasing substrate temperatures. FESEM images show that the grain size of mixed thin films is smaller compared to that of pure ZnO and SnO{sub 2} thin films. A drop in the thickness and optical bandgap of the film was observed for films fabricated at high temperatures, which coincided with the increased crystallinity of the films. The average optical transmission of mixed thin films increased from 70% to 95% within the visible range (400–800 nm) as the substrate temperature increases. Optical bandgap of the films was determined to be in the range of 3.21–3.96 eV. The blue shift in the PL spectra from the films was supported by the fact that grain size of the mixed thin films is much smaller than that of the pure ZnO and SnO{sub 2} thin films. Due to the improved transmission and reduced grain size, the ZnO–SnO{sub 2} mixed thin films can have potential use in photovoltaic and gas sensing applications. - Highlights: • ZnO–SnO{sub 2} mixed thin films were deposited on glass substrate by spray pyrolysis. • Crystallinity of the thin films increases with substrate temperature. • Grain size of the mixed thin films is smaller than that of the pure thin films. • Reduction of grain size depends on mixed atomic ratios of precursor solution. • Optical band gap of films could be engineered by changing substrate temperature.

  12. Preparation of Li4Ti5O12 electrode thin films by a mist CVD process with aqueous precursor solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyoharu Tadanaga


    Full Text Available Spinel Li4Ti5O12 thin films were prepared by a mist CVD process, using an aqueous solution of lithium nitrate and a water-soluble titanium lactate complex as the source of Li and Ti, respectively. In this process, mist particles ultrasonically atomized from a source aqueous solution were transferred by nitrogen gas to a heating substrate to prepare thin films. Scanning electron microscopy observation showed that thin films obtained by this process were dense and smooth, and thin films with a thickness of about 500 nm were obtained. In the X-ray diffraction analysis, formation of Li4Ti5O12 spinel phase was confirmed in the obtained thin film sintered at 700 °C for 4 h. The cell with the thin films as an electrode exhibited a capacity of about 110 mAh g−1, and the cell showed good cycling performance during 10 cycles.

  13. (Fe3O4) thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    resistance vs temperature measurements. Implantation decreases the change in resistance at 120 K and this effect saturates beyond 3 × 1014 ions/cm2. The Verwey transition temperature, TV, shifts towards lower temperatures with increase in ion dose. Keywords. Implantation; magnetite; thin films; pulsed laser ablation; ...

  14. Thermoviscoelastic models for polyethylene thin films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jun; Kwok, Kawai; Pellegrino, Sergio


    This paper presents a constitutive thermoviscoelastic model for thin films of linear low-density polyethylene subject to strains up to yielding. The model is based on the free volume theory of nonlinear thermoviscoelasticity, extended to orthotropic membranes. An ingredient of the present approach...

  15. Recent progress in thin film organic photodiodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inganäs, Olle; Roman, Lucimara S.; Zhang, Fengling; Johansson, D.M.; Andersson, M.R.; Hummelen, J.C.


    We review current developments in organic photodiodes, with special reference to multilayer thin film optics, and modeling of organic donor-acceptor photodiodes. We indicate possibilities to enhance light absorption in devices by nanopatterning as well as by blending, and also discuss materials

  16. Restructuring in block copolymer thin films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Posselt, Dorthe; Zhang, Jianqi; Smilgies, Detlef-M.


    Block copolymer (BCP) thin films have been proposed for a number of nanotechnology applications, such as nanolithography and as nanotemplates, nanoporous membranes and sensors. Solvent vapor annealing (SVA) has emerged as a powerful technique for manipulating and controlling the structure of BCP ...

  17. Amorphous silicon for thin-film transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schropp, Rudolf Emmanuel Isidore


    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) has considerable potential as a semiconducting material for large-area photoelectric and photovoltaic applications. Moreover, a-Si:H thin-film transistors (TFT’s) are very well suited as switching devices in addressable liquid crystal display panels and

  18. Tailored piezoelectric thin films for energy harvester

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wan, X.


    Piezoelectric materials are excellent materials to transfer mechanical energy into electrical energy, which can be stored and used to power other devices. PiezoMEMS is a good way to combine silicon wafer processing and piezoelectric thin film technology and lead to a variety of miniaturized and

  19. Thin-Film Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Wu, Nai-Juan; Ignatiev, Alex


    The development of thin-film solid oxide fuel cells (TFSOFCs) and a method of fabricating them have progressed to the prototype stage. This can result in the reduction of mass, volume, and the cost of materials for a given power level.

  20. Incipient plasticity in metallic thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soer, W. A.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.; Minor, A. M.; Shan, Z.; Asif, S. A. Syed; Warren, O. L.


    The authors have compared the incipient plastic behaviors of Al and Al-Mg thin films during indentation under load control and displacement control. In Al-Mg, solute pinning limits the ability of dislocations to propagate into the crystal and thus substantially affects the appearance of plastic

  1. Flexible thin-film NFC tags

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Myny, K.; Tripathi, A.K.; Steen, J.L. van der; Cobb, B.


    Thin-film transistor technologies have great potential to become the key technology for leafnode Internet of Things by utilizing the NFC protocol as a communication medium. The main requirements are manufacturability on flexible substrates at a low cost while maintaining good device performance

  2. Humidity sensing characteristics of hydrotungstite thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thin films of the hydrated phase of tungsten oxide, hydrotungstite (H2WO4.H2O), have been grown on glass substrates using a dip-coating technique. The -axis oriented films have been characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The electrical conductivity of the films is observed to vary with ...

  3. Reliability growth of thin film resistors contact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lugin A. N.


    Full Text Available Necessity of resistive layer growth under the contact and in the contact zone of resistive element is shown in order to reduce peak values of current flow and power dissipation in the contact of thin film resistor, thereby to increase the resistor stability to parametric and catastrophic failures.

  4. Ion-conductivity of thin film Li-Borate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abouzari, M.R.S.


    In this thesis, the specific conductivity of ion-sputtered lithium borate thin films is studied. To this end, lithium borate glasses of the composition yLi{sub 2}O.(1-y)B{sub 2}O{sub 3} with y=0.15, 0.20, 0.25, and 0.35 were produced as sputter targets. Films with thicknesses between 7 nm and 700 nm are deposited on silicon substrate between two AlLi electrodes. Conductivity spectra have been taken over a frequency range of 5 Hz to 2 MHz. The measurements were performed at different temperatures between 40 C and 350 C depending on the thickness and the composition of the films. The following results are derived by studying the conductivities of the films: i) The specific dc conductivity of layers with thicknesses larger than 150 nm is independent of their thicknesses; we call these layers 'thick films' and consider their conductivity as the 'base conductivity'. ii) The specific dc conductivity of layers with thicknesses smaller than 150 nm, called 'thin films', depends on the layer thickness. A nontrivial enhancement of the specific dc conductivity about three orders of magnitude for y=0.15, 0.2, and 0.25 is observed. iii) The base conductivity depends on y and at 120 C it varies between 4 x 10{sup -10} {omega}{sup -1}cm{sup -1} and 2.5 x 10{sup -6} {omega}{sup -1}cm{sup -1} when y varies between 0.15 and 0.35, whereas the maximum value of the specific dc conductivity of extremely thin films (with a thickness of some nanometre) seems to be independent of y and equals to the specific dc conductivity of layers with y= 0.35. Furthermore, we found in this work a physical interpretation of the so-called 'Constant Phase Element' (CPE) which is widely used in equivalent circuits for ionic conductors. This element describes correctly the depressed impedance semicircles observed in impedance spectroscopy. So far, this effect is sometimes attributed to the surface roughness. We have shown not only the invalidity of this approach, but

  5. Practical design and production of optical thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Willey, Ronald R


    Fundamentals of Thin Film Optics and the Use of Graphical Methods in Thin Film Design Estimating What Can Be Done Before Designing Fourier Viewpoint of Optical Coatings Typical Equipment for Optical Coating Production Materials and Process Know-How Process Development Monitoring and Control of Thin Film Growth Appendix: Metallic and Semiconductor Material Graphs Author IndexSubject Index

  6. Interpretation of transport measurements in ZnO-thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petukhov, Vladimir; Stoemenos, John; Rothman, Johan; Bakin, Andrey; Waag, Andreas [Technical University of Braunschweig, Institute of High Frequency Technology, Braunschweig (Germany)


    In order to interpret results of temperature dependent Hall measurements in heteroepitaxial ZnO-thin films, we adopted a multilayer conductivity model considering carrier-transport through the interfacial layer with degenerate electron gas as well as the upper part of ZnO layers with lower conductivity. This model was applied to the temperature dependence of the carrier concentration and mobility measured by Hall effect in a ZnO-layer grown on c-sapphire with conventional high-temperature MgO and low-temperature ZnO buffer. We also compared our results with the results of maximum entropy mobility-spectrum analysis (MEMSA). The formation of the highly conductive interfacial layer was explained by analysis of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images taken from similar layers. (orig.)

  7. Simple Formation of Nanostructured Molybdenum Disulfide Thin Films by Electrodeposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Ghosh


    Full Text Available Nanostructured molybdenum disulfide thin films were deposited on various substrates by direct current (DC electrolysis form aqueous electrolyte containing molybdate and sulfide ions. Post deposition annealing at higher temperatures in the range 450–700°C transformed the as-deposited amorphous films to nanocrystalline structure. High temperature X-ray diffraction studies clearly recorded the crystal structure transformations associated with grain growth with increase in annealing temperature. Surface morphology investigations revealed featureless structure in case of as-deposited surface; upon annealing it converts into a surface with protruding nanotubes, nanorods, or dumbbell shape nanofeatures. UV-visible and FTIR spectra confirmed about the presence of Mo-S bonding in the deposited films. Transmission electron microscopic examination showed that the annealed MoS2 films consist of nanoballs, nanoribbons, and multiple wall nanotubes.

  8. Comparison between nonlinear measurements in patterned and unpatterned thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collado, C [Department of Signal Theory and Communications, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Campus Nord UPC, D3-Jordi Girona, 1-3, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Mateu, J [Centre Tecnologic de Telecomunicacions de Catalunya, Edifici Nexus Gran Capita, 2-4, 2nd floor, room 202-203, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); O' Callaghan, J M [Department of Signal Theory and Communications, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Campus Nord UPC, D3-Jordi Girona, 1-3, 08034 Barcelona (Spain)


    This work compares two alternative methods of characterizing the nonlinearities in a 10 x 10 mm{sup 2} superconducting thin film. Both methods are based on measuring the intermodulation distortion in high temperature superconducting (HTS) films. The first method measures the unpatterned film by using a rutile loaded cavity operating at the TE{sub 011} mode. The second method is based on intermodulation measurements made in a resonant coplanar line which is patterned on the same film that is used in the rutile cavity. In both experiments we use closed-form expressions and numerical techniques to extract local parameters related to the nonlinearities of the superconductor. The intermodulation data in both type of measurements can be fitted with identical nonlinear parameters of the HTS.

  9. Structural and Optical Properties of Ultra-high Pure Hot Water Processed Ga2O3 Thin Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramani SHANMUGAN


    Full Text Available Thin film based gas sensor is an advanced application of thin film especially Ga2O3 (GO thin film gas sensor is useful for high temperature gas sensor. The effect of moisture or environment on thin film properties has more influence on gas sensing properties. Radio Frequency sputtered Ga2O3 thin film was synthesized and processed in ultra-high pure hot water at 95 °C for different time durations. The structural properties were verified by the Xray Diffraction technique and the observed spectra revealed the formation of hydroxyl compound of Gallium (Gallium Oxide Dueterate – GOD on the surface of the thin film and evidenced for structural defects as an effect of moisture. Decreased crystallite size and increased dislocation density was showed the crystal defects of prepared film. From the Ultra Violet – Visible spectra, decreased optical transmittance was noticed for various processing time. The formation of needle like GOD was confirmed using Field Emission Secondary Electron Microscope (FESEM images.DOI:

  10. Method for Aluminum Oxide Thin Films Prepared through Low Temperature Atomic Layer Deposition for Encapsulating Organic Electroluminescent Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Ying Li


    Full Text Available Preparation of dense alumina (Al2O3 thin film through atomic layer deposition (ALD provides a pathway to achieve the encapsulation of organic light emitting devices (OLED. Unlike traditional ALD which is usually executed at higher reaction n temperatures that may affect the performance of OLED, this application discusses the development on preparation of ALD thin film at a low temperature. One concern of ALD is the suppressing effect of ambient temperature on uniformity of thin film. To mitigate this issue, the pumping time in each reaction cycle was increased during the preparation process, which removed reaction byproducts and inhibited the formation of vacancies. As a result, the obtained thin film had both high uniformity and density properties, which provided an excellent encapsulation performance. The results from microstructure morphology analysis, water vapor transmission rate, and lifetime test showed that the difference in uniformity between thin films prepared at low temperatures, with increased pumping time, and high temperatures was small and there was no obvious influence of increased pumping time on light emitting performance. Meanwhile, the permeability for water vapor of the thin film prepared at a low temperature was found to reach as low as 1.5 × 10−4 g/(m2·day under ambient conditions of 25 °C and 60% relative humidity, indicating a potential extension in the lifetime for the OLED.

  11. Electro-Optic Contact Poling of Polymer Waveguide Devices and Thin Films (United States)

    Briseno, Michael Joseph

    Optical communication is a high speed, large bandwidth, low cost, and power efficient method of transferring data over short-haul and long-haul channels. Optical communication requires devices (optical modulators) that utilize the originating electrical signal information to modulate a corresponding optical signal. State of the art optical modulators can be used for communicating signals at modulation frequencies up to 100 GHz and faster. Polymer modulators are used over lithium niobate due to the large potential electro-optic coefficient, which has been shown to be as high as 226 pm/V in thin films. Organic electro-optic polymers used in thin film modulators contain nonlinear optical chromophore dipoles that when aligned produce an electro-optic coefficient from the pockels effect. The magnitude of the electro-optic coefficient is dependent on the strength and uniformity of the electric field applied to the thin film polymer. In multi-layer devices the applied field is determined by design, fabrication, layer thickness, and pinhole defects that cause dielectric breakdown of the device. A laboratory process was designed and created for electro-optic contact poling of waveguide devices and thin film polymers. A sample is heated to the glass transition temperature of the electro-optic polymer and an electric field is applied to allow alignment of chromophores. The sample is then cooled to room temperature to lock the chromophores in place. Soluxra SEO100C polymer is used for validation of the poling process because of its high electro-optic coefficient potential. First time large area contact poling of electro-optic polymer thin films is performed and verified enabling the use of electro-optic polymers in a variety of applications. The index of refraction change after poling was measured in Soluxra SEO100C spun thin films using a prism coupler to verify poling. TM index of refraction of thin film SEO100C increased by 0.00402-0.00486 with voltages of 39-51 V/?m after

  12. Thin film bismuth iron oxides useful for piezoelectric devices (United States)

    Zeches, Robert J.; Martin, Lane W.; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy


    The present invention provides for a composition comprising a thin film of BiFeO.sub.3 having a thickness ranging from 20 nm to 300 nm, a first electrode in contact with the BiFeO.sub.3 thin film, and a second electrode in contact with the BiFeO.sub.3 thin film; wherein the first and second electrodes are in electrical communication. The composition is free or essentially free of lead (Pb). The BFO thin film is has the piezoelectric property of changing its volume and/or shape when an electric field is applied to the BFO thin film.

  13. Nanostructured thin film coatings with different strengthening effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panfilov Yury


    Full Text Available A number of articles on strengthening thin film coatings were analyzed and a lot of unusual strengthening effects, such as super high hardness and plasticity simultaneously, ultra low friction coefficient, high wear-resistance, curve rigidity increasing of drills with small diameter, associated with process formation of nanostructured coatings by the different thin film deposition methods were detected. Vacuum coater with RF magnetron sputtering system and ion-beam source and arc evaporator for nanostructured thin film coating manufacture are represented. Diamond Like Carbon and MoS2 thin film coatings, Ti, Al, Nb, Cr, nitride, carbide, and carbo-nitride thin film materials are described as strengthening coatings.

  14. Optical thin films and coatings from materials to applications

    CERN Document Server

    Flory, Francois


    Optical coatings, including mirrors, anti-reflection coatings, beam splitters, and filters, are an integral part of most modern optical systems. This book provides an overview of thin film materials, the properties, design and manufacture of optical coatings and their use across a variety of application areas.$bOptical coatings, including mirrors, anti-reflection coatings, beam splitters, and filters, are an integral part of most modern optical systems. Optical thin films and coatings provides an overview of thin film materials, the properties, design and manufacture of optical coatings and their use across a variety of application areas. Part one explores the design and manufacture of optical coatings. Part two highlights unconventional features of optical thin films including scattering properties of random structures in thin films, optical properties of thin film materials at short wavelengths, thermal properties and colour effects. Part three focusses on novel materials for optical thin films and coatings...

  15. CMOS compatible thin-film ALD tungsten nanoelectromechanical devices (United States)

    Davidson, Bradley Darren

    This research focuses on the development of a novel, low-temperature, CMOS compatible, atomic-layer-deposition (ALD) enabled NEMS fabrication process for the development of ALD Tungsten (WALD) NEMS devices. The devices are intended for use in CMOS/NEMS hybrid systems, and NEMS based micro-processors/controllers capable of reliable operation in harsh environments not accessible to standard CMOS technologies. The majority of NEMS switches/devices to date have been based on carbon-nano-tube (CNT) designs. The devices consume little power during actuation, and as expected, have demonstrated actuation voltages much smaller than MEMS switches. Unfortunately, NEMS CNT switches are not typically CMOS integrable due to the high temperatures required for their growth, and their fabrication typically results in extremely low and unpredictable yields. Thin-film NEMS devices offer great advantages over reported CNT devices for several reasons, including: higher fabrication yields, low-temperature (CMOS compatible) deposition techniques like ALD, and increased control over design parameters/device performance metrics, i.e., device geometry. Furthermore, top-down, thin-film, nano-fabrication techniques are better capable of producing complicated device geometries than CNT based processes, enabling the design and development of multi-terminal switches well-suited for low-power hybrid NEMS/CMOS systems as well as electromechanical transistors and logic devices for use in temperature/radiation hard computing architectures. In this work several novel, low-temperature, CMOS compatible fabrication technologies, employing WALD as a structural layer for MEMS or NEMS devices, were developed. The technologies developed are top-down nano-scale fabrication processes based on traditional micro-machining techniques commonly used in the fabrication of MEMS devices. Using these processes a variety of novel WALD NEMS devices have been successfully fabricated and characterized. Using two different

  16. Interaction of super high frequency radiation with superconducting Bi(Pb)-Sr-Ca-Cu-O thin-film structures (United States)

    Bondar, V. D.; Vasyliv, M. Ya.; Davydov, V. M.; Lutsiv, R. V.; Pustylnik, O. D.; Khymenko, O. A.


    High temperature superconducting thin films Bi(Pb)-Sr-Ca-Cu-O system were obtained by RFmagnetron ion-plasma sputtering. The detecting bridge-like elements 100-500 mkm wide have been fabricated with laser scribing. The detecting effect was investigated in super high frequency radiation field of 137 GHz.

  17. Dielectric Scattering Patterns for Efficient Light Trapping in Thin-Film Solar Cells. (United States)

    van Lare, Claire; Lenzmann, Frank; Verschuuren, Marc A; Polman, Albert


    We demonstrate an effective light trapping geometry for thin-film solar cells that is composed of dielectric light scattering nanocavities at the interface between the metal back contact and the semiconductor absorber layer. The geometry is based on resonant Mie scattering. It avoids the Ohmic losses found in metallic (plasmonic) nanopatterns, and the dielectric scatterers are well compatible with nearly all types of thin-film solar cells, including cells produced using high temperature processes. The external quantum efficiency of thin-film a-Si:H solar cells grown on top of a nanopatterned Al-doped ZnO, made using soft imprint lithography, is strongly enhanced in the 550-800 nm spectral band by the dielectric nanoscatterers. Numerical simulations are in good agreement with experimental data and show that resonant light scattering from both the AZO nanostructures and the embedded Si nanostructures are important. The results are generic and can be applied on nearly all thin-film solar cells.

  18. Scalable Indium Phosphide Thin-Film Nanophotonics Platform for Photovoltaic and Photoelectrochemical Devices. (United States)

    Lin, Qingfeng; Sarkar, Debarghya; Lin, Yuanjing; Yeung, Matthew; Blankemeier, Louis; Hazra, Jubin; Wang, Wei; Niu, Shanyuan; Ravichandran, Jayakanth; Fan, Zhiyong; Kapadia, Rehan


    Recent developments in nanophotonics have provided a clear roadmap for improving the efficiency of photonic devices through control over absorption and emission of devices. These advances could prove transformative for a wide variety of devices, such as photovoltaics, photoelectrochemical devices, photodetectors, and light-emitting diodes. However, it is often challenging to physically create the nanophotonic designs required to engineer the optical properties of devices. Here, we present a platform based on crystalline indium phosphide that enables thin-film nanophotonic structures with physical morphologies that are impossible to achieve through conventional state-of-the-art material growth techniques. Here, nanostructured InP thin films have been demonstrated on non-epitaxial alumina inverted nanocone (i-cone) substrates via a low-cost and scalable thin-film vapor-liquid-solid growth technique. In this process, indium films are first evaporated onto the i-cone structures in the desired morphology, followed by a high-temperature step that causes a phase transformation of the indium into indium phosphide, preserving the original morphology of the deposited indium. Through this approach, a wide variety of nanostructured film morphologies are accessible using only control over evaporation process variables. Critically, the as-grown nanotextured InP thin films demonstrate excellent optoelectronic properties, suggesting this platform is promising for future high-performance nanophotonic devices.

  19. Multiferroic oxide thin films and heterostructures (United States)

    Lu, Chengliang; Hu, Weijin; Tian, Yufeng; Wu, Tom


    Multiferroic materials promise a tantalizing perspective of novel applications in next-generation electronic, memory, and energy harvesting technologies, and at the same time they also represent a grand scientific challenge on understanding complex solid state systems with strong correlations between multiple degrees of freedom. In this review, we highlight the opportunities and obstacles in growing multiferroic thin films with chemical and structural integrity and integrating them in functional devices. Besides the magnetoelectric effect, multiferroics exhibit excellent resistant switching and photovoltaic properties, and there are plenty opportunities for them to integrate with other ferromagnetic and superconducting materials. The challenges include, but not limited, defect-related leakage in thin films, weak magnetism, and poor control on interface coupling. Although our focuses are Bi-based perovskites and rare earth manganites, the insights are also applicable to other multiferroic materials. We will also review some examples of multiferroic applications in spintronics, memory, and photovoltaic devices.

  20. Shunts in thin-film photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malek, Stephanie; Riedel, Ingo; Parisi, Juergen [Energy and Semiconductor Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Oldenburg, 26111 Oldenburg (Germany); Wischnath, Uli F. [aleo solar Deutschland GmbH, 26122 Oldenburg (Germany); Rechid, Juan [CIS Solartechnik GmbH and Co. KG, 20539 Hamburg (Germany)


    Shunts can lead to severe performance reduction in thin film solar cells. This work reports on a microscopic approach to locate and characterize the details of shunts in order to reveal their origin. Localization of hot spots and film disruptions is commonly addressed by lock-in infrared thermography (LIT) through visualization of the Joule heating. The resolution of this method is restricted to the {mu}m-range. We use different methods of LIT for the fast localization of local-lateral peculiarities in order to identify positions of interest. For a more detailed analysis of these features we use high resolution microscopy like Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and AFM-based methods. These small-scale investigations can for example reveal whether areas of high heat dissipation are rather related to the inner structure of the involved thin films or to accidentally incorporated imperfections.

  1. Thin Film Electrodes for Rare Event Detectors (United States)

    Odgers, Kelly; Brown, Ethan; Lewis, Kim; Giordano, Mike; Freedberg, Jennifer


    In detectors for rare physics processes, such as neutrinoless double beta decay and dark matter, high sensitivity requires careful reduction of backgrounds due to radioimpurities in detector components. Ultra pure cylindrical resistors are being created through thin film depositions onto high purity substrates, such as quartz glass or sapphire. By using ultra clean materials and depositing very small quantities in the films, low radioactivity electrodes are produced. A new characterization process for cylindrical film resistors has been developed through analytic construction of an analogue to the Van Der Pauw technique commonly used for determining sheet resistance on a planar sample. This technique has been used to characterize high purity cylindrical resistors ranging from several ohms to several tera-ohms for applications in rare event detectors. The technique and results of cylindrical thin film resistor characterization will be presented.

  2. Gradient Solvent Vapor Annealing of Thin Films (United States)

    Albert, Julie; Bogart, Timothy; Lewis, Ronald; Epps, Thomas


    The development of block copolymer materials for emerging nanotechnologies requires an understanding of how surface energy/chemistry and annealing conditions affect thin film self-assembly. Specifically, in solvent vapor annealing (SVA), the use of solvent mixtures and the manipulation of solvent vapor concentration are promising approaches for obtaining a desired morphology or nanostructure orientation. We designed and fabricated solvent-resistant devices to produce discrete SVA gradients in composition and/or concentration to efficiently explore SVA parameter space. We annealed copolymer films containing poly(styrene), poly(isoprene), and/or poly(methyl methacrylate) blocks, monitored film thicknesses during annealing, and characterized film morphologies with atomic force microscopy. Morphological changes across the gradients such as the transformation from parallel cylinders to spheres with increasing solvent selectivity provided insight into thin film self-assembly, and the gradient device has enabled us to determine transition compositions and/or concentrations.

  3. Electrostatic thin film chemical and biological sensor (United States)

    Prelas, Mark A.; Ghosh, Tushar K.; Tompson, Jr., Robert V.; Viswanath, Dabir; Loyalka, Sudarshan K.


    A chemical and biological agent sensor includes an electrostatic thin film supported by a substrate. The film includes an electrostatic charged surface to attract predetermined biological and chemical agents of interest. A charge collector associated with said electrostatic thin film collects charge associated with surface defects in the electrostatic film induced by the predetermined biological and chemical agents of interest. A preferred sensing system includes a charge based deep level transient spectroscopy system to read out charges from the film and match responses to data sets regarding the agents of interest. A method for sensing biological and chemical agents includes providing a thin sensing film having a predetermined electrostatic charge. The film is exposed to an environment suspected of containing the biological and chemical agents. Quantum surface effects on the film are measured. Biological and/or chemical agents can be detected, identified and quantified based on the measured quantum surface effects.

  4. DNA Strand Patterns on Aluminium Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Shahhosseini


    Full Text Available A new patterning method using Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid (DNA strands capable of producing nanogaps of less than 100 nm is proposed and investigated in this work. DNA strands from Bosenbergia rotunda were used as the fundamental element in patterning DNA on thin films of aluminium (Al metal without the need for any lithographic techniques. The DNA strands were applied in buffer solutions onto thin films of Al on silicon (Si and the chemical interactions between the DNA strands and Al creates nanometer scale arbitrary patterning by direct transfer of the DNA strands onto the substrate. This simple and cost-effective method can be utilized in the fabrication of various components in electronic chips for microelectronics and Nano Electronic Mechanical System (NEMS applications in general.

  5. Multiferroic oxide thin films and heterostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Chengliang


    Multiferroic materials promise a tantalizing perspective of novel applications in next-generation electronic, memory, and energy harvesting technologies, and at the same time they also represent a grand scientific challenge on understanding complex solid state systems with strong correlations between multiple degrees of freedom. In this review, we highlight the opportunities and obstacles in growing multiferroic thin films with chemical and structural integrity and integrating them in functional devices. Besides the magnetoelectric effect, multiferroics exhibit excellent resistant switching and photovoltaic properties, and there are plenty opportunities for them to integrate with other ferromagnetic and superconducting materials. The challenges include, but not limited, defect-related leakage in thin films, weak magnetism, and poor control on interface coupling. Although our focuses are Bi-based perovskites and rare earth manganites, the insights are also applicable to other multiferroic materials. We will also review some examples of multiferroic applications in spintronics, memory, and photovoltaic devices.

  6. Thin Films of Polypyrrole on Particulate Aluminum (United States)


    C H R I S T O P H E R V E T T E R , X I A O N I N G Q I , S U B R A M A N Y A M V . K A S I S O M A Y A J U L A , A N D Thin Films of Polypyrrole on...1. REPORT DATE FEB 2009 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2009 to 00-00-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Thin Films of Polypyrrole on...layer 3 Why Polypyrrole /Flake? Polypyrrole  Poor mechanical properties  Poor adhesion  Solubility issues  Continuous layer needed 4 Polypyrrole Coated

  7. Magnetic Surfaces, Thin Films, and Multilayers (United States)


    Laboratory, Berkeley CA 94720. ABSTRACT A brief review of the state of the art in the field of surface, inter- face and thin-film magnetism is presented... art and maturing science [I]. In particular, growing epitaxial films of monolayer or near-monolayer thickness allows the investigation of two...understood considering steps. A such study is under progress. Aknowledgments This work was partially supported by " Acciones Integradas Hispano-Francesas

  8. Perovskite Thin Films via Atomic Layer Deposition

    KAUST Repository

    Sutherland, Brandon R.


    © 2014 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. (Graph Presented) A new method to deposit perovskite thin films that benefit from the thickness control and conformality of atomic layer deposition (ALD) is detailed. A seed layer of ALD PbS is place-exchanged with PbI2 and subsequently CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite. These films show promising optical properties, with gain coefficients of 3200 ± 830 cm-1.

  9. Superconductivity of Thin Film Intermetallic Compounds. (United States)


    D-RISE 2?I SUPERCONDUCTIVITY OF THIN FILM INTERMETLLIC COMPOUNDS I/i. (U) MINNESOTR UNIV MINNERPOLIS SCHOOL OF PHYSICS AND RSTRONOMY R M GOLDMRN 15...parameters to either higher temperatures of higher critical fields. Materials under study are the superconducting Chevrel phase compounds, selected Heavy...superconducting field effect. Processing of the Chevrel Phase I compounds is carried out in a multi-source deposition system. The latter has been upgraded and

  10. Silicone Adhesives for High Temperature Inflatable Fabrics and Polymer Films Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Thin films, elastomeric materials, high temperature fabrics and adhesives that are capable of withstanding thermal extremes (-130oC to 500oC) are highly desirable...

  11. Flexible magnetic thin films and devices (United States)

    Sheng, Ping; Wang, Baomin; Li, Runwei


    Flexible electronic devices are highly attractive for a variety of applications such as flexible circuit boards, solar cells, paper-like displays, and sensitive skin, due to their stretchable, biocompatible, light-weight, portable, and low cost properties. Due to magnetic devices being important parts of electronic devices, it is essential to study the magnetic properties of magnetic thin films and devices fabricated on flexible substrates. In this review, we mainly introduce the recent progress in flexible magnetic thin films and devices, including the study on the stress-dependent magnetic properties of magnetic thin films and devices, and controlling the properties of flexible magnetic films by stress-related multi-fields, and the design and fabrication of flexible magnetic devices. Project supported by the National Key R&D Program of China (No. 2016YFA0201102), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51571208, 51301191, 51525103, 11274321, 11474295, 51401230), the Youth Innovation Promotion Association of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (No. 2016270), the Key Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (No. KJZD-EW-M05), the Ningbo Major Project for Science and Technology (No. 2014B11011), the Ningbo Science and Technology Innovation Team (No. 2015B11001), and the Ningbo Natural Science Foundation (No. 2015A610110).

  12. Mesoscale simulations of confined Nafion thin films (United States)

    Vanya, P.; Sharman, J.; Elliott, J. A.


    The morphology and transport properties of thin films of the ionomer Nafion, with thicknesses on the order of the bulk cluster size, have been investigated as a model system to explain the anomalous behaviour of catalyst/electrode-polymer interfaces in membrane electrode assemblies. We have employed dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) to investigate the interaction of water and fluorocarbon chains, with carbon and quartz as confining materials, for a wide range of operational water contents and film thicknesses. We found confinement-induced clustering of water perpendicular to the thin film. Hydrophobic carbon forms a water depletion zone near the film interface, whereas hydrophilic quartz results in a zone with excess water. There are, on average, oscillating water-rich and fluorocarbon-rich regions, in agreement with experimental results from neutron reflectometry. Water diffusivity shows increasing directional anisotropy of up to 30% with decreasing film thickness, depending on the hydrophilicity of the confining material. A percolation analysis revealed significant differences in water clustering and connectivity with the confining material. These findings indicate the fundamentally different nature of ionomer thin films, compared to membranes, and suggest explanations for increased ionic resistances observed in the catalyst layer.

  13. Study of zinc oxide thin film characteristics (United States)

    Johari, Shazlina; Yazmin Muhammad, Nazalea; Rosydi Zakaria, Mohd


    This paper presents the characterization of ZnO thin films with the thickness of 8nm, 30nm, and 200nm. The thin films were prepared using sol-gel method and has been deposited onto different substrate of silicon wafer, glass and quartz. The thin films were annealed at 400, 500 and 600°C. By using UV-Vis, the optical transmittance measurement were recorded by using a single beam spectrophotometer in the wavelength 250nm to 800nm. However, the transmittance in the visible range is hardly influenced by the film thickness, substrate used and annealed temperature and the averages are all above 80%. On surface morphology observed by AFM and FESEM, the results show that the increase of film thickness and annealed temperature will increase the mean grain size, surface-to-volume ration and RMS roughness. Besides that, higher annealing temperature cause the crystalline quality to gradually improve and the wurtzite structure of ZnO can be seen more clearly. Nonetheless, the substrate used had no effect on surface morphology, yet the uniformity of deposition on silicon wafer is better than glass and quartz.

  14. High-Temperature Formation of a Functional Film at the Cathode/Electrolyte Interface in Lithium-Sulfur Batteries: An In Situ AFM Study. (United States)

    Lang, Shuang-Yan; Shi, Yang; Guo, Yu-Guo; Wen, Rui; Wan, Li-Jun


    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries have been attracting wide attention for their promising high specific capacity. A deep understanding of Li-S interfacial mechanism including the temperature (T) effect is required to meet the demands for battery modification and systematic study. Herein, the interfacial behavior during discharge/charge is investigated at high temperature (HT) of 60 °C in an electrolyte based on lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl) imide (LiFSI). By in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM), dynamic evolution of insoluble Li2 S2 and Li2 S is studied at the nanoscale. An in situ formed functional film can be directly monitored at 60 °C after Li2 S nucleation. It retards side reactions and facilitates interfacial redox. The insight into the interfacial processes at HT provides direct evidence of the existence of the film and reveals its dynamic behavior, providing a new avenue for electrolyte design and performance enhancement. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. High-Temperature Electrochemical Performance of FeF3/C Nanocomposite as a Cathode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries (United States)

    Tang, Mengyun; Zhang, Zhengfu; Wang, Zi; Liu, Jingfeng; Yan, Hongge; Peng, Jinhui


    Iron trifluoride has been studied as a cathode material due to its cost-effectiveness, low toxicity, and high theoretical capacities of 712 mA h g-1. However, FeF3 has serious shortcomings of poor electronic conductivity and a slow diffusion rate of lithium ions, leading to a lower reversible specific capacity. In this work, FeF3/C nanocomposite has been synthesized successfully via a high-energy ball-milling method, and acetylene black is used as the conductive agent to improve the conductivity of FeF3. The FeF3/C nanocomposite shows a high initial discharge capacity of 346.25 and 161.58 mA h g-1 after 40th cycle at 50 mA g-1. It exhibits good cycle performance and rate performance. The high-temperature discharge capacities decreased with increase in the temperature. The initial high-temperature discharge capacities are found to be 254.17, 300.01, 281.25 and 125.16, and 216.875, 156, 141.67, 150, and 64.98 mA h g-1 at 20th cycles at the 40, 50, 60, and 70 °C, respectively.

  16. Sulfonated Polyimide-Clay Thin Films for Energy Application. (United States)

    Ali, Farman; Saeed, Shaukat; Shah, Syed Sakhawat; Rahim, Fazal; Duclaux, Laurent; Levêque, Jean-Marc; Reinert, Laurence


    Sulfonated polyimides (SPIs) are considered as the promising alternatives to Nafion as membrane materials for the polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM). They generally exhibit high ionic conductivity, good mechanical properties, excellent thermal and chemical stabilities. The six-membered ring, naphthalenic anhydride-based SPIs, not only exhibit superior chemical and thermo-oxidative stabilities but are also more resistant to hydrolysis than their five-membered phthalic anhydride-based SPIs. The composites based on napthalenic polyimides are also significantly stable in high temperature environment and show better stability to hydrolysis. Incorporation of inorganic fillers into organic polymers has gained tremendous attention and these new materials are called organic-inorganic hybrids. Few patents related to the synthesis and performance PEM materials have been reviewed and cited. Keeping in view the importance of sulfonated polyimide based nanocomposites as potential membrane materials for PEM in fuel cell, we have synthesized SPIs clay based nanocomposite as potential membrane material. The objective of this work was to synthesize clay based SPIs thin films which could be used as membrane materials in PEM fuel cell for energy applications. Methods/Experimental: At the first step the nanometric sheets of vermiculite clay prepared via sonication was surface modified by grafting 3-APTES. Then the SPI was synthesized via one-step high temperature direct imidization method, which serve as a matrix material. The organo modified VMT was dispersed via sonication in the SPI matrix. Four different sets of organic-inorganic nanocomposite membranes thin films, having VMT contents in the range of 1 to 7 wt.% were prepared by casting, curing and acidification route. The synthesis of SPIs clay based thin films were carried out at three different steps and fully characterized. The synthesis of SPIs and SPIs clay based thin films were analyzed via different analytical techniques

  17. PLD-grown thin film saturable absorbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tellkamp, Friedjof


    The subject of this thesis is the preparation and characterization of thin films made of oxidic dielectrics which may find their application as saturable absorber in passively Q-switched lasers. The solely process applied for fabrication of the thin films was the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) which stands out against other processes by its flexibility considering the composition of the systems to be investigated. Within the scope of this thesis the applied saturable absorbers can be divided into two fundamentally different kinds of functional principles: On the one hand, saturable absorption can be achieved by ions embedded in a host medium. Most commonly applied bulk crystals are certain garnets like YAG (Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}) or the spinel forsterite (Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}), in each case with chromium as dopant. Either of these media was investigated in terms of their behavior as PLD-grown saturable absorber. Moreover, experiments with Mg{sub 2}GeO{sub 4}, Ca{sub 2}GeO{sub 4}, Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and further garnets like YSAG or GSGG took place. The absorption coefficients of the grown films of Cr{sup 4+}:YAG were determined by spectroscopic investigations to be one to two orders of magnitude higher compared to commercially available saturable absorbers. For the first time, passive Q-switching of a Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm with Cr{sup 4+}:YAG thin films could be realized as well as with Cr:Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films. On the other hand, the desirable effect of saturable absorption can also be generated by quantum well structures. For this purpose, several layer system like YAG/LuAG, Cu{sub 2}O/MgO, and ZnO/corumdum were investigated. It turned out that layer systems with indium oxide (In{sub 2}O{sub 3}) did not only grew in an excellent way but also showed up a behavior regarding their photo luminescence which cannot be explained by classical considerations. The observed luminescence at roughly 3 eV (410 nm) was assumed to be of excitonic nature and its

  18. All-Solution-Processed InGaO3(ZnO)m Thin Films with Layered Structure


    Sung Woon Cho; Jun Hyeon Kim; Sangwoo Shin; Hyung Hee Cho; Hyung Koun Cho


    We fabricated the crystallized InGaZnO thin films by sol-gel process and high-temperature annealing at 900°C. Prior to the deposition of the InGaZnO, ZnO buffer layers were also coated by sol-gel process, which was followed by thermal annealing. After the synthesis and annealing of the InGaZnO, the InGaZnO thin film on the ZnO buffer layer with preferred orientation showed periodic diffraction patterns in the X-ray diffraction, resulting in a superlattice structure. This film consisted of nan...

  19. Controlling self-assembly and ordering of block polymer nanostructures in thin films (United States)

    Luo, Ming

    explored quantitatively for the first time, and the tapered interfacial modification has led to unique and diverse self-assembly behavior and properties. Finally, XPS depth profiling with C60+ sputtering was used to determine the lithium ion distribution in a lamellae-forming block polymer electrolyte film. The results provide useful insights for the future design and optimization of block polymer structures for high efficiency energy storage devices. Additionally, the unique capabilities of C60+ depth profiling XPS are demonstrated as a method to determine the nanoscale distributions of molecules in a myriad of polymer thin film systems.

  20. Accelerating Rate Calorimetry Tests of Lithium-Ion Cells Before and After Storage Degradation at High Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendoza-Hernandez Omar Samuel


    Full Text Available Understanding the behavior of Li-ion cells during thermal runaway is critical to evaluate the safety of these energy storage devices under outstanding conditions. Li-ion cells possess a high energy density and are used to store and supply energy to many aerospace applications. Incidents related to the overheating or thermal runaway of these cells can cause catastrophic damages that could end up costly space missions; therefore, thermal studies of Li-ion cells are very important for ensuring safety and reliability of space missions. This work evaluates the thermal behavior of Li-ion cells before and after storage degradation at high temperature using accelerating rate calorimeter (ARC equipment to analyze the thermal behavior of Li-ion cells under adiabatic conditions. Onset temperature points of self-heating and thermal runaway reactions are obtained. The onset points are used to identify non-self-heating, self-heating and thermal runaway regions as a function of state of charge. The results obtained can be useful to develop accurate thermo-electrochemical models of Li-ion cells.

  1. Electric field-controlled magnetization switching in Co/Pt thin-film ferromagnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Siddique


    Full Text Available A study of dynamic and reversible voltage-controlled magnetization switching in ferromagnetic Co/Pt thin film with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy at room temperature is presented. The change in the magnetic properties of the system is observed in a relatively thick film of 15 nm. A surface charge is induced by the formation of electrochemical double layer between the metallic thin film and non-aqueous lithium LiClO4 electrolyte to manipulate the magnetism. The change in the magnetic properties occurred by the application of an external electric field. As the negative voltage was increased, the coercivity and the switching magnetic field decreased thus activating magnetization switching. The results are envisaged to lead to faster and ultra-low-power magnetization switching as compared to spin-transfer torque (STT switching in spintronic devices.

  2. Terahertz electrical and optical properties of LiNbO3 single crystal thin films (United States)

    Dutta, Moumita; Ellis, Carol; Peralta, Xomalin G.; Bhalla, Amar; Guo, Ruyan


    A study of Terahertz response of single crystal LiNbO3 thin films subjected to different structural and experimental configuration has been conducted in this work. In this work z-cut and x-cut ion-sliced Lithium Niobate thin films with and without embedded electrodes have been studied employing both Transmission and Reflection mode of Terahertz Spectroscopy along with z-cut single crystal in bulk form. The measurements have been performed in room temperature to probe distinctive THz-material interactions in the frequency range of 0.1-3 THz (3.34cm-1 - 100cm-1). The information thus obtained from the experimental investigation has been used to deduce a conclusive study on the influence of different polar domains on electrical and optical properties in THz frequency regime. Single Lorentzian oscillator model has also been used to define the THz signature thus acquired.

  3. Characterization and Electrochemical Performance at High Discharge Rates of Tin Dioxide Thin Films Synthesized by Atomic Layer Deposition (United States)

    Maximov, M. Yu.; Novikov, P. A.; Nazarov, D. V.; Rymyantsev, A. M.; Silin, A. O.; Zhang, Y.; Popovich, A. A.


    In this study, thin films of tin dioxide have been synthesized on substrates of silicon and stainless steel by atomic layer deposition (ALD) with tetraethyl tin and by inductively coupled remote oxygen plasma as precursors. Studies of the surface morphology by scanning electron microscopy show a strong dependence on synthesis temperature. According to the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements, the samples contain tin in the oxidation state +4. The thickness of the thin films for electrochemical performance was approximately 80 nm. Electrochemical cycling in the voltage range of 0.01-0.8 V have shown that tin oxide has a stable discharge capacity of approximately 650 mAh/g during 400 charge/discharge cycles with an efficiency of approximately 99.5%. The decrease in capacity after 400 charge/discharge cycles was around 5-7%. Synthesized SnO2 thin films have fast kinetics of lithium ions intercalation and excellent discharge efficiency at high C-rates, up to 40C, with a small decrease in capacity of less than 20%. Specific capacity and cyclic stability of thin films of SnO2 synthesized by ALD exceed the values mentioned in the literature for pure tin dioxide thin films.

  4. Tungsten/molybdenum thin films for application as interdigital transducers on high temperature stable piezoelectric substrates La{sub 3}Ga{sub 5}SiO{sub 14} and Ca{sub 3}TaGa{sub 3}Si{sub 2}O{sub 14}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rane, Gayatri K., E-mail: [Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research Dresden, Institute for Complex Materials, P.O. Box 27 01 16, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); SAWLab Saxony, Dresden (Germany); Menzel, Siegfried; Seifert, Marietta; Gemming, Thomas [Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research Dresden, Institute for Complex Materials, P.O. Box 27 01 16, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); SAWLab Saxony, Dresden (Germany); Eckert, Jürgen [Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research Dresden, Institute for Complex Materials, P.O. Box 27 01 16, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); Technical University Dresden, Institute of Materials Science, D-01062 Dresden (Germany)


    Highlights: • Refractory metals as IDT material for surface acoustic wave based high temperature sensors. • Multilayer stacking in order to obtain low electrical resistivity and for tuning residual stress. • New piezoelectric substrate for high temperature applications. • High thermal stability with improved interfacial structure of multilayer films. - Abstract: Sputter-deposited single, bi- and multilayers of W and Mo on Si substrate and high temperature stable piezoelectric substrates La{sub 3}Ga{sub 5}SiO{sub 14} (LGS) and Ca{sub 3}TaGa{sub 3}Si{sub 2}O{sub 14} (CTGS) have been studied as electrode material for high temperature applications of surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices up to 800 °C. We show for the first time that the film resistivity lowers with decreasing the individual layer thickness of W in the W/Mo multilayer stack. This has been attributed to the low electron mean free path of W of about ∼4 nm as well as low electron scattering of the electrons at the W–Mo interface as a result of the formation of coherent interfaces. The stability of the films on Si and CTGS has been demonstrated up to 800 °C while the films on the LGS substrate fail already at 600 °C due to the inherent instability of the LGS substrate under vacuum annealing.

  5. Metallic Thin-Film Bonding and Alloy Generation (United States)

    Fryer, Jack Merrill (Inventor); Campbell, Geoff (Inventor); Peotter, Brian S. (Inventor); Droppers, Lloyd (Inventor)


    Diffusion bonding a stack of aluminum thin films is particularly challenging due to a stable aluminum oxide coating that rapidly forms on the aluminum thin films when they are exposed to atmosphere and the relatively low meting temperature of aluminum. By plating the individual aluminum thin films with a metal that does not rapidly form a stable oxide coating, the individual aluminum thin films may be readily diffusion bonded together using heat and pressure. The resulting diffusion bonded structure can be an alloy of choice through the use of a carefully selected base and plating metals. The aluminum thin films may also be etched with distinct patterns that form a microfluidic fluid flow path through the stack of aluminum thin films when diffusion bonded together.

  6. Low-Cost Detection of Thin Film Stress during Fabrication (United States)

    Nabors, Sammy A.


    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has developed a simple, cost-effective optical method for thin film stress measurements during growth and/or subsequent annealing processes. Stress arising in thin film fabrication presents production challenges for electronic devices, sensors, and optical coatings; it can lead to substrate distortion and deformation, impacting the performance of thin film products. NASA's technique measures in-situ stress using a simple, noncontact fiber optic probe in the thin film vacuum deposition chamber. This enables real-time monitoring of stress during the fabrication process and allows for efficient control of deposition process parameters. By modifying process parameters in real time during fabrication, thin film stress can be optimized or controlled, improving thin film product performance.

  7. 1D-NANOSTRUCTURES on Silicon Carbide Thin Films (United States)

    Soukiassian, P. G.


    The atomic scale ordering and properties of cubic silicon carbide thin film surfaces are investigated by room and high temperature scanning tunneling microscopy. In this review, I focus on the Si-terminated β-SiC(100) surfaces only. Self-formation of Si atomic lines and dimer vacancy chains on the β-SiC(100) surface is taking place at the phase transition between the 3×2 (Si rich) and c(4×2) surface reconstructions. Using a rigorous protocol in surface preparation, it is possible to build very long, very straight and defect free Si atomic lines, forming a very large superlattice of massively parallel lines. These self-organized atomic lines are driven by stress. They have unprecedented characteristics with the highest thermal stability ever achieved for nanostructures on a surface (900°C) and the longest atomic lines ever built on a surface (μn scale long). Investigating their dynamics, we learn that their dismantling at high temperature results from collective and individual mechanisms including one-by-one dimer removal. Overall, this is a model system especially suitable in nanophysics and nanotechnologies.

  8. Overview and Challenges of Thin Film Solar Electric Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullal, H. S.


    In this paper, we report on the significant progress made worldwide by thin-film solar cells, namely, amorphous silicon (a-Si), cadmium telluride (CdTe), and copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS). Thin-film photovoltaic (PV) technology status is also discussed in detail. In addition, R&D and technology challenges in all three areas are elucidated. The worldwide estimated projection for thin-film PV technology production capacity announcements are estimated at more than 5000 MW by 2010.

  9. Polarized Neutron Reflectivity Simulation of Ferromagnet/ Antiferromagnet Thin Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Yeon; Lee, Jeong Soo


    This report investigates the current simulating and fitting programs capable of calculating the polarized neutron reflectivity of the exchange-biased ferromagnet/antiferromagnet magnetic thin films. The adequate programs are selected depending on whether nonspin flip and spin flip reflectivities of magnetic thin films and good user interface are available or not. The exchange-biased systems such as Fe/Cr, Co/CoO, CoFe/IrMn/Py thin films have been simulated successfully with selected programs.

  10. Comparative Study of Irradiated and Annealed ZnO Thin Films for Room Temperature Ammonia Gas Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijeet KSHIRSAGAR


    Full Text Available Ceramic based thin film sensors are well known for gas sensing applications. These sensors are operated at elevated temperature for good sensitivity. ZnO thin film sensors operated at high temperature are used in ammonia sensing application. But to the best of author’s knowledge no room temperature ZnO (Zinc Oxide thin film sensors are reported. The deposited ZnO films are found to be highly unstable with respect to resistance of the films at room temperature. To increase the stability two different techniques viz. annealing and irradiation are tried. Comparative study of annealed and irradiated ZnO films for stability in resistance is done. Further the performance of these films as ammonia (NH3 gas sensor at room temperature has been studied. The results obtained are reported in this paper and analyzed.

  11. Mechanisms of enhanced lithium intercalation into thin film V2O5 in ionic liquids investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (United States)

    Santos, Luis; Światowska, Jolanta; Lair, Virginie; Zanna, Sandrine; Seyeux, Antoine; Melendez-Ceballos, Arturo; Tran-Van, Pierre; Cassir, Michel; Marcus, Philippe


    Room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) attract much attention as a new type of environmentally benign electrolytes for Li-ion batteries due to their numerous interesting physicochemical properties. Here, in this paper, Li intercalation/deintercalation in presence of the N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide (PYR14TFSI) and N-methyl-N-propylpyrrolidinium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (PYR13FSI) containing 0.3 M LiTFSI, was evaluated in a thin 100 nm layer of V2O5 deposited on Al substrate by atomic layer deposition. Potentiodynamic tests performed in LiTFSI/Pyr14TFSI show a quasi-reversible Li intercalation during 10 cycles (between 2.4 and 5 V) with an average coulombic efficiency of 99%. The capacity, calculated from the 1st cycle, is found to be 182 mAh g-1, about 19% (±2%) higher than the theoretical capacity reported for V2O5 (147 mAh g-1). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis confirms that the intercalation of more than 1 mol of Li+ per V2O5 is achieved as also the possible presence of a solid permeable interface (SPI) layer on the V2O5 surface. Likewise, the Li+ in-depth distribution on the V2O5 layer after intercalation in RTILs measured by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry ion depth profiles, show small irreversible electrode modifications with the presence of lithium through the entire V2O5 layer with significant lithium trapping at the V2O5 layer/Al substrate interface.

  12. Polycrystalline-thin-film thermophotovoltaic cells (United States)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.


    Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) cells convert thermal energy to electricity. Modularity, portability, silent operation, absence of moving parts, reduced air pollution, rapid start-up, high power densities, potentially high conversion efficiencies, choice of a wide range of heat sources employing fossil fuels, biomass, and even solar radiation are key advantages of TPV cells in comparison with fuel cells, thermionic and thermoelectric convertors, and heat engines. The potential applications of TPV systems include: remote electricity supplies, transportation, co-generation, electric-grid independent appliances, and space, aerospace, and military power applications. The range of bandgaps for achieving high conversion efficiencies using low temperature (1000-2000 K) black-body or selective radiators is in the 0.5-0.75 eV range. Present high efficiency convertors are based on single crystalline materials such as In1-xGaxAs, GaSb, and Ga1-xInxSb. Several polycrystalline thin films such as Hg1-xCdxTe, Sn1-xCd2xTe2, and Pb1-xCdxTe, etc., have great potential for economic large-scale applications. A small fraction of the high concentration of charge carriers generated at high fluences effectively saturates the large density of defects in polycrystalline thin films. Photovoltaic conversion efficiencies of polycrystalline thin films and PV solar cells are comparable to single crystalline Si solar cells, e.g., 17.1% for CuIn1-xGaxSe2 and 15.8% for CdTe. The best recombination-state density Nt is in the range of 10-15-10-16 cm-3 acceptable for TPV applications. Higher efficiencies may be achieved because of the higher fluences, possibility of bandgap tailoring, and use of selective emitters such as rare earth oxides (erbia, holmia, yttria) and rare earth-yttrium aluminium garnets. As compared to higher bandgap semiconductors such as CdTe, it is easier to dope the lower bandgap semiconductors. TPV cell development can benefit from the more mature PV solar cell and opto

  13. Elastic Properties of Molecular Glass Thin Films (United States)

    Torres, Jessica


    This dissertation provides a fundamental understanding of the impact of bulk polymer properties on the nanometer length scale modulus. The elastic modulus of amorphous organic thin films is examined using a surface wrinkling technique. Potential correlations between thin film behavior and intrinsic properties such as flexibility and chain length are explored. Thermal properties, glass transition temperature (Tg) and the coefficient of thermal expansion, are examined along with the moduli of these thin films. It is found that the nanometer length scale behavior of flexible polymers correlates to its bulk Tg and not the polymers intrinsic size. It is also found that decreases in the modulus of ultrathin flexible films is not correlated with the observed Tg decrease in films of the same thickness. Techniques to circumvent reductions from bulk modulus were also demonstrated. However, as chain flexibility is reduced the modulus becomes thickness independent down to 10 nm. Similarly for this series minor reductions in T g were obtained. To further understand the impact of the intrinsic size and processing conditions; this wrinkling instability was also utilized to determine the modulus of small organic electronic materials at various deposition conditions. Lastly, this wrinkling instability is exploited for development of poly furfuryl alcohol wrinkles. A two-step wrinkling process is developed via an acid catalyzed polymerization of a drop cast solution of furfuryl alcohol and photo acid generator. The ability to control the surface topology and tune the wrinkle wavelength with processing parameters such as substrate temperature and photo acid generator concentration is also demonstrated. Well-ordered linear, circular, and curvilinear patterns are also obtained by selective ultraviolet exposure and polymerization of the furfuryl alcohol film. As a carbon precursor a thorough understanding of this wrinkling instability can have applications in a wide variety of

  14. Crystalline thin films: The electrochemical atomic layer deposition (ECALD) view

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Modibedi, M


    Full Text Available Electrochemical atomic layer deposition technique is selected as one of the methods to prepare thin films for various applications, including electrocatalytic materials and compound....

  15. Sputtering materials for VLSI and thin film devices

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkar, Jaydeep


    An important resource for students, engineers and researchers working in the area of thin film deposition using physical vapor deposition (e.g. sputtering) for semiconductor, liquid crystal displays, high density recording media and photovoltaic device (e.g. thin film solar cell) manufacturing. This book also reviews microelectronics industry topics such as history of inventions and technology trends, recent developments in sputtering technologies, manufacturing steps that require sputtering of thin films, the properties of thin films and the role of sputtering target performance on overall p

  16. Characterizations of photoconductivity of graphene oxide thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiang-Kuo Chang-Jian


    Full Text Available Characterizations of photoresponse of a graphene oxide (GO thin film to a near infrared laser light were studied. Results showed the photocurrent in the GO thin film was cathodic, always flowing in an opposite direction to the initial current generated by the preset bias voltage that shows a fundamental discrepancy from the photocurrent in the reduced graphene oxide thin film. Light illumination on the GO thin film thus results in more free electrons that offset the initial current. By examining GO thin films reduced at different temperatures, the critical temperature for reversing the photocurrent from cathodic to anodic was found around 187°C. The dynamic photoresponse for the GO thin film was further characterized through the response time constants within the laser on and off durations, denoted as τon and τoff, respectively. τon for the GO thin film was comparable to the other carbon-based thin films such as carbon nanotubes and graphenes. τoff was, however, much larger than that of the other's. This discrepancy was attributable to the retardation of exciton recombination rate thanks to the existing oxygen functional groups and defects in the GO thin films.

  17. Thin-Film Materials Synthesis and Processing Facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides a wide capability for deposition and processing of thin films, including sputter and ion-beam deposition, thermal evaporation, electro-deposition,...

  18. Physics of thin films advances in research and development

    CERN Document Server

    Hass, Georg; Vossen, John L


    Physics of Thin Films: Advances in Research and Development, Volume 12 reviews advances that have been made in research and development concerning the physics of thin films. This volume covers a wide range of preparative approaches, physics phenomena, and applications related to thin films. This book is comprised of four chapters and begins with a discussion on metal coatings and protective layers for front surface mirrors used at various angles of incidence from the ultraviolet to the far infrared. Thin-film materials and deposition conditions suitable for minimizing reflectance changes with

  19. Cell patterning using microstructured ferromagnetic thin films (United States)

    Lai, Mei-Feng; Chen, Chia-Yi; Lee, Chiun-Peng; Huang, Hao-Ting; Ger, Tzong-Rong; Wei, Zung-Hang


    Magnetic cell patterning is demonstrated through controlling the micromagnetic states in microstructured ferromagnetic thin films. The number of magnetic nanoparticles entering the cells by endocytosis can be determined by magnetophoresis experiment and is found to be dependent of the cocultured extracellular magnetic nanoparticles concentrations. In zigzag magnetic films the effects of cell patterning differ for magnetic films at as-deposited state and at remanent states after applying fields in different directions. Remanent states of concentric rings are proposed for cell patterning. Cells can be arranged at any positions in sequence by selectively changing the magnetic field directions.

  20. Birefringent thin films and polarizing elements

    CERN Document Server

    Hodgkinson, Ian J


    This book describes the propagation of light in biaxial media, the properties of biaxial thin films, and applications such as birefringent filters for tuning the wavelength of dye lasers.A novel feature of the first part is the parallel treatment of Stokes, Jones, and Berreman matrix formalisms in a chapter-by-chapter development of wave equations, basis vectors, transfer matrices, reflection and transmission equations, and guided waves. Computational tools for MATLAB are included.The second part focuses on an emerging planar technology in which anisotropic microstructures are formed by obliqu

  1. Thin-film optical shutter. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matlow, S.L.


    A specific embodiment of macroconjugated macromolecules, the poly (p-phenylene)'s, has been chosen as the one most likely to meet all of the requirements of the Thin Film Optical Shutter project (TFOS). The reason for this choice is included. In order to be able to make meaningful calculations of the thermodynamic and optical properties of the poly (p-phenylene)'s a new quantum mechanical method was developed - Equilibrium Bond Length (EBL) Theory. Some results of EBL Theory are included.

  2. Slip effects in polymer thin films


    Baeumchen, O.; Jacobs, K.


    Probing the fluid dynamics of thin films is an excellent tool to study the solid/liquid boundary condition. There is no need for external stimulation or pumping of the liquid due to the fact that the dewetting process, an internal mechanism, acts as a driving force for liquid flow. Viscous dissipation within the liquid and slippage balance interfacial forces. Thereby, friction at the solid/liquid interface plays a key role towards the flow dynamics of the liquid. Probing the temporal and spat...

  3. Pyroelectric coupling in thin film photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpov, Victor G.; Shvydka, Diana [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, OH (United States)


    We propose a theory of thin film photovoltaics in which one of the polycrystalline films is made of a pyroelectric material grains such as CdS. That film is shown to generate strong polarization improving the device open circuit voltage. Implications and supporting facts for the major photovoltaic types based on CdTe and CuIn(Ga)Se{sub 2} absorber layers are discussed. Band diagram of a pyroelectric (CdS) based PV junction. Arrows represent the charge carrier photo-generation. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  4. Thin-Film Photovoltaic Device Fabrication (United States)

    Scofield, John H.


    This project will primarily involve the fabrication and characterization of thin films and devices for photovoltaic applications. The materials involved include Il-VI materials such as zinc oxide, cadmium sulfide, and doped analogs. The equipment ot be used will be sputtering and physical evaporations. The types of characterization includes electrical, XRD, SEM and CV and related measurements to establish the efficiency of the devices. The faculty fellow will be involved in a research team composed of NASA and University researchers as well as students and other junior researchers.

  5. Infrared control coating of thin film devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berland, Brian Spencer; Stowell, Jr., Michael Wayne; Hollingsworth, Russell


    Systems and methods for creating an infrared-control coated thin film device with certain visible light transmittance and infrared reflectance properties are disclosed. The device may be made using various techniques including physical vapor deposition, chemical vapor deposition, thermal evaporation, pulsed laser deposition, sputter deposition, and sol-gel processes. In particular, a pulsed energy microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition process may be used. Production of the device may occur at speeds greater than 50 Angstroms/second and temperatures lower than C.

  6. Interface Effects in Perovskite Thin Films (United States)

    Lepetit, Marie-Bernadette; Mercey, Bernard; Simon, Charles


    The control of matter properties (transport, magnetic, dielectric,…) using synthesis as thin films is strongly hindered by the lack of reliable theories, able to guide the design of new systems, through the understanding of the interface effects and of the way the substrate constraints are imposed on the material. The present Letter analyzes the energetic contributions at the interfaces, and proposes a model describing the microscopic mechanisms governing the interactions at an epitaxial interface between a manganite and another transition metal oxide in perovskite structure (as for instance SrTiO3). The model is checked against experimental results and literature analysis.

  7. Polymer surfaces, interfaces and thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stamm, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Polymerforschung, Mainz (Germany)


    Neutron reflectometry can be used in various ways to investigate surfaces, interfaces and thin films of polymers. Its potential comes mostly from the possibilities offered by selective deuteration, where a particular component can be made visible with respect to its activity at the interface. In addition the depth resolution is much better than with most other direct techniques, and details of the profiles may be resolved. Several examples will be discussed including the segment diffusion at the interface between two polymer films, the determination of the narrow interfaces between incompatible polymer blends and the development of order in thin diblock copolymer films. (author) 10 figs., 2 tabs., 38 refs.

  8. Temperature Effects on a-IGZO Thin Film Transistors Using HfO2 Gate Dielectric Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hsien Lin


    Full Text Available This study investigated the temperature effect on amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO thin film transistors (TFTs using hafnium oxide (HfO2 gate dielectric material. HfO2 is an attractive candidate as a high-κ dielectric material for gate oxide because it has great potential to exhibit superior electrical properties with a high drive current. In the process of integrating the gate dielectric and IGZO thin film, postannealing treatment is an essential process for completing the chemical reaction of the IGZO thin film and enhancing the gate oxide quality to adjust the electrical characteristics of the TFTs. However, the hafnium atom diffused the IGZO thin film, causing interface roughness because of the stability of the HfO2 dielectric thin film during high-temperature annealing. In this study, the annealing temperature was optimized at 200°C for a HfO2 gate dielectric TFT exhibiting high mobility, a high ION/IOFF ratio, low IOFF current, and excellent subthreshold swing (SS.

  9. Production of TiN thin films by N2-laser-ablated Ti atoms in nitrogen gas atmospheres (United States)

    Castell, R.; Ruiz, A.; Castell, C.; Suárez, C.

    Laser ablation has proven to be an important technique for thin film deposition because of the high velocity heating and quenching of materials. We have used a nitrogen laser, which is capable of producing nanosecond pulses of intense UV (337.1 nm) radiation to generate high-temperature and high-electron-density plasmas when strongly focused on titanium targets. Laser beam pulses with a peak energy of 32 J/cm2 and a power density of 1.6 GW/cm2 were used in this experiment. As ablated Ti species are allowed to expand further in a nitrogen atmosphere, they cool down and eventually dissipate. In this sequence, they meet a substrate where condensation, nucleation, and growth processes yield TiN thin films because of the reaction with the nitrogen gas. Thin film depositions were made on stainless steel (AISI 1020 and AISI 304) substrates at nitrogen gas pressures ranging from 10-1 Pa to 200 Pa and for different distances between the substrate and the spot where the laser beam was focused upon the target. For rather short distances (less than 7 mm), optical microscopy shows the effect of a further plasma-thin film interaction, while at larger distances, the depositions exhibit a regular film condensation from the vapor. Microstructure characterization of the thin film deposited was done by several techniques. The typical cubic TiN phase was identified by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersion spectroscopy (EDS).

  10. Temperature dependent thermoelectric properties of chemically derived gallium zinc oxide thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Barasheed, Abeer Z.


    In this study, the temperature dependent thermoelectric properties of sol-gel prepared ZnO and 3% Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) thin films have been explored. The power factor of GZO films, as compared to ZnO, is improved by nearly 17% at high temperature. A stabilization anneal, prior to thermoelectric measurements, in a strongly reducing Ar/H2 (95/5) atmosphere at 500°C was found to effectively stabilize the chemically derived films, practically eliminating hysteresis during thermoelectric measurements. Subtle changes in the thermoelectric properties of stabilized films have been correlated to oxygen vacancies and excitonic levels that are known to exist in ZnO-based thin films. The role of Ga dopants and defects, formed upon annealing, in driving the observed complex temperature dependence of the thermoelectric properties is discussed. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2013.

  11. Nanostructure-Preserved Hematite Thin Film for Efficient Solar Water Splitting. (United States)

    Kim, Jae Young; Youn, Duck Hyun; Kim, Ju Hun; Kim, Hyun Gyu; Lee, Jae Sung


    High-temperature annealing above 700 °C improves the activity of photoelectrochemical water oxidation by hematite photoanodes by increasing its crystallinity. Yet, it brings severe agglomeration of nanostructured hematite thin films and deteriorates electrical conductivity of the transparent conducting oxide (TCO) substrate. We report here that the nanostructure of the hematite and the conductivity of TCO could be preserved, while the high crystallinity is attained, by hybrid microwave annealing (HMA) utilizing a graphite susceptor for efficient microwave absorption. Thus, the hematite thin-film photoanodes treated by HMA record 2 times higher water oxidation photocurrents compared to a conventional thermal-annealed photoanode. The enhanced performance can be attributed to the synergistic effect of a smaller feature size of nanostructure-preserved hematite and a good electrical conductivity of TCO. The method could be generally applied to the fabrication of efficient photoelectrodes with small feature sizes and high crystallinity, which have been mutually conflicting requirements with conventional thermal annealing processes.

  12. Activation of CO2 on transition metal surfaces and oxide supported metal thin films (United States)

    Paul, Sujata; Buongiorno Nardelli, Marco


    Using first principles simulations based on Density Functional Theory, we have investigated the adsorption and activation properties of CO2 on a variety of transition metal surfaces and oxide supported metal thin films. We intend to focus on the chemical conversion of CO2 through heterogeneous catalysis using surfaces and interfaces where there is nanoscale control over charge density at the reactive sites. The activation of CO2 on clean metal surfaces is possible at very high temperatures and the situations changes drastically when reaction happens on oxide supported metal thin film. The chemical reactivity of the molecule on the surface depends on the charge rearrangement at the metal-alkaline earth oxide interface. We want to understand the possible catalytic systems and characterize the relevant geometrical and electronic parameters related to the reaction mechanisms, rates and yield.

  13. Strain-induced phenomenon in complex oxide thin films (United States)

    Haislmaier, Ryan

    Complex oxide materials wield an immense spectrum of functional properties such as ferroelectricity, ferromagnetism, magnetoelectricity, optoelectricity, optomechanical, magnetoresistance, superconductivity, etc. The rich coupling between charge, spin, strain, and orbital degrees of freedom makes this material class extremely desirable and relevant for next generation electronic devices and technologies which are trending towards nanoscale dimensions. Development of complex oxide thin film materials is essential for realizing their integration into nanoscale electronic devices, where theoretically predicted multifunctional capabilities of oxides could add tremendous value. Employing thin film growth strategies such as epitaxial strain and heterostructure interface engineering can greatly enhance and even unlock novel material properties in complex oxides, which will be the main focus of this work. However, physically incorporating oxide materials into devices remains a challenge. While advancements in molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) of thin film oxide materials has led to the ability to grow oxide materials with atomic layer precision, there are still major limitations such as controlling stoichiometric compositions during growth as well as creating abrupt interfaces in multi-component layered oxide structures. The work done in this thesis addresses ways to overcome these limitations in order to harness intrinsic material phenomena. The development of adsorption-controlled stoichiometric growth windows of CaTiO3 and SrTiO3 thin film materials grown by hybrid MBE where Ti is supplied using metal-organic titanium tetraisopropoxide material is thoroughly outlined. These growth windows enable superior epitaxial strain-induced ferroelectric and dielectric properties to be accessed as demonstrated by chemical, structural, electrical, and optical characterization techniques. For tensile strained CaTiO3 and compressive strained SrTiO 3 films, the critical effects of

  14. Pulsed laser deposition of pepsin thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kecskemeti, G. [Department of Optics and Quantum Electronics, University of Szeged, H-6720 Szeged, Dom ter 9 (Hungary)]. E-mail:; Kresz, N. [Department of Optics and Quantum Electronics, University of Szeged, H-6720 Szeged, Dom ter 9 (Hungary); Smausz, T. [Hungarian Academy of Sciences and University of Szeged, Research Group on Laser Physics, H-6720 Szeged, Dom ter 9 (Hungary); Hopp, B. [Hungarian Academy of Sciences and University of Szeged, Research Group on Laser Physics, H-6720 Szeged, Dom ter 9 (Hungary); Nogradi, A. [Department of Ophthalmology, University of Szeged, H-6720, Szeged, Koranyi fasor 10-11 (Hungary)


    Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) of organic and biological thin films has been extensively studied due to its importance in medical applications among others. Our investigations and results on PLD of a digestion catalyzing enzyme, pepsin, are presented. Targets pressed from pepsin powder were ablated with pulses of an ArF excimer laser ({lambda} = 193 nm, FWHM = 30 ns), the applied fluence was varied between 0.24 and 5.1 J/cm{sup 2}. The pressure in the PLD chamber was 2.7 x 10{sup -3} Pa. The thin layers were deposited onto glass and KBr substrates. Our IR spectroscopic measurements proved that the chemical composition of deposited thin films is similar to that of the target material deposited at 0.5 and 1.3 J/cm{sup 2}. The protein digesting capacity of the transferred pepsin was tested by adapting a modified 'protein cube' method. Dissolution of the ovalbumin sections proved that the deposited layers consisted of catalytically active pepsin.

  15. Nanomechanics of Ferroelectric Thin Films and Heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yulan; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Chen , L.Q.


    The focus of this chapter is to provide basic concepts of how external strains/stresses altering ferroelectric property of a material and how to evaluate quantitatively the effect of strains/stresses on phase stability, domain structure, and material ferroelectric properties using the phase-field method. The chapter starts from a brief introduction of ferroelectrics and the Landau-Devinshire description of ferroelectric transitions and ferroelectric phases in a homogeneous ferroelectric single crystal. Due to the fact that ferroelectric transitions involve crystal structure change and domain formation, strains and stresses can be produced inside of the material if a ferroelectric transition occurs and it is confined. These strains and stresses affect in turn the domain structure and material ferroelectric properties. Therefore, ferroelectrics and strains/stresses are coupled to each other. The ferroelectric-mechanical coupling can be used to engineer the material ferroelectric properties by designing the phase and structure. The followed section elucidates calculations of the strains/stresses and elastic energy in a thin film containing a single domain, twinned domains to complicated multidomains constrained by its underlying substrate. Furthermore, a phase field model for predicting ferroelectric stable phases and domain structure in a thin film is presented. Examples of using substrate constraint and temperature to obtain interested ferroelectric domain structures in BaTiO3 films are demonstrated b phase field simulations.

  16. Electrochemical performance of lithium-ion capacitors evaluated under high temperature and high voltage stress using redox stable electrolytes and additives (United States)

    Boltersdorf, Jonathan; Delp, Samuel A.; Yan, Jin; Cao, Ben; Zheng, Jim P.; Jow, T. Richard; Read, Jeffrey A.


    Lithium-ion capacitors (LICs) were investigated for high power, moderate energy density applications for operation in extreme environments with prolonged cycle-life performance. The LICs were assembled as three-layered pouch cells in an asymmetric configuration employing Faradaic pre-lithiated hard carbon anodes and non-Faradaic ion adsorption-desorption activated carbon (AC) cathodes. The capacity retention was measured under high stress conditions, while the design factor explored was electrolyte formulation using a set of carbonates and electrolyte additives, with a focus on their stability. The LIC cells were evaluated using critical performance tests under the following high stress conditions: long-term voltage floating-cycling stability at room temperature (2.2-3.8 V), high temperature storage at 3.8 V, and charge voltages up to 4.4 V. The rate performance of different electrolytes and additives was measured after the initial LIC cell formation for a 1C-10C rate. The presence of vinylene carbonate (VC) and tris (trimethylsilyl) phosphate (TMSP) were found to be essential to the improved electrochemical performance of the LIC cells under all testing conditions.

  17. Thin films of metal-organic compounds and metal nanoparticle ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thin films based on two very different metal-organic systems are developed and some nonlinear optical applications are explored. A family of zinc complexes which form perfectly polar assemblies in their crystalline state are found to organize as uniaxially oriented crystallites in vapor deposited thin films on glass substrate.

  18. Deposition of metal chalcogenide thin films by successive ionic layer ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present review article, we have described in detail, successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method of metal chalcogenide thin films. An extensive survey of thin film materials prepared during past years is made to demonstrate the versatility of SILAR method. Their preparative parameters and structural, ...

  19. Synthesis and characterization of zinc oxide thin films prepared by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synthesis and characterization of zinc oxide thin films prepared by chemical the bath technique. ... The band gap energy of the samples deduced from the fundamental absorption edge gave the values of 1.60 – 2.80 eV for the direct ... Keywords: Chemical bath technique, zinc oxide thin films, x-ray, photovoltaic cells ...

  20. Optimized grid design for thin film solar panels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deelen, J. van; Klerk, L.; Barink, M.


    There is a gap in efficiency between record thin film cells and mass produced thin film solar panels. In this paper we quantify the effect of monolithic integration on power output for various configurations by modeling and present metallization as a way to improve efficiency of solar panels. Grid

  1. Cadmium sulphide thin film for application in gamma radiation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cadmium Sulphide (CdS) thin film was prepared using pyrolytic spraying technique and then irradiated at varied gamma dosage. The CdS thin film absorption before gamma irradiation was 0.6497. Absorbed doses were computed using standard equation established for an integrating dosimeter. The plot of absorbed dose ...

  2. Fabrication and Performance Study of Uniform Thin Film Integrated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The transmission line model of a uniform rectangular thin film R-C-KR structure consisting of a dielectric layer of constant per unit shunt capacitance C sandwiched between two resistive thin films of constant per unit length resistances R and KR has been analysed using the concept of matrix parameter functions. The above ...

  3. Tools to Synthesize the Learning of Thin Films (United States)

    Rojas, Roberto; Fuster, Gonzalo; Slusarenko, Viktor


    After a review of textbooks written for undergraduate courses in physics, we have found that discussions on thin films are mostly incomplete. They consider the reflected and not the transmitted light for two instead of the four types of thin films. In this work, we complement the discussion in elementary textbooks, by analysing the phase…

  4. Plasmonic versus dielectric enhancement in thin-film solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dühring, Maria Bayard; Mortensen, N. Asger; Sigmund, Ole


    Several studies have indicated that broadband absorption of thin-film solar cells can be enhanced by use of surface-plasmon induced resonances of metallic parts like strips or particles. The metallic parts may create localized modes or scatter incoming light to increase absorption in thin-film se...

  5. Ferroelectricity in Sodium Nitrite Thin Films | Britwum | Journal of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigations have been conducted on the ferroelectric property of thin films of NaNO2. The thin films were prepared with the dip coating technique. The phase transition was investigated by observing the change in the dielectric constant with temperature change. The presence of ferro-electricity was investigated with a ...

  6. Photoconductivity of ZnTe thin films at elevated temperatures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    made to assess the predominance of the Poole–Frenkel con- duction mechanism in the dark and photoconductivities of. ZnTe thin films at room temperature and higher ambient temperatures. 2. Experimental. ZnTe thin films of different thicknesses were deposited on properly cleaned glass substrates with the help of a Hind.

  7. Experimental and modeling analysis of highly oriented octithiophene thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Videlot, C; Grayer, [No Value; Ackermann, J; El Kassmi, A; Fichou, D; Hadziioannou, G


    We present a detailed study on the structure and morphology of highly oriented thin films of octithiophene (8T), the longest non-substituted oligothiophene so far. 8T thin films are vacuum-deposited on glass substrates and oriented either vertically by adjusting deposition rate and substrate

  8. Ultra thin films of nanocrystalline Ge studied by AFM and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    possibility of developing quantum lasers, single electron transistors and various other applications.2 ... In the initial growth of thin films, three types of growth can occur, depending on the surface free energy of the ... nano devices and single electron transistors.9 In this context, initial growth stages of Ge ultra thin films on ...

  9. Influence of support electrolytic in the electrodeposition of Cusbnd Gasbnd Se thin films (United States)

    Fernandez, A. M.; Turner, J. A.; Lara-Lara, B.; Deutsch, T. G.


    CuGaSe2 is an important thin film electronic material that possesses several attributes that make it appealing for solar energy conversion. Due to its properties it can be incorporated in to various devices, among the greatest highlights are photovoltaic cells, as well as its potential use as photocathodes for hydrogen production, via the photoelectrolysis. There are several methods of its preparation, most notably electrodeposition that has the potential for large areas and high volumes. Electrodeposition of ternary and/or quaternary semiconductors generally proceeds via the formation of a binary, which is subsequently reacted to form the ternary compound. Several conditions must be controlled to form binary compounds that include the use of complexing agents, buffers, temperature, etc. In this paper, we discuss the effect of anion composition in the electrolytic bath and the type of lithium salts, in order to manipulate the atomic concentration of CuGaSe2 during the electrodeposition of thin films, yielding copper-rich, gallium-rich or stoichiometric thin films. We also present the results of a study on the morphology and structure obtained using two types of substrates both before and after performing a heat treatment.

  10. High temperature surface imaging using atomic force microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekmaat, Joska Johannes; Brinkman, Alexander; Blank, David H.A.; Rijnders, Augustinus J.H.M.


    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is one of the most important tools in nanotechnology and surface science. Because of recent developments, nowadays, it is also used to study dynamic processes, such as thin film growth and surface reaction mechanisms. These processes often take place at high temperature

  11. Search for New and Better High Temperature Superconductors (United States)


    Nanometer-Scale Scanning Tunneling Potentiometry Appendix A – List of publications from the MURI (Also endnotes for text) 1) Introduction This...scanning tunneling potentiometry ) for nanometer-scale transport characterization of thin films. In addition, we actively addressed the questions: (1...assessing materials for their potential to exhibit high temperature superconductivity. 2.6 Nanometer-Scale Scanning Tunneling Potentiometry

  12. High-Temperature-Superconductor Films In Microwave Circuits (United States)

    Bhasin, K. B.; Warner, J. D.; Romanofsky, R. R.; Heinen, V. O.; Chorey, C. M.


    Report discusses recent developments in continuing research on fabrication and characterization of thin films of high-temperature superconducting material and incorporation of such films into microwave circuits. Research motivated by prospect of exploiting superconductivity to reduce electrical losses and thereby enhancing performance of such critical microwave components as ring resonators, filters, transmission lines, phase shifters, and feed lines in phased-array antennas.

  13. Alloy Design Criteria for Solid Metal Dealloying of Thin Films (United States)

    McCue, Ian; Demkowicz, Michael J.


    Liquid metal dealloying is a promising route for making metal nanocomposites with a wide range of microstructure morphologies. However, it is not well suited for synthesizing nanocomposites in thin-film form. We propose a new route to fabricating fully dense nanocomposite thin films by dealloying a binary parent alloy in a unary solid metal solvent. We fabricated and tested three thin-film diffusion couples to understand the alloy design criteria for synthesizing dealloyed thin films free of cracks and voids. We find that the best-quality dealloyed thin films may be obtained from alloys that do not undergo large volume changes upon dealloying and that exhibit minimal net vacancy flux during interdiffusion.

  14. Infrared analysis of thin films amorphous, hydrogenated carbon on silicon

    CERN Document Server

    Jacob, W; Schwarz-Selinger, T


    The infrared analysis of thin films on a thick substrate is discussed using the example of plasma-deposited, amorphous, hydrogenated carbon layers (a-C:H) on silicon substrates. The framework for the optical analysis of thin films is presented. The main characteristic of thin film optics is the occurrence of interference effects due to the coherent superposition of light multiply reflected at the various internal and external interfaces of the optical system. These interference effects lead to a sinusoidal variation of the transmitted and reflected intensity. As a consequence, the Lambert-Beer law is not applicable for the determination of the absorption coefficient of thin films. Furthermore, observable changes of the transmission and reflection spectra occur in the vicinity of strong absorption bands due to the Kramers-Kronig relation. For a sound data evaluation these effects have to be included in the analysis. To be able to extract the full information contained in a measured optical thin film spectrum, ...

  15. Nanocoatings and ultra-thin films technologies and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Tiginyanu, Ion


    Gives a comprehensive account of the developments of nanocoatings and ultra-thin films. This book covers the fundamentals, processes of deposition and characterisation of nanocoatings, as well as the applications. It is suitable for the glass and glazing, automotive, electronics, aerospace, construction and biomedical industries in particular.$bCoatings are used for a wide range of applications, from anti-fogging coatings for glass through to corrosion control in the aerospace and automotive industries. Nanocoatings and ultra-thin films provides an up-to-date review of the fundamentals, processes of deposition, characterisation and applications of nanocoatings. Part one covers technologies used in the creation and analysis of thin films, including chapters on current and advanced coating technologies in industry, nanostructured thin films from amphiphilic molecules, chemical and physical vapour deposition methods and methods for analysing nanocoatings and ultra-thin films. Part two focuses on the applications...

  16. Chemically fabricated LiFePO{sub 4} thin film electrode for transparent batteries and electrochromic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Béléké, Alexis B. [Institut de recherche d’Hydro-Québec, 1800 Boul. Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, QC J3X 1S3 (Canada); Department of Mining and Materials Engineering, McGill University, M.H. Wong Building, 3610 rue University, Montréal, QC H3A 2B2 (Canada); Faure, Cyril [Institut de recherche d’Hydro-Québec, 1800 Boul. Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, QC J3X 1S3 (Canada); Röder, Manuel [Center for Applied Electrochemistry, Fraunhofer Institute for Silicate Research, Neunerplatz 2, 97083 Würzburg (Germany); Hovington, Pierre [Institut de recherche d’Hydro-Québec, 1800 Boul. Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, QC J3X 1S3 (Canada); Posset, Uwe [Center for Applied Electrochemistry, Fraunhofer Institute for Silicate Research, Neunerplatz 2, 97083 Würzburg (Germany); Guerfi, Abdelbast [Institut de recherche d’Hydro-Québec, 1800 Boul. Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, QC J3X 1S3 (Canada); Zaghib, Karim, E-mail: [Institut de recherche d’Hydro-Québec, 1800 Boul. Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, QC J3X 1S3 (Canada)


    Graphical abstract: Simplified diagram of the novel sol-gel approach of preparation of colorless and transparent LiFePO{sub 4} thin film electrode. - Highlights: • Novel sol-gel synthesis of colorless LFP thin film electrode for transparent Li-ion battery. • High performance of the electrode at various current densities: 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 μA/cm{sup 2}. • LFP nanoparticles exhibit an excellent electro-activity. • Colorless LFP thin film shows a transmittance above 80% versus FTO. • Higher transmittance of LFP electrode a potential candidate for electrochromic devices. - Abstract: We report a new sol-gel approach of synthesis of LiFePO{sub 4} (LFP) thin film and its application as cathode materials for transparent Li-ion battery in half-cell configuration. LFP thin films were obtained from an alcoholic colloidal suspension of iron acetylacetonate (Fe(AcAc){sub 3}) and aqueous lithium dihydrogen phosphate (LiH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}) deposited on fluorine tin oxide (FTO) glass substrate, followed by heating at 450 °C under nitrogen gas for 1 h. X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirmed that the LFP films have an orthorhombic crystal system with space group Pnma (62). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) shows spherical LFP nanoparticles aggregates homogenously deposited all over the surface of FTO substrate containing 3-D open pores. The electrochemical behaviors of thin film vs Li/Li{sup +} cell were investigated by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge measurements. The cycle life was evaluated by running 1000 cycles of charge-discharge at a current density of 20 μA/cm{sup 2}. The transmission spectra reveal 85–90% of transparency versus FTO as reference, which makes it a potential candidate as a complementary electrode in electrochromic devices (ECDs).

  17. An overview of thin film nitinol endovascular devices. (United States)

    Shayan, Mahdis; Chun, Youngjae


    Thin film nitinol has unique mechanical properties (e.g., superelasticity), excellent biocompatibility, and ultra-smooth surface, as well as shape memory behavior. All these features along with its low-profile physical dimension (i.e., a few micrometers thick) make this material an ideal candidate in developing low-profile medical devices (e.g., endovascular devices). Thin film nitinol-based devices can be collapsed and inserted in remarkably smaller diameter catheters for a wide range of catheter-based procedures; therefore, it can be easily delivered through highly tortuous or narrow vascular system. A high-quality thin film nitinol can be fabricated by vacuum sputter deposition technique. Micromachining techniques were used to create micro patterns on the thin film nitinol to provide fenestrations for nutrition and oxygen transport and to increase the device's flexibility for the devices used as thin film nitinol covered stent. In addition, a new surface treatment method has been developed for improving the hemocompatibility of thin film nitinol when it is used as a graft material in endovascular devices. Both in vitro and in vivo test data demonstrated a superior hemocompatibility of the thin film nitinol when compared with commercially available endovascular graft materials such as ePTFE or Dacron polyester. Promising features like these have motivated the development of thin film nitinol as a novel biomaterial for creating endovascular devices such as stent grafts, neurovascular flow diverters, and heart valves. This review focuses on thin film nitinol fabrication processes, mechanical and biological properties of the material, as well as current and potential thin film nitinol medical applications. Copyright © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Lifetime and recombination kinetics in a-Se thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, R. [Department of Secondary Science and Mathematics Education, University of Mersin, Yenisehir Campus, 33169 Mersin (Turkey)


    Modulated photoconductivity measurements in amorphous selenium (a-Se) thin films were carried out. Especially, photocarrier lifetime as a function of applied electric field (d.c.) and temperature was determined by using the quadrature frequency-resolved spectroscopy (QFRS) method. At low temperature, two different carrier lifetime channels were observed. However, only one carrier lifetime channel was dominated at room temperature (297 K). The temperature dependence of the frequency-resolved photocurrent (FRPC) was investigated under different applied electric fields. At high temperatures, a small field independent activation energy value of 147 {+-} 35 meV was determined, in which hole transport is controlled by the valence band-tail states. The exponent {nu} in the power-law relationship (I{sub ph}{proportional_to}G{sup {nu}}) between generating flux and photocurrent was obtained at different electric fields and excitation wavelengths. The value of {nu} increases very little with decreasing applied electric fields. However, {nu} shows a little stronger dependence on the excitation wavelengths. The applied electric field dependences of photocurrent at different excitation wavelengths were also directly measured. However, a little non-ohmic behaviour was observed at high applied electric fields and at low excitation wavelengths measured. We explained it in the frame of traditional models. (author)

  19. Tribological properties of CrAgN thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Jurči


    Full Text Available CrN and CrAgN thin films were magnetron sputtered onto the substrate made from Vanadis 6 cold work tool steel. The films were examined on tribological properties using a high temperature Pin-on-disc tribometer. Obtained results show that there is almost no effect of Ag addition on the friction coefficient when tested at a room temperature against alumina. The testing against the same counterpart at higher temperature gave positive effect of the silver addition on the m. The testing against 100Cr6 ball bearing steel gave higher friction coefficient than that against alumina while the testing against CuSn6-bronze led to much lower m. When tested at a room temperature, the wear performance of the films was positively affected only in the case of the CrAg3N film developed at 500 oC. On the other hand, addition of 3 wt% Ag into the CrN increased the wear performance at elevated temperatures while the addition of 15 wt% Ag has made the film too soft and sensitive to wear.

  20. Discriminator Stabilized Superconductor/Ferroelectric Thin Film Local Oscillator (United States)

    Romanofsky, Robert R. (Inventor); Miranda, Felix A. (Inventor)


    A tunable local oscillator with a tunable circuit that includes a resonator and a transistor as an active element for oscillation. Tuning of the circuit is achieved with an externally applied dc bias across coupled lines on the resonator. Preferably the resonator is a high temperature superconductor microstrip ring resonator with integral coupled lines formed over a thin film ferroelectric material. A directional coupler samples the output of the oscillator which is fed into a diplexer for determining whether the oscillator is performing at a desired frequency. The high-pass and lowpass outputs of the diplexer are connected to diodes respectively for inputting the sampled signals into a differential operational amplifier. The amplifier compares the sampled signals and emits an output signal if there is a difference between the resonant and crossover frequencies. Based on the sampled signal, a bias supplied to the ring resonator is either increased or decreased for raising or lowering the resonant frequency by decreasing or increasing, respectively, the dielectric constant of the ferroelectric.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Jurči


    Full Text Available CrN and CrAgN thin films were magnetron sputtered onto the substrate made from Vanadis 6 cold work tool steel. The films were examined on tribological properties using a high temperature Pin-on-disc tribometer. Obtained results show that there is almost no effect of Ag addition on the friction coefficient when tested at a room temperature against alumina. The testing against the same counterpart at higher temperature gave positive effect of the silver addition on the friction coefficient. The testing against 100Cr6 ball bearing steel gave higher friction coefficient than that against alumina while the testing against CuSn6-bronze led to much lower μ. When tested at a room temperature, the wear performance of the films was positively affected only in the case of the CrAg3N film developed at 500 °C. On the other hand, addition of 3 wt% Ag into the CrN increased the wear performance at elevated temperatures while the addition of 15 wt% Ag has made the film too soft and sensitive to wear.

  2. Evidence of nanodomes in carbon nitride thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chowdhury, S.; Laugier, M.T. [Material and Surface Science Institute (MSSI) and Department of Physics, University of Limerick, Limerick (Ireland)


    This article reports the synthesis of hard and conductive carbon nitride thin films with evidence of formation of nanodomes over a range of substrate temperature from 50 C to 550 C. The size of the nanodomes increases from 40-80 nm at room temperature to 200-400 nm at high temperature (550 C). Electrical characterization shows that these films have conductive behaviour with a resistivity depending on the size of the nanodomes. Resistivity values of 19 m{omega}cm were found for nanodomes of size 40-80 nm falling to 6 m{omega}cm for nanodomes of size 200-400 nm. Nanoindentation results show that the hardness and Young's modulus of these films are in the range from 9-22 GPa and 100-168 GPa respectively and these values decrease as the size of the nanodomes increases. GXRD results confirm that a crystalline graphitic carbon nitride structure has formed. (copyright 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  3. Electric field tuning of phase separation in manganite thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Lourembam, James


    In this paper, we investigate the electric field effect on epitaxial Pr0.65(Ca0.75Sr0.25)0.35MnO3 thin films in electric double-layer transistors. Different from the conventional transistors with semiconducting channels, the sub(micrometer)-scale phase separation in the manganite channels is expected to result in inhomogeneous distribution of mobile carriers and local enhancement of electric field. The field effect is much larger in the low-temperature phase separation region compared to that in the high-temperature polaron transport region. Further enhancement of electroresistance is achieved by applying a magnetic field, and a 250% modulation of resistance is observed at 80 K, equivalent to an increase of the ferromagnetic metallic phase fraction by 0.51%, as estimated by the general effective medium model. Our results illustrate the complementary nature of electric and magnetic field effects in phase-separated manganites, providing insights on such novel electronic devices based on complex oxides.

  4. Evaluation of Thin-Film Photodiodes and Development of Thin-Film Phototransistor (United States)

    Yamashita, Takehiko; Shima, Takehiro; Nishizaki, Yoshitaka; Kimura, Mutsumi; Hara, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Satoshi


    First, a p/i/n thin-film photodiode (TFPD) is evaluated, and it is found that the photoinduced current (Iphoto) is relatively large. Next, a p/n TFPD is evaluated, and it is found that the Iphoto is independent of the applied voltage (Vapply). However, it is difficult to simultaneously achieve a large and independent Iphoto. Therefore, a p/i/n thin-film phototransistor (TFPT) is developed, and it is found that the Iphoto can be both relatively large and independent of the Vapply by optimizing the gate voltage. These characteristics are obtained because the depletion layer is formed in the entire intrinsic region and the electric field is always high. It is expected that these characteristics are preferable for some types of photosensor application such as artificial retina.

  5. Sulfated cellulose thin films with antithrombin affinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available Cellulose thin films were chemically modified by in situ sulfation to produce surfaces with anticoagulant characteristics. Two celluloses differing in their degree of polymerization (DP: CEL I (DP 215–240 and CEL II (DP 1300–1400 were tethered to maleic anhydride copolymer (MA layers and subsequently exposed to SO3•NMe3 solutions at elevated temperature. The impact of the resulting sulfation on the physicochemical properties of the cellulose films was investigated with respect to film thickness, atomic composition, wettability and roughness. The sulfation was optimized to gain a maximal surface concentration of sulfate groups. The scavenging of antithrombin (AT by the surfaces was determined to conclude on their potential anticoagulant properties.

  6. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy of Pb thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Michael


    The present thesis deals with the electronic structure, work function and single-atom contact conductance of Pb thin films, investigated with a low-temperature scanning tunneling microscope. The electronic structure of Pb(111) thin films on Ag(111) surfaces is investigated using scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS). Quantum size effects, in particular, quantum well states (QWSs), play a crucial role in the electronic and physical properties of these films. Quantitative analysis of the spectra yields the QWS energies as a function of film thickness, the Pb bulk-band dispersion in {gamma}-L direction, scattering phase shifts at the Pb/Ag interface and vacuum barrier as well as the lifetime broadening at anti {gamma}. The work function {phi} is an important property of surfaces, which influences catalytic reactivity and charge injection at interfaces. It controls the availability of charge carriers in front of a surface. Modifying {phi} has been achieved by deposition of metals and molecules. For investigating {phi} at the atomic scale, scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) has become a widely used technique. STM measures an apparent barrier height {phi}{sub a}, which is commonly related to the sample work function {phi}{sub s} by: {phi}{sub a}=({phi}{sub s}+{phi}{sub t}- vertical stroke eV vertical stroke)/2, with {phi}{sub t} the work function of the tunneling tip, V the applied tunneling bias voltage, and -e the electron charge. Hence, the effect of the finite voltage in STM on {phi}{sub a} is assumed to be linear and the comparison of {phi}{sub a} measured at different surface sites is assumed to yield quantitative information about work function differences. Here, the dependence of {phi}{sub a} on the Pb film thickness and applied bias voltage V is investigated. {phi}{sub a} is found to vary significantly with V. This bias dependence leads to drastic changes and even inversion of contrast in spatial maps of {phi}{sub a}, which are related to the QWSs in the Pb

  7. Levan nanostructured thin films by MAPLE assembling. (United States)

    Sima, Felix; Mutlu, Esra Cansever; Eroglu, Mehmet S; Sima, Livia E; Serban, Natalia; Ristoscu, Carmen; Petrescu, Stefana M; Oner, Ebru Toksoy; Mihailescu, Ion N


    Synthesis of nanostructured thin films of pure and oxidized levan exopolysaccharide by matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation is reported. Solutions of pure exopolysaccharides in dimethyl sulfoxide were frozen in liquid nitrogen to obtain solid cryogenic pellets that have been used as targets in pulsed laser evaporation experiments with a KrF* excimer source. The expulsed material was collected and assembled onto glass slides and Si wafers. The contact angle studies evidenced a higher hydrophilic behavior in the case of oxidized levan structures because of the presence of acidic aldehyde-hydrogen bonds of the coating formed after oxidation. The obtained films preserved the base material composition as confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. They were compact with high specific surface areas, as demonstrated by scanning electron and atomic force microscopy investigations. In vitro colorimetric assays revealed a high potential for cell proliferation for all coatings with certain predominance for oxidized levan.

  8. Review of Zinc Oxide Thin Films (United States)


    oriented ZnO:Ga  thin   films   deposited  on  glass  by  laser   ablation   at  different  deposition  temperatures.  The  surface  morphology,  crystalline...Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8/98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 1    Review of Zinc Oxide Thin Films   Abstract  The present review  paper  reports on the...resistivity provided by indium‐doped  tin  oxide (ITO)  ~ 0.7 x 10‐4 Ω‐cm achieved by deposition of  ITO  films  on glass at 300 oC by pulsed  Laser

  9. Amperometric noise at thin film band electrodes. (United States)

    Larsen, Simon T; Heien, Michael L; Taboryski, Rafael


    Background current noise is often a significant limitation when using constant-potential amperometry for biosensor application such as amperometric recordings of transmitter release from single cells through exocytosis. In this paper, we fabricated thin-film electrodes of gold and conductive polymers and measured the current noise in physiological buffer solution for a wide range of different electrode areas. The noise measurements could be modeled by an analytical expression, representing the electrochemical cell as a resistor and capacitor in series. The studies revealed three domains; for electrodes with low capacitance, the amplifier noise dominated, for electrodes with large capacitances, the noise from the resistance of the electrochemical cell was dominant, while in the intermediate region, the current noise scaled with electrode capacitance. The experimental results and the model presented here can be used for choosing an electrode material and dimensions and when designing chip-based devices for low-noise current measurements.

  10. Amperometric Noise at Thin Film Band Electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Simon T.; Heien, Michael L.; Taboryski, Rafael


    ; for electrodes with low capacitance, the amplifier noise dominated, for electrodes with large capacitances, the noise from the resistance of the electrochemical cell was dominant, while in the intermediate region, the current noise scaled with electrode capacitance. The experimental results and the model......Background current noise is often a significant limitation when using constant-potential amperometry for biosensor application such as amperometric recordings of transmitter release from single cells through exocytosis. In this paper, we fabricated thin-film electrodes of gold and conductive...... polymers and measured the current noise in physiological buffer solution for a wide range of different electrode areas. The noise measurements could be modeled by an analytical expression, representing the electrochemical cell as a resistor and capacitor in series. The studies revealed three domains...

  11. Thermal properties of methyltrimethoxysilane aerogel thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro N. Acquaroli


    Full Text Available Aerogels are light and porous solids whose properties, largely determined by their nanostructure, are useful in a wide range of applications, e.g., thermal insulation. In this work, as-deposited and thermally treated air-filled silica aerogel thin films synthesized using the sol-gel method were studied for their thermal properties using the 3-omega technique, at ambient conditions. The thermal conductivity and diffusivity were found to increase as the porosity of the aerogel decreased. Thermally treated films show a clear reduction in thermal conductivity compared with that of as-deposited films, likely due to an increase of porosity. The smallest thermal conductivity and diffusivity found for our aerogels were 0.019 W m−1 K−1 and 9.8 × 10-9 m2 s−1. A model was used to identify the components (solid, gaseous and radiative of the total thermal conductivity of the aerogel.

  12. Digital thin-film color optical memory (United States)

    Chi, C. J.; Steckl, A. J.


    A promising optical memory device called digital thin-film (DTF) color optical memory is presented. The DTF optical memory utilizes localized regions of varying thickness to adjust the spectral characteristic of reflected light from a broad band source. The DTF structure has been fabricated by Ga+ focused ion beam milling on thermally grown silicon dioxide on Si to prove the concept. A charge-coupled device array is used as the optical detector for the readout of the stored data. The reflected light image of the DTF memory reveals easily discriminated color levels and proves the suitability of using optical means to extract the stored data. DTF optical memory structures with 16 physical levels or 4 bits/pixel have been fabricated providing an equivalent storage density in excess of 5 Gb/in.2

  13. Modelling the tribology of thin film interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Zugic, R


    substrate). Within each group of simulations, three lubricant film thicknesses are studied to examine the effect of varying lubricant thickness. Statistical data are collected from each simulation and presented in this work. Via these data, together with the evolution, of atomic and molecular configurations, a very detailed picture of the properties of this thin film interface is presented. In particular, we conclude that perfluoropolyether lubricant forms distinct molecular layers when confined between two substrates, the rate of heat generation under shearing conditions typical of those in a head-disk interface is insufficient for thermal mechanisms to result directly in lubricant degradation, and mechanical stresses attained in the head-disk interface are unlikely to result in any significant degree of lubricant degradation. This thesis examines the tribology of a head-disk interface in an operating hard disk drive via non-equilibrium molecular dynamics computer simulations. The aim of this work is to deri...

  14. Thin Film Femtosecond Laser Damage Competition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolz, C J; Ristau, D; Turowski, M; Blaschke, H


    In order to determine the current status of thin film laser resistance within the private, academic, and government sectors, a damage competition was started at the 2008 Boulder Damage Symposium. This damage competition allows a direct comparison of the current state of the art of high laser resistance coatings since they are tested using the same damage test setup and the same protocol. In 2009 a high reflector coating was selected at a wavelength of 786 nm at normal incidence at a pulse length of 180 femtoseconds. A double blind test assured sample and submitter anonymity so only a summary of the results are presented here. In addition to the laser resistance results, details of deposition processes, coating materials and layer count, and spectral results will also be shared.

  15. Transparent Conductive Oxides in Thin Film Photovoltaics (United States)

    Hamelmann, Frank U.


    This paper show results from the development of transparent conductive oxides (TCO's) on large areas for the use as front electrode in thin film silicon solar modules. It is focused on two types of zinc oxide, which are cheap to produce and scalable to a substrate size up to 6 m2. Low pressure CVD with temperatures below 200°C can be used for the deposition of boron doped ZnO with a native surface texture for good light scattering, while sputtered aluminum doped ZnO needs a post deposition treatment in an acid bath for a rough surface. The paper presents optical and electrical characterization of large area samples, and also results about long term stability of the ZnO samples with respect to the so called TCO corrosion.

  16. Thin film oxygen partial pressure sensor (United States)

    Wortman, J. J.; Harrison, J. W.; Honbarrier, H. L.; Yen, J.


    The development is described of a laboratory model oxygen partial pressure sensor using a sputtered zinc oxide thin film. The film is operated at about 400 C through the use of a miniature silicon bar. Because of the unique resistance versus temperature relation of the silicon bar, control of the operational temperature is achieved by controlling the resistance. A circuit for accomplishing this is described. The response of sputtered zinc oxide films of various thicknesses to oxygen, nitrogen, argon, carbon dioxide, and water vapor caused a change in the film resistance. Over a large range, film conductance varied approximately as the square root of the oxygen partial pressure. The presence of water vapor in the gas stream caused a shift in the film conductance at a given oxygen partial pressure. A theoretical model is presented to explain the characteristic features of the zinc oxide response to oxygen.

  17. Tension Tests of Copper Thin Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kyung Jo; Kim, Chung Youb [Chonnam Nat’l Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)


    Tension tests for copper thin films with thickness of 12 μm were performed by using a digital image correlation method based on consecutive digital images. When calculating deformation using digital image correlation, a large deformation causes errors in the calculated result. In this study, the calculation procedure was improved to reduce the error, so that the full field deformation and the strain of the specimen could be accurately and directly measured on its surface. From the calculated result, it can be seen that the strain distribution is not uniform and its variation is severe, unlike the distribution in a common bulk specimen. This might result from the surface roughness introduced in the films during the fabrication process by electro-deposition.

  18. Gadolinium thin films as benchmark for magneto-caloric thin films (United States)

    Helmich, Lars; Bartke, Marianne; Teichert, Niclas; Schleicher, Benjamin; Fähler, Sebastian; Hütten, Andreas


    We report on the preparation of Gadolinium thin films by means of sputter deposition on Silicon Oxide wafers. A series of samples with different buffer layers and various substrate temperatures has been produced. The film on an amorphous Tantalum buffer deposited at 773 K shows the highest increase of magnetization during the phase transition at the Curie temperature. Further detailed analysis of the magnetic properties has been conducted by VSM.

  19. Thin Film Approaches to the SRF Cavity Problem Fabrication and Characterization of Superconducting Thin Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beringer, Douglas [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States)


    Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) cavities are responsible for the acceleration of charged particles to relativistic velocities in most modern linear accelerators, such as those employed at high-energy research facilities like Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory’s CEBAF and the LHC at CERN. Recognizing SRF as primarily a surface phenomenon enables the possibility of applying thin films to the interior surface of SRF cavities, opening a formidable tool chest of opportunities by combining and designing materials that offer greater performance benefit. Thus, while improvements in radio frequency cavity design and refinements in cavity processing techniques have improved accelerator performance and efficiency – 1.5 GHz bulk niobium SRF cavities have achieved accelerating gradients in excess of 35 MV/m – there exist fundamental material bounds in bulk superconductors limiting the maximally sustained accelerating field gradient (≈ 45 MV/m for Nb) where inevitable thermodynamic breakdown occurs. With state of the art Nb based cavity design fast approaching these theoretical limits, novel material innovations must be sought in order to realize next generation SRF cavities. One proposed method to improve SRF performance is to utilize thin film superconducting-insulating-superconducting (SIS) multilayer structures to effectively magnetically screen a bulk superconducting layer such that it can operate at higher field gradients before suffering critically detrimental SRF losses. This dissertation focuses on the production and characterization of thin film superconductors for such SIS layers for radio frequency applications. Correlated studies on structure, surface morphology and superconducting properties of epitaxial Nb and MgB2 thin films are presented.

  20. Magnetoimpedance spectroscopy of epitaxial multiferroic thin films (United States)

    Schmidt, Rainer; Ventura, Jofre; Langenberg, Eric; Nemes, Norbert M.; Munuera, Carmen; Varela, Manuel; Garcia-Hernandez, Mar; Leon, Carlos; Santamaria, Jacobo


    The detection of true magnetocapacitance (MC) as a manifestation of magnetoelectric coupling (MEC) in multiferroic materials is a nontrivial task, because pure magnetoresistance (MR) of an extrinsic Maxwell-Wagner-type dielectric relaxation can lead to changes in capacitance [G. Catalan, Appl. Phys. Lett.APPLAB0003-695110.1063/1.2177543 88, 102902 (2006)]. In order to clarify such difficulties involved with dielectric spectroscopy on multiferroic materials, we have simulated the dielectric permittivity ɛ' of two dielectric relaxations in terms of a series of one intrinsic film-type and one extrinsic Maxwell-Wagner-type relaxation. Such a series of two relaxations was represented in the frequency- (f-) and temperature- (T-) dependent notations ɛ' vs f and ɛ' vs T by a circuit model consisting in a series of two ideal resistor-capacitor (RC) elements. Such simulations enabled rationalizing experimental f-, T-, and magnetic field- (H-) dependent dielectric spectroscopy data from multiferroic epitaxial thin films of BiMnO3 (BMO) and BiFeO3 (BFO) grown on Nb-doped SrTiO3. Concomitantly, the deconvolution of intrinsic film and extrinsic Maxwell-Wagner relaxations in BMO and BFO films was achieved by fitting f-dependent dielectric data to an adequate equivalent circuit model. Analysis of the H-dependent data in the form of determining the H-dependent values of the equivalent circuit resistors and capacitors then yielded the deconvoluted MC and MR values for the separated intrinsic dielectric relaxations in BMO and BFO thin films. Substantial intrinsic MR effects up to 65% in BMO films below the magnetic transition (TC≈100 K) and perceptible intrinsic MEC up to -1.5% near TC were identified unambiguously.

  1. Materials availability for thin film solar cells (United States)

    Makita, Yunosuke


    Materials availability is one of the most important factors when we consider the mass-production of next generation photovoltaic devices. "In (indium)" is a vital element to produce high efficient thin film solar cells such as InP and CuIn(Ga)Se2 but its lifetime as a natural resource is suggested to be of order of 10˜15 years. The lifetime of a specific natural resource as an element to produce useful device substances is directly related with its abundance in the earth's crust, consumption rate and recycling rate (if recycling is economically meaningful). The chemical elements having long lifetime as a natural resource are those existing in the atmosphere such as N (nitrogen) and O (oxygen); the rich elements in the earth's crust such as Si, Ca, Sr and Ba; the mass-used metals such as Fe (iron), Al (aluminum) and Cu (copper) that reached the stage of large-scale recycling. We here propose a new paradigm of semiconductor material-science for the future generation thin film solar cells in which only abundant chemical elements are used. It is important to remark that these abundant chemical elements are normally not toxic and are fairly friendly to the environment. β-FeSi2 is composed of two most abundant and nontoxic chemical elements. This material is one of the most promising device materials for future generation energy devices (solar cells and thermoelectric device that is most efficient at temperature range of 700-900 °C). One should remind of the versatility of β-FeSi2 that this material can be used not only as energy devices but also as photodetector, light emitting diode and/or laser diode at the wavelength of 1.5 μm that can be monolithically integrated on Si substrates due to the relatively small lattice mismatch.

  2. Titanium nitride thin films for minimizing multipactoring (United States)

    Welch, Kimo M.


    Applying a thin film coating to the surface of a workpiece, in particular, applying a coating of titanium nitride to a klystron window by means of a crossed-field diode sputtering array. The array is comprised of a cohesive group of numerous small hollow electrically conducting cylinders and is mounted so that the open ends of the cylinders on one side of the group are adjacent a titanium cathode plate. The workpiece is mounted so as to face the open ends of the other side of the group. A magnetic field is applied to the array so as to be coaxial with the cylinders and a potential is applied across the cylinders and the cathode plate, the cylinders as an anode being positive with respect to the cathode plate. The cylinders, the cathode plate and the workpiece are situated in an atmosphere of nitrogen which becomes ionized such as by field emission because of the electric field between the cylinders and cathode plate, thereby establishing an anode-cathode discharge that results in sputtering of the titanium plate. The sputtered titanium coats the workpiece and chemically combines with the nitrogen to form a titanium nitride coating on the workpiece. Gas pressure, gas mixtures, cathode material composition, voltages applied to the cathode and anode, the magnetic field, cathode, anode and workpiece spacing, and the aspect ratio (ratio of length to inner diameter) of the anode cylinders, all may be controlled to provide consistent optimum thin film coatings of various compositions and thicknesses. Another facet of the disclosure is the coating of microwave components per se with titanium nitride to reduce multipactoring under operating conditions of the components.

  3. Thermal stability of tungsten-boron-nitride thin film as diffusion barrier

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Y K; Kim, Y T; Lee, C W


    The electrical and the structural properties of tungsten boron nitride (W-B-N) thin films were studied to investigate the effects of boron and nitrogen in the 10000 A W-B-N diffusion barrier. The W-B-N thin films were deposited by using the RF magnetron sputtering method. The impurities provided a stuffing effect that was very effective for preventing interdiffusion between the interconnection metal and the silicon during the subsequent high-temperature annealing process. The resistivities of the W-B-N thin films were in the range of 140 - 406 mu OMEGA-cm, depending on the partial pressure ratio of the N sub 2 gas and the RF power density of the W sub 2 B sub 5 target. XRD and electrical property analyses showed that the W-B-N barrier did not react with Si during the annealing in N sub 2 gas ambient, even for annealing at 1000 .deg. C for 30 min.

  4. Intricacies of Polymer Dewetting: Nanoscaled Architectures for the Tailored Control of Polystyrene Thin Film Stability (United States)

    Cheung, Justin; Sen, Mani; Chen, Zhizhao; Jiang, Naisheng; Endoh, Maya; Koga, Tadanori; Satija, Sushil

    Recently, structural properties of polymer thin films have garnered attention for their relevance in the fields of organic photovoltaics and biosensors. The dewetting of polymer films poses an obstacle in the face of widespread implementation. For this study, we show that adsorbed polymer chains on a substrate surface play crucial roles in film stability. Polystyrene (PS) thin films (20 nm in thickness) with different molecular weights (Mw) on silicon (Si) substrates were used as a model. The PS films were annealed at high temperatures for several days, and Mw dependence on film stability was evidenced. At the same time, the annealed PS films were leached with a good solvent and the residue films (i.e., irreversibly adsorbed layers) were characterized by x-ray reflectivity (XR). We reveal strong correlation between film stability and two different interfacial structures of the adsorbed polymer chains: their opposing wettability against chemically identical free polymer chains results in a wetting-dewetting transition at the adsorbed polymer-free polymer interface. This is a unique aspect of polymer thin film stability and may be generalizable to other polymer systems regardless of the magnitude of solid-polymer attractive interactions. We acknowledge the financial support of NSF Grant (CMMI-1332499).

  5. Probing the bulk ionic conductivity by thin film hetero-epitaxial engineering

    KAUST Repository

    Pergolesi, Daniele


    Highly textured thin films with small grain boundary regions can be used as model systems to directly measure the bulk conductivity of oxygen ion conducting oxides. Ionic conducting thin films and epitaxial heterostructures are also widely used to probe the effect of strain on the oxygen ion migration in oxide materials. For the purpose of these investigations a good lattice matching between the film and the substrate is required to promote the ordered film growth. Moreover, the substrate should be a good electrical insulator at high temperature to allow a reliable electrical characterization of the deposited film. Here we report the fabrication of an epitaxial heterostructure made with a double buffer layer of BaZrO3 and SrTiO3 grown on MgO substrates that fulfills both requirements. Based on such template platform, highly ordered (001) epitaxially oriented thin films of 15% Sm-doped CeO2 and 8 mol% Y2O3 stabilized ZrO2 are grown. Bulk conductivities as well as activation energies are measured for both materials, confirming the success of the approach. The reported insulating template platform promises potential application also for the electrical characterization of other novel electrolyte materials that still need a thorough understanding of their ionic conductivity.

  6. Impact of Annealing Thin Films In(OHxSy Growth By Solution Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cliff Orori Mosiori


    Full Text Available Indium Hydroxy Sulphide has demonstrated abundance in resources, low prices, nontoxic characteristics, radiation resistance, high temperature resistance, and chemical stability, and therefore it has become an extremely important photoelectric, photovoltaic, and light sensing thin film material. Some treatment on this material include thermal annealing which is a process used for intrinsic stress liberation, structural improving, and surface roughness to control its electro-optical properties. In a qualitative way, annealing modifies surface morphology, intrinsic parameters, and electron mobility with temperature and time. In this work, an explanation on the surface modification of In(OHxSy thin films when subjected to an annealing process is discussed. Both electrical and optical effects caused by annealing were carried out and characterizations were performed at different annealing temperatures in nitrogen in the temperature range 373–573 K. Using optical measurements data and simulated data, Scout software was employed and the results showed that increasing annealing temperature causes a slight decrease in transmittance with a consequence of modifying the energy band gaps values between 2.79–3.32 eV. It was concluded that annealing influence optical transmittance and resistance of the film make the thin films potential for photovoltaic, and light sensing applications.

  7. Texture-property relationships in the high temperature superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rollett, A.D.; Heidelbach, F.; Schofield, T.G.; Muenschausen, R.E.; Raistrick, I.D.; Arendt, P.N.; Korzekwa, D.A.; Bennett, K. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Wenk, H.R. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA)); Kallend, J.S. (Illinois Inst. of Tech., Chicago, IL (USA))


    Textures have been measured by means of x-ray pole figures for high temperature superconductor materials in both bulk and thin film form. Variations in the epitaxy of the yttrium-based thin films are correlated with processing history and properties. Textures are given for deformation-processed Bi-based material, which, when subsequently melt-processed, exhibits high critical currents. The surface resistance of Tl-based films on a silver substrate are correlated with the sharpness of the texture. 13 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Temperature effect on surface roughening of thin films (United States)

    Liu, Z.-J.; Shen, Y. G.


    The effect of the deposition temperature on the surface roughness and the growth exponent of thin films in the early growth time regime has been studied using a linear continuum model. Surface diffusion and three commonly observed roughening mechanisms, namely, shot noise, the Ehrlich-Schwobel (ES) effect, and the stress-induced instability, are step-by-step incorporated into the model to analyze the temperature effect in different cases. It has been revealed that when the thermal activated surface diffusion is operative, the surface roughness of the films without the stress effect will decrease with deposition temperature. In addition, a rougher film surface caused by the ES effect can also be observed at low temperatures. If stress exists due to a lattice mismatch at the film/substrate interface, however, high deposition temperatures may result in an unstable growth with the roughness increasing with temperature. Our analyses have also found that the growth exponent is strongly temperature dependent, and the film growth may fall into three or four temperature regions depending on whether the stress effect is present or not: (1) low-temperature region with a fixed growth exponent of 0.5 or slightly larger than 0.5 due to the ES effect; (2) a middle crossover temperature region with the growth exponent decreasing with temperature from 0.5 (or slightly larger than 0.5) to 0.25; (3) high-temperature region characterizing by noisy Mullins diffusion equation with a constant growth exponent of 0.25; and (4) if stress exists during film growth, at the high-temperature region where the stress-induced morphology instability begins to operate the growth exponent will be larger than 0.25 and increase with temperature.

  9. Impact of annealing temperature on the mechanical and electrical properties of sputtered aluminum nitride thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillinger, M.; Schneider, M.; Bittner, A.; Schmid, U. [Institute of Sensor and Actuator Systems, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna 1040 (Austria); Nicolay, P. [CTR Carinthian Tech Research AG, Villach 9524 (Austria)


    Aluminium nitride (AlN) is a promising material for challenging sensor applications such as process monitoring in harsh environments (e.g., turbine exhaust), due to its piezoelectric properties, its high temperature stability and good thermal match to silicon. Basically, the operational temperature of piezoelectric materials is limited by the increase of the leakage current as well as by enhanced diffusion effects in the material at elevated temperatures. This work focuses on the characterization of aluminum nitride thin films after post deposition annealings up to temperatures of 1000 °C in harsh environments. For this purpose, thin film samples were temperature loaded for 2 h in pure nitrogen and oxygen gas atmospheres and characterized with respect to the film stress and the leakage current behaviour. The X-ray diffraction results show that AlN thin films are chemically stable in oxygen atmospheres for 2 h at annealing temperatures of up to 900 °C. At 1000 °C, a 100 nm thick AlN layer oxidizes completely. For nitrogen, the layer is stable up to 1000 °C. The activation energy of the samples was determined from leakage current measurements at different sample temperatures, in the range between 25 and 300 °C. Up to an annealing temperature of 700 °C, the leakage current in the thin film is dominated by Poole-Frenkel behavior, while at higher annealing temperatures, a mixture of different leakage current mechanisms is observed.

  10. Atomic Structure Control of Silica Thin Films on Pt(111)

    KAUST Repository

    Crampton, Andrew S


    Metal oxide thin films grown on metal single crystals are commonly used to model heterogeneous catalyst supports. The structure and properties of thin silicon dioxide films grown on metal single crystals have only recently been thoroughly characterized and their spectral properties well established. We report the successful growth of a three- dimensional, vitreous silicon dioxide thin film on the Pt(111) surface and reproduce the closed bilayer structure previously reported. The confirmation of the three dimensional nature of the film is unequivocally shown by the infrared absorption band at 1252 cm−1. Temperature programmed desorption was used to show that this three-dimensional thin film covers the Pt(111) surface to such an extent that its application as a catalyst support for clusters/nanoparticles is possible. The growth of a three-dimensional film was seen to be directly correlated with the amount of oxygen present on the surface after the silicon evaporation process. This excess of oxygen is tentatively attributed to atomic oxygen being generated in the evaporator. The identification of atomic oxygen as a necessary building block for the formation of a three-dimensional thin film opens up new possibilities for thin film growth on metal supports, whereby simply changing the type of oxygen enables thin films with different atomic structures to be synthesized. This is a novel approach to tune the synthesis parameters of thin films to grow a specific structure and expands the options for modeling common amorphous silica supports under ultra high vacuum conditions.

  11. Thermal Sensor Arrays for The Combinatorial Analysis of Thin Films (United States)

    McCluskey, Patrick James


    transport. The parallel nano-scanning calorimeter (PnSC) has an array of sensors optimized to sense changes in enthalpy. In this case heat loss sensitivity is minimized with sensor geometry and a reference measurement scheme. The minimal heat loss and small addendum result in sensitivity on the order of 10 nJ/K at heating rates on the order of 104 K/s. The sensitivity is demonstrated by measuring the characteristics of the melting transformation of a 25 nm In film. The combinatorial capabilities of the device are demonstrated by creating and analyzing a library of thin-film (290 nm) Ni-Ti-Zr samples with in-plane composition gradients. The Ni-Ti-Zr films are crystallized in-situ by local heating and the temperature dependence of the martensite transformation on Zr content is detected. Further analysis of the Ni-Ti-Zr samples reveals that the as-deposited amorphous samples crystallize in a multi-stage process that is a function of composition. The features of the calorimetry traces are identified with the help of x-ray diffraction measurements of the crystallized samples. Crystallization at these fast heating rates results in suppression of structural relaxation, increased crystallization temperature (allowing the detection of the glass transition), and an ultra-fine nanocrystalline grain structure with non-equilibrium phases. The characteristics of the martensite-austenite phase transformation are investigated by PnSC to determine the effects of high-temperature (900°C) heat treatments and low-temperature (450°C) thermal cycling. Heat treatments produce precipitates that vary with Zr content and alter the transformation temperature. Thermal cycling results in the accumulation of plastic deformation, which relaxes internal stresses and reduces the transformation temperature. This effect, known as thermal fatigue, is reduced in these samples due to the ultra-fine grain structure, which suppresses dislocation mobility.

  12. Role of cobalt in room-temperature ferromagnetic Co-doped ZnO thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. C. Wang


    Full Text Available A series of Co-doped ZnO thin films were prepared under various deposition conditions using the pulsed laser deposition method. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and XPS depth profiling were used to detect the elemental valence states of Zn, Co and O. It was found that the films deposited under low temperature and high oxygen pressure exhibited intrinsic ferromagnetic properties due to oxidation of Co (Co2+ from the material. However, when the films were deposited under high temperature and low oxygen pressure, metallic cobalt (Co0 appeared and the ferromagnetism was greatly enhanced.

  13. Laser energy tuning of carrier effective mass and thermopower in epitaxial oxide thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Abutaha, Anas I.


    The effect of the laser fluence on high temperature thermoelectric properties of the La doped SrTiO3 (SLTO) thin films epitaxially grown on LaAlO3 〈100〉 substrates by pulsed laser deposition is clarified. It is shown that oxygen vacancies that influence the effective mass of carriers in SLTO films can be tuned by varying the laser energy. The highest power factor of 0.433 W K−1 m−1 has been achieved at 636 K for a filmdeposited using the highest laser fluence of 7 J cm−2 pulse−1.

  14. Effect of Pt and Au current collector in LiMn2O4 thin film for micro-batteries (United States)

    Trócoli, Rafael; Dushina, Anastasia; Borhani-Haghighi, Sara; Ludwig, Alfred; La Mantia, Fabio


    The crystal orientation and morphology of sputtered LiMn2O4 thin films is strongly affected by the current collector. By substituting Pt with Au, it is possible to observe in the x-ray diffraction pattern of LiMn2O4 a change in the preferential orientation of the grains from (111) to (400). In addition, LiMn2O4 thin films deposited on Au show a higher porosity than films deposited on Pt. These structural differences cause an improvement in the electrochemical performances of the thin films deposited on Au, with up to 50% more specific charge. Aqueous cells using thin film based on LiMn2O4 sputtered on Au or Pt as the cathode electrode present a similar retention of specific charge, delivering 85% and 100%, respectively, of the initial values after 100 cycles. The critical role of the nature of the substrate used in the morphology and electrochemical behaviour observed could permit the exploration of similar effects for other lithium intercalation electrodes.

  15. Plasma polymerized hexamethyldisiloxane thin films for corrosion protection (United States)

    Saloum, S.; Alkhaled, B.; Alsadat, W.; Kakhia, M.; Shaker, S. A.


    This study focused on the corrosion protection performance of plasma polymerized HMDSO thin films in two different corrosive medias, 0.3M NaCl and 0.3M H2SO4. The pp-HMDSO thin films were deposited on steel substrates for electrochemical tests using the potentiodynamic polarization technique, they were deposited also on aluminum and silicon substrates to investigate their resistance to corrosion, through the analysis of the degradation of microhardness and morphology, respectively, after immersion of the substrates for one week in the corrosive media. The results showed promising corrosion protection properties of the pp-HMDSO thin films.

  16. Optical modeling and simulation of thin-film photovoltaic devices

    CERN Document Server

    Krc, Janez


    In wafer-based and thin-film photovoltaic (PV) devices, the management of light is a crucial aspect of optimization since trapping sunlight in active parts of PV devices is essential for efficient energy conversions. Optical modeling and simulation enable efficient analysis and optimization of the optical situation in optoelectronic and PV devices. Optical Modeling and Simulation of Thin-Film Photovoltaic Devices provides readers with a thorough guide to performing optical modeling and simulations of thin-film solar cells and PV modules. It offers insight on examples of existing optical models

  17. Magnetostriction of sputtered Sm-Fe thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honda, T. (Tokin Corp., Sendai (Japan). Sendai Research Lab.); Hayashi, Y.; Arai, K.I.; Ishiyama, K.; Yamaguchi, M. (Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Research Institute of Electrical Communication)


    The magnetostriction and the magnetic properties of amorphous Sm[sub x]Fe[sub 100[minus]x] thin films prepared by sputtering were investigated at room temperature. The magnetostriction, -[lambda], of these films increased rapidly in low fields (<1kOe) and reached the maximum values of 300--400[times]10[sup [minus]6] at 16kOe for x = 30--40. These results suggest that Sm-Fe thin films could be used for micro-actuators. lie magnetic properties of Sm-Fe thin films did not show clear dependence on the sputtering conditions such as input power, Ar gas pressure, and substrate temperature.

  18. Copper zinc tin sulfide-based thin film solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Ito, Kentaro


    Beginning with an overview and historical background of Copper Zinc Tin Sulphide (CZTS) technology, subsequent chapters cover properties of CZTS thin films, different preparation methods of CZTS thin films, a comparative study of CZTS and CIGS solar cell, computational approach, and future applications of CZTS thin film solar modules to both ground-mount and rooftop installation. The semiconducting compound (CZTS) is made up earth-abundant, low-cost and non-toxic elements, which make it an ideal candidate to replace Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) and CdTe solar cells which face material scarcity and tox

  19. Organic nanostructured thin film devices and coatings for clean energy

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Sam


    Authored by leading experts from around the world, the three-volume Handbook of Nanostructured Thin Films and Coatings gives scientific researchers and product engineers a resource as dynamic and flexible as the field itself. The first two volumes cover the latest research and application of the mechanical and functional properties of thin films and coatings, while the third volume explores the cutting-edge organic nanostructured devices used to produce clean energy. This third volume, Organic Nanostructured Thin Film Devices and Coatings for Clean Energy, addresses various aspects of the proc

  20. Thin films and coatings toughening and toughness characterization

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Sam


    Thin Films and Coatings: Toughening and Toughness Characterization captures the latest developments in the toughening of hard coatings and in the measurement of the toughness of thin films and coatings. Featuring chapters contributed by experts from Australia, China, Czech Republic, Poland, Singapore, Spain, and the United Kingdom, this first-of-its-kind book:Presents the current status of hard-yet-tough ceramic coatingsReviews various toughness evaluation methods for films and hard coatingsExplores the toughness and toughening mechanisms of porous thin films and laser-treated surfacesExamines

  1. Process compilation methods for thin film devices (United States)

    Zaman, Mohammed Hasanuz

    This doctoral thesis presents the development of a systematic method of automatic generation of fabrication processes (or process flows) for thin film devices starting from schematics of the device structures. This new top-down design methodology combines formal mathematical flow construction methods with a set of library-specific available resources to generate flows compatible with a particular laboratory. Because this methodology combines laboratory resource libraries with a logical description of thin film device structure and generates a set of sequential fabrication processing instructions, this procedure is referred to as process compilation, in analogy to the procedure used for compilation of computer programs. Basically, the method developed uses a partially ordered set (poset) representation of the final device structure which describes the order between its various components expressed in the form of a directed graph. Each of these components are essentially fabricated "one at a time" in a sequential fashion. If the directed graph is acyclic, the sequence in which these components are fabricated is determined from the poset linear extensions, and the component sequence is finally expanded into the corresponding process flow. This graph-theoretic process flow construction method is powerful enough to formally prove the existence and multiplicity of flows thus creating a design space {cal D} suitable for optimization. The cardinality Vert{cal D}Vert for a device with N components can be large with a worst case Vert{cal D}Vert≤(N-1)! yielding in general a combinatorial explosion of solutions. The number of solutions is hence controlled through a-priori estimates of Vert{cal D}Vert and condensation (i.e., reduction) of the device component graph. The mathematical method has been implemented in a set of algorithms that are parts of the software tool MISTIC (Michigan Synthesis Tools for Integrated Circuits). MISTIC is a planar process compiler that generates

  2. Thermal stability of Fe16N2 thin film on GaAs (0 0 1) substrate (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaowei; Lauter, Valeria; Ambaye, Haile; Wang, Jian-Ping


    There is a major need for a high performance magnetic system for high temperature applications. One propitious low cost permanent magnet candidate is Fe16N2, with its giant magnetic moment predicted to be above other materials from conventional first principles calculations. Here we report on a comprehensive study of the thermal stability of Fe16N2 thin films on GaAs (0 0 1) substrate. Using polarized neutron reflectometry (PNR), the saturation magnetization depth profile (Ms) of the films and its modification with temperature is directly measured at various thermal conditions. The structural modifications probed by x-ray diffraction (XRD) unravel that above 250 °C the Fe16N2 thin films decompose into α-Fe and γ‧-Fe4N phases. An influence of the strain effect is investigated by grazing incidence x-ray diffraction (GIXRD). We reveal that despite a large Fe16N2 in-plane lattice constant of ~5.88 Å and different strains from substrate or seed layer (up to 2.8% tensile strain), Fe16N2 thin films have the same thermal stability. Our results demonstrate that the high thermal stability of partially order Fe16N2 thin films makes them very promising candidates for spintronics and permanent magnet applications.

  3. Broadband back grating design for thin film solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Janjua, Bilal


    In this paper, design based on tapered circular grating structure was studied, to provide broadband enhancement in thin film amorphous silicon solar cells. In comparison to planar structure an absorption enhancement of ~ 7% was realized.

  4. Density of organic thin films in organic photovoltaics (United States)

    Zhao, Cindy X.; Xiao, Steven; Xu, Gu


    A practical parameter, the volume density of organic thin films, found to affect the electronic properties and in turn the performance of organic photovoltaics (OPVs), is investigated in order to benefit the polymer synthesis and thin film preparation in OPVs. To establish the correlation between film density and device performance, the density of organic thin films with various treatments was obtained, by two-dimensional X-ray diffraction measurement using the density mapping with respect to the crystallinity of thin films. Our results suggest that the OPV of higher performance has a denser photoactive layer, which may hopefully provide a solution to the question of whether the film density matters in organic electronics, and help to benefit the OPV industry in terms of better polymer design, standardized production, and quality control with less expenditure.

  5. Biomolecular papain thin films growth by laser techniques. (United States)

    György, Enikö; Santiso, Jose; Figueras, Albert; Socol, Gabriel; Mihailescu, Ion N


    Papain thin films were synthesised by matrix assisted and conventional pulsed laser deposition (PLD) techniques. The targets submitted to laser radiation consisted on a frozen composite obtained by dissolving the biomaterials in distilled water. For the deposition of the thin films by conventional PLD pressed biomaterial powder targets were submitted to laser irradiation. An UV KrF* excimer laser source was used in the experiments at 0.5 J/cm(2) incident fluence value, diminished one order of magnitude as compared to irradiation of inorganic materials. The surface morphology of the obtained thin films was studied by atomic force profilometry and atomic force microscopy. The investigations showed that the growth mode and surface quality of the deposited biomaterial thin films is strongly influenced by the target preparation procedure.

  6. Comparison of metallization systems for thin film hybrid microcircuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hines, R.A.; Raut, M.K.


    Five metallization systems were evaluated for fabricating thin film hybrid microcircuits. The titanium/palladium/electroplated gold system proved superior in terms of thermocompression bondability, corrosion resistance, and solderability.

  7. Review of the fundamentals of thin-film growth. (United States)

    Kaiser, Norbert


    The properties of a thin film of a given material depend on the film's real structure. The real structure is defined as the link between a thin film's deposition parameters and its properties. To facilitate engineering the properties of a thin film by manipulating its real structure, thin-film formation is reviewed as a process starting with nucleation followed by coalescence and subsequent thickness growth, all stages of which can be influenced by deposition parameters. The focus in this review is on dielectric and metallic films and their optical properties. In contrast to optoelectronics all these film growth possibilities for the engineering of novel optical films with extraordinary properties are just beginning to be used.

  8. Modeling surface imperfections in thin films and nanostructured surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Poul-Erik; Madsen, J. S.; Jensen, S. A.


    Accurate scatterometry and ellipsometry characterization of non-perfect thin films and nanostructured surfaces are challenging. Imperfections like surface roughness make the associated modelling and inverse problem solution difficult due to the lack of knowledge about the imperfection...

  9. Chemical solution deposition of functional oxide thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Schneller, Theodor; Kosec, Marija


    Chemical Solution Deposition (CSD) is a highly-flexible and inexpensive technique for the fabrication of functional oxide thin films. Featuring nearly 400 illustrations, this text covers all aspects of the technique.

  10. Electrical properties of silver selenide thin films prepared by reactive ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)



    805 Å. Keywords. Thin film; silver selenide; reactive evaporation; electrical conductivity. 1. Introduction. Silver selenide attracts the interest of researchers because of its application in the switching devices. The binary and ternary ...

  11. A thin film hydroponic system for plant studies (United States)

    Hines, Robert; Prince, Ralph; Muller, Eldon; Schuerger, Andrew


    The Land Pavillion, EPCOT Center, houses a hydroponic, thin film growing system identical to that residing in NASA's Biomass Production Chamber at Kennedy Space Center. The system is targeted for plant disease and nutrition studies. The system is described.

  12. Rip-Stop Reinforced Thin Film Sun Shield Structure Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During a proposed Phase I and Phase II program, PSI will advance the TRL from 3 to 6 for the ripstop reinforcement of thin film membranes used for large deployable...

  13. Surface Morphology of Zinc Oxide Thin Films deposited by TCVD (United States)

    Rafaie, H. A.; Noor, F. W. M.; Amizam, S.; Abdullah, S.; Rusop, M.


    Surface morphology study of Zinc Oxide (ZnO) thin films by using Thermal Chemical Vapor Deposition (Thermal-CVD) was investigated. The ZnO compound was synthesized from zinc acetate dehydrate which act as a starting material to form the ZnO thin films. It was deposited on as-prepared Nanonstructured Silicon (NSi) with deposition temperature ranging from 400-600° C without catalyst-assisted. The surface morphology of the samples before and after the deposition process was examined by using Analytical Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The result shows that the obtained ZnO thin films possess good crystalline structure at deposition temperature of 600° C and the surface morphologies of the ZnO thin films improved greatly with an increase in deposition temperature. XRD was employed to study the evolution of the crystalline orientation using X-Ray Diffractrometer (XRD).

  14. Polycrystalline Thin-Film Research: Cadmium Telluride (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Capabilities fact sheet that includes scope, core competencies and capabilities, and contact/web information for Polycrystalline Thin-Film Research: Cadmium Telluride at the National Center for Photovoltaics.

  15. Polycrystalline Thin-Film Research: Cadmium Telluride (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This National Center for Photovoltaics sheet describes the capabilities of its polycrystalline thin-film research in the area of cadmium telluride. The scope and core competencies and capabilities are discussed.

  16. Role of Microstructural Phenomena in Magnetic Thin Films. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laughlin, D. E.; Lambeth, D. N.


    Over the period of the program we systematically varied microstructural features of magnetic thin films in an attempt to better identify the role which each feature plays in determining selected extrinsic magnetic properties. This report summarizes the results.

  17. Inverse bilayer magnetoelectric thin film sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarar, E.; Piorra, A.; Quandt, E., E-mail: [Chair for Inorganic Functional Materials, Institute for Materials Science, Faculty of Engineering, Kiel University, Kaiserstraße 2, D-24143 Kiel (Germany); Salzer, S.; Höft, M.; Knöchel, R. [Microwave Laboratory, Institute of Electrical and Information Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kiel University, Kaiserstraße 2, D-24143 Kiel (Germany); Hrkac, V.; Kienle, L. [Chair for Synthesis and Real Structure, Institute for Materials Science, Faculty of Engineering, Kiel University, Kaiserstraße 2, D-24143 Kiel (Germany)


    Prior investigations on magnetoelectric (ME) thin film sensors using amorphous FeCoSiB as a magnetostrictive layer and AlN as a piezoelectric layer revealed a limit of detection (LOD) in the range of a few pT/Hz{sup 1/2} in the mechanical resonance. These sensors are comprised of a Si/SiO{sub 2}/Pt/AlN/FeCoSiB layer stack, as dictated by the temperatures required for the deposition of the layers. A low temperature deposition route of very high quality AlN allows the reversal of the deposition sequence, thus allowing the amorphous FeCoSiB to be deposited on the very smooth Si substrate. As a consequence, the LOD could be enhanced by almost an order of magnitude reaching 400 fT/Hz{sup 1/2} at the mechanical resonance of the sensor. Giant ME coefficients (α{sub ME}) as high as 5 kV/cm Oe were measured. Transmission electron microscopy investigations revealed highly c-axis oriented growth of the AlN starting from the Pt-AlN interface with local epitaxy.

  18. Cerium Dioxide Thin Films Using Spin Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Channei


    Full Text Available Cerium dioxide (CeO2 thin films with varying Ce concentrations (0.1 to 0.9 M, metal basis were deposited on soda-lime-silica glass substrates using spin coating. It was found that all films exhibited the cubic fluorite structure after annealing at 500°C for 5 h. The laser Raman microspectroscopy and GAXRD analyses revealed that increasing concentrations of Ce resulted in an increase in the degree of crystallinity. FIB and FESEM images confirmed the laser Raman and GAXRD analyses results owing to the predicted increase in film thickness with increasing Ce concentration. However, porosity and shrinkage (drying cracking of the films also increased significantly with increasing Ce concentrations. UV-VIS spectrophotometry data showed that the transmission of the films decreased with increasing Ce concentrations due to the increasing crack formation. Furthermore, a red shift was observed with increasing Ce concentrations, which resulted in a decrease in the optical indirect band gap.

  19. Degradation analysis of thin film photovoltaic modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radue, C., E-mail: [Department of Physics, PO Box 77000, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Dyk, E.E. van [Department of Physics, PO Box 77000, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa)


    Five thin film photovoltaic modules were deployed outdoors under open circuit conditions after a thorough indoor evaluation. Two technology types were investigated: amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) and copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS). Two 14 W a-Si:H modules, labelled Si-1 and Si-2, were investigated. Both exhibited degradation, initially due to the well-known light-induced degradation described by Staebler and Wronski [Applied Physics Letters 31 (4) (1977) 292], and thereafter due to other degradation modes such as cell degradation. The various degradation modes contributing to the degradation of the a-Si:H modules will be discussed. The initial maximum power output (P{sub MAX}) of Si-1 was 9.92 W, with the initial light-induced degradation for Si-1 approx30% and a total degradation of approx42%. For Si-2 the initial P{sub MAX} was 7.93 W, with initial light-induced degradation of approx10% and a total degradation of approx17%. Three CIGS modules were investigated: two 20 W modules labelled CIGS-1 and CIGS-2, and a 40 W module labelled CIGS-3. CIGS-2 exhibited stable performance while CIGS-1 and CIGS-3 exhibited degradation. CIGS is known to be stable over long periods of time, and thus the possible reasons for the degradation of the two modules are discussed.

  20. Dynamic Characterization of Thin Film Magnetic Materials (United States)

    Gu, Wei

    A broadband dynamic method for characterizing thin film magnetic material is presented. The method is designed to extract the permeability and linewidth of thin magnetic films from measuring the reflection coefficient (S11) of a house-made and short-circuited strip line testing fixture with or without samples loaded. An adaptive de-embedding method is applied to remove the parasitic noise of the housing. The measurements were carried out with frequency up to 10GHz and biasing magnetic fields up to 600 Gauss. Particular measurement setup and 3-step experimental procedures are described in detail. The complex permeability of a 330nm thick continuous FeGaB, 435nm thick laminated FeGaB film and a 100nm thick NiFe film will be induced dynamically in frequency-biasing magnetic field spectra and compared with a theoretical model based on Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equations and eddy current theories. The ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) phenomenon can be observed among these three magnetic materials investigated in this thesis.

  1. Product reliability and thin-film photovoltaics (United States)

    Gaston, Ryan; Feist, Rebekah; Yeung, Simon; Hus, Mike; Bernius, Mark; Langlois, Marc; Bury, Scott; Granata, Jennifer; Quintana, Michael; Carlson, Carl; Sarakakis, Georgios; Ogden, Douglas; Mettas, Adamantios


    Despite significant growth in photovoltaics (PV) over the last few years, only approximately 1.07 billion kWhr of electricity is estimated to have been generated from PV in the US during 2008, or 0.27% of total electrical generation. PV market penetration is set for a paradigm shift, as fluctuating hydrocarbon prices and an acknowledgement of the environmental impacts associated with their use, combined with breakthrough new PV technologies, such as thin-film and BIPV, are driving the cost of energy generated with PV to parity or cost advantage versus more traditional forms of energy generation. In addition to reaching cost parity with grid supplied power, a key to the long-term success of PV as a viable energy alternative is the reliability of systems in the field. New technologies may or may not have the same failure modes as previous technologies. Reliability testing and product lifetime issues continue to be one of the key bottlenecks in the rapid commercialization of PV technologies today. In this paper, we highlight the critical need for moving away from relying on traditional qualification and safety tests as a measure of reliability and focus instead on designing for reliability and its integration into the product development process. A drive towards quantitative predictive accelerated testing is emphasized and an industrial collaboration model addressing reliability challenges is proposed.

  2. Thin Films for X-ray Optics (United States)

    Conley, Raymond

    Focusing x-rays with refraction requires an entire array of lens instead of a single element, each contributing a minute amount of focusing to the system. In contrast to their visible light counterparts, diffractive optics require a certain depth along the optical axis in order to provide sufficient phase shift. Mirrors reflect only at very shallow angles. In order to increase the angle of incidence, contribution from constructive interference within many layers needs to be collected. This requires a multilayer coating. Thin films have become a central ingredient for many x-ray optics due to the ease of which material composition and thickness can be controlled. Chapter 1 starts with a short introduction and survey of the field of x-ray optics. This begins with an explanation of reflective multilayers. Focusing optics are presented next, including mirrors, zone plates, refractive lenses, and multilayer Laue lens (MLL). The strengths and weaknesses of each "species" of optic are briefly discussed, alongside fabrication issues and the ultimate performance for each. Practical considerations on the use of thin-films for x-ray optics fabrication span a wide array of topics including material systems selection and instrumentation design. Sputter deposition is utilized exclusively for the work included herein because this method of thin-film deposition allows a wide array of deposition parameters to be controlled. This chapter also includes a short description of two deposition systems I have designed. Chapter 2 covers a small sampling of some of my work on reflective multilayers, and outlines two of the deposition systems I have designed and built at the Advanced Photon Source. A three-stripe double multilayer monochromator is presented as a case study in order to detail specifications, fabrication, and performance of this prolific breed of x-ray optics. The APS Rotary Deposition System was the first deposition system in the world designed specifically for multilayer

  3. Thin film deposition using rarefied gas jet (United States)

    Pradhan, Sahadev, , Dr.


    The rarefied gas jet of aluminium is studied at Mach number Ma = (Uj /√{ kbTj / mg }) in the range .01 physical vapor deposition (PVD) process for the development of the highly oriented pure metallic aluminum thin film with uniform thickness and strong adhesion on the surface of the substrate in the form of ionic plasma, so that the substrate can be protected from corrosion and oxidation and thereby enhance the lifetime and safety, and to introduce the desired surface properties for a given application. Here, H is the characteristic dimension, U_j and T_j are the jet velocity and temperature, n_d is the number density of the jet, m and d are the molecular mass and diameter, and kbis the Boltzmann constant. An important finding is that the capture width (cross-section of the gas jet deposited on the substrate) is symmetric around the centerline of the substrate, and decreases with increased Mach number due to an increase in the momentum of the gas molecules. DSMC simulation results reveals that at low Knudsen number ((Kn=0.01); shorter mean free paths), the atoms experience more collisions, which direct them toward the substrate. However, the atoms also move with lower momentum at low Mach number, which allows scattering collisions to rapidly direct the atoms to the substrate.

  4. Laser scribing of polycrystalline thin films (United States)

    Compaan, A. D.; Matulionis, I.; Nakade, S.


    We have investigated the use of several different types of lasers for scribing of the polycrystalline materials used for thin-film solar cells: CdTe, CuInGaSe 2 (CIGS), ZnO, SnO 2, Mo, Al, and Au. The lasers included four different neodymium-yttrium-aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) (both 1064 and 532 nm wavelengths), a Cu vapor (511/578 nm), an XeCl excimer (308 nm), and a KrF excimer (248 nm). Pulse durations ranged from ˜0.1 to ˜250 ns. We found that the fundamental and frequency-doubled wavelengths of the Nd:YAG systems work well for almost all of the above materials except for the transparent conductor ZnO. The diode-laser-pumped Nd:YAG was particularly convenient to use. For ZnO the uv wavelengths of the two excimer lasers produced good results. Pulse duration was found generally not to be critical except for the case of CIGS on Mo where longer pulse durations (≥250 ns) are advantageous. The frequently observed problem of ridge formation along the edges of scribe lines in the semiconductor films can be eliminated by control of intensity gradients at the film through adjustment of the focus conditions.

  5. Silicon Thin-Film Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Beaucarne


    with plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD. In spite of the fundamental limitation of this material due to its disorder and metastability, the technology is now gaining industrial momentum thanks to the entry of equipment manufacturers with experience with large-area PECVD. Microcrystalline Si (also called nanocrystalline Si is a material with crystallites in the nanometer range in an amorphous matrix, and which contains less defects than amorphous silicon. Its lower bandgap makes it particularly appropriate as active material for the bottom cell in tandem and triple junction devices. The combination of an amorphous silicon top cell and a microcrystalline bottom cell has yielded promising results, but much work is needed to implement it on large-area and to limit light-induced degradation. Finally thin-film polysilicon solar cells, with grain size in the micrometer range, has recently emerged as an alternative photovoltaic technology. The layers have a grain size ranging from 1 μm to several tens of microns, and are formed at a temperature ranging from 600 to more than 1000∘C. Solid Phase Crystallization has yielded the best results so far but there has recently been fast progress with seed layer approaches, particularly those using the aluminum-induced crystallization technique.

  6. Transparent conducting thin films for spacecraft applications (United States)

    Perez-Davis, Marla E.; Malave-Sanabria, Tania; Hambourger, Paul; Rutledge, Sharon K.; Roig, David; Degroh, Kim K.; Hung, Ching-Cheh


    Transparent conductive thin films are required for a variety of optoelectronic applications: automotive and aircraft windows, and solar cells for space applications. Transparent conductive coatings of indium-tin-oxide (ITO)-magnesium fluoride (MgF2) and aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO) at several dopant levels are investigated for electrical resistivity (sheet resistance), carrier concentration, optical properties, and atomic oxygen durability. The sheet resistance values of ITO-MgF2 range from 10(exp 2) to 10(exp 11) ohms/square, with transmittance of 75 to 86 percent. The AZO films sheet resistances range from 10(exp 7) to 10(exp 11) ohms/square with transmittances from 84 to 91 percent. It was found that in general, with respect to the optical properties, the zinc oxide (ZnO), AZO, and the high MgF2 content ITO-MgF2 samples, were all durable to atomic oxygen plasma, while the low MgF2 content of ITO-MgF2 samples were not durable to atomic oxygen plasma exposure.

  7. Collective Behavior of Amoebae in Thin Films (United States)

    Bae, Albert


    We have discovered new aspects of social behavior in Dictyostelium discoideum by culturing high density colonies in liquid media depleted of nutrients in confined geometries by using three different preparations: I. thin (15-40um thick) and II. ultrathin (media with a mineral oil overlayer, and III. microfluidic chambers fabricated in PDMS (˜7um tall). We find greatly reduced, if not eliminated, cell on cell layering in the microfluidic system when compared to the wetting layer preparations. The ultrathin films reveal robust behavior of cells despite flattening that increased their areas by over an order of magnitude. We also observed that the earliest synchronized response of cells following the onset of starvation, a precursor to aggregation, was hastened by reducing the thickness of the aqueous culture layer. We were surprised to find that the threshold concentration for aggregation was raised by thin film confinement when compared to bulk behavior. Finally, both the ultra thin and microfluidic preparations reveal, with new clarity, vortex states of aggregation.

  8. CO2 gas sensitivity of sputtered zinc oxide thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Abstract. For the first time, sputtered zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films have been used as a CO2 gas sensor. Zinc oxide thin films have been synthesized using reactive d.c. sputtering method for gas sensor applications, in the deposition temperature range from 130–153°C at a chamber pressure of 8⋅5 mbar for 18 h. Argon and ...

  9. Liquid phase epitaxial growth of heterostructured hierarchical MOF thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Chernikova, Valeriya


    Precise control of epitaxial growth of MOF-on-MOF thin films, for ordered hierarchical tbo-type structures is demonstrated. The heterostructured MOF thin film was fabricated by successful sequential deposition of layers from two different MOFs. The 2-periodic layers, edge-transitive 4,4-square lattices regarded as supermolecular building layers, were commendably cross-linked using a combination of inorganic/organic and organic pillars.

  10. Methods for producing thin film charge selective transport layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammond, Scott Ryan; Olson, Dana C.; van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria


    Methods for producing thin film charge selective transport layers are provided. In one embodiment, a method for forming a thin film charge selective transport layer comprises: providing a precursor solution comprising a metal containing reactive precursor material dissolved into a complexing solvent; depositing the precursor solution onto a surface of a substrate to form a film; and forming a charge selective transport layer on the substrate by annealing the film.

  11. No fear of thin films; Frykter ikke tynnfilm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abelsen, Atle


    New investments in crystalline silicon based solar cells are made by the Norwegian companies Elkem Solar and REC Group, despite the increased competition from polymer based thin film solar cells. A new production method named solar grade silicon will reduce the production costs. Thin films are also less effective, with 5-6 percent efficiency compared to silicon based solar cells with 15-20 percent efficiency.

  12. Health, safety and environmental issues in thin film manufacturing


    Alsema, E.A.; Baumann, A.E.; Hill, R.; Patterson, M.H.


    An investigation is made of Health, Safety and Environmental (HSE) aspects for the manufacturing, use and decommissioning of CdTe, CIS and a-Si modules. Issues regarding energy requirements, resource availability, emissions of toxic materials, occupational health and safety and module waste treatment are reviewed. Waste streams in thin film module manufacturing are analyzed in detail and treatment methods are discussed. Finally the technological options for thin film module recycling are inve...

  13. Novel photon management for thin-film photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menon, Rajesh [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)


    The objective of this project is to enable commercially viable thin-film photovoltaics whose efficiencies are increased by over 10% using a novel optical spectral-separation technique. A thin planar diffractive optic is proposed that efficiently separates the solar spectrum and assigns these bands to optimal thin-film sub-cells. An integrated device that is comprised of the optical element, an array of sub-cells and associated packaging is proposed.

  14. Molecular simulation of freestanding amorphous nickel thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, T.Q. [Université Paris-Est, Laboratoire Modélisation et Simulation Multi Echelle, UMR 8208 CNRS, 5 Boulevard Descartes, 77454 Marne-la-Vallée, Cedex 2 (France); Hoang, V.V., E-mail: [Department of Physics, Institute of Technology, National University of Ho Chi Minh City, 268 Ly Thuong Kiet Street, District 10, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Lauriat, G. [Université Paris-Est, Laboratoire Modélisation et Simulation Multi Echelle, UMR 8208 CNRS, 5 Boulevard Descartes, 77454 Marne-la-Vallée, Cedex 2 (France)


    Size effects on glass formation in freestanding Ni thin films have been studied via molecular dynamics simulation with the n-body Gupta interatomic potential. Atomic mechanism of glass formation in the films is determined via analysis of the spatio-temporal arrangements of solid-like atoms occurred upon cooling from the melt. Solid-like atoms are detected via the Lindemann ratio. We find that solid-like atoms initiate and grow mainly in the interior of the film and grow outward. Their number increases with decreasing temperature and at a glass transition temperature they dominate in the system to form a relatively rigid glassy state of a thin film shape. We find the existence of a mobile surface layer in both liquid and glassy states which can play an important role in various surface properties of amorphous Ni thin films. We find that glass formation is size independent for models containing 4000 to 108,000 atoms. Moreover, structure of amorphous Ni thin films has been studied in details via coordination number, Honeycutt–Andersen analysis, and density profile which reveal that amorphous thin films exhibit two different parts: interior and surface layer. The former exhibits almost the same structure like that found for the bulk while the latter behaves a more porous structure containing a large amount of undercoordinated sites which are the origin of various surface behaviors of the amorphous Ni or Ni-based thin films found in practice. - Highlights: • Glass formation is analyzed via spatio-temporal arrangements of solid-like atoms. • Amorphous Ni thin film exhibits two different parts: surface and interior. • Mobile surface layer enhances various surface properties of the amorphous Ni thin films. • Undercoordinated sites play an important role in various surface activities.

  15. Mechanical Robustness and Hermeticity Monitoring for MEMS Thin Film Encapsulation


    Santagata, F.


    Many Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS) require encapsulation, to prevent delicate sensor structures being exposed to external perturbations such as dust, humidity, touching, and gas pressure. An upcoming and cost-effective way of encapsulation is zero-level packaging or thin-film encapsulation. With this method, MEMS are already sealed during wafer processing. Thin-film encapsulation poses a number of challenges, in particular to hermeticity, mechanical robustness, and compatibility wit...

  16. Statistical and fractal features of nanocrystalline AZO thin films (United States)

    Hosseinabadi, S.; Abrinaei, F.; Shirazi, M.


    In this paper, We investigate the morphology effect of Aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films on the physical properties such as conductivity and grain size. The AZO thin films are prepared by spray pyrolysis at different thicknesses in the range 100-400 nm. Height fluctuations obtained from atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis are applied to the statistical and fractal analysis of thin films. We show that the conductivity of thin films is proportional to the roughness parameter as σ ∼Wm which m = 6 . 42 ± 0 . 50. Calculating the nonlinear measures (skewness and kurtosis) of height fluctuations demonstrates the isotropic nature of AZO rough surfaces. Fractal analysis of the mentioned thin films using two dimensional multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis illustrates the multifractality scaling and the strength of multifractality increases with thickness. Our results show that the reason for the multi-affinity is the existence of different correlations in the height fluctuations of the thin films. Calculating the contour loops features of the height fluctuations reveals that the radius, length, and area of loops increase with thickness enhancement and the radius of contour loops is introduced as a new statistical parameter which is linearly related to the grain size and could be useful to calculate it.

  17. Methods for preparing colloidal nanocrystal-based thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kagan, Cherie R.; Fafarman, Aaron T.; Choi, Ji-Hyuk; Koh, Weon-kyu; Kim, David K.; Oh, Soong Ju; Lai, Yuming; Hong, Sung-Hoon; Saudari, Sangameshwar Rao; Murray, Christopher B.


    Methods of exchanging ligands to form colloidal nanocrystals (NCs) with chalcogenocyanate (xCN)-based ligands and apparatuses using the same are disclosed. The ligands may be exchanged by assembling NCs into a thin film and immersing the thin film in a solution containing xCN-based ligands. The ligands may also be exchanged by mixing a xCN-based solution with a dispersion of NCs, flocculating the mixture, centrifuging the mixture, discarding the supernatant, adding a solvent to the pellet, and dispersing the solvent and pellet to form dispersed NCs with exchanged xCN-ligands. The NCs with xCN-based ligands may be used to form thin film devices and/or other electronic, optoelectronic, and photonic devices. Devices comprising nanocrystal-based thin films and methods for forming such devices are also disclosed. These devices may be constructed by depositing NCs on to a substrate to form an NC thin film and then doping the thin film by evaporation and thermal diffusion.

  18. All-solid-state thin film battery based on well-aligned slanted LiCoO{sub 2} nanowires fabricated by glancing angle deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Miyoung [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seunghwan [High Temperature Energy Materials Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Energy Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Daehee [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Joosun, E-mail: [High Temperature Energy Materials Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Jooho, E-mail: [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)


    Graphical abstract: We successfully fabricated well-aligned slanted LiCoO{sub 2} nanowires as a one-dimensional nanostructured cathode by glancing angle deposition to enhance the electrochemical performance of all-solid-state thin film batteries. - Highlights: • Well-aligned slanted LiCoO{sub 2} nanowires are fabricated by glancing angle deposition. • One-dimensional nanostructured LiCoO{sub 2} cathode enlarges the contact area. • All-solid-state thin film battery exhibits enhances rate capability and cycling stability. - Abstract: We fabricated all-solid-state thin film batteries based on well-aligned slanted LiCoO{sub 2} nanowires by glancing angle deposition, as a facile template-free method in order to increase the electrochemically active site, i.e., the contact area between the solid electrolyte and the electrode. A highly porous thin film composed of well-separated slanted LiCoO{sub 2} nanowires not only facilitates the penetration of solid electrolyte phase into the cathode, but also alleviates the thermally and mechanically induced stresses during post-annealing and electrochemical cycling. The all-solid-state thin film battery based on the well-aligned slanted LiCoO{sub 2} nanowires, whose contact area between electrolyte and electrode was three times as high as that of a dense thin film, could provide additional migration pathways for lithium ion diffusion due to the enlarged reaction sites. This resulted in enhanced electrochemical kinetics, thereby leading to better rate capability and long-term cyclic stability as compared to the dense LiCoO{sub 2} thin film.

  19. The effect of Argon pressure dependent V thin film on the phase transition process of (020) VO2 thin film (United States)

    Meng, Yifan; Huang, Kang; Tang, Zhou; Xu, Xiaofeng; Tan, Zhiyong; Liu, Qian; Wang, Chunrui; Wu, Binhe; Wang, Chang; Cao, Juncheng


    It has been proved challenging to fabricate the single crystal orientation of VO2 thin film by a simple method. Based on chemical reaction thermodynamic and crystallization analysis theory, combined with our experimental results, we find out that when stoichiometric number of metallic V in the chemical equation is the same, the ratio of metallic V thin film surface average roughness Ra to thin film average particle diameter d decreases with the decreasing sputtering Argon pressure. Meanwhile, the oxidation reaction equilibrium constant K also decreases, which will lead to the increases of oxidation time, thereby the crystal orientation of the VO2 thin film will also become more uniform. By sputtering oxidation coupling method, metallic V thin film is deposited on c-sapphire substrate at 1 × 10-1 Pa, and then oxidized in the air with the maximum oxidation time of 65s, high oriented (020) VO2 thin film has been fabricated successfully, which exhibits ∼4.6 orders sheet resistance change across the metal-insulator transition.

  20. Patterns and conformations in molecularly thin films (United States)

    Basnet, Prem B.

    Molecularly thin films have been a subject of great interest for the last several years because of their large variety of industrial applications ranging from micro-electronics to bio-medicine. Additionally, molecularly thin films can be used as good models for biomembrane and other systems where surfaces are critical. Many different kinds of molecules can make stable films. My research has considered three such molecules: a polymerizable phospholipid, a bent-core molecules, and a polymer. One common theme of these three molecules is chirality. The phospolipid molecules studied here are strongly chiral, which can be due to intrinsically chiral centers on the molecules and also due to chiral conformations. We find that these molecules give rise to chiral patterns. Bent-core molecules are not intrinsically chiral, but individual molecules and groups of molecules can show chiral structures, which can be changed by surface interactions. One major, unconfirmed hypothesis for the polymer conformation at surface is that it forms helices, which would be chiral. Most experiments were carried out at the air/water interface, in what are called Langmuir films. Our major tools for studying these films are Brewster Angle Microscopy (BAM) coupled with the thermodynamic information that can be deduced from surface pressure isotherms. Phospholipids are one of the important constituents of liposomes -- a spherical vesicle com-posed of a bilayer membrane, typically composed of a phospholipid and cholesterol bilayer. The application of liposomes in drug delivery is well-known. Crumpling of vesicles of polymerizable phospholipids has been observed. With BAM, on Langmuir films of such phospholipids, we see novel spiral/target patterns during compression. We have found that both the patterns and the critical pressure at which they formed depend on temperature (below the transition to a i¬‘uid layer). Bent-core liquid crystals, sometimes knows as banana liquid crystals, have drawn

  1. Thin Films for Advanced Glazing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Louise Anderson


    Full Text Available Functional thin films provide many opportunities for advanced glazing systems. This can be achieved by adding additional functionalities such as self-cleaning or power generation, or alternately by providing energy demand reduction through the management or modulation of solar heat gain or blackbody radiation using spectrally selective films or chromogenic materials. Self-cleaning materials have been generating increasing interest for the past two decades. They may be based on hydrophobic or hydrophilic systems and are often inspired by nature, for example hydrophobic systems based on mimicking the lotus leaf. These materials help to maintain the aesthetic properties of the building, help to maintain a comfortable working environment and in the case of photocatalytic materials, may provide external pollutant remediation. Power generation through window coatings is a relatively new idea and is based around the use of semi-transparent solar cells as windows. In this fashion, energy can be generated whilst also absorbing some solar heat. There is also the possibility, in the case of dye sensitized solar cells, to tune the coloration of the window that provides unheralded external aesthetic possibilities. Materials and coatings for energy demand reduction is highly desirable in an increasingly energy intensive world. We discuss new developments with low emissivity coatings as the need to replace scarce indium becomes more apparent. We go on to discuss thermochromic systems based on vanadium dioxide films. Such systems are dynamic in nature and present a more sophisticated and potentially more beneficial approach to reducing energy demand than static systems such as low emissivity and solar control coatings. The ability to be able to tune some of the material parameters in order to optimize the film performance for a given climate provides exciting opportunities for future technologies. In this article, we review recent progress and challenges in

  2. Anisotropic magnetothermoelectric power of ferromagnetic thin films (United States)

    Anwar, M. S.; Lacoste, B.; Aarts, J.


    In this article, we report the measurements of the magnetothermoelectric power (MTEP) in metallic ferromagnetic thin films of Ni80 Fe20 (Permalloy; Py), Co and CrO2 at temperatures in the range of 100 K to 400 K. In 25 nm thick Py films and 50 nm thick Co films both the anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) and MTEP show a relative change in resistance and thermoelectric power (TEP) of the order of 0.2% when the magnetic field is reversed, and in both cases there is no significant change in AMR or MTEP after the saturation field has been reached. Surprisingly, both Py and Co films have opposite MTEP behaviour although both have the same sign for AMR and TEP. The data on half metallic ferromagnet CrO2 films show a different picture. Films of thickness of 100 nm were grown on TiO2 and on sapphire. The MTEP behavior at low fields shows peaks similar to the AMR in these films, with variations up to 1 % . With increasing field both the MR and the MTEP variations keep growing, with MTEP showing relative changes of 1.5% with the thermal gradient along the b -axis and even 20% with the gradient along the c -axis, with an intermediate value of 3% for the film on sapphire. It appears that the low-field effects are due to the magnetic domain state, and the high-field effects are intrinsic to the electronic structure of CrO2 and intergarian tunnelling magnetoresistance that contributes to MTEP as tunnelling-MTEP. Our results will stimulate the research work in the field of spin dependent thermal transport in ferromagnetic materials to further develop spin-Caloritronics.

  3. Bioglass thin films for biomimetic implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berbecaru, C. [Bucharest University, Faculty of Physics, Atomistilor nr. 405, P.O. Box MG 11, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania)], E-mail:; Alexandru, H.V. [Bucharest University, Faculty of Physics, Atomistilor nr. 405, P.O. Box MG 11, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania)], E-mail:; Ianculescu, Adelina [Politehnica University of Bucharest, Splaiul Independentei 313, Bucharest 060042 (Romania)], E-mail:; Popescu, A. [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Atomistilor 1, P.O. Box MG 6, Bucharest-Magurele 76900 (Romania)], E-mail:; Socol, G. [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Atomistilor 1, P.O. Box MG 6, Bucharest-Magurele 76900 (Romania)], E-mail:; Sima, F. [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Atomistilor 1, P.O. Box MG 6, Bucharest-Magurele 76900 (Romania)], E-mail:; Mihailescu, Ion [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Atomistilor 1, P.O. Box MG 6, Bucharest-Magurele 76900 (Romania)], E-mail:


    Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method was used to obtain bioglass (BG) thin film coatings on titanium substrates. An UV excimer laser KrF* ({lambda} = 248 nm, {tau} = 25 ns) was used for the multi-pulse irradiation of the BG targets with 57 or 61 wt.% SiO{sub 2} content (and Na{sub 2}O-K{sub 2}O-CaO-MgO-P{sub 2}O{sub 5} oxides). The depositions were performed in oxygen atmosphere at 13 Pa and for substrates temperature of 400 deg. C. The PLD films displayed typical BG of 2-5 {mu}m particulates nucleated on the film surface or embedded in. The PLD films stoichiometry was found to be the same as the targets. XRD spectra have shown, the glass coatings obtained, had an amorphous structure. One set of samples, deposited in the same conditions, were dipped in simulated body fluids (SBFs) and subsequently extracted one by one after several time intervals 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21 days. After washing in deionized water and drying, the surface morphology of the samples and theirs composition were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), IR spectroscopy (FTIR) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). After 3-7 days the Si content substantially decreases in the coatings and PO{sub 4}{sup 3-} maxima start to increase in FTIR spectra. The XRD spectra also confirm this evolution. After 14-21 days the XRD peaks show a crystallized fraction of the carbonated hydroxyapatite (HAP). The SEM micrographs show also significant changes of the films surface morphology. The coalescence of the BG droplets can be seen. The dissolution and growth processes could be assigned to the ionic exchange between BG and SBFs.

  4. Bioglass thin films for biomimetic implants (United States)

    Berbecaru, C.; Alexandru, H. V.; Ianculescu, Adelina; Popescu, A.; Socol, G.; Sima, F.; Mihailescu, Ion


    Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method was used to obtain bioglass (BG) thin film coatings on titanium substrates. An UV excimer laser KrF* ( λ = 248 nm, τ = 25 ns) was used for the multi-pulse irradiation of the BG targets with 57 or 61 wt.% SiO 2 content (and Na 2O-K 2O-CaO-MgO-P 2O 5 oxides). The depositions were performed in oxygen atmosphere at 13 Pa and for substrates temperature of 400 °C. The PLD films displayed typical BG of 2-5 μm particulates nucleated on the film surface or embedded in. The PLD films stoichiometry was found to be the same as the targets. XRD spectra have shown, the glass coatings obtained, had an amorphous structure. One set of samples, deposited in the same conditions, were dipped in simulated body fluids (SBFs) and subsequently extracted one by one after several time intervals 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21 days. After washing in deionized water and drying, the surface morphology of the samples and theirs composition were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), IR spectroscopy (FTIR) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). After 3-7 days the Si content substantially decreases in the coatings and PO 43- maxima start to increase in FTIR spectra. The XRD spectra also confirm this evolution. After 14-21 days the XRD peaks show a crystallized fraction of the carbonated hydroxyapatite (HAP). The SEM micrographs show also significant changes of the films surface morphology. The coalescence of the BG droplets can be seen. The dissolution and growth processes could be assigned to the ionic exchange between BG and SBFs.

  5. Gas sensing applications of phthalocyanine thin films (United States)

    Starke, Thomas

    This thesis reports an investigation into the NO2 sensing properties of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) thin films at room temperature in air. The gas sensing properties of the CuPc films were investigated using electrical conductivity and surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensing devices. Conductivity and SAW sensors were employed to detect changes of the film properties upon NO2 exposure in electrical conductivity and mass loading respectively. Initially, the response of electrical conductivity and SAW sensors incorporating an untreated layer of CuPc was investigated. Laser illumination of the films during the sensing experiments was found to have a significant effect on the mass loading response but little effect on the change in electrical conductivity. From these experiments it was suggested that NO2 adsorption on CuPc may be dominated by two different mechanisms, surface adsorption and bulk diffusion. It was also suggested that a reduction of one of these components would lead to a more controllable response. In order to minimise the effect of bulk diffusion, some of the CuPc films were doped with NO2 after deposition so filling the strongly bound bulk adsorption sites. In other devices, cooling of the CuPc layer in liquid nitrogen was used after deposition to change the surface structure in order to facilitate bulk diffusion. It was shown that these post-deposition treatment significantly changed the response characteristics of the CuPc film. Response kinetics of the experiments were analysed using the Langmuir and Elovich adsorption models, a method was suggested to determine the concentration of NO2 within the first few minutes of exposure using the value for the maximum rate of current change. A good correlation between this value and the concentration was found.

  6. Physical Properties of Thin Film Semiconducting Materials (United States)

    Bouras, N.; Djebbouri, M.; Outemzabet, R.; Sali, S.; Zerrouki, H.; Zouaoui, A.; Kesri, N.


    The physics and chemistry of semiconducting materials is a continuous question of debate. We can find a large stock of well-known properties but at the same time, many things are not understood. In recent years, porous silicon (PS-Si), diselenide of copper and indium (CuInSe2 or CIS) and metal oxide semiconductors like tin oxide (SnO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) have been subjected to extensive studies because of the rising interest their potential applications in fields such as electronic components, solar panels, catalysis, gas sensors, in biocompatible materials, in Li-based batteries, in new generation of MOSFETS. Bulk structure and surface and interface properties play important roles in all of these applications. A deeper understanding of these fundamental properties would impact largely on technological application performances. In our laboratory, thin films of undoped and antimony-doped films of tin oxide have been deposited by chemical vapor deposition. Spray pyrolysis was used for ZnO. CIS was prepared by flash evaporation or close-space vapor transport. Some of the deposition parameters have been varied, such as substrate temperature, time of deposition (or anodization), and molar concentration of bath preparation. For some samples, thermal annealing was carried out under oxygen (or air), under nitrogen gas and under vacuum. Deposition and post-deposition parameters are known to strongly influence film structure and electrical resistivity. We investigated the influence of film thickness and thermal annealing on structural optical and electrical properties of the films. Examination of SnO2 by x-ray diffraction showed that the main films are polycrystalline with rutile structure. The x-ray spectra of ZnO indicated a hexagonal wurtzite structure. Characterizations of CIS films with compositional analysis, x-ray diffraction, scanning microscopy, spectrophotometry, and photoluminescence were carried out.

  7. Dimensional scaling of perovskite ferroelectric thin films (United States)

    Keech, Ryan R.

    Dimensional size reduction has been the cornerstone of the exponential improvement in silicon based logic devices for decades. However, fundamental limits in the device physics were reached ˜2003, halting further reductions in clock speed without significant penalties in power consumption. This has motivated the research into next generation transistors and switching devices to reinstate the scaling laws for clock speed. This dissertation aims to support the scaling of devices that are based on ferroelectricity and piezoelectricity and to provide a roadmap for the corresponding materials performance. First, a scalable growth process to obtain highly {001}-oriented lead magnesium niobate - lead titanate (PMN-PT) thin films was developed, motivated by the high piezoelectric responses observed in bulk single crystals. It was found that deposition of a 2-3 nm thick PbO buffer layer on {111} Pt thin film bottom electrodes, prior to chemical solution deposition of PMN-PT reduces the driving force for Pb diffusion from the PMN-PT to the bottom electrode, and facilitates nucleation of {001}-oriented perovskite grains. Energy dispersive spectroscopy demonstrated that up to 10% of the Pb from a PMN-PT precursor solution may diffuse into the bottom electrode. PMN-PT grains with a mixed {101}/{111} orientation in a matrix of Pb-deficient pyrochlore phase were then promoted near the interface. When this is prevented, phase pure films with {001} orientation with Lotgering factors of 0.98-1.0, can be achieved. The resulting films of only 300 nm in thickness exhibit longitudinal effective d33,f coefficients of ˜90 pm/V and strain values of ˜1% prior to breakdown. 300 nm thick epitaxial and polycrystalline lead magnesium niobate - lead titanate (70PMN-30PT) blanket thin films were studied for the relative contributions to property thickness dependence from interfacial and grain boundary low permittivity layers. Epitaxial PMN-PT films were grown on SrRuO 3 /(001)SrTiO3, while

  8. Nanostructured Thin Film Synthesis by Aerosol Chemical Vapor Deposition for Energy Storage Applications (United States)

    Chadha, Tandeep S.

    Renewable energy sources offer a viable solution to the growing energy demand while mitigating concerns for greenhouse gas emissions and climate change. This has led to a tremendous momentum towards solar and wind-based energy harvesting technologies driving efficiencies higher and costs lower. However, the intermittent nature of these energy sources necessitates energy storage technologies, which remain the Achilles heel in meeting the renewable energy goals. This dissertation focusses on two approaches for addressing the needs of energy storage: first, targeting direct solar to fuel conversion via photoelectrochemical water-splitting and second, improving the performance of current rechargeable batteries by developing new electrode architectures and synthesis processes. The aerosol chemical vapor deposition (ACVD) process has emerged as a promising single-step approach for nanostructured thin film synthesis directly on substrates. The relationship between the morphology and the operating parameters in the process is complex. In this work, a simulation based approach has been developed to understand the relationship and acquire the ability of predicting the morphology. These controlled nanostructured morphologies of TiO2 , compounded with gold nanoparticles of various shapes, are used for solar water-splitting applications. Tuning of light absorption in the visible-light range along with reduced electron-hole recombination in the composite structures has been demonstrated. The ACVD process is further extended to a novel single-step synthesis of nanostructured TiO2 electrodes directly on the current collector for applications as anodes in lithium-ion batteries, mainly for electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles. The effect of morphology of the nanostructures has been investigated via experimental studies and electrochemical transport modelling. Results demonstrate the exceptional performance of the single crystal one-dimensional nanostructures over granular

  9. Anisotropic properties of high-temperature polyimide thin films: Dielectric and thermal-expansion behaviors (United States)

    Ree, M.; Chen, K.-J.; Kirby, D. P.; Katzenellenbogen, N.; Grischkowsky, D.


    Multilayer poly(p-phenylene biphenyltetracarboximide) (BPDA-PDA) polyimide films of 172 μm total thickness (11.4 μm per layer) were prepared from the poly(amic acid) precursor solution through repetition of a spin-coat/softbake/cure process. Wide-angle x-ray diffraction results indicate that the polyimide molecules in the multilayer films are highly ordered along the chain axes as well as in the lateral direction and furthermore are highly oriented in the film plane as observed in a single-layer film of 11.4 μm thickness. The multilayer films showed the same dynamic mechanical properties and glass transition behavior (Tg = 330 °C) as a single-layer film. For the multilayer films both the in-plane dielectric constant (ɛ'XY) and out-of-plane thermal-expansion coefficient (αZ) were measured using time-domain spectroscopy and conventional thermal mechanical analysis, respectively. The ɛ'XY at room temperature was 3.69 (±0.08) over a frequency range of 0.35-2.50 THz. A similar ɛ'XY is predicted at frequencies of ≤0.35 THz. In contrast to the ɛ'XY, a relatively lower out-of-plane dielectric constant (ɛ'Z) was observed: ɛ'Z = 2.96-3.03 (±0.02) at 1 MHz, depending on moisture content in the film. The dielectric loss ɛ`Z at 1 MHz was 0.011-0.014 (±0.001), depending on moisture content. The measured αZ was 74 ppm/°C over the temperature range of 25-150 °C, which was much higher than αXY = 2.6-5 ppm/°C. Consequently, large anisotropic ɛ' and α have been observed in the in plane and out of plane of the thermally imidized BPDA-PDA films. The anisotropic ɛ' and α were caused by high in-plane orientation of the polyimide molecules highly ordered along the chain axes in the films.

  10. Polycrystalline Thin Film Photovoltaics: Research, Development, and Technologies: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullal, H. S.; Zweibel, K.; von Roedern, B.


    II-VI binary thin-film solar cells based on cadmium telluride (CdTe) and I-III-VI ternary thin-film solar cells based on copper indium diselenide (CIS) and related materials have been the subject of intense research and development in the past few years. Substantial progress has been made thus far in the area of materials research, device fabrication, and technology development, and numerous applications based on CdTe and CIS have been deployed worldwide. World record efficiency of 16.5% has been achieved by NREL scientists for a thin-film CdTe solar cell using a modified device structure. Also, NREL scientists achieved world-record efficiency of 21.1% for a thin-film CIGS solar cell under a 14X concentration and AM1.5 global spectrum. When measured under a AM1.5 direct spectrum, the efficiency increases to 21.5%. Pathways for achieving 25% efficiency for tandem polycrystalline thin-film solar cells are elucidated. R&D issues relating to CdTe and CIS are reported in this paper, such as contact stability and accelerated life testing in CdTe, and effects of moisture ingress in thin-film CIS devices. Substantial technology development is currently under way, with various groups reporting power module efficiencies in the range of 7.0% to 12.1% and power output of 40.0 to 92.5 W. A number of lessons learned during the scale-up activities of the technology development for fabrication of thin-film power modules are discussed. The major global players actively involved in the technology development and commercialization efforts using both rigid and flexible power modules are highlighted.

  11. Development of thin film oxygen transport membranes on metallic supports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing, Ye


    Asymmetric membrane structure has an attractive potential in the application of O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} gas separation membrane for the future membrane-based fossil fuel power plant using oxyfuel technology, which will reduce the carbon dioxide emission. The aim of this study is the development of a metal supported multi-layer membrane structure with a thin film top membrane layer and porous ceramic interlayers. Four perovskite materials were studied as candidate membrane materials. Material properties of these perovskite materials were investigated and compared. La{sub 0.58}Sr{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8}O{sub 3-{delta}} (LSCF58428) showed sufficient oxygen permeability, an acceptable thermal expansion coefficient and a moderate sintering temperature. Alternatively, Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}Co{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-{delta}} (BSCF5582) is considered obtaining very high oxygen permeability but a higher thermal expansion and a lower thermal stability than LSCF58428. Four different Ni-based alloys were studied as candidate substrate materials in the asymmetric membrane structure. The chromia-scale alloys (Hastelloy X, Inconel 600 and Haynes 214) caused Cr poisoning of the membrane layer material LSCF58428 during high-temperature co-firing in air. NiCoCrAlY with a high Al content (12.7 wt%) was found to be the most promising substrate material. It showed a good chemical compatibility with perovskite materials at high temperatures. In order to bridge the highly porous substrate and the thin top membrane layer interlayers were developed. Two interlayers were coated by screen printing on the porous NiCoCrAlY substrate which was sintered at 1225 C in flowing H{sub 2} atmosphere. Screen printing pastes were optimized by investigating various solvent and binder combinations and various ceramic powder contents. The first interlayer significantly improved the surface quality and the surface pore size has been reduced from 30-50{mu}m on the substrate to few {mu}m on the first

  12. Nonlinear dielectric response in ferroelectric thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lente, M. H.


    Full Text Available Electrical permittivity dependence on electric external bias field was investigated in PZT thin films. The results revealed the existence of two mechanisms contributing to the electrical permittivity. The first one was related to the domain reorientation, which was responsible for a strong no linear dielectric behavior, acting only during the poling process. The second mechanism was associated with the domain wall vibrations, which presented a reasonable linear electrical behavior with the applied bias field, contributing always to the permittivity independently of the poling state of the sample. The results also indicated that the gradual reduction of the permittivity with the increase of the bias field strength may be related to the gradual bending of the domain walls. It is believed that the domain wall bending induces a hardening and/or a thinning of the walls, thus reducing the electrical permittivity. A reinterpretation of the model proposed in the literature to explain the dielectric characteristics of ferroelectric materials at high electric field regime is proposed.

    Se ha estudiado la dependencia de la permitividad eléctrica con un campo bias externo en láminas delgadas de PZT. Los resultados revelaron la existencia de dos mecanismos que contribuyen a la permitividad eléctrica. El primero está relacionado con la reorientación de dominios, actúa sólo durante el proceso de polarización y es responsable de un comportamiento dieléctrico fuertemente no lineal. El segundo mecanismo se asocia a las vibraciones de las paredes de dominio, presentando un comportamiento eléctrico razonablemente lineal con el campo bias aplicado, contribuyendo siempre a la permitividad independientemente del estado de polarización de la muestra. Los resultados indicaron también que la reducción gradual de la permitividad con el aumento de la fuerza del campo bias podría estar relacionada con el “bending” gradual de las paredes de dominio

  13. Nanoscale phenomena in ferroelectric thin films (United States)

    Ganpule, Chandan S.

    Ferroelectric materials are a subject of intense research as potential candidates for applications in non-volatile ferroelectric random access memories (FeRAM), piezoelectric actuators, infrared detectors, optical switches and as high dielectric constant materials for dynamic random access memories (DRAMs). With current trends in miniaturization, it becomes important that the fundamental aspects of scaling of ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties in these devices be studied thoroughly and their impact on the device reliability assessed. In keeping with this spirit of miniaturization, the dissertation has two broad themes: (a) Scaling of ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties and (b) The key reliability issue of retention loss. The thesis begins with a look at results on scaling studies of focused-ion-beam milled submicron ferroelectric capacitors using a variety of scanning probe characterization tools. The technique of piezoresponse microscopy, which is rapidly becoming an accepted form of domain imaging in ferroelectrics, has been used in this work for another very important application: providing reliable, repeatable and quantitative numbers for the electromechanical properties of submicron structures milled in ferroelectric films. This marriage of FIB and SPM based characterization of electromechanical and electrical properties has proven unbeatable in the last few years to characterize nanostructures qualitatively and quantitatively. The second half of this dissertation focuses on polarization relaxation in FeRAMs. In an attempt to understand the nanoscale origins of back-switching of ferroelectric domains, the time dependent relaxation of remnant polarization in epitaxial lead zirconate titanate (PbZr0.2Ti0.8O 3, PZT) ferroelectric thin films (used as a model system), containing a uniform 2-dimensional grid of 90° domains (c-axis in the plane of the film) has been examined using voltage modulated scanning force microscopy. A novel approach of

  14. Sub-100 °C solution processed amorphous titania nanowire thin films for high-performance perovskite solar cells (United States)

    Wu, Wu-Qiang; Chen, Dehong; Huang, Fuzhi; Cheng, Yi-Bing; Caruso, Rachel A.


    The present work demonstrates a facile one-step process to fabricate thin films of amorphous titania nanowires on transparent conducting oxide substrates via hydrolysis of potassium titanium oxide oxalate in an aqueous solution at 90 °C. The resultant titania nanowire thin films (that have not undergone further annealing) are efficient electron transport layers in CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells, yielding full sun solar-to-electricity conversion efficiencies of up to 14.67% and a stabilized efficiency of 14.00% under AM 1.5G one sun illumination, comparable to high temperature sintered TiO2 counterparts. The high photovoltaic performance is attributed to the porous nanowire network that facilitates perovskite infiltration, its unique 1D geometry and excellent surface coverage for efficient electron transport, as well as suppressed charge recombination between FTO and perovskite.

  15. Phase transformation during simultaneous chalcogenization of CuIn(S,Se){sub 2} thin films using metalorganic sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoji, Ryuki; Kayama, Yoshiki; Sugiyama, Mutsumi [Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda 278-8510 (Japan); Chichibu, Shigefusa F. [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)


    Simultaneous chalcogenization of CuIn(S{sub y},Se{sub 1-y}){sub 2} (CISSe) thin films has been demonstrated using organometallic sources such as diethylselenide [(C{sub 2}H{sub 5}){sub 2}Se] and ditertiarybutylsulfide [(t-C{sub 4}H{sub 9}){sub 2}S] to obtain homogeneous CISSe pseudobinary alloys with controlled amounts of Se and S species. Low-temperature chalcogenization at 300 C resulted in the formation of Cu-SSe and In-SSe alloys diffused into the Cu{sub 11}In{sub 9} metallic precursor. On the other hand, high-temperature chalcogenization produced CISSe thin films without additional phases. The obtained results can be used for elucidating the mechanism of simultaneous chalcogenization and development of high-performance and cost-effective commercial applications. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Ferroelectric Properties of Large Area Evaporated Vinylidene Fluoride Thin Films (United States)

    Foreman, Keith; Poddar, Shashi; Workman, Adam; Callori, Sara; Ducharme, Stephen; Adenwalla, Shireen

    Organic electronics provide advantages in price, processing, and functionality. Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) is a popular organic ferroelectric used a in wide variety of applications. The VDF oligomer features a higher surface charge density than PVDF and its copolymers and oligomer thin films can be deposited in vacuum, allowing for deposition on a metallic thin film without breaking vacuum. Despite these advantages, there has been little work towards employing the VDF oligomer in devices. Here, we report on stable and tunable ferroelectric behavior of large area VDF oligomer thin films and the interface with Co thin films. Pyroelectric measurements are used to identify the operating temperature of VDF oligomer-based devices and probe the stability of the ferroelectric polarization states over long periods of time. Using capacitance-voltage, current-voltage, and x-ray diffraction measurements, the remanent polarization and crystalline phase are reported, and the effects of annealing are clarified. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is used to characterize the VDF/Co interface. Finally, piezoresponse force microscopy is used to demonstrate large area ferroelectric domain writing VDF oligomer thin films. This work sets the stage for VDF oligomer based organic electronics. Supported by NSF ECCS-1101256 and MRSEC DMR-1420645.

  17. Thermochemical hydrogen generation of indium oxide thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taekyung Lim


    Full Text Available Development of alternative energy resources is an urgent requirement to alleviate current energy constraints. As such, hydrogen gas is gaining attention as a future alternative energy source to address existing issues related to limited energy resources and air pollution. In this study, hydrogen generation by a thermochemical water-splitting process using two types of In2O3 thin films was investigated. The two In2O3 thin films prepared by chemical vapor deposition (CVD and sputtering deposition systems contained different numbers of oxygen vacancies, which were directly related to hydrogen generation. The as-grown In2O3 thin film prepared by CVD generated a large amount of hydrogen because of its abundant oxygen vacancies, while that prepared by sputtering had few oxygen vacancies, resulting in low hydrogen generation. Increasing the temperature of the In2O3 thin film in the reaction chamber caused an increase in hydrogen generation. The oxygen-vacancy-rich In2O3 thin film is expected to provide a highly effective production of hydrogen as a sustainable and efficient energy source.

  18. Pulsed photonic fabrication of nanostructured metal oxide thin films (United States)

    Bourgeois, Briley B.; Luo, Sijun; Riggs, Brian C.; Adireddy, Shiva; Chrisey, Douglas B.


    Nanostructured metal oxide thin films with a large specific surface area are preferable for practical device applications in energy conversion and storage. Herein, we report instantaneous (milliseconds) photonic synthesis of three-dimensional (3-D) nanostructured metal oxide thin films through the pulsed photoinitiated pyrolysis of organometallic precursor films made by chemical solution deposition. High wall-plug efficiency-pulsed photonic irradiation (xenon flash lamp, pulse width of 1.93 ms, fluence of 7.7 J/cm2 and frequency of 1.2 Hz) is used for scalable photonic processing. The photothermal effect of subsequent pulses rapidly improves the crystalline quality of nanocrystalline metal oxide thin films in minutes. The following paper highlights pulsed photonic fabrication of 3-D nanostructured TiO2, Co3O4, and Fe2O3 thin films, exemplifying a promising new method for the low-cost and high-throughput manufacturing of nanostructured metal oxide thin films for energy applications.

  19. Characterization of Sucrose Thin Films for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Iconaru


    Full Text Available Sucrose is a natural osmolyte accumulated in the cells of organisms as they adapt to environmental stress. In vitro sucrose increases protein stability and forces partially unfolded structures to refold. Thin films of sucrose (C12H22O11 were deposited on thin cut glass substrates by the thermal evaporation technique (P∼10−5 torr. Characteristics of thin films were put into evidence by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and differential thermal analysis and thermal gravimetric analysis (TG/DTA. The experimental results confirm a uniform deposition of an adherent layer. In this paper we present a part of the characteristics of sucrose thin films deposited on glass in medium vacuum conditions, as a part of a culture medium for osteoblast cells. Osteoblast cells were used to determine proliferation, viability, and cytotoxicity interactions with sucrose powder and sucrose thin films. The osteoblast cells have been provided from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC Centre. The outcome of this study demonstrated the effectiveness of sucrose thin films as a possible nontoxic agent for biomedical applications.

  20. Oxide-based thin film transistors for flexible electronics (United States)

    He, Yongli; Wang, Xiangyu; Gao, Ya; Hou, Yahui; Wan, Qing


    The continuous progress in thin film materials and devices has greatly promoted the development in the field of flexible electronics. As one of the most common thin film devices, thin film transistors (TFTs) are significant building blocks for flexible platforms. Flexible oxide-based TFTs are well compatible with flexible electronic systems due to low process temperature, high carrier mobility, and good uniformity. The present article is a review of the recent progress and major trends in the field of flexible oxide-based thin film transistors. First, an introduction of flexible electronics and flexible oxide-based thin film transistors is given. Next, we introduce oxide semiconductor materials and various flexible oxide-based TFTs classified by substrate materials including polymer plastics, paper sheets, metal foils, and flexible thin glass. Afterwards, applications of flexible oxide-based TFTs including bendable sensors, memories, circuits, and displays are presented. Finally, we give conclusions and a prospect for possible development trends. Project supported in part by the National Science Foundation for Distinguished Young Scholars of China (No. 61425020), in part by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11674162).

  1. A Variational approach to thin film hydrodynamics of binary mixtures

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Xinpeng


    In order to model the dynamics of thin films of mixtures, solutions, and suspensions, a thermodynamically consistent formulation is needed such that various coexisting dissipative processes with cross couplings can be correctly described in the presence of capillarity, wettability, and mixing effects. In the present work, we apply Onsager\\'s variational principle to the formulation of thin film hydrodynamics for binary fluid mixtures. We first derive the dynamic equations in two spatial dimensions, one along the substrate and the other normal to the substrate. Then, using long-wave asymptotics, we derive the thin film equations in one spatial dimension along the substrate. This enables us to establish the connection between the present variational approach and the gradient dynamics formulation for thin films. It is shown that for the mobility matrix in the gradient dynamics description, Onsager\\'s reciprocal symmetry is automatically preserved by the variational derivation. Furthermore, using local hydrodynamic variables, our variational approach is capable of introducing diffusive dissipation beyond the limit of dilute solute. Supplemented with a Flory-Huggins-type mixing free energy, our variational approach leads to a thin film model that treats solvent and solute in a symmetric manner. Our approach can be further generalized to include more complicated free energy and additional dissipative processes.

  2. Exciton Recombination in Formamidinium Lead Triiodide: Nanocrystals versus Thin Films. (United States)

    Fang, Hong-Hua; Protesescu, Loredana; Balazs, Daniel M; Adjokatse, Sampson; Kovalenko, Maksym V; Loi, Maria Antonietta


    The optical properties of the newly developed near-infrared emitting formamidinium lead triiodide (FAPbI 3 ) nanocrystals (NCs) and their polycrystalline thin film counterpart are comparatively investigated by means of steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence. The excitonic emission is dominant in NC ensemble because of the localization of electron-hole pairs. A promisingly high quantum yield above 70%, and a large absorption cross-section (5.2 × 10 -13 cm -2 ) are measured. At high pump fluence, biexcitonic recombination is observed, featuring a slow recombination lifetime of 0.4 ns. In polycrystalline thin films, the quantum efficiency is limited by nonradiative trap-assisted recombination that turns to bimolecular at high pump fluences. From the temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) spectra, a phase transition is clearly observed in both NC ensemble and polycrystalline thin film. It is interesting to note that NC ensemble shows PL temperature antiquenching, in contrast to the strong PL quenching displayed by polycrystalline thin films. This difference is explained in terms of thermal activation of trapped carriers at the nanocrystal's surface, as opposed to the exciton thermal dissociation and trap-mediated recombination, which occur in thin films at higher temperatures. © 2017 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Thin-film absorber for a solar collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhelm, W.G.


    This invention pertains to energy absorbers for solar collectors, and more particularly to high performance thin film absorbers. The solar collectors comprising the absorber of this invention overcome several problems seen in current systems, such as excessive hardware, high cost and unreliability. In the preferred form, the apparatus features a substantially rigid planar frame with a thin film window bonded to one planar side of the frame. An absorber in accordance with the present invention is comprised of two thin film layers that are sealed perimetrically. In a preferred embodiment, thin film layers are formed from a metal/plastic laminate. The layers define a fluid-tight planar envelope of large surface area to volume through which a heat transfer fluid flows. The absorber is bonded to the other planar side of the frame. The thin film construction of the absorber assures substantially full envelope wetting and thus good efficiency. The window and absorber films stress the frame adding to the overall strength of the collector.

  4. Thin film PV manufacturing. Materials costs and their optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zweibel, K. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Thin Film PV Partnership, 1617 Cole Boulevard, 80401 Golden, CO (United States)


    Thin film PV technologies face a number of hurdles as they advance towards low-cost goals that would make them competitive with traditional sources of electricity. The US Department of Energy cost goal for thin films is about $0.33/W{sub p}, which corresponds to module efficiencies of about 15% and module manufacturing costs of about $50/m{sup 2}. Past papers have provided a framework for examining thin film efficiencies and manufacturing costs, especially those costs for equipment, labor, materials, utilities, and others. Although materials costs appear to be a large fraction of the total, we have not yet broken them down in enough detail to seek significant improvement. In the future, with more mature thin film production, materials costs such as those from semiconductor layers, contacts, pottants, substrates, and electrical interconnection will dominate total module cost. This paper (1) breaks down the materials costs into two broad categories (active and inactive materials) and then (2) investigates the issues associated with reducing their costs much below today's levels. Materials will likely be such an overwhelming cost-driver for mature manufacturing of thin film PV that issues associated with their optimization should be examined as soon as possible in order to meet the DOE long-term goals for PV module costs.

  5. Self-assembly of dodecaphenyl POSS thin films (United States)

    Handke, Bartosz; Klita, Łukasz; Niemiec, Wiktor


    The self-assembly abilities of Dodecaphenyl Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxane thin films on Si(1 0 0) surfaces were studied. Due to their thermal properties - relatively low sublimation temperature and preservation of molecular structure - cage type silsesquioxanes are ideal material for the preparation of a thin films by Physical Vapor Deposition. The Ultra-High Vacuum environment and the deposition precision of the PVD method enable the study of early stages of thin film growth and its molecular organization. X-ray Reflectivity and Atomic Force Microscopy measurements allow to pursuit size-effects in the structure of thin films with thickness ranges from less than a single molecular layer up to several tens of layers. Thermal treatment of the thin films triggered phase change: from a poorly ordered polycrystalline film into a well-ordered multilayer structure. Self-assembly of the layers is the effect of the π-stacking of phenyl rings, which force molecules to arrange in a superlattice, forming stacks of alternating organic-inorganic layers.

  6. Aluminosilicate glass thin films elaborated by pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlier, Thibault [Univ. Lille, CNRS, Centrale Lille, ENSCL, Univ. Artois, UMR 8181 – UCCS – Unité de Catalyse et Chimie du Solide, F-59000 Lille (France); Saitzek, Sébastien [Univ. Artois, CNRS, Centrale Lille, ENSCL, Univ. Lille, UMR 8181, Unité de Catalyse et de Chimie du Solide (UCCS), F-62300 Lens (France); Méar, François O., E-mail: [Univ. Lille, CNRS, Centrale Lille, ENSCL, Univ. Artois, UMR 8181 – UCCS – Unité de Catalyse et Chimie du Solide, F-59000 Lille (France); Blach, Jean-François; Ferri, Anthony [Univ. Artois, CNRS, Centrale Lille, ENSCL, Univ. Lille, UMR 8181, Unité de Catalyse et de Chimie du Solide (UCCS), F-62300 Lens (France); Huvé, Marielle; Montagne, Lionel [Univ. Lille, CNRS, Centrale Lille, ENSCL, Univ. Artois, UMR 8181 – UCCS – Unité de Catalyse et Chimie du Solide, F-59000 Lille (France)


    Highlights: • Successfully deposition of a glassy thin film by PLD. • A good homogeneity and stoichiometry of the coating. • Influence of the deposition temperature on the glassy thin-film structure. - Abstract: In the present work, we report the elaboration of aluminosilicate glass thin films by Pulsed Laser Deposition at various temperatures deposition. The amorphous nature of glass thin films was highlighted by Grazing Incidence X-Ray Diffraction and no nanocristallites were observed in the glassy matrix. Chemical analysis, obtained with X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Time of Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy, showed a good transfer and homogeneous elementary distribution with of chemical species from the target to the film a. Structural studies performed by Infrared Spectroscopy showed that the substrate temperature plays an important role on the bonding configuration of the layers. A slight shift of Si-O modes to larger wavenumber was observed with the synthesis temperature, assigned to a more strained sub-oxide network. Finally, optical properties of thins film measured by Spectroscopic Ellipsometry are similar to those of the bulk aluminosilicate glass, which indicate a good deposition of aluminosilicate bulk glass.

  7. Uncooled thin film pyroelectric IR detector with aerogel thermal isolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruffner, J.A.; Clem, P.G.; Tuttle, B.A. [and others


    Uncooled pyroelectric IR imaging systems, such as night vision goggles, offer important strategic advantages in battlefield scenarios and reconnaissance surveys. Until now, the current technology for fabricating these devices has been limited by low throughput and high cost which ultimately limit the availability of these sensor devices. We have developed and fabricated an alternative design for pyroelectric IR imaging sensors that utilizes a multilayered thin film deposition scheme to create a monolithic thin film imaging element on an active silicon substrate for the first time. This approach combines a thin film pyroelectric imaging element with a thermally insulating SiO{sub 2} aerogel thin film to produce a new type of uncooled IR sensor that offers significantly higher thermal, spatial, and temporal resolutions at a substantially lower cost per unit. This report describes the deposition, characterization and optimization of the aerogel thermal isolation layer and an appropriate pyroelectric imaging element. It also describes the overall integration of these components along with the appropriate planarization, etch stop, adhesion, electrode, and blacking agent thin film layers into a monolithic structure. 19 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. Buckling of Thin Films in Nano-Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li L.A.


    Full Text Available Investigation of thin film buckling is important for life prediction of MEMS device which are damaged mainly by the delamination and buckling of thin films. In this paper the mechanical and thermal properties of compressed thin film titanium films with 150 nm thickness deposited on an organic glass substrate under mechanical and thermal loads were measured and characterized. In order to simulate the thin films which subjected to compound loads and the buckle modes the external uniaxial compression and thermal loading were subjected to the specimen by the symmetric loading device and the electrical film in this experiment. The temperature of the thin film deposited on substrate was measured using thermoelectric couple. The range of temperature accords with the temperature range of the MEMS. It is found that the size and number of the delamination and buckling of the film are depended upon the pre-fixed mechanical loading and thermal temperature. The thermal transient conduction and thermal stability of the film and substrate was studied with finite element method.

  9. Transferable and flexible thin film devices for engineering applications (United States)

    Mutyala, Madhu Santosh K.; Zhou, Jingzhou; Li, Xiaochun


    Thin film devices can be of significance for manufacturing, energy conversion systems, solid state electronics, wireless applications, etc. However, these thin film sensors/devices are normally fabricated on rigid silicon substrates, thus neither flexible nor transferrable for engineering applications. This paper reports an innovative approach to transfer polyimide (PI) embedded thin film devices, which were fabricated on glass, to thin metal foils. Thin film thermocouples (TFTCs) were fabricated on a thin PI film, which was spin coated and cured on a glass substrate. Another layer of PI film was then spin coated again on TFTC/PI and cured to obtain the embedded TFTCs. Assisted by oxygen plasma surface coarsening of the PI film on the glass substrate, the PI embedded TFTC was successfully transferred from the glass substrate to a flexible copper foil. To demonstrate the functionality of the flexible embedded thin film sensors, they were transferred to the sonotrode tip of an ultrasonic metal welding machine for in situ process monitoring. The dynamic temperatures near the sonotrode tip were effectively measured under various ultrasonic vibration amplitudes. This technique of transferring polymer embedded electronic devices onto metal foils yield great potentials for numerous engineering applications.

  10. Multifunctional Parylene-C Microfibrous Thin Films (United States)

    Chindam, Chandraprakash

    Towards sustainable development, multifunctional products have many advantageous over single-function products: reduction in number of parts, raw material, assembly time, and cost involved in a product's life cycle. My goal for this thesis was to demonstrate the multifunctionalities of Parylene-C microfibrous thin films. To achieve this goal, I chose Parylene C, a polymer, because the fabrication of periodic mediums of Parylene C in the form of microfibrous thin films (muFTFs) was already established. A muFTFs is a parallel arrangement of identical micrometer-sized fibers of shapes cylindrical, chevronic, or helical. Furthermore, Parylene C had three existing functions: in medical-device industries as corrosion-resistive coatings, in electronic industries as electrically insulating coatings, and in biomedical research for tissue-culture substrates. As the functionalities of a material are dependent on the microstructure and physical properties, the investigation made for this thesis was two-fold: (1) Experimentally, I determined the wetting, mechanical, and dielectric properties of columnar muFTFs and examined the microstructural and molecular differences between bulk films and muFTFs. (2) Using physical properties of bulk film, I computationally determined the elastodynamic and determined the electromagnetic filtering capabilities of Parylene-C muFTFs. Several columnar muFTFs of Parylene C were fabricated by varying the monomer deposition angle. Following are the significant experimental findings: 1. Molecular and microstructural characteristics: The dependence of the microfiber inclination angle on the monomer deposition angle was classified into four regimes of two different types. X-ray diffraction experiments indicated that the columnar muFTFs contain three crystal planes not evident in bulk Parylene-C films and that the columnar muFTFs are less crystalline than bulk films. Infrared absorbance spectra revealed that the atomic bonding is the same in all

  11. Low-Temperature UV-Assisted Fabrication of Metal Oxide Thin Film Transistor (United States)

    Zhu, Shuanglin

    Solution processed metal oxide semiconductors have attracted intensive attention in the last several decades and have emerged as a promising candidate for the application of thin film transistor (TFT) due to their nature of transparency, flexibility, high mobility, simple processing technique and potential low manufacturing cost. However, metal oxide thin film fabricated by solution process usually requires a high temperature (over 300 °C), which is above the glass transition temperature of some conventional polymer substrates. In order to fabricate the flexible electronic device on polymer substrates, it is necessary to find a facile approach to lower the fabrication temperature and minimize defects in metal oxide thin film. In this thesis, the electrical properties dependency on temperature is discussed and an UV-assisted annealing method incorporating Deep ultraviolet (DUV)-decomposable additives is demonstrated, which can effectively improve electrical properties solution processed metal oxide semiconductors processed at temperature as low as 220 °C. By studying a widely used indium oxide (In2O3) TFT as a model system, it is worth noted that compared with the sample without UV treatment, the linear mobility and saturation mobility of UV-annealing sample are improved by 56% and 40% respectively. Meanwhile, the subthreshold swing is decreased by 32%, indicating UV-treated device could turn on and off more efficiently. In addition to pure In2O3 film, the similar phenomena have also been observed in indium oxide based Indium-Gallium-Zinc Oxide (IGZO) system. These finding presented in this thesis suggest that the UV assisted annealing process open a new route to fabricate high performance metal oxide semiconductors under low temperatures.

  12. Preparation and properties of thin films treatise on materials science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Tu, K N


    Treatise on Materials Science and Technology, Volume 24: Preparation and Properties of Thin Films covers the progress made in the preparation of thin films and the corresponding study of their properties. The book discusses the preparation and property correlations in thin film; the variation of microstructure of thin films; and the molecular beam epitaxy of superlattices in thin film. The text also describes the epitaxial growth of silicon structures (thermal-, laser-, and electron-beam-induced); the characterization of grain boundaries in bicrystalline thin films; and the mechanical properti

  13. Controlling domain orientation of liquid crystalline block copolymer in thin films through tuning mesogenic chemical structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, He-Lou [Institute for Molecular Engineering, The University of Chicago, Chicago Illinois 60637; Li, Xiao [Institute for Molecular Engineering, The University of Chicago, Chicago Illinois 60637; Ren, Jiaxing [Institute for Molecular Engineering, The University of Chicago, Chicago Illinois 60637; Bishop, Camille [Institute for Molecular Engineering, The University of Chicago, Chicago Illinois 60637; Arges, Christopher G. [Cain Department of Chemical Engineering, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge Louisiana 70803 USA; Nealey, Paul F. [Institute for Molecular Engineering, The University of Chicago, Chicago Illinois 60637; Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne Illinois 60439


    Controlling the macroscopic orientation of nanoscale periodic structures of amphiphilic liquid crystalline block copolymers (LC BCPs) is important to a variety of technical applications (e.g., lithium conducting polymer electrolytes). To study LC BCP domain orientation, a series of LC BCPs containing a poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) block as a conventional hydrophilic coil block and LC blocks containing azobenzene mesogens is designed and synthesized. LC ordering in thin films of the BCP leads to the formation of highly ordered, microphase-separated nanostructures, with hexagonally arranged PEO cylinders. Substitution on the tail of the azobenzene mesogen is shown to control the orientation of the PEO cylinders. When the substitution on the mesogenic tails is an alkyl chain, the PEO cylinders have a perpendicular orientation to the substrate surface, provided the thin film is above a critical thickness value. In contrast, when the substitution on the mesogenic tails has an ether group the PEO cylinders assemble parallel to the substrate surface regardless of the film thickness value.

  14. Dielectric Spectroscopy of Localized Electrical Charges in Ferrite Thin Film (United States)

    Abdellatif, M. H.; Azab, A. A.; Moustafa, A. M.


    A thin film of Gd-doped Mn-Cr ferrite has been prepared by pulsed laser deposition from a bulk sample of the same ferrite prepared by the conventional double sintering ceramic technique. The charge localization and surface conduction in the ferromagnetic thin film were studied. The relaxation of the dielectric dipoles after exposure to an external alternating-current (AC) electric field was investigated. The effect of charge localization on the real and imaginary parts of the dielectric modulus was studied. The charge localization in the thin film was enhanced and thereby the Maxwell-Wagner-type interfacial polarization. The increase in interfacial polarization is a direct result of the enhanced charge localization. The sample was characterized in terms of its AC and direct-current (DC) electrical conductivity, and thermally stimulated discharge current.

  15. Single Source Precursors for Thin Film Solar Cells (United States)

    Banger, Kulbinder K.; Hollingsworth, Jennifer A.; Harris, Jerry D.; Cowen, Jonathan; Buhro, William E.; Hepp, Aloysius F.


    The development of thin film solar cells on flexible, lightweight, space-qualified substrates provides an attractive cost solution to fabricating solar arrays with high specific power, (W/kg). The use of a polycrystalline chalcopyrite absorber layer for thin film solar cells is considered as the next generation photovoltaic devices. At NASA GRC we have focused on the development of new single source precursors (SSP) and their utility to deposit the chalcopyrite semi-conducting layer (CIS) onto flexible substrates for solar cell fabrication. The syntheses and thermal modulation of SSPs via molecular engineering is described. Thin-film fabrication studies demonstrate the SSPs can be used in a spray CVD (chemical vapor deposition) process, for depositing CIS at reduced temperatures, which display good electrical properties, suitable for PV (photovoltaic) devices.

  16. Thin film encapsulation for flexible AM-OLED: a review (United States)

    Park, Jin-Seong; Chae, Heeyeop; Chung, Ho Kyoon; In Lee, Sang


    Flexible organic light emitting diode (OLED) will be the ultimate display technology to customers and industries in the near future but the challenges are still being unveiled one by one. Thin-film encapsulation (TFE) technology is the most demanding requirement to prevent water and oxygen permeation into flexible OLED devices. As a polymer substrate does not offer the same barrier performance as glass, the TFE should be developed on both the bottom and top side of the device layers for sufficient lifetimes. This work provides a review of promising thin-film barrier technologies as well as the basic gas diffusion background. Topics include the significance of the device structure, permeation rate measurement, proposed permeation mechanism, and thin-film deposition technologies (Vitex system and atomic layer deposition (ALD)/molecular layer deposition (MLD)) for effective barrier films.

  17. Characterization of reactive magnetron sputtering plasma during thin film deposition (United States)

    Gordon, Rylan; Mahabaduge, Hasitha

    Reactive magnetron sputtering is used extensively as a thin film deposition technique. During sputtering, a plasma is generated. The evolution of the plasma dictates the thin film composition and structure. The residence time of a reactive gas molecule, the mean time it remains in the process chamber before being pumped away also plays an important role in reactive sputtering. We simulated the residence time and partial pressure of the respective reactive gasses in magnetron sputtering environment using Matlab. Using Optical Emission Spectroscopy we confirmed the trend in mean residence time of the reactive gasses. The thin film properties of reactively sputtered aluminum-doped zinc oxide will be presented along with the correlation to the plasma properties during the deposition.

  18. Flexible polycrystalline thin-film photovoltaics for space applications (United States)

    Armstrong, J. H.; Lanning, B. R.; Misra, M. S.; Kapur, V. K.; Basol, B. M.


    Polycrystalline thin-film photovoltaics (PV), such as CIS and CdTe, have received considerable attention recently with respect to space power applications. Their combination of stability, efficiency, and economy from large-scale monolithic-integration of modules can have significant impact on cost and weight of PV arrays for spacecraft and planetary experiments. An added advantage, due to their minimal thickness (approximately 6 microns sans substrate), is the ability to manufacture lightweight, flexible devices (approximately 2000 W/kg) using large-volume manufacturing techniques. The photovoltaic effort at Martin Marietta and ISET is discussed, including large-area, large-volume thin-film deposition techniques such as electrodeposition and rotating cylindrical magnetron sputtering. Progress in the development of flexible polycrystalline thin-film PV is presented, including evaluation of flexible CIS cells. In addition, progress on flexible CdTe cells is presented. Finally, examples of lightweight, flexible arrays and their potential cost and weight impact is discussed.

  19. Potential of thin-film solar cell module technology (United States)

    Shimada, K.; Ferber, R. R.; Costogue, E. N.


    During the past five years, thin-film cell technology has made remarkable progress as a potential alternative to crystalline silicon cell technology. The efficiency of a single-junction thin-film cell, which is the most promising for use in flat-plate modules, is now in the range of 11 percent with 1-sq cm cells consisting of amorphous silicon, CuInSe2 or CdTe materials. Cell efficiencies higher than 18 percent, suitable for 15 percent-efficient flat plate modules, would require a multijunction configuration such as the CdTe/CuInSe2 and tandem amorphous-silicon (a-Si) alloy cells. Assessments are presented of the technology status of thin-film-cell module research and the potential of achieving the higher efficiencies required for large-scale penetration into the photovoltaic (PV) energy market.

  20. Determination of magnetic properties of multilayer metallic thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Birlikseven, C


    and magnetization measurements were taken. In recent year, Giant Magnetoresistance Effect has been attracting an increasingly high interest. High sensitivity magnetic field detectors and high sensitivity read heads of magnetic media can be named as important applications of these films. In this work, magnetic and electrical properties of single layer and thin films were investigated. Multilayer thin films were supplied by Prof. Dr. A. Riza Koeymen from Texas University. Multilayer magnetic thin films are used especially for magnetic reading and magnetic writing. storing of large amount of information into small areas become possible with this technology. Single layer films were prepared using the electron beam evaporation technique. For the exact determination of film thicknesses, a careful calibration of the thicknesses was made. Magnetic properties of the multilayer films were studied using the magnetization, magnetoresistance measurements and ferromagnetic resonance technique. Besides, by fitting the exper...

  1. Deposition and characterisation of epitaxial oxide thin films for SOFCs

    KAUST Repository

    Santiso, José


    This paper reviews the recent advances in the use of thin films, mostly epitaxial, for fundamental studies of materials for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) applications. These studies include the influence of film microstructure, crystal orientation and strain in oxide ionic conducting materials used as electrolytes, such as fluorites, and in mixed ionic and electronic conducting materials used as electrodes, typically oxides with perovskite or perovskite-related layered structures. The recent effort towards the enhancement of the electrochemical performance of SOFC materials through the deposition of artificial film heterostructures is also presented. These thin films have been engineered at a nanoscale level, such as the case of epitaxial multilayers or nanocomposite cermet materials. The recent progress in the implementation of thin films in SOFC devices is also reported. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  2. Robust lanthanide emitters in polyelectrolyte thin films for photonic applications (United States)

    Greenspon, Andrew S.; Marceaux, Brandt L.; Hu, Evelyn L.


    Trivalent lanthanides provide stable emission sources at wavelengths spanning the ultraviolet through the near infrared with uses in telecommunications, lighting, and biological sensing and imaging. We describe a method for incorporating an organometallic lanthanide complex within polyelectrolyte multilayers, producing uniform, optically active thin films on a variety of substrates. These films demonstrate excellent emission with narrow linewidths, stable over a period of months, even when bound to metal substrates. Utilizing different lanthanides such as europium and terbium, we are able to easily tune the resulting wavelength of emission of the thin film. These results demonstrate the suitability of this platform as a thin film emitter source for a variety of photonic applications such as waveguides, optical cavities, and sensors.

  3. Thin Film Solar Cells and their Optical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Jurecka


    Full Text Available In this work we report on the optical parameters of the semiconductor thin film for solar cell applications determination. The method is based on the dynamical modeling of the spectral reflectance function combined with the stochastic optimization of the initial reflectance model estimation. The spectral dependency of the thin film optical parameters computations is based on the optical transitions modeling. The combination of the dynamical modeling and the stochastic optimization of the initial theoretical model estimation enable comfortable analysis of the spectral dependencies of the optical parameters and incorporation of the microstructure effects on the solar cell properties. The results of the optical parameters ofthe i-a-Si thin film determination are presented.

  4. Polymeric Thin Films for Organic Electronics: Properties and Adaptive Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Pignataro


    Full Text Available This review deals with the correlation between morphology, structure and performance of organic electronic devices including thin film transistors and solar cells. In particular, we report on solution processed devices going into the role of the 3D supramolecular organization in determining their electronic properties. A selection of case studies from recent literature are reviewed, relying on solution methods for organic thin-film deposition which allow fine control of the supramolecular aggregation of polymers confined at surfaces in nanoscopic layers. A special focus is given to issues exploiting morphological structures stemming from the intrinsic polymeric dynamic adaptation under non-equilibrium conditions.

  5. Thin films growth parameters in MAPLE; application to fibrinogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jelinek, M [Institute of Physics ASCR, Na Slovance 2, 182 21Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Cristescu, R [Institute of Physics ASCR, Na Slovance 2, 182 21Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Kocourek, T [Institute of Physics ASCR, Na Slovance 2, 182 21Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Vorlicek, V [Institute of Physics ASCR, Na Slovance 2, 182 21Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Remsa, J [Institute of Physics ASCR, Na Slovance 2, 182 21Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Stamatin, L [Longhin Scarlat Dermato-Venerologic Hospital, Bucharest (Romania); Mihaiescu, D [University of Agriculture Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, 59 Marasti, Bucharest (Romania); Stamatin, I [University of Bucharest, Faculty of Physics, PO Box MG-11, 3Nano-SAE, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Mihailescu, I N [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, MG-36, RO-77125, Bucharest (Romania); Chrisey, D B [Naval Research Laboratory, Code 6851 Washington, DC 20375 (United States)


    Increasingly requirements on the thin film quality of functionalized materials are efficiently met by a novel laser processing technique - Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE). Examples of deposition conditions and main features characteristic to film growth rate of MAPLE-fabricated organic materials are summarized. MAPLE experimental results are compared with ones corresponding to the classical Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD). In particular, the results of investigation of MAPLE-deposited fibrinogen blood protein thin films using a KrF* excimer laser and characterized by FTIR and Raman spectrometry are reported.

  6. Vertically integrated thin film color sensor arrays for imaging applications. (United States)

    Knipp, Dietmar; Street, Robert A; Stiebig, Helmut; Krause, Mathias; Lu, Jeng-Ping; Ready, Steve; Ho, Jackson


    Large area color sensor arrays based on vertically integrated thin-film sensors were realized. The complete color information of each color pixel is detected at the same position of the sensor array without using optical filters. The sensor arrays consist of amorphous silicon thin film color sensors integrated on top of amorphous silicon readout transistors. The spectral sensitivity of the sensors is controlled by the applied bias voltage. The operating principle of the color sensor arrays is described. Furthermore, the image quality and the pixel cross talk of the sensor arrays is analyzed by measurements of the line spread function and the modulation transfer function.

  7. Effects of humidity during photoprocessing on thin film metallization adhesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norwood, D.P.


    Humidity effects during photoprocessing on tantalum/chromium/gold thin film networks (TFNs) were investigated. Humidity conditions at various process steps were controlled by placing either desiccant or water in handling containers for the TFNs. The TFNs photoprocessed in humid conditions had a much higher occurrence of metallization failures compared to TFNs processed in dry conditions. Ceramic surface defects were shown to cause pores in the thin films, and these pores enhanced corrosion susceptibility for the films. This study resulted in a desiccated storage process for production of TFNs.

  8. Morphological Study Of Palladium Thin Films Deposited By Sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salcedo, K L; Rodriguez, C A [Grupo Plasma Laser y Aplicaciones, Ingenieria Fisica, Universidad Tecnologica de Pereira (Colombia); Perez, F A [WNANO, West Virginia University (United States); Riascos, H [Grupo Plasma Laser y Aplicaciones, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Tecnologica de Pereira (Colombia)


    This paper presents a morphological analysis of thin films of palladium (Pd) deposited on a substrate of sapphire (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) at a constant pressure of 3.5 mbar at different substrate temperatures (473 K, 523 K and 573 K). The films were morphologically characterized by means of an Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM); finding a relation between the roughness and the temperature. A morphological analysis of the samples through AFM was carried out and the roughness was measured by simulating the X-ray reflectivity curve using GenX software. A direct relation between the experimental and simulation data of the Palladium thin films was found.

  9. Investigation of thin film energy-saving coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bukhmirov Vyacheslav


    Full Text Available The report presents the results of an experimental study of the thermophysical properties and energy efficiency of thin-film energy-saving coatings consisting of hollow microspheres and a binder material from styrene-acrylic dispersion. The value of the thermal conductivity coefficient of the energy-saving paint is estimated depending on its composition and temperature, and the thermal diffusivity coefficient is determined. Experimental results of energy efficiency of using thin-film coatings for insulation of facades of buildings and as thermal insulation for pipelines with a hot coolant are presented.

  10. Synthesis of thin films by the pyrosol process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tucić Aleksandar


    Full Text Available Among many aerosol routes, the Pyrosol process, due to its simplicity, low cost and quality of obtained films, represents a promising technique for the synthesis of thin films. The pyrosol process is based on the transport and pyrolysls of an aerosol of processor solution, generated in an ultrasonic atomizer, on a heated substrate. The theoretical principles of the pyrosol process are presented in this paper, as well as the influence of some synthesis parameters on the deposition of SnO2 thin films.

  11. Progress and issues in polycrystalline thin-film PV technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zweibel, K.; Ullal, H.S.; Roedern, B. von [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)


    Substantial progress has occurred in polycrystalline thin-film photovoltaic technologies in the past 18 months. However, the transition to first-time manufacturing is still under way, and technical problems continue. This paper focuses on the promise and the problems of the copper indium diselenide and cadmium telluride technologies, with an emphasis on continued R&D needs for the near-term transition to manufacturing and for next-generation improvements. In addition, it highlights the joint R&D efforts being performed in the U.S. Department of Energy/National Renewable Energy Laboratory Thin-Film Photovoltaic Partnership Program.

  12. Anomalous Structure of Palladium-Capped Magnesium Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuki Yoshimura


    Full Text Available Pd capped pure Mg thin film (50 nm thick was prepared by magnetron sputtering and its hydrogenation at room temperature has been investigated. After exposure to 4% hydrogen gas diluted by argon, the Pd/Mg thin films show drastic optical changes from the metallic state to the transparent state within five seconds by hydrogenation. Transmission electron microscope observation reveals that this sample has an anomalous structure; Mg grain is surrounded by Pd. This structure may be the reason why Pd/Mg films can be hydrogenated so quickly at room temperature.

  13. Terahertz study of hole transport in pentacene thin films (United States)

    Engelbrecht, Stefan G.; Prinz, Markus; Arend, Thomas R.; Kersting, Roland


    Terahertz electromodulation spectroscopy is a novel tool for studying charge carrier transport in polycrys­talline thin films. The technique selectively probes the high-frequency response of mobile carriers and is insensitive to scattering at grain boundaries as well as to trapping processes. In thin films of pentacene we find a hole mobility of 21 cm2 /Vs, which exceeds the largest previously reported values obtained in poly­ crystalline pentacene. Additionally, the data provide an upper limit of the hole conductivity effective mass of mh ≍ 0.8 me.

  14. CZTS nanoparticle absorber layer for thin film solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Symonowicz, Joanna; Jensen, Kirsten M. Ørnsbjerg; Engberg, Sara Lena Josefin

    Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin film solar cells have the potential to revolutionize the solar energy market. They are cheap, non-toxic and present an efficiency up to 9,2% [1]. However, to commercialize CZTS nanoparticle thin films, the efficiency issues must yet be resolved. There are various fabrication...... is furthermore characterized. Photoluminescence measurements indicate which absorber layer are of higher efficiency, which allows us to study why some crystalline configurations enhance the efficiency of resulting solar cells....

  15. Domain structure and magnetotransport in epitaxial colossal magnetoresistance thin films


    Suzuki, Yuri; Wu, Yan; Yu, Jun; Rüdiger, Ulrich; Kent, Andrew D.; Nath, Tapan K.; Eom, Chang-Beom


    Our studies of compressively strained La0.7 Sr0.3 MnO7 (LSMO) thin films reveal the importance of domain structure and strain effects in the magnetization reversal and magnetotransport. Normal and grazing incidence x-ray diffraction indicate that the compressive strain on these LSMO thin films on (100) LaAlO3 is not completely relaxed up to thicknesses on the order of 1000 Å. The effect of the compressive strain is evident in the shape of the magnetization loops and the magnetotransport measu...

  16. Morphology of nanocermet thin films: X-ray scattering study (United States)

    Hazra, S.; Gibaud, A.; Désert, A.; Sella, C.; Naudon, A.


    The morphology of ceramic-metal (cermet) thin films is studied by surface-sensitive X-ray scattering techniques. Grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) experiments carried out at LURE with a 2D detector show that metal clusters of nanometer size, known as nanoparticles, are dispersed in the thin film. Analyses of the X-ray reflectivity along with the diffuse scattering allow to predict the formation of layers of nanoparticles along the growth direction of the films. The formation of such cumulative-disordered layers in one direction is likely to be related to the boundary condition in the reduced dimension.

  17. Morphological Study Of Palladium Thin Films Deposited By Sputtering (United States)

    Salcedo, K. L.; Rodríguez, C. A.; Perez, F. A.; Riascos, H.


    This paper presents a morphological analysis of thin films of palladium (Pd) deposited on a substrate of sapphire (Al2O3) at a constant pressure of 3.5 mbar at different substrate temperatures (473 K, 523 K and 573 K). The films were morphologically characterized by means of an Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM); finding a relation between the roughness and the temperature. A morphological analysis of the samples through AFM was carried out and the roughness was measured by simulating the X-ray reflectivity curve using GenX software. A direct relation between the experimental and simulation data of the Palladium thin films was found.

  18. All-solution-processed flexible thin film piezoelectric nanogenerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Sung Yun; Kim, Sunyoung; Kim, Kyongjun [Program in Nano Science and Technology, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ju-Hyuck; Kim, Sang-Woo [SKKU Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology, School of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University (SKKU), Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Chong-Yun; Yoon, Seok-Jin [Electronic Materials Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Youn Sang [Program in Nano Science and Technology, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Advanced Institutes of Convergence Technology, 864-1 Iui-dong, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do 443-270 (Korea, Republic of)


    An all-solution-processed flexible thin film piezoelectric nanogenerator is demonstrated using reactive zinc hydroxo-condensation and a screen-printing method. The highly elastic thin film allows the piezoelectric energy to be generated through the mechanical rolling and muscle stretching of the piezoelectric unit. This flexible all solution-processed nanogenerator is promising for use in future energy harvesters such as wearable human patches and mobile electronics. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. Ti-Cr-Al-O Thin Film Resistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jankowski, A F; Hayes, J P


    Thin films of Ti-Cr-Al-O are produced for use as an electrical resistor material. The films are rf sputter deposited from ceramic targets using a reactive working gas mixture of Ar and O{sub 2}. Vertical resistivity values from 10{sup 4} to 10{sup 10} Ohm-cm are measured for Ti-Cr-Al-O films. The film resistivity can be design selected through control of the target composition and the deposition parameters. The Ti-Cr-Al-O thin film resistor is found to be thermally stable unlike other metal-oxide films.

  20. Lithium Oxysilicate Compounds Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apblett, Christopher A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Coyle, Jaclyn [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    In this study, the structure and composition of lithium silicate thin films deposited by RF magnetron co-sputtering is investigated. Five compositions ranging from Li2Si2O5 to Li8SiO6 were confirmed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and structure analysis on the evolution of non-bridging oxygens in the thin films was conducted with fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. It was found that non-bridging oxygens (NBOs) increased as the silicate network breaks apart with increasing lithium content which agrees with previous studies on lithium silicates. Thin film impurities were examined with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time of flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (TOFSIMS) and traced back to target synthesis. This study utilizes a unique synthesis technique for lithium silicate thin films and can be referred to in future studies on the ionic conductivity of lithium silicates formed on the surface of silicon anodes in lithium ion batteries.

  1. Metallic Membranes for High Temperature Hydrogen Separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Y.H.; Catalano, Jacopo; Guazzone, Federico


    Composite palladium membranes have extensively been studied in laboratories and, more recently, in small pilot industrial applications for the high temperature separation of hydrogen from reactant mixtures such as water-gas shift (WGS) reaction or methane steam reforming (MSR). Composite Pd...... membrane fabrication methods have matured over the last decades, and the deposition of very thin films (1–5 µm) of Pd over porous ceramics or modified porous metal supports is quite common. The H2 permeances and the selectivities achieved at 400–500 °C were in the order of 50–100 Nm3/m/h/bar0.5 and greater...... than 1000, respectively. This chapter describes in detail composite Pd-based membrane preparation methods, which consist of the grading of the support and the deposition of the dense metal layer, their performances, and their applications in catalytic membrane reactors (CMRs) at high temperatures (400...

  2. Fabrication and characterization of borocarbide thin films grown by in-situ process

    CERN Document Server

    Arisawa, S; Togano, K


    We have reported on the fabrication of thin films of YNi sub 2 B sub 2 C for the first time. The process, however, requires the post-annealing at 1050 .deg. C. It is preferable to avoid such a high temperature for practical device applications and we are aiming at establishing an in-situ process at lower temperatures. To obtain films with higher T sub c , it is very important to know the relationship between what we choose as substrates and what we get on them. Three kinds of substrates, polished MgO, unpolished MgO, and polished SrTiO sub 3 were adopted. As for former 2 kinds of substates, superconductive films were successfully fabricated with the T sub c of approx 11K. Further, we discuss the fabrication of thin films of YPd sub 2 B sub 2 C on SrTiO sub 3 substrate. We tried to synthesize the films of the Pd system by RF sputtering technique as well. So far, it is uncertain whether or not the 1221 phase exists in the films. However, the slight reduction of the resistance was observed at 23 K, which is almo...

  3. Mn-doped Ge self-assembled quantum dots via dewetting of thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aouassa, Mansour, E-mail: [LMON, Faculté des Sciences de Monastir, Avenue de l’environnement Monastir 5019 (Tunisia); Jadli, Imen [LMON, Faculté des Sciences de Monastir, Avenue de l’environnement Monastir 5019 (Tunisia); Bandyopadhyay, Anup [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Kim, Sung Kyu [Center for Nanomaterials and Chemical Reactions, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Yuseong-daero 1689-gil, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, KAIST 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Karaman, Ibrahim [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Lee, Jeong Yong [Center for Nanomaterials and Chemical Reactions, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Yuseong-daero 1689-gil, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, KAIST 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    Highlights: • We report the new fabrication approach for producing a self- assembled Mn dpoed Ge quantum dots (QDs) on SiO{sub 2} thin film with a Curie temperature above room temperature. These magnetic QDs are crystalline, monodisperse and have a well-defined shape and a controlled size. The investigation opens new routes for elaboration of self-assembled magnetic nanocrystals - Abstract: In this study, we demonstrate an original elaboration route for producing a Mn-doped Ge self-assembled quantum dots on SiO{sub 2} thin layer for MOS structure. These magnetic quantum dots are elaborated using dewetting phenomenon at solid state by Ultra-High Vacuum (UHV) annealing at high temperature of an amorphous Ge:Mn (Mn: 40%) nanolayer deposed at very low temperature by high-precision Solid Source Molecular Beam Epitaxy on SiO{sub 2} thin film. The size of quantum dots is controlled with nanometer scale precision by varying the nominal thickness of amorphous film initially deposed. The magnetic properties of the quantum-dots layer have been investigated by superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), x-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (XEDS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to examine the nanostructure of these materials. Obtained results indicate that GeMn QDs are crystalline, monodisperse and exhibit a ferromagnetic behavior with a Curie temperature (TC) above room temperature. They could be integrated into spintronic technology.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balk, Thomas


    The mechanical behavior of materials with small dimension(s) is of both fundamental scientific interest and technological relevance. The size effects and novel properties that arise from changes in deformation mechanism have important implications for modern technologies such as thin films for microelectronics and MEMS devices, thermal and tribological coatings, materials for energy production and advanced batteries, etc. The overarching goal of the 2012 Gordon Research Conference on "Thin Film and Small Scale Mechanical Behavior" is to discuss recent studies and future opportunities regarding elastic, plastic and time-dependent deformation, as well as degradation and failure mechanisms such as fatigue, fracture and wear. Specific topics of interest include, but are not limited to: fundamental studies of physical mechanisms governing small-scale mechanical behavior; advances in test techniques for materials at small length scales, such as nanotribology and high-temperature nanoindentation; in-situ mechanical testing and characterization; nanomechanics of battery materials, such as swelling-induced phenomena and chemomechanical behavior; flexible electronics; mechanical properties of graphene and carbon-based materials; mechanical behavior of small-scale biological structures and biomimetic materials. Both experimental and computational work will be included in the oral and poster presentations at this Conference.

  5. The Effect of Thermal Annealing Processes on Structural and Photoluminescence of Zinc Oxide Thin Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huai-Shan Chin


    Full Text Available This study used radio frequency sputtering at room temperature to prepare a zinc oxide (ZnO thin film. After deposition, the thin film was placed in a high-temperature furnace to undergo thermal annealing at different temperatures (300, 400, 500, and 600°C and for different dwelling times (15, 30, 45, and 60 min. The objective was to explore the effects that the described process had on the thin film’s internal structure and luminescence properties. A scanning electron microscope topographic image showed that the size of the ZnO crystals grew with increases in either the thermal annealing temperature or the dwelling time. However, significant differences in the levels of influence caused by increasing the thermal annealing temperature or dwelling time existed; the thermal annealing temperature had a greater effect on crystal growth when compared to the dwelling time. Furthermore, the crystallization directions of ZnO (002, (101, (102, and (103 can be clearly observed through an X-ray diffraction analysis, and crystallization strength increased with an increase in the thermal annealing temperature. The photoluminescence measurement spectra showed that ultraviolet (UV emission intensity increased with increases in thermal annealing temperature and dwelling time. However, when the thermal annealing temperature reached 600°C or when the dwelling time reached 60 min, even exhibited a weak green light emission peak.

  6. High-quality crystalline rubrene thin film on electron-irradiated PS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyeok Moo; Kim, Yong Nam; Kim, Jae Joon; Cho, Sung Oh [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    From much of recent works, it was found that charge carrier transport in organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) is strongly affected by the first several semiconductor monolayers next to the semiconductor insulator interface. Among the interfacial factors, insulator surface roughness, surface energy, surface polarity and dielectric constant of dielectrics are considered as important parameters to affect performance of the OTFT. Thus, recently, a lot of efforts to optimize the conditions of surface of dielectrics using various treatment techniques have been performed. Among these techniques, surface modification using polymeric materials is very simple and qualities of polymer surface are hardly affected by preparation conditions. However, surface chain segmental motions near the glass transition temperature disrupts the growth of large-grain morphologies leading low carrier mobility. Thus, there is limitation in temperature to fabricate the organic semiconductor active layer. Here we present a strategy to fabricate high-quality crystalline rubrene thin film using combination of abrupt heating technique and electron irradiation of common homopolymer dielectrics of polystyrene (PS). Electron irradiation induces crosslinking of hydrocarbon chains of PS that restricts chain segmental motion even at the high temperature of 170 .deg. C. Through this method, high quality crystalline rubrene film can be remarkably rapidly produced on PS/SiO{sub 2} bilayer dielectrics in just 1 min

  7. Effects of crystallinity and impurities on the electrical conductivity of Li–La–Zr–O thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Joong Sun, E-mail: [Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Cheng, Lei [Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Department of Material Sciences and Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Zorba, Vassilia [Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Mehta, Apurva [Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Cabana, Jordi [Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Chicago, IL 60607 (United States); Chen, Guoying; Doeff, Marca M.; Richardson, Thomas J. [Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Park, Jung Hoon [Department of Nano-Science and Technology, University of Seoul, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Son, Ji-Won [High-Temperature Energy Materials Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136–791 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Wan-Shick, E-mail: [Department of Nano-Science and Technology, University of Seoul, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    We present a study of the fabrication of thin films from a Li{sub 7}La{sub 3}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 12} (LLZO) target using pulsed laser deposition. The effects of substrate temperatures and impurities on electrochemical properties of the films were investigated. The thin films of Li–La–Zr–O were deposited at room temperature and higher temperatures on a variety of substrates. Deposition above 600 °C resulted in a mixture of cubic and tetragonal phases of LLZO, as well as a La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} impurity, and resulted in aluminum enrichment at the surface when Al-containing substrates were used. Films deposited at 600 °C exhibited the highest room temperature conductivity, 1.61 × 10{sup −6} S/cm. The chemical stability toward metallic lithium was also studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, which showed that the oxidation state of zirconium remained at + 4 following physical contact with heated lithium metal. - Highlights: • Thin film Li–La–Zr–O was deposited by pulsed laser deposition using Li{sub 7}La{sub 3}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 12}. • Deposition above 600 °C resulted in cubic and tetragonal phases of Li{sub 7}La{sub 3}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 12}. • Aluminum migration from the substrate to the film surface was observed. • The chemical stability toward lithium was studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  8. Flexible Electronics Powered by Mixed Metal Oxide Thin Film Transistors (United States)

    Marrs, Michael

    A low temperature amorphous oxide thin film transistor (TFT) and amorphous silicon PIN diode backplane technology for large area flexible digital x-ray detectors has been developed to create 7.9-in. diagonal backplanes. The critical steps in the evolution of the backplane process include the qualification and optimization of the low temperature (200 °C) metal oxide TFT and a-Si PIN photodiode process, the stability of the devices under forward and reverse bias stress, the transfer of the process to flexible plastic substrates, and the fabrication and assembly of the flexible detectors. Mixed oxide semiconductor TFTs on flexible plastic substrates suffer from performance and stability issues related to the maximum processing temperature limitation of the polymer. A novel device architecture based upon a dual active layer improves both the performance and stability. Devices are directly fabricated below 200 ºC on a polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) substrate using mixed metal oxides of either zinc indium oxide (ZIO) or indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) as the active semiconductor. The dual active layer architecture allows for adjustment to the saturation mobility and threshold voltage stability without the requirement of high temperature annealing, which is not compatible with flexible plastic substrates like PEN. The device performance and stability is strongly dependent upon the composition of the mixed metal oxide; this dependency provides a simple route to improving the threshold voltage stability and drive performance. By switching from a single to a dual active layer, the saturation mobility increases from 1.2 cm2/V-s to 18.0 cm2/V-s, while the rate of the threshold voltage shift decreases by an order of magnitude. This approach could assist in enabling the production of devices on flexible substrates using amorphous oxide semiconductors. Low temperature (200°C) processed amorphous silicon photodiodes were developed successfully by balancing the tradeoffs

  9. Multicomponent Nanostructured Thin Films. Deposition, Characterization, Testing and Application (United States)

    Shtansky, D. V.

    The current topics related to the deposition, characterization, testing and application of tribological coatings are reviewed and refer to our recent results on nanostructured (Ti,Cr)-(Al,Si,Zr,Ca)-(C,B,N,O) thin films. The PVD targets based on the systems TiN+TiB2, TiB2+TiC, Ti5Si3+Ti, Ti5Si3+TiN, TiB2+Ti5Si3+Si, TiB2+Si, Ti5Si3+TiC, TiAl+TiC, TiB+Ti9Cr4B+Cr2Ti, CrB2, TiB2+TiAl+Ti2AlN, TiC+Ti3SiC2+TiSi2, TiC0.5+ZrO2, TiC0.5+CaO, Ti5Si3+ZrO2 were manufactured by means of self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS). The BN and WSex films were deposited using a sintered hexagonal BN and a cold pressed WSe2 target, respectively. Multicomponent films were deposited by DC magnetron sputtering of composite targets either in an atmosphere of argon or reactively in a gaseous mixture of argon and nitrogen. The WSe2 films were deposited by PLD and ion-assisted PLD techniques. The microstructure and chemical composition of the films were studied by means of Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM), high-resolution (HR) TEM, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS). The films were also characterized in terms of their hardness, elastic modulus, elastic recovery, adhesion, surface topography, friction and wear. Particular attention was paid to the analysis of the structure of the films in the nanometric scale and the evaluation of the properties of the individual nanostructures. Three groups of films are considered: 1) nanostructured hard, tribological coatings for civilian engineering Ti-B-N, Ti-Cr-B-N, Ti-Si-N, Ti-Al-B-N, Ti-Si-C-N, Ti-Si-B-N, BN and Cr-B-N; 2) double-layer self-lubricating coatings for civilian air force and space industry WSex/TiC, WSex/TiCN, WSex/TiSiN and 3) biocompatible coatings for medicine Ti-Ca-C-N-O, Ti-Zr-C-N-O, and Ti-Zr-Si-O-N.

  10. Thermodynamic and kinetic anisotropies in octane thin films (United States)

    Haji-Akbari, Amir; Debenedetti, Pablo G.


    Confinement breaks the translational symmetry of materials, making all thermodynamic and kinetic quantities functions of position. Such symmetry breaking can be used to obtain configurations that are not otherwise accessible in the bulk. Here, we use computer simulations to explore the effect of substrate-liquid interactions on thermodynamic and kinetic anisotropies induced by a solid substrate. We consider n-octane nano-films that are in contact with substrates with varying degrees of attraction, parameterized by an interaction parameter ɛS. Complete freezing of octane nano-films is observed at low temperatures, irrespective of ɛS, while at intermediate temperatures, a frozen monolayer emerges at solid-liquid and vapor-liquid interfaces. By carefully inspecting the profiles of translational and orientational relaxation times, we confirm that the translational and orientational degrees of freedom are decoupled at these frozen monolayers. At sufficiently high temperatures, however, free interfaces and solid-liquid interfaces close to loose (low-ɛS) substrates undergo "pre-freezing," characterized by mild peaks in several thermodynamic quantities. Two distinct dynamic regimes are observed at solid-liquid interfaces. The dynamics is accelerated in the vicinity of loose substrates, while sticky (high-ɛS) substrates decelerate dynamics, sometimes by as much as two orders of magnitude. These two distinct dynamical regimes have been previously reported by Haji-Akbari and Debenedetti [J. Chem. Phys. 141, 024506 (2014)] for a model atomic glass-forming liquid. We also confirm the existence of two correlations—proposed in the above-mentioned work—in solid-liquid subsurface regions of octane thin films, i.e., a correlation between atomic density and normal stress, and between atomic translational relaxation time and lateral stress. Finally, we inspect the ability of different regions of an octane film to explore the potential energy landscape by performing inherent

  11. Thermodynamic and kinetic anisotropies in octane thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haji-Akbari, Amir; Debenedetti, Pablo G., E-mail: [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)


    Confinement breaks the translational symmetry of materials, making all thermodynamic and kinetic quantities functions of position. Such symmetry breaking can be used to obtain configurations that are not otherwise accessible in the bulk. Here, we use computer simulations to explore the effect of substrate-liquid interactions on thermodynamic and kinetic anisotropies induced by a solid substrate. We consider n-octane nano-films that are in contact with substrates with varying degrees of attraction, parameterized by an interaction parameter ϵ{sub S}. Complete freezing of octane nano-films is observed at low temperatures, irrespective of ϵ{sub S}, while at intermediate temperatures, a frozen monolayer emerges at solid-liquid and vapor-liquid interfaces. By carefully inspecting the profiles of translational and orientational relaxation times, we confirm that the translational and orientational degrees of freedom are decoupled at these frozen monolayers. At sufficiently high temperatures, however, free interfaces and solid-liquid interfaces close to loose (low-ϵ{sub S}) substrates undergo “pre-freezing,” characterized by mild peaks in several thermodynamic quantities. Two distinct dynamic regimes are observed at solid-liquid interfaces. The dynamics is accelerated in the vicinity of loose substrates, while sticky (high-ϵ{sub S}) substrates decelerate dynamics, sometimes by as much as two orders of magnitude. These two distinct dynamical regimes have been previously reported by Haji-Akbari and Debenedetti [J. Chem. Phys. 141, 024506 (2014)] for a model atomic glass-forming liquid. We also confirm the existence of two correlations—proposed in the above-mentioned work—in solid-liquid subsurface regions of octane thin films, i.e., a correlation between atomic density and normal stress, and between atomic translational relaxation time and lateral stress. Finally, we inspect the ability of different regions of an octane film to explore the potential energy

  12. Lithium (United States)

    Lithium is used to treat and prevent episodes of mania (frenzied, abnormally excited mood) in people with ... depression, episodes of mania, and other abnormal moods). Lithium is in a class of medications called antimanic ...

  13. Lithium (United States)

    Bradley, Dwight C.; Stillings, Lisa L.; Jaskula, Brian W.; Munk, LeeAnn; McCauley, Andrew D.; Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung, John H.; Seal, Robert R.; Bradley, Dwight C.


    Lithium, the lightest of all metals, is used in air treatment, batteries, ceramics, glass, metallurgy, pharmaceuticals, and polymers. Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries are particularly important in efforts to reduce global warming because they make it possible to power cars and trucks from renewable sources of energy (for example, hydroelectric, solar, or wind) instead of by burning fossil fuels. Today, lithium is extracted from brines that are pumped from beneath arid sedimentary basins and extracted from granitic pegmatite ores. The leading producer of lithium from brine is Chile, and the leading producer of lithium from pegmatites is Australia. Other potential sources of lithium include clays, geothermal brines, oilfield brines, and zeolites. Worldwide resources of lithium are estimated to be more than 39 million metric tons, which is enough to meet projected demand to the year 2100. The United States is not a major producer at present but has significant lithium resources.

  14. Microwave Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition of Nano-Structured Sn/C Composite Thin-Film Anodes for Li-ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevenson, Cynthia; Marcinek, M.; Hardwick, L.J.; Richardson, T.J.; Song, X.; Kostecki, R.


    In this paper we report results of a novel synthesis method of thin-film composite Sn/C anodes for lithium batteries. Thin layers of graphitic carbon decorated with uniformly distributed Sn nanoparticles were synthesized from a solid organic precursor Sn(IV) tert-butoxide by a one step microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD). The thin-film Sn/C electrodes were electrochemically tested in lithium half cells and produced a reversible capacity of 440 and 297 mAhg{sup -1} at C/25 and 5C discharge rates, respectively. A long term cycling of the Sn/C nanocomposite anodes showed 40% capacity loss after 500 cycles at 1C rate.

  15. CISSY: A station for preparation and surface/interface analysis of thin film materials and devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iver Lauermann


    Full Text Available The CISSY end station combines thin film deposition (sputtering, molecular beam epitaxy ambient-pressure methods with surface and bulk-sensitive analysis (photo emission, x-ray emission, x-ray absorption in the same UHV system, allowing fast and contamination–free transfer between deposition and analysis. It is mainly used for the fabrication and characterization of thin film devices and their components like thin film photovoltaic cells, water-splitting devices and other functional thin film materials.

  16. Characterization of ion-assisted induced absorption in A-Si thin-films used for multivariate optical computing (United States)

    Nayak, Aditya B.; Price, James M.; Dai, Bin; Perkins, David; Chen, Ding Ding; Jones, Christopher M.


    Multivariate optical computing (MOC), an optical sensing technique for analog calculation, allows direct and robust measurement of chemical and physical properties of complex fluid samples in high-pressure/high-temperature (HP/HT) downhole environments. The core of this MOC technology is the integrated computational element (ICE), an optical element with a wavelength-dependent transmission spectrum designed to allow the detector to respond sensitively and specifically to the analytes of interest. A key differentiator of this technology is it uses all of the information present in the broadband optical spectrum to determine the proportion of the analyte present in a complex fluid mixture. The detection methodology is photometric in nature; therefore, this technology does not require a spectrometer to measure and record a spectrum or a computer to perform calculations on the recorded optical spectrum. The integrated computational element is a thin-film optical element with a specific optical response function designed for each analyte. The optical response function is achieved by fabricating alternating layers of high-index (a-Si) and low-index (SiO2) thin films onto a transparent substrate (BK7 glass) using traditional thin-film manufacturing processes (e.g., ion-assisted e-beam vacuum deposition). A proprietary software and process are used to control the thickness and material properties, including the optical constants of the materials during deposition to achieve the desired optical response function. The ion-assisted deposition is useful for controlling the densification of the film, stoichiometry, and material optical constants as well as to achieve high deposition growth rates and moisture-stable films. However, the ion-source can induce undesirable absorption in the film; and subsequently, modify the optical constants of the material during the ramp-up and stabilization period of the e-gun and ion-source, respectively. This paper characterizes the unwanted

  17. Thermal stability of gold-PS nanocomposites thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The composite thin films were prepared by wet chemical approach and the samples were then subsequently spin-coated on a carbon-coated copper grid for TEM measurements. TEM measurements were performed at liquid nitrogen temperatures to reduce the electron–beam-induced radiation damage. The results showed ...

  18. fabrication and performance study of uniform thin film integrated filters

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    structure and theoretical analysis of the same using a general transmission line model. Further experimental study of the fabricated structure has been done and it has been observed that theoretical and experimental results are in good agreement. 2. ANALYSIS OF THE THIN FILM. FILTERS: A unidirectional transmission ...

  19. Vertical III-nitride thin-film power diode (United States)

    Wierer, Jr., Jonathan; Fischer, Arthur J.; Allerman, Andrew A.


    A vertical III-nitride thin-film power diode can hold off high voltages (kV's) when operated under reverse bias. The III-nitride device layers can be grown on a wider bandgap template layer and growth substrate, which can be removed by laser lift-off of the epitaxial device layers grown thereon.

  20. Characterization of polymer thin films obtained by pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palla-Papavlu, A., E-mail: [NILPRP, National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Street, PO Box MG-16, Zip RO-077125, Magurele, Bucharest (Romania); Dinca, V.; Ion, V.; Moldovan, A.; Mitu, B.; Luculescu, C.; Dinescu, M. [NILPRP, National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Street, PO Box MG-16, Zip RO-077125, Magurele, Bucharest (Romania)


    The development of laser techniques for the deposition of polymer and biomaterial thin films on solid surfaces in a controlled manner has attracted great attention during the last few years. Here we report the deposition of thin polymer films, namely Polyepichlorhydrin by pulsed laser deposition. Polyepichlorhydrin polymer was deposited on flat substrate (i.e. silicon) using an NdYAG laser (266 nm, 5 ns pulse duration and 10 Hz repetition rate). The obtained thin films have been characterized by atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry. It was found that for laser fluences up to 1.5 J/cm{sup 2} the chemical structure of the deposited polyepichlorhydrin polymer thin layers resembles to the native polymer, whilst by increasing the laser fluence above 1.5 J/cm{sup 2} the polyepichlorohydrin films present deviations from the bulk polymer. Morphological investigations (atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy) reveal continuous polyepichlorhydrin thin films for a relatively narrow range of fluences (1-1.5 J/cm{sup 2}). The wavelength dependence of the refractive index and extinction coefficient was determined by ellipsometry studies which lead to new insights about the material. The obtained results indicate that pulsed laser deposition method is potentially useful for the fabrication of polymer thin films to be used in applications including electronics, microsensor or bioengineering industries.

  1. Characterization of polymer thin films obtained by pulsed laser deposition (United States)

    Palla-Papavlu, A.; Dinca, V.; Ion, V.; Moldovan, A.; Mitu, B.; Luculescu, C.; Dinescu, M.


    The development of laser techniques for the deposition of polymer and biomaterial thin films on solid surfaces in a controlled manner has attracted great attention during the last few years. Here we report the deposition of thin polymer films, namely Polyepichlorhydrin by pulsed laser deposition. Polyepichlorhydrin polymer was deposited on flat substrate (i.e. silicon) using an NdYAG laser (266 nm, 5 ns pulse duration and 10 Hz repetition rate). The obtained thin films have been characterized by atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry. It was found that for laser fluences up to 1.5 J/cm 2 the chemical structure of the deposited polyepichlorhydrin polymer thin layers resembles to the native polymer, whilst by increasing the laser fluence above 1.5 J/cm 2 the polyepichlorohydrin films present deviations from the bulk polymer. Morphological investigations (atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy) reveal continuous polyepichlorhydrin thin films for a relatively narrow range of fluences (1-1.5 J/cm 2). The wavelength dependence of the refractive index and extinction coefficient was determined by ellipsometry studies which lead to new insights about the material. The obtained results indicate that pulsed laser deposition method is potentially useful for the fabrication of polymer thin films to be used in applications including electronics, microsensor or bioengineering industries.

  2. Photoelectrochemical (PEC) studies on CdSe thin films ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Bull. Mater. Sci., Vol. 30, No. 4, August 2007, pp. 321–327. © Indian Academy of Sciences. 321. Photoelectrochemical (PEC) studies on CdSe thin films electrodeposited from non-aqueous bath on different substrates. Y G GUDAGE, N G DESHPANDE, A A SAGADE, R P SHARMA*, S M PAWAR. † and. C H BHOSALE.

  3. Optical characteristics of transparent samarium oxide thin films ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Optical characteristics of transparent samarium oxide thin films deposited by the radio-frequency sputtering technique. A A ATTA M M EL-NAHASS KHALED M ELSABAWY M M ABD EL-RAHEEM A M HASSANIEN A ALHUTHALI ALI BADAWI AMAR MERAZGA. Regular Volume 87 Issue 5 November 2016 Article ID 72 ...

  4. Optical characterisation of thin film cadmium oxide prepared by a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The optical transmission spectra of transparent conducting cadmium oxide (CdO) thin films deposited by a modified reactive evaporation process onto glass substrates have been measured. The interference fringes were used to calculate the refractive index, thickness variation, average thickness and absorption coefficient ...

  5. Optical Properties of Lead Silver Sulphide Ternary Thin Films ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lead Silver Sulphide (PbAgS) thin films on glass substrate have been deposited by chemical bath deposition technique with EDTA and TEA as complexing agents, while ammonium solution served as pH adjuster. The films were deposited at room temperature of 300K. The deposited films were characterized using UV ...

  6. Photoelectrochemical (PEC) studies on CdSe thin films ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 30; Issue 4. Photoelectrochemical (PEC) studies on CdSe thin films electrodeposited from non-aqueous bath on different substrates ... Optical absorption study showed that CdSe films were of direct band gap type semiconductor with a band gap energy of 1.8 eV.

  7. Magnetic and structural properties of Co nanocluster thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koch, SA; Palasantzas, G; Vystavel, T; De Hosson, JTM; Binns, C; Louch, S

    In this work we report on the magnetic characterization of thin films composed of gas-phase cobalt nanoclusters deposited on surfaces. Measurements of magnetization curves at ambient temperature indicate a strong exchange interaction between the clusters, while at cryogenic temperatures an exchange

  8. Transparent conducting oxide layers for thin film silicon solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rath, J.K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304830585; Liu, Y.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304831743; de Jong, M.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/325844208; de Wild, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314641378; Schuttauf, J.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314118039; Brinza, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304823325; Schropp, R.E.I.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072502584


    Texture etching of ZnO:1%Al layers using diluted HCl solution provides excellent TCOs with crater type surface features for the front contact of superstrate type of thin film silicon solar cells. The texture etched ZnO:Al definitely gives superior performance than Asahi SnO2:F TCO in case of

  9. Transparent conductive oxides for thin-film silicon solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Löffler, J.


    This thesis describes research on thin-film silicon solar cells with focus on the transparent conductive oxide (TCO) for such devices. In addition to the formation of a transparent and electrically conductive front electrode for the solar cell allowing photocurrent collection with low ohmic losses,

  10. Determination of oxygen diffusion kinetics during thin film ruthenium oxidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coloma Ribera, R.; van de Kruijs, Robbert Wilhelmus Elisabeth; Yakshin, Andrey; Bijkerk, Frederik


    In situ X-ray reflectivity was used to reveal oxygen diffusion kinetics for thermal oxidation of polycrystalline ruthenium thin films and accurate determination of activation energies for this process. Diffusion rates in nanometer thin RuO2 films were found to show Arrhenius behaviour. However, a

  11. Spatial atomic layer deposition of zinc oxide thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Illiberi, A.; Roozeboom, F.; Poodt, P.W.G.


    Zinc oxide thin films have been deposited at high growth rates (up to ~1 nm/s) by spatial atomic layer deposition technique at atmospheric pressure. Water has been used as oxidant for diethylzinc (DEZ) at deposition temperatures between 75 and 250 °C. The electrical, structural (crystallinity and

  12. Thin-film antifuses for pellistor type gas sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovalgin, Alexeij Y.; Holleman, J.; van den Berg, Albert; Wallinga, Hans


    This work extends our previously reported idea of using the nano-scale conductive link (antifuse) as a combined heating /detecting element in a Pellistor-type gas sensor. Our new thin-film antifuse is designed in such a way that the oxide, for minimising the bulk influence on surface temperature,

  13. Interpretation of the ultrafast photoinduced processes in pentacene thin films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhlman, Thomas Scheby; Kongsted, Jacob; Mikkelsen, Kurt V.


    Ambiguity remains in the models explaining the photoinduced dynamics in pentacene thin films as observed in pump-probe experiments. One model advocates exciton fission as governing the evolution of the initially excited species, whereas the other advocates the formation of an excimeric species su...

  14. Black Hole Entropy Calculation in a Modified Thin Film Model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Jan 27, 2016 ... The thin film model is modified to calculate the black hole entropy. The difference from the original method is that the Parikh–Wilczek tunnelling framework is introduced and the self-gravitation of the emission particles is taken into account. In terms of our improvement, if the entropy is still proportional to the ...

  15. plasma-oxygen interaction during thin films deposition by laser ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jun 30, 2012 ... reactive oxygen atmosphere is necessary to bring closer the thin films properties to that of the bulk state [2]. However, the beginning of this reactivity is observed to occur only at a certain oxygen pressure [3]. Author Correspondence, e-mail: ICID: 1020709. Journal of Fundamental and ...

  16. Student Difficulties in Analyzing Thin-Film Interference (United States)

    Newburgh, Ronald; Goodale, Douglass


    A question we posed in a recent final examination has uncovered a fundamental difficulty for students in understanding destructive interference. The problem stated that glass of index n[subscript 3] was coated with a thin film of a substance with index n[subscript 2]. The question then asked the student to calculate (a) the minimum coating…

  17. Gas sensing application of nanocrystalline zinc oxide thin films ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Experimental data revealed the sensors to be more selective to NO2 gas with satisfactory response and recovery time. Keywords. ZnO; thin film; spray .... to measure gas sens- ing characteristics due to the sluggish recovery kinetics. .... AuS by reaction of H2S on the gold nanoparticles was also reported by Shirsat et al.72 ...

  18. Assessment of Cellulose Acetate/Manganese Oxide Thin Film as ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    industry during the last few decades, large amounts of chemical compounds and contaminants have emerged to the environment [1]. The analysis of these .... at 4.0°C. To probe the selectivity of the synthesized adsorbents, batch adsorption experiments were performed by adding 10 mg of each thin film (CA/Mn-1 and ...

  19. Passivation of cobalt nanocluster assembled thin films with hydrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romero, C.P.; Volodin, A.; Di Vece, M.


    The effect of hydrogen passivation on bare and Pd capped cobalt nanocluster assembled thin films was studied with Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and magnetic force microscopy (MFM) after exposure to ambient conditions. The nanoclusters are produced in a laser vaporization cluster...

  20. Investigations of electron injection in a methanofullerene thin film transistor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    von Hauff, Elizabeth; Parisi, Juergen; Dyakonov, Vladimir


    In this study we investigate charge injection into a methanofullerene. The temperature and electric field dependent source-drain currents from contact limited [6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) thin film transistors (TFTs) were analyzed. A form for the temperature and field dependent