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Sample records for high-temperature composite repair

  1. Polymer nanocomposites for high-temperature composite repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, Xia [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2008-01-01

    A novel repair agent for resin-injection repair of advanced high temperature composites was developed and characterized. The repair agent was based on bisphenol E cyanate ester (BECy) and reinforced with alumina nanoparticles. To ensure good dispersion and compatibility with the BECy matrix in nanocomposites, the alumina nanoparticles were functionalized with silanes. The BECy nanocomposites, containing bare and functionalized alumina nanoparticles, were prepared and evaluated for their thermal, mechanical, rheological, and viscoelastic properties. The monomer of BECy has an extremely low viscosity at ambient temperature, which is good for processability. The cured BECy polymer is a highly cross-linked network with excellent thermal mechanical properties, with a high glass transition temperature (Tg) of 270 C and decomposition temperature above 350 C. The incorporation of alumina nanoparticles enhances the mechanical and rheological properties of the BECy nanocomposites. Additionally, the alumina nanoparticles are shown to catalyze the cure of BECy. Characterization of the nanocomposites included dynamic mechanical analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, rheological and rheokinetic evaluation, and transmission electron microscopy. The experimental results show that the BECy nanocomposite is a good candidate as repair agent for resin-injection repair applications.

  2. Environmentally Benign Repair of Composites Using High Temperature Cyanate Ester Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    A bisphenol-A type epoxy resin EPON-828 (Miller- Stephenson Chemical, USA) and the room-temperature amine curing agent DETA (Miller- Stephenson...Chemical, USA) was chosen as one of the benchmark matrix systems . In addition, a high temperature cycloaliphatic epoxy resin (CA, 3,4...epoxycyclohexylmethyl 3,4- epoxycyclohexanecarboxylate, Sigma-Aldrich, USA) mixed with an anhydride curing agent (HHPA, hexahydro-4-methylphthalic anhydride , Sigma

  3. High temperature polymer matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Tito T. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    These are the proceedings of the High Temperature Polymer Matrix Composites Conference held at the NASA Lewis Research Center on March 16 to 18, 1983. The purpose of the conference is to provide scientists and engineers working in the field of high temperature polymer matrix composites an opportunity to review, exchange, and assess the latest developments in this rapidly expanding area of materials technology. Technical papers are presented in the following areas: (1) matrix development; (2) adhesive development; (3) Characterization; (4) environmental effects; and (5) applications.

  4. High temperature, high power piezoelectric composite transducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyeong Jae; Zhang, Shujun; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart

    2014-08-08

    Piezoelectric composites are a class of functional materials consisting of piezoelectric active materials and non-piezoelectric passive polymers, mechanically attached together to form different connectivities. These composites have several advantages compared to conventional piezoelectric ceramics and polymers, including improved electromechanical properties, mechanical flexibility and the ability to tailor properties by using several different connectivity patterns. These advantages have led to the improvement of overall transducer performance, such as transducer sensitivity and bandwidth, resulting in rapid implementation of piezoelectric composites in medical imaging ultrasounds and other acoustic transducers. Recently, new piezoelectric composite transducers have been developed with optimized composite components that have improved thermal stability and mechanical quality factors, making them promising candidates for high temperature, high power transducer applications, such as therapeutic ultrasound, high power ultrasonic wirebonding, high temperature non-destructive testing, and downhole energy harvesting. This paper will present recent developments of piezoelectric composite technology for high temperature and high power applications. The concerns and limitations of using piezoelectric composites will also be discussed, and the expected future research directions will be outlined.

  5. High Temperature, High Power Piezoelectric Composite Transducers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeong Jae Lee

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric composites are a class of functional materials consisting of piezoelectric active materials and non-piezoelectric passive polymers, mechanically attached together to form different connectivities. These composites have several advantages compared to conventional piezoelectric ceramics and polymers, including improved electromechanical properties, mechanical flexibility and the ability to tailor properties by using several different connectivity patterns. These advantages have led to the improvement of overall transducer performance, such as transducer sensitivity and bandwidth, resulting in rapid implementation of piezoelectric composites in medical imaging ultrasounds and other acoustic transducers. Recently, new piezoelectric composite transducers have been developed with optimized composite components that have improved thermal stability and mechanical quality factors, making them promising candidates for high temperature, high power transducer applications, such as therapeutic ultrasound, high power ultrasonic wirebonding, high temperature non-destructive testing, and downhole energy harvesting. This paper will present recent developments of piezoelectric composite technology for high temperature and high power applications. The concerns and limitations of using piezoelectric composites will also be discussed, and the expected future research directions will be outlined.

  6. GRAPHENE PEEK COMPOSITES AS HIGH TEMPERATURE ADHESIVES

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-05

    Price DW, Roberts JA, Scott JB, Wadhawan A, Ye Z, Tour JM. Nanotubes in microwave fields : light emission , intense heat, outgassing, and reconstruction...Arepalli S, Yowell LL, Tour JM. Carbon nanotube composite curing through absorption of microwave radiation. Composites Science and Technology. 2008 Dec...polymer that is suitable for high-temperature applications. Graphene is a two-dimensional form of carbon nanomaterial that has been studied

  7. Thermomechanics of composite structures under high temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Dimitrienko, Yu I

    2016-01-01

    This pioneering book presents new models for the thermomechanical behavior of composite materials and structures taking into account internal physico-chemical transformations such as thermodecomposition, sublimation and melting at high temperatures (up to 3000 K). It is of great importance for the design of new thermostable materials and for the investigation of reliability and fire safety of composite structures. It also supports the investigation of interaction of composites with laser irradiation and the design of heat-shield systems. Structural methods are presented for calculating the effective mechanical and thermal properties of matrices, fibres and unidirectional, reinforced by dispersed particles and textile composites, in terms of properties of their constituent phases. Useful calculation methods are developed for characteristics such as the rate of thermomechanical erosion of composites under high-speed flow and the heat deformation of composites with account of chemical shrinkage. The author expan...

  8. High Temperature Self-Healing Metallic Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutelia, E. R.; Bakhtiyarov, S. I.; Tsurtsumia, O. O.; Bakhtiyarov, A. S.; Eristavi, B.

    2012-01-01

    This work presents the possibility to realize the self healing mechanisms for heterogeneous architectural metal/ceramic high temperature sandwich thermal barrier coating systems on the surfaces refractory metals by analogy of wound healing in the skin.

  9. High Temperature, High Power Piezoelectric Composite Transducers

    OpenAIRE

    Hyeong Jae Lee; Shujun Zhang; Yoseph Bar-Cohen; Stewart Sherrit

    2014-01-01

    Piezoelectric composites are a class of functional materials consisting of piezoelectric active materials and non-piezoelectric passive polymers, mechanically attached together to form different connectivities. These composites have several advantages compared to conventional piezoelectric ceramics and polymers, including improved electromechanical properties, mechanical flexibility and the ability to tailor properties by using several different connectivity patterns. These advantages have le...

  10. Environmental Degradation of High Temperature Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-01

    A study was performed to assess the effect of galvanic corrosion phenomena on the strength of graphite/bismaleimide( BMI ) composites . The results...indicate that degradation occurred in BMI composites galvanically coupled to aluminum alloys. The mechanism responsible for the degradation involves

  11. High temperature metal and ceramic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorelli, R. A.; Dicarlo, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    The Materials Division at NASA Lewis is engaged in research and development efforts on behalf of fiber-reinforced composite materials that are lighter, stiffer, and more structurally reliable than conventional monolithic alloys and ceramics in applications that range from the cryogenic to the refractory. Attention is presently given to metal matrix composites, in which high performance depends on stiff, strong and thermally stable large diameter fibers, with chemically stable interfacial bonding and good coefficient of thermal expansion matching between fibers and matrices, and to ceramic matrix composites, in which intermediate strength interfacial bonds must allow cracks to propagate through the matrix only, while retaining good load transfer characteristics between fiber and matrix.

  12. PMR Resin Compositions For High Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannucci, Raymond D.

    1989-01-01

    Report describes experiments to identify polymer matrix resins suitable for making graphite-fiber laminates used at 700 degree F (371 degree C) in such applications as aircraft engines to achieve higher thrust-to-weight ratios. Two particular high-molecular-weight formulations of PMR (polymerization of monomer reactants) resins most promising. PMR compositions of higher FMW exhibit enhanced thermo-oxidative stability. Formation of high-quality laminates with these compositions requires use of curing pressures higher than those suitable for compositions of lower FMW.

  13. High temperature performance of polymer composites

    CERN Document Server

    Keller, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The authors explain the changes in the thermophysical and thermomechanical properties of polymer composites under elevated temperatures and fire conditions. Using microscale physical and chemical concepts they allow researchers to find reliable solutions to their engineering needs on the macroscale. In a unique combination of experimental results and quantitative models, a framework is developed to realistically predict the behavior of a variety of polymer composite materials over a wide range of thermal and mechanical loads. In addition, the authors treat extreme fire scenarios up to more than 1000°C for two hours, presenting heat-protection methods to improve the fire resistance of composite materials and full-scale structural members, and discuss their performance after fire exposure. Thanks to the microscopic approach, the developed models are valid for a variety of polymer composites and structural members, making this work applicable to a wide audience, including materials scientists, polymer chemist...

  14. Double Bag VARTM for High Temperature Composites Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cost and size are limiting factors in efforts to produce high strength, high stiffness, and high temperature composite parts. To address these issues, new processes...

  15. Cryogenic deformation of high temperature superconductive composite structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Peter R. (Groton, MA); Michels, William (Brookline, MA); Bingert, John F. (Jemez Springs, NM)

    2001-01-01

    An improvement in a process of preparing a composite high temperature oxide superconductive wire is provided and involves conducting at least one cross-sectional reduction step in the processing preparation of the wire at sub-ambient temperatures.

  16. Phenylethynyl Terminated Imide (PETI) Composites Made by High Temperature VARTM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chose, Sayata; Cano, Roberto J.; Britton, Sean M.; Watson, Kent A.; Jensen, Brian J.; Connell, John W.

    2010-01-01

    Fabrication of composite structures using vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) is generally more affordable than conventional autoclave techniques. Recent efforts have focused on adapting VARTM for the fabrication of high temperature composites. Due to their low melt viscosity and long melt stability, certain phenylethynyl terminated imides (PETI) can be processed into composites using high temperature VARTM (HT-VARTM). However, one of the disadvantages of the current HT-VARTM resin systems has been the high porosity of the resultant composites. For aerospace applications, a void fraction of copyright protection in the United States.

  17. Repairs of composite structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Hee Seok

    Repair on damaged composite panels was conducted. To better understand adhesively bonded repair, the study investigates the effect of design parameters on the joint strength. The design parameters include bondline length, thickness of adherend and type of adhesive. Adhesives considered in this study were tested to measure their tensile material properties. Three types of adhesively bonded joints, single strap, double strap, and single lap joint were considered under changing bondline lengths, thickness of adherend and type of adhesive. Based on lessons learned from bonded joints, a one-sided patch repair method for composite structures was conducted. The composite patch was bonded to the damaged panel by either film adhesive FM-73M or paste adhesive EA-9394 and the residual strengths of the repaired specimens were compared under varying patch sizes. A new repair method using attachments has been suggested to enhance the residual strength. Results obtained through experiments were analyzed using finite element analysis to provide a better repair design and explain the experimental results. It was observed that the residual strength of the repaired specimen was affected by patch length. Method for rapid repairs of damaged composite structures was investigated. The damage was represented by a circular hole in a composite laminated plate. Pre-cured composite patches were bonded with a quick-curing commercial adhesive near (rather than over) the hole. Tensile tests were conducted on specimens repaired with various patch geometries. The test results showed that, among the methods investigated, the best repair method restored over 90% of the original strength of an undamaged panel. The interfacial stresses in the adhesive zone for different patches were calculated in order to understand the efficiencies of the designs of these patch repairs. It was found that the composite patch that yielded the best strength had the lowest interfacial peel stress between the patch and

  18. Thermal Protective Coating for High Temperature Polymer Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Andrew R.

    1999-01-01

    The central theme of this research is the application of carboxylate-alumoxane nanoparticles as precursors to thermally protective coatings for high temperature polymer composites. In addition, we will investigate the application of carboxylate-alumoxane nanoparticle as a component to polymer composites. The objective of this research was the high temperature protection of polymer composites via novel chemistry. The significance of this research is the development of a low cost and highly flexible synthetic methodology, with a compatible processing technique, for the fabrication of high temperature polymer composites. We proposed to accomplish this broad goal through the use of a class of ceramic precursor material, alumoxanes. Alumoxanes are nano-particles with a boehmite-like structure and an organic periphery. The technical goals of this program are to prepare and evaluate water soluble carboxylate-alumoxane for the preparation of ceramic coatings on polymer substrates. Our proposed approach is attractive since proof of concept has been demonstrated under the NRA 96-LeRC-1 Technology for Advanced High Temperature Gas Turbine Engines, HITEMP Program. For example, carbon and Kevlar(tm) fibers and matting have been successfully coated with ceramic thermally protective layers.

  19. Computational characterization of high temperature composites via METCAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, H. C.; Chamis, Christos C.

    1991-01-01

    The computer code 'METCAN' (METal matrix Composite ANalyzer) developed at NASA Lewis Research Center can be used to predict the high temperature behavior of metal matrix composites using the room temperature constituent properties. A reference manual that characterizes some common composites is being developed from METCAN generated data. Typical plots found in the manual are shown for graphite/copper. These include plots of stress-strain, elastic and shear moduli, Poisson's ratio, thermal expansion, and thermal conductivity. This manual can be used in the preliminary design of structures and as a guideline for the behavior of other composite systems.

  20. Feasibility Study for Casting of High Temperature Refractory Superalloy Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonathan A.

    1998-01-01

    Abstract This study investigated the feasibility of using conventional casting technique to fabricate refractory wires reinforced superalloy composites. These composites were being developed for advanced rocket engine turbine blades and other high temperature applications operating up to 2000 F. Several types of refractory metal wires such as W- Th, W-Re, Mo-Hf-C and W-HF-C reinforced waspaloy were experimentally cast and heat treated at 2000 F up to 48 hrs. Scanning electron microscope analysis was conducted in regions adjacent to the wire-matrix interface to determine the reaction zone and chemical compatibility resulting from material interdiffusion. It was concluded that fabrication using conventional casting may be feasible because the wire-matrix reaction zone thickness was comparable to similar composites produced by arc-sprayed monotape with hot isostatic pressing technique, Moreover, it was also found that the chemical compatibility could be improved significantly through a slight modification of the superalloy matrix compositions.

  1. Structure - property relations of high-temperature composite polymer matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, R.J.; Jurek, R.J.; Larive, D.E. [Michigan Molecular Institute, Midland, MI (United States); Tung, C.M. [Northrop Corp., Hawthorne, CA (United States); Donnellan, T. [Naval Air Development Center, Warminster, PA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The structure-deformation-failure mode-mechanical property relations of high-temperature thermoplastic polyimide and thermoset bismaleimide (BMI) polymeric matrices and their composites will be discussed. In the case of polyimides, the effects of test temperature, thermal history, strain rate, type of filler, and filler volume fraction on structure - property relations will be discussed. For BMIs we report systematic Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry studies of the cure reactions as a function of chemical composition and time - temperature cure conditions and then describe the resultant cross-linked network structure based on our understanding of the cure reactions. The optimization of the BMI matrix toughness will be considered in terms of network structure and process-induced matrix microcracking. We also describe optimization of composite prepreg, lamination and postcure conditions based on cure kinetics, and their relationship to the BMI viscosity-time-temperature profiles. The critical processing-performance limitations of high-temperature polymer matrices will be critically discussed, and toughening approaches to address these limitations, such as toughness over a wide temperature range, will be presented. 7 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Polyimide/Glass Composite High-Temperature Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pater, Ruth H.; Vasquez, Peter; Chatlin, Richard L.; Smith, Donald L.; Skalski, Thomas J.; Johnson, Gary S.; Chu, Sang-Hyon

    2009-01-01

    Lightweight composites of RP46 polyimide and glass fibers have been found to be useful as extraordinarily fire-resistant electrical-insulation materials. RP46 is a polyimide of the polymerization of monomeric reactants (PMR) type, developed by NASA Langley Research Center. RP46 has properties that make it attractive for use in electrical insulation at high temperatures. These properties include high-temperature resistance, low relative permittivity, low dissipation factor, outstanding mechanical properties, and excellent resistance to moisture and chemicals. Moreover, RP46 contains no halogen or other toxic materials and when burned it does not produce toxic fume or gaseous materials. The U. S. Navy has been seeking lightweight, high-temperature-resistant electrical-insulation materials in a program directed toward reducing fire hazards and weights in ship electrical systems. To satisfy the requirements of this program, an electrical-insulation material must withstand a 3-hour gas-flame test at 1,600 F (about 871 C). Prior to the development reported here, RP46 was rated for use at temperatures from -150 to +700 F (about -101 to 371 C), and no polymeric product - not even RP46 - was expected to withstand the Navy 3-hour gas-flame test.

  3. Prediction of high temperature metal matrix composite ply properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, J. J.; Chamis, C. C.

    1988-01-01

    The application of the finite element method (superelement technique) in conjunction with basic concepts from mechanics of materials theory is demonstrated to predict the thermomechanical behavior of high temperature metal matrix composites (HTMMC). The simulated behavior is used as a basis to establish characteristic properties of a unidirectional composite idealized an as equivalent homogeneous material. The ply properties predicted include: thermal properties (thermal conductivities and thermal expansion coefficients) and mechanical properties (moduli and Poisson's ratio). These properties are compared with those predicted by a simplified, analytical composite micromechanics model. The predictive capabilities of the finite element method and the simplified model are illustrated through the simulation of the thermomechanical behavior of a P100-graphite/copper unidirectional composite at room temperature and near matrix melting temperature. The advantage of the finite element analysis approach is its ability to more precisely represent the composite local geometry and hence capture the subtle effects that are dependent on this. The closed form micromechanics model does a good job at representing the average behavior of the constituents to predict composite behavior.

  4. Multistable current states in high-temperature superconducting composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanovskii, V. R.

    2016-09-01

    Conditions for current instabilities that arise in high-temperature superconducting composites with essentially nonlinear dependences of the critical current densities and resistivity on the temperature and magnetic induction have been studied. The analysis has been conducted in terms of zero-dimensional models, which has made it possible to formulate general physical mechanisms behind the formation of currents states in superconducting composites according to the external magnetic field induction, cooling conditions, and the properties of the superconductor and cladding. The possible existence of current and temperature stable steps, as well as stable steps of the electric field strength, in the absence of the superconducting-normal transition, has been demonstrated. Reasons for instabilities under multistable current states have been discussed.

  5. High temperature fatigue of metal matrix composite for automotive applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marie-Louise, A.; Koster, A.; Remy, L. [Centre des Materiaux, PM. Fourt, Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Paris, UMR CNRS 763, Evry (France); Bourgeois, M.; Martin-Borret, S. [PSA, Peugeot Citroeen, Direction de la Recherche et de l' Innovation Automobile, Velizy-Villacoublay (France)

    2004-07-01

    The high temperature low cycle fatigue (LCF) of metal-matrix composite (A356 with alumina reinforcement) was investigated. LCF tests interrupted and conducted up to failure were performed. Firstly, the effect of process defects and volume fraction of alumina was investigated for this composite. Then, damage accumulation was reported: an interrupted test procedure was used with a plastic replication technique. According to crack growth, the end of the LCF test is associated with a critical crack length equal to about 2 mm. Furthermore, an original crack growth LCF test was made using a specimen with three through notches at different locations. The effect of notch location was estimated. TOMKINS' model has finally been modified to predict the LCF crack growth and the life of smooth specimens. (orig.)

  6. High temperature fatigue behavior of tungsten copper composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrilli, M. J.; Kim, Y.-S.; Gabb, T. P.

    1990-01-01

    The present study investigates the high-temperature fatigue behavior of a 9-v/o tungsten fiber-reinforced copper matrix composite. Load-controlled isothermal fatigue at 260 and 560 C and thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) experiments, both in-phase and out-of-phase between 260 and 560 C, were performed. The stress-strain response under all conditions displayed considerable inelasticity. Strain ratchetting was observed during all the fatigue experiments. For the isothermal fatigue and in-phase TMF tests, the ratchetting was always in a tensile direction, continuing until failure. The ratchetting during the out-of-phase TMF test shifted from a tensile to a compressive direction. For all cases, the fatigue lives were found to be controlled by the damage of the copper matrix. On a stress basis, TMF loading substantially reduced lives relative to isothermal cycling.

  7. Phenylethynyl Terminated Imide (PETI) Composites Made by High Temperature Vartm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, Sayata; Watson, Kent A.; Cano, Roberto J.; Britton, Sean M.; Jensen, Brian J.; Connell, John W.; Herring, Helen M.; Lineberry, Quentin J.

    2010-01-01

    The use of composites as primary structures on aerospace vehicles has increased dramatically over the past decade. As these advanced structures increase in size and complexity, their production costs have grown significantly. A major contributor to these manufacturing costs is the requirement of elevated pressures, during high temperature processing, to create fully consolidated composite parts. Recently, NASA Langley has licensed a series of low viscosity Phenyl Ethynyl Terminated Imide, PETI, oligomers that possess a wide processing window to allow for Resin Transfer Molding, RTM, processing. These resins, PETI-8 and PETI-330, demonstrate void fractions of approx.1% under elevated pressure consolidation. However, when used with a standardized thermal curing cycle in a High Temperature Vacuum Assisted RTM (HT-VARTM) process, they display undesirable void contents in excess of 7%. It was determined previously that under the thermal cycles used for laminate fabrication, the phenylethynyl endcap underwent degradation leading to volatile evolution. Modifications to the processing cycle used in the laminate fabrication have reduced the void content significantly (typically less than 3%) for carbon fiber biaxially woven fabric. For carbon fiber uniaxial fabric, void contents of less than 2% have been obtained using both PETI-8 and PETI-330. The resins were infused into carbon fiber preforms at 260 C and cured between 316 C and 371 C. Photomicrographs of the panels were taken and void contents were determined by acid digestion. Mechanical properties of the panels were determined at both room and elevated temperatures. These include short beam shear and flexure tests. The results of this work are presented herein.

  8. Stochastic Virtual Tests for High-Temperature Ceramic Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Brian N.; Bale, Hrishikesh A.; Begley, Matthew; Blacklock, Matthew; Do, Bao-Chan; Fast, Tony; Naderi, Mehdi; Novak, Mark; Rajan, Varun P.; Rinaldi, Renaud G.; Ritchie, Robert O.; Rossol, Michael N.; Shaw, John H.; Sudre, Olivier; Yang, Qingda; Zok, Frank W.; Marshall, David B.

    2014-07-01

    We review the development of virtual tests for high-temperature ceramic matrix composites with textile reinforcement. Success hinges on understanding the relationship between the microstructure of continuous-fiber composites, including its stochastic variability, and the evolution of damage events leading to failure. The virtual tests combine advanced experiments and theories to address physical, mathematical, and engineering aspects of material definition and failure prediction. Key new experiments include surface image correlation methods and synchrotron-based, micrometer-resolution 3D imaging, both executed at temperatures exceeding 1,500°C. Computational methods include new probabilistic algorithms for generating stochastic virtual specimens, as well as a new augmented finite element method that deals efficiently with arbitrary systems of crack initiation, bifurcation, and coalescence in heterogeneous materials. Conceptual advances include the use of topology to characterize stochastic microstructures. We discuss the challenge of predicting the probability of an extreme failure event in a computationally tractable manner while retaining the necessary physical detail.

  9. Advanced Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMCs) for High Temperature Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, M.

    2005-01-01

    Advanced ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) are enabling materials for a number of demanding applications in aerospace, energy, and nuclear industries. In the aerospace systems, these materials are being considered for applications in hot sections of jet engines such as the combustor liner, vanes, nozzle components, nose cones, leading edges of reentry vehicles, and space propulsion components. Applications in the energy and environmental industries include radiant heater tubes, heat exchangers, heat recuperators, gas and diesel particulate filters, and components for land based turbines for power generation. These materials are also being considered for use in the first wall and blanket components of fusion reactors. In the last few years, a number of CMC components have been developed and successfully tested for various aerospace and ground based applications. However, a number of challenges still remain slowing the wide scale implementation of these materials. They include robust fabrication and manufacturing, assembly and integration, coatings, property modeling and life prediction, design codes and databases, repair and refurbishment, and cost. Fabrication of net and complex shape components with high density and tailorable matrix properties is quite expensive, and even then various desirable properties are not achievable. In this presentation, a number of examples of successful CMC component development and testing will be provided. In addition, critical need for robust manufacturing, joining and assembly technologies in successful implementation of these systems will be discussed.

  10. Ceramic Matrix Composites: High Temperature Effects. (Latest Citations from the Aerospace Database)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the development and testing of ceramic matrix composites for high temperature use. Tests examining effects of the high temperatures on bond strength, thermal degradation, oxidation, thermal stress, thermal fatigue, and thermal expansion properties are referenced. Applications of the composites include space structures, gas turbine and engine components, control surfaces for spacecraft and transatmospheric vehicles, heat shields, and heat exchangers.

  11. Development of a composite palladium membrane for selective hydrogen separation at high temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Govind, R.; Atnoor, D.

    1991-03-01

    In this paper a method is described for development of a composite palladium membrane for selective hydrogen separation at high temperature. Electroless plating is used to form a thin palladium film on a silver porous substrate. The composite formed showed excellent mechanical strength and very large selectivity for hydrogen. The studies performed so far suggest that electroless plating can be utilized in making a metal composite membrane that can be used at high temperatures. Composite properties seem fairly constant at high temperatures. The permeability of the composite membrane is comparable to theoretical permeabilities for pure palladium.

  12. Ceramic Composite Mechanical Fastener System for High-Temperature Structural Assemblies Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Under Phase I, the feasibility of a novel thermal stress-free ceramic composite mechanical fastener system suitable for assembly of high-temperature composite...

  13. High Temperature Advanced Structural Composites. Volume 3. Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-02

    of Mechanics Associaqao Brasileira de CiUncias MecAnicas Hosted by Departamento de Engenharia Civil Pontiffcia Universidade Cat61ica do Rio de Janeiro...plastic composite materiale , Jnl. Appl. Mach., Vol. 53 (1986). Mechanics of Matenals 7 (1989) 305-317 305 North-Holland STRESS FIELDS IN COMPOSITES

  14. High Temperature Dry Sliding Friction and Wear Performance of Laser Cladding WC/Ni Composite Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG Jiao-xi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Two different types of agglomerate and angular WC/Ni matrix composite coatings were deposited by laser cladding. The high temperature wear resistance of these composite coatings was tested with a ring-on-disc MMG-10 apparatus. The morphologies of the worn surfaces were observed using a scanning electron microscopy (SEM equipped with an energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS for elemental composition. The results show that the high temperature wear resistance of the laser clad WC/Ni-based composite coatings is improved significantly with WC mass fraction increasing. The 60% agglomerate WC/Ni composite coating has optimal high temperature wear resistance. High temperature wear mechanism of 60% WC/Ni composite coating is from abrasive wear of low temperature into composite function of the oxidation wear and abrasive wear.

  15. Emissivity Results on High Temperature Coatings for Refractory Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlhorst, Craig W.; Vaughn, Wallace L.; Daryabeigi, Kamran; Lewis, Ronald K.; Rodriguez, Alvaro C.; Milhoan, James D.; Koenig, John R.

    2007-01-01

    The directional emissivity of various refractory composite materials considered for application for reentry and hypersonic vehicles was investigated. The directional emissivity was measured at elevated temperatures of up to 3400 F using a directional spectral radiometric technique during arc-jet test runs. A laboratory-based relative total radiance method was also used to measure total normal emissivity of some of the refractory composite materials. The data from the two techniques are compared. The paper will also compare the historical database of Reinforced Carbon-Carbon emissivity measurements with emissivity values generated recently on the material using the two techniques described in the paper.

  16. High temperature resistant cermet and ceramic compositions. [for thermal resistant insulators and refractory coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, W. M. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    High temperature oxidation resistance, high hardness and high abrasion and wear resistance are properties of cermet compositions particularly to provide high temperature resistant refractory coatings on metal substrates, for use as electrical insulation seals for thermionic converters. The compositions comprise a sintered body of particles of a high temperature resistant metal or metal alloy, preferably molybdenum or tungsten particles, dispersed in and bonded to a solid solution formed of aluminum oxide and silicon nitride, and particularly a ternary solid solution formed of a mixture of aluminum oxide, silicon nitride and aluminum nitride. Ceramic compositions comprising a sintered solid solution of aluminum oxide, silicon nitride and aluminum nitride are also described.

  17. Nanostructured Composite Materials for High Temperature Thermoelectric Energy Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    Mechanical Testing Measurements were made of the Young’s modulus and toughness of half-Heusler bulk materials with compositions [Zro.5Hfo...will be optimized to meet the needs of engineered devices. A microhardness tester will be used to obtain hardness measurements and determine the...modulus of elasticity for thermoelectric samples. These tests will be used to assess homogeneity of mechanical properties as a function of processing

  18. Behaviour of composite sandwich decks at high temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Puchades, Maria Isabel Garcia

    2016-01-01

    Structures made of FRP composites have been shown to provide efficient and economical applications in bridges and piers. They are being increasingly used due to their several advantages when compared to traditional materials, namely, the lightness, strength, good insulation properties, low maintenance and improved performance when submitted to aggressive environments. However, fire behaviour has been recently identified by several authors as the most critical gap for these materials to be ful...

  19. Polymer-matrix Composites for High-temperature Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.D. Mangalgiri

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, applications of fibre-reinforced composites using polymer matrices have seen tremendous growth. In spite of the complexity of their behaviour and the unconventionalnature of fabrication and other aspects, the usage of such composites, even for primary loadbearing structures in military fighters and transport aircraft, and satellites and space vehicles has been beneficially realised. Most of such usage constituted structural applications (such as in airframe where service temperatures are not expected to he beyond 120 'C. Attention is now focussed on expanding the usage of such composites to other areas where temperatures could be higher-in the range 200400 "C. The intended applications are structural and non-structural parts on or around the aero-engines and airframe components for supersonic or hypersonic aircraft. The development of polymer matrices-such as bismaleimides, polyimides, cyanates, and liquid crystalline polymers and others-has brought such applications within the realm of practicability. The associated problems have been in terms of suitable processing technologies and in balancing the requirements of the performance with those of the processing. This paper describes briefly such developments and reviews the potential application scenario.

  20. Scarf Repair of Composite Laminates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Zonghong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of composite materials, such as carbon-fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP composites, aero-structures has led to an increased need of advanced assembly joining and repair technologies. Adhesive bonded repairs as an alternative to recover full or part of initial strength were investigated. Tests were conducted with the objective of evaluating the effectiveness of techniques used for repairing damage fiber reinforced laminated composites. Failure loads and failure modes were generated and compared with the following parameters: scarf angles, roughness of grind tool and number of external plies. Results showed that scarf angle was the critical parameter and the largest tensile strength was observed with the smallest scarf angle. Besides, the use of external plies at the outer surface could not increase the repairs efficiency for large scarf angle. Preparing the repair surfaces by sanding them with a sander ranging from 60 to 100 grit number had significant effect on the failure load. These results allowed the proposal of design principles for repairing CFRP structures.

  1. Electron Beam Cured Epoxy Resin Composites for High Temperature Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Christopher J.; Dorsey, George F.; Havens, Stephen J.; Lopata, Vincent J.; Meador, Michael A.

    1997-01-01

    Electron beam curing of Polymer Matrix Composites (PMC's) is a nonthermal, nonautoclave curing process that has been demonstrated to be a cost effective and advantageous alternative to conventional thermal curing. Advantages of electron beam curing include: reduced manufacturing costs; significantly reduced curing times; improvements in part quality and performance; reduced environmental and health concerns; and improvement in material handling. In 1994 a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA), sponsored by the Department of Energy Defense Programs and 10 industrial partners, was established to advance the electron beam curing of PMC technology. Over the last several years a significant amount of effort within the CRADA has been devoted to the development and optimization of resin systems and PMCs that match the performance of thermal cured composites. This highly successful materials development effort has resulted in a board family of high performance, electron beam curable cationic epoxy resin systems possessing a wide range of excellent processing and property profiles. Hundreds of resin systems, both toughened and untoughened, offering unlimited formulation and processing flexibility have been developed and evaluated in the CRADA program.

  2. Experimental study on thermophysical properties of C/C composites at high temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wei; YI Fa-jun; HAN Jie-cai; MENG Song-he

    2006-01-01

    The coefficient of thermal expansion, thermal diffusivity and specific heat of C/C composites from room temperature to ultra high temperature were experimentally investigated. Thermal conductivity and thermal stress resistance of the composites were therefore computed based on experimental results. The results show that the composite has a very low thermal expansion coefficient. Thermal diffusivity decreases exponentially with temperature increase. The specific heat increases linearly as the temperature rises, and the variation trend of thermal conductivity is similar to that of thermal diffusivity. The thermal stress coefficient of C/C composite has little change with temperature variation, and thermal stress resistance of the composite at high temperature is stable.

  3. Cure Cycle Effect on High-Temperature Polymer Composite Structures Molded by VARTM

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed Khattab

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical and experimental investigation of cure cycle effect on carbon-fiber reinforced high-temperature polymer composite structures molded by vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM). The molded composite structure consists of AS4-8 harness carbon-fiber fabrics and a high-temperature polymer (Cycom 5250-4-RTM). Thermal and resin cure analysis is performed to model the cure cycle of the VARTM process. The temperature and cure variations with time are determined...

  4. High temperature tensile properties and deep drawing of fully green composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, research and development of materials using biomass sources are much expected to construct a sustainable society. The so-called green composite consisting of natural fibers and biodegradable resin, is one of the most promising materials in developing biomass products. In this study, especially, we focus on the tensile deformation behavior of the green composites reinforced with ramie woven fabrics at high temperature. The results show that the fracture strain at high temperatures increases larger than that of room temperature, and initial deformation resistance of the composites seen at room temperature does not appear at high temperatures. Thus, several conditions to cause more deformability of the green composites were found. Finally, in order to utilize such deformability, Lankford-values of the green composites were clarified, and deep drawing was carried out for sheet materials made of the green composites.

  5. High-temperature processing of oxide superconductors and superconducting oxide-silver oxide composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, M. K.; Loo, B. H.; Peters, P. N.; Huang, C. Y.

    1988-01-01

    High temperature processing was found to partially convert the green 211 phase oxide to 123 phase. High Tc superconductivity was observed in Bi-Sr-Cu-O and Y-Sr-Cu-O systems prepared using the same heat treatment process. High temperature processing presents an alternative synthetic route in the search for new high Tc superconductors. An unusual magnetic suspension with enhancement in critical current density was observed in the 123 and AgO composite.

  6. Development of Processable High-Temperature Resins for Composite Materials (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-29

    strength, high temperature polymer matrix composite materials. Despite the increased attention, successful development and utilization of many of...polymers with a high degree of cure. Since polymer matrix composite components are often mated with metallic parts in a variety of structures

  7. High Temperature Joining and Characterization of Joint Properties in Silicon Carbide-Based Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbig, Michael C.; Singh, Mrityunjay

    2015-01-01

    Advanced silicon carbide-based ceramics and composites are being developed for a wide variety of high temperature extreme environment applications. Robust high temperature joining and integration technologies are enabling for the fabrication and manufacturing of large and complex shaped components. The development of a new joining approach called SET (Single-step Elevated Temperature) joining will be described along with the overview of previously developed joining approaches including high temperature brazing, ARCJoinT (Affordable, Robust Ceramic Joining Technology), diffusion bonding, and REABOND (Refractory Eutectic Assisted Bonding). Unlike other approaches, SET joining does not have any lower temperature phases and will therefore have a use temperature above 1315C. Optimization of the composition for full conversion to silicon carbide will be discussed. The goal is to find a composition with no remaining carbon or free silicon. Green tape interlayers were developed for joining. Microstructural analysis and preliminary mechanical tests of the joints will be presented.

  8. Superelement methods applications to micromechanics of high temperature metal matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, J. J.; Chamis, C. C.

    1988-01-01

    Adaptation of the superelement finite-element method for micromechanics of continuous fiber high temperature metal matrix composites (HT-MMC) is described. The method is used to predict the thermomechanical behavior of P100-graphite/copper composites using MSC/NASTRAN and it is also used to validate those predicted by using an in-house computer program designed to perform micromechanics for HT-MMC. Typical results presented in the paper include unidirectional composite thermal properties, mechanical properties, and microstresses.

  9. High temperature C/C–SiC composite by liquid silicon infiltration: a literature review

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Manish Patel; Kumar Saurabh; V V Bhanu Prasad; J Subrahmanyam

    2012-02-01

    The ceramic matrix carbon fibre (CMC) reinforced composite has received great attention for use in aerospace engineering. In aerospace, the atmosphere is highly oxidative and experiences very high temperature. In addition to this, the materials require high thermal stability and high abrasion resistance in that atmosphere. The C/C–SiC composite meets with these requirements. In this paper, the C/C–SiC composite by liquid silicon infiltration is reviewed thoroughly.

  10. The Aluminum Based Composite Produced by Self Propagating High Temperature Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus PRAMONO

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Self-propagating high-temperature synthesis method can be used for producing aluminum and boron carbide based composites. The experimental composites were fabricated using cobalt and carbon as catalysts. The microstructure of the material was studied using Scanning Electron Microscopy and the mechanical properties were determined using micro-hardness testing. Al/B4C based composites with improved properties were obtained and the role of Co/C catalysts was studied.

  11. A review of dynamic mechanical characterization of high temperature PMR polyimides and composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pater, Ruth H.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reviews the applications of dynamic mechanical characterization for high-temperature PMR polyimides and their graphite-fiber-reinforced composites. This characterization technique provides insights into the processability, performance, and structure property relationships of the polyimides and composites. The dynamic mechanical properties of various molding powders, commercially obtained prepregs, neat resins, and as-fabricated as well as aged composites are presented. Some applied aspects of the dynamic mechanical data are discussed.

  12. Thermosetting Polymer-Matrix Composites for Strucutral Repair Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goertzen, William Kirby [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2007-12-01

    Several classes of thermosetting polymer matrix composites were evaluated for use in structural repair applications. Initial work involved the characterization and evaluation of woven carbon fiber/epoxy matrix composites for structural pipeline repair. Cyanate ester resins were evaluated as a replacement for epoxy in composites for high-temperature pipe repair applications, and as the basis for adhesives for resin infusion repair of high-temperature composite materials. Carbon fiber/cyanate ester matrix composites and fumed silica/cyanate ester nanocomposites were evaluated for their thermal, mechanical, viscoelastic, and rheological properties as they relate to their structure, chemistry, and processing characteristics. The bisphenol E cyanate ester under investigation possesses a high glass transition temperature, excellent mechanical properties, and unique ambient temperature processability. The incorporate of fumed silica served to enhance the mechanical and rheological properties of the polymer and reduce thermal expansion without sacrificing glass transition or drastically altering curing kinetics. Characterization of the composites included dynamic mechanical analysis, thermomechanical analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, rheological and rheokinetic evaluation, and transmission electron microscopy.

  13. New materials for high temperature turbines; ONERA's DS composites confronted with blade problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibring, H.

    1977-01-01

    ONERA's refractory DS composites were cited as materials required for use in advanced aircraft turbines, operating at high temperatures. These materials were found to be reliable in the construction of turbine blades. Requirements for a blade material in aircraft turbines operating at higher temperatures were compared with the actual performance as found in COTAC DS composite testing. The structure and properties of the more fully developed 74 and 741 types were specified. High temperature structural stability, impact of thermal and mechanical fatigue, oxidation resistance and coating capability were thoroughly evaluated. The problem of cooling passages in DS eutectic blades is also outlined.

  14. Robust Joining and Assembly of Ceramic Matrix Composites for High Temperature Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mrityunjay

    2003-01-01

    Advanced ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) are under active consideration for use in a wide variety of high temperature applications within the aerospace, energy, and nuclear industries. The engineering designs of CMC components require fabrication and manufacturing of large and complex shaped parts of various thicknesses. In many instances, it is more economical to build up complex shapes by joining simple geometrical shapes. Thus, joining and attachment have been recognized as enabling technologies for successful utilization of ceramic components in various demanding applications. In this presentation, various challenges and opportunities in design, fabrication, and testing of high temperature joints in ceramic matrix composites will be presented. A wide variety of ceramic composites, in different shapes and sizes, have been joined using an affordable, robust ceramic joining technology (ARCJoinT). Microstructure and mechanical properties of joints in melt infiltrated and CVI Sic matrix composites will be reported. Various joint design philosophies and design issues in joining of composites will be discussed.

  15. Effect of microstructure on the high temperature strength of nitride bonded silicon carbide composite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J Rakshit; P K Das

    2002-10-01

    Four compositions of nitride bonded SiC were fabricated with varying particle size of SiC of ∼ 9.67, ∼ 13.79, ∼ 60 and their mixture with Si of ∼ 4.83 particle size. The green density and hence the open porosity of the shapes were varied between 1.83 to 2.09 g/cc and 33.3 to 26.8 vol.%, respectively. The effect of these parameters on room temperature and high temperature strength of the composite up to 1300°C in ambient condition were studied. The high temperature flexural strength of the composite of all compositions increased at 1200 and 1300°C because of oxidation of Si3N4 phase and blunting crack front. Formation of Si3N4 whisker was also observed. The strength of the mixture composition was maximum.

  16. The reliability of the repair weld joints of aged high temperature components in fossil power boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamura, Hiroyuki [Science Univ. of Tokyo (Japan); Ohtani, Ryuichi [Kyoto Univ. (Japan); Fujii, Kazuya [Japan Power Engineering and Inspection Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Yokoyama, Tomomitsu; Nishimura, Nobuhiko [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Suzuki, Komei [Japan Steel Works Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-11-01

    It is of fundamental engineering importance to be able to give reliable assessments of the effective service life of the critical components used within fossil power plants, particularly for those operating for prolonged periods. It is common practice for such assessments to have been estimated using destructive tests, typically the stress rupture test, this having been recognized as one of the most reliable evaluation methods available. Its only drawback is that it often does not permit the component to be in use following the sampling of the test specimen without repairing. The current piece of work focuses on the reliability of the repair welds of components for specimens taken from fossil power plants, having been in service for prolonged periods. Several such repairs to welds have been made to an old power boiler, in particular to a superheater header which is fabricated from 2.25Cr-1Mo steel. Under close examination the repairs to the girth weldment showed susceptibilities of weld cracking, similar to that observed in as-manufactured material. Within the repaired region of the welded joint the microstructure, tensile properties and toughness seemed to be unaffected. The hardness attained its minimum value within the heat affected zone, HAZ of the repair weld, overlapping that of original girth weld HAZ. Furthermore, the stress rupture strength achieved its minimum value at the same position taking on the same value as the strength associated with the aged girth welded joint. (orig.)

  17. Polybenzimidazole and sulfonated polyhedral oligosilsesquioxane composite membranes for high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aili, David; Allward, Todd; Alfaro, Silvia Martinez

    2014-01-01

    Composite membranes based on poly(2,2′(m-phenylene)-5,5́bibenzimidazole) (PBI) and sulfonated polyhedral oligosilsesquioxane (S-POSS) with S-POSS contents of 5 and 10wt.% were prepared by solution casting as base materials for high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. With membranes...

  18. Advanced processing of lead titanate-polyimide composites for high temperature piezoelectric sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khanbareh, H.; Hegde, M.; Zwaag, S. van der; Groen, W.A.

    2015-01-01

    High performance polymer-ceramic composites are presented as promising candidates for high temperature piezoelectric sensing applications. lead-titanate (PT) ceramic particulate is incorporated into a polyetherimide polymer matrix, (PEI) at a specific volume fraction of 20% in the forms of 0-3 and q

  19. High-Temperature, Lightweight, Self-Healing Ceramic Composites for Aircraft Engine Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Sai V.; Bhatt, Ramkrishna

    2013-01-01

    The use of reliable, high-temperature, lightweight materials in the manufacture of aircraft engines is expected to result in lower fossil and biofuel consumption, thereby leading to cost savings and lower carbon emissions due to air travel. Although nickel-based superalloy blades and vanes have been successfully used in aircraft engines for several decades, there has been an increased effort to develop high-temperature, lightweight, creep-resistant substitute materials under various NASA programs over the last two decades. As a result, there has been a great deal of interest in developing SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) due to their higher damage tolerance compared to monolithic ceramics. Current-generation SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites rely almost entirely on the SiC fibers to carry the load, owing to the premature cracking of the matrix during loading. Thus, the high-temperature usefulness of these CMCs falls well below their theoretical capabilities. The objective of this work is to develop a new class of high-temperature, lightweight, self-healing, SiC fiber-reinforced, engineered matrix ceramic composites.

  20. Studies on High Temperature Oxidation of Electrodeposited RE-Ni-W-P-SiC Composite Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUXiao-yun; XURui-dong; GUOZhong-cheng

    2004-01-01

    The oxidation of the Electrodeposited RE-Ni-W-P-SiC Composite materials at high temperature is investigated.The results show that during high temperature oxidation the relationship between the mass change of pure Ni,Ni-W-P,Ni-W-P-SiC or RE-Ni-W-P-SiC coatings and the oxidation time follows a mixed curve, i.e. it is approximately a linear relationship when the oxidation time is less than 60 rains while it is a power function relationship when the oxidation time is over 60 rains. The order for the oxidation rate of the four coatings is Ni> Ni-W-P>Ni-W-P-SiC>RE-Ni-W-P-SiC. The mass change of Ni-W-P, Ni-W-P-SiC or RE-Ni-W-P-SiC coatings increases exponentially with a rise of oxidation temperature. The high temperature-oxidation resistance of RE-Ni-W-P-SiC composite material is 3-4 times than that of Ni-W-P alloy coating. The cross section morphologies and X-ray diffraction patterns indicate that the high temperature-oxidation resistance of RE-Ni-W-P-SiC composite coating is better than any other coatings.

  1. Studies on High Temperature Oxidation of Electrodeposited RE-Ni-W-P-SiC Composite Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Xiao-yun; XU Rui-dong; GUO Zhong-cheng

    2004-01-01

    The oxidation of the Electrodeposited RE-Ni-W-P-SiC Composite materials at high temperature is investigated.The results show that during high temperature oxidation the relationship between the mass change of pure Ni, Ni-W-P,Ni-W-P-SiC or RE-Ni-W-P-SiC coatings and the oxidation time follows a mixed curve, i.e. it is approximately a linear relationship when the oxidation time is less than 60 mins while it is a power function relationship when the oxidation time is over 60 mins. The order for the oxidation rate of the four coatings is Ni> Ni-W-P> Ni-W-P-SiC>RE-Ni-W-P-SiC. The mass change of Ni-W-P, Ni-W-P-SiC or RE-Ni-W-P-SiC coatings increases exponentially with a rise of oxidation temperature. The high temperature-oxidation resistance of RE-Ni-W-P-SiC composite material is 3~4 times than that of Ni-W-P alloy coating. The cross section morphologies and X-ray diffraction patterns indicate that the high temperature-oxidation resistance of RE-Ni-W-P-SiC composite coating is better than any other coatings.

  2. In situ observation and measurement of composites subjected to extremely high temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xufei; Yu, Helong; Zhang, Guobing; Su, Hengqiang; Tang, Hongxiang; Feng, Xue

    2014-03-01

    In this work, we develop an instrument to study the ablation and oxidation process of materials such as C/SiC (carbon fiber reinforced silicon carbide composites) and ultra-high temperature ceramic in extremely high temperature environment. The instrument is integrated with high speed cameras with filtering lens, infrared thermometers and water vapor generator for image capture, temperature measurement, and humid atmosphere, respectively. The ablation process and thermal shock as well as the temperature on both sides of the specimen can be in situ monitored. The results show clearly the dynamic ablation and liquid oxide flowing. In addition, we develop an algorithm for the post-processing of the captured images to obtain the deformation of the specimens, in order to better understand the behavior of the specimen subjected to high temperature.

  3. Cure Cycle Effect on High-Temperature Polymer Composite Structures Molded by VARTM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Khattab

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analytical and experimental investigation of cure cycle effect on carbon-fiber reinforced high-temperature polymer composite structures molded by vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM. The molded composite structure consists of AS4-8 harness carbon-fiber fabrics and a high-temperature polymer (Cycom 5250-4-RTM. Thermal and resin cure analysis is performed to model the cure cycle of the VARTM process. The temperature and cure variations with time are determined by solving the three-dimensional transient energy and species equations within the composite part. Several case studies were investigated by the developed analytical model. The same cases were also experimentally investigated to determine the ultimate tensile strength for each case. This study helps in developing a science based technology for the VARTM process for the understanding of the process behavior and the effect of the cure cycle on the properties of the molded high-temperature polymer composites.

  4. Processing and Characterization of Basalt Fiber Reinforced Ceramic Composites for High Temperature Applications Using Polymer Precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Sarah B.; Lui, Donovan; Gou, Jihua

    2014-01-01

    The development of high temperature structural composite materials has been very limited due to the high cost of the materials and the processing needed. Ceramics can take much higher temperatures, but they are difficult to produce and form in bulk volumes. Polymer Derived Ceramics (PDCs) begin as a polymer matrix, allowing a shape to be formed and cured and then to be pyrolized in order to obtain a ceramic with the associated thermal and mechanical properties. The two PDCs used in this development are polysiloxane and polycarbosilane. Polysiloxanes contain a silicon oxycarbide backbone when pyrolized up to 1000C. Polycarbosilane, an organosilicon polymer, contain a silicon-carbon backbone; around 1200C, beta-SiC begins to crystallize. The use of basalt in structural and high temperature applications has been under development for over 50 years, yet there has been little published research on the incorporation of basalt fibers as a reinforcement in composites. Basalt is a naturally occurring material found in volcanic rock. Continuous basalt fiber reinforced PDCs have been fabricated and tested for the applicability of this composite system as a high temperature structural composite material. Thermal and mechanical testing includes oxyacetylene torch testing and three point bend testing.

  5. Ceramic fibers for matrix composites in high-temperature engine applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldus; Jansen; Sporn

    1999-07-30

    High-temperature engine applications have been limited by the performance of metal alloys and carbide fiber composites at elevated temperatures. Random inorganic networks composed of silicon, boron, nitrogen, and carbon represent a novel class of ceramics with outstanding durability at elevated temperatures. SiBN(3)C was synthesized by pyrolysis of a preceramic N-methylpolyborosilazane made from the single-source precursor Cl(3)Si-NH-BCl(2). The polymer can be processed to a green fiber by melt-spinning, which then undergoes an intermediate curing step and successive pyrolysis. The ceramic fibers, which are presently produced on a semitechnical scale, combine several desired properties relevant for an application in fiber-reinforced ceramic composites: thermal stability, mechanical strength, high-temperature creep resistivity, low density, and stability against oxidation or molten silicon.

  6. Composite casting/bonding construction of an air-cooled, high temperature radial turbine wheel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, A. N.; Aigret, G.; Rodgers, C.; Metcalfe, A. G.

    1983-01-01

    A composite casting/bonding technique has been developed for the fabrication of a unique air-cooled, high temperature radial inflow turbine wheel design applicable to auxilliary power units with small rotor diameters and blade entry heights. The 'split blade' manufacturing procedure employed is an alternative to complex internal ceramic coring. Attention is given to both aerothermodynamic and structural design, of which the latter made advantageous use of the exploration of alternative cooling passage configurations through CAD/CAM system software modification.

  7. Fast Cure Repair Kit for Composites Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA has a need for technologies that will enable them to repair damage to composite structures. Fiber-reinforced polymer composite materials are fast gaining ground...

  8. Progress toward a tungsten alloy wire/high temperature alloy composite turbine blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritzert, F. J.; Dreshfield, R. L.

    1992-01-01

    A tungsten alloy wire reinforced high temperature alloy composite is being developed for potential application as a hollow turbine blade for advanced rocket engine turbopumps. The W-24Re-HfC alloy wire used for these composite blades provides an excellent balance of strength and wire ductility. Preliminary fabrication, specimen design, and characterization studies were conducted by using commercially available W218 tungsten wire in place of the W-24Re-Hfc wire. Subsequently, two-ply, 50 vol pct composite panels using the W-24Re-HfC wire were fabricated. Tensile tests and metallographic studies were performed to determine the material viability. Tensile strengths of a Waspaloy matrix composite at 870 C were 90 pct of the value expected from rule-of-mixtures calculations. During processing of this Waspaloy matrix composite, a brittle phase was formed at the wire/matrix interface. Circumferential wire cracks were found in this phase. Wire coating and process evaluation efforts were performed in an attempt to solve the reaction problem. Although problems were encountered in this study, wire reinforced high temperature alloy composites continue to show promise for turbopump turbine blade material improvement.

  9. Repair of high temperature stages of HP and IP turbine rotors by welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puri, A.; Roberts, B.W. [Tennessee Valley Authority, Chattanooga, TN (United States); Novak, F. [Welding Services, Inc., Norcross, GA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The highly-stressed blade attachment region of the high temperature sections of high and intermediate pressure turbines eventually reaches end-of-life due to creep and creep-fatigue damage. Once this state is reached, options to continue operation of the unit include: (a) rotor replacement, (b) removal of a section of the rotor and replacement by welding on a forged piece, (c) removal of the damaged material and replacement by welding of a forged ring, or (d) removal of the damaged material and complete restoration by weld metal buildup. TVA has a large number of units, mostly designed for 1,050 F steam inlet temperatures, which have reached end-of-life and require restoration. because of the large expense associated with any of the options previously stated, it was concluded that development of an internal capability for option d offered the lowest cost solution. The generic rotor materials of interest include CrMoV, NiMoV, and NiCrMoV.

  10. Preparation and characterization of composite membrane for high temperature gas separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilias, S.; King, F.G.; Su, N.

    1994-10-01

    The objective of this project is to develop thin film palladium membranes for separation of hydrogen in high temperature applications. The authors plan to use electroless plating to deposit thin palladium films on microporous ceramic and silver substrates and then characterize the membrane in terms of permeability and selectivity for gas separation. To accomplish the research objective, the project requires three tasks: Development of a process for composite membrane fabrication; Characterization of composite membrane; and Development of theoretical model for hydrogen gas separation. The experimental procedures are described.

  11. Evaluation of CVI SiC/SiC Composites for High Temperature Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiser, D.; Almansour, A.; Smith, C.; Gorican, D.; Phillips, R.; Bhatt, R.; McCue, T.

    2017-01-01

    Silicon carbide fiber reinforced silicon carbide (SiC/SiC) composites are candidate materials for various high temperature turbine engine applications because of their high specific strength and good creep resistance at temperatures of 1400 C (2552 F) and higher. Chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites (CMC) incorporating Sylramic-iBN SiC fiber were evaluated via fast fracture tensile tests (acoustic emission damage characterization to assess cracking behavior), tensile creep testing, and microscopy. The results of this testing and observed material behavior degradation mechanisms are reviewed.

  12. Study on process and characterization of high-temperature resistance polyimide composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ling-Ying; Zhao, Wei-Dong; Liu, Han-Yang; Cui, Chao; Guo, Hong-Jun

    2016-05-01

    A novel polyimide composite with upper-use temperature of 420°C was prepared by autoclave process. The thermogravimetic analysis and rheological properties of uncured polyimide resin powders were analyzed. The influences of process parameters and post-treatment process on the properties of composites were also investigated. The morphologies of polyimide composites after shear fracture were observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The high-temperature resistance of composite was characterized by dynamic mechanical thermal analyzer (DMTA). Results showed that the imidization reaction mainly occurred in the temperature range of 100°C~220°C, and the largest weight loss rate appearing at 145°C indicated a drastic imidization reaction occurred. The melt viscosity of polyimide resin decreased with increasing the temperature between 220°C ˜305°C, and then increased with the increase of temperature due to the molecular crosslinking reactions. The fiber volume contents and void contents could be effectively controlled by applying the pressure step by step. The fiber volume content was sensitive to the initial pressure (Pi) during the imidization. The second-stage pressure (P2) and the temperature for applying the P2 (T2) during the imidization had a great effect on the void content of composite. Good mechanical properties and interfacial adhesion of polyimide composite could obtain by optimized process. The post-treatment process can obviously increase the high-temperature resistance of polyimide composite. The polyimide composite treated at 420°C exhibited good retention of mechanical properties at 420°C and had a glass transition temperature (Tg) of 456°C. The retentions of flexible strength, flexible modulus and short beam shear strength of polyimide composite at 420°C were 65%, 84% and 62% respectively.

  13. Study on process and characterization of high-temperature resistance polyimide composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Ling-Ying; Zhao, Wei-Dong; Liu, Han-Yang; Cui, Chao; Guo, Hong-Jun [Aerospace Research Institute of Materials & Processing Technology (No.1 Nan Da Hong Men Road, Fengtai District, Beijing, 100076, P.R., China) (China)

    2016-05-18

    A novel polyimide composite with upper-use temperature of 420°C was prepared by autoclave process. The thermogravimetic analysis and rheological properties of uncured polyimide resin powders were analyzed. The influences of process parameters and post-treatment process on the properties of composites were also investigated. The morphologies of polyimide composites after shear fracture were observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The high-temperature resistance of composite was characterized by dynamic mechanical thermal analyzer (DMTA). Results showed that the imidization reaction mainly occurred in the temperature range of 100°C~220°C, and the largest weight loss rate appearing at 145°C indicated a drastic imidization reaction occurred. The melt viscosity of polyimide resin decreased with increasing the temperature between 220°C ∼305°C, and then increased with the increase of temperature due to the molecular crosslinking reactions. The fiber volume contents and void contents could be effectively controlled by applying the pressure step by step. The fiber volume content was sensitive to the initial pressure (P{sub i}) during the imidization. The second-stage pressure (P{sub 2}) and the temperature for applying the P{sub 2} (T{sub 2}) during the imidization had a great effect on the void content of composite. Good mechanical properties and interfacial adhesion of polyimide composite could obtain by optimized process. The post-treatment process can obviously increase the high-temperature resistance of polyimide composite. The polyimide composite treated at 420°C exhibited good retention of mechanical properties at 420°C and had a glass transition temperature (Tg) of 456°C. The retentions of flexible strength, flexible modulus and short beam shear strength of polyimide composite at 420°C were 65%, 84% and 62% respectively.

  14. Preform-based toughening technology for RTMable high-temperature aerospace composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YI XiaoSu; CHENG QunFeng; LIU ZhiZhen

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the efforts that led to the development of surface-loaded preforms that may be used to significantly improve the compression-after-impact strength of high-temperature composites and correspondingly to dramatically reduce the area of damage because of impact.Moreover,by matching the toughening polymer surface-loaded and design of the surface pattern,in-plane mechanical properties are unaffected or even improved over laminates made from the identical materials.The proprietary preforms,so-called ESTM-Fabrics,may be handled and infused with the high-temperature RTMable resins such as bismaleimide and polyimide in exactly the same manner as traditional fabrics without surface modification.The RTM conditions for the preform-based toughening is fully compatible with the traditional process procedure,making the technology cost-effective in production.This technology represents a key enabler for the use of low-cost RTM processes for high-temperature resins to supplant prepreg as the building-block material of choice for aeronautical composite structures.

  15. Deformation at ambient and high temperature of in situ Laves phases-ferrite composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnadieu, Patricia; Pohlmann, Carsten; Scudino, Sergio; Blandin, Jean-Jacques; Babu Surreddi, Kumar; Eckert, Jürgen

    2014-06-01

    The mechanical behavior of a Fe80Zr10Cr10 alloy has been studied at ambient and high temperature. This Fe80Zr10Cr10 alloy, whoose microstructure is formed by alternate lamellae of Laves phase and ferrite, constitutes a very simple example of an in situ CMA phase composite. The role of the Laves phase type was investigated in a previous study while the present work focuses on the influence of the microstructure length scale owing to a series of alloys cast at different cooling rates that display microstructures with Laves phase lamellae width ranging from ∼50 nm to ∼150 nm. Room temperature compression tests have revealed a very high strength (up to 2 GPa) combined with a very high ductility (up to 35%). Both strength and ductility increase with reduction of the lamella width. High temperature compression tests have shown that a high strength (900 MPa) is maintained up to 873 K. Microstructural study of the deformed samples suggests that the confinement of dislocations in the ferrite lamellae is responsible for strengthening at both ambient and high temperature. The microstructure scale in addition to CMA phase structural features stands then as a key parameter for optimization of mechanical properties of CMA in situ composites.

  16. High temperature tension-compression fatigue behavior of a tungsten copper composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrilli, Michael J.; Gabb, Timothy P.

    1990-01-01

    The high temperature fatigue of a (O)12 tungsten fiber reinforced copper matrix composite was investigated. Specimens having fiber volume percentages of 10 and 36 were fatigued under fully-reversed, strain-controlled conditions at both 260 and 560 C. The fatigue life was found to be independent of fiber volume fraction because fatigue damage preferentially occurred in the matrix. Also, the composite fatigue lives were shorter at 560 C as compared to 260 C due to changes in mode of matrix failure. On a total strain basis, the fatigue life of the composite at 560 C was the same as the life of unreinforced copper, indicating that the presence of the fibers did not degrade the fatigue resistance of the copper matrix in this composite system. Comparison of strain-controlled fatigue data to previously-generated load-controlled data revealed that the strain-controlled fatigue lives were longer because of mean strain and mean stress effects.

  17. Nano-structured alloy and composite coatings for high temperature applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Gao

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Nano-structured materials often possess special properties that materials with identical compositions but ordinary grain size do not have. This paper reports our work on the surface nano-crystallisation and nano-structured alloy and composite coatings. A number of processing methods including magnetron sputtering, thermal spray and pulse electro-spark deposition have been used to produce surface nano-crystalline structure. The compositions and microstructures can be well controlled by using different targets or electrodes, nano-structured composites and adjusting processing parameters. Surface nano-structured coatings can provide special chemical, mechanical and electronic properties such as high temperature corrosion and corrosive wear resistance. It has potential applications such as turbine blades, engine parts for petrochemical, aerospace and electronic device industries. This paper is focused on the study of the interrelations between processing, microstructure and properties. Physical models have been established to explain the effects of nano-crystalline structure on the properties.

  18. Prediction of lifetime in static fatigue at high temperatures for ceramic matrix composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loseille, O.; Lamon, J. [Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, Lab Thermostruct Composites, Bordeaux (France)

    2010-07-01

    Previous works have shown that ceramic matrix composites are sensitive to delayed failure during fatigue in oxidizing environments. The phenomenon of slow crack growth has been deeply investigated on single fibers and multi-filament tows in previous papers. The present paper proposes a multiscale model of failure driven by slow crack growth in fibers, for 2D woven composites under a constant load. The model is based on the delayed failure of longitudinal tows. Additional phenomena involved in the failure of tows have been identified using fractographic examination of 2D woven SiC/SiC composite test specimens after fatigue tests at high temperatures. Stochastic features including random load sharing, fiber overloading, fiber characteristics and fiber arrangement within the tows have been introduced using appropriate density functions. Rupture time predictions are compared to experimental data. (authors)

  19. Stress and Damage in Polymer Matrix Composite Materials Due to Material Degradation at High Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Hugh L.; Chamis, Christos C.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes analytical methods for calculating stresses and damage caused by degradation of the matrix constituent in polymer matrix composite materials. Laminate geometry, material properties, and matrix degradation states are specified as functions of position and time. Matrix shrinkage and property changes are modeled as functions of the degradation states. The model is incorporated into an existing composite mechanics computer code. Stresses, strains, and deformations at the laminate, ply, and micro levels are calculated, and from these calculations it is determined if there is failure of any kind. The rationale for the model (based on published experimental work) is presented, its integration into the laminate analysis code is outlined, and example results are given, with comparisons to existing material and structural data. The mechanisms behind the changes in properties and in surface cracking during long-term aging of polyimide matrix composites are clarified. High-temperature-material test methods are also evaluated.

  20. High-temperature protective coatings for C/SiC composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Yang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Carbon fiber-reinforced silicon carbide (C/SiC composites were well-established light weight materials combining high specific strength and damage tolerance. For high-temperature applications, protective coatings had to provide oxidation and corrosion resistance. The literature data introduced various technologies and materials, which were suitable for the application of coatings. Coating procedures and conditions, materials design limitations related to the reactivity of the components of C/SiC composites, new approaches and coating systems to the selection of protective coatings materials were examined. The focus of future work was on optimization by further multilayer coating systems and the anti-oxidation ability of C/SiC composites at temperatures up to 2073 K or higher in water vapor.

  1. High Temperature Lightweight Self-Healing Ceramic Composites for Aircraft Engine Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Sai V.; Singh, Mrityunjay; Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.

    2014-01-01

    The present research effort was undertaken to develop a new generation of SiC fiber- reinforced engineered matrix composites (EMCs) with sufficient high temperature plasticity to reduce crack propagation and self-healing capabilities to fill surface-connected cracks to prevent the oxygen ingress to the fibers. A matrix engineered with these capabilities is expected to increase the load bearing capabilities of SiCSiC CMCs at high temperatures. Several matrix compositions were designed to match the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the SiC fibers using a rule of mixture (ROM) approach. The CTE values of these matrices were determined and it was demonstrated that they were generally in good agreement with that of monolithic SiC between room temperature and 1525 K. The parameters to hot press the powders were optimized, and specimens were fabricated for determining bend strength, CTE, oxidation and microstructural characteristics of the engineered matrices. The oxidation tests revealed that some of the matrices exhibited catastrophic oxidation, and therefore, these were eliminated from further consideration. Two promising compositions were down selected based on these results for further development. Four-point bend tests were conducted on these two promising matrices between room temperature and 1698 K. Although theses matrices were brittle and failed at low stresses at room temperature, they exhibited high temperature ductility and higher stresses at the higher temperatures. The effects of different additives on the self-healing capabilities of these matrices were investigated. The results of preliminary studies conducted to slurry and melt infiltration trials with CrSi2 are described.

  2. High temperature operation of a composite membrane-based solid polymer electrolyte water electrolyser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonucci, V.; Di Blasi, A.; Baglio, V.; Arico, A.S. [CNR-ITAE, Via Salita S. Lucia sopra Contesse 5, 98126 Messina (Italy); Ornelas, R.; Matteucci, F. [Tozzi Apparecchiature Elettriche SpA, Via Zuccherificio, 10-48010 Mezzano (RA) (Italy); Ledesma-Garcia, J.; Arriaga, L.G. [Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico en Electroquimica, Parque Tecnologico Queretaro, Sanfandila, Pedro Escobedo, C.P. 76703 Queretaro (Mexico)

    2008-10-15

    The high temperature behaviour of a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) water electrolyser based on a composite Nafion-SiO{sub 2} membrane was investigated and compared to that of a commercial Nafion membrane. The SPE water electrolyser performance was studied from 80 to 120{sup o}C with an operating pressure varying between 1 and 3 bar abs. IrO{sub 2} and Pt were used as oxygen and hydrogen evolution catalysts, respectively. The assemblies were manufactured by using a catalyst-coated membrane (CCM) technique. The performance was significantly better for the composite Nafion-SiO{sub 2} membrane than commercial Nafion 115. Furthermore, the composite membrane allowed suitable water electrolysis at high temperature under atmospheric pressure. The current densities were 2 and 1.2 A cm{sup -2} at a terminal voltage of 1.9 V for Nafion-SiO{sub 2} and Nafion 115, respectively, at 100{sup o}C and atmospheric pressure. By increasing the temperature up to 120{sup o}C, the performance of Nafion 115 drastically decreased; whereas, the cell based on Nafion-SiO{sub 2} membrane showed a further increase of performance, especially when the pressure was increased to 3 bar abs (2.1 A cm{sup -2} at 1.9 V). (author)

  3. Tribological properties of PM212: A high-temperature, self-lubricating, powder metallurgy composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellacorte, Christopher; Sliney, Harold E.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes a research program to develop and evaluate a new high temperature, self-lubricating powder metallurgy composite, PM212. PM212 has the same composition as the plasma-sprayed coating, PS212, which contains 70 wt percent metal-bonded chromium carbide, 15 wt percent silver and 15 wt percent barium fluoride/calcium fluoride eutectic. The carbide acts as a wear resistant matrix and the silver and fluorides act as low and high temperature lubricants, respectively. The material is prepared by sequential cold press, cold isostatic pressing and sintering techniques. In this study, hemispherically tipped wear pins of PM212 were prepared and slid against superalloy disks at temperatures from 25 to 850 C in air in a pin-on-disk tribometer. Friction coefficients range from 0.29 to 0.38 and the wear of both the composite pins and superalloy disks was moderate to low in the 10(exp -5) to 10(exp -6) cubic mm/N-m range. Preliminary tests indicate that the material has a compressive strength of at least 130 MPa over the entire temperature range of 25 to 900 C. This material has promise for use as seal inserts, bushings, small inside diameter parts and other applications where plasma-sprayed coatings are impractical or too costly.

  4. Tribological properties of PM212 - A high temperature, self-lubricating, powder metallurgy composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellacorte, Christopher; Sliney, Harold E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a research program to develop and evaluate a new high temperature, self-lubricating powder metallurgy composite, PM212. PM212 has the same composition as the plasma-sprayed coating, PS212, which contains 70 wt percent metal-bonded chromium carbide, 15 wt percent silver and 15 wt percent barium fluoride/calcium fluoride eutectic. The carbide acts as a wear resistant matrix and the silver and fluorides act as low and high temperature lubricants, respectively. The material is prepared by sequential cold press, cold isostatic pressing and sintering techniques. In this study, hemispherically tipped wear pins of PM212 were prepared and slid against superalloy disks at temperatures from 25 to 850 C in air in a pin-on-disk tribometer. Friction coefficients range from 0.29 to 0.38 and the wear of both the composite pins and superalloy disks was moderate to low in the 10(exp -5) to 10(exp -6) cubic mm/N-m range. Preliminary tests indicate that the material has a compressive strength of at least 130 MPa over the entire temperature range of 25 to 900 C. This material has promise for use as seal inserts, bushings, small inside diameter parts and other applications where plasma-sprayed coatings are impractical or too costly.

  5. Material characterization of several resin systems for high temperature carbon fiber reinforced composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sung Ho; Oh, Jin Oh; Choi, Dong Hyun; Lee, Sang Woo

    2012-04-01

    Material characterization of several resin systems for high temperature carbon fiber reinforced composites was performed through a series of the tensile test, the dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) test, and the strand test. The modified tensile specimens and the DMA specimens were used to evaluate the tensile and thermal analysis properties of resin systems. The strand specimens were used to evaluate the tensile properties and load transfer efficiencies of the specimens. Four types of resin systems were considered. One was a conventional resin system currently used for filament wound structures and other three were high temperature resin systems. According to the tensile and DMA test results, the tensile modulus decreases slightly and the tensile strength decreases rapidly until the temperature reaches glass transition temperature. The tensile modulus and tensile strength are almost negligible above glass transition temperature. The tensile modulus obtained from the tensile test is consistent with that from the DMA test at different temperatures. From the strand test results, considering, the load transfer efficiency is found to be around 87 to 90 % of the tensile strength of T800H-12K carbon fibers for all resin systems except the specimen with the Type 2. Finally we found that the Type 4 is the best candidate for high temperature resin system applicable to filament wound structures in the view of the glass transition temperature as well as the tensile properties.

  6. Oxide fiber composites with promising properties for high-temperature structural applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, R.A. [Ceramic Materials Engineering, University of Bayreuth, 95440 Bayreuth (Germany); Danzer, R. [Institut fuer Struktur- und Funktionskeramik, Montanuniversitaet Leoben, 8700 Leoben (Austria)

    2006-11-15

    This paper summarizes the mechanical properties of recently developed Oxide Fiber Composites (OFCs) consisting of high-strength continuous oxide fibers embedded in an oxide matrix. The OFCs exhibit a favorable combination of high strength and damage tolerance due to unusual homogeneous microstructures. The tensile behavior in both fiber- and matrix-dominated loadings and interlaminar shear behavior are described. Special emphasis is placed on the attractive thermal shock resistance and high-temperature long-term performance of these new materials. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  7. Repair Development for a Composite Cryotank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Sarah B.; Danley, Susan E.; Caraccio, Anne J.; Cheshire, Brian C.; Sampson, Jeffrey W.; Taylor, Brian J.

    2014-01-01

    The Composite Cryotank Technologies and Demonstration Project is working to advance the technologies for composite cryogenic propellant tanks at diameters suitable for future heavy lift vehicles and other in-space applications. The main goals of the project are to reduce weight and cost. One aspect of this project has focused on damage evaluation and repair development. Test panels have been impacted, repaired, and tested. Several repair methods were used to compare their effectiveness at restoring the integrity of the composite. Panels were evaluated by nondestructive evaluations at several points during the process to assess the damage and repair. The testing performed and the results and conclusions from the nondestructive evaluations and the destructive testing will be discussed. These results will lead to further development of inspection techniques and repair methods.

  8. Interfacial diffusion in high-temperature deformation of composites: A discrete dislocation plasticity investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishvan, Siamak S.; Pollock, Tresa M.; McMeeking, Robert M.; Deshpande, Vikram S.

    2017-01-01

    We present a discrete dislocation plasticity (DDP) framework to analyse the high temperature deformation of multi-phase materials (composites) comprising a matrix and inclusions. Deformation of the phases is by climb-assisted glide of the dislocations while the particles can also deform due to stress-driven interfacial diffusion. The general framework is used to analyse the uniaxial tensile deformation of a composite comprising elastic particles with dislocation plasticity only present in the matrix phase. When dislocation motion is restricted to only glide within the matrix a strong size effect of the composite strength is predicted with the strength increasing with decreasing unit cell size due to dislocations forming pile-ups against the matrix/particle interface. Interfacial diffusion decreases the composite strength as it enhances the elongation of the elastic particles along the loading direction. When dislocation motion occurs by climb-assisted glide within the matrix the size effect of the strength is reduced as dislocations no longer arrange high energy pile-up structures but rather form lower energy dislocation cell networks. While interfacial diffusion again reduces the composite strength, in contrast to continuum plasticity predictions, the elongation of the particles is almost independent of the interfacial diffusion constant. Rather, in DDP the reduction in composite strength due to interfacial diffusion is a result of changes in the dislocation structures within the matrix and the associated enhanced dislocation climb rates in the matrix.

  9. Matrix free fiber reinforced polymeric composites via high-temperature high-pressure sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tao

    2004-11-01

    A novel manufacturing process called high-temperature high-pressure sintering was studied and explored. Solid fiber reinforced composites are produced by consolidating and compacting layers of polymeric fabrics near their melting temperature under high pressure. There is no need to use an additional matrix as a bonding material. Partial melting and recrystallization of the fibers effectively fuse the material together. The product is called a "matrix free" fiber reinforced composite and essentially a one-polymer composite in which the fiber and the matrix have the same chemical composition. Since the matrix is eliminated in the process, it is possible to achieve a high fiber volume fraction and light weight composite. Interfacial adhesion between fibers and matrix is very good due to the molecular continuity throughout the system and the material is thermally shapeable. Plain woven Spectra RTM cloth made of SpectraRTM fiber was used to comprehensively study the process. The intrinsic properties of the material demonstrate that matrix free SpectraRTM fiber reinforced composites have the potential to make ballistic shields such as body armor and helmets. The properties and structure of the original fiber and the cloth were carefully examined. Optimization of the processing conditions started with the probing of sintering temperatures by Differential Scanning Calorimetry. Coupled with the information from structural, morphological and mechanical investigations on the samples sintered at different processing conditions, the optimal processing windows were determined to ensure that the outstanding original properties of the fibers translate into high ballistic performance of the composites. Matrix free SpectraRTM composites exhibit excellent ballistic resistance in the V50 tests conducted by the US Army. In the research, process-structure-property relationship is established and correlations between various properties and structures are understood. Thorough knowledge is

  10. Carbon composite bipolar plate for high-temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells (HT-PEMFCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dongyoung; Lee, Dai Gil

    2016-09-01

    A carbon/epoxy composite bipolar plate is an ideal substitute for the brittle graphite bipolar plate for lightweight proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) because of its high specific strength and stiffness. However, conventional carbon/epoxy composite bipolar plates are not applicable for high-temperature PEMFCs (HT-PEMFCs) because these systems are operated at higher temperatures than the glass transition temperatures of conventional epoxies. Therefore, in this study, a cyanate ester-modified epoxy is adopted for the development of a carbon composite bipolar plate for HT-PEMFCs. The composite bipolar plate with exposed surface carbon fibers is produced without any surface treatments or coatings to increase the productivity and is integrated with a silicone gasket to reduce the assembly cost. The developed carbon composite bipolar plate exhibits not only superior electrical properties but also high thermo-mechanical properties. In addition, a unit cell test is performed, and the results are compared with those of the conventional graphite bipolar plate.

  11. Thermographic imaging for high-temperature composite materials: A defect detection study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Don J.; Bodis, James R.; Bishop, Chip

    1995-01-01

    The ability of a thermographic imaging technique for detecting flat-bottom hole defects of various diameters and depths was evaluated in four composite systems (two types of ceramic matrix composites, one metal matrix composite, and one polymer matrix composite) of interest as high-temperature structural materials. The holes ranged from 1 to 13 mm in diameter and 0.1 to 2.5 mm in depth in samples approximately 2-3 mm thick. The thermographic imaging system utilized a scanning mirror optical system and infrared (IR) focusing lens in conjunction with a mercury cadmium telluride infrared detector element to obtain high resolution infrared images. High intensity flash lamps located on the same side as the infrared camera were used to heat the samples. After heating, up to 30 images were sequentially acquired at 70-150 msec intervals. Limits of detectability based on depth and diameter of the flat-bottom holes were defined for each composite material. Ultrasonic and radiographic images of the samples were obtained and compared with the thermographic images.

  12. Robust high temperature composite and CO sensor made from such composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Prabir K.; Ramasamy, Ramamoorthy; Li, Xiaogan; Akbar, Sheikh A.

    2010-04-13

    Described herein is a composite exhibiting a change in electrical resistance proportional to the concentration of a reducing gas present in a gas mixture, detector and sensor devices comprising the composite, a method for making the composite and for making devices comprising the composite, and a process for detecting and measuring a reducing gas in an atmosphere. In particular, the reducing gas may be carbon monoxide and the composite may comprise rutile-phase TiO2 particles and platinum nanoclusters. The composite, upon exposure to a gas mixture containing CO in concentrations of up to 10,000 ppm, exhibits an electrical resistance proportional to the concentration of the CO present. The composite is useful for making sensitive, low drift, fast recovering detectors and sensors, and for measuring CO concentrations in a gas mixture present at levels from sub-ppm up to 10,000 ppm. The composites, and devices made from the composites, are stable and operable in a temperature range of from about 450.degree. C. to about 700.degree. C., such as may be found in a combustion chamber.

  13. Development and High Temperature Property Evaluation of Ni-Co-Cr-Al Composite Electroforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Meenu; Siju; Balaraju, J. N.; Ravisankar, B.

    2015-05-01

    Ni-Co-Cr-Al composite electroforms were developed with cobalt content of 10 and 40 wt.%. Cr and Al nano-particles were suspended in sulphamate electrolyte and co-deposited in the Ni-Co matrices. The surface morphology was investigated using field emission scanning electron microscope and the composition analyzed by energy-dispersive x-ray analysis. The oxidation resistance of the electroforms was studied from 600 to 1000 °C. The weight gain of Ni-10 wt.%Co-Cr-Al was less (better oxidation resistance) compared to Ni-Cr-Al and Ni-40 wt.%Co-Cr-Al. The x-ray diffraction studies revealed that the oxidation product formed on the surface of Ni-Cr-Al and Ni-10 wt.%Co-Cr-Al consisted of NiO and Al2O3, while Ni-40 wt.%Co-Cr-Al comprised oxides such as NiCo2O4, CrO3, CoO, NiO, and Al2O3. The hot corrosion behavior was investigated in 75%Na2SO4 + 25%NaCl environment at 800 °C. It was found that the hot corrosion resistance of the composite coating improved with increase in cobalt content. The probable composition suitable for high-temperature applications was found to be Ni-10 wt.%Co-Cr-Al.

  14. Processing and Characterization of Peti Composites Fabricated by High Temperature Vartm (Section)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, Sayata; Cano, Roberto J.; Watson, Kent A.; Britton, Sean M.; Jensen, Brian J.; Connell, John W.; Smith, Joseph G., Jr.; Loos, Alfred C.; Heider, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    The use of composites as primary structures on aerospace vehicles has increased dramatically over the past decade, but so have the production costs associated with their fabrication. For certain composites, high temperature vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (HT-VARTM) can offer reduced fabrication costs compared to conventional autoclave techniques. The process has been successfully used with phenylethynyl terminated imide (PETI) resins developed by NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). In the current study, three PETI resins have been used to make test specimens using HT-VARTM. Based on previous work at NASA LaRC, larger panels with a quasi-isotropic lay-up were fabricated. The resultant composite specimens exhibited void contents of 3% by volume depending on the type of carbon fabric preform used. Mechanical properties of the panels were determined at both room and elevated temperatures. Fabric permeability characterizations and limited process modeling efforts were carried out to determine infusion times and composite panel size limitations. In addition, new PETI based resins were synthesized specifically for HT-VARTM.

  15. Processing and Characterization of PETI Composites Fabricated by High Temperature VARTM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, Sayata; Cano, Roberto J.; Watson, Kent A.; Britton, Sean M.; Jensen, Brian J.; Connell, John W.; Smith, Joseph G.; Loos, Alfred C.; Heider, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    The use of composites as primary structures on aerospace vehicles has increased dramatically over the past decade. As these advanced structures increase in size and complexity, their production costs have grown significantly. A major contributor to these manufacturing costs is the requirement of elevated processing pressures, during the thermal cure, to create fully consolidated composites. For certain composite parts, high temperature vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (HT-VARTM) can offer reduced fabrication costs compared to conventional autoclave techniques. The process has been successfully used with phenylethynyl terminated imide (PETI) resins developed by NASA LaRC. In the current study, two PETI resins, LARC(TradeMark) PETI-330 and LARC(TradeMark) PETI-8 have been used to make test specimens using HT-VARTM. Based on previous work at NASA LaRC, larger panels with a quasi-isotropic lay-up were fabricated. The resultant composite specimens exhibited void contents VARTM. The results of this work are presented herein.

  16. Silica based composite membranes for methanol fuel cells operating at high temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, A.; Guzman, C.; Peza-Ledesma, C.; Godinez, Luis A.; Nava, R.; Duron-Torres, S.M.; Ledesma-Garcia, J.; Arriaga, L.G.

    2011-01-15

    Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) are seen as an alternative energy source for several applications, particularly portable power sources. Nafion membranes constitute a well known proton exchange system for DMFC systems due to their convenient electrochemical, mechanical and thermal stability and high proton conductivity properties. But there are problems currently associated with the direct methanol fuel cell technology. Intensive efforts to decrease the methanol crossover are focused mainly on the development of new polymer electrolyte membranes. In this study, Nafion polymer was modified by means of the incorporation of inorganic oxides with different structural properties (SBA-15 and SiO2), both prepared by sol-gel method in order to increase the proton conductivity at high temperature of fuel cell and to contribute decrementing the methanol crossover effect. Composite membranes based in inorganic fillers showed a significant decrease in the concentration of methanol permeation.

  17. Silanising agents promote resin-composite repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staxrud, Frode; Dahl, Jon E

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of silane in the repair of old and new resin-composite restorations. Part 1: repair of old composite was performed on 60 resin-composite substrates that were 6 years old and were made of six different brands of composite. Three experiments were performed. In the first experiment, the substrates were ground flat and composite was fixed to the surface with bonding agent without silane (i.e. Clearfil Bond SE only, the control). Shear bond strength (SBS) was tested according to ISO/TS 11405 after thermocycling. In the second experiment, the same 60 substrates were ground again and treated with bis-silane a 2-part silane mixed shortly before application before applying bonding agent (Clearfil Bond SE plus silane) and repair composite before SBS testing. In the third experiment, the same substrates were ground again and a one-step bonding product containing silane (Scotchbond Universal bond containing silane) was used for the repair procedure before SBS testing. Part 2: to evaluate the repair of newly made composite restorations, 66 composite substrates were made and stored in water for 2 months. The specimens were divided into three groups and were tested using the same protocols as used to evaluate repair of old composite. Mean SBS (± standard deviation), in MPa, for repair of old composite was 6.2 ± 4.0 (Clearfil Bond SE only, control), 14.8 ± 7.8 (Clearfil Bond SE plus silane) and 15.3 ± 5.6 (Scotchbond Universal bond with silane), whereas for new composite mean SBS was 15.4 ± 8.6 (Clearfil Bond SE only, control), 23.4 ± 8.3 (Clearfil Bond SE with silane) and 23.7 ± 5.8 (Scotchbond Universal containing silane). A significant difference was observed between the control and the test groups with silanising agents, both in Part 1 (P resin composite repair. © 2015 FDI World Dental Federation.

  18. Joining of Zirconium Diboride-Based Ceramic Composites to Metallic Systems for High-Temperature Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asthana, R.; Singh, M.

    2008-01-01

    Three types of hot-pressed zirconium diboride (ZrB2)-based ultra-high-temperature ceramic composites (UHTCC), ZrB2-SiC (ZS), ZrB2-SiC-C (ZSC), and ZrB2-SCS9-SiC (ZSS), were joined to Cu-clad-Mo using two Ag-Cu brazes (Cusil-ABA and Ticusil, T(sub L) approx.1073-1173 K) and two Pd-base brazes (Palco and Palni, T(sub L) approx.1493-1513 K). Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) revealed greater chemical interaction in joints made using Pd-base brazes than in joints made using Ag-Cu based active brazes. The degree of densification achieved in hot pressed composites influenced the Knoop hardness of the UHTCC and the hardness distribution across the braze interlayer. The braze region in Pd-base system displayed higher hardness in joints made using fully-dense ZS composites than in joints made using partially-dense ZSS composites and the carbon-containing ZSC composites. Calculations indicate a small negative elastic strain energy and an increase in the UHTCC's fracture stress up to a critical clad layer thickness . Above this critical thickness, strain energy in the UHTCC is positive, and it increases with increasing clad layer thickness. Empirical projections show a reduction in the effective thermal resistance of the joints and highlight the potential benefits of joining the UHTCC to Cu-clad-Mo.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of thermally stable palladium-based composite membranes for high temperature applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu El Hawa, Hani W.

    In this thesis, the inert gas leak evolution problem in electroless-plated palladium-based composite membranes has been revisited. Palladium was doped with a higher melting point element such as ruthenium or platinum and the rate of increase of the nitrogen leak in the temperature range of 500-600 ºC was determined. The results showed that doping Pd with Pt or Ru significantly reduces the leak growth rate compared to a pure Pd membrane by almost one order of magnitude. The addition of Ru to Pd was sufficient to lower the leak growth rate, though the hydrogen permeance stability was not improved. The Pd-Pt alloy membrane, despite having a lower hydrogen permeance, had a stable hydrogen flux at higher temperatures. The influence of high temperature annealing (> 640 ºC) on the thermal stability of pure Pd composite membranes was also investigated in order to correlate between thermal stability and microstructural evolution. Pure Pd composite membranes were subjected to different high temperature annealing processes. It was found that employing such heat treatments improved the thermal stability of the membranes when operated at lower temperatures; evidenced by a suppression of the rate at which hydrogen selectivity towards nitrogen declined over time. SEM images of the microstructural evolution as a function of temperature revealed that porosity, which is typically present in as-deposited electroless plated films, is significantly reduced after heat treatment. Thermal stability was also evaluated in actual steam methane reforming (SMR) environments. Thin film (˜5.0 microm thick) Pd-Ru and Pd-Au composite membranes were fabricated and used to carry out SMR over commercial Ni or Ru based catalysts at temperatures > 480 °C and pressures up to 2.9 MPa. The conversions obtained (≥ 80%) were significantly higher than the thermodynamic equilibrium predicted (process conditions. The long term operation (> 500 hours) revealed the potential suitability of these Pd

  20. Relaxation of residual stresses in 20%SiCw/6061Al composite as-extruded at high temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The residual stress in a 20%SiCw/6061Al composite as-extruded was investigated by using X-ray stress measurement method. It was found that, high residual stress existed in the composite and residual stress distribution in each direction are not uniform. Relaxation process of residual stress in the composite was dynamically measured during annealing at high temperature. It is verified that the relaxation of residual stress obeys the power law at high temperature. With the creep mechanism, the relaxation behavior of residual stresses at high temperature was analyzed. The results show that, the stress exponent and activation energy for stress relaxation of the composite are obviously higher than those of the matrix alloy.

  1. Erosion Coatings for High-Temperature Polymer Composites: A Collaborative Project With Allison Advanced Development Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, James K.

    2000-01-01

    The advantages of replacing metals in aircraft turbine engines with high-temperature polymer matrix composites (PMC's) include weight savings accompanied by strength improvements, reduced part count, and lower manufacturing costs. Successfully integrating high-temperature PMC's into turbine engines requires several long-term characteristics. Resistance to surface erosion is one rarely reported property of PMC's in engine applications because PMC's are generally softer than metals and their erosion resistance suffers. Airflow rates in stationary turbine engine components typically exceed 2.3 kg/sec at elevated temperatures and pressures. In engine applications, as shown in the following photos, the survivability of PMC components is clearly a concern, especially when engine and component life-cycle requirements become longer. Although very few publications regarding the performance of erosion coatings on PMC's are available particularly in high-temperature applications the use of erosion-resistant coatings to significantly reduce wear on metallic substrates is well documented. In this study initiated by the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field, a low-cost (less than $140/kg) graphite-fiber-reinforced T650 35/PMR 15 sheet-molding compound was investigated with various coatings. This sheet-molding compound has been compression molded into many structurally complicated components, such as shrouds for gas turbine inlet housings and gearboxes. Erosion coatings developed for PMC s in this study consisted of a two-layered system: a bondcoat sprayed onto a cleaned PMC surface, followed by an erosion-resistant, hard topcoat sprayed onto the bondcoat as shown in following photomicrograph. Six erosion coating systems were evaluated for their ability to withstand harsh thermal cycles, erosion resistance (ASTM G76 83 "Standard Practice for Conducting Erosion Tests by Solid Particle Impingement Using Gas Jets") using Al2O3, and adhesion to the graphite fiber polyimide

  2. Does magnesium compromise the high temperature processability of novel biodegradable and bioresorbables PLLA/Mg composites?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cifuentes, Sandra C.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the influence of magnesium on melting behaviour and thermal stability of novel bioresorbable PLLA/Mg composites as a way to investigate their processability by conventional techniques, which likely will require a melt process at high temperature to mould the material by using a compression, extrusion or injection stage. For this purpose, and to avoid any high temperature step before analysis, films of PLLA loaded with magnesium particles of different sizes and volume fraction were prepared by solvent casting. DSC, modulated DSC and thermogravimetry analysis demonstrate that although thermal stability of PLLA is reduced, the temperature window for processing the PLLA/Mg composites by conventional thermoplastic routes is wide enough. Moreover, magnesium particles do not alter the crystallization behaviour of the polymer from the melt, which allows further annealing treatments to optimize the crystallinity in terms of the required combination of mechanical properties and degradation rate.Este trabajo aborda la influencia de magnesio en el comportamiento a fusión y en la estabilidad térmica de nuevos compuestos de PLLA / Mg biorreabsorbibles como una forma de investigar su procesabilidad mediante técnicas convencionales, lo que probablemente requerirá una etapa en estado fundido a alta temperatura para moldear el material mediante el uso de una etapa de compresión, extrusión o inyección. Para este fin, los materiales de PLLA cargados con partículas de magnesio, de diferentes tamaños y fracción de volumen, se prepararon por la técnica de disolución y colada, evitando así el procesado a alta temperatura antes del análisis. El análisis mediante DSC, DSC modulada y termogravimetría demuestra que, aunque la estabilidad térmica de PLLA se reduce, el intervalo de temperatura para su procesado por rutas convencionales es suficientemente amplio. Además, las partículas de magnesio no alteran la cristalización del pol

  3. SiC Matrix Composites for High Temperature Hypersonic Vehicle Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Durable high temperature materials are required for reusable hypersonic structural thermal protection systems. In particular, temperatures exceeding 2700:F, and...

  4. SiC Matrix Composites for High Temperature Hypersonic Vehicle Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Durable high temperature materials are required for hypersonic engine and structural thermal protection systems. In particular, 2700:F or greater capable structural...

  5. Kinetics of the high-temperature combustion reactions of dibutylether using composite computational methods

    KAUST Repository

    Rachidi, Mariam El

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the high-temperature combustion kinetics of n-dibutyl ether (n-DBE), including unimolecular decomposition, H-abstraction by H, H-migration, and C{single bond}C/C{single bond}O β-scission reactions of the DBE radicals. The energetics of H-abstraction by OH radicals is also studied. All rates are determined computationally using the CBS-QB3 and G4 composite methods in conjunction with conventional transition state theory. The B3LYP/6-311++G(2df,2pd) method is used to optimize the geometries and calculate the frequencies of all reactive species and transition states for use in ChemRate. Some of the rates calculated in this study vary markedly from those obtained for similar reactions of alcohols or alkanes, particularly those pertaining to unimolecular decomposition and β-scission at the α-β C{single bond}C bond. These variations show that analogies to alkanes and alcohols are, in some cases, inappropriate means of estimating the reaction rates of ethers. This emphasizes the need to establish valid rates through computation or experimentation. Such studies are especially important given that ethers exhibit promising biofuel and fuel additive characteristics. © 2014.

  6. High Temperature Properties and Microstructure of Boron Nitride—Zirconia/Corundum/Mullite Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAOHailei; ZHONGXiangchong; 等

    1997-01-01

    The high temperature properties and mi-crostructure of boron nitride matrix with addi-tion of 10wt%-30wt% zirconia/corundum/mullite hot-pressing sintered have been studied. The results reveal that addition of zirconia/corundum/mullite to BN-based material results in enhanement of bending strength and frac-ture toughness that may be due to the dispersion strengthening and toughness effects caused by the dispersion of oxide particles in the interwo-ven structure of BN.Furthermore,when oxide addition does not exceed 20wt%,the composite still retains excellent thermal shock resistance characteristic of BN material.The 9Al2O3·2B2O3 formed during the sintering process cre-ate a pull-out effect when the material tends to fracture,which may be beneficial for improve-ment of mechanial properties.The oxidation kinetics model has been worked out,together with formula for activation energy and rate,Thermal fatigue life formula has been derived,and the activation energy for subcritical crack growth and the stress intensity exponent have been calculated.

  7. Temperature profile and producer gas composition of high temperature air gasification of oil palm fronds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guangul, F. M.; Sulaiman, S. A.; Ramli, A.

    2013-06-01

    Environmental pollution and scarcity of reliable energy source are the current pressing global problems which need a sustainable solution. Conversion of biomass to a producer gas through gasification process is one option to alleviate the aforementioned problems. In the current research the temperature profile and composition of the producer gas obtained from the gasification of oil palm fronds by using high temperature air were investigated and compared with unheated air. By preheating the gasifying air at 500°C the process temperature were improved and as a result the concentration of combustible gases and performance of the process were improved. The volumetric percentage of CO, CH4 and H2 were improved from 22.49, 1.98, and 9.67% to 24.98, to 2.48% and 13.58%, respectively. In addition, HHV, carbon conversion efficiency and cold gas efficiency were improver from 4.88 MJ/Nm3, 83.8% and 56.1% to 5.90 MJ/Nm3, 87.3% and 62.4%, respectively.

  8. Tribological investigation of metal-ceramic composite coatings in high temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.T.MA; R.J.ZHANG; Y.S.JIN; G.Barbezat

    2001-01-01

    The high temperature tribological properties of metal-based ceramic coating containingoxidation under dry wear condition were studied in this paper. It shows that the coating exhibitedself-lubricated properties only in the high temperature range, and the abrasion, adhesion and oxi-dation are the main wear modes.

  9. Solid polymer electrolyte water electrolyser based on Nafion-TiO{sub 2} composite membrane for high temperature operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baglio, V.; Antonucci, V.; Arico, A.S. [CNR-ITAE, Messina (Italy); Matteucci, F.; Martina, F.; Zama, I. [Tozzi Renewable Energy SpA, Mezzano (Italy); Ciccarella, G. [National Nanotechnology Laboratory (NNL) of INFM-CNR, Distretto Tecnologico ISUFI, Innovazione, Universita del Salento, Lecce (Italy); Arriaga, L.G. [Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico en Electroquimica, Queretaro Sanfandila (Mexico); Ornelas, R.

    2009-06-15

    A composite Nafion-TiO{sub 2} membrane was manufactured by a recast procedure, using an in-house prepared TiO{sub 2}. This membrane has shown promising properties for high temperature operation in an SPE electrolyser allowing to achieve higher performance with respect to a commercial Nafion 115 membrane. This effect is mainly due to the water retention properties of the TiO{sub 2} filler. A promising increase in electrical efficiency was recorded at low current densities for the composite membrane-based SPE electrolyser at high temperature compared to conventional membrane-based devices. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  10. Developing scandium and zirconium containing aluminum boron carbide metal matrix composites for high temperature applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jing

    The study presented in this thesis focuses on developing castable, precipitation-strengthened Al--B4C metal matrix composites (MMCs) for high temperature applications. In the first part, B4C plates were immersed in liquid aluminum alloyed with Sc, Zr and Ti to investigate the interfacial reactions between B4C and liquid aluminum The influences of Sc, Zr and Ti on the interfacial microstructure in terms of individual and combined additions were examined. Results reveal that all three elements reacted with B4C and formed interfacial layers that acted as a diffusion barrier to limit the decomposition of B4C in liquid aluminum. The interfacial reactions and the reaction products in each system were identified. With the combined addition of Sc, Zr and Ti, most of the Ti was found to enrich at the interface, which not only offered appropriate protection of the B4C but also reduced the consumption of Sc and Zr at the interface. In the second part, Sc and Zr were introduced into Al-15vol.% B 4C composites presaturated by Ti, and eight experimental composites with different Sc and Zr levels were prepared via a conventional casting technique. It was found that Sc was involved in the interfacial reactions with B 4C that partially consume Sc. The Sc addition yielded considerable precipitation strengthening in the as-cast and peak aged conditions. To achieve an equivalent strengthening effect of Sc in binary Al-Sc alloys, approximately double the amount of Sc is required in Al-B4C composites. On the contrary, no major Zr reaction products were found at the interfaces and the major part of Zr remained in the matrix for the precipitation strengthening. The combination of Sc and Zr enhanced sthe precipitation strengthening. Two kinds of nanoscale precipitates, Al3Sc and Al3(Sc, Zr), were found in the as-cast microstructure and contributed to the increase in the matrix hardness. In the third part, all the experimental composites were isothermally aged at 300, 350, 400 and 450

  11. Mineralogical composition of Oravita calcic skarns as a function of the high-temperature contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghinet, Cristina; Marincea, Stefan; Dumitras, Delia

    2014-05-01

    Insignificant in terms of mineralization, the skarns of Oravita are scientifically interested because of their mineralogical associations. The higher crystallinity and good natural conditions (they are generally barren) are two characteristics of this rocks that can provide the ideally system to understand the behavior of the mineralogical components in certain conditions of temperature and pressure, but also for the hydrated carbonate phases whose forming understanding may be useful in the applied mineralogy. The occurrence of skarns from Oraviţa includes, as representative species, gehlenite, calcic garnet, monticellite, ellestadite-(OH), vesuvianite, that means in the geochemically terms CaO - SiO2 - H2O - Al2O3 system, usually described as C-S-H-A phases by the cement researches, difficult to study because of the small dimensions of the compounds crystals. The inner skarn zone is dominated by the presence of the gehlenite, an aluminum calcium silicate whose formation involves, as conditions, high temperature (~ 750oC) and low pressure (up to 1kbar). Typically, it is associated with monticellite, ellestadite-(OH), wollastonite 2M, diopside and calcic garnets. As it is expected, the intensity of the contact metamorphism decreases from the innermost to the outermost parts of the aureole, reflected in the chemical activity of the cations that participated at the chemical reactions. In this respect, the observed garnets are zoned, being characterized by a peripheral rich in Al, while the centers of the crystals are characterized by a high content of Fe and Ti. The replacement of gehlenite with vesuvianite along the metasomtatic front, a process that was observed at the optical microscope, indicates the existence of late stage metasomatic mineral phases. The presence of the vesuvianite, frequently including partially chloritized clintonite slides, and its main associated minerals as wollastonite 2M and calcium garnet with an andradite composition, points out the

  12. Repair of dental resin-based composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baur, Veronika; Ilie, Nicoleta

    2013-03-01

    The study analyzed the reparability and compatibility of light-curing resin-based composites (RBCs) of the categories "microhybrid," "nanohybrid," and "packable." Six RBCs with different matrix and filler formulation--purely methacrylate-based composites (MBCs), ormocer-based composites (OBCs), and silorane-based composites (SBCs)--were used for the specimens. Every material was combined with itself and with the other five RBCs, resulting in a total of 36 combination groups (n = 20). The specimens were polymerized, aged for 8 weeks in distilled water at 37 °C, and then repaired by means of a repair kit. Shear bond strength and fracture mode were measured after aging of the specimens, undergoing storage for 24 h in distilled water at 37 °C followed by thermocycling (5,000 cycles, 5-55 °C) and an additional 4-week storage in distilled water at 37 °C. Data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA with TUKEY HSD post hoc test (α = 0.05). On average, the OBC Admira reached the highest value as a substrate material (30.41 MPa), and the SBC Filtek Silorane reached the lowest value (8.14 MPa). Filtek Silorane was identified as the repair material with the highest bond strength value (28.70 MPa), while a packable composite reached the lowest bond strength value (15.55 MPa). The analysis of the break modes showed that adhesive breaks are typical when strength is at its lowest (6.27 MPa). A large number of cohesive fractures are conspicuous when identical materials are used for repair, except Filtek Silorane (2 % cohesive fractures). The study demonstrated that the effect of the different materials on bond strength varies strongly, depending on whether the material is used as filling or as repair material. It is generally advisable but not compulsory to combine identical RBCs.

  13. High-Temperature Self-Repairing Coating Material for Sample Return Space Capsules (SRSC) for Earth Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutelia, E. R.; Bakhtiyarov, S. I.; Tsurtsumia, O. O.; Bakhtiyarov, A. S.; Eristavi, B.

    2012-06-01

    This work presents the possibility to realize the self healing mechanisms for heterogeneous architectural metal/ceramic high temperature sandwich thermal barrier coating systems on the surfaces refractory metals by analogy of wound healing in the skin.

  14. DETERMINING THE COMPOSITION OF HIGH TEMPERATURE COMBUSTION PRODUCTS OF FOSSIL FUEL BASED ON VARIATIONAL PRINCIPLES AND GEOMETRIC PROGRAMMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velibor V Vujović

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the algorithm and results of a computer program for calculation of complex equilibrium composition for the high temperature fossil fuel combustion products. The method of determining the composition of high temperatures combustion products at the temperatures appearing in the open cycle MHD power generation is given. The determination of combustion product composition is based on minimization of the Gibbs free energy. The number of equations to be solved is reduced by using variational principles and a method of geometric programming and is equal to the sum of the numbers of elements and phases. A short description of the computer program for the calculation of the composition and an example of the results are also given.

  15. Comparison of self repair in various composite matrix materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dry, Carolyn

    2014-04-01

    In a comparison of self repair in graphite composites (for airplane applications) versus epoxy and vinyl ester composites (for building structures or walls) 1 the type of damage that the fiber/matrix is prone to experience is a prime factor in determining which materials self repair well and 2 the flow of energy during damage determines what kinds of damage that can be self repaired well. 1) In brittle composites, repair was successful throughout the composite due to matrix cracking which allowed for optimum chemical flow, whereas in toughened composites that did not crack, the repair chemical flows into a few layers of the composite. 2) If the damage energy is stopped by the composite and goes laterally, it causes delamination which will be repaired; however if the damage energy goes through the composite as with a puncture, then there will be limited delamination, less chemical release and less self repair.

  16. Palladium/Copper Alloy Composite Membranes for High Temperature Hydrogen Separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Douglas Way; Paul M. Thoen

    2005-08-31

    This report summarizes progress made during the second year of research funding from DOE Grant DE-FG26-03NT41792 at the Colorado School of Mines. The period of performance was September 1, 2004 through August of 2005. We have reformulated our Pd plating process to minimize the presence of carbon contamination in our membranes. This has improved durability and increased permeability. We have developed techniques for plating the outside diameter of ceramic and metal substrate tubes. This configuration has numerous advantages including a 40% increase in specific surface area, the ability to assay the alloy composition non-destructively, the ability to potentially repair defects in the plated surface, and the ability to visually examine the plated surfaces. These improvements have allowed us to already meet the 2007 DOE Fossil Energy pure H{sub 2} flux target of 100 SCFH/ft{sup 2} for a hydrogen partial pressure difference of 100 psi with several Pd-Cu alloy membranes on ceramic microfilter supports. Our highest pure H{sub 2} flux on inexpensive, porous alumina support tubes at the DOE target conditions is 215 SCFH/ft{sup 2}. Progress toward meeting the other DOE Fossil Energy performance targets is also summarized. Additionally, we have adapted our membrane fabrication procedure to apply Pd and Pd alloy films to commercially available porous stainless steel substrates. Stable performance of Pd-Cu films on stainless steel substrates was demonstrated over a three week period at 400 C. Finally, we have fabricated and tested Pd-Au alloy membranes. These membranes also exceed both the 2007 and 2010 DOE pure H{sub 2} flux targets and exhibit ideal H{sub 2}/N{sub 2} selectivities of over 1000 at partial pressure difference of 100 psi.

  17. Experimental assessment of concrete damage due to exposure to high temperature and efficacy of the repair system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guruprasad Y.K.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study experimentally evaluates the performance of control (standard cylinder specimen, damaged (mechanical loading after thermal exposure and repaired / retrofitted normal plain concrete cylinders using different repair schemes such as on use of FRP wraps, Geo-polymers, etc., to restore the capacity of damaged structural concrete elements. The control-companion specimen in the series provides the reference frame against which both, specimen damage levels were quantified and the benefits of a specimen repaired subsequent to damage were assessed.

  18. Evaluation of a ZrO2 composite membrane in PEM fuel operating at high temperature and low relativity humidity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzman, C.; Alvarez, A.; Godinez, Luis A.; Herrera, O.E.; Merida, W.; Ledesma-Garcia, J.; Arriaga, L.G.

    2011-01-15

    Using proton exchange fuel cells (PEMFC's) is a sustainable way to generate electrical power. High temperature PEMFC's (HT - PEMFC's) have enhanced electrode kinetics, increased CO tolerance and simplified water management that these operation conditions imply. Unfortunately, Nafion and other perfluorosulfonic acid membranes (PFSA) are characterized by a decreased proton conductivity at high temperatures (above 100 degree C) due to dehydration which also causes shrinkage and increases the contact resistance between the membrane and the electrode. For these reasons, fuel cell research aims to create new membranes capable of working at high temperatures and low relative humidity conditions. The inclusion of inorganic materials into the Nafion matrix are employed to improve the mechanical properties of the membrane and enhance the membrane's hydration. In this study, the composite membrane ZrO2 showed better performance at high temperature and low relative humidity than commercial Nafion membrane. The performance results confirmed that composite membranes retain water and help retain the membrane hydration.

  19. Progress in patch repair of aerospace composite structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Weiguo; Zhang, Weifang; Tang, Qingyun

    2012-04-01

    With the rapid application of the composite structure in the aerospace industry, more load-bearing structures and components are used with composites instead of conventional engineering materials. However, the composite structures are inevitably suffered damages in the complex environment, the composites structures repair become more important in the airplane maintenance. This paper describes the composites patch repair progress. Firstly, the flaws and damages concerned to composite structures are concluded, and also the repair principles are presented. Secondly, the advantages and disadvantages for different repair methods are analyzed, as well as the different bonded repair and their applicability to different structures is discussed. According the recent research in theory and experiment, the scarf repair effects under different parameters are analyzed. Finally, the failure mechanisms of repair structure are discussed, and some prospects are put forward.

  20. "A New Class od Functionally Graded Cearamic-Metal Composites for Next Generation Very High Temperature Reactors"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Mohit Jain; Dr. Ganesh Skandan; Dr. Gordon E. Khose; Mrs. Judith Maro, Nuclear Reactor Laboratory, MIT

    2008-05-01

    Generation IV Very High Temperature power generating nuclear reactors will operate at temperatures greater than 900 oC. At these temperatures, the components operating in these reactors need to be fabricated from materials with excellent thermo-mechanical properties. Conventional pure or composite materials have fallen short in delivering the desired performance. New materials, or conventional materials with new microstructures, and associated processing technologies are needed to meet these materials challenges. Using the concept of functionally graded materials, we have fabricated a composite material which has taken advantages of the mechanical and thermal properties of ceramic and metals. Functionally-graded composite samples with various microstructures were fabricated. It was demonstrated that the composition and spatial variation in the composition of the composite can be controlled. Some of the samples were tested for irradiation resistance to neutrons. The samples did not degrade during initial neutron irradiation testing.

  1. Super-High Temperature Alloys and Composites from NbW-Cr Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shailendra Varma

    2008-12-31

    Nickel base superalloys must be replaced if the demand for the materials continues to rise for applications beyond 1000{sup o}C which is the upper limit for such alloys at this time. There are non-metallic materials available for such high temperature applications but they all present processing difficulties because of the lack of ductility. Metallic systems can present a chance to find materials with adequate room temperature ductility. Obviously the system must contain elements with high melting points. Nb has been chosen by many investigators which has a potential of being considered as a candidate if alloyed properly. This research is exploring the Nb-W-Cr system for the possible choice of alloys to be used as a high temperature material.

  2. Reactive Fusion Welding for Ultra-High Temperature Ceramic Composite Joining

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-16

    INTRODUCTION Zirconium diboride (ZrB2) is ceramic material belonging to the group of materials known as ultra-high temperature ceramics (UHTCs), where UHTCs...expended during the diffusion of C from the graphite spacer. This occurs as the enthalpy of fusion (Hf) and mixing (Hmix) are expected to be positive...ZrB2 Ceramics ( Contributed Oral Presentation) Authors: Derek King, Greg E. Hilmas, and William G. Fahrenholtz Plasma arc welding was used to join

  3. Characterization of self-healing glassy composites by high-temperature environmental scanning electron microscopy (HT-ESEM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coillot, Daniel; Podor, Renaud; Méar, François O; Montagne, Lionel

    2010-01-01

    In situ high-temperature healing of cracks in composites made of glass and vanadium boride (VB) particles was observed using an environmental scanning electron microscope equipped with a high-temperature chamber (HT-ESEM). HT-ESEM is an adequate tool for studying the self-healing property of these materials. The change in crack length as a function of redox atmospheric conditions is reported. No self-healing behaviour was observed under reducing conditions, while a complete and rapid healing of the cracks was measured under oxidizing conditions. HT-ESEM image analyses enabled the monitoring of the healing effect. The self-healing mechanism was identified as a consequence of the VB active particles oxidation and subsequent pouring of fluid oxides into the cracks. These innovative composites offer an interesting potential in the domain of solid oxide fuel cell sealants.

  4. Does magnesium compromise the high temperature process ability of novel biodegradable and bioresorbables PLLA/Mg composites?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cifuentes, S. C.; Benavemente, R.; Gonzalez-Carrasco, J. L.

    2014-10-01

    This paper addresses the influence of magnesium on melting behaviour and thermal stability of novel bioresorbable PLLA/Mg composites as a way to investigate their processability by conventional techniques, which likely will require a melt process at high temperature to mould the material by using a compression, extrusion or injection stage. For this purpose, and to avoid any high temperature step before analysis, films of PLLA loaded with magnesium particles of different sizes and volume fraction were prepared by solvent casting. DSC, modulated DSC and thermogravimetry analysis demonstrate that although thermal stability of PLLA is reduced, the temperature window for processing the PLLA/Mg composites by conventional thermoplastic routes is wide enough. Moreover, magnesium particles do not alter the crystallization behaviour of the polymer from the melt, which allows further annealing treatments to optimize the crystallinity in terms of the required combination of mechanical properties and degradation rate. (Author)

  5. Self-Propagating High-Temperature Synthesis of Titanium Carbosilicide and Electrically Conductive Composite Coatings on its Basis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulpekov, A. M.; Lepakova, O. K.; Golobokov, N. N.; Dyukarev, M. A.

    2017-09-01

    Titanium carbosilicide is obtained by the method of self-propagating high-temperature synthesis with titanium and ferrosilicon (with silicon content of 80 mass %) used as initial products. Addition of TiSi2 to the endproduct with the subsequent heat treatment allows the content of titanium silicide to be increased. The materials based on titanium carbosilicide provide electroconductivity of polymer composite coatings at temperatures exceeding 350°C.

  6. Development of a Binary Mixture Gas Composition Instrument for Use in a Confined High Temperature Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadell, Seth R.

    With recent advancements in material science, industrial operations are being conducted at higher and higher temperatures. This is apparent in the nuclear industry where a division of the field is working to develop the High Temperature Gas Reactor and the Very High Temperature Gas Reactor concurrently. Both of these facilities will have outlet gas temperatures that are at significantly higher temperatures than the typical water cooled reactor. These increased temperatures provide improved efficiency for the production of hydrogen, provide direct heating for oil refineries, or more efficient electricity generation. As high temperature operations are being developed, instruments capable of measuring the operating parameters must be developed concurrently. Within the gas reactor community there is a need to measure the impurities within the primary coolant. Current devices will not survive the temperature and radiation environments of a nuclear reactor. An instrument is needed to measure the impurities within the coolant while living inside the reactor, where this instrument would measure the amount of the impurity within the coolant. There are many industrial applications that need to measure the ratio of two components, whether it be the amount of particulate in air that is typical to pneumatic pumping, or the liquid to gas ratio in natural gas as it flows through a pipeline. All of the measurements in these applications can be met using a capacitance sensor. Current capacitance sensors are built to operate at ambient temperatures with only one company producing a product that will handle a temperature of up to 400 °C. This maximum operating temperature is much too low to measure the gas characteristics in the High Temperature Gas Reactor. If this measurement technique were to be improved to operate at the expected temperatures, the coolant within the primary loop could be monitored for water leaks in the steam generator, carbon dust buildup entrained in the flow

  7. Enhanced Damage Tolerance High Temperature Composite Using a Biomimetic Toughening System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lightweight composite structures are required to provide space vehicles with increased thrust-to-weight ratio and durability. New methods for toughening composites...

  8. The New Technology of Composite Materials Repairing by Light Wave

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Zhi-min; CHEN Yu-ming; YU Xiao-lei; WANG Le-xin

    2004-01-01

    The repairing of damaged composite materials becomes a hot research subject in the late 1990s.In this paper a new technology of repairing composite materials is given on the basis of our previous research.The light wave of 675nm transmitted by optical fiber is used as repairing light source,special repairable adhesive which can be stimulated by the light is adopted.By comparing the stiffness of the composite material before and after being damaged,it can be concluded that the mechanical property will not be changed with the feasible repairing technology.

  9. Bond Strength of Repaired Composite Resin Restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Máximo de ARAÚJO

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the bond strength of direct composite resins and composite repairs, using 3 different commercial brands - GI: Palfique Estelite Ó (Tokuyama, GII: Filtek Z350 (3M/ESPE and GIII: Te Econon (Ivoclar/Vivadent - and the use of AdperTM Single Bond 2 (3M/ESPE adhesive system at the base/repair interface. Method: Thirty conic bases (5 mm x 5 mm x 3 mm of each commercial brand of composite resin were fabricated. All bases of each group were submitted to a thermocycling regimen of 20,000 cycles (5ºC to 55ºC ± 2ºC, for 30 s. The bases of each group were randomly assigned to 3 sub-groups, in which a combination of the commercial brands was performed for the repairs. The specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C during 7 days and were thereafter tested in tensile strength in a universal testing machine (EMIC - MEM 2000 with 500 kgf load cell running at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/min until fracture. Data in MPa were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey’s test (5%.Results: The following results were found: GI: Palfique Estelite Ó (11.22±4.00 MPa, Te Econom (12.03±3.47 MPa and Filtek Z350 (10.66±2.89 MPa; GII: Palfique Estelite Ó (8.88±2.04 MPa, Te Econom (7.77±1.64 MPa and Filtek Z350 (10.50±6.14 MPa; and GIII: Palfique Estelite Ó (8.41±2.50 MPa, Te Econom (12.33±3.18 MPa and Z350 (11.73±3.54 MPa.Conclusion: The bond strengths at the interface of the different composite resins submitted to repair were statistically similar regardless of the commercial brand.

  10. Processing of continuous fiber reinforced ceramic composites for ultra high temperature applications using organosilicon polymer precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, James Robert

    The current work is on the development of continuous fiber reinforced ceramic materials (CFCCs) for use in ultra high temperature applications. These applications subject materials to extremely high temperatures(> 2000°C). Monolithic ceramics are currently being used for these applications, but the tendency to fail catastrophically has driven the need for the next generation of material. Reinforcing with continuous fibers significantly improves the toughness of the monolithic materials; however, this is a manufacturing challenge. The development of commercial, low-viscosity preceramic polymers provides new opportunities to fabricate CFCCs. Preceramic polymers behave as polymers at low temperatures and are transformed into ceramics upon heating to high temperatures. The polymer precursors enable the adaptation of well-established polymer processing techniques to produce high quality materials at relatively low cost. In the present work, SMP-10 from Starfire Systems, and PURS from KiON Corp. were used to manufacture ZrB2-SiC/SiC CFCCs using low cost vacuum bagging process in conjunction with the polymer infiltration and pyrolysis process. The microstructure was investigated using scanning electron microscopy and it was determined that the initial greenbody cure produced porosity of both closed and open pores. The open pores were found to be more successfully re-infiltrated using neat resin compared to slurry reinfiltrate; however, the closed pores were found to be impenetrable during subsequent reinfiltrations. The mechanical performance of the manufactured samples was evaluated using flexure tests and found the fiber reinforcement prevented catastrophic failure behavior by increasing fracture toughness. Wedge sample were fabricated and evaluated to demonstrate the ability to produce CFCC of complex geometry.

  11. High-temperature hybrid welding of thermoplastic (CF/Peek) to thermoset (CF/Epoxy) composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez Villegas, I.; Vizcaino Rubio, P.

    2015-01-01

    Thermoset composites are widely used for the manufacturing of modern composite aircrafts. The use of thermoplastic composites (TPC) in aerospace applications is, however, gradually increasing owing to their cost-effectiveness in manufacturing and improved damage tolerance. An example of the use of t

  12. High-temperature hybrid welding of thermoplastic (CF/Peek) to thermoset (CF/Epoxy) composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez Villegas, I.; Vizcaino Rubio, P.

    2015-01-01

    Thermoset composites are widely used for the manufacturing of modern composite aircrafts. The use of thermoplastic composites (TPC) in aerospace applications is, however, gradually increasing owing to their cost-effectiveness in manufacturing and improved damage tolerance. An example of the use of

  13. High temperature flow behaviour of SiC reinforced lithium aluminosilicate composites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Santanu Das; V S R Murthy; G S Murty

    2001-04-01

    The compressive flow behaviour of lithium aluminosilicate (LAS) glass, with and without SiC particulate reinforcements, was studied. The LAS glass crystallized to spodumene during high-temperature testing. The flow behaviour of LAS glass changed from Newtonian to non-Newtonian due to the presence of crystalline phase. Further, with the addition of 40 vol.% SiC additions, the strain rate sensitivity of flow stress decreased. While the activation energy for flow in LAS was 300 kJ/mole, it increased to 995 kJ/mole with the addition of 40 vol.% SiC reinforcements.

  14. High Temperature Mechanical Testing of a Cylindrical Weave Carbon-Carbon Composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-26

    S. Los Angeles CA 90009 AEROSPACE CORPORATION Feldman L. Los Angeles CA 90009 AEROSPACE CORPORATION Meyer Robert A. Los Angeles CA 90009 AEROSPACE...and Feldman found no appreciable creep w i th the same specimens before reach i nq a temperature of 22:0 C,:. ref 7) The in-house axial specimens...Materials" , Technical report AFrL-TR-77-94, June 1977. (8) L.A. Feldman , "High Temperature Creep of Carbon Yarns: First Annual Report", ONR Annual Report

  15. Microwave plasma monitoring system for the elemental composition analysis of high temperature process streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woskov, Paul P. (Bedford, MA); Cohn, Daniel R. (Chestnuthill, MA); Titus, Charles H. (Newtown Square, PA); Surma, Jeffrey E. (Kennewick, WA)

    1997-01-01

    Microwave-induced plasma for continuous, real time trace element monitoring under harsh and variable conditions. The sensor includes a source of high power microwave energy and a shorted waveguide made of a microwave conductive, high temperature capability refractory material communicating with the source of the microwave energy to generate a plasma. The high power waveguide is constructed to be robust in a hot, hostile environment. It includes an aperture for the passage of gases to be analyzed and a spectrometer is connected to receive light from the plasma. Provision is made for real time in situ calibration. The spectrometer disperses the light, which is then analyzed by a computer. The sensor is capable of making continuous, real time quantitative measurements of desired elements, such as the heavy metals lead and mercury. The invention may be incorporated into a high temperature process device and implemented in situ for example, such as with a DC graphite electrode plasma arc furnace. The invention further provides a system for the elemental analysis of process streams by removing particulate and/or droplet samples therefrom and entraining such samples in the gas flow which passes through the plasma flame. Introduction of and entraining samples in the gas flow may be facilitated by a suction pump, regulating gas flow, gravity or combinations thereof.

  16. Fracture toughness and reliability in high-temperature structural ceramics and composites: Prospects and challenges for the 21st Century

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sunil Dutta

    2001-04-01

    The importance of high fracture toughness and reliability in Si3N4, and SiC-based structural ceramics and ceramic matrix composites is reviewed. The potential of these ceramics and ceramic matrix composites for high temperature applications in defence and aerospace applications such as gas turbine engines, radomes, and other energy conversion hardware have been well recognized. Numerous investigations were pursued to improve fracture toughness and reliability by incorporating various reinforcements such as particulate-, whisker-, and continuous fibre into Si3N4 and SiC matrices. All toughening mechanisms, e.g. crack deflection, crack branching, crack bridging, etc essentially redistribute stresses at the crack tip and increase the energy needed to propagate a crack through the composite material, thereby resulting in improved fracture toughness and reliability. Because of flaw insensitivity, continuous fibre reinforced ceramic composite (CFCC) was found to have the highest potential for higher operating temperature and longer service conditions. However, the ceramic fibres should display sufficient high temperature strength and creep resistance at service temperatures above 1000°C. The greatest challenge to date is the development of high quality ceramic fibres with associate coatings able to maintain their high strength in oxidizing environment at high temperature. In the area of processing, critical issues are preparation of optimum matrix precursors, precursor infiltration into fibre array, and matrix densification at a temperature, where grain crystallization and fibre degradation do not occur. A broad scope of effort is required for improved processing and properties with a better understanding of all candidate composite systems.

  17. Evaluation of Mechanical Properties of Carbon/Epoxy Composites Under In situ Low- and High-Temperature Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, JaeMoon; Shin, KwangBok [Hanbat National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Taekyung [Agency for Defense Development, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    This paper aims to evaluate the variation in the mechanical properties of carbon/epoxy composites under in situ low- and high-temperature environments. In situ low- and high-temperature environments were simulated with temperature ranging from -40℃ to 220℃ using an environmental chamber and furnace. The variation in the mechanical properties of the composites was measured for longitudinal and transverse tensile properties, in-plane shear properties and interlaminar shear strength. Under the low temperature of -40℃, all mechanical properties increased moderately compared to the baseline properties measured at room temperature. The changes in the longitudinal tensile properties decreased moderately with increasing temperature. However, transverse tensile properties, in-plane shear properties and interlaminar shear strength each showed a significant drop due to the glass transition behavior of the matrix after 140℃. Notably, the tensile property value near 100℃ increased compared to baseline property value, which was an unusual occurrence. This behavior was a direct result of post-curing of the epoxy resin due to its exposure to high temperature.

  18. Self-Propagating High- Temperature Reductive Synthesis of TiB2-Al2O3 Composite Powders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Zhiqiang; YANG Zhenguo

    2007-01-01

    TiB2-Al2O3 composite powders were produced by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis(SHS) method with reductive process from B2O3-TiO2-Al system. X-ray diffraction(XRD) and scanning electron microscopy(SEM) analyses show the presence of TiB2 and Al2O3 only in the composite powders produced by SHS. The powders are uniform and free-agglomerate. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM)and high resolution electron microscopy (HREM) observation of microstructure of the composite powders indicate that the interfaces of the TiB2-Al2O3 bond well, without any interfacial reaction products. It is proposed that the good interfacial bonding of the composite powders can be resulted from the TiB2 particles crystallizing and growing on the Al2O3 particles surface with surface defects acting as nucleation centers.

  19. Method of making bearing materials. [self-lubricating, oxidation resistant composites for high temperature applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliney, H. E. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A method is described for making a composite material which provides low friction surfaces for materials in rolling or sliding contact. The composite material which is self-lubricating and oxidation resistant up to and in excess of about 930 C is comprised of a metal component which lends strength and elasticity to the structure and a fluorine salt component which provides oxidation protection to the metal but may also enhance the lubrication qualities of the composite.

  20. Aromatic Thermosetting coPolyester Composites for High Temperature and Cryogenic Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced composite materials processable by cost-effective manufacturing play an important role in developing lightweight structures for future exploratory missions....

  1. A constitutive model for particulate-reinforced titanium matrix composites subjected to high strain rates and high temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Wei-Dong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Quasi-static and dynamic tension tests were conducted to study the mechanical properties of particulate-reinforced titanium matrix composites at strain rates ranging from 0.0001/s to 1000/s and at temperatures ranging from 20 °C to 650 °C Based on the experimental results, a constitutive model, which considers the effects of strain rate and temperature on hot deformation behavior, was proposed for particulate-reinforced titanium matrix composites subjected to high strain rates and high temperatures by using Zener-Hollomon equations including Arrhenius terms. All the material constants used in the model were identified by fitting Zener-Hollomon equations against the experimental results. By comparison of theoretical predictions presented by the model with experimental results, a good agreement was achieved, which indicates that this constitutive model can give an accurate and precise estimate for high temperature flow stress for the studied titanium matrix composites and can be used for numerical simulations of hot deformation behavior of the composites.

  2. Composite repairs qualification according to ISO/TS 24817

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meniconi, Luiz C.M.; Perrut, Valber A. [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS/CENPES), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas

    2009-07-01

    Composite repairs for metallic pipes from three different suppliers were evaluated according to ISO Technical Specification TS 24817. The intended application scenarios are offshore production plants, but the design methodology is also applicable to onshore pipelines and pipework. The evaluation covered all the relevant mechanical properties and established the maximum application temperatures for each repair system. The tests also considered the application of composite repair sleeves to metallic pipes with through thickness defects, by measuring the strain energy release rates of the composite-metal interfaces. The test campaigns aimed to verify the applicability of the recently published ISO document, and to implement it as the routine procedure for composite repairs evaluation within PETROBRAS. The tests also addressed the influence of metallic pipe surface preparation on the final properties of the repair sleeves, especially in relation to the long term behavior of leaking pipes repaired by means of composite materials. (author)

  3. Composite repairs qualification according to ISO/TS 24817

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meniconi, Luiz C.M.; Perrut, Valber A. [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS/CENPES), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas

    2009-07-01

    Composite repairs for metallic pipes from three different suppliers were evaluated according to ISO Technical Specification TS 24817. The intended application scenarios are offshore production plants, but the design methodology is also applicable to onshore pipelines and pipework. The evaluation covered all the relevant mechanical properties and established the maximum application temperatures for each repair system. The tests also considered the application of composite repair sleeves to metallic pipes with through thickness defects, by measuring the strain energy release rates of the composite-metal interfaces. The test campaigns aimed to verify the applicability of the recently published ISO document, and to implement it as the routine procedure for composite repairs evaluation within PETROBRAS. The tests also addressed the influence of metallic pipe surface preparation on the final properties of the repair sleeves, especially in relation to the long term behavior of leaking pipes repaired by means of composite materials. (author)

  4. Fiber creep rate and high-temperature properties of SiC/SiC composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewinsohn, C.A.; Jones, R.H.; Youngblood, G.E.; Henager, C.H. Jr. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1998-03-01

    Results of studies aimed at relating the fiber creep rate to the subcritical crack growth rate and fracture properties of SiC/SiC composites have demonstrated that the crack growth rate in a bulk composite is controlled by the fiber creep rate. This result was demonstrated for Nicalon-CG and Hi-Nicalon fiber reinforced material where a 50--75 c shift in the creep strength of the fiber resulted in a similar shift in the crack growth rate of the composite. Irradiation enhanced creep of SiC fibers and matrix must also be considered in the performance assessment of SiC/SiC composites. The shape of the displacement versus time curve for composites containing Hi-Nicalon fibers were similar to those of the previously tested materials, containing Ceramic-grade fibers, that exhibited subcritical crack growth controlled by time-dependent relaxation of the fiber-bridging stresses due to fiber creep. The crack velocity in the CG-C composites at 1100 C in argon was very close to that of the Hi-C materials at 1150--1175 C, this roughly corresponds to the temperature differential shown by DiCarlo et al. to obtain the same relaxation in 1 hour bend stress relaxation (BSR) tests in the two fibers. This supports the hypothesis that subcritical crack growth in SiC/SiC composites is controlled by fiber creep.

  5. Thermal and mechanical properties of advanced, high temperature ceramic-composite insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiser, D. B.; Smith, M.; Stewart, D. A.; Goldstein, H. E.

    1983-01-01

    It is found that the mechanical properties of fibrous refractory composite insulation (FRCI) can be improved if a higher calcination temperature is used before final processing. The results also reveal that a higher density FRCI containing 60 wt pct aluminoborosilicate fibers will exhibit minimal surface recession at 1480 C in a convective-heating environment. Another finding is that the material performance in the convective-heating environment is limited by the coating and the temperature capability of its emittance agent. A table is included giving the coating compositions used with the composite insulation and tested in the convectively heated environment at a surface temperature of 1480 C.

  6. Ceramic Composite Mechanical Fastener System for High-Temperature Structural Assemblies Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Hot structures fabricated from ceramic composite materials are an attractive design option for components of future high-speed aircraft, re-entry vehicles and...

  7. Low Cost Al-Si Casting Alloy As In-Situ Composite for High Temperature Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonathan A.

    2000-01-01

    A new aluminum-silicon (Al-Si) alloy has been successfully developed at NASA- Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) that has significant improvement in tensile and fatigue strength at elevated temperatures (500 F-700 F). The alloy offers a number of benefits such as light weight, high hardness, low thermal expansion and high surface wear resistance. In hypereutectic form, this alloy is considered as an in-situ Al-Si composite with tensile strength of about 90% higher than the auto industry 390 alloy at 600 F. This composite is very economically produced by using either conventional permanent steel molds or die casting. The projected material cost is less than $0.90 per pound, and automotive components such as pistons can be cast for high production rate using conventional casting techniques with a low and fully accounted cost. Key Words: Metal matrix composites, In-situ composite, aluminum-silicon alloy, hypereutectic alloy, permanent mold casting, die casting.

  8. High-temperature electrically conductive ceramic composite and method for making same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, D.E.; Gooch, J.G.; Holcombe, C.E. Jr.; Masters, D.R.

    1981-06-09

    The present invention relates to a metal-oxide ceramic composition useful in induction heating applications for treating uranium and uranium alloys. The ceramic composition is electrically conductive at room temperature and is nonreactive with molten uranium. The composition is prepared from a particulate admixture of 20 to 50 vol. % niobium and zirconium oxide which may be stabilized with an addition of a further oxide such as magnesium oxide, calcium oxide, or yttria. The composition is prepared by blending the powders, pressing or casting the blend into the desired product configuration, and then sintering the casting or compact in an inert atmosphere. In the casting operation, calcium aluminate is preferably added to the admixture in place of a like quantity of zirconia for providing a cement to help maintain the integrity of the sintered product.

  9. Mechanical behavior and properties of fiber reinforced ceramic matrix composites for high temperature use

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chongdu Cho; Qiang Pan; Sangkyo Lee

    2007-01-01

    Ceramics can keep their mechanical characteristics up to 2 000℃ or higher.In this paper,A model to predict ultimate strength of continuous fiber-reinforced brittle matrix composites is developed.A statistical theory for the strength of a uni-axially fiber-reinforced brittle matrix composite is presented.Also a semi-empirical frictional heating method for estimating in-situ interfacial shear in fiber-reinforced ceramic matrix composites was improved.Local uneven fiber packing variation as well as uneven micro-damage during fatigue can be expected to have effects on the composites:generation of frictional heating,thermal gradients,and residual stresses around local fiber breaks.This study examined those engineering interests by the finite element method.

  10. Analysis of changes in the chemical composition of the blast furnace coke at high temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Konstanciak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main purpose of this paper was to analyze the behavior of coke in the blast furnace. The analysis of changes in chemical composition of coke due to impact of inert gas and air at different temperatures was made. The impact of the application of the thermoabrasion coefficient on the porosity of coke was also analyzed.Design/methodology/approach: By applying the Computer Thermochemical Database of the TERMO system (REAKTOR1 and REAKTOR3 three groups of substances can be distinguished. The chemical composition of blast furnace coke and the results of calculations of changes of chemical composition of coke heat treated under certain conditions were compared. The structural studies of these materials were presented.Findings: The results of the analysis of ash produced from one of Polish cokes was taken for consideration. This is not the average composition of Polish coke ashes, nevertheless it is representative of most commonly occurring chemical compositions.Practical implications: Thanks to the thermochemical calculations it is possible to predict ash composition after the treatment in a blast furnace. Those information was crucial and had an actual impact on determining the coke quality.Originality/value: Presentation of the analytical methods which, according to author, can be very useful to evaluate and identify the heat treatment for blast furnaces cokes. The research pursued represents part of a larger project carried out within the framework of Department Extraction and Recycling of Metals, Czestochowa University of Technology.

  11. High temperature thermal analysis of Ni-Al alloys around the {gamma}{prime} composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battezzati, L.; Baricco, M.; Pascale, L. [Univ. di Torino (Italy)

    1998-06-05

    The region of the Ni-Al phase diagram close to the Ni{sub 3}Al ({gamma}{prime}) compound has been analyzed several times recognizing that {gamma}{prime} has an incongruent melting and its field of existence is narrow, bounded by the equilibria with the {gamma} terminal solid solution and the NiAl ({beta}) phase. With the availability of High Temperature Differential Scanning Calorimetry (HTDSC) as a sensitive technique for quantitative thermal analysis, it appeared useful to re-examine the portion of the phase diagram around {gamma}{prime}. In this paper the authors report data confirming Hilpert`s version of the phase diagram. In addition, the HTDSC analysis provides information on the enthalpy change during fusion not yet available in the literature, which also has implications in the analysis of the order-disorder transition in Ni{sub 3}Al. Furthermore, a detailed knowledge of the DSC behaviour of these alloys on melting and solidification is relevant as a reference basis to interpret data on analogous transformations in superalloys and intermetallics.

  12. Liquid-phase diffusion bonding: Temperature effects and solute redistribution in high temperature lead-free composite solders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Iver [Ames Lab. and Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Choquette, Stephanie [Ames Lab. and Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2015-05-17

    Liquid-phase diffusion bonding (LPDB) is being studied as the primary phenomena occurring in the development of a high temperature lead-free composite solder paste composed of gas-atomized Cu-10Ni, wt.% (Cu-11Ni, at.%) powder blended with Sn-0.7Cu-0.05Ni-0.01Ge (Sn-1.3Cu-0.1Ni-0.02Ge, at.%) Nihon-Superior SN100C solder powder. Powder compacts were used as a model system. LPDB promotes enhanced interdiffusion of the low-melting alloy matrix with the solid Cu-10Ni reinforcement powder above the matrix liquidus temperature. The initial study involved the effective intermetallic compound (IMC) compositions and microstructures that occur at varying reflow temperatures and times between 250-300°C and 30-60s, respectively. Certain reflow temperatures encourage adequate interdiffusion to form a continuous highly-conductive network throughout the composite solder joints. The diffusion of nickel, in particular, has a disperse pattern that foreshadows the possibility of a highly-conductive low-melting solder that can be successfully utilized at high temperatures.

  13. Methods for Producing High-Performance Silicon Carbide Fibers, Architectural Preforms, and High-Temperature Composite Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiCarlo, James A. (Inventor); Yun, Hee-Mann (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Methods are disclosed for producing architectural preforms and high-temperature composite structures containing high-strength ceramic fibers with reduced preforming stresses within each fiber, with an in-situ grown coating on each fiber surface, with reduced boron within the bulk of each fiber, and with improved tensile creep and rupture resistance properties tier each fiber. The methods include the steps of preparing an original sample of a preform formed from a pre-selected high-strength silicon carbide ceramic fiber type, placing the original sample in a processing furnace under a pre-selected preforming stress state and thermally treating the sample in the processing furnace at a pre-selected processing temperature and hold time in a processing gas having a pre-selected composition, pressure, and flow rate. For the high-temperature composite structures, the method includes additional steps of depositing a thin interphase coating on the surface of each fiber and forming a ceramic or carbon-based matrix within the sample.

  14. Nafion/Silicon Oxide Composite Membrane for High Temperature Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Nafion/Silicon oxide composite membranes were produced via in situ sol-gel reaction of tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) in Nafion membranes. The physicochemical properties of the membranes were studied by FT-IR, TG-DSC and tensile strength. The results show that the silicon oxide is compatible with the Nafion membrane and the thermo stability of Nafion/Silicon oxide composite membrane is higher than that of Nafion membrane. Furthermore, the tensile strength of Nafion/Silicon oxide composite membrane is similar to that of the Nafion membrane. The proton conductivity of Nafion/Silicon oxide composite membrane is higher than that of Nafion membrane. When the Nafion/Silicon oxide composite membrane was employed as an electrolyte in H2/O2 PEMFC, a higher current density value (1 000 mA/cm2 at 0.38 V) than that of the Nafion 1135 membrane (100 mA/cm2 at 0.04 V) was obtained at 110 ℃.

  15. Mechanical Properties with High Temperature and the Microstructure of Carbon/Phenolic Ablative Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Tianbo; ZHOU Changsheng; JU Yutao; CHEN Xiong

    2012-01-01

    Carbon fiber reinforced phenolic based composites were prepared by laminating molding.The variation in mechanical characteristics of composites was evaluated with heating temperature and procedure.The microstructures of composites at different temperatures were observed by optical microscope and scanning electron microscope,respectively.The results showed that the main weight loss range of carbon/phenolic is from 300 to 800 ℃,before 700 ℃ the weight loss was resulted from pyrolysis and after that the weight loss was mainly by oxidation in the fiber phase; with the heat treatment temperature rising,the bonding at the interface of carbon fibers and resin matrix weakened; in the pyrolysis temperature range,the interlaminar shear strength(ILSS) of carbon/phenolic showed a rapid drop with temperature rising,and then decrease in the rate of ILSS became relatively slower; the fiber oxidation had little influence on the ILSS.

  16. Priority compositions of boron carbide crystals obtained by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomarev, V. I.; Konovalikhin, S. V.; Kovalev, I. D.; Vershinnikov, V. I.

    2015-09-01

    Splitting of reflections from boron carbide has been found for the first time by an X-ray diffraction study of polycrystalline mixture of boron carbide В15- х С х , (1.5 ≤ x ≤ 3) and its magnesium derivative C4B25Mg1.42. An analysis of reflection profiles shows that this splitting is due to the presence of boron carbide phases of different compositions in the sample, which are formed during crystal growth. The composition changes from В12.9С2.1 to В12.4С2.6.

  17. Effect of Biofilm on the Repair Bond Strengths of Composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rinastiti, M.; Ozcan, M.; Siswomihardjo, W.; Busscher, H. J.; van der Mei, H. C.

    2010-01-01

    Composite restorations degrade during wear, but it is unknown how wear affects the composite surface and influences composite-to-composite bonding in minimally invasive repair. Here, it is hypothesized that in vitro exposure of composites to oral biofilm yields clinically relevant degradation of com

  18. High-temperature mechanical characteristics of NiO/3YTZP composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez-Melendo, M., E-mail: melendo@us.es [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada and Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales (Universidad de Sevilla-CSIC), Aptdo, 1065, 41080 Sevilla (Spain); Oliva-Ramirez, M.; Huaman-Mamani, F.A. [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada and Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales (Universidad de Sevilla-CSIC), Aptdo, 1065, 41080 Sevilla (Spain)

    2012-09-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fabrication of 40 mol% NiO/3 mol% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-stabilized tetragonal ZrO{sub 2} (3YTZP) composites. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Duplex microstructure of fine (zirconia) and coarse (NiO) grains. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mechanical behavior controlled by the zirconia phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Grain boundary sliding is the dominant deformation mechanism. - Abstract: NiO/3YTZP (3 mol% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-stabilized tetragonal ZrO{sub 2}) composites with 40 mol% NiO (26 vol% NiO) have been fabricated by mechanical mixing of NiO and 3YTZP powders and sintering at 1500 Degree-Sign C for 10 h in air. The resulting microstructures have been characterized by electron microscopy. Compressive mechanical tests at constant strain rate were conducted on these materials at temperatures between 1150 and 1350 Degree-Sign C in air. The {sigma}-{epsilon} curves display extended secondary creep regimes without signals of macroscopic failure. The composite creep behavior is characterized by a stress exponent n = 2 and an activation energy for flow Q = 490 kJ/mol. The overall creep behavior of the composites is essentially controlled by the zirconia matrix, due to the softness of the NiO phase in the experimental conditions used in this study.

  19. Priority compositions of boron carbide crystals obtained by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponomarev, V. I., E-mail: ksv17@ism.ac.ru; Konovalikhin, S. V.; Kovalev, I. D.; Vershinnikov, V. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Structural Macrokinetics and Materials Science (Russian Federation)

    2015-09-15

    Splitting of reflections from boron carbide has been found for the first time by an X-ray diffraction study of polycrystalline mixture of boron carbide B{sub 15–x}C{sub x}, (1.5 ≤ x ≤ 3) and its magnesium derivative C{sub 4}B{sub 25}Mg{sub 1.42}. An analysis of reflection profiles shows that this splitting is due to the presence of boron carbide phases of different compositions in the sample, which are formed during crystal growth. The composition changes from B{sub 12.9}C{sub 2.1} to B{sub 12.4}C{sub 2.6}.

  20. High-Temperature Fatigue of a Hybrid Aluminum Metal Matrix Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, J. T.; Sanders, P. G.

    2014-01-01

    An aluminum metal matrix composite (MMC) brake drum was tested in fatigue at room temperature and extreme service temperatures. At room temperature, the hybrid composite did not fail and exceeded estimated vehicle service times. At higher temperatures (62 and 73 pct of the matrix eutectic), fatigue of a hybrid particle/fiber MMC exhibited failure consistent with matrix overloading. Overaging of the A356 matrix coupled with progressive fracture of the SiC particles combined to create the matrix overload condition. No evidence of macro-fatigue crack initiation or growth was observed, and the matrix-particle interface appeared strong with no debonding, visible matrix phases, or porosity. An effective medium model was constructed to test the hypothesis that matrix overloading was the probable failure mode. The measured particle fracture rate was fit using realistic values of the SiC Weibull strength and modulus, which in turn predicted cycles to failure within the range observed in fatigue testing.

  1. Development of a High-Temperature Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding Testbed for Aerospace Grade Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-11-10

    properties. Table 2.1-1 Material identification and average properties of carbon fabric T650/35 Yarn Type T650/35 3K 309 NT Weave 8 Harness Satin Weight (Oz...reduction was achieved by adding lwt% SWNTs. In the future work, the research team will incorporate carbon nanotubes in PETI- 330/ carbon fiber composites...11 2.2.2 Synthesis of PETI-330

  2. New concept of composite strengthening in Co-Re based alloys for high temperature applications in gas turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherji, D.; Roesler, J.; Fricke, T.; Schmitz, F. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (DE). Inst. fuer Werkstoffkunde (IfW); Piegert, S. [Siemens AG, Berlin (DE). Energy Sector (F PR GT EN)

    2010-07-01

    High temperature material development is mainly driven by gas turbine needs. Today, Ni-based superalloys are the dominant material class in the hot section of turbines. Material development will continue to push the maximum service temperature of Ni-superalloys upwards. However, this approach has a fundamental limit and can not be sustained indefinitely, as the Ni-superalloys are already used very close to their melting point. Within the frame work of a DFG Forschergruppe program (FOR 727) - ''Beyond Ni-base Superalloys'' - Co-Re based alloys are being developed as a new generation of high temperature materials that can be used at +100 C above single crystal Ni-superalloys. Along with other strengthening concepts, hardening by second phase is explored to develop a two phase composite alloy. With quaternary Co-Re-Cr-Ni alloys we demonstrate this development concept, where Co{sub 2}Re{sub 3}-type {sigma} phase is used in a novel way as the hardening phase. Thermodynamic calculation was used for designing model alloy compositions. (orig.)

  3. High temperature tribological behaviors of (WAl)C–Co ceramic composites with the additions of fluoride solid lubricants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Jun; Qiao, Zhuhui, E-mail: zhqiao@licp.cas.cn; Yin, Bing; Hao, Junying, E-mail: jyhao@licp.cas.cn; Yang, Jun; Liu, Weimin

    2015-08-01

    The tribological behaviors of the (W{sub 0.67}Al{sub 0.33})C{sub 0.67}–Co/fluoride (CaF{sub 2}, BaF{sub 2}, CaF{sub 2}/BaF{sub 2}) composites against SiC ball from room temperature to 600 °C were investigated. A marked increase in the friction coefficient resulting from fluoride oxidation was observed as the temperature increased. The composites containing BaF{sub 2} or (Ca, Ba)F{sub 2} displayed better integrated wear resistance over a wide temperature range compared with (W{sub 0.67}Al{sub 0.33})C{sub 0.67}–Co/CaF{sub 2}. The high temperature tribological characteristics of the three composites were distinct, which originated from the composition difference on the worn surfaces. First, the SiO{sub 2}/SiC film formed on the worn surfaces of the composites with BaF{sub 2} or (Ca, Ba)F{sub 2} was favorable for their wear resistance. Second, the oxidation of WC matrix was an important factor influencing the wear resistance of the composites. When mixture oxides of WO{sub 2} and WO{sub 3} appeared on the surface, wear is severe. In addition, single WO{sub 3} formed on the worn surfaces, appeared more adhesive to the underlying substrate and decreased the wear rate. - Highlights: • The composites containing BaF{sub 2} or (Ca, Ba)F{sub 2} exhibit better wear resistance. • The tribological behaviors are strongly correlated to surface composition. • The stoichiometry difference in the tungsten oxides leads to distinct wear rate. • The friction coefficient of the composites increases with the testing temperature.

  4. Palladium/Copper Alloy Composite Membranes for High Temperature Hydrogen Separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Douglas Way; Paul M. Thoen

    2006-08-31

    This report summarizes progress made during the a three year University Coal Research grant (DEFG26-03NT41792) at the Colorado School of Mines. The period of performance was September 1, 2003 through August of 2006. We made excellent progress toward our goal of contributing to the development of high productivity, sulfur tolerant composite metal membranes for hydrogen production and membrane reactors. Composite Pd and Pd alloy metal membranes with thin metal films (1-7 {micro}m) were prepared on porous stainless steel and ceramic supports that meet or exceed the DOE 2010 and 2015 pure hydrogen flux targets at differential pressure of only 20 psi. For example, a 2 {micro}m pure Pd membrane on a Pall AccuSep{reg_sign} substrate achieved an ideal H{sub 2}/N{sub 2} separation factor of over 6000, with a pure hydrogen flux of 210 SCFH/ft{sup 2} at only 20 psig feed pressure. Similar performance was achieved with a Pd{sub 80}Au{sub 20} composite membrane on a similar stainless steel substrate. Extrapolating the pure hydrogen flux of this PdAu membrane to the DOE Fossil Energy target conditions of 150 psia feed pressure and 50 psia permeate pressure gives a value of 508 SCFH/ft{sup 2}, exceeding the 2015 target. At these thicknesses, it is the support cost that will dominate the cost of a large scale module. In a direct comparison of FCC phase PdCu and PdAu alloys on identical supports, we showed that a Pd{sub 85}Au{sub 15} (mass %) alloy membrane is not inhibited by CO, CO{sub 2}, or steam present in a water-gas shift feed mixture at 400 C, has better resistance to sulfur than a Pd{sub 94}Cu{sub 6} membrane, and has over twice the hydrogen permeance.

  5. Local chemical composition of HgBaCaCuO high-temperature superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alméras, P.; Dell'Orto, T.; Coluzza, C.; Almeida, J.; Margaritondo, G.; Xue, Y. Y.; Meng, R. L.; Chu, C. W.

    1994-07-01

    The microchemical composition and the electronic structure of the two superconductors HgBa2Ca2Cu3O8+δ (Hg-1223) and HgBa2Ca1Cu2O6+δ (Hg-1212) were analyzed with the technique of photoemission with high spatial resolution. This enabled primary spectral peaks to be separated from their satellites due to local charging induced by the primary photon beam. Each sample contains superconducting and impurity phases with inhomogeneous spatial distributions. The oxygenation-induced increase in the critical temperature is related to a increase in the Cu-O plane carrier concentration.

  6. Experimental characterization and mechanical behaviour modelling of MoTiC composite for high temperature applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cedat, D.; Rey, C.; Clavel, M.; Schmitt, J.H. (MSSMAT, CNRS, Chatenay-Malabry (France)); Fandeur, O. (CEA DEN/DANS/DM2S/SEMT/LM2S, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)); Le Flem, M. (CEA DEN/DANS/DMN/SRMA, Gif-sur-Yvette (France))

    2008-10-15

    Simulations of the elastic-viscoplastic behaviour of ceramic-metal composite, over the temperature range 298-993K, are performed on realistic aggregates built up from Electron Back Scatter Diffraction methods. While the ceramic keeps elastic, the viscoplastic behaviour of the metal part is described with a dislocation-based model, implemented in the finite element code ABAQUS, in order to compute local strain and stress fields during compressive tests. It is shown that the adopted constitutive laws are able to give back local complex experimental evidence on weak points of the microstructure. (au)

  7. Photoemission spectroscopy of composition and doping of high-temperature superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeras, P.; Berger, H.; Margaritondo, G. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland). Dept. de Physique; Ma, J.; Onellion, M. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1994-12-31

    The authors present a systematic study of compositional and doping effects in Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub y} high-{Tc} superconductors performed with photoemission spectroscopy. The study has been extended to Y-doping and I-intercalation of Bi-2212 high quality single crystals. The main results is that each type of dopant affects the crystal composition in its own way. Yttrium affects the Ca and Sr planes, producing a charge transfer into the CuO planes. For I-doping, they find that the main effect is a change in the interplanar distance, but X-ray Photoemission Spectroscopy (XPS) allows to see that the decrease of the critical temperature is not caused only by a structure parameter, but by a over-doping of copper planes (hole doping). They performed also a comparative study by Angle Resolved Ultraviolet Photoemission Spectroscopy [ARUPS] between this sample and an oxygen annealed specimen. XPS Cu2p core level data establish that the hole concentration in the CuO{sub 2} planes is essentially the same for these two kinds of samples. ARUPS measurements show that electronic structure of the normal states near the Fermi level has been strongly affected by iodine intercalation.

  8. Thermomechanical response of metal-ceramic graded composites for high-temperature aerospace applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deierling, Phillip Eugene

    Airframes operating in the hypersonic regime are subjected to complex structural and thermal loads. Structural loads are a result of aggressive high G maneuvers, rapid vehicle acceleration and deceleration, and dynamic pressure, while thermal loads are a result of aerodynamic heating. For such airframes, structural members are typically constructed from steel, titanium and nickel alloys. However, with most materials, rapid elevations in temperature lead to undesirable changes in material properties. In particular, reductions in strength and stiffness are observed, along with an increase in thermal conductivity, specific heat and thermal expansion. Thus, hypersonic airframes are typically designed with external insulation, active cooling or a thermal protection system (TPS) added to the structure to protect the underling material from the effects of temperature. Such thermal protection may consist of adhesively bonded, pinned, and bolted thermal protection layers over exterior panels. These types of attachments create abrupt changes in thermal expansion and stiffness that make the structure susceptible to cracking and debonding as well as adding mass to the airframe. One of the promising materials concepts for extreme environments that was introduced in the past is the so-called Spatially Tailored Advanced Thermal Structures (STATS). The concept of STATS is rooted in functionally graded materials (FGMs), in which a directional variation of material properties exists. These materials are essentially composites and consist of two or more phases of distinct materials in which the volume fractions of each phase continuously change in space. Here, the graded material will serve a dual-purpose role as both the structural/skin member and thermal management with the goal of reducing the weight of the structure while maintaining structural soundness. This is achieved through the ability to tailor material properties to create a desired or enhanced thermomechanical response

  9. Experimental characterization and mechanical behaviour modelling of molybdenum-titanium carbide composite for high temperature applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cedat, D.; Libert, M.; Rey, C.; Clavel, M.; Schmitt, J.H. [Ecole Cent Paris, MSSMAT, F-92295 Chatenay Malabry (France); Le Flem, M. [CEA Saclay, DEN, DANS, DMN, SRMA, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Fandeur, O. [CEA Saclay, DEN, DANS, DM2S, SEMT, LM2S, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2009-03-15

    Simulations of the elastic-viscoplastic behaviour of ceramic-metal composite, over the temperature range 298-993 K, are performed on realistic aggregates built up from electron back scatter diffraction methods. Physical based constitutive models are developed in order to characterize the deformation behaviour of body centered cubic (bcc) metal and face centered cubic (fcc) ceramic under various temperatures. While the ceramic keeps elastic, the viscoplastic behaviour of the metal part is described with a dislocation - based model, implemented in the finite element code ABAQUS, in order to compute local strain and stress fields during compressive tests. It is shown that the adopted constitutive laws are able to give back local complex experimental evidence on weak points of the microstructure. (authors)

  10. High temperature proton exchange membranes based on polybenzimidazole and clay composites for fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plackett, David; Siu, Ana; Li, Qingfeng

    2011-01-01

    and pyridinium salts with varying polarity and hydrogen-bonding capacity. Clay modification by ion-exchange reactions involving replacement of interlayer inorganic cations was confirmed using X-ray photoelectron and infrared spectroscopy techniques. The cast PBI membranes were characterized by their water uptake......, acid doping and swelling, tensile strength, conductivity and hydrogen permeability as well as by fuel cell tests. For the composite membranes, high acid doping levels were achieved with sufficient mechanical strength and improved dimensional stability or reduced membrane swelling. At an acid doping......-doped pristine PBI membranes. In accordance with the hydrogen permeability measurements, fuel cell tests exhibited high open circuit voltages (i.e., 1.02 V) at room temperature as well as high I–V performance compared with normal PBI membranes....

  11. High-Flow PMR-Polymide Composites Developed With Mechanical Properties Comparable to Other High-Temperature Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meador, Michael A.

    2001-01-01

    PMR polyimides, in particular PMR-15, are well known for their excellent high-temperature stability and performance, and solvent resistance. However, the processing of these materials is limited, for the most part, to prepreg-based methods, such as compression or autoclave processing. These methods involve substantial amounts of hand labor, and as a result, manufacturing costs for components made from PMR polyimides can be high. In cost-sensitive applications, these high manufacturing costs can make the use of PMR polyimide-based components cost prohibitive. Lower cost manufacturing methods, such as resin transfer molding (RTM) and resin film infusion, have been demonstrated to reduce manufacturing costs by as much as 50 percent over prepreg-based methods. However, these processes are only amenable to materials with melt viscosities below 30 poise. Most PMR polyimides have melt viscosities on the order of 100 poise or higher. Recent efforts at the NASA Glenn Research Center have focused on chemical modifications to PMR polyimides to reduce their melt viscosity to the point where they could be processed by these low-cost manufacturing methods without adversely affecting their high-temperature properties and performance. These efforts have led to a new family of PMR polyimides that have melt viscosities significantly lower than that of PMR-15. Reductions in melt viscosity are brought about through the introduction of molecular twists in the polymer backbone. Carbon fiber (T650- 35) composites were prepared from one of these polyimides, designated PMR-Flex, by compression molding. The properties of these composites are presented below and compared with comparable composites made from PMR-15 and PETI-RTM, a new low-melt-viscosity polyimide.

  12. High temperature hydrogen sulfide adsorption on activated carbon - I. Effects of gas composition and metal addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cal, M.P.; Strickler, B.W.; Lizzio, A.A.

    2000-01-01

    Various types of activated carbon sorbents were evaluated for their ability to remove H2S from a simulated coal gas stream at a temperature of 550 ??C. The ability of activated carbon to remove H2S at elevated temperature was examined as a function of carbon surface chemistry (oxidation, thermal desorption, and metal addition), and gas composition. A sorbent prepared by steam activation, HNO3 oxidation and impregnated with Zn, and tested in a gas stream containing 0.5% H2S, 50% CO2 and 49.5% N2, had the greatest H2S adsorption capacity. Addition of H2, CO, and H2O to the inlet gas stream reduced H2S breakthrough time and H2S adsorption capacity. A Zn impregnated activated carbon, when tested using a simulated coal gas containing 0.5% H2S, 49.5% N2, 13% H2, 8.5% H2O, 21% CO, and 7.5% CO2, had a breakthrough time of 75 min, which was less than 25 percent of the length of breakthrough for screening experiments performed with a simplified gas mixture of 0.5% H2S, 50% CO2, and 49.5% N2.

  13. Preparation and characterization of composite membrane for high temperature gas separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilias, S.; King, F.G.

    1998-03-26

    A new class of perm-selective inorganic membrane was developed by electroless deposition of palladium thin-film on a microporous {alpha}-alumina ceramic substrate ({phi}39 mm x 2 mm thickness, nominal pore size 150 nm and open porosity {approx} 42 %). The new membrane was characterized by Scanning Electron Micrography (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDX) and conducting permeability experiments with hydrogen, helium, argon and carbon dioxide at temperatures from 473 K to 673 K and feed pressures from 136 kPa to 274 kPa. The results indicate that the membrane has both high permeability and selectivity for hydrogen. The hydrogen transport through the Pd-composite membrane closely followed Sievert's law. A theoretical model is presented to describe the performance of a single-stage permeation process. The model uses a unified mathematical formulation and calculation methods for two flow patterns (cocurrent and countercurrent) with two permeable components and a nonpermeable fraction in the feed and a sweep stream in the permeate. The countercurrent flow pattern is always better than the cocurrent flow pattern with respect to stage cut and membrane area. The effect of flow configuration decreases with increasing membrane selectivity or with decreasing permeate/feed ratio.

  14. Tunable Diode Laser Sensors to Monitor Temperature and Gas Composition in High-Temperature Coal Gasifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, Ronald [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Whitty, Kevin [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) when combined with carbon capture and storage can be one of the cleanest methods of extracting energy from coal. Control of coal and biomass gasification processes to accommodate the changing character of input-fuel streams is required for practical implementation of integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) technologies. Therefore a fast time-response sensor is needed for real-time monitoring of the composition and ideally the heating value of the synthesis gas (here called syngas) as it exits the gasifier. The goal of this project was the design, construction, and demonstration an in situ laserabsorption sensor to monitor multiple species in the syngas output from practical-scale coal gasifiers. This project investigated the hypothesis of using laser absorption sensing in particulateladen syngas. Absorption transitions were selected with design rules to optimize signal strength while minimizing interference from other species. Successful in situ measurements in the dusty, high-pressure syngas flow were enabled by Stanford’s normalized and scanned wavelength modulation strategy. A prototype sensor for CO, CH4, CO2, and H2O was refined with experiments conducted in the laboratory at Stanford University, a pilot-scale at the University of Utah, and an engineering-scale gasifier at DoE’s National Center for Carbon Capture with the demonstration of a prototype sensor with technical readiness level 6 in the 2014 measurement campaign.

  15. The Effect of Composition on the Surface Finish of PS400: A New High Temperature Solid Lubricant Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    DellaCorte, Christopher; Stanford, malcolm K.; Thomas, Fransua; Edmonds, Brian J.

    2010-01-01

    A new composite, multi-constituent, solid lubricant coating, NASA PS400, developed for high temperature tribological applications, exhibits a smoother surface finish after grinding and polishing than its predecessors PS200 and PS300. In this paper, the baseline composition of PS400 is modified to investigate each individual constituent s role on the achievable surface finish through a series of coating deposition, grinding, and polishing experiments. Furthermore, to explore the limits of compositional tailoring for improved tribological performance, several PS400 coatings were doped with additional solid lubricants (graphite, MoS2 and BN) and tribologically tested. The test results clearly showed that, compared to PS300 coatings, PS400 achieves a smoother surface finish via a reduced lubricant content. Coatings prepared with higher than the baseline level (10 wt%) of lubricants exhibited higher final surface roughness than the earlier generation PS300 coatings. Reducing or eliminating the one or both lubricants (fluorides or silver) did not further improve the surface finish suggesting that the current composition of PS400 is near optimal with respect to surface finish. Lastly, attempts to improve the poor initial room temperature tribological behavior of PS400 via the addition of traditional solid lubricants were unsuccessful. Based upon this work and earlier results it is expected that future research will concentrate on developing methods to produce a lubricious glaze on the rubbing surface during break in to ensure that low friction and wear are rapidly achieved.

  16. ZrB2/Al2O3 composite powders prepared by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Zhi-qiang; YANG Zhen-guo

    2005-01-01

    Self-propagating high-temperature synthesis(SHS) method was used to synthesize ZrB2/Al2O2 composite powders from B2O3-ZrO2-Al system. X-ray diffractometry(XRD) and scanning electron microscopy(SEM) analyses show the presence of ZrB2 and Al2O3 as the primary phases in the composite powders, while the presence of a very small amount of ZrO2 is thought to be unreacted zirconium oxide. Transmission electron microscopy(TEM) and high resolution electron microscopy(HREM) observations of microstructure of the composite powders indicate that the interfaces of ZrB2/Al2O3 bond well without any interfacial reaction products. It is proposed that the good interfacial bonding of composite powders results from the ZrB2 particles crystallizing and growing on the Al2O3 particles surface with surface defects acting as nucleation centers.

  17. Isothermal fatigue behavior and damage modeling of a high temperature woven PMC[Polymer Matrix Composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyekenyesi, A.L.

    2000-01-01

    This study focuses on the fully reversed fatigue behavior exhibited by a carbon fiber/polyimide resin woven laminate at room and elevated temperatures. Nondestructive video edge view microscopy and destructive sectioning techniques were used to study the microscopic damage mechanisms that evolved. The elastic stiffness was monitored and recorded throughout the fatigue life of the coupon. In addition, residual compressive strength tests were conducted on fatigue coupons with various degrees of damage as quantified by stiffness reduction. Experimental results indicated that the monotonic tensile properties were only minimally influenced by temperature, while the monotonic compressive and fully reversed fatigue properties displayed greater reductions due to the elevated temperature. The stiffness degradation as a function of cycles, consisted of three stages; a short-lived high degradation period, a constant degradation rate segment covering the majority of the life, and a final stage demonstrating an increasing rate of degradation up to failure. Concerning the residual compressive strength tests at room and elevated temperatures, the elevated temperature coupons appeared much more sensitive to damage. At elevated temperatures, coupons experienced a much larger loss in compressive strength when compared to room temperature coupons with equivalent damage. The fatigue damage accumulation law proposed for the model incorporates a scalar representation for damage, but admits a multiaxial, anisotropic evolutionary law. The model predicts the current damage (as quantified by residual stiffness) and remnant life of a composite that has undergone a known load at temperature. The damage/life model is dependent on the applied multiaxial stress state as well as temperature. Comparisons between the model and data showed good predictive capabilities concerning stiffness degradation and cycles to failure.

  18. Electrodynamic stabilization conditions for high-temperature superconducting composites with different types of current-voltage characteristic nonlinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkharov, A. M.; Lavrov, N. A.; Romanovskii, V. R.

    2014-06-01

    The current instability is studied in high-temperature superconducting current-carrying elements with I- V characteristics described by power or exponential equations. Stability analysis of the macroscopic states is carried out in terms of a stationary zero-dimensional model. In linear temperature approximation criteria are derived that allow one to find the maximum allowable values of the induced current, induced electric field intensity, and overheating of the superconductor. A condition is formulated for the complete thermal stabilization of the superconducting composite with regard to the nonlinearity of its I- V characteristic. It is shown that both subcritical and supercritical stable states may arise. In the latter case, the current and electric field intensity are higher than the preset critical parameters of the superconductor. Conditions for these states depending on the properties of the matrix, superconductor's critical current, fill factor, and nonlinearity of the I- V characteristic are discussed. The obtained results considerably augment the class of allowable states for high-temperature superconductors: it is demonstrated that there exist stable resistive conditions from which superconductors cannot pass to the normal state even if the parameters of these conditions are supercritical.

  19. Experimental study of thermo-mechanical behavior of SiC composite tubing under high temperature gradient using solid surrogate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alva, Luis; Shapovalov, Kirill; Jacobsen, George M.; Back, Christina A.; Huang, Xinyu

    2015-11-01

    Nuclear grade silicon carbide fiber (SiCf) reinforced silicon carbide matrix (SiCm) composite is a promising candidate material for accident tolerance fuel (ATF) cladding. A major challenge is ensuring the mechanical robustness of the ceramic cladding under accident conditions. In this work the high temperature mechanical response of a SiCf-SiCm composite tubing is studied using a novel thermo-mechanical test method. A solid surrogate tube is placed within and bonded to the SiCf-SiCm sample tube using a ceramic adhesive. The bonded tube pair is heated from the center using a ceramic glower. During testing, the outer surface temperature of the SiC sample tube rises up to 1274 K, and a steep temperature gradient develops through the thickness of the tube pair. Due to CTE mismatch and the temperature gradient, the solid surrogate tube induces high tensile stress in the SiC sample. During testing, 3D digital image correlation (DIC) method is used to map the strains on the outer surface of the SiC-composite, and acoustic emissions (AE) are monitored to detect the onset and progress of material damage. The thermo-mechanical behavior of SiC-composite sample is compared with that of monolithic SiC samples. Finite element models are developed to estimate stress-strain distribution within the tube assembly. Model predicted surface strain matches the measured surface strain using the DIC method. AE activities indicated a progressive damage process for SiCf-SiCm composite samples. For the composites tested in this study, the threshold mechanical hoop strain for matrix micro-cracking to initiate in SiCf-SiCm sample is found to be ∼300 microstrain.

  20. A polybenzimidazole/ionic-liquid-graphite-oxide composite membrane for high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chenxi; Liu, Xiaoteng; Cheng, Jigui; Scott, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Graphite oxide is successfully functionalised by 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane ionic liquid and used as a filler material in a polybenzimidazole (PBI) membrane for high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells. The ionic-liquid-graphite-oxide/polybenzimidazole (ILGO/PBI) composite membrane exhibits an appropriate level of proton conductivity when imbibed with phosphoric acid at low phosphoric acid loading, which promotes its use in fuel cells by avoiding acid leakage and materials corrosion. The ionic conductivities of the ILGO/PBI membranes at 175 °C are 0.035 S cm-1 and 0.025 S cm-1 at per repeat units of 3.5 and 2.0, respectively. The fuel cell performance of ILGO/PBI membranes exhibits a maximum power density of 320 mW cm-2 at 175 °C, which is higher than that of a pristine PBI membrane.

  1. Polymer concrete composites for the production of high strength pipe and linings in high temperature corrosive environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeldin, A.; Carciello, N.; Fontana, J.; Kukacka, L.

    High temperature corrosive resistant, non-aqueous polymer concrete composites are described. They comprise about 12 to 20% by weight of a water-insoluble polymer binder polymerized in situ from a liquid monomer mixture consisting essentially of about 40 to 70% by weight of styrene, about 25 to 45% by weight acrylonitrile and about 2.5 to 7.5% by weight acrylamide or methacrylamide and about 1 to 10% by weight of a crosslinking agent. This agent is selected from the group consisting of trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate and divinyl benzene; and about 80 to 88% by weight of an inert inorganic filler system containing silica sand and portland cement, and optionally Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ or carbon black or mica. A free radical initiator such as di-tert-butyl peroxide, azobisisobutyronitrile, benzoyl peroxide, lauryl peroxide, other organic peroxides and combinations thereof to initiate crosspolymerization of the monomer mixture in the presence of said inorganic filler.

  2. Mechanical strength and thermophysical properties of PM212: A high temperature self-lubricating powder metallurgy composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Phillip M.; Sliney, Harold E.; Dellacorte, Christopher; Whittenberger, J. Daniel; Martineau, Robert R.

    1990-01-01

    A powder metallurgy composite, PM212, composed of metal bonded chromium carbide and solid lubricants is shown to be self-lubricating to a maximum application temperature of 900 C. The high temperature compressive strength, tensile strength, thermal expansion and thermal conductivity data needed to design PM212 sliding contact bearings and seals are reported for sintered and isostatically pressed (HIPed) versions of PM212. Other properties presented are room temperature density, hardness, and elastic modulus. In general, both versions appear to have adequate strength to be considered as sliding contact bearing materials, but the HIPed version, which is fully dense, is much stronger than the sintered version which contains about 20 percent pore volume. The sintered material is less costly to make, but the HIPed version is better where high compressive strength is important.

  3. Facile synthesis of iron oxides/reduced graphene oxide composites: application for electromagnetic wave absorption at high temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lili; Yu, Xinxin; Hu, Hongrui; Li, Yang; Wu, Mingzai; Wang, Zhongzhu; Li, Guang; Sun, Zhaoqi; Chen, Changle

    2015-03-01

    Iron oxides/reduced graphene oxide composites were synthesized by facile thermochemical reactions of graphite oxide and FeSO4.7H2O. By adjusting reaction temperature, α-Fe2O3/reduced graphene oxide and Fe3O4/reduced graphene oxide composites can be obtained conveniently. Graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide sheets were demonstrated to regulate the phase transition from α-Fe2O3 to Fe3O4 via γ-Fe2O3, which was reported for the first time. The hydroxyl groups attached on the graphene oxide sheets and H2 gas generated during the annealing of graphene oxide are believed to play an important role during these phase transformations. These samples showed good electromagnetic wave absorption performance due to their electromagnetic complementary effect. These samples possess much better electromagnetic wave absorption properties than the mixture of separately prepared Fe3O4 with rGO, suggesting the crucial role of synthetic method in determining the product properties. Also, these samples perform much better than commercial absorbers. Most importantly, the great stability of these composites is highly advantageous for applications as electromagnetic wave absorption materials at high temperatures.

  4. Short communication: Variation in the composition and properties of Swedish raw milk for ultra-high temperature processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Maria A; Langton, Maud; Innings, Fredrik; Wikström, Malin; Lundh, Åse Sternesjö

    2017-02-08

    The composition and properties of raw milk are of great importance for the quality and shelf life of the final dairy product, especially in products with a long shelf life [e.g., ultra-high temperature (UHT)-treated milk]. The objective of this study was to investigate the compositional variation in raw milk samples before processing at the dairy plant. Moreover, we wanted to investigate the effect of the UHT process on this variation (i.e., if the same variation could be observed in the corresponding UHT milk). The quality traits analyzed included detailed milk composition, counts of total and psychrotrophic bacteria, proteolytic activity, and color, as well as predictive measures of stability (i.e., ethanol stability and heat coagulating time). Samples of raw milk and the corresponding produced UHT milk were collected and analyzed on a monthly basis during 1 yr. Principal component analysis was used to identify months showing similarities and differences with respect to total variation. In contrast to previous studies, we observed only small variations between months and no clear effect of season for the raw milk. For the UHT milk, July and the winter months (December, January, and February) tended to separate from the other months. Quality traits showing significant variation were only to some extent identical in raw milk and UHT-processed milk. A better understanding of the natural variation in raw milk quality will provide opportunities to improve the shelf life of UHT-treated milk products.

  5. Facile synthesis of iron oxides/reduced graphene oxide composites: application for electromagnetic wave absorption at high temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lili; Yu, Xinxin; Hu, Hongrui; Li, Yang; Wu, Mingzai; Wang, Zhongzhu; Li, Guang; Sun, Zhaoqi; Chen, Changle

    2015-03-19

    Iron oxides/reduced graphene oxide composites were synthesized by facile thermochemical reactions of graphite oxide and FeSO4 · 7H2O. By adjusting reaction temperature, α-Fe2O3/reduced graphene oxide and Fe3O4/reduced graphene oxide composites can be obtained conveniently. Graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide sheets were demonstrated to regulate the phase transition from α-Fe2O3 to Fe3O4 via γ-Fe2O3, which was reported for the first time. The hydroxyl groups attached on the graphene oxide sheets and H2 gas generated during the annealing of graphene oxide are believed to play an important role during these phase transformations. These samples showed good electromagnetic wave absorption performance due to their electromagnetic complementary effect. These samples possess much better electromagnetic wave absorption properties than the mixture of separately prepared Fe3O4 with rGO, suggesting the crucial role of synthetic method in determining the product properties. Also, these samples perform much better than commercial absorbers. Most importantly, the great stability of these composites is highly advantageous for applications as electromagnetic wave absorption materials at high temperatures.

  6. A progression of damage repair capability in self-repairing composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dry, Carolyn

    2014-04-01

    This paper covers several projects in which the author sought to determine the extent of damage against which self repair would be effective. So far no limits have been reached beyond those of the fiber/matrix itself. Starting with repair of barely visible damage in airplane wings consisting of graphite fiber/resin matrix composites progression was next to self repair of ballistic damage to vinyl ester walls and epoxy resin walls and finally blast damage self repair of walls and then blast and ballistic damage were combined.

  7. The Microwave Assisted Composite Manufacturing and Repair (MACMAR) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falker, John; Terrier, Douglas; Clayton, Ronald G.; Worthy, Erica; Sosa, Edward

    2015-01-01

    The inherent microwave property of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) generates the thermal energy required to induce reversible polymerization of the matrix in these self-healing composites. Microwaves will be used to demonstrate advanced composite manufacturing and repair using self-healing composites.

  8. Effect of Cerium on Microstructures and High Temperature Oxidation Resistance of An Nb-Si System In-Situ Composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Aiqin; Sun Lu; Li Shusuo; Han Yafang

    2007-01-01

    Nb-16Si-24Ti-6Cr-6Al-2Hf-xCe (x=0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1 (%, atom fraction)) in situ composites were prepared by arc melting. The microstructure and the effect of rare earth element cerium on 1250 ℃ oxidation resistance of the composites were investigated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray energy disperse spectrum (EDS), as well as X-ray diffraction (XRD). The experimental results showed that the high temperature oxidation resistance of the alloy was improved by adding a proper amount of cerium (Ce). The effect of Ce was considered as the concurrent of the following three factors: first, the oxide of Ce formed in the interface reduced the internal oxidation rate; second, the lath shaped oxide containing Ce increased the cracking resistance and reduced the expansion of the oxide scale; and third, the decrease of the silicide volume fraction on account of Ce addition reduces the power of the sample resisting oxy gen penetration.

  9. ADHESIVE SYSTEM AFFECTS REPAIR BOND STRENGTH OF RESIN COMPOSITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür IRMAK

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study evaluated the effects of different adhesive systems on repair bond strength of aged resin composites. Materials and Methods: Ninety composite discs were built and half of them were subjected to thermal aging. Aged and non-aged specimens were repaired with resin composite using three different adhesive systems; a two-step self-etch adhesive, a two-step total-etch adhesive and a one-step self-etch adhesive; then they were subjected to shear forces. Data were analyzed statistically. Results: Adhesive type and aging significantly affected the repair bond strengths (p<0.0001. No statistical difference was found in aged composite groups repaired with two-step self- etch or two-step total-etch adhesive. One-step self-etch adhesive showed lower bond strength values in aged composite repair (p<0.0001. Conclusion: In the repair of aged resin composite, two-step self-etch and two-step total-etch adhesives exhibited higher shear bond strength values than that of one-step self-etch adhesive.

  10. Artificial Composites for High Temperature Applications; A Review (Composites Artificiels Destines a des Applications a Haute Temperature; Un Expose),

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Problems were reported for both techniques and the work was continued (5). Restall et al. (22) studied ceramic reinforcing materials including various...Int. Conf. on Composite Materials, Published by the AIME, Boston, April 1975, pp. 411-431 22. J. E. Restall , A. Burwood-Smith and K. F. A. Walles, ’The

  11. Damage tolerance of bonded composite aircraft repairs for metallic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Randal John

    This thesis describes the development and validation of methods for damage tolerance substantiation of bonded composite repairs applied to cracked plates. This technology is used to repair metal aircraft structures, offering improvements in fatigue life, cost, manufacturability, and inspectability when compared to riveted repairs. The work focuses on the effects of plate thickness and bending on repair life, and covers fundamental aspects of fracture and fatigue of cracked plates and bonded joints. This project falls under the UBC Bonded Composite Repair Program, which has the goal of certification and widespread use of bonded repairs in civilian air transportation. This thesis analyses the plate thickness and transverse stress effects on fracture of repaired plates and the related problem of induced geometrically nonlinear bending in unbalanced (single-sided) repairs. The author begins by developing a classification scheme for assigning repair damage tolerance substantiation requirements based upon stress-based adhesive fracture/fatigue criteria and the residual strength of the original structure. The governing equations for bending of cracked plates are then reformulated and line-spring models are developed for linear and nonlinear coupled bending and extension of reinforced cracks. The line-spring models were used to correct the Wang and Rose energy method for the determination of the long-crack limit stress intensity, and to develop a new interpolation model for repaired cracks of arbitrary length. The analysis was validated using finite element models and data from mechanical tests performed on hybrid bonded joints and repair specimens that are representative of an in-service repair. This work will allow designers to evaluate the damage tolerance of the repaired plate, the adhesive, and the composite patch, which is an airworthiness requirement under FAR (Federal Aviation Regulations) 25.571. The thesis concludes by assessing the remaining barriers to

  12. High-temperature oxidation behavior of Al2O3/TiAl matrix composite in air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AI TaoTao; WANG Fen; FENG XiaoMing

    2009-01-01

    improve the oxidation resistance. Moreover, the multi-structure of the TiO2+Al2O3 mixed layer decreases the indiffusion of oxygen ions and also avails to improve the high temperature oxidation resistance of the as-sintered composites.

  13. Stabilized composite membranes and membrane electrode assemblies for high temperature/low relative humidity polymer electrolyte fuel cell operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramani, Vijay Krishna

    Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) have a variety of applications in the stationary power, mobile power and automotive power sectors. Existing membrane technology presently permits fuel cell operation at temperatures less than 100°C under fully saturated conditions. However, several advantages such as easier heat rejection rates and improved impurities tolerance by the anode electrocatalyst result by operating a PEMFC at elevated temperatures (above 100°C) and lower relative humidities. In an attempt to extend the operating range of the polymer electrolyte membrane, perfluorosulfonic acid (NafionRTM) based organic/inorganic (heteropolyacid) composite membranes were investigated in terms of thermal and electrochemical stability, additive stability and conductivity. Tungsten based heteropolyacids (HPAs) were found to be electrochemically stable as opposed to molybdenum based additives. The stability of the inorganic heteropolyacid additive in aqueous environments was enhanced by ion exchanging the protons of the HPAs with larger counter ions. An additional stabilization technique developed involved improving the interaction of HPA with NafionRTM by linking the particles to the sulfonic acid clusters via a sol-gel induced metal oxide linkage. The proton conductivity of the composite membranes was found to depend on the particle size of the HPA additive. A two order of magnitude change in additive particle size was attained by modification of the membrane preparation technique. This modification resulted in a nearly 50% increase in conductivity. The membranes prepared were characterized by thermal analysis, spectroscopy and microscopy. A technique was developed to incorporate existing MEA preparation and HPA stabilization techniques to the composite membranes with small HPA particles. All MEAs prepared were evaluated at high temperatures (120°C) and low relative humidities (35%) in an operating fuel cell, with membrane resistance and hence conductivity

  14. Does the light source affect the repairability of composite resins?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emel KARAMAN

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the effect of the light source on the microshear bond strength of different composite resins repaired with the same substrate. Thirty cylindrical specimens of each composite resin—Filtek Silorane, Filtek Z550 (3M ESPE, Gradia Direct Anterior (GC, and Aelite Posterior (BISCO—were prepared and light-cured with a QTH light curing unit (LCU. The specimens were aged by thermal cycling and divided into three subgroups according to the light source used—QTH, LED, or PAC (n = 10. They were repaired with the same substrate and a Clearfil Repair Kit (Kuraray. The specimens were light-cured and aged for 1 week in distilled water at 37 °C. The microshear bond strength and failure modes were assessed. There was no significant difference in the microshear bond strength values among the composite resins, except for the Filtek Silorane group that showed significantly lower bond strength values when polymerized with the PAC unit compared to the QTH or LED unit. In conclusion, previously placed dimethacrylate-based composites can be repaired with different light sources; however, if the composite to be repaired is silorane-based, then using a QTH or LED device may be the best option.

  15. Bond strength of dental nanocomposites repaired with a bulkfill composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerimova, Leyla; Baltacioglu, İsmail H.; Kiremitçi, Arlin

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to analyze the bond strength of aged resin based nanocomposites repaired with the same and bulk fill composites. Material and Methods Seventy-two disc shaped resin composites consisted of three different nanocomposite resins (Filtek Ultimate/FU, Herculite XRV Ultra/HXRV, and Reflectys/R) were produced. After storing the samples for 8 weeks in distilled water, each material was combined with the same material or the bulk-fill composite resin system (Filtek Ultimate+Filtek Ultimate/Group-1; Filtek Ultimate+Tetric BF/Group-2; Herculite XRV+Herculite XRV/Group-3; Herculite XRV+Tetric BF/ Group-4; Reflectys+Reflectys/Group 5; Reflectys+Tetric BF/Group-6), for repair. Then specimens were subjected to shear bond strength testing(SBS), and the debonded surfaces were examined. Results There was a significant difference among three materials(repaired with itself+bulk fill) for SBS testing values (p=0.001). FU and R were found to be similar, while HXRV was significantly different from them. A significant difference between group-1 and 2 (p=0.006) was detected, while there were no differences between group 3 and 4 (p= 0.142), and 5 and 6 (p=0.346). Among the six groups, repair SBS testing values with TBF were higher than repair with itself except for FU. Conclusions The bulk-fill repaired materials showed higher bond strength except for FU, which showed the highest SBS value when repaired with itself. An increased incidence of adhesive fracture was observed at low strengths. Key words:Resin-based composites, nanofillers, surface treatment, macro-shear, repair. PMID:28298988

  16. Self sensing composites with emi shielding and self repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dry, Carolyn

    2015-04-01

    Emi shielding provided by metal coating on repair fibers and conductive repair chemical maintained overall emi resistance of structural panels as well as provided the basis for eddy current and ultrasonic sensing/monitoring of structural panels. The sensing/repair system was easily inserted into composite processing and survived the heat and pressure of VARTM, resin infusion /pressing and pultrusion processing. The panels were tested with a commercial emi test lab, a commercial non-destructive testing lab, and a structural testing lab, The results were positive and will be presented in the paper.

  17. Storage stability of SBS/sulfur modified bitumens at high temperature: influence of bitumen composition and structure

    OpenAIRE

    Aguirre de Carcer, I.; Masegosa Fanego, Rosa María; Viñas Sánchez, María Teresa; Sanchez-Cabezudo Tirado, Marta; Salom Coll, Catalina; González Prolongo, Margarita; Contreras, Verónica; Barceló, Francisco; Páez, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Polymer modified bitumens, PMBs, are usually prepared at high temperature and subsequently stored for a period of time, also at high temperature. The stability of PMBs, in these conditions, has a decisive influence in order to obtain the adequate performances for practical applications. In this article the attention is focused in the analysis of the factors that determine the stability of styrene–butadiene–styrene copolymer (SBS)/sulfur modified bitumens when the mixtures are maintained at hi...

  18. R&D on an Ultra-Thin Composite Membrane for High-Temperature Operation in PEMFC. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuh, C.-Y.

    2003-10-06

    FuelCell Energy developed a novel high-temperature proton exchange membrane for PEM fuel cells for building applications. The laboratory PEM fuel cell successfully operated at 100-400{supdegree}C and low relative humidity to improve CO tolerance, mitigate water and thermal management challenges, and reduce membrane cost. The developed high-temperature membrane has successfully completed 500h 120C endurance testing.

  19. High-Temperature Tribological and Self-Lubricating Behavior of Copper Oxide-Doped Y-TZP Composite Sliding Against Alumina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valefi, Mahdiar; de Rooij, Matthias B.; Schipper, Dirk J.; Winnubst, Aloysius J.A.

    2011-01-01

    The tribological behavior of 5 wt% copper oxide-doped tetragonal zirconia polycrystal composite has been investigated while it slides against an alumina counterface under high temperature conditions. The effects of load (1, 2.5, and 5 N) and velocity (0.05 and 0.1 m/s) on the wear mechanism have

  20. Electrospun composites of PHBV/pearl powder for bone repairing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Bai

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Electrospun fiber has highly structural similarity with natural bone extracelluar matrix (ECM. Many researches about fabricating organic–inorganic composite materials have been carried out in order to mimic the natural composition of bone and enhance the biocompatibility of materials. In this work, pearl powder was added to the poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate (PHBV and the composite nanofiber scaffold was prepared by electrospinning. Mineralization ability of the composite scaffolds can be evaluated by analyzing hydroxyapatite (HA formation on the surface of nanofiber scaffolds. The obtained composite nanofiber scaffolds showed an enhanced mineralization capacity due to incorporation of pearl powder. The HA formed amount of the composite scaffolds was raised as the increase of pearl powder in composite scaffolds. Therefore, the prepared PHBV/pearl composite nanofiber scaffolds would be a promising candidate as an osteoconductive composite material for bone repairing.

  1. Electrospun composites of PHBV/pearl powder for bone repairing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingjing Bai; Jiamu Dai; Guang Li

    2015-01-01

    Electrospun fiber has highly structural similarity with natural bone extracelluar matrix (ECM). Many researches about fabricating organic–inorganic composite materials have been carried out in order to mimic the natural composition of bone and enhance the biocompatibility of materials. In this work, pearl powder was added to the poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) and the composite nanofiber scaffold was prepared by electrospinning. Mineralization ability of the composite scaffolds can be evaluated by analyzing hydroxyapatite (HA) formation on the surface of nanofiber scaffolds. The obtained composite nanofiber scaffolds showed an enhanced mineralization capacity due to incorporation of pearl powder. The HA formed amount of the composite scaffolds was raised as the increase of pearl powder in composite scaffolds. Therefore, the prepared PHBV/pearl composite nanofiber scaffolds would be a promising candidate as an osteoconductive composite material for bone repairing.

  2. Surface roughness of etched composite resin in light of composite repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loomans, B.A.C.; Cardoso, M.V.; Opdam, N.J.M.; Roeters, F.J.M.; Munck, J. De; Huysmans, M.C.D.N.J.M.; Meerbeek, B. Van

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In search for clinically effective composite repair protocols, the effect of various etching protocols on the surface roughness of composite resins with different filler composition were investigated. METHODS: Of two composite resins (hybrid-filled Clearfil AP-X; nano-filled Filtek Supre

  3. Effect of oxygen inhibition on composite repair strength over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Oca, Susanna; Papacchini, Federica; Goracci, Cecilia; Cury, Alvaro H; Suh, Byoung I; Tay, Franklin R; Polimeni, Antonella; Ferrari, Marco

    2007-05-01

    The study was aimed at examining whether an oxygen inhibition layer is required for bonding a repairing to a pre-existing composite, and to determine the time required for free radicals within a composite substrate to decay to the extent that the composite repair strength drops significantly. Ten slabs of Gradia Direct Anterior (GC Corp.) were divided into (1) control group: an interfacial oxygen inhibition layer was created by applying and light-curing two layers of bonding resin (D/E Resin, Bisco) to the slabs surface in atmospheric air; (2) experimental group: the absence of an interfacial oxygen inhibition layer was obtained by light-curing the second bonding resin layer in a nitrogen atmosphere. After 1 and 2 h, 1, 14, and 30 days of air storage, a composite repair was layered over the bonding resin. Microtensile bond strengths were measured and statistically analyzed. The curing atmosphere was not a significant factor for bond strength (p = 0.82), and time and curing atmosphere-time interaction were significant (p composite, and it takes more than 14 days before the bond strength between a pre-existing and a fresh composite drops.

  4. Effect of physicochemical aging conditions on the composite-composite repair bond strength

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brendeke, Johannes; Ozcan, Mutlu

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study evaluated the effect of different physicochemical aging methods and surface conditioning techniques on the repair bond strength of composite. It was hypothesized that the aging conditions would decrease the repair bond strength and surface conditioning methods would perform simil

  5. Repair bond strength of resin composite to a novel CAD/CAM hybrid ceramic using different repair systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsaka, Shaymaa E

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the repair bond strength of a nanohybrid resin composite to a novel CAD/CAM hybrid ceramic based on four intraoral ceramic repair systems. Vita Enamic (VE) CAD/CAM hybrid ceramic was used in this study. Specimens were divided into five test groups according to the repair method performed on the ceramic surface: Gr C (No treatment; control); Gr CZ (Cimara Zircon); Gr PR (Porcelain Repair); Gr CR (Clearfil Repair); and Gr CS (CoJet system). Nanohybrid resin composite (GrandioSO) was packed onto treated ceramic surfaces for adhesion testing using microtensile bond strength test. Debonded specimens were examined with a stereomicroscope and SEM to determine the fracture mode. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's HSD test. PR and CZ repair systems significantly enhanced the bond strength of nanohybrid resin composite to VE CAD/CAM hybrid ceramic when compared with the other tested repair systems.

  6. Repair integrity monitoring of composite aerostructures using thermographic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammatikos, S.; Kordatos, E.; Barkoula, N.-M.; Matikas, T.; Paipetis, A.

    2010-04-01

    Bonded repair offers significant advantages over mechanically fastened repair schemes as it eliminates local stress concentrations and seals the interface between the mother structure and the patch. However, it is particularly difficult to assess the efficiency of the bonded repair as well as its performance during service loads. Thermography is a particularly attractive technique for the particular application as it is a non-contact, wide field non destructive method. Phase thermography is also offering the advantage of depth discrimination in layered structures such as in typical patch repairs particularly in the case where composites are used. Lock-in thermography offers the additional advantage of on line monitoring of the loaded structure and subsequently the real time evolution of any progressive debonding which may lead to critical failure of the patched repair. In this study composite systems (CFRP plates) with artificially introduced defects (PTFE) were manufactured. The aforementioned methods were employed in order to assess the efficiency of the thermographic technique. The obtained results were compared with typical C-scans.

  7. Health monitoring of bonded composite repair in bridge rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhanjun; Qing, Xinlin P.; Ghosh, Kumar; Karbhar, Vistasp; Chang, Fu-Kuo

    2008-08-01

    Structural rehabilitation with carbon fiber reinforced composite materials has proven to be an excellent way to enhance/repair steel reinforced concrete structures and prolong their service lives. However, disbonds between composite repair patches and host structures continue to be a great concern of this technology. In this paper, a built-in piezoelectric sensor network based structural health monitoring system is introduced for monitoring the disbonds between composite repair patches and the host structures. This diagnostic system combines the sensor network, diagnostic hardware and data analysis software allowing for real-time monitoring of the integrity of the bonded repair. The effectiveness of detecting disbonds using the system has been demonstrated on a full scale bridge model in a laboratory setting. The bridge model was loaded incrementally to failure, and disbond monitoring was carried out during the loading intervals. Test results showed that the system could detect the disbonds before they have a noticeable effect on the global stiffness of the bridge model.

  8. Thermophysical characterization tools and numerical models for high temperature thermo-structural composite materials; Outils de caracterisation thermophysique et modeles numeriques pour les composites thermostructuraux a haute temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorrette, Ch

    2007-04-15

    This work is an original contribution to the study of the thermo-structural composite materials thermal behaviour. It aims to develop a methodology with a new experimental device for thermal characterization adapted to this type of material and to model the heat transfer by conduction within these heterogeneous media. The first part deals with prediction of the thermal effective conductivity of stratified composite materials in the three space directions. For that, a multi scale model using a rigorous morphology analysis of the structure and the elementary properties is proposed and implemented. The second part deals with the thermal characterization at high temperature. It shows how to estimate simultaneously the thermal effusiveness and the thermal conductivity. The present method is based on the observation of the heating from a plane sample submitted to a continuous excitation generated by Joule Effect. Heat transfer is modelled with the quadrupole formalism, temperature is here measured on two sides of the sample. The development of both resistive probes for excitation and linear probes for temperature measurements enables the thermal properties measured up to 1000 C. Finally, some experimental and numerical application examples lead to review the obtained results. (author)

  9. Color stability of repaired composite submitted to accelerated artificial aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Ana Beatriz Silva; Silame, Francisca Daniele Jardilino; Alandia-Roman, Carla Cecilia; Cruvinel, Diogo Rodrigues; Garcia, Lucas da Fonseca Roberti; Pires-de-Souza, Fernanda de Carvalho Panzeri

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the color stability (ΔE) of nanoparticulate composite, with consideration for the type of surface treatment performed before repair. A Teflon matrix was used to fabricate 50 test specimens from composite. After initial color readout, the specimens were submitted to 100 hours of accelerated artificial aging (AAA). The samples were divided into five groups (n = 10), according to the surface treatment performed: sandblasting with aluminum oxide powder, phosphoric acid, and an adhesive system (Group 1); sandblasting with aluminum oxide powder, phosphoric acid, and a flowable composite (Group 2); abrasion with a diamond bur, phosphoric acid, and an adhesive system (Group 3); abrasion with a diamond bur, phosphoric acid, and a nanoparticulate composite (Group 4); and a control group (Group 5). After repair, a new color readout was taken, the test specimens were submitted to a new AAA cycle (300 hours), and the final color readout was taken. Comparison of the ΔE means (one-way ANOVA and Tukey tests, p 0.05) after 100 hours of AAA. After repair, Group 1 (4.61 ± 2.03) presented the highest color alteration with a statistically significant difference compared with the other groups (p color alteration in comparison with the other groups, with a statistically significant difference (p color alteration of the restorations over the course of time.

  10. Microstructure and properties of an HfB{sub 2}-SiC composite for ultra high temperature applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteverde, F.; Bellosi, A. [National Research Council, Institute of Science and Technology for Ceramics, Via Granarolo 64, 48018 Faenza (Italy)

    2004-05-01

    An ultra-high-temperature ceramic (UHTC) based on HfB{sub 2} was produced. The microstructure consisted of fine and regular diboride grains (2 {mu}m average size), with SiC particulate distributed intergranularly, not rarely in clustered formation, and low levels of secondary phases were identified. The resulting thermo-mechanical properties proved interesting results for microhardness and fracture toughness. The microstructural alteration experienced within the explored temperature range renders the material unsuitable for service in extreme conditions of temperature and pressure. (Abstract Copyright [2004], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  11. Immediate repair bond strengths of microhybrid, nanohybrid and nanofilled composites after different surface treatments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rinastiti, Margareta; Siswomihardjo, Widowati; Busscher, Henk J.; Ozcan, Mutlu

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate immediate repair bond strengths and failure types of resin composites with and without surface conditioning and characterize the interacting composite surfaces by their surface composition and roughness. Methods: Microhybrid, nanohybrid and nanofilled resin composites were ph

  12. Development of C/C composite for the core component of the high temperature gas cooled reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. Y.; Kim, W. J.; Ryu, W. S.; Jang, J. H

    2005-01-15

    This report reviewed a state of the art on development of C/C composite for the core components for VHTR and described the followings items. The fabrication methods of C/C composites. Summary on the JAERI report (JAERI-Res 2002-026) on the process screening test for the selection of a proper C/C composite material. Review of the proceedings presented at the GEN-IV VHTR material PMB meeting. A status of the domestic commercial C/C composite. The published property data and the characteristics of the commercial C/C composite.

  13. Characterization of quasi-nano-sized TiCx-Ni-Fe thin composite sheet prepared by using self-propagating high-temperature synthesis reaction and electroforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yong

    2014-05-01

    Thin TiCx-Ni-Fe composites sheet was prepared by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) and electroforming. The quasi-nano-sized titanium carbide particles were prepared by self-propagating high temperature synthesis (SHS) followed by mechanical milling and ultrasonic floating agitation for classifying particles. The composite sheet was fabricated by co-deposition of the classified titanium carbide particles in a modified Watts nickel bath containing iron chloride during nickel-iron electro-forming. Neutron diffraction showed that the non-stoichiometric number of titanium carbides formed by the SHS reaction were in the range of 0.68 to 0.97, which depended on the initial carbon sources. X-ray diffraction and electron probe micro-analysis revealed that co-deposition of the carbides in Ni-Fe bath during the electroforming process produced a thin TiCx-Ni-Fe composite sheet, in which quasi-nano-sized titanium carbides were embedded about 7 at.%. The average surface resistance of the thin composite sheet was 1.053 ohm/sq. The corrosion potential and rate of the composites in a 50% NaOH solution were -920.6 mVSHE and 8.4×10-6 Acm-2, respectively.

  14. Microstructural study of the ablation behaviors of 3D fine weave pierced Carbon/Carbon composites using plasma torch at ultra-high temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A simple and effective method of testing ablation behaviors of carbon/carbon composites at high temperature was provided, which used plasma torch as the heater. The ablation resistance of 3D fine weave pierced carbon/carbon composites at high temperature was also studied. The results show that temperature of the plasma flame is very high which is much closer to the real work environment of carbon/carbon composites. The factors that affect the ablation characters of carbon/carbon composites depend on both the properties of their components and the environmental conditions in which the material is placed. The ablation behaviors of C/C composites change from the center flame region predominantly influenced by sublimation of graphite to the region close to the outer flame influenced mainly by oxidization of graphite. The sublimation ability of carbon matrix is equal to that of carbon fibers but the oxidization ability of carbon fibers is significantly enhanced compared to that of carbon matrix.

  15. Effects of High Temperature Frying of Spinach Leaves in Sunflower Oil on Carotenoids, Chlorophylls, and Tocopherol Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeb, Alam; Nisar, Parveen

    2017-01-01

    Spinach is one of the highly consumed vegetable, with significant nutritional, and beneficial properties. This study revealed for the first time, the effects of high temperature frying on the carotenoids, chlorophylls, and tocopherol contents of spinach leaves. Spinach leaves were thermally processed in the sunflower oil for 15, 30, 45, and 60 min at 250°C. Reversed phase HPLC-DAD results revealed a total of eight carotenoids, four chlorophylls and α-tocopherol in the spinach leaves. Lutein, neoxanthin, violaxanthin, and β-carotene-5,6-epoxide were the major carotenoids, while chlorophyll a and b' were present in higher amounts. Frying of spinach leaves increased significantly the amount of α-tocopherol, β-carotene-5,6-epoxide, luteoxanthin, lutein, and its Z-isomers and chlorophyll b' isomer. There was significant decrease in the amounts of neoxanthin, violaxanthin, chlorophyll b, b' and chlorophyll a with increase of frying time. The increase of frying time increased the total phenolic contents in spinach leaves and fried sunflower oil samples. Chemical characteristics such as peroxide values, free fatty acids, conjugated dienes, conjugated trienes, and radical scavenging activity were significantly affected by frying, while spinach leaves increased the stability of the frying oil. This study can be used to improve the quality of fried vegetable leaves or their products at high temperature frying in food industries for increasing consumer acceptability. PMID:28382299

  16. Effects of High Temperature Frying of Spinach Leaves in Sunflower Oil on Carotenoids, Chlorophylls, and Tocopherol Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeb, Alam; Nisar, Parveen

    2017-01-01

    Spinach is one of the highly consumed vegetable, with significant nutritional, and beneficial properties. This study revealed for the first time, the effects of high temperature frying on the carotenoids, chlorophylls, and tocopherol contents of spinach leaves. Spinach leaves were thermally processed in the sunflower oil for 15, 30, 45, and 60 min at 250°C. Reversed phase HPLC-DAD results revealed a total of eight carotenoids, four chlorophylls and α-tocopherol in the spinach leaves. Lutein, neoxanthin, violaxanthin, and β-carotene-5,6-epoxide were the major carotenoids, while chlorophyll a and b' were present in higher amounts. Frying of spinach leaves increased significantly the amount of α-tocopherol, β-carotene-5,6-epoxide, luteoxanthin, lutein, and its Z-isomers and chlorophyll b' isomer. There was significant decrease in the amounts of neoxanthin, violaxanthin, chlorophyll b, b' and chlorophyll a with increase of frying time. The increase of frying time increased the total phenolic contents in spinach leaves and fried sunflower oil samples. Chemical characteristics such as peroxide values, free fatty acids, conjugated dienes, conjugated trienes, and radical scavenging activity were significantly affected by frying, while spinach leaves increased the stability of the frying oil. This study can be used to improve the quality of fried vegetable leaves or their products at high temperature frying in food industries for increasing consumer acceptability.

  17. Effect of different surface treatments on the composite-composite repair bond strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathke, Andreas; Tymina, Yana; Haller, Bernd

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different mechanical and adhesive treatments on the bond strength between pre-existing composite and repair composite using two aging times of the composite to be repaired. Standardized cylinders were made of a microhybrid composite (Spectrum TPH) and stored in saline at 37 degrees C for 24 h (n = 140) or 6 months (n = 140). Three types of mechanical roughening were selected: diamond-coated bur followed by phosphoric acid etching, mini sandblaster with 50-microm aluminum oxide powder, and 30-microm silica-coated aluminum oxide powder (CoJet Sand), respectively. Adhesive treatment was performed with the components of a multi-step bonding system (OptiBond FL) or with a one-bottle primer-adhesive (Excite). In the CoJet Sand group, the effect of a silane coupling agent (Monobond-S) was also investigated. The repair composite (Spectrum TPH) was applied into a mould in three layers of 1 mm, each separately light-cured for 40 s. Repair tensile bond strengths were determined after 24-h storage. Mechanical and adhesive treatment had significant effects on repair bond strength (P OptiBond FL Adhesive), adhesive treatments significantly increased repair bond strengths to 6-month-old composite when compared to the controls without adhesive. Adhesive treatment of the mechanically roughened composite is essential for achieving acceptable repair bond strengths. The more complicated use of silica-coated particles for sandblasting followed by a silane coupling agent had no advantage over common bonding systems.

  18. High Temperature Materials Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The High Temperature Materials Lab provides the Navy and industry with affordable high temperature materials for advanced propulsion systems. Asset List: Arc Melter...

  19. A novel porous gelatin composite containing naringin for bone repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuo-Yu; Lin, Kuen-Cherng; Chen, Yueh-Sheng; Yao, Chun-Hsu

    2013-01-01

    As Gu-Sui-Bu (GSB) is a commonly used Chinese medical herb for therapeutic treatment of bone-related diseases, naringin is its main active component. This study elucidates how various concentrations of naringin solution affect the activities of bone cells, based on colorimetric, alkaline phosphatase activity, nodule formation, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity assays to determine the optimal concentration of naringin. GGT composite was obtained by combining genipin cross-linked gelatin and β-tricalcium phosphate. GGTN composite was prepared by mixing GGT composite with the predetermined concentration of naringin. Porous GGT and GGTN composites were then made using a salt-leaching procedure. The potential of the composites in repairing bone defects was evaluated and compared in vivo by using the biological response of rabbit calvarial bone to these composites. Consequently, the most effective concentration of naringin was 10 mg/mL, which significantly enhanced the proliferation of osteoblasts, osteoclast activity, and nodule formation without affecting the alkaline phosphatase activity of osteoblasts and mitochondrial activity of mixed-bone cells. Radiographic analysis revealed greater new bone ingrowth in the GGTN composite than in the GGT composite at the same implantation time. Therefore, the GGTN composite is highly promising for use as a bone graft material.

  20. Effect of nanostructured composite powders on the structure and strength properties of the high-temperature inconel 718 alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherepanov, A. N.; Ovcharenko, V. E.

    2015-12-01

    The experimental results of the effect of powder nanomodifiers of refractory compounds on the strength properties, the macro- and microstructure of the high-temperature Inconel 718 alloy have been presented. It has been shown that the introduction of powder modifiers into the melt leads to a decrease in the average grain size by a factor of 1.5-2 in the alloy. The long-term tensile strength of the alloy at 650°C increases 1.5-2 times, and the number of cycles at 482°C before fracture grows by more than three times. The effect of nanoparticles on the grain structure and strength properties of the alloy is due to an increase in the number of generated crystallization centers and the formation of nanoparticle clusters of refractory compounds at boundaries and junctions in the formed grain structure, which hinder the development of recrystallization processes in the alloy.

  1. Microstructural investigation of Si-ion-irradiated single crystal 3C-SiC and SA-Tyrannohex SiC fiber-bonded composite at high temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Chun-Yu [Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing-Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Shuo-Cheng [Department of Engineering and System Science, National Tsing-Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Lin, Hua-Tay [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Chen, Fu-Rong [Department of Engineering and System Science, National Tsing-Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Kai, Ji-Jung, E-mail: ceer0001@gmail.com [Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing-Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Department of Engineering and System Science, National Tsing-Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

    2013-11-15

    Silicon carbides (SiCs) are considered as one of the promising candidates for structural and core materials used in fusion reactor and high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) due to its high thermal stability, and good resistance to irradiation and chemical attack. Single crystal 3C-SiC with less intrinsic defects was used to precisely characterize the radiation-induced defects in 3C-SiC. In addition, there are limited discussions related to radiation effect of SA-Tyrannohex fiber-bonded composite at high temperatures. Therefore, in this study, single crystal 3C-SiC thin film and SA-Tyrannohex SiC fiber-bonded composite were irradiated at 1000–1350 °C with 7 MeV Si{sup 3+} ion to simulate the neutron irradiation in reactors. The microstructure of the irradiated SiC was examined by using high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM). In irradiated single crystal 3C-SiC, high resolution images showed that the planar defects were extrinsic stacking faulted loop with changing atomic sequences and intrinsic stacking faulted loop, i.e. vacancy loop. In addition, dislocation loops, voids, and edge dislocations in SA-Tyrannohex SiC fiber-bonded composite after irradiation were investigated. Besides, larger voids (with diameter 10–40 nm) formed in alumina with preferred orientation after irradiation perhaps resulting in degradation of strength of the SA-Tyrannohex SiC fiber-bonded composite.

  2. Optimization of High Temperature and Pressurized Steam Modified Wood Fibers for High-Density Polyethylene Matrix Composites Using the Orthogonal Design Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun Gao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The orthogonal design method was used to determine the optimum conditions for modifying poplar fibers through a high temperature and pressurized steam treatment for the subsequent preparation of wood fiber/high-density polyethylene (HDPE composites. The extreme difference, variance, and significance analyses were performed to reveal the effect of the modification parameters on the mechanical properties of the prepared composites, and they yielded consistent results. The main findings indicated that the modification temperature most strongly affected the mechanical properties of the prepared composites, followed by the steam pressure. A temperature of 170 °C, a steam pressure of 0.8 MPa, and a processing time of 20 min were determined as the optimum parameters for fiber modification. Compared to the composites prepared from untreated fibers, the tensile, flexural, and impact strength of the composites prepared from modified fibers increased by 20.17%, 18.5%, and 19.3%, respectively. The effect on the properties of the composites was also investigated by scanning electron microscopy and dynamic mechanical analysis. When the temperature, steam pressure, and processing time reached the highest values, the composites exhibited the best mechanical properties, which were also well in agreement with the results of the extreme difference, variance, and significance analyses. Moreover, the crystallinity and thermal stability of the fibers and the storage modulus of the prepared composites improved; however, the hollocellulose content and the pH of the wood fibers decreased.

  3. High Temperature Flow Stress Prediction of Nano-Al2O3/Cu Composite Using an Artificial Neural Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Jian-xin; XU Xiao-feng; SONG Ke-xing; LI Pei-quan; GUO Xiu-hua; LIU Rui-hua

    2006-01-01

    Alumina dispersion strengthened copper composite (nano-Al2O3/Cu composite) was recently emerged as a kind of potentially viable and attractive engineering material for applications requiring high strength, high thermal and electrical conductivities and resistance to softening at elevated temperatures. The nano-Al2O3/Cu composite was produced by internal oxidation. The microstructures of the composite were analyzed by the TEM and its hot deformation behavior was investigated by means of continuous compression tests performed on a Gleeble 1500 thermo-simulator. Making use of the modified algorithm-Levenberg-Marquardt (L-M) algorithm BP neural network, a model for predicting the flow stresses during hot deformation was set up on the base of the experimental data. Results show that the microstructures of the composite are characterized by uniform distribution of nano-Al2O3 particles in Cu-matrix. The sliding of dislocations is the main deformation mechanism. The dynamic recovery is the main softening mode with the flow stress decreasing gently from 500 ℃ to 850 ℃. The recrystallization of Cu-matrix can be retarded late into as high as 850 ℃, when it happens only partially. The well-trained BP neural network model can accurately describe the influence of the temperature, strain rate, and true strain on the flow stresses, therefore, it can precisely predict the flow stresses of the composite under given deforming conditions and provide a new way to optimize hot deforming process parameters.

  4. Tiltrotor research aircraft composite blade repairs: Lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Paul S.; Groepler, David R.

    1991-01-01

    The XV-15, N703NA Tiltrotor Research Aircraft located at the NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California, currently uses a set of composite rotor blades of complex shape known as the advanced technology blades (ATBs). The main structural element of the blades is a D-spar constructed of unidirectional, angled fiberglass/graphite, with the aft fairing portion of the blades constructed of a fiberglass cross-ply skin bonded to a Nomex honeycomb core. The blade tip is a removable laminate shell that fits over the outboard section of the spar structure, which contains a cavity to retain balance weights. Two types of tip shells are used for research. One is highly twisted (more than a conventional helicopter blade) and has a hollow core constructed of a thin Nomex-honeycomb-and-fiberglass-skin sandwich; the other is untwisted with a solid Nomex honeycomb core and a fiberglass cross-ply skin. During initial flight testing of the blades, a number of problems in the composite structure were encountered. These problems included debonding between the fiberglass skin and the honeycomb core, failure of the honeycomb core, failures in fiberglass splices, cracks in fiberglass blocks, misalignment of mated composite parts, and failures of retention of metal fasteners. Substantial time was spent in identifying and repairing these problems. Discussed here are the types of problems encountered, the inspection procedures used to identify each problem, the repairs performed on the damaged or flawed areas, the level of criticality of the problems, and the monitoring of repaired areas. It is hoped that this discussion will help designers, analysts, and experimenters in the future as the use of composites becomes more prevalent.

  5. Composition, Compatibility, and the Functional Performances of Ternary NiTiX High-Temperature Shape Memory Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucsek, Ashley N.; Hudish, Grant A.; Bigelow, Glen S.; Noebe, Ronald D.; Stebner, Aaron P.

    2016-03-01

    A general procedure to optimize shape memory alloys (SMAs) for specific engineering performance metrics is outlined and demonstrated through a study of ternary, NiTiX high-temperature SMAs, where X = Pd, Hf, Zr. Transformation strains are calculated using the crystallographic theory of martensite and compared to the cofactor conditions, both requiring only lattice parameters as inputs. Measurements of transformation temperatures and hysteresis provide additional comparisons between microstructural-based and transformation properties. The relationships between microstructural-based properties and engineering performance metrics are then thoroughly explored. Use of this procedure demonstrates that SMAs can be tuned for specific applications using relatively simple, fast, and inexpensive measurements and theoretical calculations. The results also indicate an overall trade-off between compatibility and strains, suggesting that alloys may be optimized for either minimal hysteresis or large transformation strains and work output. However, further analysis of the effects of aging shows that better combinations of uncompromised properties are possible through solid solution strengthening.

  6. Comparison of Reactive and Non-Reactive Spark Plasma Sintering Routes for the Fabrication of Monolithic and Composite Ultra High Temperature Ceramics (UHTC Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Orrù

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A wider utilization of ultra high temperature ceramics (UHTC materials strongly depends on the availability of efficient techniques for their fabrication as dense bodies. Based on recent results reported in the literature, it is possible to state that Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS technology offers a useful contribution in this direction. Along these lines, the use of two different SPS-based processing routes for the preparation of massive UHTCs is examined in this work. One method, the so-called reactive SPS (R-SPS, consists of the synthesis and densification of the material in a single step. Alternatively, the ceramic powders are first synthesized by Self-propagating High-temperature Synthesis (SHS and then sintered by SPS. The obtained results evidenced that R-SPS method is preferable for the preparation of dense monolithic products, while the sintering of SHS powders requires relatively milder conditions when considering binary composites. The different kinetic mechanisms involved during R-SPS of the monolithic and composite systems, i.e., combustion-like or gradual solid-diffusion, respectively, provides a possible explanation. An important role is also played by the SHS process, particularly for the preparation of composite powders, since stronger interfaces are established between the ceramic constituents formed in situ, thus favoring diffusion processes during the subsequent SPS step.

  7. Patches for Repairing Ceramics and Ceramic-Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogenson, Peter A.; Toombs, Gordon R.; Adam, Steven; Tompkins, James V.

    2006-01-01

    Patches consisting mostly of ceramic fabrics impregnated with partially cured polymers and ceramic particles are being developed as means of repairing ceramics and ceramic-matrix composites (CMCs) that must withstand temperatures above the melting points of refractory metal alloys. These patches were conceived for use by space-suited, space-walking astronauts in repairing damaged space-shuttle leading edges: as such, these patches could be applied in the field, in relatively simple procedures, and with minimal requirements for specialized tools. These design characteristics also make the patches useful for repairing ceramics and CMCs in terrestrial settings. In a typical patch as supplied to an astronaut or repair technician, the polymer would be in a tacky condition, denoted as an A stage, produced by partial polymerization of a monomeric liquid. The patch would be pressed against the ceramic or CMC object to be repaired, relying on the tackiness for temporary adhesion. The patch would then be bonded to the workpiece and cured by using a portable device to heat the polymer to a curing temperature above ambient temperature but well below the maximum operating temperature to which the workpiece is expected to be exposed. The patch would subsequently become pyrolized to a ceramic/glass condition upon initial exposure to the high operating temperature. In the original space-shuttle application, this exposure would be Earth-atmosphere-reentry heating to about 3,000 F (about 1,600 C). Patch formulations for space-shuttle applications include SiC and ZrO2 fabrics, a commercial SiC-based pre-ceramic polymer, and suitable proportions of both SiC and ZrO2 particles having sizes of the order of 1 m. These formulations have been tailored for the space-shuttle leading-edge material, atmospheric composition, and reentry temperature profile so as to enable repairs to survive re-entry heating with expected margin. Other formulations could be tailored for specific terrestrial

  8. Gas tungsten arc welding of ZrB2–SiC based ultra high temperature ceramic composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.V. Krishnarao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The difficulty in fabricating the large size or complex shape limits the application of ZrB2–SiC composites. Joining them by fusion welding without or with preheating, controlled cooling under protective gas shield leads to thermal shock failure or porosity at the weld interface. In the present work, a filler material of (ZrB2–SiC–B4C–YAG composite with oxidation resistance and thermal shock resistance was produced in the form of welding wire. Using the filler, gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW was performed without employing preheating, post controlled cooling and extraneous protective gas shield to join hot pressed ZrB2–SiC (ZS, and pressureless sintered ZrB2–SiC–B4C–YAG (ZSBY composites to themselves. The fusion welding resulted in cracking and non-uniform joining without any filler material. The weld interfaces of the composites were very clean and coherent. The Vickers micro-hardness across the weld interface was found to increase due to the increase in the volume % of both SiC and B4C in the filler material. The shear strength of the weld was about 50% of the flextural strength of the parent composite.

  9. The multiscale modeling and data mining of high-temperature dielectrics of SiO2/SiO2 composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Jie; CUI Chao; HOU Zhi-ling; CAO Mao-sheng

    2007-01-01

    The high temperature dielectrics of Quartz fiber-reinforced silicon dioxide ceramic (SiO2/SiO2 ) composites were studied both theoretically and experimentally. A multi-scale theoretical model was developed based on the theory of dielectrics. It was realized to predict dielectric properties at higher temperature ( > 1200 ℃) by experimental data mining for correlative coefficients in model. The results show that the dielectrics of SiO2/SiO2,which were calculated with the theoretical model, were in agreement with experimental measured value.

  10. Composite vascular repair grafts via micro-imprinting and electrospinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yuanyuan, E-mail: yuanyuan-liu@shu.edu.cn; Hu, Qingxi, E-mail: huqingxi@shu.edu.cn [Rapid Manufacturing Engineering Center, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Shanghai Key Laboratory of Intelligent Manufacturing and Robotics, Shanghai 200072 (China); Xiang, Ke, E-mail: xiangke@shu.edu.cn; Chen, Haiping, E-mail: 519673062@qq.com; Li, Yu, E-mail: liyu@hpu.edu.cn [Rapid Manufacturing Engineering Center, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China)

    2015-04-15

    Composite vascular grafts formed by micro-imprinting and electrospinning exhibited improved mechanical properties relative to those formed by electrospinning alone. The three-layered composite grafts mimic the three-layered structure of natural blood vessels. The middle layer is made by micro-imprinting poly-p-dioxanone (PPDO), while the inner and outer layers are electrospun mixtures of chitosan and polyvinyl alcohol. The graft morphology is characterized with scanning electron microscopy. For constant graft thicknesses, the PPDO increases the mechanical strength. Cells cultivated on the vascular grafts adhere and proliferate better because of the natural, biological chitosan in the inner and outer layers. Overall, the composite scaffolds could be good candidates for blood vessel repair.

  11. Method of tissue repair using a composite material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchens, Stacy A; Woodward, Jonathan; Evans, Barbara R; O'Neill, Hugh M

    2014-03-18

    A composite biocompatible hydrogel material includes a porous polymer matrix, the polymer matrix including a plurality of pores and providing a Young's modulus of at least 10 GPa. A calcium comprising salt is disposed in at least some of the pores. The porous polymer matrix can comprise cellulose, including bacterial cellulose. The composite can be used as a bone graft material. A method of tissue repair within the body of animals includes the steps of providing a composite biocompatible hydrogel material including a porous polymer matrix, the polymer matrix including a plurality of pores and providing a Young's modulus of at least 10 GPa, and inserting the hydrogel material into cartilage or bone tissue of an animal, wherein the hydrogel material supports cell colonization in vitro for autologous cell seeding.

  12. Method of tissue repair using a composite material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchens, Stacy A.; Woodward, Jonathan; Evans, Barbara R.; O' Neill, Hugh M.

    2016-03-01

    A composite biocompatible hydrogel material includes a porous polymer matrix, the polymer matrix including a plurality of pores and providing a Young's modulus of at least 10 GPa. A calcium comprising salt is disposed in at least some of the pores. The porous polymer matrix can comprise cellulose, including bacterial cellulose. The composite can be used as a bone graft material. A method of tissue repair within the body of animals includes the steps of providing a composite biocompatible hydrogel material including a porous polymer matrix, the polymer matrix including a plurality of pores and providing a Young's modulus of at least 10 GPa, and inserting the hydrogel material into cartilage or bone tissue of an animal, wherein the hydrogel material supports cell colonization in vitro for autologous cell seeding.

  13. High temperature creep behavior of in-situ synthesized MoSi2-30%SiC composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅晓伟; 杨王玥; 孙祖庆; 张来启; 朱静

    2002-01-01

    The compressive creep behavior at 1200~1400℃ of an in-situ synt hesized MoSi2-30%SiC (volume fraction) composite and a traditional PM MoSi2 -30%SiC (volume fraction) composite is investigated. The creep rate of the in -situ synthesized MoSi2-30%SiC (volume fraction) composite is about 10- 7s-1 under stress of 60~120MPa, and significantly lower than that made by PM method above 1300℃. The reason is that the interface be tween SiC particle and MoSi2 matrix in in-situ synthesized SiCp/MoSi2 is of direct atomic bonding without any amorphous glassy phase, such as SiO2 stru cture. Creep deformation occurs primarily by dislocation motion and the dislocat ions have Burgers vectors of the ty pe of 〈110〉 and 〈100〉.

  14. Effects of composite scale on high temperature oxidation resistance of Fe-Cr-Ni heat resistant alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Haitao

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Fe-Cr-Ni heat resistant alloys with aluminum and silicon addition, alone and in combination, were melted using an intermediate frequency induction furnace with a non-oxidation method. By the oxidation weight gain method, the oxidation resistances of the test alloys were determined at 1,200 ìC for 500 hours. According to the oxidation weight gains, the oxidation kinetic curves were plotted and the functions were regressed by the least squares method. The results show that the oxidation kinetic curves follow the power function of y = axb (a>0, 0compositions on oxidation resistance were studied further by analyses using X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscope (SEM. It is found that the composite scale compounds of Cr2O3, メ-Al2O3, SiO2 and FeCr2O4, with compact structure and tiny grains, shows complete oxidation resistance at 1,200 ìC. When the composite scale lacks メ-Al2O3 or SiO2, it becomes weak in oxidation resistance with a loose structure. By the criterion of standard Gibbs formation free energy, the model of the nucleation and growth of the composite scale is established. The forming of the composite scale is the result of the competition of being oxidized and reduced between aluminum, silicon and the matrix metal elements of iron, chromium and nickel. The protection of the composite scale is analyzed essentially by electrical conductivity and strength properties.

  15. Gas tungsten arc welding of ZrB2–SiC based ultra high temperature ceramic composites

    OpenAIRE

    R.V. Krishnarao; G. Madhusudhan Reddy

    2015-01-01

    The difficulty in fabricating the large size or complex shape limits the application of ZrB2–SiC composites. Joining them by fusion welding without or with preheating, controlled cooling under protective gas shield leads to thermal shock failure or porosity at the weld interface. In the present work, a filler material of (ZrB2–SiC–B4C–YAG) composite with oxidation resistance and thermal shock resistance was produced in the form of welding wire. Using the filler, gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW...

  16. Development of high temperature materials for solid propellant rocket nozzle applications. [tantalum carbides-tungsten fiber composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, C. R., Jr.; Honeycutt, L., III

    1974-01-01

    Evaluation of tantalum carbide-tungsten fiber composites has been completed as far as weight percent carbon additions and weight percent additions of tungsten fiber. Extensive studies were undertaken concerning Young's Modulus and fracture strength of this material. Also, in-depth analysis of the embrittling effects of the extra carbon additions on the tungsten fibers has been completed. The complete fabrication procedure for the tantalum carbide-tungsten fiber composites with extra carbon additions is given. Microprobe and metallographic studies showed the effect of extra carbon on the tungsten fibers, and evaluation of the thermal shock parameter fracture strength/Young's Modulus is included.

  17. A Numerical Study on the Thermal Conductivity of 3D Woven C/C Composites at High Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigang, Ai; Rujie, He; Yongmao, Pei

    2015-12-01

    Experimental data for Carbon/Carbon (C/C) constituent materials are combined with a three dimensional steady state heat transfer finite element analysis to demonstrate the average in-plane and out-of-plane thermal conductivities (TCs) of C/C composites. The finite element analysis is carried out at two distinct length scales: (a) a micro scale comparable with the diameter of carbon fibres and (b) a meso scale comparable with the carbon fibre yarns. Micro-scale model calculate the TCs at the fibre yarn scale in the three orthogonal directions ( x, y and z). The output results from the micro-scale model are then incorporated in the meso-scale model to obtain the global TCs of the 3D C/C composite. The simulation results are quite consistent with the theoretical and experimental counterparts reported in references. Based on the numerical approach, TCs of the 3D C/C composite are calculated from 300 to 2500 K. Particular attention is given in elucidating the variations of the TCs with temperature. The multi-scale models provide an efficient approach to predict the TCs of 3D textile materials, which is helpful for the thermodynamic property analysis and structure design of the C/C composites.

  18. The high-temperature oxidation behavior of MoSi(2) and MoSi(2)-based composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatrice, Pamela

    Single-crystal MoSisb2 and four polycrystalline MoSisb2 materials prepared by three different preparation techniques (hot pressing, arc melting, and vacuum plasma spraying) were isothermally oxidized for 100 hours at 1500sp°C in 1 atm. oxygen. After an initial period which varied among the samples, these materials exhibited parabolic oxidation behavior and their parabolic rate constants ranged from 0.4 × 10sp{-9} to 2.0 × 10sp{-9} gsp2cmsp{-4}hrsp{-1}, indicating that preparation method does not have a significant effect on the oxidation behavior. Short-time oxidation runs showed that the higher initial oxidation rate in two of the materials did not correspond to variations in the crystallization rate of the scale from amorphous silica to cristobalite, but instead correlated to higher impurity levels of Al and Fe which diffused into the scale within 0.25 hr. A Mosb5Sisb3 interlayer between the oxide and the MoSisb2 was observed in the single crystal but not in the polycrystalline materials, indicating the importance of grain boundary diffusion in delaying the formation of the Mosb5Sisb3 interlayer. Four MoSisb2-based composites containing 40 vol.% SiC, 5 vol.% SiC. 10 vol.%SiC-10vol.% partially stabilized zirconia, and 20 vol.% ZrOsb2, respectively, were also oxidized at 1500sp°C in 1 atmosphere oxygen. With all four composites, the Al and Fe impurities rapidly diffused into the oxide scale, which after 100 hours had regions of high impurity content near the gas-oxide interface and regions of high purity silica near the oxide-composite interface. The 40% SiC and 5% SiC containing composites had isothermal oxidation growth rates of 4.4 × 10sp{-9} and 2.9 × 10sp{-9} gsp2cmsp{-4}hrsp{-1}, respectively. The 10vol.%SiC-10vol.% partially stabilized zirconia composite exhibited parabolic oxidation behavior over 100 hours but showed complicated scale reactions with the dissolution of yttria from the zirconia to form a yttrium silicate within 0.25 hr. and zircon

  19. Phase and Microstructural Correlation of Spark Plasma Sintered HfB2-ZrB2 Based Ultra-High Temperature Ceramic Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambreen Nisar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The refractory diborides (HfB2 and ZrB2 are considered as promising ultra-high temperature ceramic (UHTCs where low damage tolerance limits their application for the thermal protection system in re-entry vehicles. In this regard, SiC and CNT have been synergistically added as the sintering aids and toughening agents in the spark plasma sintered (SPS HfB2-ZrB2 system. Herein, a novel equimolar composition of HfB2 and ZrB2 has shown to form a solid-solution which then allows compositional tailoring of mechanical properties (such as hardness, elastic modulus, and fracture toughness. The hardness of the processed composite is higher than the individual phase hardness up to 1.5 times, insinuating the synergy of SiC and CNT reinforcement in HfB2-ZrB2 composites. The enhanced fracture toughness of CNT reinforced composite (up to a 196% increment surpassing that of the parent materials (ZrB2/HfB2-SiC is attributed to the synergy of solid solution formation and enhanced densification (~99.5%. In addition, the reduction in the analytically quantified interfacial residual tensile stress with SiC and CNT reinforcements contribute to the enhancement in the fracture toughness of HfB2-ZrB2-SiC-CNT composites, mandatory for aerospace applications.

  20. Effect of Intermediate Agents and Preheated Composites on Repair Bond Strength of Silorane-Based Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Shafiei

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Repairing composite restorations is a challenging procedure especially when two different types of composites are used. This study aimed to compare the repair strength of silorane-based composite (SC (Filtek P90 with that of preheated SC, methacrylate composite (MC(Z250, flowable MC (Filtek Supreme Plus and different adhesive/composite combinations.Materials and Methods: Eighty-four SC specimens were fabricated and randomly divided into seven groups (G. In the control group (G7, SC was bonded immediately to SC. The other specimens were water-aged for two months and were then roughened, etched and repaired with the following materials: G1 Silorane Adhesive Bond (SAB/SC;G2 Preheated SC; G3 SAB/MC; G4 Adper Single Bond (SB/MC; G5 Flowable MC/MC; G6 Preheated MC. After water storage and thermocycling, the repaired specimens were subjected to shear bond strength testing. The data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey’s test.Results: Preheated SC and MC, flowable MC and SAB/SC resulted in bond strength comparable to that of the control group. Preheated SC showed significantly higher bond strength when compared to SAB/MC (P=0.04 and SB/MC (P<0.001. Bond strength of SB/MC was significantly lower than that of the other groups (P<0.05, except for SAB/SC and SAB/MC.Conclusion: All repairing materials except for SB/MC resulted in bond strength values comparable to that of the control group. Repair with preheated SC yielded the highest bond strength. 

  1. STRUCTURAL EVOLUTION AND COMPOSITION CHANGE IN THE SURFACE REGION OF POLYPROPYLENE/CLAY NANOCOMPOSITES ANNEALED AT HIGH TEMPERATURES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐涛

    2009-01-01

    A model experiment was done to clear the formation mechanism of protective layers during combustion of polypropylene(PP)/organically modified montmorillonite(OMMT) nanocomposites.The investigation was focused on the effects of annealing temperature on the structural changes and protective layer formation.The decomposition of OMMT and degradation of PP/OMMT nanocomposites were characterized by means of thermogravimetric analysis(TGA).The structural evolution and composition change in the surface region of...

  2. Microstructure and high-temperature mechanical behavior of alumina/alumina-yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia multilayer composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez-Melendo, M.; Clauss, C.; Dominguez-Rodriguez, A. [Dept. de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Sevilla (Spain); Sanchez-Herencia, A.J.; Moya, J.S. [CSIC, Madrid (Spain). Inst. de Ciencias de Materiales

    1997-08-01

    Layered composites of alternate layers of pure Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (thickness of 125 {micro}m) and 85 vol% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-15 vol% ZrO{sub 2} that was stabilized with 3 mol% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} (thickness of 400 {micro}m) were obtained by sequential slip casting and then fired at either 1,550 or 1,700 C. Constant-strain-rate tests were conducted on these materials in air at 1,400 C at an initial strain rate of 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} s{sup {minus}1}. The load axis was applied both parallel and perpendicular to the layer interfaces. Catastrophic failure occurred for the composite that was fired at 1,700 C, because of the coalescence of cavities that had developed in grain boundaries of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layers. In comparison, the composite that was fired at 1,550 C demonstrated the ductility of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} + YTZP layer, but at a flow stress level that was determined by the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer.

  3. Method Developed for the High-Temperature Nondestructive Evaluation of Fiber-Reinforced Silicon Carbide Ceramic Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsby, Jon C.

    1998-01-01

    Ceramic matrix composites have emerged as candidate materials to allow higher operating temperatures (1000 to 1400 C) in gas turbine engines. A need, therefore, exists to develop nondestructive methods to evaluate material integrity at the material operating temperature by monitoring thermal and mechanical fatigue. These methods would also have potential as quality inspection tools. The goal of this investigation at the NASA Lewis Research Center is to survey and correlate the temperature-dependent damping and stiffness of advanced ceramic composite materials with imposed thermal and stress histories that simulate in-service turbine engine conditions. A typical sample size of 100 by 4 by 2 cubic millimeters, along with the specified stiffness and density, placed the fundamental vibration frequencies between 100 and 2000 Hz. A modified Forster apparatus seemed most applicable to simultaneously measure both damping and stiffness. Testing in vacuum reduced the effects of air on the measurements. In this method, a single composite sample is vibrated at its fundamental tone; then suddenly, the mechanical excitation is removed so that the sample's motion freely decays with time. Typical results are illlustrated in this paper.

  4. Computer Aided Multi-scale Design of SiC-Si3N4 Nanoceramic Composites for High-Temperature Structural Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vikas Tomer; John Renaud

    2010-08-31

    It is estimated that by using better and improved high temperature structural materials, the power generation efficiency of the power plants can be increased by 15% resulting in significant cost savings. One such promising material system for future high-temperature structural applications in power plants is Silicon Carbide-Silicon Nitride (SiC-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) nanoceramic matrix composites. The described research work focuses on multiscale simulation-based design of these SiC-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanoceramic matrix composites. There were two primary objectives of the research: (1) Development of a multiscale simulation tool and corresponding multiscale analyses of the high-temperature creep and fracture resistance properties of the SiC-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanocomposites at nano-, meso- and continuum length- and timescales; and (2) Development of a simulation-based robust design optimization methodology for application to the multiscale simulations to predict the range of the most suitable phase morphologies for the desired high-temperature properties of the SiC-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanocomposites. The multiscale simulation tool is based on a combination of molecular dynamics (MD), cohesive finite element method (CFEM), and continuum level modeling for characterizing time-dependent material deformation behavior. The material simulation tool is incorporated in a variable fidelity model management based design optimization framework. Material modeling includes development of an experimental verification framework. Using material models based on multiscaling, it was found using molecular simulations that clustering of the SiC particles near Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} grain boundaries leads to significant nanocomposite strengthening and significant rise in fracture resistance. It was found that a control of grain boundary thicknesses by dispersing non-stoichiometric carbide or nitride phases can lead to reduction in strength however significant rise in fracture strength. The

  5. Microtensile bond strength of repaired indirect resin composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visuttiwattanakorn, Porntida; Suputtamongkol, Kallaya; Angkoonsit, Duangjai; Kaewthong, Sunattha; Charoonanan, Piyanan

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of surface treatments on microtensile bond strengths (MTBSs) of two types of indirect resin composites bonded to a conventional direct resin composite. Indirect resin composite blocks of Ceramage and SR Nexco were prepared in a plastic mold having a dimension of 10 × 10 × 4 mm. These composite blocks were divided into three groups according to their surface treatments: Group1: Sandblast (SB); Group2: Sandblast and ultrasonically clean (SB+UL); Group3: Sandblast plus silane (SB+SI). After bonding with direct resin composite, indirect-direct resin composite blocks were kept in distilled water for 24 hours at 37℃ and cut into microbars with the dimension of 1 × 1 × 8 mm. Microbar specimens (n = 40 per group) were loaded using a universal testing machine. Failure modes and compositions were evaluated by SEM. The statistical analyses of MTBS were performed by two-way ANOVA and Dunnett's test at α = .05. Surface treatments and brands had effects on the MTBS without an interaction between these two factors. For SR Nexco, the MTBSs of SB and SB+SI group were significantly higher than that of SB+UL. For Ceramage, the MTBSs of SB and SB+SI were significantly higher than that of SB+UL. The mean MTBS of the Ceramage specimens was significantly higher than that of SR Nexco for all surface treatments. Sandblasting with or without silane application could improve the bond strengths of repaired indirect resin composites to a conventional direct resin composite.

  6. Microtensile bond strength of repaired indirect resin composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suputtamongkol, Kallaya; Angkoonsit, Duangjai; Kaewthong, Sunattha; Charoonanan, Piyanan

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of surface treatments on microtensile bond strengths (MTBSs) of two types of indirect resin composites bonded to a conventional direct resin composite. MATERIALS AND METHODS Indirect resin composite blocks of Ceramage and SR Nexco were prepared in a plastic mold having a dimension of 10 × 10 × 4 mm. These composite blocks were divided into three groups according to their surface treatments: Group1: Sandblast (SB); Group2: Sandblast and ultrasonically clean (SB+UL); Group3: Sandblast plus silane (SB+SI). After bonding with direct resin composite, indirect-direct resin composite blocks were kept in distilled water for 24 hours at 37℃ and cut into microbars with the dimension of 1 × 1 × 8 mm. Microbar specimens (n = 40 per group) were loaded using a universal testing machine. Failure modes and compositions were evaluated by SEM. The statistical analyses of MTBS were performed by two-way ANOVA and Dunnett's test at α = .05. RESULTS Surface treatments and brands had effects on the MTBS without an interaction between these two factors. For SR Nexco, the MTBSs of SB and SB+SI group were significantly higher than that of SB+UL. For Ceramage, the MTBSs of SB and SB+SI were significantly higher than that of SB+UL. The mean MTBS of the Ceramage specimens was significantly higher than that of SR Nexco for all surface treatments. CONCLUSION Sandblasting with or without silane application could improve the bond strengths of repaired indirect resin composites to a conventional direct resin composite. PMID:28243390

  7. The Processing and Mechanical Properties of High Temperature/High Performance Composites. Book 2, Section 2: Strength and Fracture Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-10-15

    Theoretical Average Crack Spacing in Brittle Matrix Composites Containing Aligned Fibers," J. Mat. Sci. Let., 1, 353- 354, (1982). 11 10. R. L. Smith and...48, 75-82, (1981). 11. S. L. Phoenix and R. L. Smith , "A Comparison of Probabilistic Techniques for the Strength of Fibrous Materials under Local...Phallipt. "The Fracture Eattly of Cssibon Fabtr Reinforced Glass." a PMro~ic Ciabo." J, Matte. Sri.. 21. 1491.92 11916) i~~~~ DVic d?.8,51(1T MainaN

  8. The Processing and Mechanical Properties of High Temperature/High Performance Composites. Book 3. Constituent Properties and Macroscopic Performance: MMCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-01

    ductilites soient moindres. En general. It durcissernent est consistant avee: le detveloppemrent d’une contrainte plastique dlans fa mai-ice autour...rupture a laide d~un inodele de pont ductile avec dissipation plastique . actif a l~interieur d’une zone regie par l’espacement des fibres. On a estime...around failed fibers within 3. F. E. Heredia. S. N. Spearing. A. G Evans. W’ A Curtin and P. Mosher, J. Am. Ceram. Sac .. in press a composite has been

  9. A Fully Contained Resin Infusion Process for Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Composite Fabrication and Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Assisted Resin Transfer Molding ( VARTM ) process is applicable for fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composite fabrication and repair. However, VARTM in...scenario is a fully enclosed VARTM system that limits the need for laboratory or manufacturing equipment. The Bladder-Bag VARTM (BBVARTM) technique...composite fabrication, VARTM , composite repair, in-field repair 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT UU 18. NUMBER

  10. Enhancement of the fuel cell performance of a high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell running with titanium composite polybenzimidazole-based membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobato, Justo; Cañizares, Pablo; Rodrigo, Manuel A.; Úbeda, Diego; Pinar, F. Javier

    2011-10-01

    The fuel cell performance of a composite PBI-based membrane with TiO2 has been studied. The behaviour of the membrane has been evaluated by comparison with the fuel cell performance of other PBI-based membranes, all of which were cast from the same polymer with the same molecular weight. The PBI composite membrane incorporating TiO2 showed the best performance and reached 1000 mW cm-2 at 175 °C. Moreover, this new titanium composite PBI-based membrane also showed the best stability during the preliminary long-term test under our operation conditions. Thus, the slope of the increase in the ohmic resistance of the composite membrane was 0.041 mΩ cm2 h-1 and this is five times lower than that of the standard PBI membrane. The increased stability was due to the high phosphoric acid retention capacity - as confirmed during leaching tests, in which the Ti-based composite PBI membrane retained 5 mol of H3PO4/PBI r.u. whereas the PBI standard membrane only retained 1 mol H3PO4/PBI r.u. Taking into account the results obtained in this study, the TiO2-PBI based membranes are good candidates as electrolytes for high temperature PEMFCs.

  11. ¹H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance monitoring of the degradation of margarines of varied compositions when heated to high temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibargoitia, María L; Sopelana, P; Guillén, María D

    2014-12-15

    In this study, (1)H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance was used to monitor the evolution of three margarines of varied compositions when submitted to heating at 180°C in an oven with aeration. Heating causes degradation of polyunsaturated acyl groups and this depends not only on their unsaturation degree, but also on the concentration of the different acyl groups. The evolution of monounsaturated groups varies depending on the disappearance rate of the groups with higher unsaturation degree. Heat treatment also causes hydrolysis reactions that lead to a reduction in 1-monoglycerides and an increase in 1,2-diglycerides, especially in the margarines with higher water content, as well as degradation of some vegetable sterols. Different types of aldehydes and epoxides were identified and quantified, above all in the margarine with the highest proportion of polyunsaturated groups, especially linoleic; some of these are toxic, such as 4-hydroxy- and 4,5-epoxy-2-alkenals.

  12. Bond strength durability of a resin composite on a reinforced ceramic using various repair systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozcan, Mutlu; Valandro, Luiz Felipe; Amaral, Regina; Leite, Fabiola; Bottino, Marco Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. This study compared the durability of repair bond strength of a resin composite to a reinforced ceramic after three repair systems. Methods. Alumina-reinforced feldspathic ceramic blocks (Vitadur-alpha(R)) (N=30) were randomly divided into three groups according to the repair method: PR-

  13. STRUCTURAL EVOLUTION AND COMPOSITION CHANGE IN THE SURFACE REGION OF POLYPROPYLENE/CLAY NANOCOMPOSITES ANNEALED AT HIGH TEMPERATURES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhe Wang; Rong-jun Song; Xiao-hua Du; Xiao-yu Meng; Zhi-wei Jiang; Tao Tang

    2009-01-01

    A model experiment was done to clear the formation mechanism of protective layers during combustion of polypropylene (PP)/organically modified montmorillonite (OMMT) nanocomposites. The investigation was focused on the effects of annealing temperature on the structural changes and protective layer formation. The decomposition of OMMT and degradation of PP/OMMT nanocomposites were characterized by means of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The structural evolution and composition change in the surface region of PP/OMMT nanocomposites during heating were monitored by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), ATR-FTIR and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The results showed that the formation of the carbonaceous silicate barrier in the surface region of PP/OMMT nanocomposites resulted from the following three processes: (1) The formation of strong acid sites on the MMT sheets, which could promote the degradation of PP and the carbonization of its degradation products; (2) The gases and gas bubbles formed by decomposition of the surfactant and degradation of PP, which pushed the molten sample to the surface; (3) The degradation of PP and the carbonization of the degradation products, which led to accumulation of MMT sheets tightly linked by the char in the surface region.

  14. Influences of Al2O3 grain size on high-temperature oxidation of nano-Ni/Al2O3 composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Vu Pham

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Two 5 vol% Ni/Al2O3 composites with the difference in Al2O3 grain size were fabricated by pulsed electric current sintering technique to investigate the influence of Al2O3 grain size on oxidation behavior of the composites. Average Al2O3 grain sizes of two fabricated composites were 1.1 μm and 0.5 μm after sintering. Oxidation tests were conducted at temperatures ranging from 1100 to 1350 °C for 1–48 h in air. A thin NiAl2O4 layer was observed in exposed surface of samples after oxidation. An oxidized zone that consisted of Al2O3 matrix and NiAl2O4 grains was defined. Growth of the oxidized zone obeyed the parabolic law. Influences of Al2O3 grain size on high-temperature oxidation of the composites were discussed.

  15. Study on Fracture Behavior of 2D-C/C Composite for Application to Control Rod of Very High Temperature Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumita, J.; Fujita, I.; Shibata, T.; Makita, T.; Takagi, T.; Kunimoto, E.; Sawa, K.; Kim, W.; Park, J.

    2011-10-01

    For a control rod element of the Very High Temperature Reactor, a carbon fiber reinforced carbon matrix composite (C/C composite) is one of the major candidate materials for its high strength and thermal stability. In this study, in order to establish the data base of the 2D-C/C composite, the fracture data was obtained by simulating the crack expected to be generated under the VHTR condition and the oxidation effect on the fracture behavior was evaluated. Moreover, the fracture mechanism of the C/C composite was investigated through scanning electron microscope observation. This study showed that the oxidized matrix caused reduction of the fracture toughness and the reduction ratio was dependent on the density of matrix and a number cracks. With increasing the oxidation, the fracture toughness is mainly dependent on the fiber characteristics. Furthermore, the crack grows along the boundary between fiber bundles without breaking the fiber. The cracks which were initiated at the interface between the matrix and the fiber were gathered into the voids in the boundary between fiber bundles, and, then, the cracks grew up in the matrix.

  16. Study on Fracture Behavior of 2D-C/C Composite for Application to Control Rod of Very High Temperature Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumita, J; Fujita, I; Shibata, T; Sawa, K [Research Group for VHTR Fuel and Material, Division of Fuels and Materials Engineering, Nuclear Science and Engineering Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4002 Oarai-machi, Higashiibaraki-gun, Ibaraki-ken, 311-1393 (Japan); Makita, T [Functional Materials Development Team, Research and Development Div., Tokai Carbon Co., Ltd., 394-1 Subashiri, Oyama-cho, Sunto-gun, Shizuoka-ken, 410-1431 (Japan); Takagi, T [Engineering Group, FC Unit, FC Operation, Ibiden Co., LTd., 300 Aoyagi-cho, Ogaki-shi, Gifu-ken, 503-8503 (Japan); Kunimoto, E [Atomic Energy Section, Production Division, Toyo Tanso Co., Ltd., 2791 Matsuzaki, Takuma-cho, Mitoyo-shi, Kagawa-ken, 769-1102 (Japan); Kim, W; Park, J, E-mail: sumita.junya@jaea.go.jp [Nuclear Materials Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045, Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-29

    For a control rod element of the Very High Temperature Reactor, a carbon fiber reinforced carbon matrix composite (C/C composite) is one of the major candidate materials for its high strength and thermal stability. In this study, in order to establish the data base of the 2D-C/C composite, the fracture data was obtained by simulating the crack expected to be generated under the VHTR condition and the oxidation effect on the fracture behavior was evaluated. Moreover, the fracture mechanism of the C/C composite was investigated through scanning electron microscope observation. This study showed that the oxidized matrix caused reduction of the fracture toughness and the reduction ratio was dependent on the density of matrix and a number cracks. With increasing the oxidation, the fracture toughness is mainly dependent on the fiber characteristics. Furthermore, the crack grows along the boundary between fiber bundles without breaking the fiber. The cracks which were initiated at the interface between the matrix and the fiber were gathered into the voids in the boundary between fiber bundles, and, then, the cracks grew up in the matrix.

  17. Al2O3/ZrO2/Y3Al5O12 Composites: A High-Temperature Mechanical Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Palmero

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available An Al2O3/5 vol%·ZrO2/5 vol%·Y3Al5O12 (YAG tri-phase composite was manufactured by surface modification of an alumina powder with inorganic precursors of the second phases. The bulk materials were produced by die-pressing and pressureless sintering at 1500 °C, obtaining fully dense, homogenous samples, with ultra-fine ZrO2 and YAG grains dispersed in a sub-micronic alumina matrix. The high temperature mechanical properties were investigated by four-point bending tests up to 1500 °C, and the grain size stability was assessed by observing the microstructural evolution of the samples heat treated up to 1700 °C. Dynamic indentation measures were performed on as-sintered and heat-treated Al2O3/ZrO2/YAG samples in order to evaluate the micro-hardness and elastic modulus as a function of re-heating temperature. The high temperature bending tests highlighted a transition from brittle to plastic behavior comprised between 1350 and 1400 °C and a considerable flexural strength reduction at temperatures higher than 1400 °C; moreover, the microstructural investigations carried out on the re-heated samples showed a very limited grain growth up to 1650 °C.

  18. Teaching of direct composite restoration repair in undergraduate dental schools in the United Kingdom and Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, I R; Lynch, C D; Wilson, N H F

    2012-02-01

    To investigate aspects of the teaching of restoration repair as a minimally invasive alternative to the replacement of defective direct composite restorations in teaching programmes in undergraduate curricula in dental schools in the United Kingdom and Ireland. An online questionnaire which sought information in relation to the current teaching of composite restoration repair was developed and distributed to the 17 established UK and Irish dental schools with undergraduate teaching programmes in Spring 2010. Completed responses were received from all 17 schools (response rate= 100%). Fifteen schools reported that they included teaching of repair techniques for defective direct composite restorations in their programme. Of the two remaining schools, one indicated that it would introduce teaching of repair techniques during the next five years. The most common indication for a composite repair was that of 'tooth substance preservation' (15 schools). The defects in restorations considered appropriate for repair rather than replacement by the largest number of schools included partial loss of restoration (13 schools) and marginal defects (12 schools). The most commonly taught surface treatment when performing a repair was mechanical roughening of the existing composite with removal of the surface layer (14 schools). Thirteen schools taught etching and the application of an adhesive bonding agent to the prepared surfaces, while the most commonly taught material for completing the repair was a hybrid composite resin (12 schools). Popular finishing implements included diamond finishing instruments (13 schools) and finishing discs (11 schools). Not withstanding reluctance amongst general dental practitioners, the teaching of repair of a defective composite restoration, rather than total restoration replacement, is firmly established within UK and Irish dental school programmes. Repair techniques have clear advantages for patients, not least including a minimally invasive

  19. Development of Meandering Winding Magnetometer (MWM (Register Trademark)) Eddy Current Sensors for the Health Monitoring, Modeling and Damage Detection of High Temperature Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Richard; Washabaugh, Andy; Sheiretov, Yanko; Martin, Christopher; Goldfine, Neil

    2011-01-01

    The increased use of high-temperature composite materials in modern and next generation aircraft and spacecraft have led to the need for improved nondestructive evaluation and health monitoring techniques. Such technologies are desirable to improve quality control, damage detection, stress evaluation and temperature measurement capabilities. Novel eddy current sensors and sensor arrays, such as Meandering Winding Magnetometers (MWMs) have provided alternate or complimentary techniques to ultrasound and thermography for both nondestructive evaluation (NDE) and structural health monitoring (SHM). This includes imaging of composite material quality, damage detection and .the monitoring of fiber temperatures and multidirectional stresses. Historically, implementation of MWM technology for the inspection of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Reinforced Carbon-Carbon Composite (RCC) leading edge panels was developed by JENTEK Sensors and was subsequently transitioned by NASA as an operational pre and post flight in-situ inspection at the Kennedy Space Center. A manual scanner, which conformed'automatically to the curvature of the RCC panels was developed and used as a secondary technique if a defect was found during an infrared thermography screening, During a recent proof of concept study on composite overwrapped pressure vessels (COPV's), three different MWM sensors were tested at three orientations to demonstrate the ability of the technology to measure stresses at various fiber orientations and depths. These results showed excellent correlation with actual surface strain gage measurements. Recent advancements of this technology have been made applying MWM sensor technology for scanning COPVs for mechanical damage. This presentation will outline the recent advance in the MWM.technology and the development of MWM techniques for NDE and SHM of carbon wraped composite overwrapped pressure vessels (COPVs) including the measurement of internal stresses via a surface mounted sensor

  20. High-Temperature Tensile and Tribological Behavior of Hybrid (ZrB2+Al3Zr)/AA5052 In Situ Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, G.; Kumar, N.; Mohan, A.; Gautam, R. K.; Mohan, S.

    2016-09-01

    During service life, components such as piston, cylinder blocks, brakes, and discs/drums, have to work under high-temperature conditions. In order to have appropriate material for such applications high-temperature studies are important. Hybrid (ZrB2+Al3Zr)/AA5052 in situ composite has been investigated from ambient to 523 K (250 °C) at an interval of 50 deg. (ZrB2+Al3Zr)/AA5052 in situ composite has been fabricated by the direct melt reaction of AA5052 alloy with zirconium and boron salts. Microstructure studies show refinement in the grain size of base alloy on in situ formation of reinforcement particles. Al3Zr particles are observed in rectangular and polyhedron shapes. It is observed from the tensile studies that ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, and percentage elongation decrease with increase in test temperature. Similar kind of behavior is also observed for flow curve properties. The tensile results have also been correlated with fractography. Wear and friction results indicate that the wear rate increases with increase in normal load, whereas coefficient of friction shows decreasing trend. With increasing test temperature, wear rate exhibits a typical phenomenon. After an initial increase, wear rate follows a decreasing trend up to 423 K (150 °C), and finally a rapid increase is observed, whereas coefficient of friction increases continuously with increase in test temperature. The mechanisms responsible for the variation of wear and friction with different temperatures have been discussed in detail with the help of worn surfaces studies under scanning electron microscope (SEM) & 3D-profilometer and debris analysis by XRD.

  1. Self-repairing composite walls for pressurized space habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dry, Carolyn

    2016-04-01

    A most important factor for human occupied habitats in space is to ensure that the pressurized habitat does not lose pressure catastrophically by the penetration of space debris or micrometeorites through the wall and into the pressurized space. Regenerative self repairing composites used for the space station habitat to prevent loss of pressure was demonstrated in tests The wall sample had ambient pressurized on one side with vacuum on the other, then was punctured all the way through; the pressure reading went from -26 inches of mercury to -26 inches and stayed there indefinitely. There was no loss of pressure! This will be a game changer for space habitat design. This represents a proposed test bed experimental effort on the International Space Station for self repairing regenerative walls of pressurized habitats, supported by significant puncture over vacuum and puncture testing performed to date, which will provide NASA with an innovative new light weight multi-hit superior Astronaut Protective Wall solution for pressurized space habitats.

  2. The strength of composite repair patches - A laminate analysis approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, J. E.; Matthews, F. L.; Kinloch, A. J.

    1992-07-01

    Some guidelines for the selection of extra plies for vacuum-pressure-cured composite repair patches are deduced by comparing the strength and stiffness of vacuum-cured materials with their autoclaved counterparts, using classical laminate analysis. The guidelines are based on the minimum number of extra plies needed to equal or exceed the stiffness or strength of an autoclave-cured laminate, when using vacuum curing methods. Strength and stiffness data are presented in tabular form for quasi-isotropic laminates, cross-ply laminates, and angle-ply laminates. The analysis does not take into account repair geometry, and is concerned with intrinsic laminate properties. It is found that adding extra plies to a laminate will never be detrimental to its strength and stiffness, but in order to be beneficial, the extra plies need to be aligned with a load direction. If a laminate is likely to be under a combination of loads it is important for a balance of strengths to be maintained.

  3. Parametric studies on self-repairing approaches for resin infused composites subjected to low velocity impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motuku, M.; Vaidya, U. K.; Janowski, G. M.

    1999-10-01

    Low velocity impact response of glass reinforced polymer composites, which have the potential to self-repair both micro- and macro-damage, has been investigated. This class of material falls under the category of passive smart polymer composites. The self-repairing mechanism is achieved through the incorporation of hollow fibers in addition to the normal solid reinforcing fibers. The hollow fibers store the damage-repairing solution or chemicals that are released into the matrix or damaged zone upon fiber failure. Plain-weave S-2 glass fabric reinforcement, vinyl ester 411-C50 and EPON-862 epoxy resin systems were considered for this study. Different tubing materials were investigated for potential use as storage materials for the repairing chemicals instead of the actual hollow repair fibers and included borosilicate glass micro-capillary pipets, flint glass pasteur pipets, copper tubing and aluminum tubing. composite panels were fabricated by using a vacuum assisted resin transfer molding process. The present investigation addressed fabrication of self-repairing composite panels and some of the parameters that influence the response of self-repairing composites to impact loading. Specific issues addressed by this study include: the processing quality; the selection of storage material for the repairing solution; release and transportation of the repairing solution; the effect of the number, type and spatial distribution of the repairing tubes, specimen thickness, matrix material and impact energy level.

  4. Multifunctional Nanowire/film Composites based Bi-modular Sensors for In-situ and Real-time High Temperature Gas Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Pu-Xian; Lei, Yu

    2013-06-01

    This final report to the Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory for DE-FE0000870 covers the period from 2009 to June, 2013 and summarizes the main research accomplishments, which can be divided in sensing materials innovation, bimodular sensor demonstration, and new understanding and discoveries. As a matter of fact, we have successfully completed all the project tasks in June 1, 2013, and presented the final project review presentation on the 9th of July, 2013. Specifically, the major accomplishments achieved in this project include: 1) Successful development of a new class of high temperature stable gas sensor nanomaterials based on composite nano-array strategy in a 3D or 2D fashion using metal oxides and perovskite nanostructures. 2) Successful demonstration of bimodular nanosensors using 2D nanofibrous film and 3D composite nanowire arrays using electrical resistance mode and electrochemical electromotive force mode. 3) Series of new discoveries and understandings based on the new composite nanostructure platform toward enhancing nanosensor performance in terms of stability, selectivity, sensitivity and mass flux sensing. In this report, we highlight some results toward these accomplishments.

  5. High-Temperature Hot Air/Silane Coupling Modification of Wood Fiber and Its Effect on Properties of Wood Fiber/HDPE Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Chen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The surfaces of poplar wood fibers were modified using high-temperature hot air (HTHA treatment and silane coupling agent. The single factor test was then used to investigate the performances (e.g., the change of functional groups, polarity, cellulose crystallinity, and thermal stability of modified poplar wood fibers (mPWF through Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, X-ray diffraction and thermo-gravimetric analysis for the subsequent preparation of wood-plastic composites (WPCs. The effect of HTHA treatment conditions—such as temperature, inlet air velocity, and feed rate—on the performances of WPCs was also investigated by scanning electron microscopy and dynamic mechanical analysis. The main findings indicated that HTHA treatment could promote the hydration of mPWF and improve the mechanical properties of WPCs. Treatment temperature strongly affected the mechanical properties and moisture adsorption characteristics of the prepared composites. With the increase of treated temperature and feed rate, the number of hydroxyl groups, holocellulose content, and the pH of mPWF decreased. The degree of crystallinity and thermal stability and the storage modulus of the prepared composites of mPWF increased. However, dimensional stability and water absorption of WPCs significantly reduced. The best mechanical properties enhancement was observed with treatment temperature at 220 °C. This study demonstrated the feasibility for the application of an HTHA treatment in the WPC production industry.

  6. High-Temperature Superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Shoji

    2006-12-01

    A general review on high-temperature superconductivity was made. After prehistoric view and the process of discovery were stated, the special features of high-temperature superconductors were explained from the materials side and the physical properties side. The present status on applications of high-temperature superconductors were explained on superconducting tapes, electric power cables, magnets for maglev trains, electric motors, superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) and single flux quantum (SFQ) devices and circuits.

  7. REPAIR TECHNOLOGY OF THE COMPOSITE WING OF A LIGHT PLANE DAMAGED DURING AN AIRCRAFT CRASH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej ŚWIĄTONIOWSKI

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The increasing use of composite structures in aircraft constructions has made it necessary to develop repair methods that will restore the component’s original design strength without compromising its structural integrity. In this paper, the complex repair technology of the composite wing of a light plane, which was damaged during an aircraft crash, is described. The applied repair scheme should meet all the original design requirements for the plane structure.

  8. Graphene-Based Bionic Composites with Multifunctional and Repairing Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentini, L; Bittolo Bon, S; Signetti, S; Pugno, N M

    2016-03-01

    In this work, a novel bionic composite inspired by the concept of yeast fermentation has been proposed. It was observed that the addition of graphene nanoplatelets during the fermentation of extract of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fungi allows coupling of the graphene sheets to the yeast cell wall. This process resulted in the formation of a composite film with improved mechanical and electrical properties along with the capability of converting the light stimulus in the electrical signal. The mechanical properties of the prepared composites, namely, the fracture strength and Young's modulus, were studied via numerical simulations and are related to the properties of the constituent phases via rules of mixture. Finally, it was observed that graphene nanoplatelets, added to the nutrient broth, were able to reassemble onto the stressed cell surface and repair the surface cracking, partially restoring the pristine electrical and mechanical properties. The method reported here may find potential application in the development of self-healable bioelectronic devices and microorganism-based strain and chemical biosensors.

  9. Flexural Fatigue Response of Repaired S2-Glass/Vinyl Ester Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding ( VARTM ) (2), performance evaluations have assumed increasing importance due to the lack of historical databases on...composites produced affordably, including VARTM and those that possess thick sections. There is a need to standardize repair strategies for affordably...produced composites. This report presents preliminary work on VARTM -produced laminates subjected to idealized damage and repaired through different

  10. Novel Repair Concept for Composite Materials by Repetitive Geometrical Interlock Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Zaremba

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Material adapted repair technologies for fiber-reinforced polymers with thermosetting matrix systems are currently characterized by requiring major efforts for repair preparation and accomplishment in all industrial areas of application. In order to allow for a uniform distribution of material and geometrical parameters over the repair zone, a novel composite interlock repair concept is introduced, which is based on a repair zone with undercuts prepared by water-jet technology. The presented numerical and experimental sensitivity analyses make a contribution to the systematic development of the interlock repair technology with respect to material and geometrical factors of influence. The results show the ability of the novel concept for a reproducible and automatable composite repair.

  11. HIGH TEMPERATURE VACUUM MIXER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. D. Chertov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The work is devoted to the creation of a new type of mixer to produce homogeneous mixtures of dissimilar materials applied to recycling of housing and communal services waste. The article describes the design of a dual-chamber device of the original high-temperature vacuum mixer, there investigated the processes occurring in the chambers of such devices. The results of theoretical and experimental research of the process of mixing recycled polyethylene with a mixture of "grinded food waste – Eco wool” are presented. The problem of the optimum choice of bending the curvilinear blades in the working volume of the seal, which is achieved by setting their profile in the form of involute arc of several circles of different radii, is examined . The dependences, allowing to define the limits of the changes of the main mode parameters the angular velocity of rotation of the working body of the mixer using two ways of setting the profile of the curvilinear blade mixer are obtained. Represented design of the mixer is proposed to use for a wide range of tasks associated with the mixing of the components with a strongly pronounced difference of physic al chemical properties and, in particular, in the production of composites out of housing and communal services waste.

  12. Implementing optical fibres for the structural health monitoring of composite patch repaired structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karatzas, Vasileios; Kotsidis, Elias A.; Tsouvalis, Nicholas G.

    2017-01-01

    are reflected to the recorded strain measurements, finite element models have been generated. Results indicate that composite patch repairing drastically increased the load bearing capacity of the plates and that optical fibres constitute an appealing health monitoring system for such applications, being able......Structural health monitoring is increasingly being implemented to improve the level of safety of structures and to reduce inspection and repair costs by allowing for correct planning of these actions, if needed. Composite patch repairing presents an appealing alternative to traditional repair...... methods as it enables the reduction of closedown time and the mitigation of complications associated with traditional repair methods. As reinforcement with the use of composite patches is predominantly performed at defected structures, the urge to monitor the performance of the repair becomes even greater...

  13. TiB2-Based Composites for Ultra-High-Temperature Devices, Fabricated by SHS, Combining Strong and Weak Exothermic Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Ziemnicka-Sylwester

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available TiB2-based ceramic matrix composites (CMCs were fabricated using elemental powders of Ti, B and C. The self-propagating high temperature synthesis (SHS was carried out for the highly exothermic “in situ” reaction of TiB2 formation and the “tailing” synthesis of boron carbide characterized by weak exothermicity. Two series of samples were fabricated, one of them being prepared with additional milling of raw materials. The effects of TiB2 vol fraction as well as grain size of reactant were investigated. The results revealed that combustion was not successful for a TiB2:B4C molar ratio of 0.96, which corresponds to 40 vol% of TiB2 in the composite, however the SHS reaction was initiated and self-propagated for the intended TiB2:B4C molar ratio of 2.16 or above. Finally B13C2 was formed as the matrix phase in each composite. Significant importance of the grain size of the C precursor with regard to the reaction completeness, which affected the microstructure homogeneity and hardness of investigated composites, was proved in this study. The grain size of Ti powder did not influence the microstructure of TiB2 grains. The best properties (HV = 25.5 GPa, average grain size of 9 μm and homogenous microstructure, were obtained for material containing 80 vol% of TiB2, fabricated using a graphite precursor of 2 μm.

  14. Effect of hyperbaric oxygen profiles on the bond strength of repaired composite resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossa, Hossam; ElKhatat, Essam; Hassan, Ahmed M; Baroudi, Kusai; Beshr, Khaled

    2016-04-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the bond strength of repaired three types of composite resins under various hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) profiles with various session numbers. Sixty specimens of three types of composite resin (nanofilled composite, nanohybrid composite and microfilled composite) each type of composite was divided into four group according to various profiles of HBO treatment (control, 2bar, 3 bar and 5 bar). Then, the specimens were repaired; thermocycled, the tensile bond strength were measured. Then the data were analyzed by One-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's post hoc test (α = 0.05). The highest bond strength was obtained for the repaired nanofilled composite resin specimens while; the lowest bond strength was obtained for the repaired microfilled composite resin specimens. The highest tensile bond strength was recorded for the specimens who treated with the highest pressure of HBO. The bond strength of repaired nanofilled composite resins is better than the other types of composite resin. The highest pressure of HBO, the highest bond strength of repaired composite resins.

  15. Microstructure and high-temperature wear properties of in situ TiC composite coatings by plasma transferred arc surface alloying on gray cast iron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Da-wen Zeng

    2015-01-01

    In this work, an in situ synthesized TiC-reinforced metal matrix composite (MMC) coating of approximately 350–400μm thick-ness was fabricated on a gray cast iron (GCI) substrate by plasma transferred arc (PTA) surface alloying of Ti–Fe alloy powder. Microhard-ness tests showed that the surface hardness increased approximately four-fold after the alloying treatment. The microstructure of the MMC coating was mainly composed of residual austenite, acicular martensite, and eutectic ledeburite. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction analyzes revealed that the in situ TiC particles, which were formed by direct reaction of Ti with carbon originally contained in the GCI, was uniformly distributed at the boundary of residual austenite in the alloying zone. Pin-on-disc high-temperature wear tests were performed on samples both with and without the MMC coating at room temperature and at elevated temperatures (473 K and 623 K), and the wear behavior and mechanism were investigated. The results showed that, after the PTA alloying treatment, the wear resistance of the sam-ples improved significantly. On the basis of our analysis of the composite coatings by optical microscopy, SEM with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and microhardness measurements, we attributed this improvement of wear resistance to the transformation of the microstruc-ture and to the presence of TiC particles.

  16. Microstructure and high-temperature wear properties of in situ TiC composite coatings by plasma transferred arc surface alloying on gray cast iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hang; Li, Jian-jun; Zheng, Zhi-zhen; Wang, Ai-hua; Huang, Qi-wen; Zeng, Da-wen

    2015-12-01

    In this work, an in situ synthesized TiC-reinforced metal matrix composite (MMC) coating of approximately 350-400 µm thickness was fabricated on a gray cast iron (GCI) substrate by plasma transferred arc (PTA) surface alloying of Ti-Fe alloy powder. Microhardness tests showed that the surface hardness increased approximately four-fold after the alloying treatment. The microstructure of the MMC coating was mainly composed of residual austenite, acicular martensite, and eutectic ledeburite. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction analyzes revealed that the in situ TiC particles, which were formed by direct reaction of Ti with carbon originally contained in the GCI, was uniformly distributed at the boundary of residual austenite in the alloying zone. Pin-on-disc high-temperature wear tests were performed on samples both with and without the MMC coating at room temperature and at elevated temperatures (473 K and 623 K), and the wear behavior and mechanism were investigated. The results showed that, after the PTA alloying treatment, the wear resistance of the samples improved significantly. On the basis of our analysis of the composite coatings by optical microscopy, SEM with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and microhardness measurements, we attributed this improvement of wear resistance to the transformation of the microstructure and to the presence of TiC particles.

  17. Effect of an Extra Hydrophobic Resin Layer on Repair Shear Bond Strength of a Silorane-Based Composite Resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Narmin; Bahari, Mahmoud; Kimyai, Soodabeh; Rahbani Nobar, Behnam

    2015-12-01

    Composite repair is a minimally invasive and conservative approach. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of an additional hydrophobic resin layer on the repair shear bond strength of a silorane-based composite repaired with silorane or methacrylate-based composite. Sixty bar-shaped composite blocks were fabricated and stored in saline for 72 hours. The surface of the samples were roughened by diamond burs and etched with phosphoric acid; then, they were randomly divided into three groups according to the repairing process: Group 1: Silorane composite-silorane bonding agent-silorane composite; group 2: Silorane composite-silorane bonding agent-hydrophobic resin-silorane composite, and group 3: Silorane composite-silorane bonding agent-hydrophobic resin methacrylate-based composite. Repairing composite blocks measured 2.5×2.5×5mm. After repairing, the samples were stored in saline for 24 hours and thermocycled for 1500 cycles. The repair bond strength was measured at a strain rate of 1mm/min. Twenty additional cylindrical composite blocks (diameter: 2.5mm, height: 6mm) were also fabricated for measuring the cohesive strength of silorane-based composite. The data were analyzed using One-way ANOVA and the post hoc Tukey's test (α=0.05). Cohesive bond strength of silorane composite was significantly higher than the repair bond strengths in other groups (Presin layer for repair of silorane-based composite with a methacrylate-based composite enhanced the repair shear bond strength.

  18. Bonded repair of composite aircraft structures: A review of scientific challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katnam, K. B.; Da Silva, L. F. M.; Young, T. M.

    2013-08-01

    Advanced composite materials have gained popularity in high-performance structural designs such as aerospace applications that require lightweight components with superior mechanical properties in order to perform in demanding service conditions as well as provide energy efficiency. However, one of the major challenges that the aerospace industry faces with advanced composites - because of their inherent complex damage behaviour - is structural repair. Composite materials are primarily damaged by mechanical loads and/or environmental conditions. If material damage is not extensive, structural repair is the only feasible solution as replacing the entire component is not cost-effective in many cases. Bonded composite repairs (e.g. scarf patches) are generally preferred as they provide enhanced stress transfer mechanisms, joint efficiencies and aerodynamic performance. With an increased usage of advanced composites in primary and secondary aerospace structural components, it is thus essential to have robust, reliable and repeatable structural bonded repair procedures to restore damaged composite components. But structural bonded repairs, especially with primary structures, pose several scientific challenges with the current existing repair technologies. In this regard, the area of structural bonded repair of composites is broadly reviewed - starting from damage assessment to automation - to identify current scientific challenges and future opportunities.

  19. High-temperature Titanium Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Gogia

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of high-temperature titanium alloys has contributed significantly to the spectacular progress in thrust-to-weight ratio of the aero gas turbines. This paper presents anoverview on the development of high-temperature titanium alloys used in aero engines and potential futuristic materials based on titanium aluminides and composites. The role of alloychemistry, processing, and microstructure, in determining the mechanical properties of titanium alloys is discussed. While phase equilibria and microstructural stability consideration haverestricted the use of conventional titanium alloys up to about 600 "C, alloys based on TiPl (or,, E,AINb (0, TiAl (y, and titaniumltitanium aluminides-based composites offer a possibility ofquantum jump in the temperature capability of titanium alloys.

  20. High temperature battery. Hochtemperaturbatterie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulling, M.

    1992-06-04

    To prevent heat losses of a high temperature battery, it is proposed to make the incoming current leads in the area of their penetration through the double-walled insulating housing as thermal throttle, particularly spiral ones.

  1. Long-term testing of a high-temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell short stack operated with improved polybenzimidazole-based composite membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinar, F. Javier; Cañizares, Pablo; Rodrigo, Manuel A.; Úbeda, Diego; Lobato, Justo

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the feasibility of a 150 cm2 high-temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell (HT-PEMFC) stack operated with modified proton exchange membranes is demonstrated. The short fuel cell stack was manufactured using a total of three 50 cm2 membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs). The PEM technology is based on a polybenzimidazole (PBI) membrane. The obtained results were compared with those obtained using a HT-PEMFC stack with unmodified membranes. The membranes were cast from a PBI polymer synthesized in the laboratory, and the modified membranes contained 2 wt.% micro-sized TiO2 as a filler. Long-term tests were performed in both constant and dynamic loading modes. The fuel cell stack with 2 wt.% TiO2 composite PBI membranes exhibited an irreversible voltage loss of less than 2% after 1100 h of operation. In addition, the acid loss was reduced from 2% for the fuel cell stack with unmodified membranes to 0.6% for the fuel cell stack with modified membranes. The results demonstrate that introducing filler into the membranes enhances the durability and stability of this type of fuel cell technology. Moreover, the fuel cell stack system also exhibits very rapid and stable power and voltage output responses under dynamic load regimes.

  2. Repair vs replacement of direct composite restorations: a survey of teaching and operative techniques in Oceania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunton, Paul A; Ghazali, Amna; Tarif, Zahidah H; Loch, Carolina; Lynch, Christopher; Wilson, Nairn; Blum, Igor R

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the teaching and operative techniques for the repair and/or replacement of direct resin-based composite restorations (DCRs) in dental schools in Oceania. A 14-item questionnaire was mailed to the heads of operative dentistry in 16 dental schools in Oceania (Australia, New Zealand, Fiji and Papua New Guinea). The survey asked whether the repair of DCRs was taught within the curriculum; the rationale behind the teaching; how techniques were taught, indications for repair, operative techniques, materials used, patient acceptability, expected longevity and recall systems. All 16 schools participated in the study. Thirteen (81%) reported the teaching of composite repairs as an alternative to replacement. Most schools taught the theoretical and practical aspects of repair at a clinical level only. All 13 schools (100%) agreed on tooth substance preservation being the main reason for teaching repair. The main indications for repair were marginal defects (100%), followed by secondary caries (69%). All 13 schools that performed repairs reported high patient acceptability, and considered it a definitive measure. Only three schools (23%) claimed to have a recall system in place following repair of DCRs. Most respondents either did not know or did not answer when asked about the longevity of DCRs. Repair of DCRs seems to be a viable alternative to replacement, which is actively taught within Oceania. Advantages include it being minimally invasive, preserving tooth structure, and time and money saving. However, standardised guidelines need to be developed and further clinical long-term studies need to be carried out. The decision between replacing or repairing a defective composite restoration tends to be based on what clinicians have been taught, tempered by experience and judgement. This study investigated the current status of teaching and operative techniques of repair of direct composite restorations in dental schools in Oceania. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

  3. Effect of Finishing Time on Microleakage at the Composite-Repair Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiei, Fereshteh; Berahman, Nazanin; Niazi, Elmira

    2016-01-01

    Repair is a conservative treatment of defective composite restoration. Sealing the repair interface is a critical factor to achieve successful repaired restorations. The aim of this study was to evaluatethe effect of three finishing times on the microleakage at the composite-repair interface. Eighty composite specimens (Z250) were made and aged for eight weeks in water. They were randomly divided into four groups. In the control group, repairing was done with no surface treatment and using bonding agent. In groups 2 to 4, the specimens were repaired following roughening, etching and use of Adper Single Bond, and finished immediately, after 20 minutes and after 24 hours, respectively. After thermocycling, the microleakage at the repair interface was assessed using dye-penetration technique. The results were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests (α=0.05). There was a significant difference among the four groups (P<0.001). The control group with the highest leakage showed a significant difference with the other groups (P<0.05). Immediate finishing showed a significantly higher leakage compared to 20-minute and 24-hour delayed finishing time (P<0.001). The two latter groups had no difference. Immediate finishing of the repaired restorations negatively affect the sealing at the repair interface, while 20-minute and 24-hour delayed finishing had no adverse effect on the interface sealing.

  4. Repair of Pd/α-Al2O3 composite membrane with defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李安武; 熊国兴

    1999-01-01

    A palladium composite membrane with a large number of defects was repaired using the electroless plating combined with the technique of osmosis. The loose structure of palladium film prepared by the conventional electroless plating was densified. Defects were repaired. Hydrogen selectivity was thus significantly increased without significantly increasing palladium film thickness and reducing hydrogen permeability.

  5. Effect of surface treatments and bonding agents on the bond strength of repaired composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, Andrea Nóbrega; De Lima, Adriano Fonseca; Peris, Alessandra Rezende; Mitsui, Fabio Hiroyuki Ogata; Marchi, Giselle Maria

    2007-01-01

    An adequate repair procedure depends on high bond strength between the existing composite and the new composite. To evaluate the effect of surface treatments and bonding procedures on the bond strength of repairs performed 24 hours after composite polymerization. Composite specimens were stored in distilled water at 37 degrees C for 24 hours. Specimens were allocated into 12 groups (N=10) according to the combination of surface treatment (none, air abrasion, diamond bur) and bonding procedure (none, Single Bond after H(3)PO(4) cleansing, Clearfil SE Bond after H(3)PO(4) cleansing, Clearfil SE Bond without H(3)PO(4) cleansing). The ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of the composite was tested in nonrepaired specimens. Twenty-four hours after repair, specimens were sectioned into three slabs and trimmed to an hourglass shape (1 mm(2) area). Slabs were tested under tension and mean bond strengths analyzed with two-way analysis of variance/Tukey and Dunnett tests (alpha=5%). Two groups resulted in repair bond strengths similar to composite UTS: air abrasion combined with Clearfil SE Bond after H(3)PO(4) cleansing, and air abrasion combined with Clearfil SE Bond without H(3)PO(4) cleansing. Combinations of surface treatments and bonding procedures were not statistically different. When repair procedure was performed 24 hours after composite polymerization, different combinations of surface treatments and bonding procedures affected repair bond strength similarly. There was no statistical difference between the repair bond strength of groups air-abraded and bonded with the self-etching system and composite UTS. Only air abrasion associated with a self-etching system provided repair bond strength comparable to composite UTS.

  6. Performance of Engineered Cementitious Composites for Concrete Repairs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, J.

    2011-01-01

    Background and goals of this thesis The concrete repair, rehabilitation and retrofitting industry grows rapidly, driven by deterioration of, damage to and defects in concrete structures. However, it is well known that to achieve durable concrete repairs is very difficult. The failure of concrete rep

  7. Performance of Engineered Cementitious Composites for Concrete Repairs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, J.

    2011-01-01

    Background and goals of this thesis The concrete repair, rehabilitation and retrofitting industry grows rapidly, driven by deterioration of, damage to and defects in concrete structures. However, it is well known that to achieve durable concrete repairs is very difficult. The failure of concrete

  8. Performance of Engineered Cementitious Composites for Concrete Repairs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, J.

    2011-01-01

    Background and goals of this thesis The concrete repair, rehabilitation and retrofitting industry grows rapidly, driven by deterioration of, damage to and defects in concrete structures. However, it is well known that to achieve durable concrete repairs is very difficult. The failure of concrete rep

  9. Ultrasonic Sensors for High Temperature Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tittmann, Bernhard; Aslan, Mustafa

    1999-05-01

    Many processes take place under conditions other than ambient, and chief among these is high temperature. Examples of high temperature industrial processes are resin transfer molding, molten metal infiltration and rheocasting of composite metals alloys. The interaction of waves with viscous fluids is an additional complication adding to an already complicated problem of operating a sensor at high temperature for extended periods of time. This report attempts to provide an insight into the current state of the art of sensor techniques for in-situ high temperature monitoring.

  10. Bond strength durability of direct and indirect composite systems following surface conditioning for repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Passos, Sheila Pestana; Ozcan, Mutlu; Vanderlei, Aleska Dias; Leite, Fabiola Pessoa Pereira; Kimpara, Estevao Tomomitsu; Bottino, Marco Antonio

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study evaluated the effect of surface conditioning methods and thermocycling on the bond strength between a resin composite and an indirect composite system in order to test the repair bond strength. Materials and Methods: Eighteen blocks (5 x 5 x 4 mm) of indirect resin composite (Sin

  11. High Temperature Electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elder, Rachael; Cumming, Denis; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2015-01-01

    High temperature electrolysis of carbon dioxide, or co-electrolysis of carbon dioxide and steam, has a great potential for carbon dioxide utilisation. A solid oxide electrolysis cell (SOEC), operating between 500 and 900. °C, is used to reduce carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide. If steam is also...... input to the cell then hydrogen is produced giving syngas. This syngas can then be further reacted to form hydrocarbon fuels and chemicals. Operating at high temperature gives much higher efficiencies than can be achieved with low temperature electrolysis. Current state of the art SOECs utilise a dense...

  12. Development and validation of bonded composite doubler repairs for commercial aircraft.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roach, Dennis Patrick; Rackow, Kirk A.

    2007-07-01

    A typical aircraft can experience over 2,000 fatigue cycles (cabin pressurizations) and even greater flight hours in a single year. An unavoidable by-product of aircraft use is that crack, impact, and corrosion flaws develop throughout the aircraft's skin and substructure elements. Economic barriers to the purchase of new aircraft have placed even greater demands on efficient and safe repair methods. The use of bonded composite doublers offers the airframe manufacturers and aircraft maintenance facilities a cost effective method to safely extend the lives of their aircraft. Instead of riveting multiple steel or aluminum plates to facilitate an aircraft repair, it is now possible to bond a single Boron-Epoxy composite doubler to the damaged structure. The FAA's Airworthiness Assurance Center at Sandia National Labs (AANC), Boeing, and Federal Express completed a pilot program to validate and introduce composite doubler repair technology to the U.S. commercial aircraft industry. This project focused on repair of DC-10 fuselage structure and its primary goal was to demonstrate routine use of this repair technology using niche applications that streamline the design-to-installation process. As composite doubler repairs gradually appear in the commercial aircraft arena, successful flight operation data is being accumulated. These commercial aircraft repairs are not only demonstrating the engineering and economic advantages of composite doubler technology but they are also establishing the ability of commercial maintenance depots to safely adopt this repair technique. This report presents the array of engineering activities that were completed in order to make this technology available for widespread commercial aircraft use. Focused laboratory testing was conducted to compliment the field data and to address specific issues regarding damage tolerance and flaw growth in composite doubler repairs. Fatigue and strength tests were performed on a simulated wing

  13. Measuring Moduli Of Elasticity At High Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfenden, Alan

    1993-01-01

    Shorter, squatter specimens and higher frequencies used in ultrasonic measurement technique. Improved version of piezo-electric ultrasonic composite oscillator technique used to measure moduli of elasticity of solid materials at high temperatures.

  14. Production of ceramic nanoparticles through self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) and their introduction into a metallic matrix to form metal matrix composites (MMC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuechterlein, Jacob

    Self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) is a self-sustaining combustion reaction of reactant powders typically in the form of compacted pellets to form a desired product species. The reactants are ignited in one or more locations by several different techniques. After ignition the reaction travels as a wave through the pellet exothermically converting the reactants into products as it propagates. In this case the products are formed as discrete ceramic particles of TiC, Al2O3 and SiC. The goal of this research was to reduce the size of the particles formed by this technique from a diameter of 1-5μm to less than 100nm with the goal of then incorporating these nanoparticles as reinforcements in Al metal matrix composites. To accomplish this, many different SHS principles were studied and their associated variables were changed to reduce the combustion temperature of each reacting system. Several of these systems were investigated and discarded for a number of reasons such as: low ignition or high combustion temperatures, dangerous reaction conditions, or undesirable product densities and morphologies. The systems chosen exhibited low material costs, low combustion temperatures, and a wide range of stabilities when lowering the reaction temperature. The reacting systems pursued were based around the aluminothermic reduction of TiO2 in the presence of carbon to form TiC and Al2O 3. The combustion temperature of this reaction was reduced from 2053ºC to less than 1100ºC, which had a corresponding effect on the particle size of the products, reducing the average diameter of the particles to less than 100nm. This was accomplished by providing high heating rates, controlling the green density and adding diluents to the reaction such as Al, TiC, SiC or Al2O3. Cooling experiments were also investigated, but the cooling rate was found to have no effect on the particle size.

  15. High temperature storage loop :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, David Dennis; Kolb, William J.

    2013-07-01

    A three year plan for thermal energy storage (TES) research was created at Sandia National Laboratories in the spring of 2012. This plan included a strategic goal of providing test capability for Sandia and for the nation in which to evaluate high temperature storage (>650ÀC) technology. The plan was to scope, design, and build a flow loop that would be compatible with a multitude of high temperature heat transfer/storage fluids. The High Temperature Storage Loop (HTSL) would be reconfigurable so that it was useful for not only storage testing, but also for high temperature receiver testing and high efficiency power cycle testing as well. In that way, HTSL was part of a much larger strategy for Sandia to provide a research and testing platform that would be integral for the evaluation of individual technologies funded under the SunShot program. DOEs SunShot program seeks to reduce the price of solar technologies to 6/kWhr to be cost competitive with carbon-based fuels. The HTSL project sought to provide evaluation capability for these SunShot supported technologies. This report includes the scoping, design, and budgetary costing aspects of this effort

  16. HIGH TEMPERATURE DISPLACEMENT SENSOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Longxiang; Zhang Jinyu; Schweitzer Gerhard

    2005-01-01

    A high temperature displacement sensor based on the principle of eddy-current is investigated. A new temperature compensation technique by using eddy-current effect is presented to satisfy the special requirement at high temperature up to 550℃. The experiment shows that the temperature compensation technique leads to good temperature stability for the sensors. The variation of the sensitivity as well as the temperature drift of the sensor with temperature compensation technique is only about 7.4% and 90~350 mV at 550℃ compared with that at room temperature, and that of the sensor without temperature compensation technique is about 31.2% and 2~3 V at 550℃ compared with that at room temperature. A new dynamic calibration method for the eddy-current displacement sensor is presented, which is very easy to be realized especially in high frequency and at high temperatures. The high temperature displacement sensors developed are successfully used at temperature up to 550℃ in a magnetic bearing system for more than 100 h.

  17. High-temperature superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Saxena, Ajay Kumar

    2010-01-01

    The present book aims at describing the phenomenon of superconductivity and high-temperature superconductors discovered by Bednorz and Muller in 1986. The book covers the superconductivity phenomenon, structure of high-Tc superconductors, critical currents, synthesis routes for high Tc materials, superconductivity in cuprates, the proximity effect and SQUIDs, theories of superconductivity and applications of superconductors.

  18. High temperature storage loop :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, David Dennis; Kolb, William J.

    2013-07-01

    A three year plan for thermal energy storage (TES) research was created at Sandia National Laboratories in the spring of 2012. This plan included a strategic goal of providing test capability for Sandia and for the nation in which to evaluate high temperature storage (>650ÀC) technology. The plan was to scope, design, and build a flow loop that would be compatible with a multitude of high temperature heat transfer/storage fluids. The High Temperature Storage Loop (HTSL) would be reconfigurable so that it was useful for not only storage testing, but also for high temperature receiver testing and high efficiency power cycle testing as well. In that way, HTSL was part of a much larger strategy for Sandia to provide a research and testing platform that would be integral for the evaluation of individual technologies funded under the SunShot program. DOEs SunShot program seeks to reduce the price of solar technologies to 6/kWhr to be cost competitive with carbon-based fuels. The HTSL project sought to provide evaluation capability for these SunShot supported technologies. This report includes the scoping, design, and budgetary costing aspects of this effort

  19. Immediate vs delayed repair bond strength of a nanohybrid resin composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Askary, Farid S; El-Banna, Ahmed H; van Noort, Richard

    2012-06-01

    To evaluate both the immediate and water-stored repair tensile bond strength (TBS) of a nanohybrid resin composite using different bonding protocols. One hundred sixty half hourglass-shaped slabs were prepared. Eighty half-slabs were wet ground immediately after light curing using high-speed abrasive burs, while the other half-slabs were stored in water for one month (delayed) and then wet ground for repair. Each set of the 80 repaired slabs was split into two groups to be tested for TBS after 24 h or 1 month of water storage. For all repaired slabs, either immediate or delayed, four bonding procedures were used involving wet and dry bonding with a 3-step etch-and-rinse adhesive with or without silane pretreatment. TBS tests were performed at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. To determine the cohesive strength of the resin composite itself, which served as the reference, additional whole slabs were prepared and tested in tension after a 24-h (n = 10) and a 1-month storage period (n = 10). Failure modes were evaluated using a stereomicroscope at 40X magnification. Three-way ANOVA was run to test the effect of water storage, testing time, bonding protocols, and their interactions on the repair TBS, which was given as a percentage of the reference values. For the immediate repair groups, the repair TBS ranged from 40% to 61.9% after 24-h storage and from 26% to 53.1% after 1-month water storage compared to the TBS of the whole slabs. For the delayed repair group, the repaired TBS ranged from 47.2% to 63.6% for the 24-h repairs and from 32.2% to 44.2% for the test groups stored in water for 1 month. Three-way ANOVA revealed that water storage had no significant effect on the repair TBS (p = 0.619). Both testing time and bonding protocols had a significant effect on the repair TBS (p = 0.001). The interactions between the independent variables (water storage, testing time, and bonding protocols) had no significant effect (p = 0.067). The repair bond strength was

  20. Development of bonded composite doublers for the repair of oil recovery equipment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roach, David W.; Rackow, Kirk A.

    2005-06-01

    An unavoidable by-product of a metallic structure's use is the appearance of crack and corrosion flaws. Economic barriers to the replacement of these structures have created an aging infrastructure and placed even greater demands on efficient and safe repair methods. In the past decade, an advanced composite repair technology has made great strides in commercial aviation use. Extensive testing and analysis, through joint programs between the Sandia Labs FAA Airworthiness Assurance Center and the aviation industry, have proven that composite materials can be used to repair damaged aluminum structure. Successful pilot programs have produced flight performance history to establish the durability of bonded composite patches as a permanent repair on commercial aircraft structures. With this foundation in place, this effort is adapting bonded composite repair technology to civil structures. The use of bonded composite doublers has the potential to correct the difficulties associated with current repair techniques and the ability to be applied where there are no rehabilitation options. It promises to be cost-effective with minimal disruption to the users of the structure. This report concludes a study into the application of composite patches on thick steel structures typically used in mining operations. Extreme fatigue, temperature, erosive, and corrosive environments induce an array of equipment damage. The current weld repair techniques for these structures provide a fatigue life that is inferior to that of the original plate. Subsequent cracking must be revisited on a regular basis. The use of composite doublers, which do not have brittle fracture problems such as those inherent in welds, can help extend the structure's fatigue life and reduce the equipment downtime. Two of the main issues for adapting aircraft composite repairs to civil applications are developing an installation technique for carbon steel and accommodating large repairs on extremely thick

  1. Passive self repairing and active self sensing in multifunctional polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dry, Carolyn

    2008-03-01

    The goal of the research since the early 1990s has been to develop self-repairing and self sensing composites. Our revolutionary approach involves the autonomous release of repair chemicals from within the composite matrix itself and the active sensing to assess that action utilizing the same tube structure. The repair agents are contained in hollow, structural fibers that are embedded within the matrix. Under stress, the composite senses external environmental factors and reacts by releasing the repair agents from within the hollow vessels. This passive autonomous response occurs wherever and whenever cracking, debonding or other matrix damage transpires. Superior performance over the life of the composite is achieved through this self-repairing mechanism. The active sensing measures volume of voided repair chemical and location of voiding reveals the location and amount of damage to the laminate. This health monitoring of composites is important for their widespread use in life safety applications such as structures. The focus of the research being the implementation of active sensors and passive actuators which by using the same structure of glass tubes provide large area coverage without adding much parasitic weight. The development is a novel, voiding based sensor for damage detection with composite structures. This consists of a inspection guide produced from glass reinforcing fibers which release repair chemical when damaged.. The sensor was shown to be sensitive to very low impact energies, but also capable of revealing more extensive damage caused by high energy impacts. This unique combination of active sensing and passive repair serves as an example of combination for autonomous systems that can consist of various approaches in one integrated system.

  2. Desulfurization at high temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panula-Nikkilae, E.; Kurkela, E.; Mojtahedi, W.

    1987-01-01

    Two high-temperature desulfurization methods, furnace injection and gasification-desulfurization are presented. In furnace injection, the efficiency of desulfurization is 50-60%, but this method is applied in energy production plants, where flue gas desulfurization cannot be used. Ca-based sorbents are used as desulfurization material. Factors affecting desulfurization and the effect of injection on the boiler and ash handling are discussed. In energy production based on gasification, very low sulfur emissions can be achieved by conventional low-temperature cleanup. However, high-temperature gas cleaning leads to higher efficiency and can be applied to smaller size classes. Ca-, Fe-, or Zn-based sorbents or mixed metals can be used for desulfurization. Most of the methods under development are based on the use of regenerative sorbents in a cleanup reactor located outside the gasifier. So far, only calcium compounds have been used for desulfurization inside the gasifier.

  3. High Temperature ESP Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jack Booker; Brindesh Dhruva

    2011-06-20

    The objective of the High Temperature ESP Monitoring project was to develop a downhole monitoring system to be used in wells with bottom hole well temperatures up to 300°C for measuring motor temperature, formation pressure, and formation temperature. These measurements are used to monitor the health of the ESP motor, to track the downhole operating conditions, and to optimize the pump operation. A 220 ºC based High Temperature ESP Monitoring system was commercially released for sale with Schlumberger ESP motors April of 2011 and a 250 ºC system with will be commercially released at the end of Q2 2011. The measurement system is now fully qualified, except for the sensor, at 300 °C.

  4. Is there one optimal repair technique for all composites?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loomans, B.A.C.; Cardoso, M.V.; Roeters, F.J.M.; Opdam, N.J.M.; Munck, J. De; Huysmans, M.C.D.N.J.M.; Meerbeek, B. Van

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a variety of techniques to bond new composite to artificially aged composite of different compositions. METHODS: Composite resin blocks were made of five different commercially available composites (n=30) (Clearfil AP-X, Clear

  5. Strangeness at high temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Christian

    2013-01-01

    We use up to fourth order cumulants of net strangeness fluctuations and their correlations with net baryon number fluctuations to extract information on the strange meson and baryon contribution to the low temperature hadron resonance gas, the dissolution of strange hadronic states in the crossover region of the QCD transition and the quasi-particle nature of strange quark contributions to the high temperature quark-gluon plasma phase.

  6. High temperature structural sandwich panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papakonstantinou, Christos G.

    High strength composites are being used for making lightweight structural panels that are being employed in aerospace, naval and automotive structures. Recently, there is renewed interest in use of these panels. The major problem of most commercial available sandwich panels is the fire resistance. A recently developed inorganic matrix is investigated for use in cases where fire and high temperature resistance are necessary. The focus of this dissertation is the development of a fireproof composite structural system. Sandwich panels made with polysialate matrices have an excellent potential for use in applications where exposure to high temperatures or fire is a concern. Commercial available sandwich panels will soften and lose nearly all of their compressive strength temperatures lower than 400°C. This dissertation consists of the state of the art, the experimental investigation and the analytical modeling. The state of the art covers the performance of existing high temperature composites, sandwich panels and reinforced concrete beams strengthened with Fiber Reinforced Polymers (FRP). The experimental part consists of four major components: (i) Development of a fireproof syntactic foam with maximum specific strength, (ii) Development of a lightweight syntactic foam based on polystyrene spheres, (iii) Development of the composite system for the skins. The variables are the skin thickness, modulus of elasticity of skin and high temperature resistance, and (iv) Experimental evaluation of the flexural behavior of sandwich panels. Analytical modeling consists of a model for the flexural behavior of lightweight sandwich panels, and a model for deflection calculations of reinforced concrete beams strengthened with FRP subjected to fatigue loading. The experimental and analytical results show that sandwich panels made with polysialate matrices and ceramic spheres do not lose their load bearing capability during severe fire exposure, where temperatures reach several

  7. Rotator cuff repair with a tendon-fibrocartilage-bone composite bridging patch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiaoxi; Chen, Qingshan; Thoreson, Andrew R; Qu, Jin; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C; Steinmann, Scott P; Zhao, Chunfeng

    2015-11-01

    To compare the mechanical performance of a rotator cuff repaired with a novel tendon-fibrocartilage-bone composite bridging patch vs the traditional Mason-Allen repair in an in vitro canine model. Twenty shoulders and 10 bridging patches from patellar tendon were harvested. The patches were trimmed and sliced into 2 layers. An infraspinatus tendon tear was created in each shoulder. Modified Mason-Allen sutures were used to repair the infraspinatus tendon to the greater tuberosity, with or without the bridging patch (bridging patch group and controls, respectively). Shoulders were loaded to failure under displacement control at a rate of 0.5mm/s. The ultimate tensile load was significantly higher in the bridging patch group than control (mean [SD], 365.46 [36.45] vs 272.79 [48.88] N; Pinfraspinatus tendon repair site was significantly higher than the control repair site (93.96 [27.72] vs 42.62 [17.48] N/mm Ptendon-fibrocartilage-bone composite bridging patch achieved higher ultimate tensile load and stiffness at the patch-greater tuberosity repair site compared with traditional repair in a canine model. This composite tissue transforms the traditional tendon-to-bone healing interface (with dissimilar tissues) into a pair of bone-to-bone and tendon-to-tendon interfaces, which may improve healing quality and reduce retear rate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. High Temperature Capacitor Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Kosek

    2009-06-30

    The absence of high-temperature electronics is an obstacle to the development of untapped energy resources (deep oil, gas and geothermal). US natural gas consumption is projected to grow from 22 trillion cubic feet per year (tcf) in 1999 to 34 tcf in 2020. Cumulatively this is 607 tcf of consumption by 2020, while recoverable reserves using current technology are 177 tcf. A significant portion of this shortfall may be met by tapping deep gas reservoirs. Tapping these reservoirs represents a significant technical challenge. At these depths, temperatures and pressures are very high and may require penetrating very hard rock. Logistics of supporting 6.1 km (20,000 ft) drill strings and the drilling processes are complex and expensive. At these depths up to 50% of the total drilling cost may be in the last 10% of the well depth. Thus, as wells go deeper it is increasingly important that drillers are able to monitor conditions down-hole such as temperature, pressure, heading, etc. Commercial off-the-shelf electronics are not specified to meet these operating conditions. This is due to problems associated with all aspects of the electronics including the resistors and capacitors. With respect to capacitors, increasing temperature often significantly changes capacitance because of the strong temperature dependence of the dielectric constant. Higher temperatures also affect the equivalent series resistance (ESR). High-temperature capacitors usually have low capacitance values because of these dielectric effects and because packages are kept small to prevent mechanical breakage caused by thermal stresses. Electrolytic capacitors do not operate at temperatures above 150oC due to dielectric breakdown. The development of high-temperature capacitors to be used in a high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) drilling environment was investigated. These capacitors were based on a previously developed high-voltage hybridized capacitor developed at Giner, Inc. in conjunction with a

  9. Potential of Carbon Nanotube Reinforced Cement Composites as Concrete Repair Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanvir Manzur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs are a virtually ideal reinforcing agent due to extremely high aspect ratios and ultra high strengths. It is evident from contemporary research that utilization of CNT in producing new cement-based composite materials has a great potential. Consequently, possible practical application of CNT reinforced cementitious composites has immense prospect in the field of applied nanotechnology within construction industry. Several repair, retrofit, and strengthening techniques are currently available to enhance the integrity and durability of concrete structures with cracks and spalling, but applicability and/or reliability is/are often limited. Therefore, there is always a need for innovative high performing concrete repair materials with good mechanical, rheological, and durability properties. Considering the mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs and the test results of CNT reinforced cement composites, it is apparent that such composites could be used conveniently as concrete repair material. With this end in view, the applicability of multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT reinforced cement composites as concrete repair material has been evaluated in this study in terms of setting time, bleeding, and bonding strength (slant shear tests. It has been found that MWNT reinforced cement mortar has good prospective as concrete repair material since such composites exhibited desirable behavior in setting time, bleeding, and slant shear.

  10. Machinability of High-temperature Prototype Composite Material for Plasma Spray Tooling%面向等离子熔射制模的耐高温原型复合材料可加工性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟飞; 刘平安; 张海鸥

    2015-01-01

    Rapid manufacturing high temperature resistant prototype is the key problem in plasma spray tool-ing, it can effectively improve the efficiency and quality of mould,prepared by direct milling composite ma-terial with high temperature resistance, reduced the process of silicone rubber mould in the traditional process. In this paper, the processing mechanism of high temperature resistant composite material was ana-lysed, while the machinability of high temperature resistance composite material was evaluated through the surface quality, edge quality , the chip shape and the size of chip. Finally, experiment research of machi-ning examples shows that high temperature resistant prototype composite material has better milling perform-ance, it can be used fast milling of resistant in prototype for spray tooling technology.%耐高温原型的快速制造是等离子熔射制模技术中的关键问题,通过制备可直接铣削加工的耐高温复合材料,减少传统工艺中硅胶模翻制工艺,可有效提高制模效率及质量。文章在耐高温复合材料加工机理分析的基础上,通过表面质量、边缘质量以及切屑的形状和大小来评价制备的耐高温复合材料的可加工性。最后通过实例加工实验,研究表明制备的耐高温原型复合材料具有较好的综合铣削性能,完全可用于熔射制模技术中的耐高温原型的直接快速铣削加工。

  11. Effect Aging Conditions on the Repair Bond Strength of a Microhybrid and a Nanohybrid Resin Composite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozcan, Mutlu; Cura, Cenk; Brendeke, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    Purpose This study evaluated the effect of different aging methods on the repair bond strength and failure types of a microhybrid and a nanohybrid composite Materials and Methods Disk shaped microhybrid (Quadrant Anterior Shine-QA) and nanohybrid (Tetric EvoCeram TE) resin composite specimens (N = 1

  12. Effect Aging Conditions on the Repair Bond Strength of a Microhybrid and a Nanohybrid Resin Composite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozcan, Mutlu; Cura, Cenk; Brendeke, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    Purpose This study evaluated the effect of different aging methods on the repair bond strength and failure types of a microhybrid and a nanohybrid composite Materials and Methods Disk shaped microhybrid (Quadrant Anterior Shine-QA) and nanohybrid (Tetric EvoCeram TE) resin composite specimens (N =

  13. Repair of Composites: Design Choices Leading to Lower Life-Cycle Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassapoglou, Christos; Rangelov, Konstantin; Rangelov, Svilen

    2016-11-01

    The fabrication cost of composite aircraft structures is revisited and the effect of part size on cost is examined with emphasis on design decisions which affect the ease of (bonded) repair and the total cost of the part and subsequent repairs. The case of moderately loaded stiffened fuselage or wing panels under compression is analysed in detail and the fabrication cost of the panel made as a single piece or as an assembly of smaller identical components or modules is determined. The cost of special purpose repairs for two different damage sizes is compared to removing and replacing damaged modules. Hand layup and automated processing are compared. It is found that for certain repair sizes removing and replacing modules leads to lower overall cost as compared to applying a special purpose repair.

  14. Collagen/silk fibroin composite scaffold incorporated with PLGA microsphere for cartilage repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jianhua; Yang, Qiu; Cheng, Niangmei [Institute of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Technology, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Tao, Xiaojun [Department of Pharmacy, School of Medicine, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, 410013, Hunan (China); Zhang, Zhihua; Sun, Xiaomin [Institute of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Technology, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Zhang, Qiqing, E-mail: zhangqiq@126.com [Institute of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Technology, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Key Laboratory of Biomedical Materials of Tianjin, Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Medical Science & Peking Union Medical College, Tianjin 300192 (China)

    2016-04-01

    For cartilage repair, ideal scaffolds should mimic natural extracellular matrix (ECM) exhibiting excellent characteristics, such as biocompatibility, suitable porosity, and good cell affinity. This study aimed to prepare a collagen/silk fibroin composite scaffold incorporated with poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) microsphere that can be applied in repairing cartilage. To obtain optimum conditions for manufacturing a composite scaffold, a scaffold composed of different collagen-to-silk fibroin ratios was evaluated by determining porosity, water absorption, loss rate in hot water, and cell proliferation. Results suggested that the optimal ratio of collagen and silk fibroin composite scaffold was 7:3. The microstructure and morphological characteristics of the obtained scaffold were also examined through scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results of in vitro fluorescence staining of bone marrow stromal cells revealed that collagen/silk fibroin composite scaffold enhanced cell proliferation without eliciting side effects. The prepared composite scaffold incorporated with PLGA microsphere was implanted in fully thick articular cartilage defects in rabbits. Collagen/silk fibroin composite scaffold with PLGA microspheres could enhance articular cartilage regeneration and integration between the repaired cartilage and the surrounding cartilage. Therefore, this composite will be a promising material for cartilage repair and regeneration. - Highlights: • Collagen/silk fibroin composite scaffold incorporated with PLGA microsphere proposed for cartilage repair was created. • In vivo, scaffold could enhance cartilage regeneration and integration between the repaired and surrounding cartilage. • In vitro, scaffold exhibits excellent characteristics, such as, improved porosity water absorption and good cell affinity.

  15. Nondestructive Evaluation and Underwater Repair of Composite Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    have been used for several years in seismology for triangulating the source of earthquakes [63]. This method of assessment uses the wave propagation...Roberto. “Patch repair design optimisation for fracture and fatigue improvements of cracked plates.” Italy : Univerty of Parma. 2006. 116 Moksnes, J

  16. High temperature superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Paranthaman, Parans

    2010-01-01

    This essential reference provides the most comprehensive presentation of the state of the art in the field of high temperature superconductors. This growing field of research and applications is currently being supported by numerous governmental and industrial initiatives in the United States, Asia and Europe to overcome grid energy distribution issues. The technology is particularly intended for densely populated areas. It is now being commercialized for power-delivery devices, such as power transmission lines and cables, motors and generators. Applications in electric utilities include current limiters, long transmission lines and energy-storage devices that will help industries avoid dips in electric power.

  17. Effect of surface roughness and adhesive system on repair potential of silorane-based resin composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enas H. Mobarak

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to evaluate the influence of surface roughness and adhesive system on the repair strength of silorane-based resin composite. Twenty-four substrate discs from silorane-based FiltekP90 were made and stored for 24 h. Half of the discs were roughened against 320 grit SiC paper while the other half was polished against 4000 grit SiC paper. All discs were etched with phosphoric acid. Repair resin composite, FiltekP90 or FiltekZ250, was bonded to the treated surfaces using their corresponding adhesive; P90 System Adhesive (SA or Adper Scotchbond Multipurpose (SBMP ending up with four repair groups. The groups were as follows: G1: Smooth + SA + FiltekP90; G2: Roughened + SA + FiltekP90; G3: Smooth + SBMP + FiltekZ250; G4: Roughened + SBMP + FiltekZ250. Additional six unrepaired discs from each resin composite (G5 and G6 were prepared to test the cohesive strength. After 24 h, discs (n = 6/group were serially sectioned to obtain sticks (n = 30/group for microtensile bond strength (μTBS testing. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM evaluation of substrates that received different treatments as well as representative substrate-repair sticks from each group were performed. Modes of failure were also determined. Two-way ANOVA with Repeated-Measures revealed that surface treatment and repair material had no significant effect on repair bond strength of silorane-based composite material. Paired t-test showed that all repair strength values were significantly lower than the cohesive strength of FiltekP90. Adhesive failure was the predominant mode of failure which was confirmed by SEM. Surface treated FiltekP90 composite showed different textures under SEM whereas phosphoric acid did not produce clear changes. An interaction layer between SBMP adhesive and FiltekZ250 repairing composite was detected. Repair of the silorane composite was successful irrespective of the surface roughness and chemistry of the repair

  18. Collagen/silk fibroin composite scaffold incorporated with PLGA microsphere for cartilage repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianhua; Yang, Qiu; Cheng, Niangmei; Tao, Xiaojun; Zhang, Zhihua; Sun, Xiaomin; Zhang, Qiqing

    2016-04-01

    For cartilage repair, ideal scaffolds should mimic natural extracellular matrix (ECM) exhibiting excellent characteristics, such as biocompatibility, suitable porosity, and good cell affinity. This study aimed to prepare a collagen/silk fibroin composite scaffold incorporated with poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) microsphere that can be applied in repairing cartilage. To obtain optimum conditions for manufacturing a composite scaffold, a scaffold composed of different collagen-to-silk fibroin ratios was evaluated by determining porosity, water absorption, loss rate in hot water, and cell proliferation. Results suggested that the optimal ratio of collagen and silk fibroin composite scaffold was 7:3. The microstructure and morphological characteristics of the obtained scaffold were also examined through scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results of in vitro fluorescence staining of bone marrow stromal cells revealed that collagen/silk fibroin composite scaffold enhanced cell proliferation without eliciting side effects. The prepared composite scaffold incorporated with PLGA microsphere was implanted in fully thick articular cartilage defects in rabbits. Collagen/silk fibroin composite scaffold with PLGA microspheres could enhance articular cartilage regeneration and integration between the repaired cartilage and the surrounding cartilage. Therefore, this composite will be a promising material for cartilage repair and regeneration.

  19. High Temperature Piezoelectric Drill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Xiaoqi; Scott, James; Boudreau, Kate; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Shrout, Tom; Zhang, Shujun

    2009-01-01

    The current NASA Decadal mission planning effort has identified Venus as a significant scientific target for a surface in-situ sampling/analyzing mission. The Venus environment represents several extremes including high temperature (460 deg C), high pressure (9 MPa), and potentially corrosive (condensed sulfuric acid droplets that adhere to surfaces during entry) environments. This technology challenge requires new rock sampling tools for these extreme conditions. Piezoelectric materials can potentially operate over a wide temperature range. Single crystals, like LiNbO3, have a Curie temperature that is higher than 1000 deg C and the piezoelectric ceramics Bismuth Titanate higher than 600 deg C. A study of the feasibility of producing piezoelectric drills that can operate in the temperature range up to 500 deg C was conducted. The study includes the high temperature properties investigations of engineering materials and piezoelectric ceramics with different formulas and doping. The drilling performances of a prototype Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) using high temperate piezoelectric ceramics and single crystal were tested at temperature up to 500 deg C. The detailed results of our study and a discussion of the future work on performance improvements are presented in this paper.

  20. High temperature superconducting compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Allen M.

    1992-11-01

    The major accomplishment of this grant has been to develop techniques for the in situ preparation of high-Tc superconducting films involving the use of ozone-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The techniques are generalizable to the growth of trilayer and multilayer structures. Films of both the DyBa2Cu3O(7-x) and YBa2Cu3O(7-x) compounds as well as the La(2-x)Sr(x)CuO4 compound have been grown on the usual substrates, SrTiO3, YSZ, MgO, and LaAlO3, as well as on Si substrates without any buffer layer. A bolometer has been fabricated on a thermally isolated SiN substrate coated with YSZ, an effort carried out in collaboration with Honeywell Inc. The deposition process facilitates the fabrication of very thin and transparent films creating new opportunities for the study of superconductor-insulator transitions and the investigation of photo-doping with carriers of high temperature superconductors. In addition to a thin film technology, a patterning technology has been developed. Trilayer structures have been developed for FET devices and tunneling junctions. Other work includes the measurement of the magnetic properties of bulk single crystal high temperature superconductors, and in collaboration with Argonne National Laboratory, measurement of electric transport properties of T1-based high-Tc films.

  1. Further Evolution of Composite Doubler Aircraft Repairs Through a Focus on Niche Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ROACH,DENNIS P.

    2000-07-15

    The number of commercial airframes exceeding twenty years of service continues to grow. A typical aircraft can experience over 2,000 fatigue cycles (cabin pressurizations) and even greater flight hours in a single year. An unavoidable by-product of aircraft use is that crack and corrosion flaws develop throughout the aircraft's skin and substructure elements. Economic barriers to the purchase of new aircraft have created an aging aircraft fleet and placed even greater demands on efficient and safe repair methods. The use of bonded composite doublers offers the airframe manufacturers and aircraft maintenance facilities a cost effective method to safety extend the lives of their aircraft. Instead of riveting multiple steel or aluminum plates to facilitate an aircraft repair, it is now possible to bond a single Boron-Epoxy composite doubler to the damaged structure. The FAA's Airworthiness Assurance Center at Sandia National Labs (AANC) is conducting a program with Boeing and Federal Express to validate and introduce composite doubler repair technology to the US commercial aircraft industry. This project focuses on repair of DC-10 structure and builds on the foundation of the successful L-1011 door corner repair that was completed by the AANC, Lockheed-Martin, and Delta Air Lines. The L-1011 composite doubler repair was installed in 1997 and has not developed any flaws in over three years of service, As a follow-on effort, this DC-1O repair program investigated design, analysis, performance (durability, flaw containment, reliability), installation, and nondestructive inspection issues. Current activities are demonstrating regular use of composite doubler repairs on commercial aircraft. The primary goal of this program is to move the technology into niche applications and to streamline the design-to-installation process. Using the data accumulated to date, the team has designed, analyzed, and developed inspection techniques for an array of composite doubler

  2. Microtensile Bond Strength of New Ceramic/Polymer Materials Repaired with Composite Resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-30

    Universal Adhesive (3M/ESPE) and veneered with either Filtek Supreme Ultra or Sinfony composite resin. Also, monolithic blocks without composite...also have been shown to have higher enamel wear rates than composite-resin CAD/CAM restorations (Mӧrmann et al, 2013). As material choices, cost, and...although the longevity of these repairs has not been validated by clinical studies. Paradigm MZ100 showed the least amount of opposing enamel wear

  3. High Temperature VARTM of Phenylethynyl Terminated Imides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, Sayata; Watson, Kent A.; Cano, Roberto J.; Britton, Sean M.; Jensen, Brian J.; Connell, John W.; Herring, Helen M.; Linberry, Quentin J.

    2009-01-01

    LaRC phenylethynyl terminated imide (PETI) resins were processed into composites using high temperature vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM). Although initial runs yielded composites with high void content, process modifications reduced voids to <3%. Photomicrographs were taken and void contents and T(sub g)s of the panels were determined.

  4. Repair of rotator cuff injuries using different composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopiz, Y; Arvinius, C; García-Fernández, C; Rodriguez-Bobada, M C; González-López, P; Civantos, A; Marco, F

    Rotator cuff repairs have shown a high level of re-ruptures. It is hypothesised that the use of rhBMP-2 in a carrier could improve the biomechanical and histological properties of the repair. Controlled experimental study conducted on 40 rats with section and repair of the supraspinatus tendon and randomisation to one of five groups: Group 1 (control) only suture; Group 2 (double control), suture and alginate-chitin carrier; Group 3 (alginate-control), the rhBMP-2 was added to the alginate; Group 4 (chitin-control) application of the rhBMP-2 to the chitin, and Group 5 (double sample): The two components of the carrier (alginate and chitin) have rhBMP-2. A biomechanical and histological analysis was performed at 4 weeks. A gap was observed in all cases 4 weeks after supraspinatus detachment. The re-rupture rate was 7.5%, with 20% of them in the control-alginate Group. Histologically the best results were obtained in the double sample group: 4.5 (3.3-5.0). Double sample were also able to support higher loads to failure: 62.9N (59.8 to 69.4) with lower rigidity 12.7 (9.7 to 15.9). The use of alginate-chitin carrier with rhBMP-2 improves the biomechanical and histological properties of the repair site in a chronic rotator cuff tear. Copyright © 2016 SECOT. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Explanatory Research on the Protection of Carbon-Carbon Composites against Oxidation at Very High Temperatures (>3000 Deg F)with Engel-Brewer and Other Intermetallic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-01

    34Kinetics of Limestone Calcination," Proceedings3 Extractive Metallurgy Laboratory Exercises, AIME, 1982, pp. 23- 33. G.R. St.Pierre, "Desulphurization of...RESEARCH INTERESTS: High temperature materials, corrosion, extractive metallurgy , electrochemistry, thermodynamics and kinetics. 3 3 SOCIETAL ACTIVITIES...national activities. COMMITTEE SERVICE: Amer. Inst. Metall. Engrs. Physical Chemistry of Extractive Metallurgy Committee of AIME, (1964-66, Chairman 1966

  6. Different surface preparation techniques of porcelain repaired with composite resin and fracture resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Helmy Khalid Abd Wahab

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Porcelain from prosthesis such as crown or bridge can be fractured if exposed to trauma; and, can be repaired at chairside using composite resin. Aim : To investigate the fracture resistance of few techniques of surface preparation in repairing fractured porcelain using composite resin. Materials and Methods : Eighty samples of porcelain blocks were divided into 4 groups for different surface preparations, such as, Cimara repairing kit; porcelain etch kit containing hydrofluoric acid; Panavia F resin cement; and, sandblasting using aluminium oxide, before composite resin (Filtek Z250, 3M ESPE was bonded to the prepared porcelain blocks. Twenty others samples in the control group comprised of pure porcelain blocks. The fracture resistance of each sample was tested using Instron machine (UK. Results : With the exception of the group repaired using hydrofluoric acid (3.04±1.04 Mpa, all the other groups showed significant difference in the fracture resistance values when compared to the control group (3.05 ± 1.42 MPa at P<0.05. Conclusions : Etching of the porcelain blocks with hydrofluoric acid holds promise in the repair of fractured porcelain with composite resin at chairside.

  7. Repair bond strength in aged methacrylate- and silorane-based composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchi, Atais; Consani, Rafael Leonardo; Sinhoreti, Mario Alexandre; Feitosa, Victor Pinheiro; Cavalcante, Larissa Maria; Pfeifer, Carmem Silva; Schneider, Luis Felipe

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the tensile bond strength at repaired interfaces of aged dental composites, either dimethacrylate- or silorane-based, when subjected to different surface treatments. The composites used were Filtek P60 (methacrylate-based, 3M ESPE) and Filtek P90 (silorane-based, 3M ESPE), of which 50 slabs were stored for 6 months at 37°C. The surface of adhesion was abraded with a 600-grit silicone paper and the slabs repaired with the respective composite, according to the following surface treatment protocols: G1: no treatment; G2: adhesive application; G3: silane + adhesive; G4: sandblasting (Al2O3) + adhesive; G5: sandblasting (Al2O3) + silane + adhesive. After 24-h storage in distilled water at 37°C, tensile bond strength (TBS) was determined in a universal testing machine (Instron 4411) at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The original data were submitted to two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α = 5%). The methacrylate-based composite presented a statistically significantly higher repair potential than did the silorane-based resin (p = 0.0002). Of the surface treatments for the silorane-based composite, aluminum-oxide air abrasion and adhesive (18.5 ± 3.3MPa) provided higher bond strength than only adhesive application or the control group without surface treatment. For Filtek P60, the control without treatment presented lower repair strength than all other groups with surface treatments, which were statistically similar to each other. The interaction between the factors resin composite and surface treatment was significant (p = 0.002). For aged silorane-based materials, repairs were considered successful after sandblasting (Al2O3) and adhesive application. For methacrylate resin, repair was successful with all surface treatments tested.

  8. Effect of Various Surface Treatment on Repair Strength of Composite Resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Alizade

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: In some clinical situations, repair of composite restorations is treatment of choice. Improving the bond strength between one new and old composite usually requires increased surface roughness to promote mechanical interlocking sincechemical bonding might not be adequate. Similarly, the treatment of a laboratory fabricated resin composite restoration involves the same procedures, and there is a need to create the strongest possible bond of a resin cement to a previously polymerized composite.Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of various surface treatments on the shear bond strength of repaired to aged composite resin.Materials and Methods: Eighty four cylindrical specimens of a composite resin were fabricated and stored in distilled water for 100 days prior to surface treatment. Surface treatment of old composite was done in 6 groups as follow:1- Air abrasion with CoJet sand particles with micoretcher + silane + dentin bonding agent2- Air abrasion with 50μm Al2O3 particles+ phosphoric acid+ silane+ dentin bonding agent3- Air abrasion with 50μm Al2O3 particles + phosphoric acid + dentin bonding agent4- Diamond bur + phosphoric acid + silane + dentin bonding agent5- Diamond bur + phosphoric acid + dentin bonding agent6- Diamond bur + phosphoric acid + composite activator + dentin bonding agentThen fresh composite resin was bonded to treated surfaces. Twelve specimens were also fabricated as control group with the same diameter but with the height twice as much as other specimens. All of the specimens were thermocycled prior to testing for shear bondstrength. The bond strength data were analyzed statistically using one way ANOVA test, t test and Duncan's grouping test.Results: One-way ANOVA indicated no significant difference between 7 groups (P=0.059. One-way ANOVA indicated significant difference between the three diamond bur groups (P=0.036. Silane had a significant effect on the repair bond

  9. Composite materials. Volume 1: Properties, non-destructive testing, and repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, M.M. [United Technologies Corp., East Hartford, CT (United States)

    1997-12-31

    This book provides a practical overview of the different types, properties, applications and design implementations of the latest composite materials. It describes important composite families, including metals, ceramics, polymers and other engineered materials; shows how each type of composite may be designed, manufactured, strengthened, and repaired; introduces composite modeling techniques; and explains the major industrial applications for composites. Primary markets for this book include materials engineers and designers in aerospace, automotive and transportation industries; works managers, facilities engineers, test engineers, plant engineers, manufacturing and industrial engineers, and production managers; students in material science, mechanical engineering and metallurgy.

  10. Use of composite polyester/collagen mesh in the repair of recurrent congenital diaphragmatic hernias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin C. Wang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Case 1 is an 18 year-old woman with a third recurrence of a left congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH. She had previously undergone a primary repair of a recurrence via laparotomy and an additional repair of a second recurrence with PTFE mesh via a thoracotomy. Following her third recurrence she underwent successful laparoscopic repair utilizing composite polyester/collagen (Parietex™ Composite, Covidien, Sofradim, France mesh. Six years following surgery, she has carried a pregnancy to term and has not recurred. Case 2 is a 5 month-old infant who presented with a recurrent right-sided CDH. She initially underwent primary repair via thoracotomy along with a right pneumonectomy at an outside institution. She presented with incarceration of her liver, hepatic venous thrombosis, mediastinal shift, and respiratory distress. She underwent successful repair with composite mesh through a right thoracoabdominal incision. At 8 months post-operatively, she has no evidence of recurrence in spite of the expected mediastinal deviation to the right and right thoracic volume loss as a result of being status post right pneumonectomy. Recurrences occur in a significant number of patients following repair of congenital diaphragmatic hernia, particularly cases in which a mesh implant are utilized. Historically, PTFE has been the product of choice for a diaphragmatic implant by pediatric surgeons. However, this product does not incorporate into surrounding tissues which theoretically places patients at risk for recurrence. Polyester/collagen composite mesh has been used for decades in adults undergoing complex groin and ventral hernia repairs with excellent results. However, its use for congenital diaphragmatic hernias has not been previously described. We present the successful utilization of this product in two cases which were at extremely high risk for future recurrence. Additional investigations should be done and long term follow up regarding application of

  11. High temperature materials and mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    The use of high-temperature materials in current and future applications, including silicone materials for handling hot foods and metal alloys for developing high-speed aircraft and spacecraft systems, has generated a growing interest in high-temperature technologies. High Temperature Materials and Mechanisms explores a broad range of issues related to high-temperature materials and mechanisms that operate in harsh conditions. While some applications involve the use of materials at high temperatures, others require materials processed at high temperatures for use at room temperature. High-temperature materials must also be resistant to related causes of damage, such as oxidation and corrosion, which are accelerated with increased temperatures. This book examines high-temperature materials and mechanisms from many angles. It covers the topics of processes, materials characterization methods, and the nondestructive evaluation and health monitoring of high-temperature materials and structures. It describes the ...

  12. Fatigue testing of steel pipes repaired with carbon/epoxy composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Jeffrey M.; Kessler, Michael R. [University of Tulsa, OK (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Walker, Roger H.; Duell, Joshua M. [Citadel Technologies (CTI Services LLC), Tulsa, OK (United States); Kadakia, Dixit; Sousa, Nuno [T.D. Williamson, Inc., Tulsa, OK (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Fatigue tests were performed on pressure vessels to determine the effectiveness of repairs made using a carbon/epoxy composite material system. The carbon/epoxy system is intended to repair externally damaged or corroded steel pipe where blunt defects are present. 6.0 inch (15.2 cm) nominal diameter by 5.0 feet (1.52 m) long pressure vessels were constructed from A-106 Grade B steel for test purposes. Defects were machined into the outer surface of each vessel to determine limitations of the carbon/epoxy repair system. Two test plans were used in this work. The vessels of the first test plan contained relatively sharp defects and were subjected to internal pressure fluctuations between 13 and 113% of MAOP. The vessels of the second test plan contained more blunt-like defects and were cyclically pressurized from 55 to 100% of the pipe MAOP. Results indicate there is substantial increase in the performance of pipes repaired with the carbon/epoxy composite compared to those with no repairs. At the conclusion of the cyclical pressurization, the pipes with the carbon/epoxy repair were pressurized monotonically until rupture occurred. From the second test plan, the monotonic rupture data after fatigue showed no degradation in failure pressures compared with rupture data of non-fatigued vessels. (author)

  13. Paired observation on light-cured composite resin and nano-composite resin in dental caries repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoling, Tao; Ashraf, Muhammad Aqeel; Yanyan, Zhao

    2016-11-01

    To compare the value of light-cured composite resin with that of nano-composite resin in dental caries repair. 88 patients taking dental caries repair in our hospital from May 2014 to April 2015 were selected, and divided into observation group and control group by coin method with 44 patients in each group. Nano-composite resin was used in observation group, while light-cured composite resin in control group. Then, the occurrence rates of odontohyperesthesia, aesthetic satisfaction with dental caries repair and complications were compared between two groups by visual analogue scale (VAS). The occurrence rate of odontohyperesthesia in observation group is significantly lower than that in control group (9.09% (4/44) vs 31.82% (14/44), 6.82% (3/44) vs 22.73% (10/44), 2.27% (1/44) vs 13.64% (6/44)) with difference of statistical significance (Pcomposite resin can lower the occurrence rate of odontohyperesthesia in dental caries repair, reduce the pain of patients, and improve the satisfaction of patients with tooth appearance.

  14. Bioactive glass/polymer composites for bone and nerve repair and regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadkhah, Ali

    Bioactive glasses have several attractive properties in hard and soft tissue repair but their brittleness limited their use, as scaffolding materials, for applications in load-bearing hard tissue repair. At the same time, because of their bioactive properties, they are being studied more often for soft tissue repair. In the present work, a new glass/polymer composite scaffold was developed for the repair of load-bearing bones with high flexural strength and without brittle behavior. The new composites have 2.5 times higher flexural strength and ˜100 times higher work of fracture (without catastrophic failure) compared to a similar bare glass scaffold. Also the use of two known bioactive glasses (13-93-B3 and 45S5) was investigated in developing glass/Poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) composite films for peripheral nerve repair. It was found that a layer of globular hydroxyapatite (HA) formed on both sides of the composites. The borate glass in the composites was fully reacted in SBF and different ions were released into the solution. The addition of bioactive glass particles to the PCL lowered its elastic modulus and yield strength, but the composites remained intact after the 14 day period in SBF at 37°C. Finally, in an effort to design a better bioactive glass, new borosilicate glass compositions were developed that possess advantages of borate and silicate bioactive glasses at the same time. It was found that replacing small amounts of B2O3 with SiO2 improved glass formation, resistance to nucleation and crystallization, and increased the release rate of boron and silicon in vitro. This new borosilicate glass could be a good alternative to existing silicate and borate bioactive glasses.

  15. Repair bond strength of dual-cured resin composite core buildup materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Deeb, Heba A; Ghalab, Radwa M; Elsayed Akah, Mai M; Mobarak, Enas H

    2016-03-01

    The reparability of dual-cured resin composite core buildup materials using a light-cured one following one week or three months storage, prior to repair was evaluated. Two different dual-cured resin composites; Cosmecore™ DC automix and Clearfil™ DC automix core buildup materials and a light-cured nanofilled resin composite; Filtek™ Z350 XT were used. Substrate specimens were prepared (n = 12/each substrate material) and stored in artificial saliva at 37 °C either for one week or three months. Afterward, all specimens were ground flat, etched using Scotchbond™ phosphoric acid etchant and received Single Bond Universal adhesive system according to the manufacturers' instructions. The light-cured nanofilled resin composite (Filtek™ Z350 XT) was used as a repair material buildup. To determine the cohesive strength of each solid substrate material, additional specimens from each core material (n = 12) were prepared and stored for the same periods. Five sticks (0.8 ± 0.01 mm(2)) were obtained from each specimen (30 sticks/group) for microtensile bond strength (μTBS) testing. Modes of failure were also determined. Two-way ANOVA revealed a significant effect for the core materials but not for the storage periods or their interaction. After one week, dual-cured resin composite core buildup materials (Cosmecore™ DC and Clearfil™ DC) achieved significantly higher repair μTBS than the light-cured nanofilled resin composite (Filtek™ Z350 XT). However, Clearfil™ DC revealed the highest value, then Cosmecore™ DC and Filtek™ Z350 XT, following storage for 3-month. Repair strength values recovered 64-86% of the cohesive strengths of solid substrate materials. The predominant mode of failure was the mixed type. Dual-cured resin composite core buildup materials revealed acceptable repair bond strength values even after 3-month storage.

  16. Self-healing composites: in-situ repair solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coope, T.S.; Luterbacher, R.; Turkenburg, D.H.; Fischer, H.R.; Bond, I.P.

    2015-01-01

    Realising self-healing composites in a commercial environment remains a challenge for the transport sector. Herein, this research considers the design envelope and the implications of embedding self-healing agents into commercially relevant fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) composite applications. A no

  17. High temperature interfacial superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozovic, Ivan [Mount Sinai, NY; Logvenov, Gennady [Port Jefferson Station, NY; Gozar, Adrian Mihai [Port Jefferson, NY

    2012-06-19

    High-temperature superconductivity confined to nanometer-scale interfaces has been a long standing goal because of potential applications in electronic devices. The spontaneous formation of a superconducting interface in bilayers consisting of an insulator (La.sub.2CuO.sub.4) and a metal (La.sub.1-xSr.sub.xCuO.sub.4), neither of which is superconducting per se, is described. Depending upon the layering sequence of the bilayers, T.sub.c may be either .about.15 K or .about.30 K. This highly robust phenomenon is confined to within 2-3 nm around the interface. After exposing the bilayer to ozone, T.sub.c exceeds 50 K and this enhanced superconductivity is also shown to originate from a 1 to 2 unit cell thick interfacial layer. The results demonstrate that engineering artificial heterostructures provides a novel, unconventional way to fabricate stable, quasi two-dimensional high T.sub.c phases and to significantly enhance superconducting properties in other superconductors. The superconducting interface may be implemented, for example, in SIS tunnel junctions or a SuFET.

  18. High temperature interface superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gozar, A., E-mail: adrian.gozar@yale.edu [Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Bozovic, I. [Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    Highlight: • This review article covers the topic of high temperature interface superconductivity. • New materials and techniques used for achieving interface superconductivity are discussed. • We emphasize the role played by the differences in structure and electronic properties at the interface with respect to the bulk of the constituents. - Abstract: High-T{sub c} superconductivity at interfaces has a history of more than a couple of decades. In this review we focus our attention on copper-oxide based heterostructures and multi-layers. We first discuss the technique, atomic layer-by-layer molecular beam epitaxy (ALL-MBE) engineering, that enabled High-T{sub c} Interface Superconductivity (HT-IS), and the challenges associated with the realization of high quality interfaces. Then we turn our attention to the experiments which shed light on the structure and properties of interfacial layers, allowing comparison to those of single-phase films and bulk crystals. Both ‘passive’ hetero-structures as well as surface-induced effects by external gating are discussed. We conclude by comparing HT-IS in cuprates and in other classes of materials, especially Fe-based superconductors, and by examining the grand challenges currently laying ahead for the field.

  19. Evaluation of bisphenol E cyanate ester for the resin-injection repair of advanced composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lio, Wilber Yaote [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2009-12-01

    This thesis is a compilation of a general introduction and literature review that ties together the subsequent chapters which consist of two journal articles that have yet to be submitted for publication. The overall topic relates to the evaluation and application of a new class of cyanate ester resin with unique properties that lend it applicable to use as a resin for injection repair of high glass transition temperature polymer matrix composites. The first article (Chapter 2) details the evaluation and optimization of adhesive properties of this cyanate ester and alumina nanocomposites under different conditions. The second article (Chapter 3) describes the development and evaluation of an injection repair system for repairing delaminations in polymer matrix composites.

  20. Effects of three surface conditioning techniques on repair bond strength of nanohybrid and nanofilled composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negin Nassoohi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Repair bond strength of different composite resins has been assessed in few studies. In addition, reports on the efficacy of surface treatments are debated. Therefore, this in vitro study was conducted to evaluate the effect of three surface treatments on two nanocomposites versus a microhybrid composite. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 135 composite blocks (45 specimens per composite of microhybrid (Filtek Supreme Z250, 3M ESPE, USA, nanohybrid (Filtek Supreme XT, 3M ESPE, and nanofilled (Filtek Supreme Z350, 3M ESPE were thermocycled (5000 rounds and then surface roughened (except in a control group of 9 specimens of three composite types. Each composite type was divided into three subgroups of surface treatments: (1 Bur abrading and phosphoric acid (PA etching, (2 sandblasting and PA etching, and (3 hydrofluoric etching and silane application (n = 15 × 9, complying with ISO TR11405. Composite blocks were repaired with the same composite type but of a different color. Microtensile bond strength and modes of failure were analyzed statistically using two-way analyses of variance, Tukey and Chi-square tests (α = 0.05. Results: There were significant differences between three composite resins (P < 0.0001 and treatment techniques (P < 0.0001. Their interaction was nonsignificant (P = 0.228. The difference between nanofilled and nanohybrid was not significant. However, the microhybrid composite showed a significantly higher bond strength (Tukey P < 0.05. Sandblasting was significantly superior to the other two methods, which were not different from each other. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this in vitro study, it seems that microhybrid composite might have higher repair strengths than two evaluated nanocomposites. Among the assessed preparation techniques, sandblasting followed by PA etching might produce the highest bond strength.

  1. Effects of three surface conditioning techniques on repair bond strength of nanohybrid and nanofilled composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassoohi, Negin; Kazemi, Haleh; Sadaghiani, Morad; Mansouri, Mona; Rakhshan, Vahid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Repair bond strength of different composite resins has been assessed in few studies. In addition, reports on the efficacy of surface treatments are debated. Therefore, this in vitro study was conducted to evaluate the effect of three surface treatments on two nanocomposites versus a microhybrid composite. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 135 composite blocks (45 specimens per composite) of microhybrid (Filtek Supreme Z250, 3M ESPE, USA), nanohybrid (Filtek Supreme XT, 3M ESPE), and nanofilled (Filtek Supreme Z350, 3M ESPE) were thermocycled (5000 rounds) and then surface roughened (except in a control group of 9 specimens of three composite types). Each composite type was divided into three subgroups of surface treatments: (1) Bur abrading and phosphoric acid (PA) etching, (2) sandblasting and PA etching, and (3) hydrofluoric etching and silane application (n = 15 × 9, complying with ISO TR11405). Composite blocks were repaired with the same composite type but of a different color. Microtensile bond strength and modes of failure were analyzed statistically using two-way analyses of variance, Tukey and Chi-square tests (α = 0.05). Results: There were significant differences between three composite resins (P < 0.0001) and treatment techniques (P < 0.0001). Their interaction was nonsignificant (P = 0.228). The difference between nanofilled and nanohybrid was not significant. However, the microhybrid composite showed a significantly higher bond strength (Tukey P < 0.05). Sandblasting was significantly superior to the other two methods, which were not different from each other. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this in vitro study, it seems that microhybrid composite might have higher repair strengths than two evaluated nanocomposites. Among the assessed preparation techniques, sandblasting followed by PA etching might produce the highest bond strength. PMID:26759592

  2. A New Type of High-temperature Surface Composite Layer%一种新型耐高温表面复合层的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李科; 陈辉; 朱腾辉

    2011-01-01

    为提高耐高温合金工作层性能,本文采用材料逆向设计准则及表面复合技术,在耐高温合金表面堆焊熔敷层金属,并对堆焊金属的高温磨损性能及热疲劳行为进行了研究.结果表明,在转速一定时,随着试验温度的升高,堆焊层的磨损失重量先增加后减少;在试验温度一定时,随着转速的增加,材料的磨损失重量也是先增加后减少;堆焊层在上限温度为400℃和600℃时,具有良好的热疲劳性能.该材料可作为高速列车制动盘、石油钻机盘式刹车制动盘等高能制动盘工作层材料.%For the purpose of improving the working performances of high-temperature alloys, the reversal designing standard on materials and the surface recombination technology were put into research in this paper. High temperature wear resistance and thermal fatigue behavior of welding surface layer based on the high-temperature alloy were studied. The results show that, the wear weight loss at a certain temperature increased and then decreased with increasing the test speed. It is also showed that the wear weight loss increased and then decreased with increasing the test temperature at a certain rotation speed. The welding surface layer has excellent thermal fatigue performance when the test temperature at 400℃ and 600℃, which can be used as the working layer of high-energy brake discs such as the brake discs of high-speed trains and oil drilling rigs.

  3. Advances in high temperature chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Eyring, Leroy

    1969-01-01

    Advances in High Temperature Chemistry, Volume 2 covers the advances in the knowledge of the high temperature behavior of materials and the complex and unfamiliar characteristics of matter at high temperature. The book discusses the dissociation energies and free energy functions of gaseous monoxides; the matrix-isolation technique applied to high temperature molecules; and the main features, the techniques for the production, detection, and diagnosis, and the applications of molecular beams in high temperatures. The text also describes the chemical research in streaming thermal plasmas, as w

  4. Toward absolute chemical composition distribution measurement of polyolefins by high-temperature liquid chromatography hyphenated with infrared absorbance and light scattering detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dean; Shan, Colin Li Pi; Meunier, David M; Lyons, John W; Cong, Rongjuan; deGroot, A Willem

    2014-09-02

    Chemical composition distribution (CCD) is a fundamental metric for representing molecular structures of copolymers in addition to molecular weight distribution (MWD). Solvent gradient interaction chromatography (SGIC) is commonly used to separate copolymers by chemical composition in order to obtain CCD. The separation of polymer in SGIC is, however, not only affected by chemical composition but also by molecular weight and architecture. The ability to measure composition and MW simultaneously after separation would be beneficial for understanding the impact of different factors and deriving true CCD. In this study, comprehensive two-dimensional chromatography (2D) was coupled with infrared absorbance (IR5) and light scattering (LS) detectors for characterization of ethylene-propylene copolymers. Polymers were first separated by SGIC as the first dimension chromatography (D1). The separated fractions were then characterized by the second dimension (D2) size exclusion chromatography (SEC) with IR5 and LS detectors. The concentrations and compositions of the separated fractions were measured online using the IR5 detector. The MWs of the fractions were measured by the ratio of LS to IR5 signals. A metric was derived from online concentration and composition data to represent CCD breadth. The metric was shown to be independent of separation gradients for an "absolute" measurement of CCD breadth. By combining online composition and MW data, the relationship of MW as a function of chemical composition was obtained. This relationship was qualitatively consistent with the results by SEC coupled to IR5, which measures chemical composition as a function of logMW. The simultaneous measurements of composition and MW give the opportunity to study the SGIC separation mechanism and derive chain architectural characteristics of polymer chains.

  5. A comparative effect of various surface chemical treatments on the resin composite-composite repair bond strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaloo Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this in vitro study was an attempt to investigate the effect of different surface treatments on the bond strength between pre-existing composite and repair composite resin. Materials and Methods: Forty acrylic blocks were prepared in a cuboidal mould. In each block, a well of 5 mm diameter and 5 mm depth was prepared to retain the composite resin (Filtek™ Z350, 3M/ESPE. Aging of the composite discs was achieved by storing them in water at 37°C for 1 week, and after that were divided into 5 groups (n = 8 according to surface treatment: Group I- 37% phosphoric acid, Group II-10% hydrofluoric acid, Group III-30% citric acid, Group IV-7% maleic acid and Group V- Adhesive (no etchant. The etched surfaces were rinsed and dried followed by application of bonding agent (Adper™ Single Bond 2. 3M/ESPE. The repair composite was placed on aged composite, light-cured for 40 seconds and stored in water at 37°C for 1 week. Shear bond strength between the aged and the new composite resin was determined with a universal testing machine (crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. Statistical Analysis: The compressive shear strengths were compared for differences using ANOVA test followed by Tamhane′s T2 post hoc analysis. Results: The surface treatment with 10% hydrofluoric acid showed the maximum bond strength followed by 30% citric acid, 7% maleic acid and 37% phosphoric acid in decreasing order. Conclusion: The use of 10% hydrofluoric acid can be a good alternative for surface treatment in repair of composite resin restoration as compared to commonly used 37% orthophosphoric acid.

  6. Impact of new MoSi mask compositions on processing and repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garetto, Anthony; Stuckey, John; Butler, Don

    2010-09-01

    The mask industry has recently witnessed an increasing number of new MoSi mask blank materials which are quickly replacing the older materials as the standard in high end mask shops. These new materials, including OMOG (opaque MoSi on glass) and high transmission (Hi-T) films, are driven foremost by the need to reduce feature size through resolution enhancement techniques (RET). The subject of this paper is a new low stress, Hi-T material which addresses the challenges presented by transitioning to smaller technology nodes including difficulties with pattern transfer, cleaning and repair. This material, based on currently employed MoSi films, eliminates process steps and utilizes a thinner overall substrate stack than currently used Hi-T schemes allowing an increase in critical dimension (CD) uniformity and feature resolution and more robustness due to a lower aspect ratio. While this new material is MoSi based the small compositional change requires, in some cases, a significant change in processing. Among the most impacted areas are the etch, clean and repair steps. Given the potential for defects to manifest on masks, repair is an invaluable step that can significantly impact the overall yield and lead to a reduction in cycle time1. The Carl Zeiss MeRiT® electron beam mask repair line provides the most advanced repair capabilities allowing a wide range of repairs to be performed on a number of mask types2. In a joint effort between MP Mask Technology Center LLC and Carl Zeiss SMT, this paper focuses on the benefits of the new Hi-T mask blank and the challenges it presents to the repair community. The differences between the new low stress, Hi-T material and current Hi-T technologies are presented and on site compositional analysis is performed with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to illuminate the compositional differences. The development of a repair process for the new material utilizing the on-site Carl Zeiss MeRiT® MG 45 is presented along with

  7. High temperature control rod assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vollman, Russell E. (Solana Beach, CA)

    1991-01-01

    A high temperature nuclear control rod assembly comprises a plurality of substantially cylindrical segments flexibly joined together in succession by ball joints. The segments are made of a high temperature graphite or carbon-carbon composite. The segment includes a hollow cylindrical sleeve which has an opening for receiving neutron-absorbing material in the form of pellets or compacted rings. The sleeve has a threaded sleeve bore and outer threaded surface. A cylindrical support post has a threaded shaft at one end which is threadably engaged with the sleeve bore to rigidly couple the support post to the sleeve. The other end of the post is formed with a ball portion. A hollow cylindrical collar has an inner threaded surface engageable with the outer threaded surface of the sleeve to rigidly couple the collar to the sleeve. the collar also has a socket portion which cooperates with the ball portion to flexibly connect segments together to form a ball and socket-type joint. In another embodiment, the segment comprises a support member which has a threaded shaft portion and a ball surface portion. The threaded shaft portion is engageable with an inner threaded surface of a ring for rigidly coupling the support member to the ring. The ring in turn has an outer surface at one end which is threadably engageably with a hollow cylindrical sleeve. The other end of the sleeve is formed with a socket portion for engagement with a ball portion of the support member. In yet another embodiment, a secondary rod is slidably inserted in a hollow channel through the center of the segment to provide additional strength. A method for controlling a nuclear reactor utilizing the control rod assembly is also included.

  8. Novel hydrophobic associated polymer based nano-silica composite with core–shell structure for intelligent drilling fluid under ultra-high temperature and ultra-high pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Mao

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Micro-nano-based drilling fluid has attracted a strong interest due to its attractive properties, and micro-nano composite materials have great potential for developing intelligent drilling fluid. In this study a novel hydrophobic associated polymer based nano-silica composite with core–shell structure was prepared and characterized by PSD, SEM, TEM and ESEM. The results showed that the composite, as a micro-nano drilling fluid additive, possessed excellent properties such as thermal stability, rheology, fluid loss and lubricity. Especially, it could plug the formation effectively and improve the pressure bearing capability of formation significantly.

  9. Dental repair material: a resin-modified glass-ionomer bioactive ionic resin-based composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croll, Theodore P; Berg, Joel H; Donly, Kevin J

    2015-01-01

    This report documents treatment and repair of three carious teeth that were restored with a new dental repair material that features the characteristics of both resin-modified glass-ionomer restorative cement (RMGI) and resin-based composite (RBC). The restorative products presented are reported by the manufacturer to be the first bioactive dental materials with an ionic resin matrix, a shock-absorbing resin component, and bioactive fillers that mimic the physical and chemical properties of natural teeth. The restorative material and base/liner, which feature three hardening mechanisms, could prove to be a notable advancement in the adhesive dentistry restorative materials continuum.

  10. Influence of surface treatments to repair recent fillings of silorane-and methacrylate-based composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Marina; Caldas, Ricardo Armini; Feitosa, Victor Pinheiro; Xediek Consani, Rafael Leonardo; Schneider, Luis Felipe J; Bacchi, Ataís

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the tensile bond strength (TBS) of repairs in recent fillings of methacrylate- (MBC) or silorane-based composites (SBC) subsequent to different surface treatments. Fifty slabs of Filtek P60 (3M ESPE, St Paul, USA) and Filtek P90 (3M ESPE) were stored for 10 days in distilled water at 37°C. The surface of adhesion was abraded with a 600-grit silicone paper and repaired using each respective composite: G1, no treatment (control); G2, application of adhesive; G3, application of silane and adhesive; G4, sandblasting (Al2O3) and adhesive; and G5, sandblasting (Al2O3), silane, and adhesive. Further 10 slabs of each composite were also evaluated for cohesive strength (G6). After 30 days immersion in distilled water at 37°C, the TBS was determined. TBS results were higher for MBC than for SBC (P = 0.00012). The experimental groups were similar for SBC and the TBS was 27% of its cohesive strength. For P60, sandblasting significantly improved the TBS compared to other groups. With MBC, G4 and G5, the TBS was approximately 47% of its cohesive strength. Sandblasting (Al2O3) improves the repair-strength of MBC, whilst for the SBC all treatments succeed. MBC presents higher repair strength than SBC.

  11. High Temperature Aquifer Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueckert, Martina; Niessner, Reinhard; Baumann, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Combined heat and power generation (CHP) is highly efficient because excess heat is used for heating and/or process energy. However, the demand of heat energy varies considerably throughout the year while the demand for electrical energy is rather constant. It seems economically and ecologically highly beneficial for municipalities and large power consumers such as manufacturing plants to store excess heat in groundwater aquifers and to recuperate this energy at times of higher demand. Within the project High Temperature Aquifer Storage, scientists investigate storage and recuperation of excess heat energy into the bavarian Malm aquifer. Apart from high transmissivity and favorable pressure gradients, the hydrochemical conditions are crucial for long-term operation. An enormous technical challenge is the disruption of the carbonate equilibrium - modeling results indicated a carbonate precipitation of 10 - 50 kg/d in the heat exchangers. The test included five injection pulses of hot water (60 °C up to 110 °C) and four tracer pulses, each consisting of a reactive and a conservative fluorescent dye, into a depth of about 300 m b.s.l. resp. 470 m b.s.l. Injection and production rates were 15 L/s. To achieve the desired water temperatures, about 4 TJ of heat energy were necessary. Electrical conductivity, pH and temperature were recorded at a bypass where also samples were taken. A laboratory container at the drilling site was equipped for analysing the concentration of the dyes and the major cations at sampling intervals of down to 15 minutes. Additional water samples were taken and analysed in the laboratory. The disassembled heat exchanger prooved that precipitation was successfully prevented by adding CO2 to the water before heating. Nevertheless, hydrochemical data proved both, dissolution and precipitation processes in the aquifer. This was also suggested by the hydrochemical modelling with PhreeqC and is traced back to mixture dissolution and changing

  12. Standard practice for infrared flash thermography of composite panels and repair patches used in aerospace applications

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This practice describes a procedure for detecting subsurface flaws in composite panels and repair patches using Flash Thermography (FT), in which an infrared (IR) camera is used to detect anomalous cooling behavior of a sample surface after it has been heated with a spatially uniform light pulse from a flash lamp array. 1.2 This practice describes established FT test methods that are currently used by industry, and have demonstrated utility in quality assurance of composite structures during post-manufacturing and in-service examinations. 1.3 This practice has utility for testing of polymer composite panels and repair patches containing, but not limited to, bismaleimide, epoxy, phenolic, poly(amide imide), polybenzimidazole, polyester (thermosetting and thermoplastic), poly(ether ether ketone), poly(ether imide), polyimide (thermosetting and thermoplastic), poly(phenylene sulfide), or polysulfone matrices; and alumina, aramid, boron, carbon, glass, quartz, or silicon carbide fibers. Typical as-fabricate...

  13. An Enhanced Vacuum Cure Technique for On-Aircraft Repair of Carbon-Bismaleimide Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rider, Andrew N.; Baker, Alan A.; Wang, Chun H.; Smith, Graeme

    2011-06-01

    Carbon/bismaleimide (BMI) composite is increasingly employed in critical load carrying aircraft structures designed to operate at temperatures approaching 180°C. The high post-cure temperature (above 220°C) required to fully react the BMI resin, however, renders existing on-aircraft prepreg or wet layup repair methods invalid. This paper presents a new on-aircraft repair technique for carbon/BMI composites. The composite prepregs are first warm-staged to improve the ability to evacuate entrapped air. Then the patch is cured in the scarf cavity using the vacuum bag technique, followed by off-aircraft post-cure. The fully cured patch then can be bonded using a structural adhesive.

  14. Enamel for high-temperature superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, H.; Lent, W. E.

    1977-01-01

    Desired optical and high temperature enamel properties are obtained with glasses prepared from the system Li2O-ZrO2-nSiO2. Molar compositions range from n=4 to n=1.3, to which are added minor amounts in varying combinations of alumina, alkali fluorides, boric oxide, alkali oxides, and akaline earth oxides.

  15. Development and validation of nondestructive inspection techniques for composite doubler repairs on commercial aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roach, D.; Walkington, P.

    1998-05-01

    Composite doublers, or repair patches, provide an innovative repair technique which can enhance the way aircraft are maintained. Instead of riveting multiple steel or aluminum plates to facilitate an aircraft repair, it is possible to bond a single boron-epoxy composite doubler to the damaged structure. In order for the use of composite doublers to achieve widespread use in the civil aviation industry, it is imperative that methods be developed which can quickly and reliably assess the integrity of the doubler. In this study, a specific composite application was chosen on an L-1011 aircraft in order to focus the tasks on application and operation issues. Primary among inspection requirements for these doublers is the identification of disbonds, between the composite laminate and aluminum parent material, and delaminations in the composite laminate. Surveillance of cracks or corrosion in the parent aluminum material beneath the doubler is also a concern. No single nondestructive inspection (NDI) method can inspect for every flaw type, therefore it is important to be aware of available NDI techniques and to properly address their capabilities and limitations. A series of NDI tests were conducted on laboratory test structures and on full-scale aircraft fuselage sections. Specific challenges, unique to bonded composite doubler applications, were highlighted. An array of conventional and advanced NDI techniques were evaluated. Flaw detection sensitivity studies were conducted on applicable eddy current, ultrasonic, X-ray and thermography based devices. The application of these NDI techniques to composite doublers and the results from test specimens, which were loaded to provide a changing flaw profile, are presented in this report. It was found that a team of these techniques can identify flaws in composite doubler installations well before they reach critical size.

  16. Low velocity impact response and damage evolution in unreinforced resin systems and self-repairing polymer matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motuku, Molefi

    The low velocity impact response and damage evolution in unreinforced polymer matrices, conventional polymer matrix composites, and self-repairing polymer matrix composites was investigated. The impact response study of unreinforced matrices and conventional laminates was undertaken because the failure initiation energies, threshold energy levels, failure characteristics and damage evolution in both the matrix material (unreinforced resin plaques) and the composite are intrinsic to proper design of a self-repairing composite. The self-repairing concept was investigated due to its attractive potential to alleviate damage problems in polymer matrix composites. Self-repairing composites, which fall under the category of passive smart polymer composites, have the potential to self repair both micro- and macro-damage resulting from impacts as well as non-impact loading. The self-repairing mechanism is achieved through the incorporation of hollow fibers in addition to the normal solid reinforcing fibers. The hollow fibers store the damage-repairing solution or chemicals that are released into the matrix or damaged zone upon fiber failure to repair and/or arrest damage progression. The room temperature low velocity impact response and damage evolution in DERAKANE 411-350 and 411-C50 vinyl ester unreinforced resin systems was investigated as a function of impact energy level, sample thickness, matrix material and catalyst system. The low velocity impact response of conventional and self-repairing glass reinforced polymer composites was investigated by addressing the fabrication and some of the parameters that influence their response to low velocity impact loading. Specific issues addressed by this study include developing a process to fabricate self-repairing laminates, processing quality; selection of storage material for the repairing solution; release and transportation of repairing solution; the effect of the number, type and spatial distribution of the repairing

  17. A Novel Porous Gelatin Composite Containing Naringin for Bone Repair

    OpenAIRE

    Kuo-Yu Chen; Kuen-Cherng Lin; Yueh-Sheng Chen; Chun-Hsu Yao

    2013-01-01

    As Gu-Sui-Bu (GSB) is a commonly used Chinese medical herb for therapeutic treatment of bone-related diseases, naringin is its main active component. This study elucidates how various concentrations of naringin solution affect the activities of bone cells, based on colorimetric, alkaline phosphatase activity, nodule formation, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity assays to determine the optimal concentration of naringin. GGT composite was obtained by combining genipin cross-linked...

  18. Challenges and Progress in the Development of High-Temperature Shape Memory Alloys Based on NiTiX Compositions for High-Force Actuator Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, Santo, II; Bigelow, Glen; Noebe, Ronald; Gaydosh, Darrell; Garg, Anita

    2006-01-01

    Interest in high-temperature shape memory alloys (HTSMA) has been growing in the aerospace, automotive, process control, and energy industries. However, actual materials development has seriously lagged component design, with current commercial NiTi alloys severely limited in their temperature capability. Additions of Pd, Pt, Au, Hf, and Zr at levels greater than 10 at.% have been shown to increase the transformation temperature of NiTi alloys, but with few exceptions, the shape memory behavior (strain recovery) of these NiTiX systems has been determined only under stress free conditions. Given the limited amount of basic mechanical test data and general lack of information regarding the work attributes of these materials, a program to investigate the mechanical behavior of potential HTSMAs, with transformation temperatures between 100 and 500 C, was initiated. This paper summarizes the results of studies, focusing on both the practical temperature limitations for ternary TiNiPd and TiNiPt systems based on the work output of these alloys and the ability of these alloys to undergo repeated thermal cycling under load without significant permanent deformation or "walking". These issues are ultimately controlled by the detwinning stress of the martensite and resistance to dislocation slip of the individual martensite and austenite phases. Finally, general rules that govern the development of useful, high work output, next-generation HTSMA materials, based on the lessons learned in this work, will be provided

  19. High-Temperature Piezoelectric Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoning Jiang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric sensing is of increasing interest for high-temperature applications in aerospace, automotive, power plants and material processing due to its low cost, compact sensor size and simple signal conditioning, in comparison with other high-temperature sensing techniques. This paper presented an overview of high-temperature piezoelectric sensing techniques. Firstly, different types of high-temperature piezoelectric single crystals, electrode materials, and their pros and cons are discussed. Secondly, recent work on high-temperature piezoelectric sensors including accelerometer, surface acoustic wave sensor, ultrasound transducer, acoustic emission sensor, gas sensor, and pressure sensor for temperatures up to 1,250 °C were reviewed. Finally, discussions of existing challenges and future work for high-temperature piezoelectric sensing are presented.

  20. High-temperature polyimide composites and its application in aeronautical engine%航空发动机用PMR聚酰亚胺树脂基复合材料

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭必恩; 益小苏

    2001-01-01

    This paper reviewed the progress of high-temperature PMR type polyimide matrix composites, and summarized its application in aeronautical engine field.%较全面地综述了PMR聚酰亚胺树脂及其复合材料的制备、性能,并总结了其在航空发动机上的应用情况,分析了目前存在的问题,并提出了将来可能的发展方向。

  1. Fabrication of high performance 2.5D SiO{sub 2f}/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}-BN composites for high-temperature application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Y.G.; Zhang, C.R.; Cao, F.; Wang, S.Q.; Hu, H.F.; Qi, G.J. [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Ceramic Fibers and Composites, College of Aerospace and Materials Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha (China)

    2007-01-15

    A radar window for a re-entry vehicle should process critical mechanical properties. Fused silica, BN and Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} ceramics are the three popular materials for such applications, but are limited in some fields for their intrinsic disadvantages. In the present study, 2.5 dimensional silica fiber reinforced Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}-BN matrix composites were prepared by a PIP method through repeated infiltration of hybrid precursor and pyrolysis at high temperature in ammonia atmosphere. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  2. Development of structural health monitoring systems for composite bonded repairs on aircraft structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galea, Stephen C.; Powlesland, Ian G.; Moss, Scott D.; Konak, Michael J.; van der Velden, Stephen P.; Stade, Bryan; Baker, Alan A.

    2001-08-01

    The application of bonded composite patches to repair or reinforce defective metallic structures is becoming recognized as a very effective versatile repair procedure for many types of problems. Immediate applications of bonded patches are in the fields of repair of cracking, localized reinforcement after removal of corrosion damage and for reduction of fatigue strain. However, bonded repairs to critical components are generally limited due to certification concerns. For certification and management of repairs to critical structure, the Smart Patch approach may be an acceptable solution from the airworthiness prospective and be cost effective for the operator and may even allow some relaxation of the certification requirements. In the most basic form of the Smart Patch in-situ sensors can be used as the nerve system to monitor in service the structural condition (health or well-being) of the patch system and the status of the remaining damage in the parent structure. This application would also allow the operator to move away from current costly time-based maintenance procedures toward real-time health condition monitoring of the bonded repair and the repaired structure. TO this end a stand-alone data logger device, for the real-time health monitoring of bonded repaired systems, which is in close proximity to sensors on a repair is being developed. The instrumentation will measure, process and store sensor measurements during flight and then allow this data to be up-loaded, after the flight, onto a PC, via remote (wireless) data access. This paper describes two in-situ health monitoring systems which will be used on a composite bonded patch applied to an F/A-18. The two systems being developed consists of a piezoelectric (PVDF) film-based and a conventional electrical-resistance foil strain gauge-based sensing system. The latter system uses a primary cell (Lithium- based battery) as the power source, which should enable an operating life of 1-2 years. The patch

  3. The Influence of Al4C3 Nanoparticles on the Physical and Mechanical Properties of Metal Matrix Composites at High Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorozhtsov, S.; Kolarik, V.; Promakhov, V.; Zhukov, I.; Vorozhtsov, A.; Kuchenreuther-Hummel, V.

    2016-05-01

    Metal matrix composites (MMC) based on aluminum and reinforced with nonmetallic particles are of great practical interest due to their potentially high physico-mechanical properties. In this work, Al-Al4C3 composites were obtained by a hot-compacting method. Introduction of nanodiamonds produced by detonation to the Al powder in an amount of 10 wt.% led to the formation of ~15 wt.% of aluminum carbide during hot compacting. It was found that composite materials with the diamond content of 10 wt.% in the initial powder mix have an average microhardness of 1550 MPa, whilst the similarly compacted aluminum powder without reinforcing particles shows a hardness of 750 MPa. The mechanical properties of an Al-Al4C3 MMC at elevated test temperatures exceeded those of commercial casting aluminum alloys such as A356.

  4. The High Temperature Creep Behavior of Dispersion Strengthened Pt5Rh Composite%Pt5Rh ODS复合材料的高温蠕变性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张吉明; 耿永红; 陈松; 管伟明; 张昆华

    2011-01-01

    采用大塑性变形法制备氧化物弥散强化铂铑(Pt5Rh ODS)复合材料,对材料进行了高温蠕变试验.结果表明,复合材料在高温低应力条件下,表现出的名义应力指数随温度变化较小,名义激活能高于纯Pt和Pt10Rh合金,而且比常规合金材料具有更好的高温蠕变性能.复合材料的高温蠕变性能用晶界反应控制来解释,说明复合材料的蠕变受到扩散蠕变机制控制.复合材料的蠕变断裂行为符合连续蠕变损伤中的内截面损伤模型,蠕变断裂特征为沿晶断裂.%Adopting a large plastic deformation process,the dispersion strengthened PtSRh composite was prepared.The microstructure of the composite was analyzed by SEM,and the high temperature creep tests were carried out by a self-made high temperature creep test facility.The experimem results show that at high temperature and under low load the stress exponent of the dispersion strengthened Pt5Rh alloy does not change obviously with increasing of the temperature,and its apparent activation energy is much higher than those of pure platinum and Pt10Rh alloy.The high temperature creep properties of the dispersion strengthened Pt5Rh are better than those of conventional alloys.The creep mechanism of the dispersion strengthened Pt5Rh belongs to the proliferation creep mechanism; the creep fracture at high temperatures presents the brittle fracture.

  5. Mechanical Behavior of Sic Fiber-Sic Matrix Composite and Correlation to In Situ Fiber Properites at Room and High Temperatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuqi Guo; Yutaka Kagawa

    2000-01-01

    @@ Tensile mechanical properties of PIP-processed 2D, plain-woven fabric. BN-coated Hi-NicalonTM SiC fiber-reinforced SiC matrix composite at room temperature (298 K), 1400 and 1600 K in air have been studied.Young's modulus and tensile strength of the composite decrease with the increase of test temperature, especially at 1600 K a considerable reduction is observed. The tensile strength is found to be consistent with the value predicted by a global load sharing model, based on the actual in situ fiber strength properties which are obtained by a fracture mirror method.

  6. Evaluation of Resin-Resin Interface in Direct Composite Restoration Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoleriu, S.; Andrian, S.; Pancu, G.; Nica, I.; Iovan, G.

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the resin-resin interface when a universal bonding agent was used in two different strategies in direct restoration repair. Two composite resins (a micro-filled hybrid and a nano-filled hybrid) as old restorations that have to be repair, a universal bonding agent and a micro-filled hybrid composite resin (different then that aged) as new material for repair were chosen for the study. Non-aged samples were used as control and aged samples were used as study groups. The universal bonding agent was applied in etch-and-rinse and in self-etch strategies. The interface between old and new composite resins was evaluated by SEM and the microleakage was assessed by scoring the dye penetration. Very good adaptation of the two different composite resins placed in direct contact in non-aged samples was recorded. No gaps or defects were visible and strong resin-resin contact was observed. After aging, enlargement of resin-resin junction were observed in most of the samples and a increased dye penetration was recorded irrespective of the strategy (etch-and-rinse or self-etch) used for bonding agent application.

  7. High Temperature Protonic Conductors by Melt Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    ceramic materials of BaCe1 -xNdxO3-a and Ba3(CaNb2)O9 that exhibit high temperature protonic conductance and superior mechanical properties at elevated...TEM). The mechanical behavior BaCe1 -xNdxO3-a (x=0 to 0.2) and Ba3(CaNb2)O9 ceramics in the elastic, brittle and plastic regime will be studied...spatial variations of compositions in BaCe1 -xNdxO3-a and Ba3(CaNb2)O9 following high temperature wet atmosphere treatment will be measured using a

  8. Changes in the Composition of Raw Tea Leaves from the Korean Yabukida Plant during High-temperature Processing to Pan-Fried Kamairi-cha Green Tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    To develop a better understanding of compositional changes occurring during the production of commercial teas, we determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) changes in ingredient levels during each of several manufacturing steps used to produce Kamairi-cha, a premium green tea. We ...

  9. Polymer-precursor-derived (am-) SiC/TiC composites for resistive heaters in large volume multi-anvil high pressure/high-temperature apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Li; Schwarz, Marcus; Zhang, Rui; Kroke, Edwin

    2016-04-01

    (Amorphous-)SiC/TiC composites for resistive tubular heaters in HP/HT experiments were obtained via a polymer-precursor process. A slurry consisting of a commercial SiC-precursor polymer (allylhydridopolycarbosilane, AHPCS) and TiC powder as conductive filler was applied to the inner walls of zirconia insulation tubes, using a centrifugation-casting method. Resistive coatings with homogeneous thickness of ∼200 μm were obtained. The heaters were tested in octahedral multi-anvil assemblies at ∼10 GPa with simultaneous recording of heating voltage and current. Up to a maximum temperature of ∼1800°C they showed temperature vs. power characteristics reproducible from batch to batch, with resistance decreasing from 0.08 to 0.02 Ω during heating. Microstructural characterization using SEM/EDX was carried out on the recovered SiC/TiC composite material, as well as on pristine resistive heaters directly after coating and curing to 230°C, and after additional pyrolysis at 900°C in argon. In all cases, a stable composite microstructure of an interpenetrating network of TiC particles with either silicon carbide polymer precursor or an amorphous SiC phase were found. The composites were characterized by XRD and thermogravimetry. Further improvement of coating procedure and materials combination (precursor/filler/insulator substrate) may result in advanced coatings, operational well beyond 2000°C.

  10. Sulfonated poly(ether sulfone) (SPES)/boron phosphate (BPO{sub 4}) composite membranes for high-temperature proton-exchange membrane fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Sheng [Faculty of Chemistry and Material Science, Xiaogan University, Xiaogan, Hubei 432100 (China); Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory for the Green, Preparation and Application of Functional Materials, Institute of Composite Materials, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); Gong, Chunli [Faculty of Chemistry and Material Science, Xiaogan University, Xiaogan, Hubei 432100 (China); Tsen, Wen-Chin; Shu, Yao-Chi [Department of Polymer Materials, Vanung University, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan 32045 (China); Tsai, Fang-Chang [Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory for the Green, Preparation and Application of Functional Materials, Institute of Composite Materials, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China)

    2009-11-15

    A new series of sulfonated poly(ether sulfone) (SPES)/boron phosphate (BPO{sub 4}) composite membranes for proton-exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) applications, with a BPO{sub 4} content up to 40 wt%, were prepared by a sol-gel method using tripropylborate and phosphoric acid as precursors. Compared to a pure SPES membrane, BPO{sub 4} doping in the membranes led to a higher thermal stability and glass-transition temperature (T{sub g}) as revealed by TGA-FTIR, DSC and DMTA. Water uptake and oxidative stability were significantly increased by increasing the content of BPO{sub 4}. At both operating temperature conditions, namely 20 C and 100 C, the tensile strength of all the composite membranes were lower than that of the SPES membrane. However, even when the content of BPO{sub 4} was as high as 30%, the composite membrane still possessed strength similar to the Nafion 112 membrane. SEM-EDX indicated that the BPO{sub 4} particles were uniformly embedded throughout the SPES matrix, which may facilitate proton transport. Proton conductivities increased from 0.0065 to 0.022 S cm{sup -1} at room temperature as BPO{sub 4} increased from 0 to 40%. The conductivities also increased with the temperature. The SPES/BPO{sub 4} composite membrane is a promising candidate for PEMFCs applications, especially at higher temperatures. (author)

  11. NOvel Refractory Materials for High Alkali, High Temperature Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemrick, J.G.; Griffin, R. (MINTEQ International, Inc.)

    2011-08-30

    Refractory materials can be limited in their application by many factors including chemical reactions between the service environment and the refractory material, mechanical degradation of the refractory material by the service environment, temperature limitations on the use of a particular refractory material, and the inability to install or repair the refractory material in a cost effective manner or while the vessel was in service. The objective of this project was to address the need for new innovative refractory compositions by developing a family of novel MgO-Al2O3 spinel or other similar magnesia/alumina containing unshaped refractory composition (castables, gunnables, shotcretes, etc) utilizing new aggregate materials, bond systems, protective coatings, and phase formation techniques (in-situ phase formation, altered conversion temperatures, accelerated reactions, etc). This family of refractory compositions would then be tailored for use in high-temperature, highalkaline industrial environments like those found in the aluminum, chemical, forest products, glass, and steel industries. A research team was formed to carry out the proposed work led by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and was comprised of the academic institution Missouri University of Science and Technology (MS&T), and the industrial company MINTEQ International, Inc. (MINTEQ), along with representatives from the aluminum, chemical, glass, and forest products industries. The two goals of this project were to produce novel refractory compositions which will allow for improved energy efficiency and to develop new refractory application techniques which would improve the speed of installation. Also methods of hot installation were sought which would allow for hot repairs and on-line maintenance leading to reduced process downtimes and eliminating the need to cool and reheat process vessels.

  12. Metallic Membranes for High Temperature Hydrogen Separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Y.H.; Catalano, Jacopo; Guazzone, Federico

    2013-01-01

    Composite palladium membranes have extensively been studied in laboratories and, more recently, in small pilot industrial applications for the high temperature separation of hydrogen from reactant mixtures such as water-gas shift (WGS) reaction or methane steam reforming (MSR). Composite Pd...... membrane fabrication methods have matured over the last decades, and the deposition of very thin films (1–5 µm) of Pd over porous ceramics or modified porous metal supports is quite common. The H2 permeances and the selectivities achieved at 400–500 °C were in the order of 50–100 Nm3/m/h/bar0.5 and greater...... than 1000, respectively. This chapter describes in detail composite Pd-based membrane preparation methods, which consist of the grading of the support and the deposition of the dense metal layer, their performances, and their applications in catalytic membrane reactors (CMRs) at high temperatures (400...

  13. Effect of different surface treatments on the shear bond strength of nanofilled composite repairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadizenouz, Ghazaleh; Esmaeili, Behnaz; Taghvaei, Arnica; Jamali, Zahra; Jafari, Toloo; Amiri Daneshvar, Farshid; Khafri, Soraya

    2016-01-01

    Background. Repairing aged composite resin is a challenging process. Many surface treatment options have been proposed to this end. This study evaluated the effect of different surface treatments on the shear bond strength (SBS) of nano-filled composite resin repairs. Methods. Seventy-five cylindrical specimens of a Filtek Z350XT composite resin were fabricated and stored in 37°C distilled water for 24 hours. After thermocycling, the specimens were divided into 5 groups according to the following surface treatments: no treatment (group 1); air abrasion with 50-μm aluminum oxide particles (group 2); irradiation with Er:YAG laser beams (group 3); roughening with coarse-grit diamond bur + 35% phosphoric acid (group 4); and etching with 9% hydrofluoric acid for 120 s (group 5). Another group of Filtek Z350XT composite resin samples (4×6 mm) was fabricated for the measurement of cohesive strength (group 6). A silane coupling agent and an adhesive system were applied after each surface treatment. The specimens were restored with the same composite resin and thermocycled again. A shearing force was applied to the interface in a universal testing machine. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey tests (P composite resin used.

  14. NOVEL REFRACTORY MATERIALS FOR HIGH ALKALI, HIGH TEMPERATURE ENVIRONMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemrick, James Gordon [ORNL; Smith, Jeffrey D [ORNL; O' Hara, Kelley [University of Missouri, Rolla; Rodrigues-Schroer, Angela [Minteq International, Inc.; Colavito, [Minteq International, Inc.

    2012-08-01

    A project was led by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in collaboration with a research team comprised of the academic institution Missouri University of Science and Technology (MS&T), and the industrial company MINTEQ International, Inc. (MINTEQ), along with representatives from the aluminum, chemical, glass, and forest products industries. The project was to address the need for new innovative refractory compositions by developing a family of novel MgO-Al 2O3, MgAl2O4, or other similar spinel structured or alumina-based unshaped refractory compositions (castables, gunnables, shotcretes, etc.) utilizing new aggregate materials, bond systems, protective coatings, and phase formation techniques (in-situ phase formation, altered conversion temperatures, accelerated reactions, etc). This family of refractory compositions would then be tailored for use in high-temperature, high-alkaline industrial environments like those found in the aluminum, chemical, forest products, glass, and steel industries. Both practical refractory development experience and computer modeling techniques were used to aid in the design of this new family of materials. The newly developed materials were expected to offer alternative material choices for high-temperature, high-alkali environments that were capable of operating at higher temperatures (goal of increasing operating temperature by 100-200oC depending on process) or for longer periods of time (goal of twice the life span of current materials or next process determined service increment). This would lead to less process down time, greater energy efficiency for associated manufacturing processes (more heat kept in process), and materials that could be installed/repaired in a more efficient manner. The overall project goal was a 5% improvement in energy efficiency (brought about through a 20% improvement in thermal efficiency) resulting in a savings of 3.7 TBtu/yr (7.2 billion ft3 natural gas) by the year 2030. Additionally, new

  15. Fracture analysis of cracked metallic plate repaired with adhesive bonding composite patch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Weiguo; Mu Zhitao

    2014-01-01

    Fatigue crack growth test of cracked metallic plate repaired with adhesive bonding composite patch was conducted to study the fracture behavior of crack patching. The failure mode was that crack grows along with adhesive debonding. The crack length and debonding area were measured at different numbers of cycles. The nonlinear three-dimensional(3D)finite element(FE)model considering adhesive debonding and crack growth simultaneously was developed. The experimental and analytical results were in good agreement with each other.

  16. Research Progress in ZrC Ultra-high Temperature Ceramic Composites%ZrC超高温陶瓷复合材料的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马宝霞; 郭二军; 王丽萍

    2013-01-01

    ZrC ceramic composites are reviewed from two aspects ?ZrC as matrix materials and reinforcement materials. Research on the fabrication, microstructure and properties of the composites are detailedly introduced, and the main research direction of ZrC ceramic composites is also proposed. It can be concluded that the main problems in the application of ZrC ceramic are low fracture toughness and poor sintering densification. In future studies on ZrC ceramics, if the drawbacks are overcome and improved, and the development of potential performance advantages for ZrC ceramic materials is given considerable attention, ZrC ceramic will make an important contribution to the development of aviation and aerospace field.%主要从ZrC作为基体和增强体两个方面综述了ZrC陶瓷复合材料的研究进展.重点介绍了复合材料的制备、组织和性能等研究,并就ZrC陶瓷复合材料下一步研究的重点提出了一些见解.经过分析可以看出,目前ZrC陶瓷应用中面临的主要问题是韧性低、难以烧结致密.在今后ZrC陶瓷的研究过程中,如能克服和改善其缺点,注重开发ZrC陶瓷材料潜在的性能优势,则必将使ZrC陶瓷在航空、航天等的发展中做出重要贡献.

  17. Repair Bond Strength of Aged Resin Composite after Different Surface and Bonding Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Wendler

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the effect of different mechanical surface treatments and chemical bonding protocols on the tensile bond strength (TBS of aged composite. Bar specimens were produced using a nanohybrid resin composite and aged in distilled water for 30 days. Different surface treatments (diamond bur, phosphoric acid, silane, and sandblasting with Al2O3 or CoJet Sand, as well as bonding protocols (Primer/Adhesive were used prior to application of the repair composite. TBS of the specimens was measured and the results were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA and the Student–Newman–Keuls test (α = 0.05. Mechanically treated surfaces were characterized under SEM and by profilometry. The effect of water aging on the degree of conversion was measured by means of FTIR-ATR spectroscopy. An important increase in the degree of conversion was observed after aging. No significant differences in TBS were observed among the mechanical surface treatments, despite variations in surface roughness profiles. Phosphoric acid etching significantly improved repair bond strength values. The cohesive TBS of the material was only reached using resin bonding agents. Application of an intermediate bonding system plays a key role in achieving reliable repair bond strengths, whereas the kind of mechanical surface treatment appears to play a secondary role.

  18. Repair Bond Strength of Aged Resin Composite after Different Surface and Bonding Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendler, Michael; Belli, Renan; Panzer, Reinhard; Skibbe, Daniel; Petschelt, Anselm; Lohbauer, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of different mechanical surface treatments and chemical bonding protocols on the tensile bond strength (TBS) of aged composite. Bar specimens were produced using a nanohybrid resin composite and aged in distilled water for 30 days. Different surface treatments (diamond bur, phosphoric acid, silane, and sandblasting with Al2O3 or CoJet Sand), as well as bonding protocols (Primer/Adhesive) were used prior to application of the repair composite. TBS of the specimens was measured and the results were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Student–Newman–Keuls test (α = 0.05). Mechanically treated surfaces were characterized under SEM and by profilometry. The effect of water aging on the degree of conversion was measured by means of FTIR-ATR spectroscopy. An important increase in the degree of conversion was observed after aging. No significant differences in TBS were observed among the mechanical surface treatments, despite variations in surface roughness profiles. Phosphoric acid etching significantly improved repair bond strength values. The cohesive TBS of the material was only reached using resin bonding agents. Application of an intermediate bonding system plays a key role in achieving reliable repair bond strengths, whereas the kind of mechanical surface treatment appears to play a secondary role. PMID:28773669

  19. Findings of the U.S. Department of Defense Technology Assessment Team on Japanese High-Temperature Composites February 1989 Visit

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    34Carbon Fibers, Tensile Properties 1100 1000T0 TiOO T10006 F 900 - b T800H goo T n 1 700 I TS0OJ.S M4J 06j S T400H MJ T 600 r D T300 * * n r 0 M30 /SSJ... T800H /3900-2 Composites Properties Unit Temp. TO009O/3900-29 Tensile Strength HPa(ksi) RT 2690(391) Hodulus GSP(mos) RT 151(22.8) Strain x R? 1.68 0

  20. Influence of variously functionalized SBA-15 fillers on conductivity and electrochemical properties of PBI composite membranes for high temperature polymer fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angioni, S.; Villa, D. C.; Cattaneo, A. S.; Mustarelli, P.; Quartarone, E.

    2015-10-01

    The use of inorganic fillers is an interesting strategy to improve the electrochemical performances of PBI membranes for application as electrolytes in HT-PEMFCs. Here, we prepared several mesoporous silica (SBA-15) based hybrids, functionalised with different moieties, namely acidic (SO3H-), basic (NH2-), and amphoteric (SO3H-NH2) units. The electrochemical properties of the resulting electrolytes were investigated in terms of proton transport and functional tests by varying the silica functionalization degree in the range 10-70 mol%, as well as the particles loading in the polymer (0-30 wt%). The actual effectiveness of the SBA-15 functionalization process in improving the electrolyte properties was compared with both the unfilled membrane and the one filled with pristine SBA-15. The best conductivity (∼90 mS cm-1 at 120 °C, 30%RH) was obtained with PBI composites loaded with 30 wt% of non-functionalized SBA-15. The use of fillers functionalized with acidic, basic of amphoteric groups did not lead to improvements with respect to pure SBA-15. This could be related to the set up of significant interactions between the functionalised fillers and H3PO4, which negatively influence the proton mobility. Encouraging MEA results (power peak >320 mW cm-2) were obtained in case of membranes based on pure SBA-15. These performances make the SBA-15/PBI composites particularly interesting for application in HT-PEMFCs.

  1. High temperature oxidation-sulfidation behavior of Cr-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Nb-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composites densified by spark plasma sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saucedo-Acuna, R.A. [Instituto e Ingenieria y Tecnologia, Universidad Autonoma de Cd. Juarez, Av. Del Charro 450 Norte, Col. Partido Romero, C.P. 32310, Cd. Juarez, Chihuahua (Mexico); Monreal-Romero, H.; Martinez-Villafane, A. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados, Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Miguel de Cervantes 120, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, C.P. 31109, Chihuahua (Mexico); Chacon-Nava, J.G. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados, Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Miguel de Cervantes 120, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, C.P. 31109, Chihuahua (Mexico)], E-mail: jose.chacon@cimav.edu.mx; Arce-Colunga, U. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados, Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Miguel de Cervantes 120, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, C.P. 31109, Chihuahua (Mexico); Universidad Autonoma de Tamaulipas, Matamoros 8 y 9 Col. Centro C.P. 87110, Cd. Victoria, Tamaulipas (Mexico); Gaona-Tiburcio, C. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados, Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Miguel de Cervantes 120, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, C.P. 31109, Chihuahua (Mexico); De la Torre, S.D. [Centro de Investigacion e Innovacion Tecnologica (CIITEC)-IPN, D.F. Mexico (Mexico)

    2007-12-15

    The high temperature oxidation-sulfidation behavior of Cr-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Nb-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composites prepared by mechanical alloying (MA) and spark plasma sintering (SPS) has been studied. These composite powders have a particular metal-ceramic interpenetrating network and excellent mechanical properties. Oxidation-sulfidation tests were carried out at 900 deg. C, in a 2.5%SO{sub 2} + 3.6%O{sub 2} + N{sub 2}(balance) atmosphere for 48 h. The results revealed the influence of the sintering conditions on the specimens corrosion resistance, i.e. the Cr-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Nb-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite sintered at 1310 deg. C/4 min showed better corrosion resistance (lower weight gains) compared with those found for the 1440 deg. C/5 min conditions. For the former composite, a protective Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer immediately forms upon heating, whereas for the later pest disintegration was noted. Thus, under the same sintering conditions the Nb-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composites showed the highest weight gains. The oxidation products were investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy.

  2. Strengthening and repair of steel-concrete composite girders using CFRP laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakkolizadeh, Mohammadreza

    The use of advanced composite materials for rehabilitation and repair of deteriorating infrastructure has been embraced worldwide. The conventional techniques for strengthening of substandard bridges are costly, time consuming and labor intensive. A total of 38 specimens made of steel and carbon fibers were prepared and tested to investigate the possibility of galvanic corrosion. Two simulated aggressive environments and three different amounts of epoxy coating were used. Potentiodynamic polarization and galvanic corrosion tests were conducted. The results of the experiments showed the existence of galvanic corrosion however the rate of such corrosion could be decreased significantly by epoxy coating. A total of 21 specimens made of S 5 x 10 A36 steel beams were prepared and tested to determine the effectiveness of CFRP patch on fatigue life of notched beam. The results showed that not only CFRP patch tends to extend the fatigue life of a detail more than three times, but also it decreases the crack growth rate significantly. To investigate the effectiveness of the epoxy bonded CFRP sheets in repair and retrofit of composite girders, a total of six large-scale steel-concrete composite girders made of W 14 x 30 A36 steel beam and 7.5 cm. thick by 91 cm wide concrete slab were prepared and tested. Three different numbers of CFRP layers and three different damage level in Range were considered. The retrofitting test results showed that epoxy bonded CFRP Sheet increased the ultimate load carrying capacity of composite girders and the behavior can be conservatively predicted by traditional methods. The repair test results showed that epoxy bonded CFRP sheet could restore the ultimate load carrying capacity and stiffness of damaged steel-concrete composite girders. The ultimate capacity of the repaired beam was predicted by traditional methods of analysis of steel-concrete composite beams, which was fairly conservative. Guidelines and procedures for design of Steel

  3. 高温型PVDF/PSSA复合膜的质子传导性能%Proton Exchange Properties of PVDF/PSSA Composite Membranes for High Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马宁; 蔡芳昌; 殷浩; 张红星; 蒋涛

    2012-01-01

    通过自由基加聚反应制备了聚偏氟乙烯(PVDF)/聚苯乙烯磺酸(PSSA)复合膜,通过SEM、EDX、电化学阻抗谱(EIS)和TG等方法表征复合膜的微结构、电化学及尺寸稳定性和力学性能等性能与反应时间的关系.结果表明,随着反应时间的延长,PVDF/PSSA复合膜的含水率、质子传导率逐渐增大。反应时间为8h的复合膜,其含水率在常温下达到4.4%,质子传导率达到0.375S/cm,抗拉强度为32.1MPa。这表明,在采用自由基加聚反应制备的复合膜中形成了稳固的半互穿网络(SIPN)结构,在保持一定的热稳定性能、尺寸稳定性以及力学性能的条件下,其质子传导性能明显改善。%Poly (styrenesuflonic) acid (PSSA) and poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) composite membranes have been prepared by free radical polymerization. By reading the relationship of the reaction- time and the characteristics of microstructural, electrochemistry and physical properties of PVDF/PSSA Composite Membranes by SEM, EDX, EIS and TG, it is found that both the water content of PVDF/PSSA membrane and proton conductivity did increase if the hot-pressing time was extended. When the hot- pressing reactive time approached the optimum values at 8 hour, the water content reached 4.4% at the room temperature, the proton conductivity reached the maximum (0.375 S/crn) and the resisting strength reached to 32.1 MPa, which shows that the conductivity of the SIPN composite membrane can be improved clearly while holding the better mechanical and thermo property by free radical polymerization.

  4. Composite mesh and gluteal fasciocutaneous rotation flap for perineal hernia repair after abdominoperineal resection: a novel technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, Marios; Hübner, Gunnar; Bednarek, Marzena; Arafkas, Mohamed

    2017-03-01

    Perineal hernia is an uncommon complication following abdominoperineal rectum resection. Several surgical procedures have been proposed for perineal hernia repair, including perineal, laparoscopic and abdominal approaches. Repair techniques can be classified into primary suture techniques, mesh placements and repairs with autogenous tissue. We report a 68-year-old man with a perineal hernia, who underwent a pelvic floor reconstruction with a transperineal composite mesh and a gluteal fasciocutaneous rotation flap. We conclude that a combined approach with transperineal mesh reconstruction and gluteal fasciocutaneous flap could be an alternative choice in perineal hernia repair after abdominoperineal resection.

  5. A novel basalt fiber-reinforced polylactic acid composite for hard tissue repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Li, Yan; Gu, Ning

    2010-08-01

    A basalt fiber (BF) was, for the first time, introduced into a poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) matrix as innovative reinforcement to fabricate composite materials for hard tissue repair. Firstly, BF/PLLA composites and pure PLLA were produced by the methods of solution blending and freeze drying. The results showed that basalt fibers can be uniformly dispersed in the PLLA matrix and significantly improve the mechanical properties and hydrophilicity of the PLLA matrix. The presence of basalt fibers may retard the polymer degradation rate and neutralize the acid degradation from PLLA. Osteoblasts were cultured in vitro to evaluate the cytocompatibility of the composite. An MTT assay revealed that osteoblasts proliferated well for 7 days and there was little difference found in their viability on both PLLA and BF/PLLA films, which was consistent with the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity results. A fluorescent staining observation showed that osteoblasts grew well on the composites. SEM images displayed that osteoblasts tended to grow along the fiber axis. The formation of mineralized nodules was observed on the films by Alizarin red S staining. These results suggest that the presence of basalt fibers does not noticeably affect osteoblastic behavior and the designed composites are osteoblast compatible. It is concluded that basalt fibers, as reinforcing fibers, may have promising applications in hard tissue repair.

  6. Difference in color and color parameters between dental porcelain and porcelain-repairing resin composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Hee; Lee, Yong-Keun; Lim, Bum-Soon; Rhee, Sang-Hoon; Yang, Hyeong-Cheol

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to measure the differences in color and color parameters between dental porcelain and porcelain-repairing resin composites. The colors of three shades (A2, A3, A3.5) of one brand of dental porcelain, three original shades (A2, A3, A3.5), and three combinations (A2/A3, A3/3.5, A2/A3.5) of three brands of porcelain-repairing resin composites (ABT, FSP, TCR) were measured. The specimens were 2 mm thick, and 1 mm of each shade was layered to make combined shades. Differences in color (DeltaE(ab) (*)), lightness (DeltaL*), chroma (DeltaC(ab) (*)), and hue (DeltaH(*)) between porcelain and resin composite were calculated. Color difference was calculated as DeltaE(ab) (*) = (DeltaL*(2) + Deltaa*(2) + Deltab*(2))(1/2), chroma difference was calculated as DeltaC(ab) (*) = (Deltaa*(2) + Deltab*(2))(1/2), and hue difference was calculated as DeltaH(ab) (*) = (DeltaE(ab) (*2) - DeltaL*(2) - DeltaC(ab) (*2))(1/2). The influence of porcelain shade, brand of resin composites, and shade of resin composites were analyzed by three-way analyses of variance, and the differential influence of color parameters on color difference was analyzed with multiple regression analysis (alpha = 0.05). Differences in color and color parameters were influenced by the porcelain shade, brand and shade of resin composites. The DeltaE(ab) (*) value was in the range of 2.2-16.9. The DeltaE(ab) (*) value was correlated with DeltaC(ab) (*) (standardized correlation coefficient, beta = - 0.85), DeltaL* (beta = - 0.52), and DeltaH(ab) (*) (beta = 0.08). Between the same shade designated pairs of porcelain and repairing composite, color difference was perceptible. Therefore, studies to improve the color matching between porcelain and repairing resin are recommended.

  7. Changes in the composition of raw tea leaves from the Korean Yabukida plant during high-temperature processing to pan-fried Kamairi-cha green tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Mendel; Levin, Carol E; Choi, Suk-Hyun; Lee, Seung-Un; Kozukue, Nobuyuki

    2009-06-01

    To develop a better understanding of compositional changes occurring during the production of commercial teas, we determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) changes in ingredient levels during each of several manufacturing steps used to produce Kamairi-cha, a premium green tea. Kamairi-cha uses pan-frying instead of the usual blanching technique to inactivate the enzymes responsible for producing traditional black tea. The resulting tea lacks the characteristic bitterness of green tea, producing a green tea that is described as sweet tasting. The processing steps used to produce this pan-fried tea were as follows: 1st roasting, 1st rolling, 2nd roasting, 2nd rolling, 1st firing, and 2nd firing. The results show that during production at temperatures up to 300 degrees C, raw leaves lost (in percent) 97.3 water, 94 two chlorophylls, 14.3 seven catechins, and 2.75 caffeine. A separate analysis showed that the final product contained 21.67 mg/g dry wt of the biologically active amino acid theanine. The results of this 1st report on changes in individual catechins and other tea ingredients in tea leaves during pan-frying make it possible to select production conditions that maximize levels of beneficial tea ingredients. The possible significance of the results for the human diet is discussed.

  8. High Temperature Electrostrictive Ceramics Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TRS Technologies proposes to develop high temperature electrostrictors from bismuth-based ferroelectrics. These materials will exhibit high strain and low loss in...

  9. High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The six user centers in the High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML), a DOE User Facility, are dedicated to solving materials problems that limit the efficiency...

  10. High temperature superconductor accelerator magnets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nugteren, J.

    2016-01-01

    For future particle accelerators bending dipoles are considered with magnetic fields exceeding 20T. This can only be achieved using high temperature superconductors (HTS). These exhibit different properties from classical low temperature superconductors and still require significant research and dev

  11. Ultra-High Temperature Gratings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John Canning; Somnath Bandyopadhyay; Michael Stevenson; Kevin Cook

    2008-01-01

    Regenerated gratings seeded by type-Ⅰ gratings are shown to withstand temperatures beyond 1000 ℃. The method of regeneration offers a new approach to increasing temperature resistance of stable fibre Bragg and other gratings. These ultra-high temperature (UHT) gratings extend the applicability of silicate based components to high temperature applications such as monitoring of smelters and vehicle and aircraft engines to high power fibre lasers.

  12. Influence of surface preparation on fracture load of resin composite-based repairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos-Palacios, Rocío; Román-Rodríguez, Juan-Luis; Solá-Ruíz, María-Fernanda; Fons-Font, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the fracture load of composite-based repairs to fractured zirconium oxide (Z) crowns and to ceramic-fused-to-metal (CM) crowns, comparing different mechanical surface preparation methods. A total of 75 crowns were repaired; samples then underwent dynamic loading and thermocycling. Final fracture load values for failure of the repaired crowns were measured and the type of fracture registered. Group I: CM: Surface preparation with a diamond bur + 9.5% Hydrofluoric Acid (HF) etching; Group II): CM: air-particle (Al2O3) + 9.5% HF; Group III: CM: Silica coating (SiO2); Group IV): Z: air-particle (Al2O3) + HF 9.5%; Group V) Z: Silica coating (SiO2). Of the three CM groups, Group I (CM-diamond bur) showed the highest mean failure value, with significant difference in comparison with Group III (CM-silica coating). For the zirconia groups, the highest value was obtained by Group V (silica coating). Key words:Crown, ceramic-fused-to-metal, zirconia, resin-composite, ceramic covering. PMID:25810848

  13. Influence of surface preparation on fracture load of resin composite-based repairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustín-Panadero, Rubén; Mateos-Palacios, Rocío; Román-Rodríguez, Juan-Luis; Solá-Ruíz, María-Fernanda; Fons-Font, Antonio

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the fracture load of composite-based repairs to fractured zirconium oxide (Z) crowns and to ceramic-fused-to-metal (CM) crowns, comparing different mechanical surface preparation methods. A total of 75 crowns were repaired; samples then underwent dynamic loading and thermocycling. Final fracture load values for failure of the repaired crowns were measured and the type of fracture registered. Group I: CM: Surface preparation with a diamond bur + 9.5% Hydrofluoric Acid (HF) etching; Group II): CM: air-particle (Al2O3) + 9.5% HF; Group III: CM: Silica coating (SiO2); Group IV): Z: air-particle (Al2O3) + HF 9.5%; Group V) Z: Silica coating (SiO2). Of the three CM groups, Group I (CM-diamond bur) showed the highest mean failure value, with significant difference in comparison with Group III (CM-silica coating). For the zirconia groups, the highest value was obtained by Group V (silica coating). Key words:Crown, ceramic-fused-to-metal, zirconia, resin-composite, ceramic covering.

  14. Room-Temperature and High-Temperature Tensile Mechanical Properties of TA15 Titanium Alloy and TiB Whisker-Reinforced TA15 Matrix Composites Fabricated by Vacuum Hot-Pressing Sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangju Feng

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the microstructure, the room-temperature and high-temperature tensile mechanical properties of monolithic TA15 alloy and TiB whisker-reinforced TA15 titanium matrix composites (TiBw/TA15 fabricated by vacuum hot-pressing sintering were investigated. The microstructure results showed that there were no obvious differences in the microstructure between monolithic TA15 alloy and TiBw/TA15 composites, except whether or not the grain boundaries contained TiBw. After sintering, the matrix microstructure presented a typical Widmanstätten structure and the size of primary β grain was consistent with the size of spherical TA15 titanium metallic powders. This result demonstrated that TiBw was not the only factor limiting grain coarsening of the primary β grain. Moreover, the grain coarsening of α colonies was obvious, and high-angle grain boundaries (HAGBs were distributed within the primary β grain. In addition, TiBw played an important role in the microstructure evolution. In the composites, TiBw were randomly distributed in the matrix and surrounded by a large number of low-angle grain boundaries (LAGBs. Globularization of α phase occurred prior, near the TiBw region, because TiBw provided the nucleation site for the equiaxed α phase. The room-temperature and high-temperature tensile results showed that TiBw distributed at the primary β grain boundaries can strengthen the grain boundary, but reduce the connectivity of the matrix. Therefore, compared to the monolithic TA15 alloy fabricated by the same process, the tensile strength of the composites increased, and the tensile elongation decreased. Moreover, with the addition of TiBw, the fracture mechanism was changed to a mixture of brittle fracture and ductile failure (composites from ductile failure (monolithic TA15 alloy. The fracture surfaces of TiBw/TA15 composites were the grain boundaries of the primary β grain where the majority of TiB whiskers distributed, i.e., the

  15. Intermetallic-based high-temperature materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikka, V.K.

    1999-07-01

    The intermetallic-based alloys for high-temperature applications are introduced. General characteristics of intermetallics are followed by identification of nickel and iron aluminides as the most practical alloys for commercial applications. An overview of the alloy compositions, melting processes, and mechanical properties for nickel and iron aluminizes are presented. The current applications and commercial producers of nickel and iron aluminides are given. A brief description of the future prospects of intermetallic-based alloys is also given.

  16. Intermetallic-Based High-Temperature Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikka, V.K.

    1999-04-25

    The intermetallic-based alloys for high-temperature applications are introduced. General characteristics of intermetallics are followed by identification of nickel and iron aluminides as the most practical alloys for commercial applications. An overview of the alloy compositions, melting processes, and mechanical properties for nickel and iron aluminizes are presented. The current applications and commercial producers of nickel and iron aluminizes are given. A brief description of the future prospects of intermetallic-based alloys is also given.

  17. Repairing cartilage defects using chondrocyte and osteoblast composites developed using a bioreactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Shui; REN Qiang; WANG Dong; ZHANG Lei; WU Shuai; SUN Xi-tao

    2011-01-01

    Background Articular cartilage injury is a common disease, and the incidence of articular wear, degeneration, trauma and sports injury is increasing, which often lead to disability and reduced quality of life. Unfortunately repair of articular cartilage defects do not always provide satisfactory outcomes.Methods Chondrocyte and osteoblast composites were co-cultured using a bioreactor. The cartilage defects were treated with cell-β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) composites implanted into osteochondral defects in dogs, in vivo, using mosaicplasty, by placing chondrocyte-β-TCP scaffold composites on top of the defect and osteoblast-β-TCP scaffold composites below the defect.Results Electron microscopy revealed that the induced chondrocytes and osteoblast showed fine adhesive progression and proliferation in the β-TCP scaffold. The repaired tissues in the experimental group maintained their thickness to the full depth of the original defects, as compared with the negative control group (q=12.3370, P <0.01; q=31.5393, P <0.01).Conclusions Perfusion culture provided sustained nutrient supply and gas exchange into the center of the large scaffold. This perfusion bioreactor enables the chondrocytes and osteoblasts to survive and proliferate in a three-dimensional scaffold.

  18. Effect of temporary filling materials on repair bond strengths of composite resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdemir, Ali; Eldeniz, Ayce Unverdi; Belli, Sema

    2008-08-01

    Endodontic access cavities sometimes can be prepared through a permanent composite restoration. Between the appointments, temporary cements are used to seal access cavities and may have negative effect on bonding of further composite restoration. The purpose of this study was to compare shear bond strength of composite to composite which had been in contact with various temporary filling materials. Standard cavities were prepared on 160 acrylic resin blocks, obturated with composite resin (Clearfil AP-X, Kuraray, Japan) and randomly divided into eight groups (n = 20). Group 1 received no treatment. From group 2-8, composite surfaces were covered with the following cements temporarily: Zinc-oxide/calcium-sulphate (Cavit-G, ESPE, Germany), two different Zinc-Oxide-Eugenol materials (ZnOE, Cavex, Holland and IRM, Dentsply, USA), Zinc-phosphate cement (Adhesor, Spofa-Dental, Germany), Zinc-polycarboxylate cement (Adhesor-Carbofine, Spofa-Dental, Germany), Glass-Ionomer-Cement (Argion-Molar, Voco, Germany), or light curing temporary material (Clip, Voco, Germany). The cements were removed mechanically after 1 week storage in distilled water at 37 degrees C and composite surfaces were treated with a self-etch adhesive system (SE-Bond, Kuraray, Japan). Composite resin build-ups were created on composite surfaces. Shear bond strength values were measured using universal testing machine at crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. The data was calculated in MPa and statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey tests. Eugenol-containing cements significantly reduced shear bond strengths of composite to composite (p materials had no adverse effect on shear bond strength (p > 0.05). These findings suggested that temporary filling materials except eugenol-containing materials have no negative effect on composite repair bond strengths.

  19. Development and characterization of Powder Metallurgy (PM) 2XXX series Al alloy products and Metal Matrix Composite (MMC) 2XXX Al/SiC materials for high temperature aircraft structural applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chellman, D. J.; Gurganus, T. B.; Walker, J. A.

    1992-01-01

    The results of a series of material studies performed by the Lockheed Aeronautical Systems Company over the time period from 1980 to 1991 are discussed. The technical objective of these evaluations was to develop and characterize advanced aluminum alloy materials with temperature capabilities extending to 350 F. An overview is given of the first five alloy development efforts under this contract. Prior work conducted during the first five modifications of the alloy development program are listed. Recent developments based on the addition of high Zr levels to an optimum Al-Cu-Mg alloy composition by powder metallurgy processing are discussed. Both reinforced and SiC or B4C ceramic reinforced alloys were explored to achieve specific target goals for high temperature aluminum alloy applications.

  20. Development of high temperature resistant ceramic matrix composites based on SiC- and novel SiBNC-fibres; Entwicklung hochtemperaturbestaendiger keramischer Faserverbundwerkstoffe auf der Basis von SiC- und neuartigen SiBNC-Fasern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daenicke, Enrico

    2014-10-01

    Novel ceramic fibres in the quaternary system Si-B-C-N exhibit excellent high temperature stability and creep resistance. In th is work it was investigated, to what extent these outstanding properties of SiBNC-fibres can be transferred into ceramic matrix composites (CMC) in comparison to commercial silicon carbide (SiC) fibres. For the CMC development the liquid silicon infiltration (LSI) as well as the polymer infiltration and pyrolysis process (PIP) was applied. Extensive correlations between fibre properties, fibre coating (without, pyrolytic carbon, lanthanum phosphate), process parameters of the CMC manufacturing method and the mechanical and microstructural properties of the CMC before and after exposure to air could be established. Hence, the potential of novel CMCs can be assessed and application fields can be derived.

  1. High-temperature electrochemical performance and phase composition of Ti0.7Zr0.5V0.2Mn1.8-xNix hydrogen storage electrode alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The rapid development of electric vehicles demands the development of high performance nickel-metal hydride battery that is able to endure high temperature. The discharge properties of Ti0.7Zr0.5V0.2Mn1.8-xNix(x=0.4, 0.8, 1.1, 1.4, 1.7)hydrogen storage alloys was investigated and its phase composition was analyzed using X-ray diffraction. The results show that the cycling life was improved as the content of nickel increases. When x=0.4, 0.8, 1.1 and 1.4, the main phase is MgZn2 type C14 Laves phase and the second one is cubic TiNi phase. When x=1.7, the Laves phase structure disappears. EDAS analysis shows that the increase of nickel content is effective in suppressing the dissolution of vanadium component in alloys.

  2. Effect of different surface treatments on the shear bond strength of nanofilled composite repairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadizenouz, Ghazaleh; Esmaeili, Behnaz; Taghvaei, Arnica; Jamali, Zahra; Jafari, Toloo; Amiri Daneshvar, Farshid; Khafri, Soraya

    2016-01-01

    Background. Repairing aged composite resin is a challenging process. Many surface treatment options have been proposed to this end. This study evaluated the effect of different surface treatments on the shear bond strength (SBS) of nano-filled composite resin repairs. Methods. Seventy-five cylindrical specimens of a Filtek Z350XT composite resin were fabricated and stored in 37°C distilled water for 24 hours. After thermocycling, the specimens were divided into 5 groups according to the following surface treatments: no treatment (group 1); air abrasion with 50-μm aluminum oxide particles (group 2); irradiation with Er:YAG laser beams (group 3); roughening with coarse-grit diamond bur + 35% phosphoric acid (group 4); and etching with 9% hydrofluoric acid for 120 s (group 5). Another group of Filtek Z350XT composite resin samples (4×6 mm) was fabricated for the measurement of cohesive strength (group 6). A silane coupling agent and an adhesive system were applied after each surface treatment. The specimens were restored with the same composite resin and thermocycled again. A shearing force was applied to the interface in a universal testing machine. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey tests (P < 0.05). Results. One-way ANOVA indicated significant differences between the groups (P < 0.05). SBS of controls was significantly lower than the other groups; differences between groups 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 were not significant. Surface treatment with diamond bur + 35% phosphoric acid resulted in the highest bond strength. Conclusion. All the surface treatments used in this study improved the shear bond strength of nanofilled composite resin used. PMID:27092209

  3. Effect of different surface treatments on the shear bond strength of nanofilled composite repairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazaleh Ahmadizenouz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Repairing aged composite resin is a challenging process. Many surface treatment options have been proposed to this end. This study evaluated the effect of different surface treatments on the shear bond strength (SBS of nano-filled composite resin repairs. Methods. Seventy-five cylindrical specimens of a Filtek Z350XT composite resin were fabricated and stored in 37°C distilled water for 24 hours. After thermocycling, the specimens were divided into 5 groups according to the following surface treatments: no treatment (group 1; air abrasion with 50-μm aluminum oxide particles (group 2; irradiation with Er:YAG laser beams (group 3; roughening with coarse-grit diamond bur + 35% phosphoric acid (group 4; and etching with 9% hydrofluoric acid for 120 s (group 5. Another group of Filtek Z350XT composite resin samples (4×6 mm was fabricated for the measurement of cohesive strength (group 6. A silane coupling agent and an adhesive system were applied after each surface treatment. The specimens were restored with the same composite resin and thermocycled again. A shearing force was applied to the interface in a universal testing machine. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey tests (P < 0.05. Results. One-way ANOVA indicated significant differences between the groups (P < 0.05. SBS of controls was significantly lower than the other groups; differences between groups 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 were not significant. Surface treatment with diamond bur + 35% phosphoric acid resulted in the highest bond strength. Conclusion. All the surface treatments used in this study improved the shear bond strength of nanofilled composite resin used.

  4. Effect of organic solvents compared to sandblasting on the repair bond strength of nanohybrid and nanofilled composite resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brum, Rafael Torres; Vieira, Sergio; Freire, Andrea; Mazur, Rui Fernando; De Souza, Evelise Machado; Rached, Rodrigo Nunes

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of different surface treatments on the repair bond strength of nanohybrid (Empress Direct) and nanofilled (Filtek Z350 XT) composite resins. A total of 120 specimens of each material (7.5 x 4.5 x 3 mm) were prepared and polished with SiC paper. Half of the specimens were kept in water for seven days and the other half for six months; they were then divided into six groups according to the type of surface treatment: negative control (no treatment), Al2O3sandblasted, liquid acetone, acetone gel, liquid alcohol and alcohol gel. Following application of the silane coupling agent and the adhesive system, composite resin cylinders were fabricated on the specimens and light cured (20 seconds). The same composite resins were used for the repair. Additionally, ten intact specimens of each composite resin (without repair) were prepared (positive control). The specimens were then loaded to failure in the microshear mode. Three additional specimens were fabricated in each group, and the surface treatments were analyzed by atomic force microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The nanofilled composite resin showed higher cohesive strength and repair bond strength than the nanohybrid composite resin. The aging process affected the repair bond strength of the nanofilled composite resin. Al2O3sandblasting was more efficient for the nanofilled composite resin and promoted greater surface roughness in both materials. The solvents demonstrated higher efficacy for the nanohybrid composite resin. The strengths resulting from the solvents were material dependent, and Al2O3sandblasting resulted in superior repair bond strength in both materials.

  5. Gallium phosphide high temperature diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffin, R. J.; Dawson, L. R.

    1981-01-01

    High temperature (300 C) diodes for geothermal and other energy applications were developed. A comparison of reverse leakage currents of Si, GaAs, and GaP was made. Diodes made from GaP should be usable to 500 C. A Liquid Phase Epitaxy (LPE) process for producing high quality, grown junction GaP diodes is described. This process uses low vapor pressure Mg as a dopant which allows multiple boat growth in the same LPE run. These LPE wafers were cut into die and metallized to make the diodes. These diodes produce leakage currents below ten to the -9th power A/sq cm at 400 C while exhibiting good high temperature rectification characteristics. High temperature life test data is presented which shows exceptional stability of the V-I characteristics.

  6. Highly efficient high temperature electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauch, Anne; Ebbesen, Sune; Jensen, Søren Højgaard;

    2008-01-01

    High temperature electrolysis of water and steam may provide an efficient, cost effective and environmentally friendly production of H-2 Using electricity produced from sustainable, non-fossil energy sources. To achieve cost competitive electrolysis cells that are both high performing i.e. minimum...... internal resistance of the cell, and long-term stable, it is critical to develop electrode materials that are optimal for steam electrolysis. In this article electrolysis cells for electrolysis of water or steam at temperatures above 200 degrees C for production of H-2 are reviewed. High temperature...... electrolysis is favourable from a thermodynamic point of view, because a part of the required energy can be supplied as thermal heat, and the activation barrier is lowered increasing the H-2 production rate. Only two types of cells operating at high temperature (above 200 degrees C) have been described...

  7. Role of bonding agents in the repair of composite resin restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staxrud, Frode; Dahl, Jon E

    2011-08-01

    Six commonly used composite resin materials and recommended bonding systems were tested to assess shear bond strength at the interface between aged and new composites with and without bonding. Test specimens were aged in water for 60 d before new composite was placed. Shear bond strength was assessed after 22 ± 2 h (Test 1) and after additional ageing by thermocycling (5-55°C/5,000 cycles) (Test 2). After an additional 180 d in water, the aged specimens were randomly divided into three groups to blind the test with respect to the aged composite. New composites were placed on aged specimens (two groups with and one without bonding agent) and thermocycled (Test 3). After 24 h (Test 1), the mean shear bond strength of the test specimens was 21-26 MPa when bonding agents were used, as opposed to 10-15 MPa without bonding agents. After thermocycling (Test 2), the mean shear bond strength was 16-23 MPa with a bonding agent and 17 MPa without a bonding agent. After 180 d in water and subsequent thermocycling (Test 3), the mean shear bond strength was 9-13 MPa with bonding agent and 2-3 MPa when no bonding agent was used. The results of this study therefore indicate that the use of bonding agents significantly improves the quality of composite repair.

  8. Effects of surface conditioning on repair bond strengths of non-aged and aged microhybrid, nanohybrid, and nanofilled composite resins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rinastiti, Margareta; Siswomihardjo, Widowati; Busscher, Henk J.; Ozcan, Mutlu

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluates effects of aging on repair bond strengths of microhybrid, nanohybrid, and nanofilled composite resins and characterizes the interacting surfaces after aging. Disk-shaped composite specimens were assigned to one of three aging conditions: (1) thermocycling (5,000x, 5-55 degrees

  9. Effects of surface conditioning on repair bond strengths of non-aged and aged microhybrid, nanohybrid, and nanofilled composite resins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rinastiti, Margareta; Siswomihardjo, Widowati; Busscher, Henk J.; Ozcan, Mutlu

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluates effects of aging on repair bond strengths of microhybrid, nanohybrid, and nanofilled composite resins and characterizes the interacting surfaces after aging. Disk-shaped composite specimens were assigned to one of three aging conditions: (1) thermocycling (5,000x, 5-55 degrees C

  10. High temperature superconductor current leads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, John R. (Hinsdale, IL); Poeppel, Roger B. (Glen Ellyn, IL)

    1995-01-01

    An electrical lead having one end for connection to an apparatus in a cryogenic environment and the other end for connection to an apparatus outside the cryogenic environment. The electrical lead includes a high temperature superconductor wire and an electrically conductive material distributed therein, where the conductive material is present at the one end of the lead at a concentration in the range of from 0 to about 3% by volume, and at the other end of the lead at a concentration of less than about 20% by volume. Various embodiments are shown for groups of high temperature superconductor wires and sheaths.

  11. High temperature corrosion in gasifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakker Wate

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Several commercial scale coal gasification combined cycle power plants have been built and successfully operated during the last 5-10 years. Supporting research on materials of construction has been carried out for the last 20 years by EPRI and others. Emphasis was on metallic alloys for heat exchangers and other components in contact with hot corrosive gases at high temperatures. In this paper major high temperature corrosion mechanisms, materials performance in presently operating gasifiers and future research needs will be discussed.

  12. A fiber-reinforced composite structure for the repair of thermally cracked bituminous pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantzen, Jeffrey Alan

    1998-10-01

    The apparatus under development in this project is a structural component or beam fabricated from a fiber reinforced plastic composite (FRPC). The FRPC beam is a structural repair component intended to bridge a deteriorated thermal crack in full depth bituminous pavements or partial depth bituminous pavements over portland cement concrete. The bridging action provided by the FRPC beam is intended to minimize roughness through the repaired area for up to five years, eliminate reappearance of the deteriorated crack, and provide a controlled expansion crack that can be treated with standard sealing techniques. This apparatus is designed for maintenance use as a field expedient, semi-permanent repair using tools that are commonly available at the Area Maintenance level. Three FRPC beams were constructed for field trial in a thermally cracked, full depth bituminous pavement on US-36 east of Hiawatha, Kansas. Each of the beams were instrumented with bonded metal foil strain gages and field installation by KDOT Maintenance forces was done in August and September of 1997. The FRPC beams have been evaluated since installation and this evaluation will continue for up to five years. Evaluation of the beams has been accomplished through static load tests using the strain gage instrumentation and Falling Weight Deflectometer measurements. The FRPC beams have performed satisfactorily as of the date of writing.

  13. Thermoelastic properties of minerals at high temperature

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sanjay Upadhyay; Hem Chandra; Meenakashi Joshi; Deepika P Joshi

    2011-01-01

    The knowledge of elasticity of the minerals is useful for interpreting the structure and composition of the lower mantle and also in seismic studies. The purpose of the present study is to discuss a simple and straightforward method for evaluating thermoelastic properties of minerals at high temperatures. We have extended the Kumar’s formulation by taking into the account the concept of anharmonicity in minerals above the Debye temperature (D). In our present study, we have investigated the thermophysical properties of two minerals (pyrope-rich garnet and MgAl2O4) under high temperatures and calculated the second-order elastic constant () and bulk modulus (T) of the above minerals, in two cases first by taking Anderson–Gruneisen parameter (T) as temperature-independent and then by treating T as temperature-dependent parameter. The results obtained when T is temperature-dependent are in close agreement with experimental data.

  14. Fast pyrolysis of biomass at high temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trubetskaya, Anna

    This Ph.D. thesis describes experimental and modeling investigations of fast high temperature pyrolysis of biomass. Suspension firing of biomass is widely used for power generation and has been considered as an important step in reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by using less fossil fuels. Fast...... pyrolysis at high temperatures plays a significant role in the overall combustion process since the biomass type, the reaction kinetics and heat transfer rates during pyrolysis influence the volatile gas release. The solid residue yield and its properties in suspension firing, including particle size...... and shape, composition, reactivity and burnout depend significantly on the operating conditions of the fast pyrolysis. Biomass fast pyrolysis experiments were performed in a laboratory-scale wire mesh reactor and bench scale atmospheric pressure drop tube / entrained flow reactors with the aim...

  15. High-temperature discontinuously reinforced aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zedalis, M. S.; Bryant, J. D.; Gilman, P. S.; Das, S. K.

    1991-08-01

    High-temperature discontinuously reinforced aluminum (HTDRA) composites have been developed for elevated-temperature applications by incorporating SiC particulate reinforcement into a rapidly solidified, high-temperature Al-Fe-V-Si (alloy 8009) matrix. HTDRA combines the superior elevated-temperature strength, stability and corrosion resistance of the 8009 matrix with the excellent specific stiffness and abrasion resistance of the discontinuous SiC particulate reinforcement. On a specific stiffness basis, HTDRA is competitive with Ti-6-Al-4V and 17-4 PH stainless steel to temperatures approaching 480°C. Potential aerospace applications being considered for HTDRA include aircraft wing skins, missile bodies, and miscellaneous engine, spacecraft and hypersonic vehicle components.

  16. 热处理温度对针刺C/C复合材料热力学性能的影响%Effect of high temperature treatment on performances of needling carbon/carbon composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白侠; 嵇阿琳; 崔红; 程文

    2013-01-01

    The effects of heat treatment temperature on the thermal properties,mechanical properties and thermal shock resistance of needling carbon/carbon composites were studied in this paper.The results show that after high-temperature treatment,thermal conductivity of C/C composites increase,while their coefficient of thermal expansion decrease.The thermal stress factor is found to be improved from 42 kW/m to above 70 kW/m in this process.Thus heat treatment is helpful for improving the thermal shock resistance of needling carbon/carbon composites.However,the flexural strength of needling carbon/carbon composites decrease gradually from 126 MPa to 70 MPa with the increasing heat treatment temperature,especially treated at 2 000 ℃ or even higher temperature.%对炭布叠层针刺C/C复合材料分别进行了不同温度的高温热处理,研究了热处理温度对C/C复合材料热学、力学和抗热震等性能的影响.结果表明,经过高温热处理,针刺C/C复合材料的导热率升高,线膨胀系数降低,材料的抗热震因子从未处理的42 kW/m提高到70 kW/m以上,表明热处理后材料具有更佳的热稳定性,但材料的弯曲强度随热处理的升高从126 MPa降到70 MPa,且经过2 000℃及更高温度处理后弯曲强度降低幅度较大.

  17. Interface high-temperature superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lili; Ma, Xucun; Xue, Qi-Kun

    2016-12-01

    Cuprate high-temperature superconductors consist of two quasi-two-dimensional (2D) substructures: CuO2 superconducting layers and charge reservoir layers. The superconductivity is realized by charge transfer from the charge reservoir layers into the superconducting layers without chemical dopants and defects being introduced into the latter, similar to modulation-doping in the semiconductor superlattices of AlGaAs/GaAs. Inspired by this scheme, we have been searching for high-temperature superconductivity in ultra-thin films of superconductors epitaxially grown on semiconductor/oxide substrates since 2008. We have observed interface-enhanced superconductivity in both conventional and unconventional superconducting films, including single atomic layer films of Pb and In on Si substrates and single unit cell (UC) films of FeSe on SrTiO3 (STO) substrates. The discovery of high-temperature superconductivity with a superconducting gap of ∼20 meV in 1UC-FeSe/STO has stimulated tremendous interest in the superconductivity community, for it opens a new avenue for both raising superconducting transition temperature and understanding the pairing mechanism of unconventional high-temperature superconductivity. Here, we review mainly the experimental progress on interface-enhanced superconductivity in the three systems mentioned above with emphasis on 1UC-FeSe/STO, studied by scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy, angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and transport experiments. We discuss the roles of interfaces and a possible pairing mechanism inferred from these studies.

  18. Chemistry of high temperature superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    1991-01-01

    This review volume contains the most up-to-date articles on the chemical aspects of high temperature oxide superconductors. These articles are written by some of the leading scientists in the field and includes a comprehensive list of references. This is an essential volume for researchers working in the fields of ceramics, materials science and chemistry.

  19. High Temperature Superconductor Machine Prototype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mijatovic, Nenad; Jensen, Bogi Bech; Træholt, Chresten

    2011-01-01

    A versatile testing platform for a High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) machine has been constructed. The stationary HTS field winding can carry up to 10 coils and it is operated at a temperature of 77K. The rotating armature is at room temperature. Test results and performance for the HTS field...

  20. High-Temperature Optical Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamovsky, Grigory; Juergens, Jeffrey R.; Varga, Donald J.; Floyd, Bertram M.

    2010-01-01

    A high-temperature optical sensor (see Figure 1) has been developed that can operate at temperatures up to 1,000 C. The sensor development process consists of two parts: packaging of a fiber Bragg grating into a housing that allows a more sturdy thermally stable device, and a technological process to which the device is subjected to in order to meet environmental requirements of several hundred C. This technology uses a newly discovered phenomenon of the formation of thermally stable secondary Bragg gratings in communication-grade fibers at high temperatures to construct robust, optical, high-temperature sensors. Testing and performance evaluation (see Figure 2) of packaged sensors demonstrated operability of the devices at 1,000 C for several hundred hours, and during numerous thermal cycling from 400 to 800 C with different heating rates. The technology significantly extends applicability of optical sensors to high-temperature environments including ground testing of engines, flight propulsion control, thermal protection monitoring of launch vehicles, etc. It may also find applications in such non-aerospace arenas as monitoring of nuclear reactors, furnaces, chemical processes, and other hightemperature environments where other measurement techniques are either unreliable, dangerous, undesirable, or unavailable.

  1. Properties of high temperature SQUIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falco, C. M.; Wu, C. T.

    1978-01-01

    A review is given of the present status of weak links and dc and rf biased SQUIDs made with high temperature superconductors. A method for producing reliable, reproducible devices using Nb/sub 3/Sn is outlined, and comments are made on directions future work should take.

  2. High-temperature wear and oxidation behaviors of TiNi/Ti2Ni matrix composite coatings with TaC addition prepared on Ti6Al4V by laser cladding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Y. H.; Li, J.; Tao, Y. F.; Hu, L. F.

    2017-04-01

    TiNi/Ti2Ni matrix composite coatings were produced on Ti6Al4V surfaces by laser cladding the mixed powders of Ni-based alloy and different contents of TaC (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30 and 40 wt.%). Microstructures of the coatings were investigated. High-temperature wear tests of the substrate and the coatings were carried out at 600 °C in air for 30 min. High-temperature oxidation tests of the substrate and the coatings were performed at 1000 °C in air for 50 h. Wear and oxidation mechanisms were revealed in detail. The results showed that TiNi/Ti2Ni as the matrix and TiC/TiB2/TiB as the reinforcements are the main phases of the coatings. The friction coefficients of the substrate and the coatings with different contents of TaC were 0.431 (the substrate), 0.554 (0 wt.%), 0.486 (5 wt.%), 0.457 (10 wt.%), 0.458 (15 wt.%), 0.507 (20 wt.%), 0.462 (30 wt.%) and 0.488 (40 wt.%). The wear rates of the coatings were decreased by almost 83%-98% than that of the substrate and presented a decreasing tendency with increasing TaC content. The wear mechanism of the substrate was a combination of serious oxidation, micro-cutting and brittle debonding. For the coatings, oxidation and slight scratching were predominant during wear, accompanied by slight brittle debonding in partial zones. With the increase in content of TaC, the oxidation film better shielded the coatings from destruction due to the effective friction-reducing role of Ta2O5. The oxidation rates of the substrate and the coatings with different contents of TaC at 1000 °C were 12.170 (the substrate), 5.886 (0 wt.%), 4.937 (5 wt.%), 4.517 (10 wt.%), 4.394 (15 wt.%), 3.951 (20 wt.%), 4.239 (30 wt.%) and 3.530 (40 wt.%) mg2 cm-4 h-1, respectively. The oxidation film formed outside the coating without adding TaC was composed of TiO2, NiO, Cr2O3, Al2O3 and SiO2. When TaC was added, Ta2O5 and TaC were also detected, which effectively improved the oxidation resistance of the coatings. The addition of TaC contributed to the

  3. Composite scaffolds of mesoporous bioactive glass and polyamide for bone repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su J

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Jiacan Su, Liehu Cao, Baoqing Yu, Shaojun Song, Xinwei Liu, Zhiwei Wang, Ming LiDepartment of Orthopedics, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, ChinaAbstract: A bone-implanted porous scaffold of mesoporous bioglass/polyamide composite (m-BPC was fabricated, and its biological properties were investigated. The results indicate that the m-BPC scaffold contained open and interconnected macropores ranging 400–500 µm, and exhibited a porosity of 76%. The attachment ratio of MG-63 cells on m-BPC was higher than polyamide scaffolds at 4 hours, and the cells with normal phenotype extended well when cultured with m-BPC and polyamide scaffolds. When the m-BPC scaffolds were implanted into bone defects of rabbit thighbone, histological evaluation confirmed that the m-BPC scaffolds exhibited excellent biocompatibility and osteoconductivity, and more effective osteogenesis than the polyamide scaffolds in vivo. The results indicate that the m-BPC scaffolds improved the efficiency of new bone regeneration and, thus, have clinical potential for bone repair.Keywords: mesoporous bioglass, polyamide, composite scaffolds, biocompatibility, bone repair

  4. Preparation of porous PLA/DBM composite biomaterials and experimental research of repair rabbit radius segmental bone defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yumin; Wang, Jianru; Wang, Jue; Niu, Xiaojun; Liu, Jianchun; Gao, Lan; Zhai, Xiaoyan; Chu, Kaibo

    2015-12-01

    Bone substitutes are used in wide range of orthopaedic application. An ideal bone substitute should exhibit superior osteoinductive and osteoconductive properties. Neither bio-derived materials nor synthetic materials can meet the needs of an ideal bone substitute. Preparation of composite materials is a promising way to improve properties of biomaterial. In this study, the porous poly lactic acid (PLA)/demineralized bone matrix (DBM) composite biomaterials prepared by supercritical CO2 technique were implanted to repair rabbit radius segmental bone defect. By comparing with PLA and bone autograft, the X-ray result and histological analysis showed the repair effect of PLA/DBM porous composite materials is significantly better than that of the PLA group and the blank control group, and is similar to autologous bone. The PLA/DBM can promote the healing of bone defects and can be used as a kind of ideal alternative materials to repair bone defects.

  5. Low toxicity high temperature PMR polyimide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pater, Ruth H. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    In-situ polymerization of monomer reactants (PMR) type polyimides constitute an important class of ultra high performance composite matrix resins. PMR-15 is the best known and most widely used PMR polyimide. An object of the present invention is to provide a substantially improved high temperature PMR-15 system that exhibits better processability, toughness, and thermo-oxidative stability than PMR-15, as well as having a low toxicity. Another object is to provide new PMR polyimides that are useful as adhesives, moldings, and composite matrices. By the present invention, a new PMR polyimide comprises a mixture of the following compounds: 3,4'-oxydianiline (3,4'-ODA), NE, and BTDE which are then treated with heat. This PMR was designated LaRC-RP46 and has a broader processing window, better reproducibility of high quality composite parts, better elevated temperature mechanical properties, and higher retention of mechanical properties at an elevated temperature, particularly, at 371 C.

  6. Creep resistant high temperature martensitic steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawk, Jeffrey A.; Jablonski, Paul D.; Cowen, Christopher J.

    2017-01-31

    The disclosure provides a creep resistant alloy having an overall composition comprised of iron, chromium, molybdenum, carbon, manganese, silicon, nickel, vanadium, niobium, nitrogen, tungsten, cobalt, tantalum, boron, copper, and potentially additional elements. In an embodiment, the creep resistant alloy has a molybdenum equivalent Mo(eq) from 1.475 to 1.700 wt. % and a quantity (C+N) from 0.145 to 0.205. The overall composition ameliorates sources of microstructural instability such as coarsening of M.sub.23C.sub.6carbides and MX precipitates, and mitigates or eliminates Laves and Z-phase formation. A creep resistant martensitic steel may be fabricated by preparing a melt comprised of the overall composition followed by at least austenizing and tempering. The creep resistant alloy exhibits improved high-temperature creep strength in the temperature environment of around 650.degree. C.

  7. Creep resistant high temperature martensitic steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawk, Jeffrey A.; Jablonski, Paul D.; Cowen, Christopher J.

    2015-11-13

    The disclosure provides a creep resistant alloy having an overall composition comprised of iron, chromium, molybdenum, carbon, manganese, silicon, nickel, vanadium, niobium, nitrogen, tungsten, cobalt, tantalum, boron, and potentially additional elements. In an embodiment, the creep resistant alloy has a molybdenum equivalent Mo(eq) from 1.475 to 1.700 wt. % and a quantity (C+N) from 0.145 to 0.205. The overall composition ameliorates sources of microstructural instability such as coarsening of M.sub.23C.sub.6 carbides and MX precipitates, and mitigates or eliminates Laves and Z-phase formation. A creep resistant martensitic steel may be fabricated by preparing a melt comprised of the overall composition followed by at least austenizing and tempering. The creep resistant alloy exhibits improved high-temperature creep strength in the temperature environment of around 650.degree. C.

  8. Compositions, thermodynamic properties, and transport coefficients of high-temperature C5F10O mixed with CO2 and O2 as substitutes for SF6 to reduce global warming potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Linlin; Rong, Mingzhe; Wang, Xiaohua; Wu, Junhui; Han, Guiquan; Han, Guohui; Lu, Yanhui; Yang, Aijun; Wu, Yi

    2017-07-01

    C5F10O has recently been found to be a very promising alternative to SF6. This paper is devoted to the investigation of compositions, thermodynamic properties, and transport coefficients of high-temperature C5F10O mixed with CO2 and O2. Firstly, the partition functions and enthalpies of formation for a few molecules (CxFy and CxFyO) which are likely to exist in the mixtures, are calculated based on the G4(MP2) theory. The isomers of the above molecules are selected according to their Gibbs energy. The compositions of C5F10O-CO2-O2 mixtures are then determined using the minimization of the Gibbs free energy. Next, the thermodynamic properties (mass density, specific enthalpy, and specific heat) are derived from the previously calculated compositions. Lastly, the transport coefficients (electrical conductivity, viscosity, and thermal conductivity) are calculated based on Chapman-Enskog method. It is found that, as an arc quenching gas, C5F10O could not recombine into itself with the temperature decreasing down to room temperature after the arc extinction. Besides, the key species at room temperature are always CF4, CO2, and C4F6 if graphite is not considered. When taken into account, graphite will replace C4F6 as one of the dominate particles. The mixing of CO2 with C5F10O plasma significantly affects the thermodynamic properties (e.g. vanishing and/or shifting of the peaks in specific heat) and transport coefficients (e.g. reducing viscosity and changing the number of peaks in thermal conductivity), while the addition of O2 with C5F10O-CO2 mixtures has no remarkable influence on both thermodynamic and transport properties.

  9. Turbine repair process, repaired coating, and repaired turbine component

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Rupak; Delvaux, John McConnell; Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose

    2015-11-03

    A turbine repair process, a repaired coating, and a repaired turbine component are disclosed. The turbine repair process includes providing a turbine component having a higher-pressure region and a lower-pressure region, introducing particles into the higher-pressure region, and at least partially repairing an opening between the higher-pressure region and the lower-pressure region with at least one of the particles to form a repaired turbine component. The repaired coating includes a silicon material, a ceramic matrix composite material, and a repaired region having the silicon material deposited on and surrounded by the ceramic matrix composite material. The repaired turbine component a ceramic matrix composite layer and a repaired region having silicon material deposited on and surrounded by the ceramic matrix composite material.

  10. Adhesion of resin composite to hydrofluoric acid-exposed enamel and dentin in repair protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracoglu, A; Ozcan, M; Kumbuloglu, O; Turkun, M

    2011-01-01

    Intraoral repairs of ceramic fixed-dental-prostheses (FDP) often include cervical recessions that require pretreatment of the exposed tooth surfaces either before or after the ceramic is conditioned with hydrofluoric (HF) acid gel. The sequence of repair protocol may cross-contaminate the exposed etched enamel or dentin surfaces during the application or rinsing process and thereby affect the adhesion. This study evaluated the influence of HF acid gel with two concentrations on bond strengths of composite to enamel and dentin. Human third molars (N=100, n=10 per group) with similar sizes were selected and randomly divided into 10 groups. Flat surfaces of enamel and dentin were created by wet ground finishing. Before or after the enamel (E) or dentin (D) was conditioned with phosphoric acid (P), substrate surfaces were conditioned with either 9.5% HF (HF(9.5)) or 5% HF (HF(5)). Subsequently, a bonding agent (B) was applied. The experimental groups by conditioning sequence were as follows where the first letter of the group abbreviation represents the substrate (E or D) followed by the acid type and concentration: group 1 (EPHF(9.5)), group 2 (EPHF(5)), group 3 (EHF(9.5)P), group 4 (EHF(5)P), group 5 (DPHF(9.5)), group 6 (DPHF(5)), group 7 (DHF(9.5)P), and group 8 (DHF(5)P). Group 9 (EPB) and group 10 (DPB) acted as the control groups. Repair resin was adhered incrementally onto the conditioned enamel and dentin in polyethylene molds. Each layer was photo-polymerized for 40 seconds. All specimens were thermocycled (×1000, 5°-55°C) and subjected to shear test (universal testing machine, 1 mm/min). Specimens that debonded during thermocycling were considered as 0 MPa. The bond strength data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis test and failure types using the chi-square test (α=0.05). Overall, the bond results (MPa) were lower on dentin than on enamel (penamel and dentin surfaces (64 out of 80) (padhesion was not ideal. Contamination of the enamel or dentin surfaces

  11. High Temperature Heat Exchanger Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony E. Hechanova, Ph.D.

    2008-09-30

    The UNLV Research Foundation assembled a research consortium for high temperature heat exchanger design and materials compatibility and performance comprised of university and private industry partners under the auspices of the US DOE-NE Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative in October 2003. The objectives of the consortium were to conduct investigations of candidate materials for high temperature heat exchanger componets in hydrogen production processes and design and perform prototypical testing of heat exchangers. The initial research of the consortium focused on the intermediate heat exchanger (located between the nuclear reactor and hydrogen production plan) and the components for the hydrogen iodine decomposition process and sulfuric acid decomposition process. These heat exchanger components were deemed the most challenging from a materials performance and compatibility perspective

  12. Motor for High Temperature Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roopnarine (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A high temperature motor has a stator with poles formed by wire windings, and a rotor with magnetic poles on a rotor shaft positioned coaxially within the stator. The stator and rotor are built up from stacks of magnetic-alloy laminations. The stator windings are made of high temperature magnet wire insulated with a vitreous enamel film, and the wire windings are bonded together with ceramic binder. A thin-walled cylinder is positioned coaxially between the rotor and the stator to prevent debris from the stator windings from reaching the rotor. The stator windings are wound on wire spools made of ceramic, thereby avoiding need for mica insulation and epoxy/adhesive. The stator and rotor are encased in a stator housing with rear and front end caps, and rear and front bearings for the rotor shaft are mounted on external sides of the end caps to keep debris from the motor migrating into the bearings' races.

  13. Designing a New Nano-Plant Composite of Cucurbita pepo for Wound Repair of Skin in Male Albino Mice: A New Nano Approach for Skin Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nooshin Naghsh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective : The Cucurbita pepo is one of plants that are functional in traditional therapy. This plant has antioxidant and skin damage repair properties. This study investigated the effect of Cucurbita pepo nano silver as a new nano-plant composition in wound repair skin in male mice.   Materials & Methods: In this investigation, male albino mice were places in 8 groups, each containing 8 animals. Group I – VIII were treated with nano silver (500, 250, and 125 ppm concentrations and different concentrations of extracts [70%, 50%, and 25%] and the control group received a mixture of 25% Cucurbita pepo extract (125 ppm nano silver. The eighth group, as control, was treated with sterile deionizer water after the induction of wound skin. The average diameter of the wounds was measured 28 days after treatment in the control and treatment groups. These data were analyzed using the t-test and ANOVA statistical method.   Results: The results of this study showed that ethanol extraction (80% has its highest repair effect 28 days post treatment. The average diameter of the wounds in the control group was 1.16 ±. 0.46 cm, which was decreased to 0 cm and 0.12 ±. 0.23 cm in the ethanol extract (70% of the Cucurbita pepo and component groups, respectively (p value ≤ 0.01.   Conclusion: In this project, nano silver-Cucurbita pepo ethanol extraction for wound repair in albino male mice was more effective than single materials. These findings show that the repair synergic effects are between alcoholic extract and nano silver in this nano composite.

  14. Precipitation Hardenable High Temperature Shape Memory Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noebe, Ronald Dean (Inventor); Draper, Susan L. (Inventor); Nathal, Michael V. (Inventor); Crombie, Edwin A. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A composition of the invention is a high temperature shape memory alloy having high work output, and is made from (Ni+Pt+Y),Ti(100-x) wherein x is present in a total amount of 49-55 atomic % Pt is present in a total amount of 10-30 atomic %, Y is one or more of Au, Pd. and Cu and is present in a total amount of 0 to 10 atomic %. The alloy has a matrix phase wherein the total concentration of Ni, Pt, and the one or more of Pd. Au, and Cu is greater than 50 atomic %.

  15. Perichondrium/cartilage composite graft for repairing large tympanic membrane perforations and hearing improvement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xiao-wei; YANG Hua; GAO Ru-zhen; YU Rong; GAO Zhi-qiang

    2010-01-01

    Background The main risk factors for postoperative failure in tympanoplasties are large perforations that are difficult to repair, annular perforations, and a tympanic membrane (TM) with extensive granular myringitis that require middle ear exploration and mastoidectomy. The aim of this study was to investigate a novel technique of perichondrium/cartilage composite graft for repairing the large TM perforation in the patient of otitis media.Methods Retrospective chart reviews were conducted for 102 patients with large tympanic membrane perforations, who had undergone tympanoplasty from August 2005 to August 2008. Tympanoplasty or tympanomastoidectomy using a perichondrium/cartilage composite graft was analyzed. The tragal or conchal perichondrium/cartilage was used to replace the tympanic membrane in patients.Results Patients aged from 13 to 67 years were followed up in average for 24 months (10-36 months). Seventy-four ears (72.61%) were used the tragal perichondrium/cartilage as graft material and 27 ears (27.39%) were used the conchal perichondrium/cartilage. Graft take was successful in all patients. Postoperative complications such as wound infection, hematoma, or sensorineural hearing loss were not identified. Nine patients (8.82%) had the partial ossicular replacement prosthesis, 14 patients (13.72%) using the autologous curved incus and 79 patients (77.45%) without prosthesis. Successful closure occurred in 92% of the ears. A total of 85.8% patients achieved a postoperative hearing improvement.Conclusions The graft underlay tympanoplasty using perichonddum/cartilage composite is effective for the majority of patients with large perforation. The hearing was improved even if the mastoidectomy was required in the patients with otitis media with extensive granulation.

  16. Optimization of the Composite Repair Work using 5H Satin Dry Glass Fabric and Epoxy Resin LY5052/HY5052 Materials through the Vacuum Bagging Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartono; Rifai, Mochammad; Subawi, Handoko

    2016-08-01

    In composite repair terminology, the intermingled fiber joints (IFJs) concept is clearly identified as the most effective in transferring stress. However, the practical application leads to apply the laminated fiber joints (LFJs) concept for composite repair. The LFJs become almost as strong as the IFJs as the jointed zone length increases. The LFJs concept was implemented to set up the repair configuration for this work. It is identified that fracture tendency as the result of crack propagation starts from the free edges. This tendency is alleviated by applying vacuum bag to compact the laminate system. If necessary, additional accelerated curing was performed at low temperature for short time. However, this repair work preferably applying natural overnight cure to ensure the structure stability. Additionally, the repair handling and waiting purposes take 40% out of the effectively repair time. The waiting time should be anticipated in the composite repair to reduce wasting time for unproductive output.

  17. Thermodynamics of High Temperature Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-30

    9S l~ SECUNT’~ C..&SSFCAr’CN OF ’-S OAGE REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE I &. EPO RT SEC URNITY CLASS P’CATION lb. RE£ST R CT IV I dAUNLSSIFIED M 4 j7...34 - :ne polymeric ions, and the repair mechanisms which regenerated the , polymeric ions after photodissociation. The model systems studied previously

  18. Very High Temperature Sound Absorption Coating Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Phase I demonstrated experimentally a very high temperature acoustically absorbing coating for ducted acoustics applications. High temperature survivability at 3500...

  19. Characterization of Ultra-high Temperature Ceramics via Transmission Electron Microscopy Relevant ZrB2-based Composites, TaC-based Composites and Oxides Containing SiC Chopped Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-06

    Table 2: Composition, mean grain size and mechanical properties of ZrB2-WSi2 ceramic compared to other ZrB2- composites containing either transition metal ...and ZrO2. Among ZrB2, one first composite was produced with the purpose of obtaining a refractory ceramic with high strength up to high...WSi2 ceramic compared to other ZrB2-composites containing either transition metal silicides or W-compounds. m.g.s.: mean grain size, KIc: fracture

  20. Investigation of chloride induced corrosion of bridge pier and life-cycle repair cost analysis using fiber reinforced polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhakal, Dinesh

    Bridges are the long term investment of the highway agencies. To maintain the required service level throughout the life of a bridge, a series of maintenance, repair, and rehabilitation (MRℝ) works can be performed. To investigate the corrosion deterioration and maintenance and repair practices in the bridge pier columns constructed in chloride-laden environment, a questionnaire survey was conducted within the 50 state Departments of Transportation (DOTs). Based on the survey data, two corrosion deterioration phases were identified. They were corrosion crack initiation phase and corrosion propagation phase. The data showed that the mean corrosion crack initiation phase for bridge pier column having cover of 50 mm, 75 mm, and 100 mm was 18.9 years, 20.3 years, and 22.5 years, respectively. The corrosion propagation phase starts after the corrosion crack initiation. The corrosion propagation is defined in a single term, corrosion damage rate, measured as percentage of area damaged due to corrosion cracking, spalling, and delamination. From the survey, the corrosion damage rate was found 2.23% and 2.10% in the bridge pier columns exposed to deicing salt water and exposed to tidal splash/spray, respectively. For this study, two different corrosion damage rates were proposed before and after the repair criteria for minor damage repair as practiced by DOTs. This study also presents the collected data regarding the corrosion effectiveness of using sealers and coatings, cathodic protection, corrosion inhibitors, carbon fiber/epoxy composites, and glass fiber/epoxy composites as maintenance and repair technique. In this study, the cost-effectiveness of wrapping carbon fiber/epoxy composites and glass fiber/epoxy composites in bridge pier columns constructed in a chloride-laden environment was investigated by conducting life-cycle cost analysis. As a repair work, externally bonded two layer of carbon fiber/epoxy and glass fiber/epoxy composites were installed by wet

  1. Effect of Mechanical Surface Treatment on the Repair Bond Strength of the Silorane-based Composite Resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parnian Alizadeh Oskoee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. A proper bond must be created between the existing composite resin and the new one for successful repair. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of three mechanical surface treatments, using diamond bur, air abrasion, and Er,Cr:YSGG laser, on the repair bond strength of the silorane-based composite resin. Materials and methods. Sixty cylindrical composite resin specimens (Filtek Silorane were fabricated and randomly divided into four groups according to surface treatment: group 1 (control group without any mechanical surface treatment, groups 24 were treated with air abrasion, Er,Cr:YSGG laser, and diamond bur, respectively. In addition, a positive control group was assigned in order to measure the cohesive strength. Silorane bonding agent was used in groups 14 before adding the new composite resin. Then, the specimens were subjected to a shear bond strength test and data was analyzed using one-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey tests at a significance level of P < 0.05. The topographical effects of surface treatments were characterized under a scanning electron microscope. Results. There were statistically significant differences in the repair bond strength values between groups 1 and 2 and groups 3 and 4 (P < 0.001. There were no significant differences between groups 1 and 2 (P = 0.98 and groups 3 and 4 (P = 0.97. Conclusion. Surface treatment using Er,Cr:YSGG laser and diamond bur were effective in silorane-based composite resin repair.

  2. High Temperature Mechanisms for Venus Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Jerri; Narine, Roop; Kumar, Nishant; Singh, Sase; Gorevan, Steven

    Future Venus missions, including New Frontiers Venus In-Situ Explorer and three Flagship Missions - Venus Geophysical Network, Venus Mobile Explorer and Venus Surface Sample Return all focus on searching for evidence of past climate change both on the surface and in the atmospheric composition as well as in the interior dynamics of the planet. In order to achieve these goals and objectives, many key technologies need to be developed for the Venus extreme environment. These key technologies include sample acquisition systems and other high-temperature mechanisms and mobility systems capable of extended operation when directly exposed to the Venus surface or lower atmosphere environment. Honeybee Robotics has developed two types of high temperature motors, the materials and components in both motors were selected based on the requirement to survive temperatures above a minimum of 460° C, at earth atmosphere. The prototype Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM) has been operated non-continuously for over 20 hours at Venus-like conditions (460° C temperature, mostly CO2 gas environment) and it remains functional. A drilling system, actuated by two SRMs was tested in Venus-like conditions, 460° C temperature and mostly CO2 gas environment, for more than 15 hours. The drill successfully completed three tests by drilling into chalk up to 6 inches deep in each test. A first generation Brushless DC (BLDC) Motor and high temperature resolver were also tested and the feasibility of the designs was demonstrated by the extended operation of both devices under Venus-like condition. Further development of the BLDC motor and resolver continues and these devices will, ultimately, be integrated into the development of a high temperature sample acquisition scoop and high temperature joint (awarded SBIR Phase II in October, 2007). Both the SR and BLDC motors will undergo extensive testing at Venus temperature and pressure (TRL6) and are expected to be mission ready before the next New

  3. Passivation of high temperature superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Richard P. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    The surface of high temperature superconductors such as YBa2Cu3O(7-x) are passivated by reacting the native Y, Ba and Cu metal ions with an anion such as sulfate or oxalate to form a surface film that is impervious to water and has a solubility in water of no more than 10(exp -3) M. The passivating treatment is preferably conducted by immersing the surface in dilute aqueous acid solution since more soluble species dissolve into the solution. The treatment does not degrade the superconducting properties of the bulk material.

  4. High Temperature Sorbents for Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pramod K. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A sorbent capable of removing trace amounts of oxygen (ppt) from a gas stream at a high temperature above 200 C is introduced. The sorbent comprises a porous alumina silicate support such as zeolite containing from 1 to 10 percent by weight of ion exchanged transition metal such as copper or cobalt ions and 0.05 to 1.0 percent by weight of an activator selected from a platinum group metal such as platinum. The activation temperature, oxygen sorption and reducibility are all improved by the presence of the platinum activator.

  5. Effect of curing and silanizing on composite repair bond strength using an improved micro-tensile test method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliasson, Sigfus Thor; Dahl, Jon E

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the micro-tensile repair bond strength between aged and new composite, using silane and adhesives that were cured or left uncured when new composite was placed. Methods: Eighty Filtek Supreme XLT composite blocks and four control blocks were stored in water for two weeks and thermo-cycled. Sandpaper ground, etched and rinsed specimens were divided into two experimental groups: A, no further treatment and B, the surface was coated with bis-silane. Each group was divided into subgroups: (1) Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose, (2) Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose adhesive, (3) Adper Scotchbond Universal, (4) Clearfil SE Bond and (5) One Step Plus. For each adhesive group, the adhesive was (a) cured according to manufacturer's instructions or (b) not cured before repair. The substrate blocks were repaired with Filtek Supreme XLT. After aging, they were serially sectioned, producing 1.1 × 1.1 mm square test rods. The rods were prepared for tensile testing and tensile strength calculated at fracture. Type of fracture was examined under microscope. Results: Leaving the adhesive uncured prior to composite repair placement increased the mean tensile values statistically significant for all adhesives tested, with or without silane pretreatment. Silane surface treatment improved significantly (p < 0.001) tensile strength values for all adhesives, both for the cured and uncured groups. The mean strength of the control composite was higher than the strongest repair strength (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Application of freshly made silane and a thin bonding layer, rendered higher tensile bond strength. Not curing the adhesive before composite placement increased the tensile bond strength.

  6. High temperature catalytic membrane reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-03-01

    Current state-of-the-art inorganic oxide membranes offer the potential of being modified to yield catalytic properties. The resulting modules may be configured to simultaneously induce catalytic reactions with product concentration and separation in a single processing step. Processes utilizing such catalytically active membrane reactors have the potential for dramatically increasing yield reactions which are currently limited by either thermodynamic equilibria, product inhibition, or kinetic selectivity. Examples of commercial interest include hydrogenation, dehydrogenation, partial and selective oxidation, hydrations, hydrocarbon cracking, olefin metathesis, hydroformylation, and olefin polymerization. A large portion of the most significant reactions fall into the category of high temperature, gas phase chemical and petrochemical processes. Microporous oxide membranes are well suited for these applications. A program is proposed to investigate selected model reactions of commercial interest (i.e. dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to styrene and dehydrogenation of butane to butadiene) using a high temperature catalytic membrane reactor. Membranes will be developed, reaction dynamics characterized, and production processes developed, culminating in laboratory-scale demonstration of technical and economic feasibility. As a result, the anticipated increased yield per reactor pass economic incentives are envisioned. First, a large decrease in the temperature required to obtain high yield should be possible because of the reduced driving force requirement. Significantly higher conversion per pass implies a reduced recycle ratio, as well as reduced reactor size. Both factors result in reduced capital costs, as well as savings in cost of reactants and energy.

  7. Repair of osteochondral defects with biodegradable hydrogel composites encapsulating marrow mesenchymal stem cells in a rabbit model.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, X.; Park, H.; Young, S.; Kretlow, J.D.; Beucken, J.J.J.P. van den; Baggett, L.S.; Tabata, Y.; Kasper, F.K.; Mikos, A.G.; Jansen, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    This work investigated the delivery of marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), with or without the growth factor transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1), from biodegradable hydrogel composites on the repair of osteochondral defects in a rabbit model. Three formulations of oligo(poly(ethylene glyc

  8. Resin composite repair: Quantitative microleakage evaluation of resin-resin and resin-tooth interfaces with different surface treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Cigdem; Cehreli, Sevi Burcak; Arhun, Neslihan

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to evaluate the effect of different adhesive systems and surface treatments on the integrity of resin-resin and resin-tooth interfaces after partial removal of preexisting resin composites using quantitative image analysis for microleakage testing protocol. A total of 80 human molar teeth were restored with either of the resin composites (Filtek Z250/GrandioSO) occlusally. The teeth were thermocycled (1000×). Mesial and distal 1/3 parts of the restorations were removed out leaving only middle part. One side of the cavity was finished with course diamond bur and the other was air-abraded with 50 μm Al2O3. They were randomly divided into four groups (n = 10) to receive: Group 1: Adper Single Bond 2; Group 2: All Bond 3; Group 3: ClearfilSE; Group 4: BeautiBond, before being repaired with the same resin composite (Filtek Z250). The specimens were re-thermocycled (1000×), sealed with nail varnish, stained with 0.5% basic fuchsin, sectioned mesiodistally and photographed digitally. The extent of dye penetration was measured by image analysis software (ImageJ) for both bur-finished and air-abraded surfaces at resin-tooth and resin-resin interfaces. The data were analyzed statistically. BeautiBond exhibited the most microleakage at every site. Irrespective of adhesive and initial composite type, air-abrasion showed less microleakage except for BeautiBond. The type of initial repaired restorative material did not affect the microleakage. BeautiBond adhesive may not be preferred in resin composite repair in terms of microleakage prevention. Surface treatment with air-abrasion produced the lowest microleakage scores, independent of the adhesive systems and the pre-existing resin composite type. Pre-existing composite type does not affect the microleakage issue. All-in-one adhesive resin (BeautiBond) may not be preferred in resin composite repair in terms of microleakage prevention.

  9. Repairing ceramic insulating tiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, B. R.; Laymance, E. L.

    1980-01-01

    Fused-silica tiles containing large voids or gauges are repaired without adhesives by plug insertion method. Tiles are useful in conduits for high-temperature gases, in furnaces, and in other applications involving heat insulation.

  10. HIgh Temperature Photocatalysis over Semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westrich, Thomas A.

    Due in large part to in prevalence of solar energy, increasing demand of energy production (from all sources), and the uncertain future of petroleum energy feedstocks, solar energy harvesting and other photochemical systems will play a major role in the developing energy market. This dissertation focuses on a novel photochemical reaction process: high temperature photocatalysis (i.e., photocatalysis conducted above ambient temperatures, T ≥ 100°C). The overarching hypothesis of this process is that photo-generated charge carriers are able to constructively participate in thermo-catalytic chemical reactions, thereby increasing catalytic rates at one temperature, or maintaining catalytic rates at lower temperatures. The photocatalytic oxidation of carbon deposits in an operational hydrocarbon reformer is one envisioned application of high temperature photocatalysis. Carbon build-up during hydrocarbon reforming results in catalyst deactivation, in the worst cases, this was shown to happen in a period of minutes with a liquid hydrocarbon. In the presence of steam, oxygen, and above-ambient temperatures, carbonaceous deposits were photocatalytically oxidized over very long periods (t ≥ 24 hours). This initial experiment exemplified the necessity of a fundamental assessment of high temperature photocatalytic activity. Fundamental understanding of the mechanisms that affect photocatalytic activity as a function of temperatures was achieved using an ethylene photocatalytic oxidation probe reaction. Maximum ethylene photocatalytic oxidation rates were observed between 100 °C and 200 °C; the maximum photocatalytic rates were approximately a factor of 2 larger than photocatalytic rates at ambient temperatures. The loss of photocatalytic activity at temperatures above 200 °C is due to a non-radiative multi-phonon recombination mechanism. Further, it was shown that the fundamental rate of recombination (as a function of temperature) can be effectively modeled as a

  11. Repair of amalgam restorations with composite resin and bonded amalgam: A microleakage study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Araújo Veloso Popoff

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: The use of adhesive systems significantly affected the ability to seal the repair/ tooth interface. However, at the level of the repair/restoration interface, the bonded amalgam technique may increase microleakage.

  12. Early postsurgical visualization of composite mesh used in ventral hernia repair by amide proton transfer MRI. : Composite Mesh Visualization by APT MRI

    OpenAIRE

    Franconi, Florence; Roux, Jérôme; Garric, Xavier; Lemaire, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    International audience; PURPOSE: The feasibility of noninvasive visualization of composite meshes used in ventral hernia repair by amide-proton transfer magnetic resonance imaging (APT-MRI) was explored. METHODS: Magnetization transfer asymmetry ratio images of composite meshes were obtained in vitro and in vivo from fast-spin echo acquisitions with frequency saturation offsets of ±3.5 ppm with respect to water frequency and no saturation. Three rats were assessed with APT-MRI each week for 1...

  13. Bacterial radiosensitivity to gamma and ultraviolet. Compositional dependence and repair mechanisms; Radiosensibilidad bacteriana frente a gamma y ultravioleta. Dependencia composicional y mecanismos de reparacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saez Angulo, R. M.; Davila, C. A.

    1974-07-01

    The gamma and ultraviolet radiosensitivity of several species of bacteria has been determined its dependence on DNAs composition and repair processes has been studied. Base composition are evaluated by chromatography, DNA melting temperature and isopycnic sedimentation on CsCl gradient. Repair capacity of gamma -and UV- lesions has been studied in two bacterial strains with same DMA base composition. It is concluded that the postulated correlation between radiosensitivity and base composition can not be generalized, the enzymatic repair mechanisms being of determining on radiosensitivity. (Author) 248 refs.

  14. Nonlinear plasmonics at high temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Sivan, Yonatan

    2016-01-01

    We solve the Maxwell and heat equations self-consistently for metal nanoparticles under intense continuous wave (CW) illumination. Unlike previous studies, we rely on {\\em experimentally}-measured data for the metal permittivity for increasing temperature and for the visible spectral range. We show that the thermal nonlinearity of the metal can lead to substantial deviations from the predictions of the linear model for the temperature and field distribution, and thus, can explain qualitatively the strong nonlinear scattering from such configurations observed experimentally. We also show that the incompleteness of existing data of the temperature dependence of the thermal properties of the system prevents reaching a quantitative agreement between the measured and calculated scattering data. This modelling approach is essential for the identification of the underlying physical mechanism responsible for the thermo-optical nonlinearity of the metal and should be adopted in all applications of high temperature non...

  15. Nonlinear plasmonics at high temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivan Yonatan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We solve the Maxwell and heat equations self-consistently for metal nanoparticles under intense continuous wave (CW illumination. Unlike previous studies, we rely on experimentally-measured data for metal permittivity for increasing temperature and for the visible spectral range. We show that the thermal nonlinearity of the metal can lead to substantial deviations from the predictions of the linear model for the temperature and field distribution and, thus, can explain qualitatively the strong nonlinear scattering from such configurations observed experimentally. We also show that the incompleteness of existing data of the temperature dependence of the thermal properties of the system prevents reaching a quantitative agreement between the measured and calculated scattering data. This modeling approach is essential for the identification of the underlying physical mechanism responsible for the thermo-optical nonlinearity of the metal and should be adopted in all applications of high-temperature nonlinear plasmonics, especially for refractory metals, for both CW and pulsed illumination.

  16. High-temperature beryllium embrittlement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pokrovsky, A.S. [Scientific Research Inst. of Atomic Reactors, Dimitrovgrad (Russian Federation); Fabritsiev, S.A. [D.V. Efremov Scientific Research Institute, 189631 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Bagautdinov, R.M. [Scientific Research Inst. of Atomic Reactors, Dimitrovgrad (Russian Federation); Goncharenko, Yu.D. [Scientific Research Inst. of Atomic Reactors, Dimitrovgrad (Russian Federation)

    1996-10-01

    The neutron irradiation effect on the mechanical properties, swelling and fracture surface structure of various beryllium grades was studied in the BOR-60 reactor at 340 to 350 C up to a fluence of 7.2 x 10{sup 21} n/cm{sup 2}. At a mechanical testing temperature of 400 C there was observed a strong anisotropy of plastic beryllium deformation depending on the direction of sample cutting relative to the pressing direction. An increase of the testing temperature up to 700 C resulted in an abrupt embrittlement of all irradiated samples. In the most part of the surface structure the intercrystallite fracture along the grain boundaries was covered entirely with large pores, 1 to 4 {mu}m in size. It was suggested that the increased rate of pore formation along the grain boundaries resulted from a high-temperature embrittlement under irradiation. (orig.).

  17. Nonlinear plasmonics at high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivan, Yonatan; Chu, Shi-Wei

    2017-01-01

    We solve the Maxwell and heat equations self-consistently for metal nanoparticles under intense continuous wave (CW) illumination. Unlike previous studies, we rely on experimentally-measured data for metal permittivity for increasing temperature and for the visible spectral range. We show that the thermal nonlinearity of the metal can lead to substantial deviations from the predictions of the linear model for the temperature and field distribution and, thus, can explain qualitatively the strong nonlinear scattering from such configurations observed experimentally. We also show that the incompleteness of existing data of the temperature dependence of the thermal properties of the system prevents reaching a quantitative agreement between the measured and calculated scattering data. This modeling approach is essential for the identification of the underlying physical mechanism responsible for the thermo-optical nonlinearity of the metal and should be adopted in all applications of high-temperature nonlinear plasmonics, especially for refractory metals, for both CW and pulsed illumination.

  18. Faraday imaging at high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackel, Lloyd A.; Reichert, Patrick

    1997-01-01

    A Faraday filter rejects background light from self-luminous thermal objects, but transmits laser light at the passband wavelength, thus providing an ultra-narrow optical bandpass filter. The filter preserves images so a camera looking through a Faraday filter at a hot target illuminated by a laser will not see the thermal radiation but will see the laser radiation. Faraday filters are useful for monitoring or inspecting the uranium separator chamber in an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process. Other uses include viewing welds, furnaces, plasma jets, combustion chambers, and other high temperature objects. These filters are can be produced at many discrete wavelengths. A Faraday filter consists of a pair of crossed polarizers on either side of a heated vapor cell mounted inside a solenoid.

  19. Influence of interface and strain hardening cementitious composite (SHCC) properties on the performance of concrete repairs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lukovic, M.

    2016-01-01

    In the construction industry the demand for repair and maintenance of concrete structures constantly increases. Still, the performance of current concrete repairs is not satisfactory and there is an urgent need for improvement. Understanding the damage development in a repair system, and how to pred

  20. Influence of interface and strain hardening cementitious composite (SHCC) properties on the performance of concrete repairs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lukovic, M.

    2016-01-01

    In the construction industry the demand for repair and maintenance of concrete structures constantly increases. Still, the performance of current concrete repairs is not satisfactory and there is an urgent need for improvement. Understanding the damage development in a repair system, and how to

  1. Preparation and Characterization of Biomimetic Hydroxyapatite-Resorbable Polymer Composites for Hard Tissue Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiebner, Kristopher Robert

    Autografts are the orthopedic "gold standard" for repairing bone voids. Autografts are osteoconductive and do not elicit an immune response, but they are in short supply and require a second surgery to harvest the bone graft. Allografts are currently the most common materials used for the repair of segmental defects in hard tissue. Unlike autografts, allografts can cause an undesirable immune response and the possibility of disease transmission is a major concern. As an alternative to the above approaches, recent research efforts have focused on the use of composite materials made from hydroxyapatite (HA) and bioresorbable polymers, such as poly-L-lactide (PLLA). Recent results have shown that the surface hydroxides on HA can initiate the ring opening polymerization (ROP) of L-lactide and other lactones creating a composite with superior interfacial strength. This thesis demonstrates that the surface of porous biologically derived HA substrates, such as coralline HA and trabecular bone, can be used to initiate the ROP of L-lactide and other lactones from the vapor phase. This process increases the strength of the porous scaffold through the deposition of a thin, uniform polymer coating, while maintaining the porous structure. The kinetics of the chemical vapor deposition polymerization (CVDP) are described using a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). The reaction temperature and monomer vapor pressure are found to affect the rate of the polymerization. Also described in this thesis is the preparation of a porous polymer scaffold that mimics the structure of demineralized bone matrix (DBM). This demineralized bone matrix simulant (DBMS) is created using anorganic bovine bone as a template to initiate the polymerization of various lactones, followed by the removal of the HA scaffold. This material retained its shape and exhibits mechanical properties superior to DBM. Finally it is shown that HA can be used to initiate the ROP of a-caprolactam and the biocompatibility

  2. Energy-dissipating and self-repairing SMA-ECC composite material system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaopeng; Li, Mo; Song, Gangbing

    2015-02-01

    Structural component ductility and energy dissipation capacity are crucial factors for achieving reinforced concrete structures more resistant to dynamic loading such as earthquakes. Furthermore, limiting post-event residual damage and deformation allows for immediate re-operation or minimal repairs. These desirable characteristics for structural ‘resilience’, however, present significant challenges due to the brittle nature of concrete, its deformation incompatibility with ductile steel, and the plastic yielding of steel reinforcement. Here, we developed a new composite material system that integrates the unique ductile feature of engineered cementitious composites (ECC) with superelastic shape memory alloy (SMA). In contrast to steel reinforced concrete (RC) and SMA reinforced concrete (SMA-RC), the SMA-ECC beams studied in this research exhibited extraordinary energy dissipation capacity, minimal residual deformation, and full self-recovery of damage under cyclic flexural loading. We found that the tensile strain capacity of ECC, tailored up to 5.5% in this study, allows it to work compatibly with superelastic SMA. Furthermore, the distributed microcracking damage mechanism in ECC is critical for sufficient and reliable recovery of damage upon unloading. This research demonstrates the potential of SMA-ECC for improving resilience of concrete structures under extreme hazard events.

  3. NOVEL REFRACTORY MATERIALS FOR HIGH ALKALI, HIGH TEMPERATURE ENVIRONMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemrick, James Gordon [ORNL; Smith, Jeffrey D [ORNL; O' Hara, Kelley [University of Missouri, Rolla; Rodrigues-Schroer, Angela [Minteq International, Inc.; Colavito, [Minteq International, Inc.

    2012-08-01

    A project was led by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in collaboration with a research team comprised of the academic institution Missouri University of Science and Technology (MS&T), and the industrial company MINTEQ International, Inc. (MINTEQ), along with representatives from the aluminum, chemical, glass, and forest products industries. The project was to address the need for new innovative refractory compositions by developing a family of novel MgO-Al 2O3, MgAl2O4, or other similar spinel structured or alumina-based unshaped refractory compositions (castables, gunnables, shotcretes, etc.) utilizing new aggregate materials, bond systems, protective coatings, and phase formation techniques (in-situ phase formation, altered conversion temperatures, accelerated reactions, etc). This family of refractory compositions would then be tailored for use in high-temperature, high-alkaline industrial environments like those found in the aluminum, chemical, forest products, glass, and steel industries. Both practical refractory development experience and computer modeling techniques were used to aid in the design of this new family of materials. The newly developed materials were expected to offer alternative material choices for high-temperature, high-alkali environments that were capable of operating at higher temperatures (goal of increasing operating temperature by 100-200oC depending on process) or for longer periods of time (goal of twice the life span of current materials or next process determined service increment). This would lead to less process down time, greater energy efficiency for associated manufacturing processes (more heat kept in process), and materials that could be installed/repaired in a more efficient manner. The overall project goal was a 5% improvement in energy efficiency (brought about through a 20% improvement in thermal efficiency) resulting in a savings of 3.7 TBtu/yr (7.2 billion ft3 natural gas) by the year 2030. Additionally, new

  4. Effect of different mechanical and chemical surface treatments on the repaired bond strength of an indirect composite resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimyai, Soodabeh; Oskoee, Siavash Savadi; Mohammadi, Narmin; Rikhtegaran, Sahand; Bahari, Mahmoud; Oskoee, Parnian Alizadeh; Vahedpour, Hafez

    2015-02-01

    This study compared the effects of two mechanical surface preparation techniques, air abrasion and Nd:YAG laser, with the use of two adhesive systems, self-etch and etch and rinse, on the repair bond strengths of an indirect composite resin. One hundred fifty cylindrical samples of an indirect composite resin were prepared and randomly divided into six groups (n = 25). In groups 1-3, the composite resin surfaces were respectively prepared as follows: no roughening, roughening by air abrasion, and roughening by Nd:YAG laser, followed by application of an etch-and-rinse adhesive. In groups 4-6, the preparation techniques were respectively the same as those in groups 1-3, followed by application of a self-etch adhesive. Subsequently, a direct composite resin was added and repair bond strengths were measured. Data were analyzed with two-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey's test. Mean bond strength value was significant based on the preparation technique (P composite resin with air abrasion and Nd:YAG laser resulted in a significant increase in the repair bond strength, with air abrasion being more effective. There were no significant differences in bond strength between the two adhesives.

  5. Experimental Analysis of Repaired Masonry Elements with Flax-FRCM and PBO-FRCM Composites Subjected to Axial Bending Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar A. Cevallos

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the construction industry, the use of natural fabrics as a reinforcement for cement-based composites has shown great potential. The use of these sustainable composites to provide strengthening or repair old masonry structures that exhibit structural problems mainly due to a poor tensile strength of the mortar/brick joints is revealed to be a promising area of research. One of the most significant load conditions affecting the mechanical response of masonry structures occurs when axial bending loads are applied on the resistant cross-section. In this study, three different types of masonry elements were built using clay bricks and a lime-based mortar. After 28 days, the samples were subjected to concentric and eccentric compressive loads. In order to produce significant bending effects, the compressive loads were applied with large eccentricity, and a sudden failure characterized the behavior of the unreinforced masonry (URM elements. The tested masonry specimens were repaired using fabric-reinforced cementitious matrix (FRCM composites produced using bi-directional flax and polyparaphenylene benzobisoxazole (PBO fabrics. The mechanical behavior of the URM and repaired samples was compared in terms of load-displacement and moment-curvature responses. Furthermore, the results achieved using flax-FRCM composites were compared with those of using PBO-FRCM composites.

  6. High Temperature Integrated Thermoelectric Ststem and Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike S. H. Chu

    2011-06-06

    The final goal of this project is to produce, by the end of Phase II, an all ceramic high temperature thermoelectric module. Such a module design integrates oxide ceramic n-type, oxide ceramic p-type materials as thermoelectric legs and oxide ceramic conductive material as metalizing connection between n-type and p-type legs. The benefits of this all ceramic module are that it can function at higher temperatures (> 700 C), it is mechanically and functionally more reliable and it can be scaled up to production at lower cost. With this all ceramic module, millions of dollars in savings or in new opportunities recovering waste heat from high temperature processes could be made available. A very attractive application will be to convert exhaust heat from a vehicle to reusable electric energy by a thermoelectric generator (TEG). Phase I activities were focused on evaluating potential n-type and p-type oxide compositions as the thermoelectric legs. More than 40 oxide ceramic powder compositions were made and studied in the laboratory. The compositions were divided into 6 groups representing different material systems. Basic ceramic properties and thermoelectric properties of discs sintered from these powders were measured. Powders with different particles sizes were made to evaluate the effects of particle size reduction on thermoelectric properties. Several powders were submitted to a leading thermoelectric company for complete thermoelectric evaluation. Initial evaluation showed that when samples were sintered by conventional method, they had reasonable values of Seebeck coefficient but very low values of electrical conductivity. Therefore, their power factors (PF) and figure of merits (ZT) were too low to be useful for high temperature thermoelectric applications. An unconventional sintering method, Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) was determined to produce better thermoelectric properties. Particle size reduction of powders also was found to have some positive benefits

  7. Effects of surface conditioning on repair bond strengths of non-aged and aged microhybrid, nanohybrid, and nanofilled composite resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinastiti, Margareta; Özcan, Mutlu; Siswomihardjo, Widowati; Busscher, Henk J

    2011-10-01

    This study evaluates effects of aging on repair bond strengths of microhybrid, nanohybrid, and nanofilled composite resins and characterizes the interacting surfaces after aging. Disk-shaped composite specimens were assigned to one of three aging conditions: (1) thermocycling (5,000 ×, 5-55 °C), (2) storage in water at 37 °C for 6 months, or (3) immersion in citric acid at 37 °C, pH 3 for 1 week; a non-aged group acted as the control. Two surface conditionings were selected: intermediate adhesive resin application (IAR-application) and chairside silica coating followed by silanization and its specific IAR-application (SC-application). Composite resins, of the same kind as their substrate, were adhered onto the substrates, and repair shear bond strengths were determined, followed by failure type evaluation. Filler particle exposure was determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and surface roughness analyzed using scanning electron and atomic force microscopy. Surface roughness increased in all composite resins after aging, but filler particle exposure at the surface only increased after thermocycling and citric acid immersion. Composite resin type, surface conditioning, and aging method significantly influenced the repair bond strengths (p water storage. Repair bond strengths in aged composite resins after IAR-application were always lower in non-aged ones, while SC-application led to higher bond strengths than IAR-application after thermocycling and water storage. In addition, SC-application led to more cohesive failures than after IAR-application, regardless the aging method.

  8. Evaluation of the Use of Auricular Composite Graft for Secondary Unilateral Cleft Lip Nasal Alar Deformity Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Percy Rossell-Perry

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to evaluate the surgical outcome after using composite grafts for secondary cleft lip nasal deformities. A retrospective cohort study of one surgeon’s outcome of 35 consecutive performed secondary cleft lip nasal deformity repair. Thirty-five patients with secondary nose deformity related to unsatisfactory cleft lip repair were operated using the proposed surgical technique since 2008. All these patients met the study criterion of having anthropometric measurements performed at least one year postoperatively. Measurement of nostril size was performed at the right and left side of the nose, preoperatively and at least one year postoperatively. The study found statistically significant differences between the preoperatory and postoperatory nose measurements. In addition, we have not found statistically significant differences between the cleft and noncleft nostril sizes measured at least one year postoperatively. The findings suggest that the proposed technique is a good alternative to address secondary nose deformity related to cleft lip primary repair.

  9. On Silicides in High Temperature Titanium Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ramachandra

    1986-04-01

    Full Text Available High temperature titanium alloys like IMI 685 contain small amounts of silicon (~ 0.25 wt. per cent to improve creep resistance. Different types of silicides, namely Ti5Si3 (TiZr5Si3(S1 and (TiZr6 Si3 (S2, have been observed to precipitate in various silicon-bearing titanium alloys depending upon their composition and heat treatment. The precipitation of silicides, their orientation relationship with the matrix in different alloys, and the beneficial influence of thermo-mechanical treatment on the distribution of silicides have been pointed out. The effect of silicides on mechanical properties and fracture of the commercial alloy IMI 685 is also indicated.

  10. High temperature chemically resistant polymer concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugama, T.; Kukacka, L.E.

    High temperature chemically resistant, non-aqueous polymer concrete composites consist of about 12 to 20% by weight of a water-insoluble polymer binder. The binder is polymerized in situ from a liquid vinyl-type monomer or mixture of vinyl containing monomers such as triallylcyanurate, styrene, acrylonitrile, acrylamide, methacrylamide, methyl-methacrylate, trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate and divinyl benzene. About 5 to 40% by weight of a reactive inorganic filler selected from the group consisting of tricalcium silicate and dicalcium silicate and mixtures containing less than 2% free lime, and about 48 to 83% by weight of silica sand/ and a free radical initiator such as di-tert-butyl peroxide, azobisisobutyronitrile, benzoyl peroxide, lauryl peroxide, other orgaic peroxides and combinations to initiate polymerization of the monomer in the presence of the inorganic filers are used.

  11. Turbine vane with high temperature capable skins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, Jay A [Oviedo, FL

    2012-07-10

    A turbine vane assembly includes an airfoil extending between an inner shroud and an outer shroud. The airfoil can include a substructure having an outer peripheral surface. At least a portion of the outer peripheral surface is covered by an external skin. The external skin can be made of a high temperature capable material, such as oxide dispersion strengthened alloys, intermetallic alloys, ceramic matrix composites or refractory alloys. The external skin can be formed, and the airfoil can be subsequently bi-cast around or onto the skin. The skin and the substructure can be attached by a plurality of attachment members extending between the skin and the substructure. The skin can be spaced from the outer peripheral surface of the substructure such that a cavity is formed therebetween. Coolant can be supplied to the cavity. Skins can also be applied to the gas path faces of the inner and outer shrouds.

  12. Thermoelectric properties by high temperature annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhifeng (Inventor); Chen, Gang (Inventor); Kumar, Shankar (Inventor); Lee, Hohyun (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention generally provides methods of improving thermoelectric properties of alloys by subjecting them to one or more high temperature annealing steps, performed at temperatures at which the alloys exhibit a mixed solid/liquid phase, followed by cooling steps. For example, in one aspect, such a method of the invention can include subjecting an alloy sample to a temperature that is sufficiently elevated to cause partial melting of at least some of the grains. The sample can then be cooled so as to solidify the melted grain portions such that each solidified grain portion exhibits an average chemical composition, characterized by a relative concentration of elements forming the alloy, that is different than that of the remainder of the grain.

  13. High Temperature Superconductor Accelerator Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2079328; de Rijk, Gijs; Dhalle, Marc

    2016-11-10

    For future particle accelerators bending dipoles are considered with magnetic fields exceeding $20T$. This can only be achieved using high temperature superconductors (HTS). These exhibit different properties from classical low temperature superconductors and still require significant research and development before they can be applied in a practical accelerator magnet. In order to study HTS in detail, a five tesla demonstrator magnet named Feather-M2 is designed and constructed. The magnet is based on ReBCO coated conductor, which is assembled into a $10kA$ class Roebel cable. A new and optimized Aligned Block layout is used, which takes advantage of the anisotropy of the conductor. This is achieved by providing local alignment of the Roebel cable in the coil windings with the magnetic field lines. A new Network Model capable of analyzing transient electro-magnetic and thermal phenomena in coated conductor cables and coils is developed. This model is necessary to solve critical issues in coated conductor ac...

  14. High Temperature Superconducting Underground Cable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrell, Roger, A.

    2010-02-28

    The purpose of this Project was to design, build, install and demonstrate the technical feasibility of an underground high temperature superconducting (HTS) power cable installed between two utility substations. In the first phase two HTS cables, 320 m and 30 m in length, were constructed using 1st generation BSCCO wire. The two 34.5 kV, 800 Arms, 48 MVA sections were connected together using a superconducting joint in an underground vault. In the second phase the 30 m BSCCO cable was replaced by one constructed with 2nd generation YBCO wire. 2nd generation wire is needed for commercialization because of inherent cost and performance benefits. Primary objectives of the Project were to build and operate an HTS cable system which demonstrates significant progress towards commercial progress and addresses real world utility concerns such as installation, maintenance, reliability and compatibility with the existing grid. Four key technical areas addressed were the HTS cable and terminations (where the cable connects to the grid), cryogenic refrigeration system, underground cable-to-cable joint (needed for replacement of cable sections) and cost-effective 2nd generation HTS wire. This was the world’s first installation and operation of an HTS cable underground, between two utility substations as well as the first to demonstrate a cable-to-cable joint, remote monitoring system and 2nd generation HTS.

  15. Enhanced Critical Size Defect Repair in Rabbit Mandible by Electrospun Gelatin/β-TCP Composite Nanofibrous Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingming Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The design and fabrication of biodegradable barrier membranes with satisfactory structure and composition remain a considerable challenge for periodontal tissue regeneration. We have developed a biomimetic nanofibrous membrane made from a composite of gelatin and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP. We previously confirmed the in vitro biological performance of the membrane material, but the efficacy of the membranes in promoting bone repair in situ has not yet been examined. Gelatin/β-TCP composite nanofibers were fabricated by incorporation of 20 wt.% β-TCP nanoparticles into electrospun gelatin nanofibers. Electron microscopy showed that the composite membranes presented a nonwoven structure with an interconnected porous network and had a rough surface due to the β-TCP nanoparticles, which were distributed widely and uniformly throughout the gelatin-fiber matrix. The repair efficacy of rabbit mandible defects implanted with bone substitute (Bio-Oss and covered with the gelatin/β-TCP composite nanofibrous membrane was evaluated in comparison with pure gelatin nanofibrous membrane. Gross observation, histological examination, and immunohistochemical analysis showed that new bone formation and defect closure were significantly enhanced by the composite membranes compared to the pure gelatin ones. From these results, we conclude that nanofibrous gelatin/β-TCP composite membranes could serve as effective barrier membranes for guided tissue regeneration.

  16. High-temperature thermocouples and related methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempe, Joy L.; Knudson, Darrell L.; Condie, Keith G.; Wilkins, S. Curt

    2011-01-18

    A high-temperature thermocouple and methods for fabricating a thermocouple capable of long-term operation in high-temperature, hostile environments without significant signal degradation or shortened thermocouple lifetime due to heat induced brittleness.

  17. Fracture of composite materials used in pipeline repair; Fratura de materiais compositos utilizados no reparo de dutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Touca, Jose Mauricio Rodrigues; Bastian, Fernando Luiz [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (UFRJ/COPPE), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais. Lab. de Materiais Compositos]. E-mail: ze@metalmat.ufrj.edu.br; fbastian@metalmat.ufrj.edu.br

    2003-07-01

    Recently researches have been made for the development of glass fiber reinforced polymer matrix composite materials used in damaged pipelines repair. Otherwise, little have been done to characterize the fracture resistance of these materials. Information about fracture behaviour of these materials are of great scientific interest as there are not much studies about the influence of the layout and volume fraction of fibers on the fracture resistance of them, making difficult the project of composite systems for the repairs. The aim of this work is to study the fracture behaviour of four types of glass fiber reinforced composite materials for pipeline repair using the fracture mechanics methodology to characterize the fracture resistance of these materials with different layout and volume fraction of glass fibers. Preliminary tensile tests have been made using the ASTM D-3039 standard obtaining the monotonic mechanical properties and stress-strain characteristic graphics of these materials. In order to obtain fracture characteristics of these composites fracture toughness tests have been done according to the ASTM E-1922 standard. (author)

  18. Composite scaffolds for osteochondral repair obtained by combination of additive manufacturing, leaching processes and hMSC-CM functionalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Lantada, Andrés; Alarcón Iniesta, Hernán; García-Ruíz, Josefa Predestinación

    2016-02-01

    Articular repair is a relevant and challenging area for the emerging fields of tissue engineering and biofabrication. The need of significant gradients of properties, for the promotion of osteochondral repair, has led to the development of several families of composite biomaterials and scaffolds, using different effective approaches, although a perfect solution has not yet been found. In this study we present the design, modeling, rapid manufacturing and in vitro testing of a composite scaffold aimed at osteochondral repair. The presented composite scaffold stands out for having a functional gradient of density and stiffness in the bony phase, obtained in titanium by means of computer-aided design combined with additive manufacture using selective laser sintering. The chondral phase is obtained by sugar leaching, using a PDMS matrix and sugar as porogen, and is joined to the bony phase during the polymerization of PDMS, therefore avoiding the use of supporting adhesives or additional intermediate layers. The mechanical performance of the construct is biomimetic and the stiffness values of the bony and chondral phases can be tuned to the desired applications, by means of controlled modifications of different parameters. A human mesenchymal stem cell (h-MSC) conditioned medium (CM) is used for improving scaffold response. Cell culture results provide relevant information regarding the viability of the composite scaffolds used. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. High temperature power electronics for space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammoud, Ahmad N.; Baumann, Eric D.; Myers, Ira T.; Overton, Eric

    1991-01-01

    A high temperature electronics program at NASA Lewis Research Center focuses on dielectric and insulating materials research, development and testing of high temperature power components, and integration of the developed components and devices into a demonstrable 200 C power system, such as inverter. An overview of the program and a description of the in-house high temperature facilities along with experimental data obtained on high temperature materials are presented.

  20. High temperature domestication of T. and fatty acid composition of its cytomembrane%皮状丝孢酵母的高温驯化及细胞膜脂肪酸组成的测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王美珠; 范琳; 叶蕊芳

    2014-01-01

    通过对产油皮状丝孢酵母T. cutaneum CX1进行高温驯化及平板筛选,获得7株耐高温菌株G1~G7。在42℃条件下耐高温菌株G3菌体干重、含油量及含油率分别为11.13、1.33 g/L 及11.95%,较原始菌株分别提高32.8%、46.2%及10.0%,发酵优势明显。细胞膜脂肪酸组成的测定结果表明,同原始菌株相比,耐高温菌株G3细胞膜中饱和脂肪酸含量更高。当培养温度升高时,耐高温菌株G3细胞膜中饱和脂肪酸含量会进一步上升。%Seven thermophilic strains G1-G7 were obtained according to the high temperature domestica-tion and plate screening of T. cutaneum CX1. At 42℃, the dry weight of strain, oil accumulation and oil content of the thermophilic strain G3 were 11. 13,1. 33 g/L and 11. 95% respectively, increasing by 32. 8%,46. 2% and 10. 0% respectively comparing with original strain, so the advantage of fermentation was obvious. The analysis results of fatty acid composition of cytomembrane showed that the thermophilic strain G3 had higher content of saturated fatty acids in cytomembrane than original strain, meanwhile, the content of saturated fatty acids in cytomembrane of the thermophilic strain G3 increased further with the cultural temperature rising.

  1. 高温烟气净化用陶瓷纤维管的制备与性能%Preparation and properties of fibrous ceramic composite tube for purifying high temperature dust gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘威; 崔元山; 金江

    2012-01-01

    由于陶瓷纤维材料具有耐腐蚀强、耐高温和机械强度好等优点常常用于高温环境的过滤。主要研究了应用耐高温陶瓷纤维材料制备烟气净化用陶瓷纤维管及其性能分析。利用氧化铝陶瓷纤维及硅灰石纤维长度、直径不同等特征,使用两步成形的方法制成具有复合结构的纤维多孔陶瓷样品。并对影响材料性能的各种因素进行分析和探讨。采用扫描电子显微镜(SEM)和金相显微镜对陶瓷纤维管的显微结构进行了分析和测量。结果表明,如果选择在1 000℃烧成的样品抗折强度为9.7 MPa,4 m/min流速时的阻力为228 Pa,显气孔率达到78%。%Due to the high erosion resistance and mechanical strength at elevated temperature,the fibrous ceramic materials have a great potential for application in high temperature.This article primarily described the preparation and properties of the fibrous ceramic tube.Utilizing the different diameters and lengths of the ceramic fibre,the fibrous ceramic tube was fabricated by two steps with composite structure.Factors affecting the properties of the materials were analyzed and discussed.The microstructure features were analyzed,measured by using scanning electron microscope(SEM),metallographic microscope.The result showed that the rupture strength and the porosity was best in 1 000℃.The rupture strength was 9.7 MPa and the porosity was 78%.The permeation resistance of the sample was 228 Pa at the air rate of 4 m/min.

  2. INTEGRITY OF GLASS/EPOXY AIRCRAFT COMPOSITE PART REPAIRED USING FIVE DIFFERENT METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IEA AGHACHI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aircraft repairs are considered permanent repairs. This type of permanent repair is time- consuming and needs to be accomplished in a well-guided specification and precise accuracy. The critical demand for aircraft repaired part is to meet the integrity of the original parent body while in-service, which does not give room for trial anderror. Similarly, the cost of discarding parts that have minor to medium surface damage is very high. In this work, an experimental work was carried out to find other viable repair method that could be applied to surface repair of an aircraft. It was found that the pre-preg method is still the most preferred. The infusion process, ifperformed under well-controlled environment, can be good substitute for wet layup.

  3. High Temperature Chemistry at NASA: Hot Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.

    2014-01-01

    High Temperature issues in aircraft engines Hot section: Ni and Co based Superalloys Oxidation and Corrosion (Durability) at high temperatures. Thermal protection system (TPS) and RCC (Reinforced Carbon-Carbon) on the Space Shuttle Orbiter. High temperatures in other worlds: Planets close to their stars.

  4. High temperature suppression of dioxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Ming-Xiu; Chen, Tong; Fu, Jian-Ying; Lin, Xiao-Qing; Lu, Sheng-Yong; Li, Xiao-Dong; Yan, Jian-Hua; Buekens, Alfons

    2016-03-01

    Combined Sulphur-Nitrogen inhibitors, such as sewage sludge decomposition gases (SDG), thiourea and amidosulphonic acid have been observed to suppress the de novo synthesis of dioxins effectively. In this study, the inhibition of PCDD/Fs formation from model fly ash was investigated at unusually high temperatures (650 °C and 850 °C), well above the usual range of de novo tests (250-400 °C). At 650 °C it was found that SDG evolving from dried sewage sludge could suppress the formation of 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDD/Fs with high efficiency (90%), both in weight units and in I-TEQ units. Additionally, at 850 °C, three kinds of sulphur-amine or sulphur-ammonium compounds were tested to inhibit dioxins formation during laboratory-scale tests, simulating municipal solid waste incineration. The suppression efficiencies of PCDD/Fs formed through homogeneous gas phase reactions were all above 85% when 3 wt. % of thiourea (98.7%), aminosulphonic acid (96.0%) or ammonium thiosulphate (87.3%) was added. Differences in the ratio of PCDFs/PCDDs, in weight average chlorination level and in the congener distribution of the 17 toxic PCDD/Fs indicated that the three inhibitors tested followed distinct suppression pathways, possibly in relation to their different functional groups of nitrogen. Furthermore, thiourea reduced the (weight) average chlorinated level. In addition, the thermal decomposition of TUA was studied by means of thermogravimetry-fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (TG-FTIR) and the presence of SO2, SO3, NH3 and nitriles (N≡C bonds) was shown in the decomposition gases; these gaseous inhibitors might be the primary dioxins suppressants.

  5. The Post-Amalgam Era: Norwegian Dentists' Experiences with Composite Resins and Repair of Defective Amalgam Restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopperud, Simen E; Staxrud, Frode; Espelid, Ivar; Tveit, Anne Bjørg

    2016-04-22

    Amalgam was banned as a dental restorative material in Norway in 2008 due to environmental considerations. An electronic questionnaire was sent to all dentists in the member register of the Norwegian Dental Association (NTF) one year later, to evaluate dentists' satisfaction with alternative restorative materials and to explore dentists' treatment choices of fractured amalgam restorations. Replies were obtained from 61.3%. Composite was the preferred restorative material among 99.1% of the dentists. Secondary caries was the most commonly reported cause of failure (72.7%), followed by restoration fractures (25.1%). Longevity of Class II restorations was estimated to be ≥10 years by 45.8% of the dentists, but 71.2% expected even better longevity if the restoration was made with amalgam. Repair using composite was suggested by 24.9% of the dentists in an amalgam restoration with a fractured cusp. Repair was more often proposed among young dentists (p amalgam restorations.

  6. High temperature vapors science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Hastie, John

    2012-01-01

    High Temperature Vapors: Science and Technology focuses on the relationship of the basic science of high-temperature vapors to some areas of discernible practical importance in modern science and technology. The major high-temperature problem areas selected for discussion include chemical vapor transport and deposition; the vapor phase aspects of corrosion, combustion, and energy systems; and extraterrestrial high-temperature species. This book is comprised of seven chapters and begins with an introduction to the nature of the high-temperature vapor state, the scope and literature of high-temp

  7. 基于数字散斑技术的炭/炭复合材料高温应变测量%Strain measurement of carbon/carbon composites at high temperatures by digital speckle correlation method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丽娜; 贺平照; 邢树根; 嵇阿琳; 周绍建; 程文; 梁晋

    2014-01-01

    主要介绍了炭/炭( C/C)复合材料在高温下(最高至2600℃)利用数字散斑技术进行的应变测量。试样表面喷涂钨粉作为目标散斑。在试验环境箱中将试样升温至试验温度。在拉伸过程中,对C/C复合材料试样及喷涂其上的钨粉散斑进行窄带滤光,并对滤除炭纤维发出光线后的图像进行采集,对图像中的散斑点进行计算区域的选取,通过散斑点的位移来确定试样在散斑喷涂区域内材料的变形,进而得到在2600℃温度条件下试样有效段的应变。测量结果表明,该方法可直观准确地反映出C/C复合材料试样在2600℃应变状态,对于需要测量的关键点可实现重点跟踪,动态测量出该点在任意时刻任意位移的应变。该测试方法精度高,并可应用到不同受力方向的应变测试场合。%A method of strain measurement at high temperatures ( up to 2 600 ℃) for carbon/carbon composites by digital speckles was introduced. The samples in the test were sprayed with tungsten powder as the target speckles. Then the samples were heated to the test temperature. The samples emitted bright light by carbon/carbon composites and tungsten. After the narrowband fil-tered the light in the tension test, the light by carbon fiber was filtered and the light by tungsten was reserved. Then the image ac-quisition was performed. It is found that the image processing can reflect the strain state, reconstruct the profile of the specimen sur-faces vividly and reproduce the deformation field of the strain field. For critical points, the image processing can also track their trajectory and calculate their strain at any time and arbitrary displacement. It also shows that the digital speckle correlation method is an accuracy measurement. Furthermore the method can be utilized to various mechanical sites.

  8. High Temperature Ordered Intermetallic Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-02

    Fisica , Barcelona. Spain; S. Gialanella, University 03.17 AN INVESTIGATION OF PHASE STABILITY IN THE of Cambridge. Department of Materials Science...Department de Kaufman, University of Florida, Department of Materials Science and Fisica , Barzc’ona, Spain. and R.W. Cahn, University of Cambridge...CR. Clayton and A. Peter Jardine. NIOBIUM SILICIDE POWDER COMPOSITES. Rama i. Nekkanti. Stale University of New York at Stony Brook. Deparinment of

  9. Thermodynamics of High Temperature Plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ettore Minardi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work we discuss how and to what extent the thermodynamic concepts and the thermodynamic formalism can be extended to the description of high temperature states of the plasma not necessarily associated with a Boltzmann distribution and with thermal equilibrium.The discussion is based on the “magnetic or electrostatic entropy concept”, an interpretative and predictive tool based on probability and information, defined in a suitably coarse-grained possibility space of all current density or of all electric charge density distributions under testable constraints, and whose variation properties are proven to be related under certain conditions to the equilibrium and the stability of the system. In the case of magnetic equilibrium the potentiality of the magnetic entropy concept is illustrated by comparing the predictions of the current density and pressure profiles with the observations in different tokamak machines and different tokamak regimes, as well as by showing how the equilibrium and the stability in devices as different as the reversed field pinch or the magnetic well are described by the variation properties of the same entropy functional applied to the different situations. In fact it emerges that the maximum of the entropy can be seen in these different cases as an optimization constraint for the minimum of the magnetic energy. The application of the entropy concept to the electrostatic processes shows in particular that the so-called reactive instabilities (non-dissipative, non-resonant instabilities with a marginal point admit a neighboring state with higher entropy and are therefore of special relevance from the point of view of the physical evolution of the system. In this case the thermodynamic formalism allows the introduction of the concept of “thermodynamic fluctuations” of the macroscopic charge density and provides a method for the calculation of the “thermodynamic” fluctuation levels both on the stable as

  10. High Temperature Membrane with Humidification-Independent Cluster Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipp, Ludwig [FuelCell Energy, Inc., Danbury, CT (United States)

    2015-07-10

    The objective of this project was to develop high temperature membranes to facilitate the wide-spread deployment of hydrogen fuel cells. High temperature membranes offer significant advantages in PEM system operation, overall capital and operating costs. State-of-the-art Nafion-based membranes are inadequate for the high temperature operation. These conventional membranes become unstable at higher temperatures (90-120°C) and lose their conductivity, particularly at low relative humidity. In this program, alternate materials were developed to enable fabrication of novel high performance composite membranes. FCE’s concept for the multi-component composite membrane, named mC2, has been used in the design of more conductive membranes.

  11. Material Problems in Using High-Temperature Thermocouples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edler, F.

    2011-08-01

    The material compatibility and thermal stability of ceramic-composite coatings of different oxide ceramics deposited on alumina tubes to prevent the reduction of the alumina were investigated in the high-temperature range between 1750 °C and 1850 °C. It turned out that the coatings were thermally unstable and did not provide adequate protection against the reduction of the alumina tubes. The oxide ceramics formed eutectic compositions with low melting temperatures and were also prone to reduction to elementary metals by carbon. A new type of high-temperature thermocouple on the basis of refractory and noble metals was tested in the temperature range between 1325 °C and 1800 °C. Two metal-sheathed prototypes were constructed. The thermoelectric behavior of the tungsten5%rhenium/iridium thermocouples (W5%Re/Ir) was investigated by different high-temperature exposures, and the thermoelectric stability was checked by repeated measurements at the ice point.

  12. High-Temperature Shape Memory Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biffi, C. A.; Tuissi, A.

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, an experimental study of laser micro-processing on a Cu-Zr-based shape memory alloy (SMA), which is suitable for high-temperature (HT) applications, is discussed. A first evaluation of the interaction between a laser beam and Zr50Cu28Ni7Co15 HT SMA is highlighted. Single laser pulses at various levels of power and pulse duration were applied to evaluate their effect on the sample surfaces. Blind and through microholes were produced with sizes on the order of a few hundreds of microns; the results were characterized from the morphological viewpoint using a scanning electron microscope. The high beam quality allows the holes to be created with good circularity and little melted material around the hole periphery. An analysis of the chemical composition was performed using energy dispersive spectroscopy, revealing that compositional changes were limited, while important oxidation occurred on the hole surfaces. Additionally, laser micro-cutting tests were also proposed to evaluate the cut edge morphology and dimensions. The main result of this paper concerned the good behavior of the material upon interaction with the laser beam, which suggests that microfeatures can be successfully produced in this alloy.

  13. Standards for pipelines repairs approval through composite sleeves materials; Criterios para aceitacao de reparos em dutos atraves de luvas de material composito

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayer, Richard Foerster; Bifulco, Antonio C.; Vilani, Eduardo C. [Rust Engenharia Ltda., Diadema, SP (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The current paper presents the standards that define the test demanded by the technical specifications set for the evaluation of composite sleeves repairs for steel industrial ducts and pipelines, as well as their forecasted results. Practical comments are given about the adhesion, tensile strength, interlaminate shear resistance, impact, hardness, circumferential elasticity modulus, axial elasticity modulus, and the poison ratio rests, as well as the interpretation of those demands are also discussed. Explains the repair project and the procedure to be followed importance, and why qualified personnel are necessary to install it. The repair project and the procedure, as well as the repair construction effectiveness are verified by hydrostatics testes in tubular specimens. (author)

  14. High Temperature coatings based on β-NiAI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Severs, Kevin [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2012-01-01

    High temperature alloys are reviewed, focusing on current superalloys and their coatings. The synthesis, characerization, and oxidation performance of a NiAl–TiB2 composite are explained. A novel coating process for Mo–Ni–Al alloys for improved oxidation performance is examined. The cyclic oxidation performance of coated and uncoated Mo–Ni–Al alloys is discussed.

  15. Preparation, characterization, in vitro bioactivity, and cellular responses to a polyetheretherketone bioactive composite containing nanocalcium silicate for bone repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Rui; Tang, Songchao; Tan, Honglue; Qian, Jun; Lin, Wentao; Wang, Yugang; Liu, Changsheng; Wei, Jie; Tang, Tingting

    2014-08-13

    In this study, a nanocalcium silicate (n-CS)/polyetheretherketone (PEEK) bioactive composite was prepared using a process of compounding and injection-molding. The mechanical properties, hydrophilicity, and in vitro bioactivity of the composite, as well as the cellular responses of MC3T3-E1 cells (attachment, proliferation, spreading, and differentiation) to the composite, were investigated. The results showed that the mechanical properties and hydrophilicity of the composites were significantly improved by the addition of n-CS to PEEK. In addition, an apatite-layer formed on the composite surface after immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 7 days. In cell culture tests, the results revealed that the n-CS/PEEK composite significantly promoted cell attachment, proliferation, and spreading compared with PEEK or ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE). Moreover, cells grown on the composite exhibited higher alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, more calcium nodule-formation, and higher expression levels of osteogenic differentiation-related genes than cells grown on PEEK or UHMWPE. These results indicated that the incorporation of n-CS to PEEK could greatly improve the bioactivity and biocompatibility of the composite. Thus, the n-CS/PEEK composite may be a promising bone repair material for use in orthopedic clinics.

  16. High-temperature protective coatings on superalloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘培生; 梁开明; 周宏余

    2002-01-01

    Protective coatings are essential for superalloys to serve as blades of gas turb ines at high temperatures, and they primarily include aluminide coating, MCrAlY overlay coating, thermal barrier coating and microcrystalline coating. In this paper, all these high-temperature coatings are reviewed as well as their preparing techniques. Based on the most application and the main failure way, the importance is then presented for further deepgoing study on the high-temperature oxidation law of aluminide coatings.

  17. Deep Trek High Temperature Electronics Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce Ohme

    2007-07-31

    This report summarizes technical progress achieved during the cooperative research agreement between Honeywell and U.S. Department of Energy to develop high-temperature electronics. Objects of this development included Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) wafer process development for high temperature, supporting design tools and libraries, and high temperature integrated circuit component development including FPGA, EEPROM, high-resolution A-to-D converter, and a precision amplifier.

  18. High temperature control rod assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vollman, R.E.

    1991-12-24

    This patent describes a control rod assembly for use in nuclear reactor control. It comprises segments, each the segment being made of a graphite composite material, each the segment having a chamber for containing neutron-absorbing material, wherein the chamber compromises a hollow cylindrical sleeve having a first end formed with an opening for receiving the neutron-absorbing material, and having a second end formed with a sleeve bore and an outer sleeve surface; a cylindrical weight-bearing support post positioned substantially centrally of the sleeve, the support post having a first end formed as a ball surface portion and a second end formed as a ball surface portion and a second end formed as a shaft, the shaft being engageable with the sleeve bore for rigidly coupling the support post axially within the hollow sleeve, a hollow cylindrical collar having a socket lip portion correspondingly shaped to receive the ball surface portion of an adjacent support post, and having an inner surface for engaging the outer sleeve surface on the second end of the sleeve to rigidly couple the collar to the sleeve.

  19. Advances in high temperature chemistry 1

    CERN Document Server

    Eyring, Leroy

    2013-01-01

    Advances in High Temperature Chemistry, Volume 1 describes the complexities and special and changing characteristics of high temperature chemistry. After providing a brief definition of high temperature chemistry, this nine-chapter book goes on describing the experiments and calculations of diatomic transition metal molecules, as well as the advances in applied wave mechanics that may contribute to an understanding of the bonding, structure, and spectra of the molecules of high temperature interest. The next chapter provides a summary of gaseous ternary compounds of the alkali metals used in

  20. High Temperature Capacitors for Venus Exploration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this SBIR program, TRS Technologies has developed several new dielectrics for high temperature applications including signal conditioning, filtering and energy...