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Sample records for high-sulfur illinois coals

  1. Potential to cofire high-sulfur coal and MSW/RDF in Illinois utility boilers: A survey and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    South, D.W.

    1993-01-01

    The disposal of refuse is of ever-increasing concern for municipalities and other organizations and agencies throughout the United States. Disposal in landfills is becoming more costly, and new landfills are more difficult to site because of stricter environmental regulations. Mass burning incinerators for municipal solid wastes (MSW) have also met with increased public resistance due to excessive emissions. Nevertheless, increased awareness of the need for alternative disposal techniques has led to a new interest in cofiring MSW with coal. In addition to solid waste concerns, the requirements to reduce SO 2 and NO x emissions from coal-fired utility boilers in the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, present an opportunity to cofire MSW/RDF with coal as an emission control measure. These issues were the impetus for a 1992 study (conducted by ANL for the Illinois Clean Coal Institute) to examine the potential to cofire coal with MSW/RDF in Illinois utility boilers. This paper will provide a synopsis of the ANL/ICCI report. It will summarize (1) the combustibility and emission characteristics of high-sulfur coal and MSW/RDF; (2) the facilities firing RDF and/or producing/selling RDF, together with their combustion and emissions experience; (3) the applicable emissions regulations in Illinois; and (4) the analysis of candidate utility boilers in Illinois capable of cofiring, together with the effect on coal consumption and SO 2 and NO x emissions that would result from 20% cofiring with RDF/MSW

  2. Multiple-heteroatom-containing sulfur compounds in a high sulfur coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winans, R.E.; Neill, P.H.

    1990-01-01

    Flash vacuum pyrolysis of a high sulfur coal has been combined with high resolution mass spectrometry yielding information on aromatic sulfur compounds containing an additional heteroatom. Sulfur emission from coal utilization is a critical problem and in order to devise efficient methods for removing organic sulfur, it is important to know what types of molecules contain sulfur. A high sulfur Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal (Argonne Premium Coal Sample No. 3) was pyrolyzed on a platinum grid using a quartz probe inserted into a modified all glass heated inlet system and the products characterized by high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). A significant number of products were observed which contained both sulfur and an additional heteroatom. In some cases two additional heteroatoms were observed. These results are compared to those found in coal extracts and liquefaction products

  3. Capital cost: high and low sulfur coal plants-1200 MWe. [High sulfur coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    This Commercial Electric Power Cost Study for 1200 MWe (Nominal) high and low sulfur coal plants consists of three volumes. The high sulfur coal plant is described in Volumes I and II, while Volume III describes the low sulfur coal plant. The design basis and cost estimate for the 1232 MWe high sulfur coal plant is presented in Volume I, and the drawings, equipment list and site description are contained in Volume II. The reference design includes a lime flue gas desulfurization system. A regenerative sulfur dioxide removal system using magnesium oxide is also presented as an alternate in Section 7 Volume II. The design basis, drawings and summary cost estimate for a 1243 MWe low sulfur coal plant are presented in Volume III. This information was developed by redesigning the high sulfur coal plant for burning low sulfur sub-bituminous coal. These coal plants utilize a mechanical draft (wet) cooling tower system for condenser heat removal. Costs of alternate cooling systems are provided in Report No. 7 in this series of studies of costs of commercial electrical power plants.

  4. Experimental study of desulfurization of Zhong Liang Shau high sulfur coal by flotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Z.; Huang, B.; Cao, J. [China University of Mining and Technology (China). Beijing Graduate School

    1994-12-01

    Emission of large amount of SO{sub 2} from combustion of high sulfur coal causes serious environmental pollution. Pre-combustion desulfurization of high sulfur coal has become a necessity. This paper reports test results of fine coal desulfurization with different flotation technology and the effect of pyrite depressant. Test work showed that when the coal sample from Zhong Liang Shau was processed with a Free Jet Flotation Column its pyritic sulfur content was reduced from 3.08% to 0.84%, with 72.22% recovery of combustible matter in clean coal. The concept of Desulfurization Efficiency Index E{sub ds} for comprehensive evaluation of desulfurization process is proposed, which is defined as the product of the ratio of sulfur content reduction of clean coal and the recovery of combustible matters. 6 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. High-sulfur coal: tonnage and money at risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMahan, R.L.; Knutson, K.S.

    1991-01-01

    More than 286 million tons of coal exceeds the Phase I standard i.e. 2.5 lb SO 2 per mmBtu, of the US Clean Air Act (1990). 85 mmtpy goes to currently scrubbed or unaffected (i.e. small) units. This leaves 201 mmtpy of high-sulphur coal at risk. 129 mmtpy of this is moving on a spot basis or is shipped under contracts that expire by 1995. This leaves about 72 mmtpy of captive and longterm contracts which many utility fuel buyers assume will be cancelled or renegotiated at a lower price. The legal position remains uncertain. However, the massive cancellation and/or renegotiation of existing contracts will have a tremendous economic impact on the coal industry. The resultant price change will in turn influence decisions to scrub or switch to low sulphur coals. 2 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Characterization of desulfurization, denitrogenation and process sulfur transfer during hydropyrolysis of Chinese high sulfur coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Chenggong; Li Baoqing [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan (China). State Key Lab. of Coal Conversion; Snape, C.E. [Strathclyde Univ., Glasgow (United Kingdom). Dept. of Pure and Applied Chemistry

    1997-12-31

    The process desulphurization and denitrogenation of Chinese high sulfur coals and the characteristics of sulfur transformation during non-catalytic hydropyrolysis were investigated by a 10 g fixed-bed reactor and a small-scaled reactor with online spectrometry respectively. It was indicated that more than 70% of the total sulfur of the two high sulfur coals and almost all pyritic sulfur are removed as H{sub 2}S, leaving the char and tar products with much less sulfur distribution. The liability of sulfur transformation to tar products is closely related to the thiophenic structure forms rather than sulfidic forms. At the same time, the formation of trace amount of sulfur dioxide indicates the presence of inherent sulfur oxidation reactions inside coal frame structures even under H{sub 2} pressure. (orig.)

  7. Washability and Distribution Behaviors of Trace Elements of a High-Sulfur Coal, SW Guizhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Cheng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The float-sink test is a commonly used technology for the study of coal washability, which determines optimal separation density for coal washing based on the desired sulfur and ash yield of the cleaned coal. In this study, the float-sink test is adopted for a high-sulfur Late Permian coal from Hongfa coalmine (No.26, southwestern Guizhou, China, to investigate its washability, and to analyze the organic affinities and distribution behaviors of some toxic and valuable trace elements. Results show that the coal is difficult to separate in terms of desulfurization. A cleaned coal could theoretically be obtained with a yield of 75.50%, sulfur 2.50%, and ash yield 11.33% when the separation density is 1.57 g/cm3. Trace elements’ distribution behaviors during the gravity separation were evaluated by correlation analysis and calculation. It was found that Cs, Ga, Ta, Th, Rb, Sb, Nb, Hf, Ba, Pb, In, Cu, and Zr are of significant inorganic affinity; while Sn, Co, Re, U, Mo, V, Cr, Ni, and Be are of relatively strong organic affinity. LREE (Light rare earth elements, however, seem to have weaker organic affinity than HREE (Heavy rare earth elements, which can probably be attributed to lanthanide contraction. When the separation density is 1.60 g/cm3, a large proportion of Sn, Be, Cr, U, V, Mo, Ni, Cd, Pb, and Cu migrate to the cleaned coal, but most of Mn, Sb and Th stay in the gangue. Coal preparation provides alternativity for either toxic elements removal or valuable elements preconcentration in addition to desulfurization and deashing. The enrichment of trace elements in the cleaned coal depends on the predetermined separation density which will influence the yields and ash yields of the cleaned coal.

  8. Coal and nuclear power: Illinois' energy future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This conference was sponsored by the Energy Resources Center, University of Illinois at Chicago; the US Department of Energy; the Illinois Energy Resources Commission; and the Illinois Department of Energy and Natural Resources. The theme for the conference, Coal and Nuclear Power: Illinois' Energy Future, was based on two major observations: (1) Illinois has the largest reserves of bituminous coal of any state and is surpassed in total reserves only by North Dakota, and Montana; and (2) Illinois has made a heavy commitment to the use of nuclear power as a source of electrical power generation. Currently, nuclear power represents 30% of the electrical energy produced in the State. The primary objective of the 1982 conference was to review these two energy sources in view of the current energy policy of the Reagan Administration, and to examine the impact these policies have on the Midwest energy scene. The conference dealt with issues unique to Illinois as well as those facing the entire nation. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 30 individual presentations

  9. Extractive de-sulfurization and de-ashing of high sulfur coals by oxidation with ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saikia, Binoy K.; Khound, Kakoli; Baruah, Bimala P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Extractive de-sulfurization and de-ashing process for cleaning high sulfur coals. • The process removes inorganic as well as organic sulfur components from high sulfur coals. • The process has less risk to chemists and other surroundings. - Abstract: The environmental consequences of energy production from coals are well known, and are driving the development of desulfurization technologies. In this investigation, ionic liquids were examined for extractive desulfurization and de-ashing in industrially important high sulfur sub-bituminous Indian coals. The ionic liquids, namely, 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (IL1) and 1-n-butyl 3-methylimidazolium chloride (IL2) were employed for desulfurization of a few Indian coal samples in presence of HCOOH/H 2 O 2 and V 2 O 5 . Results show the maximum removal of 50.20% of the total sulfur, 48.00% of the organic sulfur, and 70.37 wt% of the ash in this process. The ionic liquids were recovered and subsequently used for further desulfurization. FT-IR spectra reveal the transformation of organic sulfur functionalities into the sulfoxides (S=O) and sulfones (-SO 2 ) due to the oxidative reactions. The sulfate, pyrite and sulfides (aryls) signals in the near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) of the oxidized coal samples showed sulfur transformation during the desulfurization process. The study demonstrates the removal of significant amount of inorganic as well as organic sulfur (aryls) components from the original high sulfur coal samples to make them cleaner

  10. Studies on the effect of coal particle size on biodepyritization of high sulfur coal in batch bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Sradhanjali

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The moderate thermophilic mix culture bacteria were used to depyritize the Illinois coal of varying particle sizes (-100 μm, 100-200 μm, +200 μm. Mineral libration analysis showed the presence of pyrite along with other minerals in coal. Microbial depyritization of coal was carried out in stirred tank batch reactors in presence of an iron-free 9K medium. The results indicate that microbial depyritization of coal using moderate thermophiles is an efficient process. Moreover, particle size of coal is an important parameter which affects the efficiency of microbial depyritization process. At the end of the experiment, a maximum of 75% pyrite and 66% of pyritic sulphur were removed from the median particle size. The XRD analysis showed the absence of pyrite mineral in the treated coal sample. A good mass balance was also obtained with net loss of mass ranging from 5-9% showing the feasibility of the process for large scale applications.

  11. Co-combustion characteristics and blending optimization of tobacco stem and high-sulfur bituminous coal based on thermogravimetric and mass spectrometry analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kaihua; Zhang, Kai; Cao, Yan; Pan, Wei-ping

    2013-03-01

    Despite much research on co-combustion of tobacco stem and high-sulfur coal, their blending optimization has not been effectively found. This study investigated the combustion profiles of tobacco stem, high-sulfur bituminous coal and their blends by thermogravimetric analysis. Ignition and burnout performances, heat release performances, and gaseous pollutant emissions were also studied by thermogravimetric and mass spectrometry analyses. The results indicated that combustion of tobacco stem was more complicated than that of high-sulfur bituminous coal, mainly shown as fixed carbon in it was divided into two portions with one early burning and the other delay burning. Ignition and burnout performances, heat release performances, and gaseous pollutant emissions of the blends present variable trends with the increase of tobacco stem content. Taking into account the above three factors, a blending ratio of 0–20% tobacco stem content is conservatively proposed as optimum amount for blending. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Demonstration of SCR technology for the control of NOx emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired utility boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinton, W.S. [W.S. Hinton and Associates, Cantonment, FL (United States); Maxwell, J.D.; Healy, E.C.; Hardman, R.R. [Southern Company Services, Inc., Birmingham, AL (United States); Baldwin, A.L. [Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes the completed Innovative Clean Coal Technology project which demonstrated SCR technology for reduction of flue gas NO{sub x} emissions from a utility boiler burning US high-sulfur coal. The project was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, managed and co-funded by Southern Company Services, Inc. on behalf of the Southern Company, and also co-funded by the Electric Power Research Institute and Ontario Hydro. The project was located at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Crist Unit 5 (a 75 MW tangentially-fired boiler burning US coals that had a sulfur content ranging from 2.5--2.9%), near Pensacola, Florida. The test program was conducted for approximately two years to evaluate catalyst deactivation and other SCR operational effects. The SCR test facility had nine reactors: three 2.5 MW (5,000 scfm), and operated on low-dust flue gas. The reactors operated in parallel with commercially available SCR catalysts obtained from suppliers throughout the world. Long-term performance testing began in July 1993 and was completed in July 1995. A brief test facility description and the results of the project are presented in this paper.

  13. Coal and nuclear power: Illinois' energy future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    This conference was sponsored by the Energy Resources Center, University of Illinois at Chicago; the US Department of Energy; the Illinois Energy Resources Commission; and the Illinois Department of Energy and Natural Resources. The theme for the conference, Coal and Nuclear Power: Illinois' Energy Future, was based on two major observations: (1) Illinois has the largest reserves of bituminous coal of any state and is surpassed in total reserves only by North Dakota, and Montana; and (2) Illinois has made a heavy commitment to the use of nuclear power as a source of electrical power generation. Currently, nuclear power represents 30% of the electrical energy produced in the State. The primary objective of the 1982 conference was to review these two energy sources in view of the current energy policy of the Reagan Administration, and to examine the impact these policies have on the Midwest energy scene. The conference dealt with issues unique to Illinois as well as those facing the entire nation. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 30 individual presentations.

  14. Management of high sulfur coal combustion residues, issues and practices: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chugh, Y.P.; Beasley, G.A. [eds.

    1994-10-01

    Papers presented at the following sessions are included in this proceedings: (1) overview topic; (2) characterization of coal combustion residues; (3) environmental impacts of residues management; (4) materials handling and utilization, Part I; and (5) materials handling and utilization, Part II. Selected paper have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  15. Prevention of formation of acid drainage from high-sulfur coal refuse by inhibition of iron- and sulfur-oxidizing microorganisms. 1. Preliminary experiments in controlled shaken flasks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dugan, P.R.

    1987-01-01

    Changes of pH and sulfate concentration in high-sulfur coal refuse slurries are used as measurements of microbial pyrite oxidation in the laboratory. Sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), alkylbenzene sulfonate (ABS), benzoic acid (BZ) and combinations of SLS plus BZ and ABS plus BZ effectively inhibited formation of sulfate and acid when added in concentrations greater than 50 mg/l to inoculated 20 or 30% coal refuse slurries. Here 25 mg/l concentrations of SLS, ABS and ABS plus BZ stimulated acid production. Formic, hexanoic, oxalic, propionic, and pyruvic acids at 0.1% concentrations were also effective inhibitors. Four different lignin sulfonates were only slightly effective inhibitors at 0.1% concentrations. It was concluded that acid formation resulting from microbial oxidation in high-sulfur coal refuse can be inhibited. 22 references.

  16. Gasifier feed: Tailor-made from Illinois coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrlinger, H.P. III.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop a coal slurry from waste streams using Illinois coal that is ideally suited for a gasification feed. The principle items to be studied are (1) methods of concentrating pyrite and decreasing other ash forming minerals into a high grade gasification feed using froth flotation and gravity separation techniques; (2) chemical and particle size analyses of coal slurries; (3) determination of how that slurry can be densified and to what degree of densification is optimum from the pumpability and combustibility analyses; and (4) reactivity studies.

  17. First conference on ground control problems in the Illinois Coal Basin: proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chugh, Y. P.; Van Besien, A. [eds.

    1980-06-01

    The first conference on ground control problems in the Illinois Coal Basin was held at the Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, Illinois, August 22-24, 1979. Twenty-one papers from the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB; one had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

  18. Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification Task 2: SOx/Nox/Hg Removal for High Sulfur Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nick Degenstein; Minish Shah; Doughlas Louie

    2012-05-01

    The goal of this project is to develop a near-zero emissions flue gas purification technology for existing PC (pulverized coal) power plants that are retrofitted with oxy-combustion technology. The objective of Task 2 of this project was to evaluate an alternative method of SOx, NOx and Hg removal from flue gas produced by burning high sulfur coal in oxy-combustion power plants. The goal of the program was not only to investigate a new method of flue gas purification but also to produce useful acid byproduct streams as an alternative to using a traditional FGD and SCR for flue gas processing. During the project two main constraints were identified that limit the ability of the process to achieve project goals. 1) Due to boiler island corrosion issues >60% of the sulfur must be removed in the boiler island with the use of an FGD. 2) A suitable method could not be found to remove NOx from the concentrated sulfuric acid product, which limits sale-ability of the acid, as well as the NOx removal efficiency of the process. Given the complexity and safety issues inherent in the cycle it is concluded that the acid product would not be directly saleable and, in this case, other flue gas purification schemes are better suited for SOx/NOx/Hg control when burning high sulfur coal, e.g. this project's Task 3 process or a traditional FGD and SCR.

  19. Production of carbon molecular sieves from Illinois coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizzio, A.A.; Rostam-Abadi, M.

    1993-01-01

    Carbon molecular sieves (CMS) have become an increasingly important class of adsorbents for application in the separation of gas molecules that vary in size and shape. A study is in progress at the Illinois State Geological Survey to determine whether Illinois basin coals are suitable feedstocks for the production of CMS and to evaluate their potential application in gas separation processes of commercial importance. Chars were prepared from Illinois coal in a fixed-bed reactor under a wide range of heat treatment and activation conditions. The effects of various coal/char pretreatments, including coal demineralization, preoxidation, char activation, and carbon deposition, on the molecular sieve properties of the chars were also investigated. Chars with commercially significant BET surface areas of 1500 m2/g were produced by chemical activation using potassium hydroxide as the activant. These high-surface-area (HSA) chars had more than twice the adsorption capacity of commercial carbon and zeolite molecular sieves. The kinetics of adsorption of various gases, e.g., N2, O2, CO2, CH4, CO and H2, on these chars at 25??C was measured. The O2/N2 molecular sieve properties of one char prepared without chemical activation were similar to those of a commercial CMS. On the other hand, the O2/N2 selectivity of the HSA char was comparable to that of a commercial activated carbon, i.e., essentially unity. Carbon deposition, using methane as the cracking gas, increased the O2/N2 selectivity of the HSA char, but significantly decreased its adsorption capacity. Several chars showed good potential for efficient CO2/CH4 separation; both a relatively high CO2 adsorption capacity and CO2/CH4 selectivity were achieved. The micropore size distribution of selected chars was estimated by equilibrium adsorption of carbon dioxide, n-butane and iso-butane at O??C. The extent of adsorption of each gas corresponded to the effective surface area contained in pores with diameters greater than 3

  20. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, third and fourth quarters 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts from U.S., Japanese, and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur U.S. Coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to form nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and European gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur coal-fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to U.S. coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in U.S. coals that are not present in other fuels; (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}; performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries, and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties are being explored by operating a series of small- scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur U.S. coal. The demonstration is being performed at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Crist Unit No. 5 (75 MW capacity) near Pensacola, Florida. The project is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Southern Company Services, Inc. (SCS on behalf of the entire Southern electric system), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and Ontario Hydro. SCS is the participant responsible for managing al aspects of this project. 1 ref., 69 figs., 45 tabs.

  1. Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction Technology to Control Nitrogen Oxide Emissions From High-Sulfur, Coal-Fired Boilers: A DOE Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federal Energy Technology Center

    1999-01-01

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology (CCT) program is to furnish the energy marketplace with a number of advanced, more efficient, and environmentally responsible coal utilization technologies through demonstration projects. These projects seek to establish the commercial feasibility of the most promising advanced coal technologies that have developed beyond the proof-of-concept stage. This document serves as a DOE post-project assessment of a project selected in CCT Round 2. The project is described in the report ''Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) Technology for the Control of Nitrogen Oxide (NO(sub x)) Emissions from High-Sulfur, Coal-Fired Boilers'' (Southern Company Services 1990). In June 1990, Southern Company Services (Southern) entered into a cooperative agreement to conduct the study. Southern was a cofunder and served as the host at Gulf Power Company's Plant Crist. Other participants and cofunders were EPRI (formerly the Electric Power Research Institute) and Ontario Hydro. DOE provided 40 percent of the total project cost of$23 million. The long-term operation phase of the demonstration was started in July 1993 and was completed in July 1995. This independent evaluation is based primarily on information from Southern's Final Report (Southern Company Services 1996). The SCR process consists of injecting ammonia (NH(sub 3)) into boiler flue gas and passing the 3 flue gas through a catalyst bed where the NO(sub x) and NH(sub 3) react to form nitrogen and water vapor. The objectives of the demonstration project were to investigate: Performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries, and manufacturing methods at typical U.S. high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions; Catalyst resistance to poisoning by trace metal species present in U.S. coals but not present, or present at much lower concentrations, in fuels from other countries; and Effects on the balance-of-plant equipment

  2. Innovative clean coal technology (ICCT): demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emission from high-sulfur, coal-fired boilers - economic evaluation of commercial-scale SCR applications for utility boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Healy, E.C.; Maxwell, J.D.; Hinton, W.S.

    1996-09-01

    This report presents the results of an economic evaluation produced as part of the Innovative Clean Coal Technology project, which demonstrated selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for reduction of NO x emissions from utility boilers burning U.S. high-sulfur coal. The document includes a commercial-scale capital and O ampersand M cost evaluation of SCR technology applied to a new facility, coal-fired boiler utilizing high-sulfur U.S. coal. The base case presented herein determines the total capital requirement, fixed and variable operating costs, and levelized costs for a new 250-MW pulverized coal utility boiler operating with a 60-percent NO x removal. Sensitivity evaluations are included to demonstrate the variation in cost due to changes in process variables and assumptions. This report also presents the results of a study completed by SCS to determine the cost and technical feasibility of retrofitting SCR technology to selected coal-fired generating units within the Southern electric system

  3. Special emission measurements on Riley Stoker's advanced CFB pilot facility co-firing non-recyclable de-inking paper fiber and high sulfur eastern bituminous coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixit, V.B.; Mongeon, R.K.; Reicker, E.L.

    1993-01-01

    Riley Stoker has developed advanced industrial CFB designs that utilize eastern bituminous coals as fuel, and have the potential to use coal in combination with other fuels. Various fiber waste streams in paper recycling processes have sufficient carbonaceous content to be considered as possible sources of such fuels that could fire FBC combustors. The American Paper Institute estimates that by the mid-1990's more than 40% of the waste paper will be recycled, reaching much higher numbers by the year 2000. To evaluate the effectiveness of co-firing such fuels, a test program was conducted on Riley's pilot-scale circulating fluidized bed test facility. A de-inked newsprint derived fiber waste was successfully co-fired with high sulfur coal. The waste fiber material containing approximately 50% moisture had a heating value of 3500 Btu/lb. The coal was strip-mined and contained a lot of clay and excessive quantities of fines making it difficult to burn in conventional boilers. Tests were also conducted with a combination fuel consisting of coal, fiber waste and a high carbon fly ash. In addition to obtaining performance data on combustion efficiency, sulfur capture, and NO x emissions, special emission measurements were also made to quantify the organics, trace metals and hydrochloric acid levels in the flue gas. The co-firing tests achieved a maximum combustion efficiency of 98% and sulfur capture of 90%. The effect of Ca/S mole ratio and temperature is discussed. Although there are no formal regulations in place for FBC systems regarding special emissions, the levels measured were far below the allowable limits for waste incinerators. Materials handling experience on the pilot facility relating to co-firing is also discussed. This is done to identify special considerations for designing commercial facilities. A brief overview of the de-inking waste fiber combustion market is also presented

  4. Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, first and second quarters 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from U.S., Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur U.S. coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involve injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in a boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to form nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe on gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur coal-fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to U.S. coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in U.S. coals that are not present in other fuels; (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}; and (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties are being explored by operating a series of small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur U.S. coal. The project is being conducted in the following three phases: permitting, environmental monitoring plan and preliminary engineering; detailed design engineering and construction; and operation, testing, disposition and final report. The project was in the operation and testing phase during this reporting period. Accomplishments for this period are described.

  5. Corrosivities in a pilot-scale combustor of a British and two Illinois coals with varying chlorine contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, I.-Ming; Lytle, J.M.; Kung, S.C.; Ho, K.K.

    2000-01-01

    Many US boiler manufacturers have recommended limits on the chlorine (Cl) content (< 0.25% or < 0.3%) of coals to be used in their boilers. These limits were based primarily on extrapolation of British coal data to predict the probable corrosion behavior of US coals. Even though Cl-related boiler corrosion has not been reported by US utilities burning high-Cl Illinois coals, the manufacturer's limits affect the marketability of high-Cl Illinois coals. This study measured the relative rates of corrosion caused by two high-Cl coals (British and Illinois) and one low-Cl Illinois baseline coal under identical pilot-scale combustion conditions for about 1000 h which gave reliable comparisons. Temperatures used reflected conditions in boiler superheaters. The corrosion probes were fabricated from commercial alloy 304SS frequently used at the hottest superheater section of utility boilers. The results showed no evidence of direct correlation between the coal chlorine content and rate of corrosion. A correlation between the rate of corrosion and the metal temperature was obvious. The results suggested that the different field histories of corrosivity from burning high-Cl Illinois coal and high-Cl British coal occurred because of different metal temperatures operated in US and UK utility boilers. The results of this study can be combined into a database, which could be used for lifting the limits on chlorine contents of coals burned in utility boilers in the US.

  6. Gasifier feed: Tailor-made from Illinois coals. Technical report, September 1, 1991--November 30, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrlinger, H.P. III

    1991-12-31

    The purpose of this research is to develop a coal slurry from waste streams using Illinois coal that is ideally suited for a gasification feed. The principle items to be studied are (1) methods of concentrating pyrite and decreasing other ash forming minerals into a high grade gasification feed using froth flotation and gravity separation techniques; (2) chemical and particle size analyses of coal slurries; (3) determination of how that slurry can be densified and to what degree of densification is optimum from the pumpability and combustibility analyses; and (4) reactivity studies.

  7. Production of activated char from Illinois coal for flue gas cleanup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizzio, A.A.; DeBarr, J.A.; Kruse, C.W.

    1997-01-01

    Activated chars were produced from Illinois coal and tested in several flue gas cleanup applications. High-activity chars that showed excellent potential for both SO2 and NOx removal were prepared from an Illinois No. 2 bituminous coal. The SO2 (120 ??C) and NOx (25 ??C) removal performance of one char compared favorably with that of a commercial activated carbon (Calgon Centaur). The NOx removal performance of the same char at 120 ??C exceeded that of the Centaur carbon by more than 1 order of magnitude. Novel char preparation methods were developed including oxidation/thermal desorption and hydrogen treatments, which increased and preserved, respectively, the active sites for SO2 and NOx adsorption. The results of combined SO2/NOx removal tests, however, suggest that SO2 and NOx compete for similar adsorption sites and SO2 seems to be more strongly adsorbed than NO. A low-activity, low-cost char was also developed for cleanup of incinerator flue gas. A three-step method involving coal preoxidation, pyrolysis, and CO2 activation was used to produce the char from Illinois coal. Five hundred pounds of the char was tested on a slipstream of flue gas from a commercial incinerator in Germany. The char was effective in removing >97% of the dioxins and furans present in the flue gas; mercury levels were below detectable limits.

  8. Adsorbed natural gas storage with activated carbons made from Illinois coals and scrap tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jielun; Brady, T.A.; Rood, M.J.; Lehmann, C.M.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Lizzio, A.A.

    1997-01-01

    Activated carbons for natural gas storage were produced from Illinois bituminous coals (IBC-102 and IBC-106) and scrap tires by physical activation with steam or CO2 and by chemical activation with KOH, H3PO4, or ZnCl2. The products were characterized for N2-BET area, micropore volume, bulk density, pore size distribution, and volumetric methane storage capacity (Vm/Vs). Vm/Vs values for Illinois coal-derived carbons ranged from 54 to 83 cm3/cm3, which are 35-55% of a target value of 150 cm3/cm3. Both granular and pelletized carbons made with preoxidized Illinois coal gave higher micropore volumes and larger Vm/Vs values than those made without preoxidation. This confirmed that preoxidation is a desirable step in the production of carbons from caking materials. Pelletization of preoxidized IBC-106 coal, followed by steam activation, resulted in the highest Vm/Vs value. With roughly the same micropore volume, pelletization alone increased Vm/Vs of coal carbon by 10%. Tire-derived carbons had Vm/Vs values ranging from 44 to 53 cm3/cm3, lower than those of coal carbons due to their lower bulk densities. Pelletization of the tire carbons increased bulk density up to 160%. However, this increase was offset by a decrease in micropore volume of the pelletized materials, presumably due to the pellet binder. As a result, Vm/Vs values were about the same for granular and pelletized tire carbons. Compared with coal carbons, tire carbons had a higher percentage of mesopores and macropores.

  9. Measurement of alkali-vapor emission from pressurized fluidized-bed combustion of Illinois coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.H.D.; Teats, F.G.; Swift, W.M. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Banerjee, D.D. (Illinois Clean Coal Inst., Carterville, IL (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Two Illinois Herrin No. 6 coals and one Illinois Springfield No. 5 coal were separately combusted in a laboratory-scale (15-cm dia) pressurized fluidized-bed combustor (PFBC) combined with an alkali sorber. These coals were combusted in a fluidized bed of Tymochtee dolomite at temperatures ranging from 910 to 950[degree]C and a system pressure of 9.2 atm absolute. Alkali-vapor emission (Na and K) in the PFBC flue gas was determined by the analytical activated-bauxite sorber bed technique developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The test results showed that sodium is the major alkali-vapor species present in the PFBC flue gas, and that the level of sodium-vapor emission increases linearly with both Na and Cl contents in the coals. This suggests that the sodium-vapor emission results from direct vaporization of NaCl present in the coals. The measured alkali-vapor concentration (Na + K), 67 to 190 ppbW, is more than 2.5 times greater than the allowable alkali limit of 24 ppb for an industrial gas turbine. Combusting these coals in a PFBC for power generation may require developing a method to control alkali vapors.

  10. Measurement of alkali-vapor emission from pressurized fluidized-bed combustion of Illinois coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.H.D.; Teats, F.G.; Swift, W.M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Banerjee, D.D. [Illinois Clean Coal Inst., Carterville, IL (United States)

    1993-04-01

    Two Illinois Herrin No. 6 coals and one Illinois Springfield No. 5 coal were separately combusted in a laboratory-scale (15-cm dia) pressurized fluidized-bed combustor (PFBC) combined with an alkali sorber. These coals were combusted in a fluidized bed of Tymochtee dolomite at temperatures ranging from 910 to 950{degree}C and a system pressure of 9.2 atm absolute. Alkali-vapor emission (Na and K) in the PFBC flue gas was determined by the analytical activated-bauxite sorber bed technique developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The test results showed that sodium is the major alkali-vapor species present in the PFBC flue gas, and that the level of sodium-vapor emission increases linearly with both Na and Cl contents in the coals. This suggests that the sodium-vapor emission results from direct vaporization of NaCl present in the coals. The measured alkali-vapor concentration (Na + K), 67 to 190 ppbW, is more than 2.5 times greater than the allowable alkali limit of 24 ppb for an industrial gas turbine. Combusting these coals in a PFBC for power generation may require developing a method to control alkali vapors.

  11. Anatomy of an intruded coal, I: Effect of contact metamorphism on whole-coal geochemistry, Springfield (No. 5) (Pennsylvanian) coal, Illinois Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rimmer, Susan M. [Department of Geology, Southern Illinois University Carbondale, Carbondale, IL 62901 (United States); Yoksoulian, Lois E. [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Hower, James C. [Center for Applied Energy Research, University of Kentucky, 2540 Research Park Drive, Lexington, KY 40511 (United States)

    2009-08-01

    If time and heating rate are important agents in coal maturation, one might expect to see differences in chemical changes in response to maturation depending on the means of increased rank. Using a suite of samples obtained from an intruded Pennsylvanian-age coal in southern Illinois, we present whole-coal chemical data. Comparing these data to extant geochemical data for coals that have undergone normal burial maturation, we evaluated the hypothesis that if coal alteration occurs rapidly (due to intrusion) rather than gradually (burial maturation), then different relationships are seen in chemical composition (proximate and ultimate analyses) and vitrinite reflectance. The Pennsylvanian-age (Asturian [Westphalian D]) Springfield (No. 5) coal is mined at the Big Ridge Mine, near Eldorado, southern Illinois. This high volatile B bituminous coal was intruded by an ultramafic igneous intrusion during the early Permian. Alteration occurs out to {proportional_to} 1.2 x dike thickness and includes an increase in random vitrinite reflectance (R{sub m}) from levels {proportional_to} 0.7% to over 5.3%, loss of liptinites, and formation of devolatilization vacuoles and fine mosaic texture. Decreases in volatile matter (VM) and increases in fixed carbon (FC) appear to be less than would be expected for the level of reflectance seen within the alteration halo. Carbonate minerals have a major influence on proximate analyses but even following the removal of carbonates, the decrease in VM is still less than would be seen in coals of similar vitrinite reflectance that were altered by normal burial maturation. Carbonate mineralization also contributes to variability in ultimate analysis values approaching the intrusion, particularly for %C and %O. After carbonate removal, data for these coals do not appear to follow the normal burial coalification tracks when plotted on a van Krevelen diagram and on a Seyler chart. These differences suggest that a slightly different maturation

  12. Dependence of liquefaction behavior on coal characteristics. Part VI. Relationship of liquefaction behavior of a set of high sulfur coals to chemical structural characteristics. Final technical report, March 1981 to February 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neill, P. H.; Given, P. H.

    1984-09-01

    The initial aim of this research was to use empirical mathematical relationships to formulate a better understanding of the processes involved in the liquefaction of a set of medium rank high sulfur coals. In all, just over 50 structural parameters and yields of product classes were determined. In order to gain a more complete understanding of the empirical relationships between the various properties, a number of relatively complex statistical procedures and tests were applied to the data, mostly selected from the field of multivariate analysis. These can be broken down into two groups. The first group included grouping techniques such as non-linear mapping, hierarchical and tree clustering, and linear discriminant analyses. These techniques were utilized in determining if more than one statistical population was present in the data set; it was concluded that there was not. The second group of techniques included factor analysis and stepwise multivariate linear regressions. Linear discriminant analyses were able to show that five distinct groups of coals were represented in the data set. However only seven of the properties seemed to follow this trend. The chemical property that appeared to follow the trend most closely was the aromaticity, where a series of five parallel straight lines was observed for a plot of f/sub a/ versus carbon content. The factor patterns for each of the product classes indicated that although each of the individual product classes tended to load on factors defined by specific chemical properties, the yields of the broader product classes, such as total conversion to liquids + gases and conversion to asphaltenes, tended to load largely on factors defined by rank. The variance explained and the communalities tended to be relatively low. Evidently important sources of variance have still to be found.

  13. Explosive treatment of Illinois No.6 coal with a mixed solvent of water and cyclohexanol; Mizu-cyclohexanol kongo yozai ni yoru Illinois tan no bakusai shori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, T.; Takada, H.; Asami, K.; Yano, M. [Osaka City University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-28

    Coal was treated at high temperature under high pressure in the binary system mixed solvent of water and organic solvent, and the solvent treated coal was liquefied. When the treated coal was treated again by the explosive method in which high temperature and pressure were released immediately, the oil yield was higher than that by the normal method in which high temperature and pressure were reduced gradually to room temperature and atmospheric pressure. In this study, an explosive treatment unit with increased scale of sample amount was newly fabricated. Illinois No.6 coal was treated by the explosive method in a mixed solvent of water and cyclohexanol using this unit. Changes in shape on the surface, specific surface area, and functional groups were analyzed. The explosively treated coal contained more amount of low boiling point components than the normally treated coal. It was suggested that the oil yield of explosively treated coal increased due to the liquefaction of these components during the successive hydrogenation process. For the explosively treated coal, micro pores were fractured by the rapid change in the volume of solvent molecules, and the specific surface area was smaller than that of the normally treated coal. When the treatment temperature was increased from 300{degree}C to 350{degree}C, specific surface areas of both the treated coals increased. 2 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Linked-cone DEA profit ratios and technical efficiency with application to Illinois coal mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, R.G.; Dharmapala, P.S.; Thrall, R.M.

    1995-01-01

    The authors develop a theory stating that Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) profit ratios and technical efficiency measures require separate treatment. This point is illustrated by analysis of an example problem; showing that DEA technical efficiency does not necessarily imply a DEA maximum profit ratio; and that a DEA maximum profit ratio does not necessarily imply DEA technical efficiency. The mathematical framework underlying this argument is provided. Application of the concepts to Illinois coal mining data lends support to the need for separate treatment of DEA technical efficiency and DEA profit ratios. 31 refs., 4 figs., 9 tabs

  15. Linked-cone DEA profit ratios and technical efficiency with application to Illinois coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, R.G.; Dharmapala, P.S.; Thrall, R.M. [University of Houston, Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Decision and Information Sciences

    1995-04-01

    The authors develop a theory stating that Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) profit ratios and technical efficiency measures require separate treatment. This point is illustrated by analysis of an example problem; showing that DEA technical efficiency does not necessarily imply a DEA maximum profit ratio; and that a DEA maximum profit ratio does not necessarily imply DEA technical efficiency. The mathematical framework underlying this argument is provided. Application of the concepts to Illinois coal mining data lends support to the need for separate treatment of DEA technical efficiency and DEA profit ratios. 31 refs., 4 figs., 9 tabs.

  16. Longwall face recovery operations at Mine 26 of the Old Ben Coal Company, Benton, Illinois, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monks, W R; Hodgkinson, D; Ferris, W

    1985-02-01

    The paper describes a longwall face recovery (salvage) operation witnessed by National Coal Board Western Areas personnel at No. 26 Mine of the Old Ben Coal Company in Venton, Illinois. A brief review is made of the company and No. 26 Mine, and followed by a description of the longwall face salvage operations detailing the face equipment, preparation work, salvage equipment used, the method of operation and the results obtained. Particular reference is made to the successful use of Free Steered Vehicles (FSVs) for salvaging equipment and the use of roof bolts for the primary support of the face line. Finally, a number of conclusions are made which lead to firm recommendations for UK adoption.

  17. EDS Coal Liquefaction Process Development. Phase V. Laboratory evaluation of the characteristics of EDS Illinois bottoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lao, T C; Levasseur, A A

    1984-02-01

    This interim report documents work carried out by Combustion Engineering, Inc. under a contract to Exxon Research and Engineering Company to develop a conceptual Hybrid Boiler design fueled by the vacuum distillation residue (vacuum bottoms) derived from Illinois No. 6 coal in the EDS Coal Liquefaction Process. This report was prepared by Combustion Engineering, Inc., and is the first of two reports on the predevelopment phase of the Hybrid Boiler program. This report covers the results of a laboratory investigation to assess the fuel and ash properties of EDS vacuum bottoms. The results of the laboratory testing reported here were used in conjunction with Combustion Engineering's design experience to predict fuel performance and to develop appropriate boiler design parameters. These boiler design parameters were used to prepare the engineering design study reported in EDS Interim Report FE-2893-113, the second of the two reports on the predevelopment phase of the Hybrid Boiler Program. 46 figures, 29 tables.

  18. Petrography and microanalysis of Pennsylvanian coal-ball concretions (Herrin Coal, Illinois Basin, USA): Bearing on fossil plant preservation and coal-ball origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siewers, Fredrick D.; Phillips, Tom L.

    2015-11-01

    Petrographic analyses of 25 coal balls from well-studied paleobotanical profiles in the Middle Pennsylvanian Herrin Coal (Westphalian D, Illinois Basin) and five select coal balls from university collections, indicate that Herrin Coal-ball peats were permineralized by fibrous and non-fibrous carbonates. Fibrous carbonates occur in fan-like to spherulitic arrays in many intracellular (within tissue) pores, and are best developed in relatively open extracellular (between plant) pore spaces. Acid etched fibrous carbonates appear white under reflected light and possess a microcrystalline texture attributable to abundant microdolomite. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and electron microprobe analysis demonstrate that individual fibers have a distinct trigonal prism morphology and are notable for their magnesium content (≈ 9-15 mol% MgCO3). Non-fibrous carbonates fill intercrystalline spaces among fibers and pores within the peat as primary precipitates and neomorphic replacements. In the immediate vicinity of plant cell walls, non-fibrous carbonates cut across fibrous carbonates as a secondary, neomorphic phase attributed to coalification of plant cell walls. Dolomite occurs as diagenetic microdolomite associated with the fibrous carbonate phase, as sparite replacements, and as void-filling cement. Maximum dolomite (50-59 wt.%) is in the top-of-seam coal-ball zone at the Sahara Mine, which is overlain by the marine Anna Shale. Coal-ball formation in the Herrin Coal began with the precipitation of fibrous high magnesium calcite. The trigonal prism morphology of the carbonate fibers suggests rapid precipitation from super-saturated, meteoric pore waters. Carbonate precipitation from marine waters is discounted on the basis of stratigraphic, paleobotanical, and stable isotopic evidence. Most non-fibrous carbonate is attributable to later diagenetic events, including void-fill replacements, recrystallization, and post-depositional fracture fills. Evidence

  19. Endoparasite Community Differences in Sunfish (Lepomis spp.) Above and Below Coal Mine Effluent in Southern Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claxton, Andrew; Laursen, Jeff

    2015-06-01

    Parasite assemblages acquired through trophic interactions in fish hosts are increasingly cited as a means to determine pollution effects on water quality and food web structure. We examined gastrointestinal parasite community changes above and below coal mine input from 597 individuals representing 3 species of sunfish: green sunfish ( Lepomis cyanellus ), bluegill ( L. macrochirus ), and longear sunfish ( L. megalotis ). Hosts were collected from 6 sites in or near the south fork of the Saline River Basin in southern Illinois in the spring and fall of 2006. Three sites received no known effluent from coal mines. An additional 3 sites received effluent termed acid mine drainage (AMD). We recovered 1,064 parasites from 12 genera. The parasite community in sunfish collected downstream nearest to the source of AMD was significantly different from 3 upstream sites. In addition, 2 sites farther downstream receiving AMD were different from 2 of 3 reference sites. However, there was also considerable variability in parasite assemblages between sites grouped as above or below coal mine effluent. Several parasite species responded to changes in water quality. Spinitectus sp. (Nematoda), which uses sensitive mayfly hosts to complete its life cycle, was less abundant at sites downstream of coal mine effluent in both green sunfish and bluegill. In contrast, 2 acanthocephalans ( Neoechinorhynchus sp. and Eocollis arcanus) and a nematode ( Spiroxys sp.) were found in green sunfish more frequently in areas downstream of AMD. This study further suggests metazoan parasites may be useful as indicators of water quality; however, variability among similar sites may limit their application. In addition, strong assemblage differences were found among the 3 sunfish species, suggesting variable habitat usage and potential resource partitioning among congeneric fish hosts in streams.

  20. The geo-environmental design of a coal refuse impoundment in Illinois

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ripp, B.J.

    1997-01-01

    The coal refuse impoundment discussed was one of the first permitted under new regulatory standards within the State of Illinois. The new standards go beyond the geotechnial stability of the structure and must address the groundwater quality of the area and the impact of the impoundment on the groundwater system. The geotechnial design of the coal refuse impoundment dam and associated structures had its own particular challenges such as: 1) the construction of the structure over mined workings; 2) the close proximity of seismically active fault zones; and 3) the embankment configuration being controlled by the material balance of the mine refuse. The implementation of the groundwater protection plan included: 1) incorporating the groundwater quality standards and sampling protocols of several state agencies while the standards were being drafted; 2) sampling of the potential sources of groundwater impact; 3) establishing background levels; and 4) establishing the groundwater class. An initial groundwater transport model was developed and used as the basis for recommending a groundwater monitoring design in place of constructing a soil or synthetic liner. 15 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  1. Coal mine subsidence: effects of mitigation on crop yields. [USA - Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darmody, R.G.; Hetzler, R.T.; Simmons, F.W. (Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (USA). Dept. of Agronomy)

    1992-01-01

    Subsidence from longwall underground coal mining adversely impacts agricultural land by creating wet or ponded areas. While most subsided areas show little impact, some localized places, usually less than 1.5 ha in size, may experience total crop failure. Coal companies mitigate subsidence damaged cropland by installing drainage waterways or by adding fill material to raise the grade. The objective of this study was to test the effectiveness of mitigation in restoring corn and soybean yields to pre-mined levels. Fourteen sites in southern Illinois were selected for study. Corn ([ital Zea mays] L.) and soybean ([ital Glycine max] L.) yields from mitigated and nearby undisturbed areas were compared for four years. Results varied due to differing weather and site conditions. Mean corn yields overall, however were significantly ([alpha]0.05) lower on mitigated areas. There was no significant difference in overall mean soybean yields. Soil fertility levels were similar and did not account for yield differences. 14 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  2. Sequestration and Enhanced Coal Bed Methane: Tanquary Farms Test Site, Wabash County, Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frailey, Scott; Parris, Thomas; Damico, James; Okwen, Roland; McKaskle, Ray; Monson, Charles; Goodwin, Jonathan; Beck, E; Berger, Peter; Butsch, Robert; Garner, Damon; Grube, John; Hackley, Keith; Hinton, Jessica; Iranmanesh, Abbas; Korose, Christopher; Mehnert, Edward; Monson, Charles; Roy, William; Sargent, Steven; Wimmer, Bracken

    2012-05-01

    The Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium (MGSC) carried out a pilot project to test storage of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in the Springfield Coal Member of the Carbondale Formation (Pennsylvanian System), in order to gauge the potential for large-scale CO{sub 2} sequestration and/or enhanced coal bed methane recovery from Illinois Basin coal beds. The pilot was conducted at the Tanquary Farms site in Wabash County, southeastern Illinois. A four-well design an injection well and three monitoring wells was developed and implemented, based on numerical modeling and permeability estimates from literature and field data. Coal cores were taken during the drilling process and were characterized in detail in the lab. Adsorption isotherms indicated that at least three molecules of CO{sub 2} can be stored for each displaced methane (CH{sub 4}) molecule. Microporosity contributes significantly to total porosity. Coal characteristics that affect sequestration potential vary laterally between wells at the site and vertically within a given seam, highlighting the importance of thorough characterization of injection site coals to best predict CO{sub 2} storage capacity. Injection of CO{sub 2} gas took place from June 25, 2008, to January 13, 2009. A continuous injection period ran from July 21, 2008, to December 23, 2008, but injection was suspended several times during this period due to equipment failures and other interruptions. Injection equipment and procedures were adjusted in response to these problems. Approximately 92.3 tonnes (101.7 tons) of CO{sub 2} were injected over the duration of the project, at an average rate of 0.93 tonne (1.02 tons) per day, and a mode injection rate of 0.6-0.7 tonne/day (0.66-0.77 ton/day). A Monitoring, Verification, and Accounting (MVA) program was set up to detect CO{sub 2 leakage. Atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels were monitored as were indirect indicators of CO{sub 2} leakage such as plant stress, changes in gas composition at

  3. Production of carbon molecular sieves from Illinois coal. Final technical report, 1 September, 1992--31 August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lizzio, A.A.; Rostam-Abadi, M. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Carbon molecular sieves (CMS) have become an increasingly important class of adsorbents for use in gas separation and recovery processes. The overall objective of this project is to determine whether Illinois Basin coals are a suitable feedstock for the production of CMS and to evaluate the potential application of these products in commercial gas separation processes. In Phase 1 of this project, gram quantities of char were prepared from Illinois coal in a fixed-bed reactor under a wide range of pyrolysis and activation conditions. Chars having surface areas of 1,500--2,100 m{sup 2}/g were produced by chemical activation using potassium hydroxide (KOH) as the chemical activant. These high surface area (HSA) chars had more than twice the adsorption capacity of commercial molecular sieves. The kinetics of adsorption of various gases, e.g., O{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and H{sub 2}, on these chars at 25 C was determined. Several chars showed good potential for efficient O{sub 2}/N{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} and CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2} separation. In Phase 2 of this project, larger quantities of char are being prepared from Illinois coal in a batch fluidized-bed reactor and in a continuous rotary tube kiln. The ability of these chars to separate binary gas mixtures is tested in an adsorption column/gas chromatography system. Oxygen and nitrogen breakthrough curves obtained for selected chars were compared to those of a commercial zeolite. Selected chars were subjected to a nitric acid oxidation treatment. The air separation capability of nitric acid treated char was strongly dependent on the outgassing conditions used prior to an O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} adsorption experiment. An outgassing temperature of 130--160 C produced chars with the most favorable air separation properties. 61 refs.

  4. Catalytic hydrotreatment of Illinois No. 6 coal-derived naphtha: comparison of molybdenum nitride and molybdenum sulfide for heteroatom removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raje, A.; Liaw, S.J.; Chary, K.V.R.; Davis, B.H. [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research

    1995-03-16

    The hydrotreatment of naphtha derived from Illinois No. 6 coal was investigated using molybdenum sulfide and nitride catalysts. The two catalysts are compared on the basis of total catalyst weight. Molybdenum sulfide is more active than molybdenum nitride for hydrodesulfurization (HDS) of a coal-derived naphtha. The rate of hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of the naphtha over both catalysts are comparable. For hydrodenitrogenation (HDN), the sulfide is more active than the nitride only at higher temperatures ({gt}325{degree}C). Based upon conversion data, the naphtha can be lumped into a reactive and a less reactive fraction with each following first-order kinetics for heteroatom removal. The HDS and HDN rates and activation energies of the less reactive lump are smaller for the nitride than for the sulfide catalyst.

  5. Environmental feasibility study for gasoline from coal in New Athens, Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-09-01

    Appendix 2 consists mostly of base line ecology of the proposed site in St. Clair County, southwestern Illinois including air quality, geology, stratigraphy, soils, climates, etc. Socio-economic factors are also considered. The environmental impact is considered. (LTN)

  6. SUBTASK 3.12 – GASIFICATION, WARM-GAS CLEANUP, AND LIQUID FUELS PRODUCTION WITH ILLINOIS COAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanislowski, Joshua; Curran, Tyler; Henderson, Ann

    2014-06-30

    The goal of this project was to evaluate the performance of Illinois No. 6 coal blended with biomass in a small-scale entrained-flow gasifier and demonstrate the production of liquid fuels under three scenarios. The first scenario used traditional techniques for cleaning the syngas prior to Fischer–Tropsch (FT) synthesis, including gas sweetening with a physical solvent. In the second scenario, the CO2 was not removed from the gas stream prior to FT synthesis. In the third scenario, only warm-gas cleanup techniques were used, such that the feed gas to the FT unit contained both moisture and CO2. The results of the testing showed that the liquid fuels production from the FT catalyst was significantly hindered by the presence of moisture and CO2 in the syngas. Further testing would be needed to determine if this thermally efficient process is feasible with other FT catalysts. This subtask was funded through the EERC–U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Joint Program on Research and Development for Fossil Energy-Related Resources Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-08NT43291. Nonfederal funding was provided by the Illinois Clean Coal Institute.

  7. Demand outlook for sulfur and high-sulfur petroleum coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koshkarov, V.Ya.; Danil' yan, P.G.; Feotov, V.E.; Gimaev, R.N.; Koshkarova, M.E.; Sadykova, S.R.; Vodovichenko, N.S.

    1980-01-01

    The feasibility of using sulfur and high-sulfur petroleum coke fines in pyrometallurgical processes and also in the chemical and coal-tar chemical industry is examined. Results of industrial tests on briquetting fines of petroleum coke with a petroleum binder are presented. The feasibility of using the obtained briquets in shaft furnace smelting of oxidized nickel ores, production of anode stock, and also in the chemical industry are demonstrated.

  8. Removal of chlorine from Illinois coal by high-temperature leaching: Final report, March 1--December 31, 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Han Lin

    1988-03-01

    The objectives of this research are to: (1) conduct experimental investigations of the removal of chlorine from coal by high- temperature leaching; (2) identify important factors affecting the chlorine removal process; (3) understand the mechanisms involved; and (4) develop a mathematical model to describe the process. A generalized mathematical model based on diffusion and relaxation has been developed for water leaching of chlorine from coal. The model has been fitted to four different samples of Illinois No. 6 coal: C22175, C22651, C8601, and C8602. The weight percent of chlorine ranged from 0.42 to 0.82. The experimental data on these samples covered a temperature range of 297 to 370K and a particle size range of 60 to 325 mesh. Based on the type of coal and the conditions of leaching, it was found that 40 to 80% of the original chlorine could be leached from the coal matrix. The model based on diffusion-relaxation concept predicted the leaching data within +-5% average absolute deviation. The diffusion rate constants at different temperatures were correlated to Arrhenius type relations. Attempts made to correlate the constants in the Arrhenius equations with the chlorine content in coal and with particle size have been discussed. The water leaching data were used to extract Fickian diffusivities based on the time required for 50% desorption. The calculated diffusivity values ranged from 0.6 to 3 /times/ 10/sup /minus/11/ cm/sup 2//sec. The effect of chemical additives on the rate of leaching has also been studied. Both HNO/sub 3/ and NH/sub 4/OH were used as additives. 28 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  9. Dike intrusions into bituminous coal, Illinois Basin: H, C, N, O isotopic responses to rapid and brief heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmelmann, A.; Mastalerz, Maria; Gao, L.; Sauer, P.E.; Topalov, K.

    2009-01-01

    Unlike long-term heating in subsiding sedimentary basins, the near-instantaneous thermal maturation of sedimentary organic matter near magmatic intrusions is comparable to artificial thermal maturation in the laboratory in terms of short duration and limited extent. This study investigates chemical and H, C, N, O isotopic changes in high volatile bituminous coal near two Illinois dike contacts and compares observed patterns and trends with data from other published studies and from artificial maturation experiments. Our study pioneers in quantifying isotopically exchangeable hydrogen and measuring the D/H (i.e., 2H/1H) ratio of isotopically non-exchangeable organic hydrogen in kerogen near magmatic contacts. Thermal stress in coal caused a reduction of isotopically exchangeable hydrogen in kerogen from 5% to 6% in unaltered coal to 2-3% at contacts, mostly due to elimination of functional groups (e.g., {single bond}OH, {single bond}COOH, {single bond}NH2). In contrast to all previously published data on D/H in thermally matured organic matter, the more mature kerogen near the two dike contacts is D-depleted, which is attributed to (i) thermal elimination of D-enriched functional groups, and (ii) thermal drying of hydrologically isolated coal prior to the onset of cracking reactions, thereby precluding D-transfer from relatively D-enriched water into kerogen. Maxima in organic nitrogen concentration and in the atomic N/C ratio of kerogen at a distance of ???2.5 to ???3.5 m from the thicker dike indicate that reactive N-compounds had been pyrolytically liberated at high temperature closer to the contact, migrated through the coal seam, and recombined with coal kerogen in a zone of lower temperature. The same principle extends to organic carbon, because a strong ??13Ckerogen vs. ??15Nkerogen correlation across 5.5 m of coal adjacent to the thicker dike indicates that coal was functioning as a flow-through reactor along a dynamic thermal gradient facilitating back

  10. Extractable trace elements and sodium in Illinois coal-cleaning wastes: correlation with concentrations in tall fescue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, B.G.

    1983-07-01

    Trace element concentrations in shoots of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) were correlated with extractable element concentrations in five southern Illinois coal-cleaning wastes limed to pH 6.5, in a greenhouse study to determine applicability of soil tests to coal-waste evaluation. There was little or no correlation between shoot concentrations of Fe, and Fe extracted from the wastes by dilute acid (r equals 0.60), DTPA at pH 6.4 (r equals 0.47) or DTPA at pH 8.4 (r equals -0.17). The corresponding r values for Mn were 0.94, 0.97, and 0.96; for Zn, 0.96, 0.96, and 0.88; and for Cu, 0.67, 0.90, and 0.88, respectively. Shoot B correlated well with hot water-soluble B(r equals 0.96) and acid-soluble B(r equals 0.91). Correlations for shoot Na were also good with water-soluble Na and acid-soluble Na (r equals 0.96 in both cases). Concentrations of Al, As, Cd, Ni, Pb, and Se in the shoots were well below reported upper critical levels, and similar to concentrations in the grass grown on a silt loam under the same greenhouse conditions. 21 references.

  11. Subtask 4.27 - Evaluation of the Multielement Sorbent Trap (MEST) Method at an Illinois Coal-Fired Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlish, John; Thompson, Jeffrey; Dunham, Grant

    2014-09-30

    Owners of fossil fuel-fired power plants face the challenge of measuring stack emissions of trace metals and acid gases at much lower levels than in the past as a result of increasingly stringent regulations. In the United States, the current reference methods for trace metals and halogens are wet-chemistry methods, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Methods 29 and 26 or 26A, respectively. As a possible alternative to the EPA methods, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has developed a novel multielement sorbent trap (MEST) method to be used to sample for trace elements and/or halogens. Sorbent traps offer a potentially advantageous alternative to the existing sampling methods, as they are simpler to use and do not require expensive, breakable glassware or handling and shipping of hazardous reagents. Field tests comparing two sorbent trap applications (MEST-H for hydrochloric acid and MEST-M for trace metals) with the reference methods were conducted at two power plant units fueled by Illinois Basin bituminous coal. For hydrochloric acid, MEST measured concentrations comparable to EPA Method 26A at two power plant units, one with and one without a wet flue gas desulfurization scrubber. MEST-H provided lower detection limits for hydrochloric acid than the reference method. Results from a dry stack unit had better comparability between methods than results from a wet stack unit. This result was attributed to the very low emissions in the latter unit, as well as the difficulty of sampling in a saturated flue gas. Based on these results, the MEST-H sorbent traps appear to be a good candidate to serve as an alternative to Method 26A (or 26). For metals, the MEST trap gave lower detection limits compared to EPA Method 29 and produced comparable data for antimony, arsenic, beryllium, cobalt, manganese, selenium, and mercury for most test runs. However, the sorbent material produced elevated blanks for cadmium, nickel, lead, and chromium at levels

  12. Prevention of formation of acid drainage from high-sulfur coal refuse by inhibition of iron- and sulfur-oxidizing microorganisms. II. Inhibition in run of mine refuse under simulated field conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dugan, P.R.

    1987-01-01

    The combination of sodium lauryl sulfate and benzoic acid effectively inhibits iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria in coal refuse and prevents the conversion of iron pyrite to sulfate, ferric iron, and sulfuric acid, thereby significantly reducing the formation of acidic drainage from coal refuse. The inhibitors were effective in a concentration of 1.1. mg/kg refuse, and data indicate that the SLS was in excess of the concentration required. The treatment was compatible with the use of lime for neutralization of acid present prior to inhibition of its formation.

  13. Microbial ecology studies at two coal mine refuse sites in Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R. M.; Cameron, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    An investigation was made of the microflora associated with coal refuse at two abandoned mines in the midwestern United States. Information was gathered for both the edaphic and the biotic composition of the refuse material. Emphasis was placed on heterotrophic and autotrophic components as to numbers, kinds, and physiological groups. The presence of chemolithotrophs was also investigated. The relationship between abiotic and biotic components in regard to distribution of bacteria, fungi, and algae is discussed. Information presented in this report will be utilized in assessing trends and changes in microbial numbers and composition related to manipulations of the edaphic and biotic ecosystem components associated with reclamation of the refuse piles.

  14. Changes in optical properties, chemistry, and micropore and mesopore characteristics of bituminous coal at the contact with dikes in the Illinois Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastalerz, Maria; Drobniak, A.; Schimmelmann, A.

    2009-01-01

    Changes in high-volatile bituminous coal (Pennsylvanian) near contacts with two volcanic intrusions in Illinois were investigated with respect to optical properties, coal chemistry, and coal pore structure. Vitrinite reflectance (Ro) increases from 0.62% to 5.03% within a distance of 5.5??m from the larger dike, and from 0.63% to 3.71% within 3.3??m from the small dike. Elemental chemistry of the coal shows distinct reductions in hydrogen and nitrogen content close to the intrusions. No trend was observed for total sulfur content, but decreases in sulfate content towards the dikes indicate thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR). Contact-metamorphism has a dramatic effect on coal porosity, and microporosity in particular. Around the large dike, the micropore volume, after a slight initial increase, progressively decreases from 0.0417??cm3/g in coal situated 4.7??m from the intrusive contact to 0.0126??cm3/g at the contact. Strongly decreasing mesopore and micropore volumes in the altered zone, together with frequent cleat and fracture filling by calcite, indicate deteriorating conditions for both coalbed gas sorption and gas transmissibility. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teissie, J.; Bourgogne, D. de; Bautin, F.

    2001-12-01

    Coal world production represents 3.5 billions of tons, plus 900 millions of tons of lignite. 50% of coal is used for power generation, 16% by steel making industry, 5% by cement plants, and 29% for space heating and by other industries like carbo-chemistry. Coal reserves are enormous, about 1000 billions of tons (i.e. 250 years of consumption with the present day rate) but their exploitation will be in competition with less costly and less polluting energy sources. This documents treats of all aspects of coal: origin, composition, calorific value, classification, resources, reserves, production, international trade, sectoral consumption, cost, retail price, safety aspects of coal mining, environmental impacts (solid and gaseous effluents), different technologies of coal-fired power plants and their relative efficiency, alternative solutions for the recovery of coal energy (fuel cells, liquefaction). (J.S.)

  16. Technical and economic feasibility for the application of micronized coal as a replacement for No. 2 oil for start-up and low-load operation at Illinois Power Havana No. 6 Cycling Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberger, F.; Guilfoyle, C.J.; Parker, W.O. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Uncertainty regarding oil availability and long-term price stability make it difficult for a utility to predict annual ignition costs for a cycling unit. Illinois Power Company, Sargent and Lundy Engineering and Micro-fuel Corporation have produced a detailed feasibility study on the application of micronized coal as a replacement fuel for start-up and low-load operation for Havana No. 6. This unit is a B and W opposed-fired boiler which is rated at 410 MWe (summer net). This paper presents technical and economic analysis, including the uncertainties of the application of this technology

  17. Petroleum and natural gas in Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    Presentations made at the 7th Annual Illinois Energy Conference are compiled and reported. Specific topics include: Illinois petroleum and natural gas supply; energy use patterns for Illinois and the nation; impacts of the National Energy Act on the natural gas industry; natural gas for North America; natural gas supply under the Natural Gas Policy; US access to international oil; deregulation and its impact on the US petroleum supply; the US Energy Policy; petroleum pricing and taxation policies in Illinois; the high cost of energy and its impact on the poor; impact of increased fuel prices on Illinois' industrial future; energy prices and inflation; opportunities for energy conservation in transportaton; overview of energy and synfuels from biomass and wastes; an inventory of energy potential from biomass in Illinois; problems and potential of alcohol from agriculture; liquid and gaseous fuels from coal; and alternatives to liquid and gaseous fuels.

  18. Concerning coal: an anthology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, M.; Hawse, M.L.; Maloney, P.J. [eds.

    1997-12-31

    The anthology takes a humanistic look at coal mining in Illinois. One of its goals is to increase public awareness of coal in American society; it also seeks to enhance understanding of the historical aspects of coal and to study the impact of coal on mining families. Many of the 25 selections in the anthology come from Coal Research Center publications, `Concerning coal` and `Mineral matters`. Articles are arranged in three parts entitled: life in the mining community; mining in folklore, story telling, literature, art and music; and technology as it affected the people of the coal fields. 117 refs., 25 photos. 1 map.

  19. Dips, ramps, and rolls- Evidence for paleotopographic and syn-depositional fault control on the Western Kentucky No. 4 coal bed, tradewater formation (Bolsovian) Illinois Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greb, S.F.; Eble, C.F.; Williams, D.A.; Nelson, W.J.

    2001-01-01

    The Western Kentucky No. 4 coal is a high-volatile B to high-volatile C bituminous coal that has been heavily mined along the southern margin of the Western Kentucky Coal Field. The seam has a reputation for rolling floor elevation. Elongate trends of floor depressions are referred to as "dips" and "rolls" by miners. Some are relatively narrow and straight to slightly curvilinear in plan view, with generally symmetric to slightly asymmetric cross-sections. Others are broader and asymmetric in section, with sharp dips on one limb and gradual, ramp-like dips on the other. Some limbs change laterally from gradual dip, to sharp dip, to offset of the coal. Lateral changes in the rate of floor elevation dip are often associated with changes in coal thickness, and in underground mines, changes in floor elevation are sometimes associated with roof falls and haulage problems. In order to test if coal thickness changes within floor depressions were associated with changes in palynology, petrography and coal quality, the coal was sampled at a surface mine across a broad. ramp-like depression that showed down-dip coal thickening. Increment samples of coal from a thick (150 cm), down-ramp and thinner (127 cm), up-ramp position at one surface mine correlate well between sample sites (a distance of 60 m) except for a single increment. The anomalous increment (31 cm) in the lower-middle part of the thick coal bed contained 20% more Lycospora orbicula spores. The rolling floor elevations noted in the study mines are inferred to have been formed as a result of pre-peat paleotopographic depressions, syn-depositional faulting, fault-controlled pre-peat paleotopography, and from compaction beneath post-depositional channels and slumps. Although the association of thick coal with linear trends and inferred faults has been used in other basins to infer syn-depositional faulting, changes in palynology within increment samples of the seam along a structural ramp in this study provide

  20. Engineer, design construct, test, and evaluate a pressurized fluidized-bed pilot plant using high-sulfur coal for production of electric power: Phase I. Preliminary engineering; Phase II. Final design; Phase III. Construction. Annual report, March 1, 1979-February 29, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The extended test program on the SGT/PFB Technology Unit, previously placed in operation, was completed. Total operating time is 3378 which includes 2681 h burning coal and 1205 h total turbine engine operation. Significant performance and operational milestones, completed during the past year, included: over 2000 h on candidate heat exchanger tube materials at design temperature during which durability of iron-base alloy for PFB heat exchanger tubes was demonstrated; generated electric power with gas turbine operating on PFB coal combustion gas for 1000 h with no appreciable erosion or corrosion of turbine rotor blades and stator vanes; evaluated and improved hot gas cleanup system during which mean particle size of 1.3 Microns and a loading of 0.054 grains/Scf was achieved; and durability of hot/ash solids lock hopper valves for over 1000 h without leakage and stellite coated butterfly gas valve operating successfully for over 900 h in a highly erosive environment was demonstrated. Details of materials evolutions and corrosion rates, component performances and gaseous emission levels are presented.

  1. World coal prices and future energy demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, J.

    1992-01-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments will create some important changes in the US domestic steam coal market, including price increases for compliance coal by the year 2000 and price decreases for high-sulfur coal. In the international market, there is likely to be a continuing oversupply which will put a damper on price increases. The paper examines several forecasts for domestic and international coal prices and notes a range of predictions for future oil prices

  2. A genetic electrophoretic variant of high-sulfur hair proteins for forensic hair comparisons. I. Characterization of variant high-sulfur proteins of human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, B

    1989-02-01

    In a survey of the proteins from human hair, a genetic electrophoretic variant has been observed in the high-sulfur protein region. S-carboxymethylated proteins were examined by 15% polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis at pH 8.9. Out of 150 unrelated samples of Japanese head hairs analyzed, 107 showed 6 major high-sulfur protein bands (normal) and the remaining 43 samples showed an additional high-sulfur protein band (variant). Of 21 Caucasian samples analyzed only one variant sample was found. Characterization of the proteins by two-dimensional electrophoresis evidenced a variant protein spot which showed an apparent molecular weight of 30 k Da. Isoelectric points of the high-sulfur proteins ranged from 3.25-3.55 and that of variant protein band from 3.3-3.4. Family studies of 21 matings resulting in 49 children indicated that this variant was inherited in an autosomal fashion.

  3. Illinois travel statistics, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The 2008 Illinois Travel Statistics publication is assembled to provide detailed traffic : information to the different users of traffic data. While most users of traffic data at this level : of detail are within the Illinois Department of Transporta...

  4. Illinois travel statistics, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The 2009 Illinois Travel Statistics publication is assembled to provide detailed traffic : information to the different users of traffic data. While most users of traffic data at this level : of detail are within the Illinois Department of Transporta...

  5. Illinois travel statistics, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The 2010 Illinois Travel Statistics publication is assembled to provide detailed traffic : information to the different users of traffic data. While most users of traffic data at this level : of detail are within the Illinois Department of Transporta...

  6. Energy policy options for Illinois. Proceedings. [26 papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    Twenty-six papers presented at the Fifth Annual Oil Illinois Energy Conference are categorized into five sections, namely: An overview of U.S. and Illinois Energy Policy; Energy Policy; Conservation--Solar--Biomass and Solid Wastes; Energy Policy; Petroleum and Natural Gas; Energy Policy; Coal and Electric Utilities; and Economic and Consumer Concerns. One paper, A Perspective on Long-Range Nuclear Energy Options, by William O. Harms has previously appeared in EAPA 4: 1364. (MCW)

  7. Effects of inhaled coal fly ash on lung biochemistry and function in guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimmel, T.A.; Chen, L.C.; Ryan, I.; Gordon, I.; Amdur, M.O.

    1991-01-01

    The ultrafine fraction of particles produced during the combustion of coal are the most difficult to remove with control devices and are retained longest in the atmosphere. Combustion of a high-sulfur coal, such as Illinois No. 6, produces a significant quantity of sulfuric acid, most of which is absorbed to the surface of those particles smaller than 1 μm in diameter. Particles smaller than 0.05 μm in diameter, moreover, consist largely of sulfuric acid; since these particles penetrate to the deepest regions of the lung, exposure to coal fly ash can result in the administration of large doses of acid to the alveolar tissues. Using a combustion system that generates coal fly ash similar to that collected in flue gas, guinea pigs were exposed for 2 h to aerosols produced from Illinois No. 6 (mean aerodynamic diameter 0.2 μm) at concentrations of 5 and 20 mg/m 3 . The animals were lavaged at 24 h post-exposure and levels of dehydrogenase (LDH), β-glucuronidase (β-GC), and protein were compared to those of control animals. After 24 h, no changes in levels of LDH and β-GC were seen in the lavage fluid from both high-dose and low-dose animals. Slight, but statistically significant elevations in protein concentration were measured in the high-dose exposure group. The total cell number in the lavage fluid was also found exposure group. The total cell number in the lavage fluid was also found to be exchanged following both exposures. It was previously found that exposure to 5 mg/M 3 of Illinois No. 6 fly ash results in immediate reductions in pulmonary diffusing capacity (DLco), total lung capacity (TLC), and vital capacity, and that both DLco and TLC values are not completely restored to normal 96 h post-exposure. These results suggest that the alterations in pulmonary function resulting from exposure to acidic coal fly ash are not accompanied by major inflammatory changes in lavage fluid

  8. CarbonSAFE Illinois - Macon County

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittaker, Steve [University of Illinois; Illinois State Geological Survey

    2017-08-03

    CarbonSAFE Illinois is a a Feasibility study to develop an established geologic storage complex in Macon County, Illinois, for commercial-scale storage of industrially sourced CO2. Feasibility activities are focused on the Mt. Simon Storage Complex; a step-out well will be drilled near existing storage sites (i.e., the Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium’s Illinois Basin – Decatur Project and the Illinois Industrial Carbon Capture and Storage Project) to further establish commercial viability of this complex and to evaluate EOR potential in a co-located oil-field trend. The Archer Daniels Midland facility (ethanol plant), City Water, Light, and Power in Springfield, Illinois (coal-fired power station), and other regional industries are potential sources of anthropogenic CO2 for storage at this complex. Site feasibility will be evaluated through drilling results, static and dynamic modeling, and quantitative risk assessment. Both studies will entail stakeholder engagement, consideration of infrastructure requirements, existing policy, and business models. Project data will help calibrate the National Risk Assessment Partnership (NRAP) Toolkit to better understand the risks of commercial-scale carbon storage.

  9. Coal preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The acid rain control legislation has prompted the Department of Energy (DOE) to seek new technology using the Clean Coal Technology program solicitation. The main goal of the program is to reduce SO 2 emissions below 9 Mt/a (10 million stpy) and NO x emission below 5.4 Mt/a (6 million stpy) by the year 2000. This would be accomplished by using precombustion, combustion, post combustion and conversion technology. Utilities are considering installing new scrubbers, switching fuel or possibly deep clean. However, the time required to implement the control technology is short. Due to the legislation, about 110 plants will have to adopt one of the approaches. This paper reports that in characterization of coal, Ames Laboratory used a scanning electron microscope- based, automated image analysis (SEM-AIA) technique to identify coal and mineral matter association. Various forms of organic sulfur were identified using peroxyacetic acid oxidation of coal. This was followed by subsequent microscopic, GC-MS, and HRMS analysis by Southern Illinois University. In ultrafine grinding of coal, it was reported by the Mining and Mineral Institute of Alabama that silica sand or flint shot used less energy compared to steel ball mills

  10. Illinois | Solar Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois Department of Commerce and Economic Opportunity. Public benefit projects may be eligible for low Illinois Commerce Commission (ICC) defines competitive and noncompetitive customer classes in the IOU expedited process to 25 kW to allow more projects to benefit from the streamlined process and exempting them

  11. Clean coal initiatives in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, B.H.; Irwin, M.W.; Sparrow, F.T.; Mastalerz, Maria; Yu, Z.; Kramer, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose - Indiana is listed among the top ten coal states in the USA and annually mines about 35 million short tons (million tons) of coal from the vast reserves of the US Midwest Illinois Coal Basin. The implementation and commercialization of clean coal technologies is important to the economy of the state and has a significant role in the state's energy plan for increasing the use of the state's natural resources. Coal is a substantial Indiana energy resource and also has stable and relatively low costs, compared with the increasing costs of other major fuels. This indigenous energy source enables the promotion of energy independence. The purpose of this paper is to outline the significance of clean coal projects for achieving this objective. Design/methodology/approach - The paper outlines the clean coal initiatives being taken in Indiana and the research carried out at the Indiana Center for Coal Technology Research. Findings - Clean coal power generation and coal for transportation fuels (coal-to-liquids - CTL) are two major topics being investigated in Indiana. Coking coal, data compilation of the bituminous coal qualities within the Indiana coal beds, reducing dependence on coal imports, and provision of an emissions free environment are important topics to state legislators. Originality/value - Lessons learnt from these projects will be of value to other states and countries.

  12. Impact of co-combustion of petroleum coke and coal on fly ash quality: Case study of a Western Kentucky power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hower, James C.; Thomas, Gerald A.; Mardon, Sarah M.; Trimble, Alan S.

    2005-01-01

    Petroleum coke has been used as a supplement or replacement for coal in pulverized-fuel combustion. At a 444-MW western Kentucky power station, the combustion of nearly 60% petroleum coke with moderate- to high-sulfur Illinois Basin coal produces fly ash with nearly 50% uncombusted petroleum coke and large amounts of V and Ni when compared to fly ash from strictly pulverized coal burns. Partitioning of the V and Ni, known from other studies to be concentrated in petroleum coke, was noted. However, the distribution of V and Ni does not directly correspond to the amount of uncombusted petroleum coke in the fly ash. Vanadium and Ni are preferentially associated with the finer, higher surface area fly ash fractions captured at lower flue gas temperatures. The presence of uncombusted petroleum coke in the fly ash doubles the amount of ash to be disposed, makes the fly ash unmarketable because of the high C content, and would lead to higher than typical (compared to other fly ashes in the region) concentrations of V and Ni in the fly ash even if the petroleum coke C could be beneficiated from the fly ash. Further studies of co-combustion ashes are necessary in order to understand their behavior in disposal

  13. Illinois reclaimed soil productivity: Restoration techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smout, G.

    1998-01-01

    Consolidation Coal Co. (Consol) has nearly 8,000 acres of high capability and prime farmland reclamation responsibility in Illinois. It has been involved in research in the area of restored soil productivity since 1976 with the University of Illinois and Southern Illinois University, Carbondale. Consol maintains an intensive program to demonstrate and test deep tillage equipment. The research and in-house demonstrations identified soil physical strength (compaction) as the main limiting factor to restoring a soil's productive capacity. There are two primary ways to address this issue, prevention and amelioration. The former was not an option for Consol because many acres were already reclaimed and the company had a major scraper fleet. Along with other operators in Illinois, Consol started an aggressive search for equipment and techniques that could loosen compacted soils. In 1987 Consol was the first to use the D.M.I.-Super Tiger deep soil plow, originally developed and manufactured by D.M.I., Inc. of Goodfield, Illinois. This plow is composed of a single parabolic, static shank with a 44-inch wide sweep weighing 1,200 pounds. It is capable of plowing 48 inches deep while leaving the top soil in place. A Caterpillar D9L tractor with 460 horsepower is used to pull the plow. In 1990 the decision was made to commit to this equipment as the best technology currently available. In 1994 Consol received a patent waiver from D.M.I. to build its own plow. The Consol built plow has been in use since the summer of 1995. To date, Consol has plowed over 3,900 acres with a D.M.I. plow

  14. Abundances of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in 14 chinese and american coals and their relation to coal rank and weathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, R.; Liu, Gaisheng; Zhang, Jiahua; Chou, C.-L.; Liu, J.

    2010-01-01

    The abundances of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on the priority list of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) have been determined in 14 Chinese and American coals. The ranks of the samples range from lignite, bituminous coal, anthracite, to natural coke. Soxhlet extraction was conducted on each coal for 48 h. The extract was analyzed on a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The results show that the total PAH content ranged from 0.31 to 57.6 ??g/g of coal (on a dry basis). It varied with coal rank and is highest in the maturity range of bituminous coal rank. High-molecular-weight (HMW) PAHs are predominant in low-rank coals, but low-molecular-weight (LMW) PAHs are predominant in high-rank coals. The low-sulfur coals have a higher PAH content than high-sulfur coals. It may be explained by an increasing connection between disulfide bonds and PAHs in high-sulfur coal. In addition, it leads us to conclude that the PAH content of coals may be related to the depositional environment. ?? 2010 American Chemical Society.

  15. Illinois Wind Workers Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David G. Loomis

    2012-05-28

    The Illinois Wind Working Group (IWWG) was founded in 2006 with about 15 members. It has grown to over 200 members today representing all aspects of the wind industry across the State of Illinois. In 2008, the IWWG developed a strategic plan to give direction to the group and its activities. The strategic plan identifies ways to address critical market barriers to the further penetration of wind. The key to addressing these market barriers is public education and outreach. Since Illinois has a restructured electricity market, utilities no longer have a strong control over the addition of new capacity within the state. Instead, market acceptance depends on willing landowners to lease land and willing county officials to site wind farms. Many times these groups are uninformed about the benefits of wind energy and unfamiliar with the process. Therefore, many of the project objectives focus on conferences, forum, databases and research that will allow these stakeholders to make well-educated decisions.

  16. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; R.W. Swindeman; J. Sarver; J. Blough; W. Mohn; M. Borden; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2003-10-20

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to maintain a cost-competitive, environmentally acceptable coal-based electric generation option. High sulfur coals will specifically benefit in this respect by having these advanced materials evaluated in high-sulfur coal firing conditions and from the significant reductions in waste generation inherent in the increased operational efficiency. Second, from a national prospective, the results of this program will enable domestic boiler manufacturers to successfully compete in world markets for building high-efficiency coal-fired power plants.

  17. Coal background paper. Coal demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Statistical data are presented on coal demands in IEA and OECD member countries and in other countries. Coal coaking and coaking coal consumption data are tabulated, and IEA secretariat's coal demand projections are summarized. Coal supply and production data by countries are given. Finally, coal trade data are presented, broken down for hard coal, steam coal, coking coal (imports and export). (R.P.)

  18. Electric utilities in Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    Although the conference dealt specifically with concerns of the electric utilities in Illinois, the issues were dealt with in the national context as well. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 5 sections of this proceeding. A total of 25 papers were presented. Section titles are: Forecasting, Planning and Siting, Reliability, Rates and Financing, and Future Developments.

  19. Illinois forest statistics, 1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerold T. Hahn

    1987-01-01

    The third inventory of the timber resource of Illinois shows a 1% increase in commercial forest area and a 40% gain in growing-stock volume between 1962 and 1985. Presented are highlights and statistics on area, volume, growth, mortality, removals, utilization, and biomass.

  20. Illinois' Forests 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan J. Crocker; Gary J. Brand; Brett J. Butler; David E. Haugen; Dick C. Little; Dacia M. Meneguzzo; Charles H. Perry; Ronald J. Piva; Barry T. Wilson; Christopher W. Woodall

    2009-01-01

    The first full, annualized inventory of Illinois' forests reports more than 4.5 million acres of forest land with an average of 459 trees per acre. Forest land is dominated by oak/hickory forest types, which occupy 65 percent of total forest land area. Seventy-two percent of forest land consists of sawtimber, 20 percent contains poletimber, and 8 percent contains...

  1. Sahara Coal: the fine art of collecting fines for profit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreckengost, D.; Arnold, D.

    1984-09-01

    A considerable increase in the volume of fines in rom coal caused Sahara Coal in Illinois to redesign the fine coal system in their Harrisburg preparation plant. Details of the new design, and particularly the fine refuse system which dewaters and dries 28 mesh x O clean coal, are given. Results have exceeded expectations in reducing product losses, operating costs and slurry pond cleaning costs.

  2. Coal surface control for advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morsi, B.I.; Chiang, S.H.; Sharkey, A.; Blachere, J.; Klinzing, G.; Araujo, G.; Cheng, Y.S.; Gray, R.; Streeter, R.; Bi, H.; Campbell, P.; Chiarlli, P.; Ciocco, M.; Hittle, L.; Kim, S.; Kim, Y.; Perez, L.; Venkatadri, R.

    1992-01-01

    This final report presents the research work carried out on the Coal Surface Control for Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning Technologies project, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (DOE/PETC). The project was to support the engineering development of the selective agglomeration technology in order to reduce the sulfur content of US coals for controlling SO[sub 2] emissions (i.e., acid rain precursors). The overall effort was a part of the DOE/PETCs Acid Rain Control Initiative (ARCI). The overall objective of the project is to develop techniques for coal surface control prior to the advanced physical fine coal cleaning process of selective agglomeration in order to achieve 85% pyrite sulfur rejection at an energy recovery greater than 85% based on run-of-mine coal. The surface control is meant to encompass surface modification during grinding and laboratory beneficiation testing. The project includes the following tasks: Project planning; methods for analysis of samples; development of standard beneficiation test; grinding studies; modification of particle surface; and exploratory R D and support. The coal samples used in this project include three base coals, Upper Freeport - Indiana County, PA, Pittsburgh NO. 8 - Belmont County, OH, and Illinois No. 6 - Randolph County, IL, and three additional coals, Upper Freeport - Grant County- WV, Kentucky No. 9 Hopkins County, KY, and Wyodak - Campbell County, WY. A total of 149 drums of coal were received.

  3. Illinois' Forests 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan J. Crocker; Mark D. Nelson; Charles J. Barnett; Brett J. Butler; Grant M. Domke; Mark H. Hansen; Mark A. Hatfield; Tonya W. Lister; Dacia M. Meneguzzo; Ronald J. Piva; Barry T. Wilson; Christopher W. Woodall

    2013-01-01

    The second full annual inventory of Illinois' forests, completed in 2010, reports more than 4.8 million acres of forest land and 97 tree species. Forest land is dominated by oak/hickory and elm/ash/cottonwood forest-type groups, which occupy 93 percent of total forest land area. The volume of growing stock on timberland totals 7.2 billion cubic feet. The average...

  4. Coal. Fluidized bed, a world record; Charbon. Lit fluidise: record mondial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    In April 1996, the `Societe Provencale du Lit Fluidise`, a subsidiary of Electricite de France (EDF) has put into service in Gardanne, the most powerful circulating fluidized bed boiler in the world, producing 600 MWt; it was constructed by GEC Alsthom Stein Industrie, and will strongly reduce the SO{sub 2} emissions from the coal power plant of Gardanne, which use a highly sulfurous coal. New regulations concerning the French coal industry are also introduced

  5. Coal. Fluidized bed, a world record; Charbon. Lit fluidise: record mondial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    In April 1996, the `Societe Provencale du Lit Fluidise`, a subsidiary of Electricite de France (EDF) has put into service in Gardanne, the most powerful circulating fluidized bed boiler in the world, producing 600 MWt; it was constructed by GEC Alsthom Stein Industrie, and will strongly reduce the SO{sub 2} emissions from the coal power plant of Gardanne, which use a highly sulfurous coal. New regulations concerning the French coal industry are also introduced

  6. Relation between particle size and properties of some bituminous coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, A.D.; Cheng, M.; Goulet, J.-C.; Furimsky, E. (CANMET, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Energy Research Laboratories)

    1990-02-01

    Coal fractions of different size distributions exhibited different H/C ratio, ash and sulphur contents, and surface structures. This was confirmed using two low-sulphur and two high-sulphur bituminous coals. The effect was much less pronounced for low-sulphur coals than for high-sulphur coals. A significant difference in properties was noted between the two high-sulphur coals in spite of similar basic compositional parameters. This was confirmed by the fractal dimensionality factor D of Illinois No. 6 coal, which exceeded the theoretical value. 14 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Study on the Inference Factors of Huangling Coking Coal Pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Meili; Yang, Zongyi; Fan, Jinwen

    2018-01-01

    In order to reasonably and efficiently utilize Huangling coking coal resource, coal particle, heating rate, holding time, pyrolysis temperature and others factors were dicussed for the influence of those factor on Huangling coking coal pyrolysis products. Several kinds of coal blending for coking experiments were carried out with different kinds of coal such as Huangling coking coal, Xida coal with high ash low sufur, Xinghuo fat coal with hign sulfur, Zhongxingyi coking coal with high sulfur, Hucun lean coal, mixed meager and lean coal. The results shown that the optimal coal particle size distribution was 0.5~1.5mm, the optimal heating rate was 8°C/min, the optimal holding time was 15min, the optimal pyrolysis temperature was 800°C for Huangling coking coal pyrolysis, the tar yield increased from 4.7% to 11.2%. The maximum tar yield of coal blending for coking under the best single factor experiment condition was 10.65% when the proportio of Huangling coking coal was 52%.

  8. Carbon Dioxide Capture and Transportation Options in the Illinois Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Rostam-Abadi; S. S. Chen; Y. Lu

    2004-09-30

    This report describes carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture options from large stationary emission sources in the Illinois Basin, primarily focusing on coal-fired utility power plants. The CO{sub 2} emissions data were collected for utility power plants and industrial facilities over most of Illinois, southwestern Indiana, and western Kentucky. Coal-fired power plants are by far the largest CO{sub 2} emission sources in the Illinois Basin. The data revealed that sources within the Illinois Basin emit about 276 million tonnes of CO2 annually from 122 utility power plants and industrial facilities. Industrial facilities include 48 emission sources and contribute about 10% of total emissions. A process analysis study was conducted to review the suitability of various CO{sub 2} capture technologies for large stationary sources. The advantages and disadvantages of each class of technology were investigated. Based on these analyses, a suitable CO{sub 2} capture technology was assigned to each type of emission source in the Illinois Basin. Techno-economic studies were then conducted to evaluate the energy and economic performances of three coal-based power generation plants with CO{sub 2} capture facilities. The three plants considered were (1) pulverized coal (PC) + post combustion chemical absorption (monoethanolamine, or MEA), (2) integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) + pre-combustion physical absorption (Selexol), and (3) oxygen-enriched coal combustion plants. A conventional PC power plant without CO2 capture was also investigated as a baseline plant for comparison. Gross capacities of 266, 533, and 1,054 MW were investigated at each power plant. The economic study considered the burning of both Illinois No. 6 coal and Powder River Basin (PRB) coal. The cost estimation included the cost for compressing the CO{sub 2} stream to pipeline pressure. A process simulation software, CHEMCAD, was employed to perform steady-state simulations of power generation systems

  9. Energy Policy Act transportation rate study: Interim report on coal transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The primary purpose of this report is to examine changes in domestic coal distribution and railroad coal transportation rates since enactment of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA90). From 1988 through 1993, the demand for low-sulfur coal increased, as a the 1995 deadline for compliance with Phase 1 of CAAA90 approached. The shift toward low-sulfur coal came sooner than had been generally expected because many electric utilities switched early from high-sulfur coal to ``compliance`` (very low-sulfur) coal. They did so to accumulate emissions allowances that could be used to meet the stricter Phase 2 requirements. Thus, the demand for compliance coal increased the most. The report describes coal distribution and sulfur content, railroad coal transportation and transportation rates, and electric utility contract coal transportation trends from 1979 to 1993 including national trends, regional comparisons, distribution patterns and regional profiles. 14 figs., 76 tabs.

  10. Advanced control - technologies for suppressing harmful emission in lignitic coal-fired power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mir, S.; Hai, S.M.A.

    2000-01-01

    The production of sufficient amount of indigenous energy is a prerequisite for the prosperity of a nation. Pakistan's energy demand far exceeds its indigenous supplies. A cursory look at the energy situation in Pakistan reveals that there is an urgent need for the development of its energy resources. In this regard, coal can play a key role if its problems of high-sulfur and high ash can be rectified through the adoption adaptation of advanced technologies, like (I) clean coal technologies, and (II) control technologies. A review on clean coal technologies for utilization of lignitic coals has already been published and the present article describes the effect of harmful emissions from the combustion of high sulfur coals, like the ones found in Pakistan and their control through advanced control technologies, to make a significant contribution in the total energy economics of Pakistan. (author)

  11. Coal geopolitics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraud, P.N.; Suissa, A.; Coiffard, J.; Cretin, D.

    1991-01-01

    This book divided into seven chapters, describes coal economic cycle. Chapter one: coals definition; the principle characteristics and properties (origin, calorific power, international classification...) Chapter two: the international coal cycle: coal mining, exploration, coal reserves estimation, coal handling coal industry and environmental impacts. Chapter three: the world coal reserves. Chapter four: the consumptions, productions and trade. Chapter five: the international coal market (exporting mining companies; importing companies; distributors and spot market operators) chapter six: the international coal trade chapter seven: the coal price formation. 234 refs.; 94 figs. and tabs [fr

  12. Enhancing the use of coals by gas reburning-sorbent injection: Volume 4 -- Gas reburning-sorbent injection at Lakeside Unit 7, City Water, Light and Power, Springfield, Illinois. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    A demonstration of Gas Reburning-Sorbent Injection (GR-SI) has been completed at a cyclone-fired utility boiler. The Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER) has designed, retrofitted and tested a GR-SI system at City Water Light and Power`s 33 MWe Lakeside Station Unit 7. The program goals of 60% NO{sub x} emissions reduction and 50% SO{sub 2} emissions reduction were exceeded over the long-term testing period; the NO{sub x} reduction averaged 63% and the SO{sub 2} reduction averaged 58%. These were achieved with an average gas heat input of 22% and a calcium (sorbent) to sulfur (coal) molar ratio of 1.8. GR-SI resulted in a reduction in thermal efficiency of approximately 1% at full load due to firing natural gas which forms more moisture in flue gas than coal and also results in a slight increase in air heater exit gas temperature. Minor impacts on other areas of unit performance were measured and are detailed in this report. The project at Lakeside was carried out in three phases, in which EER designed the GR-SI system (Phase 1), completed construction and start-up activities (Phase 2), and evaluated its performance with both short parametric tests and a long-term demonstration (Phase 3). This report contains design and technical performance data; the economics data for all sites are presented in Volume 5.

  13. Fundamental studies of coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-01

    The authors have examined the pyrolysis of Argonne samples of Wyodak and Illinois No. 6 coal in argon, undecane, Tetralin, and water. The effects of the pyrolysis on individual particles of coal were monitored visually in a cell with diamond windows capable of operation to temperature and pressures in excess of 500{degrees}C and 3000 psi. The changes in the particles from ambient to 460{degrees}C were recorded in real time on video tape, and images were then taken from the tape record and analyzed. The study showed that in argon both coals developed tars at 350{degrees}-370{degrees}C. The tars then quickly evaporated, leaving core particles remarkably similar in size and shape to the initial particles. These observations suggest that coal does not melt nor become fully liquid when heated. Nor does the softened coal undergo crosslinking to generate coke. Rather the simple loss of volatiles leaves behind the core residue as coke. Contrary to the common view, there appears to be no link between the bond-breaking processes yielding tar and the interaction of the coal with H-donors leading to liquefaction. Water as a medium was surprising in its effect. Both coals began to shrink at 300{degrees}-350{degrees}C, with the effect appearing to be more of an erosion rather than a uniform loss of substance as seen in Tetralin. The Wyodak continued to shrink to 460{degrees}C to about half its initial size. With the Illinois No. 6 coal, however, the process reversed at around 420{degrees}C, and the particles appeared to grow with the evolution of a tar, continuing to 460{degrees}C. The authors submit that this final observation is evidence for hydrothermal synthesis of hydrocarbons at these conditions.

  14. Coal refuse reclamation project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zellmer, S.D.

    1979-04-06

    A 13.8 ha abandoned coal refuse site in southwestern Illinois was reclaimed by recontouring the refuse material and covering it with a minimum 30 cm of soil. The reclamation procedure included determination of the site's final land use, collection of preconstruction environmental data, and development and implementation of engineering plans. The project is demonstrating methods that can be used to reclaim abandoned coal refuse sites, and a multidisciplinary approach is being used to evaluate postconstruction environmental and economic effects of the reclamation effort. Surface water quality has shown significant improvement and plant cover is becoming established on the site. Soil microbial populations are developing and wildlife habitats are forming. The economic value of the site and adjacent properties has increased substantially and the area's aesthetic value has been enhanced. This project is providing valuable design data for future reclamation efforts of this type.

  15. Coal anion structure and chemistry of coal alkylation. Fourth quarterly progress report, December 1, 1977--February 28, 1978. [Carbon atoms in butyl groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stock, L.M.

    1978-01-01

    Three research problems are in progress. First, work is progressing well concerning the methods appropriate for the reductive alkylation of Illinois No. 6 coal samples. We have investigated the influence of the leaving group on the conversion of the Illinois coal to a soluble material. We find that the n-butyl iodide is more effective than other n-butyl halides. Second, preliminary results have been obtained concerning the distribution of hydrogen and deuterium atoms in the reaction of Illinois No. 6 coal samples with perdeuteriotetralin at 400/sup 0/C. Third, the nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of appropriate model compounds with n-butyl groups have been tabulated for comparison with the spectroscopic results obtained from coal alkylation products. Fourth, the chromatographic procedures necessary for the separation of the coal samples are being developed.

  16. Mineralogical and geochemical characterization of the Jurassic coal from Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baioumy, H.M. [Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute, Cairo (Egypt)

    2009-06-15

    The Jurassic coal deposit in the Maghara area, Sinai, Egypt contains at least 11 coal seams of lenticular shape. The thickness of the main coal seams ranges from 130 cm to 2 m and are underlain and overlain by thin black shale beds. Mineralogical analysis indicated that this coal is characterized by low mineral matter with traces of quartz in some samples. However, coal ash is made up of quartz with traces of calcite, anhydrite, and hematite. Analysis of coal rank parameters indicated that the Maghara coal can be classified as medium volatile bituminous coal. The high sulfur contents and the relatively high proportion of pyritic sulfur suggest a possible marine transgression after the deposition of precursor peat. This interpretation is supported by the relatively high B contents. The relatively high Ge in the Maghara coal could be attributed to an infiltration of Ge enriched water from the surrounding siliceous sediments probably during diagenesis. The high Au contents were contributed to an Au-rich provenance of the ash contents of this coal. Rare earth elements geochemistry indicated low concentrations of these elements with slight enrichment of light rare earth elements (LREEs), slight negative Eu anomaly, and relatively flat heavy rare earth elements (HREEs) patterns. The low contents of trace and rare earth elements, particularly those with environmental relevance, compared to the usual concentration ranges in worldwide coal gives an advantage for this coal.

  17. Bacteria and Acidic Drainage from Coal Refuse: Inhibition by Sodium Lauryl Sulfate and Sodium Benzoate

    OpenAIRE

    Dugan, Patrick R.; Apel, William A.

    1983-01-01

    The application of an aqueous solution of sodium lauryl sulfate and sodium benzoate to the surface of high-sulfur coal refuse resulted in the inhibition of iron-and sulfur-oxidizing chemoautotrophic bacteria and in the decrease of acidic drainage from the refuse, suggesting that acid drainage can be abated in the field by inhibiting iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria.

  18. Coal-to-liquids bill introduced in the Senate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchsbaum, L.

    2006-06-15

    Of immense importance to the coal industry is the announcement, on 7 June 2006 by US Senators Barack Obama (D-IL) and Jim Bunning (R-KY) of S.3325, the 'Coal-to-Liquid Fund Promotion Act of 2006'. This legislation creates tax incentives for coal-to-liquids (CTL) technologies and construction of CTL plants. If passed, this will create the infrastructure needed to make CTL a viable energy resource throughout America. The article gives comment and background to this proposed legislation. Illinois Basin coal is well suited for CTL because of its high Btu content. If Sasol constructs a proposed plant in Illinois it would increase coal production in the state by 10 mt. 1 fig.

  19. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman

    2003-01-20

    maintain a cost-competitive, environmentally acceptable coal-based electric generation option. High sulfur coals will specifically benefit in this respect by having these advanced materials evaluated in high-sulfur coal firing conditions and from the significant reductions in waste generation inherent in the increased operational efficiency. Second, from a national prospective, the results of this program will enable domestic boiler manufacturers to successfully compete in world markets for building high-efficiency coal-fired power plants.

  20. Illinois Accelerator Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroc, Thomas K.; Cooper, Charlie A.

    The Illinois Accelerator Research Center (IARC) hosts a new accelerator development program at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. IARC provides access to Fermi's state-of-the-art facilities and technologies for research, development and industrialization of particle accelerator technology. In addition to facilitating access to available existing Fermi infrastructure, the IARC Campus has a dedicated 36,000 ft2 Heavy Assembly Building (HAB) with all the infrastructure needed to develop, commission and operate new accelerators. Connected to the HAB is a 47,000 ft2 Office, Technology and Engineering (OTE) building, paid for by the state, that has office, meeting, and light technical space. The OTE building, which contains the Accelerator Physics Center, and nearby Accelerator and Technical divisions provide IARC collaborators with unique access to world class expertise in a wide array of accelerator technologies. At IARC scientists and engineers from Fermilab and academia work side by side with industrial partners to develop breakthroughs in accelerator science and translate them into applications for the nation's health, wealth and security.

  1. Upper Illinois River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedel, Michael J.

    1998-01-01

    During the past 25 years, industry and government made large financial investments that resulted in better water quality across the Nation; however, many water-quality concerns remain. Following a 1986 pilot project, the U.S. Geological Survey began implementation of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program in 1991. This program differs from other national water-quality assessment studies in that the NAWQA integrates monitoring of surface- and ground-water quality with the study of aquatic ecosystems. The goals of the NAWQA Program are to (1) describe current water-quality conditions for a large part of the Nation's freshwater streams and aquifers (water-bearing sediments and rocks), (2) describe how water quality is changing over time, and (3) improve our understanding of the primary natural and human factors affecting water quality.The Upper Illinois River Basin National Water- Quality Assessment (NAWQA) study will increase the scientific understanding of surface- and ground-water quality and the factors that affect water quality in the basin. The study also will provide information needed by water-resource managers to implement effective water-quality management actions and evaluate long-term changes in water quality.

  2. Characterization of seven United States coal regions. The development of optimal terrace pit coal mining systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wimer, R.L.; Adams, M.A.; Jurich, D.M.

    1981-02-01

    This report characterizes seven United State coal regions in the Northern Great Plains, Rocky Mountain, Interior, and Gulf Coast coal provinces. Descriptions include those of the Fort Union, Powder River, Green River, Four Corners, Lower Missouri, Illinois Basin, and Texas Gulf coal resource regions. The resource characterizations describe geologic, geographic, hydrologic, environmental and climatological conditions of each region, coal ranks and qualities, extent of reserves, reclamation requirements, and current mining activities. The report was compiled as a basis for the development of hypothetical coal mining situations for comparison of conventional and terrace pit surface mining methods, under contract to the Department of Energy, Contract No. DE-AC01-79ET10023, entitled The Development of Optimal Terrace Pit Coal Mining Systems.

  3. Wabash River coal gasification repowering project -- first year operation experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troxclair, E.J. [Destec Energy, Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Stultz, J. [PSI Energy, Inc., West Terre Haute, IN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project (WRCGRP), a joint venture between Destec Energy, Inc. and PSI Energy, Inc., began commercial operation in November of 1995. The Project, selected by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) under the Clean Coal Program (Round IV) represents the largest operating coal gasification combined cycle plant in the world. This Demonstration Project has allowed PSI Energy to repower a 1950`s vintage steam turbine and install a new syngas fired combustion turbine to provide 262 MW (net) of electricity in a clean, efficient manner in a commercial utility setting while utilizing locally mined high sulfur Indiana bituminous coal. In doing so, the Project is also demonstrating some novel technology while advancing the commercialization of integrated coal gasification combined cycle technology. This paper discusses the first year operation experience of the Wabash Project, focusing on the progress towards achievement of the demonstration objectives.

  4. Illinois highway materials sustainability efforts of 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    This report provides a summary of the sustainability efforts of the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) in recycling : reclaimed materials in highway construction during calendar year 2015. This report meets the requirements of Illinois Publ...

  5. Illinois highway materials sustainability efforts of 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    This report presents the 2014 sustainability efforts of the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) in : recycling reclaimed materials in highway construction. This report meets the requirements of Illinois : Public Act 097-0314 by documenting I...

  6. Illinois highway materials sustainability efforts of 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-04

    This report provides a summary of the sustainability efforts of the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) in recycling : reclaimed materials in highway construction during calendar year 2016. This report meets the requirements of Illinois Publ...

  7. Illinois highway materials sustainability efforts of 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    This report presents the sustainability efforts of the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) in : recycling and reclaiming materials for use in highway construction. This report meets the requirements of : Illinois Public Act 097-0314 by docum...

  8. Quarterly coal report, April--June 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-26

    In the second quarter of 1993, the United States produced 235 million short tons of coal. This brought the total for the first half of 1993 to 477 million short tons, a decrease of 4 percent (21 million short tons) from the amount produced during the first half of 1992. The decrease was due to a 26-million-short-ton decline in production east of the Mississippi River, which was partially offset by a 5-million-short-ton increase in coal production west of the Mississippi River. Compared with the first 6 months of 1992, all States east of the Mississippi River had lower coal production levels, led by West Virginia and Illinois, which produced 9 million short tons and 7 million short tons less coal, respectively. The principal reasons for the drop in coal output for the first 6 months of 1993 compared to a year earlier were: a decrease in demand for US coal in foreign markets, particularly the steam coal markets; a draw-down of electric utility coal stocks to meet the increase in demand for coal-fired electricity generation; and a lower producer/distributor stock build-up. Distribution of US coal in the first half of 1993 was 15 million short tons lower than in the first half of 1992, with 13 million short tons less distributed to overseas markets and 2 million short tons less distributed to domestic markets.

  9. New coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-01

    Specially dedicated to coal, this edition comprises a series of articles of general interest dealing with the position of the French coalmining industry (interview with M.P. Gardent), the coal market in France, the work of CERCHAR, etc. New techniques, in-situ gasification of deep coal, gasification of coal by nuclear methods, the conversion of coal into petrol, the Emile Huchet power plant of Houilleres du Bassin de Lorraine, etc., are dealt with.

  10. Coal upgrading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, S. [IEA Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2009-10-15

    This report examines current technologies and those likely to be used to produce cleaner coal and coal products, principally for use in power generation and metallurgical applications. Consideration is also given to coal production in the leading coal producing countries, both with developed and developing industries. A range of technologies are considered. These include the coal-based liquid fuel called coal water mixture (CWM) that may compete with diesel, the production of ultra-clean coal (UCC) and coal liquefaction which competes with oil and its products. Technologies for upgrading coal are considered, especially for low rank coals (LRC), since these have the potential to fill the gap generated by the increasing demand for coal that cannot be met by higher quality coals. Potential advantages and downsides of coal upgrading are outlined. Taking into account the environmental benefits of reduced pollution achieved through cleaner coal and reduced transport costs, as well as other positive aspects such as a predictable product leading to better boiler design, the advantages appear to be significant. The drying of low rank coals improves the energy productively released during combustion and may also be used as an adjunct or as part of other coal processing procedures. Coal washing technologies vary in different countries and the implications of this are outlined. Dry separation technologies, such as dry jigging and electrostatic separation, are also described. The demonstration of new technologies is key to their further development and demonstrations of various clean coal technologies are considered. A number of approaches to briquetting and pelletising are available and their use varies from country to country. Finally, developments in upgrading low rank coals are described in the leading coal producing countries. This is an area that is developing rapidly and in which there are significant corporate and state players. 81 refs., 32 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-02

    Energy used by Illinois single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  12. Coal-92

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillring, B.; Sparre, C.

    1992-11-01

    Swedish consumption of coal and coke during 1991 and trends in technology, environment and market aspects of coal use are reported. Steam coal use in the heating sector was unchanged from 1991, 1.2 Mtons. Reduced consumption in smaller district heating units (due to conversion to biofuels and gas) was compensated by increased use for power generation in cogeneration plants. Coal consumption in industry fell 0.10 Mton to 0.84 Mton due to lower production in one industry branch. Import of steam coal was 1.1 Mton (down 0.5 Mton from 1990) since new rules for strategic reserves allowed a reduction of stocks. During the last five years stocks have been reduced by 2 Mtons. Import of metallurgical coal was 1.6 Mton, unchanged from 1990. The report also gives statistics for the coal using plants in Sweden, on coal R and D, and on emission laws for coal firing. (9 tabs., 2 figs.)

  13. Coal marketability: Effects of deregulation and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attanasi, E.

    2000-01-01

    Electrical utility deregulation will force power plants to compete for sales because they will not longer have captive markets. Market uncertainty and uncertainty about future environmental regulations have encouraged power plants to shift to low sulfur coal and/or to use emissions allowances to comply with Phase 2 of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. Mines in Northern and Central Appalachia and the Illinois Basin shipped 240 million tons of non-compliance coal to power plants without scrubbers in 1997. Under Phase 2, this coal will be replaced by low sulfur coal and/or be used with emission permits. It is possible that Powder River Basin coal production will have to increase by over 200 million tons/year to meet new demand. The prices of emissions permits will impose penalties on non-compliance coal that will probably drive out marginal coal producers. For example, if the cost of an emission permit is $200, coal from the Pittsburgh bed could bear a sulfur penalty of $6.55 per ton and similarly, coal from the Herrinbed could bear a penalty of $8.64 per ton

  14. Conversion of metallurgical coke and coal using a Coal Direct Chemical Looping (CDCL) moving bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Siwei; Bayham, Samuel; Zeng, Liang; McGiveron, Omar; Chung, Elena; Majumder, Ankita; Fan, Liang-Shih

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Accumulated more than 300 operation hours were accomplished for the moving bed reducer reactor. • Different reactor operation variables were investigated with optimal conditions identified. • High conversions of sub-bituminous coal and bituminous coal were achieved without flow problems. • Co-current and counter-current contact modes were tested and their applicability was discussed. - Abstract: The CLC process has the potential to be a transformative commercial technology for a carbon-constrained economy. The Ohio State University Coal Direct Chemical Looping (CDCL) process directly converts coal, eliminating the need for a coal gasifier oran air separation unit (ASU). Compared to other solid-fuel CLC processes, the CDCL process is unique in that it consists of a countercurrent moving bed reducer reactor. In the proposed process, coal is injected into the middle of the moving bed, whereby the coal quickly heats up and devolatilizes, splitting the reactor roughly into two sections with no axial mixing. The top section consists of gaseous fuel produced from the coal volatiles, and the bottom section consists of the coal char mixed with the oxygen carrier. A bench-scale moving bed reactor was used to study the coal conversion with CO 2 as the enhancing gas. Initial tests using metallurgical cokefines as feedstock were conducted to test the effects of operational variables in the bottom section of the moving bed reducer, e.g., reactor temperature, oxygen carrier to char ratio, enhancer gas CO 2 flow rate, and oxygen carrier flow rates. Experiments directly using coal as the feedstock were subsequently carried out based on these test results. Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and Illinois #6 coal were tested as representative sub-bituminous and bituminous coals, respectively. Nearly complete coal conversion was achieved using composite iron oxide particles as the oxygen carriers without any flow problems. The operational results demonstrated that a

  15. Coal 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    ACR's Coal 1992, the successor to the ACR Coal Marketing Manual, contains a comprehensive set of data on many aspects of the Australian coal industry for several years leading up to 1992. Tables and text give details of coal production and consumption in New South Wales, Queensland and other states. Statistics of the Australian export industry are complemented by those of South Africa, USA, New Zealand, Canada, Indonesia, China, Colombia, Poland and ex-USSR. Also listed are prices of Australian coking and non-coking coal, Australian coal stocks (and those of other major countries), loading port capacities, freight rates and coal quality requirements (analysis of coals by brand and supplier). A listing of Australian coal exporting companies is provided. A description of the spot Coal Screen Dealing System is given. World hard coal imports are listed by country and coal imports by major Asian countries tabulated. A forecast of demand by coal type and country up to the year 2000 is included.

  16. Influence of coal properties on mercury uptake from aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakatos, J.; Brown, S.D.; Snape, C.E. [Miskolc University, Miskolc-Egyetemvaros (Hungary). Research Inst. of Applied Chemistry

    1999-10-01

    The uptake of mercury (II) from aqueous solution by a range of coals has been studied and the results have been compared to those for a number of other sorbents, including commercial active carbons and cation-exchange resins. At pH 5 in a buffer medium, the capacities for mercury removal of the low-rank coals and the oxidized bituminous coals investigated are comparable to those of the other sorbents tested. For the lignites investigated, a high content of organic sulfur does not markedly affect the capacity for mercury uptake in relatively neutral and low chloride media, owing to redox reactions being the most likely mechanism involved. However, in highly acidic solutions, the capacities for mercury uptake are considerably greater for the high-sulfur coals investigated than for their low-sulfur counterparts due to chelation being the major sorption process involved. 36 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  17. Coal pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, John H.; Meyer, John W.; Daniel, Jr., Arnold D.

    1983-01-01

    A device for pressurizing pulverized coal and circulating a carrier gas is disclosed. This device has utility in a coal gasification process and eliminates the need for a separate collection hopper and eliminates the separate compressor.

  18. Some regional costs of a synthetic fuel industry: The case of illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasi, E.D.; Green, E.K.

    1981-01-01

    The Federal Government's efforts to induce development of a coal-based synthetic fuel industry include direct subsidies, tax concessions, and assurances that it will purchase the industry's output, even if above the market price. In this note it is argued that these subsidies will enable this industry to secure a region's largest and lowest-cost coal deposits and that the costs imposed on other coal users will be substantial. Moreover, because the lowest-cost coal deposits will be committed to synthetic fuels production regardless of the industry's commercial viability, distortions in regional coal markets will develop. If economic efficiency requires that the price of the resource reflect its replacement value, then a State government is justified in imposing a tax on coal destined for subsidized synthetic fuel plants. Amounts of such a tax, based on the higher costs of coal that must be accepted by other users as the result of the subsidized synthetic fuel plants' preempting the largest and lowest-cost deposits, are estimated for the case of Illinois strippable coal. ?? 1981 Annals of Regional Science.

  19. A Nacre-Like Carbon Nanotube Sheet for High Performance Li-Polysulfide Batteries with High Sulfur Loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zheng-Ze; Lv, Wei; He, Yan-Bing; Zhao, Yan; Zhou, Guangmin; Dong, Liubing; Niu, Shuzhang; Zhang, Chen; Lyu, Ruiyang; Wang, Cong; Shi, Huifa; Zhang, Wenjie; Kang, Feiyu; Nishihara, Hirotomo; Yang, Quan-Hong

    2018-06-01

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries are considered as one of the most promising energy storage systems for next-generation electric vehicles because of their high-energy density. However, the poor cyclic stability, especially at a high sulfur loading, is the major obstacles retarding their practical use. Inspired by the nacre structure of an abalone, a similar configuration consisting of layered carbon nanotube (CNT) matrix and compactly embedded sulfur is designed as the cathode for Li-S batteries, which are realized by a well-designed unidirectional freeze-drying approach. The compact and lamellar configuration with closely contacted neighboring CNT layers and the strong interaction between the highly conductive network and polysulfides have realized a high sulfur loading with significantly restrained polysulfide shuttling, resulting in a superior cyclic stability and an excellent rate performance for the produced Li-S batteries. Typically, with a sulfur loading of 5 mg cm -2 , the assembled batteries demonstrate discharge capacities of 1236 mAh g -1 at 0.1 C, 498 mAh g -1 at 2 C and moreover, when the sulfur loading is further increased to 10 mg cm -2 coupling with a carbon-coated separator, a superhigh areal capacity of 11.0 mAh cm -2 is achieved.

  20. Spin-mapping of Coal Structures with ESE and ENDOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belford, R. L.; Clarkson, R. B.

    1989-12-01

    The broad goals of this project are to determine by nondestructive magnetic resonance methods chemical and physical structural characteristics of organic parts of native and treated coals. In this project period, we have begun to explore a technique which promises to enable us to follow to course of coal cleaning processes with microscopic spatial resolution. For the past five years, our laboratory has worked on extensions of the EPR technique as applied to coal to address these analytical problems. In this report we (1) describe the world's first nuclear magnetic resonance imaging results from an Illinois {number sign}6 coal and (2) transmit a manuscript describing how organic sulfur affect the very-high-frequency EPR spectra of coals. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a non-destructive technique that has found wide medical application as a means of visualizing the interior of human bodies. We have used MRI techniques to study the diffusion of an organic solvent (DMSO) into the pores of Illinois {number sign}6 coal. Proton MRI images reveal that this solvent at room temperature does not penetrate approximately 30% of the coal volume. Regions of the coal that exclude solvent could be related to inertinite and mineral components. A multi-technique imaging program is contemplated.

  1. γ-ray activity in bituminous, subbituminous and lignite coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, D.E.; Giorgio, H.R.

    1977-01-01

    Specimens of three different types of coal from four different geographical locations (Montana, North Dakota, Illinois and Pennsylvania) were examined by γ-ray spectrometry. Some samples were ashed in a muffle furnace. Other samples included pulverized coal, slag and fly ash from an electric power generating station. Activity from the 232 Th and 238 U series was present in all samples. Activity varied widely depending upon the source of the coal. The results indicate a need for additional examination of activity in coal to: (1) establish more precisely the relative environmental impact of coal-fired power stations compared with nuclear ones, (2) indicate the degree of sophistication required in environmental surveillance programs involving areas where both nuclear and coal-fired power stations are operational, and (3) determine the occupational exposure risks in mining operations. (author)

  2. WABASH RIVER COAL GASIFICATION REPOWERING PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2000-09-01

    The close of 1999 marked the completion of the Demonstration Period of the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project. This Final Report summarizes the engineering and construction phases and details the learning experiences from the first four years of commercial operation that made up the Demonstration Period under Department of Energy (DOE) Cooperative Agreement DE-FC21-92MC29310. This 262 MWe project is a joint venture of Global Energy Inc. (Global acquired Destec Energy's gasification assets from Dynegy in 1999) and PSI Energy, a part of Cinergy Corp. The Joint Venture was formed to participate in the Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology (CCT) program and to demonstrate coal gasification repowering of an existing generating unit impacted by the Clean Air Act Amendments. The participants jointly developed, separately designed, constructed, own, and are now operating an integrated coal gasification combined-cycle power plant, using Global Energy's E-Gas{trademark} technology (E-Gas{trademark} is the name given to the former Destec technology developed by Dow, Destec, and Dynegy). The E-Gas{trademark} process is integrated with a new General Electric 7FA combustion turbine generator and a heat recovery steam generator in the repowering of a 1950's-vintage Westinghouse steam turbine generator using some pre-existing coal handling facilities, interconnections, and other auxiliaries. The gasification facility utilizes local high sulfur coals (up to 5.9% sulfur) and produces synthetic gas (syngas), sulfur and slag by-products. The Project has the distinction of being the largest single train coal gasification combined-cycle plant in the Western Hemisphere and is the cleanest coal-fired plant of any type in the world. The Project was the first of the CCT integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) projects to achieve commercial operation.

  3. Coal mine subsidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darmody, R.G.; Hetzler, R.T.; Simmons, F.W.

    1992-01-01

    Longwall coal mining in southern Illinois occurs beneath some of the best agricultural land in the U.S. This region is characterized by highly productive, nearly level, and somewhat poorly drained soils. Subsidence from longwall mining causes changes in surface topography which alters surface and subsurface hydrology. These changes can adversely affect agricultural land by creating wet or ponded areas that can be deleterious to crop production. While most subsided areas show little impact from subsidence, some areas experience total crop failure. Coal companies are required by law to mitigate subsidence damage to cropland. The objective of this paper is to test the effectiveness of mitigation in restoring grain yields to their pre-mined levels. The research was conducted on sites selected to represent conventional mitigation techniques on the predominate soils in the area. Corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean [Glycine max.(L.) Merr] yields in 1988, 1989, 1990, and 1991 from mitigated areas were compared to yields from nearby undisturbed areas

  4. Place vs. time and vegetational persistence: A comparison of four tropical mires from the Illinois Basin during the height of the Pennsylvanian Ice Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMichele, W.A.; Phillips, T.L.; Nelson, W. John

    2002-01-01

    Coal balls were collected from four coal beds in the southeastern part of the Illinois Basin. Collections were made from the Springfield, Herrin, and Baker coals in western Kentucky, and from the Danville Coal in southwestern Indiana. These four coal beds are among the principal mineable coals of the Illinois Basin and belong to the Carbondale and Shelburn Formations of late Middle Pennsylvanian age. Vegetational composition was analyzed quantitatively. Coal-ball samples from the Springfield, Herrin, and Baker are dominated by the lycopsid tree Lepidophloios, with lesser numbers of Psaronius tree ferns, medullosan pteridosperms, and the lycopsid trees Synchysidendron and Diaphorodendron. This vegetation is similar to that found in the Springfield and Herrin coals elsewhere in the Illinois Basin, as reported in previous studies. The Danville coal sample, which is considerably smaller than the others, is dominated by Psaronius with the lycopsids Sigillaria and Synchysidendron as subdominants. Coal balls from the Springfield coal were collected in zones directly from the coal bed and their zone-by-zone composition indicates three to four distinct plant assemblages. The other coals were analyzed as whole-seam random samples, averaging the landscape composition of the parent mire environments. This analysis indicates that these coals, separated from each other by marine and terrestrial-clastic deposits, have essentially the same floristic composition and, thus, appear to represent a common species pool that persisted throughout the late Middle Pennsylvanian, despite changes in baselevel and climate attendant the glacial interglacial cyclicity of the Pennsylvanian ice age. Patterns of species abundance and diversity are much the same for the Springfield, Herrin, and Baker, although each coal, both in the local area sampled, and regionally, has its own paleobotanical peculiarities. Despite minor differences, these coals indicate a high degree of recurrence of assemblage

  5. An Assessment of Geological Carbon Sequestration Options in the Illinois Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Finley

    2005-09-30

    The Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium (MGSC) has investigated the options for geological carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration in the 155,400-km{sup 2} (60,000-mi{sup 2}) Illinois Basin. Within the Basin, underlying most of Illinois, western Indiana, and western Kentucky, are relatively deeper and/or thinner coal resources, numerous mature oil fields, and deep salt-water-bearing reservoirs that are potentially capable of storing CO{sub 2}. The objective of this Assessment was to determine the technical and economic feasibility of using these geological sinks for long-term storage to avoid atmospheric release of CO{sub 2} from fossil fuel combustion and thereby avoid the potential for adverse climate change. The MGSC is a consortium of the geological surveys of Illinois, Indiana, and Kentucky joined by six private corporations, five professional business associations, one interstate compact, two university researchers, two Illinois state agencies, and two consultants. The purpose of the Consortium is to assess carbon capture, transportation, and storage processes and their costs and viability in the three-state Illinois Basin region. The Illinois State Geological Survey serves as Lead Technical Contractor for the Consortium. The Illinois Basin region has annual emissions from stationary anthropogenic sources exceeding 276 million metric tonnes (304 million tons) of CO{sub 2} (>70 million tonnes (77 million tons) carbon equivalent), primarily from coal-fired electric generation facilities, some of which burn almost 4.5 million tonnes (5 million tons) of coal per year. Assessing the options for capture, transportation, and storage of the CO{sub 2} emissions within the region has been a 12-task, 2-year process that has assessed 3,600 million tonnes (3,968 million tons) of storage capacity in coal seams, 140 to 440 million tonnes (154 to 485 million tons) of capacity in mature oil reservoirs, 7,800 million tonnes (8,598 million tons) of capacity in saline

  6. Relationships between coal-quality and organic-geochemical parameters: A case study of the Hafik coal deposits (Sivas Basin, Turkey)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erik, N. Yalcin; Sancar, S. [Cumhuriyet University, Department of Geological Engineering, Sivas (Turkey)

    2010-09-01

    This study provides coal-quality, organic-petrographic and organic-geochemical data on Tertiary subbituminous coal of the Hafik area, northwestern part of the Sivas Basin, Turkey. Coal-petrological studies along with proximate and ultimate analyses were undertaken to determine the organic-petrographic characteristics of the Hafik coals. Huminite reflectances were found to be between 0.38 and 0.48% (corresponding to an organic-material-rich and coal layers), values characteristic of low maturity. This parameter shows a good correlation with calorific values (average 21,060 kJ/kg) and average T{sub max} (422 C) mineral-matter diagenesis, indicating immaturity. The studied coals and organic material underwent only low-grade transformation, a consequence of low lithostatic pressure. Therefore, the Hafik coals are actually subbituminous in rank. Rock-Eval analysis results show types II/III and III kerogens. The organic fraction of the coals is mostly comprised of humic-group macerals (gelinites), with small percentages derived from the inertinite and liptinite groups. In this study, organic-petrographic, organic-geochemical and coal quality data were compared. The Hafik deposit is a high-ash, high-sulfur coal. The mineral matter of the coals is comprised mainly of calcite and clay minerals. (author)

  7. Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Mechanical Drafting Cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

    This document, which is intended as a guide for work force preparation program providers, details the Illinois occupational skill standards for programs preparing students for employment in occupations in the mechanical drafting cluster. The document begins with a brief overview of the Illinois perspective on occupational skill standards and…

  8. Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Architectural Drafting Cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

    This document, which is intended as a guide for work force preparation program providers, details the Illinois occupational skill standards for programs preparing students for employment in occupations in the architectural drafting cluster. The document begins with a brief overview of the Illinois perspective on occupational skill standards and…

  9. Fusion and its future in Illinois

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, C.C.

    1984-08-01

    This report was prepared by the Illinois Fusion Power Task Force under the sponsorship of the Governor's Commission on Sciences and Technology. The report presents the findings and recommendations of the Task Force, an explanation of the basic concepts of fusion, a summary of national and international programs and a description of ongoing fusion activities in Illinois

  10. Australian coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-11-01

    Total export shipments of coal in Australia in the year ending June 30 1985 reached a record of 83.8 Mt. The export trade is expected to bring in an income of 4 billion Australian dollars in the current year making coal Australia's biggest revenue-earning export commodity. This article presents a brief overview of the Australian coal industry with production and export statistics and information on major open pit and underground mines.

  11. Coal - 96

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, C.

    1996-09-01

    The report deals mainly with coal consumption, but also gives some information about technology, environmental aspects and markets. Data have been collected by questionnaires or via telephone. The use of steam coal for heating was 0.8 Mtons (down 20% from 1994). Cogeneration plants were the main users. Taxes and environmental reasons cause a reduction of the coal use that will probably continue the next years. Use of steam coal in industry has been constant at a level of 0.7 Mtons. The import of metallurgical coal rests constant at a level of 1.6 Mtons. 1.2 Mtons of coke was produced, and 0.3 Mtons imported. The PFBC-plant at Vaertan, Stockholm used 0.13 Mtons of coal, while some coal fired power plants have been converted to peat and wood fuels. The average price of steam coal imported to Sweden in 1995 was 333 SEK/ton, 6% higher than in 1994. The contract prices for delivery 1996 are about the same as at the end of 1995. All cogeneration plants have some sort of SO 2 removal system, mostly wet-dry. The largest plant, at Vaesteraas, has recently invested in a SCR system for NO x removal. Most other plants are using low NO x burners or SNCR systems, based on ammonia or urea, which reduce the emissions 50 - 70%. Some statistic about the world coal market is also given in the report

  12. Venezuelan coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, L.U.

    1991-01-01

    The existence of coal deposits in Venezuela has been known since the early nineteenth century, when the Naricual Mines were discovered in the State of Anzoategui Eastern Venezuela. Through the years the Venezuelan coal business had its ups and downs, but it was not until 1988 that we could properly say that our coal began to play a role in the international market. This paper reports that it is only now, in the nineties, that Venezuelan coal projects have come under a planning, promotional and developmental policy preparing the ground for the great projects Venezuela will have in the not-too-distant future

  13. Fiscal 1996 survey report on the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system feasibility study. Feasibility study of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system in Thailand; Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa. Tai ni okeru kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The paper investigated and studied the present situation and future trend of coal utilization and distribution in Thailand, and the present situation of environmental effects and the measures taken for environmental protection. Around 2010, coal will probably be produced only at EGAT`s Mae Moh (MM) coal mine. Demand for overseas coal is expected to be 40-50 million tons in 2011, and preparation of the coal center becomes a subject. For general industry use coal, pretreatment such as coal preparation, coal blending and briquetting is needed, considering coal quality, usage, transport distance and environmental effects. Brown coal of MM coal mine is a lignite with high sulfur, high ash content and low heating value. Wide spread of its use can be expected if upgrading is possible such as desulfurization, deashing, increasing heating value. In the electric power generation field, the absorber was installed at the existing boiler of the mine-mouth generating plant to conduct a verification test on high grade desulfurization of ultra-high sulfur lignite. In the industry field, the circulating fluidized bed boiler was adopted. In the residential/commercial field, introduction of briquette was proposed. 80 refs., 84 tabs.

  14. Preparation and evaluation of coal-derived activated carbons for removal of mercury vapor from simulated coal combustion flue fases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsi, H.-C.; Chen, S.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Rood, M.J.; Richardson, C.F.; Carey, T.R.; Chang, R.

    1998-01-01

    Coal-derived activated carbons (CDACs) were tested for their suitability in removing trace amounts of vapor-phase mercury from simulated flue gases generated by coal combustion. CDACs were prepared in bench-scale and pilot-scale fluidized-bed reactors with a three-step process, including coal preoxidation, carbonization, and then steam activation. CDACs from high-organicsulfur Illinois coals had a greater equilibrium Hg0 adsorption capacity than activated carbons prepared from a low-organic-sulfur Illinois coal. When a low-organic-sulfur CDAC was impregnated with elemental sulfur at 600 ??C, its equilibrium Hg0 adsorption capacity was comparable to the adsorption capacity of the activated carbon prepared from the high-organicsulfur coal. X-ray diffraction and sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure examinations showed that the sulfur in the CDACs was mainly in organic forms. These results suggested that a portion of the inherent organic sulfur in the starting coal, which remained in the CDACs, played an important role in adsorption of Hg0. Besides organic sulfur, the BET surface area and micropore area of the CDACs also influenced Hg0 adsorption capacity. The HgCl2 adsorption capacity was not as dependent on the surface area and concentration of sulfur in the CDACs as was adsorption of Hg0. The properties and mercury adsorption capacities of the CDACs were compared with those obtained for commercial Darco FGD carbon.

  15. Coal summit II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    Various papers were presented on world coal trade. Papers include: Poland as a producer and exporter of coal; the dynamics of world coal trade; Cerrejon coal production perspectives; present state of the Australian coal industry; present state of the EC coal market and future prospects; prospects of US coal exports to Europe; forecast of Italian coal supply and demand through 1990; statistics from coal transportation outlook; status of world coal ports.

  16. Total generating costs: coal and nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-02-01

    The study was confined to single and multi-unit coal- and nuclear-fueled electric-generating stations. The stations are composed of 1200-MWe PWRs; 1200-MWe BWRs; 800-and 1200-MWe High-Sulfur Coal units, and 800- and 1200-MWe Low-Sulfur Coal units. The total generating cost estimates were developed for commercial operation dates of 1985 and 1990; for 5 and 8% escalation rates, for 10 and 12% discount rates; and, for capacity factors of 50, 60, 70, and 80%. The report describes the methodology for obtaining annualized capital costs, levelized coal and nuclear fuel costs, levelized operation and maintenance costs, and the resulting total generating costs for each type of station. The costs are applicable to a hypothetical Middletwon site in the Northeastern United States. Plant descriptions with general design parameters are included. The report also reprints for convenience, summaries of capital cost by account type developed in the previous commercial electric-power cost studies. Appropriate references are given for additional detailed information. Sufficient detail is given to allow the reader to develop total generating costs for other cases or conditions

  17. Bacteria and Acidic Drainage from Coal Refuse: Inhibition by Sodium Lauryl Sulfate and Sodium Benzoate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, Patrick R.; Apel, William A.

    1983-01-01

    The application of an aqueous solution of sodium lauryl sulfate and sodium benzoate to the surface of high-sulfur coal refuse resulted in the inhibition of iron-and sulfur-oxidizing chemoautotrophic bacteria and in the decrease of acidic drainage from the refuse, suggesting that acid drainage can be abated in the field by inhibiting iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. PMID:16346347

  18. Geologic coal assessment: The interface with economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasi, E.D.

    2001-01-01

    Geologic resource assessments describe the location, general characteristics, and estimated volumes of resources, whether in situ or technically recoverable. Such compilations are only an initial step in economic resource evaluation. This paper identifies, by examples from the Illinois and Appalachian basins, the salient features of a geologic assessment that assure its usefulness to downstream economic analysis. Assessments should be in sufficient detail to allocate resources to production units (mines or wells). Coal assessments should include the spatial distribution of coal bed characteristics and the ability to allocate parts of the resource to specific mining technologies. For coal bed gas assessment, the production well recoveries and well deliverability characteristics must be preserved and the risk structure should be specified so dryholes and noncommercial well costs are recovered by commercially successful wells. ?? 2001 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  19. Commerical electric power cost studies. Capital cost addendum multi-unit coal and nuclear stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-09-01

    This report is the culmination of a study performed to develop designs and associated capital cost estimates for multi-unit nuclear and coal commercial electric power stations, and to determine the distribution of these costs among the individual units. This report addresses six different types of 2400 MWe (nominal) multi-unit stations as follows: Two Unit PWR Station-1139 MWe Each, Two Unit BWR Station-1190 MWe Each, Two Unit High Sulfur Coal-Fired Station-1232 MWe Each, Two Unit Low Sulfur Coal-Fired Station-1243 MWe Each, Three Unit High Sulfur Coal-Fired Station-794 MWe Each, Three Unit Low Sulfur Coal-Fired Station-801 MWe Each. Recent capital cost studies performed for ERDA/NRC of single unit nuclear and coal stations are used as the basis for developing the designs and costs of the multi-unit stations. This report includes the major study groundrules, a summary of single and multi-unit stations total base cost estimates, details of cost estimates at the three digit account level and plot plan drawings for each multi-unit station identified

  20. Biodesulfurization of coals of different rank: Effect on combustion behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubiera, F.; Arenillas, A.; Fuente, E.; Pis, J.J. [CSIC, Oviedo (Spain). Inst. Nacional del Carbon; Marteinz, O.; Moran, A. [Univ. de Leon (Spain). Escuela de Ingenieria Tecnica Minera

    1999-02-01

    The emission of sulfur oxides during the combustion of coal is one of the causes, among other air pollution problems, of acid rain. The contribution of coal as the mainstay of power production will be determined by whether its environmental performance is equal or superior to other supply options. In this context, desulfurization of coal before combustion by biological methods was studied. Four Spanish high-sulfur content coals of different rank were inoculated with bacteria isolated from mine-drainage waters and with naturally occurring bacteria inherent in the coals to be treated. Higher levels of desulfurization were obtained in the case of the samples treated with their own accompanying bacteria and when aeration was increased. All the samples were amenable to the biodepyritization processes. However, it is of little value to achieve large sulfur reductions if a decrease in coal combustion performance is obtained in the process. For this reason, a comparison was made between the combustibility characteristics of the original coals and those of the biodesulfurized samples. Results indicated that combustibility was not substantially modified by the overall biological treatment. The benefits of reduced sulfur emissions into the atmosphere ought to be taken into account as part of the general evaluation of the processes.

  1. Combustion studies of coal derived solid fuels by thermogravimetric analysis. III. Correlation between burnout temperature and carbon combustion efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostam-Abadi, M.; DeBarr, J.A.; Chen, W.T.

    1990-01-01

    Burning profiles of 35-53 ??m size fractions of an Illinois coal and three partially devolatilized coals prepared from the original coal were obtained using a thermogravimetric analyzer. The burning profile burnout temperatures were higher for lower volatile fuels and correlated well with carbon combustion efficiencies of the fuels when burned in a laboratory-scale laminar flow reactor. Fuels with higher burnout temperatures had lower carbon combustion efficiencies under various time-temperature conditions in the laboratory-scale reactor. ?? 1990.

  2. Case studies on direct liquefaction of low rank Wyoming coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adler, P.; Kramer, S.J.; Poddar, S.K. [Bechtel Corp., San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Previous Studies have developed process designs, costs, and economics for the direct liquefaction of Illinois No. 6 and Wyoming Black Thunder coals at mine-mouth plants. This investigation concerns two case studies related to the liquefaction of Wyoming Black Thunder coal. The first study showed that reducing the coal liquefaction reactor design pressure from 3300 to 1000 psig could reduce the crude oil equivalent price by 2.1 $/bbl provided equivalent performing catalysts can be developed. The second one showed that incentives may exist for locating a facility that liquifies Wyoming coal on the Gulf Coast because of lower construction costs and higher labor productivity. These incentives are dependent upon the relative values of the cost of shipping the coal to the Gulf Coast and the increased product revenues that may be obtained by distributing the liquid products among several nearby refineries.

  3. International Coal Report's coal year 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCloskey, G [ed.

    1991-05-31

    Following introductory articles on factors affecting trade in coal and developments in the freight market, tables are given for coal exports and coal imports for major countries worldwide for 1989 and 1990. Figures are also included for coal consumption in Canada and the Eastern bloc,, power station consumption in Japan, coal supply and demand in the UK, electric utility coal consumption and stocks in the USA, coal production in Australia, Canada and USA by state, and world hard coal production. A final section gives electricity production and hard coal deliveries in the EEC, sales of imported and local coal and world production of pig iron and steel.

  4. Preliminary assessment of the health and environmental effects of coal utilization in the midwest. Volume I. Energy scenarios, technology characterizations, air and water resource impacts, and health effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-01

    An initial evaluation of the major health and environmental issues associated with increased coal use in the six midwestern states of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin is presented. Using an integrated assessment approach, the evaluation proceeds from a base-line scenario of energy demand and facility siting for the period 1975 to 2020. Emphasis is placed on impacts from coal extraction, land reclamation, coal combustion for electrical generation, and coal gasification. The range of potential impacts and constraints is illustrated by a second scenario that represents an expected upper limit for coal utilization in Illinois. Included are: (1) a characterization of the energy demand and siting scenarios, coal related technologies, and coal resources, and (2) the related impacts on air quality, water availability, water quality, and human health.

  5. Coal surface control for advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies. Final report, September 19, 1988--August 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morsi, B.I.; Chiang, S.H.; Sharkey, A.; Blachere, J.; Klinzing, G.; Araujo, G.; Cheng, Y.S.; Gray, R.; Streeter, R.; Bi, H.; Campbell, P.; Chiarlli, P.; Ciocco, M.; Hittle, L.; Kim, S.; Kim, Y.; Perez, L.; Venkatadri, R.

    1992-12-31

    This final report presents the research work carried out on the Coal Surface Control for Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning Technologies project, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (DOE/PETC). The project was to support the engineering development of the selective agglomeration technology in order to reduce the sulfur content of US coals for controlling SO{sub 2} emissions (i.e., acid rain precursors). The overall effort was a part of the DOE/PETCs Acid Rain Control Initiative (ARCI). The overall objective of the project is to develop techniques for coal surface control prior to the advanced physical fine coal cleaning process of selective agglomeration in order to achieve 85% pyrite sulfur rejection at an energy recovery greater than 85% based on run-of-mine coal. The surface control is meant to encompass surface modification during grinding and laboratory beneficiation testing. The project includes the following tasks: Project planning; methods for analysis of samples; development of standard beneficiation test; grinding studies; modification of particle surface; and exploratory R&D and support. The coal samples used in this project include three base coals, Upper Freeport - Indiana County, PA, Pittsburgh NO. 8 - Belmont County, OH, and Illinois No. 6 - Randolph County, IL, and three additional coals, Upper Freeport - Grant County- WV, Kentucky No. 9 Hopkins County, KY, and Wyodak - Campbell County, WY. A total of 149 drums of coal were received.

  6. Investigation of trace elements in coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gluskoter, H.J.; Cahil, R.A.; Miller, W.G.; Ruch, R.R.; Shimp, N.F.

    1976-01-01

    A variety of coal samples is currently being extensively analyzed for constituents, including many trace elements, at the Illinois State Geological Survey. The samples include whole coals, washed coals, and bench samples. Among the many determinations made on each sample are analyses for approximately 60 elements, almost twice the number of elements previously determined. The increase is in part the result of the addition of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) equipment to the laboratory. Twenty-five samples of Herrin (No. 6) Coal that had been analyzed previously were subjected to INAA analysis and were found to include Ba, Ce, Cs, Dy, Eu, Au, Hf, I, In, La, Lu, Rb, Sm, Sc, Ag, Sr, Ta, Tb, Th, W, U, and Yb, none of which were reported by previous techniques. These elements generally are present in very small amounts and, with the exception of barium, exhibit no wide range in concentration. The rare earth elements are among those having the narrowest ranges. Wide variations in element content have been observed in bench sets of coals (samples of vertical segments of the coal seam). Many elements, notably germanium, are concentrated at the top and/or bottom of the seam, the high concentrations of Ge being found there in all four bench sets analyzed to date

  7. Converting coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avigliano, A. [Bedeschi (Italy)

    2006-10-15

    In September 2005, Bedeschi was commissioned to design and supply a coal unloading, conveying and storage facility for a new raw coal line system within Hatien II Cement Co. The new plant is composed of a grab unloader, a conveyor system, a storage shed with stacking and reclaiming facilities, a complete dedusting system and civil and steel structure engineering. The scope of supply includes a local fabrication portion; however, main components will be imported. The project will be completed in 21 months. The paper looks into the mechanics of loading and unloading coal. 4 figs., 4 photos.

  8. Determination of coalbed methane potential and gas adsorption capacity in Western Kentucky coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardon, S.M.; Takacs, K.G.; Hower, J.C.; Eble, C.F.; Mastalerz, Maria

    2006-01-01

    The Illinois Basin has not been developed for Coalbed Methane (CBM) production. It is imperative to determine both gas content and other parameters for the Kentucky portion of the Illinois Basin if exploration is to progress and production is to occur in this area. This research is part of a larger project being conducted by the Kentucky Geological Survey to evaluate the CBM production of Pennsylvanian-age western Kentucky coals in Ohio, Webster, and Union counties using methane adsorption isotherms, direct gas desorption measurements, and chemical analyses of coal and gas. This research will investigate relationships between CBM potential and petrographic, surface area, pore size, and gas adsorption isotherm analyses of the coals. Maceral and reflectance analyses are being conducted at the Center for Applied Energy Research. At the Indiana Geological Survey, the surface area and pore size of the coals will be analyzed using a Micrometrics ASAP 2020, and the CO2 isotherm analyses will be conducted using a volumetric adsorption apparatus in a water temperature bath. The aforementioned analyses will be used to determine site specific correlations for the Kentucky part of the Illinois Basin. The data collected will be compared with previous work in the Illinois Basin and will be correlated with data and structural features in the basin. Gas composition and carbon and hydrogen isotopic data suggest mostly thermogenic origin of coalbed gas in coals from Webster and Union Counties, Kentucky, in contrast to the dominantly biogenic character of coalbed gas in Ohio County, Kentucky.

  9. Coal competitiveness?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogeaux, B.

    2006-01-01

    Will coal electrical plants be more competitive in the coming years? Answering this one cannot be limited to merely comparing estimates based on reference electricity production costs. The competitiveness of coal will indeed depend on the final product marketed, as the MWhs are not equal: is the purpose to produce base, half-base MWh? Does the electrical equipment structure require flexible MWh (for instance in the event of significant intermittent renewable energy amounts), and therefore plants able to adjust their power rapidly? But the competitiveness of coal will also depend on many factors that will correct reference cost estimates: uncertainties, risks, externalities. These factors will need to be appreciated on a case by case basis. We introduce some of the reasoning used to better appreciate the future competitiveness of coal, and the main factors conditioning it in three contrasting regions of the world: Europe, USA, china. (author)

  10. An Assessment of Geological Carbon Storage Options in the Illinois Basin: Validation Phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finley, Robert

    2012-12-01

    The Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium (MGSC) assessed the options for geological carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) storage in the 155,400 km{sup 2} (60,000 mi{sup 2}) Illinois Basin, which underlies most of Illinois, western Indiana, and western Kentucky. The region has annual CO{sub 2} emissions of about 265 million metric tonnes (292 million tons), primarily from 122 coal-fired electric generation facilities, some of which burn almost 4.5 million tonnes (5 million tons) of coal per year (U.S. Department of Energy, 2010). Validation Phase (Phase II) field tests gathered pilot data to update the Characterization Phase (Phase I) assessment of options for capture, transportation, and storage of CO{sub 2} emissions in three geological sink types: coal seams, oil fields, and saline reservoirs. Four small-scale field tests were conducted to determine the properties of rock units that control injectivity of CO{sub 2}, assess the total storage resources, examine the security of the overlying rock units that act as seals for the reservoirs, and develop ways to control and measure the safety of injection and storage processes. The MGSC designed field test operational plans for pilot sites based on the site screening process, MVA program needs, the selection of equipment related to CO{sub 2} injection, and design of a data acquisition system. Reservoir modeling, computational simulations, and statistical methods assessed and interpreted data gathered from the field tests. Monitoring, Verification, and Accounting (MVA) programs were established to detect leakage of injected CO{sub 2} and ensure public safety. Public outreach and education remained an important part of the project; meetings and presentations informed public and private regional stakeholders of the results and findings. A miscible (liquid) CO{sub 2} flood pilot project was conducted in the Clore Formation sandstone (Mississippian System, Chesterian Series) at Mumford Hills Field in Posey County, southwestern

  11. Coal - 97

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, C.

    1997-01-01

    The report deals with the use of coal and coke during 1996. Some information about techniques, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from SCB have also been used. The use of steam coal for heating purposes during 1996 was 1,2 mill tons and 50% higher than in 1995. The increase is probably temporary and due to high prices of electricity because of lack of water power. The co-generation plants were the main users of coal. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. Probably the use of steam coal will go down in the immediate years both in the heat generating and the co-generation plants. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hotwater plants and 11 co-generation plants. 1996 these figures are 3 and 12. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in the industry has been constant at the level 700 000 tons. This level is supposed to be constant or to vary with business cycles. The import of metallurgical coal in 1996 was 1,6 mill tons like the year before. 1,2 mill tons coke were produced. The coke consumption in the industry was 1,5 mill tons. 0,3 mill tons of coke were imported. The average price of steam coal imported in Sweden in 1996 was 340 SEK/ton or 2% higher than in 1995. For the world, the average import price was 51,5 USD/ton, nearly the same as the year before. The contract prices for delivery during 1997 are about equal as the end of 1996. All Swedish plants meet their emission limits of dust, SO 2 and NO x given by county administrations or concession boards

  12. Assessment of industrial energy options based on coal and nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, T.D.; Bowers, H.I.; Bryan, R.H.; Delene, J.G.; Hise, E.C.; Jones, J.E. Jr.; Klepper, O.H.; Reed, S.A.; Spiewak, I.

    1975-07-01

    Industry consumes about 40 percent of the total primary energy used in the United States. Natural gas and oil, the major industrial fuels, are becoming scarce and expensive; therefore, there is a critical national need to develop alternative sources of industrial energy based on the more plentiful domestic fuels--coal and nuclear. This report gives the results of a comparative assessment of nuclear- and coal-based industrial energy systems which includes technical, environmental, economic, and resource aspects of industrial energy supply. The nuclear options examined were large commercial nuclear power plants (light-water reactors or high-temperature gas-cooled reactors) and a small [approximately 300-MW(t)] special-purpose pressurized-water reactor for industrial applications. Coal-based systems selected for study were those that appear capable of meeting environmental standards, especially with respect to sulfur dioxide; these are (1) conventional firing using either low- or high-sulfur coal with stack-gas scrubbing equipment, (2) fluidized-bed combustion using high-sulfur coal, (3) low- and intermediate-Btu gas, (4) high-Btu pipeline-quality gas, (5) solvent-refined coal, (6) liquid boiler fuels, and (7) methanol from coal. Results of the study indicated that both nuclear and coal fuel can alleviate the industrial energy deficit resulting from the decline in availability of natural gas and oil. However, because of its broader range of application and relative ease of implementation, coal is expected to be the more important substitute industrial fuel over the next 15 years. In the longer term, nuclear fuels could assume a major role for supplying industrial steam. (U.S.)

  13. Coal -98

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, C.

    1998-01-01

    The following report deals with the use of coal and coke during 1997. Some information about technic, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from SCB have also been used. The use of steam coal for heating purposes during 1997 was 730 000 tons and about 500 000 tons lower than in 1996. The extremely high figures of 1996 were due to twice the production of electricity because of lack of hydro power. The co-generation plants were the main users of coal. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. Probably the use of steam coal will go down in the immediate years both in the heat generating and the co-generating plants. Some foreign analysts, however, estimate a doubled use of coal for energy use after 2020 because of the plans to phase out the nuclear power. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hot water plants and 11 co-generation plants. 1997 these figures are 2 and 8. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in the industry has been constant at the level 700 000 tons. This level is supposed to be constant or to vary with business cycles. The import of metallurgical coal in 1997 was 1.6 mill tons like the year before. 1.2 mill tons coke were produced. The coke consumption in the industry was 1.5 Mill tons. 0.3 mill tons of coke were imported. Several other plants have plans to replace the coal with forest fuels, waste fuels and NG. Even the biggest plant, Vaesteraas, has plans to build a block for bio fuels. Helsingborg has started to use wood pellets. The pellets replace most of the coal for the heat production in the co-generation plant. Norrkoeping Kraft AB has taken a fluid bed boiler for different fuels in operation, leading to more than half the coal consumption compared with previous years. They have also rebuilt one of their travelling grates for bio fuels. Stockholm

  14. Bridge Programs in Illinois: Results of the 2010 Illinois Bridge Status Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J. L.; Harmon, T.

    2010-01-01

    This report provides a summary of major results of the Illinois Bridge Status Survey, administered online between April and June 2010. The purpose of the survey was to understand the extent to which bridge programs are being implemented in Illinois, as well as to build an online directory of bridge programs. Bridge programs are an emerging…

  15. 75 FR 9276 - Harvard Illinois Bancorp, Inc., Harvard, Illinois; Approval of Conversion Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision [AC-35: OTS No. H-4649] Harvard Illinois Bancorp, Inc., Harvard, Illinois; Approval of Conversion Application Notice is hereby given that on February 12, 2010, the Office of Thrift Supervision approved the application of Harvard Savings Bank...

  16. Coal 95

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, C.

    1995-01-01

    The report deals with the use of coal and coke in Sweden during 1994. Some information about technology, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from Statistics Sweden have also been used.The use of steam coal for heating purposes has been unchanged during 1994 at a level of 1 Mtons. The production in the cogeneration plants has been constant, but has increased for electricity production. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. The use of steam coal will probably go down in the next years both for heat and cogeneration plants. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hot water and 11 cogeneration plants. 1994 these figures are 3 and 12. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in industry has been constant at the level 0.7 Mtons. The import of metallurgical coal in 1993 was 1.6 Mtons, like 1992. Import of 0.3 Mtons of coke gives the total consumption of coke in industry as 1.5 Mtons. the average price of steam coal imported to Sweden was 317 SEK/ton, 3% higher than 1993. All Swedish plants meet their emission limit of dust, SO 2 and NO x as given by county administrations or concession boards. The cogeneration plants all have some SO 2 removal system. The biggest cogeneration plant (Vaesteraas) has recently invested in a SCR NO x cleaning system. Most other plants use low NO x burners or SNR injection systems based on ammonia or urea. 2 figs, 13 tabs

  17. Technical report on NEDO-conducted Western US steam coal (for power generation and boiler) survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    The New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) conducted studies covering Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, and North Dakota, all in the West. Illinois and Gulf-Texas are also included. The bituminous coal of Utah and Colorado is given the highest priority as coal to be exported to Japan. It is feared, however, that the price of the bituminous coal from these areas may soar if demand increases. As for sub-bituminous coal, its price is far more stable because its reserves are basically limitless. The sub-bituminous coal, however, is not expected to be imported to Japan in the very near future because it is low in calorific power and fails to meet the conditions prerequisite to Japan's boiler fuel. Illinois can receive large orders but its coal contains more sulfur than the Western coal and a longer distance has to be covered for its transportation. As for transportation to the West Cost, freight cars are available and the port capacity can be enlarged dependent on the magnitude of demand for coal. Loading a deep draft bulk ship off shore with coarse coal slurry by pipeline is an attractive scheme. (NEDO)

  18. Technical report on NEDO-conducted Western US steam coal (for power generation and boiler) survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    The New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) conducted studies covering Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, and North Dakota, all in the West. Illinois and Gulf-Texas are also included. The bituminous coal of Utah and Colorado is given the highest priority as coal to be exported to Japan. It is feared, however, that the price of the bituminous coal from these areas may soar if demand increases. As for sub-bituminous coal, its price is far more stable because its reserves are basically limitless. The sub-bituminous coal, however, is not expected to be imported to Japan in the very near future because it is low in calorific power and fails to meet the conditions prerequisite to Japan's boiler fuel. Illinois can receive large orders but its coal contains more sulfur than the Western coal and a longer distance has to be covered for its transportation. As for transportation to the West Cost, freight cars are available and the port capacity can be enlarged dependent on the magnitude of demand for coal. Loading a deep draft bulk ship off shore with coarse coal slurry by pipeline is an attractive scheme. (NEDO)

  19. Paradise (and Herrin) lost: Marginal depositional settings of the Herrin and Paradise coals, Western Kentucky coalfield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Keefe, J.M.K.; Shultz, M.G.; Rimmer, S.M. [University of Kentucky, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Hower, J.C. [University of Kentucky, Center for Applied Energy Research, 2540 Research Park Dr., Lexington, KY 40511 (United States); Popp, J.T. [Alliance Coal, Lexington, KY 40503 (United States)

    2008-08-05

    This is the fourth installment in a series of papers on the Asturian (Westphalian D) disrupted mire margins, termed the ''ragged edge'' in previous papers, and limestone distributions in the Herrin-Baker coal interval in the Western Kentucky extension of the Illinois Basin. New data, indicating in-situ peat development and marine influence, collected from the first in-mine exposure of this interval are presented. Borehole data from the region are examined in the context of ''ragged edge'' exposures and a carbonate platform depositional model for this portion of the Illinois Basin is presented. This shows that deposition of the sequence was influenced both by the underlying sediments and by a marine transgression. The former influence is seen in variations in coal and limestone thickness over sandstone-filled channels versus over shale bayfill deposits. The latter is marked by the progressive upwards loss of coal benches (i.e., the bottom bench of both coals is the most extensive and the Herrin coal is more extensive than the overlying Paradise coal) and by marine partings in both coals. Further, the brecciated margins seen in both coal seams are similar to brecciated peats encountered along the Everglades margins of Southwest Florida. Overall coal distributions are similar to both those along the Everglades margins and those along a transect from the Belize coast to Ambergis Caye. (author)

  20. Pharmacia Building Q, Skokie, Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2002-12-01

    This case study was prepared as one in a series for the Laboratories for the 21st Century program, a joint endeavor of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program. The goal of this program is to foster greater energy efficiency in new and retrofit laboratory buildings in both the public and the private sectors. The energy-efficient elements of the laboratory featured in this case study-Pharmacia Corporation's new Building Q in Skokie, Illinois-include sustainable design, light-filled interior spaces for daylighting, energy-efficient fume hoods and other equipment, occupancy sensors to reduce lighting loads, and spectrally selective glazing to allow more light and less heat into the building. Water-saving fixtures are used, as well. Building Q has been certified Gold (the second highest rating) through the U.S. Green Building Council's Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) system.

  1. Distribution of sulfur and pyrite in coal seams from Kutai Basin (East Kalimantan, Indonesia): Implications for paleoenvironmental conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widodo, Sri [Department of Mining Engineering, Moslem University of Indonesia, Jln. Urip Sumoharjo, Makassar (Indonesia); Oschmann, Wolfgang [Institute of Geosciece, J.W. Goethe-University, Altenhoeferallee 1, D-60438 Frankfurt a.M. (Germany); Bechtel, Achim; Sachsenhofer, Reinhard F. [Department of Applied Geoscience and Geophysics, University of Leoben, Peter-Tunner-Str.5, A-8700 Leoben (Austria); Anggayana, Komang [Department of Mining Engineering, Bandung Institute of Technology, Jln. Ganesa 10, I-40132 Bandung (Indonesia); Puettmann, Wilhelm [Institute of Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, Dapartment of Analytical Enviromental Chemistry, J.W. Goethe-University, Altenhoeferallee 1, D-60438 Frankfurt a.M. (Germany)

    2010-03-01

    Thirteen Miocene coal samples from three active open pit and underground coal mines in the Kutai Basin (East Kalimantan, Indonesia) were collected. According to our microscopical and geochemical investigations, coal samples from Sebulu and Centra Busang coal mines yield high sulfur and pyrite contents as compared to the Embalut coal mine. The latter being characterized by very low sulfur (< 1%) and pyrite contents. The ash, mineral, total sulfur, iron (Fe) and pyrite contents of most of the coal samples from the Sebulu and Centra Busang coal mines are high and positively related in these samples. Low contents of ash, mineral, total sulfur, iron (Fe) and pyrite have been found only in sample TNT-32 from Centra Busang coal mine. Pyrite was the only sulfur form that we could recognize under reflected light microscope (oil immersion). Pyrite occurred in the coal as framboidal, euhedral, massive, anhedral and epigenetic pyrite in cleats/fractures. High concentration of pyrite argues for the availability of iron (Fe) in the coal samples. Most coal samples from the Embalut coal mine show lower sulfur (< 1 wt.%) and pyrite contents as found within Centra Busang and Sebulu coals. One exception is the coal sample KTD-38 from Embalut mine with total sulfur content of 1.41 wt.%. The rich ash, mineral, sulfur and pyrite contents of coals in the Kutai Basin (especially Centra Busang and Sebulu coals) can be related to the volcanic activity (Nyaan volcanic) during Tertiary whereby aeolian material was transported to the mire during or after the peatification process. Moreover, the adjacent early Tertiary deep marine sediment, mafic igneous rocks and melange in the center of Kalimantan Island might have provided mineral to the coal by uplift and erosion. The inorganic matter in the mire might also originate from the ground and surface water from the highland of central Kalimantan. (author)

  2. Distilling coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blythe, F C

    1914-09-14

    In the destructive distillation of bituminous coal, heavy hydrocarbon oil, such as petroleum, kerosine, shale oil, and heavy tar oil, obtained in some cases during the process, is added to the coal, which is then distilled under pressure and at a comparatively low temperature regulated so as to produce a large proportion of hydrocarbon oils and a small proportion of permanent gas. In one method, about 5 to 10 parts of hydrocarbon oil are mixed with 100 parts of crushed or ground coal, and the mixture is heated in a closed vessel, provided in some cases with an agitator, under a pressure of about 60 lb/in/sup 2/, and the temperature may be gradually raised to 350/sup 0/C and then to about 500/sup 0/C. The heating may be by means of superheated steam with or without external heat.

  3. Mode of occurrence of arsenic in four US coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolker, A.; Huggins, Frank E.; Palmer, C.A.; Shah, N.; Crowley, S.S.; Huffman, G.P.; Finkelman, R.B.

    2000-01-01

    An integrated analytical approach has been used to determine the mode of occurrence of arsenic in samples of four widely used US coals: the Pittsburgh, Illinois #6, Elkhorn/Hazard, and Wyodak. Results from selective leaching, X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy, and electron microprobe analysis show that pyrite is the principal source of arsenic in the three bituminous coals, but the concentration of As in pyrite varies widely. The Wyodak sample contains very little pyrite; its arsenic appears to be primarily associated with organics, as As3+, or as arsenate. Significant (10-40%) fractions of arsenate, derived from pyrite oxidation, are also present in the three bituminous coal samples. This information is essential in developing predictive models for arsenic behavior during coal combustion and in other environmental settings.

  4. The mass transportation problem in Illinois : a final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1959-06-01

    Prepared by the State Mass Transportation Commission for the Honorable William G. Stratton, Governor of Illinois and the Honorable Members of the 71st General Assembly. The study contains the findings and recommendations of the Illinois State Mass Tr...

  5. Public education and enforcement research study : Macomb, Illinois : analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    The Public Education and Enforcement Research Study (PEERS) was a collaborative effort between the Federal Railroad Administration, the Illinois Commerce Commission, and local communities in the State of Illinois. This project was designed to promote...

  6. Infrared absorption characteristics of hydroxyl groups in coal tars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cannon, S A; Chu, C J; Hange, R H; Margrave, J L

    1987-01-01

    Tar evolution was observed over a temperature range of 150-600 C for four coals. Pittsburgh bituminous, Illinois No.6, Rawhide subbituminous, and Texas lignite. Isolation of the evolved tars in a nitrogen matrix at 15 degrees K produced better resolved infrared spectra than those in a coal matrix, thus enhancing structural characterization of the tar molecules. Two distinct hydroxyl functional groups in the tar molecules free of hydrogen bonding were identified for the first time without interference from H/sub 2/O absorptions. These absorptions at 3626.5 cm/sup -1/ have been assigned to phenolic hydroxyls. It is suggested that carboxylic and aliphatic hydroxyl groups do not survive the vaporization process. Tars from Illinois No.6 were found to contain the largest amount of phenolic hydroxyl; Pittsburgh No. 8 tar contains approximately half of that for Illinois No.6 while Rawhide and Texas lignite contain much less phenolic than either of the other coals. 10 references, 6 figures, 1 table.

  7. Sorption mechanism of solvent vapors to coals; Sekitan eno yobai joki no shuchaku kiko no kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, K.; Takanohashi, T.; Iino, M. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Institute for Chemical Reaction Science

    1996-10-28

    With an objective to clarify the interactions between micropore structure of coal and solvent reagents, a sorption experiment was carried out under solvent saturated vapor pressure. Low-volatile bituminous coal, Pocahontas No. 3 coal, has the aromatic ring structure developed, and makes solvent more difficult to diffuse into coal, hence sorption amount is small. Methanol has permeated since its polarity is high. High-volatile bituminous coal, Illinois No. 6 coal, makes solvent penetrate easily, and the sorption amount was large with both of aromatic and polar solvents. Since brown coal, Beulah Zap coal, contains a large amount of oxygen, and hydrogen bonding is predominant, sorption amount of cyclohexane and benzene having no polarity is small. Methanol diffuses while releasing hydrogen bond due to its polarity, and its sorption amount is large. A double sorption model is available, which expresses the whole sorption amount as a sum of physical sorption amount and amount of permeation into coal. This model was applied when it explained successfully the sorption behavior of the solvents relative to coals, excepting some of the systems. However, also observed were such abnormal behavior as sorption impediment due to interactions between coal surface and solvents, and permeation impediment due to hydroxyl groups inside the coals. 1 ref., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Geochemistry of ultra-fine and nano-compounds in coal gasification ashes: A synoptic view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kronbauer, Marcio A. [Centro Universitário La Salle, Mestrado em Avaliação de Impactos Ambientais em Mineração, Victor Barreto, 2288 Centro, 92010-000 Canoas, RS (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Escola de Engenharia, Departamento de Metalurgia, Centro de Tecnologia, Av. Bento Gonçalves, 9500, Bairro Agronomia, CEP: 91501-970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Izquierdo, Maria [School of Applied Sciences, Cranfield University, Bedfordshire MK43 0AL (United Kingdom); Dai, Shifeng [State Key Laboratory of Coal Resources and Safe Mining, China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing 100083 (China); Waanders, Frans B. [School of Chemical and Minerals Engineering, North West University (Potchefstroom campus), Potchefstroom 2531 (South Africa); Wagner, Nicola J. [School of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa); Mastalerz, Maria [Indiana Geological Survey, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405-2208 (United States); Hower, James C. [University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, 2540 Research Park Drive, Lexington, KY 40511 (United States); Oliveira, Marcos L.S. [Environmental Science and Nanotechnology Department, Catarinense Institute of Environmental Research and Human Development, IPADHC, Capivari de Baixo, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Taffarel, Silvio R.; Bizani, Delmar [Centro Universitário La Salle, Mestrado em Avaliação de Impactos Ambientais em Mineração, Victor Barreto, 2288 Centro, 92010-000 Canoas, RS (Brazil); and others

    2013-07-01

    The nano-mineralogy, petrology, and chemistry of coal gasification products have not been studied as extensively as the products of the more widely used pulverized-coal combustion. The solid residues from the gasification of a low- to medium-sulfur, inertinite-rich, volatile A bituminous coal, and a high sulfur, vitrinite-rich, volatile C bituminous coal were investigated. Multifaceted chemical characterization by XRD, Raman spectroscopy, petrology, FE-SEM/EDS, and HR-TEM/SEAD/FFT/EDS provided an in-depth understanding of coal gasification ash-forming processes. The petrology of the residues generally reflected the rank and maceral composition of the feed coals, with the higher rank, high-inertinite coal having anisotropic carbons and inertinite in the residue, and the lower rank coal-derived residue containing isotropic carbons. The feed coal chemistry determines the mineralogy of the non-glass, non-carbon portions of the residues, with the proportions of CaCO{sub 3} versus Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} determining the tendency towards the neoformation of anorthite versus mullite, respectively. Electron beam studies showed the presence of a number of potentially hazardous elements in nanoparticles. Some of the neoformed ultra-fine/nano-minerals found in the coal ashes are the same as those commonly associated with oxidation/transformation of sulfides and sulfates. - Highlights: • Coal waste geochemisty can provide increased environmental information in coal-mining areas. • Oxidation is the major process for mineral transformation in coal ashes. • The electron bean methodology has been applied to investigate neoformed minerals.

  9. Coal Mines Security System

    OpenAIRE

    Ankita Guhe; Shruti Deshmukh; Bhagyashree Borekar; Apoorva Kailaswar; Milind E.Rane

    2012-01-01

    Geological circumstances of mine seem to be extremely complicated and there are many hidden troubles. Coal is wrongly lifted by the musclemen from coal stocks, coal washeries, coal transfer and loading points and also in the transport routes by malfunctioning the weighing of trucks. CIL —Coal India Ltd is under the control of mafia and a large number of irregularities can be contributed to coal mafia. An Intelligent Coal Mine Security System using data acquisition method utilizes sensor, auto...

  10. Coal at the crossroads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaroni, A.W.; Davis, A.; Schobert, H.; Gordon, R.L.; Ramani, R.V.; Frantz, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    Worldwide coal reserves are very large but coal suffers from an image of being an environmentally unfriendly and inconvenient fuel. Aspects discussed in the article include: coal's poor image; techniques for coal analysis, in particular instrumented techniques; developments in clean coal technology e.g. coal liquefaction, fluidized bed combustion, co-generation and fuel slurries; the environmental impact of mining and land reclamation; and health aspects. It is considered that coal's future depends on overcoming its poor image. 6 photos

  11. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies - froth flotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferris, D.D.; Bencho, J.R. [ICF Kaiser Engineers, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    In 1988, ICF Kaiser Engineers was awarded DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-88PC88881 to research, develop, engineer and design a commercially acceptable advanced froth flotation coal cleaning technology. The DOE initiative is in support of the continued utilization of our most abundant energy resource. Besides the goal of commercialability, coal cleaning performance and product quality goals were established by the DOE for this and similar projects. primary among these were the goals of 85 percent energy recovery and 85 percent pyrite rejection. Three nationally important coal resources were used for this project: the Pittsburgh No. 8 coal, the Upper Freeport coal, and the Illinois No. 6 coal. Following is a summary of the key findings of this project.

  12. Hydrodeoxygenation of coal using organometallic catalyst precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Stephen R.

    2002-04-01

    The objective of this dissertation was to determine the desirability of organometallic compounds for the hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of coal during liquefaction. The primary focus of this study was the removal of phenol-like compounds from coal liquids for the production of a thermally stable jet fuel. Investigation of the HDO ability of an organometallic compound containing both cobalt and molybdenum (CoMo-T2) was achieved using a combination of model compound and coal experiments. Model compounds were chosen representing four oxygen functional groups present in a range of coals. Electron density and bond order calculations were performed for anthrone, dinaphthyl ether, xanthene, di-t-butylmethylphenol, and some of their derivatives to ascertain a potential order of hydrogenolysis and hydrogenation reactivity for these compounds. The four model compounds were then reacted with CoMo-T2, as well as ammonium tetrathiomolybdate (ATTM). Products of reaction were grouped as compounds that had undergone deoxygenation, those that had aromatic rings reduced, those that were products of both reaction pathways, and those produced through other routes. ATTM had an affinity for both reaction types. Its reaction order for the four model compounds with respect to deoxygenated compounds was the same as that estimated from electron density calculations for hydrogenolysis reactivity. CoMo-T2 appeared to show a preference toward hydrogenation, although deoxygenated products were still achieved in similar, or greater, yields, for almost all the model compounds. The reactivity order achieved for the four compounds with CoMo-T2 was similar to that estimated from bond order calculations for hydrogenation reactivity. Three coals were selected representing a range of coal ranks and oxygen contents. DECS-26 (Wyodak), DECS-24 (Illinois #6), and DECS-23 (Pittsburgh #8) were analyzed by CPMAS 13C NMR and pyrolysis-GC-MS to determine the functional groups comprising the oxygen content of these

  13. Coal industry annual 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  14. Coal industry annual 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs

  15. Coal marketing manual 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    This manual provides information on the international coal market in tabulated format. Statistics are presented for the Australian coal industry, exports, currency movements, world coal production, coal and coke imports and exports. Detailed information is provided on the Australian coal industry including mine specific summaries. Pricing summaries for thermal and coking coal in 1987, coal quality standards and specifications, trends in coal prices and stocks. Imports and exports for World coal and coke, details of shipping, international ports and iron and steel production. An exporters index of Australian and overseas companies with industry and government contacts is included. 15 figs., 67 tabs.

  16. Coal industry annual 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-11-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs

  17. Coal industry annual 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  18. Coal Industry Annual 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995.

  19. Coal Industry Annual 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995

  20. Coal and Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Reba; And Others

    This teaching unit explores coal as an energy resource. Goals, student objectives, background information, and activity options are presented for each major section. The sections are: (1) an introduction to coal (which describes how and where coal was formed and explains the types of coal); (2) the mining of coal (including the methods and ways of…

  1. Integrated engineering and cost model for management of coal combustion byproducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevim, H. [Department of Mining Engineering, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, Carbondale, Illinois (United States); Renninger, S. [US Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center, Morgantown, West Virginia (United States)

    1998-07-01

    An integrated engineering and cost model has been developed as a part of an overall research project for exploring the technical, environmental and economic feasibility of disposing coal combustion byproducts and flue gas desulfurisation products in underground coal mines in Illinois. The features of the model have been keyed in user-friendly software. In this paper, the purpose and the structure of the model are described. The capabilities of the software are illustrated through an example involving transportation of byproducts in containers from a power plant to a mine site, and subsequent placement of the byproducts in a abandoned underground coal mine using a hydraulic injection system. 3 refs.

  2. Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Accounting Services Cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

    These Illinois skill standards for the accounting services cluster are intended to serve as a guide to workforce preparation program providers as they define content for their programs and to employers as they establish the skills and standards necessary for job acquisition. They could also serve as a mechanism for communication among education,…

  3. Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Welding Cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

    These Illinois skill standards for the welding cluster are intended to serve as a guide to workforce preparation program providers as they define content for their programs and to employers as they establish the skills and standards necessary for job acquisition. They could also serve as a mechanism for communication among education, business,…

  4. Elder Abuse and Neglect: The Illinois Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois State Dept. on Aging, Springfield.

    This document outlines the ideas of the Illinois Department of Aging on the implementation and management of the Elder Abuse and Neglect Intervention Program. These topics are addressed in order to provide a basis for discussion of key elements of the proposed program and serve as a guide in the development of rules, policies, and procedures for…

  5. Illinois Walls in alternative market structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schinkel, M.P.; Tuinstra, J.

    2005-01-01

    This note extends on our paper Illinois Walls: How Barring Indirect Purchaser Suits Facilitates Collusion (Schinkel, Tuinstra and Rüggeberg, 2005, henceforth STR). It presents analyses of two alternative, more competitive, market structures to conclude that when the conditions for existence of

  6. Substitutes for School Nurses in Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollinger, Linda Jeno; Bergren, Martha Dewey; Belmonte-Mann, Frances

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive study was to explore utilization of nurse substitutes in the school setting in Illinois. The literature described personnel who staff the school health office in the absence of the school nurse and the barriers to obtaining nurse substitutes. There were no empirical studies conducted on school nurse substitutes in…

  7. Mathematics Placement at the University of Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlgren Reddy, Alison; Harper, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Data from the ALEKS-based placement program at the University of Illinois is presented visually in several ways. The placement exam (an ALEKS assessment) contains precise item-specific information and the data show many interesting properties of the student populations of the placement courses, which include Precalculus, Calculus, and Business…

  8. Computer Activities in Illinois Secondary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, J. Richard; And Others

    A brief, non-technical questionnaire was sent to 875 secondary school administrators (primarily principals) in the State of Illinois. Information was collected in four areas: (1) general school characteristics, (2) availability and use of computers, (3) perceived need for and qualifications of teachers of computer science, and (4) perceived need…

  9. Coal -94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, C.

    1994-05-01

    This report deals with use of coal and coke during 1993; information about techniques, environmental questions and markets are also given. Use of steamcoal for heating purposes has been reduced about 3 % during 1993 to 1,0 mill tons. This is the case especially for the heat generating boilers. Production in co-generation plants has been constant and has increased for electricity production. Minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels, LPG and NG. Use of steamcoal will probably go down in the immediate years both in heat generating and co-generating plants. Coal-based electricity has been imported from Denmark during 1993 corresponding to about 400 000 tons of coal, when several of our nuclear plants were stopped. Use of steamcoal in the industry has been constant at 700 000 tons. This level is supposed to be constant or to vary with business cycles. The import of metallurgical coal in 1993 was 1,6 mill tons like the year before. 1,2 mill tons coke were produced. Coke consumption in industry was 1,4 mill tons. 0,2 mill tons of coke were imported. Average price of steamcoal imported to Sweden in 1993 was 308 SEK/ton or 13 % higher than in 1992; this can be explained by the dollar price level increasing 34% in 1993. For the world, the average import price was 50,0 USD/ton, a decrease of 6 %. The coal market during 1993 was affected by less consumption in Europe, shut downs of European mines and decreasing prices. High freight price raises in Russia has affected the Russian export and the market in northern Europe. The prices have been stabilized recently. All Swedish plants meet emission limits of dust, SO 2 and NO x . Co-generation plants all have some sort of SO 2 -removal system; the wet-dry method is mostly used. A positive effect of the recently introduced NO x -duties is a 40% reduction

  10. Distribution of trace elements in selected pulverized coals as a function of particle size and density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, C.L.; Zeng, T.; Che, J.; Ames, M.R.; Sarofim, A.F.; Olmez, I.; Huggins, Frank E.; Shah, N.; Huffman, G.P.; Kolker, A.; Mroczkowski, S.; Palmer, C.; Finkelman, R.

    2000-01-01

    Trace elements in coal have diverse modes of occurrence that will greatly influence their behavior in many coal utilization processes. Mode of occurrence is important in determining the partitioning during coal cleaning by conventional processes, the susceptibility to oxidation upon exposure to air, as well as the changes in physical properties upon heating. In this study, three complementary methods were used to determine the concentrations and chemical states of trace elements in pulverized samples of four US coals: Pittsburgh, Illinois No. 6, Elkhorn and Hazard, and Wyodak coals. Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) was used to measure the absolute concentration of elements in the parent coals and in the size- and density-fractionated samples. Chemical leaching and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy were used to provide information on the form of occurrence of an element in the parent coals. The composition differences between size-segregated coal samples of different density mainly reflect the large density difference between minerals, especially pyrite, and the organic portion of the coal. The heavy density fractions are therefore enriched in pyrite and the elements associated with pyrite, as also shown by the leaching and XAFS methods. Nearly all the As is associated with pyrite in the three bituminous coals studied. The sub-bituminous coal has a very low content of pyrite and arsenic; in this coal arsenic appears to be primarily organically associated. Selenium is mainly associated with pyrite in the bituminous coal samples. In two bituminous coal samples, zinc is mostly in the form of ZnS or associated with pyrite, whereas it appears to be associated with other minerals in the other two coals. Zinc is also the only trace element studied that is significantly more concentrated in the smaller (45 to 63 ??m) coal particles.

  11. Coal statistics 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Statistical Office of the European Communities

    1978-01-01

    Presents tables of data relating to the coal market in the European Community in 1977. The tables cover hard coal production, supply and trade; briquettes; cokes; lignite, brown coal briquettes and peat; and mines and coke ovens.

  12. Australian coal yearbook 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aylward, A [ed.

    1989-01-01

    This yearbook contains a mine directory; details of coal export facilities and ports; annual coal statistics; a buyers' guide; names and addresses of industry organisations and an index of coal mine owners.

  13. Coal industry annual 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-06

    Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993.

  14. Coal industry annual 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993

  15. Australian black coal statistics 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    This second edition of Australian black coal statistics replaces the Joint Coal Board's publication 'Black coal in Australia'. It includes an expanded international coal trade supplement. Sections cover resources of black coal, coal supply and demand, coal production, employment and productivity of mines, export data, coal consumption and a directory of producers.

  16. Thermal relaxation of bituminous coal to improve donation ability of hydrogen radicals in flash pyrolysis; Sekitan kozo kanwa ni yoru suiso radical kyoyo noryoku no kojo wo mezashita netsubunkai mae shori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, T.; Isoda, T.; Kusakabe, K.; Morooka, S. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Hayashi, J. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan). Center for Advanced Research of Energy Technology

    1996-10-28

    In terms of coal conversion reaction, the behavior of bituminous coal heated beyond a glass transition point was examined on the basis of pyrolyzed products, and the effect of an increase in proton mobility on promotion of coal decomposition was evaluated. In experiment, after Illinois bituminous coal specimen was heated up to a specific temperature in N2 or He gas flow at a rate of 5K/min, the specimen was directly transferred to a pyrolyzer for instantaneous pyrolysis. As the experimental result, the glass transition temperature of the Illinois coal specimen was calculated to be 589K from a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) profile. From the pyrolysis result of the Illinois coal specimen heated up to 623K, the char yield decreased by 3kg as compared with that of the original coal, while the tar yield increased by 4kg up to 27kg per 100kg of the original coal. This tar increase was larger than that of cooled coal. These results suggested that the donation of hydrogen radicals to coal fragments is improved with an increase in proton mobility. 4 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  17. 1982 Australian coal conference papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    This third Australian coal conference included papers discussing the market for coal, finance and investment, use of computers, mining, coal research, coal preparation and waste disposal, marketing and trade, and the transport of coal. All papers have been individually abstracted.

  18. Meeting of Commission of International Committee on Petrology of Coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timofeev, P P; Bogolyubova, L I

    1982-03-01

    In Urbana, Illinois from 18-20 May 1979 the XXXII session of the International Committee on Petrology met. Reports were made on standards for the study of bituminous and anthracite coals. Use of reflective capacity of vitrain to determine coalification of coals was discussed along with a proposition to establish numerical boundaries between brown, bituminous and anthracite coals. The re-editing of the International Dictionary on Petrology of Coals was agreed upon in view of new facts on microcomponents of coal and methods of studying them. The next meeting of the Commission took place at Ostrav, Czechoslovakia from 14-26 April 1980. At the plenary session, new officials were elected and agreement to re-edit the Dictionary on Petrology of Coals was confirmed. At the meeting of the Commission on Coal Petrography the question of the determination of components of coal by quantitative diagnosis, and results of determining components of vitrain by measuring its reflective capacity were reported on. At the meeting of the Committee on Applying Facts of Petrology in Geology, the classification of solid oil bitumen and organic substance of sediments was discussed. At the meeting of the Committee on the Application of the Petrology of Coals in Industry, attention was given to discussing basic parameters for the international classification of coals to be presented at the meeting of the Economic Commission of Europe in Geneva. In the final plenary session of the commission, results of discussions were summarized. The next session was to be held in France in 1981. (In Russian)

  19. Sulfur Rich Coal Gasification and Low Impact Methanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Bassani

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent times, the methanol was employed in numerous innovative applications and is a key compound widely used as a building block or intermediate for producing synthetic hydrocarbons, solvents, energy storage medium and fuel. It is a source of clean, sustainable energy that can be produced from traditional and renewable sources: natural gas, coal, biomass, landfill gas and power plant or industrial emissions. An innovative methanol production process from coal gasification is proposed in this work. A suitable comparison between the traditional coal to methanol process and the novel one is provided and deeply discussed. The most important features, with respect to the traditional ones, are the lower carbon dioxide emissions (about 0.3% and the higher methanol production (about 0.5% without any addition of primary sources. Moreover, it is demonstrated that a coal feed/fuel with a high sulfur content allows higher reductions of carbon dioxide emissions. The key idea is to convert hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide into syngas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide by means of a regenerative thermal reactor. This is the Acid Gas to Syngas technology, a completely new and effective route of processing acid gases. The main concept is to feed an optimal ratio of hydrogen sulphide and carbon monoxide and to preheat the inlet acid gas before the combustion. The reactor is simulated using a detailed kinetic scheme.

  20. Ultravitrinite coals from Chukotka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapo, A.V.; Letushova, I.A.

    1979-03-01

    Chemical and petrographic analysis was conducted on coals from the Anadyrya and Bukhti Ugol'noi deposits. Characteristics of the most prevalent type of vitrinite coals in both regions are presented here. Anadyrya coals belong to a transitional phase between brown coal and long flame. Ultravitrinite coals predominate. Gas coals from Bukti Ugol'noi have a higher carbon content than Anadyrya coals. They also have a higher hydrogen content and yield of initial resin. In several cases there was also a higher yield of volatile substances. Chukotka coals are characterized by a 10 percent higher initial resin yield than equally coalified Donetsk coals, other indicators were equal to those of Donetsk coals. Because of this, Chukotka coals are suitable for fuel in power plants and as raw materials in the chemical industry. (15 refs.) (In Russian)

  1. HIGH PRESSURE COAL COMBUSTON KINETICS PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefano Orsino

    2005-03-30

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) initiative to improve the efficiency of coal-fired power plants and reduce the pollution generated by these facilities, DOE has funded the High-Pressure Coal Combustion Kinetics (HPCCK) Projects. A series of laboratory experiments were conducted on selected pulverized coals at elevated pressures with the specific goals to provide new data for pressurized coal combustion that will help extend to high pressure and validate models for burnout, pollutant formation, and generate samples of solid combustion products for analyses to fill crucial gaps in knowledge of char morphology and fly ash formation. Two series of high-pressure coal combustion experiments were performed using SRI's pressurized radiant coal flow reactor. The first series of tests characterized the near burner flame zone (NBFZ). Three coals were tested, two high volatile bituminous (Pittsburgh No.8 and Illinois No.6), and one sub-bituminous (Powder River Basin), at pressures of 1, 2, and 3 MPa (10, 20, and 30 atm). The second series of experiments, which covered high-pressure burnout (HPBO) conditions, utilized a range of substantially longer combustion residence times to produce char burnout levels from 50% to 100%. The same three coals were tested at 1, 2, and 3 MPa, as well as at 0.2 MPa. Tests were also conducted on Pittsburgh No.8 coal in CO2 entrainment gas at 0.2, 1, and 2 MPa to begin establishing a database of experiments relevant to carbon sequestration techniques. The HPBO test series included use of an impactor-type particle sampler to measure the particle size distribution of fly ash produced under complete burnout conditions. The collected data have been interpreted with the help of CFD and detailed kinetics simulation to extend and validate devolatilization, char combustion and pollutant model at elevated pressure. A global NOX production sub-model has been proposed. The submodel reproduces the performance of the detailed chemical

  2. Coal Tar and Coal-Tar Pitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about coal-tar products, which can raise your risk of skin cancer, lung cancer, and other types of cancer. Examples of coal-tar products include creosote, coal-tar pitch, and certain preparations used to treat skin conditions such as eczema, psoriasis, and dandruff.

  3. Combustion and emissions characterization of pelletized coal fuels. Technical report, December 1, 1992--February 28, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajan, S. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Energy Processes

    1993-05-01

    The aim of this project is to demonstrate that sorbent-containing coal pellets made from low grade coal or coal wastes are viable clean burning fuels, and to compare their performance with that of standard run-of-mine coal. Fuels to be investigated are: (a) carbonated pellets containing calcium hydroxide sorbent, (b) coal fines-limestone pellets with cornstarch as binder, (c) pellets made from preparation plant recovered coal containing limestone sorbent and gasification tar as binder, and (d) a standard run-of-mine Illinois seam coal. The fuels will be tested in a laboratory scale 411 diameter circulating fluidized bed combustor. Progress this quarter has centered on the development of a hydraulic press based pellet mill capable of the high compaction pressures necessary to produce the gasification tar containing pellets outlined in (c) above. Limited quantities of the pellets have been made, and the process is being fine tuned before proceeding into the production mode. Tests show that the moisture content of the coal is an important parameter that needs to be fixed within narrow limits for a given coal and binder combination to produce acceptable pellets. Combustion tests with these pellet fuels and the standard coal are scheduled for the next quarter.

  4. Test and evaluate the tri-gas low-Btu coal-gasification process. Final report, October 21, 1977-October 31, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabetakis, M.G.

    1980-12-01

    This report describes the continuation of work done to develop the BCR TRI-GAS multiple fluidized-bed gasification process. The objective is the gasification of all ranks of coals with the only product being a clean, low-Btu fuel gas. Design and construction of a 100 lb/h process and equipment development unit (PEDU) was completed on the previous contract. The process consists of three fluid-bed reactors in series, each having a specific function: Stage 1 - pretreatment; Stage 2- - gasification; Stage 3 - maximization of carbon utilization. Under the present contract, 59 PEDU tests have been conducted. A number of these were single-stage tests, mostly in Stage 1; however, integrated PEDU tests were conducted with a western coal (Rosebud) and two eastern coals (Illinois No. 6 and Pittsburgh seam). Both Rosebud and Pittsburgh seam coals were gasified with the PEDU operating in the design mode. Operation with Illinois No. 6 seam coal was also very promising; however, time limitations precluded further testing with this coal. One of the crucial tasks was to operate the Stage 1 reactor to pretreat and devolatilize caking coals. By adding a small amount of air to the fluidizing gas, the caking properties of the coal can be eliminated. However, it was also desirable to release a high percentage of the volatile matter from the coal in this vessel. To accomplish this, the reactor had to be operated above the agglomerating temperature of caking coals. By maintaining a low ratio of fresh to treated coal, this objective was achieved. Both Illinois No. 6 and Pittsburgh seam coals were treated at temperatures of 800 to 900 F without agglomerating in the vessel.

  5. Record coking coal settlements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macdonald, C.

    2005-02-01

    The US$100/tonne psychological barrier in coking coal prices has been well and truly smashed. The article examines developments in coal pricing. It includes quotes from many senior executives in the coal industry as collected at McCloskey's Australian Coal.04 conference held in Sydney, 18-19 November 2004. 2 photos.

  6. COAL Conference Poster

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Taylor Alexander; McGibbney, Lewis John

    2017-01-01

    COAL Conference Poster This archive contains the COAL conference poster for the AGU Fall Meeting 2017 by Taylor Alexander Brown. The Inkscape SVG source is available at https://github.com/capstone-coal/coal-conference-poster/ under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International license.

  7. Effect of intermolecular cohesion on coal liquefaction. 3. Reactivity of oxygen methylated coal; Sekitan teibunshika hanno ni okeru bunshikan gyoshuryoku no koka. 3. O-methyl ka tan no hanno tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, M.; Nagaishi, H.; Yoshida, T. [Hokkaido National Industrial Research Institute, Sapporo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    The reactivity of oxygen methylated coal was studied to control hydrogen bond in bituminous coal liquefaction and intermolecular cohesion such as van der Waals force. In experiment, crushed and dried Illinois coal of 100mesh or less was used as specimen, and oxygen methylated coal was prepared by Liotta`s method using tetrabutylammonium halide. Coal liquefaction was conducted in an electromagnetic agitation autoclave using tetralin solvent under initial hydrogen pressure of 100kg/cm{sup 2} while heating. The molecular weight distribution of the products obtained was measured by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) analysis. The experimental results are as follows. The effect of intermolecular cohesion in bituminous coal on the reactivity is mainly derived from decomposing reaction from preasphaltene to oil. Yields of oil fraction by methylation increase corresponding to release of intermolecular cohesion. Since the thermal release is promoted with temperature rise, the difference in yield due to different treatments decreases. 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Coal supply and transportation markets during Phase One: Change, risk and opportunity. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, J.N.; Kaplan, S.

    1996-01-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) required many utilities to sharply reduce sulfur emissions by January 1, 1995. This study describes and analyzes how the coal and transportation markets responded to this major development. The study focuses on five key coal supply regions and their associated transportation networks: the Uinta Basin (Colorado/Utah), Wyoming Powder River Basin, Illinois Basin, Monongahela region (Pittsburgh seam) and the central Appalachian region. From these regional studies, the report identifies key risk areas for future coal planning and general lessons for the fuels planning process. The study provides statistical information on coal production, demand, and transportation flows for each region. The analysis for each region focuses on developments which were generally unexpected; e.g., the relatively large volumes of medium-sulfur coal produced in the Illinois Basin and Monongahela region, the eastern penetration of Utah and Colorado coals, and the relatively modest growth in demand for central Appalachian coals. These developments generally worked to the advantage of utilities; i.e., medium- and low-sulfur coal was available at a lower price, in greater volumes and from a wider range of sources than many had expected. Utilities both took advantage of and helped to encourage these developments in the coal and transportation market. Looking ahead to Phase 11 strategies and future coal procurement, a major challenge will be to maintain the choice among supply and transportation alternatives which was so important to utility success in Phase 1. The report identifies rail transportation to be the major area of risk in most regions

  9. Coal option. [Shell Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    This paper notes the necessity of developing an international coal trade on a very large scale. The role of Shell in the coal industry is examined; the regions in which Shell companies are most active are Australia, Southern Africa, Indonesia; Europe and North America. Research is being carried out on marketing and transportation, especially via slurry pipelines; coal-oil emulsions; briquets; fluidized-bed combustion; recovery of coal from potential waste material; upgrading of low-rank coals; unconventional forms of mining; coal conversion (the Shell/Koppers high-pressure coal gasification process). Techniques for cleaning flue gas (the Shell Flue Gas Desulfurization process) are being examined.

  10. Coal information 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This volume is a comprehensive reference book on current world coal market trends and long-term prospects to 2010. It contains an in-depth analysis of the 1995 international coal market covering prices, demand, trade, supply and production capacity as well as over 450 pages of country specific statistics on OECD and key non-OECD coal producing and consuming countries. The book also includes a summary of environmental policies on climate change and on coal-related air quality issues as well as essential facts on coal-fired power stations in coal-importing regions, on coal ports world-wide and on emission standards for coal-fired boilers in OECD countries. Coal Information is one of a series of annual IEA statistical publications on major energy sources; other reports are Oil and Gas Information and Electricity Information. Coal Information 1995 is published in July 1996. (author)

  11. Coal yearbook 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This book is the first coal yearbook published by ATIC (France). In a first chapter, economical context of coal worldwide market is analyzed: comparative evaluations on coal exports and imports, coal industry, prices, production in USA, Australia, South Africa, China, former USSR, Poland, Colombia, Venezuela and Indonesia are given. The second chapter describes the french energy context: national coal production, imports, sectorial analysis, maritime transport. The third chapter describes briefly the technologies of clean coal and energy saving developed by Charbonnages de France: fossil-fuel power plants with combined cycles and cogeneration, fluidized beds for the recovery of coal residues, recycling of agricultural wastes (sugar cane wastes) in thermal power plant, coal desulfurization for air pollution abatement. In the last chapter, statistical data on coal, natural gas and crude oil are offered: world production, world imports, world exports, french imports, deliveries to France, coal balance, french consumption of primary energy, power generation by fuel type

  12. Analysis of material flow in a utillzation technology of low grade manganese ore and sulphur coal complementary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo-Zhi; Deng, Biao; Su, Shi-Jun; Ding, Sang-Lan; Sun, Wei-Yi

    2018-03-01

    Electrolytic manganese is conventionally produced through low-grade manganese ore leaching in SO2, with the combustion of high sulfur coal. Subsequently the coal ash and manganese slag, produced by the combustion of high sulfur coal and preparation of electrolytic manganese, can be used as raw ingredients for the preparation of sulphoaluminate cement. In order to realize the `coal-electricity-sulfur-manganese-building material' system of complementary resource utilization, the conditions of material inflow and outflow in each process were determined using material flow analysis. The material flow models in each unit and process can be obtained by analyzed of material flow for new technology, and the input-output model could be obtained. Through the model, it is possible to obtain the quantity of all the input and output material in the condition of limiting the quantity of a substance. Taking one ton electrolytic manganese as a basis, the quantity of other input material and cements can be determined with the input-output model. The whole system had thusly achieved a cleaner production level. Therefore, the input-output model can be used for guidance in practical production.

  13. ACR coal 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    This publication is a comprehensive reference document on production, exports, prices and demand of coal in world markets. A forecast of demand by coal type and country up to the year 2000 is provided. Statistics of the Australian export industry are complemented by those of South Africa, USA, Canada, Indonesia, China, C.I.S. and Colombia. A very comprehensive coal quality specification for nearly all the coal brands exported from Australia, as well as leading non-Australian coal brands, is included.

  14. Assessing coal burnout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowe, A. [Pacific Power, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    1999-11-01

    Recent research has allowed a quantitative description of the basic process of burnout for pulverized coals to be made. The Cooperative Research Centre for Black Coal Utilization has built on this work to develop a coal combustion model which will allow plant engineers and coal company representatives to assess their coals for combustion performance. The paper describes the model and its validation and outlines how it is run. 2 figs.

  15. Fiscal 1999 report on results of joint demonstrative project for environmentally benign coal utilization system. Demonstrative project concerning coal preparation technology (China); 1999 nendo kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kyodo jissho jigyo seika hokokusho. Sentan gijutsu ni kakawaru jissho jigyo (Chugoku)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    This paper describes the demonstrative project for coal preparation technology, as a part of the measures against environmental pollution due to the structuring of demonstration and dissemination basis for clean coal technologies in China, The results for fiscal 1999 is reported. In the utilization of coal in China, a problem of urgency is the highly efficient selection and removal of sulfur contents in raw coal. Coal production in Chongquing City is yearly 30 million tons, of which 90% contains sulfur contents of 3% or higher. At Jinjia Colliery of Panjiang Coal and Electric Co. Ltd., Guizhou Province, a site for the present project, a number of coal seams are unsuitable for single utilization because of high sulfur contents. The coal preparation technologies to be introduced are expected to improve coal preparation efficiency and desulfurization ratio in terms of both the washability of raw coal and the accuracy of the coal washer. This is the third year of the project, with the following activities performed, namely, research/design, manufacturing/procurement of equipment, design for construction work, training of operators or the like, and documentation. The manufacturing and procurement are for such equipment as vacuum disk filter with accessories, waste water thickener, pressure filter for tailings with accessories, flocculant pump/piping, slurry tank/pump, high-shear mixer with accessories, and electric instrumentation. All the equipment arrived at the site in January, 2001. (NEDO)

  16. Safe Driving in Illinois. A Manual to Accompany the Illinois Rules of the Road.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Gail; Nowack, Linda

    Designed to accompany and supplement the Illinois Rules of the Road manual, this book is intended to better prepare future drivers for the written test for the instruction permit or driver's license. It includes many pictures and shows and describes driving situations a driver will probably face when behind the wheel. Parts dealing with important…

  17. Guide for Migrants in the State of Illinois = Guia para Migrantes en el Estado de Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langemach, Sharon; Koepplinger, Jessica

    Prepared for migrant farmworkers traveling in the State of Illinois, the booklet, written in English and Spanish, provides basic information on (1) employment conditions--requirements of crew leaders and employers, deductions from wages, and laws regulating child labor; (2) housing--conditions of the camp grounds and of living units; (3)…

  18. Desulfurization and denitrogenation of coal during multi-stage hydropyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, N.; Li, W.; Li, B. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan (China). State Key Lab of Coal Conversion

    2001-02-01

    The elemental composition of char of high sulfur Hongmiao coal in multi-stage hydropyrolysis (MHyPy) with different heating rates were analysed and compared with that from normal hydropyrolysis (HyPy). The results illustrated that the sulfur removal in MHyPy was greater than that in HyPy, and more sulfur was evolved as the easily recycled gas H{sub 2}S. Similar with the situation of sulfur, more nitrogen transferred to the gas phase easily to be dealt with and the clean char was obtained. During MHyPy the extent of desulfurization and denitrogenation was more remarkable at high rate than that at slow heating rate. 8 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Interrelating the breakage and composition of mined and drill core coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Terril Edward

    Particle size distribution of coal is important if the coal is to be beneficiated, or if a coal sales contract includes particle size specifications. An exploration bore core sample of coal ought to be reduced from its original cylindrical form to a particle size distribution and particle composition that reflects, insofar as possible, a process stream of raw coal it represents. Often, coal cores are reduced with a laboratory crushing machine, the product of which does not match the raw coal size distribution. This study proceeds from work in coal bore core reduction by Australian investigators. In this study, as differentiated from the Australian work, drop-shatter impact breakage followed by dry batch tumbling in steel cylinder rotated about its transverse axis are employed to characterize the core material in terms of first-order and zeroth-order breakage rate constants, which are indices of the propensity of the coal to degrade during excavation and handling. Initial drop-shatter and dry tumbling calibrations were done with synthetic cores composed of controlled low-strength concrete incorporating fly ash (as a partial substitute for Portland cement) in order to reduce material variables and conserve difficult-to-obtain coal cores. Cores of three different coalbeds--Illinois No. 6, Upper Freeport, and Pocahontas No. 5 were subjected to drop-shatter and dry batch tumbling tests to determine breakage response. First-order breakage, characterized by a first-order breakage index for each coal, occurred in the drop-shatter tests. First- and zeroth-order breakage occurred in dry batch tumbling; disappearance of coarse particles and creation of fine particles occurred in a systematic way that could be represented mathematically. Certain of the coal cores available for testing were dry and friable. Comparison of coal preparation plant feed with a crushed bore core and a bore core prepared by drop-shatter and tumbling (all from the same Illinois No.6 coal mining

  20. Development of economical and high efficient desulfurization process using low rank coal; Teitankadotan wo mochiita ankana kokoritsu datsuryuho no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takarada, Y; Kato, K; Kuroda, M; Nakagawa, N [Gunma University, Gunma (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Roman, M [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo, (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    Experiment reveals the characteristics of low rank coal serving as a desulfurizing material in fluidized coal bed reactor with oxygen-containing functional groups exchanged with Ca ions. This effort aims at identifying inexpensive Ca materials and determining the desulfurizing characteristics of Ca-carrying brown coal. A slurry of cement sludge serving as a Ca source and low rank coal is agitated for the exchange of functional groups and Ca ions, and the desulfurizing characteristics of the Ca-carrying brown coal is determined. The Ca-carrying brown coal and high-sulfur coal char is mixed and incinerated in a fluidized bed reactor, and it is found that a desulfurization rate of 75% is achieved when the Ca/S ratio is 1 in the desulfurization of SO2. This rate is far higher than the rate obtained when limestone or cement sludge without preliminary treatment is used as a desulfurizer. Next, Ca-carrying brown coal and H2S are caused to react upon each other in a fixed bed reactor, and then it is found that desulfurization characteristics are not dependent on the diameter of the Ca-carrying brown coal grain, that the coal is different from limestone in that it stays quite active against H2S for long 40 minutes after the start of the reaction, and that CaO small in crystal diameter is dispersed in quantities into the char upon thermal disintegration of Ca-carrying brown coal to cause the coal to say quite active. 5 figs.

  1. Coal information 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Coal Information (1997 edition) is the latest edition of a publication that has been produced annually by the IEA since 1983. The report is intended to provide both Member countries of the OECD and those employed in all sectors of the coal industry with information on current world coal market trends and long-term prospects. It includes information on coal prices, demand, trade, supply, production capacity, transport, environmental issues (including emission standards for coal-fired boilers), coal ports, coal-fired power stations and coal used in non -OECD countries. Part I of the publication contains a wide ranging review of world coal market developments in 1996 and current prospects to 2010. The review is based on historical data of OECD energy supply and demand, data on other world regions, projections of OECD coal supply, demand and trade and information provided by the CIAB. Part II provides, in tabular and graphical form, a more detailed and comprehensive statistical picture of coal developments and future prospects for coal in the OECD, by region and for individual Member countries. Readers interested in projections are strongly advised to read the notes for individual countries in Principles and Definitions in Part II. Coal statistics for non-OECD countries are presented in Part III of the book. Summary data are available on hard coal supply and end-use statistics for about 40 countries and regions world-wide. Data are based on official national submissions to the United Nations in Geneva and New York, national energy publications, information provided to the IEA Secretariat by national statistical offices as well as other unofficial Secretariat sources. Further information on coal used in non-OECD countries is published annually by the IEA in Energy Statistics and Balances of Non-OECD Countries. Also included in Part III are the Survey of Coal Ports world-wide and the Survey of Coal-fired Power Stations in coal-importing countries

  2. Characteristics of Illinois School Districts That Employ School Nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searing, Lisabeth M.; Guenette, Molly

    2016-01-01

    Research indicates that school nursing services are cost-effective, but the National Association of School Nurses estimates that 25% of schools do not have a school nurse (SN). The purpose of this study was to identify the characteristics of Illinois school districts that employed SNs. This was a secondary data analysis of Illinois School Report…

  3. Financial Reporting Practices in Illinois Public Community Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeadas, Gus J.

    A study was conducted to determine how well Illinois' 38 community college districts satisfied the needs of board members, creditors, investors, and tax payers for financial information. A list of 38 financial reporting requirements was developed from the requirements of the Illinois Community College Board (ICCB) and guidelines from the Audits of…

  4. 75 FR 52963 - Illinois; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... the damage in certain areas of the State of Illinois resulting from severe storms and flooding during... declaration of a major disaster for the State of Illinois (FEMA-1935-DR), dated August 19, 2010, and related... assistance is supplemental, any Federal funds provided under the Stafford Act for Hazard Mitigation and Other...

  5. 76 FR 57022 - Coastal Zone Management Program: Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic And Atmospheric Administration Coastal Zone Management Program: Illinois AGENCY: Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management (OCRM), National Oceanic and...: Illinois has submitted a coastal management program to NOAA for approval under the Coastal Zone Management...

  6. Formal Dismissal Procedures Under Illinois Teacher Tenure Laws. Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Newell N.; And Others

    This handbook, an updated and revised version of the 1975 original, contains the new statutory requirements, state board of education rules, and court decisions pertaining to teacher dismissal in Illinois. This handbook is designed to acquaint Illinois school administrators and school board members with the legal procedures necessary in dismissal…

  7. Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: In-Store Retailing Cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

    This document, which is intended to serve as a guide for work force preparation program providers, details the Illinois occupational skill standards for programs preparing students for employment in occupations in the in-store retailing cluster. The document begins with a brief overview of the Illinois perspective on occupational skill standards…

  8. 77 FR 2286 - Northern Illinois Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 12717-002] Northern Illinois Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Meeting a. Date and Time of Meeting: Thursday, January 26, 2012 from 11... Meeting: Commission staff will meet with Northern Illinois Hydropower, LLC to discuss potentially moving...

  9. 75 FR 40816 - Northern Illinois Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 12626-002; Project No. 12717-002] Northern Illinois Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Meeting July 7, 2010. a. Date and Time of Meeting: Thursday, July 22, 2010 from 9 a.m. to 12 p.m. CDT. b. Place: Illinois Historic Preservation...

  10. Continuous monitoring of sediment and nutrients in the Illinois River at Florence, Illinois, 2012-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrio, Paul J.; Straub, Timothy D.; Domanski, Marian M.; Siudyla, Nicholas A.

    2015-01-01

    The Illinois River is the largest river in Illinois and is the primary contributing watershed for nitrogen, phosphorus, and suspended-sediment loading to the upper Mississippi River from Illinois. In addition to streamflow, the following water-quality constituents were monitored at the Illinois River at Florence, Illinois (U.S. Geological Survey station number 05586300), during May 2012–October 2013: phosphate, nitrate, turbidity, temperature, specific conductance, pH, and dissolved oxygen. The objectives of this monitoring were to (1) determine performance capabilities of the in-situ instruments; (2) collect continuous data that would provide an improved understanding of constituent characteristics during normal, low-, and high-flow periods and during different climatic and land-use seasons; (3) evaluate the ability to use continuous turbidity as a surrogate constituent to determine suspended-sediment concentrations; and (4) evaluate the ability to develop a regression model for total phosphorus using phosphate, turbidity, and other measured parameters. Reliable data collection was achieved, following some initial periods of instrument and data-communication difficulties. The resulting regression models for suspended sediment had coefficient of determination (R2) values of about 0.9. Nitrate plus nitrite loads computed using continuous data were found to be approximately 8 percent larger than loads computed using traditional discrete-sampling based models. A regression model for total phosphorus was developed by using historic orthophosphate data (important during periods of low flow and low concentrations) and historic suspended-sediment data (important during periods of high flow and higher concentrations). The R2of the total phosphorus regression model using orthophosphorus and suspended sediment was 0.8. Data collection and refinement of the regression models is ongoing.

  11. Illinois energy conservation plan report: 1979 revision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-02-01

    In response to Energy Policy and this Conservation Act (PL 94-163) and Energy Conservation and Production Act (PL 94-385), this paper describes the activities to be undertaken by Illinois to meet the mandatory requirements of the Acts and to carry out other activities to encourage energy conservation by energy-consuming sectors in the state. Programs reach the residential, commercial/industrial, agricultural, educational, transportation, and government sectors. The overall goal of the program is to reduce projected energy consumption in 1980 by 5% through information and educational activities.

  12. The increase in extraction yields of coals by water treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Iino; T. Takanohashi; C. Li; N. Kashimura; K. Masaki; T. Shishido; I. Saito; H. Kumagai [Institute for Energy Utilization, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Ibaraki (Japan)

    2005-07-01

    We have reported that the water treatments of bituminous coals at 600 K for 1 h increased their extraction yields greatly (Energy Fuels, 2005, 18, 1414). In this paper the effect of coal rank on the extraction yields enhancement by the water treatment has been investigated using four Argonne Premium coals, i.e., Pocahontas No. 3 (PO), Upper Freeport (UF), Illinois No.6 (IL), and Beulah Zap (BZ) coals with C % (daf) in the range 67 - 90%. All the coals used show that the water treatments at 600 K increased the extraction yields greatly with a 1:1 carbon disulfide / N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone mixed solvent (CS2 / NMP) at room temperature. While, the water treatments at 500 K or the heat treatments at 600 K without water gave little increase in the yields. Characterizations of the water-treated coals were carried out from ultimate and proximate compositions, FT-IR spectrum, solvent swelling, NMR relaxation time, and viscoelasticity behavior. The effect of extraction temperature on the extraction yield enhancement was also investigated using polar NMP or non-polar 1-MN solvent. From these results it is concluded that for high coal rank coals the loosening of non-covalent bonds is responsible for the extraction yields enhancement by the water treatment. The loosening non-covalent bonds may be {pi}-{pi} interactions between aromatic rings for PO, and both {pi}-{pi} interactions and hydrogen bonds for UF. While, for lower rank IL and BZ, which showed decrease in O% and hydrogen-bonded OH, the yield enhancements may be due to the loosening of hydrogen bonds and the removal of oxygen functional groups. 9 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Trends in Japanese coal trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, S

    1986-01-01

    The author discusses 1) the latest forecast for coal demand in Japan; 2) trends in Japanese steam coal demand, with breakdown by industry; 3) the organization of steam coal supply, with details of the distribution network and of the new coal cartridge system; 4) the demand for metallurgical coal. Other topics outlined include the current status of Japanese coal production, Japanese coal trade, and the development of overseas coal resources. 1 figure, 5 tables.

  14. Nitrogen in Chinese coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, D.; Lei, J.; Zheng, B.; Tang, X.; Wang, M.; Hu, Jiawen; Li, S.; Wang, B.; Finkelman, R.B.

    2011-01-01

    Three hundred and six coal samples were taken from main coal mines of twenty-six provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities in China, according to the resource distribution and coal-forming periods as well as the coal ranks and coal yields. Nitrogen was determined by using the Kjeldahl method at U. S. Geological Survey (USGS), which exhibit a normal frequency distribution. The nitrogen contents of over 90% Chinese coal vary from 0.52% to 1.41% and the average nitrogen content is recommended to be 0.98%. Nitrogen in coal exists primarily in organic form. There is a slight positive relationship between nitrogen content and coal ranking. ?? 2011 Science Press, Institute of Geochemistry, CAS and Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

  15. Coal marketing manual 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    This manual presents information for the use of marketers, consumers, analysts and investors. The information is presented in a series of tables and figures. Statistics are given for: Australian export tonnages and average export values for 1978-1985; international pig iron production 1976 to 1985; and international crude steel production 1979 to 1985. Trends in Australian export tonnages and prices of coal are reviewed. Details of international loading and discharge ports are given, together with a historical summary of shipping freight-rates since 1982. Long term contract prices for thermal and coking coal to Japan are tabulated. A review of coal and standards is given, together with Australian standards for coal and coke. A section on coal quality is included containing information on consumer coal quality preferences and Australian and Overseas coal brands and qualities. Finally an index is given of contact details of Australian and Overseas exporting companies, government departments, and the Australian Coal Association.

  16. Coal worker's pneumoconiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000130.htm Coal worker's pneumoconiosis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Coal worker's pneumoconiosis (CWP) is a lung disease that ...

  17. Increase in extraction yields of coals by water treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masashi Iino; Toshimasa Takanohashi; Chunqi Li; Haruo Kumagai [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba (Japan). Institute for Energy Utilization

    2004-10-01

    The effect of water treatment at 500 and 600 K on solvent extractions of Pocahontas No. 3 (PO), Upper Freeport (UF), and Illinois No. 6 (IL) coals was investigated. All the coals used show that the water treatments at 600 K increased the extraction yields greatly in the extractions with a 1:1 carbon disulfide/N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (CS{sub 2}/NMP) mixed solvent, NMP, or 1-methylnaphthalene (1-MN). However, the water treatments at 500 K and the heat treatments at 600 K without water gave only a slight increase in the yields. Characterizations of the water-treated coals were performed using ultimate and proximate compositions, Fourier transform infrared analysis, solvent swelling, nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation time, and viscoelasticity behavior. The swelling degree in methanol and toluene was increased by the water treatment at 600 K, suggesting that crosslinks become loosened by the treatment. The results of infrared analysis and the extraction temperature dependency of the extraction yields with NMP and 1-MN suggest that the loosening of {pi} - interactions, and of both {pi} - interactions and hydrogen bonds, are responsible for the yield enhancements for PO and UF coals, respectively. However, for IL coal, which exhibited a decrease in oxygen content and the amount of hydrogen-bonded OH, suggesting the occurrence of some chemical reactions, the yield enhancements may be due to the relaxation of hydrogen bonds and the removal of oxygen functional groups, such as the breaking of ether bonds. 17 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Partitioning of selected trace elements in coal combustion products from two coal-burning power plants in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Sharon M.; Engle, Mark A.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Affolter, Ronald H.; Jones, Kevin B.

    2013-01-01

    Samples of feed coal (FC), bottom ash (BA), economizer fly ash (EFA), and fly ash (FA) were collected from power plants in the Central Appalachian basin and Colorado Plateau to determine the partitioning of As, Cr, Hg, Pb, and Se in coal combustion products (CCPs). The Appalachian plant burns a high-sulfur (about 3.9 wt.%) bituminous coal from the Upper Pennsylvanian Pittsburgh coal bed and operates with electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), with flue gas temperatures of about 163 °C in the ESPs. At this plant, As, Pb, Hg, and Se have the greatest median concentrations in FA samples, compared to BA and EFA. A mass balance (not including the FGD process) suggests that the following percentages of trace elements are captured in FA: As (48%), Cr (58%), Pb (54%), Se (20%), and Hg (2%). The relatively high temperatures of the flue gas in the ESPs and low amounts of unburned C in FA (0.5% loss-on-ignition for FA) may have led to the low amount of Hg captured in FA. The Colorado Plateau plant burns a blend of three low-S (about 0.74 wt.%) bituminous coals from the Upper Cretaceous Fruitland Formation and operates with fabric filters (FFs). Flue gas temperatures in the baghouses are about 104 °C. The elements As, Cr, Pb, Hg, and Se have the greatest median concentrations in the fine-grained fly ash product (FAP) produced by cyclone separators, compared to the other CCPs at this plant. The median concentration of Hg in FA (0.0983 ppm) at the Colorado Plateau plant is significantly higher than that for the Appalachian plant (0.0315 ppm); this higher concentration is related to the efficiency of FFs in Hg capture, the relatively low temperatures of flue gas in the baghouses (particularly in downstream compartments), and the amount of unburned C in FA (0.29% loss-on-ignition for FA).

  19. Fording Canadian Coal Trust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popowich, J.; Millos, R. [Elk Valley Coal Corporation, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    This is the first of five slide/overhead presentations presented at the Fording Canadian Coal Trust and Tech Cominco Ltd. investor day and mine tour. The Fording Canadian Coal Trust is described. The Trust's assets comprise six Elk Valley metallurgical coal mines and six wollastonite operations (in the NYCO Group). Trust structure, corporate responsibility, organizational structure, reserves and resources, management philosophy, operating strategies, steel market dynamics, coal market, production expansion, sales and distribution are outlined. 15 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Coal. [1987 and 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-06-01

    Despite increases in recently negotiated coal prices in US dollar terms, unit export returns for Australian coal are expected to rise only marginally in 1988-89 due to the anticipated appreciation of the Australian dollar. Australian coal production is expected to recover in 1988-89, after falling in 1987-88. A table summarising coal statistics in 1985-87 is presented. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Review biodepyritisation of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acharya, C.; Sukla, L.B.; Misra, V.N. [Regional Research Lab., Orissa (India)

    2004-01-01

    This review provides a detailed summary of the recent and past research activities in the area of biodesulfurisation of coal. It provides information about microorganisms important for biodesulfurisation of coal, with the emphasis on Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. The review presents an insight into various methods of desulfurisation of coal combining physical and biological methods. Also, there are discussions on coal structure, distribution, mechanism and kinetics of pyrite oxidation and jarosite precipitation. Finally, areas requiring further research are identified.

  2. Coal dust symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-01

    This paper gives a report of the paper presented at the symposium held in Hanover on 9 and 10 February 1981. The topics include: the behaviour of dust and coal dust on combustion and explosion; a report on the accidents which occurred at the Laegerdorf cement works' coal crushing and drying plant; current safety requirements at coal crushing and drying plant; and coal crushing and drying. Four papers are individually abstracted. (In German)

  3. Coal world market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    A brief analysis of major tendencies in the world market of coal is presented. It is pointed out that recent years, by and large, were favourable for the development of the world coal industry. Prices for coal (both for power-grade and coking one) in 1995 after many years of depressive state increased by nearly 20 % and reached a maximum of the last decade. International coal trading continues to grow and the tendency may persist in the mext two years

  4. Inorganic Constituents in Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rađenović A.

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Coal contains not only organic matter but also small amounts of inorganic constituents. More thanone hundred different minerals and virtually every element in the periodic table have been foundin coal. Commonly found group minerals in coal are: major (quartz, pyrite, clays and carbonates,minor, and trace minerals. Coal includes a lot of elements of low mass fraction of the orderof w=0.01 or 0.001 %. They are trace elements connected with organic matter or minerals comprisedin coal. The fractions of trace elements usually decrease when the rank of coal increases.Fractions of the inorganic elements are different, depending on the coal bed and basin. A varietyof analytical methods and techniques can be used to determine the mass fractions, mode ofoccurrence, and distribution of organic constituents in coal. There are many different instrumentalmethods for analysis of coal and coal products but atomic absorption spectroscopy – AAS is theone most commonly used. Fraction and mode of occurrence are one of the main factors that haveinfluence on transformation and separation of inorganic constituents during coal conversion.Coal, as an important world energy source and component for non-fuels usage, will be continuouslyand widely used in the future due to its relatively abundant reserves. However, there is aconflict between the requirements for increased use of coal on the one hand and less pollution onthe other. It’s known that the environmental impacts, due to either coal mining or coal usage, canbe: air, water and land pollution. Although, minor components, inorganic constituents can exert asignificant influence on the economic value, utilization, and environmental impact of the coal.

  5. Application of EREP, LANDSAT, and aircraft image data to environmental problems related to coal mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, R. V.; Russell, O. R.; Martin, K. R.; Wier, C. E.

    1975-01-01

    Remote sensing techniques were used to study coal mining sites within the Eastern Interior Coal Basin (Indiana, Illinois, and western Kentucky), the Appalachian Coal Basin (Ohio, West Virginia, and Pennsylvania) and the anthracite coal basins of northeastern Pennsylvania. Remote sensor data evaluated during these studies were acquired by LANDSAT, Skylab and both high and low altitude aircraft. Airborne sensors included multispectral scanners, multiband cameras and standard mapping cameras loaded with panchromatic, color and color infrared films. The research conducted in these areas is a useful prerequisite to the development of an operational monitoring system that can be peridically employed to supply state and federal regulatory agencies with supportive data. Further research, however, must be undertaken to systematically examine those mining processes and features that can be monitored cost effectively using remote sensors and for determining what combination of sensors and ground sampling processes provide the optimum combination for an operational system.

  6. Hard coal; Steinkohle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loo, Kai van de; Sitte, Andreas-Peter [Gesamtverband Steinkohle e.V., Herne (Germany)

    2013-04-01

    The year 2012 benefited from a growth of the consumption of hard coal at the national level as well as at the international level. Worldwide, the hard coal still is the number one energy source for power generation. This leads to an increasing demand for power plant coal. In this year, the conversion of hard coal into electricity also increases in this year. In contrast to this, the demand for coking coal as well as for coke of the steel industry is still declining depending on the market conditions. The enhanced utilization of coal for the domestic power generation is due to the reduction of the nuclear power from a relatively bad year for wind power as well as reduced import prices and low CO{sub 2} prices. Both justify a significant price advantage for coal in comparison to the utilisation of natural gas in power plants. This was mainly due to the price erosion of the inexpensive US coal which partly was replaced by the expansion of shale gas on the domestic market. As a result of this, the inexpensive US coal looked for an outlet for sales in Europe. The domestic hard coal has continued the process of adaptation and phase-out as scheduled. Two further hard coal mines were decommissioned in the year 2012. RAG Aktiengesellschaft (Herne, Federal Republic of Germany) running the hard coal mining in this country begins with the preparations for the activities after the time of mining.

  7. Coal economics and taxation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    These proceedings contain opening remarks, the luncheon and dinner addresses, list of delegates and the papers presented at the four sessions on Coal Mines cost money - for what.; Coal mines cost money - Where the money comes from; taxation and royalty policies; and the coal industry view on operating costs. Sixteen papers are abstracted separately.

  8. The Clean Coal Technology Program 100 MWe demonstration of gas suspension absorption for flue gas desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, F.E.; Hedenhag, J.G. [AirPol Inc., Teterboro, NJ (United States); Marchant, S.K.; Pukanic, G.W. [Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center; Norwood, V.M.; Burnett, T.A. [Tennessee Valley Authority, Chattanooga, TN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    AirPol Inc., with the cooperation of the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) under a Cooperative Agreement with the United States Department of Energy, installed and tested a 10 MWe Gas Suspension Absorption (GSA) Demonstration system at TVA`s Shawnee Fossil Plant near Paducah, Kentucky. This low-cost retrofit project demonstrated that the GSA system can remove more than 90% of the sulfur dioxide from high-sulfur coal-fired flue gas, while achieving a relatively high utilization of reagent lime. This paper presents a detailed technical description of the Clean Coal Technology demonstration project. Test results and data analysis from the preliminary testing, factorial tests, air toxics texts, 28-day continuous demonstration run of GSA/electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and 14-day continuous demonstration run of GSA/pulse jet baghouse (PJBH) are also discussed within this paper.

  9. Self-scrubbing coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindig, J.K.

    1992-01-01

    More than 502 million tons - 65 percent of all coal shipped to utilities in 1990 - were above 1.2 pounds of sulfur dioxide per million Btu. Most of the coal, even though cleaned in conventional coal preparation plants, still does not meet the emission limitation the Clean Air Act Amendments mandate for the year 2000. To cope with this fact, most utilities plan to switch to low sulfur (western U.S. or Central Appalachian) coal or install scrubbers. Both solutions have serous drawbacks. Switching puts local miners out of work and weakens the economy in the utility's service territory. Scrubbing requires a major capital expenditure by the utility. Scrubbers also increase the operating complexity and costs of the generating station and produce yet another environmental problem, scrubber sludge. Employing three new cost-effective technologies developed by Customer Coals International (CCl), most non-compliance coals east of the Mississippi River can be brought into year-2000 compliance. The compliance approach employed, depends upon the characteristics of the raw coal. Three types of raw coal are differentiated, based upon the amount of organic sulfur in the coals and the ease (or difficultly) of liberating the pyrite. They are: Low organic sulfur content and pyrite that liberates easily. Moderate organic sulfur content and pyrite that liberates easily. High organic sulfur content or the pyrite liberates with difficulty. In this paper examples of each type of raw coal are presented below, and the compliance approach employed for each is described. The names of the beneficiated coal products produced from each type of raw coal give above are: Carefree Coal, Self-Scrubbing Coal and Dry-Scrubbing Coal

  10. Australian Coal Company Risk Factors: Coal and Oil Prices

    OpenAIRE

    M. Zahid Hasan; Ronald A. Ratti

    2014-01-01

    Examination of panel data on listed coal companies on the Australian exchange over January 1999 to February 2010 suggests that market return, interest rate premium, foreign exchange rate risk, and coal price returns are statistically significant in determining the excess return on coal companies’ stock. Coal price return and oil price return increases have statistically significant positive effects on coal company stock returns. A one per cent rise in coal price raises coal company returns ...

  11. Executive summary - Geologic assessment of coal in the Gulf of Mexico coastal plain, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, Peter D.; Warwick, Peter D.; Karlsen, Alexander K.; Merrill, Matthew D.; Valentine, Brett J.

    2011-01-01

    The National Coal Resource Assessment (NCRA) project of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has assessed the quantity and quality of the nation's coal deposits that potentially could be mined during the next few decades. For eight years, geologic, geochemical, and resource information was collected and compiled for the five major coal-producing regions of the United States: the Appalachian Basin, Illinois Basin, Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains, Colorado Plateau, and the western part of the Gulf of Mexico Coastal Plain (Gulf Coast) region (Figure 1). In particular, the NCRA assessed resource estimates, compiled coal-quality information, and characterized environmentally sensitive trace elements, such as arsenic and mercury, that are mentioned in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1990). The results of the USGS coal assessment efforts may be found at: http://energy.cr.usgs.gov/coal/coal-assessments/index.html and a summary of the results from all assessment areas can be found in Ruppert et al. (2002) and Dennen (2009).Detailed assessments of the major coal-producing areas for the Gulf Coast region along with reviews of the stratigraphy, coal quality, resources, and coalbed methane potential of the Cretaceous, Paleocene, and Eocene coal deposits are presented in this report (Chapters 5-10).

  12. Problems in reclaiming farmland in Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandt, A F

    1981-09-01

    It is concluded that land newly mined for coal should not immediately be planted with corn. A legume-grass mixture should be seeded to permit the restored land to settle properly. During the settling period, the soil's chemical, physical and biological aspects will also stabilize. Therefore, a crop rotation should include alfalfa or similar legumes along with the corn-soybean raw crops.

  13. Coal Data: A reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of Coal Data: A Reference is to provide basic information on the mining and use of coal, an important source of energy in the United States. The report is written for a general audience. The goal is to cover basic material and strike a reasonable compromise between overly generalized statements and detailed analyses. The section ''Coal Terminology and Related Information'' provides additional information about terms mentioned in the text and introduces new terms. Topics covered are US coal deposits, resources and reserves, mining, production, employment and productivity, health and safety, preparation, transportation, supply and stocks, use, coal, the environment, and more. (VC)

  14. The Marketing Performance of Illinois and Kansas Wheat Farmers

    OpenAIRE

    Dietz, Sarah N.; Aulerich, Nicole M.; Irwin, Scott H.; Good, Darrel L.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the marketing performance of wheat farmers in Illinois and Kansas over 1982-2004. The results show that farmer benchmark prices for wheat in Illinois and Kansas fall in the middle-third of the price range about half to three-quarters of the time. Consistent with previous studies, this refutes the contention that Illinois and Kansas wheat farmers routinely market the bulk of their wheat crop in the bottom portion of the price range. Tests of the aver...

  15. Inventory of Rare of Endangered Vascular Plants Occurring in the Floodplain of the Mississippi River between Cairo, Illinois, and St. Paul, Minnesota, and in the Floodplain of the Illinois River between Grafton, Illinois, and Chicago,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    counties). ramily Cyperaceae Cyperus iria L. Illinois (Alexander). Family Ranunculaceae Ranunculus sardous Crantz. Illinois (Jackson, Union). Family ...adventive floodplain species is appended. P1 r 4 Sagittaria calycina Engelm. Arrowhead Family Alismataceae Status: Not rare nor endangered. This usually...spongia (Bosc) Steud. Frogbit Family Hydrocharitaceae Status: Rare (Illinois). This is a Coastal Plain species which ranges from Texas to Florida and

  16. Desulfurization and denitrogenation in copyrolysis of coal with hydrogen-rich gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, H.; Li, B.; Zhang, B. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan (China). Institute of Coal Chemistry

    1999-06-01

    Desulfurization and denitrogenation were systematically investigated by analyzing the chars and tars from copyrolysis of Yanzhou high sulfur bituminous coal with coke-oven gas (COG), synthesis gas (SG) and hydrogen. The results indicated that under the conditions of 3MPa, up to 650{degree}C with a heating rate of 10{degree}C/min, the desulfurization of coal pyrolysis with COG, SG and hydrogen were almost equal (about 80%, w%, ad), the order of denitrogenation were: hydrogen (41%) {gt} SG(35%) {gt} COG(30%). The distributions of sulfur in char, oil and gas was very similar under the three reactive gases, i.e., about 205 in char, 105 in tar and 70% (diff.) in gas, respectively. Compared with hydropyrolysis at the same hydrogen partial pressure, the desulfurization of coal pyrolysis with coke oven gas was increased by about 4.5%, while the denitrogenation was decreased by about 3.5%. There is an important desulfurization advantage for hydropyrolysis using COG and SG instead of pure hydrogen. Compared with the copyrolysis of coal with COG, Yanzhou coal pyrolysis under SG can achieve the same level of desufurization but higher denitrogenation. 11 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Desulfurization of coal by pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis with addition of KOH/NaOH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quanrun Liu; Haoquan Hu; Shengwei Zhu; Qiang Zhou; Wenying Li; Xianyong Wei; Kechang Xie [Dalian University of Technology, Dalian (China). Institute of Coal Chemical Engineering

    2005-08-01

    In this paper, a two-step desulfurization process for high-sulfur coal was investigated. Two Chinese coals with the addition of 10 wt % potassium hydroxide or sodium hydroxide were pyrolyzed under an atmosphere of nitrogen or hydrogen in a fixed-bed reactor at 600{sup o}C, and then the obtained chars were washed with hot water. The results indicated that, without the addition of an alkali component, the sulfur removal of these two coals by pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis is {approximately}40%-50% and the sulfur content of chars is reduced only slightly, in comparison with the original coals; with the addition of 10 wt % potassium hydroxide or sodium hydroxide into the original coals and the chars being washed with hot water, the sulfur removal is {approximately}70%-80% and the sulfur content in chars is reduced dramatically. The combustion behavior of chars was also investigated, using thermogravimetric analysis. The results showed that those chars that had an added alkali component and were subjected to water-washing were more reactive and can be burned more easily than those without added alkali, which was also confirmed by a kinetics analysis of char combustion. 21 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. Coal and public perceptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, R.C.

    1993-01-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) clean coal outreach efforts are described. The reason why clean coal technology outreach must be an integral part of coal's future is discussed. It is important that we understand the significance of these advances in coal utilization not just in terms of of hardware but in terms of public perception. Four basic premises in the use of coal are presented. These are: (1) that coal is fundamentally important to this nation's future; (2) that, despite premise number 1, coal's future is by no means assured and that for the last 10 years, coal has been losing ground; (3) that coal's future hinges on the public understanding of the benefits of the public's acceptance of advanced clean coal technology; and (4) hat public acceptance of clean coal technology is not going to be achieved through a nationwide advertising program run by the Federal government or even by the private sector. It is going to be gained at the grassroots level one community at a time, one plant at a time, and one referendum at a time. The Federal government has neither the resources, the staff, nor the mandate to lead the charge in those debates. What is important is that the private sector step up to the plate as individual companies and an individual citizens working one-one-one at the community level, one customer, one civic club, and one town meeting at a time

  19. Indonesian coal export potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millsteed, Ch.; Jolly, L.; Stuart, R.

    1993-01-01

    Indonesia's coal mining sector is expanding rapidly. Much of the increase in coal production since the mid-1980s has been exported. Indonesian coal mining companies have large expansion programs and continuing strong export growth is projected for the remainder of the 1990s. The low mining costs of indonesian coal, together with proximity to Asian markets, mean that Indonesia is well placed to compete strongly with other thermal coal exporters and win market share in the large and expanding thermal coal market in Asia. However, there is significant uncertainty about the likely future level of Indonesia's exportable surplus of coal. The government's planned expansion in coal fired power generation could constrain export growth, while the ability of producers to meet projected output levels is uncertain. The purpose in this article is to review coal supply and demand developments in Indonesia and, taking account of the key determining factors, to estimate the level of coal exports from Indonesia to the year 2000. This time frame has been chosen because all currently committed mine developments are expected to be on stream by 2000 and because it is difficult to project domestic demand for coal beyond that year. 29 refs., 8 tabs., 7 figs

  20. Catalytic hydrotreatment of coal-derived naphtha using commercial catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liaw, S.-J.; Keogh, R.A.; Thomas, G.A.; Davis, B.H. (University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research)

    Naphtha samples derived from the liquefaction of a bituminous Illinois No. 6 and a subbituminous Black Thunder coal were hydrotreated using commercial Co-Mo/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3], Ni-Mo/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3], and Ni-W/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] catalysts. It was easier to remove the N, O and S heteroatoms from Illinois No. 6 naphtha than from the Black Thunder naphtha. Nitrogen and oxygen were more difficult to remove than sulfur in the temperature range 200-400[degree]C. Considerable differences in catalyst activity for the hydrodenitrogenation (HDN), hydrodeoxygenation (HDO), and hydrodesulfurization (HDS) reactions were observed. The Ni-Mo catalyst was found to be the most active catalyst for the HDN and HDO reactions and the least active catalyst for the HDS. The Co-Mo catalyst was the most active catalyst for the sulfur removal. For the Illinois No. 6 naphtha, a first-order reaction applies for the HDN and HDO reactions for all three catalysts. However, for the Black Thunder naphtha, the first-order reaction applies only at the lower space velocities; a large deviation is observed at higher space velocities. 11 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Coal; Le charbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teissie, J.; Bourgogne, D. de; Bautin, F. [TotalFinaElf, La Defense, 92 - Courbevoie (France)

    2001-12-15

    Coal world production represents 3.5 billions of tons, plus 900 millions of tons of lignite. 50% of coal is used for power generation, 16% by steel making industry, 5% by cement plants, and 29% for space heating and by other industries like carbo-chemistry. Coal reserves are enormous, about 1000 billions of tons (i.e. 250 years of consumption with the present day rate) but their exploitation will be in competition with less costly and less polluting energy sources. This documents treats of all aspects of coal: origin, composition, calorific value, classification, resources, reserves, production, international trade, sectoral consumption, cost, retail price, safety aspects of coal mining, environmental impacts (solid and gaseous effluents), different technologies of coal-fired power plants and their relative efficiency, alternative solutions for the recovery of coal energy (fuel cells, liquefaction). (J.S.)

  2. Washability of Australian coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitmore, R L

    1979-06-01

    Australian coals tend to be young in geological age and high in ash by world standards; preparation of the coal before marketing is almost universal. On the basis of float and sink data from 39 locations in the eastern Australian coalfields, the coals are place in four categories representing increasing difficulty in their washability characteristics. These seem to be related neither to the geological age nor the geographical position of the deposit and Hunter Valley coals, for example, span all categories. The influence of crushing on the washability of Australian coals is briefly considered and from limited data it is concluded to be appreciably smaller than for British or North American coals. A strategy for the float and sink analysis of Australian coals is proposed and the influence of washability characteristics on current trends in the selection of separating processes for coking and steaming products is discussed.

  3. How 60 Minutes ticked off Illinois Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    A November 60 Minutes broadcast on CBS television asserting that costs are out of control at the Illinois Power Co's(IP) Clinton nuclear power project because of management incompetence triggered a series of rebuttals and counter-rebuttals. A review of the events and correspondence during the planning stage and after the broadcast explores the question of construction cost overruns and the economic impact the broadcast had on IP's investors, employees, and customers. A parallel filming by IP was aired to show how the CBS edited the interview with IP officials. IP personnel feel betrayed by what they consider misconceptions and errors in the broadcast and are unhappy that an employee morale problem was worsened. Counter-arguments by both parties indicate a disagreement on both facts and interpretations

  4. The development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense facilities. Volume 1, Technical report. Semiannual technical progress report, September 28, 1994--March 27, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Bartley, D.A.; Hatcher, P. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Energy and Fuels Research Center] [and others

    1996-10-15

    This program is being conducted as a cooperative agreement between the Consortium for Coal Water Mixture Technology and the U.S. Department of Energy. Activities this reporting period are summarized by phase. Phase I is nearly completed. During this reporting period, coal beneficiation/preparation studies, engineering designs and economics for retrofitting the Crane, Indiana boiler to fire coal-based fuels, and a 1,000-hour demonstration of dry, micronized coal were completed. In addition, a demonstration-scale micronized-coal water mixture (MCWM) preparation circuit was constructed and a 1,000-hour demonstration firing MCWM began. Work in Phase II focused on emissions reductions, coal beneficiation/preparation studies, and economic analyses of coal use. Emissions reductions investigations involved literature surveys of NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, trace metals, volatile organic compounds, and fine particulate matter capture. In addition, vendors and engineering firms were contacted to identify the appropriate emissions technologies for the installation of commercial NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} removal systems on the demonstration boiler. Information from the literature surveys and engineering firms will be used to identify, design, and install a control system(s). Work continued on the refinement and optimization of coal grinding and MCWM preparation procedures, and on the development of advanced processes for beneficiating high ash, high sulfur coals. Work also continued on determining the basic cost estimation of boiler retrofits, and evaluating environmental, regulatory, and regional economic impacts. In addition, the feasibility of technology adoption, and the public`s perception of the benefits and costs of coal usage was studied. A coal market analysis was completed. Work in Phase III focused on coal preparation studies, emissions reductions and economic analyses of coal use.

  5. Illinois trauma centers and community violence resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennet Butler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Elder abuse and neglect (EAN, intimate partner violence (IPV, and street-based community violence (SBCV are significant public health problems, which frequently lead to traumatic injury. Trauma centers can provide an effective setting for intervention and referral, potentially interrupting the cycle of violence. Aims: To assess existing institutional resources for the identification and treatment of violence victims among patients presenting with acute injury to statewide trauma centers. Settings and Design: We used a prospective, web-based survey of trauma medical directors at 62 Illinois trauma centers. Nonresponders were contacted via telephone to complete the survey. Materials and Methods: This survey was based on a survey conducted in 2004 assessing trauma centers and IPV resources. We modified this survey to collect data on IPV, EAN, and SBCV. Statistical Analysis: Univariate and bivariate statistics were performed using STATA statistical software. Results: We found that 100% of trauma centers now screen for IPV, an improvement from 2004 (P = 0.007. Screening for EAN (70% and SBCV (61% was less common (P < 0.001, and hospitals thought that resources for SBCV in particular were inadequate (P < 0.001 and fewer resources were available for these patients (P = 0.02. However, there was lack of uniformity of screening, tracking, and referral practices for victims of violence throughout the state. Conclusion: The multiplicity of strategies for tracking and referring victims of violence in Illinois makes it difficult to assess screening and tracking or form generalized policy recommendations. This presents an opportunity to improve care delivered to victims of violence by standardizing care and referral protocols.

  6. Health Literacy Based Communication by Illinois Pharmacists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika Devraj

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Health literacy has received attention as an important issue for pharmacists to consider when interacting with patients. Yet, there is little information about methods pharmacists use to communicate with patients and their extent of use of health literacy based interventions during patient interactions. The purpose of this study was to examine methods of communication and types of health literacy based interventions that practicing pharmacists use in Illinois. Methods: A survey instrument addressing the study purpose was designed along with other items that were part of a larger study. Eleven items in the survey referred to pharmacist-patient communication. The instrument was pilot tested before administering to a random sample of 1457 pharmacists from the Illinois Pharmacists Association. Data were primarily collected via a mailed survey using Dillman’s five step total design method (TDM. Two reminder letters were mailed at two week intervals to non-respondents. Results: Usable responses were obtained from 701 respondents (48.1% response rate. Using simple words (96% and asking patients open-ended questions to determine comprehension (85% were the most frequent methods that pharmacists used to communicate with patients. Only 18% of respondents always asked patients to repeat medication instructions to confirm understanding. The various recommended types of health literacy interventions were “always” performed by only 8 to 33% of the respondents. More than 50% of respondents indicated that they rarely or never had access to an interpreter (51%, or employed bilingual pharmacists (59%. Only 11% of pharmacists said that they rarely/never pay attention to nonverbal cues that may suggest low health literacy. Conclusions: Pharmacists infrequently use action oriented health literacy interventions such as using visual aids, having interpreter access, medication calendars, etc. Additional training on health literacy, its scope, and

  7. Process for hydrogenating coal and coal solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shridharani, K.G.; Tarrer, A.R.

    1983-02-15

    A novel process is described for the hydrogenation of coal by the hydrogenation of a solvent for the coal in which the hydrogenation of the coal solvent is conducted in the presence of a solvent hydrogenation catalyst of increased activity, wherein the hydrogenation catalyst is produced by reacting ferric oxide with hydrogen sulfide at a temperature range of 260/sup 0/ C to 315/sup 0/ C in an inert atmosphere to produce an iron sulfide hydrogenation catalyst for the solvent. Optimally, the reaction temperature is 275/sup 0/ C. Alternately, the reaction can be conducted in a hydrogen atmosphere at 350/sup 0/ C.

  8. Process for hydrogenating coal and coal solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrer, Arthur R.; Shridharani, Ketan G.

    1983-01-01

    A novel process is described for the hydrogenation of coal by the hydrogenation of a solvent for the coal in which the hydrogenation of the coal solvent is conducted in the presence of a solvent hydrogenation catalyst of increased activity, wherein the hydrogenation catalyst is produced by reacting ferric oxide with hydrogen sulfide at a temperature range of 260.degree. C. to 315.degree. C. in an inert atmosphere to produce an iron sulfide hydrogenation catalyst for the solvent. Optimally, the reaction temperature is 275.degree. C. Alternately, the reaction can be conducted in a hydrogen atmosphere at 350.degree. C.

  9. Coal use and coal technology study (KIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kram, T.; Okken, P.A.; Gerbers, D.; Lako, P.; Rouw, M.; Tiemersma, D.N.

    1991-11-01

    The title study aims to assess the possible role for coal in the Netherlands energy system in the first decades of the next century and the part new coal conversion technologies will play under various conditions. The conditions considered relate to (sectoral) energy demand derived from national scenarios in an international context, to energy prices, to environmental constraints (acidification, solid waste management and disposal) and to the future role for nuclear power production. Targets for reduction of greenhouse gas emissions are not explicitly included, but resulting CO 2 emissions are calculated for each variant case. The part that coal can play in the Dutch energy supply is calculated and analyzed by means

  10. Techno-Economic Analysis of Scalable Coal-Based Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuang, Steven S. C. [Univ. of Akron, OH (United States)

    2014-08-31

    Researchers at The University of Akron (UA) have demonstrated the technical feasibility of a laboratory coal fuel cell that can economically convert high sulfur coal into electricity with near zero negative environmental impact. Scaling up this coal fuel cell technology to the megawatt scale for the nation’s electric power supply requires two key elements: (i) developing the manufacturing technology for the components of the coal-based fuel cell, and (ii) long term testing of a kW scale fuel cell pilot plant. This project was expected to develop a scalable coal fuel cell manufacturing process through testing, demonstrating the feasibility of building a large-scale coal fuel cell power plant. We have developed a reproducible tape casting technique for the mass production of the planner fuel cells. Low cost interconnect and cathode current collector material was identified and current collection was improved. In addition, this study has demonstrated that electrochemical oxidation of carbon can take place on the Ni anode surface and the CO and CO2 product produced can further react with carbon to initiate the secondary reactions. One important secondary reaction is the reaction of carbon with CO2 to produce CO. We found CO and carbon can be electrochemically oxidized simultaneously inside of the anode porous structure and on the surface of anode for producing electricity. Since CH4 produced from coal during high temperature injection of coal into the anode chamber can cause severe deactivation of Ni-anode, we have studied how CH4 can interact with CO2 to produce in the anode chamber. CO produced was found able to inhibit coking and allow the rate of anode deactivation to be decreased. An injection system was developed to inject the solid carbon and coal fuels without bringing air into the anode chamber. Five planner fuel cells connected in a series configuration and tested. Extensive studies on the planner fuels

  11. Practice Characteristics of Recent Illinois College of Optometry Graduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gailmard, Neil B.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Demographic information regarding mode of practice, income and satisfaction level is provided for 1978-82 graduates of the Illinois College of Optometry. A practice management questionnaire is appended. (Author/MLW)

  12. Franchise Agreements and Clean Energy: Issues in Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    This project evaluates the impact on energy efficiency of municipal franchise agreements that supply electricity or gas service without a direct charge (unbilled energy) for certain municipal government facilities in Illinois.)

  13. Ice Skating Instruction at the University of Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Char; And Others

    1981-01-01

    The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign conducts a instructional ice skating program for its students and the community. Activities include: a figure skating club; a speed skating club; ice hockey program; and ice skating classes. (CJ)

  14. 77 FR 61595 - Northern Illinois Municipal Power; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-10

    ... Illinois Municipal Power filed its Revised and Superseding Proposed Revenue Requirement for reactive supply... Reference Room in Washington, DC. There is an ``eSubscription'' link on the web site that enables...

  15. Taxation of forest and associated land in Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David C. Baumgartner; Ronald I. Beazley

    1979-01-01

    Analyzes the operation and impact of the property tax on forest and associated land in Illinois and evaluates the potential of adjustments in the tax as an incentive to better management of forest and associated land.

  16. Teaching Pharmaceutical Biotechnology at the University of Illinois at Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Michael J.; Klegerman, Melvin E.

    1988-01-01

    The Department of Pharmaceutics at the University of Illinois at Chicago has been carrying out research in pharmaceutical biotechnology that has allowed unique student involvement and promises further interdisciplinary research and instructional activities. (MSE)

  17. Enhancing pavement performance prediction models for the Illinois Tollway System

    OpenAIRE

    Laxmikanth Premkumar; William R. Vavrik

    2016-01-01

    Accurate pavement performance prediction represents an important role in prioritizing future maintenance and rehabilitation needs, and predicting future pavement condition in a pavement management system. The Illinois State Toll Highway Authority (Tollway) with over 2000 lane miles of pavement utilizes the condition rating survey (CRS) methodology to rate pavement performance. Pavement performance models developed in the past for the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) are used by th...

  18. Clean coal technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslanyan, G.S.

    1993-01-01

    According to the World Energy Council (WEC), at the beginning of the next century three main energy sources - coal, nuclear power and oil will have equal share in the world's total energy supply. This forecast is also valid for the USSR which possesses more than 40% of the world's coal resources and continuously increases its coal production (more than 700 million tons of coal are processed annually in the USSR). The stringent environmental regulations, coupled with the tendency to increase the use of coal are the reasons for developing different concepts for clean coal utilization. In this paper, the potential efficiency and environmental performance of different clean coal production cycles are considered, including technologies for coal clean-up at the pre-combustion stage, advanced clean combustion methods and flue gas cleaning systems. Integrated systems, such as combined gas-steam cycle and the pressurized fluidized bed boiler combined cycle, are also discussed. The Soviet National R and D program is studying new methods for coal utilization with high environmental performance. In this context, some basic research activities in the field of clean coal technology in the USSR are considered. Development of an efficient vortex combustor, a pressurized fluidized bed gasifier, advanced gas cleaning methods based on E-beam irradiation and plasma discharge, as well as new catalytic system, are are presented. In addition, implementation of technological innovations for retrofitting and re powering of existing power plants is discussed. (author)

  19. Coal prices rise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLean, A.

    2001-01-01

    Coking and semi hard coking coal price agreements had been reached, but, strangely enough, the reaching of common ground on semi soft coking coal, ultra low volatile coal and thermal coal seemed some way off. More of this phenomenon later, but suffice to say that, traditionally, the semi soft and thermal coal prices have fallen into place as soon as the hard, or prime, coking coal prices have been determined. The rise and rise of the popularity of the ultra low volatile coals has seen demand for this type of coal grow almost exponentially. Perhaps one of the most interesting facets of the coking coal settlements announced to date is that the deals appear almost to have been preordained. The extraordinary thing is that the preordination has been at the prescience of the sellers. Traditionally, coking coal price fixing has been the prerogative of the Japanese Steel Mills (JSM) cartel (Nippon, NKK, Kawasaki, Kobe and Sumitomo) who presented a united front to a somewhat disorganised force of predominantly Australian and Canadian sellers. However, by the time JFY 2001 had come round, the rules of the game had changed

  20. New insights into the extraction of invisible gold in a low-grade high-sulfur Carlin-type gold concentrate by bio-pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xiao-bin; Wen, Jian-kang; Huang, Song-tao; Yang, Hong-ying; Liu, Mei-lin; Wu, Biao

    2017-10-01

    To extract gold from a low-grade (13.43 g/t) and high-sulfur (39.94wt% sulfide sulfur) Carlin-type gold concentrate from the Nibao deposit, Guizhou, a bio-pretreatment followed by carbon-in-pulp (CIP) cyanide leaching process was used. Various methods were used to detect the low-grade gold in the concentrate; however, only time-of-flight secondary-ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) was successful. With bio-pretreatment, the gold recovery rate increased by approximately 70.16% compared with that obtained by direct cyanide leaching of the concentrate. Various attempts were made to increase the final gold recovery rate. However, approximately 20wt% of the gold was non-extractable. To determine the nature of this non-extractable gold, mineralogy liberation analysis (MLA), formation of secondary product during the bio-pretreatment, and the preg-robbing capacity of the carbonaceous matter in the ore were investigated. The results indicated that at least four factors affected the gold recovery rate: gold occurrence, tight junctions of gold-bearing pyrite with gangue minerals, jarosite coating of the ore, and the carbonaceous matter content.

  1. Feasibility study on the utilization of high sulfur pet. coke as a by-product at SINOPEC Fujian Petrochemical Company Limited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of conserving energy and reducing greenhouse effect gas emission, an investigational study was conducted for the project on the effective utilization of high-sulfur petroleum coke at Fujian Petrochemical Co., Fujian Province, China. In the project, IGCC (integrated gasification combined cycle) power generation facilities are introduced to the refinery of Fujian Petrochemical Co. By gasifying the residues produced from the refinery as raw material, the gas clean the same as natural gas is produced and is used as power generation use fuel. As a result of the study, the energy conservation amount was 94,300 toe/y, and was 1,414,500 toe in cumulative amount during 15 years. Further, the amount of greenhouse effect gas reduction was 291,600 t-CO2/y, and was 4,374,000 t-CO2 in cumulative amount during 15 years. The construction cost of the project is approximately 29.7 billion yen. The annual profit to be obtained from the project is approximately 8.66 billion yen, which is indicated by difference between before and after the implementation of the project. The calculated years required for return of investment were 3.4. (NEDO)

  2. South Blackwater Coal`s maintenance program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, J. [South Blackwater Coal Limited, Blackwater, Qld. (Australia)

    1998-09-01

    The South Blackwater operation consists of two opencut mining areas and two underground mines (Laleham and Kenmure) near Blackwater in central Queensland, all of which supply coal to a central coal preparation plant. South Blackwater Coal Ltd. recently developed a maintenance improvement programme, described in this article. The programme involved implementation systems of key performance indicators (KPIs), benchmaking, condition monitoring, work planning and control, failure analysis and maintenance audit. Some improvements became almost immediately apparent, others were quite gradual. Major results included: improved availability (and reliability) of all opencast fleets, improvements in rear dump availability; reduced maintenance man-hours for opencast fleets; and increased availability of the coal handling and preparation plant. The paper is an edited version of that presented at the `Maintenance in mining conference` 16-19 March 1998, held in Bali, Indonesia. 4 figs., 2 photos.

  3. Supplement to the final environmental statement related to the decommissioning of the rare earths facility, West Chicago, Illinois: Volume 1: Main test and appendices A-G

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-04-01

    This Supplement to the Final Environmental Statement (SFES) assesses the impacts of permanent disposal of wastes located at the Kerr-McGee Rare Earths Facility in West Chicago, Illinois. In this SFES, additional alternative sites are analyzed, the analysis is more detailed, and the NRC expressly considers the suitability of these sites for permanent waste disposal. The analysis describes the Proposed Action, which is permanent disposal of the wastes in an above-grade disposal cell at the West Chicago site, and four alternatives for permanent disposal at other sites in Illinois. The four alternatives are: Alternative A, disposal at an active surface coal mine in a deep-trench disposal cell; Alternative B, disposal in a reclaimed surface coal mine in a deep-trench disposal cell; Alternative C, disposal in an underground coal mine in a worked-out panel; and Alternative D, disposal on a farmland site in a partially above-grade disposal cell. The environmental issues considered in the impact assessment are topography, air quality, socioeconomics, land resources, archaeology, mineral resources, water resources, ecology, and radiation exposure. A cost-benefit analysis of the Proposed Action and its alternatives is also presented. Based on the information and analysis given within this SFES, the NRC concluded that the Proposed Action is the preferred course of action. 220 refs., 7 figs., 125 Tabs

  4. 78 FR 68903 - Dynegy Inc., Illinois Power Holdings, LLC and Illinois Power Holdings II, LLC-Acquisition of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... and Western Railroad Company and Joppa & Eastern Railroad Company Dynegy Inc. (Dynegy), Illinois Power... Coffeen and Western Railroad Company (CWRC) and the Joppa & Eastern Railroad (JERR), both Class III rail...

  5. Dual-track CCS stakeholder engagement: Lessons learned from FutureGen in Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hund, G.; Greenberg, S.E.

    2011-01-01

    FutureGen, as originally planned, was to be the world's first coal-fueled, near-zero emissions power plant with fully integrated, 90% carbon capture and storage (CCS). From conception through siting and design, it enjoyed strong support from multiple stakeholder groups, which benefited the overall project. Understanding the stakeholder engagement process for this project provides valuable insights into the design of stakeholder programs for future CCS projects. FutureGen is one of few projects worldwide that used open competition for siting both the power plant and storage reservoir. Most site proposals were coordinated by State governments. It was unique in this and other respects relative to the site selection method used on other DOE-supported projects. At the time of site selection, FutureGen was the largest proposed facility designed to combine an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) coal-fueled power plant with a CCS system. Stakeholder engagement by states and the industry consortium responsible for siting, designing, building, and operating the facility took place simultaneously and on parallel tracks. On one track were states spearheading state-wide site assessments to identify candidate sites that they wanted to propose for consideration. On the other track was a public-private partnership between an industry consortium of thirteen coal companies and electric utilities that comprised the FutureGen Alliance (Alliance) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The partnership was based on a cooperative agreement signed by both parties, which assigned the lead for siting to the Alliance. This paper describes the stakeholder engagement strategies used on both of these tracks and provides examples from the engagement process using the Illinois semi-finalist sites. ?? 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Coal comes clean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minchener, A.

    1991-01-01

    Coal's status as the dominant fuel for electricity generation is under threat because of concern over the environmental impacts of acid rain and the greenhouse effect. Sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides cause acid rain and carbon dioxide is the main greenhouse gas. All are produced when coal is burnt. Governments are therefore tightening the emission limits for fossil-fuel power plants. In the United Kingdom phased reductions of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides emissions are planned. It will be the responsibility of the power generator to take the necessary steps to reduce the emissions. This will be done using a number of technologies which are explained and outlined briefly - flue gas desulfurization, separation of coal into high and low-sulphur coal, direct desulfurization of coal, circulating fluidised bed combustion, integrated-gasification combined cycle systems and topping cycles. All these technologies are aiming at cleaner, more efficient combustion of coal. (UK)

  7. Cuttability of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, W

    1978-01-01

    The process of cutting dull M, dull bright MB, bright dull BM, and bright B coal under various compressive stress conditions was studied in laboratory tests. The efficiency of ploughs depends much more on the natural mining conditions than does that of shearer-loaders. For seams of medium workability, it is difficult to forecast whether ploughs will be successful. Cuttability tests are a good way of determining whether ploughs can be used. The effort necessary to cut coal in a stressed condition depends not only on such properties as the workability defined by the Protodyakonov index or compressive strength, but also, and mainly, on the petrographic structure and elastic properties of the coal. In bright coals with high elastic strain, and with BM and MB coals, a much greater increment of effort is necessary with increase in compressive stresses. The cuttability of dull coals from difficult mines was not very different.

  8. Coal tar in dermatology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roelofzen, J.H.J.; Aben, K.K.H.; Van Der Valk, P.G.M.; Van Houtum, J.L.M.; Van De Kerkhof, P.C.M.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M. [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands). Dept. of Dermatology

    2007-07-01

    Coal tar is one of the oldest treatments for psoriasis and eczema. It has anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antipruritic and antimitotic effects. The short-term side effects are folliculitis, irritation and contact allergy. Coal tar contains carcinogens. The carcinogenicity of coal tar has been shown in animal studies and studies in occupational settings. There is no clear evidence of an increased risk of skin tumors or internal tumors. Until now, most studies have been fairly small and they did not investigate the risk of coal tar alone, but the risk of coal tar combined with other therapies. New, well-designed, epidemiological studies are necessary to assess the risk of skin tumors and other malignancies after dermatological use of coal tar.

  9. Coal-to-liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, A.W.

    2006-03-15

    With crude oil prices rocketing, many of the oil poor, but coal rich countries are looking at coal-to-liquid as an alternative fuel stock. The article outlines the two main types of coal liquefaction technology: direct coal liquefaction and indirect coal liquefaction. The latter may form part of a co-production (or 'poly-generation') project, being developed in conjunction with IGCC generation projects, plus the production of other chemical feedstocks and hydrogen. The main part of the article, based on a 'survey by Energy Intelligence and Marketing Research' reviews coal-to-liquids projects in progress in the following countries: Australia, China, India, New Zealand, the Philippines, Qatar and the US. 2 photos.

  10. Coal, culture and community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-11-01

    16 papers are presented with the following titles: the miners; municipalisation and the millenium - Bolton-upon-Dearne Urban District Council 1899-1914; the traditional working class community revisited; the cultural capital of coal mining communities; activities, strike-breakers and coal communities; the limits of protest - media coverage of the Orgreave picket during the miners` strike; in defence of home and hearth? Families, friendships and feminism in mining communities; young people`s attitudes to the police in mining communities; the determinants of productivity growth in the British coal mining industry, 1976-1989; strategic responses to flexibility - a case study in coal; no coal turned in Yorkshire?; the North-South divide in the Central Coalfields; the psychological effects of redundancy and worklessness - a case study from the coalfields; the Dearne Valley initiative; the future under labour: and coal, culture and the community.

  11. Subtask 3.9 - Direct Coal Liquefaction Process Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aulich, Ted; Sharma, Ramesh

    2012-07-01

    The Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC), in partnership with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Accelergy Corporation, an advanced fuels developer with technologies exclusively licensed from ExxonMobil, undertook Subtask 3.9 to design, build, and preliminarily operate a bench-scale direct coal liquefaction (DCL) system capable of converting 45 pounds/hour of pulverized, dried coal to a liquid suitable for upgrading to fuels and/or chemicals. Fabrication and installation of the DCL system and an accompanying distillation system for off-line fractionation of raw coal liquids into 1) a naphtha middle distillate stream for upgrading and 2) a recycle stream was completed in May 2012. Shakedown of the system was initiated in July 2012. In addition to completing fabrication of the DCL system, the project also produced a 500-milliliter sample of jet fuel derived in part from direct liquefaction of Illinois No. 6 coal, and submitted the sample to the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) at Wright Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, Ohio, for evaluation. The sample was confirmed by AFRL to be in compliance with all U.S. Air Force-prescribed alternative aviation fuel initial screening criteria.

  12. Coal utilization, the environment, and the role of geologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutcher, L.A.F.; Dutcher, R.R.

    1991-01-01

    The United States has demonstrated reserves (coal potentially minable with current technology) sufficient to meet demand for at least 300 yrs (Illinois Coal Association, 1990, p. 5) at the 1990 production rate of 930,900,000 tonnes (1,024,000,000 tons) (Energy Information Administration, 1991, p. 6). These deposits, underlying about 13% of the country's land area, are the energy equivalent of about 2,000,000,000,000 bbl of crude oil - more than triple the world's known oil reserves. About 85% of coal used in the nation goes to the electric utility industry to generate 55% of the electricity produced in the US. The remaining buyers include steel, other industrial facilities, and retail dealers to a limited extent. Future increases in demand will depend upon economic growth of domestic and foreign markets and the price of competing fuels. However, future demand especially will depend upon the scope of government regulation and the progress of research and technology development in reducing environmental impacts resulting from mining and utilization and in advancing clean coal-burning technologies

  13. Drainage from coal mines: Chemistry and environmental problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wildeman, T.

    1991-01-01

    Much of the research on coal-mine drainage chemistry was conducted a decade ago, and now increased environmental awareness has brought about renewed interest in the findings. Consideration of the trace minerals and elements in coal points to the possible generation of acidic waters upon weathering, especially when pyrite is present. When pyrite weathers, it produces H + and Fe 3+ which catalyze the incongruent weathering of other carbonates and sulfides. In this weathering mechanism, catalysis by bacteria is important. Of the environmental problems in coal mine drainage, the mineral acidity of the water is the most serious. This is caused not only by the H + , but also by Mn 4+ , Fe 3+ , and Al 3+ that are found or generated within the drainage. Case studies in Kentucky, Pennsylvania, Illinois, and Colorado show that the abundance and form of pyrite in the deposit and in the overburden determines the level of acidity and the concentration of heavy metal pollutants in the drainage. Recent trends in environmental enforcement that emphasize integrated stream water standards and biotoxicity assays point to the possibility that the concentrations of heavy metals in coal mine drainages may cause environmental concern

  14. Coal contract cost reduction through resale of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, R.

    1990-01-01

    The weak coal market of the 1980's has enabled utilities and other users of coal to enjoy stable or falling prices for coal supplies. Falling prices for coal stimulated the renegotiation of numerous coal contracts in recent years, as buyers look to take advantage of lower fuel prices available in the marketplace. This paper examines the use of coal resale transactions as a means of reducing fuel costs, and analyzes the benefits and risks associated with such transactions

  15. Clean coal technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourillon, C.

    1994-01-01

    In 1993 more than 3.4 billion tonnes of coal was produced, of which half was used to generate over 44 per cent of the world's electricity. The use of coal - and of other fossil fuels- presents several environmental problems such as emissions of sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen oxides (NO 2 ), and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) into the atmosphere. This article reviews the measures now available to mitigate the environmental impacts of coal. (author)

  16. Marketing Canada's coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-11-01

    The topics are presented which were discussed at the 36th Canadian Coal Conference, held in Vancouver, BC in September 1985. The theme was Challenges, today and tomorrow and the conference sought to examine the primary problems confronting the world coal industry today: overcapacity, soft demand, depressed prices and intense global competition. Coal production in Canada was presented and its role in the steelmaking and electric power industries evaluated. A general mood of optimism prevailed.

  17. Aerosol sampling of an experimental fluidized bed coal combustor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, G.J.; Peele, E.R.; Carpenter, R.L.; Yeh, H.C.

    1977-01-01

    Fluidized bed combustion of coal, lignite or other materials has a potential for widespread use in central electric generating stations in the near future. This technology may allow widespread use of low-grade and/or high sulfur fuels due to its high energy utilization at low combustion temperature and its ability to meet emission criteria by using limestone bed material. Particulate and gaseous products resulting from fuel combustion and fluidization of bed material are discharged and proceed out the exhaust clean-up system. Sampling philosophy, methodology and equipment used to obtain aerosol samples from the exhaust system of the 18-inch fluidized bed combustor (FBC) at the Morgantown Energy Research Center (MERC) are described. Identification of sampling sites led to design of an aerosol sampling train which allowed a known quantity of the effluent streams to be sampled. Depending on the position, a 15 to 25 l/min sample is extracted from the duct, immediately diluted and transferred to a sampling/aging chamber. Transmission and scanning electron microscope samples, two types of cascade impactor samples, vapor-phase and particulate-phase organic samples, spiral duct aerosol centrifuge samples, optical size measurements and filter samples were obtained. Samples are undergoing physical, chemical and biological tests to help establish human health risk estimates for fluidized bed coal combustion and to provide information for use in design and evaluation of control technologies

  18. Transformation of sulfur during pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, H.; Li, B.; Yang, J.; Zhang, B. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan (China). Inst. of Coal Chemistry

    1998-05-01

    It is reported that the transformation of sulfur during pyrolysis (Py) under nitrogen and hydropyrolysis (HyPy) of Chinese Yanzhou high sulfur bituminous coal and Hongmiao lignite was studied in a fixed-bed reactor. The volatile sulfur-containing products were determined by gas chromatography with flame photometric detection. The sulfur in initial coal and char (mainly aliphatic and thiophenic sulfur forms) was quantitatively analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The desulfurization yield was calculated by elemental analysis. The main volatile sulfur-containing gas was H{sub 2}S in both Py and HyPy. Both the elemental analysis and XPS results indicated that more sulfur was removed in HyPy than in Py under nitrogen. Thiophenic sulfur can be partially hydrogenated and removed in HyPy. Pyrite can be reduced to a ferrous sulfide completely even as low as 400{degree}C in HyPy while in Py the reduction reaction continues up to 650{degree}C. Mineral matter can not only fix H{sub 2}S produced in Py and HyPy to form higher sulfur content chars but also catalyses the desulfurization reactions to form lower sulfur content tars in HyPy. 24 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Prime farmland disturbance from coal surface mining in the corn belt, 1980-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, D.P.

    1979-09-01

    The five midwestern states that make up the Corn Belt farm production region - Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Missouri, and Ohio - contain about 110 billion tons of coal reserves (19% of which are surface mineable) and 110 million acres of arable land (69% of which are prime farmlands). In 1975, this region was the site of 21% of the nation's total coal production and 50% of the nation's corn and soybean harvest. Because corn and soybeans are key elements in US foreign trade and because nearly two-thirds of the regional coal production is from surface coal mines, it is important to understand the potential conflicts that may arise between the coal and agricultural industries in the Corn Belt. This report presents background data on the coal and agricultural industries in the Corn Belt states, along with the results of a quantitative analysis of the potential disruption of land and associated prime farmland due to future coal surface mining activity in the region. Estimates of potential land dusruptions indicate that 452,000 acres of land, including 127,000 acres of prime farmland, could be disturbed in the period 1980-2000. Additionally, the data indicate that certain counties in the Corn Belt states may experience impacts significantly greater than the regional average would suggest.

  20. Investigation of the remaining major and trace elements in clean coal generated by organic solvent extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jie Wang; Chunqi Li; Kinya Sakanishi; Tetsuya Nakazato; Hiroaki Tao; Toshimasa Takanohashi; Takayuki Takarada; Ikuo Saito [National Institute Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Ibaraki (Japan). Energy Technology Research Institute

    2005-09-01

    A sub-bituminous Wyodak coal (WD coal) and a bituminous Illinois No. 6 coal (IL coal) were thermally extracted with 1-methylnaphthalene (1-MN) and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) to produce clean extract. A mild pretreatment with acetic acid was also carried out. Major and trace inorganic elements in the raw coals and resultant extracts were determined by means of inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), flow injection inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (FI-ICP-MS), and cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS). It was found that the extraction with 1-MN resulted in 73-100% reductions in the concentration of Li, Be, V, Ga, As, Se, Sr, Cd, Ba, Hg, and Pb. The extraction with NMP yielded more extract than that with 1-MN, but it retained more organically associated major and trace metals in the extracts. In the extraction of WD coal with NMP, the acid pretreatment not only significantly enhanced the extraction yield but also significantly reduced the concentrations of alkaline earth elements such as Be, Ca, Mg, Sr, and Ba in the extract. In addition, the modes of occurrence of trace elements in the coals were discussed according to their extraction behaviors. 30 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Increase in extraction yields of coals by water treatment: Beulah-Zap lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masashi Iino; Toshimasa Takanohashi; Takahiro Shishido; Ikuo Saito; Haruo Kumagai [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2007-01-15

    In a previous paper, we have reported that water pretreatments of Argonne premium coals, Pocahontas No. 3 (PO), Upper Freeport (UF), and Illinois No. 6 (IL) at 600 K increased greatly the room-temperature extraction yields with a 1:1 carbon disulfide/N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (CS{sub 2}/NMP) mixed solvent. In this paper, the water treatment of Beulah-Zap (BZ) lignite has been carried out and the results obtained were compared with those for the three bituminous coals above. The extraction yields of BZ with CS{sub 2}/NMP increased from 5.5% for the raw coal to 21.7% by the water treatment at 600 K. Similar to the other three coals, the water treatments at 500 K gave little increase in the yields. The larger decrease in oxygen content and hydrogen-bonded OH and the increase in the methanol swelling ratio by the water treatment suggest that the yield enhancements for BZ are attributed to the removal of oxygen functional groups and the breaking of hydrogen bonds to a greater extent than that for IL. From the characterizations of the treated coals and the extraction temperature dependency of their extraction yields, it is suggested that, for high-coal-rank coals, PO and UF, the breaking of noncovalent bonds such as {pi}-{pi} interactions between aromatic layers and hydrogen bonds is responsible for the extraction yield enhancements. 14 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Coal export facilitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eeles, L.

    1998-01-01

    There is a wide range of trade barriers, particularly tariffs, in current and potential coal market. Commonwealth departments in Australia play a crucial role in supporting government industry policies. This article summarises some of more recent activities of the Department of Primary Industries and Energy (DPIE) in facilitating the export of Australian Coals. Coal export facilitation activities are designed to assist the Australian coal industry by directing Commonwealth Government resources towards issues which would be inappropriate or difficult for the industry to address itself

  3. Optimal coal import strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.Y.; Shih, L.H.

    1992-01-01

    Recently, the main power company in Taiwan has shifted the primary energy resource from oil to coal and tried to diversify the coal supply from various sources. The company wants to have the imported coal meet the environmental standards and operation requirements as well as to have high heating value. In order to achieve these objectives, establishment of a coal blending system for Taiwan is necessary. A mathematical model using mixed integer programming technique is used to model the import strategy and the blending system. 6 refs., 1 tab

  4. Electrostatic beneficiation of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazumder, M.K.; Tennal, K.B.; Lindquist, D.

    1994-10-01

    Dry physical beneficiation of coal has many advantages over wet cleaning methods and post combustion flue gas cleanup processes. The dry beneficiation process is economically competitive and environmentally safe and has the potential of making vast amounts of US coal reserves available for energy generation. While the potential of the electrostatic beneficiation has been studied for many years in laboratories and in pilot plants, a successful full scale electrostatic coal cleaning plant has not been commercially realized yet. In this paper the authors review some of the technical problems that are encountered in this method and suggest possible solutions that may lead toward its full utilization in cleaning coal.

  5. Australian coal year book 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    This yearbook presents a review of the Australian coal industry during the 1984-85 financial year. Included are details on mines, future prospects, coal export facilities and ports, annual cost statistics and a index of coal mine owners.

  6. Using stable isotopes to monitor forms of sulfur during desulfurization processes: A quick screening method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao-Li; Hackley, Keith C.; Coleman, D.D.; Kruse, C.W.

    1987-01-01

    A method using stable isotope ratio analysis to monitor the reactivity of sulfur forms in coal during thermal and chemical desulfurization processes has been developed at the Illinois State Geological Survey. The method is based upon the fact that a significant difference exists in some coals between the 34S/32S ratios of the pyritic and organic sulfur. A screening method for determining the suitability of coal samples for use in isotope ratio analysis is described. Making these special coals available from coal sample programs would assist research groups in sorting out the complex sulfur chemistry which accompanies thermal and chemical processing of high sulfur coals. ?? 1987.

  7. Australian black coal statistics 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    This third edition of Australian black coal statistics covers anthracite, bituminous and subbituminous coals. It includes maps and figures on resources and coal fields and statistics (mainly based on the calendar year 1991) on coal demand and supply, production, employment and productivity in Australian coal mines, exports, prices and ports, and domestic consumption. A listing of coal producers by state is included. A final section presents key statistics on international world trade in 1991. 54 tabs.

  8. Prospects for coal: technical developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaye, W G; Peirce, T J

    1983-07-01

    This article summarises the reasons for predicting an increase in the use of coal as an industrial energy source in the United Kingdom. The development of efficient and reliable coal-burning techniques is therefore of great importance. Various techniques are then discussed, including conventional combustion systems, fluidised bed combustion systems, fluidised bed boilers and furnaces, coal and ash handling, coal-liquid mixtures, coal gasification and coal liquefaction. (4 refs.)

  9. Coal combustion technology in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Z.X.

    1994-01-01

    Coal is the most important energy source in China, the environmental pollution problem derived from coal burning is rather serious in China. The present author discusses coal burning technologies both in boilers and industrial furnaces and their relations with environmental protection problems in China. The technological situations of Circulating Fluidized Bed Coal Combustor, Pulverized Coal Combustor with Aerodynamic Flame Holder and Coal Water Slurry Combustion have been discussed here as some of the interesting problems in China only. (author). 3 refs

  10. Thermal coal utilization for the ESCAP region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    A selection of papers is presented originating from talks to coal utilization workshops for the ASEAN region in 1981. The papers cover: planning aspects - economic and technical aspects of coal usage, long term planning for fuel coal needs, planning and coal selection for coal-fired power plants, coal availability and marketing, and economic aspects of coal usage in developing countries; combustion and plant - changing from coal to oil, principles and problems of coal combustion, use of indigenous and imported coals and their effects on plant design, coal pulverizing mills, ash and dust disposal, environmental aspects of coal combustion, industrial sized coal-fired boilers; transport and storage -ocean shipment, coal receival facilities and associated operations, shipping and rail transport, coal handling and transport, environmental issue in the transport and handling of coal, coal preparation and blending; testing and properties - coal types, characterization properties and classification; training power plant operators; the cement industry and coal, the Australian black coal industry.

  11. Energy Impact Illinois - Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, Daniel [Senior Energy Efficiency Planner; Plagman, Emily [Senior Energy Planner; Silberhorn, Joey-Lin [Energy Efficiency Program Assistant

    2014-02-18

    Energy Impact Illinois (EI2) is an alliance of government organizations, nonprofits, and regional utility companies led by the Chicago Metropolitan Agency for Planning (CMAP) that is dedicated to helping communities in the Chicago metropolitan area become more energy efficient. Originally organized as the Chicago Region Retrofit Ramp-Up (CR3), EI2 became part of the nationwide Better Buildings Neighborhood Program (BBNP) in May 2010 after receiving a $25 million award from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) authorized through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA). The program’s primary goal was to fund initiatives that mitigate barriers to energy efficiency retrofitting activities across residential, multifamily, and commercial building sectors in the seven-county CMAP region and to help to build a sustainable energy efficiency marketplace. The EI2 Final Technical Report provides a detailed review of the strategies, implementation methods, challenges, lessons learned, and final results of the EI2 program during the initial grant period from 2010-2013. During the program period, EI2 successfully increased direct retrofit activity in the region and was able to make a broader impact on the energy efficiency market in the Chicago region. As the period of performance for the initial grant comes to an end, EI2’s legacy raises the bar for the region in terms of helping homeowners and building owners to take action on the continually complex issue of energy efficiency.

  12. A summary of fish and wildlife information needs to surface mine coal in the United States. Part 3. A handbook for meeting fish and wildlife information needs to surface mine coal: OSM Region III. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinkle, C.R.; Ambrose, R.E.; Wenzel, C.R.

    1981-02-01

    The report contains information to assist in protecting, enhancing, and reducing impacts to fish and wildlife resources during surface mining of coal. It gives information on the premining, mining, reclamation and compliance phases of surface mining. Methods and sources to obtain information to satisfy state and Federal regulations are presented. Considerable emphasis is placed on postmining assistance. This volume is specifically for the states of Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, Illinois, Indiana and Ohio.

  13. The Indonesian coal industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, A.; Daulay, B.

    2000-01-01

    In this comprehensive article the authors describe the origins and progress of the Indonesian coal industry and the role it plays, and will play, in the domestic energy scene and world coal trade. In the '80s, the Indonesian coal industry laid the basis for major expansion such that coal production rose from under a million tonnes in 1983 to 10.6 million tonnes in 1990, 50.9 million tonnes by 1996 and 61.2 million tonnes in 1992. At the same time, exports have increased from 0.4 million tonnes to 44.8 million tonnes. Current export levels are higher than originally expected, due in part to a slow down in the construction of electric power stations and a partial switch to natural gas. This has slowed the rate at which domestic coal demand has built up. The majority of coals currently exported are low rank steam coals, but some of the higher rank and very low ash coals are used for blast furnace injection, and a very small proportion may even be used within coking blends, even though they have poor coking properties. The Indonesian coal industry has developed very rapidly over the last six years to become a significant exporter, especially within the ASEAN context. The resources base appears to be large enough to support further increases in production above those already planned. It is probable that resources and reserves can be increased above the current levels. It is likely that some reserves of high value coals can be found, but it is also probable that the majority of additions to reserves will be lower in rank (and therefore quality) compared with the average of coals currently being mined. Reserves of qualities suitable for export will support that industry for a considerable period of time. However, in the longer term, the emphasis of production will increasingly swing to the domestic market

  14. Directly Formed Alucone on Lithium Metal for High-Performance Li Batteries and Li-S Batteries with High Sulfur Mass Loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Huang, Zhennan; Shahbazian-Yassar, Reza; Libera, Joseph A; Klavetter, Kyle C; Zavadil, Kevin R; Elam, Jeffrey W

    2018-02-28

    Lithium metal is considered the "holy grail" of next-generation battery anodes. However, severe parasitic reactions at the lithium-electrolyte interface deplete the liquid electrolyte and the uncontrolled formation of high surface area and dendritic lithium during cycling causes rapid capacity fading and battery failure. Engineering a dendrite-free lithium metal anode is therefore critical for the development of long-life batteries using lithium anodes. In this study, we deposit a conformal, organic/inorganic hybrid coating, for the first time, directly on lithium metal using molecular layer deposition (MLD) to alleviate these problems. This hybrid organic/inorganic film with high cross-linking structure can stabilize lithium against dendrite growth and minimize side reactions, as indicated by scanning electron microscopy. We discovered that the alucone coating yielded several times longer cycle life at high current rates compared to the uncoated lithium and achieved a steady Coulombic efficiency of 99.5%, demonstrating that the highly cross-linking structured material with great mechanical properties and good flexibility can effectively suppress dendrite formation. The protected Li was further evaluated in lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries with a high sulfur mass loading of ∼5 mg/cm 2 . After 140 cycles at a high current rate of ∼1 mA/cm 2 , alucone-coated Li-S batteries delivered a capacity of 657.7 mAh/g, 39.5% better than that of a bare lithium-sulfur battery. These findings suggest that flexible coating with high cross-linking structure by MLD is effective to enable lithium protection and offers a very promising avenue for improved performance in the real applications of Li-S batteries.

  15. Corrosion fatigue crack growth in clad low-alloy steels. Part 2: Water flow rate effects in high-sulfur plate steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, L.A.; Lee, H.B.; Wire, G.L.; Novak, S.R.; Cullen, W.H.

    1997-01-01

    Corrosion fatigue crack propagation tests were conducted on a high-sulfur ASTM A302-B plate steel overlaid with weld-deposited Alloy EN82H cladding. The specimens featured semi-elliptical surface cracks penetrating approximately 6.3 mm of cladding into the underlying steel. The initial crack sizes were relatively large with surface lengths of 22.8--27.3 mm, and depths of 10.5--14.1 mm. The experiments were initiated in a quasi-stagnant low-oxygen (O 2 < 10 ppb) aqueous environment at 243 C, under loading conditions (ΔK, R, cyclic frequency) conducive to environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) under quasi-stagnant conditions. Following fatigue testing under quasi-stagnant conditions where EAC was observed, the specimens were then fatigue tested under conditions where active water flow of either 1.7 m/s or 4.7 m/s was applied parallel to the crack. Earlier experiments on unclad surface-cracked specimens of the same steel exhibited EAC under quasi-stagnant conditions, but water flow rates at 1.7 m/s and 5.0 m/s parallel to the crack mitigated EAC. In the present experiments on clad specimens, water flow at approximately the same as the lower of these velocities did not mitigate EAC, and a free stream velocity approximately the same as the higher of these velocities resulted in sluggish mitigation of EAC. The lack of robust EAC mitigation was attributed to the greater crack surface roughness in the cladding interfering with flow induced within the crack cavity. An analysis employing the computational fluid dynamics code, FIDAP, confirmed that frictional forces associated with the cladding crack surface roughness reduced the interaction between the free stream and the crack cavity

  16. Role of iron catalyst impregnated by solvent swelling method in pyrolytic removal of coal nitrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, J.; Kusakabe, K.; Morooka, S.; Nielsen, M.; Furimsky, E. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Science and Technology

    1995-11-01

    Organometallic iron precursors, ferrocene and ferric acetate, were impregnated into Illinois No. 6 (IL), Wyoming (WY) and Yallourn (YL) coals by solvent swelling technique in THF, ethanol, and a THF/ethanol binary solvent. Then iron-impregnated coals were pyrolyzed in a flow of helium at atmospheric pressure in a fixed bed and a thermobalance. Conversion of coal nitrogen to N{sub 2} was 20, 38 and 30% respectively, for original IL, WY, and YL coals. Iron formed from both precursors lowered the onset temperature of N{sub 2} evolution by 20-100{degree}C. When ferrocene was impregnated in coals at a concentration of 1.7-1.8 wt% as Fe, nitrogen conversion was increased to 52, 71 and 68% for IL, WY and YL coals, respectively. Ferric acetate impregnated into IL coal from THF/ethanol solution increased the nitrogen conversion much more than that from ethanol solution. The expansion of microporous coal structure by the swelling was essential for better dispersion of the catalyst precursor. The evolution of HCN as well as NH{sub 3} was effectively suppressed above 600{degree}C by the presence of iron but not influenced significantly by combinations of catalyst precursors and solvents. The increase in N{sub 2} yield was compensated by the decrease in nitrogen emitted as HCN and NH{sub 3} and in tar and char. The increase in CO evolution from the iron-impregnated IL coal at 600-800{degree}C was explained by catalytic rearrangement of aromatic structure of char, accompanying the removal of nitrogen as N{sub 2}. In a range of 600-750{degree}C, the evolution of CO as well as N{sub 2} from the other coals increased remarkably with a significant decrease in CO{sub 2} gasification in char microproes. 32 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Dry piston coal feeder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, Thomas J.; Bell, Jr., Harold S.

    1979-01-01

    This invention provides a solids feeder for feeding dry coal to a pressurized gasifier at elevated temperatures substantially without losing gas from the gasifier by providing a lock having a double-acting piston that feeds the coals into the gasifier, traps the gas from escaping, and expels the trapped gas back into the gasifier.

  18. Development of coal resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    It is an important issue to expand stable coal supply areas for Japan, especially to assure stable supply of overseas coals. The investigations on geological structures in foreign countries perform surveys on geological structures in overseas coal producing countries and basic feasibility studies. The investigations select areas with greater business risks in coal producing countries and among private business entities. The geological structure investigations were carried out on China, Indonesia and Malaysia and the basic feasibility studies on Indonesia during fiscal 1994. The basic coal resource development investigations refer to the results of previous physical explorations and drilling tests to develop practical exploration technologies for coal resources in foreign countries. The development feasibility studies on overseas coals conduct technological consultation, surface surveys, physical explorations, and trial drilling operations, and provide fund assistance to activities related thereto. Fiscal 1994 has provided fund assistance to two projects in Indonesia and America. Fund loans are provided on investigations for development and import of overseas coals and other related activities. Liability guarantee for development fund is also described.

  19. Coal in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salaff, S.

    1991-01-01

    This article examines the potential market for coal-fired independent power projects in western Canada. The topics of the article include emissions issues, export potential for power produced, and financial and other assistance to independent power producers offered by British Columbia Hydro and coal mining companies in the region, including financing of projects and power distribution services including connecting to the USA grids

  20. Black coal. [Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, R

    1973-01-01

    Statistics are given for the Australian black coal industry for 1970-3 (production, value, employment, wages and salaries, productivity, trade, stocks, consumption, export contracts, exploration, etc.). In less detail, world coal trade is reviewed and coke production is mentioned briefly. (LTN )

  1. Illinois perspective on low level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etchison, D.

    1984-01-01

    Illinois is a big generator of low level radioactive waste. It has had extensive experience with controversial waste disposal and storage facilities. This experience makes it difficult for the public and political leaders in Illinois to support the establishment of new disposal facilities in the state. Yet, with extensive debates and discussions concerning the Low Level Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the proposed Midwest Compact, political leaders and the public are facing up to the fact that they must be responsible for the disposal of the low level radioactive waste generated in the state. The Governor and many political leaders from Illinois support the regional approach and believe it can be an innovative and progressive way for the state to deal with the range of low level waste management and disposal problems. A version of the Midwest Interstate Low Level Waste Compact has become Illinois law, but it has significant differences from the one adopted by five other states. Like other states in the midwest and northeast, Illinois is opposed to Congressional consent of the four pending compacts before the remaining two compacts, the northeast and midwest are sent to Washington and interregional agreements are negotiated between the sited and non-sited regions. A new national system must be established before access to existing commercial disposal becomes restricted

  2. Enzymatic desulfurization of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, Y.N.; Crooker, S.C.; Kitchell, J.P.; Nochur, S.V.

    1991-05-16

    The overall objective of this program was to investigate the feasibility of an enzymatic desulfurization process specifically intended for organic sulfur removal from coal. Toward that end, a series of specific objectives were defined: (1) establish the feasibility of (bio)oxidative pretreatment followed by biochemical sulfate cleavage for representative sulfur-containing model compounds and coals using commercially-available enzymes; (2) investigate the potential for the isolation and selective use of enzyme preparations from coal-utilizing microbial systems for desulfurization of sulfur-containing model compounds and coals; and (3) develop a conceptual design and economic analysis of a process for enzymatic removal of organic sulfur from coal. Within the scope of this program, it was proposed to carry out a portion of each of these efforts concurrently. (VC)

  3. The renaissance of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schernikau, Lars

    2013-01-01

    There is hardly another energy resource where public opinion and reality lie as far apart as they do for coal. Many think of coal as an inefficient relic from the era of industrialisation. However, such views underestimate the significance of this energy resource both nationally and globally. In terms of global primary energy consumption coal ranks second behind crude oil, which plays a central role in the energy sector. Since global electricity use is due to rise further, coal, being the only energy resource that can meet a growing electricity demand over decades, stands at the beginning of a renaissance, and does so also in the minds of the political leadership. Coal is indispensable as a bridging technology until the electricity demand of the world population can be met primarily through renewable resources.

  4. Methane of the coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasquez, H.

    1997-01-01

    In the transformation process of the vegetable material to the coal (Carbonization), the products that are generated include CH 4, CO2, N2 and H2. The methane is generated by two mechanisms: below 50 centigrade degree, as product of microbial decomposition, the methanogenic is generated; and above 50 centigrade degree, due to the effects of the buried and increase of the range of the coal, the thermogenic methane is detachment, as a result of the catagenic. The generated methane is stored in the internal surfaces of the coal, macro and micro pores and in the natural fractures. The presence of accumulations of gas of the coal has been known in the entire world by many years, but only as something undesirable for its danger in the mining exploitation of the coal

  5. China's coal industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karmazin, V A

    1988-09-01

    Presents data on China's coal industry. China's coal reserves are estimated to be 4,000 million Mt; annual production is over 800 Mt. Eleven new mining projects have been recently completed. They were financed with participation of foreign capital (US$ 1,400 million). Twenty-five new mines with 32.27 Mt production capacity were planned to be put into operation in 1988. Annual coal production is expected to increase to 870 Mt in 1990 at a cost of US$ 8,500 million. Numerical data on China's individual coal basins, new schemes, capital outlay and foreign capital participation are given. The dynamic development of China's coal industry since 1949 is briefly reviewed and management methods are explained.

  6. Industrial coal utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    The effects of the National Energy Act on the use of coal in US industrial and utility power plants are considered. Innovative methods of using coal in an environmentally acceptable way are discussed: furnace types, fluidized-bed combustion, coal-oil-mixtures, coal firing in kilns and combustion of synthetic gas and liquid fuels. Fuel use in various industries is discussed with trends brought about by uncertain availability and price of natural gas and fuel oils: steel, chemical, cement, pulp and paper, glass and bricks. The symposium on Industrial Coal Utilization was sponsored by the US DOE, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, April 3 to 4, 1979. Twenty-one papers have been entered individually into the EDB. (LTN)

  7. USA coal producer perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porco, J. [Alpha Natural Resources, Latrobe, PA (US). Alpha Energy Global Marketing

    2004-07-01

    The focus is on the Central Appalachian coal industry. Alpha Natural Resources was formed in 2002 from Pittston Coal's Virginia and Coastal operations. AMCI's U.S. operations and Mears Enterprises in Pennsylvania were acquired later. The company produces 20-21 million tonnes per year and sells 20 million tonnes of steam coal and 10 million tonnes of exports, including some coal that is brokered. Foundry coke is a major product. Capital investment has resulted in increased productivity. Central Appalachia is expected to continue as a significant coal-producing region for supplying metallurgical coke. Production is expected to stabilize, but not increase; so the mines will have a longer life. 31 slides/overheads are included.

  8. Coal in the Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sore, J.C.; Coiffard, J.

    1992-01-01

    Mediterranean countries are not traditionally coal producers. In France, the main mines were located in the North and East, and belonged to the great coal fields of northern Europe. Spain is a modest producer (ten million tonnes), as is Turkey with its three million tonnes. The only way most of these mines can stand up to international competition is by an array of protectionistic measures and subsidies. This state of affairs has marked events of quite another nature, as it relates to energy economics. That is, coal has taken on increasing importance in the energy supplies of all the countries of the Mediterranean zone over the past twenty years. In this article, we set out by describing coke supply for the Mediterranean ensemble, and then go on to analyze the development aspects of coal for electrical production, the future of Mediterranean lignite, and the supply of imported coal. 4 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs

  9. Underground Coal Thermal Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Deo, M. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Eddings, E. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Sarofim, A. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Gueishen, K. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Hradisky, M. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Kelly, K. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Mandalaparty, P. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Zhang, H. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2012-01-11

    The long-term objective of this work is to develop a transformational energy production technology by insitu thermal treatment of a coal seam for the production of substitute natural gas (SNG) while leaving much of the coal's carbon in the ground. This process converts coal to a high-efficiency, low-GHG emitting gas fuel. It holds the potential of providing environmentally acceptable access to previously unusable coal resources. This topical report discusses the development of experimental capabilities, the collection of available data, and the development of simulation tools to obtain process thermo-chemical and geo-thermal parameters in preparation for the eventual demonstration in a coal seam. It also includes experimental and modeling studies of CO2 sequestration.

  10. State coal profiles, January 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-02

    The purpose of State Coal Profiles is to provide basic information about the deposits, production, and use of coal in each of the 27 States with coal production in 1992. Although considerable information on coal has been published on a national level, there is a lack of a uniform overview for the individual States. This report is intended to help fill that gap and also to serve as a framework for more detailed studies. While focusing on coal output, State Coal Profiles shows that the coal-producing States are major users of coal, together accounting for about three-fourths of total US coal consumption in 1992. Each coal-producing State is profiled with a description of its coal deposits and a discussion of the development of its coal industry. Estimates of coal reserves in 1992 are categorized by mining method and sulfur content. Trends, patterns, and other information concerning production, number of mines, miners, productivity, mine price of coal, disposition, and consumption of coal are detailed in statistical tables for selected years from 1980 through 1992. In addition, coal`s contribution to the State`s estimated total energy consumption is given for 1991, the latest year for which data are available. A US summary of all data is provided for comparing individual States with the Nation as a whole. Sources of information are given at the end of the tables.

  11. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Illinois. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Illinois.

  12. Investigation of pyrite as a contributor to slagging in eastern bituminous coals. Quarterly progress report 9, October 1-December 31, 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryers, R.W.

    1984-06-01

    The objective of this program is to examine slags formed as a result of firing coals with varying concentration levels, size distribution, and orientation of pyrite with regard to mineral matter in the coal in a laboratory furnace. The program tasks are: (1) selection of eight candidate coals; (2) chemical characterization of the coal samples and identification of the pyrite size, distribution, and orientation with respect to other mineral matter and concentration levels; (3) testing of the candidate coals in a laboratory furnace; (4) chemical and physical characterization of the slag and fly ash samples created by the impurities in the coal sample; (5) influence of coal beneficiation on furnace slagging; and (6) analysis of data and identification of parameters influencing the contribution of pyrite to slagging problems. Washing of the Upper Freeport coal from Indiana County, Pennsylvania, was completed by the last quarter of 1983. The washed product was characterized for mineral content, and a combustion test was performed. Kentucky No. 9 from Henderson County, Kentucky, selected as the sixth coal to be investigated, was characterized using size and gravity fractionation techniques and was combusted in the laboratory furnace to evaluate its slagging and fouling potential. The remaining two coals to be characterized and combusted were identified as Illinois No. 5 and Lower Kittanning from Clarion County, Pennsylvania. 80 figures, 27 tables.

  13. Fauna of soil nematodes (Nematoda) in coal post-mining sites in Illinois, USA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Háněl, Ladislav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 77, č. 2 (2013), s. 103-112 ISSN 1211-376X R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME08019 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : soil zoology * ecology * Nematoda * species and generic richness * faunal similarity Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  14. Gasoline from coal in the state of Illinois: feasibility study. Appendix 1. Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    Appendix 1 includes the overall design philosophy about units in parallel, specifications above actual need, spares maintenance, etc. Most of the report involves engineering work sheets for various equipments. (LTN)

  15. 75 FR 64951 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Illinois; Voluntary Nitrogen Oxides Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-21

    ...: I. What action is EPA taking? II. Did anyone comment on the proposed disapproval of the state's SIP... Illinois' 35 Illinois Administrative Code (IAC), part 217, subpart X (the Subpart X rule). II. Did anyone.... Together, these problems led us to propose disapproval of the Subpart X rule as a revision to the Illinois...

  16. Fiscal Year 2006 Salary Report for the Illinois Public Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois Community College Board, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Data about compensation received by employees in Illinois' 48 Illinois public community colleges are gathered by the Illinois Community College Board (ICCB). Data in the Fiscal Year 2006 Salary Report reflect the census date of October 1, 2005. Data are presented by peer groups with statewide totals. Most of the 25 tables in this report contain…

  17. Danger! Automation at Work; Report of the State of Illinois Commission on Automation and Technological Progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, William

    The 74th Illinois General Assembly created the Illinois Commission on Automation and Technological Progress to study and analyze the economic and social effects of automation and other technological changes on industry, commerce, agriculture, education, manpower, and society in Illinois. Commission members visited industrial plants and business…

  18. 75 FR 18193 - Northern Illinois Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... Illinois Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Motions To Intervene and... No.: 12626-002. c. Date filed: March 31, 2009. d. Applicant: Northern Illinois Hydropower, LLC. e... Power Act, 16 U.S.C. 791(a)-825(r). h. Applicant Contact: Damon Zdunich, Northern Illinois Hydropower...

  19. 75 FR 62516 - Northern Illinois Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Application Ready for Environmental Analysis and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-12

    ... Illinois Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Application Ready for Environmental Analysis and Soliciting Comments...: Northern Illinois Hydropower, LLC. e. Name of Project: Dresden Island Project. f. Location: U.S. Army Corps... Zdunich, Northern Illinois Hydropower, LLC, 801 Oakland Avenue, Joliet, IL 60435, (312) 320-1610. i. FERC...

  20. NMR imaging studies of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Z.R.; Zhang, P.Z.; Ding, G.L.; Li, L.Y.; Ye, C.H. [University of Science and Technology, Beijing (China). Dept. of Chemistry

    1996-06-01

    The permeation transportation and swelling behavior of solvents into coal are investigated by NMR imaging using pyridine-d{sub 5} and acetone-d{sub 6}. Images of coal swollen with deuterated solvents illuminate proton distributions of mobile phases within the coal macromolecular networks. More information about the chemical and physical structure of coal can be obtained using NMR imaging techniques.

  1. Clean coal technology: The new coal era

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    The Clean Coal Technology Program is a government and industry cofunded effort to demonstrate a new generation of innovative coal processes in a series of full-scale showcase`` facilities built across the country. Begun in 1986 and expanded in 1987, the program is expected to finance more than $6.8 billion of projects. Nearly two-thirds of the funding will come from the private sector, well above the 50 percent industry co-funding expected when the program began. The original recommendation for a multi-billion dollar clean coal demonstration program came from the US and Canadian Special Envoys on Acid Rain. In January 1986, Special Envoys Lewis and Davis presented their recommendations. Included was the call for a 5-year, $5-billion program in the US to demonstrate, at commercial scale, innovative clean coal technologies that were beginning to emerge from research programs both in the US and elsewhere in the world. As the Envoys said: if the menu of control options was expanded, and if the new options were significantly cheaper, yet highly efficient, it would be easier to formulate an acid rain control plan that would have broader public appeal.

  2. Coal: Less than lackluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerell, P.

    1994-01-01

    Not many in the world coal industry will remember 1993 as a good year. The reasons for the poor state of affairs were first the weak economic climate, and second, the energy glut. For the first time after expanding steadily since the 70s, seaborne trade in hard coal fell by about 4% to 350M mt. Steam coal accounted for a good half of this volume. While demand continued to rise in the newly industrialized countries of the Pacific area, imports into Europe of both coking coal and steam coal fell sharply. The United States, CIS, and Canada had to accept substantial losses of export volume. Australia, as well as South Africa, Colombia, and Indonesia consolidated their market positions and Poland, too, recorded high volumes available for export. The positive news came from Australia, where in mid-December the New South Wales coal industry reported an increase in the net profit after tax from $A83M (about $55M) to $A98M (about $126M) in 1992/1993. This success was however ascribed less to an improvement in the fundamental mining indicators than to the fall in the Australian dollar and the lowering of corporate tax. The reduction in capital investment by 26% down to $A330M (after the previous year when it had also been cut by 25%) is seen by the chairman of the NSW Coal Assoc. as not auguring well for the industry's ability to meet the forecast growth in demand to the year 2000

  3. Coal in competition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manners, G

    1985-06-01

    During the past decade world coal consumption has expanded by about 26% whilst energy demands overall have grown by only 17%. This is because of the increased price of oil products, plus a period during which the costs of mining coal in many parts of the world have been moderately well contained. Over-ambitious forecasts of coal demand have encouraged the considerable over-investment in coalmining capacity that exists today. Costs of winning coal and transporting it are low, but sales depend on the rate of growth of a country's demand for energy. Some countries are more successful at marketing coal than others. Amongst the major factors that influence the rate of substitution of one source of energy for another is the nature and age of the boiler stock. The outcome of the developing environmental debate and calls for reduction in SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ emissions from coal-fired boilers is going to affect coal's fortunes in the 1990's.

  4. A coal combine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wlachovsky, I; Bartos, J

    1980-02-15

    A design is presented for a coal combine, equipped with two drum operational units, on whose both ends of the upper surface of the body, two coal saws are mounted with the help of a lever system. These saws, found in an operational position, form a gap in the block of the coal block, which is not embraced by the drum operational unit. The coal block, found between the gap and the support, falls down onto the longwall scraper conveyor. The lever system of each coal saw is controlled by two hydraulic jacks. One of the jacks is mounted vertically on the facial wall of the body of the combine and is used for the hoisting for the required height of the horizontal arm of the lever, reinforced by one end in the hinge on the body of the combine. On the ''free'' end of that lever, a coal saw is mounted in a hinge-like fashion and which is connected by the hydraulic jack to the horizontal arm of the lever system. This hydraulic jack is used for the clamping of the coal saw to the face.

  5. The influence of reagent type on the kinetics of ultrafine coal flotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, R.B.; Camp, L.R.; Summers, M.S.; Rapp, D.M.

    1989-01-01

    A kinetic study has been conducted to determine the influence of reagent type on flotation rates of ultrafine coal. Two ultrafine coal samples, the Illinois No. 5 (Springfield) and Pittsburgh No. 8, have been evaluated with various reagent types in order to derive the rate constants for coal (kc), ash (ka), and pyrite (kc). The reagents used in the study include anionic surfactants, anionic surfactant-alcohol mixtures, and frothing alcohols. In general, the surfactant-alcohol mixtures tend to float ultrafine coal at a rate three to four times faster than either pure alcohols or pure anionic surfactants. Pine oil, a mixture of terpene alcohols and hydrocarbons, was an exception to this finding; it exhibited higher rate constants than the pure aliphatic alcohols or other pure anionic surfactants studied; this may be explained by the fact that the sample of pine oil used (70% alpha-terpineol) acted as a frother/collector system similar to alcohol/kerosene. The separation efficiencies of ash and pyrite from coal, as evidenced by the ratios of kc/ka or kc/kp, tend to indicate, however, that commercially available surfactant-alcohol mixtures are not as selective as pure alcohols such as 2-ethyl-1-hexanol or methylisobutylcarbinol. Some distinct differences in various rate constants, or their ratios, were noted between the two coals studied, and are possibly attributable to surface chemistry effects. ?? 1989.

  6. Microbial desulfurization of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bos, P.; Boogerd, F.C.; Kuenen, J.G.

    1992-01-01

    In recent years, studies have been initiated to explore the possibilities of the use of biological systems in coal technology. This chapter discusses the principles behind the bioprocessing of coal, the advantages and disadvantages, and the economic feasibility of the process. For large-scale, coal-using, energy-producing plants, stack gas cleaning should be the treatment of choice. Biodesulfurization is preferable with industrial, small-scale, energy-producing plants. Treatment of the stack gases of these plants is not advisable because of high investment costs. Finally, it should be realized that biodesulfurization produces a waste stream that needs further treatment. 91 refs

  7. Coal-fired generation

    CERN Document Server

    Breeze, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Coal-Fired Generation is a concise, up-to-date and readable guide providing an introduction to this traditional power generation technology. It includes detailed descriptions of coal fired generation systems, demystifies the coal fired technology functions in practice as well as exploring the economic and environmental risk factors. Engineers, managers, policymakers and those involved in planning and delivering energy resources will find this reference a valuable guide, to help establish a reliable power supply address social and economic objectives. Focuses on the evolution of the traditio

  8. Economic outlook for coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denis Casey.

    1997-01-01

    Coal still a fundamental component of two major industries in New South Wales- electricity production and steel making. Its future will be shaped by its ability to meet expected international increases in demand for thermal coal, and by profitability and possible impact of greenhouse strategy decisions. By 2002 the demand for the State's coal is estimated at a total of 116 million tons and it expected to play an increased role in the fuel mix for electricity generation because of its competitive price, established technologies and abundant supply

  9. Coal potential of Antartica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, G.; McElroy, C.T.

    1987-01-01

    This report attempts to bring together available information on the coal deposits of Antarctica and discuss factors that would be involved if these deposits were to be explored and mined. Most of the reported principal coal deposits in Antarctica lie generally within the Transantarctic Mountains: the majority are of Permian age and are present in the Victoria Group of the Beacon Supergroup. Several other deposits have been recorded in East Antarctica and in the Antarctic Peninsula, including minor occurrences of Mesozoic and Tertiary coal and carbonaceous shale.

  10. Extreme coal handling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradbury, S; Homleid, D. [Air Control Science Inc. (United States)

    2004-04-01

    Within the journals 'Focus on O & M' is a short article describing modifications to coal handling systems at Eielson Air Force Base near Fairbanks, Alaska, which is supplied with power and heat from a subbituminous coal-fired central plant. Measures to reduce dust include addition of an enclosed recirculation chamber at each transfer point and new chute designs to reduce coal velocity, turbulence, and induced air. The modifications were developed by Air Control Science (ACS). 7 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Coal liquefaction becomes viable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-11-15

    In 2003 the May/June issue of CoalTrans International speculated that coal liquefaction would become viable due to falling coal prices. This has not proved the case but the sustained high oil price is sparking new interest. A survey by Energy Intelligence and Marketing Research during November 2005 revealed a growth in the number of projects under development or at the feasibility stage. The article reports projects in China, the USA, Australia, New Zealand, the Philippines and India. China is commissioning the first wave of large liquefaction plants. The key question is whether other countries, particularly the USA, will follow.

  12. Reuse of Produced Water from CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery, Coal-Bed Methane, and Mine Pool Water by Coal-Based Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knutson, Chad [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Dastgheib, Seyed A. [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Yang, Yaning [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Ashraf, Ali [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Duckworth, Cole [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Sinata, Priscilla [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Sugiyono, Ivan [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Shannon, Mark A. [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Werth, Charles J. [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Power generation in the Illinois Basin is expected to increase by as much as 30% by the year 2030, and this would increase the cooling water consumption in the region by approximately 40%. This project investigated the potential use of produced water from CO2 enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) operations; coal-bed methane (CBM) recovery; and active and abandoned underground coal mines for power plant cooling in the Illinois Basin. Specific objectives of this project were: (1) to characterize the quantity, quality, and geographic distribution of produced water in the Illinois Basin; (2) to evaluate treatment options so that produced water may be used beneficially at power plants; and (3) to perform a techno-economic analysis of the treatment and transportation of produced water to thermoelectric power plants in the Illinois Basin. Current produced water availability within the basin is not large, but potential flow rates up to 257 million liters per day (68 million gallons per day (MGD)) are possible if CO2-enhanced oil recovery and coal bed methane recovery are implemented on a large scale. Produced water samples taken during the project tend to have dissolved solids concentrations between 10 and 100 g/L, and water from coal beds tends to have lower TDS values than water from oil fields. Current pretreatment and desalination technologies including filtration, adsorption, reverse osmosis (RO), and distillation can be used to treat produced water to a high quality level, with estimated costs ranging from $2.6 to $10.5 per cubic meter ($10 to $40 per 1000 gallons). Because of the distances between produced water sources and power plants, transportation costs tend to be greater than treatment costs. An optimization algorithm was developed to determine the lowest cost pipe network connecting sources and sinks. Total water costs increased with flow rate up to 26 million liters per day (7 MGD), and the range was from $4 to $16 per cubic meter

  13. Enchancing the use of coal by gas reburning and sorben injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keen, R.T.; Hong, C.C.; Opatrny, J.C.; Sommer, T.M.; Folsom, B.A.; Payne, R.; Ritz, H.J.; Pratapas, J.M.; May, T.J.; Krueger, M.S.

    1993-01-01

    The Gas Reburning-Sorbent Injection (GR-SI) Process was demonstrated on a 71 MWe net tangentially fired boiler at Hennepin, Illinois, and is being demonstrated on a 33 MWe net cyclone-fired boiler at Springfield, Illinois as a Clean Coal Technology Round I demonstration project. The Hennepin demonstration was completed after more than 2,000 hours of successful operation. In long-term demonstration testing at a Ca/S molar ratio of 1.75 an 19 percent gas heat input, 53 percent SO 2 reduction and 67 percent NO x reduction were achieved without any adverse impacts on boiler performance or electrostatic precipitator performance with flue gas humidification. These achievements exceeded the project goals of 50 and 60 percent, respectively. The CO 2 reduction due to the use of 18 percent natural gas was 8 percent

  14. Revival of coal. [France and USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    This edition is devoted to the production and consumption of coal in France. It presents a study of the main topics involved, discusses the position of coal in France - under what form should it beused, and deals with coal consumption in cement works role of coal for urban district heating, future of coal gasification in France, France's coal policy, coal industry in the USA, underground gasification of coal, France's coal reserves, etc.. (In French)

  15. Thermal expansion of coking coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orlik, M.; Klimek, J. (Vyzkumny a Zkusebni Ustav Nova Hut, Ostrava (Czechoslovakia))

    1992-12-01

    Analyzes expansion of coal mixtures in coke ovens during coking. Methods for measuring coal expansion on both a laboratory and pilot plant scale are comparatively evaluated. The method, developed, tested and patented in Poland by the Institute for Chemical Coal Processing in Zabrze (Polish standard PN-73/G-04522), is discussed. A laboratory device developed by the Institute for measuring coal expansion is characterized. Expansion of black coal from 10 underground mines in the Ostrava-Karvina coal district and from 9 coal mines in the Upper Silesia basin in Poland is comparatively evaluated. Investigations show that coal expansion reaches a maximum for coal types with a volatile matter ranging from 20 to 25%. With increasing volatile matter in coal, its expansion decreases. Coal expansion increases with increasing swelling index. Coal expansion corresponds with coal dilatation. With increasing coal density its expansion increases. Coal mixtures should be selected in such a way that their expansion does not cause a pressure exceeding 40 MPa. 11 refs.

  16. Comprehensive report to Congress Clean Coal Technology Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-01

    This project will demonstrate Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology in a commercial application by the repowering of an existing City Water, Light and Power (CWL P) Plant in Springfield, Illinois. The project duration will be 126 months, including a 63-month demonstration period. The estimated cost of the project is $270,700,000 of which $129,357,204 will be funded by DOE. The IGCC system will consist of CE's air-blown, entrained-flow, two-stage, pressurized coal gasifier; an advanced hot gas cleanup process; a combustion turbine modified to use low Btu coal gas; and all necessary coal handling equipment. An existing 25-MWe steam turbine and associated equipment will also be part of the IGCC system. The result of repowering will be an IGCC power plant with low environmental emissions and high net plant efficiency. The repowering will increase plant output by 40 MWe through addition of the combustion turbine, thus providing a total IGCC capacity of a nominal 65 MWe. 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Clean utilization of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yueruem, Y.

    1992-01-01

    This volume contains 23 lectures presented at the Advanced Study Institute on 'Chemistry and Chemical Engineering of Catalytic Solid Fuel Conversion for the Production of Clean Synthetic Fuels', which was held at Akcay, Edremit, Turkey, between 21 July and August 3, 1991. Three main subjects: structure and reactivity of coal; cleaning of coal and its products, and factors affecting the environmental balance of energy usage and solutions for the future, were discussed in the Institute and these are presented under six groups in the book: Part 1. Structure and reactivity of coal; Part 2. Factors affecting environmental balance; Part 3. Pre-usage cleaning operations and processes; Part 4. Upgrading of coal liquids and gases; Part 5. Oxygen enriched processes; and Part 6. Probable future solution for energy and pollution problems. Separate abstracts have been prepared for all the lectures

  18. Coal exports still growing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blain, M.

    1998-01-01

    It is shown that the swings and roundabouts of the Asian economic shake out and Australian dollar devaluation are starting to work their way through the Australian export coal market. Perhaps somewhat surprisingly, at this stage the results are not proving to be as bad as were at first predicted by some market watchers. Export revenue and tonnages are up 12% for the year to July 98. Coal exports totaling $9.5 billion left Australia's shores in the 12 months confirming coal as Australia's single largest export revenue earner. Sales volumes in the present financial year are still increasing, the market being driven by steadily increasing Asian demand for steaming coal from places like Korea, Malaysia, Thailand and the Philippines

  19. Coal Mine Permit Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — ESRI ArcView shapefile depicting New Mexico coal mines permitted under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA), by either the NM Mining these...

  20. Coal industry - memoranda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    This paper contains 41 memoranda submitted to the UK House of Commons Energy Committee containing views on the UK coal industry and responses to questions from the Select Committee. The following organizations are represented: Department of Energy; National Coal Board; APEX; BACM; NACODS; NUM; UDM; TUC; CEGB; Electricity Council; Northern Ireland Electricity Service; SSEB; British Gas Corporation; BP; Conoco (UK) Ltd.; Costain Mining Ltd.; Shell UK Ltd.; BSC; ICI; Boots; CBI; PSA; Solid Fuel Advisory Service; Domestic Coal Consumers Council; Associated Heat Services; Association of Shell Boilermakers; Babcock Power Ltd.; GEC; Foster Wheeler Power Products; ABMEC; British Longwall Mining Association; Federation of Civil Engineering Contractors; Federation of Small Mines of Great Britain; Chamber of Coal Traders; Coalfield Communities Campaign; Nottinghamshire County Council; Federation of Self-Employed and Small Businesses; the Colombian, Belgian and Netherlands Embassies; and Plaid Cymru.

  1. Coal terminal directory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-06-15

    The directory gives a comprehensive listing of the world's coal terminals, in a total of 50 countries including information on throughput, facilities, storage capacity, and vessel size limitation.

  2. Nanometre-sized pores in coal: Variations between coal basins and coal origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurovs, Richard; Koval, Lukas; Grigore, Mihaela; Sokolava, Anna; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Melnichenko, Yuri B.

    2018-01-01

    We have used small angle neutron scattering (SANS) to investigate the differences in methane and hexane penetration in pores in bituminous coal samples from the U.S., Canada, South Africa, and China, and maceral concentrates from Australian coals. This work is an extension of previous work that showed consistent differences between the extent of penetration by methane into 10–20 nm size pores in inertinite in bituminous coals from Australia, North America and Poland.In this study we have confirmed that there are differences in the response of inertinite to methane and hexane penetration in coals sourced from different coal basins. Inertinite in Permian Australian coals generally has relatively high numbers of pores in the 2.5–250 nm size range and the pores are highly penetrable by methane and hexane; coals sourced from Western Canada had similar penetrability to these Australian coals. However, the penetrability of methane and hexane into inertinite from the Australian Illawarra Coal Measures (also Permian) is substantially less than that of the other Australian coals; there are about 80% fewer 12 nm pores in Illawarra inertinite compared to the other Australian coals examined. The inertinite in coals sourced from South Africa and China had accessibility intermediate between the Illawarra coals and the other Australian coals.The extent of hexane penetration was 10–20% less than CD4 penetration into the same coal and this difference was most pronounced in the 5–50 nm pore size range. Hexane and methane penetrability into the coals showed similar trends with inertinite content.The observed variations in inertinite porosity between coals from different coal regions and coal basins may explain why previous studies differ in their observations of the relationships between gas sorption behavior, permeability, porosity, and maceral composition. These variations are not simply a demarcation between Northern and Southern Hemisphere coals.

  3. Coal flotation technical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiser, N. [C. Clarkson & Associates Pty. Ltd., Brisbane, Qld. (Australia)

    1996-10-01

    The Australian Coal Association Research Program (ACARP) recently commissioned a study into the status of flotation in coal preparation, in order to direct limited funds to areas of maximum benefit. The primary purpose of the study was the assessment of new flotation technologies, including those commercially available and those still under development. Technologies examined included: the Jameson Cell, Microcel, and Ekof cell. Problems and advantages are discussed, with suggestions for future areas of research. 3 figs.

  4. 1988 coal price negotiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senmura, Akira

    1988-12-01

    In the negotiation on raw coal price for 1988, which began at the end of 1987, Australia requested price rise of 4 - 5 dollars for the reason of rise of Australian dollars, conditions of mines, price drop in the past five years, and world supply/demand of coal. Japan insisted to maintain the price of preceding year. The talk ended in a dead lock which could last a long time. Negotiation on the Canadian coal price also encountered difficulties but an agreement was obtained in March as Japan accepted the increased price. After which, Japan and Australia agreed to raise the price by 2.90 dollars and an increase over last year. Producing countries also requested a wide price rise as 7.50 dollars for general coal, making in this area very difficult to progress. Finally, they agreed to raise the price by 6.30 dollars and the electric power utility in Japan responded by importing of U.S. coal, which has a lower heat output but is also cheaper. It depends on Australia for 70% of coal supply but started to diversify the source. 3 tabs.

  5. Coal mining in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, L J

    1981-12-01

    In 1959 black coal production in Australia totalled some 21.9 million tonnes per annum, 70% of this being produced from underground mines in the coalfields of New South Wales. By 1980 output levels had increased by nearly 350% to 75.4 million tonnes per annum (54% of which was exported) compared with 5% some 20 years earlier. Because it is blessed with large reserves of coal and other forms of energy, it is inevitable that the Australian coal mining industry will be required to play a major role in the development of the international coal market through to the end of the present century. Experts now predict a need for the black coal output in Australia to be developed from its present level to a minimum of 293 million tonnes per annum by the year 2000. This paper examines the present circumstances in the Australian coal industry and attempts to outline the development which has to be undertaken in order to meet the needs of an energy hungry world.

  6. Integrated coal preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchanan, D.J.; Jones, T.F.

    1992-01-01

    Perceptions of quality have changed over the years. The attributes of a certain coal (its rank, slagging propensity, ash content etc) are traditionally referred to as its quality. However, the subject of this paper is quality in a much wider sense: quality as fitness for purpose: and all that such a wide definition entails. British Standard BS 5750 (ISO 9000) Quality Systems defines a systems approach to quality, and includes both the supplier of raw materials and the final customer within this boundary. Coal preparation starts at the production face. The greater the proportion of dirt in run-of-mine product the greater the challenge in satisfying the customer's needs. Significant advances have been made in minimizing mined dirt. For example, the sue of vertical steering on longwall faces improves productivity and quality. Unfortunately modern mining methods produce large quantities of fines, despite efforts to reduce them at the point of production and during transportation to the surface. Coal preparation also produces further fines. It has been estimated that fine coal costs 2.5 times as much to clean as large coal, and the costs of handing wet fine coal product will inflate this estimate. Handling considerations rightly concern our customers and are part of the wider meaning of quality. In this paper the authors address some novel solutions to the challenge posed by fines

  7. Illinois School Bus Driver Instructional Program. Trainee Guide. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield.

    This trainee guide contains six units of materials for use by those studying to become school bus drivers in the State of Illinois. Covered in the units are the following topics: school bus driver role and responsibility, passenger control, first aid, driving fundamentals, accidents and emergencies, and detecting hazards. Each unit contains a…

  8. Employee Benefits for Illinois Public Higher Education Faculty and Staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois State Board of Higher Education, Springfield.

    This report focuses on the group benefits available to Illinois public higher education employees. The study provides a perspective on the range of benefits and the differences in the administration of institutional benefits. Findings reveal the availability of retirement annuities that increase with each 10 years of service; optional retirement…

  9. Illinois Adult Education Bridges: Promising Practices. Transition Highlights. Issue 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, Debra; Oertle, Kathleen Marie; Kim, Sujung; Kirby, Catherine; Taylor, Jason; Harmon, Tim; Liss, Loralea

    2011-01-01

    To enhance state-level adult education and employment policy, in 2007 the Joyce Foundation began the Shifting Gears (SG) initiative to assist six states (Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio and Wisconsin) to integrate adult education, workforce development and postsecondary education policies and improve job opportunities for low-skilled…

  10. At Northern Illinois U., Leaders Grapple with a Tragedy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Libby

    2008-01-01

    At even the best-prepared universities, there is no playbook for handling the crush of tough decisions that comes after a mass shooting rocks an otherwise quiet campus. While colleges and universities have always had tragedies, recent occurences like the shootings at Northern Illinois University and Virginia Tech have fundamentally changed the way…

  11. No Child Left Behind: A Postmortem for Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, Wm. Gregory; Boden, Camille; Karpenski, Jeremy; Muchowicz, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the outcomes of No Child Left Behind (NCLB), as implemented in Illinois, are evaluated in terms of high school standards testing results between 2003-2013. NCLB was a policy dedicated to closing the gap in schooling outcomes nationally in the space of a decade. There have been few systematic examinations of its macro-level results…

  12. Digital Learning Compass: Distance Education State Almanac 2017. Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, Julia E.; Seaman, Jeff

    2017-01-01

    This brief report uses data collected under the U.S. Department of Education's National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES) Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) Fall Enrollment survey to highlight distance education data in the state of Illinois. The sample for this analysis is comprised of all active, degree-granting…

  13. Relations between Precipitation and Shallow Groundwater in Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changnon, Stanley A.; Huff, Floyd A.; Hsu, Chin-Fei

    1988-12-01

    The statistical relationships between monthly precipitation (P) and shallow groundwater levels (GW) in 20 wells scattered across Illinois with data for 1960-84 were defined using autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) modeling. A lag of 1 month between P to GW was the strongest temporal relationship found across Illinois, followed by no (0) lag in the northern two-thirds of Illinois where mollisols predominate, and a lag of 2 months in the alfisols of southern Illinois. Spatial comparison of the 20 P-GW correlations with several physical conditions (aquifer types, soils, and physiography) revealed that the parent soil materials of outwash alluvium, glacial till, thick loess (2.1 m), and thin loess (>2.1) best defined regional relationships for drought assessment.Equations developed from ARTMA using 1960-79 data for each region were used to estimate GW levels during the 1980-81 drought, and estimates averaged between 25 to 45 cm of actual levels. These estimates are considered adequate to allow a useful assessment of drought onset, severity, and termination in other parts of the state. The techniques and equations should be transferrable to regions of comparable soils and climate.

  14. Illinois' Forests, 2005: Statistics, Methods, and Quality Assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan J. Crocker; Charles J. Barnett; Mark A. Hatfield

    2013-01-01

    The first full annual inventory of Illinois' forests was completed in 2005. This report contains 1) descriptive information on methods, statistics, and quality assurance of data collection, 2) a glossary of terms, 3) tables that summarize quality assurance, and 4) a core set of tabular estimates for a variety of forest resources. A detailed analysis of inventory...

  15. 226Ra concentrations in some Illinois well waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holtzman, R.B.; Gilkeson, R.H.

    1982-01-01

    226 Ra concentrations are reported for the waters from deep wells in 43 communities in Illinois. The concentrations range from 0.08 to 20.6 pCi/L. The effectiveness of additives (nitric acid or EDTA) in keeping the 226 Ra in solution in the samples is discussed

  16. Illinois Ratings of Teacher Effectiveness Manual. Grades 9-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, B. Everard

    The Illinois Ratings of Teacher Effectiveness (IRTE) is an instrument for recording senior high school student perceptions of teacher performance in ten trait areas: teacher appearance, ability to explain, friendliness, grading fairness, discipline, outside classroom assignments, enjoyment of teaching, voice, mannerisms, and command of subject…

  17. Illinois Association for Counseling and Development (IACD) Quarterly, 1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illovsky, Michael E., Ed.

    1990-01-01

    This document consists of the four issues of the "IACD Quarterly" published in 1990. Articles in this volume include: (1) "A Comprehensive Program for Reducing School Anxieties in College Students" (David Ross); (2) "Issues in Child Custody Determination in Illinois" (Amy Jo Buwick); (3) "Finding Meaning in the Here and Now Through Gestalt Therapy…

  18. Illinois Small Community Tree Programs: Attitudes, Status, and Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas L. Green; Timothy J. Howe; Herbert W. Schroeder

    1998-01-01

    In Illinois, 95% of the state's incorporated communities are classified as small (population less than 25,000), with approximately one-third of the state's citizens (3.6 million of 11.2 million) residing in these small communities. The objective of this survey was to obtain information on the status and needs of programs for managing public shade and street...

  19. Women Superintendents in Illinois: Gender Barriers and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanTuyle, Vicki; Watkins, Sandra G.

    2009-01-01

    Women face unique challenges as superintendents. This study determined barriers women face as superintendents and elicited reasons why these women would consider leaving the superintendent's position. Thirty-nine PreK-12 women superintendents in Illinois participated in a web-based survey in January 2008. Survey items included information…

  20. Improving Alcohol/Drug Education in Illinois Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield.

    This paper lists guidelines approved by the Illinois State Board of Education for improving alcohol and drug education in the schools. Statistics point out the seriousness of alcohol and drug abuse in terms of human costs to the victim, his/her family, and associates, and the economic costs of health care, accident losses, crime, social programs,…

  1. Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: HVAC/R Technician Cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

    This document, which is intended to serve as a guide for work force preparation program providers, details the Illinois occupational skill standards for programs preparing students for employment in jobs in the heating, ventilation, air conditioning, and refrigeration (HVAC/R) industry. Agency partners involved in this project include: the…

  2. The Illinois Community College Sustainability Network--A Successful Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Bert

    2010-01-01

    In 2008, the Illinois Department of Commerce and Economic Opportunity (DCEO), Bureau of Energy and Recycling, funded a pilot project creating a network of Sustainability Centers. The pilot project demonstrated that networked campus sustainability centers are an efficient mechanism to reach consumers, business, and industry. All 48 community…

  3. Prospects for coal and clean coal technology in the Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-03-15

    This report examines the current energy outlook for the Philippines in regard not only to coal but also other energy resources. The history of the power sector, current state of play and future plans to meet the increasing energy demand from a growing population are discussed. There is also analysis of the trends for coal demand and production, imports and exports of coal and the types of coal-fired power stations that have been built. This includes examination of the legislation involving coal and the promotion of clean coal technologies.

  4. Workability of coal seams in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, W; Fels, M; Soltysik, K

    1978-04-01

    This paper presents results of an investigation on workability of coal seams of stratigraphic groups from 100 to 700 in the: Upper Silesian Coal Basin. Analyzed are 2900 petrographic logs taken in the longwall workings and in narrow openings as well as about 9000 individual samples. Workability of coal seams, floors and partings is determined. Workability is described by the indicator f, (according to the Protodyakonov shatter method) and the indicator U, (compression strength of the unshaped test samples). The mean percentage content of indivi dual petrographic groups of coal as well as the mean workability indicator, f, of coals in the stratigraphic groups of coal seams in Upper Silesia are also determined.

  5. The Cottage Grove fault system (Illinois Basin): Late Paleozoic transpression along a Precambrian crustal boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchek, A.B.; McBride, J.H.; Nelson, W.J.; Leetaru, H.E.

    2004-01-01

    The Cottage Grove fault system in southern Illinois has long been interpreted as an intracratonic dextral strike-slip fault system. We investigated its structural geometry and kinematics in detail using (1) outcrop data, (2) extensive exposures in underground coal mines, (3) abundant borehole data, and (4) a network of industry seismic reflection profiles, including data reprocessed by us. Structural contour mapping delineates distinct monoclines, broad anticlines, and synclines that express Paleozoic-age deformation associated with strike slip along the fault system. As shown on seismic reflection profiles, prominent near-vertical faults that cut the entire Paleozoic section and basement-cover contact branch upward into outward-splaying, high-angle reverse faults. The master fault, sinuous along strike, is characterized along its length by an elongate anticline, ???3 km wide, that parallels the southern side of the master fault. These features signify that the overall kinematic regime was transpressional. Due to the absence of suitable piercing points, the amount of slip cannot be measured, but is constrained at less than 300 m near the ground surface. The Cottage Grove fault system apparently follows a Precambrian terrane boundary, as suggested by magnetic intensity data, the distribution of ultramafic igneous intrusions, and patterns of earthquake activity. The fault system was primarily active during the Alleghanian orogeny of Late Pennsylvanian and Early Permian time, when ultramatic igneous magma intruded along en echelon tensional fractures. ?? 2004 Geological Society of America.

  6. Preliminary assessment of the health and environmental impacts of fluidized-bed combustion of coal as applied to electrical utility systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-02-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the health and environmental impacts of fluidized-bed combustion of coal (FBC), specifically as applied to base-load generation of electrical energy by utilities. The public health impacts of Fluidized-Bed Combustion (FBC) plants are expected to be quite similar to those for Low Sulfur Coal (LSC) and Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) plants because all appear to be able to meet Federal emission standards; however, there are emissions not covered by standards. Hydrocarbon emissions are higher and trace element emissions are lower for FBC than for conventional technologies. For FBC, based on an analytical model and a single emission data point, the polycyclic organic material decreases the anticipated lifespan of the highly exposed public very slightly. Added health protection due to lower trace element emissions is not known. Although there is a large quantity of solid wastes from the generating plant, the environmental impact of the FBC technology due to solid residue appears lower than for FGD, where sludge management requires larger land areas and presents problems due to the environmentally noxious calcium sulfite in the waste. Fixing the sludge may become a requirement that increases the cost of wet-limestone FGD but makes that system more acceptable. The potential for aquatic or terrestrial impacts from hydrocarbon emissions is low. If application of AFBC technology increases the use of local high-sulfur coals to the detriment of western low-sulfur coal, a sociological benefit could accrue to the FBC (or FGD) technology, because impacts caused by western boom towns would decrease. The infrastructure of areas that mine high-sulfur coal in the Midwest are better equipped to handle increased mining than the West.

  7. Coal development potential in Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, M N; Pelofsky, A H [eds.

    1986-01-01

    A total of 48 papers were presented, and covered the following topics: the current situation in Pakistan with respect to development and utilization of coal resources; the policies that have been responsible for the development and utilization of coal resources in Pakistan; coal development and utilization in other developing nations e.g. Indonesia, Greece, Philippines, China, Thailand and Haiti; and technological developments in coal exploration; extraction, handling, transport and utilization which could accelerate future development of Pakistan's coal resources. Specific subjects covered include the use of coal in the cement industry of Pakistan; the production of briquettes for domestic use, development and training of personnel for the coal industry; and sources of finance for coal development projects. Particular emphasis is given throughout the conference to the Lakhra coal mine/power plant project which aims to develop and effectively utilize the lignite reserves of Sind Province. 47 papers have been abstracted separately.

  8. Coal 99; Kol 99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparre, C

    2000-07-01

    The following report deals with the use of coal and coke during 1998. Some information about techniques, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from Statistics Sweden have also been used. The use of steam coal for heating purposes during 1998 was 680 000 tons and somewhat lower than in 1997. The extremely high figures of 1996 were due to twice the production of electricity because of lack of waterpower. The co-generation plants were the main users of coal. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. Probably the use of steam coal will go down in the immediate years both in the heat generating and the co-generating plants. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hot water plants and 11 co-generation plants. During 1998 these figures are 1 and 8. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in the industry has been constant at the level 700 000 tons. This level is supposed to be constant or to vary with business cycles. Steel-works, however, increase their use of steam coal in order to replace the more expensive coke. The import of metallurgical coal in 1998 was 1.6 mill tons like the year before. 1.1 mill tons of coke were produced. The coke consumption in the industry was 1.4 mill tons from which 0.3 mill tons were imported. Several other plants have plans to replace the coal with forest fuels, waste fuels and NG. Even the biggest plant, Vaesteraas, has ordered a block for bio fuels. Helsingborg has started to use wood pellets. The pellets replace most of the coal for the heat production in the co-generation plant. Norrkoeping Kraft AB has put a fluid bed boiler for various fuels into operation, leading to more than half the coal consumption compared with previous years. They have also rebuilt one of their travelling grates for bio fuels. Stockholm Energi, Haesselbyverket, has invested

  9. Microbial ecology of coal mine refuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, R. E.; Miller, R. M.

    1977-01-01

    Baseline microbial and ecological studies of samples obtained from two abandoned coal mine refuse sites in the State of Illinois indicate that the unfavorable nature of refuse materials can be a very limiting factor for survival and growth of organisms. Despite the ''foothold'' obtained by some microorganisms, especially acidophilic fungi and some acidotolerant algae, the refuse materials should be amended or ameliorated to raise the pH, provide needed nutrients, especially nitrogen, and provide biodegradable organic matter, both for physical and biological purposes. Finally, the role of microbial populations, responses, and interactions in acid mine wastes must be put into larger perspective. Acid mine drainage amounts to over 4 million tons per year of acidity from active and abandoned mines. Microorganisms appear to be significantly responsible for this problem, but they also can play a beneficial and significant role in the amelioration or alleviation of this detrimental effect as abandoned mines are reclaimed and returned to useful productivity.

  10. Japan`s Sunshine Project. 1991 annual summary of coal liquefaction and gasification; 1991 nendo sunshine keikaku seika hokokusho gaiyoshu. Sekitan no ekika gas ka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-07-01

    Out of the research and development on the 1991 Sunshine Project, the results of coal liquefaction/gasification are reported. The basic research of coal liquefaction/gasification is conducted. The research plan for a 150 ton/day scale pilot plant (PP) is worked out for the development of bituminous coal liquefaction technology by NEDOL process. Data of PSU (Process Support Units) operation, especially, are studied. Concerning the data obtained through dismantling of the 50 ton/day PP in Australia which uses Australian Victoria coal due to completion of its operation and also obtained from its support research, they are reflected in the design of a demonstration plant, and the results are arranged for study. Research and development on refining technology of coal-derived liquid such as Illinois coal liquid and on application technology of its products are made. For the development of coal-use hydrogen production technology, conducted is the research of a high temperature gasification PP by entrained flow bed process which is the core of the coal gasification technology. Elementary study with a 2 ton/day furnace is made for the development of the entrained flow bed coal gasification combined cycle power generation system. Also conducted are PP construction, adjusting operation and the overall research operation.

  11. Arsenic concentrations in Chinese coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Mingshi; Zheng Baoshan; Wang Binbin; Li Shehong; Wu Daishe; Hu Jun

    2006-01-01

    The arsenic concentrations in 297 coal samples were collected from the main coal-mines of 26 provinces in China were determined by molybdenum blue coloration method. These samples were collected from coals that vary widely in coal rank and coal-forming periods from the five main coal-bearing regions in China. Arsenic content in Chinese coals range between 0.24 to 71 mg/kg. The mean of the concentration of Arsenic is 6.4 ± 0.5 mg/kg and the geometric mean is 4.0 ± 8.5 mg/kg. The level of arsenic in China is higher in northeastern and southern provinces, but lower in northwestern provinces. The relationship between arsenic content and coal-forming period, coal rank is studied. It was observed that the arsenic contents decreases with coal rank in the order: Tertiary > Early Jurassic > Late Triassic > Late Jurassic > Middle Jurassic > Late Permian > Early Carboniferous > Middle Carboniferous > Late Carboniferous > Early Permian; It was also noted that the arsenic contents decrease in the order: Subbituminous > Anthracite > Bituminous. However, compared with the geological characteristics of coal forming region, coal rank and coal-forming period have little effect on the concentration of arsenic in Chinese coal. The average arsenic concentration of Chinese coal is lower than that of the whole world. The health problems in China derived from in coal (arsenism) are due largely to poor local life-style practices in cooking and home heating with coal rather than to high arsenic contents in the coal

  12. Paleoecology of the Late Pennsylvanian-age Calhoun coal bed and implications for long-term dynamics of wetland ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willard, Debra A. [US Geological Survey, 926A National Center, Reston (VA 20192 USA); Phillips, Tom L. [Department of Plant Biology, University of Illinois, Urbana (IL 61801 USA); Lesnikowska, Alicia D. [Box 24, Rt. 2, Vineyard Haven (MA 02568 USA); DiMichele, William A. [Department of Paleobiology, NMNH, Smithsonian Institution, Washington (DC 20560 USA)

    2007-01-02

    Quantitative plant assemblage data from coal balls, miospores, megaspores, and compression floras from the Calhoun coal bed (Missourian) of the Illinois Basin (USA) are used to interpret spatial and temporal changes in plant communities in the paleo-peat swamp. Coal-ball and miospore floras from the Calhoun coal bed are dominated strongly by tree ferns, and pteridosperms and sigillarian lycopsids are subdominant, depending on geographic location within the coal bed. Although the overall composition of Calhoun peat-swamp assemblages is consistent both temporally and spatially, site-to-site differences and short-term shifts in species dominance indicate local topographic and hydrologic control on species composition within the broader context of the swamp. Statistical comparison of the Calhoun miospore assemblages with those from other Late Pennsylvanian coal beds suggests that the same basic species pool was represented in each peat-swamp landscape and that the relative patterns of dominance and diversity were persistent from site to site. Therefore, it appears that the relative patterns of proportional dominance stayed roughly the same from one coal bed to the next during Late Pennsylvanian glacially-driven climatic oscillations. (author)

  13. Coal fires in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehouse, Alfred E.; Mulyana, Asep A.S. [Office of Surface Mining/Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources Coal Fire Project, Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, Agency for Training and Education, Jl. Gatot Subroto, Kav. 49, Jakarta 12950 (Indonesia)

    2004-07-12

    Indonesia's fire and haze problem is increasingly being ascribed to large-scale forest conversion and land clearing activities making way for pulpwood, rubber and oil palm plantations. Fire is the cheapest tool available to small holders and plantation owners to reduce vegetation cover and prepare and fertilize extremely poor soils. Fires that escaped from agricultural burns have ravaged East Kalimantan forests on the island of Borneo during extreme drought periods in 1982-1983, 1987, 1991, 1994 and 1997-1998. Estimates based on satellite data and ground observations are that more than five million hectares were burned in East Kalimantan during the 1997/1998 dry season. Not only were the economic losses and ecological damage from these surface fires enormous, they ignited coal seams exposed at the ground surface along their outcrops.Coal fires now threaten Indonesia's shrinking ecological resources in Kutai National Park and Sungai Wain Nature Reserve. Sungai Wain has one of the last areas of unburned primary rainforest in the Balikpapan-Samarinda area with an extremely rich biodiversity. Although fires in 1997/1998 damaged nearly 50% of this Reserve and ignited 76 coal fires, it remains the most valuable water catchment area in the region and it has been used as a reintroduction site for the endangered orangutan. The Office of Surface Mining provided Indonesia with the capability to take quick action on coal fires that presented threats to public health and safety, infrastructure or the environment. The US Department of State's Southeast Asia Environmental Protection Initiative through the US Agency for International Development funded the project. Technical assistance and training transferred skills in coal fire management through the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resource's Training Agency to the regional offices; giving the regions the long-term capability to manage coal fires. Funding was also included to extinguish coal fires as

  14. Trace elements in coal ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deonarine, Amrika; Kolker, Allan; Doughten, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    Coal ash is a residual waste product primarily produced by coal combustion for electric power generation. Coal ash includes fly ash, bottom ash, and flue-gas desulfurization products (at powerplants equipped with flue-gas desulfurization systems). Fly ash, the most common form of coal ash, is used in a range of products, especially construction materials. A new Environmental Protection Agency ruling upholds designation of coal ash as a non-hazardous waste under Subtitle D of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, allowing for the continued beneficial use of coal ash and also designating procedures and requirements for its storage.

  15. Natural gas storage with activated carbon from a bituminous coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jielun; Rood, M.J.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Lizzio, A.A.

    1996-01-01

    Granular activated carbons ( -20 + 100 mesh; 0.149-0.84 mm) were produced by physical activation and chemical activation with KOH from an Illinois bituminous coal (IBC-106) for natural gas storage. The products were characterized by BET surface area, micropore volume, bulk density, and methane adsorption capacities. Volumetric methane adsorption capacities (Vm/Vs) of some of the granular carbons produced by physical activation are about 70 cm3/cm3 which is comparable to that of BPL, a commercial activated carbon. Vm/Vs values above 100 cm3/cm3 are obtainable by grinding the granular products to - 325 mesh (activated carbons, granular carbons produced by KOH activation have higher micropore volume and higher methane adsorption capacities (g/g). Their volumetric methane adsorption capacities are lower due to their lower bulk densities. Copyright ?? 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  16. Wireless vibration monitoring in a US coal-fired plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gbur, G.L.; Wier, W.; Bark, T.

    2006-07-15

    Choosing a reliable wireless systems able to provide data on vibration magnitudes in a coal pulveriser was never going to be easy, so two systems were tested alongside each other. One was the Wireless MCT System produced by SKF Reliability Systems; the other was from an alternative vendor. A replacement wireless vibration monitor was required at the Baldwin Energy Complex near Decartar, Illinois, USA. A single CE-Raymond model 923.RP pulverizer equipped with eight Wilcox on 786A accelerometers was chosen for monitoring. Five days after installation, the pulverizer experienced a failure. The wireless system provided vibration magnitudes to Dynegy's OSI PI Historian software. Analysis of this data coupled with an unsuccessful attempt to adjust the grinding roll, revealed that the number two grinding roll bearing had failed. The SKF Reliability System proved to detect the fault earlier than the non-SKF system and was chosen for the plant. 10 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Proceedings of the ninth annual underground coal gasification symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wieber, P.R.; Martin, J.W.; Byrer, C.W. (eds.)

    1983-12-01

    The Ninth Underground Coal Gasification Symposium was held August 7 to 10, 1983 at the Indian Lakes Resort and Conference Center in Bloomingdale, Illinois. Over one-hundred attendees from industry, academia, National Laboratories, State Government, and the US Government participated in the exchange of ideas, results and future research plans. Representatives from six countries including France, Belgium, United Kingdom, The Netherlands, West Germany, and Brazil also participated by presenting papers. Fifty papers were presented and discussed in four formal sessions and two informal poster sessions. The presentations described current and future field testing plans, interpretation of field test data, environmental research, laboratory studies, modeling, and economics. All papers were processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  18. EIA projections of coal supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, D.E.

    1989-01-01

    Contents of this report include: EIA projections of coal supply and demand which covers forecasted coal supply and transportation, forecasted coal demand by consuming sector, and forecasted coal demand by the electric utility sector; and policy discussion

  19. Coal 95; Kol - 95

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparre, C

    1996-12-31

    The report deals with the use of coal and coke in Sweden during 1994. Some information about technology, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from Statistics Sweden have also been used.The use of steam coal for heating purposes has been unchanged during 1994 at a level of 1 Mtons. The production in the cogeneration plants has been constant, but has increased for electricity production. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. The use of steam coal will probably go down in the next years both for heat and cogeneration plants. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hot water and 11 cogeneration plants. 1994 these figures are 3 and 12. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in industry has been constant at the level 0.7 Mtons. The import of metallurgical coal in 1993 was 1.6 Mtons, like 1992. Import of 0.3 Mtons of coke gives the total consumption of coke in industry as 1.5 Mtons. the average price of steam coal imported to Sweden was 317 SEK/ton, 3% higher than 1993. All Swedish plants meet their emission limit of dust, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} as given by county administrations or concession boards. The cogeneration plants all have some SO{sub 2} removal system. The biggest cogeneration plant (Vaesteraas) has recently invested in a SCR NO{sub x} cleaning system. Most other plants use low NO{sub x} burners or SNR injection systems based on ammonia or urea. 2 figs, 13 tabs.

  20. Variability of Mercury Content in Coal Matter From Coal Seams of The Upper Silesia Coal Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzchowski, Krzysztof; Chećko, Jarosław; Pyka, Ireneusz

    2017-12-01

    The process of identifying and documenting the quality parameters of coal, as well as the conditions of coal deposition in the seam, is multi-stage and extremely expensive. The taking and analyzing of seam samples is the method of assessment of the quality and quantity parameters of coals in deep mines. Depending on the method of sampling, it offers quite precise assessment of the quality parameters of potential commercial coals. The main kind of seam samples under consideration are so-called "documentary seam samples", which exclude dirt bands and other seam contaminants. Mercury content in coal matter from the currently accessible and exploited coal seams of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (USCB) was assessed. It was noted that the mercury content in coal seams decreases with the age of the seam and, to a lesser extent, seam deposition depth. Maps of the variation of mercury content in selected lithostratigraphic units (layers) of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin have been created.

  1. Dew point measurements of flue gases in steam generators with brown coal combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schinkel, W.

    1980-01-01

    This paper examines empirical data on sulfuric acid condensation and resulting internal corrosion in brown coal fired steam generators. Due to the high sulfur content in brown coal (0.5% to 5.0%) and relative short duration of the gases in the combustion chamber the concentrations of sulfur trioxide present in the flue gases can condense at the heat exchange surfaces of the steam generators. A number of diagrams show sulfuric acid dew point temperatures depending on brown coal sulfur content, the influence of combustion air supply on the dew point, and condensing speed and the rate of corrosion in relation to different heat exchange surface temperatures. The conclusion is made that a five-fold increase in corrosion can be caused by a 10 K higher flue gas dew point, a 5 K cooling of heating surfaces can also cause heavy corrosion at a certain dew point. Maximum corrosion results at 20 to 50 K differences between flue gas dew point and heat exchange surfaces. Optimum operation of steam generators with minimal internal corrosion requires the consideration of flue gas and heating surface temperatures as well as flue gas sulfur acid dew points. (10 refs.) (In German)

  2. Technical analysis of advanced wastewater-treatment systems for coal-gasification plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-31

    This analysis of advanced wastewater treatment systems for coal gasification plants highlights the three coal gasification demonstration plants proposed by the US Department of Energy: The Memphis Light, Gas and Water Division Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant, the Illinois Coal Gasification Group Pipeline Gas Demonstration Plant, and the CONOCO Pipeline Gas Demonstration Plant. Technical risks exist for coal gasification wastewater treatment systems, in general, and for the three DOE demonstration plants (as designed), in particular, because of key data gaps. The quantities and compositions of coal gasification wastewaters are not well known; the treatability of coal gasification wastewaters by various technologies has not been adequately studied; the dynamic interactions of sequential wastewater treatment processes and upstream wastewater sources has not been tested at demonstration scale. This report identifies key data gaps and recommends that demonstration-size and commercial-size plants be used for coal gasification wastewater treatment data base development. While certain advanced treatment technologies can benefit from additional bench-scale studies, bench-scale and pilot plant scale operations are not representative of commercial-size facility operation. It is recommended that coal gasification demonstration plants, and other commercial-size facilities that generate similar wastewaters, be used to test advanced wastewater treatment technologies during operation by using sidestreams or collected wastewater samples in addition to the plant's own primary treatment system. Advanced wastewater treatment processes are needed to degrade refractory organics and to concentrate and remove dissolved solids to allow for wastewater reuse. Further study of reverse osmosis, evaporation, electrodialysis, ozonation, activated carbon, and ultrafiltration should take place at bench-scale.

  3. The Rheology of a Three Component System: COAL/WATER/#4 Oil Emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmartin, Barbara Jean

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the rheology of a three component system, coal/water/#4 oil emulsions (COW), in which the third component, water, was present in a significant concentration, and to determine the applicability of existing theories from suspension rheology to the three component system studied. In a coal/water/oil emulsion, free coal particles adhere to the surface of the water droplets, preventing their coagulation, while the larger coal particles reside in the matrix of stabilized water droplets. The use of liquid fuels containing coal is a means of utilizing our nation's coal reserves while conserving oil. These fuels can be burned in conventional oil-fired furnaces. In this investigation, a high sulfur, high ash, bituminous coal was used, along with a heavy #4 oil to prepare the emulsions. The coal was ground to a log-normal distribution with an average particle size of 62 microns. A Haake RV3 concentric cylinder viscometer, with a ribbed measuring system, was used to determine the viscosity of the emulsions. A physical pendulum settling device measured the shift in center of mass of the COW as a function of time. The flow behavior of the fuel in pipes was also tested. In interpreting the data from the viscometer and the pipe flow experiments, a power law analysis was used in the region from 30 s('-1) to 200 s('-1). Extrapolation methods were used to obtain the low and high shear behavior of the emulsions. In the shear rate region found in boiler feed systems, COW are shear thinning with a flow behavior index of 0.7. The temperature dependent characteristic of the emulsions studied were similar and followed an Arrhenius type relationship. The viscosity of the COW decreases with increasing coal average particle size and is also a function of the width of the size distribution used. The type of coal used strongly influences the rheology of the fuel. The volatile content and the atomic oxygen to nitrogen ratio of the coal are the most

  4. Market, trading and coal price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, J.C.; Cornot-Gandolphe, S.; Labrunie, L.; Lemoine, St.; Vandijck, M.

    2006-01-01

    The coal world experienced a true upheaval in the past five years World coal consumption went up 28 % between 2000 and 2005, as a result of the strong growth in Chinese demand. The growth should continue in the coming years: electrical plant builders' orders are mainly for coal. The regained interest in coal is based on the constraints experienced by competing energies (increase in oil and natural gas prices, geopolitical uncertainties, supply difficulties) and by the abundant reserves of coal in the world and the competitiveness of its price. The strong growth in world coal demand comes with a change in rules governing steam coal trading. While long term bilateral agreements were most common until the late nineties, there has been a true revolution in coal marketing since 2000: spot contracts, stock exchange emergence and futures contracts, price indexes. In a few years, the steam coal market has become a true commodities market, overtaking many more goods. The price of coal has also gone through strong variations since 2003. Whereas the price had been stable for decades, in 2004 the strong increase in China' s demand for coal and iron ore resulting in transport shortage, caused a strong increase in CAF coal prices. Since then, prices have gone down, but remain higher than the Eighties and Nineties levels. In spite of the increase, coal remains available at more competitive prices than its competing energies. (authors)

  5. Global thermal coal trade outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewart, E.

    2008-01-01

    Wood Mackenzie operates coal consulting offices in several cities around the world and is the number one consulting company in terms of global coal coverage. The company offers a unique mine-by-mine research methodology, and owns a proprietary modeling system for coal and power market forecasting. This presentation provided an overview of global thermal markets as well as recent market trends. Seaborne markets have an impact on price far greater than the volume of trade would imply. Research has also demonstrated that the global thermal coal market is divided between the Pacific and Atlantic Basins. The current status of several major coal exporting countries such as Canada, the United States, Venezuela, Colombia, Indonesia, Australia, China, South Africa, and Russia was displayed in an illustration. The presentation included several graphs indicating that the seaborne thermal coal market is highly concentrated; traditional coal flow and pricing trends shift as Asian demand growth and supply constraints lead to chronic under supply; coal prices have risen to historic highs in recent times; and, the Asian power sector demand is a major driver of future growth. The correlation between oil and gas markets to thermal coal was illustrated along with two scenarios of coal use in the United States in a carbon-constrained world. The impact of carbon legislation on coal demand from selected coal regions in the United States was also discussed. Wood Mackenzie forecasts a very strong growth in global thermal coal demand, driven largely by emerging Asian economies. tabs., figs

  6. 2D Seismic Reflection Data across Central Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Valerie; Leetaru, Hannes

    2014-09-30

    In a continuing collaboration with the Midwest Geologic Sequestration Consortium (MGSC) on the Evaluation of the Carbon Sequestration Potential of the Cambro-Ordovician Strata of the Illinois and Michigan Basins project, Schlumberger Carbon Services and WesternGeco acquired two-dimensional (2D) seismic data in the Illinois Basin. This work included the design, acquisition and processing of approximately 125 miles of (2D) seismic reflection surveys running west to east in the central Illinois Basin. Schlumberger Carbon Services and WesternGeco oversaw the management of the field operations (including a pre-shoot planning, mobilization, acquisition and de-mobilization of the field personnel and equipment), procurement of the necessary permits to conduct the survey, post-shoot closure, processing of the raw data, and provided expert consultation as needed in the interpretation of the delivered product. Three 2D seismic lines were acquired across central Illinois during November and December 2010 and January 2011. Traversing the Illinois Basin, this 2D seismic survey was designed to image the stratigraphy of the Cambro-Ordovician sections and also to discern the basement topography. Prior to this survey, there were no regionally extensive 2D seismic data spanning this section of the Illinois Basin. Between the NW side of Morgan County and northwestern border of Douglas County, these seismic lines ran through very rural portions of the state. Starting in Morgan County, Line 101 was the longest at 93 miles in length and ended NE of Decatur, Illinois. Line 501 ran W-E from the Illinois Basin – Decatur Project (IBDP) site to northwestern Douglas County and was 25 miles in length. Line 601 was the shortest and ran N-S past the IBDP site and connected lines 101 and 501. All three lines are correlated to well logs at the IBDP site. Originally processed in 2011, the 2D seismic profiles exhibited a degradation of signal quality below ~400 millisecond (ms) which made

  7. Clean coal technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abelson, P.H.

    1990-01-01

    One of the major technology challenges in the next decade will be to develop means of using coal imaginatively as a source of chemicals and in a more energy-efficient manner. The Clean Air Act will help to diminish the acid rain but will not reduce CO 2 emissions. The Department of Energy (DOE) is fostering many innovations that are likely to have a positive effect on coal usage. Of the different innovations in the use of coal fostered by DOE, two are of particular interest. One is the new pressurized fluid bed combustion (PFBC) combined-cycle demonstration. The PFBC plant now becoming operational can reduce SO 2 emissions by more than 90% and NO x emissions by 50-70%. A second new technology co-sponsored by DOE is the Encoal mild coal gasification project that will convert a sub-bituminous low-BTU coal into a useful higher BTU solid while producing significant amounts of a liquid fuel

  8. Bright outlook for coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2001-01-01

    After enduring contract price cuts over the past two years of almost 17% for thermal coal and 23% for hard coking coal, the New South Wales coal industry is looking forward to a reversal of fortune for 2001. Increased export demand, improved prices, significant improvements in mine site productivity, a weak Australian dollar and the probability of a number of new projects or extensions progressing to development are likely to result in an increase in NSW saleable production to around 110 million tonnes (Mt) in 2000-01. Sharply weaker coal prices over the past two years, intensified international competition and the Asian economic downturn had a negative impact on profitability, investment, exports and employment in the NSW coal industry. As a result, the industry has undergone substantial restructuring. The restructuring process has led to a consolidation in ownership, reduced production costs and improved operational efficiency. The outcome is an industry well positioned to take advantage of the positive market conditions and one likely to experience levels of profitability not achieved over the past few years

  9. Estimation of Moisture Content in Coal in Coal Mills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Mataji, B.

    the moisture content of the coal is proposed based on a simple dynamic energy model of a coal mill, which pulverizes and dries the coal before it is burned in the boiler. An optimal unknown input observer is designed to estimate the moisture content based on an energy balance model. The designed moisture...

  10. Estimation of Moisture Content in Coal in Coal Mills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Mataji, Babak

    2006-01-01

    the moisture content of the coal is proposed based on a simple dynamic energy model of a coal mill, which pulverizes and dries the coal before it is burned in the boiler. An optimal unknown input observer is designed to estimate the moisture content based on an energy balance model. The designed moisture...

  11. Low-rank coal research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, G. F.; Laudal, D. L.

    1989-01-01

    This work is a compilation of reports on ongoing research at the University of North Dakota. Topics include: Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research (SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} control, waste management), Advanced Research and Technology Development (turbine combustion phenomena, combustion inorganic transformation, coal/char reactivity, liquefaction reactivity of low-rank coals, gasification ash and slag characterization, fine particulate emissions), Combustion Research (fluidized bed combustion, beneficiation of low-rank coals, combustion characterization of low-rank coal fuels, diesel utilization of low-rank coals), Liquefaction Research (low-rank coal direct liquefaction), and Gasification Research (hydrogen production from low-rank coals, advanced wastewater treatment, mild gasification, color and residual COD removal from Synfuel wastewaters, Great Plains Gasification Plant, gasifier optimization).

  12. Simulated herbivory and vegetation dynamics in coal slurry ponds reclaimed as wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathis, M.J.; Middleton, B.A. [Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL (USA). Dept. of Plant Biology

    1999-12-01

    The biodiversity of coal slurry ponds can be inhibited at least in part, by dense stands of Phragmites australis. In this study, it is demonstrated that species richness can be increased in coal slurry ponds if the dominant species (P. Australis and Typha latifolia) are removed and that underwater herbivory simulated by cutting will kill emergents. The study was conducted in the greenhouse and the field in both flooded and drawndown conditions. In a reclaimed coal pond at Pyramid State Park, Illinois, neither P. australis nor T. Latifolia survived cutting underwater, but all of the uncut plants survived. Regrowth measured as total biomass of stems was less among flooded versus freely drained plants (0.3 and 2.6 g biomass, respectively). Cut versus uncut plants, combining freely drained and flooded, had less below-ground biomass (99.4 and 254.4 g, respectively). In an unreclaimed coal slurry pond with monospecific stands of P. Australis, plant species richness increased in cut plots as compared to uncut plots (29 vs 2 species, respectively) between March and September, 1995. This study demonstrated that species richness can be increased in coal ponds by mechanical cutting and this potentially by herbivory; however, the additional species were mostly exotics.

  13. Illinois Directors' of Special Education Perceptions of Their Leadership Styles and Importance of the Illinois Standards for Director of Special Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnell, James W.

    2013-01-01

    This research examined the relationship between Illinois Directors, of special education leadership styles and the importance of the Illinois mandated standards for Director of special education. It extends the current research in educational leadership by specifically exploring the relationship between the importance of special education…

  14. Alkaline hydrothermal de-ashing and desulfurization of low quality coal and its application to hydrogen-rich gas generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mursito, Anggoro Tri; Hirajima, Tsuyoshi; Sasaki, Keiko

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes experimental research and a fundamental study of alkaline hydrothermal treatment of high-sulfur, high-ash coal from Banten, Java-Indonesia. Experiments were carried out on a laboratory-scale 0.5 L batch reactor. The alkaline hydrothermal treatment gave upgraded clean coal with low sulfur content (about 0.3 wt.%) and low ash content (about 2.1 wt.%). A zero carbon dioxide and pure hydrogen gas were produced at 330 o C by introducing an alkali (sodium hydroxide, NaOH) to the hydrothermal treatment of raw coal. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) techniques were used to test for the removal or reduction of major inorganic elements in the coal, and changes in carbon-functional groups and their properties were determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Carbon-13 of nuclear magnetic resonance ( 13 C NMR) tests on the product of the hydrothermal upgrading and demineralization process.

  15. Fiscal 1995 survey report on the feasibility study of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system. Feasibility study of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system in Thailand; Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa. Tai ni okeru kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    The paper surveyed the present situation and future trend of economy, energy supply/demand, coal production/distribution/utilization and the environmental effects in Thailand. The survey on the coal utilization and its environmental effects was partially requested of the environmental research institute in Thailand. The amount of coal utilization in Thailand rapidly increased to nearly four times as large as that ten years ago mainly in terms of domestic lignite under the government`s policy on expansion of the domestic energy use. However, most of this domestic lignite is low-grade coal with low calories and high sulfur content, and the use of it was rapidly increased mostly in power generation sector without no adequate environmental measures taken. This caused an environmental problem on air pollution due to sulfur oxides at Mae Moh power plant in the north several years ago, and the damages to the regional residents, etc. were given much publicity by journalism and developed the social problem. Accordingly, Thai people are now critical of the coal resource exploration and the coal use expansion. Under the circumstances, the Ministry of Industry and the energy related ministries/offices are obliged to review their development/promotion plans. 84 figs., 99 tabs.

  16. TEKO returns to coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TREND

    2003-01-01

    Slovak government will not grant state long-term credit guarantee sized about 1 billion Slovak crowns, which Geoterm, a.s., Kosice company would like to get from World bank. Loan should be used as for construction of geothermal source in village Durkov near Kosice, which would be connected in Kosice thermal plant TEKO, a.s. Geothermal sources capacity after realization of planned investments should reach half of present output of plant. The nearest TEKO investments should head to changes in plant production process. Plant wants to redirect in heat and thermal energy production from existing dominant gas consumption to black coal incineration. Black coal incineration is more advantageous than natural gas exploitation in spite of ecologic loads. TEKO also will lower gas consumption for at least 30 per cent and rise up present black coal consumption almost twice

  17. Coal liquefaction still a dream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overberg, H

    1982-03-19

    Liquefaction of coal is not profitable in West Germany and will not be so far some time to coal. This is true for West German and imported coal. The result may be improved but not changed by combined conversion of coal and top residues of distilleries. These are the main statements of a study carried out by Messrs. Veba Oel AG, Gelsenkirchen, on behalf of the Federal Minister for Research and Technology. The results of the study are presented in 20 volumes.

  18. Coal: the dinosaur wakes up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousseau, Y.; Cosnard, D.

    2005-01-01

    In western countries, coal is considered as an industry of the past, but at the Earth's scale the situation is radically the opposite. Since three years, coal is the faster developing energy source, in particular thanks to China expansion and to the oil crisis which makes coal more competitive. This short paper presents the situation of coal mining in China: projects, working conditions and environmental impact. (J.S.)

  19. Sustainable development with clean coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    This paper discusses the opportunities available with clean coal technologies. Applications include new power plants, retrofitting and repowering of existing power plants, steelmaking, cement making, paper manufacturing, cogeneration facilities, and district heating plants. An appendix describes the clean coal technologies. These include coal preparation (physical cleaning, low-rank upgrading, bituminous coal preparation); combustion technologies (fluidized-bed combustion and NOx control); post-combustion cleaning (particulate control, sulfur dioxide control, nitrogen oxide control); and conversion with the integrated gasification combined cycle.

  20. Possibilities for automating coal sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helekal, J; Vankova, J

    1987-11-01

    Outlines sampling equipment in use (AVR-, AVP-, AVN- and AVK-series samplers and RDK- and RDH-series separators produced by the Coal Research Institute, Ostrava; extractors, crushers and separators produced by ORGREZ). The Ostrava equipment covers bituminous coal needs while ORGREZ provides equipment for energy coal requirements. This equipment is designed to handle coal up to 200 mm in size at a throughput of up to 1200 t/h. Automation of sampling equipment is foreseen.

  1. 78 FR 28242 - Proposed Information Collection; Cleanup Program for Accumulations of Coal and Float Coal Dusts...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... Program for Accumulations of Coal and Float Coal Dusts, Loose Coal, and Other Combustibles AGENCY: Mine... collection for developing and updating a cleanup program for accumulations of coal and float coal dusts, loose coal, and other combustibles in underground coal mines. DATES: All comments must be postmarked or...

  2. Properties, origin and nomenclature of rodlets of the inertinite maceral group in coals of the central Appalachian basin, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, P.C.; Finkelman, R.B.; Thompson, C.L.; Brown, F.W.; Hatcher, P.G.

    1982-01-01

    Resin rodlets, sclerenchyma strands and woody splinters, which are collectively called rodlets, were studied by chemical, optical petrographic, and scanning-electron microscopic (SEM) techniques. A study was made of such rodlets from the bituminous coal beds of the central Appalachian basin (Pennsylvanian; Upper Carboniferous) of the United States. Comparisons were made with rodlets from coal beds of the Illinois basin, the Southern Anthracite Field of Pennsylvania, the St. Rose coal field of Nova Scotia, and European and other coal fields. In order to determine their physical and chemical properties, a detailed study was made of the rodlets from the Pomeroy coal bed (high volatile A bituminous coal; Monongahela Formation; Upper Pennsylvanian) of Kanawha County, West Virginia. The origin of the rodlets was determined by a comparative analysis of a medullosan (seed fern) stem from the Herrin (No. 6) coal bed (high volatile C bituminous coal; Carbondale Formation) from Washington County, Illinois. Rodlets are commonly concentrated in fusain or carbominerite layers or lenses in bituminous coal beds of the central Appalachian basin. Most of the rodlets examined in our study were probably derived from medullosan seed ferns. The three types of rodlets are distinguished on the basis of cellularity, morphology and fracture. The resin rodlets studied by us are noncellular and appear to be similar in properties and origin to those found in coal beds of the Middle and Upper Pennsylvanian of the Illinois basin. The resin rodlets extracted from the Pomeroy coal bed exhibit high relief and high reflectance when polished and viewed in reflected light; they are opaque in transmitted light. In cross section, the resin rodlets are oval to round and have diameters ranging from 60 to 450 ??m. Many are solid, but some have vesicles, canals or cavities, which are commonly filled with clay, probably kaolinite. Typically, they have distinct fracture patterns ("kerfs") in longitudinal and

  3. Draft supplement to the final environmental statement related to the decommissioning of the Rare Earths Facility, West Chicago, Illinois (Docket No. 40-2061): Kerr-McGee Chemical Corporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    This Draft Supplemental Environmental Statement (DSES) assesses the impacts of permanent disposal of wastes located at the Kerr-McGee Rare Earths Facility in West Chicago, Illinois. The assessments presented in the DSES augment and update those described in the Final Environmental Statement (FES) that was issued by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in May 1983. In this DSES, additional alternative sites are analyzed, the analysis is more detailed, and the NRC expressly considers the suitability of these sites for permanent waste disposal. The analysis describes the Proposed Action, which is permanent disposal of the wastes in an above-grade disposal cell at the West Chicago site, and four alternatives for permanent disposal at other sites in Illinois. The four alternatives are: Alternative A, disposal at an active surface coal mine in a deep-trench disposal cell; Alternative B, disposal in a reclaimed surface coal mine in a deep-trench disposal cell; Alternative C, disposal in an underground coal mine in a worked-out panel; and Alternative D, disposal on a farmland site in a partially above-grade disposal cell. The environmental issues considered in the impact assessment are topography, air quality, socioeconomics, land resources, archaeology, mineral resources, water resources, ecology, and radiation exposure. A cost-benefit analysis of the Proposed Action and its alternatives is also presented. Based on the information and analysis given within this DSES, the NRC concluded that the Proposed Action is the preferred course of action

  4. Steel story founded on coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    Paper reports on an iron and steel plant in New Zealand which uses non-coking subbituminuous coal to produce the sponge iron. The transport of the ironsand and the coal to the site and the operation of the kiln in which the ironsand is reduced by the coal is described.

  5. Microscopic coal research in Canada

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hacquebard, P.A.

    1955-01-01

    Since the industrial developments of Europe and North America in the nineteenth century, coal has been considered as the most important mineral wealth a country could possess. Coal was often referred to as King Coal, and it was not until around 1950 that its position as the major fuel for modern

  6. Competitive edge of western coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keith, R.D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper expresses views on the competitive advantages of one of the nation's most remarkable energy resources--Western coal. It covers utilization of Western coal, and its advantages. The Arkansas Power and Light Company and its demand for coal are also covered

  7. Coal type and burnout performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lester, E.; Cloke, M. [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom). School of Chemical, Environmental and Mining Engineering

    1999-07-01

    A variety of coals underwent refire tests in a drop tube furnace. Characteristics of the coal fractions, the pyrolysed char fractions and the refired char fractions were compared to determine links between coal composition, intermediate char products and burnout. 9 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  8. The new deal of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalaydjian, F.; Cornot-Gandolphe, S.

    2008-01-01

    While coal appears as an inescapable resource to answer the energy needs of the 21. century, its highly CO 2 emitting combustion represents a major risk with respect to the requirements of the fight against climate change. In the first part of this book, the basic aspects of energy markets are explained and in particular the role that coal is going to play in the world's energy supplies. In the second part, the new coal usages are presented, which, combined with CO 2 capture and sequestration techniques, should allow to conciliate a massive use of coal and the respect of environmental constraints. This book is based on the works presented in February 2008 by the French institute of petroleum (IFP) about the new outlets of coal and the risks for climate change. Content: 1 - coal, energy of the 21. century: abundant and well distributed reserves; growing up world production; exponential world demand; international trade: still limited but in full expansion; 2 - Technologies for a CO 2 -free coal: CO 2 capture and sequestration technologies; towards poly-generation; production of coal-derived liquid fuels; 3 - Appendices: coals formation; coal in China: status and perspectives; coal in the USA: status and perspectives; coal in India: status and perspectives; COACH: an ambitious European project; CBM - E-CBM, status and perspectives. (J.S.)

  9. Reducing coal miner absenteeism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, R.H.; Clingan, M.R. (Bureau of Mines, PA (USA). Pittsburgh Research Center)

    1989-09-01

    High absenteeism at coal mines can seriously affect safety and hamper productivity. Several effective strategies for achieving high attendance which mine operators may not have considered are presented and a method is proposed for implementing programs for minimizing absenteeism among coal miners. The best strategies for improving attendance will vary according to the needs and circumstances of the particular mine, however, the process for establishing such a program is relatively invariant. A four-stage process is recommended; evaluate data from prior attendance records, communicate attendance goals and policy, develop and implement an attendance promotion program, and recycle. 12 refs., 5 figs.

  10. PNNL Coal Gasification Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, Douglas J.; Cabe, James E.; Bearden, Mark D.

    2010-07-28

    This report explains the goals of PNNL in relation to coal gasification research. The long-term intent of this effort is to produce a syngas product for use by internal Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) researchers in materials, catalysts, and instrumentation development. Future work on the project will focus on improving the reliability and performance of the gasifier, with a goal of continuous operation for 4 hours using coal feedstock. In addition, system modifications to increase operational flexibility and reliability or accommodate other fuel sources that can be used for syngas production could be useful.

  11. Coal ash monitoring equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, C G; Wormald, M R

    1978-10-02

    The monitoring equipment is used to determine the remainder from combustion (ash slack) of coal in wagons designed for power stations. Next to the rails, a neutron source (252 Cf, 241 Am/Be) is situated, which irradiates the coal with neutrons at a known dose, which produces the reaction 27 Al (n ..gamma..) Al 28. The aluminium content is a measure of the remainder. The 1.78 MeV energy is measured downstream of the rail with a detector. The neutron source can only act in the working position of a loaded wagon.

  12. Industrial coal survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-25

    UK industrial coal sales were down 400,000t to 7.1mt in 1991. This was largely due to fall in cement purchases as the construction industry was badly hit in the recession. Increased competition from petroleum coke also had an effect. A brief roundup is presented of sales to the UK's major coal buyers: Alcan, ICI, Blue Circle, Castle Cement, Rugby Cement, British Steel, UK Paper, Courtaulds, Unilever, AHS Emstar, Tate Lyle, and British Sugar. 1 tab.

  13. Results of Study of Sulfur Oxide Reduction During Combustion of Coal-Water Slurry Fuel Through use of Sulfur Capturing Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murko Vasiliy I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that an effective way of burning high sulfur coal is to burn coal-water slurry fuel (CWF prepared on its basis containing a sulfur capture agent (SCA entered in the slurry at the stage of preparation. The technique of thermodynamic analysis of chemical reactions during CWF burning has been developed including burning in the presence of SCA. Using the developed calculation program, the optimal temperature conditions have been determined as required for the effective reduction of sulfur oxides in flue gases when using different types of SCA. According to the results of calculating the composition of CWF combustion products when entering various substances in the burner space as SCA it has been determined that magnesite, calcite, and dolomite are the most effective natural minerals. The analysis of calculated and experimental data proves the efficiency of SCA addition as well as validity of the obtained results.

  14. Medicaid Contradictions: Adding, Subtracting, and Redeterminations in Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koetting, Michael

    2016-04-01

    States are required to conduct annual Medicaid redeterminations. How these redeterminations are undertaken is crucial to determining the nature of Medicaid coverage. There can be wide variations in the proportion of clients disenrolled, with potentially large numbers of people disenrolled each year. This case study of Illinois Medicaid shows how, as the Affordable Care Act added people, redeterminations were taking people off the rolls-about 25 percent of all Medicaid clients were disenrolled in one year. Many of these people were no longer eligible, but it appears that a larger number were in fact eligible but simply failed to comply with administrative requirements in a timely way. Balancing between the two imperatives of program integrity and continuity of care is a difficult act for Medicaid programs. The Illinois experience also illustrates impacts on information technology and outsourcing of eligibility functions, not to mention budget considerations. Copyright © 2016 by Duke University Press.

  15. What we know now: the Evanston Illinois field lineups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steblay, Nancy K

    2011-02-01

    A Freedom of Information Act lawsuit secured 100 eyewitness identification reports from Evanston, Illinois, one of three cities of the Illinois Pilot Program. The files provide empirical evidence regarding three methodological aspects of the Program's comparison of non-blind simultaneous to double-blind sequential lineups. (1) A-priori differences existed between lineup conditions. For example, the simultaneous non-blind lineup condition was more likely to involve witnesses who had already identified the suspect in a previous lineup or who knew the offender (non-stranger identifications), and this condition also entailed shorter delays between event and lineup. (2) Verbatim eyewitness comments were recorded more often in double-blind sequential than in non-blind simultaneous lineup reports (83% vs. 39%). (3) Effective lineup structure was used equally in the two lineup conditions.

  16. Bio-coal briquettes using low-grade coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estiaty, L. M.; Fatimah, D.; Widodo

    2018-02-01

    The technology in using briquettes for fuel has been widely used in many countries for both domestic and industrial purposes. Common types of briquette used are coal, peat, charcoal, and biomass. Several researches have been carried out in regards to the production and the use of briquettes. Recently, researches show that mixing coal and biomass will result in an environmentally friendly briquette with better combustion and physical characteristics. This type of briquette is known as bio-coal briquettes. Bio-coal briquettes are made from agriculture waste and coal, which are readily available, cheap and affordable. Researchers make these bio-coal briquettes with different aims and objectives, depending on the issues to address, e.g. utilizing agricultural waste as an alternative energy to replace fossil fuels that are depleting its reserves, adding coal to biomass in order to add calorific value to bio-coal briquette, and adding biomass to coal to improve its chemical and physical properties. In our research, biocoal briquettes are made to utilize low grade coal. The biomass we use, however, is different from the ones used in past researches because it has undergone fermentation. The benefits of using such biomass are 1. Fermentation turns the hemi cellulose into a simpler form, so that the burning activation energy decreases while the calorific value increases. 2. Enzym produced will bind to heavy metals from coal as co-factors, forming metals that are environmentally friendly.

  17. Coking coal outlook from a coal producer's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thrasher, E.

    2008-01-01

    Australian mine production is recovering from massive flooding while Canadian coal shipments are limited by mine and rail capacity. Polish, Czech, and Russian coking coal shipments have been reduced and United States coking coal shipments are reaching their maximum capacity. On the demand side, the Chinese government has increased export taxes on metallurgical coal, coking coal, and thermal coal. Customers seem to be purchasing in waves and steel prices are declining. This presentation addressed the global outlook for coal as well as the challenges ahead in terms of supply and demand. Supply challenges include regulatory uncertainty; environmental permitting; labor; and geology of remaining reserves. Demand challenges include global economic uncertainty; foreign exchange values; the effect of customers making direct investments in mining operations; and freight rates. Consolidation of the coal industry continued and several examples were provided. The presentation also discussed other topics such as coking coal production issues; delayed mining permits and environmental issues; coking coal contract negotiations; and stock values of coking coal producers in the United States. It was concluded that consolidation will continue throughout the natural resource sector. tabs., figs

  18. Industrial use of coal and clean coal technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leibson, I; Plante, J J.M.

    1990-06-01

    This report builds upon two reports published in 1988, namely {ital The use of Coal in the Industrial, Commercial, Residential and Transportation Sectors} and {ital Innovative Clean Coal Technology Deployment}, and provides more specific recommendations pertaining to coal use in the US industrial sector. The first chapter addresses industrial boilers which are common to many industrial users. The subsequent nine chapters cover the following: coke, iron and steel industries; aluminium and other metals; glass, brick, ceramic, and gypsum industries; cement and lime industries; pulp and paper industry; food and kindred products; durable goods industry; textile industry; refining and chemical industry. In addition, appendices supporting the contents of the study are provided. Each chapter covers the following topics as applicable: energy overview of the industry sector being discussed; basic processes; foreign experience; impediments to coal use; incentives that could make coal a fuel of choice; current and projected use of clean coal technology; identification of coal technology needs; conclusions; recommendations.

  19. Forest cover of Champaign County, Illinois in 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesus Danilo Chinea; Louis R. Iverson

    1997-01-01

    The forest cover of Champaign County, in east-central Illinois, was mapped from 1993 aerial photography and entered in a geographical information system database. One hundred and six forest patches cover 3,380 ha. These patches have a mean area of 32 ha, a mean perimeter of 4,851 m, a mean perimeter to area ratio of 237, a fractal dimension of 1.59, and a mean nearest...

  20. Monitoring of green infrastructure at The Grove in Bloomington, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseboom, Donald P.; Straub, Timothy D.

    2013-01-01

    The City of Bloomington, Illinois, restored Kickapoo Creek to a more natural state by incorporating green infrastructure—specifically flood-plain reconnection, riparian wetlands, meanders, and rock riffles—at a 90-acre park within The Grove residential development. A team of State and Federal agencies and contractors are collecting data to monitor the effectiveness of this stream restoration in improving water quality and stream habitat. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is collecting and analyzing water resources data; Illinois Department of Natural Resources (IDNR) is collecting fish population data; Illinois Environmental Protection Agency (IEPA) is collecting macroinvertebrates and riparian habitat data; and Prairie Engineers of Illinois, P.C., is collecting vegetation data. The data collection includes conditions upstream, within, and downstream of the development and restoration. The 480-acre development was designed by the Farnsworth Group to reduce peak stormwater flows by capturing runoff in the reconnected flood plains with shallow wetland basins. Also, an undersized park bridge was built at the downstream end of the park to pass the 20-percent annual exceedance probability flows (historically referred to as the 5-year flood), but detain larger floods. This design also helps limit sediment deposition from sediments transported in the drainage ditches in the upper 9,000 acres of agricultural row crops. Maintaining sediment-transport capacity minimizes sediment deposition in the restored stream segments, which reduces the loss of riparian and wetland-plant communities and instream habitat. Two additional goals of the restoration were to reduce nutrient loads and maintain water quality to support a diverse community of biotic species. Overall, 2 miles of previously managed agricultural-drainage ditches of Kickapoo Creek were restored, and the park landscape maximizes the enhancement of native riparian, wetland, and aquatic species for the park’s trail

  1. Real-time continuous nitrate monitoring in Illinois in 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Kelly L.; Terrio, Paul J.; Straub, Timothy D.; Roseboom, Donald; Johnson, Gary P.

    2013-01-01

    Many sources contribute to the nitrogen found in surface water in Illinois. Illinois is located in the most productive agricultural area in the country, and nitrogen fertilizer is commonly used to maximize corn production in this area. Additionally, septic/wastewater systems, industrial emissions, and lawn fertilizer are common sources of nitrogen in urban areas of Illinois. In agricultural areas, the use of fertilizer has increased grain production to meet the needs of a growing population, but also has resulted in increases in nitrogen concentrations in many streams and aquifers (Dubrovsky and others, 2010). The urban sources can increase nitrogen concentrations, too. The Federal limit for nitrate nitrogen in water that is safe to drink is 10 milligrams per liter (mg/L) (http://water.epa.gov/drink/contaminants/basicinformation/nitrate.cfm, accessed on May 24, 2013). In addition to the concern with nitrate nitrogen in drinking water, nitrogen, along with phosphorus, is an aquatic concern because it feeds the intensive growth of algae that are responsible for the hypoxic zone in the Gulf of Mexico. The largest nitrogen flux to the waters feeding the Gulf of Mexico is from Illinois (Alexander and others, 2008). Most studies of nitrogen in surface water and groundwater include samples for nitrate nitrogen collected weekly or monthly, but nitrate concentrations can change rapidly and these discrete samples may not capture rapid changes in nitrate concentrations that can affect human and aquatic health. Continuous monitoring for nitrate could inform scientists and water-resource managers of these changes and provide information on the transport of nitrate in surface water and groundwater.

  2. Site characteristics of Argonne National Laboratory in Illinois

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y.W.

    1995-01-01

    This report reviews the geology and topography of the Argonne National Laboratory, near Lemont, Illinois. It describes the thickness and stratigraphy of soils, glacial till, and bedrock in and adjacent to the laboratory and support facilities. Seismic surveys were also conducted through the area to help determine the values of seismic wave velocities in the glacial till which is important in determining the seismic hazard of the area. Borehole log descriptions are summarized along with information on area topography

  3. Assembly Hall de la Universidad de Illinois, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrison & Abramovitz, Arquitectos

    1970-05-01

    Full Text Available The Assembly Hall of Illinois University has been constructed with an original reinforced and prestressed concrete structure. It has a seating capacity for 15,565 spectators, in addition to space for press, radio and TV. staff, for the performers, and for invalid spectators who use wheeled chairs. The seating capacity can be further extended by providing 1,500 portable chairs. This hall can be adapted to many uses, and has suitable equipment and installations for assemblies, theatrical and musical performances, ice skating, sports competitions and circus shows. The provision of this magnificent hall has made it possible to organise at the University of Illinois many activities that were not practicable before.Con una original estructura realizada a base de hormigón armado y pretensado ha sido construido el «Assembly Hall», de la Universidad de Illinois, con capacidad para 15.565 espectadores sentados —además de los espacios reservados a los representantes de la prensa, radio y T.V., artistas y espectadores inválidos que acudan en carritos de ruedas—. Puede ser ampliada colocando unas 1.500 sillas portátiles. El edificio está destinado a múltiples usos y dispone de los equipos e instalaciones adecuadas para todo tipo de celebraciones: asambleas, representaciones teatrales y musicales; espectáculos de: circo, patinaje sobre hielo, competiciones deportivas, etc., y ha permitido organizar, en el seno de la Universidad de Illinois, una serie de actividades que antes resultaban imposibles.

  4. Public views of reclaiming an abandoned coal mine: the Macoupin County project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, J. R.

    1980-07-01

    An abandoned underground coal mine waste area in Macoupin County, Illinois, has been reclaimed for demonstration and research purposes near the city of Staunton. According to federal law, end uses of reclaimed coal mines must be determined in part by local concerns. This study examined local residents' preferences for land uses and their social and economic evaluations of reclamation at the Macoupin County site. Personal interviews with 119 residents revealed preferences for recreational use of the demonstration area; however, responses were probably influenced by prior awareness of land-use intentions. Generally, very positive evaluations of the reclamation were received. Willingness to pay for reclamation appears to be linked to fulfillment of desired recreational uses on the site and socioeconomic status of the respondent. In general, the research results provide further evidence that the value of abatement of environmental damage from mining is recognized and supported in economic terms at the public level.

  5. Enhancing pavement performance prediction models for the Illinois Tollway System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laxmikanth Premkumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate pavement performance prediction represents an important role in prioritizing future maintenance and rehabilitation needs, and predicting future pavement condition in a pavement management system. The Illinois State Toll Highway Authority (Tollway with over 2000 lane miles of pavement utilizes the condition rating survey (CRS methodology to rate pavement performance. Pavement performance models developed in the past for the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT are used by the Tollway to predict the future condition of its network. The model projects future CRS ratings based on pavement type, thickness, traffic, pavement age and current CRS rating. However, with time and inclusion of newer pavement types there was a need to calibrate the existing pavement performance models, as well as, develop models for newer pavement types.This study presents the results of calibrating the existing models, and developing new models for the various pavement types in the Illinois Tollway network. The predicted future condition of the pavements is used in estimating its remaining service life to failure, which is of immediate use in recommending future maintenance and rehabilitation requirements for the network. Keywords: Pavement performance models, Remaining life, Pavement management

  6. Measuring ash content of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, C.G.; Wormald, M.R.

    1980-01-01

    An apparatus for measuring the ash content of coal is claimed. It comprises a means for irradiating a known quantity of coal in a transport container with a known dose of neutrons, a means for detecting γ-rays having a predetermined energy emitted by the irradiated coal, the γ-rays being indicative of the presence of an ash-forming element in the coal, a means for producing a signal related to the intensity of the γ-ray emission and a means responsive to the signal to provide an indication of the concentration of the ash-forming element in the coal

  7. Kinetics of coal pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seery, D.J.; Freihaut, J.D.; Proscia, W.M. (United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (USA)); Howard, J.B.; Peters, W.; Hsu, J.; Hajaligol, M.; Sarofim, A. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (USA)); Jenkins, R.; Mallin, J.; Espindola-Merin, B. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (USA)); Essenhigh, R.; Misra, M.K. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (USA))

    1989-07-01

    This report contains results of a coordinated, multi-laboratory investigation of coal devolatilization. Data is reported pertaining to the devolatilization for bituminous coals over three orders of magnitude in apparent heating rate (100 to 100,000 + {degree}C/sec), over two orders of magnitude in particle size (20 to 700 microns), final particle temperatures from 400 to 1600{degree}C, heat transfer modes ranging from convection to radiative, ambient pressure ranging from near vacuum to one atmosphere pressure. The heat transfer characteristics of the reactors are reported in detail. It is assumed the experimental results are to form the basis of a devolatilization data base. Empirical rate expressions are developed for each phase of devolatilization which, when coupled to an awareness of the heat transfer rate potential of a particular devolatilization reactor, indicate the kinetics emphasized by a particular system reactor plus coal sample. The analysis indicates the particular phase of devolatilization that will be emphasized by a particular reactor type and, thereby, the kinetic expressions appropriate to that devolatilization system. Engineering rate expressions are developed from the empirical rate expressions in the context of a fundamental understanding of coal devolatilization developed in the course of the investigation. 164 refs., 223 figs., 44 tabs.

  8. Coal belt options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-03-15

    Whether moving coal long distances overland or short distances in-plant, belt conveyors will always be in demand. The article reports on recent systems developments and applications by Beumer, Horizon Conveyor Equipment, Conveyor Dynamics, Doppelmayr Transport Technology, Enclosed Bulk Systems, ContiTech and Bateman Engineered Technologies. 2 photos.

  9. World coking coal markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCloskey, G.

    2010-01-01

    This article discussed conditions in world coking coal markets. There is increased demand from Asia for metallurgical coal imports. World iron production was up 22 percent in first 7 months of 2010. Supply is up in Australia, the United States, Canada, New Zealand, Russia, and Mongolia, but the unexpected surge in supply caused prices to drop following a robust start to the year. Coking coal exports are up for the United States and Australia, but a delay in expanded production is expected until 2014. There is increased demand from Brazil, India, Taiwan, South Korea, and Japan as well as new plants in Thailand, Indonesia, and Brazil. Unexpectedly, Australia is backing out of the Chinese market but increasing exports to Japan and South Korea. India is seeing flat performance in iron production and imports, and the United States has surged back into Asia. A considerable increase is expected in the seaborne import requirement by 2020. Prices are expected to fall and then rise. This presentation also discussed whether coking coal index pricing is impossible or inevitable. 3 tabs., 5 figs.

  10. Occupational coal tar dermatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conde-Salazar, L; Guimaraens, D; Romero, L V; Gonzalez, M A

    1987-04-01

    The paper describes the allergic reaction to coal tar of a man handling it in a factory. The reaction appeared in the form of eczema on his trunk, arms and legs, but his hands were not affected as he had been wearing gloves. 1 ref.

  11. Shell coal gasification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennekes, B. [Shell Global Solutions (US) Inc. (United States). Technology Marketing

    2002-07-01

    The presentation, on which 17 slides/overheads are included in the papers, explained the principles of the Shell coal gasification process and the methods incorporated for control of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, particulates and mercury. The economics of the process were discussed. The differences between gasification and burning, and the differences between the Shell process and other processes were discussed.

  12. Hard coal; Steinkohle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loo, Kai van de; Sitte, Andreas-Peter [Gesamtverband Steinkohle e.V. (GVSt), Herne (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    International the coal market in 2014 was the first time in a long time in a period of stagnation. In Germany, the coal consumption decreased even significantly, mainly due to the decrease in power generation. Here the national energy transition has now been noticable affected negative for coal use. The political guidances can expect a further significant downward movement for the future. In the present phase-out process of the German hard coal industry with still three active mines there was in 2014 no decommissioning. But the next is at the end of 2015, and the plans for the time after mining have been continued. [German] International war der Markt fuer Steinkohle 2014 erstmals seit langem wieder von einer Stagnation gekennzeichnet. In Deutschland ging der Steinkohlenverbrauch sogar deutlich zurueck, vor allem wegen des Rueckgangs in der Stromerzeugung. Hier hat sich die nationale Energiewende nun spuerbar und fuer die Steinkohlennutzung negativ ausgewirkt. Die politischen Weichenstellungen lassen fuer die Zukunft eine weitere erhebliche Abwaertsbewegung erwarten. Bei dem im Auslaufprozess befindlichen deutschen Steinkohlenbergbau mit noch drei aktiven Bergwerken gab es 2014 keine Stilllegung. Doch die naechste steht zum Jahresende 2015 an, und die Planungen fuer die Zeit nach dem Bergbau sind fortgefuehrt worden.

  13. Proximate Analysis of Coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Craig J.; Rais, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    This lab experiment illustrates the use of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to perform proximate analysis on a series of coal samples of different rank. Peat and coke are also examined. A total of four exercises are described. These are dry exercises as students interpret previously recorded scans. The weight percent moisture, volatile matter,…

  14. National Coal Quality Inventory (NACQI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Finkelman

    2005-09-30

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted the National Coal Quality Inventory (NaCQI) between 1999 and 2005 to address a need for quality information on coals that will be mined during the next 20-30 years. Collaboration between the USGS, State geological surveys, universities, coal burning utilities, and the coal mining industry plus funding support from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) permitted collection and submittal of coal samples for analysis. The chemical data (proximate and ultimate analyses; major, minor and trace element concentrations) for 729 samples of raw or prepared coal, coal associated shale, and coal combustion products (fly ash, hopper ash, bottom ash and gypsum) from nine coal producing States are included. In addition, the project identified a new coal reference analytical standard, to be designated CWE-1 (West Elk Mine, Gunnison County, Colorado) that is a high-volatile-B or high-volatile-A bituminous coal with low contents of ash yield and sulfur, and very low, but detectable contents of chlorine, mercury and other trace elements.

  15. China's coal export and inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiaodong Li

    1993-01-01

    With the development of world's business and trade, coal has become a large part of the import and export goods in the international market. The total amount of coal trade has risen a lot. China is rich in coal resources. According to the estimate made by some experts, the reserve which has been explored recently could be exploited hundreds of years. China's output of raw coal has risen a lot during the past forty years. China coal industry has developed rapidly since the 1980s. It is possible for China to become a big coal export country since it has rich resources and increasing output. The paper suggests four steps which must be taken to expand coal exports in China: improve the level of management and administration of coal mines so as to raise the economic benefit; the follow-up production capacity of the present mines must be enhanced rapidly; step up construction of new large-scale mines; and China's coal washing capacity must be improved speedily since the low capacity has seriously influenced the improvement of coal quality. The paper describes the inspection bureaus and companies that have developed to perform inspection of exports in order to guarantee the quality of export coal

  16. The shell coal gasification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenders, L.O.M.; Zuideveld, P.O. [Shell Internationale Petroleum Maatschappij B.V., The Hague (Netherlands)

    1995-12-01

    Future Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (ICGCC) power plants will have superior environmental performance and efficiency. The Shell Coal Gasification Process (SCGP) is a clean coal technology, which can convert a wide range of coals into clean syngas for high efficiency electricity generation in an ICGCC plant. SCGP flexibility has been demonstrated for high-rank bituminous coals to low rank lignites and petroleum coke, and the process is well suited for combined cycle power generation, resulting in efficiencies of 42 to 46% (LHV), depending on choice of coal and gas turbine efficiency. In the Netherlands, a 250 MWe coal gasification combined cycle plant based on Shell technology has been built by Demkolec, a development partnership of the Dutch Electricity Generating Board (N.V. Sep). The construction of the unit was completed end 1993 and is now followed by start-up and a 3 year demonstration period, after that the plant will be part of the Dutch electricity generating system.

  17. Comparison of litter decomposition in a natural versus coal-slurry pond reclaimed as a wetland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, J.; Middleton, B.A. [National Wetlands Research Center (USGS), Lafayette, LA (United States)

    2004-08-01

    Decomposition is a key function in reclaimed wetlands, and changes in its rate have ramifications for organic-matter accumulation, nutrient cycling, and production. The purpose of this study was to compare leaf litter decomposition rates in coal-slurry ponds vs. natural wetlands on natural floodplain wetlands in Illinois, USA. The rate of decomposition was slower in the natural wetland vs. the coal pond (k = 0.0043{+-}0.0008 vs. 0.0066{+-}0.0011, respectively); the soil of the natural wetland was more acidic than the coal pond in this study (pH = 5.3 vs. 7.9, respectively). Similarly, higher organic matter levels were related to lower pH levels, and organic matter levels were seven-times higher in the natural wetland than in the coal pond. The coal slurry pond was five years old at the time of the study, while the natural oxbow wetland was older (more than 550 years). The coal-slurry pond was originally a floodplain wetland (slough); the downstream end was blocked with a stoplog structure and the oxbow filled with slurry. The pattern of decomposition for all species in the coal pond was the same as in the natural pond; Potomogeton nodosus decomposed more quickly than Phragmites australis, and both of these species decomposed more quickly than either Typha latifolia or Cyperus erythrorhizos. Depending on how open or closed the system is to outside inputs, decomposition rate regulates other functions such as production, nutrient cycling, organic-layer accumulation in the soil, and the timing and nature of delivery of detritus to the food chain.

  18. Trends in the Rare Earth Element Content of U.S.-Based Coal Combustion Fly Ashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taggart, Ross K; Hower, James C; Dwyer, Gary S; Hsu-Kim, Heileen

    2016-06-07

    Rare earth elements (REEs) are critical and strategic materials in the defense, energy, electronics, and automotive industries. The reclamation of REEs from coal combustion fly ash has been proposed as a way to supplement REE mining. However, the typical REE contents in coal fly ash, particularly in the United States, have not been comprehensively documented or compared among the major types of coal feedstocks that determine fly ash composition. The objective of this study was to characterize a broad selection of U.S. fly ashes of varied geological origin in order to rank their potential for REE recovery. The total and nitric acid-extractable REE content for more than 100 ash samples were correlated with characteristics such as the major element content and coal basin to elucidate trends in REE enrichment. Average total REE content (defined as the sum of the lanthanides, yttrium, and scandium) for ashes derived from Appalachian sources was 591 mg kg(-1) and significantly greater than in ashes from Illinois and Powder River basin coals (403 and 337 mg kg(-1), respectively). The fraction of critical REEs (Nd, Eu, Tb, Dy, Y, and Er) in the fly ashes was 34-38% of the total and considerably higher than in conventional ores (typically less than 15%). Powder River Basin ashes had the highest extractable REE content, with 70% of the total REE recovered by heated nitric acid digestion. This is likely due to the higher calcium content of Powder River Basin ashes, which enhances their solubility in nitric acid. Sc, Nd, and Dy were the major contributors to the total REE value in fly ash, based on their contents and recent market prices. Overall, this study shows that coal fly ash production could provide a substantial domestic supply of REEs, but the feasibility of recovery depends on the development of extraction technologies that could be tailored to the major mineral content and origins of the feed coal for the ash.

  19. Hydrothermal pretreatment of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, D.S.

    1989-12-21

    We have examined changes in Argonne Premium samples of Wyodak coal following 30 min treatment in liquid water at autogenous pressures at 150{degrees}, 250{degrees}, and 350{degrees}C. In most runs the coal was initially dried at 60{degrees}C/1 torr/20 hr. The changes were monitored by pyrolysis field ionization mass spectrometry (py-FIMS) operating at 2.5{degrees}C/min from ambient to 500{degrees}C. We recorded the volatility patterns of the coal tars evolved over that temperature range, and in all cases the tar yields were 25%--30% of the starting coal on mass basis. There was essentially no change after the 150{degrees}C treatment. Small increases in volatility were seen following the 250{degrees}C treatment, but major effects were seen in the 350{degrees} work. The tar quantity remained unchanged; however, the volatility increased so the temperature of half volatility for the as-received coal of 400{degrees}C was reduced to 340{degrees}C. Control runs with no water showed some thermal effect, but the net effect from the presence of liquid water was clearly evident. The composition was unchanged after the 150{degrees} and 250{degrees}C treatments, but the 350{degrees} treatment brought about a 30% loss of oxygen. The change corresponded to loss of the elements of water, although loss of OH'' seemed to fit the analysis data somewhat better. The water loss takes place both in the presence and in the absence of added water, but it is noteworthy that the loss in the hydrothermal runs occurs at p(H{sub 2}O) = 160 atm. We conclude that the process must involve the dehydration solely of chemically bound elements of water, the dehydration of catechol is a specific, likely candidate.

  20. University of Illinois FRIENDS Children’s Environmental Health Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The FRIENDS Children's Environmental Health Center at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, was established in 2001 to investigate the interactive effects of...

  1. Reclamation of abandoned mined lands along th Upper Illinois Waterway using dredged material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Luik, A; Harrison, W

    1982-01-01

    Sediments were sampled and characterized from 28 actual or proposed maintenance-dredging locations in the Upper Illinois Waterway, that is, the Calumet-Sag Channel, the Des Plaines River downstream of its confluence with the Calumet-Sag Channel, and the Illinois River from the confluence of the Kankakee and Des Plaines rivers to Havana, Illinois. Sufficient data on chemical constituents and physical sediments were obtained to allow the classification of these sediments by currently applicable criteria of the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency for the identification of hazardous, persistent, and potentially hazardous wastes. By these criteria, the potential dredged materials studied were not hazardous, persistent, or potentially hazardous; they are a suitable topsoil/ reclamation medium. A study of problem abandoned surface-mined land sites (problem lands are defined as being acidic and/or sparsely vegetated) along the Illinois River showed that three sites were particularly well suited to the needs of the Corps of Engineers (COE) for a dredged material disposal/reclamation site. Thes sites were a pair of municipally owned sites in Morris, Illinois, and a small corporately owned site east of Ottawa, Illinois, and adjacent to the Illinois River. Other sites were also ranked as to suitability for COE involvement in their reclamation. Reclamation disposal was found to be an economically competitive alternative to near-source confined disposal for Upper Illinois Waterway dredged material.

  2. Coal resources availability in Botswana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modisi, M.P.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that Southern Africa, and Botswana in particular, is well-endowed with relatively large reserves of coal. The existence of coal in Botswana has been known since the end of the last century. Exploration activities by the Geological Survey and the private sector led to the discovery of major deposits and by the late 1960s reserves capable of supporting a mine at Morupule for the domestic market has been confirmed. The oil crises of 1973-74 and 1978-79 stimulated increased interest in coal exploration the world over and Botswana attracted several private sector companies looking for coal that could be traded on the international market. As a result vast resources and reserves of low to medium quality bituminous coal, suitable for the export market, were proved. Resources amounting to 21,680 million tonnes of in situ coal had been revealed by 1987. Reserves of possible economic exploitation are estimated at 10,180 million tonnes in two coal field areas, namely the Morupule Coal Field and the Mmamabula Coal Field. Since the collapse of oil prices and consequently coal prices in the mid-1980s, enthusiasm for coal exploration has plummeted and relatively little prospecting has taken place. The coal occurs within the Upper Carboniferous to Jurassic Karoo Supergroup which underlies some 60 percent of the country's land surface. The western part of the country is mantled by the Kalahari beds, a top layer of unconsolidated sands masking bedrock geology. Although coal seams have been intersected in boreholes in this western area, most exploration activity has taken place in the eastern part of the country where the Morupule and Mmamabula coal fields are located. It is in the east that most of the population is concentrated and infrastructure has been developed

  3. Buckets of money for coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2001-01-01

    The revival of coal prices is providing record profits for Australian coal producers. As the world's largest coal exporter, any move in coal prices has significant ramifications for the Australian economy. The coal boom of the mid-1980s resulted in a massive increase in mine capacity and subsequently excess supply. This resulted in the decade between 1990 and 2000 seeing benchmark prices for coking coal in Japan plummeting to $US 39 a tonne (down from around the $US 52 mark) and a price of $US 28 for a tonne of steaming coal. Asia's financial problems, late in the decade coupled with a rapid fall in Asian steel making, also added to our coal export woes. As a result for most of the 1990s, Australia's coal sector delivered inadequate returns, was seen as over-capitalised and suffered from a profound investor indifference. But the sector is now seeing a definite turnaround in fortunes. Prices for thermal coal are on the rise and the benchmark coking coal prices to Asia have also jumped. Market analysts reported the price for contract deliveries of thermal coal in April this year were $US 34.50 ($AUD 69.35) up by $US 5.75 from the same time last year. The increased production is expected on the back of a continued rise in export demand, further improvement in prices, significant improvements in mine productivity, a weak Australian dollar and the probability of new projects and mine extensions going into operation. The improved returns have also flowed into rising valuations for listed coal miners. Over the last year, coal miners such as MIM and Gympie Gold, have delighted in share price gains of 12 per cent and 55 per cent respectively. These sort of performances are being repeated across the Australian industry

  4. The development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense facilities. Semiannual technical progress report, September 28, 1993--March 27, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Morrison, J.L.; Sharifi, R.; Shepard, J.F.; Scaroni, A.W.; Hogg, R.; Chander, S.; Cho, H.; Ityokumbul, M.T.; Klima, M.S. [and others

    1994-11-30

    The U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), through an Interagency Agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has initiated a three-phase program with the Consortium for Coal-Water Slurry Fuel Technology, with the aim of decreasing DOD`s reliance on imported oil by increasing its use of coal. The program is being conducted as a cooperative agreement between the Consortium and DOE and the first two phases of the program are underway. To achieve the objectives of the program, a team of researchers was assembled. Phase I activities are focused on developing clean, coal-based combustion technologies for the utilization of both micronized coal-water slurry fuels (MCWSFS) and dry, micronized coal (DMC) in fuel oil-designed industrial boilers. Phase II research and development activities will continue to focus on industrial boiler retrofit technologies by addressing emissions control and precombustion (i.e., slagging combustion and/or gasification) strategies for the utilization of high ash, high sulfur coals. Phase III activities will examine coal-based fuel combustion systems that cofire wastes. Each phase includes an engineering cost analysis and technology assessment. The activities and status of Phases I and II are described below. The objective in Phase I is to deliver fully engineered retrofit options for a fuel oil-designed watertube boiler located on a DOD installation to fire either MCWSF or DMC. This will be achieved through a program consisting of the following five tasks: (1) Coal Beneficiation and Preparation; (2) Combustion Performance Evaluation; (3) Engineering Design; (4) Engineering and Economic Analysis; and (5) Final Report/Submission of Design Package.

  5. Chemical looping coal gasification with calcium ferrite and barium ferrite via solid–solid reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siriwardane, Ranjani; Riley, Jarrett; Tian, Hanjing; Richards, George

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • BaFe 2 O 4 and CaFe 2 O 4 are excellent for chemical looping coal gasification. • BaFe 2 O 4 and CaFe 2 O 4 have minimal reactivity with synthesis gas. • Steam enhances the gasification process with these oxygen carriers. • Reaction rates of steam gasification of coal with CaFe 2 O 4 was better than with gaseous oxygen. • Coal gasification appears to be via solid–solid interaction with the oxygen carrier. - Abstract: Coal gasification to produce synthesis gas by chemical looping was investigated with two oxygen carriers, barium ferrite (BaFe 2 O 4 ) and calcium ferrite (CaFe 2 O 4 ). Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) and fixed-bed flow reactor data indicated that a solid–solid interaction occurred between oxygen carriers and coal to produce synthesis gas. Both thermodynamic analysis and experimental data indicated that BaFe 2 O 4 and CaFe 2 O 4 have high reactivity with coal but have a low reactivity with synthesis gas, which makes them very attractive for the coal gasification process. Adding steam increased the production of hydrogen (H 2 ) and carbon monoxide (CO), but carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) remained low because these oxygen carriers have minimal reactivity with H 2 and CO. Therefore, the combined steam–oxygen carrier produced the highest quantity of synthesis gas. It appeared that neither the water–gas shift reaction nor the water splitting reaction promoted additional H 2 formation with the oxygen carriers when steam was present. Wyodak coal, which is a sub-bituminous coal, had the best gasification yield with oxygen carrier–steam while Illinois #6 coal had the lowest. The rate of gasification and selectivity for synthesis gas production was significantly higher when these oxygen carriers were present during steam gasification of coal. The rates and synthesis gas yields during the temperature ramps of coal–steam with oxygen carriers were better than with gaseous oxygen.

  6. A convenient method for the quantitative determination of elemental sulfur in coal by HPLC analysis of perchloroethylene extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, D.H.; Coombs, K.J.; Murphy, P.M.; Chaven, C.

    1993-01-01

    A convenient method for the quantitative determination of elemental sulfur in coal is described. Elemental sulfur is extracted from the coal with hot perchloroethylene (PCE) (tetrachloroethene, C2Cl4) and quantitatively determined by HPLC analysis on a C18 reverse-phase column using UV detection. Calibration solutions were prepared from sublimed sulfur. Results of quantitative HPLC analyses agreed with those of a chemical/spectroscopic analysis. The HPLC method was found to be linear over the concentration range of 6 ?? 10-4 to 2 ?? 10-2 g/L. The lower detection limit was 4 ?? 10-4 g/L, which for a coal sample of 20 g is equivalent to 0.0006% by weight of coal. Since elemental sulfur is known to react slowly with hydrocarbons at the temperature of boiling PCE, standard solutions of sulfur in PCE were heated with coals from the Argonne Premium Coal Sample program. Pseudo-first-order uptake of sulfur by the coals was observed over several weeks of heating. For the Illinois No. 6 premium coal, the rate constant for sulfur uptake was 9.7 ?? 10-7 s-1, too small for retrograde reactions between solubilized sulfur and coal to cause a significant loss in elemental sulfur isolated during the analytical extraction. No elemental sulfur was produced when the following pure compounds were heated to reflux in PCE for up to 1 week: benzyl sulfide, octyl sulfide, thiane, thiophene, benzothiophene, dibenzothiophene, sulfuric acid, or ferrous sulfate. A sluury of mineral pyrite in PCE contained elemental sulfur which increased in concentration with heating time. ?? 1993 American Chemical Society.

  7. Variation in diel activity of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) associated with a soybean field and coal mine remnant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willand, J.E.; McCravy, K.W.

    2006-01-01

    Diel activities of carabids (Coleoptera: Carabidae) associated with a coal mine remnant and surrounding soybean field were studied in west-central Illinois from June through October 2002. A total of 1,402 carabids, representing 29 species and 17 genera, were collected using pitfall traps. Poecilus chalcites (Say) demonstrated roughly equal diurnal and nocturnal activity in June, but greater diurnal activity thereafter. Pterostichus permundus (Say), Cyclotrachelus seximpressus (LeConte), Amara obesa (Say), and Scarites quadriceps Chaudoir showed significant nocturnal activity. Associations between habitat and diel activity were found for three species: P. chalcites associated with the remnant and edge habitats showed greater diurnal activity than those associated with the soybean field; C. seximpressus was most active diurnally in the remnant, and Harpalus pensylvanicus (DeGeer) showed the greatest nocturnal activity in the remnant and edge habitats. We found significant temporal and habitat-related variation in diel activity among carabid species inhabiting agricultural areas in west-central Illinois.

  8. Coal mine subsidence: effects of mitigation on crop yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darmody, R.G.; Hetzler, R.T.; Simmons, F.W.

    1992-01-01

    Subsidence from longwall underground coal mining adversely impacts agricultural land by creating wet or ponded areas. While most subsided areas show little impact, some localized places, usually less than 1.5 ha in size, may experience total crop failure. Coal companies mitigate subsidence damaged cropland by installing drainage waterways or by adding fill material to raise the grade. The objective of this study was to test the effectiveness of mitigation in restoring corn and soybean yields to pre-mined levels. Fourteen sites in southern Illinois were selected for study. Corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max L.) yields from mitigated and nearby undisturbed areas were compared for four years. Results varied due to differing weather and site conditions. Mean corn yields overall, however were significantly (α0.05) lower on mitigated areas. There was no significant difference in overall mean soybean yields. Soil fertility levels were similar and did not account for yield differences. 14 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs

  9. Characterization of Coal Porosity for Naturally Tectonically Stressed Coals in Huaibei Coal Field, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoshi; Hou, Quanlin; Li, Zhuo; Wei, Mingming

    2014-01-01

    The enrichment of coalbed methane (CBM) and the outburst of gas in a coal mine are closely related to the nanopore structure of coal. The evolutionary characteristics of 12 coal nanopore structures under different natural deformational mechanisms (brittle and ductile deformation) are studied using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and low-temperature nitrogen adsorption. The results indicate that there are mainly submicropores (2~5 nm) and supermicropores (coal and mesopores (10~100 nm) and micropores (5~10 nm) in brittle deformed coal. The cumulative pore volume (V) and surface area (S) in brittle deformed coal are smaller than those in ductile deformed coal which indicates more adsorption space for gas. The coal with the smaller pores exhibits a large surface area, and coal with the larger pores exhibits a large volume for a given pore volume. We also found that the relationship between S and V turns from a positive correlation to a negative correlation when S > 4 m2/g, with pore sizes coal. The nanopore structure (coal. PMID:25126601

  10. Trends of multiple air pollutants emissions from residential coal combustion in Beijing and its implication on improving air quality for control measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yifeng; Zhou, Zhen; Nie, Teng; Wang, Kun; Nie, Lei; Pan, Tao; Wu, Xiaoqing; Tian, Hezhong; Zhong, Lianhong; Li, Jing; Liu, Huanjia; Liu, Shuhan; Shao, Panyang

    2016-10-01

    for residential heating can be replaced with gas-burning wall-heaters, ground-source heat pumps, solar energy and electricity. In areas with inadequate clean energy sources, low-sulfur coal should be used instead of the traditional raw coal with high sulfur and ash content, thereby slightly reducing the emissions of PM, SO2, CO and other toxic pollutants.

  11. UTILIZATION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS MADE FROM COAL GASIFICATION SLAGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    None

    1998-01-01

    The integrated-gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) process is an emerging technology that utilizes coal for power generation and production of chemical feedstocks. However, the process generates large amounts of solid waste, consisting of vitrified ash (slag) and some unconverted carbon. In previous projects, Praxis investigated the utilization of ''as-generated'' slags for a wide variety of applications in road construction, cement and concrete production, agricultural applications, and as a landfill material. From these studies, we found that it would be extremely difficult for ''as-generated'' slag to find large-scale acceptance in the marketplace even at no cost because the materials it could replace were abundantly available at very low cost. It was further determined that the unconverted carbon, or char, in the slag is detrimental to its utilization as sand or fine aggregate. It became apparent that a more promising approach would be to develop a variety of value-added products from slag that meet specific industry requirements. This approach was made feasible by the discovery that slag undergoes expansion and forms a lightweight material when subjected to controlled heating in a kiln at temperatures between 1400 and 1700 F. These results confirmed the potential for using expanded slag as a substitute for conventional lightweight aggregates (LWA). The technology to produce lightweight and ultra-lightweight aggregates (ULWA) from slag was subsequently developed by Praxis with funding from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Illinois Clean Coal Institute (ICCI), and internal resources. The major objectives of the subject project are to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of commercial production of LWA and ULWA from slag and to test the suitability of these aggregates for various applications. The project goals are to be accomplished in two phases: Phase I, comprising the production of LWA and ULWA from slag at the large pilot scale, and

  12. Coal slurries: An environmental bonus?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basta, N.; Moore, S.; Ondrey, G.

    1994-01-01

    Developers and promoters of coal-water slurries and similar CWF (coal-water fuel) technologies have had a hard time winning converts since they unveiled their first commercial processes in the 1970s. The economic appeal of such processes, marginal at best, varies with the price of oil. Nevertheless, the technology is percolating, as geopolitics and environmental pressures drive new processes. Such fuels are becoming increasingly important to coal-rich, oil-poor nations such as China, as they attempt to build an onshore fuel supply. Meanwhile, improvements are changing the way coal-fired processes are viewed. Where air pollution regulations once discouraged the use of coal fuels, new coal processes have been developed that cut nitrous oxides (NOx) emissions and provide a use for coal fines, previously viewed as waste. The latest developments in the field were all on display at the 19th International Technical Conference on Coal Utilization and Fuel Systems, held in Clearwater, Fla., on March 21--24. At this annual meeting, sponsored by the Coal and Slurry Technology Association, (Washington, D.C.) and the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Dept. of Energy (PETC), some 200 visitors from around the work gathered to discuss the latest developments in coal slurry utilization--new and improved processes, and onstream plants. This paper presents highlights from the conference

  13. The Charfuel coal refining process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, L.G.

    1991-01-01

    The patented Charfuel coal refining process employs fluidized hydrocracking to produce char and liquid products from virtually all types of volatile-containing coals, including low rank coal and lignite. It is not gasification or liquefaction which require the addition of expensive oxygen or hydrogen or the use of extreme heat or pressure. It is not the German pyrolysis process that merely 'cooks' the coal, producing coke and tar-like liquids. Rather, the Charfuel coal refining process involves thermal hydrocracking which results in the rearrangement of hydrogen within the coal molecule to produce a slate of co-products. In the Charfuel process, pulverized coal is rapidly heated in a reducing atmosphere in the presence of internally generated process hydrogen. This hydrogen rearrangement allows refinement of various ranks of coals to produce a pipeline transportable, slurry-type, environmentally clean boiler fuel and a slate of value-added traditional fuel and chemical feedstock co-products. Using coal and oxygen as the only feedstocks, the Charfuel hydrocracking technology economically removes much of the fuel nitrogen, sulfur, and potential air toxics (such as chlorine, mercury, beryllium, etc.) from the coal, resulting in a high heating value, clean burning fuel which can increase power plant efficiency while reducing operating costs. The paper describes the process, its thermal efficiency, its use in power plants, its pipeline transport, co-products, environmental and energy benefits, and economics

  14. US and world coal trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, B

    1988-07-01

    This paper reviews the US's coal trade with other countries in the world. Despite being pressed to support domestic coal producers, US utilities are looking towards Colombia for more of their supplies. Whilst the amount of Colombian coal imported into the US is small, it is a combination of this and coal imported from Australia, Canada and China which is causing concern. Studies indicate that the volume of coal imported into the US may rise to 3 Mt/year within three years. Coal exports may suffer if Brazil bans the import of significant quantities of US coking coal in retaliation against American trade sanctions against Brazilian computer import barriers. Also, Romania is expected to impose tariffs on US imports which will have an impact on US coal exported to Romania. US remains the top coal exporter to the European Communities but its lead was cut back due to a big rise of Australian export. A portion of EC market has also been lost to the USSR and Poland. Meanwhile, Japan is resisting buying US's steam coal because it is too expensive.

  15. Utilisation of chemically treated coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bežovská Mária

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The numerous application of coal with high content of humic substances are known. They are used in many branches of industry. The complex study of the composition of coal from upper Nitra mines has directed research to its application in the field of ecology and agriculture. The effective sorption layers of this coal and their humic acids can to trap a broad spectrum of toxic harmful substances present in industrial wastes, particularly heavy metals. A major source of humic acids is coal - the most abundant and predominant product of plant residue coalification. All ranks of coal containt humic acids but lignite from Nováky deposit represents the most easily available and concentrated form of humic acids. Deep oxidation of coal by HNO3 oxidation - degradation has been performed to produce water-soluble-organic acids. The possibilities of utilisation of oxidised coal and humic acids to remove heavy metals from waste waters was studied. The residual concentrations of the investigated metals in the aqueous phase were determined by AAs. From the results follows that the samples of oxidised coal and theirs humic acids can be used for the heavy metal removal from metal solutions and the real acid mine water.Oxidised coal with a high content of humic acids and nitrogen is used in agriculture a fertilizer. Humic acids are active component in coal and help to utilize almost quantitatively nitrogen in soil. The humic substances block and stabiliz toxic metal residues already present in soil.

  16. Coal industry statistics for 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    In 1977 Belgian coal production reached 7,068,000 t, a drop of 170,000 t (2.3%) on the previous year. Production from the Campine coalfield had risen by 160,000 t while in the South, where two pits had been shut down during the year, there was a fall in output of 330,000 t. On 31st December 1977 the number of underground personnel totalled 17,681 as against 19,154 at the same time in 1976. Underground output continued to decline in the South while in the Campine there was an increase of 7.6%. Pit-head stocks fell by 400,000 t, to 721,000 t, 658,000 t of this being held in the Campine collieries. As regards Belgian coal disposals, the only increase (+52.0%) was in coal sent to power stations. Import figures stood at 6,592,000 t, a drop of 10.5% over the previous year. Includes figures for apparent coal consumption, a com parison of coal figures for 1976 and 1977 and the mined-coal production. Shows how coal production has evolved in the various coalfields and the number of pits in operation. Production is classified into coal types. Also covers the shutting-down of production capacities; manpower and OMS; coal briquette production; briquette output and disposals; end-of-year pit-head stocks according to coalfields, grades and types of coal. Figures for apparent consumption of coal and coal briquettes; exports and imports 1973-77 and countries of origin. Gives delivery figures for Belgian and imported coal to the domestic market. (In French)

  17. Black coal in Australia 1985-86

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    The annual publication contains comprehensive statistical details of the Australian black coal industry. Included are statistics on coal supply and disposal, production plant and equipment, coal preparation, capital expenditure, employees, exports, coal consumption, resources. Maps of mine locations are included, also tables showing coal supply and disposal, production figures, plant and equipment, employees, exports, resources.

  18. Bulk analysis of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sowerby, B.D.

    1982-01-01

    Nuclear techniques used in the coal industry to determine specific energy, ash and moisture are outlined. Ash analysis by radioisotope X-ray techniques include a single X-ray measurement using a transmission or backscatter geometry and techniques with compensation for iron variations. Neutron techniques can be used to measure the concentration of some specific elements in coal. The measurement of specific energy, ash and moisture then depends on the correlation of the particular parameter with the measured elemental composition. Carbon can be determined by a combination of a measurement of 4.43 MeV 12 C gamma-rays from neutron inelastic scattering with a separate 60 Co gamma-ray scattering measurement. Sulphur meters are based on the measurement of 5.42 MeV neutron capture of gamma rays

  19. Pulverized coal devolatilization prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas, Andres F; Barraza, Juan M

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to predict the two bituminous coals devolatilization at low rate of heating (50 Celsius degrade/min), with program FG-DVC (functional group Depolymerization. Vaporization and crosslinking), and to compare the devolatilization profiles predicted by program FG-DVC, which are obtained in the thermogravimetric analyzer. It was also study the volatile liberation at (10 4 k/s) in a drop-tube furnace. The tar, methane, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide, formation rate profiles, and the hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sulphur, elemental distribution in the devolatilization products by FG-DVC program at low rate of heating was obtained; and the liberation volatile and R factor at high rate of heating was calculated. it was found that the program predicts the bituminous coals devolatilization at low rate heating, at high rate heating, a volatile liberation around 30% was obtained

  20. Coal mine subsidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahall, N.J.

    1991-05-01

    This paper examines the efficacy of the Department of the Interior's Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement's (OSMRE) efforts to implement the federally assisted coal mine subsidence insurance program. Coal mine subsidence, a gradual settling of the earth's surface above an underground mine, can damage nearby land and property. To help protect property owners from subsidence-related damage, the Congress passed legislation in 1984 authorizing OSMRE to make grants of up to $3 million to each state to help the states establish self-sustaining, state-administered insurance programs. Of the 21 eligible states, six Colorado, Indiana, Kentucky, Ohio, West Virginia, and Wyoming applied for grants. This paper reviews the efforts of these six states to develop self-sustaining insurance programs and assessed OSMRE's oversight of those efforts

  1. 75 FR 18015 - Credit for Renewable Electricity Production, Refined Coal Production, and Indian Coal Production...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ..., Refined Coal Production, and Indian Coal Production, and Publication of Inflation Adjustment Factors and... coal production, and Indian coal production under section 45. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Philip... Coal, and Indian Coal:'', Line 26, the language ``is 2.15 cents per kilowatt hour on the'' is corrected...

  2. 78 FR 20176 - Credit for Renewable Electricity Production, Refined Coal Production, and Indian Coal Production...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ..., Refined Coal Production, and Indian Coal Production, and Publication of Inflation Adjustment Factors and... renewable electricity production, refined coal production, and Indian coal production under section 45... resources, and to 2013 sales of refined coal and Indian coal produced in the United States or a possession...

  3. 77 FR 21835 - Credit for Renewable Electricity Production, Refined Coal Production, and Indian Coal Production...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ..., Refined Coal Production, and Indian Coal Production, and Publication of Inflation Adjustment Factors and... electricity production, refined coal production, and Indian coal production under section 45. DATES: The 2012... sales of refined coal and Indian coal produced in the United States or a possession thereof. Inflation...

  4. Health impacts of coal and coal use: Possible solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelman, R.B.; Orem, W.; Castranova, V.; Tatu, C.A.; Belkin, H.E.; Zheng, B.; Lerch, H.E.; Maharaj, S.V.; Bates, A.L.

    2002-01-01

    Coal will be a dominant energy source in both developed and developing countries for at least the first half of the 21st century. Environmental problems associated with coal, before mining, during mining, in storage, during combustion, and postcombustion waste products are well known and are being addressed by ongoing research. The connection between potential environmental problems with human health is a fairly new field and requires the cooperation of both the geoscience and medical disciplines. Three research programs that illustrate this collaboration are described and used to present a range of human health problems that are potentially caused by coal. Domestic combustion of coal in China has, in some cases, severely affected human health. Both on a local and regional scale, human health has been adversely affected by coals containing arsenic, fluorine, selenium, and possibly, mercury. Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN), an irreversible kidney disease of unknown origin, has been related to the proximity of Pliocene lignite deposits. The working hypothesis is that groundwater is leaching toxic organic compounds as it passes through the lignites and that these organics are then ingested by the local population contributing to this health problem. Human disease associated with coal mining mainly results from inhalation of particulate matter during the mining process. The disease is Coal Worker's Pneumoconiosis characterized by coal dust-induced lesions in the gas exchange regions of the lung; the coal worker's "black lung disease". ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Coal blending preparation for non-carbonized coal briquettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widodo; Fatimah, D.; Estiaty, L. M.

    2018-02-01

    Referring to the national energy policy targets for the years 2025, the government has launched the use of coal briquettes as an alternative energy replacement for kerosene and firewood. Non-carbonized briquettes in the form of coal briquettes as well as bio-coal briquettes are used in many small-medium industries and households, and are rarely used by large industries. The standard quality of coal briquettes used as raw material for non-carbonized briquettes is a minimum calorific value of 4,400 kcal/kg (adb); total sulfur at a maximum of 1% (adb), and water content at plants), the environment of deposition, and the geological conditions of the surrounding area, so that the coal deposits in each region will be different as well as the amount and also the quality. Therefore, the quantity and the quality of coal in each area are different to be eligible in the making of briquettes to do blending. In addition to the coal blending, it is also necessary to select the right materials in the making of coal briquettes and bio-coal briquettes. The formulation of the right mixture of material in the making of briquettes, can be produced of good quality and environmental friendly.

  6. Method to liquefy coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cronauer, D.C.; Kehl, W.L.

    1977-06-08

    In a method to liquify coal in the presence of hydrogen and hydrogen-transfer solvents, a hydrogenation catalyst is used in which an amorphous aluminium phosphate is taken as catalyst carrier. The particular advantage of aluminium phosphate catalyst carriers is their property of not loosing their mechanical strength even after manifold oxidizing regeneration (burning off the deposited carbon). The quantity of carbon deposited on the catalyst when using an aluminium phosphate carrier is considerably loss than with usual catalyst carriers.

  7. Coal Bed Methane Primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dan Arthur; Bruce Langhus; Jon Seekins

    2005-05-25

    During the second half of the 1990's Coal Bed Methane (CBM) production increased dramatically nationwide to represent a significant new source of income and natural gas for many independent and established producers. Matching these soaring production rates during this period was a heightened public awareness of environmental concerns. These concerns left unexplained and under-addressed have created a significant growth in public involvement generating literally thousands of unfocused project comments for various regional NEPA efforts resulting in the delayed development of public and fee lands. The accelerating interest in CBM development coupled to the growth in public involvement has prompted the conceptualization of this project for the development of a CBM Primer. The Primer is designed to serve as a summary document, which introduces and encapsulates information pertinent to the development of Coal Bed Methane (CBM), including focused discussions of coal deposits, methane as a natural formed gas, split mineral estates, development techniques, operational issues, producing methods, applicable regulatory frameworks, land and resource management, mitigation measures, preparation of project plans, data availability, Indian Trust issues and relevant environmental technologies. An important aspect of gaining access to federal, state, tribal, or fee lands involves education of a broad array of stakeholders, including land and mineral owners, regulators, conservationists, tribal governments, special interest groups, and numerous others that could be impacted by the development of coal bed methane. Perhaps the most crucial aspect of successfully developing CBM resources is stakeholder education. Currently, an inconsistent picture of CBM exists. There is a significant lack of understanding on the parts of nearly all stakeholders, including industry, government, special interest groups, and land owners. It is envisioned the Primer would being used by a variety of

  8. Predicted coal production trends in Kentucky: The results of available coal resources, coal quality demands, and regulatory factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, W.D.

    1993-01-01

    Many factors affect the viability of regional coal production markets including (1) coal quality and recoverable tonnage, (2) coal mining cost, (3) the regional and time varying patterns of coal demand growth, (4) regulations and other institutional constraints that affect coal demand and utilization, and (5) the regional array of coal transport modes and rates. This analysis integrates these factors into an assessment of coal production prospects (separately) for eastern and western Kentucky coal producing counties for the decade of the 90's. The integration indicates that eastern Kentucky coal production will peak and begin to decline by the end of the decade whereas western Kentucky coal production will continue to grow. No single factor explains these trends. There is plenty of available minable coal. The combination of changes in environmental regulations, some increase in coal mining costs, and the mining-out of low sulfur reserves are the main factors that account for the production trends

  9. Coal fights back

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ince, R.

    1990-01-01

    During the twentieth century coal has moved from being the dominant energy hero that fueled the industrial revolution to a background role: a fuel of last choice, a supplemental resource, and sometimes a convenient villain in the environmental debate. But, as this paper points out, the other side of the coin is that coal is dependable, plentiful, and the price is right. To examine the issue as it merits, reason will have to be substituted for emotion. We are currently in what the author of this paper calls the crisis enrichment stage of the debate. In this stage, when definitive knowledge is lacking, there is a temptation to imagine the worst, overcorrect the problem, and do considerable damage to energy supply and economic needs. The environmental movement has provoked a hunt for someone to blame for the world's current environmental situation. Without a proven culprit to blame for disturbances to some of the world's lakes and forests, it has been decided that coal is the cause. This paper makes a plea for balance, urging all parties to find some acceptable middle ground between energy production and environmental protection

  10. Indian coal tars. II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, A N; Bhatnagar, J N; Roy, A K

    1954-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were carried out on these efforts: (1) rank and specific-gravity fractions on tar yield; (2) addition of water to the coal charge, or steam during carbonization, on yield of tar and tar acids; (3) the presence of a cracking agent (shale) with and without steam addition on the yield of tar and tar acids (the particular shale used without steam reduced the yield, and the restricted use of steam brought the yield to the former noncatalyzed level); and (4) catalytic effect of three different samples of shale, firebrick, quartz, coke, and silica-alumina on the cracking of tar acids (the most active were two of the shales, a freshly-prepared coke, and the Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/-SiO/sub 2/ catalysts that gave conversion up to 98%). The products were mainly carbon, aromatic hydrocarbons of the naphthalene series and gases (CO and H/sub 2/). The yield of the tar becomes less as coal of lower specific gravity is used or when higher temperatures are used for carbonization. The mineral matter associated with Indian coals acts as a decomposition catalyst for tar acids, as shown by experiments on the decomposition of PhOH at temperatures above 800/sup 0/.

  11. Coal: a human history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freese, B.

    2002-12-01

    Prized as 'the best stone in Britain' by Roman invaders who carved jewellery out of it, coal has transformed societies, powered navies, fueled economies, and expanded frontiers. It made China a twelfth-century superpower, inspired the writing of the Communist Manifesto, and helped the northern states win the American Civil War. Yet the mundane mineral that built our global economy - and even today powers our electrical plants - has also caused death, disease, and environmental destruction. As early as 1306, King Edward I tried to ban coal (unsuccessfully) because its smoke became so obnoxious. Its recent identification as a primary cause of global warming has made it a cause celebre of a new kind. In this book, Barbara Freese takes us on an historical journey that begins three hundred million years ago and spans the globe. From the 'Great Stinking Fogs' of London to the rat-infested coal mines of Pennsylvania, from the impoverished slums of Manchester to the toxic city streets of Beijing, this book describes an ordinary substance that has done extraordinary things.

  12. Research of coal flash hydropyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Z.; Zhu, H.; Wu, Y.; Tang, L.; Cheng, L.; Xu, Z. [East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China)

    2001-02-01

    Using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses the organic sufur of seven different Chinese coals and their semi-cokes from flash hydropyrolysis were studied. The results showed that the organic sulfur in coal was alkyal sulfur and thiophene with the peak of XPS located in 163.1-163.5 eV and 164.1-164.5 eV. The relative thiophene content in coal increased with the coal rank. The type of organic sulfur in semi-coke in flash hydropyrolysis was generally thiophene species; its XPS peak also located in 164.1-164.5 eV, and was in accord with its corresponding coal. Total alkyl sulfur and some thiophene sulfur were removed during the flash hydropyrolysis process. The alkyl sulfur had very high activity in hydrogenation reaction. Flash hydropyrolysis was an important new clean-coal technique and had notable desulfurization effect. 13 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Cleaning and dewatering fine coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Roe-Hoan; Eraydin, Mert K.; Freeland, Chad

    2017-10-17

    Fine coal is cleaned of its mineral matter impurities and dewatered by mixing the aqueous slurry containing both with a hydrophobic liquid, subjecting the mixture to a phase separation. The resulting hydrophobic liquid phase contains coal particles free of surface moisture and droplets of water stabilized by coal particles, while the aqueous phase contains the mineral matter. By separating the entrained water droplets from the coal particles mechanically, a clean coal product of substantially reduced mineral matter and moisture contents is obtained. The spent hydrophobic liquid is separated from the clean coal product and recycled. The process can also be used to separate one type of hydrophilic particles from another by selectively hydrophobizing one.

  14. Adsorption of SO2 on bituminous coal char and activated carbon fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBarr, Joseph A.; Lizzio, Anthony A.; Daley, Michael A.

    1997-01-01

    The SO2 adsorption behaviors of activated carbons produced from Illinois coal and of commercially prepared activated carbon fibers (ACFs) were compared. There was no relation between surface area of coal-based carbons and SO2 adsorption, whereas adsorption of SO2 on the series of ACFs was inversely proportional to N2 BET surface area. Higher surface area ACFs had wider pores and adsorbed less SO2; thus, pore size distribution is thought to play a significant role in SO2 adsorption for these materials. Oxidation with HNO3 and/or H2SO4, followed by heat treatment at 700−925°C to remove carbon−oxygen complexes, resulted in increased SO2 adsorption for both coal chars and ACFs. This behavior was explained by an increase in the available number of free sites, previously occupied by oxygen and now available for SO2 adsorption. The use of nitrogen-containing functional groups on ACFs of proper pore size shows promise for further increasing SO2 adsorption capacities. Knowledge of the relationship among the number of free sites, pore size, and surface chemistry on corresponding SO2 adsorption should lead to the development of more efficient adsorbents prepared from either coal or ACFs.

  15. 77 FR 64445 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Illinois; Greif Packaging, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R05-OAR-2012-0541; FRL 9733-5] Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Illinois; Greif Packaging, LLC Adjusted Standard AGENCY... Illinois State Implementation Plan (SIP) an adjusted standard for the Greif Packaging, LLC facility located...

  16. 75 FR 55973 - Safety Zone; Illinois River, Mile 000.5 to 001.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-15

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Illinois River, Mile 000.5 to 001.5 AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone for all waters of the Illinois River, Mile 000.5 to 001.5, extending the entire width of the river. This safety zone is needed to...

  17. A Comparative Case Study Analysis of Campus Violence Prevention Plans at Three Illinois Higher Education Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Wade R.

    2013-01-01

    The postsecondary acts of violence at Virginia Technical University (VT) and Northern Illinois University (NIU) forced Illinois legislators to approve the "Campus Security Enhancement Act" in 2008 (110 ILCS 12/20). The "Act" requires all private and public postsecondary education institutions to develop a Campus Violence…

  18. Technology Professional Development and Instructional Technology Integration among Part-Time Faculty at Illinois Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roohani, Behnam

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on exploring Illinois community college faculty development coordinators' perceptions about how they are implementing faculty technology professional development programs and providing technical support for part-time faculty in the Illinois community college systems. Also examined were part-time faculty perceptions of the degree…

  19. Conditional Wealth Neutrality as a School Finance Equity Criterion in Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmink, David P.; And Others

    This study looks at the relationship between district wealth and revenues available for education in Illinois using a "conditional" conception of wealth neutrality that holds constant the operational tax rate. Data used were demographic data of Illinois school districts. An analysis of beta weights suggested an undesirable relationship…

  20. 77 FR 8865 - Public Water System Supervision Program Approval for the State of Illinois; Tentative Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ... Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule. Illinois is also applying its Stage 2 Disinfectants and Disinfection... for Long-Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment and Stage 2 Disinfectants and Disinfection By-product..., Ground Water and Drinking Water Branch (WG-15J), 77 West Jackson Boulevard, Chicago, Illinois 60604. FOR...