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Sample records for high-temperature co fe

  1. High temperature grain growth and oxidation of Fe-29Ni-17Co (Kovar{trademark}) alloy leads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, J.J.; Greulich, F.A.; Beavis, L.C.

    1993-12-31

    One important application for the Fe-29Ni-17Co (Kovar{trademark}) alloy in wire form is in brazed feed through assemblies which are integral parts of vacuum electronic devices. Since Cu metal brazes are performed at process temperatures of about 1100{degrees}C, there is opportunity for significant grain growth to occur during the brazing operation. Additional high temperature exposure includes decarburization of the Fe-29Ni-17Co alloy wire in wet hydrogen for 30 min. at 1000{degrees}C prior to the Cu brazing operation. Two approaches have been used to characterize grain growth in two lots of Fe-29Ni-17Co alloy: (1) a once-through processing study to study the effect of one-time-only device thermal processing on the resulting grain size, and (2) an isothermal grain growth study involving various times at 800--1100{degrees}C. The results of the once-through processing study indicate that acceptable grain sizes are obtained from both cold worked and mill-annealed wire lots following Cu brazing. The isothermal grain growth study indicates that the linear intercept distance for Fe-29Ni-17Co can be described with a power law function of time, and that thermal exposure must be controlled at temperatures in excess of 900{degrees}C in order to avoid excessive grain growth. A second study has characterized the oxidation kinetics of Fe-29Ni-17Co alloy wire in air at temperatures ranging from 550--700{degrees}C. This study indicates the parabolic growth law applies for this material, and between 550 and 700{degrees}C, oxidation in this alloy occurs at an activation energy of 27.9 kcal/mole. Other oxidation studies at higher temperatures ({ge}750{degrees}C) indicate an activation energy of 52.2 kcal/mole for oxidation of Fe-29Ni-17Co alloy at temperatures greater than 790{degrees}C. Quantitative point analyses of the oxide scale formed at 600{degrees}C suggest that a significant fraction of the scale is close to the stoichiometry of the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-type oxide.

  2. High Temperature Thermoelectric Properties of Y and Fe codopants in Ca3Co4O9+δ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, NingYu; Van Nong, Ngo; Pryds, Nini

    Ca2CoO3 layer resulting in the increase of the carrier number. The Y and Fe co-dopants effect on the thermal conductivity is not significant even though the yttrium heavier atomic weight is expected as an effective phonon scattering site. At 800 °C, the improved power factor of 520 μW/m•K2 from x=0...

  3. Synthesis, thermal expansion and high-temperature electrical conductivity of Co-doped (Y,Ca)FeO{sub 3−δ} with orthorhombic perovskite structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalyuzhnaya, A.S.; Drozhzhin, O.A. [M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Istomin, S.Ya., E-mail: istomin@icr.chem.msu.ru [M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Gippius, A.A.; Kazakov, S.M. [M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Lyskov, N.V. [Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics RAS, Academician Semenov Av. 1, Chernogolovka, Moscow District 142432 (Russian Federation); Rozova, M.G.; Antipov, E.V. [M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • (Y,Ca)(Fe,Co)O{sub 3−δ} was prepared via citrate-based route with annealing at 1150–1200 °C. • Y{sub 0.9}Ca{sub 0.1}Fe{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.2}O{sub 3−δ} demonstrates low thermal expansion coefficient of 11.9 ppm K{sup −1}. • Oxides do not react with YSZ and GDC up to 1000 °C and 1100 °C, respectively. • Compounds demonstrate higher electrical conductivity in comparison with Y{sub 0.9}Ca{sub 0.1}FeO{sub 3}. • Pr-doped (Y,Ca)(Fe,Co)O{sub 3−δ} demonstrate both higher electrical conductivity and TEC. - Abstract: Orthorhombic perovskites Y{sub 1−x}Ca{sub x}Fe{sub 1−y}Co{sub y}O{sub 3−δ} (0.1 ≤ x ≤ 0.2, 0.1 ≤ y ≤ 0.2 and x = 0.1, y = 0.3) were synthesized in air by the citrate route at 1150–1300 °C. High-temperature X-ray powder diffraction (HT XRPD) data for Y{sub 0.9}Ca{sub 0.1}Fe{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.2}O{sub 3−δ} at 25–800 °C showed no phase transition with calculated thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) of 11.9 ppm K{sup −1}. High-temperature electrical conductivity measurements revealed almost composition independent conductivity values of 22–27 S/cm at 900 °C. No chemical interaction of Y{sub 0.8}Ca{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.9}Co{sub 0.1}O{sub 3−δ} with (Zr,Y)O{sub 2−x} (YSZ) or (Ce,Gd)O{sub 2−x} (GDC) was observed up to 1000 °C and 1100 °C, respectively. Partial replacement of Y by Pr according to formula Y{sub 0.8−z}Pr{sub z}Ca{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.7}Co{sub 0.3}O{sub 3−δ}, 0.1 ≤ z ≤ 0.35, leads to an increase of both electrical conductivity up to 50 S/cm (z = 0.3) at 900 °C and dilatometry measured TEC up to 15.1 ppm K{sup −1}. Moderate values of electrical conductivity in combination with low TEC and stability towards chemical interaction with typical SOFC electrolytes make Co-doped Y{sub 1−x}Ca{sub x}FeO{sub 3−δ} promissing cathode materials for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFC)

  4. 10 000-hr Cyclic Oxidation Behavior of 68 High-Temperature Co-, Fe-, and Ni- Base Alloys Evaluated at 982 deg. C (1800 deg. F)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Charles A.

    1999-01-01

    Power systems with operating temperatures in the range of 815 to 982 C (1500 to 1800 F) frequently require alloys that can operate for long times at these temperatures. A critical requirement is that these alloys have adequate oxidation resistance. The alloys used in these power systems require thousands of hours of operating life with intermittent shutdown to room temperature. Intermittent power plant shutdowns, however, offer the possibility that the protective scale will tend to spall (i.e., crack and flake off) upon cooling, increasing the rate of oxidative attack in subsequent heating cycles. Thus, it is critical that candidate alloys be evaluated for cyclic oxidation behavior. It was determined that exposing test alloys to ten 1000-hr cycles in static air at 982 10 000-hr Cyclic Oxidation Behavior of 68 High-Temperature Co-, Fe-, and Ni-Base Alloys Evaluated at 982 C (1800 F) could give a reasonable simulation of long-time power plant operation. Iron- (Fe-), nickel- (Ni-), and cobalt- (Co-) based high-temperature alloys with sufficient chromium (Cr) and/or aluminum (Al) content can exhibit excellent oxidation resistance. The protective oxides formed by these classes of alloys are typically Cr2O3 and/or Al2O3, and are usually influenced by their Cr, or Cr and Al, content. Sixty-eight Co-, Fe-, and Ni-base high-temperature alloys, typical of those used at this temperature or higher, were used in this study. At the NASA Lewis Research Center, the alloys were tested and compared on the basis of their weight change as a function of time, x-ray diffraction of the protective scale composition, and the physical appearance of the exposed samples. Although final appearance and x-ray diffraction of the final scale products were two factors used to evaluate the oxidation resistance of each alloy, the main criterion was the oxidation kinetics inferred from the specific weight change versus time data. These data indicated a range of oxidation behavior including parabolic

  5. Effects of prior surface damage on high-temperature oxidation of Fe-, Ni-, and Co-based alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL; Lowe, Tracie M [ORNL; Pint, Bruce A [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    Multi-component metallic alloys have been developed to withstand high-temperature service in corrosive environments. Some of these applications, like exhaust valve seats in internal combustion engines, must also resist sliding, impact, and abrasion. The conjoint effects of temperature, oxidation, and mechanical contact can result in accelerated wear and the formation of complex surface layers whose properties differ from those of the base metal and the oxide scale that forms in the absence of mechanical contact. The authors have investigated the effects of prior surface damage, produced by scratch tests, on the localized reformation of oxide layers. Three high-performance commercial alloys, based on iron, nickel, and cobalt, were used as model materials. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was used to determine their static oxidation rates at elevated temperature (850o C). A micro-abrasion, ball-cratering technique was used to measure oxide layer thickness and to compare it with TGA results. By using taper-sectioning techniques and energy-dispersive elemental mapping, a comparison was made between oxide compositions grown on non-damaged surfaces and oxides that formed on grooves produced by a diamond stylus. Microindentation and scratch hardness data revealed the effects of high temperature exposure on both the substrate hardness and the nature of oxide scale disruption. There were significant differences in elemental distribution between statically-formed oxides and those that formed on scratched regions

  6. High-temperature thermochemical energy storage based on redox reactions using Co-Fe and Mn-Fe mixed metal oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, Laurie; Abanades, Stéphane; Cassayre, Laurent

    2017-09-01

    Metal oxides are potential materials for thermochemical heat storage via reversible endothermal/exothermal redox reactions, and among them, cobalt oxide and manganese oxide are attracting attention. The synthesis of mixed oxides is considered as a way to answer the drawbacks of pure metal oxides, such as slow reaction kinetics, loss-in-capacity over cycles or sintering issues, and the materials potential for thermochemical heat storage application needs to be assessed. This work proposes a study combining thermodynamic calculations and experimental measurements by simultaneous thermogravimetric analysis and calorimetry, in order to identify the impact of iron oxide addition to Co and Mn-based oxides. Fe addition decreased the redox activity and energy storage capacity of Co3O4/CoO, whereas the reaction rate, reversibility and cycling stability of Mn2O3/Mn3O4 was significantly enhanced with added Fe amounts above 15 mol%, and the energy storage capacity was slightly improved. The formation of a reactive cubic spinel explained the improved re-oxidation yield of Mn-based oxides that could be cycled between bixbyite and cubic spinel phases, whereas a low reactive tetragonal spinel phase showing poor re-oxidation was formed below 15 mol% Fe. Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations predict accurately the behavior of both systems. The possibility to identify other suitable mixed oxides becomes conceivable, by enabling the selection of transition metal additives for tuning the redox properties of mixed metal oxides destined for thermochemical energy storage applications.

  7. High-temperature thermoelectric properties of p-type skutterudites Ba0.15Yb x Co3FeSb12 and Yb y Co3FeSb9As3

    KAUST Repository

    Dong, Yongkwan

    2014-08-28

    Two series of p-type polycrystalline skutterudites, Ba0.15YbxCo3FeSb12 and YbyCo3FeSb9As3 with varying Yb concentrations, were synthesized by solid-state reaction and then densified by hot pressing. The phase and stoichiometries of the resulting materials were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive spectroscopy, while their high-temperature transport properties were investigated from 300 to 800 K. The Seebeck coefficients and electrical resistivities increased linearly with increasing temperature for the double-filled specimens. The Seebeck coefficients and electrical resistivities did not change very much for the As-substituted specimens. The thermal conductivity for all specimens decreased with increasing temperature up to 700 K, corresponding to the plateau in the Seebeck coefficient, and then increased again due to bipolar diffusion. We find that double filling is a more feasible approach to thermoelectric property optimization than single filling with As substitution. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  8. On the Path to Optimizing the Al-Co-Cr-Cu-Fe-Ni-Ti High Entropy Alloy Family for High Temperature Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M. Manzoni

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The most commonly investigated high entropy alloy, AlCoCrCuFeNi, has been chosen for optimization of its microstructural and mechanical properties by means of compositional changes and heat treatments. Among the different available optimization paths, the decrease of segregating element Cu, the increase of oxidation protective elements Al and Cr and the approach towards a γ-γ′ microstructure like in Ni-based superalloys have been probed and compared. Microscopical observations have been made for every optimization step. Vickers microhardness measurements and/or tensile/compression test have been carried out when the alloy was appropriate. Five derived alloys AlCoCrFeNi, Al23Co15Cr23Cu8Fe15Ni16, Al8Co17Cr17Cu8Fe17Ni33, Al8Co17Cr14Cu8Fe17Ni34.8Mo0.1Ti1W0.1 and Al10Co25Cr8Fe15Ni36Ti6 (all at.% have been compared to the original AlCoCrCuFeNi and the most promising one has been selected for further investigation.

  9. Crystal structure and high temperature transport properties of Yb-filled p-type skutterudites YbxCo2.5Fe1.5Sb12

    KAUST Repository

    Dong, Yongkwan

    2014-01-01

    Partially Yb-filled Fe substituted polycrystalline p-type skutterudites with nominal compositions YbxCo2.5Fe1.5Sb 12, with varying filler concentrations x, were synthesized by reacting the constituent elements and subsequent solid state annealing, followed by densification by hot-pressing. The compositions and filling fractions were confirmed with a combination of Rietveld refinement and elemental analysis. Their thermoelectric properties were evaluated from 300 to 800 K. The Seebeck coefficients for the specimens increase with increasing temperature and plateau at around 750 K. The thermal conductivity decreases with increasing Yb filling fraction, and bipolar conduction becomes evident and increases at elevated temperatures. A maximum ZT value of 0.8 was obtained at 750 K for Yb 0.47Co2.6Fe1.4Sb12. The thermoelectric properties and potential for further optimization are discussed in light of our results. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

  10. High-temperature thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry of nanocomposites (FeCoZr)x(CaF2)100-x

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondariev, Vitalii

    2016-09-01

    In this work thermogravimetric-DTG/DSC analysis result for samples of nanocomposite metal-dielectric (FeCoZr)x(CaF2)100-x are presents. Series of samples with, metallic phase content x = 24 - 68 at.% were produced by ionbeam sputtering method in mixed atmosphere of gas argon and oxygen. Study of thermal properties, phase shifts and process of change in mass of nanocomposites were performed using the thermoanalytical system TGA/DSC-1/1600 HF (MettlerToledoInstruments). High-precision weight has a weighing range 1μg - 1g with an accuracy 1μg. The furnace makes it possible to regulate the temperature in range from room temperature to 1600°C and heating rate is 0.01 - 150°C min. After analysis of the results established that initial and final mass of samples of the nanocomposite (FeCoZr)x(CaF2)100-x are different, namely the sample mass is increased by 2 - 20%. It is related to the oxidation of metallic phase particles of nanocomposite. DTG and DSC analysis demonstrated that oxidation of metallic phase is held in two steps, at first oxidized iron atoms, and followed oxidation of the cobalt atoms, what can be seen on the waveform in the form of two humps and whereby oxides Fe2O3, Fe3O4, Co2O3, Co3O4 are formed. Oxide coatings on the surface of atoms represents an additional barrier to electron transfer charges. When a voltage is applied to the layer of the nanocomposite are three possible ways to transfer of charges between atoms and particles of metal, whereby each has its own relaxation time.

  11. Large single crystal diamond grown in FeNiMnCo-S-C system under high pressure and high temperature conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, He; Li, Shangsheng; Su, Taichao; Hu, Meihua; Li, Guanghui; Ma, Hongan; Jia, Xiaopeng

    2016-11-01

    Large diamonds have successfully been synthesized from FeNiMnCo-S-C system at temperatures of 1255-1393 °C and pressures of 5.3-5.5 GPa. Because of the presence of sulfur additive, the morphology and color of the large diamond crystals change obviously. The content and shape of inclusions change with increasing sulfur additive. It is found that the pressure and temperature conditions required for the synthesis decrease to some extent with the increase of S additive, which results in left down of the V-shape region. The Raman spectra show that the introduction of additive sulfur reduces the quality of the large diamond crystals. The x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) spectra show the presence of S in the diamonds. Furthermore, the electrical properties of the large diamond crystals are tested by a four-point probe and the Hall effect method. When sulfur in the cell of diamond is up to 4.0 wt.%, the resistance of the diamond is 9.628×105 Ω·cm. It is shown that the large single crystal samples are n type semiconductors. This work is helpful for the further research and application of sulfur-doped semiconductor large diamond. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51172089), the Education Department of Henan Province, China (Grant No. 12A430010), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Universities of Henan Province, China (Grant No. NSFRF140110).

  12. Dual Phase Membrane for High Temperature CO2 Separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerry Lin

    2007-06-30

    This project aimed at synthesis of a new inorganic dual-phase carbonate membrane for high temperature CO{sub 2} separation. Metal-carbonate dual-phase membranes were prepared by the direct infiltration method and the synthesis conditions were optimized. Permeation tests for CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2} from 450-750 C showed very low permeances of those two gases through the dual-phase membrane, which was expected due to the lack of ionization of those two particular gases. Permeance of the CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2} mixture was much higher, indicating that the gases do form an ionic species, CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}, enhancing transport through the membrane. However, at temperatures in excess of 650 C, the permeance of CO{sub 3}{sup 2-} decreased rapidly, while predictions showed that permeance should have continued to increase with temperature. XRD data obtained from used membrane indicated that lithium iron oxides formed on the support surface. This lithium iron oxide layer has a very low conductivity, which drastically reduces the flow of electrons to the CO{sub 2}/O{sub 2} gas mixture; thus limiting the formation of the ionic species required for transport through the membrane. These results indicated that the use of stainless steel supports in a high temperature oxidative environment can lead to decreased performance of the membranes. This revelation created the need for an oxidation resistant support, which could be gained by the use of a ceramic-type membrane. Work was extended to synthesize a new inorganic dual-phase carbonate membrane for high temperature CO{sub 2} separation. Helium permeance of the support before and after infiltration of molten carbonate are on the order of 10{sup -6} and 10{sup -10} moles/m{sup 2} {center_dot} Pa {center_dot} s respectively, indicating that the molten carbonate is able to sufficiently infiltrate the membrane. It was found that La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-{delta}} (LSCF) was a suitable candidate for the support

  13. High-temperature ferromagnetism in heavily Fe-doped ferromagnetic semiconductor (Ga,Fe)Sb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tu, Nguyen Thanh [Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Systems, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Department of Physics, Ho Chi Minh City University of Pedagogy, 280, An Duong Vuong Street, District 5, Ho Chi Minh City 748242 (Viet Nam); Hai, Pham Nam [Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Systems, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Department of Physical Electronics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro, Tokyo 152-0033 (Japan); Center for Spintronics Research Network (CSRN), The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Anh, Le Duc [Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Systems, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Tanaka, Masaaki [Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Systems, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Center for Spintronics Research Network (CSRN), The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2016-05-09

    We show high-temperature ferromagnetism in heavily Fe-doped ferromagnetic semiconductor (Ga{sub 1−x},Fe{sub x})Sb (x = 23% and 25%) thin films grown by low-temperature molecular beam epitaxy. Magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy and anomalous Hall effect measurements indicate intrinsic ferromagnetism of these samples. The Curie temperature reaches 300 K and 340 K for x = 23% and 25%, respectively, which are the highest values reported so far in intrinsic III-V ferromagnetic semiconductors.

  14. A new synthesis of carbon encapsulated Fe5C2 nanoparticles for high-temperature Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seok Yong; Chun, Dong Hyun; Yang, Jung-Il; Jung, Heon; Lee, Ho-Tae; Hong, Sungjun; Jang, Sanha; Lim, Jung Tae; Kim, Chul Sung; Park, Ji Chan

    2015-10-01

    Using a simple thermal treatment under a CO flow, uniform micrometer-sized iron oxalate dihydrate cubes prepared by hydrothermal reaction were transformed into Fe5C2@C nanoparticles to form a mesoporous framework; the final structure was successfully applied to the high-temperature Fischer-Tropsch reaction and it showed high activity (CO conversion = 96%, FTY = 1.5 × 10-4 molCO gFe-1 s-1) and stability.Using a simple thermal treatment under a CO flow, uniform micrometer-sized iron oxalate dihydrate cubes prepared by hydrothermal reaction were transformed into Fe5C2@C nanoparticles to form a mesoporous framework; the final structure was successfully applied to the high-temperature Fischer-Tropsch reaction and it showed high activity (CO conversion = 96%, FTY = 1.5 × 10-4 molCO gFe-1 s-1) and stability. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Details of experimental procedures, SEM images of FeNi and FeCo oxalate hydrate particles, particle size and pore size distributions, FT activity and selectivity, hydrocarbon product distribution, ASF plot, and Mössbauer parameters of the Fe5C2@C catalyst. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr05787f

  15. Dynamic mechanical response and a constitutive model of Fe-based high temperature alloy at high temperatures and strain rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiang; Wang, Gang; Li, Jianfeng; Rong, Yiming

    2016-01-01

    The effects of strain rate and temperature on the dynamic behavior of Fe-based high temperature alloy was studied. The strain rates were 0.001-12,000 s(-1), at temperatures ranging from room temperature to 800 °C. A phenomenological constitutive model (Power-Law constitutive model) was proposed considering adiabatic temperature rise and accurate material thermal physical properties. During which, the effects of the specific heat capacity on the adiabatic temperature rise was studied. The constitutive model was verified to be accurate by comparison between predicted and experimental results.

  16. High Temperature Magnetic Properties of Indirect Exchange Spring FePt/M(Cu,C/Fe Trilayer Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anabil Gayen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the investigation of temperature dependent magnetic properties of FePt and FePt(30/M(Cu,C/Fe(5 trilayer thin films prepared by using magnetron sputtering technique at ambient temperature and postannealed at different temperatures. L10 ordering, hard magnetic properties, and thermal stability of FePt films are improved with increasing postannealing temperature. In FePt/M/Fe trilayer, the formation of interlayer exchange coupling between magnetic layers depends on interlayer materials and interface morphology. In FePt/C/Fe trilayer, when the C interlayer thickness was about 0.5 nm, a strong interlayer exchange coupling between hard and soft layers was achieved, and saturation magnetization was enhanced considerably after using interlayer exchange coupling with Fe. In addition, incoherent magnetization reversal process observed in FePt/Fe films changes into coherent switching process in FePt/C/Fe films giving rise to a single hysteresis loop. High temperature magnetic studies up to 573 K reveal that the effective reduction in the coercivity decreases largely from 34 Oe/K for FePt/Fe film to 13 Oe/K for FePt/C(0.5/Fe film demonstrating that the interlayer exchange coupling seems to be a promising approach to improve the stability of hard magnetic properties at high temperatures, which is suitable for high-performance magnets and thermally assisted magnetic recording media.

  17. High-temperature compressive creep behaviour of the perovskite-type oxide Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3 – d

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yi, J.; Lein, H.L.; Grande, T.; Bouwmeester, Henricus J.M.; Yakovlev, S.

    2009-01-01

    Compressive creep tests have been performed on perovskite-type Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3 − δ ceramics. The activation energy, stress exponent and inverse grain size exponent of the steady-state creep rates are evaluated at p(O2) = 0.21 ∙ 105 Pa and 0.01 ∙ 105 Pa in the stress, temperature and grain

  18. Preparation and Pore Structure Stability at High Temperature of Porous Fe-Al Intermetallics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, P. Z.; Gao, H. Y.; Song, M.; He, Y. H.

    2013-12-01

    Porous Fe-Al intermetallics with different nominal compositions (from Fe-8 wt.% Al to Fe-50 wt.% Al) were fabricated by Fe and Al elemental powders through reaction synthesis. The effects of the Al content on the pore structure properties, and the comparison of pore structure stabilities at high-temperatures among the porous Fe-Al intermetallics and porous Ti, Ni, 316L stainless steel samples, were systematically studied. Results showed that the open porosity, maximum pore size, and permeability vary with the Al content. Porous Fe-(25-30 wt.%) Al intermetallics show good shape controllability and excellent pore structure stability at 1073 K in air, which suggests that these porous Fe-Al intermetallics could be used for filtration at high temperatures.

  19. CO2 as an Oxidant for High Temperature Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibudjing eKawi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a review on the developments in catalyst technology for the reactions utilizing CO2 for high temperature applications. These include dehydrogenation of alkanes to olefins, the dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to styrene and finally CO2 reforming of hydrocarbon feedstock (i.e. methane and alcohols. Aspects on the various reaction pathways are also highlighted. The literature on the role of promoters and catalyst development is critically evaluated. Most of the reactions discussed in this review are exploited in industries and related to on-going processes, thus providing extensive data from literature. However some reactions, such as CO2 reforming of ethanol and glycerol which have not reached industrial scale are also reviewed owing to their great potential in terms of sustainability which are essential as energy for the future. This review further illustrates the building-up of knowledge which shows the role of support and catalysts for each reaction and the underlying linkage between certain catalysts which can be adapted for the multiple CO2-related reactions.

  20. High-temperature Oxidation of Fe-Cr Steels in Steam Condition – A Review

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    Tedi Kurniawan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of supercritical (SC and ultra-supercritical (USC power plants requires materials with better corrosion properties. Deep understanding on the oxidation mechanism in the boiler environment is one of the important factors to support this development. In this work, high temperature oxidation of Fe-Cr steels in steam condition is reviewed.  Several mechanisms that explain the effect of water vapor in the oxidation behavior the steel were presented.

  1. Nb-Based Nb-Al-Fe Alloys: Solidification Behavior and High-Temperature Phase Equilibria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Frank; Philips, Noah

    2017-09-01

    High-melting Nb-based alloys hold significant promise for the development of novel high-temperature materials for structural applications. In order to understand the effect of alloying elements Al and Fe, the Nb-rich part of the ternary Nb-Al-Fe system was investigated. A series of Nb-rich ternary alloys were synthesized from high-purity Nb, Al, and Fe metals by arc melting. Solidification paths were identified and the liquidus surface of the Nb corner of the ternary system was established by analysis of the as-melted microstructures and thermal analysis. Complementary analysis of heat-treated samples yielded isothermal sections at 1723 K and 1873 K (1450 °C and 1600 °C).

  2. Linking Microbial Dynamics and Physicochemical Processes in High-temperature Acidic Fe(III)- Mineralizing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inskeep, W.

    2014-12-01

    Microbial activity is responsible for the mineralization of Fe(III)-oxides in high-temperature chemotrophic communities that flourish within oxygenated zones of low pH (2.5 - 4) geothermal outflow channels (Yellowstone National Park, WY). High-temperature Fe(II)-oxidizing communities contain several lineages of Archaea, and are excellent model systems for studying microbial interactions and spatiotemporal dynamics across geochemical gradients. We hypothesize that acidic Fe(III)-oxide mats form as a result of constant interaction among primary colonizers including Hydrogenobaculum spp. (Aquificales) and Metallosphaera spp. (Sulfolobales), and subsequent colonization by archaeal heterotrophs, which vary in abundance as a function of oxygen, pH and temperature. We are integrating a complementary suite of geochemical, stable isotope, genomic, proteomic and modeling analyses to study the role of microorganisms in Fe(III)-oxide mat development, and to elucidate the primary microbial interactions that are coupled with key abiotic events. Curated de novo assemblies of major phylotypes are being used to analyze additional -omics datasets from these microbial mats. Hydrogenobaculum spp. (Aquificales) are the dominant bacterial population(s) present, and predominate during early mat development ( 30 d), including novel lineages of Archaea and representatives within the Crenarchaeota, Euryarchaeota, Thaumarchaeota and Nanoarchaeota. In situ oxygen consumption rates show that steep gradients occur within the top 1 mm of mat surface, and which correlate with changes in the abundance of different organisms that occupy these microenvironments. The relative consumption of oxygen by different members of Fe(II)-oxidizing mat communities has implications for autotroph-heterotroph associations and the dynamic micromorphology of active Fe(III)-oxide terraces.

  3. Unforeseen high temperature and humidity stability of FeCl3 intercalated few layer graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wehenkel, Dominique Joseph; Bointon, Thomas Hardisty; Booth, Tim

    2015-01-01

    We present the first systematic study of the stability of the structure and electrical properties of FeCl3 intercalated few-layer graphene to high levels of humidity and high temperature. Complementary experimental techniques such as electrical transport, high resolution transmission electron...... microscopy and Raman spectroscopy conclusively demonstrate the unforseen stability of this transparent conductor to a relative humidity up to 100% at room temperature for 25 days, to a temperature up to 150 degrees C in atmosphere and to a temperature as high as 620 degrees C in vacuum, that is more than...

  4. Local structural investigation of SmFeAsO1 - xFx high temperature superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavasi, Lorenzo; Artioli, Gianluca A.; Kim, Hyunjeong; Maroni, Beatrice; Joseph, Boby; Ren, Yang; Proffen, Thomas; Billinge, Simon J. L.

    2011-07-01

    A strong revitalization of the field of high temperature superconductivity (HTSC) has been induced recently by the discovery of TC around 26 K in F-doped LaFeAsO iron pnictides. Starting from this discovery, a huge amount of experimental data have been accumulated. This important corpus of results will allow the development of suitable theoretical models aimed at describing the basic electronic structure properties and nature of superconducting states in these fascinating new systems. A close correlation between structural features and physical properties of the normal and superconducting states has already been demonstrated in the current literature. Advanced theoretical models are also based on the close correlation with structural properties and in particular with the Fe-As tetrahedral array. As for other complex materials, a deeper understanding of their structure-properties correlation requires a full knowledge of the atomic arrangement within the structure. Here we report an investigation of the local structure in the SmFeAsO1 - xFx system carried out by means of x-ray total scattering measurements and pair distribution function analysis. The results presented indicate that the local structure of these HTSC significantly differs from the average structure determined by means of traditional diffraction techniques, in particular the distribution of Fe-As bond lengths. In addition, a model for describing the observed discrepancies is presented.

  5. Local structural investigation of SmFeAsO₁₋xF(x) high temperature superconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavasi, Lorenzo; Artioli, Gianluca A; Kim, Hyunjeong; Maroni, Beatrice; Joseph, Boby; Ren, Yang; Proffen, Thomas; Billinge, Simon J L

    2011-07-13

    A strong revitalization of the field of high temperature superconductivity (HTSC) has been induced recently by the discovery of T(C) around 26 K in F-doped LaFeAsO iron pnictides. Starting from this discovery, a huge amount of experimental data have been accumulated. This important corpus of results will allow the development of suitable theoretical models aimed at describing the basic electronic structure properties and nature of superconducting states in these fascinating new systems. A close correlation between structural features and physical properties of the normal and superconducting states has already been demonstrated in the current literature. Advanced theoretical models are also based on the close correlation with structural properties and in particular with the Fe-As tetrahedral array. As for other complex materials, a deeper understanding of their structure-properties correlation requires a full knowledge of the atomic arrangement within the structure. Here we report an investigation of the local structure in the SmFeAsO₁₋ xF(x) system carried out by means of x-ray total scattering measurements and pair distribution function analysis. The results presented indicate that the local structure of these HTSC significantly differs from the average structure determined by means of traditional diffraction techniques, in particular the distribution of Fe-As bond lengths. In addition, a model for describing the observed discrepancies is presented.

  6. HIGH TEMPERATURE TENSILE PROPERTIES OF NEW FE-CR-MN DEVELOPED STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mahmoudiniya

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, Ni-free austenitic stainless steels are being developed rapidly and high price of nickel is one of the most important motivations for this development. At present research a new FeCrMn steel was designed and produced based on Fe-Cr-Mn-C system. Comparative studies on microstructure and high temperature mechanical properties of  new steel and AISI 316 steel were done. The results showed that new FeCrMn developed steel has single austenite phase microstructure, and its tensile strength and toughness were higher than those of 316 steel at 25, 200,350 and 500°C. In contrast with 316 steel, the new FeCrMn steel did not show strain induced transformation and dynamic strain aging phenomena during tensile tests that represented higher austenite stability of new developed steel. Lower density and higher strength of the new steel caused higher specific strength in comparison with the 316 one that can be considered as an important advantage in structural applications but in less corrosive environment

  7. Effect of pre-oxidation on high temperature sulfidation behavior of FeCr and FeCrAl alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pillis Marina Fuser

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available High temperature corrosion of structural alloys in sulfur bearing environments is many orders of magnitude higher than in oxidizing environments. Efforts to increase sulfidation resistance of these alloys include addition of alloying elements. Aluminum additions to iron-chromium alloys bring about increase in sulfidation resistance. This paper reports the effect of pre-oxidation on the sulfidation behavior of Fe-20Cr and Fe-20Cr-5Al alloys in H2-2% H2S environment at 800 °C. The surfaces of sulfidized specimens were also examined. Pre-oxidation of the two alloys results in an incubation period during subsequent sulfidation. After this incubation period, the Fe-20Cr alloy showed sulfidation behavior similar to that when the alloy was not pre-oxidized. The incubation period during sulfidation of the Fe-20Cr-5Al alloy was significantly longer, over 45 h, compared to 2 h for the Al free alloy. Based on the microscopic and gravimetric data a mechanism for sulfidation of these alloys with pre-oxidation has been proposed.

  8. Effects of Yttrium and Iron co-doping on the high temperature thermoelectric properties of Ca3Co4O9+δ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, NingYu; Van Nong, Ngo; Pryds, Nini

    2015-01-01

    A series of Y and Fe co-doped Ca3−xYxCo4−yFeyO9+δ (0 ⩽ x ⩽ 0.3, 0 ⩽ y ⩽ 0.1) samples synthesized by auto-combustion reaction and followed by a spark plasma sintering (SPS) processing with the effects of Fe and Y doping on the high temperature (RT to 800 °C) thermoelectric properties were systemat......A series of Y and Fe co-doped Ca3−xYxCo4−yFeyO9+δ (0 ⩽ x ⩽ 0.3, 0 ⩽ y ⩽ 0.1) samples synthesized by auto-combustion reaction and followed by a spark plasma sintering (SPS) processing with the effects of Fe and Y doping on the high temperature (RT to 800 °C) thermoelectric properties were...... systematically investigated. For the Fe-doped system (x = 0, y ⩽ 0.1), the electrical resistivity (ρ) decreased over the whole measured temperature range, while the Seebeck coefficient (S) remained almost the same. For the co-doped system, at any fixed Fe doping content, both ρ and S tended to increase...... with increasing Y dopants, however, the effect is more substantial on ρ than on S, particularly in the low temperature regime. In contrast to ρ and S, the in-plane thermal conductivity (κ) is only slightly influenced by Y and Fe substitutions. Among all the investigated samples, the co-doped sample with x = 0...

  9. Low-cost Fe--Ni--Cr alloys for high temperature valve applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralidharan, Govindarajan

    2017-03-28

    An Fe--Ni--Cr alloy is composed essentially of, in terms of weight percent: 1 to 3.5 Al, up to 2 Co, 15 to 19.5 Cr, up to 2 Cu, 23 to 40 Fe, up to 0.3 Hf, up to 4 Mn, 0.15 to 2 Mo, up to 0.15 Si, up to 1.05 Ta, 2.8 to 4.3 Ti, up to 0.5 W, up to 0.06 Zr, 0.02 to 0.15 C, 0.0001 to 0.007 N, balance Ni, wherein, in terms of atomic percent: 6.5.ltoreq.Al+Ti+Zr+Hf+Ta.ltoreq.10, 0.33.ltoreq.Al/(Al+Ti+Zr+Hf+Ta).ltoreq.0.065, 4.ltoreq.(Fe+Cr)/(Al+Ti+Zr+Hf+Ta).ltoreq.10, the alloy being essentially free of Nb and V.

  10. Thermal Spray Coatings for High-Temperature Corrosion Protection in Biomass Co-Fired Boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oksa, M.; Metsäjoki, J.; Kärki, J.

    2015-01-01

    There are over 1000 biomass boilers and about 500 plants using waste as fuel in Europe, and the numbers are increasing. Many of them encounter serious problems with high-temperature corrosion due to detrimental elements such as chlorides, alkali metals, and heavy metals. By HVOF spraying, it is possible to produce very dense and well-adhered coatings, which can be applied for corrosion protection of heat exchanger surfaces in biomass and waste-to-energy power plant boilers. Four HVOF coatings and one arc sprayed coating were exposed to actual biomass co-fired boiler conditions in superheater area with a probe measurement installation for 5900 h at 550 and 750 °C. The coating materials were Ni-Cr, IN625, Fe-Cr-W-Nb-Mo, and Ni-Cr-Ti. CJS and DJ Hybrid spray guns were used for HVOF spraying to compare the corrosion resistance of Ni-Cr coating structures. Reference materials were ferritic steel T92 and nickel super alloy A263. The circulating fluidized bed boiler burnt a mixture of wood, peat and coal. The coatings showed excellent corrosion resistance at 550 °C compared to the ferritic steel. At higher temperature, NiCr sprayed with CJS had the best corrosion resistance. IN625 was consumed almost completely during the exposure at 750 °C.

  11. Electronic origin of high-temperature superconductivity in single-layer FeSe superconductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Defa; Zhang, Wenhao; Mou, Daixiang; He, Junfeng; Ou, Yun-Bo; Wang, Qing-Yan; Li, Zhi; Wang, Lili; Zhao, Lin; He, Shaolong; Peng, Yingying; Liu, Xu; Chen, Chaoyu; Yu, Li; Liu, Guodong; Dong, Xiaoli; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Chuangtian; Xu, Zuyan; Hu, Jiangping; Chen, Xi; Ma, Xucun; Xue, Qikun; Zhou, X J

    2012-07-03

    The recent discovery of high-temperature superconductivity in iron-based compounds has attracted much attention. How to further increase the superconducting transition temperature (T(c)) and how to understand the superconductivity mechanism are two prominent issues facing the current study of iron-based superconductors. The latest report of high-T(c) superconductivity in a single-layer FeSe is therefore both surprising and significant. Here we present investigations of the electronic structure and superconducting gap of the single-layer FeSe superconductor. Its Fermi surface is distinct from other iron-based superconductors, consisting only of electron-like pockets near the zone corner without indication of any Fermi surface around the zone centre. Nearly isotropic superconducting gap is observed in this strictly two-dimensional system. The temperature dependence of the superconducting gap gives a transition temperature T(c)~ 55 K. These results have established a clear case that such a simple electronic structure is compatible with high-T(c) superconductivity in iron-based superconductors.

  12. Strain-induced extrinsic high-temperature ferromagnetism in the Fe-doped hexagonal barium titanate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorko, A; Pregelj, M; Gomilšek, M; Jagličić, Z; Pajić, D; Telling, M; Arčon, I; Mikulska, I; Valant, M

    2015-01-09

    Diluted magnetic semiconductors possessing intrinsic static magnetism at high temperatures represent a promising class of multifunctional materials with high application potential in spintronics and magneto-optics. In the hexagonal Fe-doped diluted magnetic oxide, 6H-BaTiO3-δ, room-temperature ferromagnetism has been previously reported. Ferromagnetism is broadly accepted as an intrinsic property of this material, despite its unusual dependence on doping concentration and processing conditions. However, the here reported combination of bulk magnetization and complementary in-depth local-probe electron spin resonance and muon spin relaxation measurements, challenges this conjecture. While a ferromagnetic transition occurs around 700 K, it does so only in additionally annealed samples and is accompanied by an extremely small average value of the ordered magnetic moment. Furthermore, several additional magnetic instabilities are detected at lower temperatures. These coincide with electronic instabilities of the Fe-doped 3C-BaTiO3-δ pseudocubic polymorph. Moreover, the distribution of iron dopants with frozen magnetic moments is found to be non-uniform. Our results demonstrate that the intricate static magnetism of the hexagonal phase is not intrinsic, but rather stems from sparse strain-induced pseudocubic regions. We point out the vital role of internal strain in establishing defect ferromagnetism in systems with competing structural phases.

  13. Results Of Recent High Temperature Co-Electrolysis Studies At The Idaho National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. M. Stoots; James E. O' Brien; Joseph J. Hartvigsen

    2007-11-01

    For the past several years, the Idaho National Laboratory and Ceramatec, Inc. have been studying the feasibility of high temperature solid oxide electrolysis for large-scale, nuclear-powered hydrogen production. Parallel to this effort, the INL and Ceramatec have been researching high temperature solid oxide co-electrolysis of steam/CO2 mixtures to produce syngas, the raw material for synthetic fuels production. When powered by nuclear energy, high temperature co-electrolysis offers a carbon-neutral means of syngas production while consuming CO2. The INL has been conducting experiments to characterize the electrochemical performance of co-electrolysis, as well as validate INL-developed computer models. An inline methanation reactor has also been tested to study direct methane production from co-electrolysis products. Testing to date indicate that high temperature steam electrolysis cells perform equally well under co-electrolysis conditions. Process model predictions compare well with measurements for outlet product compositions. The process appears to be a promising technique for large-scale syngas production.

  14. Improved critical current densities in bulk FeSe superconductor using ball milled powders and high temperature sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muralidhar, M.; Furutani, K.; Murakami, M. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Superconducting Materials Laboratory, Shibaura Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Kumar, Dinesh; Rao, M.S. Ramachandra [Department of Physics, Nano Functional Materials Technology Centre and Materials Science Research Centre, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai (India); Koblischka, M.R. [Institute of Experimental Physics, Saarland University, Saarbruecken (Germany)

    2016-12-15

    The present study is investigating the effect of high temperature sintering combined with ball milled powders for the preparation of FeSe material via solid state sintering technique. The commercial powders of Fe (99.9% purity) and Se (99.9% purity) were mixed in a nominal ratio Fe:Se = 1:1 and thoroughly ground and ball-milled in a glove box during 6 h. Then, the powder mixture was pressed into pellets of 5 mm in diameter and 2 mm thickness using an uniaxial pressure of 100 MPa. The samples were sealed in quartz tubes and sintered at 600 C for 24 h. Then, the pellets were again thoroughly ground and ball-milled in the glove box and pressed into pellets, and the final sintering was performed at two different temperatures, namely at 900 C for 24 h and at 950 C for 24 h. X-ray diffraction results confirmed that both samples showed mainly of the β-FeSe with tetragonal structure. The temperature dependence of magnetization (M-T) curves revealed a sharp superconducting transition T{sub c,} {sub onset} = 8.16 K for the sample sintered at 900 C. Further, scanning electron microscopy observations proved that samples sintered at 900 C show a platelike grain structure with high density. As a result, improved irreversibility fields around 5 T and the critical current density (J{sub c}) values of 6252 A cm{sup -2} at 5 K and self-field are obtained. Furthermore, the normalized volume pinning force versus the reduced field plots indicated a peak position at 0.4 for the sample sintered at 900 C. Improved flux pinning and the high J{sub c} values are attributed to the textured microstructure of the material, produced by a combination of high temperature sintering and ball milling. (copyright 2016 The Authors. Phys. Status Solidi A published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Integrated High Temperature Coal-to-Hydrogen System with CO2 Separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James A. Ruud; Anthony Ku; Vidya Ramaswamy; Wei Wei; Patrick Willson

    2007-05-31

    A significant barrier to the commercialization of coal-to-hydrogen technologies is high capital cost. The purity requirements for H{sub 2} fuels are generally met by using a series of unit clean-up operations for residual CO removal, sulfur removal, CO{sub 2} removal and final gas polishing to achieve pure H{sub 2}. A substantial reduction in cost can be attained by reducing the number of process operations for H{sub 2} cleanup, and process efficiency can be increased by conducting syngas cleanup at higher temperatures. The objective of this program was to develop the scientific basis for a single high-temperature syngas-cleanup module to produce a pure stream of H{sub 2} from a coal-based system. The approach was to evaluate the feasibility of a 'one box' process that combines a shift reactor with a high-temperature CO{sub 2}-selective membrane to convert CO to CO{sub 2}, remove sulfur compounds, and remove CO{sub 2} in a simple, compact, fully integrated system. A system-level design was produced for a shift reactor that incorporates a high-temperature membrane. The membrane performance targets were determined. System level benefits were evaluated for a coal-to-hydrogen system that would incorporate membranes with properties that would meet the performance targets. The scientific basis for high temperature CO{sub 2}-selective membranes was evaluated by developing and validating a model for high temperature surface flow membranes. Synthesis approaches were pursued for producing membranes that integrated control of pore size with materials adsorption properties. Room temperature reverse-selectivity for CO{sub 2} was observed and performance at higher temperatures was evaluated. Implications for future membrane development are discussed.

  16. Radiation Tolerance of Controlled Fusion Welds in High Temperature Oxidation Resistant FeCrAl Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gussev, Maxim N. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Field, Kevin G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-08-01

    High temperature oxidation resistant iron-chromium-aluminum (FeCrAl) alloys are candidate alloys for nuclear applications due to their exceptional performance during off-normal conditions such as a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) compared to currently deployed zirconium-based claddings [1]. A series of studies have been completed to determine the weldability of the FeCrAl alloy class and investigate the weldment performance in the as-received (non-irradiated) state [2,3]. These initial studies have shown the general effects of composition and microstructure on the weldability of FeCrAl alloys. Given this, limited details on the radiation tolerance of FeCrAl alloys and their weldments exist. Here, the highest priority candidate FeCrAl alloys and their weldments have been investigated after irradiation to enable a better understanding of FeCrAl alloy weldment performance within a high-intensity neutron field. The alloys examined include C35M (Fe-13%Cr-5% Al) and variants with aluminum (+2%) or titanium carbide (+1%) additions. Two different sub-sized tensile geometries, SS-J type and SS-2E (or SS-mini), were neutron irradiated in the High Flux Isotope Reactor to 1.8-1.9 displacements per atom (dpa) in the temperature range of 195°C to 559°C. Post irradiation examination of the candidate alloys was completed and included uniaxial tensile tests coupled with digital image correlation (DIC), scanning electron microscopy-electron back scattered diffraction analysis (SEM-EBSD), and SEM-based fractography. In addition to weldment testing, non-welded parent material was examined as a direct comparison between welded and non-welded specimen performance. Both welded and non-welded specimens showed a high degree of radiation-induced hardening near irradiation temperatures of 200°C, moderate radiation-induced hardening near temperatures of 360°C, and almost no radiation-induced hardening at elevated temperatures near 550°C. Additionally, low-temperature irradiations showed

  17. High temperature deformation mechanisms of L12-containing Co-based superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titus, Michael Shaw

    Ni-based superalloys have been used as the structural material of choice for high temperature applications in gas turbine engines since the 1940s, but their operating temperature is becoming limited by their melting temperature (Tm =1300degrees C). Despite decades of research, no viable alternatives to Ni-based superalloys have been discovered and developed. However, in 2006, a ternary gamma' phase was discovered in the Co-Al-W system that enabled a new class of Co-based superalloys to be developed. These new Co-based superalloys possess a gamma-gamma' microstructure that is nearly identical to Ni-based superalloys, which enables these superalloys to achieve extraordinary high temperature mechanical properties. Furthermore, Co-based alloys possess the added benefit of exhibiting a melting temperature of at least 100degrees C higher than commercial Ni-based superalloys. Superalloys used as the structural materials in high pressure turbine blades must withstand large thermomechanical stresses imparted from the rotating disk and hot, corrosive gases present. These stresses induce time-dependent plastic deformation, which is commonly known as creep, and new superalloys must possess adequate creep resistance over a broad range of temperature in order to be used as the structural materials for high pressure turbine blades. For these reasons, this research focuses on quantifying high temperature creep properties of new gamma'-containing Co-based superalloys and identifying the high temperature creep deformation mechanisms. The high temperature creep properties of new Co- and CoNi-based alloys were found to be comparable to Ni-based superalloys with respect to minimum creep rates and creep-rupture lives at 900degrees C up to the solvus temperature of the gamma' phase. Co-based alloys exhibited a propensity for extended superlattice stacking fault formation in the gamma' precipitates resulting from dislocation shearing events. When Ni was added to the Co-based compositions

  18. Time-resolved remote Raman study of minerals under supercritical CO2 and high temperatures relevant to Venus exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shiv K; Misra, Anupam K; Clegg, Samuel M; Barefield, James E; Wiens, Roger C; Acosta, Tayro

    2010-07-13

    We report time-resolved (TR) remote Raman spectra of minerals under supercritical CO(2) (approx. 95 atm pressure and 423 K) and under atmospheric pressure and high temperature up to 1003 K at distances of 1.5 and 9 m, respectively. The TR Raman spectra of hydrous and anhydrous sulphates, carbonate and silicate minerals (e.g. talc, olivine, pyroxenes and feldspars) under supercritical CO(2) (approx. 95 atm pressure and 423 K) clearly show the well-defined Raman fingerprints of each mineral along with the Fermi resonance doublet of CO(2). Besides the CO(2) doublet and the effect of the viewing window, the main differences in the Raman spectra under Venus conditions are the phase transitions, the dehydration and decarbonation of various minerals, along with a slight shift in the peak positions and an increase in line-widths. The dehydration of melanterite (FeSO(4).7H(2)O) at 423 K under approximately 95 atm CO(2) is detected by the presence of the Raman fingerprints of rozenite (FeSO(4).4H(2)O) in the spectrum. Similarly, the high-temperature Raman spectra under ambient pressure of gypsum (CaSO(4).2H(2)O) and talc (Mg(3)Si(4)O(10)(OH)(2)) indicate that gypsum dehydrates at 518 K, but talc remains stable up to 1003 K. Partial dissociation of dolomite (CaMg(CO(3))(2)) is observed at 973 K. The TR remote Raman spectra of olivine, alpha-spodumene (LiAlSi(2)O(6)) and clino-enstatite (MgSiO(3)) pyroxenes and of albite (NaAlSi(3)O(8)) and microcline (KAlSi(3)O(8)) feldspars at high temperatures also show that the Raman lines remain sharp and well defined in the high-temperature spectra. The results of this study show that TR remote Raman spectroscopy could be a potential tool for exploring the surface mineralogy of Venus during both daytime and nighttime at short and long distances.

  19. Variation in Yield Responses to Elevated CO2 and a Brief High Temperature Treatment in Quinoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunce, James A.

    2017-01-01

    Intraspecific variation in crop responses to global climate change conditions would provide opportunities to adapt crops to future climates. These experiments explored intraspecific variation in response to elevated CO2 and to high temperature during anthesis in Chenopodium quinoa Wild. Three cultivars of quinoa were grown to maturity at 400 (“ambient”) and 600 (“elevated”) μmol·mol−1 CO2 concentrations at 20/14 °C day/night (“control”) temperatures, with or without exposure to day/night temperatures of 35/29 °C (“high” temperatures) for seven days during anthesis. At control temperatures, the elevated CO2 concentration increased the total aboveground dry mass at maturity similarly in all cultivars, but by only about 10%. A large down-regulation of photosynthesis at elevated CO2 occurred during grain filling. In contrast to shoot mass, the increase in seed dry mass at elevated CO2 ranged from 12% to 44% among cultivars at the control temperature. At ambient CO2, the week-long high temperature treatment greatly decreased (0.30 × control) or increased (1.70 × control) seed yield, depending on the cultivar. At elevated CO2, the high temperature treatment increased seed yield moderately in all cultivars. These quinoa cultivars had a wide range of responses to both elevated CO2 and to high temperatures during anthesis, and much more variation in harvest index responses to elevated CO2 than other crops that have been examined. PMID:28678208

  20. Variation in Yield Responses to Elevated CO2 and a Brief High Temperature Treatment in Quinoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Bunce

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Intraspecific variation in crop responses to global climate change conditions would provide opportunities to adapt crops to future climates. These experiments explored intraspecific variation in response to elevated CO2 and to high temperature during anthesis in Chenopodium quinoa Wild. Three cultivars of quinoa were grown to maturity at 400 (“ambient” and 600 (“elevated” μmol·mol−1 CO2 concentrations at 20/14 °C day/night (“control” temperatures, with or without exposure to day/night temperatures of 35/29 °C (“high” temperatures for seven days during anthesis. At control temperatures, the elevated CO2 concentration increased the total aboveground dry mass at maturity similarly in all cultivars, but by only about 10%. A large down-regulation of photosynthesis at elevated CO2 occurred during grain filling. In contrast to shoot mass, the increase in seed dry mass at elevated CO2 ranged from 12% to 44% among cultivars at the control temperature. At ambient CO2, the week-long high temperature treatment greatly decreased (0.30 × control or increased (1.70 × control seed yield, depending on the cultivar. At elevated CO2, the high temperature treatment increased seed yield moderately in all cultivars. These quinoa cultivars had a wide range of responses to both elevated CO2 and to high temperatures during anthesis, and much more variation in harvest index responses to elevated CO2 than other crops that have been examined.

  1. Fe-O stable isotope pairs elucidate a high-temperature origin of Chilean iron oxide-apatite deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilenker, Laura D.; Simon, Adam C.; Reich, Martin; Lundstrom, Craig C.; Gajos, Norbert; Bindeman, Ilya; Barra, Fernando; Munizaga, Rodrigo

    2016-03-01

    Iron oxide-apatite (IOA) ore deposits occur globally and can host millions to billions of tons of Fe in addition to economic reserves of other metals such as rare earth elements, which are critical for the expected growth of technology and renewable energy resources. In this study, we pair the stable Fe and O isotope compositions of magnetite samples from several IOA deposits to constrain the source reservoir of these elements in IOAs. Since magnetite constitutes up to 90 modal% of many IOAs, identifying the source of Fe and O within the magnetite may elucidate high-temperature and/or lower-temperature processes responsible for their formation. Here, we focus on the world-class Los Colorados IOA in the Chilean iron belt (CIB), and present data for magnetite from other Fe oxide deposits in the CIB (El Laco, Mariela). We also report Fe and O isotopic values for other IOA deposits, including Mineville, New York (USA) and the type locale, Kiruna (Sweden). The ranges of Fe isotopic composition (δ56Fe, 56Fe/54Fe relative to IRMM-14) of magnetite from the Chilean deposits are: Los Colorados, δ56Fe (±2σ) = 0.08 ± 0.03‰ to 0.24 ± 0.08‰; El Laco, δ56Fe = 0.20 ± 0.03‰ to 0.53 ± 0.03‰; Mariela, δ56Fe = 0.13 ± 0.03‰. The O isotopic composition (δ18O, 18O/16O relative to VSMOW) of the same Chilean magnetite samples are: Los Colorados, δ18O (±2σ) = 1.92 ± 0.08‰ to 3.17 ± 0.03‰; El Laco, δ18O = 4.00 ± 0.10‰ to 4.34 ± 0.10‰; Mariela, δ18O = (1.48 ± 0.04‰). The δ18O and δ56Fe values for Kiruna magnetite yield an average of 1.76 ± 0.25‰ and 0.16 ± 0.07‰, respectively. The Fe and O isotope data from the Chilean IOAs fit unequivocally within the range of magnetite formed by high-temperature magmatic or magmatic-hydrothermal processes (i.e., δ56Fe 0.06-0.49‰ and δ18O = 1.0-4.5‰), consistent with a high-temperature origin for Chilean IOA deposits. Additionally, minimum formation temperatures calculated by using the measured Δ18O

  2. High-resolution transmission measurements of CO2 at high temperatures for industrial applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evseev, Vadim; Fateev, Alexander; Clausen, Sønnik

    2012-01-01

    High-resolution transmission spectra of CO2 in the 2.7,4.3 and 15 μm regions at temperatures up to 1773 K and at approximately atmospheric pressure (1.00 ± 0.01atm) are measured and compared with line-by-line calculations based on the HITEMP-1995, HITEMP-2010, CDSD-HITEMP and CDSD-4000 databases....... The spectra have been recorded in a high-temperature flow gas cell and using a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer at a nominal resolution of 0.125 cm-1. The volume fractions of CO2 in the measurements were 1,10 and 100%. The measurements have been validated by comparison with medium......-resolution data obtained by Bharadwaj and Modest [6]. The deviations between the experimental spectra and the calculations at 1773 K and the vibrational energy exchange and thermal dissociation of CO2 at high temperatures are discussed....

  3. Direct separation of arsenic and antimony oxides by high-temperature filtration with porous FeAl intermetallic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huibin; Liu, Xinli; Jiang, Yao; Gao, Lin; Yu, Linping; Lin, Nan; He, Yuehui; Liu, C T

    2017-09-15

    A temperature-controlled selective filtration technology for synchronous removal of arsenic and recovery of antimony from the fume produced from reduction smelting process of lead anode slimes was proposed. The chromium (Cr) alloyed FeAl intermetallic with an asymmetric pore structure was developed as the high-temperature filter material after evaluating its corrosive resistance, structural stability and mechanical properties. The results showed that porous FeAl alloyed with 20wt.% Cr had a long term stability in a high-temperature sulfide-bearing environment. The separation of arsenic and antimony trioxides was realized principally based on their disparate saturated vapor pressures at specific temperature ranges and the asymmetric membrane of FeAl filter elements with a mean pore size of 1.8μm. Pilot-scale filtration tests showed that the direct separation of arsenic and antimony can be achieved by a one-step or two-step filtration process. A higher removal percentage of arsenic can reach 92.24% at the expense of 6∼7% loss of antimony in the two-step filtration process at 500∼550°C and 300∼400°C. The FeAl filters had still good permeable and mechanical properties with 1041h of uninterrupted service, which indicates the feasibility of this high-temperature filtration technology. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. High Temperature Pt/Alumina Co-Fired System for 500 C Electronic Packaging Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang-Yu; Neudeck, Philip G.; Spry, David J.; Beheim, Glenn M.; Hunter, Gary W.

    2015-01-01

    Gold thick-film metallization and 96 alumina substrate based prototype packaging system developed for 500C SiC electronics and sensors is briefly reviewed, the needs of improvement are discussed. A high temperature co-fired alumina material system based packaging system composed of 32-pin chip-level package and printed circuit board is discussed for packaging 500C SiC electronics and sensors.

  5. Formulation and catalytic performance of MOF-derived Fe@C/Al composites for high temperature Fischer–Tropsch synthesis

    KAUST Repository

    Oar-Arteta, Lide

    2017-11-15

    High productivity towards C-2-C-4 olefins together with high catalyst stability are key for optimum operation in high temperature Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (HT-FTS). Here, we report the fabrication of Fe@C/Al composites that combine both the outstanding catalytic properties of the Fe-BTC MOF-derived Fe catalyst and the excellent mechanical resistance and textural properties provided by the inorganic AlOOH binder. The addition of AlOOH to Fe-BTC followed by pyrolysis in N-2 atmosphere at 500 degrees C results in composites with a large mesoporosity, a high Fe/Fe3O4 ratio, 10-35 nm average Fe crystallite size and coordinatively unsaturated Al3+ sites. In catalytic terms, the addition of AlOOH binder gives rise to enhanced C-2-C-4 selectivity and catalyst mechanical stability in HT-FTS, but at high Al contents the activity decreases. Altogether, the productivity of these Fe@C/Al composites is well above most known Fe catalysts for this process.

  6. In situ X-ray ptychography imaging of high-temperature CO2 acceptor particle agglomerates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høydalsvik, Kristin; Fløystad, Jostein Bø; Zhao, Tiejun

    2014-01-01

    Imaging nanoparticles under relevant reaction conditions of high temperature and gas pressure is difficult because conventional imaging techniques, like transmission electron microscopy, cannot be used. Here we demonstrate that the coherent diffractive imaging technique of X-ray ptychography can...... be used for in situ phase contrast imaging in structure studies at atmospheric pressure and elevated temperatures. Lithium zirconate, a candidate CO2 capture material, was studied at a pressure of one atmosphere in air and in CO2, at temperatures exceeding 600 °C. Images with a spatial resolution better...

  7. Potential high temperature corrosion problems due to co-firing of biomass and fossil fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Vilhelmsen, T.; Jensen, S.A.

    2007-01-01

    Over the past years, considerable high temperature corrosion problems have been encountered when firing biomass in power plants due to the high content of potassium chloride in the deposits. Therefore to combat chloride corrosion problems co-firing of biomass with a fossil fuel has been undertaken...... significant corrosion attack was due to sulphidation attack at the grain boundaries of 18-8 steel after 3 years exposure. The corrosion mechanisms and corrosion rates are compared with biomass firing and coal firing. Potential corrosion problems due to co-firing biomass and fossil fuels are discussed....

  8. M = Mn, Fe, Co

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ment as a result of incomplete combustion of fossil fuels can lead to harmful health effects by reducing oxygen ... energy-efficient and environmentally friendly technol- ogy for CO abatement.3 For wide implementation of ... cost of noble metals and their sensitivity to sulphur poisoning have limited their industrial application.7.

  9. High-temperature plastic flow behaviour in the binder of WC-Co cemented carbides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, In-Chul

    1996-04-01

    Co-rich solid solution alloys regarded as the composition of binder phasesat elevated temperatures in WC-Co cemented carbides were fabricated and the high-temperature deformation behaviour of the alloys was investigated. The logarithmic relationship between flow stress and strain rate is expressed by a single straight line with the slope of 0.15 at a constant temperature in all strain rate range examined, unlike in cemented carbides showing the sigmoidal behaviour. The solid solution hardening due to the addition of Cr3C2 and VC is negligible in the Co-9WC-lCr3C2-0.5VC alloy and the mutual relation in flow stress is different between the cemented carbides and their binder phases in region I. The plastic flow in region I in WC-Co cemented carbides cannot be explained by the flow stress or flow behaviour in the binder phase.

  10. Structure and High Temperature Thermoelectric Properties of Delafossite-Type Oxide CuFe1-xNixO2 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.05)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Kei; Nozaki, Tomohiro; Kajitani, Tsuyoshi

    2007-08-01

    We have investigated crystal structure of delafossite-type oxide CuFe1-xNixO2 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.05) and measured its thermoelectric properties at high temperatures ranging from 300 and 1100 K. The lattice parameter a of the Ni2+-doped samples is nearly equal to that of CuFeO2, while the lattice parameter c of the Ni2+-doped samples increases. Nearly constant a-axis is due to the decrease of (Fe/Ni)-O distance and simultaneous increase of O-(Fe/Ni)-O angle. Increase of the c-axis is due to the increase of Cu-O distance in the Ni2+-doped samples. The valence states of the Fe- and Cu-sites are calculated from bond valence summation. The valence state of the Fe-site in the Ni2+-doped samples is larger than that of CuFeO2, an indication of hole doping in the Fe-site. This increase of hole carriers enhances the electrical conductivity σ. The highest electrical conductivity is 18 S/cm. Although the Seebeck coefficient S decreased by Ni2+ doping, the S is still high value (S>250 μV/K). The thermal conductivity κ of CuFe1-xNixO2 is relatively high (κ>4 W/mK). The maximum dimensionless figure of merit ZT=σ S2T/κ=0.14 is obtained with the sample of x=0.01 at 1100 K, being higher than that of the polycrystalline γ-Na0.7CoO2. There is no significant evaporation of the constituent elements after the heat cycles.

  11. [Measurements of CO2 concentration at high temperature and pressure environments using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Ting-Dong; Gao, Guang-Zhen; Wang, Min-Rui; Wang, Gui-Shi; Gao, Xiao-Ming

    2014-07-01

    The present research was planned to develop a method for species concentration measurements under high temperature and pressure environments. The characteristics of CO2 spectrum at high temperature and pressure were studied at first. Based on the research above, tunable diode-laser absorption of CO2 near 2.0 microm incorporating fixed-wavelength modulation spectroscopy with second-harmonic detection was used to provide a method for sensitive and accurate measurements of gas temperature and CO2 concentration at high temperature and pressure. Measurements were performed in a well-controlled high temperature and pressure static cell. The results show that the average error of the CO2 concentration measurements at 5 atm, 500 K and 10 atm, 1000 K is 4. 49%. All measurements show the accuracy and potential utility of the method for high temperature and pressure diagnostics.

  12. High-temperature tensile ductility in WC-Co cemented carbides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, I.C. [Kyungpook National Univ., Taegusi (Korea, Republic of); Sakuma, T. [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Materials Science

    1997-09-01

    High-temperature tensile deformation in WC-Co was investigated at temperatures between 1,150 C and 1,250 C. The flow stress is sensitive to temperature, strain rate, volume fraction of binder, and the addition of other carbides. The stress-strain rate relationship is divided into three regions at each temperature as in superplastic metals. A large tensile elongation over 100 pct was first obtained in WC-6Co and WC-13Co (wt pct) at temperatures of 1,200 C. Contrary to superplastic metals, the largest tensile elongation is not obtained in region II but on the border of regions I and II. The failure mode changes from necking in region I to sharp cracking in region II.

  13. Study of the oxidation of Fe-Cr alloys at high temperatures; Estudo da oxidacao de ligas Fe-Cr a altas temperaturas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, J.F.; Sabioni, A.C.S. [Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto (LDM/DF/UFOP), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica. Lab. de Difusao em Materiais; Trindade, V.B. [Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto (DEMM/UFOP), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais; Ji, V. [Laboratoire d' Etude des Materiaux Hors-Equilibre (LEMHE), Orsay (France)

    2010-07-01

    The high temperature oxidation behavior of Fe-1.5%Cr, Fe-5.0%Cr, Fe-10%Cr and Fe- 15%Cr model alloys were investigated from 700 to 850 deg C, in air atmosphere. The oxidation treatments were performed in a thermobalance with a sensitivity of 1{mu}g. The oxide films grown by oxidation of the alloys were characterized by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The oxide films are Fe-Cr spinels with variable composition depending on the alloy composition. For all conditions studied, the oxidation kinetics of these alloys follow a parabolic law. The comparison of the oxidation rates of the four alloys, at 700 deg C, shows that the parabolic oxidation constants decrease from 1.96x10{sup -9}g{sup 2}.cm{sup -4}.s{sup -1}, for the alloy Fe-1.5% Cr, to 1.18 x 10-14g{sup 2}.cm{sup -4}.s{sup -1} for the alloy Fe-15% Cr. Comparative analysis of the oxidation behavior of the Fe-10%Cr and Fe-15%Cr alloys, between 700 and 850 deg C, shows that the oxidation rates of these alloys are comparable to 800 deg C, above this temperature the Fe-10%Cr alloy shows lower resistance to oxidation. (author)

  14. High temperature EPR study of the M3Fe4V6O24 (M = Cu, Zn, Mg and Mn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guskos Niko

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR spectra of M3Fe4V6O24 (M = Cu, Zn, Mg and Mn compounds in high temperature range (293 K to 493 K have been investigated. The role of magnetic (Cu, Mn and non-magnetic (Zn, Mg ions in M3Fe4V6O24 structure in formation of magnetic resonance spectra was studied. Temperature dependence of EPR parameters: resonance field, linewidth and integrated intensity were examined. Similarities and differences in temperature behavior of these parameters has been discussed in terms of different relaxation mechanisms and magnetic interactions in the spin systems. An important role of additional magnetic ions (M = Mn or Cu in the M3Fe4V6O24 structure has been identified and its consequences considered.

  15. High-temperature stability of thermoelectric Ca3Co4O9 thin films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinks, P.; Van Nong, Ngo; Pryds, Nini

    2015-01-01

    An enhanced thermal stability in thermoelectric Ca3Co4O9 thin films up to 550 °C in an oxygen rich environment was demonstrated by high-temperature electrical and X-ray diffraction measurements. In contrast to generally performed heating in helium gas, it is shown that an oxygen/helium mixture...... provides sufficient thermal contact, while preventing the previously disregarded formation of oxygen vacancies. Combining thermal cycling with electrical measurements proves to be a powerful tool to study the real intrinsic thermoelectric behaviour of oxide thin films at elevated temperatures. © 2015 AIP...

  16. Potential high temperature corrosion problems due to co-firing of biomass and fossil fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Vilhelmsen, T.; Jensen, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past few years, considerable high temperature corrosion problems have been encountered when firing biomass in power plants due to the high content of potassium chloride in the deposits. Therefore, to combat chloride corrosion problems cofiring of biomass with a fossil fuel has been....... However, the most significant corrosion attack was sulphidation attack at the grain boundaries of 18-8 steel after 3 years exposure. The corrosion mechanisms and corrosion rates are compared with biomass firing and coal firing. Potential corrosion problems due to co-firing biomass and fossil fuels...

  17. Origin of Metallization of FeO at High Temperatures and Pressures from First-principles DFT-DMFT Computations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, R. E.; Haule, K.

    2012-12-01

    Experiments and theory show that FeO metallizes at high temperatures (~2000K) and pressures (~80 GPa) [1]. The theory used is based on many-body theory for a quantum impurity self-consistently embedded in a crystal described by band theory, or DFT+Dynamical Mean Field Theory (DMFT). Here we discuss the origin of the metallization. We use an LAPW basis set, and the lattice terms are evaluated using the WIEN2K LAPW code. The impurity model is solved using continuous time quantum Monte Carlo (CTQMC). Temperature enters explicitly, so we made special efforts to understand high temperature behavior. The computations are fully self-consistent, including the impurity levels and crystal field splitting, and the total energy is evaluated using the full potential and charge density of the lattice plus impurity models. We find with increasing pressure in paramagnetic FeO in a cubic lattice a high-spin low-spin transition, with a wide transition region between characterized by intermediate occupancies of the t2g and eg states between. We find that at 300K cubic FeO remains insulating to a factor of two compression (over 600 GPa), except for a small region of high spin metal. However, at high temperatures (e.g. 2000K) a metallic state is found under compression. The metallization occurs from thermal fluctuations among different multiplets representing high- and low-spin states. Implications for the Earth will be discussed. [1] Ohta, K., Cohen, R. E., Hirose, K., Haule, K., Shimizu, K. & Ohishi, Y. Experimental and Theoretical Evidence for Pressure-Induced Metallization in FeO with Rocksalt-Type Structure. Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 026403 (2012).

  18. Modeling of High Temperature Oxidation Behavior of FeCrAl Alloy by using Artificial Neural Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Joon; Ryu, Ho Jin [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Refractory alloys are candidate materials for replacing current zirconium-base cladding of light water reactors and they retain significant creep resistance and mechanical strength at high temperatures up to 1500 ℃ due to their high melting temperature. Thermal neutron cross sections of refractory metals are higher than that of zirconium, however the loss of neutron can be overcome by reducing cladding thickness which can be facilitated with enhanced mechanical properties. However, most refractory metals show the poor oxidation resistance at a high temperature. Oxidation behaviors of the various compositions of FeCrAl alloys in high temperature conditions were modeled by using Bayesian neural network. The automatic relevance determination (ARD) technique represented the influence of the composition of alloying elements on the oxidation resistance of FeCrAl alloys. This model can be utilized to understand the tendency of oxidation behavior along the composition of each element and prove the applicability of neural network modeling for the development of new cladding material of light water reactors.

  19. High temperature performance and stability of Fe-FER catalyst for N2O decomposition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sádovská, Galina; Tabor, Edyta; Sazama, Petr; Lhotka, M.; Bernauer, M.; Sobalík, Zdeněk

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 89, JAN 2017 (2017), s. 133-137 ISSN 1566-7367 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-10251S; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015073 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : High temperature N2O decomposition * FER * Iron Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 3.330, year: 2016

  20. Corrosion Behavior of NiCrFe Alloy 600 in High Temperature, Hydrogenated Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SE Ziemniak; ME Hanson

    2004-11-02

    The corrosion behavior of Alloy 600 (UNS N06600) is investigated in hydrogenated water at 260 C. The corrosion kinetics are observed to be parabolic, the parabolic rate constant being determined by chemical descaling to be 0.055 mg dm{sup -2} hr{sup -1/2}. A combination of scanning and transmission electron microscopy, supplemented by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, are used to identify the oxide phases present (i.e., spinel) and to characterize their morphology and thickness. Two oxide layers are identified: an outer, ferrite-rich layer and an inner, chromite-rich layer. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy with argon ion milling and target factor analysis is applied to determine spinel stoichiometry; the inner layer is (Ni{sub 0.7}Fe{sub 0.3})(Fe{sub 0.3}Cr{sub 0.7}){sub 2}O{sub 4}, while the outer layer is (Ni{sub 0.9}Fe{sub 0.1})(Fe{sub 0.85}Cr{sub 0.15}){sub 2}O{sub 4}. The distribution of trivalent iron and chromium cations in the inner and outer oxide layers is essentially the same as that found previously in stainless steel corrosion oxides, thus confirming their invariant nature as solvi in the immiscible spinel binary Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-FeCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} (or NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-NiCr{sub 2}O{sub 4}). Although oxidation occurred non-selectively, excess quantities of nickel(II) oxide were not found. Instead, the excess nickel was accounted for as recrystallized nickel metal in the inner layer, as additional nickel ferrite in the outer layer, formed by pickup of iron ions from the aqueous phase, and by selective release to the aqueous phase.

  1. Optimization of Electrochemical Performance of LiFePO4/C by Indium Doping and High Temperature Annealing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Kumar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We have prepared nano-structured In-doped (1 mol % LiFePO4/C samples by sol–gel method followed by a selective high temperature (600 and 700 °C annealing in a reducing environment of flowing Ar/H2 atmosphere. The crystal structure, particle size, morphology, and magnetic properties of nano-composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microsopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. The Rietveld refinement of XRD patterns of the nano-composites were indexed to the olivine crystal structure of LiFePO4 with space group Pnma, showing minor impurities of Fe2P and Li3PO4 due to decomposition of LiFePO4. We found that the doping of In in LiFePO4/C nanocomposites affects the amount of decomposed products, when compared to the un-doped ones treated under similar conditions. An optimum amount of Fe2P present in the In-doped samples enhances the electronic conductivity to achieve a much improved electrochemical performance. The galvanostatic charge/discharge curves show a significant improvement in the electrochemical performance of 700 °C annealed In-doped-LiFePO4/C sample with a discharge capacity of 142 mAh·g−1 at 1 C rate, better rate capability (~128 mAh·g−1 at 10 C rate, ~75% of the theoretical capacity and excellent cyclic stability (96% retention after 250 cycles compared to other samples. This enhancement in electrochemical performance is consistent with the results of our electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements showing decreased charge-transfer resistance and high exchange current density.

  2. High temperature corrosion performance of FeAl intermetallic alloys in molten salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaya, M.; Espinosa-Medina, M.A.; Porcayo-Calderon, J.; Martinez, L.; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, J.G

    2003-05-25

    The corrosion performance of FeAl base intermetallic alloys fabricated by spray-atomization and deposition during their immersion in molten sodium metavanadate (NaVO{sub 3}), 80% (wt.%) sodium pentoxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) +20% sodium sulfate (Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) and pure Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} in the temperature range of 600-1000 deg. C during 200 h was investigated. The experiments were realized by the weight loss method in the intermetallic alloys of composition FeAl40(at.%), FeAl40+0.1B and FeAl40+0.1B+10Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. In all cases, the FeAl40+0.1B+10Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} alloy showed the best corrosion resistance in the temperatures interval studied here. This behavior was discussed in terms of the formation of a protective Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer and its dissolution by vanadate phases and internal sulfidation in the case of experiments carried out in pure Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. The morphology of the external layers and the corrosion products formed during the tests revealed that the corrosion rate of this type alloy depends on the corrosion compounds that are formed and the development of protective alumina scales.

  3. An Innovative Configuration for CO2 Capture by High Temperature Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Rossi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Many technological solutions have been proposed for CO2 capture in the last few years. Most of them are characterized by high costs in terms of energy consumption and, consequently, higher fossil fuel use and higher economic costs. High temperature fuel cells are technological solutions currently developed for energy production with low environmental impact. In CIRIAF—University of Perugia labs, cylindrical geometry, small-sized molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC prototypes were built and tested with good energy production and lifetime performances. In the present work, an innovative application for MCFCs is proposed, and an innovative configuration for CO2 capture/separation is investigated. The plant scheme is based on a reformer and a cylindrical MCFC. MCFCs are the most suitable solutions, because CO2 is used in their operating cycle. An analysis in terms of energy consumption/kgCO2 captured is made by coupling the proposed configuration with a gas turbine plant. The proposed configuration is characterized by a theoretical energy consumption of about 500 kJ/kgCO2, which is quite lower than actual sequestration technologies. An experimental campaign will be scheduled to verify the theoretical findings.

  4. Melting Penetration Simulation of Fe-U System at High Temperature Using MPS_LER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustari, A. P. A.; Yamaji, A.; Irwanto, Dwi

    2016-08-01

    Melting penetration information of Fe-U system is necessary for simulating the molten core behavior during severe accident in nuclear power plants. For Fe-U system, the information is mainly obtained from experiment, i.e. TREAT experiment. However, there is no reported data on SS304 at temperature above 1350°C. The MPS_LER has been developed and validated to simulate melting penetration on Fe-U system. The MPS_LER modelled the eutectic phenomenon by solving the diffusion process and by applying the binary phase diagram criteria. This study simulates the melting penetration of the system at higher temperature using MPS_LER. Simulations were conducted on SS304 at 1400, 1450 and 1500°C. The simulation results show rapid increase of melting penetration rate.

  5. High-temperature oxidation of advanced FeCrNi alloy in steam environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbakhshwan, Mohamed S.; Gill, Simerjeet K.; Rumaiz, Abdul K.; Bai, Jianming; Ghose, Sanjit; Rebak, Raul B.; Ecker, Lynne E.

    2017-12-01

    Alloys of iron-chromium-nickel are being explored as alternative cladding materials to improve safety margins under severe accident conditions. Our research focuses on non-destructively investigating the oxidation behavior of the FeCrNi alloy ;Alloy 33; using synchrotron-based methods. The evolution and structure of oxide layer formed in steam environments were characterized using X-ray diffraction, hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence methods and scanning electron microscopy. Our results demonstrate that a compact and continuous oxide scale was formed consisting of two layers, chromium oxide and spinel phase (FeCr2O4) oxides, wherein the concentration of the FeCr2O4 phase decreased from the surface to the bulk-oxide interface.

  6. Subgrain and dislocation structure changes in hot-deformed high-temperature Fe-Ni austenitic alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ducki, K.J.; Rodak, K.; Hetmanczyk, M.; Kuc, D

    2003-08-28

    The influence of plastic deformation on the substructure of a high-temperature austenitic Fe-Ni alloy has been presented. Hot-torsion tests were executed at constant strain rates of 0.1 and 1.0 s{sup -1}, at testing temperatures in the range 900-1150 deg. C. The examination of the microstructure was carried out, using transmission electron microscopy. Direct measurements on the micrographs allowed the calculation of structural parameters: the average subgrain area, and the mean dislocation density. A detailed investigation has shown that the microstructure is inhomogeneous, consisting of dense dislocation walls, subgrains and recrystallized regions.

  7. High-temperature corrosion behavior of coatings and ODS alloys based on Fe{sub 3}Al

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tortorelli, P.F.; Pint, B.A.; Wright, I.G.

    1996-06-01

    Iron aluminides containing greater than about 20-25 @ % Al have oxidation/sulfidation resistance at temperatures well above those at which these alloys have adequate mechanical strength. In addition to alloying modifications for improved creep resistance of wrought material, this strength limitation is being addressed by development of oxide-dispersion- strengthened (ODS) iron aluminides and by evaluation of Fe{sub 3}Al alloy compositions as coatings or claddings on higher-strength, less corrosion-resistant materials. As part of these efforts, the high-temperature corrosion behavior of iron-aluminide weld overlays and ODS alloys is being characterized and compared to previous results for ingot-processed material.

  8. High-temperature Mossbauer spectroscopy of mechanically milled NiFe2O4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helgason, O.; Jiang, Jianzhong

    2002-01-01

    Oxide spinels, in particular those containing iron, often exhibit technically important electrical- and magnetic-properties. We report here on X-ray powder diffraction and Mossbauer studies of nanostructured NiFe2O4 particles prepared by high-energy ball milling from bulk NiFe2O4, which is an inv......Oxide spinels, in particular those containing iron, often exhibit technically important electrical- and magnetic-properties. We report here on X-ray powder diffraction and Mossbauer studies of nanostructured NiFe2O4 particles prepared by high-energy ball milling from bulk NiFe2O4, which...... is an inverse spinel. The Mossbauer spectra were recorded in situ at different temperatures in the range of 300-850 K. The Mossbauer spectra of the milled samples show a broad distribution of magnetic hyperfine fields together with a paramagnetic state at room temperature. Initially, at 700 K the spectrum...... is mainly paramagnetic, but during the process of annealing, magnetic sextets emerge. The treatment results in a significant change in the B/A area ratio of the ferrite. The Neel temperature of the samples is estimated from the B(T) relation to be in the range of 800-850 K....

  9. The Effects of Radiation and Thermal Stability of Sm-Co High Temperature Magnets For High Power Ion Propulsion Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Since high temperature Sm-Co based magnets were developed, a number of new applications have been introduced. NASA?s Xe+ ion propulsion engine used in Deep Space I...

  10. VUV-absorption cross section of CO2 at high temperatures and impact on exoplanet atmospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venot Olivia

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet (UV absorption cross sections are an essential ingredient of photochemical atmosphere models. Exoplanet searches have unveiled a large population of short-period objects with hot atmospheres, very different from what we find in our solar system. Transiting exoplanets whose atmospheres can now be studied by transit spectroscopy receive extremely strong UV fluxes and have typical temperatures ranging from 400 to 2500 K. At these temperatures, UV photolysis cross section data are severely lacking. Our goal is to provide high-temperature absorption cross sections and their temperature dependency for important atmospheric compounds. This study is dedicated to CO2, which is observed and photodissociated in exoplanet atmospheres. We performed these measurements for the 115 - 200 nm range at 300, 410, 480, and 550 K. In the 195 - 230 nm range, we worked at seven temperatures between 465 and 800 K. We found that the absorption cross section of CO2 is very sensitive to temperature, especially above 160 nm. Within the studied range of temperature, the CO2 cross section can vary by more than two orders of magnitude. This, in particular, makes the absorption of CO2 significant up to wavelengths as high as 230 nm, while it is negligible above 200 nm at 300 K. To investigate the influence of these new data on the photochemistry of exoplanets, we implemented the measured cross section into a 1D photochemical model. The model predicts that accounting for this temperature dependency of CO2 cross section can affect the computed abundances of NH3, CO2, and CO by one order of magnitude in the atmospheres of hot Jupiter and hot Neptune.

  11. High temperature oxidation resistance of rare earth chromite coated Fe-20Cr and Fe-20Cr-4Al alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Fuser Pillis

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Doped lanthanum chromite has been used in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC interconnects. The high costs involved in obtaining dense lanthanum chromite have increased efforts to find suitable metallic materials for interconnects. In this context, the oxidation behavior of lanthanum chromite coated Fe-20Cr and Fe-20Cr-4Al alloys at SOFC operation temperature was studied. Isothermal oxidation tests were carried out at 1000 °C for 20, 50 and 200 hours. Cyclic oxidation tests were also carried out and each oxidation cycle consisted of 7 hours at 1000/°C followed by cooling to room temperature. The oxidation measurements and the results of SEM/EDS as well as XRD analyses indicated that lanthanum chromite coated Fe-20Cr and Fe-20Cr-4Al alloys were significantly more resistant to oxidation compared with the uncoated alloys.

  12. High temperature oxidation and electrochemical studies on novel co-base superalloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Leonhard

    2013-02-27

    Isothermal oxidation in air was carried out on novel γ'-strengthened Cobalt-base superalloys of the system Co-Al-W-B. After fast initial oxide formation, a multi-layered structure establishes, consisting of an outer cobalt oxide layer, a middle spinel-containing layer, and an inner Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-rich region. Ion diffusion in outward direction is hindered by the development of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, that can be either present as a continuous and protective layer or as a discontinuous Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-rich area without comparable protective effect. Furthermore, high temperature oxidation leads to phase transformation (from γ/γ' into γ/Co{sub 3}W) at the alloy/oxide layer interface due to aluminium depletion. Pure cobalt and ternary Co-Al-W alloys exhibit parabolic oxide growth due to the lack or insufficient amounts of protective oxides, whereas quaternary Co-Al-W-B alloys possess sub-parabolic oxidation behaviour (at 900 C). At lower temperatures (800 C), even a blockage of further oxidation can be observed. High amounts of B (0.12 at%) significantly improve oxidation resistance mainly due to its beneficial effect on inner Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-formation at the alloy/oxide interface. Furthermore, B prevents decohesion of high temperature scales due to the formation of B-rich phases (presumably tungsten borides) in the middle oxide layer. Appropriate amounts of chromium (8 at%) as additional alloying element to Co-Al-W-B alloys lead to the formation of an inner duplex layer composed of protective Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} phases. In this respect, chromium also benefits selective oxidation of aluminium, which results in higher Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-contents compared to chromium-free alloys. Major drawbacks of chromium additions are, on the one hand, the formation of volatile chromium-containing species at temperatures exceeding 1000 C and on the other hand, the instability of the γ/γ'-microstructure. Titanium and silicon additions lead to

  13. High-temperature Thermoelectric and Microstructural Characteristics of Ga Substituted on the Co-site in Cobalt-based Oxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Nong, Ngo; Yanagiya, S.; Sonne, Monica

    2011-01-01

    The effects of Ga substitution on the Co-site on the high-temperature thermoelectric properties and microstructure are investigated for the misfitlayered Ca3Co4O9 and the complex perovskite-related Sr3RECo4O10.5 (RE = rare earth) cobalt-based oxides. For both systems, substitution of Ga for Co...

  14. High-temperature argon broadening of CO2 near 2190 cm-1 in a shock tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvihill, C. R.; Petersen, E. L.

    2017-10-01

    Scanned-wavelength laser absorption measurements of CO2 diluted in Ar were performed behind reflected shock waves at high temperatures (1158-2017 K) and low pressures (5.1-108.4 kPa). High-resolution (0.001 cm-1) scans were conducted in 0.4-cm-1 increments from about 2188.8 to 2191.8 cm-1 at a scan rate of 2 kHz. The HITRAN 2004, HITRAN 2012, and CDSD-296 databases were all found to underestimate the absorption, typically by an order of magnitude or more. The HITEMP database, however, closely predicted the measured data. For the assumed form γ_{{{CO}_{ 2} - {Ar}}} (T) = γ_{{{CO}_{ 2} - {Ar}}} (T0 )(T0 /T)n with T0 = 296 K, an optimization routine was implemented to determine the values of γ_{{{CO}_{ 2} - {Ar}}} (T0 ) and n. From the optimization, values of 0.033 ± 0.004 cm-1 atm.-1 and 0.61 ± 0.04 were determined for γ_{{{CO}_{ 2} - {Ar}}} (T0 ) and n, respectively, which are in good agreement with historical values. These values describe an average CO2-Ar broadening coefficient in the frequency range studied herein and are reliable within the experimental temperature range. In addition, a set of fixed-wavelength measurements at 2190.0175 cm-1 were carried out at 122, 446, and 1115 kPa between 1100 and 2100 K, and the HITEMP predictions incorporating the proposed Ar-broadening parameters showed excellent agreement with these data.

  15. Effects of Fe3+ and Antioxidants on Glycidyl Ester Formation in Plant Oil at High Temperature and Their Influencing Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Weiwei; Liu, Guoqin; Liu, Xinqi

    2017-05-24

    This research investigated the effects of Fe3+ and antioxidants on the formation of glycidyl esters (GEs) and the free radical mediated mechanisms involving the recognition of cyclic acyloxonium free radical intermediate (CAFRI) for GE formation in both the plant oil model (palm oil, camellia oil, soybean oil, and linseed oil) system and the chemical model (dipalmitin and methyl linoleate) system heated at 200 °C. Results show that Fe3+ can promote the formation of GEs, which can be inhibited by antioxidants in plant oil during high-temperature exposure. Based on the monitoring of cyclic acyloxonium and ester carbonyl group by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, the promotion of Fe3+ and the inhibition of antioxidants (tert-butylhydroquinone and α-tocopherol) for GE formation occurred not only through lipid oxidation but also through directly affecting the formation of cyclic acyloxonium intermediate. Additionally, a quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry measurement was conducted to identify the presence of radical adduct captured by 5,5-dimethylpyrroline N-oxide, which provided strong evidence for the formation of CAFRI. Thus, one possible influencing mechanism can be that free radical generated in lipid oxidation may be transferred to dipalmitin and promote CAFRI formation. Fe3+ can catalyze free radical generation while antioxidants can scavenge free radical, and therefore they also can directly affect CAFRI formation.

  16. High temperature electrochemical performance of nanosized LiFePO{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mestre-Aizpurua, F.; Palacin, M.R. [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona (ICMAB-CSIC), Campus UAB E-08193, Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain); Hamelet, S.; Masquelier, C. [Laboratoire de Reactivite et de Chimie des Solides, CNRS UMR 6007, Universite de Picardie Jules Verne, 33 Rue St. Leu, 80039 Amiens Cedex 9 (France)

    2010-10-01

    The electrochemical performance of LiFePO{sub 4} was tested at temperatures up to 150 C for micrometric and nanometric size samples. Among the latter, both highly defective samples obtained by direct precipitation and annealed samples were tested. The comparison of voltage composition profiles for these samples coupled to GITT experiments allowed to conclude that defects seem to be the major factor in inducing the solid solution behaviour at room temperature. Good capacity retention is exhibited upon prolonged cycling at 100 C in EC LiBOB electrolyte, also for nanosized samples that still maintain 75% of the initial capacity after 170 cycles. These results prove that the enhanced thermal stability of such electrolytes can be extended to temperatures much higher than those usually tested. (author)

  17. Effect of Chromium on Corrosion Behavior of P110 Steels in CO2-H2S Environment with High Pressure and High Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianbo; Sun, Chong; Lin, Xueqiang; Cheng, Xiangkun; Liu, Huifeng

    2016-01-01

    The novel Cr-containing low alloy steels have exhibited good corrosion resistance in CO2 environment, mainly owing to the formation of Cr-enriched corrosion film. In order to evaluate whether it is applicable to the CO2 and H2S coexistence conditions, the corrosion behavior of low-chromium steels in CO2-H2S environment with high pressure and high temperature was investigated using weight loss measurement and surface characterization. The results showed that P110 steel suffered localized corrosion and both 3Cr-P110 and 5Cr-P110 steels exhibited general corrosion. However, the corrosion rate of 5Cr-P110 was the highest among them. The corrosion process of the steels was simultaneously governed by CO2 and H2S. The outer scales on the three steels mainly consisted of FeS1−x crystals, whereas the inner scales on Cr-containing steels comprised of amorphous FeS1−x, Cr(OH)3 and FeCO3, in contrast with the amorphous FeS1−x and FeCO3 mixture film of P110 steel. The more chromium the steel contains, the more chromium compounds the corrosion products contain. The addition of chromium in steels increases the uniformity of the Cr-enriched corrosion scales, eliminates the localized corrosion, but cannot decrease the general corrosion rates. The formation of FeS1−x may interfere with Cr-enriched corrosion scales and lowering the corrosion performance of 3Cr-P110 and 5Cr-P110 steels. PMID:28773328

  18. Effect of Chromium on Corrosion Behavior of P110 Steels in CO2-H2S Environment with High Pressure and High Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianbo Sun

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The novel Cr-containing low alloy steels have exhibited good corrosion resistance in CO2 environment, mainly owing to the formation of Cr-enriched corrosion film. In order to evaluate whether it is applicable to the CO2 and H2S coexistence conditions, the corrosion behavior of low-chromium steels in CO2-H2S environment with high pressure and high temperature was investigated using weight loss measurement and surface characterization. The results showed that P110 steel suffered localized corrosion and both 3Cr-P110 and 5Cr-P110 steels exhibited general corrosion. However, the corrosion rate of 5Cr-P110 was the highest among them. The corrosion process of the steels was simultaneously governed by CO2 and H2S. The outer scales on the three steels mainly consisted of FeS1−x crystals, whereas the inner scales on Cr-containing steels comprised of amorphous FeS1−x, Cr(OH3 and FeCO3, in contrast with the amorphous FeS1−x and FeCO3 mixture film of P110 steel. The more chromium the steel contains, the more chromium compounds the corrosion products contain. The addition of chromium in steels increases the uniformity of the Cr-enriched corrosion scales, eliminates the localized corrosion, but cannot decrease the general corrosion rates. The formation of FeS1−x may interfere with Cr-enriched corrosion scales and lowering the corrosion performance of 3Cr-P110 and 5Cr-P110 steels.

  19. A threshold stress for high-temperature plastic flow in WC-CO cemented carbides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, In-Chul

    1995-04-01

    The logarithmic relationship between flow stress and strain rate in WC-Co cemented carbides is represented by a signoidal curve at a constant temperature and is divided into three regions, as in superplastic metals. The flow stress in region I has no dependence on both carbide grain size and binder content, indicative of the presence of a threshold stress for high-temperature plastic flow in cemented carbides. The threshold stress estimated by extrapolating the plot of ɛm against σ to zero strain rate has a strong dependence on temperature. The logarithmic plot of the effective stress compensated by the threshold stress against strain rate shows a single straight line for region I and region II at a constant temperature, which suggests that the regions I and II are controlled by the same deformation process i.e. the grain boundary sliding in WC/WC boundaries. A small addition of Cr3C2 and VC gives rise to the outstanding increase in flow stress in region I and subsequently results in the marked increase in the threshold stress. The origin of the threshold stress in WC-Co cemented carbides is closely related to the impurity elements or the intensional additives such as Cr3C2 and VC.

  20. Enhanced critical current density in the pressure-induced magnetic state of the high-temperature superconductor FeSe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Soon-Gil; Kang, Ji-Hoon; Park, Eunsung; Lee, Sangyun; Lin, Jiunn-Yuan; Chareev, Dmitriy A.; Vasiliev, Alexander N.; Park, Tuson

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the relation of the critical current density (Jc) and the remarkably increased superconducting transition temperature (Tc) for the FeSe single crystals under pressures up to 2.43 GPa, where the Tc is increased by ~8 K/GPa. The critical current density corresponding to the free flux flow is monotonically enhanced by pressure which is due to the increase in Tc, whereas the depinning critical current density at which the vortex starts to move is more influenced by the pressure-induced magnetic state compared to the increase of Tc. Unlike other high-Tc superconductors, FeSe is not magnetic, but superconducting at ambient pressure. Above a critical pressure where magnetic state is induced and coexists with superconductivity, the depinning Jc abruptly increases even though the increase of the zero-resistivity Tc is negligible, directly indicating that the flux pinning property compared to the Tc enhancement is a more crucial factor for an achievement of a large Jc. In addition, the sharp increase in Jc in the coexisting superconducting phase of FeSe demonstrates that vortices can be effectively trapped by the competing antiferromagnetic order, even though its antagonistic nature against superconductivity is well documented. These results provide new guidance toward technological applications of high-temperature superconductors. PMID:26548444

  1. In-operando elucidation of bimetallic CoNi nanoparticles during high-temperature CH 4 /CO 2 reaction

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Sabban, Bedour

    2017-05-02

    Dry reforming of methane (DRM) proceeds via CH4 decomposition to leave surface carbon species, followed by their removal with CO2-derived species. Reactivity tuning for stoichiometric CH4/CO2 reactants was attempted by alloying the non-noble metals Co and Ni, which have high affinity with CO2 and high activity for CH4 decomposition, respectively. This study was focused on providing evidence of the capturing surface coverage of the reactive intermediates and the associated structural changes of the metals during DRM at high temperature using in-operando X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). On the Co catalysts, the first-order effects with respect to CH4 pressure and negative-order effects with respect to CO2 pressure on the DRM rate are consistent with the competitive adsorption of the surface oxygen species on the same sites as the CH4 decomposition reaction. The Ni surface provides comparatively higher rates of CH4 decomposition and the resultant DRM than the Co catalyst but leaves some deposited carbon on the catalyst surface. In contrast, the bimetallic CoNi catalyst exhibits reactivity towards the DRM but with kinetic orders resembling Co catalyst, producing negligible carbon deposition by balancing CH4 and CO2 activation. The in-operando X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements confirmed that the Co catalyst was progressively oxidized from the surface to the bulk with reaction time, whereas CoNi and Ni remained relatively reduced during DRM. Density functional theory (DFT) calculation considering the high reaction temperature for DRM confirmed the unselective site arrangement between Co and Ni atoms in both the surface and bulk of the alloy nanoparticle (NP). The calculated heat of oxygen chemisorption became more exothermic in the order of Ni, CoNi, Co, consistent with the catalytic behavior. The comprehensive experimental and theoretical evidence provided herein clearly suggests

  2. Use of Multiple Criteria to Map the High-Temperature Scuffing Behaviorof Co-Based Superalloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL; YaoPhD, Matthew [Deloro Stellite Inc., Belleville, Ontario CANADA; Qu, Jun [ORNL; WuPhD, James [Deloro Stellite Group, St. Louis, MO

    2009-01-01

    The goal of thisworkwas to rank, as quantitatively as possible, the high-temperature scuffing characteristics of a series of Co-based materials, including coatings, for possible use inwear-critical components like those in diesel engine exhaust systems and emission-controls. A cylinder pivoting on its side against a flat tilewas used as the testing geometry. All testswere performed at 600 C in air. The time-dependent torque response was recorded for each 60 min test to investigate trends in friction as surfaces roughened and debris deposits built up. Candidate materials included Stellite 6B, Pleuco 33 (a white cast iron), nitrided stainless steel Type 310, IDM 5399 (a high-silicon, molybdenum iron), and coatings of both Tribaloy T-400 and Stellite 3 on stainless steel. Measurements of the damaged areas on the scuffed tiles were used to calculate a specific normal load and plot it versus the roughness of the worn tiles to map experimental results in a way that indicated the severity of scuffing for each material combination. Data on the map were annotated to reflect visual observations of the extent of damage as well. Using this test method and the foregoing criteria, nitrided type 310 stainless steel against T-400 gave the best overall performance.

  3. High Temperature Co-electrolysis of Steam and CO2 in an SOC stack: Performance and Durability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Ming; Høgh, Jens Valdemar Thorvald; Nielsen, Jens Ulrik

    2012-01-01

    units can be used for co-electrolysis of steam and CO2 to produce synthesis gas (CO+H2), which can be further processed to a variety of synthetic fuels such as methane, methanol or DME [2]. Previously we have shown at stack level that Ni/YSZ electrode supported SOEC cells can be operated at 850 o......C and -0.5 A/cm2 with no long term degradation, as long as the inlet gases to the Ni/YSZ electrode were cleaned [3]. In this work, co-electrolysis of steam and carbon dioxide was studied in a TOFC® 10-cell stack, containing 3 different types ofNi/YSZ electrode supported cells with a footprint of 12X12 cm2......High temperature electrolysis based on solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs) is a very promising technology for energy storage or production of synthetic fuels. By electrolysis of steam, the SOEC provides an efficient way of producing high purity hydrogen and oxygen [1]. Furthermore, the SOEC...

  4. Anisotropic layered high-temperature thermoelectric materials based on the two-phase CrSi2-β-FeSi2 system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomkin, F. Yu.; Zaitsev, V. K.; Novikov, S. V.; Samunin, A. Yu.; Pshenai-Severin, D. A.; Isachenko, G. N.

    2014-08-01

    The feasibility of synthesizing a wide spectrum of multiphase microstructurally ordered high-temperature thermoelectrics with highly anisotropic thermoelectric parameters is demonstrated with an aluminum-doped CrSi2-β-FeSi2 system the composition of which varies from Cr0.1Fe0.9Si2- x Al x to Cr0.9Fe0.1Si2- x Al x ( x = 0.0-0.4). Doping of either phase (CrSi2 and β-FeSi2) is viewed as a promising way for synthesizing n- and p-type domains inside the same sample.

  5. An numerical analysis of high-temperature helium reactor power plant for co-production of hydrogen and electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudek, M.; Podsadna, J.; Jaszczur, M.

    2016-09-01

    In the present work, the feasibility of using a high temperature gas cooled nuclear reactor (HTR) for electricity generation and hydrogen production are analysed. The HTR is combined with a steam and a gas turbine, as well as with the system for heat delivery for medium temperature hydrogen production. Industrial-scale hydrogen production using copper-chlorine (Cu-Cl) thermochemical cycle is considered and compared with high temperature electrolysis. Presented cycle shows a very promising route for continuous, efficient, large-scale and environmentally benign hydrogen production without CO2 emissions. The results show that the integration of a high temperature helium reactor, with a combined cycle for electric power generation and hydrogen production, may reach very high efficiency and could possibly lead to a significant decrease of hydrogen production costs.

  6. Investigational study of the CO2 balance in high temperature CO2 separation technology; Nisanka tanso koon bunri gijutsu ni okeru CO2 balance ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    An investigational study was conducted to clarify the adaptable environment and effectivity of technologies of high temperature separation/recovery/reutilization of CO2. In the study, data collection, arrangement and comparison were made of various separation technologies such as the membrane method, absorption method, adsorption method, and cryogenic separation method. With the LNG-fired power generation as an example, the adaptable environment and effectivity were made clear by making models by a process simulator, ASPEN PLUS. Moreover, using this simulator, effects of replacing the conventional steam reforming of hydrocarbon with the CO2 reforming were made clear with the methanol synthesis as an example. As to the rock fixation treatment of high temperature CO2, collection/arrangement were made of the data on the fixation treatment of the CO2 separated at high temperature into basic rocks such as peridotite and serpentinite in order to clarify the adaptable environment and effectivity of the treatment. Besides, a potentiality of the fixation to concrete waste was made clear. 57 refs., 57 figs., 93 tabs.

  7. Low-cost, high-strength Fe--Ni--Cr alloys for high temperature exhaust valve application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralidharan, Govindarajan

    2017-09-05

    An Fe--Ni--Cr alloy is composed essentially of, in terms of wt. %: 2.4 to 3.7 Al, up to 1.05 Co, 14.8 to 15.9 Cr, 25 to 36 Fe, up to 1.2 Hf, up to 4 Mn, up to 0.6 Mo, up to 2.2 Nb, up to 1.05 Ta, 1.9 to 3.6 Ti, up to 0.08 W, up to 0.03 Zr, 0.18 to 0.27 C, up to 0.0015 N, balance Ni, wherein, in terms of atomic percent: 8.5.ltoreq.Al+Ti+Zr+Hf+Ta.ltoreq.11.5, 0.53.ltoreq.Al/(Al+Ti+Zr+Hf+Ta).ltoreq.0.65, and 0.16.ltoreq.Cr/(Fe+Ni+Cr+Mn).ltoreq.0.21, the alloy being essentially free of Cu, Si, and V.

  8. A study on high temperature oxidation behavior of double glow plasma surface metallurgy Fe-Al-Cr alloyed layer on Q235 steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xi-Xi; Yao, Zheng-Jun; Zhang, Ping-Ze; Miao, Qiang; Liang, Wen-Ping; Wei, Dong-Bo; Chen, Yu

    2014-06-01

    The high-temperature oxidation behavior of Q235 steel coated with Fe-Al-Cr by using double glow plasma surface metallurgy method was studied in air at different temperatures of 500, 600 and 700 °C, respectively. The Q235 and the 304 stainless steels were produced as the control samples. Electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray diffractometry were carried out to investigate the surface morphologies, microstructures and phases of alloyed layer before and after oxidation. It showed that the structure of the Fe-Al-Cr alloyed layer was compact without any microstructure defects. This alloyed layer connected with the substrate metal by metallurgical bonding. At the temperatures of 500 and 600 °C, the high temperature oxidation resistance of the Fe-Al-Cr alloyed layer was similar to that of the 304 steel, but 2-3 times higher than that of the Q235 steel. While at 700 °C, the Fe-Al-Cr alloyed layer exhibited much better oxidation resistance than that of the 304 steel (2.5 times) and the Q235 steel (5.5 times). And this was because the special Al distribution (approximate Gaussian distribution) in the Fe-Al-Cr alloyed layer, which displayed the self-healing ability for the oxidation film on the surface of the Fe-Al-Cr alloyed layer in the high temperature oxidation conditions.

  9. Electrocatalytic CO2 reduction catalyzed by nitrogenase MoFe and FeFe proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bo; Harris, Derek F; Dean, Dennis R; Liu, T Leo; Yang, Zhi-Yong; Seefeldt, Lance C

    2017-12-05

    Nitrogenases catalyze biological dinitrogen (N2) reduction to ammonia (NH3), and also reduce a number of non-physiological substrates, including carbon dioxide (CO2) to formate (HCOO-) and methane (CH4). Three versions of nitrogenase are known (Mo-, V-, and Fe-nitrogenase), each showing different reactivities towards various substrates. Normally, electrons for substrate reduction are delivered by the Fe protein component of nitrogenase, with energy coming from the hydrolysis of 2 ATP to 2 ADP+2 Pi for each electron transferred. Recently, it has been demonstrated that energy and electrons can be delivered from an electrode to the catalytic nitrogenase MoFe-protein without the need for Fe protein or ATP hydrolysis. Here, it is demonstrated that both the MoFe- and FeFe-protein can be immobilized as a polymer layer on an electrode and that electron transfer mediated by cobaltocene can drive CO2 reduction to formate in this system. It was also found that the FeFe-protein diverts a greater percentage of electrons to CO2 reduction versus proton reduction compared to the MoFe-protein. Quantification of electron flow to products exhibited Faradaic efficiencies of CO2 conversion to formate of 9% for MoFe protein and 32% for FeFe-protein, with the remaining electrons going to proton reduction to make H2. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Reactive Processing and Co-Extrusion of Ultra-High Temperature Ceramics and Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-02-28

    Faenza, Italy. Ultra-high temperature ceramics (UHTCs) are a unique class of materials with melting temperatures in excess of 3000’C. The borides ...composites with silicon carbide (SiC) and molybdenum disilicide (MoSi 2) were examined. Two main approaches were pursued: 1) the use of reactive processing...Diboride- Molybdenum Disilicide Ceramics," pp. 299-308 in Advances in Ceramic Matrix Composites IX, Ceramic Transactions, Volume 153, ed. by N.P. Bansal, J.P

  11. High temperature thermoelectric properties of p-type skutterudites BaxYbyCo4-zFezSb12

    KAUST Repository

    Dong, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Several polycrystalline p-type skutterudites with compositions Ba xYb yCo 4-zFe zSb 12, with varying filler concentrations x and y, and z = 1 to 2, were synthesized by reacting the constituents and subsequent solid state annealing, followed by densification by hot-pressing. Their thermoelectric properties were evaluated from 300 to 820 K. The Yb filling fraction increased with Fe content while the amount of Fe substitution had little influence on the Ba filling fraction. High purity specimens were obtained when the Fe content was low. Bipolar conduction contributed to the thermal conductivity at elevated temperatures. A maximum ZT value of 0.7 was obtained at 750 K for the specimen with the highest Fe content and filling fraction. The potential for thermoelectric applications is also discussed. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.

  12. Direct synthesis of Fe3 C-functionalized graphene by high temperature autoclave pyrolysis for oxygen reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yang; Jensen, Jens Oluf; Zhang, Wei; Huang, Yunjie; Cleemann, Lars N; Xing, Wei; Bjerrum, Niels J; Li, Qingfeng

    2014-08-01

    We present a novel approach to direct fabrication of few-layer graphene sheets with encapsulated Fe3 C nanoparticles from pyrolysis of volatile non-graphitic precursors without any substrate. This one-step autoclave approach is facile and potentially scalable for production. Tested as an electrocatalyst, the graphene-based composite exhibited excellent catalytic activity towards the oxygen reduction reaction in alkaline solution with an onset potential of ca. 1.05 V (vs. the reversible hydrogen electrode) and a half-wave potential of 0.83 V, which is comparable to the commercial Pt/C catalyst. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Lattice locations and properties of Fe in Co/Fe co-implanted ZnO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnlaugsson, H.P.; Johnston, K.; Mølholt, T.E.

    2012-01-01

    The lattice locations and electronic configurations of Fe in 57Co/57Fe implanted ZnO (to (5‐6) × 1014 Fe/cm−2) have been studied by 57Fe Mössbauer emission spectroscopy. The spectra acquired upon room temperature implantation show ∼20% of the probe atoms as Fe2+ on perturbed Zn sites and the rema......The lattice locations and electronic configurations of Fe in 57Co/57Fe implanted ZnO (to (5‐6) × 1014 Fe/cm−2) have been studied by 57Fe Mössbauer emission spectroscopy. The spectra acquired upon room temperature implantation show ∼20% of the probe atoms as Fe2+ on perturbed Zn sites...... and the remaining fraction as Fe2+ in damage sites of interstitial character. After annealing at 773 K, ∼20% remain on crystalline sites, while the damage fraction has partly disappeared and instead a ∼30% fraction occurs as high‐spin Fe3+, presumably in precipitates. This suggests that precipitation of Co/Fe in ZnO...... likely takes place at relatively low temperatures, thus explaining some of the discrepancies in the literature regarding magnetic properties of 3d metal‐doped ZnO....

  14. Thermoelectricity and disorder of FeCo/MgO/FeCo magnetic tunnel junctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, S.Z.; Xia, K.; Bauer, G.E.W.

    2014-01-01

    We compute the thermoelectric transport parameterized by the Seebeck coefficient and thermal/electric conductance of random-alloy FeCo/MgO/FeCo(001) magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) from first principles using a generalized Landauer-Büttiker formalism. The thermopower is found to be typically

  15. Physiological and genetic control mechanisms for plant adaptation to high temperature and elevated CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeiger, Eduardo

    2001-02-01

    Acclimations of the stomatal response to CO2 were characterized. Stomata from the model plant used, Vicia faba, are very sensitive to ambient CO2 when grown in growth chambers as compared to stomata from green house grown leaves. The different CO2 sensitivities of growth chamber and green house grown guard cells was confirmed by reciprocal transfer experiments. Stomata acclimated to their new environment and acquired the CO2 sensitivity typical of that environment. A mechanism for CO2 sensing was also characterized. Results show that CO2 concentration alters the concentration of zeaxanthin in the guard cell chloroplast, thus modifying the light response of the guard cells. This mechanism accounts for the well characterized interactions of light and CO2 in the stomatal responses. The xanthophyll cycle in the stomata of the facultative CAM plant, Mesembryanthemum crystallinum, was characterized. In the C3 mode, zeaxanthin is formed in the light and stomata open. Upon induction of the CAM mode, zeaxanthin synthesis is blocked and stomata no longer respond to light. These results implicate the regulation of the xanthophyll cycle of guard cells in the CAM adaptation.

  16. Magnetostatic Interaction in Fe-Co Nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Elbaile

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Arrays of Fe-Co alloy nanowires with diameter around 35 nm and several micrometers in length have been synthesized by codepositing Fe and Co into porous anodic alumina. The morphology, structure, and magnetic properties of the nanowires (hysteresis loops and remanence curves were characterized by SEM, TEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and VSM, respectively. The XRD patterns indicate that the Fe-Co nanowires present a body-centered cubic (bcc structure and a preferred (110 orientation perpendicular to the template surface. From the hysteresis loops obtained with the magnetic field applied in the axis direction of the nanowires, we can observe that the coercive field slightly decreases when the nanowire length increases. This magnetic behaviour is analyzed considering the shape anisotropy and the dipolar interactions among nanowires.

  17. Melting Relations of Multicomponent Carbonate System MgCO3 - FeCO3- CaCO3- Na2CO3 at 12-23 GPa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivak, Anna; Solopova, Natalia; Litvin, Yuriy; Dubrovinsky, Leonid; Zakharchenko, Egor

    2014-05-01

    Considerable attention is focused on high-pressure high-temperature experimental study of melting phase relations of carbonates which were involved into a 'super-deep' diamond genesis. High-pressure stability of carbonate melts and their role in 'ultra-deep' diamonds genesis are most essential. Experimental study of melting relations of multicomponent carbonate system was carried out using multi-anvil press at the pressures 12 - 23 GPa and temperatures 800 to 1650 oC. Chemical compositions of starting carbonate system used for melting experiment were prepared by mixing: FeCO3 - 26,00; MgCO3- 26,00; CaCO3 - 25,00; Na2CO3 - 23,00 wt %. A region of partial melting for the system is experimentally determined. The partial melting field is arranged between low-temperature boundary of eutectics melting (solidus line) of the multicomponent carbonate and the boundary of complete melting (liquidus line) at higher temperature. From experimental observations, a Mg-Fe carbonate solid solution is the liquidus phase. At temperature lowering, the assemblage (Mg,Fe)CO3 + (Ca,Na2,Fe)CO3 + L (liquid) is formed. Then, the invariant eutectic assemblage (Mg,Fe)CO3 + (Ca,Na2,Fe)CO3 + Na2(Ca,Fe)(CO3)2+ L (liquid) which is determining for subsolidus assemblage (Mg,Fe)CO3 + (Ca,Na2,Fe)CO3 + Na2(Ca,Fe)(CO3)2 is formed. Next to liquidus line is one-phase field of completely miscible multicomponent carbonate melt. On the whole, the results demonstrate phase relations of solid carbonates and multicomponent carbonate liquid in the immediate vicinity to the low-temperature melting boundary. The early melting of the multicomponent carbonate system is compatible with the lower mantle geothermal conditions because the primary melting temperatures are noticeably below than the geothermal values. It is significant that multicomponent carbonate melts are stable and completely miscible under conditions as partial so complete melting. Thus, high-pressure high-temperature experimental data demonstrate

  18. A high temperature potentiometric CO{sub 2} sensor mixed with binary carbonate and glassy ceramic oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satyanarayana, L. [Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Hyderabad, 500-007 (India); Noh, Whyo Sup; Lee, Woon Young [Research Institute of Energy Resources Technology, Chosun University, Gwangju, 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Gwang Hu [Department of Advanced Materials and Engineering, Chosun University, Gwangju, 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jin Seong [Department of Advanced Materials and Engineering, Chosun University, Gwangju, 501-759 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: jsepark@chosun.ac.kr

    2009-04-15

    A high temperature (700 deg. C) lithium ion-based CO{sub 2} sensor was fabricated using Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-BaCO{sub 3} binary carbonate and SiO{sub 2}:B{sub 2}O{sub 3}:P{sub 2}O{sub 5} (1:2:1 mol%) amorphous glassy ceramic oxide as sensing electrode. The sensor works efficiently at 700 deg. C without any degradation of the sensing material. The electro motive force (EMF) of the sensor is very stable and follows perfect Nernstian behavior with the logarithm of CO{sub 2} concentration in the range 500-5000 ppm. It is revealed that Li{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 5}, Ba{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} and quartz were formed at high temperatures (500-700 deg. C) due to the reaction of Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and BaCO{sub 3} with glassy ceramic oxide. The time taken by the sensor to reach a change in 90% CO{sub 2} is 10 s. The sensor does not show significant cross-sensitivity to the interfering gases like NO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} at 500 deg. C. TG-DTA, XRD, SEM and FT-IR studies were employed to characterize and suggest a probable mechanism. The increase in EMF of the sensor may be due to the easier movement of Lithium ion in to the glass in the sensing electrode.

  19. High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell Performance Characterisation with CO and CO2 using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Vang, Jakob Rabjerg; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2011-01-01

    In this work, extensive electrochemical impedance measurements have been conducted on a 45 cm2 BASF Celtec P2100 high temperature PEM MEA. The fuel cell performance has been examined subject to some of the poisoning effects experienced when running on a reformate gas. The impedance is measured at...

  20. High temperatures and high pressures Brillouin scattering studies of liquid H(2)O+CO(2) mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Junfeng; Li, Min; Li, Jun; Chen, Rongyan; Duan, Zhenhao; Zhou, Qiang; Li, Fangfei; Cui, Qiliang

    2010-10-21

    The Brillouin scattering spectroscopy studies have been conducted in a diamond anvil cell for a liquid mixtures composed of 95 mol % H(2)O and 5 mol % CO(2) under high temperatures and pressures. The sound velocity, refractive index, density, and adiabatic bulk modulus of the H(2)O+CO(2) mixtures were determined under pressures up to the freezing point at 293, 453, and 575 K. It is found from the experiment that sound velocities of the liquid mixture are substantially lower than those of pure water at 575 K, but not at lower temperatures. We presented an empirical relation of the density in terms of pressure and temperature. Our results show that liquid H(2)O+CO(2) mixtures are more compressible than water obtained from an existing equation of state of at 453 and 575 K.

  1. New concept of composite strengthening in Co-Re based alloys for high temperature applications in gas turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherji, D.; Roesler, J.; Fricke, T.; Schmitz, F. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (DE). Inst. fuer Werkstoffkunde (IfW); Piegert, S. [Siemens AG, Berlin (DE). Energy Sector (F PR GT EN)

    2010-07-01

    High temperature material development is mainly driven by gas turbine needs. Today, Ni-based superalloys are the dominant material class in the hot section of turbines. Material development will continue to push the maximum service temperature of Ni-superalloys upwards. However, this approach has a fundamental limit and can not be sustained indefinitely, as the Ni-superalloys are already used very close to their melting point. Within the frame work of a DFG Forschergruppe program (FOR 727) - ''Beyond Ni-base Superalloys'' - Co-Re based alloys are being developed as a new generation of high temperature materials that can be used at +100 C above single crystal Ni-superalloys. Along with other strengthening concepts, hardening by second phase is explored to develop a two phase composite alloy. With quaternary Co-Re-Cr-Ni alloys we demonstrate this development concept, where Co{sub 2}Re{sub 3}-type {sigma} phase is used in a novel way as the hardening phase. Thermodynamic calculation was used for designing model alloy compositions. (orig.)

  2. Estimation of CO concentration in high temperature PEM fuel cells using electrochemical impedance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans-Christian Becker; Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2013-01-01

    Storing electrical energy is one of the main challenges for modern society grid systems containing increasing amounts of renewable energy from wind, solar and wave sources. Although batteries are excellent storage devices for electrical energy, their usage is often limited by a low energy density......) fuel cells can eciently run on the reformed hydrogen rich gas, although with reduced performance depending on the contaminants, such as CO, in the gas. By estimating the amount of CO in the fuel cell, it could be possible to adjust the fuel cell system operating parameters to increase performance...

  3. Low and high temperature hardness of WC-6 wt%Co alloys

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Milman, YV

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports hardness measurements on WC-6 wt%Co of three different grain sizes in the temperature range from -196 to 900 degrees C. Coarser grades have been found to soften with increasing temperature at a higher rate than finer grades. It has...

  4. Robust high temperature composite and CO sensor made from such composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Prabir K.; Ramasamy, Ramamoorthy; Li, Xiaogan; Akbar, Sheikh A.

    2010-04-13

    Described herein is a composite exhibiting a change in electrical resistance proportional to the concentration of a reducing gas present in a gas mixture, detector and sensor devices comprising the composite, a method for making the composite and for making devices comprising the composite, and a process for detecting and measuring a reducing gas in an atmosphere. In particular, the reducing gas may be carbon monoxide and the composite may comprise rutile-phase TiO2 particles and platinum nanoclusters. The composite, upon exposure to a gas mixture containing CO in concentrations of up to 10,000 ppm, exhibits an electrical resistance proportional to the concentration of the CO present. The composite is useful for making sensitive, low drift, fast recovering detectors and sensors, and for measuring CO concentrations in a gas mixture present at levels from sub-ppm up to 10,000 ppm. The composites, and devices made from the composites, are stable and operable in a temperature range of from about 450.degree. C. to about 700.degree. C., such as may be found in a combustion chamber.

  5. Tuning the Spin State in LaCoO3 Thin Films for Enhanced High-Temperature Oxygen Electrocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Wesley T; Gadre, Milind; Lee, Yueh-Lin; Biegalski, Michael D; Christen, Hans M; Morgan, Dane; Shao-Horn, Yang

    2013-08-01

    The slow kinetics of oxygen surface exchange hinders the efficiency of high-temperature oxygen electrocatalytic devices such as solid oxide fuel cells and oxygen separation membranes. Systematic investigations of material properties that link to catalytic activity can aid in the rational design of highly active cathode materials. Here, we explore LaCoO3 thin films as a model system for tuning catalytic activity through strain-induced changes in the Co spin state. We demonstrate that Raman spectroscopy can be used to probe the Co-O bond strength at different temperatures to determine the relative spin occupancies of LaCoO3. We find that strain can be used to reduce the spin transition temperature and promote the occupation of higher spin states that weaken the Co-O bond. The decrease in Co-O bond strength and increased spin moment of the thin films result in significant enhancements of the oxygen surface exchange kinetics by up to 2 orders of magnitude.

  6. High-Temperature Electrochemical Performance of FeF3/C Nanocomposite as a Cathode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Mengyun; Zhang, Zhengfu; Wang, Zi; Liu, Jingfeng; Yan, Hongge; Peng, Jinhui

    2018-01-01

    Iron trifluoride has been studied as a cathode material due to its cost-effectiveness, low toxicity, and high theoretical capacities of 712 mA h g-1. However, FeF3 has serious shortcomings of poor electronic conductivity and a slow diffusion rate of lithium ions, leading to a lower reversible specific capacity. In this work, FeF3/C nanocomposite has been synthesized successfully via a high-energy ball-milling method, and acetylene black is used as the conductive agent to improve the conductivity of FeF3. The FeF3/C nanocomposite shows a high initial discharge capacity of 346.25 and 161.58 mA h g-1 after 40th cycle at 50 mA g-1. It exhibits good cycle performance and rate performance. The high-temperature discharge capacities decreased with increase in the temperature. The initial high-temperature discharge capacities are found to be 254.17, 300.01, 281.25 and 125.16, and 216.875, 156, 141.67, 150, and 64.98 mA h g-1 at 20th cycles at the 40, 50, 60, and 70 °C, respectively.

  7. Research for Brazing Materials of High-Temperature Thermoelectric Modules with CoSb3 Thermoelectric Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu Seong; Kim, Suk Jun; Kim, Byeong Geun; Lee, Soonil; Seo, Won-Seon; Kim, Il-Ho; Choi, Soon-Mok

    2017-05-01

    Metallic glass (MG) can be a candidate for an alternative brazing material of high-temperature thermoelectric modules, since we can expect both a lower brazing temperature and a high operating temperature for the junction from the MG brazers. Another advantage of MG powders is their outstanding oxidation resistance, namely, high-temperature durability in atmosphere. We fabricated three compositions of Al-based MGs—Al-Y-Ni, Al-Y-Ni-Co, and Al-Y-Ni-Co-La—by using the melt spinning process, and their T gs were 273°C, 264°C, and 249°C, respectively. The electrical resistivity of the Al-Y-Ni MG ribbon dropped significantly after annealing at 300°C. The electrical resistivity of crystallized Al-Y-Ni reduced down to 0.03 mΩ cm, which is an order of magnitude lower than that of the amorphous one. After the MG ribbons were pulverized to sub-100 μm, the average particle size was about 400 μm.

  8. Mechanistic insights into the oxidation behavior of Ni alloys in high-temperature CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oleksak, Richard P.; Baltrus, John P.; Nakano, Jinichiro; Nakano, Anna; Holcomb, Gordon R.; Dogan, Omer N.

    2017-06-01

    We present results of a Ni superalloy oxidized for short times in high purity CO2 and similarly in Ar containing ≤ 1 ppb O2. A detailed analysis of the oxidized surfaces reveals striking similarities for the two exposure environments, suggesting O2 impurities control the oxidation process in high-temperature CO2. Selective oxidation results in Cr-rich oxide layers grown by 2 outward diffusion, while Cr vacancies left in the metal contribute to significant void formation at the oxide/metal interface. Unlike for most of the alloy surface, the oxidation behavior of secondary phase metal carbides is considerably different in the two environments.

  9. Suppression of phase coarsening in immiscible, co-continuous polymer blends under high temperature quiescent annealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xi-Qiang; Li, Ruo-Han; Bao, Rui-Ying; Jiang, Wen-Rou; Yang, Wei; Xie, Bang-Hu; Yang, Ming-Bo

    2014-05-28

    The properties of polymer blends greatly depend on the morphologies formed during processing, and the thermodynamic non-equilibrium nature of most polymer blends makes it important to maintain the morphology stability to ensure the performance stability of structural materials. Herein, the phase coarsening of co-continuous, immiscible polyamide 6 (PA6)-acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) blends in the melt state was studied and the effect of introduction of nano-silica particles on the stability of the phase morphology was examined. It was found that the PA6-ABS (50/50 w) blend maintained the co-continuous morphology but coarsened severely upon annealing at 230 °C. The coarsening process could be divided into two stages: a fast coarsening process at the initial stage of annealing and a second coarsening process with a relatively slow coarsening rate later. The reduction of the coarsening rate can be explained from the reduction of the global curvature of the interface. With the introduction of nano-silica, the composites also showed two stages of coarsening. However, the coarsening rate was significantly decreased and the phase morphology was stabilized. Rheological measurements indicated that a particle network structure was formed when the concentration of nano-silica particles was beyond 2 wt%. The particle network inhibited the movement of molecular chains and thus suppressed the coarsening process.

  10. Magnetic aftereffects in CoFeB/Ta/CoFeB spin valves of large area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgunov, R.; Lu, Y.; Lavanant, M.; Fache, T.; Deveaux, X.; Migot, S.; Koplak, O.; Talantsev, A.; Mangin, S.

    2017-08-01

    Magnetic aftereffect measurements on a synthetic antiferromagnet with strong perpendicular anisotropy are presented. Two types of magnetic transitions are observed in the CoFeB/Ta/CoFeB bilayer where the two ferromagnetic CoFeB layers are antiferromagnetically coupled: the transition from a parallel to an antiparallel CoFeB layers magnetization alignment and the transition between two possible antiparallel magnetization states. Magnetic relaxation measurements show a complete reversal in the case of the transition between the two antiferromagnetic configurations. The experimental data can be well fitted in the frame of extended exponential relaxation using the Fatuzzo-Labrune model. Consequently, the domain nucleation and domain-wall propagation can be studied as a function of temperature and applied field.

  11. Modelling of the material flow of Nd-Fe-B magnets under high temperature deformation via finite element simulation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Ju; Lee, Yen-I; Chang, Wen-Cheng; Hsiao, Po-Jen; You, Jr-Shian; Wang, Chun-Chieh; Wei, Chia-Min

    2017-01-01

    Hot deformation of Nd-Fe-B magnets has been studied for more than three decades. With a good combination of forming processing parameters, the remanence and (BH)max values of Nd-Fe-B magnets could be greatly increased due to the formation of anisotropic microstructures during hot deformation. In this work, a methodology is proposed for visualizing the material flow in hot-deformed Nd-Fe-B magnets via finite element simulation. Material flow in hot-deformed Nd-Fe-B magnets could be predicted by simulation, which fitted with experimental results. By utilizing this methodology, the correlation between strain distribution and magnetic properties enhancement could be better understood.

  12. Magnetostrictive GMR spin valves with composite FeGa/FeCo free layers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, Luping; Zhan, Qingfeng; Yang, Huali; Li, Huihui; Zhang, Shuanglan; Liu, Yiwei; Wang, Baomin; Tan, Xiaohua; Li, Run-Wei

    2016-01-01

    We have fabricated strain-sensitive spin valves on flexible substrates by utilizing the large magnetostrictive FeGa alloy to promote the strain sensitivity and the composite free layer of FeGa/FeCo...

  13. Protein immobilization onto electrochemically synthesized CoFe nanowires

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Torati, Sri Ramulu; Reddy, Venu; Yoon, Seok Soo; Kim, CheolGi

    2015-01-01

    CoFe nanowires have been synthesized by the electrodeposition technique into the pores of a polycarbonate membrane with a nominal pore diameter of 50 nm, and the composition of CoFe nanowires varying...

  14. Temperature dependence of the interfacial magnetic anisotropy in W/CoFeB/MgO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung-Min Lee

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The interfacial perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in W/CoFeB (1.2 ∼ 3 nm/MgO thin film structures is strongly dependent on temperature, and is significantly reduced at high temperature. The interfacial magnetic anisotropy is generally proportional to the third power of magnetization, but an additional factor due to thermal expansion is required to explain the temperature dependence of the magnetic anisotropy of ultrathin CoFeB films. The reduction of the magnetic anisotropy is more prominent for the thinner films; as the temperature increases from 300 K to 400 K, the anisotropy is reduced ∼50% for the 1.2-nm-thick CoFeB, whereas the anisotropy is reduced ∼30% for the 1.7-nm-thick CoFeB. Such a substantial reduction of magnetic anisotropy at high temperature is problematic for data retention when incorporating W/CoFeB/MgO thin film structures into magneto-resistive random access memory devices. Alternative magnetic materials and structures are required to maintain large magnetic anisotropy at elevated temperatures.

  15. Temperature dependence of the interfacial magnetic anisotropy in W/CoFeB/MgO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyoung-Min; Choi, Jun Woo; Sok, Junghyun; Min, Byoung-Chul

    2017-06-01

    The interfacial perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in W/CoFeB (1.2 ˜ 3 nm)/MgO thin film structures is strongly dependent on temperature, and is significantly reduced at high temperature. The interfacial magnetic anisotropy is generally proportional to the third power of magnetization, but an additional factor due to thermal expansion is required to explain the temperature dependence of the magnetic anisotropy of ultrathin CoFeB films. The reduction of the magnetic anisotropy is more prominent for the thinner films; as the temperature increases from 300 K to 400 K, the anisotropy is reduced ˜50% for the 1.2-nm-thick CoFeB, whereas the anisotropy is reduced ˜30% for the 1.7-nm-thick CoFeB. Such a substantial reduction of magnetic anisotropy at high temperature is problematic for data retention when incorporating W/CoFeB/MgO thin film structures into magneto-resistive random access memory devices. Alternative magnetic materials and structures are required to maintain large magnetic anisotropy at elevated temperatures.

  16. Combined coal gasification and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-reduction using high-temperature solar process heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamaura, Y. [Tokyo Inst. of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Ehrensberger, K.; Steinfeld, A. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    The coal/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} system was experimentally studied at PSI solar furnace. The reactants were directly exposed to a solar flux irradiation of 3,000 suns (1 sun = 1 kW/m{sup 2}). The combined gasification of coal and reduction of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} proceeded rapidly after only one second exposure, suggesting an efficient heat transfer and chemical conversion by direct solar energy absorption at the reaction site. The proposed solar thermochemical process offers the possibility of converting coal to a cleaner fluid fuel with a solar-upgraded calorific value. (author) 2 figs., 8 refs.

  17. Unraveling the Role of Structural Order in the Transformation of Electrical Conductivity in Ca2FeCoO6-δ, CaSrFeCoO6-δ, and Sr2FeCoO6-δ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hona, Ram Krishna; Huq, Ashfia; Ramezanipour, Farshid

    2017-12-04

    The ability to control the electrical conductivity of solid-state oxides using structural parameters has been demonstrated. A correlation has been established between the electrical conductivity and structural order in a series of oxygen-deficient perovskites using X-ray and neutron diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and electrical conductivity studies at a wide temperature range, 25-800 °C. The crystal structure of CaSrFeCoO6-δ has been determined, and its stark contrast to Ca2FeCoO6-δ and Sr2FeCoO6-δ has been demonstrated. The Fe/Co distribution over tetrahedral and octahedral sites has been determined using neutron diffraction. There is a systematic increase in the structural order in progression from Sr2FeCoO6-δ (δ = 0.5) to CaSrFeCoO6-δ (δ = 0.8) and Ca2FeCoO6-δ (δ = 0.9) . The oxygen contents of these materials were determined using iodometric titration and TGA. At room temperature, there is an inverse correlation between the electrical conductivity and structural order. The ordered Ca2 and CaSr compounds are semiconductors, while the disordered Sr2 compund shows metallic behavior. The metallic nature of the Sr2 material persists up to 1073 K (800 °C), while the Ca2 and CaSr compounds undergo a semiconductor-to-metal transition above 500 and 300 °C, respectively, highlighting another important impact of the structural order. At high temperature, the CaSr compound has the highest conductivity compared to the Ca2 and Sr2 materials. There appears to be an optimum degree of structural order that leads to the highest conductivity at high temperature. Another consequence of the structural order is the observation of mixed ionic-electronic conductivity in CaSr and Ca2 compounds, as is evident from the hysteresis in the conductivity data obtained during heating and cooling cycles. The average ionic radius required for each structural transition was determined through

  18. Coexistence of magnetic fluctuations and superconductivity in the pnictide high temperature superconductor SmFeAsO1-xFx measured by muon spin rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, A J; Pratt, F L; Lancaster, T; Blundell, S J; Baker, P J; Liu, R H; Wu, G; Chen, X H; Watanabe, I; Malik, V K; Dubroka, A; Kim, K W; Rössle, M; Bernhard, C

    2008-08-29

    Muon spin rotation experiments were performed on the pnictide high temperature superconductor SmFeAsO1-xFx with x=0.18 and 0.3. We observed an unusual enhancement of slow spin fluctuations in the vicinity of the superconducting transition which suggests that the spin fluctuations contribute to the formation of an unconventional superconducting state. An estimate of the in-plane penetration depth lambda ab(0)=190(5) nm was obtained, which confirms that the pnictide superconductors obey an Uemura-style relationship between Tc and lambda ab(0);(-2).

  19. Stable solid and aqueous H2CO3 from CO2 and H2O at high pressure and high temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongbo; Zeuschner, Janek; Eremets, Mikhail; Troyan, Ivan; Willams, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Carbonic acid (H2CO3) forms in small amounts when CO2 dissolves in H2O, yet decomposes rapidly under ambient conditions of temperature and pressure. Despite its fleeting existence, H2CO3 plays an important role in the global carbon cycle and in biological carbonate-containing systems. The short lifetime in water and presumed low concentration under all terrestrial conditions has stifled study of this fundamental species. Here, we have examined CO2/H2O mixtures under conditions of high pressure and high temperature to explore the potential for reaction to H2CO3 inside celestial bodies. We present a novel method to prepare solid H2CO3 by heating CO2/H2O mixtures at high pressure with a CO2 laser. Furthermore, we found that, contrary to present understanding, neutral H2CO3 is a significant component in aqueous CO2 solutions above 2.4 GPa and 110 °C as identified by IR-absorption and Raman spectroscopy. This is highly significant for speciation of deep C-O-H fluids with potential consequences for fluid-carbonate-bearing rock interactions. As conditions inside subduction zones on Earth appear to be most favorable for production of aqueous H2CO3, a role in subduction related phenomena is inferred.

  20. Direct Synthesis of Fe3C-Functionalized Graphene by High Temperature Autoclave Pyrolysis for Oxygen Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yang; Jensen, Jens Oluf; Zhang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel approach to direct fabrication of few-layer graphene sheets with encapsulated Fe3C nanoparticles from pyrolysis of volatile non-graphitic precursors without any substrate. This one-step autoclave approach is facile and potentially scalable for production. Tested as an electroca...

  1. Microstructures and shape memory characteristics of dual-phase Co-Ni-Ga high-temperature shape memory alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Yan, E-mail: liyan@buaa.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100091 (China)] [Beijing Key Laboratory for Advanced Functional Materials and Thin Film Technology, Beihang University, Beijing 100091 (China); Xin Yan [School of Energy and Power Engineering, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China); Chai Liang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100091 (China)] [Beijing Key Laboratory for Advanced Functional Materials and Thin Film Technology, Beihang University, Beijing 100091 (China); Ma Yunqing [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Xu Huibin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100091 (China)] [Beijing Key Laboratory for Advanced Functional Materials and Thin Film Technology, Beihang University, Beijing 100091 (China)

    2010-06-15

    The influence of microstructure on mechanical properties and shape memory characteristics of Co-Ni-Ga high-temperature shape memory alloys were investigated in this study. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were employed to detect the microstructures. We found that these alloys were composed of dual phases, a non-modulated tetragonal L1{sub 0} martensite and a face-centered cubic (fcc) {gamma} phase. The martensite was twinned and well self-accommodated. The {gamma} phase was a Co-based solid solution with 30% lower hardness than martensite. Although the fracture mode was intergranular, the strength and plasticity of the alloys increased markedly with the increasing volume fraction of the {gamma} phase. The presence of the {gamma} phase in grain boundaries rather than in the martensite is favorable to shape memory recovery. This was revealed by the maximum shape recovery strain over 5.0% that was obtained in the Co{sub 46}Ni{sub 25}Ga{sub 29} alloy, with the {gamma} phase formed mainly in grain boundaries.

  2. Low Gilbert damping in Co2FeSi and Fe2CoSi films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterwerf, Christian; Paul, Soumalya; Khodadadi, Behrouz; Meinert, Markus; Schmalhorst, Jan-Michael; Buchmeier, Mathias; Mewes, Claudia K. A.; Mewes, Tim; Reiss, Günter

    2016-08-01

    Thin highly textured Fe1+xCo2-xSi (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) films were prepared on MgO (001) substrates by magnetron co-sputtering. Magneto-optic Kerr effect (MOKE) and ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) measurements were used to investigate the composition dependence of the magnetization, the magnetic anisotropy, the gyromagnetic ratio, and the relaxation of the films. Both MOKE and FMR measurements reveal a pronounced fourfold anisotropy for all films. In addition, we found a strong influence of the stoichiometry on the anisotropy as the cubic anisotropy strongly increases with increasing Fe concentration. The gyromagnetic ratio is only weakly dependent on the composition. We find low Gilbert damping parameters for all films with values down to 0.0012 ±0.00010.0007 for Fe1.75Co1.25Si. The effective damping parameter for Co2FeSi is found to be 0.0018 ±0.00040.0034 . We also find a pronounced anisotropic relaxation, which indicates significant contributions of two-magnon scattering processes that is strongest along the easy axes of the films. This makes thin Fe1+xCo2-xSi films ideal materials for the application in spin transfer-torque magnetic RAM (STT-MRAM) devices.

  3. Thermal expansion of LaFeAsO1-xFx: evidence for high temperature fluctuations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, L.; Köhler, U.; Leps, N.; Kondrat, A.; Nale, M.; Gasparini, A.; de Visser, A.; Behr, G.; Hess, C.; Klingeler, R.; Büchner, B.

    2009-01-01

    We present measurements of the thermal expansion coefficient α of polycrystalline LaFeAsO1−xFx (x≤0.1). The magnetic and structural transitions of the samples with x≤0.04 give rise to large anomalies in α(T) while the onset of superconductivity in the crystals with x≥0.05 is not resolved. Above the

  4. High-temperature corrosion behavior of coatings and ODS alloys based on Fe{sub 3}Al

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tortorelli, P.F.; Pint, B.A.; Wright, I.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Iron-aluminide coatings were prepared by gas tungsten arc and gas metal arc weld-overlay techniques. All the weld overlays showed good oxidation/sulfidation behavior under isothermal conditions, including a gas metal arc deposit with only 21 at.% Al. A rapid degradation in corrosion resistance was observed under thermal cycling conditions when the initially grown scales spalled and the subsequent rate of reaction was not controlled by the formation of slowly growing aluminum oxides. Higher starting aluminum concentrations (>{approximately}25 at.%) are needed to assure adequate oxidation/sulfidation lifetimes of the weld overlays. A variety of stable oxides was added to a base Fe-28 at.% Al-2 % Cr alloy to assess the effect of these dopants on the oxidation behavior at 1200{degrees}C. A Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} dispersion improved the scale adhesion relative to a Zr alloy addition, but wasn`t as effective as it is in other alumina-forming alloys. Preliminary data for powder-processed Fe-28 at.% Al-2% Cr exposed to the H{sub 2}S-H{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O-Ar gas at 800{degrees}C showed that the oxidation/sulfidation rate was similar to that of many Fe{sub 3}Al alloys produced by ingot metallurgy routes.

  5. Magnetostrictive GMR spin valves with composite FeGa/FeCo free layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Luping [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Devices & Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Application Technology, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Institute of Materials Science, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Zhan, Qingfeng, E-mail: zhanqf@nimte.ac.cn, E-mail: runweili@nimte.ac.cn; Yang, Huali; Li, Huihui; Zhang, Shuanglan; Liu, Yiwei; Wang, Baomin; Li, Run-Wei, E-mail: zhanqf@nimte.ac.cn, E-mail: runweili@nimte.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Devices & Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Application Technology, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Tan, Xiaohua [Institute of Materials Science, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China)

    2016-03-15

    We have fabricated strain-sensitive spin valves on flexible substrates by utilizing the large magnetostrictive FeGa alloy to promote the strain sensitivity and the composite free layer of FeGa/FeCo to avoid the drastic reduction of giant magnetoresistance (GMR) ratio. This kind of spin valve (SV-FeGa/FeCo) displays a MR ratio about 5.9%, which is comparable to that of the conventional spin valve (SV-FeCo) with a single FeCo free layer. Different from the previously reported works on magnetostrictive spin valves, the SV-FeGa/FeCo displays an asymmetric strain dependent GMR behavior. Upon increasing the lateral strain, the MR ratio for the ascending branch decreases more quickly than that for the descending branch, which is ascribed to the formation of a spiraling spin structure around the FeGa/FeCo interface under the combined influences of both magnetic field and mechanical strain. A strain sensitivity of GF = 7.2 was achieved at a magnetic bias field of -30 Oe in flexible SV-FeGa/FeCo, which is significantly larger than that of SV-FeCo.

  6. Magnetostrictive GMR spin valves with composite FeGa/FeCo free layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luping Liu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We have fabricated strain-sensitive spin valves on flexible substrates by utilizing the large magnetostrictive FeGa alloy to promote the strain sensitivity and the composite free layer of FeGa/FeCo to avoid the drastic reduction of giant magnetoresistance (GMR ratio. This kind of spin valve (SV-FeGa/FeCo displays a MR ratio about 5.9%, which is comparable to that of the conventional spin valve (SV-FeCo with a single FeCo free layer. Different from the previously reported works on magnetostrictive spin valves, the SV-FeGa/FeCo displays an asymmetric strain dependent GMR behavior. Upon increasing the lateral strain, the MR ratio for the ascending branch decreases more quickly than that for the descending branch, which is ascribed to the formation of a spiraling spin structure around the FeGa/FeCo interface under the combined influences of both magnetic field and mechanical strain. A strain sensitivity of GF = 7.2 was achieved at a magnetic bias field of -30 Oe in flexible SV-FeGa/FeCo, which is significantly larger than that of SV-FeCo.

  7. Magnetostrictive GMR spin valves with composite FeGa/FeCo free layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Luping; Zhan, Qingfeng; Yang, Huali; Li, Huihui; Zhang, Shuanglan; Liu, Yiwei; Wang, Baomin; Tan, Xiaohua; Li, Run-Wei

    2016-03-01

    We have fabricated strain-sensitive spin valves on flexible substrates by utilizing the large magnetostrictive FeGa alloy to promote the strain sensitivity and the composite free layer of FeGa/FeCo to avoid the drastic reduction of giant magnetoresistance (GMR) ratio. This kind of spin valve (SV-FeGa/FeCo) displays a MR ratio about 5.9%, which is comparable to that of the conventional spin valve (SV-FeCo) with a single FeCo free layer. Different from the previously reported works on magnetostrictive spin valves, the SV-FeGa/FeCo displays an asymmetric strain dependent GMR behavior. Upon increasing the lateral strain, the MR ratio for the ascending branch decreases more quickly than that for the descending branch, which is ascribed to the formation of a spiraling spin structure around the FeGa/FeCo interface under the combined influences of both magnetic field and mechanical strain. A strain sensitivity of GF = 7.2 was achieved at a magnetic bias field of -30 Oe in flexible SV-FeGa/FeCo, which is significantly larger than that of SV-FeCo.

  8. High temperature annealing of fission tracks in fluorapatite, Santa Fe Springs oil field, Los Angeles Basin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeser, Nancy D.; Crowley, Kevin D.; McCulloh, Thane H.; Reaves, Chris M.; ,

    1990-01-01

    Annealing of fission tracks is a kinetic process dependent primarily on temperature and to a laser extent on time. Several kinetic models of apatite annealing have been proposed. The predictive capabilities of these models for long-term geologic annealing have been limited to qualitative or semiquantitative at best, because of uncertainties associated with (1) the extrapolation of laboratory observations to geologic conditions, (2) the thermal histories of field samples, and (3) to some extent, the effect of apatite composition on reported annealing temperatures. Thermal history in the Santa Fe Springs oil field, Los Angeles Basin, California, is constrained by an exceptionally well known burial history and present-day temperature gradient. Sediment burial histories are continuous and tightly constrained from about 9 Ma to present, with an important tie at 3.4 Ma. No surface erosion and virtually no uplift were recorded during or since deposition of these sediments, so the burial history is simple and uniquely defined. Temperature gradient (???40??C km-1) is well established from oil-field operations. Fission-track data from the Santa Fe Springs area should thus provide one critical field test of kinetic annealing models for apatite. Fission-track analysis has been performed on apatites from sandstones of Pliocene to Miocene age from a deep drill hole at Santa Fe Springs. Apatite composition, determined by electron microprobe, is fluorapatite [average composition (F1.78Cl0.01OH0.21)] with very low chlorine content [less than Durango apatite; sample means range from 0.0 to 0.04 Cl atoms, calculated on the basis of 26(O, F, Cl, OH)], suggesting that the apatite is not unusually resistant to annealing. Fission tracks are preserved in these apatites at exceptionally high present-day temperatures. Track loss is not complete until temperatures reach the extreme of 167-178??C (at 3795-4090 m depth). The temperature-time annealing relationships indicated by the new data

  9. Effects of composite scale on high temperature oxidation resistance of Fe-Cr-Ni heat resistant alloy

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Haitao; Wang Yuqing; Yu Huashun

    2009-01-01

    Fe-Cr-Ni heat resistant alloys with aluminum and silicon addition, alone and in combination, were melted using an intermediate frequency induction furnace with a non-oxidation method. By the oxidation weight gain method, the oxidation resistances of the test alloys were determined at 1,200 ìC for 500 hours. According to the oxidation weight gains, the oxidation kinetic curves were plotted and the functions were regressed by the least squares method. The results show that the oxidation kinetic...

  10. Composition, Morphology, and Topography of Galvanic Coatings Fe-Co-W and Fe-Co-Mo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yermolenko, Iryna Yu; Ved, Maryna V; Sakhnenko, Nykolay D; Sachanova, Yulya I

    2017-12-01

    Ternary coatings Fe-Co-W with an iron content of 40-55 at.%, cobalt 39-44 at.%, and tungsten 4-12 at.% and Fe-Co-Mo with an iron content of 40-55 at.%, cobalt 39-44 at.%, and tungsten 4-12 at.% were obtained by galvanostatic and pulse electrolysis on the mild steel substrate from iron(III) citrate-based electrolyte. The influence of electrolysis mode and parameters on composition of deposited alloys was studied. The competing reduction of iron and tungsten in Fe-Co-W coatings as well as the competitive deposition of iron and cobalt in Fe-Co-Mo coatings at various current densities were defined. Simultaneously, the alloy enrichment with molybdenum is more marked at a pulse mode. Atomic force microscope analysis of the Fe-Co-W alloy coating morphology and surface topography indicates their globular structure with spherical grains in the range of 2.5-3.5 μm. The surface of Fe-Co-Mo is characterized by parts of a globular structure with an average conglomerate size of 0.3-0.5 μm and singly located cone-shaped hills with a base diameter of 3 μm. Sites with a developed surface were detected within the same scan area which topography is identical to the crystal lattice of cobalt with the crystalline conglomerate sizes in the range of 0.2-1.75 μm.

  11. Anisotropies in sputtered FeCoV films and FeCoV/Ti:N multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clemens, D.; Vananti, A.; Terrier, C.; Boeni, P.; Schnyder, B.; Tixier, S.; Horisberger, M. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    SQUID and MOKE magnetometry as well as mechanical and X-ray stress analysis have been used in order to prove the magnetostrictive nature of the anisotropy in Fe{sub 0.50}Co{sub 0.48}V{sub 0.02} films and Fe{sub 0.50}Co{sub 0.48}V{sub 0.02} /Ti:N multilayers. The investigation stresses on the dependence on the sputter gas pressure and on the thickness of the deposited layer. (author) 1 fig., 6 refs.

  12. Topological edge states in a high-temperature superconductor FeSe/SrTiO3(001) film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z F; Zhang, Huimin; Liu, Defa; Liu, Chong; Tang, Chenjia; Song, Canli; Zhong, Yong; Peng, Junping; Li, Fangsen; Nie, Caina; Wang, Lili; Zhou, X J; Ma, Xucun; Xue, Q K; Liu, Feng

    2016-09-01

    Superconducting and topological states are two most intriguing quantum phenomena in solid materials. The entanglement of these two states, the topological superconducting state, will give rise to even more exotic quantum phenomena. While many materials are found to be either a superconductor or a topological insulator, it is very rare that both states exist in one material. Here, we demonstrate by first-principles theory as well as scanning tunnelling spectroscopy and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy experiments that the recently discovered 'two-dimensional (2D) superconductor' of single-layer FeSe also exhibits 1D topological edge states within an energy gap of ∼40 meV at the M point below the Fermi level. It is the first 2D material that supports both superconducting and topological states, offering an exciting opportunity to study 2D topological superconductors through the proximity effect.

  13. Effects of composite scale on high temperature oxidation resistance of Fe-Cr-Ni heat resistant alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Haitao

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Fe-Cr-Ni heat resistant alloys with aluminum and silicon addition, alone and in combination, were melted using an intermediate frequency induction furnace with a non-oxidation method. By the oxidation weight gain method, the oxidation resistances of the test alloys were determined at 1,200 ìC for 500 hours. According to the oxidation weight gains, the oxidation kinetic curves were plotted and the functions were regressed by the least squares method. The results show that the oxidation kinetic curves follow the power function of y = axb (a>0, 0FeCr2O4, with compact structure and tiny grains, shows complete oxidation resistance at 1,200 ìC. When the composite scale lacks メ-Al2O3 or SiO2, it becomes weak in oxidation resistance with a loose structure. By the criterion of standard Gibbs formation free energy, the model of the nucleation and growth of the composite scale is established. The forming of the composite scale is the result of the competition of being oxidized and reduced between aluminum, silicon and the matrix metal elements of iron, chromium and nickel. The protection of the composite scale is analyzed essentially by electrical conductivity and strength properties.

  14. Direct measurement of the spin polarization of Co-Fe and Co-Fe-B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabretti, Savio; Schebaum, Oliver; Thomas, Andy; Reiss, Guenter [Universitaet Bielefeld (Germany); Moodera, Jagadeesh [MIT, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-01

    We investigated the spin polarization of Co-Fe and Co-Fe-B thin films with the Meservey-Tedrow method. Superconductor/insulator/ferromagnet (S/I/F) structures were fabricated using shadow masks and DC- and RF-magnetron sputtering in an automatic sputtering system. The samples have been post annealed in a vacuum furnace. The superconducting electrode consists of Al{sub 95}Si{sub 5} while the insulator is MgO. For optimization of the superconducting tunnel junctions the properties of the Al-Si films on MgO buffer layers have been investigated in dependence of the Al-Si thickness and the annealing temperature. The dI/dV measurements were done in a {sup 3}He cryostat at a temperature of 0.46 K with magnetic fields applied in the range of 2 T to 2.8 T. Finally, the results were compared with conventional MgO magnetic tunnel junctions with Co-Fe and Co-Fe-B electrodes.

  15. Mathematical Analysis of High-Temperature Co-electrolysis of CO2 and O2 Production in a Closed-Loop Atmosphere Revitalization System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael G. McKellar; Manohar S. Sohal; Lila Mulloth; Bernadette Luna; Morgan B. Abney

    2010-03-01

    NASA has been evaluating two closed-loop atmosphere revitalization architectures based on Sabatier and Bosch carbon dioxide, CO2, reduction technologies. The CO2 and steam, H2O, co-electrolysis process is another option that NASA has investigated. Utilizing recent advances in the fuel cell technology sector, the Idaho National Laboratory, INL, has developed a CO2 and H2O co-electrolysis process to produce oxygen and syngas (carbon monoxide, CO and hydrogen, H2 mixture) for terrestrial (energy production) application. The technology is a combined process that involves steam electrolysis, CO2 electrolysis, and the reverse water gas shift (RWGS) reaction. A number of process models have been developed and analyzed to determine the theoretical power required to recover oxygen, O2, in each case. These models include the current Sabatier and Bosch technologies and combinations of those processes with high-temperature co-electrolysis. The cases of constant CO2 supply and constant O2 production were evaluated. In addition, a process model of the hydrogenation process with co-electrolysis was developed and compared. Sabatier processes require the least amount of energy input per kg of oxygen produced. If co-electrolysis replaces solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) electrolysis within the Sabatier architecture, the power requirement is reduced by over 10%, but only if heat recuperation is used. Sabatier processes, however, require external water to achieve the lower power results. Under conditions of constant incoming carbon dioxide flow, the Sabatier architectures require more power than the other architectures. The Bosch, Boudouard with co-electrolysis, and the hydrogenation with co-electrolysis processes require little or no external water. The Bosch and hydrogenation processes produce water within their reactors, which aids in reducing the power requirement for electrolysis. The Boudouard with co-electrolysis process has a higher electrolysis power requirement because carbon

  16. Thick CoFeB with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in CoFeB-MgO based magnetic tunnel junction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Naik

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the effect of an ultra-thin Ta insertion in the CoFeB (CoFeB/Ta/CoFeB free layer (FL on magnetic and tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR properties of a CoFeB-MgO system with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA. It is found that the critical thickness (tc to sustain PMA is doubled (tc = 2.6 nm in Ta-inserted CoFeB FL as compared to single CoFeB layer (tc = 1.3 nm. While the effective magnetic anisotropy is found to increase with Ta insertion, the saturation magnetization showed a slight reduction. As the CoFeB thickness increasing, the thermal stability of Ta inserted structure is significantly increased by a factor of 2.5 for total CoFeB thickness less than 2 nm. We have observed a reasonable value of TMR for a much thicker CoFeB FL (thickness = 2-2.6 nm with Ta insertion, and without significant increment in resistance-area product. Our results reveal that an ultra-thin Ta insertion in CoFeB might pay the way towards developing the high-density memory devices with enhanced thermal stability.

  17. Photoelectrochemical, impedance and optical data for self Sn-diffusion doped Fe2O3 photoanodes fabricated at high temperature by one and two-step annealing methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravin S. Shinde

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The optical, morphological and photoelectrochemical (PEC properties of transition metal oxide semiconductors are important to understand their influence on water oxidation performance. Herein, we provide experimental evidences for a better understanding of the factors that dictate the interactions of Sn-diffusion doping on the PEC properties of Fe2O3 photoanodes fabricated at high temperature by one- and two-step annealing methods. The synthesis, characterization methods and other experimental details are provided. Limited previous information on the PEC and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic studies has been published. This data article contains Supplementary data, figures and methods related to the research article by Shinde et al. (2015 [1]. Here, we provide a further set of the obtained experimental data results.

  18. Nanoparticle Metamorphosis: An in Situ High-Temperature Transmission Electron Microscopy Study of the Structural Evolution of Heterogeneous Au:Fe 2 O 3 Nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Baumgardner, William J.

    2014-05-27

    High-temperature in situ electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction have revealed that Au and Fe2O3 particles fuse in a fluid fashion at temperatures far below their size-reduced melting points. With increasing temperature, the fused particles undergo a sequence of complex structural transformations from surface alloy to phase segregated and ultimately core-shell structures. The combination of in situ electron microscopy and spectroscopy provides insights into fundamental thermodynamic and kinetic aspects governing the formation of heterogeneous nanostructures. The observed structural transformations present an interesting analogy to thin film growth on the curved surface of a nanoparticle. Using single-particle observations, we constructed a phase diagram illustrating the complex relationships among composition, morphology, temperature, and particle size. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  19. Effect of thermal exposure, forming, and welding on high-temperature, dispersion-strengthened aluminum alloy: Al-8Fe-1V-2Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, J. R.; Gilman, P. S.; Zedalis, M. S.; Skinner, D. J.; Peltier, J. M.

    1991-01-01

    The feasibility of applying conventional hot forming and welding methods to high temperature aluminum alloy, Al-8Fe-1V-2Si (FVS812), for structural applications and the effect of thermal exposure on mechanical properties were determined. FVS812 (AA8009) sheet exhibited good hot forming and resistance welding characteristics. It was brake formed to 90 deg bends (0.5T bend radius) at temperatures greater than or equal to 390 C (730 F), indicating the feasibility of fabricating basic shapes, such as angles and zees. Hot forming of simple contoured-flanged parts was demonstrated. Resistance spot welds with good static and fatigue strength at room and elevated temperatures were readily produced. Extended vacuum degassing during billet fabrication reduced porosity in fusion and resistance welds. However, electron beam welding was not possible because of extreme degassing during welding, and gas-tungsten-arc welds were not acceptable because of severely degraded mechanical properties. The FVS812 alloy exhibited excellent high temperature strength stability after thermal exposures up to 315 C (600 F) for 1000 h. Extended billet degassing appeared to generally improve tensile ductility, fatigue strength, and notch toughness. But the effects of billet degassing and thermal exposure on properties need to be further clarified. The manufacture of zee-stiffened, riveted, and resistance-spot-welded compression panels was demonstrated.

  20. Study of Raman Spectroscopy on Phase Relations of CaCO3 at High Temperature and High Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M.; Zheng, H.; Duan, T.

    2006-05-01

    Laser Raman Spectroscopy was used to study phase relations between calcite I, calcite II and aragonite at high pressure and high temperature. The experiment was performed in an externally heated Basselt type diamond anvil cell (DAC). Natural calcite (calcite I) was used as starting mineral. The sample and a small chip of quartz were loaded in a cavity (300 μm in diameter and 250 μm in depth) in a rhenium gasket. The Na2CO3 aqueous solution of 1mol/L was also loaded as a pressure medium to yield hydrostatic pressure. The whole assembly was pressurized first and then heated stepwise to 400°C. Pressure and temperature in the chamber were determined by the shift of Raman band at 464 cm-1 of quartz and by NiCr-NiSi thermocouple, respectively. The Raman spectra were measured by a Renishaw 1000 spetrometer with 50 mW of 514.5nm argon-ion laser as the excitation light source. The slit width was 50 μm and the corresponding resolution was ±1 cm-1. From the experiments, we observed the phase transitions between calcite I and calcite II, calcite I and aragonite, calcite II and aragonite, respectively. Our data showed a negative slope for the boundary between calcite I and calcite II, which was similar to Bridgman's result, although Hess et al. gave a positive slope. The boundary with a negative slope for calcite II and aragonite was also defined, which had never been done before. And all these data can yield a more complete phase diagram of CaCO3 than the studies of Hess et al. and Suito et al.Reference:Bridgeman P. W.(1939) Journal: American Journal of Science, Vol. 237, p. 7-18Bassett W. A. et al. (1993) Journal: Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 64, p. 2340-2345Suito K. et al. (2001) Journal: American Mineralogist, Vol. 86, p. 997- 1002Hess N. J. et al. (1991) In A. K. Singh, Ed., Recent Trends in High Pressure Research; Proc. X IIIth AIRAPT International Conference on High Pressure Science and Technology, p. 236-241. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. Pvt, Ltd., New

  1. Synthesis of a new high-pressure and high-temperature iron oxide, Fe4O5, a plausible key player in deep subduction processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavina, B.; Dera, P. K.; Kim, E.; Dobrzhinetskaya, L.; Meng, Y.; Downs, R. T.; Weck, P. F.; Sutton, S. R.; Zhao, Y.; Alp, E.

    2012-12-01

    Iron oxides have broad geophysical and geochemical relevance due to their abundance, electronic properties and role in redox equilibria. While investigating the stability and decomposition products of siderite (FeCO3) at conditions of the Earth's mantle we obtained, at 10 GPa and about 1800 K, a single crystal of unknown phase. High pressure and temperatures were achieved using a laser heated diamond anvil cell. Diffraction data were obtained using highly focused synchrotron x-rays. Structural solution and refinement of the single crystal diffraction pattern indicate that the phase is a new compound with formula Fe4O5 [1]. The phase has orthorhombic symmetry where iron is 6-coordinated in layers of trigonal prisms and edge-sharing octahedra. First-principle calculations show that Fe4O5 is stable at high pressure with respect to its possible breakdown products (FeO and Fe3O4 in the cubic and orthorhombic structures). We performed several HP-HT syntheses starting from mixtures of pure Fe+Fe3O4 and Fe+Fe2O3 in appropriate proportions. Fe4O5 was synthesized in the range 10-20 GPa readily upon heating at temperature in the range 1500-2500 K. Upon decompression and further heating we observed the decomposition of Fe4O5 at ~ 5GPa and 1800K, to wüstite and magnetite; whereas cold decompression shows that orthorhombic Fe4O5 is a phase retrievable to ambient conditions. The new Fe-O compound has a broad fundamental and applicative significance, spanning planetary science, physics, chemistry and materials science. Also, the new iron oxide is a plausible phase of deep Earth, considering that it is rather reduced and taking into account the high heterogeneity of the upper mantle. Many peridotite from deep (>200-300km) subduction zones contain olivine and garnet rich in Fe3O4 lamellae exsolution which attest to the decompression of precursor phases that had formed at profound depths preceding mantle upwelling[2]. Microdiamonds from UHP gneisses also contain abundant Fex

  2. High magnetisation, monodisperse and water-dispersible CoFe@Pt core/shell nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dung, Ngo T; Long, Nguyen Viet; Tam, Le T T; Nam, Pham H; Tung, Le D; Phuc, Nguyen X; Lu, Le T; Kim Thanh, Nguyen Th

    2017-07-06

    High magnetisation and monodisperse CoFe alloy nanoparticles are desired for a wide range of biomedical applications. However, these CoFe nanoparticles are prone to oxidation, resulting in the deterioration of their magnetic properties. In the current work, CoFe alloy nanoparticles were prepared by thermal decomposition of cobalt and iron carbonyls in organic solvents at high temperatures. Using a seeded growth method, we successfully synthesised chemically stable CoFe@Pt core/shell nanostructures. The obtained core/shell nanoparticles have high saturation magnetisation up to 135 emu g(-1). The magnetisation value of the core/shell nanoparticles remains 93 emu g(-1) after being exposed to air for 12 weeks. Hydrophobic CoFe@Pt nanoparticles were rendered water-dispersible by encapsulating with poly(maleic anhydride-alt-1-octadecene) (PMAO). These nanoparticles were stable in water for at least 3 months and in a wide range of pH from 2 to 11.

  3. CoFe Layers Thickness and Annealing Effect on the Magnetic Behavior of the CoFe/Cu Multilayer Nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ahmadzadeh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available CoFe/Cu multilayer nanowires were electrodeposited into anodic aluminum oxide templates prepared by a two-step mild anodization method, using the single-bath technique. Nanowires with 30 nm diameter and the definite lengths were obtained. The effect of CoFe layers thickness and annealing on the magnetic behavior of the multilayer nanowires was investigated. The layers thickness was controlled through the pulses numbers: 200, 260, 310,360 and 410 pulses were used to deposit the CoFe layers, while 300 pulse for the Cu layers. A certain increase in coercivity and squareness of CoFe/Cu multilayer nanowires observed with increasing the CoFe layer thickness and annealing improved the coercivity and decrease squareness of CoFe/Cu multilayer nanowires. First order reversal curves after annealed showed amount domains with soft magnetic phase, it also shows decreasing spreading of distribution function along the Hu axis after annealed

  4. Influence of Preoxidation on High-Temperature Corrosion of a FeCrAl Alloy Under Conditions Relevant to Biomass Firing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okoro, Sunday Chukwudi; Montgomery, Melanie; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming

    2018-01-01

    with KCl and exposed at 560 °C to a gas mixture comprising of 12 vol% CO2, 6 vol% O2, 3 vol% H2O, 400 ppmv HCl and 60 ppmv SO2. The oxide formed at 1100 °C showed no reactivity with the corrosive species. By contrast, all samples preoxidized at 900 °C suffered severe attack, resulting in formation of Fe...

  5. High Temperature Electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elder, Rachael; Cumming, Denis; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2015-01-01

    High temperature electrolysis of carbon dioxide, or co-electrolysis of carbon dioxide and steam, has a great potential for carbon dioxide utilisation. A solid oxide electrolysis cell (SOEC), operating between 500 and 900. °C, is used to reduce carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide. If steam is also...... input to the cell then hydrogen is produced giving syngas. This syngas can then be further reacted to form hydrocarbon fuels and chemicals. Operating at high temperature gives much higher efficiencies than can be achieved with low temperature electrolysis. Current state of the art SOECs utilise a dense...

  6. Promoting a-Al2O3 layer growth upon high temperature oxidation of NiCoCrAlY alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijdam, T.J.

    2005-01-01

    The turbine blades in gas turbine engines need to be protected against high temperature oxidation and corrosion with a coating system. This coating system comprises of a Ni-based superalloy substrate, a NiCoCrAlY bond coating (BC) and an insulating ceramic thermal barrier coating (TBC). Good

  7. Ordering phenomena in FeCo-films and Fe/Cr-multilayers: an X-ray and neutron scattering study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickel, B.

    2001-07-01

    The following topics are covered: critical phenomena in thin films, critical adsorption, finite size scaling, FeCo Ising model, kinematical scattering theory for thin films, FeCo thin films, growth and characterisation of single crystal FeCo thin films, X-ray study of ordering in FeCo films, antiferromagnetic coupling in Fe/Cr multilayers, neutron scattering on Fe/Cr multilayers (WL)

  8. Study of high-temperature heating effect on transformation of structure and phase composition of coatings of Al-Fe system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmorgun, V. G.; Slautin, O. V.; Pronichev, D. V.; Kulevich, V. P.

    2017-10-01

    It is shown that the phase transformations in the coating of the Fe-Al system produced by explosion welding of an aluminum AD1 with steel St3 and double occur in the following sequence: Fe2Al5 → FeAl2 → FeAl → Fe3Al → Fe (Al). They are accompanied by an increase in its thickness. The layered FeAl / Fe3Al / Fe (Al) coating on the inter-phase FeAl / Fe3Al boundary formed on a steel basis is porous, and inclusions of sulphides of manganese are present in alumina Fe3Al. The layered FeAl / Fe3Al / Fe (Al) coating on the steel base has a porous structure at the FeAl / Fe3Al interface, and inclusions of manganese sulfides in the Fe3Al aluminide region.

  9. Review and recommended thermodynamic properties of FeCO3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup; Thomsen, Kaj; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2010-01-01

    An extensive review of entropy, enthalpy of formation and Gibbs energy of formation, heat capacity, aqueous solubility and solubility constant of FeCO3 is given. A consistent set of thermodynamic properties for FeCO3 and relevant aqeous species is selected and recommended for use. Speciation...

  10. Enhancement of yield point at high pressure high temperature wells by using polymer nanocomposites based on ZnO & CaCO3 nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Z. Noah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs and modified calcium carbonate (nano-CaCO3 nanoparticles were successfully prepared and added to polystyrene-butadiene rubber copolymer (PSBR matrix to prepare PSBR nanocomposites. The prepared nanomaterials (ZnO-NPs & nano-CaCO3 were characterized using scanning electron microscope (SEM, transmission electron microscope (TEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD. Furthermore, the prepared polymer nanocomposites and oil base mud were used for drilling in high pressure high temperature (HPHT wells. The consequence of using polymer nanocomposites based on different loading of ZnO-NPs and nano-CaCO3 on the rheological properties of oil base mud was evaluated and enhanced the yield point at high pressure high temperature wells (HPHT. The using of the polymer with different percentage from (0.5 in all percent the obtained results is very promising; this means that the increase of polymer is reasonable for the increase of apparent viscosity, plastic viscosity and yield point at high temperature. Correspondingly, polymer nanocomposites displayed rise of apparent viscosity, plastic viscosity, and yield point, decreased in fluid loss and increased in electrical stability at high pressure high temperature wells.

  11. Structural and magnetic properties of Ce/Fe and Ce/FeCoV multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tixier, S.; Boeni, P. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Mannix, D.; Stirling, W.G. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom); Lander, G.H.

    1997-09-01

    Ce/Fe and Ce/FeCoV multilayers have been grown by magnetron sputtering. The interfaces are well defined and the layers are crystalline down to an individual layer thickness of 20 A. Ce/FeCoV multilayers show sharper interfaces than Ce/Fe but some loss of crystallinity is observed. Hysteresis loops obtained by SQUID show different behaviour of the bulk magnetisation as a function of the layer thickness. Fe moments are found by Moessbauer spectroscopy to be perpendicular to the interfaces for multilayers with small periodicity. (author) 2 figs., 2 refs.

  12. Robust SiO2-modified CoFe2O4 hollow nanofibers with flexible room temperature magnetic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Panpan; Pan, Lining; Du, Jinlu; Wang, Jianbo; Liu, Qingfang

    2015-05-21

    A range of robust SiO2-modified CoFe2O4 hollow nanofibers with high uniformity and productivity were successfully prepared via polyvinylpyrrolidone-sol assisted electrospinning followed by annealing at a high temperature of 1000 °C, and they were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, vibrating sample magnetometry, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy in detail. It was demonstrated that amorphous SiO2 has a significant influence on not only the surface morphology, microstructure and crystalline size but also the room temperature magnetic performance of the inverse spinel CoFe2O4 nanofibers. The pure CoFe2O4 sample shows a particle chain rod-shape appearance but the SiO2-modified CoFe2O4 sample shows a robust hollow fibrous structure. With increasing SiO2 content, an increase at first and then a decrease in coercivity (Hc) and monotonously a decrease in saturation magnetization (Ms) have been determined in the obtained modified CoFe2O4 hollow nanofibers. A maximum Ms of about 80 emu g(-1) and a maximum Hc of about 1477 Oe could be, respectively, acquired from the pure CoFe2O4 nanorods and the modified CoFe2O4 hollow nanofibers with about 14.9% SiO2. The changes in Ms, Hc and the structure evolution mechanism of these SiO2-modified CoFe2O4 hollow nanofibers have been elaborated systematically. Furthermore, it is suggested that amorphous SiO2 enables effectively improving the structure endurance of 1D electrospun inorganic oxide hollow nanostructures being subjected to high temperatures.

  13. Does elevated CO2 protect photosynthesis from damage by high temperature via modifying leaf water status in maize seedlings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Because high temperatures under field conditions are associated with high water vapor pressure deficits, often causing leaf desiccation, we hypothesized that decreased stomatal conductance at elevated carbon dioxide may increase leaf water potential and protect photosynthesis in C4 species from dama...

  14. Electrodeposited NiCoFe films from electrolytes with different Fe ion concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kockar, Hakan, E-mail: hkockar@balikesir.edu.tr [Balikesir Universitesi, Fen Edebiyat Fakultesi, Fizik Bolumu, Cagıs Yerleskesi, 10145 Balikesir (Turkey); Demirbas, Ozen, E-mail: ozendemirbas@hotmail.com [Balikesir Universitesi, Fen Edebiyat Fakultesi, Fizik Bolumu, Cagıs Yerleskesi, 10145 Balikesir (Turkey); Kuru, Hilal, E-mail: htopcu@balikesir.edu.tr [Balikesir Universitesi, Fen Edebiyat Fakultesi, Fizik Bolumu, Cagıs Yerleskesi, 10145 Balikesir (Turkey); Alper, Mursel, E-mail: malper@uludag.edu.tr [Uludag Universitesi, Fen Edebiyat Fakultesi, Fizik Bolumu, 16059 Gorukle, Bursa (Turkey); Karaagac, Oznur, E-mail: karaagac@balikesir.edu.tr [Balikesir Universitesi, Fen Edebiyat Fakultesi, Fizik Bolumu, Cagıs Yerleskesi, 10145 Balikesir (Turkey); Haciismailoglu, Murside, E-mail: msafak@uludag.edu.tr [Uludag Universitesi, Fen Edebiyat Fakultesi, Fizik Bolumu, 16059 Gorukle, Bursa (Turkey); Ozergin, Ercument, E-mail: ercumentz@yahoo.com [Balikesir Universitesi, Fen Edebiyat Fakultesi, Fizik Bolumu, Cagıs Yerleskesi, 10145 Balikesir (Turkey)

    2014-06-01

    Ternary NiCoFe films, relating their magnetic and magnetoresistance properties with film composition, and the corresponding crystal structure were investigated in terms of different Fe ion concentrations in the electrolyte. The current–time transients were recorded to control the growth of proper films. The film composition by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy revealed that as the Fe ion concentration in the electrolyte was increased, the Fe and Co contents in the films increased and Ni content decreased. From the structural analysis by X-ray diffraction, all films had a face-centred cubic structure and, no reflection from body-centred cubic (bcc) Fe was existed in all samples due to <12 at% Fe. The saturation magnetisation increased from 865 emu/cm{sup 3} to 1080 emu/cm{sup 3} and the coercivities decreased from 60 Oe to 13 Oe with increasing Fe and Co contents and decreasing Ni content in the films. All NiCoFe films showed anisotropic magnetoresistance. The longitudinal magnetoresistance magnitudes decreased from 6.3% to 2.2% with increasing Fe and Co contents and decreasing Ni in the films while the magnitudes of transverse magnetoresistance stayed almost constant at ∼5.0%. The variations in magnetic and magnetoresistive properties related to the crystal structure were attributed to the compositional changes caused by the variation of the Fe ion concentration in the electrolyte. - Highlights: • Structural and magnetic properties of electrodeposited NiCoFe films were studied. • The Fe and Co increased and Ni decreased with increasing Fe concentration. • All films had a face-centred cubic structure irrespective of the film content. • The M{sub s} increased and H{sub c} decreased with the change of film content. • All films showed AMR.

  15. Modeling the Effects of Cu Content and Deformation Variables on the High-Temperature Flow Behavior of Dilute Al-Fe-Si Alloys Using an Artificial Neural Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakiba, Mohammad; Parson, Nick; Chen, X-Grant

    2016-06-30

    The hot deformation behavior of Al-0.12Fe-0.1Si alloys with varied amounts of Cu (0.002-0.31 wt %) was investigated by uniaxial compression tests conducted at different temperatures (400 °C-550 °C) and strain rates (0.01-10 s-1). The results demonstrated that flow stress decreased with increasing deformation temperature and decreasing strain rate, while flow stress increased with increasing Cu content for all deformation conditions studied due to the solute drag effect. Based on the experimental data, an artificial neural network (ANN) model was developed to study the relationship between chemical composition, deformation variables and high-temperature flow behavior. A three-layer feed-forward back-propagation artificial neural network with 20 neurons in a hidden layer was established in this study. The input parameters were Cu content, temperature, strain rate and strain, while the flow stress was the output. The performance of the proposed model was evaluated using the K-fold cross-validation method. The results showed excellent generalization capability of the developed model. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the strain rate is the most important parameter, while the Cu content exhibited a modest but significant influence on the flow stress.

  16. Neutron-Diffraction Measurements of an Antiferromagnetic Semiconducting Phase in the Vicinity of the High-Temperature Superconducting State of KxFe2-ySe2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jun; Cao, Huibo; Bourret-Courchesne, E.; Lee, D.-H.; Birgeneau, R. J.

    2012-12-01

    The recently discovered K-Fe-Se high-temperature superconductor has caused heated debate regarding the nature of its parent compound. Transport, angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, and STM measurements have suggested that its parent compound could be insulating, semiconducting, or even metallic [M. H. Fang, H.-D. Wang, C.-H. Dong, Z.-J. Li, C.-M. Feng, J. Chen, and H. Q. Yuan, Europhys. Lett. 94, 27009 (2011)EULEEJ0295-507510.1209/0295-5075/94/27009; F. Chen , Phys. Rev. X 1, 021020 (2011)PRXHAE2160-330810.1103/PhysRevX.1.021020; and W. Li , Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 057003 (2012)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.109.057003]. Because the magnetic ground states associated with these different phases have not yet been identified and the relationship between magnetism and superconductivity is not fully understood, the real parent compound of this system remains elusive. Here, we report neutron-diffraction experiments that reveal a semiconducting antiferromagnetic (AFM) phase with rhombus iron vacancy order. The magnetic order of the semiconducting phase is the same as the stripe AFM order of the iron pnictide parent compounds. Moreover, while the 5×5 block AFM phase coexists with superconductivity, the stripe AFM order is suppressed by it. This leads us to conjecture that the new semiconducting magnetic ordered phase is the true parent phase of this superconductor.

  17. CoFe2O4−Fe3O4 Magnetic Nanocomposites as Photocatalyst for the Degradation of Methyl Orange Dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debabrata Mishra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the investigation of temperature-dependent magnetic properties and photocatalytic activity of CoFe2O4−Fe3O4 magnetic nanocomposites (MNCs synthesized by hydrothermal process. Room-temperature magnetic hysteresis (M-H loops result enhanced saturation magnetization of 90 emu/g and coercivity (HC of 530 Oe for CoFe2O4−Fe3O4 MNCs. With decreasing temperature to 20 K, HC increases from 500 Oe to 6800 Oe, and the M-H loops exhibit exchange coupling feature between CoFe2O4 and Fe3O4. Low- and high-temperature-dependent magnetization measurements confirm that the blocking temperature lies above 300 K and the presence of two magnetic phase transitions corresponding to CoFe2O4 and Fe3O4, respectively. The photocatalytic activity of the MNCs has been examined on the reduction of methyl orange (MO, a colored compound used in dyeing and printing textiles. The observed results suggest that the CoFe2O4−Fe3O4 MNCs act as an excellent photocatalyst on the degradation of organic contaminants and degrade 93% of MO in 5 hours of UV irradiation. The photocatalytic activity of MNCs is attributed to remarkably high band gap energy and small particle size. Also, the MNCs with a reproducible photocatalytic activity are well separable from water media by applying external magnetic field and acts as a promising catalyst for the remediation of textile wastewater.

  18. Oxidation of CoCrFeMnNi High Entropy Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, Gordon R.; Tylczak, Joseph; Carney, Casey

    2015-06-01

    Eight model high entropy alloys (HEAs) in the CoCrFeMnNi family (including one alloy each in the CoCrFeNi and CoFeMnNi subfamilies) were made, prepared, and exposed to laboratory air for 1100 h at 650°C and 750°C. Two commercial alloys, nickel-base superalloy 230 (N06230) and austenitic stainless steel 304H (S30409), were simultaneously exposed for comparison. Mass change oxidation kinetics were measured and cross-sections of exposed samples were observed. Seven of these HEAs contained much more Mn (12-24 wt.%) than is found in commercial heat-resistant stainless steels and superalloys. The oxidation resistance of CoCrFeNi was excellent and comparable to 304H at 650°C and only slightly worse at 750°C. The thin oxide scale on CoCrFeNi was primarily Cr oxide (presumably Cr2O3) with some Mn oxide at the outer part of the scale. The CoCrFeMnNi HEAs all experienced more rapid oxidation than CoCrFeNi and, especially at 750°C, experienced oxide scale spallation. The addition of Y in the alloy to lower S improved the oxidation resistance of these HEAs. Alloy CoFeMnNi, without Cr, experienced much higher oxidation rates and scale spallation than the Cr-containing alloys. A linear regression analysis of the log of the parabolic rate constant, log(kp), as functions of wt.% Cr and Mn found a good correlation for the compositional dependence of the oxidation rate constant, especially at 650°C. Mn was found to be more detrimental increasing log(k p) than Cr was helpful reducing log(k p). If CoCrFeMnNi HEAs are to be used in high temperature oxidizing environments, then examining lower levels of Mn, while maintaining Cr levels, should be pursued.

  19. Domain structures and magnetization reversal in Co/Pd and CoFeB/Pd multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sbiaa, R., E-mail: rachid@squ.edu.om [Department of Physics, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 36, PC 123 (Oman); Ranjbar, M. [Physics Department, University of Gothenburg, 412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Åkerman, J. [Physics Department, University of Gothenburg, 412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Materials Physics, School of ICT, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), 164 40 Kista (Sweden)

    2015-05-07

    Domain structures and magnetization reversal of (Co/Pd) and (CoFeB/Pd) multilayers with 7 and 14 repeats were investigated. The Co-based multilayers show much larger coercivities, a better squareness, and a sharper magnetization switching than CoFeB-based multilayers. From magnetic force microscopy observations, both structures show strong reduction in domains size as the number of repeats increases but the magnetic domains for Co-based multilayers are more than one order of magnitude larger than for CoFeB-based multilayers. By imaging domains at different times, breaks in the (CoFeB/Pd) multilayer stripes were observed within only few hours, while no change could be seen for (Co/Pd) multilayers. Although CoFeB single layers are suitable for magnetoresistive devices due to their large spin polarization and low damping constants, their lamination with Pd suffers mainly from thermal instability.

  20. The alluaudite-type crystal structures of Na2(Fe/Co2Co(VO43 and Ag2(Fe/Co2Co(VO43

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Hadouchi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Single crystals of the title compounds, disodium di(cobalt/iron cobalt tris(orthovanadate, Na2(Fe/Co2Co(VO43, and disilver di(cobalt/iron cobalt tris(orthovanadate, Ag2(Fe/Co2Co(VO43, were grown from a melt consisting of stoichiometric mixtures of three metallic cation precursors and vanadium pentoxide. The difficulty to distinguish between cobalt and iron by using X-ray diffraction alone forced us to explore several models, assuming an oxidation state of +II for Co and +III for Fe and a partial cationic disorder in the Wyckoff site 8f containing a mixture of Co and Fe with a statistical distribution for the Na compound and an occupancy ratio of 0.4875:0.5125 (Co:Fe for the Ag compound. The alluaudite-type structure is made up from [10-1] chains of [(Co,Fe2O10] double octahedra linked by highly distorted [CoO6] octahedra via a common edge. The chains are linked through VO4 tetrahedra, forming polyhedral sheets perpendicular to [010]. The stacking of the sheets defines two types of channels parallel to [001] where the Na+ cations (both with full occupancy or Ag+ cations (one with occupancy 0.97 are located.

  1. Electrodeposition of Zn-Co and Zn-Co-Fe alloys from acidic chloride electrolytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lodhi, Z.F.; Mol, J.M.C.; Hovestad, A.; Terryn, H.; Wit, J.H.W. de

    2007-01-01

    The electrodeposition operating conditions for Zn-Co and Zn-Co-Fe alloys from chloride baths were studied. The electrodeposition was performed on a high strength steel substrate, under galvanostatic conditions, for a range of current densities at varying Co2+ and Fe2+ bath concentrations and at

  2. Asymmetric angular dependence of spin-transfer torques in CoFe/Mg-B-O/CoFe magnetic tunnel junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Ling, E-mail: lingtang@zjut.edu.cn; Xu, Zhi-Jun, E-mail: xzj@zjut.edu.cn; Zuo, Xian-Jun; Yang, Ze-Jin, E-mail: zejinyang@zjut.edu.cn [Department of Applied Physics, College of Science, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310023 (China); Gao, Qing-He [College of Science, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110004, China, Information Engineering College, Liaoning University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shenyang 110847 (China); Linghu, Rong-Feng, E-mail: linghu@gznu.edu.cn [School of Physics and Electronics Sciences, Guizhou Education University, Guiyang 550018 (China); Guo, Yun-Dong, E-mail: g308yd@126.com [College of Engineering and Technology, Neijiang Normal University, Neijiang 641112 (China)

    2016-04-28

    Using a first-principles noncollinear wave-function-matching method, we studied the spin-transfer torques (STTs) in CoFe/Mg-B-O/CoFe(001) magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs), where three different types of B-doped MgO in the spacer are considered, including B atoms replacing Mg atoms (Mg{sub 3}BO{sub 4}), B atoms replacing O atoms (Mg{sub 4}BO{sub 3}), and B atoms occupying interstitial positions (Mg{sub 4}BO{sub 4}) in MgO. A strong asymmetric angular dependence of STT can be obtained both in ballistic CoFe/Mg{sub 3}BO{sub 4} and CoFe/Mg{sub 4}BO{sub 4} based MTJs, whereas a nearly symmetric STT curve is observed in the junctions based on CoFe/Mg{sub 4}BO{sub 3}. Furthermore, the asymmetry of the angular dependence of STT can be suppressed significantly by the disorder of B distribution. Such skewness of STTs in the CoFe/Mg-B-O/CoFe MTJs could be attributed to the interfacial resonance states induced by the B diffusion into MgO spacer.

  3. Synthesis of FeCoNi nanoparticles by galvanostatic technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budi, Setia, E-mail: setiabudi@unj.ac.id [Potgraduate Program of Materials Science Study, Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Indonesia, Depok 16424 (Indonesia); Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Sciences, Universitas Negeri Jakarta, Jl. Pemuda No.10, Rawamangun, Jakarta 13220 (Indonesia); Hafizah, Masayu Elita; Manaf, Azwar, E-mail: azwar@ui.ac.id [Potgraduate Program of Materials Science Study, Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Indonesia, Depok 16424 (Indonesia)

    2016-06-17

    Soft magnetic nanoparticles of FeCoNi have been becoming interesting objects for many researchers due to its potential application in electronic devices. One of the most promising methods for material preparation is the electrodeposition which capable of growing nanoparticles alloy directly onto the substrate. In this paper, we report our electrodeposition studies on nanoparticles synthesis using galvanostatic electrodeposition technique. Chemical composition of the synthesized FeCoNi was successfully controlled through the adjustment of the applied currents. It is revealed that the content of each element, obtained from quantitative analysis using atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS), could be modified by the adjustment of current in which Fe and Co content decreased at larger applied currents, while Ni content increased. The nanoparticles of Co-rich FeCoNi and Ni-rich FeCoNi were obtained from sulphate electrolyte at the range of applied current investigated in this work. Broad diffracted peaks in the X-ray diffractograms indicated typical nanostructures of the solid solution of FeCoNi.

  4. An analysis of the thermodynamic cycles with high-temperature nuclear reactor for power generation and hydrogen co-production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudek Michał

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, numerical analysis of the thermodynamic cycle with the high-temperature nuclear gas reactor (HTGR for electricity and hydrogen production have been done. The analysed system consists of two independent loops. The first loop is for HTGR and consists of a nuclear reactor, heat exchangers, and blower. The second loop (Rankine cycle consist of up-to four steam turbines, that operate in heat recovery system. The analysis of the system shows that it is possible to achieve significantly higher efficiency than could be offered by traditional nuclear reactor technology (PWR and BWR. It is shown that the thermal efficiency about 52.5% it is possible to achieve when reactor works at standard conditions and steam is superheated up to 530oC. For the cases when the steam has supercritical conditions the value of thermal efficiency is still very high and equal about 50%.

  5. Synthesis of magnetically exchange coupled SrFe12O19/FeCo composites through cryogenic ball milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Ning; Ye, Feng; Jiang, Ying

    2017-07-01

    SrFe12O19/FeCo composite particles with different mass ratios of SrFe12O19 to FeCo were synthesized through a cryogenic ball milling process. The corresponding products were characterized with scanning electron microscopy (SED), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) for crystal morphology, elemental distribution, crystal phases, and magnetic properties. The results showed that when the mass percentage of FeCo was less than 15%, smooth magnetic hysteresis loops could be obtained from SrFe12O19/FeCo composite particles, indicating effective magnetic exchange coupling between the SrFe12O19 and FeCo particles. A further FeCo mass increase resulted in kinks in the magnetic hysteresis loop and destroyed the magnetic exchange coupling. As a comparison, room temperature ball milling of SrFe12O19/FeCo (95/5 wt%) cannot achieve magnetic exchange coupling between SrFe12O19 and FeCo due to FeCo nanoparticle agglomeration.

  6. Effect of co-addition of RE, Fe and Mn on the microstructure and performance of A390 alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Yunguo; Wu Yuying; Qian Zhao [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Liu Xiangfa, E-mail: xfliu@sdu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China)

    2009-12-15

    The co-addition effect of RE, Mn and Fe on the microstructure and high-temperature strength of A390 has been conducted. The alloying effect of RE has also been explored. Formation of detrimental long-acicular RE-rich phase is not observed. The AlSiCuCeLa phase, {alpha}-Al(Mn,Fe)-Si phase and another complex phase composed of Al, Si, Mn, Fe, Cu and RE are observed to form after addition. RE can decrease the diffusion rates of Cu, Mg in the aging process and the intermetallics nucleate on a localized scale, but could not become coarse during heat-treatment. The electronegativity differences between RE and Al or Si are larger than those between Cu and Al or Si, so the RE-rich intermetallic compounds in Al-Si alloys are more stable. The co-addition of RE, Mn and Fe proves to be an effective method to enhance the high-temperature strength of A390. The high-temperature strength of A390 is increased by 25% in this article using this method.

  7. Characterisations of CoFeCu films: Influence of Fe concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kockar, Hakan, E-mail: hkockar@balikesir.edu.tr [Physics Department, Science and Literature Faculty, Balikesir University, 10145 Cagis, Balikesir (Turkey); Ozergin, Ercument, E-mail: ercmentz@yahoo.com [Physics Department, Science and Literature Faculty, Balikesir University, 10145 Cagis, Balikesir (Turkey); Karaagac, Oznur, E-mail: karaagac@balikesir.edu.tr [Physics Department, Science and Literature Faculty, Balikesir University, 10145 Cagis, Balikesir (Turkey); Alper, Mursel, E-mail: malper@uludag.edu.tr [Physics Department, Science and Literature Faculty, Uludag University, 16059 Gorukle, Bursa (Turkey)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • Electrodeposited ternary CoFeCu alloy may be a promising alternative of currently used materials. • CoFeCu films were deposited from the electrolytes with different Fe concentrations. • Structure changed from the mixed phase of hcp and fcc to the fcc and finally bcc with increasing Fe. • Needle-like shapes turned to roundish structures with increasing Fe concentration. • Saturation magnetisation increased and coercivity decreased with increasing Fe concentration. -- Abstract: The properties of electrodeposited CoFeCu films were studied with respect to Fe ion concentration in the electrolyte due to their interesting magnetic properties like high saturation magnetisation and low coercivity. The films were characterised in terms of microstructural and magnetic properties. From the compositional analysis, the Fe contents in the films are found to be consistent with the Fe ion concentrations in the electrolytes. With the surface morphology analysis of the films, the number of the roundish shape structures on the surface increased with increasing Fe ion concentration (⩾0.01 M Fe) whereas the CoCu films (0 M Fe) had ridged grains. The crystal structure of the films, examined by X-ray diffraction, changed from the mixed phase of the hexagonal close packed and face centered cubic (fcc) to the fcc and finally body centered cubic structure as the Fe ion concentration in the electrolyte increased from 0 to 0.04 M. And, the average grain size decreased with increasing Fe ion concentration. Magnetisation measurements by vibrating sample magnetometer displayed that the saturation magnetisation increased and the coercivity decreased as the Fe ion concentration increased. Also, it was found that the easy-axis of the magnetisation of films is parallel to the film plane. All films showed anisotropic magnetoresistance. The longitudinal and transverse magnetoresistance magnitudes of the films changed between 3.2–4.0 and 3.0–3.8, respectively. In the study

  8. Synthesis and Characterization of Black CoFe2O4 Pigments Using MOOH (M = Fe and Co Nanorod

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu R.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We studied the coloration and phase transformation of various iron based pigment with cobalt substitution method and heat treatment. First, we synthesized well defined one dimension β-Fe/CoOOH nanorods using the solid solution method. Yellowish β-Fe/CoOOH nanorods were transformed into reddish intermediate states and, finally, black CoFe2O4 pigments was obtained. Divalent cobalt ions easily occupied tetrahedral sites. The prepared pigments were well characterized in terms of physical properties by using UV-vis, CIE Lab color parameter measurements, SEM (scanning electron microscopy and XRD (powder X-ray diffraction. In addition, the magnetization property of the prepared CoFe2O4 pigment was confirmed by VSM (vibrating sample magnetometer.

  9. Hyperfine magnetic field on iron atoms and Co-Fe disordering in Co2FeSi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ksenofontov, Vadim; Wójcik, Marek; Wurmehl, Sabine; Schneider, Horst; Balke, Benjamin; Jakob, Gerhard; Felser, Claudia

    2010-05-01

    The Heusler compound Co2FeSi is a prospective half-metallic material for spintronic applications. Defects and antisite disordering play a crucial role among the factors reducing spin polarization in such materials. To clarify effects of possible off-stoichiometry, a continuous series of model solid solutions Co3-xFexSi (0.6≤x≤1.4) was investigated by F57e Mössbauer spectroscopy and C59o nuclear magnetic resonance. It has been shown that the hyperfine magnetic fields on Fe can be used to monitor Co-Fe disordering in Co2FeSi-based bulk samples and thin films.

  10. A review of high temperature co-electrolysis of H2O and CO2to produce sustainable fuels using solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs): advanced materials and technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yun; Wang, Jianchen; Yu, Bo; Zhang, Wenqiang; Chen, Jing; Qiao, Jinli; Zhang, Jiujun

    2017-03-06

    High-temperature solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs) are advanced electrochemical energy storage and conversion devices with high conversion/energy efficiencies. They offer attractive high-temperature co-electrolysis routes that reduce extra CO 2 emissions, enable large-scale energy storage/conversion and facilitate the integration of renewable energies into the electric grid. Exciting new research has focused on CO 2 electrochemical activation/conversion through a co-electrolysis process based on the assumption that difficult C[double bond, length as m-dash]O double bonds can be activated effectively through this electrochemical method. Based on existing investigations, this paper puts forth a comprehensive overview of recent and past developments in co-electrolysis with SOECs for CO 2 conversion and utilization. Here, we discuss in detail the approaches of CO 2 conversion, the developmental history, the basic principles, the economic feasibility of CO 2 /H 2 O co-electrolysis, and the diverse range of fuel electrodes as well as oxygen electrode materials. SOEC performance measurements, characterization and simulations are classified and presented in this paper. SOEC cell and stack designs, fabrications and scale-ups are also summarized and described. In particular, insights into CO 2 electrochemical conversions, solid oxide cell material behaviors and degradation mechanisms are highlighted to obtain a better understanding of the high temperature electrolysis process in SOECs. Proposed research directions are also outlined to provide guidelines for future research.

  11. Magnetic nanowires (Fe, Fe-Co, Fe-Ni – magnetic moment reorientation in respect of wires composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalska-Szostko Beata

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic nanowires of Fe, Fe-Co, and Fe-Ni alloy and layered structure were prepared by electrochemical alternating current (AC deposition method. The morphology of the nanowires in and without the matrix was studied by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and X-ray diffraction (XRD, respectively. The wires either show strong dependence on the combination of elements deposition (alloy or layered or chemical composition (Co or Ni. The magnetic properties of the nanostructures were determined on the basis of Mössbauer spectroscopy (MS.

  12. Effect of CoFe insertion in Co{sub 2}MnSi/CoFe/n-GaAs junctions on spin injection properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebina, Yuya; Akiho, Takafumi; Liu, Hong-xi; Yamamoto, Masafumi; Uemura, Tetsuya, E-mail: uemura@ist.hokudai.ac.jp [Division of Electronics for Informatics, Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0814 (Japan)

    2014-04-28

    The CoFe thickness (t{sub CoFe}) dependence of spin injection efficiency was investigated for Co{sub 2}MnSi/CoFe/n-GaAs junctions. The ΔV{sub NL}/I value, which is a measure of spin injection efficiency, strongly depended on t{sub CoFe}, where ΔV{sub NL} is the amplitude of a nonlocal spin-valve signal, and I is an injection current. Importantly, the maximum value of ΔV{sub NL}/I for a Co{sub 2}MnSi/CoFe/n-GaAs junction was one order of magnitude higher than that for a CoFe/n-GaAs junction, indicating that a Co{sub 2}MnSi electrode works as a highly polarized spin source. No clear spin signal, on the other hand, was observed for a Co{sub 2}MnSi/n-GaAs junction due to diffusion of Mn atoms into the GaAs channel. Secondary ion mass spectrometry analysis indicated that the CoFe insertion effectively suppressed the diffusion of Mn into GaAs, resulting in improved spin injection properties compared with those for a Co{sub 2}MnSi/n-GaAs junction.

  13. High temperature spin state transitions in misfit-layered Ca{sub 3}Co{sub 4}O{sub 9}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altin, S.; Aksan, M.A., E-mail: mehmet.aksan@inonu.edu.tr; Bayri, A.

    2014-02-25

    Highlights: • Ca{sub 3}Co{sub 4}O{sub 9} system has been fabricated using the solid-state technique. • There is an anomaly in magnetic the susceptibility χ between 680 and 920 K. • The anomaly is related to a critical threshold number of the high spin Co-ions. • The anomaly was also observed in the B and Sb-substituted Ca{sub 3}Co{sub 4}O{sub 9}. -- Abstract: This study reports high temperature magnetic properties of the unsubstituted one together with B and Sb-substituted Ca{sub 3}Co{sub 4}O{sub 9} system. The measured data indicated that there is an anomaly in the magnetic susceptibility, χ, between 680 and 920 K. It is believed that this anomaly is related to a critical threshold number of the high spin Co-ions such that when this threshold number is achieved, some exchange interactions between Co{sup 3+} and Co{sup 4+} take place which causes an abrupt increase in the χ–T curve. The anomaly was further investigated with B and Sb-substitutions. It is realized that both dopants promote more Co-ions in the rock salt unit cell to high spin state.

  14. High-temperature ferromagnetism in Co-doped CeO2 synthesized by the coprecipitation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colis, S; Bouaine, A; Schmerber, G; Ulhaq-Bouillet, C; Dinia, A; Choua, S; Turek, P

    2012-05-28

    The aim of the present study is to check the influence of annealing under vacuum and a mixture of N(2)-H(2) atmosphere on the magnetic properties of polycrystalline Co-doped CeO(2) diluted magnetic oxides (DMOs) with Co concentrations of 5 at% synthesized using the coprecipitation technique. X-Ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed for all samples the expected CeO(2) cubic fluorite-type structure and that Co ions are uniformly distributed inside the samples. Room-temperature Raman and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopies indicate an increase in the concentration of oxygen vacancies upon Co doping and further annealing. Field dependent magnetization measurements revealed a paramagnetic behavior for as-prepared Co-doped CeO(2), while a ferromagnetic behavior appears when the same samples are annealed under vacuum or N(2)-H(2) atmosphere. Temperature dependent magnetization measurements suggest that the observed ferromagnetism is due to the presence of metallic Co clusters with nanometric size and broad size distribution. These results are supported by electron paramagnetic resonance studies.

  15. [Effects of drought stress, high temperature and elevated CO2 concentration on the growth of winter wheat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Fu-Yan; Qiao, Yun-Zhou; Jiang, Jing-Wei; Dong, Bao-Di; Shi, Chang-Hai; Liu, Meng-Yu

    2014-09-01

    The impacts of climate change on the grain yield, photosynthesis, and water conditions of winter wheat were assessed based on an experiment, in which wheat plants were subjected to ambient and elevated CO2 concentrations, ambient and elevated temperatures, and low and high water conditions independently and in combination. The CO2 enrichment alone had no effect on the photosynthesis of winter wheat, whereas higher temperature and drought significantly decreased the photosynthetic rate. Water conditions in flag leaves were not significantly changed at the elevated CO2 concentration or elevated temperature. However, drought stress decreased the relative water content in flag leaves, and the combination of elevated temperature and drought reduced the water potential in flag leaves. The combination of elevated CO2 concentration, elevated temperature, and drought significantly reduced the photosynthetic rate and water conditions, and led to a 41.4% decrease in grain yield. The elevated CO2 concentration alone increased the grain yield by 21.2%, whereas the elevated temperature decreased the grain yield by 12.3%. The grain yield was not affected by the combination of elevated CO2 concentration and temperature, but the grain yield was significantly decreased by the drought stress if combined with any of the climate scenarios applied in this study. These findings suggested that maintaining high soil water content might be a vital means of reducing the potential harm caused by the climate change.

  16. Magnetic properties of Fe-oxide and (Fe, Co) oxide nanoparticles synthesized in polystyrene resin matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodak, D.; Kroll, E.; Tsoi, G. M.; Vaishnava, P. P.; Naik, R.; Wenger, L. E.; Suryanarayanan, R.; Naik, V. M.; Boolchand, P.

    2003-03-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles have potential applications ranging from drug delivery and imaging in the medical field to sensing and memory storage in technology. The preparation, structure, and physical properties of iron oxide-based nanoparticles synthesized by ion exchange in a polystyrene resin matrix have been investigated. Employing a synthesis method developed originally by Ziolo, et. al^1, nanoparticles were prepared in a sulfonated divinyl benzene polystyrene resin matrix using various aqueous solutions of (1) FeCl_2, (2) FeCl_3, (3) FeCl2 : 2FeCl3 , (4) 9FeCl2 : CoCl_2, and (5) 4FeCl2 : CoCl_2. Powder x-ray diffraction measurements were used to identify the phases present while transmission electron microscopy was used for particle size distribution determinations. SQUID magnetization measurements (field-cooled and zero-field-cooled) and Fe^57 Mössbauer effect measurements indicate the presence of ferromagnetic iron oxide phases and a superparamagnetic behavior with blocking temperatures (T_B) varying from 50 K to room temperature. Nanoparticles synthesized using a stoichiometric mixture of FeCl2 and FeCl3 exhibit the lowest TB and smallest particle size distribution. The Mössbauer effect measurements have also been used to identify the iron oxides phases present and their relative amounts in the nanoparticles ^1R.F. Ziolo, et al., Science 207, 219 (1992). *Permanent address: Kettering University, Flint, MI 48504

  17. Thermodynamic modeling of the Sr-Co-Fe-O system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Wei Wei; Povoden-Karadeniz, Erwin; Chen, Ming

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews and assesses phase equilibria and thermodynamic properties of phases in the Sr-Co-Fe-O system, with a focus on oxides, especially the SrCo1 - xFexO3 - δ perovskite. In our work, the SrCo1 - xFexO3 - δ perovskite was modeled with a three-sublattice model, where the three sublatt...... composition optimization for various applications, including solid oxide fuel cells and oxygen membranes....... sublattices correspond to the A, B and oxygen sites in an ABO3 perovskite, respectively. A number of other important ternary oxide phases in Sr-Co-O and Sr-Co-Fe-O were also considered. Available thermodynamic and phase diagram data were carefully assessed. A thermodynamic description of Sr-Co-O was derived...... using the CALPHAD approach and was further extrapolated to that of Sr-Co-Fe-O. The thermodynamic database of Sr-Co-Fe-O established in this work allows for calculating phase diagrams, thermodynamic properties, cation distribution and defect chemistry properties, and therefore enables material...

  18. Micro-scale thermal imaging of CO2 absorption in the thermochemical energy storage of Li metal oxides at high temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikawa, Junko; Takasu, Hiroki; Zamengo, Massimiliano; Kato, Yukitaka

    2017-05-01

    Li-Metal oxides (typical example: lithium ortho-silicate Li4SiO4) are regarded as a novel solid carbon dioxide CO2 absorbent accompanied by an exothermic reaction. At temperatures above 700°C the sorbent is regenerated with the release of the captured CO2 in an endothermic reaction. As the reaction equilibrium of this reversible chemical reaction is controllable only by the partial pressure of CO2, the system is regarded as a potential candidate for chemical heat storage at high temperatures. In this study, we applied our recent developed mobile type instrumentation of micro-scale infrared thermal imaging system to observe the heat of chemical reaction of Li4SiO4 and CO2 at temperature higher than 600°C or higher. In order to quantify the micro-scale heat transfer and heat exchange in the chemical reaction, the superimpose signal processing system is setup to determine the precise temperature. Under an ambient flow of carbon dioxide, a powder of Li4SiO4 with a diameter 50 micron started to shine caused by an exothermic chemical reaction heat above 600°C. The phenomena was accelerated with increasing temperature up to 700°C. At the same time, the reaction product lithium carbonate (Li2CO3) started to melt with endothermic phase change above 700°C, and these thermal behaviors were captured by the method of thermal imaging. The direct measurement of multiple thermal phenomena at high temperatures is significant to promote an efficient design of chemical heat storage materials. This is the first observation of the exothermic heat of the reaction of Li4SiO4 and CO2 at around 700°C by the thermal imaging method.

  19. High-temperature tribological behaviors of a Cr-Si co-alloyed layer on TA15 alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifeng Lu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A Cr-Si co-alloyed layer was successfully deposited on TA15 alloy by the double glow plasma surface technology to improve its poor wear resistance at elevated temperature. The microstructure, composition, and phase structure of the layer were investigated by SEM, EDS, and XRD. The tribological behaviors of the Cr-Si co-alloyed layer at 20 °C and 500 °C were analyzed in details. The results indicated that the friction coefficient and wear rate of the Cr-Si co-alloyed layer at 20 °C and 500 °C were much lower than those of the substrate, which was due to higher hardness and superior elastic modulus. This layer may become an approach to effectively improving the wear resistance of TA15 alloy at elevated temperature.

  20. Hydrogen production by the high temperature combination of the water gas shift and CO{sub 2} absorption reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bretado, M.A.E.; Vigil, M.D.D.; Gutierrez, J.S.; Ortiz, A.L.; Collins-Martinez, V. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados, Chihuahua, Chih (Mexico). Dept. de Quimica de Materiales

    2009-01-15

    Hydrogen is an important raw material for the chemical and petroleum industry. An important research field has surfaced, dealing with the production of high purity hydrogen for power generation purposes through fuel cells. Industrial technologies for hydrogen production are based on the use of fossil fuels, with catalytic steam methane reforming being the most important process together with partial oxidation of hydrocarbons and the integrated combined coal gasification cycle. Hydrogen production through the water gas shift (WGS) reaction requires two consecutive catalytic steps followed by carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) separation. However, combination of the WGS reaction and CO{sub 2} capture by a solid absorbent opens the opportunity to produce high purity hydrogen in one single step called absorption enhanced WGS or AEWGS. In theory, this process would not require a catalyst. This paper presented an experimental study of AEWGS using a quartz-made fixed bed reactor. The CO{sub 2} absorbents tested in this study were calcined dolomite, (CaOMgO) and sodium zirconate (Na{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3}). The paper described the experimental study, with particular reference to the thermodynamic analysis that determined the equilibrium conditions of the systems CO/H{sub 2}O (WGS) and CO/absorbent/H{sub 2} (AEWGS); synthesis and characterization; and the fixed bed reaction system. Results were determined by X-ray diffraction, BET surface area and crystallite size, and reaction evaluation. It was concluded that at reaction conditions, dolomite can efficiently remove CO{sub 2} at partial pressures three times lower than with the use of Na{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} as absorbent. 24 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs.

  1. Detailed conceptual design of a high-temperature CO/sub 2/ sensor for geothermal applications. Final report, Task I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phelan, D.M.; Taylor, R.M.; Baxter, R.D.

    1983-03-01

    The work performed on the development of a pCO/sub 2/ probe is documented. The recommended probe includes a solid state device which senses the pH of the internal electrolyte, a gas-permeable membrane that allows diffusion of CO/sub 2/ into the electrolyte, and a getter to inhibit incursion of H/sub 2/S. The results of the feasibility study indicate that such a probe holds promise of meeting all the operational and environmental requirements for in situ and down-hole measurement of carbon dioxide in geothermal fluids.

  2. Formate-Dependent Microbial Conversion of CO2 and the Dominant Pathways of methanogenesis in production water of high-temperature oil reservoirs amended with bicarbonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Chao eYang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available CO2 sequestration in deep-subsurface formations including oil reservoirs is a potential measure to reduce the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. However, the fate of the CO2 and the ecological influences in Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage (CDCS facilities is not understood clearly. In the current study, the fate of CO2 (in bicarbonate form (0~90 mM with 10 mM of formate as electron donor and carbon source was investigated with high-temperature production water from oilfield in China. The isotope data showed that bicarbonate could be reduced to methane by methanogens and major pathway of methanogenesis could be syntrophic formate oxidation coupled with CO2 reduction and formate methanogenesis under the anaerobic conditions. The bicarbonate addition induced the shift of microbial community. Addition of bicarbonate and formate was associated with a decrease of Methanosarcinales, but promotion of Methanobacteriales in all treatments. Thermodesulfovibrio was the major group in all the samples and Thermacetogenium dominated in the high bicarbonate treatments. The results indicated that CO2 from CDCS could be transformed to methane and the possibility of microbial CO2 conversion for enhanced microbial energy recovery in oil reservoirs.

  3. Lime-Based Sorbents for High-Temperature CO2 Capture—A Review of Sorbent Modification Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward J. Anthony

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a review of the research on CO2 capture by lime-based looping cycles undertaken at CanmetENERGY’s (Ottawa, Canada research laboratories. This is a new and very promising technology that may help in mitigation of global warming and climate change caused primarily by the use of fossil fuels. The intensity of the anticipated changes urgently requires solutions such as more cost-effective technologies for CO2 capture. This new technology is based on the use of lime-based sorbents in a dual fluidized bed combustion (FBC reactor which contains a carbonator—a unit for CO2 capture, and a calciner—a unit for CaO regeneration. However, even though natural materials are cheap and abundant and very good candidates as solid CO2 carriers, their performance in a practical system still shows significant limitations. These limitations include rapid loss of activity during the capture cycles, which is a result of sintering, attrition, and consequent elutriation from FBC reactors. Therefore, research on sorbent performance is critical and this paper reviews some of the promising ways to overcome these shortcomings. It is shown that reactivation by steam/water, thermal pre-treatment, and doping simultaneously with sorbent reforming and pelletization are promising potential solutions to reduce the loss of activity of these sorbents over multiple cycles of use.

  4. X-ray fluorescence holographic study on high-temperature superconductor FeSe{sub 0.4}Te{sub 0.6}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ideguchi, Yuki; Kamimura, Kenji; Kimura, Koji [Kumamoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; and others

    2016-07-01

    To observe the difference of atomic heights between the Se and Te layers with respect to the Fe layer in FeSe{sub 0.4}Te{sub 0.6} single crystal, a Fe Kα fluorescence X-ray holography (XFH) experiment was performed at room temperature. The crystal structure of superconductor FeSe{sub 0.4}Te{sub 0.6} obtained by X-ray diffraction (XRD) at a low temperature has distinct z-coordinates of Se and Te, remarkably different from each other. The reconstructed atomic image around central Fe atoms by XFH, however, reveals the different and complex results.

  5. Research and survey report of FY 1997 on the CO2 balance for high-temperature CO2 fixation and utilization technology; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (nisanka tanso koon bunri gijutsu ni okeru CO2 balance ni kansuru chosa kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The purpose of this research is to clarify the application condition and effectiveness of high-temperature CO2 fixation and utilization technology. To evaluate the present process, it was compared with others, such as separation using a polymer membrane, physico-chemical absorption process, adsorption process, hydrogen contact reduction process, and biological fixation. The development trends of absorption, membrane, adsorption, and cryogenic separation were investigated. The questionnaire was carried out about the separation technologies which are in the stage of performance test using actual gas, to arrange and compare the data and information. The current trends of chemical and biological CO2 fixation and utilization technology were also investigated for arranging the subjects. High-temperature CO2 disposal by the carbonation in concrete waste has been studied, to clarify its application conditions and effectiveness. In order to compare the separation technologies, treatment processes of CO2 in the exhaust gas from boilers of LNG power generation and coal fired power generation were simulated. These processes were simulated by ASPEN PLUS for the modeling. Trends of application of ASPEN PLUS and collection of information were surveyed by participating in the ASPEN WORLD. 103 refs., 51 figs., 55 tabs.

  6. High Temperature, High Ambient CO2 Affect the Interactions between Three Positive-Sense RNA Viruses and a Compatible Host Differentially, but not Their Silencing Suppression Efficiencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Toro, Francisco J.; Aguilar, Emmanuel; Hernández-Walias, Francisco J.; Tenllado, Francisco; Chung, Bong-Nam; Canto, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    We compared infection of Nicotiana benthamiana plants by the positive-sense RNA viruses Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Potato virus Y (PVY), and by a Potato virus X (PVX) vector, the latter either unaltered or expressing the CMV 2b protein or the PVY HCPro suppressors of silencing, at 25°C vs. 30°C, or at standard (~401 parts per million, ppm) vs. elevated (970 ppm) CO2 levels. We also assessed the activities of their suppressors of silencing under those conditions. We found that at 30°C, accumulation of the CMV isolate and infection symptoms remained comparable to those at 25°C, whereas accumulation of the PVY isolate and those of the three PVX constructs decreased markedly, even when expressing the heterologous suppressors 2b or HCPro, and plants had either very attenuated or no symptoms. Under elevated CO2 plants grew larger, but contained less total protein/unit of leaf area. In contrast to temperature, infection symptoms remained unaltered for the five viruses at elevated CO2 levels, but viral titers in leaf disks as a proportion of the total protein content increased in all cases, markedly for CMV, and less so for PVY and the PVX constructs. Despite these differences, we found that neither high temperature nor elevated CO2 prevented efficient suppression of silencing by their viral suppressors in agropatch assays. Our results suggest that the strength of antiviral silencing at high temperature or CO2 levels, or those of the viral suppressors that counteract it, may not be the main determinants of the observed infection outcomes. PMID:26313753

  7. Synthesis, structure, and high temperature Moessbauer and Raman spectroscopy studies of Ba{sub 1.6}Sr{sub 1.4}Fe{sub 2}WO{sub 9} double perovskite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manoun, B., E-mail: manounb@gmail.co [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Materiaux, Departement de Chimie, FST Errachidia (Morocco); Equipe Materiaux et environnement, laboratoire des Procedes de Valorisation des Ressources Naturelles, des Materiaux et Environnement, FST Settat (Morocco); Benmokhtar, S. [Laboratoire de chimie des Materiaux Solides (LCMS), Departement de Chimie, Faculte des Sciences Ben M' Sik Casablanca (Morocco); Bih, L.; Azrour, M. [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Materiaux, Departement de Chimie, FST Errachidia (Morocco); Ezzahi, A.; Ider, A. [Equipe Materiaux et environnement, laboratoire des Procedes de Valorisation des Ressources Naturelles, des Materiaux et Environnement, FST Settat (Morocco); Azdouz, M. [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Materiaux, Departement de Chimie, FST Errachidia (Morocco); Annersten, H.; Lazor, P. [Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, S-752 36 Uppsala (Morocco)

    2011-01-05

    Research highlights: {yields} Synthesis and characterization of new double perovskites, apatites, orthophosphates and orthovanadates. {yields} High pressure and high temperature studies of double perovskite, orthophosphates, orthovanadates and MAX phases, using XRD, synchrotron radiations, Raman spectroscopy, magnetism, Moessbauer. {yields} Pressure, temperature and compositions induced phase transitions in these materials. {yields} Structural determination/refinement of these compounds as a function of temperature, pressure and composition. - Abstract: Ba{sub 1.6}Sr{sub 1.4}Fe{sub 2}WO{sub 9} has been prepared in polycrystalline form by solid-state reaction method in air, and has been studied by X-ray powder diffraction method (XRPD), and high temperature Moessbauer and Raman spectroscopies. The crystal structure was resolved at room temperature by the Rietveld refinement method, and revealed that Ba{sub 1.6}Sr{sub 1.4}Fe{sub 2}WO{sub 9} crystallizes in a tetragonal system, space group I4/m, with a = b = 5.6489(10)A, c = 7.9833(2)A and adopts a double perovskite-type A{sub 3}B'{sub 2}B''O{sub 9} (A = Ba, Sr; B' = Fe/W, and B'' = Fe/W) structure described by the crystallographic formula (Ba{sub 1.07}Sr{sub 0.93}){sub 4d}(Fe{sub 0.744}W{sub 0.256}){sub 2a}(Fe{sub 0.585}W{sub 0.415}){sub 2b}O{sub 6}. The structure contains alternating [(Fe/W){sub 2a}O{sub 6}] and [(Fe/W){sub 2b}O{sub 6}] octahedra. Moessbauer studies reveal the presence of iron in the 3+ oxidation state. The high temperature Moessbauer measurements showed a magnetic to paramagnetic transition around 405 {+-} 10 K. The transition is gradual over the temperature interval. The decrease in isomer shift is in line with the general temperature dependence. While the isomer shift is rather linear over the whole temperature range, the quadratic dipolar {Delta}E temperature dependence shows an abrupt change at 405 K. The latter results allow concluding that a temperature

  8. Synthesis of MgAl-LDH/CoFe2O4 and MgAl-CLDH/CoFe2O4 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The adsorption performance of MgAl-LDH/CoFe2O4 and MgAl-CLDH/CoFe2O4 nanofibres for the removal of an anionic dye (Congo Red, CR) from aqueous solution was investigated. The results showed that MgAl-LDH/CoFe2O4 and MgAl-CLDH/CoFe2O4 nanofibres are particularly efficient in removing CR.

  9. High-pressure high-temperature phase relations in FeTiO3 up to 35 GPa and 1600 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaogi, M.; Abe, K.; Yusa, H.; Ishii, T.; Tajima, T.; Kojitani, H.; Mori, D.; Inaguma, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Phase relations in FeTiO3 were precisely determined at 25-35 GPa and 600-1600 °C using multianvil high-pressure experiments with tungsten carbide anvils. Pressure generation up to about 36 GPa at 1600 °C was evaluated using Al2O3 solubility in MgSiO3 perovskite (Pv) in the system MgSiO3-Al2O3. At about 28 GPa, FeTiO3 Pv dissociates into an assemblage of calcium titanate (CT)-type Fe2TiO4 + orthorhombic-I (OI)-type TiO2 below 1200 °C. However, above 1200 °C at 28 GPa, FeTiO3 Pv decomposes into a new, denser phase assemblage of CT-type Fe2TiO4 + a new compound of FeTi2O5. The new phase FeTi2O5 was recovered as an amorphous phase at 1 atm. In situ X-ray diffraction experiments at 35.1 GPa indicated that the new phase (N-p) FeTi2O5 has orthorhombic symmetry with cell parameters a = 8.567(2) Å, b = 5.753(1) Å and c = 5.257(1) Å. In addition, the assemblage of CT-type Fe2TiO4 + OI-type TiO2 changes to FeO wüstite (Wu) + OI-type TiO2 at about 33 GPa below 1000 °C. The phase assemblages in FeTiO3 are denser in the order: FeTiO3 (Pv) → 1/2Fe2TiO4 (CT) + 1/2TiO2 (OI) → 1/3Fe2TiO4 (CT) + 1/3FeTi2O5 (N-p) → FeO (Wu) + TiO2 (OI). Our results indicate that the upper stability limit of FeTiO3 Pv is about 28 GPa at 600-1600 °C. This puts a constraint on peak shock pressure for formation of naturally discovered lithium niobate-type FeTiO3 which was interpreted to be retrograde transition product of FeTiO3 Pv on release of shock pressure.

  10. Fe as hydrogen/halogen bond acceptor in square pyramidal Fe(CO)5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiswaryalakshmi, P; Mani, Devendra; Arunan, E

    2013-08-05

    Hydrogen bonded complexes formed between the square pyramidal Fe(CO)5 with HX (X = F, Cl, Br), showing X-H···Fe interactions, have been investigated theoretically using density functional theory (DFT) including dispersion correction. Geometry, interaction energy, and large red shift of about 400 cm(-1) in the HX stretching frequency confirm X-H···Fe hydrogen bond formation. In the (CO)5Fe···HBr complex, following the significant red-shift, the HBr stretching mode is coupled with the carbonyl stretching modes. This clearly affects the correlation between frequency shift and binding energy, which is a hallmark of hydrogen bonds. Atoms in Molecule (AIM) theoretical analyses show the presence of a bond critical point between the iron and the hydrogen of HX and significant mutual penetration. These X-H···Fe hydrogen bonds follow most but not all of the eight criteria proposed by Koch and Popelier (J. Phys. Chem. 1995, 99, 9747) based on their investigations on C-H···O hydrogen bonds. Natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis indicates charge transfer from the organometallic system to the hydrogen bond donor. However, there is no correlation between the extent of charge transfer and interaction energy, contrary to what is proposed in the recent IUPAC recommendation (Pure Appl. Chem. 2011, 83, 1637). The "hydrogen bond radius" for iron has been determined to be 1.60 ± 0.02 Å, and not surprisingly it is between the covalent (1.27 Å) and van der Waals (2.0) radii of Fe. DFT and AIM theoretical studies reveal that Fe in square pyramidal Fe(CO)5 can also form halogen bond with ClF and ClH as "halogen bond donor". Both these complexes show mutual penetration as well, though the Fe---Cl distance is closer to the sum of van der Waals radii of Fe and Cl in (CO)5Fe···ClH, and it is about 1 Å less in (CO)5Fe···ClF.

  11. Surface analysis of Fe-Co-Mo electrolytic coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yar-Mukhamedova, G. Sh; Sakhnenko, N. D.; Ved', M. V.; Yermolenko, I. Yu; Zyubanova, S. I.

    2017-06-01

    Coatings Fe-Co-Mo with a composition of 47 at.% iron, 28 at.% Cobalt and 25 at.% Molybdenum were deposited from citrate electrolyte using pulse electrolysis mode. Scanning electron and atomic force microscopy have established the surface morphology and topography. It was identified the parts with a globular structure which have an average size of 0.2-0.5μm and singly located sharp grains. Within the same scan area sites with developed surface were detected the topography of which is identical to the crystal structure of cobalt with the crystallites size of 0.2-1.75μm. The parameters Ra and Rq for parts with different morphology as well as average characteristics of coatings demonstrated the low roughness of the surface. It is found that the coercive force of Fe-Co-Mo films is 7-10 Oe, which allow us to classify the Fe-Co-Mo coatings as soft magnetic materials.

  12. Effect of High Pressure and Temperature on Structural, Thermodynamic and Thermoelectric Properties of Quaternary CoFeCrAl Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Tahir Mohiuddin; Gupta, Dinesh C.

    2017-12-01

    Employing first-principles based on density functional theory we have investigated the structural, magneto-electronic, thermoelectric and thermodynamic properties of quaternary Heusler alloy CoFeCrAl. Electronic band structure displays that CoFeCrAl is an indirect band gap semiconductor in spin-down state with the band gap value of 0.65 eV. Elastic constants reveal CoFeCrAl is a mechanically stable structure having a Debye temperature of 648 K along with a high melting temperature (2130 K). The thermoelectric properties in the temperature range 50-800 K have been calculated. CoFeCrAl possesses a high Seebeck coefficient of - 46 μV/K at room temperature along with the huge power factor of ˜ 4.8 (1012 μW cm-1 K-2 s-1) which maximizes the figure-of-merit up to ˜ 0.75 at 800 K temperature and suggesting CoFeCrAl as potential thermoelectric material. The effect of high pressure and high temperature on the thermal expansion, Grüneisen parameter and heat capacity were also studied by using the quasi-harmonic Debye model.

  13. Potential method for gas production: high temperature co-pyrolysis of lignite and sewage sludge with vacuum reactor and long contact time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao; Yuan, Chengyong; Xu, Jiao; Zhang, Weijiang

    2015-03-01

    Lignite and sewage sludge were co-pyrolyzed in a vacuum reactor with high temperature (900°C) and long contact time (more than 2h). Beneficial synergetic effect on gas yield was clearly observed. Gas yield of blend fuel was evidently higher than that of both parent fuels. The gas volume yield, gas lower heating value (LHV), fixed carbon conversion and H2/CO ratio were 1.42 Nm(3)/kg(blend fuel), 10.57 MJ/Nm(3), 96.64% and 0.88% respectively, which indicated this new method a feasible one for gas production. It was possible that sewage sludge acted as gasification agents (CO2 and H2O) and catalyst (alkali and alkaline earth metals) provider during co-pyrolysis, promoting CO2-char and H2O-char gasification which, as a result, invited the improvement of gas volume yield, gas lower heating value and fixed carbon conversion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Exchange-coupled Fe3O4/CoFe2O4 nanoparticles for advanced magnetic hyperthermia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassell, M.; Robles, J.; Das, R.; Phan, M. H.; Srikanth, H.

    Iron oxide nanoparticles especially Fe3O4, γ-Fe2O3 have been extensively studied for magnetic hyperthermia because of their tunable magnetic properties and stable suspension in superparamagnetic regime. However, their relatively low heating capacity hindered practical application. Recently, a large improvement in heating efficiency has been reported in exchange-coupled nanoparticles with exchange coupling between soft and hard magnetic phases. Here, we systematically studied the effect of core and shell size on the heating efficiency of the Fe3O4/CoFe2O4 core/shell nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were synthesized using thermal decomposition of organometallic precursors. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed formation of spherical shaped Fe3O4 and Fe3O-/CoFe2O4 nanoparticles. Magnetic measurements showed high magnetization (≅70 emu/g) and superparamagnetic behavior for the nanoparticles at room temperature. Magnetic hyperthermia results showed a large increase in specific absorption rate (SAR) for 8nm Fe3O4/CoFe2O4 compared to Fe3O4 nanoparticles of the same size. The heating efficiency of the Fe3O4/CoFe2O4 with 1 nm CoFe2O4 (shell) increased from 207 to 220 W/g (for 800 Oe) with increase in core size from 6 to 8 nm. The heating efficiency of the Fe3O4/CoFe2O4 with 2 nm CoFe2O4 (shell) and core size of 8 nm increased from 220 to 460 W/g (for 800 Oe). These exchange-coupled Fe3O4/CoFe2O4 core/shell nanoparticles can be a good candidate for advanced hyperthermia application.

  15. Long-Term High-Temperature Stability of Directionally Grown [Bi₂Ba₂O₄]p[CoO₂] Rods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez, Juan C; Madre, María A; Torres, Miguel A; Rasekh, Shahed; Sotelo, Andrés

    2017-02-08

    [Bi₂Ba₂O₄]p[CoO₂] thermoelectric ceramics have been successfully grown from the melt using the laser floating zone method, followed by a thermal treatment at 700 °C under air between 0 and 1532 h. The microstructural, thermoelectric, and mechanical properties were evaluated as a function of the thermal treatment length. Microstructure has shown that as-grown samples are composed of thermoelectric grains, together with a relatively high amount of secondary phases. Thermal treatment decreased the number and amount of secondary phases, producing nearly single-phase samples after 384 h. Consequently, the thermoelectric properties evaluated through the power factor showed a slight increase with the thermal treatment length, mainly due to the decrease of electrical resistivity, while the Seebeck coefficient was nearly unchanged. On the other hand, flexural strength was practically constant after 24 h thermal treatment.

  16. Thermodynamic modeling of the Co-Fe-O system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Weiwei; Chen, Ming

    2013-01-01

    As a part of the research project aimed at developing a thermodynamic database of the La-Sr-Co-Fe-O system for applications in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs), the Co-Fe-O subsystem was thermodynamically re-modeled in the present work using the CALPHAD methodology. The solid phases were described...... using the Compound Energy Formalism (CEF) and the ionized liquid was modeled with the ionic two-sublattice model based on CEF. A set of self-consistent thermodynamic parameters was obtained eventually. Calculated phase diagrams and thermodynamic properties are presented and compared with experimental...

  17. Cross-Sectional Investigations of Oxide Scale Nanocrystalline FeCr Alloys after High-Temperature Oxidation Test at 900°C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saryanto, H.; Sebayang, D.; Untoro, P.

    2017-05-01

    The cross-sectional examinations of oxide films formed by oxidation on the surface of FeCr alloys with various crystallite sizes were observed and investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was used to characterize the oxide scale morphology and to identify the phases and oxidation products. Furthermore, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) have been used to study the cross-sectional oxides produced by specimens after oxidation process. The cross-sectional investigation shows that the oxide scale formed on the surface of FeCr alloys consisted roughly of Cr2O3 with a small amount of FeO mixture. The outward diffusivity of Chromium to form Cr2O3 protective layers vary significantly occurrences on the surface of FeCr alloy with smallest crystallite size (38.51 nm), the scale had an enriched Cr content which improves the adherence of the oxide scale to the substrate, in another word, it increases the oxidation resistance. While the oxide scale formed on the surface of FeCr alloy with largest crystallite sizes (76.60 nm) had an enriched Fe content which reduces the resistance to oxidation, and adherence to the substrate. The thickness of oxide scale formed on nanocrystalline FeCr alloy with smallest crystallite sizes was found around 8 μm thick, which three-time thinner than FeCr alloy with largest crystallite sizes.

  18. High Temperature Chemistry at NASA: Hot Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.

    2014-01-01

    High Temperature issues in aircraft engines Hot section: Ni and Co based Superalloys Oxidation and Corrosion (Durability) at high temperatures. Thermal protection system (TPS) and RCC (Reinforced Carbon-Carbon) on the Space Shuttle Orbiter. High temperatures in other worlds: Planets close to their stars.

  19. In-situ formation of SiC nanocrystals by high temperature annealing of SiO2/Si under CO: A photoemission study

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'angelo, M.; Deokar, G.; Steydli, S.; Pongrácz, A.; Pécz, B.; Silly, M. G.; Sirotti, F.; Cavellin, C. Deville

    2012-04-01

    We have studied CO interaction with SiO2/Si system at high temperature (~ 1100 °C) and 350 mbar by core-level photoemission. Even for short annealing time (5 min) the signal from Si2p and C1s core levels shows a clear change upon CO treatment. Shifted components are attributed to formation of SiC. This is confirmed by TEM imaging which further shows that the silicon carbide is in the form of nano-crystals of the 3C polytype. Photoemission spectroscopy moreover reveals the formation of silicon oxicarbide which could not be evidenced by other methods. Combining these results with previous Nuclear Resonance Profiling study gives a deeper insight into the mechanisms involved in the nanocrystals growth and especially for the reaction equation leading to SiC formation. We show that CO diffuses as a molecule through the silica layer and reacts with the silicon substrate according the following reaction: 4 CO + 4 Si → SiO2 + 2SiC + SiO2C2.

  20. Magnetization switching diagram of a perpendicular synthetic ferrimagnet CoFeB/Ta/CoFeB bilayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koplak, O.; Talantsev, A.; Lu, Y.; Hamadeh, A.; Pirro, P.; Hauet, T.; Morgunov, R.; Mangin, S.

    2017-07-01

    Magnetic configurations in synthetic ferrimagnet CoFeB/Ta/CoFeB bilayer with strong perpendicular anisotropy have been systematically studied. Magnetization versus field hysteresis loop has been measured for different temperature ranging from 5 to 300 K. The applied field - temperature (H-T) magnetization switching diagram has been constructed by extracting the different switching fields as a function of temperature. This switching diagram can be well explained by considering the competition between energy barrier of layer's magnetization reversal, interlayer exchange coupling, and Zeeman energy.

  1. TEM observations of Al{sub 72}Ni{sub 12}Co{sub 16} decagonal quasicrystal subjected to high-temperature indentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, K. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Akita University, Akita 010-8502 (Japan)]. E-mail: ksaito@ipc.akita-u.ac.jp; Arakaki, Y. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Akita University, Akita 010-8502 (Japan); Sugawara, S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Akita University, Akita 010-8502 (Japan); Shindo, R. [Akita Prefecture Industrial Technology Center, Akita 010-1623 (Japan); Guo, J.Q. [National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Tsai, A.P. [National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan)

    2005-08-25

    The effect of high-temperature indentation testing on the microstructural change of a single-grained Al{sub 72}Ni{sub 12}Co{sub 16} decagonal quasicrystal (d-QC) has been investigated by transmission electron diffraction and microscopy (TEM) technique. A definite surface normal to the 10-fold axis of the d-QC was subjected to Vickers indentation test at an elevated temperature of 800 deg. C with a load of 1 kgf. The TEM investigation of this sample has evidently shown that there are specific types of defects densely distributed in the indented-region, such as grain-boundaries, dislocations and phason-related defects. Furthermore, high-resolution electron microscopy observations have revealed the widespread distribution of nanocrystalline domains in the indented-region, where groups of decagonal atom clusters have a periodic arrangement to form a rhombic lattice. On the basis of these observations, possible deformation mechanisms of the d-QC during high-temperature indentation will be discussed.

  2. Magnetic behavior of as-deposited and annealed CoFe and CoFeCu nanowire arrays by ac-pulse electrodeposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramazani, A.; Almasi-Kashi, M.; Golafshan, E.; Arefpour, M.

    2014-09-01

    CoFe and CoFeCu self-organized alloy nanowires were grown into anodic aluminum oxide template by potentiostatic mode of ac-pulse electrodeposition technique and subsequently annealed at 580 °C. The influence of bath composition, off-time between pulses and annealing treatment on the Cu content, microstructure and magnetic properties of CoFeCu nanowire arrays have been discussed. Increasing the off-time between pulses decreased the coercivity and saturation magnetization of the CoFeCu nanowires due to substitution of Co and Fe with Cu atoms which resulted in electroless process. Coercivity and squareness of the annealed samples increased due to improvement of samples crystallinity. Magnetic measurements showed high perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of the nanowires with easy axis parallel to nanowires axis. X-ray diffraction results indicated that annealed CoFeCu nanowires were polycrystalline with two distinct CoFe and Cu phases.

  3. High temperature tensile and creep properties of a cast AIM and ESR intermetallic alloy based on Fe{sub 3}Al

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baligidad, R.G. [Defence Metallurgical Research Lab., Hyderabad (India); Prakash, U. [Defence Metallurgical Research Lab., Hyderabad (India); Radhakrishna, A. [Defence Metallurgical Research Lab., Hyderabad (India)

    1997-07-15

    A high carbon intermetallic Fe-16 wt.% A1-1.1 wt.% C alloy based on Fe{sub 3}Al was melted under a flux cover by air induction melting (AIM). The AIM ingots exhibited excellent elevated temperature tensile properties in the temperature range (600-800 C) studied, in contrast to poor properties expected in ingots melted without a flux cover. Subsequent processing of the AIM ingots through electroslag remelting (ESR) resulted in improvement in ductility. However, the AIM ingots exhibited better creep properties because of their coarser gain structure. The presence of large (1.1 wt.%) amount of carbon in the alloy resulted in significant improvement in elevated temperature tensile as well as creep properties over those reported for Fe{sub 3}Al based intermetallic alloys with lower carbon contents. These improvements in mechanical properties are attributed to the extensive precipitation of Fe{sub 3}AlC phase and to the formation of a duplex Fe{sub 3}Al-Fe{sub 3}AlC structure at such high levels of carbon. It is suggested that carbon may be an important alloying addition to Fe{sub 3}Al-based intermetallic alloys. (orig.)

  4. Ordering processes and atomic defects in FeCo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeger, A. [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Metallforschung, Stuttgart (Germany); Univ. Stuttgart, Inst. fuer Theoretische und Angewandte Physik (Germany)

    2006-07-15

    The present knowledge on self-diffusion and lattice vacancies in near-stoichiometric body-centred cubic FeCo alloys is critically reviewed and related to the establishment of structural order in the alloy after quenching from elevated temperatures. The available data may be consistently explained in terms of the so-called six-jump cycle mechanism of Huntington, Elcock and McCormick, plus the additional concept of 'pseudo-selfdiffusivity'. It is shown that this leads to an understanding of the observed combinations of high activation enthalpy and large pre-exponential factor in the Fe self-diffusivity on the one hand, and of a lower activation enthalpy and 'normal' pre-exponential factor in the Co self-diffusion on the other hand. For some vacancy properties numerical estimates are given. The potential of muon spin rotation measurements for filling existing gaps in our knowledge is emphasized. A critical discussion of the ''500 C anomaly'' shows that the explanations attempted in the literature are unsatisfactory. It is proposed that the tetragonality of the compounds FeCo{sub 3} and Fe{sub 3}Co predicted by ab-initio calculations of Diaz-Ortiz et al. may lead to a metastable pattern of antiphase domains on a very small scale, the dissolution of which may cause the anomaly. (orig.)

  5. Enhanced ferromagnetic properties and high temperature dielectric anomalies in Bi{sub 0.9}Ca{sub 0.05}Sm{sub 0.05}FeO{sub 3} prepared by hydrothermal method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bharathi, K. Kamala, E-mail: kkamalabharathi@gmail.com [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, KAIST (Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology), Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Ramesh, G. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Patro, L.N. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Raju, N. Ravi Chandra [School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072 (Australia); Kim, Do Kyung, E-mail: dkkim@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, KAIST (Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology), Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Temperature variation of dielectric constant of Bi{sub 0.9}Ca{sub 0.05}Sm{sub 0.05}FeO{sub 3} at various frequencies as a function of temperature indicating anomalies at 420 and 540 K. - Highlights: • Substitution of Sm ions for Bi enhances the saturation magnetization of BiFeO{sub 3}. • XPS studies indicate the creation of oxygen vacancies upon Ca substitution. • Dielectric measurements show dielectric anomalies at high temperatures. • Raman spectra at high temperatures confirm the dielectric anomaly temperatures. - Abstract: Enhanced ferromagnetic properties and high temperature dielectric anomalies in the temperature range of 300–873 K in Bi{sub 0.9}Ca{sub 0.05}Sm{sub 0.05}FeO{sub 3} (BCSFO) prepared by hydrothermal method are reported. BiFeO{sub 3} is seen to crystallize in rhombohedrally distorted perovskite structure without any impurity phase. Substitution of small amount of Ca and Sm (Bi{sub 0.9}Ca{sub 0.05}Sm{sub 0.05}FeO{sub 3}) leads to increase in the lattice constant values and formation of small amount of secondary phase. Magnetization curve of pure BFO indicates very weak ferromagnetism combined with antiferromagnetic nature of the samples. Whereas, BCSFO sample shows very clear and enhanced ferromagnetic nature. Saturation magnetization and Neel’s temperature values are found to be 4.36 emu/g and 664 K, respectively. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicates the creation of oxygen vacancies upon Ca substitution in Bi site. Dielectric anomalies at 420 and 540 K were observed for Bi{sub 0.9}Ca{sub 0.05}Sm{sub 0.05}FeO{sub 3} from the temperature variation of dielectric constant and specific heat capacity measurements. Observation of dielectric anomalies in pure BiFeO{sub 3} sample reveals that the origin of dielectric peaks is purely from the primary phase. Raman spectroscopy study indicates a clear shift and broadening of A modes (between 100 and 200 cm{sup −1}) at the dielectric anomaly temperatures supporting the

  6. Dynamics of CrO 3Fe 2 O 3 Catalysts during the High-Temperature Water-Gas Shift Reaction: Molecular Structures and Reactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keturakis, Christopher J.; Zhu, Minghui; Gibson, Emma K.; Daturi, Marco; Tao, Franklin; Frenkel, Anatoly I.; Wachs, Israel E.

    2016-06-13

    A series of supported CrO3/Fe2O3 catalysts were investigated for the high-temperature water-gas shift (WGS) and reverse-WGS reactions and extensively characterized using in situ and operando IR, Raman, and XAS spectroscopy during the high-temperature WGS/RWGS reactions. The in situ spectroscopy examinations reveal that the initial oxidized catalysts contain surface dioxo (O=)2Cr6+O2 species and a bulk Fe2O3 phase containing some Cr3+ substituted into the iron oxide bulk lattice. Operando spectroscopy studies during the high-temperature WGS/RWGS reactions show that the catalyst transforms during the reaction. The crystalline Fe2O3 bulk phase becomes Fe3O4 ,and surface dioxo (O=)2Cr6+O2 species are reduced and mostly dissolve into the iron oxide bulk lattice. Consequently, the chromium–iron oxide catalyst surface is dominated by FeOx sites, but some minor reduced surface chromia sites are also retained. The Fe3–-xCrxO4 solid solution stabilizes the iron oxide phase from reducing to metallic Fe0 and imparts an enhanced surface area to the catalyst. Isotopic exchange studies with C16O2/H2 → C18O2/H2 isotopic switch directly show that the RWGS reaction proceeds via the redox mechanism and only O* sites from the surface region of the chromium–iron oxide catalysts are involved in the RWGS reaction. The number of redox O* sites was quantitatively determined with the isotope exchange measurements under appropriate WGS conditions and demonstrated that previous methods have undercounted the number of sites by nearly 1 order of magnitude. The TOF values suggest that only the redox O* sites affiliated with iron oxide are catalytic active sites for WGS/RWGS, though a carbonate oxygen

  7. Conductivity and electrochemical characterization of PrFe1-xNixO3-δ at high temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashimoto, Shin-Ichi; Kammer Hansen, Kent; Poulsen, Finn Willy

    2007-01-01

    PrFe(1-x)NixO(3)- (x=0.4-0.6) compounds were synthesized and characterized by powder XRD, electrical conductivity and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy on point electrodes on a Ce0.9Gd0.1O2-delta (CGO10) electrolyte. As a reference, the electrochemical performance of LaFe(0.4)AM(0.6)O(3-delt...

  8. Experimental Analysis of the Effects of CO and CO2 on High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell Performance using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Vang, Jakob Rabjerg

    2010-01-01

    of fuel cells offer many advantages, particularly the increased desorption rate of CO on the anode catalyst. In order to evaluate the impact of CO and CO2 on the dynamic performance of the HTPEM fuel cell, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) has been implemented in Labview, and used on BASF...

  9. Investigations and researches on CO2 balance in a high-temperature carbon dioxide separation technology; Nisanka tanso koon bunri gijutsu ni okeru CO2 balance ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    With an objective to select a promising process by comparing application environments and effectiveness of a high-temperature carbon dioxide separation, recovery and re-utilization technology with other methods, investigations were performed on reducible amount of carbon dioxide discharge by using material balance and system introduction. A large number of chemical and physical technologies are being developed for the separation and refining methods. This paper discusses the technologies for their application to iron and steel making, oil refining, and petrochemical industries, the so-called heavy and large product industries. As a possibility of utilizing the high-temperature separated CO2 in iron and steel making, an investigation was given on the direct iron ore smelting reduction process. It would be unreasonable to use CO2 in oil refining as a substitute to air to regenerate a catalytic decomposition and reformation catalyst because of decline in the catalytic activity. A discussion was given on a case to replace steam with CO2 in steam reformation and pyrolysis of hydrocarbons. The discussion requires the objective to be focused on such items as C/H ratio at a reformer outlet and relationship of balance in decomposition products. The C1 chemical and others were reviewed to search possibilities for their use as raw materials of chemicals used in chemical industries. Possibilities were discussed to fix high-temperature CO2 into peridotite and serpentine. 42 refs., 32 figs., 11 tabs.

  10. Study of Magnetization Reversal Process in FeCo/Ru/FeCo Exchange Coupled Synthetic Antiferromagnetic Multilayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available FeCo/Ru/FeCo exchange coupled synthetic antiferromagnetic multilayers were prepared with two sputtering modes. One is continuous sputtering mode, and the other mode is layer-by-layer sputtering mode. The former mode implies that substrate faced the target and film growth process was continuous when FeCo layers were sputtering, whereas the latter implies that substrate was rotating with the mask at a speed of 5 rpm when FeCo layers were sputtering. It was found that the exchange coupling field Hex of sample sputtered by layer-by-layer mode was higher than the one sputtered by continuous mode. Domain structures were measured with applying varied in-plane magnetic fields along the easy axis in order to study the magnetization reversal process. We found it is a domain wall move process. When the applied field is smaller than Hex, both the two magnetic layers have domain structure and the domain structure of the two layers is reversed correspondingly. When the applied field is varying in the range of -Hex to Hex, the domain wall of the two layers moves correspondingly at the same time.

  11. Laser MBE-grown CoFeB epitaxial layers on MgO: Surface morphology, crystal structure, and magnetic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaveev, Andrey K.; Bursian, Viktor E.; Krichevtsov, Boris B.; Mashkov, Konstantin V.; Suturin, Sergey M.; Volkov, Mikhail P.; Tabuchi, Masao; Sokolov, Nikolai S.

    2018-01-01

    Epitaxial layers of CoFeB were grown on MgO by means of laser molecular beam epitaxy using C o40F e40B20 target. The growth was combined with in situ structural characterization by three-dimensional reciprocal space mapping obtained from reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) data. High-temperature single stage growth regime was adopted to fabricate CoFeB layers. As confirmed by the atomic force microscopy, the surface of CoFeB layers consists of closely spaced nanometer sized islands with dimensions dependent on the growth temperature. As shown by RHEED and XRD analysis, the CoFeB layers grown at high-temperature on MgO(001) possess body centered cubic (bcc) crystal structure with the lattice constant a =2.87 Å close to that of the C o75F e25 alloy. It was further shown that following the same high-temperature growth technique the MgO/CoFeB/MgO(001) heterostructures can be fabricated with top and bottom MgO layers of the same crystallographic orientation. The CoFeB layers were also grown on the GaN(0001) substrates using MgO(111) as a buffer layer. In this case, the CoFeB layers crystallize in bcc crystal structure with the (111) axis perpendicular to the substrate surface. The magnetic properties of the CoFeB/MgO (001) heterostructures have been investigated by measuring magnetization curves with a vibrating sample magnetometer as well as by performing magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) and ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) studies. FMR spectra were obtained for the variety of the magnetic field directions and typically consisted of a single relatively narrow resonance line. The magnetization orientations and the resonance conditions were calculated in the framework of a standard magnetic energy minimization procedure involving a single K1 c cubic term for the magnetocrystalline anisotropy. This allows a fairly accurate description of the angular dependences of the resonance fields—both in-plane and out-of-plane. It was shown that CoFeB layers exhibit

  12. Using TOUGH2/ECO2H for modeling high-pressure and high-temperature CO2-enhanced geothermal energy extraction from saline systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgia, A.; Pruess, K.; Kneafsey, T. J.; Oldenburg, C. M.

    2011-12-01

    Conventional geothermal energy uses water as the fluid to transport heat to the surface. This has a number of drawbacks principally related to strong water-rock chemical reactions, but also in terms of environmental impacts through overdraft of shallow aquifers with valuable water resources. Various authors have proposed the use of CO2 instead of water to transfer heat because such use may result in better rate of heat extraction, less fluid-rock reactivity, and less demand for scarce ground or surface water resources. TOUGH2/ECO2H was developed to study the behavior of high-pressure high-temperature H2O-CO2-NaCl geothermal systems. To demonstrate and test the code, we have modeled an idealized fractured geothermal system. Based on a five-spot well pattern and its inherent symmetry, we use a model grid of 1/8 of a square with sides of 1 km. In the model, CO2 is injected at the four corner-wells at 20 °C and constant pressure of 2.1*10^7 Pa into a variable salinity reservoir which is initially at 200 °C. The center well produces fluid at a constant pressure of 1.9*10^7 Pa. Initially, H2O + NaCl are produced, followed by a mixture of H2O + CO2 + NaCl and, finally only CO2. As soon as the injected CO2 reaches the production well, usually less than 2 months after injection begins, there is a drastic drop in heat production. This decrease occurs because of a reduced flow rate induced by reduction in effective permeability associated with two-phase flow (liquid + gas) in the reservoir. As the liquid phase dries out, the CO2 flow rate increases slowly over about 2-3 years and the heat production reaches a maximum rate that is about 40% larger than the initial rate of production with just water. Our modeling suggests that this same behavior occurs for highly saline geothermal reservoirs, even though the absolute rate of heat production is about 30% lower than the non-saline models. The decrease in production for saline systems is due to a marked reduction in permeability

  13. Tuning exchange spring effects in FePt/Fe(Co) magnetic bilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raghavendra Reddy, V. [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Khandwa Road, Indore-452 017 (India); Crisan, O. [National Institute of Materials Physics, PO Box MG-7, 077125 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Gupta, Ajay; Banerjee, A. [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Khandwa Road, Indore-452 017 (India); Kuncser, V., E-mail: kuncser@infim.ro [National Institute of Materials Physics, PO Box MG-7, 077125 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania)

    2012-01-01

    Structural and magnetic properties of exchange spring magnets consisting of hard magnetic (FePt) and soft magnetic (Fe and Co) bilayers, prepared by ion beam sputtering method are studied via X-ray diffraction (XRD), magneto-optic Kerr effect (MOKE) and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). Thin tracer layers of {sup 57}Fe were introduced in the soft layer in order to observe the Fe spin structure and interfacial diffusion by Conversion Electron Moessbauer Spectroscopy (CEMS). The observed in-plane exchange spring behavior extends also to the magnetic hard layer, whose switching field can be tuned in an unexpected manner via the top soft magnetic layer. To explain the observed phenomenon it is suggested that the increased switching field, found in the system with a Co/Fe bilayer acting as a single soft magnetic layer, is compatible with a peculiar behavior of the stiffness coefficient of the heterogeneous soft magnetic layer. According to this observation, possibilities to maximize the exchange spring effects via suitably chosen non-homogeneous soft magnetic layers are open.

  14. Second Annual Progress Report on Radiation Tolerance of Controlled Fusion Welds in High Temperature Oxidation Resistant FeCrAl Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, Kevin G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gussev, Maxim N. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Yamamoto, Yukinori [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Howard, Richard H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Briggs, Samuel A. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2016-12-30

    The present report summarizes and discusses the current results and on-going activity towards developing a modern, nuclear grade FeCrAl alloy designed to have enhanced radiation tolerance and weldability under the Department of Energy (DOE) Nuclear Energy Enabling Technologies (NEET) program.

  15. RETRACTED ARTICLE: Microstructures and morphologies of B2-Ordered NiAl(Co) and FeAl(Co)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Chang-Sup; Han, Chang-Suk

    2013-03-01

    Fine dispersion of disordered phases is obtained in a Ni-Al-Co and Fe-Al-Co ternary system. A transmission electron microscopy investigation has been performed in the present work on the precipitation of supersaturated B2-ordered (Ni,Co)Al and α-Fe in B2-ordered FeAl(Co) with different stoichiometries. Precipitation behavior and hardening were investigated by measuring the hardness variation. The hardness of (Ni,Co)Al and B2-FeAl(Co) increased appreciably by the fine precipitation of (Ni,Co)2Al, α-Fe, and overage softening occurred after prolonged aging. In case of B2-ordered (Ni,Co)Al, the (Ni,Co)2Al phase had a hexagonal structure and took a rod-like shape with the long axis of the rod parallel to the directions of the B2 matrix. By aging at temperatures below 873 K, a long period superlattice structure appeared in the hexagonal (Ni,Co)2Al phase. The orientation relationship between the (Ni,Co)2Al precipitates and the B2-(Ni,Co)Al matrix was (0001)p//(111)B2 and [bar 12bar 10]_p //[bar 110]_{B2}, where the suffix p and B2 denote the (Ni,Co)2Al precipitate and the B2-(Ni,Co)Al matrix, respectively. (Ni,Co)Al hardened appreciably by the fine precipitation of the (Ni,Co)2Al phase. On the other hand, in case of B2-FeAl(Co), the disordered α-Fe phase was present as a precipitate in a B2-FeAl(Co) matrix and had a cubic-cubic orientation with the matrix. At the early aging periods, prismatic dislocation loops formed in the B2-FeAl(Co) matrix. B2-FeAl(Co) matrix was typically hardened by the precipitation of α-Fe.

  16. Fe and Co NMR studies of magnetoelectric Co2 Y-type hexaferrite BSCFAO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Baeksoon; Kwon, Sangil; Lee, Soonchil; Park, Chang Bae; Shin, Kwang Woo; Kim, Keehoon

    2018-02-01

    The Fe3+ and Co2+ NMR spectra for Ba0.3Sr1.7Co2(Fe0.96Al0.04)12O22 (BSCFAO) and Ba0.3Sr1.7Co2Fe12O22 (BSCFO) were obtained in a zero magnetic field at a low temperature. We observed change in the enhancement effect of the NMR signals depending on the setting field, which was varied when applied along the b-axis and then turned off before the measurement was taken. The experimental results indicate that the magnetic structure changes from an alternating longitudinal cone to a transverse cone when the setting field is 250 mT. They also show that the spins of Co2+ ions together with those of Fe3+ ions constitute a part of the overall magnetic structure and that the substitution of Al3+ for Fe3+ weakens the magnetic anisotropy within the easy plane. From a comparison of the enhancement factors of the Fe3+ NMR obtained with the RF pulse applied along the a-axis and the c-axis, we found that the magnetic easy plane anisotropy is approximately 16 times greater than the anisotropy within the easy plane. No changes of the NMR spectra were observed under an electric field of 1.2 MV m‑1.

  17. Sol-gel-cum-hydrothermal synthesis of mesoporous Co-Fe ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A combined sol-gel-cum-hydrothermalmethod has been employed to synthesize novelmonometallic (Mn, Fe, Co) and bimetallic (Co-Fe, Mn-Co, Fe-Mn) nanoparticles loaded onto Al₂O₃−MCM-41. Powder XRD, N2 sorption, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and high resolution transmission electron ...

  18. On the Solidification and Phase Stability of a Co-Cr-Fe-Ni-Ti High-Entropy Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, An-Chou; Chang, Yao-Jen; Tsai, Che-Wei; Wang, Yen-Chun; Yeh, Jien-Wei; Kuo, Chen-Ming

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, a Co1.5CrFeNi1.5Ti0.5 high-entropy alloy has been investigated for its high-temperature microstructural stability. This material is shown to possess mainly a face-centered cubic (FCC) structure; the η phase is present at the interdendritic region in the as-cast condition, and it is stable between 1073 K and 1273 K (800 °C and 1000 °C); γ' particles are found throughout the microstructures below 1073 K (800 °C). Segregation analysis has been conducted on a single crystal sample fabricated by a directional solidification process with a single crystal seed. Results show that Co, Cr, and Fe partition toward the dendritic region, while Ni and Ti partition toward the interdendritic areas. Scheil analysis indicates that the solid-liquid partitioning ratio of each element is very similar to those in typical single crystal superalloys.

  19. High-temperature behaviour of astrophyllite, K2NaFe7 2+Ti2(Si4O12)2O2(OH)4F: a combined X-ray diffraction and Mössbauer spectroscopic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhitova, Elena S.; Krivovichev, Sergey V.; Hawthorne, Frank C.; Krzhizhanovskaya, Maria G.; Zolotarev, Andrey A.; Abdu, Yassir A.; Yakovenchuk, Viktor N.; Pakhomovsky, Yakov A.; Goncharov, Alexey G.

    2017-09-01

    High-temperature X-ray powder-diffraction study of astrophyllite, K2NaFe7 2+Ti2(Si4O12)2O2(OH)4F, and investigation of the samples annealed at 600 and 700 °C, reveal the occurrence of a phase transformation due to the thermal iron oxidation coupled with (1) deprotonation according to the scheme Fe2+ + OH- → Fe3+ + O2- + ½H2 ↑, and (2) defluorination according to the scheme Fe2+ + F- → Fe3+ + O2-. The phase transformation occurs at 500 °C, it is irreversible and without symmetry changes. The mineral decomposes at 775 °C. Both astrophyllite and its high-temperature dehydroxylated (HT) modification are triclinic, P-1. The unit-cell parameters are a = 5.3752(1), b = 11.8956(3), c = 11.6554(3) Å, α = 113.157(3), β = 94.531(2), γ = 103.112(2)º, V = 655.47(3) Å3 for unheated astrophyllite, and a = 5.3287(4), b = 11.790(1), c = 11.4332(9) Å, α = 112.530(8), β = 94.539(6), γ = 103.683(7)º, V = 633.01(9) Å3 for the HT (annealed) modification of astrophyllite. The oxidation of iron is confirmed: (1) by the presence of an exothermic effect at 584 °C in the DTA/TG curves in an Ar-O atmosphere and its absence in an Ar-Ar atmosphere and (2) by ex situ Mössbauer spectroscopy that showed the oxidation of Fe2+ to Fe3+ in the samples heated to 700 °C. Deprotonation was detected by the evolution of IR spectra in the region 3600-3000 cm-1 for astrophyllite and its HT modification. Defluorination was detected by the presence of F in the electron microprobe analysis of unheated astrophyllite and the absence of F in the analysis of unpolished heated astrophyllite. The significant difference between astrophyllite and its HT modification is in the reduction of the M-O interatomic distances after heating to 500 °C and the distortion indices of the MO6 and Dφ6 octahedra. Thermal behaviour of astrophyllite in the 25-475 °C temperature range can be described as a volume thermal expansion with maximal coefficient of thermal expansion in the direction perpendicular to

  20. Study of structural, electronic and magnetic properties of CoFeIn and Co{sub 2}FeIn Heusler alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Amine Monir, M. [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique de la Matière et de la Modélisation Mathématique (LPQ3M), Faculté des Sciences, Université de Mascara, Mascara 29000 (Algeria); Khenata, R., E-mail: khenata_rabah@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique de la Matière et de la Modélisation Mathématique (LPQ3M), Faculté des Sciences, Université de Mascara, Mascara 29000 (Algeria); Baltache, H. [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique de la Matière et de la Modélisation Mathématique (LPQ3M), Faculté des Sciences, Université de Mascara, Mascara 29000 (Algeria); Murtaza, G., E-mail: murtaza@icp.edu.pk [Materials Modeling Lab, Department of Physics, Islamia College University, Peshawar (Pakistan); Abu-Jafar, M.S., E-mail: mabujafar@najah.edu [Dipartimento di Fisica Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' , Roma (Italy); Department of Physics, An-Najah N. University, Nablus, Palestine (Country Unknown); Bouhemadou, A. [Laboratory for Developing New Materials and their Characterization, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Setif, 19000 Setif (Algeria); Bin Omran, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); and others

    2015-11-15

    The structural, electronic and magnetic properties of half-Heusler CoFeIn and full-Heusler Co{sub 2}FeIn alloys have been investigated by using the state of the art full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method. The exchange-correlation potential was treated with the generalized gradient approximation (PBE-GGA) for the calculation of the structural properties, whereas the PBE-GGA+U approximation (where U is the Hubbard Coulomb energy term) is applied for the computation of the electronic and magnetic properties in order to treat the “d” electrons. The structural properties have been calculated in the paramagnetic and ferromagnetic phases where we have found that both the CoFeIn and Co{sub 2}FeIn alloys have a stable ferromagnetic phase. The obtained results of the spin-polarized band structure and the density of states show that the CoFeIn alloy is a metal and the Co{sub 2}FeIn alloy has a complete half-metallic nature. Through the obtained values of the total spin magnetic moment, we conclude that in general, the Co{sub 2}FeIn alloy is half-metallic ferromagnet material whereas the CoFeIn alloy has a metallic nature. - Highlights: • Based on DFT calculations, CoFeIn and Co2FeIn Heusler alloys were investigated. • The magnetic phase stability was determined from the total energy calculations. • Electronic properties reveal the metallic (half-metallic) nature for CoFeIn (Co2FeIn)

  1. Magnetoelasticity in ACr2O4 spinel oxides (A= Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocsis, V.; Bordács, S.; Varjas, D.; Penc, K.; Abouelsayed, A.; Kuntscher, C. A.; Ohgushi, K.; Tokura, Y.; Kézsmárki, I.

    2013-02-01

    Dynamical properties of the lattice structure were studied by optical spectroscopy in ACr2O4 chromium spinel oxide magnetic semiconductors over a broad temperature region of T=10-335 K. The systematic change of the A-site ions (A= Mn, Fe, Co, Ni and Cu) showed that the occupancy of 3d orbitals on the A site has strong impact on the lattice dynamics. For compounds with orbital degeneracy (FeCr2O4, NiCr2O4, and CuCr2O4), clear splitting of infrared-active phonon modes and/or activation of silent vibrational modes have been observed upon the Jahn-Teller transition and at the onset of the subsequent long-range magnetic order. Although MnCr2O4 and CoCr2O4 show multiferroic and magnetoelectric character, no considerable magnetoelasticity was found in spinel compounds without orbital degeneracy as they closely preserve the high-temperature cubic spinel structure even in their magnetic ground state. Aside from lattice vibrations, intra-atomic 3d-3d transitions of the A2+ ions were also investigated to determine the crystal field and Racah parameters and the strength of the spin-orbit coupling.

  2. Preferential growth in FeCoV/Ti:N multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clemens, D.; Senthil Kumar, M.; Boeni, P.; Horisberger, M. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    The preferential growth in Fe{sub 0.50}Co{sub 0.48}V{sub 0.02}/Ti:N multilayers was studied by X-ray diffraction. X-ray specular reflectometry and subsequent simulation of the spectra was used to extract information about the thickness and interface roughness of individual layers. The investigation gives structural information about the material combination and its potential for the use of neutron polarizers. (author) 2 figs., 1 tab., 2 refs.

  3. First Annual Progress Report on Radiation Tolerance of Controlled Fusion Welds in High Temperature Oxidation Resistant FeCrAl Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, Kevin G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gussev, Maxim N. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hu, Xunxiang [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Yamamoto, Yukinori [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Howard, Richard H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The present report summarizes and discusses the first year efforts towards developing a modern, nuclear grade FeCrAl alloy designed to have enhanced radiation tolerance and weldability under the Department of Energy (DOE) Nuclear Energy Enabling Technologies (NEET) program. Significant efforts have been made within the first year of this project including the fabrication of seven candidate FeCrAl alloys with well controlled chemistry and microstructure, the microstructural characterization of these alloys using standardized and advanced techniques, mechanical properties testing and evaluation of base alloys, the completion of welding trials and production of weldments for subsequent testing, the design of novel tensile specimen geometry to increase the number of samples that can be irradiated in a single capsule and also shorten the time of their assessment after irradiation, the development of testing procedures for controlled hydrogen ingress studies, and a detailed mechanical and microstructural assessment of weldments prior to irradiation or hydrogen charging. These efforts and research results have shown promise for the FeCrAl alloy class as a new nuclear grade alloy class.

  4. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in Ta|Co40Fe40B20|MgAl2O4 structures and perpendicular CoFeB|MgAl2O4|CoFeB magnetic tunnel junction

    KAUST Repository

    Tao, B. S.

    2014-09-08

    Magnetic properties of Co40Fe40B20(CoFeB) thin films sandwiched between Ta and MgAl2O4layers have been systematically studied. For as-grown state, Ta/CoFeB/MgAl2O4structures exhibit good perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) with interface anisotropy Ki=1.22erg/cm2, which further increases to 1.30erg/cm2after annealing, while MgAl2O4/CoFeB/Ta multilayer shows in-plane magnetic anisotropy and must be annealed in order to achieve PMA. For bottom CoFeB layer, the thickness window for PMA is from 0.6 to 1.0nm, while that for top CoFeB layer is between 0.8 and 1.4nm. Perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions (p-MTJs) with a core structure of CoFeB/MgAl2O4/CoFeB have also been fabricated and tunneling magnetoresistance ratio of about 36% at room temperature and 63% at low temperature have been obtained. The intrinsic excitations in the p-MTJs have been identified by inelastic electron-tunneling spectroscopy.

  5. Effect of interface on magnetic properties of Co{sub 20}Fe{sub 60}B{sub 20} in ion-beam sputtered Si/CoFeB/MgO and Si/MgO/CoFeB bilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raju, M., E-mail: rajuhcu519@gmail.com [Thin Film Laboratory, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110 016 (India); Chaudhary, Sujeet; Pandya, D.K. [Thin Film Laboratory, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110 016 (India)

    2013-04-15

    Effect of interface on magnetic properties of Co{sub 20}Fe{sub 60}B{sub 20} in ion-beam sputtered Si/MgO/CoFeB(top) and Si/CoFeB(bottom)/MgO bilayers is reported. The X-ray reflectivity and magneto-optical Kerr effect analysis revealed that, the interface between bottom MgO and top CoFeB is sensitive to the MgO growth process (post-oxidation, ion-assisted and reactive growth) and its process parameters (assist-ion energy). An increase in interface width from 0.17 nm to 0.47 nm correlates to increase in coercivity from 6 Oe to 34 Oe, decrease of in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy (UMA) from 8×10{sup 3} to 5×10{sup 3} J/m{sup 3} and changes in magnetization reversal. In contrast, the CoFeB(bottom)/MgO interface shows different magnetic behavior and no UMA. - Highlights: ► Dependence of the magnetic response of CoFeB on interface with MgO. ► Growth methods studied for MgO are post-oxidation, reactive and ion-assisted growth. ► Significant amount of in-plane magnetic anisotropy observed for CoFeB(top)/MgO. ► Absence of in-plane magnetic anisotropy in MgO/CoFeB(bottom)

  6. Magnetization switching diagram of a perpendicular synthetic ferrimagnet CoFeB/Ta/CoFeB bilayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koplak, O. [Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, 236041 Kaliningrad (Russian Federation); Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics, 142432 Chernogolovka, Moscow (Russian Federation); Talantsev, A. [Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics, 142432 Chernogolovka, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lu, Y.; Hamadeh, A.; Pirro, P.; Hauet, T. [Institut Jean Lamour, UMR 7198 CNRS, Université de Lorraine (France); Morgunov, R., E-mail: morgunov2005@yandex.ru [Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics, 142432 Chernogolovka, Moscow (Russian Federation); Tambov State Technical University, 392000 Tambov (Russian Federation); Mangin, S. [Institut Jean Lamour, UMR 7198 CNRS, Université de Lorraine (France)

    2017-07-01

    Highlights: • Anisotropy, Zeeman and exchange energy determine sequence of magnetic transitions. • Three temperature ranges manifest different shapes of the hysteresis loop. • The critical transition fields are temperature dependent. - Abstract: Magnetic configurations in synthetic ferrimagnet CoFeB/Ta/CoFeB bilayer with strong perpendicular anisotropy have been systematically studied. Magnetization versus field hysteresis loop has been measured for different temperature ranging from 5 to 300 K. The applied field – temperature (H-T) magnetization switching diagram has been constructed by extracting the different switching fields as a function of temperature. This switching diagram can be well explained by considering the competition between energy barrier of layer’s magnetization reversal, interlayer exchange coupling, and Zeeman energy.

  7. Effect of Aging, Antioxidant, and Mono- and Divalent Ions at High Temperature on the Rheology of New Polyacrylamide-Based Co-Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Akbari

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The viscosity of four new polymers was investigated for the effect of aging at high temperature, with varying degrees of salinity and hardness. The four sulfonated based polyacrylamide co-polymers were FLOCOMB C7035; AN132 VHM; SUPERPUSHER SAV55; and THERMOASSOCIATIF copolymers. All polymer samples were aged at 80 °C for varying times (from zero to at least 90 days with and without isobutyl alcohol (IBA as an antioxidant. To see the effect of divalent ions on the polymer solution viscosity, parallel experiments were performed in a mixture of CaCl2-NaCl of the same ionic strength as 5 wt % NaCl. The polymers without IBA showed severe viscosity reduction after aging for 90 days in both types of preparation (5 wt % NaCl or CaCl2-NaCl. In the presence of IBA, viscosity was increased when aging time was increased for 5 wt % NaCl. In CaCl2-NaCl, on the other hand, a viscosity reduction was observed as aging time was increased. This behavior was observed for all polymers except AN132 VHM.

  8. CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB structures with orthogonal easy axes: perpendicular anisotropy and damping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Głowiński, H.; Żywczak, A.; Wrona, J.; Krysztofik, A.; Gościańska, I.; Stobiecki, T.; Dubowik, J.

    2017-12-01

    We report on the Gilbert damping parameter α, the effective magnetization 4π M_eff , and the asymmetry of the g-factor in bottom-CoFeB(0.93 nm)/MgO(0.90–1.25 nm)/CoFeB(1.31 nm)-top as-deposited systems. Magnetization of CoFeB layers exhibits a specific noncollinear configuration with orthogonal easy axes and with 4π M_eff values of +2.2 kG and -2.3 kG for the bottom and top layers, respectively. We show that 4π M_eff depends on the asymmetry g_\\perp - g_\\Vert of the g-factor measured in the perpendicular and the in-plane directions revealing a highly nonlinear relationship. In contrast, the Gilbert damping is practically the same for both layers. Annealing of the films results in collinear easy axes perpendicular to the plane for both layers. However, the linewidth is strongly increased due to enhanced inhomogeneous broadening.

  9. Structure and magnetic properties of SmCo5/X (X=Fe, Fe-Co, Co) magnetic bilayer films on MgO(110) substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Ataru; Hotta, Yusuke; Yamada, Makoto; Ohtake, Mitsuru; Futamoto, Masaaki; Kirino, Fumiyoshi; Inaba, Nobuyuki

    2017-10-01

    Sm17Co83 (at%) films are prepared on bcc-Cr(211), bcc-Fe(211), bcc-Fe65Co35(211), and hcp-Co(1 1 (_) 00) underlayers hetero-epitaxially grown on MgO(110) substrates at 500 °C by using a UHV-MBE system. The growth behavior and the structures are investigated by in-situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction and X-ray diffraction. Sm-Co(1 1 (_) 00) single-crystal films of RT5 ordered structure with the c-axis lying in the film plane grow epitaxially on the underlayers. Small volumes of amorphous phases are interpreted to be involved in the films deposited on these underlayers. The crystal lattice of RT5 magnetic film is slightly deformed from the bulk hexagonal structure, which is caused possibly by the lattice mismatch with the underlayer. The order degree of film deposited on Cr underlayer is higher (S=0.77) than those prepared on Fe, Fe65Co35, and Co underlayers (S: 0.67-0.71). The films show in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropies reflecting the magnetocrystalline anisotropy of SmCo5 crystal.

  10. A high-throughput investigation of Fe-Cr-Al as a novel high-temperature coating for nuclear cladding materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunn, Jonathan Kenneth; Fang, Randy L; Albing, Mark R; Mehta, Apurva; Kramer, Matthew J; Besser, Matthew F; Hattrick-Simpers, Jason R

    2015-07-10

    High-temperature alloy coatings that can resist oxidation are urgently needed as nuclear cladding materials to mitigate the danger of hydrogen explosions during meltdown. Here we apply a combination of computationally guided materials synthesis, high-throughput structural characterization and data analysis tools to investigate the feasibility of coatings from the Fe–Cr–Al alloy system. Composition-spread samples were synthesized to cover the region of the phase diagram previous bulk studies have identified as forming protective oxides. The metallurgical and oxide phase evolution were studied via in situ synchrotron glancing incidence x-ray diffraction at temperatures up to 690 K. A composition region with an Al concentration greater than 3.08 at%, and between 20.0 at% and 32.9 at% Cr showed the least overall oxide growth. Subsequently, a series of samples were deposited on stubs and their oxidation behavior at 1373 K was observed. The continued presence of a passivating oxide was confirmed in this region over a period of 6 h.

  11. H + CH{sub 2}CO {yields} CH{sub 3} + CO at high temperature : a high pressure chemical activation reaction with positive barrier.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hranisavljevic, J.; Kumaran, S. S.; Michael, J. V.

    1997-12-08

    The Laser Photolysis-Shock Tube (LP-ST) technique coupled with H-atom atomic resonance absorption spectrometry (ARAS) has been used to study reaction, H + CH{sub 2}CO {r_arrow} CH{sub 3} + CO, over the temperature range, 863-1400 K. The results can be represented by the Arrhenius expression, k = (4.85 {+-} 0.70) x 10{sup {minus}11} exp({minus}2328 {+-} 155 K/T) cm{sup 3} molecule{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1}. The present data have been combined with the earlier low temperature flash photolysis-resonance fluorescence measurements to yield a joint three parameter expression, k = 5.44 x 10{sup {minus}14} T{sup 0.8513} exp({minus}1429 K/T) cm{sup 3} molecule{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1}. This is a chemical activation process that proceeds through vibrationally excited acetyl radicals. However, due to the presence of a low lying forward dissociation channel to CH{sub 3} + CO, the present results refer to the high pressure limiting rate constants. Hence, transition state theory with Eckart tunneling is used to explain the data.

  12. Heterobimetallic Complexes Featuring Fe(CO)5 as a Ligand on Gold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Rasika; Wang, Guocang; Ponduru, Tharun T; Wang, Qing; Zhao, Lili; Frenking, Gernot

    2017-10-27

    Iron(0) pentacarbonyl complexes of gold(I), [Mes3PAu-Fe(CO)5][SbF6] (1) and [(IPr*)Au-Fe(CO)5][SbF6] (2) (Mes = 2,4,6-trimethylphenyl; IPr* = 1,3-bis(2,6-bis(diphenylmethyl)-4-methylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene) have been synthesized using Mes3PAuCl and (IPr*)AuCl as the gold(I) precursor, AgSbF6 halide ion abstractor, and the Lewis base Fe(CO)5. The Au-Fe bond distances of these metal-only Lewis pair complexes are significantly shorter than the sum of the experimentally derived covalent radii of Au and Fe. The v(CO) bands of the molecules show a notable blue shift relative to those observed for free Fe(CO)5, indicating a substantial reduction in Fe->CO backbonding upon its coordination to gold(I) with either Mes3P or IPr* supporting ligands (L). The analysis of the electronic structure with quantum chemical method suggests that the Au-Fe bond comes mainly from [LAu]+←Fe(CO)5 σ donation and weaker [LAu]+→Fe(CO)5 π backdonation. The donor strength of Fe(CO)5 is similar to that of CO. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Crystallization Behavior and Thermal Analysis of CoFeB Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiun-Yi Tseng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined two targets containing Co40Fe40B20 and Co60Fe20B20. We deposited Co40Fe40B20 and Co60Fe20B20 monolayer thin films of various thicknesses on glass substrates through DC magnetron sputtering; the thicknesses ranged from 25 to 200 Å. The thermal properties of the Co40Fe40B20 and Co60Fe20B20 thin films were determined using a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC. The thermal properties included the glass transition temperature (Tg, onset crystallization temperature (Tx, and glass-forming ability, which were determined according to these values. Using the Kissinger formula revealed that the activation energy of the Co60Fe20B20 with a thickness of 75 Å is the highest, implying that crystallization was the lowest and the Co60Fe20B20 film showed anticrystallization properties. However, the energy of 75 Å Co40Fe40B20 thin films was the lowest, which is opposite to that of Co60Fe20B20. This observation can be reasonably explained based on the concentration of Co or Fe. Therefore, a thickness of 75 Å is critical.

  14. Catalytic CO hydrogenation on potassic Fe/zeolite LTL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cagnoli, M.V.; Gallegos, N.G.; Alvarez, A.M.; Bengoa, J.F.; Yeramian, A.A.; Marchetti, S.G. [CINDECA, Fac. Cs. Exactas, Fac. Ing., UNLP, CICBA, CONICET, Calle 47 No. 257, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Schmal, M. [NUCAT-PEQ-COPPE/UFRJ, CP68502, CEP21945-970, Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2002-04-30

    Zeolite LTL in the potassic form (K-LTL) was used as support of iron. The precursor was characterized by temperature programmed reduction (TPR) and Moessbauer spectroscopy (MS) at 298 and 15K. The catalyst was obtained reducing the precursor with H{sub 2} and its structural properties were studied by H{sub 2} chemisorption, volumetric oxidation and MS under controlled conditions at 298 and 15K. Measurements of activity and selectivity were carried out at 1 and 20bar in the CO hydrogenation. Two different types of active sites were detected: Fe{sup 0} inside the zeolite channels and carburized iron on its external surface. The solid showed a high activity and selectivity towards light alkenes in comparison with other iron supported systems (Fe/SiO{sub 2}, Fe/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Fe/C). This behavior can be attributed to the high percentage of metallic iron promoted by potassium ions, located inside the zeolite channels. The external carbide crystals generate hydrocarbons in the diesel oil range.

  15. Enhanced orbital magnetic moment in FeCo nanogranules observed by Barnett effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Y.; Chudo, H.; Gu, B.; Kobayashi, N.; Ono, M.; Harii, K.; Matsuo, M.; Saitoh, E.; Maekawa, S.

    2017-11-01

    The gyroscopic g factor, g‧ , of FeCo nanogranules embedded in a matrix of MgF2 (FeCo-MgF2) was determined by measuring the magnetic-field generation from a rotating sample due to the Barnett effect. The g‧ value of the FeCo-MgF2 is estimated to be 1.76 ± 0.11. The orbital contribution to the magnetic moment in the FeCo nanogranules was found to be quite large compared with that in bulk FeCo, being consistent with a density-functional-theory calculation that shows that the orbital magnetic moment may increase at the FeCo/MgF2 interfaces. The result suggests that the orbital magnetic moment is enhanced by symmetry breaking at the surface of the FeCo nanogranules.

  16. Synthesis of highly efficient α-Fe2O3 catalysts for CO oxidation derived from MIL-100(Fe)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Lifeng; Zhao, Di; Yang, Yang; Wang, Yuxin; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2017-03-01

    Mesoporous hollow α-Fe2O3 bricks were synthesized via a hydrothermal method to create a precursor MIL-100(Fe) and a subsequent calcination process was applied to prepare the Fe2O3 phase. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results showed the morphology of hollow α-Fe2O3 bricks which inherited from the MIL-100(Fe) template. The catalytic activities of hollow α-Fe2O3 bricks for CO oxidation are studied in this work. Due to better low temperature reduction behavior, mesoporous hollow α-Fe2O3 bricks obtained at calcination temperature of 430 °C displayed high catalytic activity and excellent stability with a complete CO conversion temperature (T100) of 255 °C.

  17. High temperature battery. Hochtemperaturbatterie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulling, M.

    1992-06-04

    To prevent heat losses of a high temperature battery, it is proposed to make the incoming current leads in the area of their penetration through the double-walled insulating housing as thermal throttle, particularly spiral ones.

  18. Influence of substrate temperature in BiFeO 3-CoFe 2O 4 nanocomposites deposited on SrTiO 3 (0 0 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dix, N.; Muralidharan, R.; Caicedo, J. M.; Hrabovsky, D.; Fina, I.; Fàbrega, L.; Skumryev, V.; Varela, M.; Guyonnet, J.; Paruch, P.; Sánchez, F.; Fontcuberta, J.

    2009-06-01

    BiFeO 3-CoFe 2O 4 epitaxial nanocomposites have been deposited on SrTiO 3 (0 0 1) substrates by pulsed laser deposition. We present here a study of the influence of the deposition temperature ( TS), in the 550-800 °C range, on the film composition, morphology and microstructure. Electron-probe microanalysis shows strong reduction of the Bi content in the films when increasing TS. Films prepared at TS=750 °C and above are virtually Bi-free. X-ray diffraction (XRD) data show that, due to the volatility of Bi, there is a progressive reduction in the amount of BiFeO 3. The deposition temperature and the concomitant presence of Fe xO y spurious phases in the nanocomposites grown at high temperature promote radical changes in film morphology and magnetization. It thus follows that a temperature range suitable for controlled modification of nanocomposites morphology would be extremely narrow.

  19. Nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 exerts a negative effect on starch accumulation and growth in rice seedlings under high temperature and CO2 concentration conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Kentaro; Inomata, Takuya; Masui, Takahiro; Koshu, Tsutomu; Umezawa, Yukiho; Itoh, Kimiko; Pozueta-Romero, Javier; Mitsui, Toshiaki

    2014-02-01

    Nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase (NPP) is a widely distributed enzymatic activity occurring in both plants and mammals that catalyzes the hydrolytic breakdown of the pyrophosphate and phosphodiester bonds of a number of nucleotides. Unlike mammalian NPPs, the physiological function of plant NPPs remains largely unknown. Using a complete rice NPP1-encoding cDNA as a probe, in this work we have screened a rice shoot cDNA library and obtained complete cDNAs corresponding to six NPP genes (NPP1-NPP6). As a first step to clarify the role of NPPs, recombinant NPP1, NPP2 and NPP6 were purified from transgenic rice cells constitutively expressing NPP1, NPP2 and NPP6, respectively, and their enzymatic properties were characterized. NPP1 and NPP6 exhibited hydrolytic activities toward ATP, UDP-glucose and the starch precursor molecule, ADP-glucose, whereas NPP2 did not recognize nucleotide sugars as substrates, but hydrolyzed UDP, ADP and adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate. To gain insight into the physiological function of rice NPP1, an npp1 knockout mutant was characterized. The ADP-glucose hydrolytic activities in shoots of npp1 rice seedlings were 8% of those of the wild type (WT), thus indicating that NPP1 is a major determinant of ADP-glucose hydrolytic activity in rice shoots. Importantly, when seedlings were cultured at 160 Pa CO2 under a 28°C/23°C (12 h light/12 h dark) regime, npp1 shoots and roots were larger than those of wild-type (WT) seedlings. Furthermore, the starch content in the npp1 shoots was higher than that of WT shoots. Growth and starch accumulation were also enhanced under an atmospheric CO2 concentration (40 Pa) when plants were cultured under a 33°C/28°C regime. The overall data strongly indicate that NPP1 exerts a negative effect on plant growth and starch accumulation in shoots, especially under high CO2 concentration and high temperature conditions.

  20. Fabrication of highly spin-polarized Co2FeAl0.5Si0.5 thin-films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Vahidi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Ferromagnetic Heusler Co2FeAl0.5Si0.5 epitaxial thin-films have been fabricated in the L21 structure with saturation magnetizations over 1200 emu/cm3. Andreev reflection measurements show that the spin polarization is as high as 80% in samples sputtered on unheated MgO (100 substrates and annealed at high temperatures. However, the spin polarization is considerably smaller in samples deposited on heated substrates.

  1. A Novel Ternary CoFe2O4/CuO/CoFe2O4 as a Giant Magnetoresistance Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramli

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of a study relating to the synthesis of a novel ternary CoFe2O4/CuO/CoFe2O4 thin film as a giant magnetoresistance (GMR sensor. The CoFe2O4/CuO/CoFe2O4 thin film was prepared onto silicon substrate via DC magnetron sputtering with the targets facing each other. X-ray diffraction was used to determine the structure of the thin film and a 4-point method was used to measure the MR ratio. The GMR ratio is highly dependent on the ferrimagnetic (CoFe2O4 and nonmagnetic (CuO layer thickness. The maximum GMR ratio at room temperature obtained in the CoFe2O4/CuO/CoFe2O4 thin film was 70% when the CoFe2O4 and the CuO layer had a thickness of 62.5 nm and 14.4 nm respectively.

  2. Effect of extra nonmagnetic Ga atoms on lattice ordering and magnetic properties of Fe2CoGa and Co2FeGa Heusler compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakimi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Arc-melting with ball milling was used for preparing Fe2CoGa1+x and Co2FeGa1+x (x=0,0.2 Heusler samples. Effect of extra nonmagnetic Ga atoms on lattice ordering and magnetic properties of Fe2CoGa and Co2FeGa Heusler compounds was studied. Rietveld refinement showed that lattice parameter of the samples increases in the presence of extra Ga atoms. Results showed that Co2FeGa1.2 has a partial lattice disordering. Saturation magnetization of Co2FeGa sample was lower than Slater – Paulig prediction due to the crystallite size on a scale of nanometer. Reduction of saturation magnetization by increasing Ga atoms was explained through the change of lattice parameter, lattice ordering, and crystallite size. Saturation magnetization of Fe2CoGa sample was greater than Slater – Paulig value. Change of lattice parameter by increasing Ga atoms resulted a decrease of saturation magnetization in Fe2CoGa1.2

  3. Controlling phase formation in solids: rational synthesis of phase separated Co@Fe2O3 heteroparticles and CoFe2O4 nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhjavan, Bahar; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; Panthöfer, Martin; Gao, Haitao; Gasi, Teuta; Ksenofontov, Vadim; Branscheid, Robert; Weber, Stefan; Kolb, Ute; Schreiber, Laura Maria; Tremel, Wolfgang

    2011-08-21

    A wet chemical approach from organometallic reactants allowed the targeted synthesis of Co@Fe(2)O(3) heterodimer and CoFe(2)O(4) ferrite nanoparticles. They display magnetic properties that are useful for magnetic MRI detection. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  4. SYNTHESIS OF M–Nd DOPED Fe3O4 NANOPARTICLES (M = Co ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    The size of Fe3O4 and Nd-Co doped Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles were approximately 15 nm. Magnetic measurement revealed that the nanoparticles were super paramagnetic at room temperature. It was found that the magnetic response of the Fe3O4 increased when it was doped with Nd3+ and Co2+. However, the.

  5. Electrodeposited Fe-Co films prepared from a citric-acid-based plating bath

    OpenAIRE

    Yanai, Takeshi; Uto, H; Shimokawa, Takaya; Nakano, Masaki; Fukunaga, Hirotoshi; Suzuki, K.

    2013-01-01

    Electrodeposited Fe-Co films are commonly prepared in a boric-acid-based bath. In this research, we applied citric acid instead of boric acid for the plating of Fe-Co films because boron in the waste bath is restricted by environmental-protection regulations in Japan. We evaluated the effect of citric acid on the magnetic and structural properties of the films. The saturation magnetization of the Fe-Co films slightly increased while the Fe content in the Fe-Co films decreased with increasing ...

  6. Thermo-Exfoliated Graphite Containing CuO/Cu2(OH3NO3:(Co2+/Fe3+ Composites: Preparation, Characterization and Catalytic Performance in CO Conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladyslav V. Lisnyak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermo-exfoliated graphite (TEG/CuO/Cu2(OH3NO3:(Co2+/Fe3+ composites were prepared using a wet impregnation method and subsequent thermal treatment. The physicochemical characterization of the composites was carried out by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and Ar temperature-desorption techniques. The catalytic efficiency toward CO conversion to CO2 was examined under atmospheric pressure. Characterization of species adsorbed over the composites taken after the activity tests were performed by means of temperature programmed desorption massspectrometry (TPD MS. (TEG/CuO/Cu2(OH3NO3:(Co2+/Fe3+ composites show superior performance results if lower temperatures and extra treatment with H2SO4 or HNO3 are used at the preparation stages. The catalytic properties enhancements can be related to the Cu2(OH3NO3 phase providing reaction centers for the CO conversion. It has been found that prevalence of low-temperature states of desorbed CO2 over high-temperature ones in the TPD MS spectra is characteristic of the most active composite catalysts.

  7. Technological Evolution of High Temperature Superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    TEMPERATURE SUPERCONDUCTORS by Jordan R. White December 2015 Thesis Advisor: Clifford Whitcomb Co-Advisor: Fotis Papoulias THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY...AND SUBTITLE TECHNOLOGICAL EVOLUTION OF HIGH TEMPERATURE SUPERCONDUCTORS 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Jordan R. White 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION...trends. 14. SUBJECT TERMS electric ships, high temperature superconductor , HTS 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 111 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION

  8. High Temperature QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Lombardo, M P

    2012-01-01

    I review recent results on QCD at high temperature on a lattice. Steady progress with staggered fermions and Wilson type fermions allow a quantitative description of hot QCD whose accuracy in many cases parallels that of zero temperature studies. Simulations with chiral quarks are coming of age, and togheter with theoretical developments trigger interesting developments in the analysis of the critical region. Issues related with the universality class of the chiral transition and the fate of the axial symmetry are discussed in the light of new numerical and analytical results. Transport coefficients and analysis of bottomonium spectra compare well with results of heavy ion collisions at RHIC and LHC. Model field theories, lattice simulations and high temperature systematic expansions help building a coherent picture of the high temperature phase of QCD. The (strongly coupled) Quark Gluon Plasma is heavily investigated, and asserts its role as an inspiring theoretical laboratory.

  9. Structure analysis and magnetic properties of nano-sized Nb(x)Cu(y)Zn(1-x-y)Fe2O4 powders formed by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis and ultrasonic agitation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yong

    2014-11-01

    Nano-sized Nb0.12Cu0.45Zn0.43Fe2O4 ferrites with an average size of the agglomerated particles less than 300 nm were prepared by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) followed by mechanical ball milling and classifying by ultrasonic floating agitation. The SHS reaction occurred in the powder mixture of iron and various oxides like NbO, CuO, ZnO, Fe2O3 at the oxygen pressure range of 0.1 to 1.0 MPa, which average combustion temperatures and combustion propagating rates were in the ranges of 1105 to 1343 K and 4.1 to 6.2 mm/s, respectively. The combustion temperature increased with the oxygen pressure. The combustion reaction did not occur above the uniaxial compacting pressure of 10.0 MPa, even though the oxygen pressure was 1.0 MPa. The neutron diffraction analysis revealed that the final product was Nb0.12Cu0.45Zn0.43Fe2O4 with lattice parameters of 0.8472 nm. The maximum magnetization (Ms), residual magnetization (M(r)), coercive force (iH0), and susceptibility of the Nb0.12Cu0.45Zn0.43Fe2O4 ferrites were 11.30 Wb/m2 Kg, 1.47 Wb/m2 Kg, 7321 A/m, and 0.02 m3/kg, respectively. The addition of niobium to copper-zinc ferrites resulted in increasing M(s), M(r), and iM(c) by about 49%, 68%, and 287%, respectively. The variation of the magnetic properties is related to the non-stoichiometric numbers and oxygen position of the niobium-copper-zinc ferrites.

  10. The Effect of Substitution of Fe By Co on Rapidly Quenched (FeCoMoCuB Amorphous Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara F. Conde

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available (Fe1-xCox79Mo8Cu1B15 amorphous alloys ware prepared in the form of ribbons by rapid quenching for x=0. 0.25 and 0.5. The effect of variation of Co/Fe ratio is analyzed with respect to the formation of amorphous state and to transformation of the structure into nancrystalline phases formed after subsequent thermal treatment. Selected properties and atomic structure in as-quenched state are studied by TEM, AFM, XRD any by measurement of magnetoresistance characteristics. The influence of heat treatment on transport and magnetic properties is shown on temperature dependencies of electrical resistivity and magnetization. It was founf that while the increase of Co content leads to the increase of Curie temperature of as-quenched structure, transition to nanocrystalline state is not affected in a significant manner. The as-quenched state for alloy without Co was found to contain thin crystal-containing layer which, however, was observed, contary to general behavior, at the side of the ribbon exposed to higher quenching rates.

  11. Microstructure and high temperature cyclic oxidation in atmospheres with variable oxygen contents of plasma and HVOF NiCrBSiFe sprayed coatings; Microestructura y oxidacion ciclica en atmosferas con contenidos de oxigeno variables de un recubrimiento NiCrBSiFe proyectado termicamente por plasma y HVOF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higuera-Hidalgo, V.; Belzunce-Varela, F. J.; Riba-Lopez, J.

    2006-07-01

    The influence of thermal spraying procedure (plasma and HVOF) on the microstructure, high temperature oxidation resistance and adherence of NiCrSiFe coatings has been examined. Two different series of oxidation tests have been carried out in air (21% oxygen) at 800 and 1,000 degree centigree (1,073 y 1,273 K) and in a simulated gas turbine environment (10% oxygen) representative of a combined-cycle power generation plant, at the same temperatures. Coating microstructure, porosity, oxide content and microhardness are highly dependent on the spraying procedure and coating hardness also significantly decreases after long maintenance at high temperature (1,000 degree centigree). Finally, the oxidation weight gain and the adherence of NiCrBSiFe coatings are also dependent on the morphology of the coating but, nevertheless, the oxidation behaviour of these coatings was very good as protective chromium and silicon oxides were always formed. (Author) 14 refs.

  12. AC susceptibility of the Fe(Al, Co) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Aljarayesh, I.; Al-Hussein, K.

    1993-08-01

    The temperature and field dependence of the low-field ac susceptibility of the FeAl 1- xCo x (for 0.1 ≤ x ≤ 0.45) system are studied in the temperature range 160-300 K. The results of the κ'- T curves show broad maxima for samples with x ≤ 0.3. The positions of the maxima for samples with x = 0.25 and 0.3 show a weak frequency dependence. For samples with x ≥ 0.3 the susceptibility continues to increase with temperature in the range studied. When an external transverse dc magnetic field is applied, κ' decreases rapidly with increasing the magnitude of the dc field for all studied samples. The obtained paramagnetic temperature θ p, increases rapidly with x. The results are discussed within the context of the Néel theory of superparamagnetism. The environmental effects on the magnetic moment of Fe and Co atoms are used to interpret the results.

  13. High Temperature Aquifer Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueckert, Martina; Niessner, Reinhard; Baumann, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Combined heat and power generation (CHP) is highly efficient because excess heat is used for heating and/or process energy. However, the demand of heat energy varies considerably throughout the year while the demand for electrical energy is rather constant. It seems economically and ecologically highly beneficial for municipalities and large power consumers such as manufacturing plants to store excess heat in groundwater aquifers and to recuperate this energy at times of higher demand. Within the project High Temperature Aquifer Storage, scientists investigate storage and recuperation of excess heat energy into the bavarian Malm aquifer. Apart from high transmissivity and favorable pressure gradients, the hydrochemical conditions are crucial for long-term operation. An enormous technical challenge is the disruption of the carbonate equilibrium - modeling results indicated a carbonate precipitation of 10 - 50 kg/d in the heat exchangers. The test included five injection pulses of hot water (60 °C up to 110 °C) and four tracer pulses, each consisting of a reactive and a conservative fluorescent dye, into a depth of about 300 m b.s.l. resp. 470 m b.s.l. Injection and production rates were 15 L/s. To achieve the desired water temperatures, about 4 TJ of heat energy were necessary. Electrical conductivity, pH and temperature were recorded at a bypass where also samples were taken. A laboratory container at the drilling site was equipped for analysing the concentration of the dyes and the major cations at sampling intervals of down to 15 minutes. Additional water samples were taken and analysed in the laboratory. The disassembled heat exchanger prooved that precipitation was successfully prevented by adding CO2 to the water before heating. Nevertheless, hydrochemical data proved both, dissolution and precipitation processes in the aquifer. This was also suggested by the hydrochemical modelling with PhreeqC and is traced back to mixture dissolution and changing

  14. High temperature superconducting materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alario-Franco, M.A. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain). Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas

    1995-02-01

    The perovskite structure is the basis of all known high-temperature superconducting materials. Many of the most successful (highest T{sub c}) materials are based on mercury and thallium phases but, due to the high toxicity of the component compounds effort has been invested in the substitution of these elements with silver. Progress is reviewed. (orig.)

  15. High-temperature superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Saxena, Ajay Kumar

    2010-01-01

    The present book aims at describing the phenomenon of superconductivity and high-temperature superconductors discovered by Bednorz and Muller in 1986. The book covers the superconductivity phenomenon, structure of high-Tc superconductors, critical currents, synthesis routes for high Tc materials, superconductivity in cuprates, the proximity effect and SQUIDs, theories of superconductivity and applications of superconductors.

  16. High temperature superconductivity: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedell, K.S.; Coffey, D. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Meltzer, D.E. (Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (USA)); Pines, D. (Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (USA)); Schrieffer, J.R. (California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA (USA)) (eds.)

    1990-01-01

    This book is the result of a symposium at Los Alamos in 1989 on High Temperature Superconductivity. The topics covered include: phenomenology, quantum spin liquids, spin space fluctuations in the insulating and metallic phases, normal state properties, and numerical studies and simulations. (JF)

  17. Life at High Temperatures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 9. Life at High Temperatures. Ramesh Maheshwari. General Article Volume 10 Issue 9 September 2005 pp 23-36. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/010/09/0023-0036. Keywords.

  18. High temperature storage loop :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, David Dennis; Kolb, William J.

    2013-07-01

    A three year plan for thermal energy storage (TES) research was created at Sandia National Laboratories in the spring of 2012. This plan included a strategic goal of providing test capability for Sandia and for the nation in which to evaluate high temperature storage (>650ÀC) technology. The plan was to scope, design, and build a flow loop that would be compatible with a multitude of high temperature heat transfer/storage fluids. The High Temperature Storage Loop (HTSL) would be reconfigurable so that it was useful for not only storage testing, but also for high temperature receiver testing and high efficiency power cycle testing as well. In that way, HTSL was part of a much larger strategy for Sandia to provide a research and testing platform that would be integral for the evaluation of individual technologies funded under the SunShot program. DOEs SunShot program seeks to reduce the price of solar technologies to 6/kWhr to be cost competitive with carbon-based fuels. The HTSL project sought to provide evaluation capability for these SunShot supported technologies. This report includes the scoping, design, and budgetary costing aspects of this effort

  19. Corrosion resistance of Zn-Co-Fe alloy coatings on high strength steel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lodhi, Z.F.; Mol, J.M.C.; Hovestad, A.; Hoen-Velterop, L. 't; Terryn, H.; Wit, J.H.W.de

    2009-01-01

    The corrosion properties of electrodeposited zinc-cobalt-iron (Zn-Co-Fe) alloys (up to 40 wt.% Co and 1 wt.% Fe) on steel were studied by using various electrochemical techniques and compared with zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) coatings in 3.5% NaCl solution. It was found that with an increase in Co

  20. Synthesis of Co2+-doped Fe2O3 photocatalyst for degradation of pararosaniline dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, R.; Giribabu, K.; Manigandan, R.; Mangalaraja, R. V.; Solorza, Jorge Yanez; Stephen, A.; Narayanan, V.

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, x (=2, 5, 7 and 10mol%) Co2+-doped Fe2O3 (xCo:Fe2O3) nanoparticles with enhanced photocatalytic activity have been reported. xCo:Fe2O3 nanoparticles were successfully prepared by co-precipitation followed thermal decomposition method. The structural, optical and morphological properties of the prepared samples were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), diffuse reflectance (DR) UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The obtained results revealed that Co2+ ions were well doped within the lattices of Fe2O3. Also, Co2+ ions suppress the formation of the most stable α- Fe2O3 and stabilize less stable γ-Fe2O3 at 450 °C. The photocatalytic activity of xCo:Fe2O3 was examined by using pararosaniline (PR) dye. It was found that photocatalytic degradation of PR depends on dopant concentration (Co2+ ions). Relatively, the highest photocatalytic activity was observed for 5%Co:Fe2O3 nanoparticles. The plausible photocatalytic degradation pathway of PR at xCo:Fe2O3 surface has also been proposed.

  1. High-speed mixture fraction and temperature imaging of pulsed, turbulent fuel jets auto-igniting in high-temperature, vitiated co-flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorge, Michael J.; Arndt, Christoph; Fuest, Frederik; Meier, Wolfgang; Sutton, Jeffrey A.

    2014-07-01

    In this manuscript, we describe an experimental approach to simultaneously measure high-speed image sequences of the mixture fraction and temperature fields during pulsed, turbulent fuel injection into a high-temperature, co-flowing, and vitiated oxidizer stream. The quantitative mixture fraction and temperature measurements are determined from 10-kHz-rate planar Rayleigh scattering and a robust data processing methodology which is accurate from fuel injection to the onset of auto-ignition. In addition, the data processing is shown to yield accurate temperature measurements following ignition to observe the initial evolution of the "burning" temperature field. High-speed OH* chemiluminescence (CL) was used to determine the spatial location of the initial auto-ignition kernel. In order to ensure that the ignition kernel formed inside of the Rayleigh scattering laser light sheet, OH* CL was observed in two viewing planes, one near-parallel to the laser sheet and one perpendicular to the laser sheet. The high-speed laser measurements are enabled through the use of the unique high-energy pulse burst laser system which generates long-duration bursts of ultra-high pulse energies at 532 nm (>1 J) suitable for planar Rayleigh scattering imaging. A particular focus of this study was to characterize the fidelity of the measurements both in the context of the precision and accuracy, which includes facility operating and boundary conditions and measurement of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The mixture fraction and temperature fields deduced from the high-speed planar Rayleigh scattering measurements exhibited SNR values greater than 100 at temperatures exceeding 1,300 K. The accuracy of the measurements was determined by comparing the current mixture fraction results to that of "cold", isothermal, non-reacting jets. All profiles, when properly normalized, exhibited self-similarity and collapsed upon one another. Finally, example mixture fraction, temperature, and OH* emission

  2. An Improved Metal-Packaged Strain Sensor Based on A Regenerated Fiber Bragg Grating in Hydrogen-Loaded Boron–Germanium Co-Doped Photosensitive Fiber for High-Temperature Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Tu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Local strain measurements are considered as an effective method for structural health monitoring of high-temperature components, which require accurate, reliable and durable sensors. To develop strain sensors that can be used in higher temperature environments, an improved metal-packaged strain sensor based on a regenerated fiber Bragg grating (RFBG fabricated in hydrogen (H2-loaded boron–germanium (B–Ge co-doped photosensitive fiber is developed using the process of combining magnetron sputtering and electroplating, addressing the limitation of mechanical strength degradation of silica optical fibers after annealing at a high temperature for regeneration. The regeneration characteristics of the RFBGs and the strain characteristics of the sensor are evaluated. Numerical simulation of the sensor is conducted using a three-dimensional finite element model. Anomalous decay behavior of two regeneration regimes is observed for the FBGs written in H2-loaded B–Ge co-doped fiber. The strain sensor exhibits good linearity, stability and repeatability when exposed to constant high temperatures of up to 540 °C. A satisfactory agreement is obtained between the experimental and numerical results in strain sensitivity. The results demonstrate that the improved metal-packaged strain sensors based on RFBGs in H2-loaded B–Ge co-doped fiber provide great potential for high-temperature applications by addressing the issues of mechanical integrity and packaging.

  3. Denticity and Mobility of the Carbonate Groups in AMCO 3 F Fluorocarbonates: A Study on KMnCO 3 F and High Temperature KCaCO 3 F Polymorph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousse, Gwenaelle [UMR 8260 “Chimie du solide et énergie”, Collège de France, 11 Place Marcelin Berthelot, 75231 Paris Cedex 05, France; Sorbonne Universités—UPMC Univ Paris 06, 4 Place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris, France; Réseau sur le Stockage Electrochimique de l’Energie (RS2E), FR CNRS 3459, 80039 Amiens Cedex, France; Ahouari, Hania [Réseau sur le Stockage Electrochimique de l’Energie (RS2E), FR CNRS 3459, 80039 Amiens Cedex, France; Laboratoire; ALISTORE-European Research Institute, FR CNRS 3104, 80039 Amiens, France; Pomjakushin, Vladimir [Laboratory; Tarascon, Jean-Marie [UMR 8260 “Chimie du solide et énergie”, Collège de France, 11 Place Marcelin Berthelot, 75231 Paris Cedex 05, France; Sorbonne Universités—UPMC Univ Paris 06, 4 Place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris, France; Réseau sur le Stockage Electrochimique de l’Energie (RS2E), FR CNRS 3459, 80039 Amiens Cedex, France; Recham, Nadir [Réseau sur le Stockage Electrochimique de l’Energie (RS2E), FR CNRS 3459, 80039 Amiens Cedex, France; Laboratoire; ALISTORE-European Research Institute, FR CNRS 3104, 80039 Amiens, France; Abakumov, Artem M. [Center for Electrochemical Energy Storage, Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology, Nobel Street 3, 143026 Moscow, Russia

    2017-10-18

    We report on a thorough structural study on two members of layered fluorocarbonates KMCO3F (M = Ca, Mn). The Ca-based member demonstrates a phase transition at ~320 °C, evidenced for the first time. The crystal structure of the high temperature phase (HT-KCaCO3F) was solved using neutron powder diffraction. A new Mn-based phase KMnCO3F was synthesized, and its crystal structure was solved from electron diffraction tomography data and refined from a combination of X-ray synchrotron and neutron powder diffraction. In contrast to other members of the fluorocarbonate family, the carbonate groups in the KMnCO3F and HT-KCaCO3F structures are not fixed to two distinct orientations corresponding to mono- and bidentate coordinations of the M cation. In KMnCO3F, the carbonate group can be considered as nearly “monodentate”, forming one short (2.14 Å) and one long (3.01 Å) Mn–O contact. This topology provides more flexibility to the MCO3 layer and enables diminishing the mismatch between the MCO3 and KF layers. This conclusion is corroborated by the HT-KCaCO3F structure, in which the carbonate groups can additionally be tilted away from the layer plane thus relieving the strain arising from geometrical mismatch between the layers. The correlation between denticity of the carbonate groups, their mobility, and cation size variance is discussed. KMnCO3 orders antiferromagnetically below TN = 40 K.

  4. Denticity and Mobility of the Carbonate Groups in AMCO3F Fluorocarbonates: A Study on KMnCO3F and High Temperature KCaCO3F Polymorph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousse, Gwenaelle; Ahouari, Hania; Pomjakushin, Vladimir; Tarascon, Jean-Marie; Recham, Nadir; Abakumov, Artem M

    2017-11-06

    We report on a thorough structural study on two members of layered fluorocarbonates KMCO3F (M = Ca, Mn). The Ca-based member demonstrates a phase transition at ∼320 °C, evidenced for the first time. The crystal structure of the high temperature phase (HT-KCaCO3F) was solved using neutron powder diffraction. A new Mn-based phase KMnCO3F was synthesized, and its crystal structure was solved from electron diffraction tomography data and refined from a combination of X-ray synchrotron and neutron powder diffraction. In contrast to other members of the fluorocarbonate family, the carbonate groups in the KMnCO3F and HT-KCaCO3F structures are not fixed to two distinct orientations corresponding to mono- and bidentate coordinations of the M cation. In KMnCO3F, the carbonate group can be considered as nearly "monodentate", forming one short (2.14 Å) and one long (3.01 Å) Mn-O contact. This topology provides more flexibility to the MCO3 layer and enables diminishing the mismatch between the MCO3 and KF layers. This conclusion is corroborated by the HT-KCaCO3F structure, in which the carbonate groups can additionally be tilted away from the layer plane thus relieving the strain arising from geometrical mismatch between the layers. The correlation between denticity of the carbonate groups, their mobility, and cation size variance is discussed. KMnCO3 orders antiferromagnetically below TN = 40 K.

  5. Structural and magnetic properties of Fe2CoGa Heusler nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changhai; Casper, Frederick; Gasi, Teuta; Ksenofontov, Vadim; Balke, Benjamin; Fecher, Gerhard H.; Felser, Claudia; Hwu, Yeu-Kuang; Lee, Jeu-Jau

    2012-07-01

    Fe2CoGa Heusler nanoparticles are synthesized by a chemical method. The structure and magnetic properties of Fe2CoGa Heusler nanoparticles are investigated by x-ray diffraction, extended x-ray absorption fine structure and Mössbauer spectroscopy. The crystal structure of Fe2CoGa nanoparticles is described by the X-type structure (prototype: Li2AgSb). Magnetic measurements reveal the presence of small Fe2CoGa nanoparticles and lower magnetic moments compared with the theoretically predicted values.

  6. Exchange-coupled hard magnetic Fe-Co/CoPt nanocomposite films fabricated by electro-infiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Wen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a potentially scalable electro-infiltration process to produce exchange-coupled hard magnetic nanocomposite thin films. Fe-Co/CoPt nanocomposite films are fabricated by deposition of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles onto Si substrate, followed by electroplating of CoPt. Samples are subsequently annealed under H2 to reduce the CoFe2O4 to magnetically soft Fe-Co and also induce L10 ordering in the CoPt. Resultant films exhibit 0.97 T saturation magnetization, 0.70 T remanent magnetization, 127 kA/m coercivity and 21.8 kJ/m3 maximum energy density. First order reversal curve (FORC analysis and δM plot are used to prove the exchange coupling between soft and hard magnetic phases.

  7. Thermoelectric properties of Ni0.15Co3.85Sb12 and Fe0.2Ni0.15Co3.65Sb12 skutterudites prepared by HPHT method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kong Lingjiao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available N-type polycrystalline skutterudite compounds Ni0.15Co3.85Sb12 and Fe0.2Ni0.15Co3.65Sb12 with the bcc crystal structure were synthesized by high pressure and high temperature (HPHT method. The synthesis time was sharply reduced to approximately half an hour. Typical microstructures connected with lattice deformations and dislocations were incorporated in the samples of Ni0.15Co3.85Sb12 and Fe0.2Ni0.15Co3.65Sb12 after HPHT. Electrical and thermal transport properties were meticulously researched in the temperature range of 300 K to 700 K. The Fe0.2Ni0.15Co3.65Sb12 sample shows a lower thermal conductivity than that of Ni0.15Co3.85Sb12. The dimensionless thermoelectric figure-of-merit (zT reaches the maximal values of 0.52 and 0.35 at 600 K and 700 K respectively, for Ni0.15Co3.85Sb12 and Fe0.2Ni0.15Co3.65Sb12 samples synthesized at 1 GPa.

  8. Effective approach towards Si-bilayer-IDA modified CoFe2O4 magnetic nanoparticles for high efficient protein separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianhao; Chen, Mengjun; Gao, Zhuo; Du, Jie; Yang, Wantai; Yin, Meizhen

    2016-10-01

    Ultrafine cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) nanoparticles with narrow size distributions and regular morphologies were prepared through an improved procedure based on the high-temperature diol reduction method. By replacing the original reducing agent like expensive dihydric alcohol, oleylamine was applied as both stabilizer and reducing agent, which benefit for large scale synthesis of magnetic CoFe2O4 nanoparticles. To produce protein-separation agent with both high specific surface area and magnet content, inverse microemulsion system and substitution reaction were employed to render the produced CoFe2O4 nanoparticles with dense silica bilayer and iminodiacetic acid (IDA)-like structure modification. After the chelation with Cu(2+), the metal-immobilized CoFe2O4 nanoparticles can specifically absorb bovine hemoglobin (BHb) with maximum adsorption capacity as qm=1812.3mg/g. Compared with the reported Cu(2+)-immobilized magnetic nanoparticles, the as-prepared CoFe2O4@Si-IDA-Cu(2+) nanoparticles exhibited excellent adsorption capacity and were applied as high efficient protein separation agent in a real complex biological fluid like bovine blood. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Corrosion behavior of electrodeposited Co-Fe alloys in aerated solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chansena, A.; Sutthiruangwong, S.

    2017-05-01

    Co-Fe alloy is an important component for reader-writer in hard disk drive. The surface of the alloy is exposed to the environment both in gas phase and in liquid phase during manufacturing process. The study of corrosion behavior of Co-Fe alloys can provide useful fundamental data for reader-writer production planning especially when corrosion becomes a major problem. The corrosion study of electrodeposited Co-Fe alloys from cyclic galvanodynamic polarization was performed using potentiodynamic polarization technique. The composition of electrodeposited Co-Fe alloys was determined by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The patterns from X-ray diffractometer showed that the crystal structure of electrodeposited Co-Fe alloys was body-centered cubic. A vibrating sample magnetometer was used for magnetic measurements. The saturation magnetization (Ms) was increased and the intrinsic coercivity (Hci) was decreased with increasing Fe content. The corrosion rate study was performed in aerated deionized water and aerated acidic solutions at pH 3, 4 and 5. The corrosion rate diagram for Co-Fe alloys was constructed. It was found that the corrosion rate of Co-Fe alloys was increased with increasing Fe content in both aerated deionized water and aerated acidic solutions. In aerated pH 3 solution, the Co-Fe alloy containing 78.8% Fe showed the highest corrosion rate of 7.7 mm yr-1 with the highest Ms of 32.0 A m2 kg-1. The corrosion rate of the alloy with 23.8% Fe was at 1.1 mm yr-1 with Ms of 1.2 A m2 kg-1. In aerated deionized water, the alloy with the highest Fe content of 78.5% still showed the highest corrosion rate of 0.0059 mm yr-1 while the alloy with the lowest Fe content of 20.4% gave the lowest corrosion rate of 0.0045 mm yr-1.

  10. High temperature future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheinkopf, K. [Solar Energy Research and Education Foundation, Washington, DC (United States)

    1994-09-01

    During the past few years, there have been dramatic accomplishments and success of high temperature solar thermal systems and significant development of these systems. High temperature technologies, about 500 F and higher, such as dish engines, troughs, central receiver power towers and solar process heat systems, have been tested, demonstrated and used in an array of applications, including many cost-effective utility bulk power production and demand side supply projects in the United States. Large systems provide power and hot water to prisons, schools, nursing homes and other institutions. Joint ventures with industry, utility projects, laboratory design assistance and other activities are building a solid industry of US solar thermal systems ready for use today.

  11. Physicochemical properties of the complex oxides in Sm-Ba-Me-Cu-O (Me = Fe, Co systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. E. Volkova

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The present work was focused on the studies of crystal structure, oxygen nonstoichiometry, thermal expansion of SmBaCo2−xCuxO6-δ and SmBaFe2−xCuxO6-δ. Values of the oxygen content in complex oxides SmBaCo2‑xCuxО6‑δ were determined over a wide temperature range in air using high temperature thermogravimetry and iodometric titration. Also, chemical stability with respect to Ce0.8Sm0.2O1.9 and Zr0.85Y0.15O1.93 two common solid electrolyte materials used for SOFCs was evaluated.

  12. Magnetic properties of Fe-Co-based bulk metallic glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiberto, Paola, E-mail: tiberto@inrim.i [INRIM, Electromagnetism Division, Strada delle Cacce 91, I-10135 Torino (Italy); Piccin, Rafael [Universita di Torino, Dipartimento di Chimica IFM and NIS, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Lupu, Nicoleta; Chiriac, Horia [National Institute of Research and Development for Technichal Physics, 700050 Iasi (Romania); Baricco, Marcello [Universita di Torino, Dipartimento di Chimica IFM and NIS, I-10125 Torino (Italy)

    2009-08-26

    Amorphous [(Fe{sub 1-x}Co{sub x}){sub 75}B{sub 20}Si{sub 5}]{sub 93}Nb{sub 4}Y{sub 3}(x=0, 0.2 and 0.4) have been produced by water-cooled Cu-mold injection casting technique in cylindrical shape. Amorphous ribbon having the same composition have been produced by rapid quenching technique. The presence of an amorphous structure have been checked by means of X-ray diffraction measurements and differential scanning calorimetry. Magnetic hysteresis loops have been measured by means of vibrating sample magnetometer at a maximum field of 10 kOe. In addition, to study the frequency dependence of magnetic losses, hysteresis loops have been measured by a digital wattmeter. A critical analysis of the results obtained on both ribbons and bulk cylinder will be presented. The obtained data will be compared with the ones of Fe-based materials conventionally exploited in applications.

  13. First-principles calculations of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in Fe1-x Co x /MgO(001) thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Guanzhi; Wu, Zhiming; Guo, Fei; Wu, Yaping; Li, Heng; Liu, Qianwen; Fu, Mingming; Chen, Ting; Kang, Junyong

    2015-01-01

    The perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) of Fe1-x Co x thin films on MgO(001) was investigated via first-principles density-functional calculations. Four different configurations were considered based on their ground states: Fe/MgO, Fe12Co4/MgO, Fe10Co6/MgO, and Fe8Co8/MgO. As the Co composition increases, the amplitude of PMA increases first from Fe/MgO to Fe12Co4/MgO, and then decreases in Fe10Co6/MgO; finally, the magnetic anisotropy becomes horizontal in Fe8Co8/MgO. Analysis based on the second-order perturbation of the spin-orbit interaction was carried out to illustrate the contributions from Fe and Co atoms to PMA, and the differential charge density was calculated to give an intuitive comparison of 3d orbital occupancy. The enhanced PMA in Fe12Co4/MgO is ascribed to the optimized combination of occupied and unoccupied 3d states around the Fermi energy from both interface Fe and Co atoms, while the weaker PMA in Fe10Co6/MgO is mainly attributed to the modulation of the interface Co-d xy orbital around the Fermi energy. By adjusting the Co composition in Fe1-x Co x , the density of states of transitional metal atoms will be modulated to optimize PMA for future high-density memory application.

  14. Effect of Fe Loading Condition and Reductants on CO2 Reduction Performance with Fe/TiO2 Photocatalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Nishimura

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fe-doped TiO2 (Fe/TiO2 film photocatalyst was prepared by sol-gel and dip-coating process and pulse arc plasma method. The effect of pulse number on the CO2 reduction performance with the Fe/TiO2 was investigated in this study. In addition, the effect of reductants such as H2O, H2, and NH3/H2O on the CO2 reduction performance with the Fe/TiO2 photocatalyst was also investigated. The characteristics of the prepared Fe/TiO2 film coated on a netlike glass fiber which is a base material were analyzed by SEM, EPMA, EDX, and EPMA. Furthermore, the CO2 reduction performance of the Fe/TiO2 film was tested under a Xe lamp with or without ultraviolet (UV light. The results show that the CO2 reduction performance with the pulse number of 100 is the best with H2O and/or H2 as reductant under UV light illumination, while that with the pulse number of 500 is the best when NH3/H2O is used as reductant. On the other hand, the CO2 reduction performance with the pulse number of 500 is the best under every reductant condition without UV light illumination. The highest CO2 reduction performance with the Fe/TiO2 is obtained under H2 + H2O/CO2 condition, and the best moral ratio of total reductants to CO2 is 1.5 : 1.

  15. High Performance Fe-Co Based SOFC Cathodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammer Hansen, Kent; Hansen, Karin Vels; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2010-01-01

    With the aim of reducing the temperature of the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), a new high-performance perovskite cathode has been developed. An area-specific resistance (ASR) as low as 0.12 Ωcm2 at 600 °C was measured by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) on symmetrical cells. The cathode...... is a composite between (Gd0.6Sr0.4)0.99Fe0.8Co0.2O3-δ (GSFC) and Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 (CGO10). Examination of the microstructure of the cathodes by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed a possibility of further optimisation of the microstructure in order to increase the performance of the cathodes. It also...

  16. Properties of hexagonally ordered CoFe -- alloy nanowire arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodor, Petru; Tsoi, Georgy; Wenger, Lowell

    2007-03-01

    The structural and magnetic properties of an array of micron-long Co0.45Fe0.55 alloy nanowires with diameters ranging from 12 to 52 nm electrodeposited in porous anodic alumina templates have been studied using X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, and magnetization measurements. The nanowires are found to crystallize in a body-centered-cubic (bcc) structure along the (110) axis for all diameters studied. The magnetization curves indicate a highly anisotropic behavior with the easy axis along the nanowire axis and a coercivity of 3500 Oe at room temperature. Results from the magnetization hysteresis and magnetic relaxation measurements suggest that the magnetization reversal takes place through localized nucleation in volumes smaller than the physical volume of the nanowires. The localization of the nucleation combined with the cooperative effects arising from magnetostatic interactions between the nanowires, limits the coercivity of the nanowire arrays.

  17. Reactivity of CO2 on the surfaces of magnetite (Fe3O4), greigite (Fe3S4) and mackinawite (FeS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Carballal, David; Roldan, Alberto; Dzade, Nelson Y; de Leeuw, Nora H

    2018-01-13

    The growing environmental, industrial and commercial interests in understanding the processes of carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and conversion have led us to simulate, by means of density functional theory calculations, the application of different iron oxide and sulfide minerals to capture, activate and catalytically dissociate this molecule. We have chosen the {001} and {111} surfaces of the spinel-structured magnetite (Fe3O4) and its isostructural sulfide counterpart greigite (Fe3S4), which are both materials with the Fe cations in the 2+/3+ mixed valence state, as well as mackinawite (tetragonal FeS), in which all iron ions are in the ferrous oxidation state. This selection of iron-bearing compounds provides us with understanding of the effect of the composition, stoichiometry, structure and oxidation state on the catalytic activation of CO2 The largest adsorption energies are released for the interaction with the Fe3O4 surfaces, which also corresponds to the biggest conformational changes of the CO2 molecule. Our results suggest that the Fe3S4 surfaces are unable to activate the CO2 molecule, while a major charge transfer takes place on FeS{111}, effectively activating the CO2 molecule. The thermodynamic and kinetic profiles for the catalytic dissociation of CO2 into CO and O show that this process is feasible only on the FeS{111} surface. The findings reported here show that these minerals show promise for future CO2 capture and conversion technologies, ensuring a sustainable future for society.This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'Providing sustainable catalytic solutions for a rapidly changing world'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  18. High rate performance of LiFePO4 cathode materials co-doped with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    ies applying to current and future portable electronic devices and electrical vehicles. In a word, co-doped LiFePO4 with carbon and metallic ion is a promising way to reinforce the electronic conduc- tivity of LiFePO4. It could improve the conductivity both between the LiFePO4 particles and the intrinsic electronic conductivity.

  19. Interdiffusion between Co3O4 coating and the oxide scale of Fe-22Cr alloy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansson, Anette Nørgaard; Friehling, Peter B.; Linderoth, Søren

    2002-01-01

    on Fe-Cr alloys. Coatings of Co3O4 were deposited on a Fe-22Cr alloy by plasma spraying and spray-painting. As-deposited samples were oxidised in air containing 1% H2O at 900C for various exposure time. During exposure the Fe-22Cr alloy forms an oxide scale, which reacts with the coating. The effects...

  20. Theoretical study on influence of CaO and MgO on the reduction of FeO by CO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Hong [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, 19104 (United States); College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing, 400030 (China); Er, Dequan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, 19104 (United States); Wen, Liangying, E-mail: wlycqu@163.com [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing, 400030 (China)

    2017-03-31

    Graphical abstract: The energy profiles for reaction pathway of reduction of FeO by CO on CaO(100) surface. - Highlights: • The reduction reaction of FeO by CO has been investigated on the atomic scale to reveal the influence of CaO and MgO on reduction reaction. • The CaO will accelerate the reduction reactions in the initial stage of reactions, however, will slow down the reactions in the posterior stage. • The MgO will promote the reduction reactions in both the initial and the posterior stages of reactions. - Abstract: Coating of CaO or MgO on the particle surface can prevent the sticking among iron ore particles effectively during fluidization process. However, CaO and MgO promote the formation of iron whiskers at high temperature, leading to the catastrophic defluidization. The density functional theory (DFT) calculations were implemented to investigate the influence of CaO and MgO on reduction of FeO/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 2} by CO. Our results show that the CO molecule tends to bind to FeO/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 2} on CaO(100) and MgO(100) surfaces through newly formed C-Fe and C−O bonds. The CaO(100) surface will accelerate the reduction reactions which occur on it, in particular, in the initial stage of reactions, however, will slow down the reactions in the posterior stage. For the MgO(100) surface, the reduction reactions which occur on it will be promoted. The positive roles displayed by CaO and MgO in promoting the reduction of FeO by CO accelerate the precipitation of fresh iron and therefore, leading to the formation of iron whiskers.

  1. Identification of the dominant photochemical pathways and mechanistic insights to the ultrafast ligand exchange of Fe(CO5 to Fe(CO4EtOH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kunnus

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We utilized femtosecond time-resolved resonant inelastic X-ray scattering and ab initio theory to study the transient electronic structure and the photoinduced molecular dynamics of a model metal carbonyl photocatalyst Fe(CO5 in ethanol solution. We propose mechanistic explanation for the parallel ultrafast intra-molecular spin crossover and ligation of the Fe(CO4 which are observed following a charge transfer photoexcitation of Fe(CO5 as reported in our previous study [Wernet et al., Nature 520, 78 (2015]. We find that branching of the reaction pathway likely happens in the 1A1 state of Fe(CO4. A sub-picosecond time constant of the spin crossover from 1B2 to 3B2 is rationalized by the proposed 1B2 → 1A1 → 3B2 mechanism. Ultrafast ligation of the 1B2 Fe(CO4 state is significantly faster than the spin-forbidden and diffusion limited ligation process occurring from the 3B2 Fe(CO4 ground state that has been observed in the previous studies. We propose that the ultrafast ligation occurs via 1B2 → 1A1 → 1A′ Fe(CO4EtOH pathway and the time scale of the 1A1 Fe(CO4 state ligation is governed by the solute-solvent collision frequency. Our study emphasizes the importance of understanding the interaction of molecular excited states with the surrounding environment to explain the relaxation pathways of photoexcited metal carbonyls in solution.

  2. Stabilizing Fe Nanoparticles in the SmCo 5 Matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Bo [Department; Mendoza-Garcia, Adriana [Department; Baker, Sarah E. [Materials; McCall, Scott K. [Materials; Yu, Chao [Department; Wu, Liheng [Department; Sun, Shouheng [Department

    2017-08-08

    We report a new strategy for stabilizing Fe nanoparticles (NPs) in the preparation of SmCo5–Fe nanocomposites. We coat the presynthesized Fe NPs with SiO2 and assemble the Fe/SiO2 NPs with Sm–Co–OH to form a mixture. After reductive annealing at 850 °C in the presence of Ca, we obtain SmCo5–Fe/SiO2 composites. Following aqueous NaOH washing and compaction, we produced exchange-coupled SmCo5–Fe nanocomposites with Fe NPs controlled at 12 nm. Our work demonstrates a successful strategy of stabilizing high moment magnetic NPs in a hard magnetic matrix to produce a nanocomposite with tunable magnetic properties.

  3. Microstructure and mechanical properties of high temperature creep resisting superalloy René 77 modified CoAl2O4

    OpenAIRE

    M. Poręba; J. Sieniawski; Zielinska, M.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Nickel based superalloys are widely used for turbine and stator blades of compressor in aero-engines. The objective of this work is to determine the influence of the inoculant’s content (cobalt aluminate) in the surface layer of the ceramic mould on the microstructure and mechanical properties of high temperature creep resisting superalloy René 77.Design/methodology/approach: Experimentally investigated castings have been made of commercially produced nickel superalloy René 77. Stepp...

  4. Magnetic interactions in anisotropic Nd-Dy-Fe-Co-B/α-Fe multilayer magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Z. M.; Liu, W.; Zhao, X. T.; Han, Z.; Kim, D.; Choi, C. J.; Zhang, Z. D.

    2016-10-01

    The magnetic properties and the possible interaction mechanisms of anisotropic soft- and hard-magnetic multilayers have been investigated by altering the thickness of different kinds of spacer layers. The metal Ta and the insulating oxides MgO, Cr2O3 have been chosen as spacer layers to investigate the characteristics of the interactions between soft- and hard-magnetic layers in the anisotropic Nd-Dy-Fe-Co-B/α-Fe multilayer system. The dipolar and exchange interaction between hard and soft phases are evaluated with the help of the first order reversal curve method. The onset of the nucleation field and the magnetization reversal by domain wall movement are also evident from the first-order-reversal-curve measurements. Reversible/irreversible distributions reveal the natures of the soft- and hard-magnetic components. Incoherent switching fields are observed and the calculations show the semiquantitative contributions of hard and soft components to the system. An antiferromagnetic spacer layer will weaken the interaction between ferromagnetic layers and the effective interaction length decreases. As a consequence, the dipolar magnetostatic interaction may play an important role in the long-range interaction in anisotropic multilayer magnets.

  5. Ferromagnetic resonance spectroscopy of CoFeZr-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} granular films containing “FeCo core – oxide shell” nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kołtunowicz, Tomasz N., E-mail: t.koltunowicz@pollub.pl [Department of Electrical Devices and High Voltage Technology, Lublin University of Technology, Nadbystrzycka 38a, 20-618 Lublin (Poland); Zukowski, Pawel [Department of Electrical Devices and High Voltage Technology, Lublin University of Technology, Nadbystrzycka 38a, 20-618 Lublin (Poland); Sidorenko, Julia [Department of Semiconductors Physics and Nanoelectronics, Belarusian State University, Independence Av. 4, 220030 Minsk (Belarus); Bayev, Vadim; Fedotova, Julia A. [Institute for Nuclear Problems, Belarusian State University, Bobrujskaya Str. 11, 220030 Minsk (Belarus); Opielak, Marek [Institute of Transport, Combustion Engines and Ecology, Lublin University of Technology, Nadbystrzycka 36, 20-618 Lublin (Poland); Marczuk, Andrzej [Department of Transporting and Agricultural Machinery, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Głeboka 28, 20-612 Lublin (Poland)

    2017-01-01

    Ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) spectroscopy is applied for comparative analysis of granular (CoFeZ){sub x}(Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}){sub 100−x}, (31 at%≤x≤47 at%) films containing pure FeCo-based nanoparticles (NPs) or “FeCo-based core – oxide shell” NPs inside Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} matrix when deposited in oxygen-free or oxygen-containing atmosphere, correspondingly. It is established that g-factor extracted from the FMR spectra of films with core–shell NPs decreases with x below the value g =2.0023 for free electron that is untypical for metallic NPs. This effect is associated with the formation of the interface between ferromagnetic core and antiferromagnetic (ferrimagnetic) oxide shell of NPs. - Highlights: • CoFeZr-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} granular films containing “FeCo core – oxide shell” nanoparticles. • magnetic anisotropy of (CoFeZr){sub x}(Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}){sub 100−x} films is of an easy plane type. • essential difference in dependence of g-factor on metal content in non- and oxidized film. • non-oxidized samples indicates the reduction of the value of films magnetization.

  6. High temperature superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Paranthaman, Parans

    2010-01-01

    This essential reference provides the most comprehensive presentation of the state of the art in the field of high temperature superconductors. This growing field of research and applications is currently being supported by numerous governmental and industrial initiatives in the United States, Asia and Europe to overcome grid energy distribution issues. The technology is particularly intended for densely populated areas. It is now being commercialized for power-delivery devices, such as power transmission lines and cables, motors and generators. Applications in electric utilities include current limiters, long transmission lines and energy-storage devices that will help industries avoid dips in electric power.

  7. Giant magnetoresistance in Co{sub 70}Fe{sub 30}/Ag multilayers with ultrathin CoFe layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodmacq, B.; Dieny, B.; Mevel, B. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Grenoble, 38 (France). Dept. de Recherche Fondamentale sur la Matiere Condensee; Redon, O.; Pierre, J. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 38 - Grenoble (France). Lab. Louis Neel

    1994-12-31

    Several samples were prepared by dc sputtering on Si substrates at 100 K, the thickness of individual layers being controlled by a quartz monitor. Total thickness varies between 1500 and 2000 A, the nominal thickness ranges from 2 to 6 A for CoFe layers and is varied for Ag layers. X-rays characterization, magnetic and magnetoresistance measurements, and FMR are performed. Magnetization curves with field applied in the plane of the layers are measured with a VSM between 300 K and 4 K. Important magnetic changes occur in this thickness range. Magnetoresistance measurements are performed using a current four probes method with magnetic field along 3 orthogonal directions. 4 figs., 4 refs.

  8. Fe2O3/Co3O4 composite nanoparticle ethanol sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, Ali; Park, Sunghoon; Sun, Gun-Joo; Kheel, Hyejoon; Lee, Chongmu; Lee, Sangmin

    2016-08-01

    In this study Fe2O3/Co3O4 nanocomposites were synthesized by using a simple hydrothermal route. The X-ray diffraction analysis results showed that the synthesized powders were pure and nanocrystalline in nature. Moreover, scanning electron microscopy revealed that Fe2O3 nanoparticles had spherical shapes while Co3O4 particles had a rod-like morphology. The ethanol sensing properties of Fe2O3/Co3O4 nanocomposites were examined and compared with those of pristine Fe2O3 nanoparticles. The gas sensing properties of Fe2O3/Co3O4 nanocomposites were shown to be superior to those of pristine Fe2O3 nanoparticles and for all concentrations of ethanol, the response of the nanocomposite sensor was shown to be higher than that of the pristine Fe2O3 nanoparticle sensor. In detail, the response of the Fe2O3/Co3O4 nanocomposite sensor to 200 ppm of ethanol at 300 °C was about 3 times higher than that of pristine sensor. Also, in general, the response and recovery times of the Fe2O3/Co3O4 nanocomposite sensor were shorter than those of the pristine one. The improved sensing characteristics of the Fe2O3/Co3O4 sensor were attributed to a combination of several effects: the formation of a potential barrier at the Fe2O3-Co3O4 interface, the enhanced modulation of the conduction channel width accompanying the adsorption and desorption of ethanol gas, the catalytic activity of Co3O4 for the oxidation of ethanol, the stronger oxygen adsorption of p-type Co3O4, and the formation of preferential adsorption sites.

  9. Anisotropic SmCo5/FeCo core/shell nanocomposite chips prepared via electroless coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayan Poudyal

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We report the preparation of anisotropic SmCo5/FeCo core/shell nanocomposite chip-like particles via an electroless coating process. The anisotropic SmCo5 nanoscale chips were first prepared by surfactant-assisted ball milling then coated with soft magnetic FeCo using cobalt sulfate (CoSO4.7H2O and iron sulfate (FeSO4.7H2O as metal precursors in presence of complexing agents. The influence of the soft-phase coating on the magnetic properties of the nanocomposite particles has been studied. The saturation magnetization of the composite particles increases with increasing coating while the coercivity decreases. The FeCo coated chips have an enhanced remanence (Mr = 44.5 emu/g with 16 wt % of FeCo compared to the uncoated chips (Mr = 36.7 emu/g, indicating exchange coupling between the hard and soft phases for the optimal soft-phase coating. Results of magnetic field alignment show the strong anisotropy of SmCo5/FeCo core/shell nanocomposite particles which can be used as building blocks of high-strength anisotropic magnets.

  10. Heterobimetallic Silver-Iron Complexes Involving Fe(CO)5 Ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guocang; Ceylan, Yavuz S; Cundari, Thomas R; Dias, H V Rasika

    2017-10-11

    Iron(0) pentacarbonyl is an organometallic compound with a long history. It undergoes carbonyl displacement chemistry with various donors (L), leading to molecules of the type Fe(CO)x(L)5-x. The work reported here illustrates that Fe(CO)5 can also act as a ligand. The reaction between Fe(CO)5 with the silver salts AgSbF6 and Ag[B{3,5-(CF3)2C6H3}4] under appropriate conditions resulted in the formation of [(μ-H2O)AgFe(CO)5]2[SbF6]2 and [B{3,5-(CF3)2C6H3}4]AgFe(CO)5, respectively, featuring heterobimetallic {Ag-Fe(CO)5}(+) fragments. The treatment of [B{3,5-(CF3)2C6H3}4]AgFe(CO)5 with 4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine (Me2Bipy) and Fe(CO)5 afforded a heterobimetallic [(Me2Bipy)AgFe(CO)5][B{3,5-(CF3)2C6H3}4] species with a Ag-Fe(CO)5 bond and a heterotrimetallic [{Fe(CO)5}2(μ-Ag)][B{3,5-(CF3)2C6H3}4] with a (CO)5Fe-Ag-Fe(CO)5 core, respectively, illustrating that it is possible to manipulate the coordination sphere at silver while keeping the Ag-Fe bond intact. The chemistry of [B{3,5-(CF3)2C6H3}4]AgFe(CO)5 with Et2O and PMes3 (Mes = 2,4,6-trimethylphenyl) has also been investigated, which led to [(Et2O)3Ag][B{3,5-(CF3)2C6H3}4] and [(Mes3P)2Ag][B{3,5-(CF3)2C6H3}4] with the displacement of the Fe(CO)5 ligand. X-ray structural and spectroscopic data of new molecules as well as results of computational analyses are presented. The Fe-Ag bond distances of these metal-only Lewis pairs range from 2.5833(4) to 2.6219(5) Å. These Ag-Fe bonds are of primarily an ionic/electrostatic nature with a modest amount of charge transfer between Ag(+) and Fe(CO)5. The ν̅(CO) bands of the molecules with Ag-Fe(CO)5 bonds show a notable blue shift relative to those observed for free Fe(CO)5, indicating a significant reduction in Fe→CO back-bonding upon its coordination to silver(I).

  11. Sol-gel-cum-hydrothermal synthesis of mesoporous Co-Fe@Al2O3 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A combined sol-gel-cum-hydrothermal method has been employed to synthesize novel monometal- lic (Mn, Fe, Co) and bimetallic (Co-Fe, .... Mesoporous Al2O3 was synthesized by sol-gel method. Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide ... TEOS silica source was added to the mixture and stirred for. 2 h (solution A) to obtain ...

  12. Structural disorder and magnetism in the spin-gapless semiconductor CoFeCrAl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renu Choudhary

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Disordered CoFeCrAl and CoFeCrSi0.5Al0.5 alloys have been investigated experimentally and by first-principle calculations. The melt-spun and annealed samples all exhibit Heusler-type superlattice peaks, but the peak intensities indicate a substantial degree of B2-type chemical disorder. Si substitution reduces the degree of this disorder. Our theoretical analysis also considers several types of antisite disorder (Fe-Co, Fe-Cr, Co-Cr in Y-ordered CoFeCrAl and partial substitution of Si for Al. The substitution transforms the spin-gapless semiconductor CoFeCrAl into a half-metallic ferrimagnet and increases the half-metallic band gap by 0.12 eV. Compared CoFeCrAl, the moment of CoFeCrSi0.5Al0.5 is predicted to increase from 2.01 μB to 2.50 μB per formula unit, in good agreement with experiment.

  13. Characterization of Fe-Co-Mn catalysts after carbon monoxide hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez C, S.L.; Serbia, M.A.; Baechler, R.; Orozco, J. [Laboratorio de Cinetica y Catalisis, Departamento de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Los Andes, Merida 5101A (Venezuela); e-mail: goncor@ula.ve

    2003-07-01

    An Fe-Co-Mn catalysts series after hydrogenation of carbon monoxide has been characterized. The XRD analysis shows the magnetite as main crystalline phase after reaction, in addition of carbon and carbide phases. All these phases lead to hydrogen consumption and oxidation rate changes on Fe-Co-Mn catalysts. A phase transformation superficial diagram is analysed. (Author)

  14. Structural, magnetic and dielectric properties of polyaniline/MnCoFe2O4 nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitra, Palanisamy; Muthusamy, Athianna; Jayaprakash, Rajan

    2015-12-01

    Ferromagnetic PANI containing MnCoFe2O4 nanocomposites were synthesized by in-situ chemical polymerization of aniline incorporated MnCoFe2O4 nanoparticles (20%, 10% w/w of fine powders) with and without ultrasonic treatment. The MnCoFe2O4 nanoparticles were synthesized by auto combustion method. The PANI/MnCoFe2O4 nanocomposites were characterized with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The average particle size of the resulting PANI/MnCoFe2O4 nanocomposites was confirmed from the TEM and XRD analysis. The structure and morphology of the composites were confirmed by FT-IR spectroscopy, XRD and SEM. In addition, the electrical and magnetic properties of the nanocomposites were investigated. The PANI/MnCoFe2O4 nanocomposites under applied magnetic field exhibited the hysteresis loops of ferromagnetic nature at room temperature. The variation of Dielectric constant, Dielectric loss, and AC conductivity of PANI/MnCoFe2O4 nanocomposites at room temperature as a function of frequency in the range 50 Hz-5 MHz has been studied. Effect of ultrasonication on the PANI/MnCoFe2O4 nanocomposites was also investigated.

  15. Structural disorder and magnetism in the spin-gapless semiconductor CoFeCrAl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhary, Renu [School of Basic Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology, Mandi, Himachal Pradesh (India); Department of Physics and Astronomy and NCMN, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68588 (United States); Kharel, Parashu; Huh, Yung; Gilbert, Simeon [Department of Physics, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007 (United States); Valloppilly, Shah R.; Jin, Yunlong; O’Connell, Andrew; Sellmyer, D. J.; Skomski, Ralph [Department of Physics and Astronomy and NCMN, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68588 (United States); Kashyap, Arti [School of Basic Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology, Mandi, Himachal Pradesh (India)

    2016-05-15

    Disordered CoFeCrAl and CoFeCrSi{sub 0.5}Al{sub 0.5} alloys have been investigated experimentally and by first-principle calculations. The melt-spun and annealed samples all exhibit Heusler-type superlattice peaks, but the peak intensities indicate a substantial degree of B2-type chemical disorder. Si substitution reduces the degree of this disorder. Our theoretical analysis also considers several types of antisite disorder (Fe-Co, Fe-Cr, Co-Cr) in Y-ordered CoFeCrAl and partial substitution of Si for Al. The substitution transforms the spin-gapless semiconductor CoFeCrAl into a half-metallic ferrimagnet and increases the half-metallic band gap by 0.12 eV. Compared CoFeCrAl, the moment of CoFeCrSi{sub 0.5}Al{sub 0.5} is predicted to increase from 2.01 μ{sub B} to 2.50 μ{sub B} per formula unit, in good agreement with experiment.

  16. Electrokinetic and impedimetric dynamics of FeCo-nanoparticles on glassy carbon electrode

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ikpo, CO

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available voltammetric experiments revealed a diffusion-controlled electron transfer process on the GCE/FeCo electrode surface. Further interrogation on the electrochemical properties of the FeCo nanoelectrode in an oxygen saturated 1 M LiClO4 containing 1:1 v/v ethylene...

  17. CoCr/NiFe double layers studied by FMR and VSM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, M.T.H.C.W.; Gerritsma, G.J.; Lodder, J.C.; Popma, T.J.A.

    1987-01-01

    CoCr/NiFe double layers were investigated by FMR and VSM. The FMR linewidth of NiFe of the double layer is about twice that of a single NiFe layer. The resonance field is the same in both cases. Using the VSM the coercive field of the CoCr layer of the double layer was obtained. It is approximately

  18. Co-Fe-Si Aerogel Catalytic Honeycombs for Low Temperature Ethanol Steam Reforming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Domínguez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cobalt talc doped with iron (Fe/Co~0.1 and dispersed in SiO2 aerogel was prepared from silica alcogel impregnated with metal nitrates by supercritical drying. Catalytic honeycombs were prepared following the same procedure, with the alcogel synthesized directly over cordierite honeycomb pieces. The composite aerogel catalyst was characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, focus ion beam, specific surface area and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The catalytic layer is about 8 µm thick and adheres well to the cordierite support. It is constituted of talc layers of about 1.5 µm × 300 nm × 50 nm which are well dispersed and anchored in a SiO2 aerogel matrix with excellent mass-transfer properties. The catalyst was tested in the ethanol steam reforming reaction, aimed at producing hydrogen for on-board, on-demand applications at moderate temperature (573–673 K and pressure (1–7 bar. Compared to non-promoted cobalt talc, the catalyst doped with iron produces less methane as byproduct, which can only be reformed at high temperature, thereby resulting in higher hydrogen yields. At 673 K and 2 bar, 1.04 NLH2·mLEtOH(l−1·min−1 are obtained at S/C = 3 and W/F = 390 g·min·molEtOH−1.

  19. Dielectric relaxation, resonance and scaling behaviors in Sr3Co2Fe24O41 hexaferrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Rujun; Jiang, Chen; Qian, Wenhu; Jian, Jie; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Haiyan; Yang, Hao

    2015-01-01

    The dielectric properties of Z-type hexaferrite Sr3Co2Fe24O41 (SCFO) have been investigated as a function of temperature from 153 to 503 K between 1 and 2 GHz. The dielectric responses of SCFO are found to be frequency dependent and thermally activated. The relaxation-type dielectric behavior is observed to be dominating in the low frequency region and resonance-type dielectric behavior is found to be dominating above 108 Hz. This frequency dependence of dielectric behavior is explained by the damped harmonic oscillator model with temperature dependent coefficients. The imaginary part of impedance (Z″) and modulus (M″) spectra show that there is a distribution of relaxation times. The scaling behaviors of Z″ and M″ spectra further suggest that the distribution of relaxation times is temperature independent at low frequencies. The dielectric loss spectra at different temperatures have not shown a scaling behavior above 108 Hz. A comparison between the Z″ and the M″ spectra indicates that the short-range charges motion dominates at low temperatures and the long-range charges motion dominates at high temperatures. The above results indicate that the dielectric dispersion mechanism in SCFO is temperature independent at low frequencies and temperature dependent at high frequencies due to the domination of resonance behavior. PMID:26314913

  20. In situ high pressure infrared study of the carbon environment in (Mg,Fe)CO3 carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulard, E.; Pan, D.; Galli, G.; Mao, W. L.

    2013-12-01

    Carbonates are likely to be the main carbon-bearing phase in the Earth's mantle, and therefore knowledge of their mineral physics down to core mantle boundary conditions is critical for understanding the deep carbon cycle. (Mg,Fe)CO3 has been the focus of many recent high pressure studies which indicate several crystallographic changes. An electronic spin transition in the iron end-member has been reported at approximately 45 GPa. As a result, a change in the volume and the equation of state, and moreover a change in the rate of C-O bond distortion were described by X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies (B. Lavina et al., 2009; 2010). At higher pressures, above 80 GPa, we have observed the transformation of (Mg,Fe)CO3 carbonate into a new high-pressure high-temperature phase by in situ XRD (Boulard et al., 2011). Investigation of the carbon environment had previously been limited to ex situ studies at ambient conditions after releasing the pressure on the sample. Spectroscopy on the carbon C-k edge indicated a potential change in the carbon environment, and a transformation of the carbonate trigonal CO3 groups into CO4 tetrahedra had been proposed (Boulard et al., 2011). However this interpretation is still under debate. To follow the evolution of C-O bonds and clarify the existence of CO4 tetrahedra in high-pressure carbonate phases, we combined in-situ infrared spectroscopy with theoretical calculations. Mid-infrared spectroscopy, performed at high pressure before and after laser heating at U2A, NSLS, BNL show several changes in the (Mg,Fe)CO3 spectrum after laser heating at 103 GPa. We will discuss the interpretation of these new spectroscopic signatures and the possibility of a dramatic change in the carbon environment. References: Boulard, E. et al., (2011). New host for carbon in the deep Earth. PNAS, 108(13), 5184-5187. Lavina, B. et al., (2009). Siderite at lower mantle conditions and the effects of the pressure-induced spin-pairing transition. Geophysical

  1. Disorder- and correlation-induced charge carriers localization in oxyborate MgFeBO{sub 4}, Mg{sub 0.5}Co{sub 0.5}FeBO{sub 4}, CoFeBO{sub 4} single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knyazev, Yu.V. [Siberian Federal University, 660074 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Kazak, N.V., E-mail: nat@iph.krasn.ru [Kirensky Institute of Physics, 660036 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Platunov, M.S. [Kirensky Institute of Physics, 660036 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Ivanova, N.B. [Siberian Federal University, 660074 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Bezmaternykh, L.N. [Kirensky Institute of Physics, 660036 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Arauzo, A. [Servicio de Medidas Físicas, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Bartolomé, J. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón, CSIC-Universidad de Zaragoza and Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Ovchinnikov, S.G. [Siberian Federal University, 660074 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Kirensky Institute of Physics, 660036 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Siberian State Aerospace University, 660014 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    2015-09-05

    Highlights: • The electrical resistance of the single crystalline warwickites has been measured. • The temperature-induced changes in the charge transfer mechanisms have been found. • The microscopic parameters of the electronic structure have been determined. • The studied warwickites have been classified as disordered correlated systems. • The Co substitution was found to lead to the weakening of the localization. - Abstract: The temperature dependence of the resistivity of single crystalline Mg{sub 1−x}Co{sub x}FeBO{sub 4} samples with x = 0.0, 0.5, 1.0 is investigated for the temperature range (210–400 K). The conduction was found to be governed by Mott variable-range hopping (VRH) in the low-temperature range (T = 210–270 K) and by thermo-activation mechanism in the high-temperature range (T = 280–400 K). Microscopic electronic parameters, such as the density of the localized states near the Fermi level, localization length, the hopping length, and the activation energy have been obtained. The change of the activation energy observed at high-temperature range was attributed to local structure distortions around Fe and Co atoms. The complicated behavior of charge transfer mechanisms is discussed based on two approaches: atomic disorder and electron correlations.

  2. Magnetic properties of Pr-Fe-Co-B bonded HDDR magnets with alloying additions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eguiberto Galego

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Microstructures and magnetic properties of Pr-Fe-Co-B bonded magnets were investigated. The magnets can be represented by the formulae, Pr14Fe63.9Co16B6M 0.1 (M = Ti, V, Cr, Ni, Zr, Nb or Mo, Pr14Fe63.8Co16B6Nb 0.1T0.1 (T/= Al, Si, P, Cu or Ga and Pr14Fe63.6Co16B6Nb 0.1R0.3 (R = Gd, Tb or Dy. The effects of additions on the magnetic properties of PrFeCoB-based magnets have been studied. Magnetically hard powders have been produced from homogenised alloys using the hydrogenation, disproportionation, desorption and recombination (HDDR process. The HDDR powders were isostatically pressed and bonded with cyanoacrylate adhesive to form permanent magnets.

  3. The high frequency magnetic properties of self assembled Fe-Co-Si-N nanogranular thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yan [National University of Singapore, Centre for Superconducting and Magnetic Materials, Department of Physics, Singapore (Singapore); Nanyang Technological University, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Singapore (Singapore); Ramanujan, R.V. [Nanyang Technological University, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Singapore (Singapore); Liu, Z.W. [National University of Singapore, Centre for Superconducting and Magnetic Materials, Department of Physics, Singapore (Singapore); Nanyang Technological University, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Singapore (Singapore); South China University of Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Guangzhou (China); Tan, C.Y. [National University of Singapore, Centre for Superconducting and Magnetic Materials, Department of Physics, Singapore (Singapore); Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, Singapore (Singapore); Zhao, Xing; Liu, Erjia [Nanyang Technological University, School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Singapore (Singapore); Ong, C.K. [National University of Singapore, Centre for Superconducting and Magnetic Materials, Department of Physics, Singapore (Singapore)

    2010-07-15

    The effect of a variation in Si and N concentration on the microstructure, crystal structure and high-frequency magnetic properties of Fe-Co-Si-N nanogranular thin films was investigated. The films, prepared by rf magnetron sputtering, consisted of nanosized grains of FeCo as well as a Si and N rich intergranular amorphous phase. The Si concentration had a significant effect on the crystal structure of the FeCo phase. The resistivities of the Fe-Co-Si-N films were significantly enhanced by an increase in Si concentration. The resonant frequency of the Fe-Co-Si-N films could be tuned from 0.45 GHz to 2.1 GHz by controlling Si concentration. The N concentration greatly influenced magnetic properties and the variation in resonant frequency is in agreement with Kittel's equation. (orig.)

  4. Perpendicularly magnetized Co20Fe60B20 layer sandwiched between Au with low Gilbert damping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuświk, Piotr; Głowiński, Hubert; Coy, Emerson; Dubowik, Janusz; Stobiecki, Feliks

    2017-11-01

    Nowadays, the CoFeB thin layered film is intensively studied because of its potential applications in spintronic devices, especially devices based on spin-transfer torque phenomena. Hitherto, it has been shown that CoFeB may possess perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) when it is sandwiched between different layers (e.g. MgO, Pt, Pd, Ta, W). However, there is no experimental evidence that CoFeB, sandwiched between Au layers, has strong PMA. Moreover, in comparison with other noble metals, Au-based film systems exhibit the smallest spin pumping effect, which provides the main contribution to the damping in thin films in contact with heavy metals. Therefore, Au/CoFeB/Au may be a good candidate for future applications, where perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and low damping are required. Here, we show that PMA and low damping can be achieved in a Au/CoFeB/Au system without annealing.

  5. Fe2O3/ Co3O4 composite nanoparticle ethanol sensor

    CERN Document Server

    Mirzaei, Ali; Sun, Gun-Joo; Kheel, Hyejoon; Lee, Sangmin; lee, Chongmu

    2016-01-01

    In this study Fe2O3/Co3O4 nanocomposites were synthesized by using a simple hydrothermal route. The X-ray diffraction analysis results showed that synthesized powders were pure, and nanocrystalline in nature. Moreover, Scanning electron microscopy revealed that Fe2O3 nanoparticles had spherical shapes while Co3O4 particles had a rod-like morphology. Ethanol sensing properties of Fe2O3/Co3O4 nanocomposites were examined and compared with those of pristine Fe2O3 nanoparticles. It was shown that the gas sensing properties of Fe2O3/Co3O4 nanocomposites were superior to those of pristine Fe2O3 nanoparticles and for all concentrations of ethanol, the response of the nanocomposite sensor was higher than the pristine Fe2O3 nanoparticle sensor. In detail, the response of Fe2O3/Co3O4 nanocomposite sensor to 200 ppm of ethanol at 300{\\deg}C was about 3 times higher than pristine one. Also in general, the response and recovery times of Fe2O3/Co3O4 nanocomposite sensor were shorter than those of the pristine one. The impr...

  6. Low temperature processed MnCo2O4 and MnCo1.8Fe0.2O4 as effective protective coatings for solid oxide fuel cell interconnects at 750 °C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molin, Sebastian; Jasinski, P.; Mikkelsen, Lars

    2016-01-01

    In this study two materials, MnCo2O4 and MnCo1.8Fe0.2O4 are studied as potential protective coatings for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell interconnects working at 750 °C. First powder fabrication by a modified Pechini method is described followed by a description of the coating procedure. The protective...... performed on the coated samples shows good protection against chromium diffusion from the chromia scale ensured by a formation of a dense reaction layer. This study shows, that even without high temperature sintering and/or reactive sintering it is possible to fabricate protective coatings based on Mn...

  7. Topochemical synthesis of Co-Fe layered double hydroxides at varied Fe/Co ratios: unique intercalation of triiodide and its profound effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Renzhi; Liang, Jianbo; Takada, Kazunori; Sasaki, Takayoshi

    2011-01-26

    Co-Fe layered double hydroxides at different Fe/Co ratios were synthesized from brucite-like Co(2+)(1-x)Fe(2+)(x)(OH)(2) (0 ≤ x ≤ 1/3) via oxidative intercalation reaction using an excess amount of iodine as the oxidizing agent. A new redoxable species: triiodide (I(3)(-)), promoted the formation of single-phase Co-Fe LDHs. The results point to a general principle that LDHs with a characteristic ratio of total trivalent and divalent cations (M(3+)/M(2+)) at 1/2 may be the most stable in the oxidative intercalation procedure. At low Fe content, e.g., starting from Co(2+)(1-x)Fe(2+)(x)(OH)(2) (x triiodide and iodide into the interlayer gallery of as-transformed LDH phase, which profoundly impacted the relative intensity ratio of basal Bragg peaks as a consequence of the significant X-ray scattering power of triiodide. In combination with XRD simulation, the LDH structure model was constructed by considering both the host layer composition/charge and the arrangement of interlayer triiodide/iodide. The work provides a clear understanding of the thermodynamic and kinetic factors associated with the oxidative intercalation reaction and is helpful in elucidating the formation of LDH structure in general.

  8. Li-promoted sodium zirconate as a CO{sub 2} absorbent at high temperatures; Zirconato de sodio promovido con Li como absorbente de CO{sub 2} a alta temperatura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzman Velderrain, V.; Barraza Jimenez, D.; Lardizabal Gutierrez, D.; Delgado Vigil, D.; Salinas Gutierrez, J.; Lopez Ortiz, A.; Collins-Martinez, V. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados S. C., Chihuahua, Chihuahua (Mexico)]. E-mail: virginia.collins@cimav.edu.mx

    2009-09-15

    In processes to produce hydrogen from fossil fuels, CO{sub 2} capture at high temperatures has played a crucial role in their conversion into energy-efficient processes. One example is steam reformer methane improved with absorption (SER), where CO{sub 2} capture at high temperatures (600 degrees Celsius) provides an energy savings of {approx_equal} 23% over conventional reformer processes (SMR). An important part of this concept is solid CO{sub 2} absorption, which must have adequate absorption capacity and rapid absorption/regeneration kinetics. Recently, synthetic CO{sub 2} absorbents have been developed that consist of mixed Li oxides. Previous studies conducted in our laboratory report that the absorption/regeneration properties of sodium zirconate (Na{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3}) are higher than Li-oxides. The objective of the present work is to increase the absorption capacity of Na{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} at high temperatures without significantly affecting the kinetics of its absorption and regeneration, with Li promotion. The Na{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} was synthesized by reaction in a solid state and impregnated with LiNO{sub 3} at different Li/Na ratios: 0, 0.03, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.25 (NZ, NZL3, NZL5, NZL10, NZL25). The characterization consisted of XRD and SEM. The evaluation as an absorbent was performed with TGA at 600 degrees Celsius in 80% CO{sub 2} (absorption) and 800 degrees Celsius in air (regeneration). While XRD shows only the Na{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} structure in all the samples, the promoted samples present a signal shift with respect to Na{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3}, which is attributed to the substitution of Na atoms with Li. The TGA results indicate that the addition of Li to the Na{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} structure does not significantly modify the absorption or regeneration kinetics. As the Li contents in the Na{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} increase, the amount of CO{sub 2} capture increases up to a limit between 10 and 25% mol of Li. This is due to the displaced sodium presumably tending to form

  9. High pressure elasticity of FeCO3-MgCO3 carbonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stekiel, Michal; Nguyen-Thanh, Tra; Chariton, Stella; McCammon, Catherine; Bosak, Alexei; Morgenroth, Wolfgang; Milman, Victor; Refson, Keith; Winkler, Björn

    2017-10-01

    We have determined the elastic stiffness moduli of FeCO3 across the spin transition up to 60 GPa by inelastic X-ray scattering and density functional theory calculations. We have derived functions describing the dependence of the components of the elastic tensor of Mg1-xFex CO3 solid solutions on pressure and concluded that there is a linear dependence of the C11, C33, C44 and C14 moduli on the composition parameter x. The elastic tensors were employed to calculate the sound velocities and velocity anisotropies of Mg1-xFex CO3. These results allow an assessment of the potential seismic signature of deep mantle carbonates.

  10. Effect of dose and post irradiation annealing in Ni implanted high entropy alloy FeCrCoNi using slow positron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abhaya, S., E-mail: sab@igcar.gov.in; Rajaraman, R.; Kalavathi, S.; David, C.; Panigrahi, B.K.; Amarendra, G.

    2016-06-05

    Defect characterization of room temperature 1.5 MeV Ni ion implanted high entropy FeCrCoNi alloy for two fluences (1 × 10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2} and 5 × 10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2}) was carried out using the variable low energy positron beam. The FCC solid solution remains robust and stable under 100 dpa irradiation and high temperature annealing. The change in the defect sensitive S-parameter upon implantation reveals the presence of monovacancies for both the doses. The changes in the defect microstructure upon thermal annealing are found to be dose dependent. The high dose shows the formation of stable stacking fault tetrahedrons (SFT's) from the aggregates of monovacancies at higher annealing temperatures while the low dose shows the annealing of monovacancies with temperature. - Highlights: • Defect characterization of room temperature Ni implanted high entropy FeCrCoNi alloy carried out using the slow positron beam. • The FCC FeCrCoNi remains structurally stable under both irradiation and high temperature annealing. • Defect evolution upon thermal annealing is found to be dose dependent.

  11. Magnetic studies of SiO2 coated CoFe2O4 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limaye, Mukta V.; Singh, Shashi B.; Das, Raja; Poddar, Pankaj; Abyaneh, Majid K.; Kulkarni, Sulabha K.

    2017-11-01

    Oleic acid capped CoFe2O4 nanoparticles which exhibit a high coercivity of ∼9.47 kOe at room temperature were coated with a robust coating of SiO2. We have used chemical synthesis method to obtain SiO2 coated CoFe2O4 nanoparticles with different weight percentages of CoFe2O4 in SiO2 (1.5, 3.1 and 4.8 wt.%). The morphological investigation of the coated nanoparticles by transmission electron microscopy shows that the particles are spherical with average size ∼160 nm. Infrared spectroscopy reveals that oleic acid capping on the surface of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles is retained after silica coating process. The complete coating of SiO2 on CoFe2O4 nanoparticles is confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy as there is no signature of cobalt or iron ions on the surface. Magnetic measurements show that coercivity of SiO2 coated CoFe2O4 particles remains more or less unaffected as in CoFe2O4 nanoparticles at room temperature. In addition, the temperature dependent magnetic measurements show that at 5 K the CoFe2O4 and SiO2 coated 1.5 wt.% CoFe2O4 samples exhibit a very high value of coercivity (∼20 kOe) which is more than twice as compared to room temperature coercivity value (∼9.47 kOe). We conclude that silica coating in our study does not significantly affect the coercivity of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles.

  12. Charge-controlled switchable CO adsorption on FeN4 cluster embedded in graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidvar, Akbar

    2018-02-01

    Electrical charging of an FeN4 cluster embedded in graphene (FeN4G) is proposed as an approach for electrocatalytically switchable carbon monoxide (CO) adsorption. Using density functional theory (DFT), we found that the CO molecule is strongly adsorbed on the uncharged FeN4G cluster. Our results show that the adsorption energy of a CO molecule on the FeN4G cluster is dramatically decreased by introducing extra electrons into the cluster. Once the charges are removed, the CO molecule is spontaneously adsorbed on the FeN4G absorbent. In the framework of frontier molecular orbital (FMO) analysis, the enhanced sensitivity and reactivity of the FeN4G cluster towards the CO molecule can be interpreted in terms of interaction between the HOMO of CO molecule and the LUMO of FeN4G cluster. Therefore, this approach promises both facile reversibility and tunable kinetics without the need of specific catalysts. Our study indicates that the FeN4G nanomaterial is an excellent absorbent for controllable and reversible capture and release of the CO.

  13. Resolving the phase structure of nonstoichiometric Co2FeGa Heusler nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changhai; Casper, Frederick; Guo, Yanzhi; Gasi, Teuta; Ksenofontov, Vadim; Balke, Benjamin; Fecher, Gerhard H.; Felser, Claudia; Hwu, Yeu-Kuang; Lee, Jey-Jau

    2012-12-01

    Heusler nanocrystals, i.e., Heusler compounds with dimensions in nanometer range are promising materials for next-generation spin-related devices. Recently, we have developed a chemical approach to prepare L21 ordered Heusler nanoparticles and characterized their size-related structure and magnetic properties. In this work, effect of precursor composition is investigated in terms of their importance in controlling the phase structure of Co2FeGa nanoparticles. The formation of the L21 ordered Co2FeGa phase is evidenced by combining X-ray diffraction (XRD) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy and Mössbauer spectroscopy measurements. From XRD, precursor compositions of low Co and high Fe are associated with decreasing amounts and even disappearance of fcc Co and fcc Fe impurities. We also find that, even though the XRD data indicate only pure Co2FeGa phase in sample with excess Fe, EXAFS and Mössbauer spectroscopy data unambiguously reveal the co-existence of bcc Fe with Co2FeGa main phase.

  14. Roles of Co element in Fe-based bulk metallic glasses utilizing industrial FeB alloy as raw material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouyuan Wang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A series of Fe-based bulk metallic glasses were fabricated by a conventional copper mold casting method using a kind of Fe-B industrial raw alloy. It is found that Fe-B-Y-Nb bulk metallic glass with 3 at% of Co addition possesses the best glass forming ability, thermal stability, hardness, magnetic property and anti-corrosion property. The hardness test result indicates a synchronically trend with glass-forming ability parameters. The excellent glass-forming ability and a combination of good mechanical and functional properties suggest that the alloys in this work might be good candidates for commercial use.

  15. Influence of Fe Buffer Layer on Co-Doped BaFe2As2 Superconducting Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Bonavolontà

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A systematic characterization of Co-doped BaFe2As2 (Ba-122 thin films has been carried out. Two samples were available, one grown on CaF2 substrate and the other on MgO with an Fe buffer layer. The goal was to investigate films’ magnetic and superconducting properties, their reciprocal interplay, and the role played by the Fe buffer layer in modifying them. Morphological characterization and Energy Dispersive X-ray analyses on the Fe-buffered sample demonstrate the presence of diffused Fe close to the Co-doped Ba-122 outer surface as well as irregular holes in the overlying superconducting film. These results account for hysteresis loops obtained with magneto-optic Kerr effect measurements and observed at both room and low temperatures. The magnetic pattern was visualized by magneto-optical imaging with an indicator film. Moreover, we investigated the onset of superconductivity through a measure of the superconducting energy gap. The latter is strictly related to the decay time of the excitation produced by an ultrashort laser pulse and has been determined in a pump-probe transient reflectivity experiment. A comparison of results relative to Co-doped Ba-122 thin films with and without Fe buffer layer is finally reported.

  16. Synthesis of N-type semiconductor diamonds with sulfur, boron co-doping in FeNiMnCo-C system at high pressure and high temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, He; Li, Shangsheng; Su, Taichao; Hu, Meihua; Ma, Hongan; Jia, Xiaopeng; Li, Yong

    2017-05-01

    Not Available Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11604246), China Postdoctor Science Foundation (Grant No. 2016M592714), Professional Practice Demonstration Base for Professional Degree Graduate in Material Engineering of Henan Polytechnic University, China (Grant No. 2016YJD03), the Education Department of Henan Province, China (Grant Nos. 12A430010 and 17A430020), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Universities of Henan Province, China (Grant No. NSFRF140110).

  17. High temperature structural silicides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrovic, J.J.

    1997-03-01

    Structural silicides have important high temperature applications in oxidizing and aggressive environments. Most prominent are MoSi{sub 2}-based materials, which are borderline ceramic-intermetallic compounds. MoSi{sub 2} single crystals exhibit macroscopic compressive ductility at temperatures below room temperature in some orientations. Polycrystalline MoSi{sub 2} possesses elevated temperature creep behavior which is highly sensitive to grain size. MoSi{sub 2}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} composites show an important combination of oxidation resistance, creep resistance, and low temperature fracture toughness. Current potential applications of MoSi{sub 2}-based materials include furnace heating elements, molten metal lances, industrial gas burners, aerospace turbine engine components, diesel engine glow plugs, and materials for glass processing.

  18. High temperature measuring device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokarz, Richard D.

    1983-01-01

    A temperature measuring device for very high design temperatures (to 2,000.degree. C.). The device comprises a homogenous base structure preferably in the form of a sphere or cylinder. The base structure contains a large number of individual walled cells. The base structure has a decreasing coefficient of elasticity within the temperature range being monitored. A predetermined quantity of inert gas is confined within each cell. The cells are dimensionally stable at the normal working temperature of the device. Increases in gaseous pressure within the cells will permanently deform the cell walls at temperatures within the high temperature range to be measured. Such deformation can be correlated to temperature by calibrating similarly constructed devices under known time and temperature conditions.

  19. Mössbauer and Kerr microscopy investigation of crystallization in FeCoB ribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, V. Raghavendra; Hussain, Zaineb; Babu, Hari; Shrivastava, Namrata; Gupta, Ajay

    2016-05-01

    The present work reports the crystallization study of amorphous FeCoB ribbons using x-ray diffraction, 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy in transmission mode and magneto-optical Kerr (MOKE) microscopy. Annealing at 673 K is found to result in crystallization. From the Mossbauer measurements it is observed that the Fe magnetic moments are in the plane of sample for as-cast ribbon; α-FeCo, (Fe0.5Co0.5)2B and Fe2B phases are formed after crystallization. MOKE microscopy revealed that wide 180° domain walls & narrow fingerprint domains are observed before crystallization and fine domains are observed after crystallization. The results are explained in terms of the presence of internal stresses and their annealing with thermal heat treatment.

  20. Mössbauer and Kerr microscopy investigation of crystallization in FeCoB ribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, V. Raghavendra, E-mail: varimalla@yahoo.com, E-mail: vrreddy@csr.res.in; Hussain, Zaineb; Babu, Hari [UGC DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, University Campus, Kandhwa Road, Indore-452001 India (India); Shrivastava, Namrata [School of Physics, DAVV, Khandwa Road, Indore – 452001 India (India); Gupta, Ajay [Amity Centre for Spintronic Materials, Amity University, Noida 201303.India (India)

    2016-05-23

    The present work reports the crystallization study of amorphous FeCoB ribbons using x-ray diffraction, {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy in transmission mode and magneto-optical Kerr (MOKE) microscopy. Annealing at 673 K is found to result in crystallization. From the Mossbauer measurements it is observed that the Fe magnetic moments are in the plane of sample for as-cast ribbon; α-FeCo, (Fe{sub 0.5}Co{sub 0.5}){sub 2}B and Fe{sub 2}B phases are formed after crystallization. MOKE microscopy revealed that wide 180° domain walls & narrow fingerprint domains are observed before crystallization and fine domains are observed after crystallization. The results are explained in terms of the presence of internal stresses and their annealing with thermal heat treatment.

  1. Nuclear magnetic resonance study of pure and Ni/Co doped LiFeAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grafe, Hans-Joachim; Baek, Seung-Ho; Hammerath, Franziska; Graefe, Uwe; Utz, Yannic; Harnagea, L.; Nacke, Claudia; Aswartham, Saicharan; Wurmehl, Sabine; Buechner, Bernd [Leibniz-Institut fuer Festkoerper- und Werkstoffforschung, Dresden (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    We present Nuclear Magnetic and Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance (NMR/NQR) measurements on pure, Ni and Co doped LiFeAs single crystals. The parent compound LiFeAs exhibits unconventional superconductivity with a transition temperature of about 17 K. Unlike other Fe based superconductors, where superconductivity is induced or stabilized by Co or Ni doping, replacement of Fe by these elements leads to a suppression of the superconducting transition temperature in LiFeAs. In case of Ni doping, a bulk magnetic order is induced below about 160 K. In contrast, for Co doping, the superconducting transition temperature is only reduced, but no magnetic order is observed. We discuss the nature and the origin of this magnetic order and its relation to unconventional superconductivity in pure LiFeAs.

  2. High temperature materials and mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    The use of high-temperature materials in current and future applications, including silicone materials for handling hot foods and metal alloys for developing high-speed aircraft and spacecraft systems, has generated a growing interest in high-temperature technologies. High Temperature Materials and Mechanisms explores a broad range of issues related to high-temperature materials and mechanisms that operate in harsh conditions. While some applications involve the use of materials at high temperatures, others require materials processed at high temperatures for use at room temperature. High-temperature materials must also be resistant to related causes of damage, such as oxidation and corrosion, which are accelerated with increased temperatures. This book examines high-temperature materials and mechanisms from many angles. It covers the topics of processes, materials characterization methods, and the nondestructive evaluation and health monitoring of high-temperature materials and structures. It describes the ...

  3. Determination of the Fe magnetic anisotropies and the CoO frozen spins in epitaxial CoO/Fe/Ag(001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, J. Li, Y.; Park, J. S.; Jenkins, C. A.; Arenholz, E.; Scholl, A.; Tan, A.; Son, H.; Zhao, H. W.; Hwang, Chanyong; Qiu, Z. Q.

    2011-04-28

    CoO/Fe/Ag(001) films were grown epitaxially and studied by X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism (XMCD) and X-ray Magnetic Linear Dichroism (XMLD). After field cooling along the Fe[100] axis to 80 K, exchange bias, uniaxial anisotropy, and 4-fold anisotropy of the films were determined by hysteresis loop and XMCD measurements by rotating the Fe magnetization within the film plane. The CoO frozen spins were determined by XMLD measurement as a function of CoO thickness.We find that among the exchange bias, uniaxial anisotropy, and 4-fold anisotropy, only the uniaxial magnetic anisotropy follows thickness dependence of the CoO frozen spins.

  4. On the concentration and separation of the trace-elements fe, cu, zn, mn, pb, mo and co : Paper chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erkelens, P.C. van

    1961-01-01

    Paper chromatographic separations are described by which the minor constituents of biological ashes are separated either into: (Pb) - Mn - Co - (Pb) - Cu - Fe, Mo, Zn; or into: Cu, Mn, Co - Pb - Fe - Mo - Zn.

  5. Ta thickness-dependent perpendicular magnetic anisotropy features in Ta/CoFeB/MgO/W free layer stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, SeungMo; Lee, JaBin; An, GwangGuk [Novel Functional Materials and Devices Lab, The Research Institute for Natural Science, Department of Physics, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, JaeHong [Division of Nano-Scale Semiconductor Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, WooSeong [Nano Quantum Electronics Lab, Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, JinPyo, E-mail: jphong@hanyang.ac.kr [Novel Functional Materials and Devices Lab, The Research Institute for Natural Science, Department of Physics, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Division of Nano-Scale Semiconductor Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-31

    We describe Ta underlayer thickness influence on thermal stability of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in Ta/CoFeB/MgO/W stacks. It is believed that thermal stability based on Ta underlay is associated with thermally-activated Ta atom diffusion during annealing. The difference in Ta thickness-dependent diffusion behaviors was confirmed with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. Along with a feasible Ta thickness model, our observations suggest that an appropriate seed layer choice is needed for high temperature annealing stability, a critical issue in the memory industry. - Highlights: • We observed changes in the diffusion behavior with regard to Ta seed layer thickness. • It was observed that a thinner Ta seed layer induced more annealing-stable features. • However, ultra-thin (0.75 nm) Ta shows unstable characteristics about the annealing process. • It was possibly due to a rugged interface of the Ta layer by the island growth process.

  6. High Temperature Hybrid Elastomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Kerry Anthony

    Conventional high temperature elastomers are produced by chain polymerization of olefinic or fluorinated olefinic monomers. Ultimate thermal stabilities are limited by backbone bond strengths, lower thermal stability of cross-link sites relative to backbone bonds, and depolymerization or "unzipping" at high temperatures. In order to develop elastomers with enhanced thermal stability, hybrid thermally cross-linkable polymers that consisted only of organic-inorganic and aromatic bonds were synthesized and evaluated. The addition of phenylethynyl or phenylacetylinic functional groups to these polymers resulted in conversion of the polymers into high temperature elastomers when cross-linked by thermal curing. Polyphenyoxydiphenylsilanes were synthesized via several different condensation reactions. Results of these synthetic reactions, which utilized both hydroquinone and biphenol as monomers, were systematically evaluated to determine the optimal synthetic conditions for subsequent endcapping reactions. It was determined that dichlorodiphenylsilane condensations with biphenol in toluene or THF were best suited for this work. Use of excess dichlorodiphenylsilane yielded polymers of appropriate molecular weights with terminal reactive chlorosilane groups that could be utilized for coupling with phenylethynyl reagents in a subsequent reaction. Two new synthetic routes were developed to endcap biphenoxysilanes with ethynyl containing substituents, to yield polymers with cross-linkable end groups. Endcapping by lithiumphenylacetylide and 4[(4-fluorophenylethynyl))phenol yielded two new polymers that could be thermally cross-linked on heating above 300 °C. Successful endcapping was verified chemically by 13C NMR, FTIR and Raman analysis. Exothermic peaks consistent with ethynyl curing reactions were observed in endcapped polymers by DSC. A new diacetylinic polymer was prepared through reaction of 4,4'-buta-1,3-diyne-1,4-diyldiphenol and dichlorodiphenylsilane. This

  7. High-temperature plastic behavior of reaction-bonded CuO and TiO{sub 2} co-doped alumina-zirconia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales-Rodriguez, A.; Jimenez-Melendo, M.; Dominguez-Rodriguez, A.; Bravo-Leon, A

    2004-12-15

    The high-temperature plastic behavior of reaction-bonded alumina doped with equimolar amounts of copper and titanium oxides has been studied by means of creep and stress relaxation tests in air. Deformation results have been correlated with microstructural observations and X-ray diffraction studies in order to deduce the mechanism responsible for the deformation. The material exhibits plasticity at temperatures as low as 900 deg. C in contrast with other aluminas. At temperatures near 1000 deg. C a linear relation between the strain rate and the stress has been detected (corresponding to mechanism with a stress exponent n equal to one) but both above and below this temperature higher values of n have been observed.

  8. CO{sub 2} capture in Mg oxides doped with Fe and Ni; Captura de CO{sub 2} en oxidos de Mg dopados con Fe y Ni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez S, I. F.

    2016-07-01

    In this work the CO{sub 2} capture-desorption characteristics in Mg oxides doped with Fe and Ni obtained by the direct oxidation of Mg-Ni and Mg-Fe mixtures are presented. Mixtures of Mg-Ni and Mg-Fe in a different composition were obtained by mechanical milling in a Spex-type mill in a controlled atmosphere of ultra high purity argon at a weight / weight ratio of 4:1 powder using methanol as a lubricating agent, for 20 h. The powders obtained by mechanical milling showed as main phase, the Mg with nanocrystalline structure. Subsequently, the mixtures of Mg-Ni and Mg-Fe were oxidized within a muffle for 10 min at 600 degrees Celsius. By means of X-ray diffraction analysis, the Mg O with nano metric grain size was identified as the main phase, which was determined by the Scherrer equation. In the Mg O doped with Ni, was identified that as the Ni amount 1 to 5% by weight dispersed in the Mg O matrix was increased, the main peak intensity of the Ni phase increased, whereas in the Mg O doped with Fe was observed by XRD, that the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} phase was present and by increasing the amount of Fe (1 to 5% by weight) dispersed in the crystalline phase of Mg O, the intensity of this impurity also increased. Sem-EDS analysis showed that the Ni and Fe particles are dispersed homogeneously in the Mg O matrix, and the particles are porous, forming agglomerates. Through energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis, the elemental chemical composition obtained is very close to the theoretical composition. The capture of CO{sub 2} in the Mg O-1% Ni was carried out in a Parr reactor at different conditions of pressure, temperature and reaction time. Was determined that under the pressure of 0.2 MPa at 26 degrees Celsius for 1 h of reaction, the highest CO{sub 2} capture of 7.04% by weight was obtained, while in Mg O-1% Fe the CO{sub 2} capture was 6.32% by weight. The other magnesium oxides doped in 2.5 and 5% by weight Ni and Fe showed lower CO{sub 2} capture. The different stages

  9. CO adsorption, dissociation and coupling formation mechanisms on Fe2C(001) surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaohu; Zhang, Xuemei; Meng, Yan; Zhao, Yaoping; Li, Yuan; Xu, Wei; Liu, Zhong

    2018-03-01

    By means of density functional theory calculations and atomic thermodynamics, we systematically investigated the CO adsorption on the Fe2C(001) surface at different coverage. It has been found that CO prefers to adsorb on the surface iron atom at low coverage (1-8 CO); CO prefers to adsorb at the bridge site of Fe and C atoms at high coverage (9-12 CO). Eight CO molecules binding on the Fe2C(001) surface is favorable thermodynamically as indicated by the stepwise adsorption energy. The phase diagram shows that addition of more CO molecules up to a number of 8 is thermodynamically favorable, and that the incremental energy gained by adding one more CO molecule is almost constant up to 4 CO molecules, decreases up to 8 CO molecules, after which it becomes thermodynamically unfavorable to add more CO molecules. Probability distribution of different singe-CO adsorbed states on the Fe2C(001) surface as function of temperature shows that CO dissociation and coupling are least preferred, indicating that carbide mechanism is not dominant in the iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis reaction. The projected density of states (PDOS) was used to analyze the CO adsorption mechanism.

  10. Development of novel exchange spring magnet by employing nanocomposites of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and CoFe{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safi, Rohollah; Ghasemi, Ali, E-mail: ali13912001@yahoo.com; Shoja-Razavi, Reza; Tavoosi, Majid

    2016-12-01

    CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}−CoFe2 hard–soft nanocomposites were prepared via reduction of the cobalt ferrite CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} in hydrogen atmosphere at different temperature. The structure and the room temperature magnetization of the samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). It was found that the saturation magnetization of the nanocomposite powders increases by reduction temperature while their coercivity decreases. The highest M{sub r}/M{sub s} ratio of 0.52 was obtained for sample reduced at 550 °C. Single smooth hysteresis loops of nanocomposites show that these nanocomposites behave as the single-phase materials. This result indicates the presence of exchange coupling between two different hard and soft phases. - Highlights: • CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}–CoFe{sub 2} was successfully synthesized by reduction diffusion process. • Two phases are effectively exchange coupled in nanocomposite. • Single smooth hysteresis loop was developed in nanocomposites.

  11. HIGH TEMPERATURE VACUUM MIXER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. D. Chertov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The work is devoted to the creation of a new type of mixer to produce homogeneous mixtures of dissimilar materials applied to recycling of housing and communal services waste. The article describes the design of a dual-chamber device of the original high-temperature vacuum mixer, there investigated the processes occurring in the chambers of such devices. The results of theoretical and experimental research of the process of mixing recycled polyethylene with a mixture of "grinded food waste – Eco wool” are presented. The problem of the optimum choice of bending the curvilinear blades in the working volume of the seal, which is achieved by setting their profile in the form of involute arc of several circles of different radii, is examined . The dependences, allowing to define the limits of the changes of the main mode parameters the angular velocity of rotation of the working body of the mixer using two ways of setting the profile of the curvilinear blade mixer are obtained. Represented design of the mixer is proposed to use for a wide range of tasks associated with the mixing of the components with a strongly pronounced difference of physic al chemical properties and, in particular, in the production of composites out of housing and communal services waste.

  12. HIgh Temperature Photocatalysis over Semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westrich, Thomas A.

    Due in large part to in prevalence of solar energy, increasing demand of energy production (from all sources), and the uncertain future of petroleum energy feedstocks, solar energy harvesting and other photochemical systems will play a major role in the developing energy market. This dissertation focuses on a novel photochemical reaction process: high temperature photocatalysis (i.e., photocatalysis conducted above ambient temperatures, T ≥ 100°C). The overarching hypothesis of this process is that photo-generated charge carriers are able to constructively participate in thermo-catalytic chemical reactions, thereby increasing catalytic rates at one temperature, or maintaining catalytic rates at lower temperatures. The photocatalytic oxidation of carbon deposits in an operational hydrocarbon reformer is one envisioned application of high temperature photocatalysis. Carbon build-up during hydrocarbon reforming results in catalyst deactivation, in the worst cases, this was shown to happen in a period of minutes with a liquid hydrocarbon. In the presence of steam, oxygen, and above-ambient temperatures, carbonaceous deposits were photocatalytically oxidized over very long periods (t ≥ 24 hours). This initial experiment exemplified the necessity of a fundamental assessment of high temperature photocatalytic activity. Fundamental understanding of the mechanisms that affect photocatalytic activity as a function of temperatures was achieved using an ethylene photocatalytic oxidation probe reaction. Maximum ethylene photocatalytic oxidation rates were observed between 100 °C and 200 °C; the maximum photocatalytic rates were approximately a factor of 2 larger than photocatalytic rates at ambient temperatures. The loss of photocatalytic activity at temperatures above 200 °C is due to a non-radiative multi-phonon recombination mechanism. Further, it was shown that the fundamental rate of recombination (as a function of temperature) can be effectively modeled as a

  13. Characteristics of the iron moment in Dy-Fe and Dy-FeCo amorphous alloys studied by X-ray magnetic circular dichroism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleury-Frenette, K.; Dhesi, S.S.; Laan, G. van der; Strivay, D.; Weber, G.; Delwiche, J. E-mail: jdelwiche@ulg.ac.be

    2000-10-01

    The local magnetic moment of Fe in Dy-Fe and Dy-FeCo amorphous alloys has been studied using X-ray absorption spectroscopy and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD). The Fe orbital and spin magnetic moments have been obtained for a range of alloy compositions by applying the sum rules to the XMCD spectra. The room temperature variations of the average components of the Fe moments as a function of Dy concentration and with the substitution of Fe by Co have been determined. A sharp reversal of the total magnetic moment was found at 28{+-}1 at% Dy for both alloys.

  14. Fabrication of ceramic membrane tubes for direct conversion of natural gas. [SrCo[sub 0. 8]Fe[sub 0. 2]O[sub x] perosvskite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balachandran, U.; Morissette, S.L.; Picciolo, J.J.; Dusek, J.T.; Poeppel, R.B. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Pei, S.; Kleefisch, M.S.; Mieville, R.L.; Kobylinski, T.P.; Udovich, C.A. (Amoco Research Center, Naperville, IL (United States))

    1992-05-01

    Several perovskite-type oxides that contain transition metals on the B-site show mixed (electronic/ionic) conductivity. These mixed conducting oxides are promising materials for oxygen permeating membranes that can operate without the need of electrodes or external electrical circuitry. SrCo[sub 0.8]Fe[sub 0.2]O[sub x] perovskite is known to exhibit very high oxygen permeabilities and one could use this material for producing value added products by direct conversion of methane, the most abundant component of natural gas. This paper deals with the processing and fabrication by plastic extrusion of long lengths ([approx]30 cm) of hollow SrCo[sub 0.8]Fe[sub 0.2]O[sub x] ceramic tubes. These tubes are characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and their thermodynamic stability is evaluated using room temperature XRD on samples equilibrated at high temperatures in different gas environment.

  15. The effect of a fourth element (Co, Cu, Fe, Pd) on the standard enthalpy of formation of the Heusler compound Ni{sub 2}MnSn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Ming, E-mail: myin1@hawk.iit.edu; Nash, Philip

    2016-05-15

    The standard enthalpies of formation of quaternary Heusler compounds (X, Ni){sub 2}MnSn (X = Co, Cu, Fe, Pd) were investigated experimentally using high temperature direct reaction calorimetry. Lattice parameters of these compounds were determined using X-ray diffraction analysis. Microstructures were identified using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The effect of an additional X element on the standard enthalpy of formation of the Heusler compound Ni{sub 2}MnSn is discussed. - Highlights: • Enthalpies of formation of (X,Ni){sub 2}YZ (X = Co, Cu, Fe, Pd) were measured by drop calorimeters. • Magnetic contribution to enthalpy of formation plays an important role. • Introducing a fourth element could stabilize an unstable Heusler structure. • Lattice parameters do not necessarily obey the Vegard's law. • It is possible to tailor properties of Heusler compounds with enough background information.

  16. Forced convection by Inclined Rotary Bridgman method for growth of CoSb3 and FeSb2 single crystals from Sb-rich solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillaca, Mirtha; Harder, Oliver; Miller, Wolfram; Gille, Peter

    2017-10-01

    Sb-based compounds such as CoSb3 and FeSb2 are interesting materials for thermoelectric applications. Their single crystal growth can be achieved from high-temperature solutions that are strongly enriched in Sb. In Bridgman growth using closed ampoules, effective mixing of the solution is an important prerequisite in order to minimize the high risk of liquid inclusion formation. We have successfully grown inclusion-free single crystal of CoSb3 and FeSb2 by rotating the ampoule in a Bridgman-type crystal growth set-up being inclined by 75° with respect to the vector of gravity. Numerical modelling as well as experimental growth studies have demonstrated the strong influence of forced convection that is achieved by this modified directional solidification technique called Inclined Rotary Bridgman method.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of iron-cobalt (FeCo) alloy nanoparticles supported on carbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koutsopoulos, Sotiris; Barfod, Rasmus; Eriksen, Kim Michael

    2017-01-01

    of the alloy nanoparticles differed depending on the preparation method. When the wet impregnation technique of acetate precursor salts of Fe and Co were used for the synthesis, the size of FeCo alloy nanoparticles was approximately 13 nm. FeCo alloy nanoparticles were characterized by crystallography (XRD...... and mechanically stable for prolonged periods of time. AFM analysis showed that the FeCo nanoparticles were formed on the surface of the carrier. The results of this study suggest that using these easy and inexpensive synthetic methods iron-cobalt nanoparticles can be formed on carbon microparticles support......Iron-cobalt nanocrystaline bimetallic alloys supported on carbon microparticles were synthesized and characterized. The preparation methods involved the use of iron and cobalt chloride or acetate precursor salts in water and direct co-precipitation or wet impregnation techniques. The size...

  18. Investigation of carbon supported PtW catalysts as CO tolerant anodes at high temperature in proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Ayaz; Paganin, Valdecir A.; Ticianelli, Edson A.

    2016-09-01

    The CO tolerance mechanism and the stability of carbon supported PtW electrocatalysts are evaluated in the anode of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) at two different temperatures. The electrocatalysts are characterized by energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron spectroscopy. Employed electrochemical techniques include cyclic voltammetry, CO stripping, fuel cell polarization, and online mass spectrometry. At a cell temperature of 85 °C, the PtW/C catalyst shows higher CO tolerance compared to Pt/C due an electronic effect of WOx in the Pt 5d band, which reduces the CO adsorption. An increase in hydrogen oxidation activity in the presence of CO is observed for both the catalysts at a higher temperature, due to the decrease of the Pt-CO coverage. A reduction in the current densities occurs for the PtW/C catalyst in both polarization curves and cyclic voltammograms after 5000 cycles of the anode in the range of 0.1-0.7 V vs. RHE at 50 mVs-1. This decrease in performance is assigned to the dissolution of W, with a consequent increase in the membrane resistivity. However, the observed decline of performance is small either in the presence of pure H2 or in the presence of H2/CO.

  19. Size-controlled heating ability of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles for hyperthermia applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phong, P. T.; Phuc, N. X.; Nam, P. H.; Chien, N. V.; Dung, D. D.; Linh, P. H.

    2018-02-01

    The magnetic properties and heating capacity of cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) nanoparticles 13-24 nm in size were studied. Results showed that the specific absorption rate of the nanoparticles strongly depended on their magnetic properties and particle size. Specific absorption rate values decreased with increased particle size, and the smallest CoFe2O4 nanoparticles (13.5 nm) exhibited the highest specific absorption rate. The mechanism underlying the decrease in specific absorption rate of the CoFe2O4 nanoparticles with increased particle size was also discussed.

  20. Preparation of Co2FeSn Heusler alloys by electrodeposition method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuaki Watanabe

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new method for preparing Heusler alloys on the basis of the electrodeposition. The alloy composition is controllable by the deposition potential. The composition ratio of (Co, Fe and Sn is inversely proportional to the deposition potential. The effect of deposition potential on alloy composition, surface morphology, crystal structure, and magnetic properties of the samples was investigated. The (Co, Fe vs. Sn alloy composition displayed an inverse dependence on the deposition potential. According to the magnetic measurement, the obtained Co2FeSn composition alloy showed ferromagnetic properties. The coercivity shows the minimum value in the stoichiometric samples.

  1. Phase separation of metastable CoCrFeNi high entropy alloy at intermediate temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    He, Feng; Wang, Zhijun; Wu, Qingfeng; Li, Junjie; Wang, Jincheng; Liu, C T

    2016-01-01

    The CoCrFeNi alloy is widely accepted as an exemplary stable base for high entropy alloys (HEAs). Although various investigations prove it to be stable solid solution, its phase stability is still suspicious. Here, we identified that the CoCrFeNi HEA was thermally metastable at intermediate temperatures, and composition decomposition occurred after annealed at 750oC for 800 hrs. The increased lattice distortion induced by minor addition of Al into the CoCrFeNi base accelerated the composition...

  2. Cyclic voltammetric study of Co-Ni-Fe alloys electrodeposition in sulfate medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanafi, I.; Daud, A. R.; Radiman, S.

    2013-11-01

    Electrochemical technique has been used to study the electrodeposition of cobalt, nickel, iron and Co-Ni-Fe alloy on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrate. To obtain the nucleation mechanism, cyclic voltammetry is used to characterize the Co-Ni-Fe system. The scanning rate effect on the deposition process was investigated. Deposition of single metal occurs at potential values more positive than that estimated stability potential. Based on the cyclic voltammetry results, the electrodeposition of cobalt, nickel, iron and Co-Ni-Fe alloy clearly show that the process of diffusion occurs is controlled by the typical nucleation mechanism.

  3. Temperature dependence of spin-orbit torques in W/CoFeB bilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skowroński, Witold, E-mail: skowron@agh.edu.pl; Cecot, Monika; Kanak, Jarosław; Ziętek, Sławomir; Stobiecki, Tomasz [AGH University of Science and Technology, Department of Electronics, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Yao, Lide; Dijken, Sebastiaan van [NanoSpin, Department of Applied Physics, Aalto University School of Science, P.O. Box 15100, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland); Nozaki, Takayuki; Yakushiji, Kay; Yuasa, Shinji [Spintronics Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan)

    2016-08-08

    We report on the temperature variation of spin-orbit torques in perpendicularly magnetized W/CoFeB bilayers. Harmonic Hall voltage measurements in perpendicularly magnetized CoFeB reveal increased longitudinal and transverse effective magnetic field components at low temperatures. The damping-like spin-orbit torque reaches an efficiency of 0.55 at 19 K. Scanning transmission electron microscopy and X-ray reflectivity measurements indicate that considerable interface mixing between W and CoFeB may be responsible for strong spin-orbit interactions.

  4. Preparation of solid-solution type Fe-Co nanoalloys by synchronous deposition of Fe and Co using dual arc plasma guns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadakiyo, Masaaki; Heima, Minako; Yamamoto, Tomokazu; Matsumura, Syo; Matsuura, Masashi; Sugimoto, Satoshi; Kato, Kenichi; Takata, Masaki; Yamauchi, Miho

    2015-09-28

    We succeeded in the efficient preparation of well-dispersed Fe-Co nanoalloys (NAs) using the arc plasma deposition method. Synchronous shots of dual arc plasma guns were applied to a carbon support to prepare the solid-solution type Fe-Co NAs having an approximately 1 : 1 atomic ratio. The alloy structures with and without a reductive thermal treatment under a hydrogen atmosphere were examined using X-ray powder diffraction, scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) combined with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, high resolution STEM, and magnetic measurements, suggesting that highly crystalline spherical particles of ordered B2-type Fe-Co NAs form by the thermal treatment of the deposited grains.

  5. Effect of nanoparticle (Pd, Pd/Pt, Ni deposition on high temperature hydrogenation of Ti-V alloys in gaseous flow containing CO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Suwarno

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The hydrogenation properties of Ti-V hydrides coated with nanoparticles have been studied in gaseous mixtures of argon and hydrogen with and without additions of 1% CO. Nanoparticles of Pd, Ni, and co-deposited Pd/Pt with particle sizes of ~30–60 nm were formed by electroless deposition on the hydride surfaces. The alloy resistance to CO could be significantly improved by particle deposition. Large amounts of hydrogen were absorbed in a CO-containing gas when Ni and Pd/Pt deposition had been applied, while pure Pd deposition had no positive effect. Ni was found to have a stronger effect than those of Pd/Pt and Pd, possibly because of the size effect of Ni nanoparticles.

  6. Formate-Dependent Microbial Conversion of CO2 and the Dominant Pathways of Methanogenesis in Production Water of High-temperature Oil Reservoirs Amended with Bicarbonate

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yang, Guang-Chao; Zhou, Lei; Mbadinga, Serge M; Liu, Jin-Feng; Yang, Shi-Zhong; Gu, Ji-Dong; Mu, Bo-Zhong

    2016-01-01

    .... The isotope data showed that bicarbonate could be reduced to methane by methanogens and major pathway of methanogenesis could be syntrophic formate oxidation coupled with CO2 reduction and formate...

  7. Depth selective crystallization study of CoFeB film on MgO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Gagan; Gupta, Ajay; Gupta, Ranjeeta; Gupta, Mukul; Gupta, Pooja; Sinha, A. K.

    2017-10-01

    Depth resolved study of crystallization of CoFeB film on MgO film has been done using GIXRD measurements. The quality and thermal stability of MgO film deposited using EB evaporation, was ensured using GIXRD measurements. Depth selectivity for studying the crystallization of CoFeB film has been achieved by performing the GIXRD measurements as a function of the angle of incidence on as-deposited as well as annealed samples. GIXRD measurements on partially crystallized sample annealed at 300 °C reveal that the crystallization of CoFeB film occurs preferentially at CoFeB/MgO interface with the thickness of crystallized layer being 7 nm. This is in conformity with suggestions made in some earlier studies. Anomalous XRD measurements near the Fe absorption edge on completely crystallized sample achieved after annealing at 450 °C shows the presence of (1 0 0) superlattice peak. This evidences the formation of ordered bcc CoFe phase. This result is important as it has been suggested that an ordered CoFe bcc phase may improve the symmetry filtering effect and hence the Tunnel Magnetoresistance value.

  8. Microwave absorption property of the diatomite coated by Fe-CoNiP films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Zhenqiang; Cai, Jun; Xu, Yonggang, E-mail: xuyonggang221@163.com; Zhang, Deyuan

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • The bio-absorbent coated Fe-CoNiP was fabricated by electroless and CVD. • The EM parameters were enlarged as Fe coated on the diatomite. • The coating CIPs play a key role in the enhancement mechanism. • The Fe-CoNiP diatomite had a better absorbing and shielding properties. - Abstract: A bio-absorbent of Fe-CoNiP coated on the diatomite was fabricated by way of electroless plating of CoNiP and subsequent chemical vapor deposition of Fe. The surface morphology and composition of the above-mentioned diatomite particles at different stage were characterized with the scanning electron microscopy and the energy spectrum analysis respectively, and the results showed that the diatomite was successfully coated with CoNoP and Fe (carbony iron). The complex permittivity and permeability of composites filled with the bio-absorbent and paraffin was measured in frequency range of 2–18 GHz, and then the microwave reflection loss (RL) and the shielding effectiveness (SE) were calculated. The results showed that the permittivity and the permeability were both enlarged as Fe films were coated onto the CoNiP-coated diatomite, which was attributed to the excellent electromagnetic property of carbonyl irons. The composites made with the Fe-CoNiP diatomite had a better absorbing property (minimum RL −11.0 dB) as well as the shielding property (maximum SE 5.6 dB) at thickness 2 mm. It indicated the absorption property was mainly due to the attenuation on the microwave, and the Fe-CoNiP diatomite could be an effective absorbent with low-density.

  9. Melting relations in the system FeCO3-MgCO3 and thermodynamic modelling of Fe-Mg carbonate melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Nathan; Schmidt, Max W.; Poli, Stefano; Connolly, James A. D.; Franzolin, Ettore

    2016-09-01

    To constrain the thermodynamics and melting relations of the siderite-magnesite (FeCO3-MgCO3) system, 27 piston cylinder experiments were conducted at 3.5 GPa and 1170-1575 °C. Fe-rich compositions were also investigated with 13 multi-anvil experiments at 10, 13.6 and 20 GPa, 1500-1890 °C. At 3.5 GPa, the solid solution siderite-magnesite coexists with melt over a compositional range of X Mg (=Mg/(Mg + Fetot)) = 0.38-1.0, while at ≥10 GPa solid solution appears to be complete. At 3.5 GPa, the system is pseudo-binary because of the limited stability of siderite or liquid FeCO3, Fe-rich carbonates decomposing at subsolidus conditions to magnetite-magnesioferrite solid solution, graphite and CO2. Similar reactions also occur with liquid FeCO3 resulting in melt species with ferric iron components, but the decomposition of the liquid decreases in importance with pressure. At 3.5 GPa, the metastable melting temperature of pure siderite is located at 1264 °C, whereas pure magnesite melts at 1629 °C. The melting loop is non-ideal on the Fe side where the dissociation reaction resulting in Fe3+ in the melt depresses melting temperatures and causes a minimum. Over the pressure range of 3.5-20 GPa, this minimum is 20-35 °C lower than the (metastable) siderite melting temperature. By merging all present and previous experimental data, standard state (298.15 K, 1 bar) thermodynamic properties of the magnesite melt (MgCO3L) end member are calculated and the properties of (Fe,Mg)CO3 melt fit by a regular solution model with an interaction parameter of -7600 J/mol. The solution model reproduces the asymmetric melting loop and predicts the thermal minimum at 1240 °C near the siderite side at X Mg = 0.2 (3.5 GPa). The solution model is applicable to pressures reaching to the bottom of the upper mantle and allows calculation of phase relations in the FeO-MgO-O2-C system.

  10. Structural, optical and magnetic studies of (Y, Co) co-substituted BiFeO{sub 3} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuang, Daihong [State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); School of Mathematics and Physics, Xinjiang Agricultural University, Urumqi 830052 (China); Tang, Ping; Wu, Xiaohang; Yang, Shenghong; Ding, Xidong [State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Zhang, Yueli, E-mail: stszyl@mail.sysu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)

    2016-06-25

    Polycrystalline BiFeO{sub 3} (BFO) and Bi{sub 0.9}Y{sub 0.1}Fe{sub 1-x}Co{sub x}O{sub 3} (x = 0, 0.03, 0.05, and 0.10) thin films were prepared on quartz and Pt(111)/Ti/SiO{sub 2}/Si(100) substrates using a sol-gel method. X-ray diffraction and micro-Raman measurements demonstrated that the phase of all films was a perovskite-type rhombohedral structure. Bi{sub 0.9}Y{sub 0.1}Fe{sub 1-x}Co{sub x}O{sub 3} thin films exhibited a merging of (104) and (110) peaks, which indicated obvious distorted deformation of FeO{sub 6} octahedra. UV–visible absorption spectra confirmed that the substitutions of Y and Co ions in Bi and Fe sites caused an increase in the optical band gap of BFO thin film, suggesting their potential application as UV and blue-green-driven photocatalysts. The magnetic test indicated that the ferromagnetic behavior was enhanced with the increase of Co ion concentration for (Y, Co) co-substituted BFO films, which could be attributed to the different magnetic moments of Co{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 3+}. The saturation magnetization at room temperature for x = 0.10 sample was 132 memu/cm{sup 3}. The results revealed that the (Y, Co) co-substitution played an important role for the improved ferromagnetic properties of BFO thin films. The mechanisms of (Y, Co) co-substitution effects on structural, optical and magnetic characteristics of BFO films were discussed. - Highlights: • The optical band gap of (Y, Co) co-substituted BFO suggested their application as UV and blue-green-driven photocatalysts. • The remanent magnetization of Bi{sub 0.9}Y{sub 0.1}Fe{sub 1-x}Co{sub x}O{sub 3} (x = 0.10) sample is much larger than those of single cobalt doping BFO. • (Y, Co) co-substitution has an impact on grain structures and surface morphologies of BFO films.

  11. Advances in high temperature chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Eyring, Leroy

    1969-01-01

    Advances in High Temperature Chemistry, Volume 2 covers the advances in the knowledge of the high temperature behavior of materials and the complex and unfamiliar characteristics of matter at high temperature. The book discusses the dissociation energies and free energy functions of gaseous monoxides; the matrix-isolation technique applied to high temperature molecules; and the main features, the techniques for the production, detection, and diagnosis, and the applications of molecular beams in high temperatures. The text also describes the chemical research in streaming thermal plasmas, as w

  12. Experiment and modeling of CO{sub 2} capture from flue gases at high temperature in a fluidized bed reactor with Ca-based sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan Fang; Zhen-Shan Li; Ning-Sheng Cai [Tsinghua University, Beijing (China). Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of the Ministry of Education (MOE)

    2009-01-15

    The cyclic CO{sub 2} capture and CaCO{sub 3} regeneration characteristics in a small fluidized bed reactor were experimentally investigated with limestone and dolomite sorbents. Kinetic rate constants for carbonation and calcination were determined using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) data. Mathematical models developed to model the Ca-based sorbent multiple cycles of CO{sub 2} capture and calcination in the bubbling fluidized bed reactor agreed with the experimental data. The experimental and simulated results showed that the CO{sub 2} in flue gases could be absorbed efficiently by limestone and dolomite. The time for high-efficiency CO{sub 2} capture decreased with an increasing number of cycles because of the loss of sorbent activity, and the final CO{sub 2} capture efficiency remained nearly constant as the sorbent reached its final residual capture capacity. In a continuous carbonation and calcination system, corresponding to the sorbent activity loss, the carbonation kinetic rates of sorbent undergoing various cycles are different, and the carbonation kinetic rates of sorbent circulating N times in the carbonation/calcination cycles are also different because of the different residence time of sorbent in the carbonator. Therefore, the average carbonation rate was given based on the mass balance and exit age distribution for sorbent in the carbonator. The CO{sub 2} capture characteristics in a continuous carbonation/calcination system were predicted, taking into consideration the mass balance, sorbent circulation rate, sorbent activity loss, and average carbonation kinetic rate, to give useful information for the reactor design and operation of multiple carbonation/calcination reaction cycles. 27 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Structural Analysis and Magnetic Properties of FeCo Alloys Obtained by Mechanical Alloying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Sánchez-De Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A systematic study on the structural and magnetic properties of Fe100-xCox alloys (10Fe and Co mixed in an adequate weight ratio were milled at room temperature in a shaker mixer mill using vials and balls of hardened steel as milling media with a ball : powder weight ratio of 12 : 1. The mixtures were milled for 3 h. The results show that, after milling, for almost all the composition (up to x=60, solid solutions based on bcc structures were obtained. For Co-rich alloys (x≥70, different phases were found, revealing the formation of a metastable intermetallic phase (FeCo, wairauite together with fcc-Co and hcp-Co phases. The specific saturation magnetization increases by increasing Co content, reaching a maximum value of 225 emu/g for hcp-Fe70Co30, and then it shows a diminution up to 154 emu/g for bcc-Fe30Co70. All studied alloys (Fe100-xCox present low coercivity, in the range from 0 to 65 Oe, which is lower than reported. The coercivity increases with the increment in Co, reaching a maximum of 64.1 Oe for Fe40Co60. After that, the coercivity falls up to 24.5 Oe for Co-rich alloys, which make them a very low coercive material.

  14. Time-domain analysis of spin-torque induced switching paths in nanoscale CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB magnetic tunnel junction devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heindl, R., E-mail: ranko.heindl@sjsu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, San Jose State University, San Jose, California 95112 (United States); Rippard, W. H.; Russek, S. E.; Pufall, M. R. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States)

    2014-12-28

    We performed thousands of single-shot, real-time measurements of spin-transfer-torque induced switching in nanoscale CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB magnetic tunnel junctions having in-plane magnetizations. Our investigation discovered a variety of switching paths occurring in consecutive, nominally identical switching trials of a single device. By mapping the voltage as a function of time to an effective magnetization angle, we determined that reversal of a single device occurs via a variety of thermally activated paths. Our results show a complex switching behavior that has not been captured by previous observations and cannot be fully explained within the simple macrospin model.

  15. Comparative study of the magnetoresistance of MBE-grown multilayers: [Fe/Cu/Co/Cu]N and [Fe/Cu]N[Co/Cu]N

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozec, D.; Walker, M. J.; Hickey, B. J.; Howson, M. A.; Wiser, Nathan

    1999-08-01

    We have carried out measurements of the magnetic-field dependence of the magnetoresistance [MR(H)] in the current perpendicular to the plane (CPP) mode for magnetic multilayers having the following configurations: [Fe/Cu/Co/Cu]N and [Fe/Cu]N[Co/Cu]N. The two configurations had the same number, types, and thicknesses of magnetic and nonmagnetic layers; their only difference lay in the ordering of the magnetic layers. Nevertheless, the measured MR(H) curves are found to be completely different for the two configurations. The implications of these results are discussed for the spin-diffusion length.

  16. Structure of solvated Fe(CO)5: complex formation during solvation in alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessing, Joshua; Li, Xiaodi; Lee, Taewoo; Rose-Petruck, Christoph G

    2008-03-20

    The equilibrium structure of iron pentacarbonyl, Fe(CO)5, solvated in various alcohols has been investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) measurements and density functional theory calculations. This system was studied because it is prototypical of a larger class of monometallic systems, which are electronically saturated but not sterically crowded. Upon solvation, the Fe(CO)5 is not just surrounded by a solvation shell. Instead, solute-solvent complexes are formed with the oxygen of the alcohol oriented toward an axial ligand of the Fe(CO)5 giving a formation energy on the order of -5 kJ/mol. This complexation is not a chemical reaction but rather a "preassembly" of the solute molecules with a single solvent molecule. For instance, at room temperature the interaction between Fe(CO)5 and ethanol results in 87% of all Fe(CO)5 molecules being complexated with a single ethanol molecule. This complexation was found in all the alcohol systems studied in this paper. The stability of these complexes was found to depend on the alcohol chain length and branching. The observed complexation mechanism is accompanied by an electron density shift from the complexed alcohol molecule toward Fe(CO)5 where it induces a dipole moment. The finding that Fe(CO)5 forms a complex with the hydroxyl group of a single solvent molecule might have significant implications for ligand substitution reactions. This implies that ligand substitution reactions do not have to proceed via a dissociative mechanism. Instead, the reaction might proceed through a concerted mechanism with the leaving CO simultaneously being replaced by the incoming alcohol that was complexed to Fe(CO)5 prior to the photoexcitation.

  17. Magnetization in a epitaxial [Fe/Cr/Co/Cr]{sub 20x} spin valve system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruessing, Frank; Toperverg, Boris; Zhernenkov, Kirill; Wolff, Maximilian; Zabel, Hartmut [Department of Physics, Ruhr-University Bochum (Germany); Theis-Broehl, Katharina [University of Applied Sciences Bremerhaven (Germany); Wiemann, Carsten; Kaiser, Alexander; Schneider, Claus M. [Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Magnetic heterostructures containing different magnetic layers, such as Co and Fe, are essential elements for modern spintronic devices. As a model system we have chosen [Co/Cr/Fe/Cr(100)]{sub 20x} epitaxial superlattices with spin valve properties. The thicknesses of the Fe and Co layers were adjusted such that their magnetization magnitudes are roughly equal. The quality of the layering and the epitaxial relationship were verified via x-ray methods. Via PEEM and PNR the ground state and the magnetization reversal were studied. In this work we mainly focused on the magnetic correlation between Co and Fe mediated by Cr spacer layer and its dependence on the Co bcc-hcp martensitic transition. The alignment between neighboring Co and Fe layers can be recognized via intensity variations of the superlattice Bragg peaks, which are different for odd and even orders. For a certain thickness of the Co and Fe layers in the as grown state additional half-order peaks can be recognized, which indicate a spiral like magnetic ordering in the sample. A combination of the magnetic anisotropy of the different layers and interlayer exchange coupling is most likely the reason for the spiral state.

  18. Synthesis of M–Nd doped Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles (M = Co, Ce, Cr, Ni ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... electron microscope (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and a vibrating sampling magnetometer (VSM). The results revealed that the magnetic nanoparticles were spherical shaped with inverse spinel structure. The size of Fe3O4 and Nd-Co doped Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles were approximately 15 ...

  19. After Effects of the 57Co(EC)57Fe-Reaction in some Cobalt and Iron Complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siekierska, K. F.; Fenger, Jørgen Folkvard; Olsen, J.

    1972-01-01

    Mössbauer emission spectra of iron and cobalt complexes, doped or labelled with 57Co, demonstrate that the 57Co(EC)57Fe reaction can have significant chemical effects, although the probability of displacement of the nascent57Fe is very low. Measurements on specifically 57Co-labelled [Co(bipy)3][Co......(CN)6],2H2O failed to show transfer of 57Fe from one complex to the other....

  20. Ferromagnetic resonance studies and magnetization curvesof Co-Cr and Co-Cr/Ni-Fe thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, Maria Theresia Helena Clasina Wilhelmina

    In this thesis CoCr and CoCr/NiFe double layers are studied by ferromagnetic resonance. The coercivity and the initial susceptibility of these layers are measured. An approximation of the Kooy and Enz model which is suitable for calculating the initial suceptibility is presented [3.36]. A

  1. Structural and magnetic properties of FeCoC system obtained by mechanical alloying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rincón Soler, A. I. [Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira, Fac. de Ciencias, Depto. de Física (Colombia); Rodríguez Jacobo, R. R., E-mail: rrrodriguez@uao.edu.co [Universidad Autónoma de Occidente, Fac. de Ciencias Básicas, Depto. de Física (Colombia); Medina Barreto, M. H.; Cruz-Muñoz, B. [Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira, Fac. de Ciencias, Depto. de Física (Colombia)

    2017-11-15

    Fe{sub 96−X}Co{sub X}C{sub 4} (x = 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 at. %) alloys were obtained by mechanical alloying of Fe, C and Co powders using high-energy milling. The structural and magnetic properties of the alloy system were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM) and Mössbauer Spectrometry at room temperature. The X-ray diffraction patterns showed a BCC-FeCoC structure phase for all samples, as well as a lattice parameter that slightly decreases with Co content. The saturation magnetization and coercive field were analyzed as a function of Co content. The Mössbauer spectra were fitted with a hyperfine magnetic field distribution showing the ferromagnetic behavior and the disordered character of the samples. The mean hyperfine magnetic field remained nearly constant (358 T) with Co content.

  2. Thermally robust Mo/CoFeB/MgO trilayers with strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, T; Zhang, Y; Cai, J W; Pan, H Y

    2014-01-01

    The recent discovery of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) at the CoFeB/MgO interface has accelerated the development of next generation high-density non-volatile memories by utilizing perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions (p-MTJs...

  3. Origin of interfacial perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in MgO/CoFe/metallic capping layer structures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peng, Shouzhong; Wang, Mengxing; Yang, Hongxin; Zeng, Lang; Nan, Jiang; Zhou, Jiaqi; Zhang, Youguang; Hallal, Ali; Chshiev, Mairbek; Wang, Kang L; Zhang, Qianfan; Zhao, Weisheng

    2015-01-01

    .... The core device in STT-MRAM is CoFeB/MgO-based magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ), which possesses a high tunnel magnetoresistance ratio as well as a large value of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA...

  4. Origin of interfacial perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in MgO/CoFe/metallic capping layer structures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peng, Shouzhong; Wang, Mengxing; Yang, Hongxin; Zeng, Lang; Nan, Jiang; Zhou, Jiaqi; Zhang, Youguang; Hallal, Ali; Chshiev, Mairbek; Wang, Kang L; Zhang, Qianfan; Zhao, Weisheng

    2015-01-01

    .... However, the physical mechanism of such effect remains unclear. In this paper, we investigate the origin of the PMA in MgO/CoFe/metallic capping layer structures by using a first-principles computation scheme...

  5. A Study of Structure and Magnetic Properties of Low Purity Fe-Co-Based Metallic Glasses

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sabina Lesz

    2017-01-01

    ...) and bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) as well as determining their magnetic properties. The structure and magnetic properties of Fe-Co-based CMGs and BMGs prepared from ferroalloys and pure elements, were studied...

  6. Perpendicular magnetization of CoFeB on top of an amorphous buffer layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dongseok; Jung, K.Y. [Department of Display and Semiconductor Physics, Korea University, Sejong 339-700 (Korea, Republic of); Joo, Sungjung [Department of Display and Semiconductor Physics, Korea University, Sejong 339-700 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Electricity and Magnetism, Korea Research Institute of Standard and Science, Daejeon 305-340 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Youngjae; Hong, Jinki [Department of Display and Semiconductor Physics, Korea University, Sejong 339-700 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, B.C.; You, C.Y.; Cho, J.H. [Department of Physics, Inha University, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, M.Y. [Department of Nano Physics, Sookmyung Women' s University, Seoul 140-742 (Korea, Republic of); Rhie, K., E-mail: krhie@korea.ac.kr [Department of Display and Semiconductor Physics, Korea University, Sejong 339-700 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy was observed in sputtered FeZr/CoFeB/MgO multilayers. A thin paramagnetic amorphous FeZr layer was used as a buffer layer and perpendicular anisotropy was obtained by annealing the samples without an external magnetic field. The critical CoFeB thickness for perpendicular anisotropy was 1.8 nm; the anisotropy changes from out-of-plane to in-plane as the CoFeB thickness increases beyond this point. Perpendicular anisotropy was also enhanced when a Ta layer was capped on top of the MgO layer. The amorphous buffer provided better perpendicular anisotropy than previously reported Ta buffer, and it may be applied to perpendicular magnetization MRAM devices where good uniformity of tunnel junctions is required. - Highlights: • Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) of buffer/CoFeB/MgO was investigated. • The PMA was enhanced by using an amorphous buffer. • The PMA of the CoFeB layer was maintained up to 1.8 nm. • Ta capping layer further improved the PMA by 40%.

  7. CO and HCHO adsorption on FeO monowire devices: a DFT study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishore, N.; Senthilkannan, K.; Periyanayagi, T.; Rubashri, R.; Sriram, S.

    2017-11-01

    FeO monowire structures were constructed and optimized using density functional theory (DFT) to study the adsorption behavior of CO and HCHO gas phase molecules. The adsorption behavior of the target molecules was studied in terms of adsorption energy, charge density and the reaction time of the FeO monowire devices. Also, FeO monowire molecular devices are constructed to study the sensitivity of the devices towards CO and HCHO molecules using non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) with density functional theory. The zero bias electronic transport properties confirm the adsorption of the CO and HCHO on the FeO monowire devices. From the V-I characteristic and the differential conductance calculations, the FeO monowire device is more sensitive to HCHO than CO molecule. However, the CO-adsorbed FeO monowire device exhibits high order of NDR behavior and can be used as a functional group for fabricating data storage device based FeO monowire.

  8. Regenerable MgO-based sorbents for high-temperature CO{sub 2} removal from syngas: 1. Sorbent development, evaluation, and reaction modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armin Hassanzadeh; Javad Abbasian [Pyrophase Inc., Chicago, IL (United States)

    2010-06-15

    Highly reactive and mechanically strong low-cost regenerable MgO-based sorbents were prepared by modification of dolomite which involved partial calcinations followed by impregnation with a potassium-based salt. The sorbents are capable of removing CO{sub 2} from gasification-based processes such as Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC). The sorbents have high reactivity and good capacity toward CO{sub 2} absorption in the temperature range of 300-450{sup o}C at 20 atm. and can be easily regenerated at 500{sup o}C. The reaction appears to be first order with respect to CO{sub 2} concentration with an activation energy of 44 kJ/mol. The reactivity and the absorption capacity of the sorbents increase with increasing temperature, as long as the partial pressure of CO{sub 2} is above the equilibrium value for sorbent carbonation. The reactivity of the sorbents appears to improve in the presence of steam, which is likely due to the increase in the BET surface area and the porosity of the sorbent. A two-zone expanding grain model, consisting of a high-reactivity outer shell and a low-reactivity inner core is shown to provide an excellent fit to the TGA experimental data on sorbent carbonation at various operating conditions. 31 refs., 16 figs.,3 tabs.

  9. Evolution of spin and valence states of (Pr0.7Sm0.3)0.7Ca0.3CoO3 at high temperature and high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J. M.; Lee, J. M.; Haw, S. C.; Chen, S. A.; Hardy, V.; Guillou, F.; Chen, S. W.; Kuo, C. Y.; Pao, C. W.; Lee, J. F.; Hiraoka, N.; Ishii, H.; Tsuei, K. D.; Hu, Z.

    2014-07-01

    The changes of physical properties occurring at a first-order-like transition among a wide family of (Pr1-yLny)1-xCaxCoO3 compounds (Ln being a lanthanide) are controversially discussed as a transition of Co3+ ions from states of low spin (LS) to intermediate spin (IS), or from LS to a mixture of LS and high spin (HS). The debate also includes the nature of the spin state of Co4+, as well as the degree of valence shift between Pr3+ and Pr4+ which accompanies this transition. In the present paper, we investigated the evolution of spin and valence states of Co ions and the valence state of Pr ions in (Pr0.7Sm0.3)0.7Ca0.3CoO3, at high temperature up to 750 K and under pressure up to 36.5 GPa. For this purpose, the data of three spectroscopic techniques were combined: high-resolution Co K-edge partial-fluorescence-yield x-ray absorption spectra, Pr L2-edge x-ray absorption spectra, and Co Kβ x-ray emission spectra. The spectral weight transfer of the pre-edge peaks of the Co K-edge spectra reveals a continuous redistribution of 3d electrons between the t2g and eg levels of Co ions, reflecting a gradual increase of the average Co spin state upon heating. This is further confirmed by Co Kβ x-ray emission spectra, which show an increase of HS Co3+ population when increasing temperature from 300 to 750 K. Applying high pressure at 300 K, the Co Kβ x-ray emission spectra indicate a relatively sharp increase of LS Co3+ population below 4 GPa. Pr L2-edge x-ray absorption spectra of (Pr0.7Sm0.3)0.7Ca0.3CoO3 exhibit a valence-state transition from Pr3+ to Pr3.26+, occurring predominantly upon applying pressure in the range ˜4 to ˜12 GPa. Owing to the charge balance, increasing pressure in this regime induces complex valence and spin-state transitions within the Co ions. Moreover, at high enough pressure, it is found that the Co4+ can also undergo a spin-state transition (from IS to LS), in addition to that affecting the Co3+ (HS to LS).

  10. Microstructural and magnetic characterizations of CoFeCu electrodeposited in self-assembled mesoporous silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortas, G., E-mail: g.fortas@gmail.com [Centre de Recherche en Technologie des Semi-conducteur pour l’Energétique, Bd. 2 Frantz Fanon, les sept merveilles B.P.140, Alger (Algeria); Université des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumediene, Faculté des Physique, BP 32 El Alia 16111 Bab Ezzouar, Alger (Algeria); Haine, N. [Université des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumediene, Faculté des Physique, BP 32 El Alia 16111 Bab Ezzouar, Alger (Algeria); Sam, S.; Gabouze, N. [Centre de Recherche en Technologie des Semi-conducteur pour l’Energétique, Bd. 2 Frantz Fanon, les sept merveilles B.P.140, Alger (Algeria); Saifi, A. [Université Mouloud Mammeri, laboratoire de physique et de chimie quantique, BP No. 17 RP Hasnaoua Tizi-Ouzou 15000 (Algeria); Ouir, S. [Université Said SDB, Route De Soumaa BP 270, Blida (Algeria); Menari, H. [Centre de Recherche en Technologie des Semi-conducteur pour l’Energétique, Bd. 2 Frantz Fanon, les sept merveilles B.P.140, Alger (Algeria)

    2015-03-15

    Self-assembled mesoporous silicon with quasi-regular pore arrangements has been fabricated by the electrochemical anodization process in hydrofluoric acid solution. CoFeCu was electrodeposited in this structure from a bath containing sodium acetate as a complexing agent with a pH value of 5. The effect of current density on the morphology, the structure and the magnetic properties of CoFeCu deposit was studied by SEM, EDS, DRX and VSM. It has been shown that the morphology and structure of samples were strongly influenced by the current density and etching duration. The micrographs show the vertical and branched nanowires and also a discontinuous growth of wires. Further, the growth of a thick layer from the grain boundaries of released CoFeCu wires is produced. The magnetic hysteresis loops demonstrate that the CoFeCu nanowires exhibit easy magnetic axis perpendicular to the PS channels axis when the current density varied from 3 to 10 mA/cm{sup 2}. Nevertheless, they reveal a no magnetic anisotropy of CoFeCu nanostructures deposited only in the outside of porous silicon, probably due to the vanishing the shape anisotropy. - Highlights: • CoFeCu deposit has been electrodeposited on self assembled mesoporous silicon. • SEM observation shows that CoFeCu embedded in Porous silicon channels. • Magnetic measurements show the anisotropy magnetic behavior of CoFeCu nanostructures. • The growth rate of nanowires is enhanced with an increase of current density.

  11. Enhanced exchange anisotropy in IrMn/CoFeB systems and its correlation with uncompensated interfacial spins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Yuqing; Pan, Genhua; Moate, Roy

    2010-01-01

    Bottom pinned exchange bias systems of IrMn/CoFe and IrMn/CoFeB on CoFe seed layers were studied. Enhanced exchange anisotropy has been observed for IrMn/CoFeB samples annealed at 350 °C. The ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic layers of both samples are polycrystalline and textured {110......} for the CoFe and CoFeB, and {111} for IrMn. Results demonstrated that the enhanced exchange anisotropy in the IrMn/CoFeB system is closely associated with the increased uncompensated interfacial spins as evidenced by the enhanced Mn x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) signal strength. A quantitative...... correlation between the Mn XMCD signal and the exchange anisotropy constant Jk was observed....

  12. Ferromagnetic resonance studies of Fe/Ni and Fe/CoNbZr multilayers: Model and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, B. Ramamurthy; Prasad, Shiva; Venkataramani, N.; Kaabouchi, M.; Krishnan, R.; Sella, C.

    1995-09-01

    Ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) studies were carried out on Fe/Ni and Fe/CoNbZr multilayers. A simple model taking into consideration the multilayered nature of the film was used to calculate the field positions and mode intensities of the experimental spectra. The complicated intensity patterns of the modes observed in the FMR spectra of the multilayers were explained in terms of model calculations. The analysis of the spectra showed that the interface in case of these multilayers is not sharp and suggested the formation of interfacial alloy.

  13. Thermally robust Mo/CoFeB/MgO trilayers with strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, T; Zhang, Y; Cai, J W; Pan, H Y

    2014-07-31

    The recent discovery of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) at the CoFeB/MgO interface has accelerated the development of next generation high-density non-volatile memories by utilizing perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions (p-MTJs). However, the insufficient interfacial PMA in the typical Ta/CoFeB/MgO system will not only complicate the p-MTJ optimization, but also limit the device density scalability. Moreover, the rapid decreases of PMA in Ta/CoFeB/MgO films with annealing temperature higher than 300°C will make the compatibility with CMOS integrated circuits a big problem. By replacing the Ta buffer layer with a thin Mo film, we have increased the PMA in the Ta/CoFeB/MgO structure by 20%. More importantly, the thermal stability of the perpendicularly magnetized (001)CoFeB/MgO films is greatly increased from 300°C to 425°C, making the Mo/CoFeB/MgO films attractive for a practical p-MTJ application.

  14. Magnetic hardening of Fe{sub 50}Co{sub 50} by rotary swaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gröb, T., E-mail: t.groeb@phm.tu-darmstadt.de [Division Physical Metallurgy, Alarich-Weiß-Str. 2, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Wießner, L. [Institute for Production Engineering and Forming Machines, Otto-Berndt-Str. 2, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Bruder, E. [Division Physical Metallurgy, Alarich-Weiß-Str. 2, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Faske, T.; Donner, W. [Divison Structure Research, Alarich-Weiß-Str. 2, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Groche, P. [Institute for Production Engineering and Forming Machines, Otto-Berndt-Str. 2, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Müller, C. [Division Physical Metallurgy, Alarich-Weiß-Str. 2, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2017-04-15

    Fe{sub 50}Co{sub 50} was subjected to incremental forming by rotary swaging with the aim of tailoring the coercivity by changing the microstructure. The challenging part of a deformation of Fe{sub 50}Co{sub 50} is an ordering phase present at room temperature, leading to low formability. To increase the formability of the alloy the presence of the ordering phase was supressed by two different concepts. The first concept consists of a heat treatment above the phase transition followed by rapid cooling and deformation at room temperature. The second concept was rotary swaging at temperatures above the phase transition temperature. A comparison in terms of resulting microstructure and magnetic properties shows that both concepts have a potential for tailoring the coercivity of Fe{sub 50}Co{sub 50}. - Highlights: • Magnetic hardening of Fe{sub 50}Co{sub 50} was achieved by rotary swaging with two different concepts. • The influences of the microstructural changes during the rotary swaging process have been linked to magnetic hardening. • Increase in coercivity for Fe{sub 50}Co{sub 50} by rotary swaging at elevated temperature is limited by the dynamic restoration. • Coercivity of Fe{sub 50}Co{sub 50} can be tailored by the induced plastic strain.

  15. Monodisperse polyvinylpyrrolidone-coated CoFe2O4 nanoparticles: Synthesis, characterization and cytotoxicity study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guangshuo; Ma, Yingying; Mu, Jingbo; Zhang, Zhixiao; Zhang, Xiaoliang; Zhang, Lina; Che, Hongwei; Bai, Yongmei; Hou, Junxian; Xie, Hailong

    2016-03-01

    In this study, monodisperse cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) nanoparticles were prepared successfully with various additions of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) by sonochemical method, in which PVP served as a stabilizer and dispersant. The effects and roles of PVP on the morphology, microstructure and magnetic properties of the obtained CoFe2O4 were investigated in detail by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID). It was found that PVP-coated CoFe2O4 showed relatively well dispersion with narrow size distribution. The field-dependent magnetization curves indicated superparamagnetic behavior of PVP-coated CoFe2O4 with moderate saturation magnetization and hydrophilic character at room temperature. More importantly, the in vitro cytotoxicity testing exhibited negligible cytotoxicity of as-prepared PVP-CoFe2O4 even at the concentration as high as 150 μg/mL after 24 h treatment. Considering the superparamagnetic properties, hydrophilic character and negligible cytotoxicity, the monodisperse CoFe2O4 nanoparticles hold great potential in a variety of biomedical applications.

  16. High-pressure high-temperature decomposition of CeCoGa to the Laves phases CeCo{sub 0.58}Ga{sub 1.42}, CeCo{sub 0.72}Ga{sub 1.28}, and CeCo{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niehaus, Oliver; Rodewald, Ute C.; Heying, Birgit; Poettgen, Rainer [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie; Heymann, Gunter; Huppertz, Hubert [Innsbruck Univ. (Austria). Inst. fuer Allgemeine, Anorganische und Theoretische Chemie

    2016-07-01

    The monoclinic intermediate-valent gallide CeCoGa decomposes under high-pressure (HP) (9.5 GPa) high-temperature (HT) (1470 K) conditions into the Laves phases CeCo{sub 0.58}Ga{sub 1.42} (MgCu{sub 2} type), CeCo{sub 0.72}Ga{sub 1.28} (MgZn{sub 2} type; major product phase), and CeCo{sub 2} (MgCu{sub 2} type). The structures of the ternary Laves phases were refined from single crystal X-ray diffractometer data: Fd anti 3m, a=778.3(1) pm, wR2=0.0310, 63 F{sup 2} values, five variables for CeCo{sub 0.58(3)}Ga{sub 1.42(3)} and P6{sub 3}/mmc, a=547.24(5), c=858.76(7) pm, wR2=0.1009, 195 F{sup 2} values, 13 variables for CeCo{sub 0.72(1)}Ga{sub 1.28(1)}. Partial substitution of cobalt by gallium leads to a significant increase of the distances within the tetrahedral network: 253 pm Co-Co in CeCo{sub 2} as compared to 275 pm in CeCo{sub 0.58(3)}Ga{sub 1.42(3)} and 265-277 pm in CeCo{sub 0.72(1)}Ga{sub 1.28(1)}. The crystal chemical consequences are briefly discussed.

  17. Improved high-frequency soft magnetic properties of FeCo films on organic ferroelectric PVDF substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Dong; Wang, Zhen; Han, Xuemeng; Li, Yue; Guo, Xiaobin; Zuo, Yalu; Xi, Li, E-mail: xili@lzu.edu.cn

    2015-02-01

    FeCo films with various thicknesses were fabricated by direct-current magnetron sputtering on corning glass and organic ferroelectric PVDF substrates at the same time with 5 nm Ru seed layer and 5 nm Ta protective layer. The in-plane uniaxial anisotropy field of FeCo on glass substrate increases from 24 to 36 Oe with the increase of FeCo film thickness from 5 to 100 nm. However, a large in-plane anisotropy field of FeCo on PVDF substrate increases with FeCo thickness from 5 to 20 nm and gradually decreases with the FeCo thickness further increasing. Atomic force microscope images of FeCo on glass show quite smooth surface with root-mean-square roughness around 0.5 nm and have none visible granules on the surface for all samples. While, AFM images of FeCo on PVDF show quite rough surface with RMS roughness around 25 nm and have visible granules with the smallest granules appearing at the FeCo thickness of 20 nm. The permeability spectra show the typical ferromagnetic resonance phenomenon and can be well fitted by the LLG equation with the obtained experimental parameters. The ferromagnetic resonance frequency can reach 7.0 GHz for the 20 nm FeCo film on PVDF. Moreover, the quality factor of this sample can respectively reach 26, 12 and 7 at 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 GHz, indicating the potential real 3G application for high-frequency devices. - Highlights: 1.Magnetic and morphological properties of FeCo films on PVDF substrates are studied. 2.The large anisotropy field of FeCo films on PVDF is obtained. 3.Improved high frequency properties of FeCo films on flexible substrates are obtained. 4.The origin of improved high frequency properties of FeCo films on PVDF is studied.

  18. High-Temperature Piezoelectric Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoning Jiang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric sensing is of increasing interest for high-temperature applications in aerospace, automotive, power plants and material processing due to its low cost, compact sensor size and simple signal conditioning, in comparison with other high-temperature sensing techniques. This paper presented an overview of high-temperature piezoelectric sensing techniques. Firstly, different types of high-temperature piezoelectric single crystals, electrode materials, and their pros and cons are discussed. Secondly, recent work on high-temperature piezoelectric sensors including accelerometer, surface acoustic wave sensor, ultrasound transducer, acoustic emission sensor, gas sensor, and pressure sensor for temperatures up to 1,250 °C were reviewed. Finally, discussions of existing challenges and future work for high-temperature piezoelectric sensing are presented.

  19. Profound Interfacial Effects in CoFe2O4/Fe3O4and Fe3O4/CoFe2O4Core/Shell Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polishchuk, Dmytro; Nedelko, Natalia; Solopan, Sergii; Ślawska-Waniewska, Anna; Zamorskyi, Vladyslav; Tovstolytkin, Alexandr; Belous, Anatolii

    2018-03-01

    Two sets of core/shell magnetic nanoparticles, CoFe 2 O 4 /Fe 3 O 4 and Fe 3 O 4 /CoFe 2 O 4 , with a fixed diameter of the core (~ 4.1 and ~ 6.3 nm for the former and latter sets, respectively) and thickness of shells up to 2.5 nm were synthesized from metal chlorides in a diethylene glycol solution. The nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and magnetic measurements. The analysis of the results of magnetic measurements shows that coating of magnetic nanoparticles with the shells results in two simultaneous effects: first, it modifies the parameters of the core-shell interface, and second, it makes the particles acquire combined features of the core and the shell. The first effect becomes especially prominent when the parameters of core and shell strongly differ from each other. The results obtained are useful for optimizing and tailoring the parameters of core/shell spinel ferrite magnetic nanoparticles for their use in various technological and biomedical applications.

  20. Growth, structure and magnetic properties of single crystalline Fe/CoO/Ag(001) bilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrudan, R.M.

    2007-07-16

    The structural and magnetic properties of epitaxially deposited single-crystalline CoO layers and Fe/CoO bilayers on Ag(001) were investigated. CoO films on Ag(001) exhibit (1 x 1) Low Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED) patterns similar to the clean Ag(001) substrate. The vertical interlayer spacing of the CoO films, deduced from a kinematic analysis of LEED I(E) curves, is a {sub perpendicular} {sub to} /2=2.17 Aa, slightly expanded along the film normal. Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) show a big improvement in the surface roughness after annealing the CoO films at 750 K in oxygen atmosphere. Magnetic measurements using the magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) show a characteristic increase of the coercive field when the Fe/CoO bilayer system is cooled down from room temperature to 150 K. The ordering temperature for the antiferromagnetic layer is in the same range as the Neel temperature for bulk CoO (T{sub N}=290 K). X-ray absorption spectroscopy was employed to probe magnetic and electronic properties with elemental selectivity. Absorption spectra taken from bilayers with different amounts of deposited Fe show only a weak indication for the formation of Fe oxide at the Fe/CoO interface (0.3 ML Fe). From the spectral shape it is concluded that an FeO type of oxide is formed. X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism (XMCD) measurements exhibit a sizeable induced ferromagnetic signal at the Co L{sub 2,3} absorption edge, corresponding to an interface layer of 1.1 ML in which the magnetic spins couple with the Fe layer. The angular dependence of the X-ray Magnetic Linear Dichroism (XMLD) and X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism XMCD at both the Co and Fe L{sub 2,3} edges shows the orientation of the Co and Fe moments in the bilayers with respect to the crystallographic direction. PhotoElectron Emission Microscope (PEEM) is used to image each ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic layer separately. Magnetic contrast due to the induced magnetic spins at the interface is also

  1. Effect of Fe ion concentration on fatigue life of carbon steel in aqueous CO2 environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rogowska, Magdalena; Gudme, J.; Rubin, A.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the corrosion fatigue behaviour of steel armours used in the flexible pipes, in aqueous solutions initially containing different concentrations of Fe2+, was investigated by four-point bending testing under saturated 1 bar CO2 condition. Corrosion fatigue results were supported with ex...... situ measurements of Fe2+ and pH. Characterisation of the corrosion scales and crack formations was performed using microscopic and diffraction techniques. Fatigue results showed two times better fatigue life, at the stress ranges of 250 MPa, for samples tested in solutions containing the concentration...... of Fe2+ marginally above the solubility limit of FeCO3 compared to the samples tested in highly supersaturated solution of Fe2+. Results revealed that the impact of the alternating stresses on the corrosion behaviour of samples reduces with lowering the applied stresses. At the stress range of 100 MPa...

  2. Identification of the dominant photochemical pathways and mechanistic insights to the ultrafast ligand exchange of Fe(CO)5 to Fe(CO)4EtOH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunnus, K.; Josefsson, I.; Rajkovic, I.; Schreck, S.; Quevedo, W.; Beye, M.; Weniger, C.; Grübel, S.; Scholz, M.; Nordlund, D.; Zhang, W.; Hartsock, R. W.; Gaffney, K. J.; Schlotter, W. F.; Turner, J. J.; Kennedy, B.; Hennies, F.; De Groot, F. M F|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/08747610X; Techert, S.; Odelius, M.; Wernet, Ph; Föhlisch, A.

    2016-01-01

    We utilized femtosecond time-resolved resonant inelastic X-ray scattering and ab initio theory to study the transient electronic structure and the photoinduced molecular dynamics of a model metal carbonyl photocatalyst Fe(CO)5 in ethanol solution. We propose mechanistic explanation for the parallel

  3. Magnetization dynamics and interface studies in ion-beam sputtered Si/CoFeB(8)/MgO(4)/CoFeB(8)/Ta(5) structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raju, M.; Behera, Nilamani; Pandya, Dinesh K., E-mail: dkpandya@physics.iitd.ac.in; Chaudhary, Sujeet [Thin Film Laboratory, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110016 (India)

    2014-05-07

    The interface roughness, Boron distribution in bulk CoFeB and at interface, Gilbert damping constant (α), and inhomogeneous broadening in ion-beam sputtered Si/CoFeB(8)/MgO(4)/CoFeB(8)/Ta(5) structures are found to be sensitive to the MgO growth process. The ion-assist and reactive growth processes that result in sharper interfaces of width ∼0.5 nm lead to smaller α of 0.0050 ± 0.0003 and 0.0060 ± 0.0002 and inhomogeneous broadening ΔH{sub 0} of 3 ± 0.3 and 1 ± 0.3 Oe, respectively. On the other hand, the post-oxidation method results in rough interface and higher retention of Boron in CoFeB leading to higher values for α and ΔH{sub 0} as 0.0080 ± 0.0006 and 5 ± 0.3 Oe, respectively.

  4. Critical dimension for magnetic exchange-spring coupled core/shell CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/CoFe{sub 2} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, J.M., E-mail: joaomsoares@gmail.com [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade do Estado do Rio Grande do Norte, 59610-010 Mossoro, RN (Brazil); Galdino, V.B.; Conceicao, O.L.A. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade do Estado do Rio Grande do Norte, 59610-010 Mossoro, RN (Brazil); Morales, M.A. [Departamento de Ciencias Exatas e Naturais, Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Arido, 59625-900 Mossoro, RN (Brazil); Araujo, J.H. de [Departamento de Fisica Teorica e Experimental, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970 Natal, RN (Brazil); Machado, F.L.A. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, 50670-901, Recife-PE (Brazil)

    2013-01-15

    Core/shell nanoparticles of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/CoFe{sub 2} were prepared by reducing nanoparticles of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} under hydrogen atmospheres. The structure, morphology and room temperature magnetization of the core/shell nanoparticles were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and magnetometry, respectively. The sample preparation procedure allowed the diameter of the CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} core to be varied from 67.7 to 2.8 nm. From the magnetic data it was found that the core couples to the shell through the exchange-spring mechanism while the critical thickness of the soft phase (shell) was estimated using a current theoretical model to be 8.0 nm. This value is very close to the one (7.8 nm) obtained for nanoparticles with same composition but obtained using different synthesis route and having an average particle size (32 nm) less than half of the value estimated (73 nm) for the samples investigated in the present work. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Core-shell nanoparticles are coupled by exchange-spring mechanism. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Exchange-spring model is used to determine the magnetic properties of a core-shell nanostructure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Critical thickness of soft magnetic shell is an important parameter for the exchange-spring regime.

  5. Structural and magnetic properties of mechanically alloyed Fe{sub 50}Co{sub 50} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tung, Do Khanh [Institute of Materials Science, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet Road, Cau Giay Distr., Ha Noi (Viet Nam); Manh, Do Hung, E-mail: manhdh@ims.vast.ac.vn [Institute of Materials Science, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet Road, Cau Giay Distr., Ha Noi (Viet Nam); Phong, P.T. [Nha Trang Pedagogic College, Khanh Hoa Province (Viet Nam); Phong, L.T.H.; Dai, N.V.; Nam, D.N.H.; Phuc, N.X. [Institute of Materials Science, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet Road, Cau Giay Distr., Ha Noi (Viet Nam)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Fe{sub 50}Co{sub 50} nanoparticles were prepared by MA in air combined with annealing. • Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} phase was observed by the XRD and SAED measurements. • M{sub S} is dependent both the annealing temperature and the milling time. • M{sub S}(T) of Fe{sub 50}Co{sub 50} nanoparticles is well described by a Bloch’s T{sup 3/2} law below T{sub C}. - Abstract: Fe{sub 50}Co{sub 50} nanoparticles were prepared by mechanical alloying method in air and subsequently annealing at various temperatures (773 K, 873 K, and 973 K). X-ray diffraction and selective area electron diffraction measurements on the powder sample milled for 10 h showed the Fe{sub 50}Co{sub 50} coexisting with a minor secondary phase of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. It was found that the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} phase decreased gradually with increasing annealing temperature and disappeared at 973 K. Moreover, the saturation magnetization of annealed samples was found not only depend on the annealing temperature but also the milling time. Finally, we showed that the temperature dependence of the saturation magnetization of sample after annealing at 973 K could be well descried by the Bloch’s law.

  6. Structural and magnetic properties of FeCoC system obtained by mechanical alloying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincón Soler, A. I.; Rodríguez Jacobo, R. R.; Medina Barreto, M. H.; Cruz-Muñoz, B.

    2017-11-01

    Fe96-XCoXC4 (x = 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 at. %) alloys were obtained by mechanical alloying of Fe, C and Co powders using high-energy milling. The structural and magnetic properties of the alloy system were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM) and Mössbauer Spectrometry at room temperature. The X-ray diffraction patterns showed a BCC-FeCoC structure phase for all samples, as well as a lattice parameter that slightly decreases with Co content. The saturation magnetization and coercive field were analyzed as a function of Co content. The Mössbauer spectra were fitted with a hyperfine magnetic field distribution showing the ferromagnetic behavior and the disordered character of the samples. The mean hyperfine magnetic field remained nearly constant (358 T) with Co content.

  7. FY1998 research report on the R and D on high- temperature CO{sub 2} separation, recovery and recycling technologies; 1998 nendo nisanka tanso koon bunri kaishu sairiyo gijutsu kekyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This project aims to develop high-temperature (over 300 degrees C) CO{sub 2} separation, recovery and recycling technologies. For separation membranes, control technology of micro-pore structure using templates, and that of a permeation gas affinity by metal ion exchange and metallic element addition to separation membrane textures were developed. The result gave the guide to control, design and evaluation of permeation and separation properties. The prototype module was prepared, and improvement of joining technology and evaluation of material fatigue property were also carried out. As for optimization of the developed system and research on its marketability, study was mainly made on the ripple effect of inorganic membranes. The current state and trend of technologies were studied also for power plants. In the concept design of the module, further study was made on high-temperature sealing technology and inorganic membrane technology for H{sub 2} gas separation. Use of CO{sub 2} gas separation technology for steelmaking process was newly studied. The ripple effect was studied for future important fields. (NEDO)

  8. Effect of Fe and Co co-deposited separately with Zn-Ni by electrodeposition on ASTM A624 steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, R. P.; Bertagnolli, D. C.; da Silva, L.; Ferreira, E. A.; Paula, A. S.; da Fonseca, G. S.

    2017-10-01

    A comparison between the Zn-Ni, Zn-Ni-Fe and Zn-Ni-Co coatings was performed in this study. The co-deposition process was obtained by electrodeposition on ASTM A624 steel using sulphate baths in acid media and low current density. The characterization of the coatings by Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP OES), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Anodic Linear Sweep Voltammetry (ALSV) allowed a detailed analysis of the phases formed and its amounts in the coatings, which enabled to verify the influence of the Fe and Co co-deposited separately with Zn/Ni. The co-deposits showed different characteristics in relation to the deposition efficiency and film thickness, in addition of the topography and surface roughness, which were measured by a confocal optical microscope and of the hardness determined by an ultra-microhardness tester. Finally, the corrosion tests analyzed by open circuit potential, potentiodynamic polarization and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) determined the corrosion characteristics of each co-deposit in saline solution. Results showed that Zn-Ni-Co was superior to the others co-deposits in relation to the deposit efficiency and corrosion protection, in contrast, the Zn-Ni-Fe coating showed uniformity and the greater compaction of the surface grains, resulting in lower roughness and higher hardness between the co-deposits studied.

  9. Morphology tuning of CoMo catalysts: Effect of La and Fe as an additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Pei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Three catalysts CoMo/γ-Al2O3, CoMo-La/γ-Al2O3, CoMo-Fe/γ-Al2O3 with different morphologies were prepared for study the effect of introduction of La and Fe on morphology properties and hydrodesulfurization (HDS activity. The morphology properties of catalysts were characterized by BET, XPS and HRTEM. In addition, the catalytic performances of catalysts were investigated. The results indicated that the introduction of La and Fe promoted the sulfidation of Mo species and made the average length and stacking layer numbers of MoS2 slabs longer and higher. These effects could improve the activity of catalysts for HDS. The present results indicated that the catalyst modified by Fe had the best HDS activity with the optimal morphology among three catalysts

  10. Quantitative analysis of Fe and Co in Co-substituted magnetite using XPS: The application of non-linear least squares fitting (NLLSF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hongmei, E-mail: hmliu@gig.ac.cn [CAS Key Laboratory of Mineralogy and Metallogeny/Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Mineral Physics and Materials, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, 510640 (China); Wei, Gaoling [Guangdong Key Laboratory of Agricultural Environment Pollution Integrated Control, Guangdong Institute of Eco-Environmental and Soil Sciences, Guangzhou, 510650 (China); Xu, Zhen [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, 410012 (China); Liu, Peng; Li, Ying [CAS Key Laboratory of Mineralogy and Metallogeny/Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Mineral Physics and Materials, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, 510640 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049 (China)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • XPS and Auger peak overlapping complicates Co-substituted magnetite quantification. • Disrurbance of Auger peaks was eliminated by non-linear least squares fitting. • Fitting greatly improved the accuracy of quantification for Co and Fe. • Catalytic activity of magnetite was enhanced with the increase of Co substitution. - Abstract: Quantitative analysis of Co and Fe using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is of important for the evaluation of the catalytic ability of Co-substituted magnetite. However, the overlap of XPS peaks and Auger peaks for Co and Fe complicate quantification. In this study, non-linear least squares fitting (NLLSF) was used to calculate the relative Co and Fe contents of a series of synthesized Co-substituted magnetite samples with different Co doping levels. NLLSF separated the XPS peaks of Co 2p and Fe 2p from the Auger peaks of Fe and Co, respectively. Compared with a control group without fitting, the accuracy of quantification of Co and Fe was greatly improved after elimination by NLLSF of the disturbance of Auger peaks. A catalysis study confirmed that the catalytic activity of magnetite was enhanced with the increase of Co substitution. This study confirms the effectiveness and accuracy of the NLLSF method in XPS quantitative calculation of Fe and Co coexisting in a material.

  11. Evolution of Spin fluctuations in CaFe2As2 with Co-doping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapkota, A.; Das, P.; Böhmer, A. E.; Abernathy, D. L.; Canfield, P. C.; Kreyssig, A.; McQueeney, R. J.; Goldman, A. I.

    Spin fluctuations are an essential ingredient for superconductivity in Fe-based supercondcutors. In Co-doped BaFe2As2, the system goes from the antiferromagnetic (AFM) state to the superconducting (SC) state with Co doping, and the spin fluctuations also evolve from well-defined spin waves with spin gap in the AFM regime to gapless overdamped or diffused fluctuations in the SC regime. CaFe2As2 has a stronger magneto-elastic coupling than BaFe2As2 and no co-existence of SC and AFM region as observed in BaFe2As2 with Co doping. Here, we will discuss the evolution of spin fluctuations in CaFe2As2 with Co doping. Work at the Ames Laboratory was supported by US DOE, Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Material Sciences and Engineering, under contract No. DE-AC02-07CH11358. This research used resources of SNS, a DOE office of science user facility operated by ORNL.

  12. Steam reforming of ethanol over Co3O4–Fe2O3 mixed oxides

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelkader, A.

    2013-05-03

    Co3O4, Fe2O3 and a mixture of the two oxides Co-Fe (molar ratio of Co3O4/Fe 2O3 = 0.67 and atomic ratio of Co/Fe = 1) were prepared by the calcination of cobalt oxalate and/or iron oxalate salts at 500 C for 2 h in static air using water as a solvent/dispersing agent. The catalysts were studied in the steam reforming of ethanol to investigate the effect of the partial substitution of Co3O4 with Fe2O 3 on the catalytic behaviour. The reforming activity over Fe 2O3, while initially high, underwent fast deactivation. In comparison, over the Co-Fe catalyst both the H2 yield and stability were higher than that found over the pure Co3O4 or Fe 2O3 catalysts. DRIFTS-MS studies under the reaction feed highlighted that the Co-Fe catalyst had increased amounts of adsorbed OH/water; similar to Fe2O3. Increasing the amount of reactive species (water/OH species) adsorbed on the Co-Fe catalyst surface is proposed to facilitate the steam reforming reaction rather than decomposition reactions reducing by-product formation and providing a higher H2 yield. © Copyright © 2012, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Direct versus hydrogen-assisted CO dissociation over stepped Ni and Ni3Fe surfaces: a computational investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kuiwei; Zhang, Minhua; Yu, Yingzhe

    2015-11-28

    The adsorption and dissociation of CO over stepped Ni and Ni3Fe surfaces were systematically studied using density functional theory slab calculations. Both (211)-like surface structure terminations (NiNi step and NiFe step, denoted as Ni3Fe(211)-AA and Ni3Fe(211)-AB) are considered for Ni3Fe. Direct scission of the C-O bond in CO is identified as the least likely one among the three proposed dissociation pathways and CO dissociation via a CHO intermediate appears to be most feasible at low CO coverage on pure and alloyed Ni(211) surfaces. The priority of H-assisted CO dissociation might originate from the more activated C-O bond in COH and CHO. Compared to Ni(211), the Ni3Fe(211)-AB surface could facilitate CO activation especially for the most possible CHO intermediate mechanism, whose rate-limiting step is found to be altered. The d-band center theory and Mulliken charge analysis are also employed to explain the activity difference between Ni3Fe(211)-AB and Ni3Fe(211)-AA. The significant structural sensitivity of CO dissociation highlights the importance of Fe locating in the step edge and the high reactivity of Ni3Fe(211)-AB is largely ascribed to the synergistic effect between Ni and Fe at the step edge.

  14. Long-Term High-Temperature Stability of Directionally Grown [Bi2Ba2O4]p[CoO2] Rods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C. Diez

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available [Bi2Ba2O4]p[CoO2] thermoelectric ceramics have been successfully grown from the melt using the laser floating zone method, followed by a thermal treatment at 700 °C under air between 0 and 1532 h. The microstructural, thermoelectric, and mechanical properties were evaluated as a function of the thermal treatment length. Microstructure has shown that as-grown samples are composed of thermoelectric grains, together with a relatively high amount of secondary phases. Thermal treatment decreased the number and amount of secondary phases, producing nearly single-phase samples after 384 h. Consequently, the thermoelectric properties evaluated through the power factor showed a slight increase with the thermal treatment length, mainly due to the decrease of electrical resistivity, while the Seebeck coefficient was nearly unchanged. On the other hand, flexural strength was practically constant after 24 h thermal treatment.

  15. Long-Term High-Temperature Stability of Directionally Grown [Bi2Ba2O4]p[CoO2] Rods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez, Juan C.; Madre, María A.; Torres, Miguel A.; Rasekh, Shahed; Sotelo, Andrés

    2017-01-01

    [Bi2Ba2O4]p[CoO2] thermoelectric ceramics have been successfully grown from the melt using the laser floating zone method, followed by a thermal treatment at 700 °C under air between 0 and 1532 h. The microstructural, thermoelectric, and mechanical properties were evaluated as a function of the thermal treatment length. Microstructure has shown that as-grown samples are composed of thermoelectric grains, together with a relatively high amount of secondary phases. Thermal treatment decreased the number and amount of secondary phases, producing nearly single-phase samples after 384 h. Consequently, the thermoelectric properties evaluated through the power factor showed a slight increase with the thermal treatment length, mainly due to the decrease of electrical resistivity, while the Seebeck coefficient was nearly unchanged. On the other hand, flexural strength was practically constant after 24 h thermal treatment. PMID:28772506

  16. Effect of atomic composition on the compressive strain and electrocatalytic activity of PtCoFe/sulfonated graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohrasbi, Elaheh; Javanbakht, Mehran; Mozaffari, Sayed Ahmad

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this work is improvement of the stability and durability of sulfonated graphene supported PtCoFe electrocatalyst (PtCoFe/SG) for application in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). The durability investigation of PtCoFe/SG is evaluated by a repetitive potential cycling test. The compressive strain in the lattice of PtCoFe/SG towards the electrocatalytic oxygen reduction reaction is studied. The synthesized electrocatalysts are examined physically and electrochemically for their structure, morphology and electrocatalytic performance. It is shown that presence of SO3sbnd groups on the graphene cause better adsorption of PtCoFe nanoparticles on the support and increase stability of electrocatalysts. Also, it is shown that Co:Fe atomic ratio in the synthesized electrocatalysts plays important role in their electrocatalytic performance. In the optimum Co:Fe atomic ratio, the compressive strain goes through the ideal value of the binding energy; further increase in Co/Fe atomic fraction introduces the excessive compressive strain and the activity of electrocatalyst decreases. The electrocatalyst synthesized in the optimum conditions is utilized as cathode in PEMFC. The power density of the PEMFC in low metal loading (0.1 mg cm-2 Pt) reaches to a maximum of 530 mW cm-2 at 75 °C. It suggests that PtCoFe/SG with 7:3 Co:Fe atomic ratio promises to improve the power density of PEMFCs.

  17. Effect of Co addition on crystallization and magnetic properties of FeSiBPCu alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Xiang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of Co addition on the microstructure, crystallization processes and soft magnetic properties of (Fe1−xCox83Si4B8P4Cu1 (x=0.35, 0.5, 0.65 alloys were investigated. The experimental results demonstrated that the addition of Co decreased the thermal stability against crystallization of the amorphous phase, and thus improved the heat treatment temperature of this alloy. FeCoSiBPCu nanocrystalline alloys with a dispersed α′-FeCo phase were obtained by appropriately annealing the as-quenched ribbons at 763 K for 10 min. The α′-FeCo with grains size ranging from 9 to 28 nm was identified in primary crystallization. The coercivity (Hc markedly increased with increasing x and exhibited a minimum value at x=0.35, while the saturation magnetic flux density (Bs shows a slight decrease. The (Fe0.65Co0.3583Si4B8P4Cu1 nanocrystalline alloy exhibited a high saturation magnetic flux density Bs of 1.68 T, a low coercivity, Hc of 5.4 A/m and a high effective permeability µe of 29,000 at 1 kHz.

  18. Are Fe and Co implanted ZnO and III-nitride semiconductors magnetic?

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2081284; Bharuth-Ram, Krish

    The chemical nature, lattice site locations and magnetic behaviour of Fe and/or Co ions implanted in nitrides (GaN, AlN, and InN) and in ZnO have been investigated using Mössbauer spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) techniques. Mössbauer data on nitride and $^{56}$Fe pre-implanted ZnO samples were obtained from emission Mössbauer spectroscopy (eMS) measurements at the ISOLDE facility, CERN, following the implantation of radioactive $^{57}$Mn$^{*}$ which $\\beta$$^{-}$decays to the 14.4 keV Mössbauer state of $^{57}$Fe. In addition, conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy (CEMS) data were collected on ZnO single crystals co-implanted with $^{57}$Fe + $^{56}$Fe and $^{57}$Fe + $^{59}$Co ions in a box profile. Emission Mössbauer spectra obtained for GaN and AlN reveal magnetic structure in the ‘wings’ assigned to high spin Fe$^{3+}$ weakly coupled to the lattice showing spin-lattice relaxation effects. The observed spin-relaxation rate (τ$^{-1}$) closely follows a ${T}^{2}$ temperat...

  19. Growth and properties of CoO/Fe perpendicular exchange coupled ultra-thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamirand, A. D.; Grenier, S.; Ramos, A. Y.; De Santis, M.; Bailly, A.; Mossang, E.; Tonnerre, J. M.; Testemale, D.; Tolentino, H. C. N.; Jaouen, N.; Soares, M. M.; Jamet, M.; Proux, O.

    2017-12-01

    We investigated the molecular beam epitaxy growth, the structure and the magnetic properties of the exchange coupled CoO/Fe bilayers on Ag(0 0 1). In situ X-ray scattering shows that Fe grows in registry with Ag(0 0 1) with an out-of-plane lattice parameter that varies with the Fe layer total thickness. The growth of CoO to build an exchange coupled CoO/Fe system impacts the Fe layer even at room temperature. Two different bilayers grown under close conditions are studied. They differ by the ratio of the oxidized Fe layers over the 7 initial Fe monolayers (30% and 40% respectively). Low temperature exchange magnetic coupling with a blocking temperature TB of about 180 K-150 K and similar thermal behavior are observed for the two samples. We studied one sample with synchrotron X-ray resonant magnetic scattering confirming that the magnetization was perpendicular to the surface below TB . Noteworthy, we found that the magnetic easy axis was lying in-plane at room temperature, above TB . These results point to another example of perpendicular ferromagnetism in an ultra-thin film due to an exchange mechanism with an antiferromagnetic layer that rotates the magnetic easy axis from in-plane to perpendicular below TB .

  20. Comparison study of Cu-Fe-Ti and Co-Fe-Ti oxide catalysts for selective catalytic reduction of NO with NH3 at low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lin; Zhong, Zhaoping; Yang, Han; Wang, Chunhua

    2016-09-15

    In this paper, a series of Cu-Fe-Ti and Co-Fe-Ti oxide catalysts were prepared by sol gel method. Cu-Fe-Ti and Co-Fe-Ti oxide catalysts showed the moderate catalytic activity for selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO with NH3 at low temperature. The catalysts with the molar ratio as 4:1:10 (M:Fe:Ti) were selected as the representatives for comparison of reaction properties and H2O resistance, which were denoted as Cu-Fe/TiO2 and Co-Fe/TiO2 respectively. The characterization results manifested Co-Fe/TiO2 owned more adsorption capacity of the reactants and Cu-Fe/TiO2 had better redox ability. The in situ DRIFTS experiments indicated that adsorbed NH3 species and nitrate species both exhibited reaction activity for Co-Fe/TiO2, while nitric oxide was only be reduced by adsorbed NH3 species through Eley-Rideal mechanism for Cu-Fe/TiO2 at 150°C. Co-Fe/TiO2 exhibited the better resistance to H2O and its temperature window shifted towards the higher temperature in presence of 10vol% H2O, while the SCR activity of Cu-Fe/TiO2 was inhibited significantly in the whole temperature range investigated. The suppression of adsorption and activation for NH3 and NOx might be the reasons for the reversible inactivation, which was confirmed by the inhibitation of catalytic activities for separation NH3 and NO oxidation under the wet condition. We speculated that different thermal stability of adsorbed species and redox capacity of catalysts leaded to the different SCR behavior in absence and presence of H2O. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Excitation functions of proton-induced reactions on natFe and enriched 57Fe with particular reference to the production of 57Co.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Abyad, M; Comsan, M N H; Qaim, S M

    2009-01-01

    Excitation functions of the reactions (nat)Fe(p,xn)(55,56,57,58)Co, (nat)Fe(p,x)(51)Cr, (nat)Fe(p,x)(54)Mn, (57)Fe(p,n)(57)Co and (57)Fe(p,alpha)(54)Mn were measured from their respective thresholds up to 18.5MeV, with particular emphasis on data for the production of the radionuclide (57)Co (T(1/2)=271.8d). The conventional stacked-foil technique was used, and the samples for irradiation were prepared by an electroplating or sedimentation process. The measured excitation curves were compared with the data available in the literature as well as with results of nuclear model calculations. From the experimental data, the theoretical yields of the investigated radionuclides were calculated as a function of the proton energy. Over the energy range E(p)=15-->5MeV the calculated yield of (57)Co from the (57)Fe(p,n)(57)Co process amounts to 1.2MBq/microAh and from the (nat)Fe(p,xn)(57)Co reaction to 0.025MBq/microAh. The radionuclidic impurity levels are discussed. Use of highly enriched (57)Fe as target material would lead to formation of high-purity (57)Co.

  2. Mechanistic Insight into Electrocatalytic H2 Production by [Fe2(CN){μ-CN(Me)2}(μ-CO)(CO)(Cp)2]: Effects of Dithiolate Replacement in [FeFe] Hydrogenase Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrigoni, Federica; Bertini, Luca; De Gioia, Luca; Cingolani, Andrea; Mazzoni, Rita; Zanotti, Valerio; Zampella, Giuseppe

    2017-11-20

    DFT has been used to investigate viable mechanisms of the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) electrocatalyzed by [Fe2(CN){μ-CN(Me)2}(μ-CO)(CO)(Cp)2] (1) in AcOH. Molecular details underlying the proposed ECEC electrochemical sequence have been studied, and the key functionalities of CN- and amino-carbyne ligands have been elucidated. After the first reduction, CN- works as a relay for the first proton from AcOH to the carbyne, with this ligand serving as the main electron acceptor for both reduction steps. After the second reduction, a second protonation occurs at CN- that forms a Fe(CNH) moiety: i.e., the acidic source for the H2 generation. The hydride (formally 2e/H+), necessary to the heterocoupling with H+ is thus provided by the μ-CN(Me)2 ligand and not by Fe centers, as occurs in typical L6Fe2S2 derivatives modeling the hydrogenase active site. It is remarkable, in this regard, that CN- plays a role more subtle than that previously expected (increasing electron density at Fe atoms). In addition, the role of AcOH in shuttling protons from CN- to CN(Me)2 is highlighted. The incompetence for the HER of the related species [Fe2{μ-CN(Me)2}(μ-CO)(CO)2(Cp)2]+ (2+) has been investigated and attributed to the loss of proton responsiveness caused by CN- replacement with CO. In the context of hydrogenase mimicry, an implication of this study is that the dithiolate strap, normally present in all synthetic models, can be removed from the Fe2 core without loss of HER, but the redox and acid-base processes underlying turnover switch from a metal-based to a ligand-based chemistry. The versatile nature of the carbyne, once incorporated in the Fe2 scaffold, could be exploited to develop more active and robust catalysts for the HER.

  3. Characterization of magnetic nano particles of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and CoZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} prepared by the chemical co-precipitation method; Caracterizacion de nanoparticulas magneticas de CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} y CoZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} preparadas por el metodo de coprecipitacion quimica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, J.; Zambrano, G.; Gomez, M. E. [Universidad del Valle, Departamento de Fisica, Laboratorio de Peliculas Delgadas, Ciudad Universitaria Melendez, 25360 Cali (Colombia); Prieto, P. [Universidad del Valle, Centro de Excelencia en Nuevos Materiales, Ciudad Universitaria Melendez, 25360 Cali (Colombia); Espinoza B, F. J., E-mail: javierlo21@gmail.com [IPN, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Unidad Queretaro, Libramiento Norponiente No. 2000, Fracc. Real de Juriquilla, 76230 Queretaro (Mexico)

    2012-07-01

    Magnetic cobalt ferrite nanoparticles of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and CoZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} were prepared by co-precipitation technique from aqueous salt solutions of Co (II), ZnSO{sub 4} and Fe (III), in an alkaline medium. CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} powder samples were structurally characterized by X-ray diffraction, showing the presence of the most intense peat at 2{theta} = 413928{sup o} (Co K{alpha}1) corresponding to the (311) crystallographic orientation of the CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel phase. The mean size of the crystalline of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and CoZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles determined from the full width at half maximum of the strongest reflection of the (311) peak by using the Scherrer approximation was calculated to be 11.4 and 7.0 ({+-} o.2) nm, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy studies permitted determining nanoparticle size of CoZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to confirm the formation of Fe-O bonds, allowing identifying the presence of ferrite spinel structure. Magnetic properties were investigated with the aid of a vibrating sample magnetometer at room temperature Herein, the sample showed superparamagnetic behavior, determined by the hysteresis loop finally, due to the hysteresis loop of the CoZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} is very small, our magnetic nanoparticles can be considered as a soft magnetic material. These magnetic nanoparticles have interesting technological applications in biomedicine given their biocompatibility, in nano technology, and in ferro fluid preparation. (Author)

  4. Study of electronic structure and magnetic properties of epitaxial Co{sub 2}FeAl Heusler Alloy Thin Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soni, S. [Department of Pure & Applied Physics, University of Kota, Kota 324007 (India); Dalela, S., E-mail: sdphysics@rediffmail.com [Department of Pure & Applied Physics, University of Kota, Kota 324007 (India); Sharma, S.S. [Department of Physics, Govt. Women Engineering College, Ajmer (India); Liu, E.K.; Wang, W.H.; Wu, G.H. [State Key Laboratory for Magnetism, Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Kumar, M. [Department of Physics, Malviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur-302017 (India); Garg, K.B. [Department of Physics, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur-302004 (India)

    2016-07-25

    This work reports the magnetic and electronic characterization of plane magnetized buried Heusler Co{sub 2}FeAl nano thin films of different thickness by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) measurements. . The spectra on both Fe- and Co L{sub 2,3} edges show a pronounced magnetic dichroic signal in remanence, corresponding to a ferromagnetically-aligned moments on Fe and Co atoms conditioning the peculiar characteristics of the Co{sub 2}FeAl Heusler compound (a half-metallic ferromagnet). The detailed knowledge of the related magnetic and electronic properties of these samples over a wide range of thickness of films are indispensable for achieving a higher tunnel magnetoresistance ratio, and thus for spintronics device applications. - Highlights: • Electronic structure and Magnetic Properties of Epitaxial Co{sub 2}FeAl Heusler Films. • X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD). • Fe- and Co L{sub 2,3} edges show a pronounced magnetic dichroic signal in remanence. • Calculated Orbital, Spin and total magnetic moments of Fe and Co for 30 nm Co{sub 2}FeAl thin film. • The total magnetic moment of Fe at L{sub 2,3} edges increases with the thickness of the Co2FeAl films.

  5. Low temperature processed MnCo2O4 and MnCo1.8Fe0.2O4 as effective protective coatings for solid oxide fuel cell interconnects at 750 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molin, S.; Jasinski, P.; Mikkelsen, L.; Zhang, W.; Chen, M.; Hendriksen, P. V.

    2016-12-01

    In this study two materials, MnCo2O4 and MnCo1.8Fe0.2O4 are studied as potential protective coatings for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell interconnects working at 750 °C. First powder fabrication by a modified Pechini method is described followed by a description of the coating procedure. The protective action of the coating applied on Crofer 22 APU is evaluated by following the area specific resistance (ASR) of the scale/coating for 5500 h including several thermal cycles. The coating is prepared by brush painting and has a porous structure after deposition. Post mortem microstructural characterization performed on the coated samples shows good protection against chromium diffusion from the chromia scale ensured by a formation of a dense reaction layer. This study shows, that even without high temperature sintering and/or reactive sintering it is possible to fabricate protective coatings based on MnCo spinels.

  6. Controlled Synthesis and Ferrimagnetism of Homogeneous Hierarchical CoFe2O4 Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Nguyen Viet; Yang, Yong; Thi, Cao Minh; Phuc, Le Hong; Lu, Le Trong; Nogami, Masayuki

    2017-10-01

    Uniform, large, spherical, hierarchical CoFe2O4 spinel particles have been successfully prepared by a modified polyol method using NaBH4 and NaOH, revealing controlled size, shape, and morphology with high crystallinity in a certain microscale range. Their inverse AB2O4-type crystal structure was intensively studied by x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Using stock solutions of CoCl2 and FeCl3 precursors in 1:2 ratio, CoFe2O4 particles were formed well with high crystallinity in the best inverse spinel structure in space group Fd-3m. The fascinating ferrimagnetic and hysteretic properties of the as-prepared hierarchical CoFe2O4 spinel particles were investigated by vibrating-sample magnetometry (VSM) at room temperature (RT). The results confirm formation of hierarchical CoFe2O4 microscale particles with inverse-spinel AB2O4-type structure and high magnetization by modified polyol method with heat treatment.

  7. Perpendicularly magnetized CoFeB multilayers with tunable interlayer exchange for synthetic ferrimagnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirro, P., E-mail: ppirro@physik.uni-kl.de [Institut Jean Lamour, Université de Lorraine, UMR 7198 CNRS, 54506 Vandoeuvre-lés-Nancy (France); Hamadeh, A.; Lavanant-Jambert, M. [Institut Jean Lamour, Université de Lorraine, UMR 7198 CNRS, 54506 Vandoeuvre-lés-Nancy (France); Meyer, T. [Fachbereich Physik and Landesforschungszentrum OPTIMAS, Technische Universität Kaiserslautern, 67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany); Tao, B.; Rosario, E.; Lu, Y.; Hehn, M.; Mangin, S.; Petit Watelot, S. [Institut Jean Lamour, Université de Lorraine, UMR 7198 CNRS, 54506 Vandoeuvre-lés-Nancy (France)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • MgO/CoFeB/Ta/CoFeB/MgO multilayers as synthetic ferrimagnets. • Comprehensive characterization by measurement of static and dynamic properties. • Different pinning for domain walls with different alignment of the individual layers. - Abstract: A study of the multilayer system MgO/CoFeB(1.1 nm)/Ta(t)/CoFeB(0.8 nm)/MgO is presented, where the two CoFeB layers are separated by a Ta interlayer of varying thickness t. The magnetization properties deduced from complementary techniques such as superconducting quantum interference magnetometry, ferromagnetic resonance frequency measurements and Brillouin light scattering spectroscopy can be tuned by changing the Ta thickness between t = 0.25 nm, 0.5 nm and 0.75 nm. For t = 0.5 nm, a ferromagnetic coupling is observed, whereas for t = 0.75 nm, the antiferromagnetic coupling needed to construct a synthetic ferrimagnet is realized. In the latter case, the shape of magnetic domain walls between two ferrimagnetic alignments or between a ferro- and a ferrimagnetic alignment is very different. This behavior can be interpreted as a result of the change in dipolar as well as interlayer exchange energy and domain wall pinning, which is an important conclusion for the realization of data storage devices based on synthetic ferri- and antiferromagnets.

  8. Influence of substrate temperature in BiFeO{sub 3}-CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocomposites deposited on SrTiO{sub 3} (0 0 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dix, N.; Muralidharan, R.; Caicedo, J.M.; Hrabovsky, D.; Fina, I.; Fabrega, L. [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona-CSIC, Campus de la UAB, Bellaterra E-08193, Barcelona (Spain); Skumryev, V. [Institut Catala de Recerca i Estudis Avancats (ICREA), Barcelona (Spain); Varela, M. [Fisica Aplicada i Optica and Institut de Nanociencia i Nanotecnologia (IN2UB), Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 647, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Guyonnet, J.; Paruch, P. [DPMC, University of Geneva, 24 Quai Ernest Ansertmet, CH 1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Sanchez, F. [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona-CSIC, Campus de la UAB, Bellaterra E-08193, Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: fsanchez@icmab.es; Fontcuberta, J. [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona-CSIC, Campus de la UAB, Bellaterra E-08193, Barcelona (Spain)

    2009-06-15

    BiFeO{sub 3}-CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} epitaxial nanocomposites have been deposited on SrTiO{sub 3} (0 0 1) substrates by pulsed laser deposition. We present here a study of the influence of the deposition temperature (T{sub S}), in the 550-800 {sup o}C range, on the film composition, morphology and microstructure. Electron-probe microanalysis shows strong reduction of the Bi content in the films when increasing T{sub S}. Films prepared at T{sub S}=750 {sup o}C and above are virtually Bi-free. X-ray diffraction (XRD) data show that, due to the volatility of Bi, there is a progressive reduction in the amount of BiFeO{sub 3}. The deposition temperature and the concomitant presence of Fe{sub x}O{sub y} spurious phases in the nanocomposites grown at high temperature promote radical changes in film morphology and magnetization. It thus follows that a temperature range suitable for controlled modification of nanocomposites morphology would be extremely narrow.

  9. Photocatalytic degradation of textile dye direct orange 26 by using CoFe2O4/Ag2O

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Mehdipour Ghazi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The magnetic and recyclable nanoparticles of CoFe2O4 were synthesized by a reverse co-precipitation process. Sonication was used to couple the CoFe2O4 surface with Ag2O. The characteristics and optical properties of the catalyst were studied by powder X-ray diffraction, UV–visible reflectance spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy analyses. Pure CoFe2O4 and CoFe2O4/Ag2O were utilized to determine the visible light photocatalytic degradation of Direct Orange 26. The effects of pH, the initial concentration of catalyst and initial dye concentration on the photocatalytic process were investigated. It was found that the presence of Ag2O remarkably improved the photocatalytic adsorption capacity and degradation efficiency of CoFe2O4­/Ag2O when compared with the pure CoFe2O4. Moreover, due to the magnetic behavior of CoFe2O4, these coupled nanoparticles can be easily separated from the aqueous solution by applying an external magnetic field. The prepared Ag2O-modified CoFe2O4 exhibited much higher (about 40% photocatalytic activity than the unmodified one. The results showed that the loading of the Ag2O significantly improved the photocatalytic performance of the CoFe2O4 in which the Ag2O acted as a charge carrier to capture the delocalized electrons.

  10. Magnetoelectricity in CoFe2O4 nanocrystal-P(VDF-HFP) thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaohua; Liu, Shuangyi; Han, Myung-Geun; Zhao, Lukas; Deng, Haiming; Li, Jackie; Zhu, Yimei; Krusin-Elbaum, Lia; O'Brien, Stephen

    2013-09-01

    Transition metal ferrites such as CoFe2O4, possessing a large magnetostriction coefficient and high Curie temperature ( T c > 600 K), are excellent candidates for creating magnetic order at the nanoscale and provide a pathway to the fabrication of uniform particle-matrix films with optimized potential for magnetoelectric coupling. Here, a series of 0-3 type nanocomposite thin films composed of ferrimagnetic cobalt ferrite nanocrystals (8 to 18 nm) and a ferroelectric/piezoelectric polymer poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropene), P(VDF-HFP), were prepared by multiple spin coating and cast coating over a thickness range of 200 nm to 1.6 μm. We describe the synthesis and structural characterization of the nanocrystals and composite films by XRD, TEM, HRTEM, STEM, and SEM, as well as dielectric and magnetic properties, in order to identify evidence of cooperative interactions between the two phases. The CoFe2O4 polymer nanocomposite thin films exhibit composition-dependent effective permittivity, loss tangent, and specific saturation magnetization ( M s). An enhancement of the effective permittivity and saturation magnetization of the CoFe2O4-P(VDF-HFP) films was observed and directly compared with CoFe2O4-polyvinylpyrrolidone, a non-ferroelectric polymer-based nanocomposite prepared by the same method. The comparison provided evidence for the observation of a magnetoelectric effect in the case of CoFe2O4-P(VDF-HFP), attributed to a magnetostrictive/piezoelectric interaction. An enhancement of M s up to +20.7% was observed at room temperature in the case of the 10 wt.% CoFe2O4-P(VDF-HFP) sample.

  11. STM/STS study on Co-doped NaFeAs superconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nag, Pranab Kumar; Baumann, Danny; Schlegel, Ronny; Pohle, Rico; Haenke, Torben; Beck, Robert; Aswartham, Saicharan; Wurmehl, Sabine; Hess, Christian [Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung IFW Dresden, (Germany); Scheffler, Martha; Buechner, Bernd [Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung IFW Dresden, (Germany); Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik TU Dresden (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    We have performed scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy measurements on superconducting Co-doped NaFeAs as a function of temperature. After cleaving at low temperature and cryogenic vacuum we were able to investigate the electronic structure of the material by tunneling spectroscopy. The tunneling spectra (dI/dV) reveal several gap-like features near the Fermi level. We compare these result with recent data on LiFeAs.

  12. Chemical, electronic, and magnetic structure of LaFeCoSi alloy: Surface and bulk properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lollobrigida, V. [Dipartimento di Scienze, Università Roma Tre, I-00146 Rome (Italy); Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università Roma Tre, I-00146 Rome (Italy); Basso, V.; Kuepferling, M.; Coïsson, M.; Olivetti, E. S.; Celegato, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica (INRIM), I-10135 Torino (Italy); Borgatti, F. [CNR, Istituto per lo Studio dei Materiali Nanostrutturati (ISMN), I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Torelli, P.; Panaccione, G. [CNR, Istituto Officina dei Materiali (IOM), Lab. TASC, I-34149 Trieste (Italy); Tortora, L. [Laboratorio di Analisi di Superficie, Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università Roma Tre, I-00146 Rome (Italy); Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica, Università Tor Vergata, I-00133 Rome (Italy); Stefani, G.; Offi, F. [Dipartimento di Scienze, Università Roma Tre, I-00146 Rome (Italy)

    2014-05-28

    We investigate the chemical, electronic, and magnetic structure of the magnetocaloric LaFeCoSi compound with bulk and surface sensitive techniques. We put in evidence that the surface retains a soft ferromagnetic behavior at temperatures higher than the Curie temperature of the bulk due to the presence of Fe clusters at the surface only. This peculiar magnetic surface effect is attributed to the exchange interaction between the ferromagnetic Fe clusters located at the surface and the bulk magnetocaloric alloy, and it is used here to monitor the magnetic properties of the alloy itself.

  13. Magnetism and electronic structure of CoFeCrX (X = Si, Ge) Heusler alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Y.; O' Connell, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588 (United States); Kharel, P., E-mail: parashu.kharel@sdstate.edu [Department of Physics, South Dakota State University, Brookings, South Dakota 57007 (United States); Nebraska Center for Materials and Nanoscience, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588 (United States); Lukashev, P., E-mail: pavel.lukashev@uni.edu; Staten, B.; Tutic, I. [Department of Physics, University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, Iowa 50614 (United States); Valloppilly, S. [Nebraska Center for Materials and Nanoscience, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588 (United States); Herran, J. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, Iowa 50614 (United States); Mitrakumar, M.; Bhusal, B.; Huh, Y. [Department of Physics, South Dakota State University, Brookings, South Dakota 57007 (United States); Yang, K. [Department of Physics, South Dakota State University, Brookings, South Dakota 57007 (United States); College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Hohai University, Changzhou (China); Skomski, R.; Sellmyer, D. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588 (United States); Nebraska Center for Materials and Nanoscience, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588 (United States)

    2016-08-07

    The structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of CoFeCrX (X = Si, Ge) Heusler alloys have been investigated. Experimentally, the alloys were synthesized in the cubic L2{sub 1} structure with small disorder. The cubic phase of CoFeCrSi was found to be highly stable against heat treatment, but CoFeCrGe disintegrated into other new compounds when the temperature reached 402 °C (675 K). Although the first-principle calculation predicted the possibility of tetragonal phase in CoFeCrGe, the tetragonal phase could not be stabilized experimentally. Both CoFeCrSi and CoFeCrGe compounds showed ferrimagnetic spin order at room temperature and have Curie temperatures (T{sub C}) significantly above room temperature. The measured T{sub C} for CoFeCrSi is 790 K but that of CoFeCrGe could not be measured due to its dissociation into new compounds at 675 K. The saturation magnetizations of CoFeCrSi and CoFeCrGe are 2.82 μ{sub B}/f.u. and 2.78 μ{sub B}/f.u., respectively, which are close to the theoretically predicted value of 3 μ{sub B}/f.u. for their half-metallic phases. The calculated band gaps for CoFeCrSi and CoFeCrGe are, respectively, 1 eV and 0.5 eV. These materials have potential for spintronic device applications, as they exhibit half-metallic electronic structures with large band gaps, and Curie temperatures significantly above room temperature.

  14. The fcc-bcc crystallographic orientation relationship in AlxCoCrFeNi high-entropy alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rao, J. C.; Ocelik, V.; Vainchtein, D.; Tang, Z.; Liaw, P. K.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper concentrates on the crystallographic-orientation relationship between the various phases in the Al-Co-Cr-Fe-Ni high-entropy alloys. Two types of orientation relationships of bcc phases (some with ordered B2 structures) and fcc matrix were observed in Al0.5CoCrFeNi and Al0.7CoCrFeNi alloys

  15. Fabrication and mechanical properties of AlCoNiCrFe high-entropy alloy particle reinforced Cu matrix composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jian, E-mail: chenjian@xatu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Xi' an Technological University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710021 (China); Niu, Pengyun; Wei, Ting [School of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Xi' an Technological University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710021 (China); Hao, Liang [College of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Xi' an University of Science and Technology, Xi' an 710054 (China); Liu, Yunzi [School of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Xi' an Technological University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710021 (China); Wang, Xianhui, E-mail: xhwang693@xaut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Xi' an University of Technology, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710048 (China); Peng, Yuli [School of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Xi' an Technological University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710021 (China)

    2015-11-15

    The AlCoNiCrFe high-entropy alloy was prepared by mechanical alloying and the AlCoNiCrFe high-entropy alloy reinforced Cu matrix composites were subsequently fabricated by powder metallurgy. The phase constituents and morphology of the alloying powders were characterized by X-ray diffractometer and scanning electron microscope, the microstructures of the Cu base composites were characterized by scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope, and the compression tests were made as well. The results show that the AlCoNiCrFe high-entropy alloy can form after milling for 24 h. During sintering process, no grain growth occurs and no intermetallic phases present in the AlCoNiCrFe high-entropy alloy in the Cu base composite. Compression tests show that the AlCoNiCrFe high-entropy alloy has a better strengthening effect than metallic glasses and the yield strength of the Cu matrix composite reinforced with the AlCoNiCrFe high-entropy alloy is close to the value predicted by the Voigt model based on the equal strain assumption. - Graphical abstract: AlCoNiCrFe HEA has a better strengthening effect than metallic glasses for particulate reinforced metal matrix composites. The yield strength of the Cu base composite reinforced with the AlCoNiCrFe HEA is close to the upper bound calculated by Voigt model. - Highlights: • AlCoNiCrFe high-entropy alloy was prepared by mechanical alloying. • A novel Cu base composite reinforced with AlCoNiCrFe was fabricated. • No grain growth and no intermetallic phase present in AlCoNiCrFe during sintering. • AlCoNiCrFe has a better strengthening effect than metallic glassy in composites.

  16. CO2 adsorption on Fe-doped graphene nanoribbons: First principles electronic transport calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. R. Berdiyorov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Decoration of graphene with metals and metal-oxides is known to be one of the effective methods to enhance gas sensing and catalytic properties of graphene. We use density functional theory in combination with the nonequilibrium Green’s function formalism to study the conductance response of Fe-doped graphene nanoribbons to CO2 gas adsorption. A single Fe atom is either adsorbed on graphene’s surface (aFe-graphene or it substitutes the carbon atom (sFe-graphene. Metal atom doping reduces the electronic transmission of pristine graphene due to the localization of electronic states near the impurities. The reduction in the transmission is more pronounced in the case of aFe-graphene. In addition, the aFe-graphene is found to be less sensitive to the CO2 molecule attachment as compared to the sFe-graphene system. Pristine graphene is also found to be less sensitive to the molecular adsorption. Since the change in the conductivity is one of the main outputs of sensors, our findings will be useful in developing graphene-based solid-state gas sensors.

  17. Exchange bias effect in martensitic epitaxial Ni-Mn-Sn thin films applied to pin CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB magnetic tunnel junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichert, N.; Boehnke, A.; Behler, A.; Weise, B.; Waske, A.; Hütten, A.

    2015-05-01

    The exchange bias effect is commonly used to shift the coercive field of a ferromagnet. This technique is crucial for the use of magnetic tunnel junctions as logic or memory devices. Therefore, an independent switching of the two ferromagnetic electrodes is necessary to guarantee a reliable readout. Here, we demonstrate that the intrinsic exchange bias effect of Ni-Mn-Sn can be used to apply a unidirectional anisotropy to magnetic tunnel junctions. For this, we use epitaxial Ni-Mn-Sn films as pinning layers for microfabricated CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB magnetic tunnel junctions. We compare the exchange bias field ( HEB ) measured after field cooling in -10 kOe external field by magnetization measurements with HEB obtained from tunnel magnetoresistance measurements. Consistent for both methods, we find an exchange bias of about HEB=130 Oe at 10 K, which decreases with increasing temperature and vanishes above 70 K.

  18. High temperature superconductor accelerator magnets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nugteren, J.

    2016-01-01

    For future particle accelerators bending dipoles are considered with magnetic fields exceeding 20T. This can only be achieved using high temperature superconductors (HTS). These exhibit different properties from classical low temperature superconductors and still require significant research and

  19. High Temperature Electrostrictive Ceramics Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TRS Technologies proposes to develop high temperature electrostrictors from bismuth-based ferroelectrics. These materials will exhibit high strain and low loss in...

  20. High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The six user centers in the High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML), a DOE User Facility, are dedicated to solving materials problems that limit the efficiency...

  1. Thermoelectric performance of intermetallic FeGa{sub 3} with Co doping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramachandran, B.; Syu, K.Z. [Department of Physics, National Dong Hwa University, Hualien 97401, Taiwan (China); Kuo, Y.K., E-mail: ykkuo@mail.ndhu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Dong Hwa University, Hualien 97401, Taiwan (China); Gippius, A.A. [Department of Physics, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Shevelkov, A.V.; Verchenko, V.Yu. [Department of Chemistry, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Lue, C.S. [Department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China)

    2014-09-01

    Highlights: • From the resistivity study of Fe{sub 1−x}Co{sub x}Ga{sub 3} (0.005 ⩽ x ⩽ 0.5), the metallic behavior is observed for the compounds with Co content of x ⩾ 0.125. • The Seebeck coefficient of these compounds has contribution from both diffusion thermoelectric power and phonon-drag effect. • A reduction in Seebeck coefficient with Co doping is observed, due to the modification in band gap and density of states at the Fermi level. • Low-temperature lattice thermal conductivity of FeGa{sub 3} is suppressed significantly by Co doping due to the phonon-point-defect scattering. • The maximum ZT value of ∼0.05 is achieved for Fe{sub 0.95}Co{sub 0.05}Ga{sub 3} at 400 K, ten times higher than that of the parent FeGa{sub 3}. - Abstract: Investigation on temperature-dependent electrical resistivity (ρ), Seebeck coefficient (S), and thermal conductivity (κ) of intermetallic Fe{sub 1−x}Co{sub x}Ga{sub 3} (0.005 ⩽ x ⩽ 0.5) compounds are carried out to probe their thermoelectric performance. From resistivity study, it is observed that increase in number of valence electrons introduced by Co doping leads to a change from semiconducting to metallic behavior, which occurs between x = 0.05 and 0.125. The characteristics of the Seebeck coefficient show a substantial decrease with the Co doping, due to the modifications in the band gap and the Fermi-level density of states. Analyses of thermal conductivity of the Co doped FeGa{sub 3} compounds reveal that thermal transport is essentially due to the lattice phonons. It is also noticed that the low-temperature peak in the lattice thermal conductivity of these compounds is reduced significantly with the increase in Co content, attributing to the enhanced scattering of phonons by point-defects. The value of the figure-of-merit, ZT = (S{sup 2}/ρκ)T, is estimated for all compounds, and the maximum room-temperature ZT value of about 0.02 was achieved for Fe{sub 0.95}Co{sub 0.05}Ga{sub 3}, and

  2. A study of coFeB magnetic yoke based on planar electromagnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, L.; Li, Q.; Yuan, Yong J.

    2017-07-01

    This paper studies the fabrication of a novel planar electromagnet consisting of a planar copper coil and a magnetic yoke. CoFeB was used as the magnetic yoke material instead of the traditional permanent magnets. The planar electromagnet was fabricated and optimized to maximize the electromagnetic force, especially with varying CoFeB thickness. The micro-planar electromagnet was fabricated successfully by the traditional micro-electro-mechanical-system (MEMS) techniques and XRD, VSM were used to characterize the performance of the electromagnet. The planar electromagnet exhibits superior perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) and 0.006 emu of MS was achieved following 2 min deposition of CoFeB thin film. By integrating with other micro apparatuses, it is anticipated that the planar electromagnet will have potential applications in areas such as biosensors, biological medicine, drug delivery, chemical analysis and environmental monitoring.

  3. Transport mechanism of the magnetoresistance effects in Ta/CoFe2O4 nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Yajuan; Cheng, Weiming; Zhang, Zhaobing; Wang, Haiwei; Xie, Changsheng; Miao, Xiangshui

    2017-05-01

    We report an investigation of temperature dependent spin Hall magnetoresistance (SMR) and anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) in Ta/CoFe2O4 nanostructures. The AMR of the Ta/CoFe2O4 nanostructure starts to appear at 50 K and its magnitude enhances dramatically with the decrease in temperature due to the suppressed spin-flip scattering. However, the SMR shows a complex temperature dependence correlated with the thickness of Ta layers. It increases monotonically and slightly with the decrease in temperature in thicker (7 nm) Ta. Moreover, Ta/CoFe2O4 nanostructures with thinner (3 nm) Ta exhibit a significant peak of SMR at about 75 K, probably owing to a good matching between the Ta layer thickness and its spin diffusion length. The fundamental distinct temperature dependences reveal different transport mechanisms of the two magnetoresistance effects. Our results will contribute to the further understanding and optimization of the magnetoresistance effects in spinel magnetic insulator heterojunctions.

  4. Structure determination of thin CoFe films by anomalous x-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gloskovskii, Andrei; Stryganyuk, Gregory; Ouardi, Siham [Institut fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Fecher, Gerhard H.; Felser, Claudia [Institut fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Max Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids, D-01187 Dresden (Germany); Hamrle, Jaroslav; Pistora, Jaromir [Department of Physics and Nanotechnology Centre, VSB-Technical University of Ostrava, 70833 Ostrava (Czech Republic); Bosu, Subrojati; Saito, Kesami; Sakuraba, Yuya; Takanashi, Koki [Institute for Materials Research (IMR), Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2012-10-01

    This work reports on the investigation of structure-property relationships in thin CoFe films grown on MgO. Because of the very similar scattering factors of Fe and Co, it is not possible to distinguish the random A2 (W-type) structure from the ordered B2 (CsCl-type) structure with commonly used x-ray sources. Synchrotron radiation based anomalous x-ray diffraction overcomes this problem. It is shown that as grown thin films and 300 K post annealed films exhibit the A2 structure with a random distribution of Co and Fe. In contrast, films annealed at 400 K adopt the ordered B2 structure.

  5. Magnetic domain observation of FeCo thin films fabricated by alternate monoatomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohtsuki, T., E-mail: ohtsuki@spring8.or.jp; Kotsugi, M.; Ohkochi, T. [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI), 1-1-1 Koto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Kojima, T.; Mizuguchi, M.; Takanashi, K. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2014-01-28

    FeCo thin films are fabricated by alternate monoatomic layer deposition method on a Cu{sub 3}Au buffer layer, which in-plane lattice constant is very close to the predicted value to obtain a large magnetic anisotropy constant. The variation of the in-plane lattice constant during the deposition process is investigated by reflection high-energy electron diffraction. The magnetic domain images are also observed by a photoelectron emission microscope in order to microscopically understand the magnetic structure. As a result, element-specific magnetic domain images show that Fe and Co magnetic moments align parallel. A series of images obtained with various azimuth reveal that the FeCo thin films show fourfold in-plane magnetic anisotropy along 〈110〉 direction, and that the magnetic domain structure is composed only of 90∘ wall.

  6. Spin Hall magnetoresistance in Ta/CoFe2O4 nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Ya-Juan; Cheng, Wei-Ming; Zhang, Zhao-Bing; Ji, Hong-Kai; Cheng, Xiao-Min; You, Long; Miao, Xiang-Shui

    2016-07-01

    Spin Hall magnetoresistance (SMR) has been investigated in Ta/CoFe2O4 nanostructures grown on different substrates. Spin currents in CoFe2O4 films are electrically detected in adjacent Ta layers owing to inverse spin Hall effects. The sign of the magnetic-field-dependent resistivity signal shows different polarities along different axes, showing different spin-dependent electron transports. A cosinelike curve of the angular dependence signal with opposite polarity is observed in two orthogonal magnetization planes, whereas a basic line is observed in another plane, revealing the spin accumulation phenomenon. The roughness of the CoFe2O4 surface tuned by substrate strains is responsible for the extent of spin accumulations and the strength of the SMR signal in the nanostructures.

  7. Double-layer microwave absorber based on nanocrystalline CoFe2O4 and CoFe2O4/PANI multi-core/shell composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Yewen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Organic-inorganic nano-CoFe2O4/PANI (polyaniline multi-core/shell composites have been successfully synthesized by chemical oxidative polymerization of aniline. The characterization results showed that the ferrite nanocrystals were efficiently embedded in PANI. The electromagnetic parameters of the composites were measured by a vector network analyser in the frequency range of 2 GHz to 18 GHz. Double-layer absorbers based on the CoFe2O4/PANI composite (matching layer and calcined CoFe2O4 ferrite (absorbing layer have been designed. The reflection loss of the microwave absorbers of both single layer and double-layer with a total thickness of 2.0 mm and 2.5 mm was calculated according to transmission-line theory. The results indicated that the minimum reflection loss of the CoFe2O4/PANI composite was −19.0 dB at 16.2 GHz at the thickness of 2.0 mm and −23.6 dB at 13.1 GHz at the thickness of 2.5 mm, respectively. The minimum reflection loss for double-layer absorbers reached −28.8 dB at 16.2 GHz at the total thickness of 2.0 mm, and −31.1 dB at 12.8 GHz at the total thickness of 2.5 mm. The absorption bandwidth under −10 dB was 4.2 GHz (13.8 GHz to 18.0 GHz and 5.5 GHz (10.3 GHz to 15.8 GHz, respectively. The results show that the reflection loss and absorption bandwidth of the double-layer absorbers are obviously enhanced compared to corresponding single layer absorbers.

  8. Magnetic scanning gate microscopy of CoFeB lateral spin valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corte-León, Héctor; Scarioni, Alexander Fernandez; Mansell, Rhodri; Krzysteczko, Patryk; Cox, David; McGrouther, Damien; McVitie, Stephen; Cowburn, Russell; Schumacher, Hans W.; Antonov, Vladimir; Kazakova, Olga

    2017-05-01

    Devices comprised of CoFeB nanostructures with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and non-magnetic Ta channel were operated in thermal lateral spin valve (LSV) mode and studied by magnetotransport measurements and magnetic scanning gate microscopy (SGM). Due to the short spin diffusion length of Ta, the spin diffusion signal was suppressed, allowing the study of the contribution from the anomalous Nernst (ANE) and anomalous Hall effects (AHE). The magnetotransport measurements identified the switching fields of the CoFeB nanostructures and demonstrated a combination of AHE and ANE when the devices were operated in thermally-driven spin-injection mode. Modified scanning probe microscopy probes were fabricated by placing a NdFeB magnetic bead (MB) on the apex of a commercial Si probe. The dipole magnetic field distribution around the MB was characterized by using differential phase contrast technique and direct measurement of the switching field induced by the bead in the CoFeB nanodevices. Using SGM we demonstrate the influence of localized magnetic field on the CoFeB nanostructures near the non-magnetic channel. This approach provides a promising route towards the study of thermal and spin diffusion effects using local magnetic fields.

  9. Magnetic scanning gate microscopy of CoFeB lateral spin valve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Corte-León

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Devices comprised of CoFeB nanostructures with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and non-magnetic Ta channel were operated in thermal lateral spin valve (LSV mode and studied by magnetotransport measurements and magnetic scanning gate microscopy (SGM. Due to the short spin diffusion length of Ta, the spin diffusion signal was suppressed, allowing the study of the contribution from the anomalous Nernst (ANE and anomalous Hall effects (AHE. The magnetotransport measurements identified the switching fields of the CoFeB nanostructures and demonstrated a combination of AHE and ANE when the devices were operated in thermally-driven spin-injection mode. Modified scanning probe microscopy probes were fabricated by placing a NdFeB magnetic bead (MB on the apex of a commercial Si probe. The dipole magnetic field distribution around the MB was characterized by using differential phase contrast technique and direct measurement of the switching field induced by the bead in the CoFeB nanodevices. Using SGM we demonstrate the influence of localized magnetic field on the CoFeB nanostructures near the non-magnetic channel. This approach provides a promising route towards the study of thermal and spin diffusion effects using local magnetic fields.

  10. Evolution of the chemistry of Fe bearing waters during CO2 degassing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geroni, J.N.; Cravotta, C.A.; Sapsford, D.J.

    2012-01-01

    The rates of Fe(II) oxidation and precipitation from groundwater are highly pH dependent. Elevated levels of dissolved CO2 can depress pH and cause difficulty in removing dissolved Fe and associated metals during treatment of ferruginous water. This paper demonstrates interdependent changes in pH, dissolved inorganic C species, and Fe(II) oxidation rates that occur as a result of the removal (degassing) of CO2 during aeration of waters discharged from abandoned coal mines. The results of field monitoring of aeration cascades at a treatment facility as well as batchwise aeration experiments conducted using net alkaline and net acidic waters in the UK are combined with geochemical modelling to demonstrate the spatial and temporal evolution of the discharge water chemistry. The aeration cascades removed approximately 67% of the dissolved CO2 initially present but varying the design did not affect the concentration of Fe(II) leaving the treatment ponds. Continued removal of the residual CO2 by mechanical aeration increased pH by as much as 2 units and resulted in large increases in the rates of Fe(II) oxidation and precipitation. Effective exsolution of CO2 led to a reduction in the required lime dose for removal of remaining Fe(II), a very important factor with regard to increasing the sustainability of treatment practices. An important ancillary finding for passive treatment is that varying the design of the cascades had little impact on the rate of CO2 removal at the flow rates measured.

  11. Spin-orbit torque in Cr/CoFeAl/MgO and Ru/CoFeAl/MgO epitaxial magnetic heterostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenchao Wen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We study the spin-orbit torque (SOT effective fields in Cr/CoFeAl/MgO and Ru/CoFeAl/MgO magnetic heterostructures using the adiabatic harmonic Hall measurement. High-quality perpendicular-magnetic-anisotropy CoFeAl layers were grown on Cr and Ru layers. The magnitudes of the SOT effective fields were found to significantly depend on the underlayer material (Cr or Ru as well as their thicknesses. The damping-like longitudinal effective field (ΔHL increases with increasing underlayer thickness for all heterostructures. In contrast, the field-like transverse effective field (ΔHT increases with increasing Ru thickness while it is almost constant or slightly decreases with increasing Cr thickness. The sign of ΔHL observed in the Cr-underlayer devices is opposite from that in the Ru-underlayer devices while ΔHT shows the same sign with a small magnitude. The opposite directions of ΔHL indicate that the signs of spin Hall angle in Cr and Ru are opposite, which are in good agreement with theoretical predictions. These results show sizable contribution from SOT even for elements with small spin orbit coupling such as 3d Cr and 4d Ru.

  12. Magnetodielectric effect in trilayered Co65Fe35B20/PVDF/Co65Fe35B20 composite materials. Prediction and measurement for tunable microwave applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasoanoavy, F.; Laur, V.; De Blasi, S.; Lezaca, J.; Quéffélec, P.; Garello, K.; Viala, B.

    2010-05-01

    The variation in the permeability of a multilayered polyvinylidene fluoride/CoFeB (piezoelectric/magnetostrictive) composite material under the action of a dc voltage is demonstrated. The driven-voltage permeability is first predicted using a finite element method-based multiphysics calculation. The simulation allows us to determine a magnetic anisotropy field of 45 Oe induced in the ferromagnetic layers by the mechanical coupling between magnetostrictive and piezoelectric layers due to the applied dc voltage. A variation of 30% for the permeability of the ferromagnetic layers is then measured using a radiofrequency permeameter and under the application of a dc voltage of 15 V applied on the ferromagnetic layers, which also act as electrodes for the bias of the polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF). An additional measurement of the trilayered structure under the application of a dc magnetic field is finally performed to evaluate the magnetic field needed to get a 30% variation in the magnetic layers permeability in order to compare this value to the one predicted by multiphysics calculation. These experimental results are in good agreement with calculations and are very encouraging for the application of the CoFeB/PVDF/CoFeB composite material to ensure the tunability of microwave devices (filters, phase shifters, antennas, etc.)

  13. Green Synthesis Methods of CoFe2O4 and Ag-CoFe2O4 Nanoparticles Using Hibiscus Extracts and Their Antimicrobial Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Gingasu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4 and silver-cobalt ferrite (Ag-CoFe2O4 nanoparticles were obtained through self-combustion and wet ferritization methods using aqueous extracts of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis flower and leaf. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and magnetic measurements were used for the characterization of the obtained oxide powders. The antimicrobial activity of the cobalt ferrite and silver-cobalt ferrite nanoparticles against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, as well as fungal strains, was investigated by qualitative and quantitative assays. The most active proved to be the Ag-CoFe2O4 nanoparticles, particularly those obtained through self-combustion using hibiscus leaf extract, which exhibited very low minimal inhibitory concentration values (0.031–0.062 mg/mL against all tested microbial strains, suggesting their potential for the development of novel antimicrobial agents.

  14. Compositions, thermodynamic properties, and transport coefficients of high-temperature C5F10O mixed with CO2 and O2 as substitutes for SF6 to reduce global warming potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Linlin; Rong, Mingzhe; Wang, Xiaohua; Wu, Junhui; Han, Guiquan; Han, Guohui; Lu, Yanhui; Yang, Aijun; Wu, Yi

    2017-07-01

    C5F10O has recently been found to be a very promising alternative to SF6. This paper is devoted to the investigation of compositions, thermodynamic properties, and transport coefficients of high-temperature C5F10O mixed with CO2 and O2. Firstly, the partition functions and enthalpies of formation for a few molecules (CxFy and CxFyO) which are likely to exist in the mixtures, are calculated based on the G4(MP2) theory. The isomers of the above molecules are selected according to their Gibbs energy. The compositions of C5F10O-CO2-O2 mixtures are then determined using the minimization of the Gibbs free energy. Next, the thermodynamic properties (mass density, specific enthalpy, and specific heat) are derived from the previously calculated compositions. Lastly, the transport coefficients (electrical conductivity, viscosity, and thermal conductivity) are calculated based on Chapman-Enskog method. It is found that, as an arc quenching gas, C5F10O could not recombine into itself with the temperature decreasing down to room temperature after the arc extinction. Besides, the key species at room temperature are always CF4, CO2, and C4F6 if graphite is not considered. When taken into account, graphite will replace C4F6 as one of the dominate particles. The mixing of CO2 with C5F10O plasma significantly affects the thermodynamic properties (e.g. vanishing and/or shifting of the peaks in specific heat) and transport coefficients (e.g. reducing viscosity and changing the number of peaks in thermal conductivity), while the addition of O2 with C5F10O-CO2 mixtures has no remarkable influence on both thermodynamic and transport properties.

  15. Compositions, thermodynamic properties, and transport coefficients of high-temperature C5F10O mixed with CO2 and O2 as substitutes for SF6 to reduce global warming potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linlin Zhong

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available C5F10O has recently been found to be a very promising alternative to SF6. This paper is devoted to the investigation of compositions, thermodynamic properties, and transport coefficients of high-temperature C5F10O mixed with CO2 and O2. Firstly, the partition functions and enthalpies of formation for a few molecules (CxFy and CxFyO which are likely to exist in the mixtures, are calculated based on the G4(MP2 theory. The isomers of the above molecules are selected according to their Gibbs energy. The compositions of C5F10O-CO2-O2 mixtures are then determined using the minimization of the Gibbs free energy. Next, the thermodynamic properties (mass density, specific enthalpy, and specific heat are derived from the previously calculated compositions. Lastly, the transport coefficients (electrical conductivity, viscosity, and thermal conductivity are calculated based on Chapman-Enskog method. It is found that, as an arc quenching gas, C5F10O could not recombine into itself with the temperature decreasing down to room temperature after the arc extinction. Besides, the key species at room temperature are always CF4, CO2, and C4F6 if graphite is not considered. When taken into account, graphite will replace C4F6 as one of the dominate particles. The mixing of CO2 with C5F10O plasma significantly affects the thermodynamic properties (e.g. vanishing and/or shifting of the peaks in specific heat and transport coefficients (e.g. reducing viscosity and changing the number of peaks in thermal conductivity, while the addition of O2 with C5F10O-CO2 mixtures has no remarkable influence on both thermodynamic and transport properties.

  16. Crystal structure and high-temperature properties of (Pr,Sr)2(Co,Mn)O4±δ with K2NiF4-type structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zharikova, E. V.; Rozova, M. G.; Kazakov, S. M.; Istomin, S. Ya.; Lyskov, N. V.; Antipov, E. V.

    2016-11-01

    Novel oxides PrSrCo1-yMnyO4±δ, 0.0≤y≤0.5 and Pr0.5Sr1.5Co1-yMnyO4±δ 0.3≤y≤0.5 with K2NiF4-type structure were synthesized. The crystal structure, oxygen content, thermal expansion and electrical conductivity of the obtained compounds were examined. A chemical titration showed that PrSrCo0.5Mn0.5O4±δ is slightly overstoichiometric (δ=0.03(2)), while Pr0.5Sr1.5Co0.5Mn0.5O4±δ is oxygen deficient (δ=-0.05(2)). Thermal expansion behavior was studied by both dilatometry and high-temperature X-ray powder diffraction in the temperature range of 298-1173 K in air. Pr0.5Sr1.5Co0.5Mn0.5O3.95(2) exhibited linear thermal expansion along the a- and c-axes over the studied temperature range with thermal expansion coefficients (TECs) were 17.5 ppm K-1 and 17.8 ppm K-1, respectively. For PrSrCo0.5Mn0.5O4.03(2) two regions (298-600 K and 600-1173 K) observed, where the TEC along the a-axis decreased from 12.7 ppm K-1 to 10.4 ppm K-1 whereas the TEC along the c-axis increased from 14.5 ppm K-1 to 26.7 ppm K-1. Both compounds demonstrated lower in comparison with undoped PrSrCoO4 values of electrical conductivity of 7 S/cm for PrSrCo0.5Mn0.5O4.03(2) and 23 S/cm for Pr0.5Sr1.5Co0.5Mn0.5O3.95(2) at 1173 K in air.

  17. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and the magnetization process in CoFeB/Pd multilayer films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngo, Duc-The; Quach, Duy-Truong; Hung, Tran Quang

    2014-01-01

    The perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) and dynamic magnetization-reversal process in [CoFeB t nm/Pd 1.0 nm]n(t = 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0 and 1.2 nm; n = 2 − 20) multilayer films have been studied by means of magnetic hysteresis and Kerr effect measurements. Strong and controllable PMA with an eff...... with the number of CoFeB/Pd bilayers. Observation of the magnetic domains during a magnetization-reversal process, using polar magneto-optical Kerr microscopy, reveals the detailed behavior of the nucleation and displacement of the domain walls....

  18. Co{sub 100−x}Fe{sub x} magnetic thick films prepared by electrodeposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguirre, M. del C., E-mail: carmenaguirre@famaf.unc.edu.ar [Instituto de Física Enrique Gaviola-Conicet-Facultad de Matemática, Astronomía y Física, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Córdoba (Argentina); Farías, E. [Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Córdoba (Argentina); Abraham, J.; Urreta, S.E. [Facultad de Matemática, Astronomía y Física, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Córdoba (Argentina)

    2015-04-05

    Highlights: • Low iron containing films are compact, with rounded, relatively uniform surfaces. • Larger Fe contents exhibit nanowall networks covering the surface. • Coercivity in the out of plane configuration is larger than in the easy axis direction. • Co-rich films nucleate and grow by a 3DP diffusion controlled mechanism. • For equiatomic Fe{sub 50}Co{sub 50} films, nucleation tends to become instantaneous. - Abstract: Co–Fe films are grown onto plane pre-treated Cu foils; the effects of the alloy composition on the morphology and the crystal texture of the electrodeposited films and their anisotropic magnetic hysteresis properties are explored. Nucleation and crystallization mechanisms in these Co-rich layers are also investigated with pulse-reverse plating techniques, using the first cathodic pulse current–time transients. In the diffusion controlled regime the deposition mechanism is found to involve progressive nucleation with three-dimensional (3D) growth, except for the equiatomic Fe{sub 50}Co{sub 50} solution where nucleation tends to become instantaneous. The different morphologies and size scales observed are described and correlated with coercivity. The films are electrodeposited onto electrochemically pre-treated Cu substrates from feeds of nominal Fe/Co mol ratios between 0/100 and 50/50. The composition of the deposited layers, as determined by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, are quite close to the nominal values. Cyclic voltammetry determinations exhibit only a single reduction process on the cathode, indicating that a unique (Co{sub 100−x}Fe{sub x}) phase grows. Depending on composition and on the substrate pre-treatment, these layers exhibit textures with features of different sizes. X ray diffraction patterns indicate that the nanostructures with Fe contents above 20 at.% crystallize in a body-centered cubic cell, while samples with Fe contents below this value are fcc. Regarding the effect of composition on the

  19. Synthesis of CoFe 2O 4 nanowire arrays by sol-gel template method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Guangbin; Tang, Shaolong; Xu, Baolong; Gu, Benxi; Du, Youwei

    2003-10-01

    CoFe 2O 4 nanowire arrays with an average diameter of about 40 nm were prepared in porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template using sol-gel process. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) diffraction pattern and X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed that the nanowires were polycrystalline phase. Magnetic measurements showed the arrays of nanowires did not show a preferential magnetic orientation, the reason was briefly discussed. The effect of heating rate on the structure and magnetic properties of CoFe 2O 4 nanowire arrays was investigated. The result showed that the coercivity decreased with the increase of the heating rate.

  20. Detection of CO{sub 2} using CNT-based sensors: Role of Fe catalyst on sensitivity and selectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tit, Nacir, E-mail: ntit@uaeu.ac.ae [Physics Department, UAE University, P.O. Box 15551, Al-Ain (United Arab Emirates); Ezzi, Mohammed M. Al; Abdullah, Hasan M. [Physics Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, P.O. Box 1690, Dhahran, 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Yusupov, Maksudbek [Research Group PLASMANT, Department of Chemistry, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, BE-2610, Wilrijk-Antwerp (Belgium); Kouser, Summayya [Theoretical Sciences Unit, Jawaharlal Nehru Center for Advanced Scientific Research, Jakkur, Bangalore (India); Bahlouli, Hocine [Physics Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, P.O. Box 1690, Dhahran, 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Yamani, Zain H. [Physics Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, P.O. Box 1690, Dhahran, 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Center for Research Excellence in Nanotechnology, KFUPM, P.O. Box 5040, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)

    2017-01-15

    The adsorption of CO{sub 2} on surfaces of graphene and carbon nanotubes (CNTs), decorated with Fe atoms, are investigated using the self-consistent-charge density-functional tight-binding (SCC-DFTB) method, neglecting the heat effects. Fe ad-atoms are more stable when they are dispersed on hollow sites. They introduce a large density of states at the Fermi level (N{sub F}); where keeping such density low would help in gas sensing. Furthermore, the Fe ad-atom can weaken the C=O double bonds of the chemisorbed CO{sub 2} molecule, paving the way for oxygen atoms to drain more charges from Fe. Consequently, chemisorption of CO{sub 2} molecules reduces both N{sub F} and the conductance while it enhances the sensitivity with the increasing gas dose. Conducting armchair CNTs (ac-CNTs) have higher sensitivity than graphene and semiconducting zigzag CNTs (zz-CNTs). Comparative study of sensitivity of ac-CNT-Fe composite towards various gases (e.g., O{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, CO and CO{sub 2}) has shown high sensitivity and selectivity towards CO, CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O gases. - Highlights: • DFTB is used to study Adsorptions of CO{sub 2} molecule on pG and CNT, with Fe catalyst. • Armchair CNT-Fe has higher sensitivity to detect CO{sub 2} than zigzag CNT-Fe and pG-Fe. • Ac-CNT-Fe is highly sensitive and selective towards CO, CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O gases. • Keeping Fe ad-atoms dispersed and with low density enhances sensitivity. • Our theoretical results corroborate the experimental findings of Ref. .

  1. High-temperature granulites and supercontinents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.L.R. Touret

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The formation of continents involves a combination of magmatic and metamorphic processes. These processes become indistinguishable at the crust-mantle interface, where the pressure-temperature (P-T conditions of (ultra high-temperature granulites and magmatic rocks are similar. Continents grow laterally, by magmatic activity above oceanic subduction zones (high-pressure metamorphic setting, and vertically by accumulation of mantle-derived magmas at the base of the crust (high-temperature metamorphic setting. Both events are separated from each other in time; the vertical accretion postdating lateral growth by several tens of millions of years. Fluid inclusion data indicate that during the high-temperature metamorphic episode the granulite lower crust is invaded by large amounts of low H2O-activity fluids including high-density CO2 and concentrated saline solutions (brines. These fluids are expelled from the lower crust to higher crustal levels at the end of the high-grade metamorphic event. The final amalgamation of supercontinents corresponds to episodes of ultra-high temperature metamorphism involving large-scale accumulation of these low-water activity fluids in the lower crust. This accumulation causes tectonic instability, which together with the heat input from the sub-continental lithospheric mantle, leads to the disruption of supercontinents. Thus, the fragmentation of a supercontinent is already programmed at the time of its amalgamation.

  2. Free energy landscape of electrocatalytic CO2 reduction to CO on aqueous FeN4 center embedded graphene studied by ab initio molecular dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Tian; Sun, Shi-Gang

    2017-11-01

    Experiments have found that the porphyrin-like FeN4 site in Fe-N-C materials is highly efficient for the electrochemical reduction of CO2 into CO. In this work, we investigated the reduction mechanisms on FeN4 embedded graphene layer catalyst with some explicit water molecules by combining the constrained ab initio molecular dynamics simulations and thermodynamic integrations. The reaction free energy and electron transfer in each elementary step were identified. The initial CO2 activation was identified to go through the first electron transfer to form adsorbed CO2- anion and the CO desorption was the rate limiting step in the overall catalytic cycle.

  3. Growth mechanisms and size control of FePt nanoparticles synthesized using Fe(CO)x (x < 5)-oleylamine and platinum(ii) acetylacetonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Baoru; Xia, Weixing; Du, Juan; Zhang, Jian; Liu, J Ping; Guo, Zhaohui; Yan, Aru

    2013-03-21

    By using Fe(CO)x-OAm (oleylamine, x analyses indicated that the NPs with isotropic shape were single crystalline throughout the synthesis and were formed by a diffusion-controlled Ostwald-ripening (OR) growth mechanism. The nanorod particles were first formed via joining of arbitrarily oriented single crystals and the two crystals formed a uniform particle afterwards, as described by the oriented-attachment (OA) mechanism. The ratio of OAm to Fe(CO)5 used in the preparation of Fe(CO)x-OAm has a significant influence on the growth process, and subsequently the shape, size and size distribution of the FePt NPs. By adjusting the ratio and its complexing temperature, single-crystal FePt NPs with controllable size and isotropic shape were obtained. The insight into the exploration of the specific roles of the reaction conditions and the formation mechanisms provided important information for controlling the morphology of the nanoparticles.

  4. Selectable spontaneous polarization direction and magnetic anisotropy in BiFeO3-CoFe2O4 epitaxial nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dix, Nico; Muralidharan, Rajaram; Rebled, Jose-Manuel; Estradé, Sonia; Peiró, Francesca; Varela, Manuel; Fontcuberta, Josep; Sánchez, Florencio

    2010-08-24

    We demonstrate that epitaxial strain engineering is an efficient method to manipulate the ferromagnetic and ferroelectric properties in BiFeO(3)-CoFe(2)O(4) columnar nanocomposites. On one hand, the magnetic anisotropy of CoFe(2)O(4) is totally tunable from parallel to perpendicular controlling the CoFe(2)O(4) strain with proper combinations of substrate and ferroelectric phase. On the other hand, the selection of the used substrate allows the growth of the rhombohedral bulk phase of BiFeO(3) or the metastable nearly tetragonal one, which implies a rotation of the ferroelectric polar axis from [111] to close to the [001] direction. Remarkably, epitaxy is preserved and interfaces are semicoherent even when lattice mismatch is above 10%. The broad range of sustainable mismatch suggests new opportunities to assemble epitaxial nanostructures combining highly dissimilar materials with distinct functionalities.

  5. Phase evolution and magnetic characteristics of TiFeNiCr and TiFeNiCrM (M = Mn, Co) high entropy alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Rajesh K.; Shahi, Rohit R.

    2017-11-01

    The report describes the effect of elemental addition (Mn and Co) on the phase evolution and magnetic properties of equiatomic TiFeNiCr based high entropy alloys (HEAs). HEAs were synthesized through mechanical alloying (MA) of constituent elements for different milling duration. XRD analysis confirms that simple solid solution of face cantered cubic structure is formed for all the three selected HEAs. Double FCC and a sigma phase are evolved for TiFeNiCr and TiFeNiCrMn HEAs. However, for TiFeNiCrCo HEA single FCC phase is formed. Synthesized HEAs show soft magnetic characteristics and the value of saturation magnetization increases as the content of magnetic element increases. Moreover, the investigation also describes the effect of annealing on phase evolution and magnetic properties of synthesized HEAs. The value of saturation magnetization altered for annealed TiFeNiCrM (M = Mn, Co) HEAs.

  6. Effects of Fe doping on the structures and properties of hexagonal birnessites - Comparison with Co and Ni doping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, H.; Liu, F.; Feng, X.H.; Hu, T.D.; Zheng, L.R.; Qiu, G.H.; Koopal, L.K.; Tan, W.F.

    2013-01-01

    Fe-doped hexagonal birnessite was synthesized by adding Fe3+ to the initial reactants, and the effects of Fe doping on the structures and properties of birnessite were investigated and compared with the effects of Co and Ni doping. The underlying mechanisms controlling the incorporation of

  7. Structural phases, magnetic properties and Maxwell-Wagner type relaxation of CoFe2O4/Sr2Co2Fe12O22 ferrite composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Chirag K.; Solanki, Neha P.; Singh, Charanjeet; Jotania, Rajshree B.; Chauhan, Chetna C.; Kulkarni, Shailja D.; Shirsath, Sagar E.

    2017-07-01

    CoFe2O4 (S:Y-1:0) and Sr2Co2Fe12O22 (S:Y-0:1) ferrites were synthesized separately by using chemical coprecipitation technique and calcined at 1000 °C for 5 h. The mixed ferrite composites (S:Y-3:7, 4:6, 5:5, 6:4 and 7:3) were prepared by physical mixing of individual ferrite powders in required weight proportions. The prepared composites were heated at 1150 °C for 5 h in a muffle furnace and then slowly cooled to room temperature. The prepared ferrites were characterized using various instrumental techniques like FTIR, XRD, SEM, VSM and dielectric measurements. The x-ray diffraction studies of pure Sr2Co2Fe12O22 ferrite sample show the presence of M and Y-type hexagonal phases, while the composites consist of spinel and Y-type phases. FTIR spectra of all samples show two bands of Fe-O stretching vibrations. VSM results of composites reveal that the values of the saturation magnetization (M s) vary from 50.44 emu g-1 to 31.21 emu g-1, while remanent magnetization values found from 11.18 emu g-1 to 3.70 emu g-1. A higher value of coercivity (H c  =  562 emu g-1) is observed in the composite S:Y-3:7 but M r/M s ratio of pure and composites is found to be less than 0.5. The dielectric behavior is explained using Maxwell-Wegner type interfacial polarization and N. Rezlescu’s model.

  8. Thermodynamic Constraints in Using AuM (M = Fe, Co, Ni, and Mo) Alloys as N₂ Dissociation Catalysts: Functionalizing a Plasmon-Active Metal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martirez, John Mark P; Carter, Emily A

    2016-02-23

    The Haber-Bosch process for NH3 synthesis is arguably one of the greatest inventions of the 20th century, with a massive footprint in agriculture and, historically, warfare. Current catalysts for this reaction use Fe for N2 activation, conducted at high temperatures and pressures to improve conversion rate and efficiency. A recent finding shows that plasmonic metal nanoparticles can either generate highly reactive electrons and holes or induce resonant surface excitations through plasmonic decay, which catalyze dissociation and redox reactions under mild conditions. It is therefore appealing to consider AuM (M = Fe, Co, Ni, and Mo) alloys to combine the strongly plasmonic nature of Au and the catalytic nature of M metals toward N2 dissociation, which together might facilitate ammonia production. To this end, through density functional theory, we (i) explore the feasibility of forming these surface alloys, (ii) find a pathway that may stabilize/deactivate surface M substituents during fabrication, and (iii) define a complementary route to reactivate them under operational conditions. Finally, we evaluate their reactivity toward N2, as well as their ability to support a pathway for N2 dissociation with a low thermodynamic barrier. We find that AuFe possesses similar appealing qualities, including relative stability with respect to phase separation, reversibility of Fe oxidation and reduction, and reactivity toward N2. While AuMo achieves the best affinity toward N2, its strong propensity toward oxidation could greatly limit its use.

  9. Prominent Electron Penetration through Ultrathin Graphene Layer from FeNi Alloy for Efficient Reduction of CO2 to CO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Qingyuan; Wang, Xin; Gu, Feng; Du, Xianlong; Bao, Hongliang; Yin, Guoheng; Liu, Jianjun; Huang, Fuqiang

    2017-08-10

    The chemical transformation of CO2 is an efficient approach in low-carbon energy system. The development of nonprecious metal catalysts with sufficient activity, selectivity, and stability for the generation of CO by CO2 reduction under mild conditions remains a major challenge. A hierarchical architecture catalyst composed of ultrathin graphene shells (2-4 layers) encapsulating homogeneous FeNi alloy nanoparticles shows enhance catalytic performance. Electron transfer from the encapsulated alloy can extend from the inner to the outer shell, resulting in an increased charge density on graphene. Nitrogen atom dopants can synergistically increase the electron density on the catalyst surface and modulate the adsorption capability for acidic CO2 molecules. The optimized FeNi3 @NG (NG=N-doped graphene) catalyst, with significant electron penetration through the graphene layer, effects exceptional CO2 conversion of 20.2 % with a CO selectivity of nearly 100 %, as well as excellent thermal stability at 523 K. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Adsorption of CO2 on Fe-doped graphene nano-ribbons: Investigation of transport properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, W.; Fahed, M.; Hatim, S.; Sherazi, A.; Berdiyorov, G.; Tit, N.

    2017-07-01

    Density functional theory combined with the non-equilibrium Green’s function formalism is used to study the conductance response of Fe-doped graphene nano-ribbons (GNRs) to CO2 gas adsorption. A single Fe atom is either adsorbed on GNR’s surface (aFe-graphene) or it substitutes the carbon atom (sFe-graphene). Metal atom doping reduces the electronic transmission of pristine graphene due to the localization of electronic states near the impurity site. Moreover, the aFe-graphene is found to be less sensitive to the CO2 molecule attachment as compared to the sFe-graphene system. These behaviours are not only consolidated but rather confirmed by calculating the IV characteristics from which both surface resistance and its sensitivity to the gas are estimated. Since the change in the conductivity is one of the main outputs of sensors, our findings will be useful in developing efficient graphene-based solid-state gas sensors.

  11. Microstructure and Electrical Properties of Fe,Cu Substituted (Co,Mn)3O4 Thin Films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szymczewska, Dagmara; Molin, Sebastian; Hendriksen, Peter Vang

    2017-01-01

    In this work, thin films (~1000 nm) of a pure MnCo2O4 spinel together with its partially substituted derivatives (MnCo1.6Cu0.2Fe0.2O4, MnCo1.6Cu0.4O4, MnCo1.6Fe0.4O4) were prepared by spray pyrolysis and were evaluated for electrical conductivity. Doping by Cu increases the electrical conductivity......, whereas doping by Fe decreases the conductivity. For Cu containing samples, rapid grain growth occurs and these samples develop cracks due to a potentially too high thermal expansion coefficient mismatch to the support. Samples doped with both Cu and Fe show high electrical conductivity, normal grain...... growth and no cracks. By co-doping the Mn, Co spinel with both Cu and Fe, its properties can be tailored to reach a desired thermal expansion coefficient/electrical conductivity value....

  12. The effects of exchange bias on Fe-Co/MgO magnetic nanoparticles with core/shell morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Boubeta, C; Balcells, Ll; MartInez, B [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Barcelona (ICMAB-CSIC), Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Monty, C, E-mail: ben.martinez@icmab.e [CNRS/Procedes, Materiaux et Energie Solaire (PROMES), 66120 Font Romeu (France)

    2010-01-20

    The effects of exchange bias on core/shell structured nanoparticles are analyzed. Nanoparticles are integrated with high moment Fe-Co crystallites covered epitaxially with MgO shells. It is observed that the coercive field H{sub C}(FeCo)>H{sub C}(Co)>H{sub C}(Fe); however, the exchange bias field H{sub E} of the Co sample is higher than that of the FeCo one, while H{sub E} = 0 for the Fe sample. It is suggested that the exchange bias is induced by the formation of a (Co, Mg)O solid solution. In fact, we show that it is possible to modify the exchange bias properties by manipulating the level of Mg dusting at the interface, as recently reported for thin films.

  13. High temperature mechanical properties of iron aluminides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morris, D. G.

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Considerable attention has been given to the iron aluminide family of intermetallics over the past years since they offer considerable potential as engineering materials for intermediate to high temperature applications, particularly in cases where extreme oxidation or corrosion resistance is required. Despite efforts at alloy development, however, high temperature strength remains low and creep resistance poor. Reasons for the poor high-temperature strength of iron aluminides will be discussed, based on the ordered crystal structure, the dislocation structure found in the material, and the mechanisms of dislocation pinning operating. Alternative ways of improving high temperature strength by microstructural modification and the inclusion of second phase particles will also be considered.

    Durante los últimos años se ha prestado mucha atención a la familia de intermetálicos Fe-Al, puesto que estos constituyen un considerable potencial como materiales de ingeniería en aplicaciones a temperaturas intermedias o altas, sobre todo en casos donde se necesita alta resistencia a la oxidación o corrosión. A pesar del considerable esfuerzo desarrollado para obtener aleaciones con mejores propiedades, su resistencia mecánica a alta temperatura no es muy elevada. Se discutirán los aspectos que contribuyen a la baja resistencia mecánica a temperatura elevada en función de la estructura de dislocaciones y los mecanismos de anclaje que operan en este intermetálico. Se considerarán, también, maneras alternativas para mejorar la resistencia a temperatura elevada mediante la modificación de la microestructura y la incorporación de partículas de segunda fase.

  14. Comparative electrocatalytic oxidation of ethanol, ethylene glycol and glycerol in alkaline medium at Pd-decorated FeCo@Fe/C core-shell nanocatalysts

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fashedemi, OO

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available (subcat)) was about 2 times faster than seen in Gly and ˜ 4 times faster than in EtOH. The excellent performance towards EG was further corroborated by the low resistance to charge transport. Detailed comparison with literature reports shows that the FeCo@Fe@Pd/C is a...

  15. High-temperature segmented thermoelectric oxide module using p-type Ca3Co4O9 and n-type ZnAlO/CaMn0.95Nb0.05O3 legs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le, Thanh Hung; Van Nong, Ngo; Jeffrey Snyder, G.

    temperatures up to 1200 K, where most the conventional TE materials based on alloys are often degraded over the time. In this report, oxide TE materials of p­type Ca3Co4O9, n­types ZnAlO, and CaMn0.95Nb0.05O3 were used to fabricate high temperature TE segmented modules. These oxide materials were prepared....... In these calculations, the power generation characteristics were investigated in terms of various n-­leg selections (ZnAlO, CaMn0.95Nb0.05O3, and segmented ZnAlO/CaMn0.95Nb0.05O3), while the p-leg Ca3Co4O9 was fixed. Based on the model predication, several modules were fabricated, tested, and compared again...... with the theoretical calculations. The obtained results are discussed in details and also compared with other reported oxide modules....

  16. Chemical and magnetic interface properties of tunnel junctions with Co{sub 2}MnSi/Co{sub 2}FeSi multilayer electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebke, Daniel; Schmalhorst, Jan; Sacher, Marc; Liu, Ning-Ning; Thomas, Andy; Huetten, Andreas; Reiss, Guenter [Thin Films and Nanostructures, Department of Physics, Bielefeld University, 33501 Bielefeld (Germany); Arenholz, Elke [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Transport as well as chemical and magnetic interface properties of two kinds of magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) with Co{sub 2}FeSi electrode, Al-O barrier and Co-Fe counter electrode are investigated. For junctions with Co{sub 2}FeSi single layer electrode a tunnel magnetoresistance of up to 52% is found for an optimal Al thickness of 1.5 nm, whereas the room temperature bulk magnetization of the Co{sub 2}FeSi film reaches only 75% of the expected value. By using a [Co{sub 2}MnSi/Co{sub 2}FeSi] multilayer electrode the magnetoresistance can be increased to 114% and the full bulk magnetization is reached. For Al thickness smaller than 1nm the TMR of both kinds of MTJs decreases rapidly to zero. On the other hand for 2 to 3 nm thick Al the TMR decreases only slowly. The Al thickness dependence of the TMR is directly correlated to the element-specific magnetic moments of Fe and Co at the Co{sub 2}FeSi/AlO interface for all Al thickness. Especially, for optimal Al thickness and annealing, the interfacial Fe moment of the single layer electrode is about 20% smaller than for the multilayer electrode indicating smaller atomic disorder at the barrier interface for the latter MTJ.

  17. PREPARATION AND PROPERTIES OF Co-Fe MIXED OXIDES OBTAINED BY CALCINATION OF LAYERED DOUBLE HYDROXIDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Pérez Bernal

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Solids containing Co(II and Fe(III with molar ratios of 2/1, 3/2, 1/1, 2/3 and 1/2 have been synthetised by coprecipitation at constant pH. All they displayed a hydrotalcite-like structure with interlayer carbonate, which crystallinity decreases as the iron content was increased. No other crystalline phase was identified, even in the Fe-rich samples. They have been characterised by powder X-ray diffraction, FT-IR spectroscopy, thermal analysis (differential thermal analysis, thermogravimetric analysis and temperature-programmed reduction, in addition to specific surface area assessment by nitrogen adsorption at -196°C. A minor oxidation of Co(II to Co(III is observed in the Co-rich samples, although it reverses again to Co(II upon calcination in oxygen at ca. 850°C. Thermal decomposition takes place in a single step up to ca. 350°C, and the specific surface area increases with the iron content, probably because of the presence of hydrated amorphous iron oxides. The solids calcined at 1200°C in air contain crystalline CoO, Co3O4 and CoFe2O4 (spinel, this one being the dominant phase, and only phase detected for large Fe contents. Metallic species are more easily reduced in the original solids than in the calcined ones, and in all cases iron seems to be reduced at a higher temperature than cobalt.

  18. Moire interferometry at high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jau-Je

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this study was to provide an optical technique allowing full-field in-plane deformation measurements at high temperature by using high-sensitivity moire interferometry. This was achieved by a new approach of performing deformation measurements at high temperatures in a vacuum oven using an achromatic interferometer. The moire system setup was designed with particular consideration for the stability, compactness, flexibility, and ease of control. A vacuum testing environment was provided to minimize the instability of the patterns by protecting the optical instruments from the thermal convection currents. Also, a preparation procedure for the high-temperature specimen grating was developed with the use of the plasma-etched technique. Gold was used as a metallic layer in this procedure. This method was demonstrated on a ceramic block, metal/matrix composite, and quartz. Thermal deformation of a quartz specimen was successfully measured in vacuum at 980 degrees Celsius, with the sensitivity of 417 nm per fringe. The stable and well-defined interference patterns confirmed the feasibility of the developments, including the high-temperature moire system and high-temperature specimen grating. The moire system was demonstrated to be vibration-insensitive. Also, the contrast of interference fringes at high temperature was enhanced by means of a spatial filter and a narrow band interference filter to minimize the background noise from the flow of the specimen and heater. The system was verified by a free thermal expansion test of an aluminum block. Good agreement demonstrated the validity of the optical design. The measurements of thermal deformation mismatch were performed on a graphite/epoxy composite, a metal/matrix composite equipped with an optical fiber, and a cutting tool bit. A high-resolution data-reduction technique was used to measure the strain distribution of the cutting tool bit.

  19. The magnetic and microwave absorbing properties of the as spun Nd-Fe-Co-B nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Li; Guozhi, Xie; Peicheng, Ji; Jie, Qu; Jiangwei, Chen; Jing, Chen

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, microstructure, magnetic and microwave absorbing properties of NdxFe85-xCo4B11 nanocomposites (x = 3, 5, 7, 9) flaky-shaped particles prepared by melt spun were investigated. The analyses of XRD spectra suggest that all samples only have the single α -Fe phase. With the increase of the Nd content, the complex permittivity-frequency and permeability-frequency were increased at first, and then decreased with higher Nd content. The resin composites of 70 wt% of these nanocomposite powders showed excellent electromagnetic wave absorption properties in GHz range. A minimum reflection loss of -23.1 dB is obtained at 9.8 GHz for composite Nd9Fe76Co4B11.

  20. Effect of Fe ion concentration on fatigue life of carbon steel in aqueous CO2 environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rogowska, Magdalena; Gudme, J.; Rubin, A.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the corrosion fatigue behaviour of steel armours used in the flexible pipes, in aqueous solutions initially containing different concentrations of Fe2+, was investigated by four-point bending testing under saturated 1 bar CO2 condition. Corrosion fatigue results were supported with ......, fatigue samples experienced the same corrosion rate as samples that were not subjected to dynamic loading.......In this work, the corrosion fatigue behaviour of steel armours used in the flexible pipes, in aqueous solutions initially containing different concentrations of Fe2+, was investigated by four-point bending testing under saturated 1 bar CO2 condition. Corrosion fatigue results were supported with ex...... situ measurements of Fe2+ and pH. Characterisation of the corrosion scales and crack formations was performed using microscopic and diffraction techniques. Fatigue results showed two times better fatigue life, at the stress ranges of 250 MPa, for samples tested in solutions containing the concentration...

  1. Element-specific study of the ultrafast magnetization switching on GdFeCo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radu, Ilie [IMM/SSI, Radboud University Nijmegen (Netherlands); Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, BESSY II (Germany); Vahaplar, Kadir; Kimel, Alexey; Kirilyuk, Andrei; Rasing, Theo [IMM/SSI, Radboud University Nijmegen (Netherlands); Stamm, Christian; Kachel, Torsten; Pontius, Niko; Duerr, Hermann [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, BESSY II (Germany); Tsukamoto, Arata [College of Science and Technology, Nihon University, Chiba (Japan)

    2010-07-01

    Recent time-resolved magneto-optical studies of GdFeCo performed in the visible spectral range have demonstrated the intriguing possibility of all-optical magnetization reversal with 40 fs laser pulses. So far, a complete understanding of the switching mechanism and of the involved elementary processes is still lacking. Here, we report on time-resolved X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (TRXMCD) studies of the fs laser-induced magnetization switching of the ferrimagnetic GdFeCo alloy. We trigger the magnetization switching by fs laser heating the material across its magnetization compensation temperature using linearly polarized laser pulses. The subsequent magnetization dynamics is probed with 10 ps X-ray pulses by TRXMCD measured at the absorption edges of Fe and Gd. TRXMCD data reveal an intricate transient magnetization dynamics: A rapid demagnetization accompanied by the onset of the magnetization switching and subsequently the full development of the magnetization reversed state on a few 100 ps.

  2. Temperature dependent structural and magnetic study of Co-sputtered Fe-Al thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Anupam; Brajpuriya, Ranjeet

    2017-05-01

    The authors have deposited co-sputtered Fe-Al thin film on a glass substrate. It is the first ever reporting of Fe and Al co-sputtering in an Argon atmosphere under vacuum conditions. The sample was annealed at 200°C, 300°C, 400°C, so as to allow different phase formation in it. To study the structural and magnetic properties of the samples the GIXRD, XRR and MOKE measurements were done. After annealing at 400°C we observed disordered FeAl formation and which after further converted to more ordered phase which is also confirmed from reflectivity measurements. The magnetic measurement shows the magnetic nature of the sample even after annealing at 400°C/5hr.

  3. Spin Structure Change in Co-Substituted BiFeO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Hajime; Kihara, Takumi; Oka, Kengo; Tokunaga, Masashi; Mibu, Ko; Azuma, Masaki

    2016-06-01

    The spin structure in BiFe1-xCoxO3 (x = 0.05,0.10,0.15,0.20) was investigated as a function of Co substitution, temperature, and magnetic field. It was found that the cycloidal spin structure of BiFeO3 changed to a collinear one with spin canting and composition-independent spontaneous magnetization of ˜0.25 μB/f.u. for the Co substituted samples on heating. The collinear phase was stabilized under magnetic fields. The spin structure change was clarified also by the temperature dependence of 57Fe Mössbauer spectra, and the results indicated the first order nature of this transition.

  4. Exploring new phases of Fe3-x Co x C for rare-earth-free magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S. Q.; Balamurugan, B.; Zhao, X.; Yu, S.; Nguyen, Manh Cuong; Sun, Y.; Valloppilly, S. R.; Sellmyer, D. J.; Ho, K. M.; Wang, C. Z.

    2017-06-01

    Structures, magnetic moments, and magnetocrystalline anisotropy energies of the Fe3-x Co x C intermetallic compounds are systematically investigated using adaptive genetic algorithm (AGA) crystal-structure predictions and first-principles calculations. Besides reproducing the known cementite (Pnma) structure of Fe3C, i.e. x  =  0, the AGA searches also capture several new metastable phases within the room-temperature range. In particular, a bainite (P6322) structure exhibits the largest magnetic moment among all low-energy structures, and its energy is only 4 meV/atom higher than the cementite (Pnma) phase. The atomic structure of the Pnma Fe2CoC phase, i.e. x  =  1, is also identified, and the calculated x-ray diffraction spectrum, magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy, and saturation magnetization based on the structure from our theoretical study are in good agreement with experiment.

  5. Out- versus in-plane magnetic anisotropy of free Fe and Co nanocrystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Dongzhe; Barreteau, Cyrille; Castell, Martin R.

    2014-01-01

    We report tight-binding and density functional theory calculations of magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy (MAE) of free Fe (body-centered-cubic) and Co (face-centered-cubic) slabs and nanocrystals. The nanocrystals are truncated square pyramids which can be grown experimentally by deposition...... of metal on a SrTiO3(001) substrate. For both elements our local analysis shows that the totalMAE of the nanocrystals is largely dominated by the contribution of (001) facets. However, while the easy axis of Fe(001) is out-of-plane, it is in-plane for Co(001). This has direct consequences on the magnetic...... reversal mechanism of the nanocrystals. Indeed, the very high uniaxial anisotropy of Fe nanocrystals makes them a much better potential candidate for magnetic storage devices....

  6. Enhancement of L21 order and spin-polarization in Co2FeSi thin film by substitution of Fe with Ti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiamin; Sakuraba, Y.; Masuda, K.; Miura, Y.; Li, S.; Kasai, S.; Furubayashi, T.; Hono, K.

    2017-06-01

    We investigated the effect of Ti substitution for Fe in Co2FeSi Heusler alloy (Co2Fe1-xTixSi) on their electronic structure, chemical ordering, and spin-dependent transport properties. First-principles calculations of the density of states (DOS) indicated that the peak just above the Fermi level in the minority-spin DOS (the conduction band edge of half-metallic gap) shifts towards higher energies with increasing Ti, leading to the enhancement in the half-metallic gap and the spin-polarization. We found in epitaxial Co2(Fe1-xTix)Si thin films that the required annealing temperature for long range L21-ordering can be substantially reduced from 650 °C for Co2FeSi to 400 °C for x ≥ 0.2. The enhancement of spin-polarization by the substitution of Fe with Ti was experimentally confirmed from anisotropic magnetoresistance measurements and spin-accumulation signals in non-local spin valve devices with the Co2Fe1-xTixSi films.

  7. High temperature superconductor current leads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, John R.; Poeppel, Roger B.

    1995-01-01

    An electrical lead having one end for connection to an apparatus in a cryogenic environment and the other end for connection to an apparatus outside the cryogenic environment. The electrical lead includes a high temperature superconductor wire and an electrically conductive material distributed therein, where the conductive material is present at the one end of the lead at a concentration in the range of from 0 to about 3% by volume, and at the other end of the lead at a concentration of less than about 20% by volume. Various embodiments are shown for groups of high temperature superconductor wires and sheaths.

  8. High temperature corrosion in gasifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wate Bakker

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Several commercial scale coal gasification combined cycle power plants have been built and successfully operated during the last 5-10 years. Supporting research on materials of construction has been carried out for the last 20 years by EPRI and others. Emphasis was on metallic alloys for heat exchangers and other components in contact with hot corrosive gases at high temperatures. In this paper major high temperature corrosion mechanisms, materials performance in presently operating gasifiers and future research needs will be discussed.

  9. TiFe0.9Co0.1水素化物の磁気特性

    OpenAIRE

    赤丸, 悟士; 高, 英之; 原, 正憲; 西村, 克彦; 松山, 政夫

    2015-01-01

    The thermodynamic properties of the TiFe0.9Co0.1?H system and its magnetic properties with various hydrogen contents were examined. The pressure-composition isotherm curves showed a plateau region, and the change in the enthalpy with monohydride formation was similar to that of TiFe. From the conventional magnetic properties examinations, TiFe0.9Co0.1 was found to show no magnetic transition down to 10 K. The magnetic susceptibility of TiFe0.9Co0.1 increased with hydrogen uptake, but no ferro...

  10. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERISATION OF Ni0.25Co0.75Fe2O4 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    25Co0.75Fe2O4 are shown in Figure 3, which show that the nanoparticles are of quite uniform polydispersed spherical shape. The presence of some bigger particles should be attributed to be the aggregation or overlapping of some small particles.

  11. Crystalline CoFeB/graphite interfaces for carbon spintronics fabricated by solid phase epitaxy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wong, P.K.J.; van Geijn, Elmer; van Geijn, E.; Zhang, W.; Starikov, A.A.; Tran, T. Lan Ahn; Sanderink, Johannes G.M.; Siekman, Martin Herman; Brocks, Gerardus H.L.A.; Kelly, Paul J.; van der Wiel, Wilfred Gerard; de Jong, Machiel Pieter

    2013-01-01

    Structurally ordered interfaces between ferromagnetic electrodes and graphene or graphite are of great interest for carbon spintronics, since they allow spin-filtering due to k-vector conservation. By solid phase epitaxy of amorphous/nanocrystalline CoFeB at elevated temperatures, the feasibility of

  12. Synthesis and analysis of Fe 3, Co 2 and Ni 2: PEO+ PVP blended ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Blended polymer films of polyethylene oxide + polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PEO + PVP) containing transition metal (TM) ions like Fe3+, Co2+ and Ni2+ have been synthesized by a solution casting method. For these films, structural, thermal, magnetic and optical properties have been studied. X-ray diffraction results reveal the ...

  13. Composition Influence on Magnetic Properties in Fe-Cr-Co-Ni-Si-Mn Alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Mariusz, SZPRYNGACZ; Masato, ENOKIZONO; Takashi, TODAKA; Oita University

    2004-01-01

    A new ferromagnetic shape memory alloy consisting of Fe-Cr-Co-Ni-Si-Mn has been developed by means of the melt spinning technique. The alloy has both shape memory effect and comparatively good magnetic properties, however a small modification of its chemical composition can change its properties considerably. This paper discusses such modifications and presents their influence on magnetic material properties.

  14. Magnetic force microscopy and simulation studies on Co50Fe50 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We studied the magnetization reversal mechanism of single-layered Co50Fe50 nanomagnets by mea- suring the magnetization reversal and using the micromagnetic simulations. The magnetization reversal strongly depends on the thickness of the nanomagnets. In the remanent state, the magnetic force ...

  15. STRUCTURE OF Co(III) AND Fe(III) TRANSITION METAL IONS IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The hydration structures of Co(III) and Fe(III) ions have been investigated by Metropolis Monte Carlo (MC) simulations using only ion-water pair interaction potentials and by including up to three body correction terms. The hydration structures were evaluated in terms of radial distribution functions, coordination numbers and ...

  16. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of CoFeB\\Ta bilayers on ALD HfO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart F. Vermeulen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA is an essential condition for CoFe thin films used in magnetic random access memories. Until recently, interfacial PMA was mainly known to occur in materials stacks with MgO\\CoFe(B interfaces or using an adjacent crystalline heavy metal film. Here, PMA is reported in a CoFeB\\Ta bilayer deposited on amorphous high-κ dielectric (relative permittivity κ=20 HfO2, grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD. PMA with interfacial anisotropy energy Ki up to 0.49 mJ/m2 appears after annealing the stacks between 200°C and 350°C, as shown with vibrating sample magnetometry. Transmission electron microscopy shows that the decrease of PMA starting from 350°C coincides with the onset of interdiffusion in the materials. High-κ dielectrics are potential enablers for giant voltage control of magnetic anisotropy (VCMA. The absence of VCMA in these experiments is ascribed to a 0.6 nm thick magnetic dead layer between HfO2 and CoFeB. The results show PMA can be easily obtained on ALD high-κ dielectrics.

  17. Chemical effect on the K shell fluorescence yield of Fe, Mn, Co, Cr ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chemical effect on the K shell fluorescence yield of Fe, Mn, Co, Cr and Cu compounds. U TURGUT. Ataturk University, K.K. Education Faculty, Department of Physics, 25240 Erzurum,. Turkey. E-mail: umitturgut2000@yahoo.com. MS received 5 November 2003; revised 30 March 2004; accepted 15 June 2004. Abstract.

  18. The first ternary intermetallic Heusler nanoparticles: Co{sub 2}FeGa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basit, Lubna; Yella, Aswani; Ksenofontov, Vadim; Fecher, Gerhard H.; Felser, Claudia [Institute of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Johannes-Gutenberg-University, Mainz (Germany); Nepijko, Sergej A. [Institute of Physics, Johannes-Gutenberg-University, Mainz (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Synthesis of materials with controlled particle size on the nanometer scale is an active area in the field of materials research. With the control over particle size, the electronic and magnetic properties of materials can be easily tuned. To study the effect of nanometer dimensions on the properties of Heusler alloys, a first example of Heusler nanoparticles is presented. Co{sub 2}FeGa Heusler nanoparticles were produced by reducing a methanol impregnated mixture of CoCl{sub 2}.6H{sub 2}O, Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}.9H{sub 2}O, and Ga(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}.xH{sub 2}O after loading on fumed silica. The dried samples were heated under pure H{sub 2} gas at 900 C. The synthesized Co{sub 2}FeGa Heusler nanoparticles were characterized by HRTEM, XRD and Moessbauer spectroscopy. All peaks of the XRD pattern can be attributed to a L2{sub 1} Heusler structure with a lattice constant of a=4.37 A. The size of the particles, as determined by transmission electron microscopy, is between 16 nm and 20 nm. The ferromagnetic behaviour of the particles as determined by the SQUID measurements is presented and compared with the bulk Co{sub 2}FeGa Heusler alloy.

  19. Magnetic force microscopy and simulation studies on Co50Fe50 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We studied the magnetization reversal mechanism of single-layered Co50Fe50 nanomagnets by measuring the magnetization reversal and using the micromagnetic simulations. The magnetization reversal strongly depends on the thickness of the nanomagnets. In the remanent state, the magnetic force microscopy studies ...

  20. Equilibrium Sorption studies of Fe, Cu and Co ions in aqueous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recinius Communis Linn a commonly found herbal plant was used to prepare activated carbon by physicochemical activation method. The sorption capacity of this bio-resource material to remove Fe(III), Cu(II) and Co(II) from aqueous solutions was determined by batch tests. The influences of important parameters such as ...

  1. Synthesis, structural and magnetic characterization of soft magnetic nanocrystalline ternary FeNiCo particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toparli, Cigdem [Department of Metallurgical & Materials Eng., Istanbul Technical University, 34469 Istanbul (Turkey); Max-Planck-Institut für Eisenforschung GmbH, Düsseldorf (Germany); Ebin, Burçak [Department of Metallurgical & Materials Eng., Istanbul Technical University, 34469 Istanbul (Turkey); Nuclear Chemistry and Industrial Material Recycling, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, S-412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Gürmen, Sebahattin, E-mail: gurmen@itu.edu.tr [Department of Metallurgical & Materials Eng., Istanbul Technical University, 34469 Istanbul (Turkey)

    2017-02-01

    The present study focuses on the synthesis, microstructural and magnetic properties of ternary FeNiCo nanoparticles. Nanocrystalline ternary FeNiCo particles were synthesized via hydrogen reduction assisted ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method in single step. The effect of precursor concentration on the morphology and the size of particles was investigated. The syntheses were performed at 800 °C. Structure, morphology and magnetic properties of the as-prepared products were characterized through X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) studies. Scherer calculation revealed that crystallite size of the ternary particles ranged between 36 and 60 nm. SEM and TEM investigations showed that the particle size was strongly influenced by the precursor concentration and Fe, Ni, Co elemental composition of individual particles was homogeneous. Finally, the soft magnetic properties of the particles were observed to be a function of their size. - Highlights: • Ternary FeNiCo alloy nanocrystalline particles were synthesized in a single step. • Cubic crystalline structure and spherical morphology was observed by XRD, SEM and TEM investigations. • The analysis of magnetic properties indicates the soft magnetic features of particles.

  2. Orientational ordering of commensurate Fe(CO)5 monolayers on graphite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, R.; Taub, H.; Shechter, H.

    1983-01-01

    Elastic neutron diffraction and Mössbauer spectroscopy have been used to study the structure, orientational-disordering (OD) transition, and melting of an Fe(CO)5 submonolayer adsorbed on Grafoil. The OD transition occurs between 150 and 167 K from a two-sublattice (sqrt[7]×sqrt[21]) structure to...

  3. Oxidation behavior of arc melted AlCoCrFeNi multi-component high-entropy alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, Todd M., E-mail: tmbutler@crimson.ua.edu; Weaver, Mark L.

    2016-07-25

    Multi-component, high-entropy alloys (HEAs) are being investigated as potential alternatives for high temperature structural materials due to their reported high symmetry crystal structures, favorable mechanical properties, high temperature phase stabilities, and resistances to degradation in oxidizing/corrosive environments. However, their high temperature oxidation behaviors are poorly understood. In this work, the as-cast microstructures and 1050 °C oxidation behaviors of a series of arc-melted Al{sub x}(NiCoCrFe){sub 100-x} HEAs where x = 8, 10, 12, 15, 20, and 30 (at.%) were investigated. The dominant structure of the low Al concentration HEAs was determined to be FCC, while the high Al concentration HEAs were BCC dominant. A structural transition point at ∼15 at. % Al exists where a large fraction of both FCC and BCC are present. Each HEA exhibited initial transient oxidation followed by various degrees of parabolic oxide growth. All of the HEAs formed a combination of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and AlN beneath an external Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} scale. Increased Al content improved the continuity and internal position of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} scale, resulting in enhanced oxidation resistances. These results are discussed relative to chemically similar conventional alloys and existing Ni–Cr–Al oxide formation models. The resulting phase equilibria has been compared to thermodynamic predictions made using the CALPHAD method. - Highlights: • The as-cast HEAs formed FCC, BCC, and/or B2 (i.e. ordered BCC) crystal structures. • Thermodynamic CALPHAD based models were fairly consistent with experimental results. • All of the HEAs selectively oxidized to form predominantly Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} scales. • The HEAs exhibited some parabolic oxide growth comparable to model NiCrAl alloys. • The oxidation performance was heavily influenced by the relative Al concentrations.

  4. Spin-polarized electronic band structures of the Fe{sub 4}N-Co{sub 4}N system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Yasuhiko, E-mail: yas-takahashi@aist.go.jp [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), AIST Tsukuba Central 5, Higashi 1-1-1 Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8565 (Japan); Imai, Yoji; Kumagai, Toshiya [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), AIST Tsukuba Central 5, Higashi 1-1-1 Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8565 (Japan)

    2011-12-15

    We have calculated spin-polarized electronic band structures of cubic antiperovskite metal nitrides (Fe{sub 4}N, Fe{sub 3}CoN, FeCo{sub 3}N and Co{sub 4}N) by the full-potential method with mixed basis augmented plane wave plus local orbitals. It was shown that FeCo{sub 3}N has an energy gap of 0.2 eV at the Fermi level in the up-spin band and hence its half-metallic behavior is expected. - Highlights: > Calculated spin-polarized electronic band structures of cubic antiperovskite metal nitrides. > All calculations were by the full-potential method. > Obtained densities of states and spin-polarized electronic energy bands of Fe{sub 4}N, Fe{sub 3}CoN, FeCo{sub 3}N, and Co{sub 4}N. > FeCo{sub 3}N has an energy gap of 0.2 eV at the Fermi level and hence half-metallic behavior.

  5. Structure and magnetism of new rare-earth-free intermetallic compounds: Fe3+xCo3−xTi2 (0 ≤ x ≤ 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balamurugan Balasubramanian

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We report the fabrication of a set of new rare-earth-free magnetic compounds, which form the Fe3Co3Ti2-type hexagonal structure with P-6m2 symmetry. Neutron powder diffraction shows a significant Fe/Co anti-site mixing in the Fe3Co3Ti2 structure, which has a strong effect on the magnetocrystalline anisotropy as revealed by first-principle calculations. Increasing substitution of Fe atoms for Co in the Fe3Co3Ti2 lattice leads to the formation of Fe4Co2Ti2, Fe5CoTi, and Fe6Ti2 with significantly improved permanent-magnet properties. A high magnetic anisotropy (13.0 Mergs/cm3 and saturation magnetic polarization (11.4 kG are achieved at 10 K by altering the atomic arrangements and decreasing Fe/Co occupancy disorder.

  6. Analysis of magneto-electronic, thermodynamic and thermoelectric properties of ferromagnetic CoFeCrAl alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohiuddin Bhat, Tahir; Gupta, Dinesh C.

    2017-11-01

    The structural stability, electronic, mechanical, thermodynamic and thermoelectric properties of CoFeCrAl have been investigated by modified Beck–Johnson (mBJ) exchange potential. From the optimized calculations, the indirect band gap of 0.65 eV in spin-down was found, which is enhanced than the previously reported data. The material offers the magnetic moment of 2µ B and displays brittle nature with mixed chemical bonding. The thermoelectric properties of the compound in the temperature range 50–550 K have been revealed. Seebeck coefficient at room temperature is  ‑46 µV K‑1 which increases with temperature. At 550 K, the figure-of-merit for n-type compound maximizes up to ~0.41 suggesting a potential thermoelectric material at high temperatures. Meanwhile, quasi-harmonic Debye model was also used to investigate the effect of pressure and temperature on the thermal expansion, Grüneisen parameter and unit cell volume.

  7. Sequestration of uranium on fabricated aluminum co-precipitated with goethite (Al-FeOOH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yubing; Yang, Shubin; Wang, Qi; Wang, Xiangke [Chinese Academy of Science, Hefei (China). Key Laboratory of Novel Thin Film Solar Cells; Alsaedi, Ahmad [King Abdulaziz Univ., Jeddah (Saudi Arabia). Nonlinear Analysis and Applied Mathematics (NAAM) Research Group

    2014-11-01

    Aluminum co-precipitated with goethites (Al-FeOOHs) are ubiquitous within (sub)-surface environments, which are considered one of the most important sinks for radionuclide pollution management. Accordingly, various mole ratios Al-FeOOH were synthesized and characterized by XRD, FT-IR, TEM, specific surface area and potentiometric acid-base titration. According to XRD and TEM images, the morphology of Al-FeOOH was transformed from acicular-like goethite to cotton-like gibbsite with increasing Al content. The adsorption and sequential desorption of U(VI) on Al-FeOOHs were conducted by batch techniques under N{sub 2} conditions. The batch adsorption results showed that the adsorption of U(VI) on Al-FeOOHs slightly increased at pH < 4.0, then the significant increase of U(VI) adsorption was observed at pH from 4.0 to 7.0, whereas the suppressed adsorption at pH > 8.0 was due to the electrostatic repulsion between negative charge surface and negative carbonato-complexes. The adsorption of U(VI) on Al-FeOOHs was independent of ionic strength at pH > 5.0, indicating that the inner-sphere surface complexation predominated their adsorption behaviors, whereas U(VI) adsorption on Al-FeOOH could be the outer-sphere surface/cation exchange reaction. The sequential extraction texts showed that the desorption of U(VI) from Al-FeOOHs decreased with increasing Al content. These findings highlighted the effect of Al content on the sequestration and immobilization of U(VI) onto Al-FeOOHs from (sub)-surface environments in pollution management.

  8. Effect of atomic composition on the compressive strain and electrocatalytic activity of PtCoFe/sulfonated graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohrasbi, Elaheh [Department of Chemistry, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Javanbakht, Mehran, E-mail: mehranjavanbakht@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fuel and Solar Cell Lab, Renewable Energy Research Center, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mozaffari, Sayed Ahmad [Fuel and Solar Cell Lab, Renewable Energy Research Center, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Thin Layer and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Department of Chemical Technology, Iranian Research Organization for Science and Technology (IROST), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • SO{sub 3}H-graphene supported PtFeCo alloy nanoparticles were prepared. • Co:Fe atomic ratio plays important role in the electrocatalytic performance. • PtCoFe/SG with 7:3 Co:Fe atomic ratio is optimized for PEMFCs. • Power density of 530 mW cm{sup −2} with 0.1 mg cm{sup −2} Pt loading was obtained at 75 °C. - Abstract: The aim of this work is improvement of the stability and durability of sulfonated graphene supported PtCoFe electrocatalyst (PtCoFe/SG) for application in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). The durability investigation of PtCoFe/SG is evaluated by a repetitive potential cycling test. The compressive strain in the lattice of PtCoFe/SG towards the electrocatalytic oxygen reduction reaction is studied. The synthesized electrocatalysts are examined physically and electrochemically for their structure, morphology and electrocatalytic performance. It is shown that presence of SO{sub 3}− groups on the graphene cause better adsorption of PtCoFe nanoparticles on the support and increase stability of electrocatalysts. Also, it is shown that Co:Fe atomic ratio in the synthesized electrocatalysts plays important role in their electrocatalytic performance. In the optimum Co:Fe atomic ratio, the compressive strain goes through the ideal value of the binding energy; further increase in Co/Fe atomic fraction introduces the excessive compressive strain and the activity of electrocatalyst decreases. The electrocatalyst synthesized in the optimum conditions is utilized as cathode in PEMFC. The power density of the PEMFC in low metal loading (0.1 mg cm{sup −2} Pt) reaches to a maximum of 530 mW cm{sup −2} at 75 °C. It suggests that PtCoFe/SG with 7:3 Co:Fe atomic ratio promises to improve the power density of PEMFCs.

  9. Variable substrate temperature deposition of CoFeB film on Ta for manipulating the perpendicular coercive forces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakshmanan, Saravanan; Rao, Subha Krishna [Nanotechnology Research Centre, SRM University, Kattankulathur, Chennai 603203 (India); Muthuvel, Manivel Raja [Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory (DMRL), Hyderabad 500058 (India); Chandrasekaran, Gopalakrishnan [Nanotechnology Research Centre, SRM University, Kattankulathur, Chennai 603203 (India); Therese, Helen Annal, E-mail: helen.a@ktr.srmuniv.ac.in [Nanotechnology Research Centre, SRM University, Kattankulathur, Chennai 603203 (India)

    2017-08-01

    Highlights: • Ta/CoFeB(50 nm)/Ta thin films were deposited at various substrate temperatures (T{sub s}). • CoFeB films deposited at T{sub s} such as RT, 450 °C, 475 °C and 500 °C exhibited perpendicular coercivity. • CoFeB deposited at 475 °C displayed a higher coercivity of 315 Oe and a low M{sub s} of 169 emu/cc. • The enhanced crystallization of CoFeB at the Ta/CoFeB interface results in higher H{sub c} (⟂). - Abstract: Magnetization of Ta/CoFeB/Ta trilayer films with thick layer of CoFeB deposited under different substrate temperatures (T{sub s}) via ultra-high vacuum DC sputtering technique has been measured with the applied magnetic field parallel and perpendicular to the plane of the film respectively to study the perpendicular coercive forces of the film. The samples were further analyzed for its structural, topological, morphological, and electrical transport properties. The core chemical states for the elements present in the CoFeB thin film were analyzed by XPS studies. Magnetization studies reveal the existence of perpendicular coercive forces in CoFeB films deposited only at certain temperatures such as RT, 450 °C, 475 °C and 500 °C. CoFeB film deposited at 475 °C exhibited a maximum coercivity of 315 Oe and a very low saturation magnetization (M{sub s}) of 169 emu/cc in perpendicular direction. This pronounced effect in perpendicular coercive forces observed for CoFeB475 could be attributed to the effect of temperature in enhancing the crystallization of the film at the Ta/CoFeB interfaces. However at temperatures higher than 475 °C the destruction of the Ta/CoFeB interface due to intermixing of Ta and CoFeB results in the disappearance of magnetic anisotropy.

  10. Impact of Precipitants on the Structure and Properties of Fe-Co-Ce Composite Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongli Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fe-Co-Ce composite catalysts were prepared by coprecipitation method using CO(NH22, NaOH, NH4HCO3, and NH3·H2O as precipitant agents. The effects of the precipitant agents on the physicochemical properties of the Fe-Co-Ce based catalysts were investigated by SEM, TEM, BET, TG-DTA, and XRD. It was found that the precipitant agents remarkably influenced the morphology and particle size of the catalysts and affected the COD removal efficiency, decolorization rate, and pH of methyl orange for catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO. The specific surface area of the Fe-Co-Ce composite catalysts successively decreased in the order of NH3·H2O, NH4HCO3, NaOH, and CO(NH22, which correlated to an increasing particle size that increased for each catalyst. For the CWAO of a methyl orange aqueous solutions, the effects of precipitant agents NH3·H2O and NaOH were superior to those of CO(NH22 and NH4HCO3. The catalyst prepared using NH3·H2O as the precipitant agent was mostly composed of Fe2O3, CoO, and CeO2. The COD removal efficiency of methyl orange aqueous solution for NH3·H2O reached 92.9% in the catalytic wet air oxidation. Such a catalytic property was maintained for six runs.

  11. Large half-metallic gaps in the quaternary Heusler alloys CoFeCrZ (Z = Al, Si, Ga, Ge): A first-principles study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, G.Y., E-mail: guoying_gao@163.com [School of Physics and Wuhan National High Magnetic Field Center, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Hu, Lei; Yao, K.L.; Luo, Bo; Liu, Na [School of Physics and Wuhan National High Magnetic Field Center, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2013-02-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Half-metallic ferromagnetism in quaternary Heusler alloys CoFeCrZ (Z = Al, Si, Ga, Ge). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The influence of Coulomb interaction on the half-metallicity of CoFeCrZ. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Half-metallicity is destroyed at the (0 0 1) surface of CoFeCrSi. - Abstract: The high Curie temperatures and compatible lattice structure with conventional semiconductors for half-metallic Co{sub 2}FeZ and Co{sub 2}CrZ (Z = Al, Si, Ga, Ge) inspired us to design new quaternary Heusler half-metallic ferromagnets CoFeCrZ. Our first-principles calculations show that, within generalized gradient approximation for the electronic exchange-correlation functional, both CoFeCrGa and CoFeCrGe are nearly half-metals, while both CoFeCrAl and CoFeCrSi exhibit excellent half-metallic ferromagnetism with the large half-metallic gaps of 0.16 and 0.28 eV, respectively. The half-metallicity of CoFeCrAl and CoFeCrSi is robust against the lattice compression (up to 7% and 4%, respectively). We also reveal that the half-metallicity is lost for both CoFeCrAl and CoFeCrGa but retentive for both CoFeCrSi and CoFeCrGe when the Coulomb interactions are considered. In addition, both CoFe- and CrSi-terminated (0 0 1) surfaces with and without antisite defects lose the bulk half-metallicity in CoFeCrSi.

  12. (Krauss) at constant high temperatures

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Snail Research Unit of the SAMRC and Department of Zoology, Potchefstroom University for CHE,. Potchefstroom. The survival of the freshwater snail species Bulinus africanus, Bulinus g/obosus and Biompha/aria pfeifferi at extreme high temperatures was experimentally investigated. Snails were exposed to temperatures ...

  13. High Temperature Superconductor Machine Prototype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mijatovic, Nenad; Jensen, Bogi Bech; Træholt, Chresten

    2011-01-01

    A versatile testing platform for a High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) machine has been constructed. The stationary HTS field winding can carry up to 10 coils and it is operated at a temperature of 77K. The rotating armature is at room temperature. Test results and performance for the HTS field...

  14. High-Temperature Optical Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamovsky, Grigory; Juergens, Jeffrey R.; Varga, Donald J.; Floyd, Bertram M.

    2010-01-01

    A high-temperature optical sensor (see Figure 1) has been developed that can operate at temperatures up to 1,000 C. The sensor development process consists of two parts: packaging of a fiber Bragg grating into a housing that allows a more sturdy thermally stable device, and a technological process to which the device is subjected to in order to meet environmental requirements of several hundred C. This technology uses a newly discovered phenomenon of the formation of thermally stable secondary Bragg gratings in communication-grade fibers at high temperatures to construct robust, optical, high-temperature sensors. Testing and performance evaluation (see Figure 2) of packaged sensors demonstrated operability of the devices at 1,000 C for several hundred hours, and during numerous thermal cycling from 400 to 800 C with different heating rates. The technology significantly extends applicability of optical sensors to high-temperature environments including ground testing of engines, flight propulsion control, thermal protection monitoring of launch vehicles, etc. It may also find applications in such non-aerospace arenas as monitoring of nuclear reactors, furnaces, chemical processes, and other hightemperature environments where other measurement techniques are either unreliable, dangerous, undesirable, or unavailable.

  15. Chemistry of high temperature superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    1991-01-01

    This review volume contains the most up-to-date articles on the chemical aspects of high temperature oxide superconductors. These articles are written by some of the leading scientists in the field and includes a comprehensive list of references. This is an essential volume for researchers working in the fields of ceramics, materials science and chemistry.

  16. High temperature component life assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Webster, G A

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this book is to investigate and explain the rapid advances in the characterization of high temperature crack growth behaviour which have been made in recent years, with reference to industrial applications. Complicated mathematics has been minimized with the emphasis placed instead on finding solutions using simplified procedures without the need for complex numerical analysis.

  17. Properties of high temperature SQUIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falco, C. M.; Wu, C. T.

    1978-01-01

    A review is given of the present status of weak links and dc and rf biased SQUIDs made with high temperature superconductors. A method for producing reliable, reproducible devices using Nb/sub 3/Sn is outlined, and comments are made on directions future work should take.

  18. High-temperature flooding injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    This problem, also called scald, is most serious in the hot desert valleys of the southwestern United States, subtropical regions in eastern Australia, and western Asia and northern Africa (Middle East) where fields are established and irrigated under high temperatures. The disorder also occurs to...

  19. Synthesis and Electro-Magneto-Mechanical Properties of Graphene Aerogels Functionalized with Co-Fe-P Amorphous Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Ping Zheng

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Graphene aerogels (GAs are functionalized with Fe-Co-P alloy using an electro-deposition method. The Fe-Co-P alloy coated on the graphene nanosheets is found to possess an amorphous structure and a nanoporous architecture of GAs. The electro-mechanical properties of GAs are significantly affected by the Fe-Co-P nanoparticles embedded inside GAs. The electro-mechanical responses of GA/Fe-Co-P nanoporous hybrid structures are sensitive to an applied magnetic field, demonstrating that they are promising for electro-magneto-mechanical applications. The light-weight, high-strength and nanoporous GAs functionalized with Fe-Co-P amorphous alloys are desirable sensors, actuators, and nano-electro-mechanical systems that could be controlled or manipulated by mechanical, electric and magnetic fields.

  20. Mic